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7 !/■ -peoph that takt m pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors will never achieve 
anything worthy /•• be r, membered with pride by remote generations. — Macaulay, 

i Publishing i 

300534 | 

Biography is the only true History. — Emerson. 

A people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestor* 

will nevei achieve anything worthy to be remembered with 

pride by remote generations. — Macaulay. 



HE greatest of English historians, Macaulav. and one of the most 
brilliant writers of the present century, has said : "The history of a 
country is best told in a record of the lives of its people." In con- 
formity with this idea, the Biographical Record has been prepared. 
Instead of going to musty records, and taking therefrom dry statistical 
matter that can be appreciated by but few, our corps of writers have 
gone to the people, the men and women who have, by their enterprise 
and industry, brought this county to a rank second to none among 
those comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelligent 
public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the imitation 
of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by industry ami 
economy, have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited advantages for securing 
an education, have become learned men and women, with an influence extending throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who have risen from the lower walks of 
life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have become famous. It tells of those in 
every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and records how that success has usu- 
ally crowned their efforts. It tells also of those, who, not seeking the applause of the 
world, have pursued the " even tenor of their way," content to have it said of them, as Christ 
said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — "They nave done what they could." It 
tells how many, in the pride and strength of young manhood, left the plow and the anvil, the 
lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly " to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was 
restored and peace once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every 
woman is a lesson that should not be lust upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, trom 
the fact that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which 
would otherwise be inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work 
and every opportunity possible given to those represented to insure correctness in what has 
been written ; and the publishers flatter themselves that they give to their readers a work with 
few errors of consequence. In addition to biographical sketche-. portraits oi a number of 
representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. 
For this the publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some 
retused to give the information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. 
Occasionally some member of the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such 
opposition the support of the interested one would be withheld. In a few instances men 
never could be found, though repeated calls were made at their residence or place of business. 

November, 1902. Tin-; S. J. Ci.aiike PUBLISHING Co. 


<AZ' as) 


Table of Contents, - 
Introductory, - 

Compendium of National Biography, - 13 
Compendium of Local Biography, - 223 


Compendium of National Biography. 

Biographical Sketches of National Celebrities. 


Abbott, Lyman 144 

Adams, Charles Kendall 143 

Adams, John 25 

Adams, John Ouincy 61 

Agassiz, Louis J. R 137 

Alger, Russell A 173 

Allison, William B 131 

Allston, Washington 190 

Altgeld, John Peter 140 

Andrews, Elisha B 184 

Anthony, Susan B 62 

Armour, Philip D 62 

Arnold, Benedict 84 

Arthur, Chester Allen 168 

Astor, John Jacob 139 

Audubon, John James 166 

Bailey, James Montgomery... 177 

Bancroft, George 74 

Barnard, Frederick A. P 179 

Barnum, Phineas T 41 

Barrett, Lawrence 156 

Barton, Clara 209 

Bayard, Thomas Francis 200 

Beard, William H 196 

Beauregard, Pierre G. T 203 

Beecher, Henry Ward 26 

Bell, Alexander Graham 96 

Bennett, James Gordon 206 

Benton, Thomas Hart 53 

Bergh, Henry 160 

Bierstadt, Albert 197 

Billings, Josh 166 

Blaine, James Gillespie 22 

Bland, Richard Parks 106 


Boone, Daniel 36 

Booth, Edwin 51 

Booth, Junius Brutus 177 

Brice, Calvin S 181 

Brooks, Phillips 130 

Brown, John 51 

Brown, Charles Farrar 91 

Brush, Charles Francis 153 

Bryan, William Jennings 158 

Bryant, William Cullen. 44 

Buchanan, Franklin 105 

Buchanan, James 128 

Buckner, Simon Boliver 188 

Burdette, Robert J 103 

Burr, Aaron. Ill 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin .... 24 

Calhoun, John Caldwell 23 

Cameron, James Donald 141 

Cameron, Simon 141 

Cammack, Addison 191 

Campbell, Alexander 180 

Carlisle, John G 133 

Carnegie, Andrew 73 

Carpenter, Matthew Hale 178 

Carson, Christopher (Kit). . .. 86 

Cass, Lewis lid 

Chase, Salmon Portland 65 

Childs, Georire \V 83 

Choate, Rut us 201 

Chaflin, Horace Brigham 107 

Clay, Henry 21 

( llemens, Samuel Langhorne, . 86 

Cleveland, Grover 174 

Clews, Henry 153 


Clinton, DeWitt 110 

Colfax, Schuyler, 139 

Conklin, Alfred 32 

Conklin, Roscoe 32 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre. .. . 140 

Cooper, James Fenimore 58 

Cooper, Peter 37 

Copely, John Singleton 191 

Corbin, Austin 205 

Corcoran, W.W 196 

Cornell, Ezra 161 

Cramp, William 189 

Crockett, David 76 

Cullom, Shelby Moore 116 

Curtis, George William 144 

Cushman, Charlotte 107 

Custer, George A 95 

Dana, Charles A 88 

"Danbury News Man" 1 77 

Davenport, Fanny 106 

Davis, Jefferson 24 

Debs, Eugene V 132 

Decatur, Stephen 101 

Deering, William 198 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell... 209 

Dickinson, Anna 103 

Dickinson, Don M 139 

Dingley, Nelson, Jr 215 

Donnelly, Ignatius 161 

I >ouL'las, Stephen Arnold 53 

1 louglass, Frederick 43 

Dow, Neal 108 

Draper, John William 184 



Drexel, Anthony Joseph 124 

Dupont, Henry 198 

Edison, Thomas Alva 55 

Edmunds, George F 201 

Ellsworth, Oliver 168 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 57 

Ericsson, John 127 

E vans, William Maxwell 89 

Farragut, David Glascoe 80 

Field, Cyrus West 173 

Field, David Dudley 126 

Field, Marshall 59 

Field, Stephen Johnson 216 

Fillmore, Millard 113 

Foote, Andrew Hull 176 

Foraker, Joseph B 143 

Forrest, Edwin 92 

Franklin, Benjamin 18 

Fremont, John Charles 29 

Fuller, Melville Weston 168 

Fulton, Robert 62 

Gage, Lvman J 71 

Gallatin; Albert 112 

Garfield, James A 163 

Garrett, John Work 21 10 

Garrison, William Llovd 50 

Gates, Horatio ' 70 

Gatling, Richard Jordan 116 

George, Henry 203 

Gibbons, Cardinal James 209 

Gilnmre, Patrick Sarsfield 77 

Girard, Stephen 137 

Gough, John B 131 

Gould, Jay 52 

Gordon, John B 215 

Grant, Ulysses S 155 

Gray, Asa *S 

Grav, Elisha 14;i 

Greeley, Adolphus W 142 

Greeley, Horace 20 

Greene, Nathaniel 6;t 

Gresham, Walter Quintin 183 

Hale, Edward Everett 79 

Hall, Charles Francis 167 

Hamilton, Alexander 31 

Hamlin, Hannibal 214 

Hampton, Wade 192 

Hancock, Winfield Scott 146 

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo 169 

Harris, Isham G 214 

Harrison, William Henry ^7 

Harrison, Benjamin 182 

Harvard, John 129 

Havemeyer, John Craig 182 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. 135 

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard.. . 157 

Hendricks, Thomas Andrew. . 212 

Henrv, Joseph 105 

Henrv, Patrick 83 

Hill, David Bennett 90 

Hobart, Garrett A 213 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 206 

Hooker, Joseph 52 

Howe, Elias 130 

Howells, William Dean 104 


Houston, Sam 120 

Hughes, Archbishop John 157 

Hughitt, Marvin 159 

Hull, Isaac 169 

Huntington, Collis Potter 94 

Ingalls, John James 114 

Ingersoll, Robert G 85 

Irving, Washington 33 

Jackson, Andrew '. . 71 

Jackson, " Stonewall " 67 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan 67 

Jay, John 39 

Jefferson, Joseph 47 

Jefferson, Thomas 34 

Johnson, Andrew 145 

Johnson, Eastman 202 

Johnston, Joseph Eccleston... . 85 

Jones, James K 171 

Jones, John Paul 97 

Jones, Samuel Porter 115 

Kane, Elisha Kent 125 

Kearney, Philip 210 

Kenton, Simon 188 

Knox,' John Jay 134 

Lamar, Lucius Q. C 201 

Landon, Melville D 109 

Lee, Robert Edward 38 

Lewis, Charles B 193 

Lincoln, Abraham 135 

Livermore, Mary Ashton 131 

Locke, David Ross 172 

Logan, John A 26 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 37 

Longstreet, James 56 

Lowell, James Russell 104 

Mackay, John William 148 

Madison, James 42 

Marshall, John 156 

Mather, Cotton 164 

Mather, Increase 163 

Maxim, Hiram S 194 

McClellan, George Brinton.. . . 47 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall 172 

McDonough, Com. Thomas.. . 167 

McKinley, William 217 

Meade, George Gordon 75 

Medill, Joseph 159 

Miles, Nelson A 176 

Miller, Cincinnatus Heine 218 

Miller, loaquin 218 

Mills, Roger Quarles 211 

Monroe, lames 54 

Moody, Dwight L 207 

Moran, Thomas 98 

Morgan, John Pierpont 208 

Morgan, John T 216 

Morris, Robert 165 

Morse, Samuel F. B 124 

Morton, Levi P 142 

Morton, Oliver Perrv 215 

Motley, John Lathrop 130 

"Nye, Bill" 59 

Nye, Edgar Wilson 59 


O'Conor, Charles 187 

Olney, Richard 133 

Paine, Thomas 147 

Palmer, John M 195 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry 160 

" Partington, Mrs." ' 202 

Peabody, George 170 

Peck, George W 187 

Peffer, William A 164 

Perkins, Eli 109 

Perrv, Oliver Hazard 97 

Phillips, Wendell 30 

Pierce, Franklin 122 

Pingree, Hazen S 212 

Plant, Henry B 192 

Poe, Edgar Allen 69 

Polk, James Knox 102 

Porter, David Dixon 68 

Porter, Noah 93 

Prentice, George Denison.. . . 119 
Prescott, William Hicklinj. 96 

Pullman, George Mortimer.. .. 121 

Quad, M 193 

Quay MatthewS 171 

Randolph, Edmund 136 

Read, Thomas Buchanan 132 

Reed, Thomas Bracken 208 

Reid, Whitelaw 149 

Roach, lohn 190 

Rockefeller, John Davison.... 195 

Knot, George Frederick 218 

Rothermel, Peter F 113 

Rutledge, John 

Sage, Russell 211 

Schofield, John McAllister 199 

Schurz, Carl 201 

Scott, Thomas Alexander 

Scott, Winfield 79 

Seward, William Henry .... 44 

Sharon, William 

Shaw, Henrv W 166 

Sheridan, Phillip Henry ' 40 

Sherman, Charles R -' 

Sherman, John 86 

Shillaber, Benjamin Penhallow 202 
Sherman, William Tecumseh.. 30 

Smith, Edmund Kirby 114 

Sousa, John Philip 60 

Spreckels, Claus 159 

Stanford, Leland 101 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters. . . 179 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 126 

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton 32 

Stephenson, Adlai Ewing 141 

Stewart, Alexander T 58 

Stewart, William Morris 213 

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth 

Beecher 66 

Stuart, James E. B 122 

Sumner, Charles 34 

Talmage, Thomas DeWitt . . 60 

Taney,' Roger Brook* 129 

Tavlor, Zacharv ION 

Teiler, Henrv M 127 



Tesla, Nikola 193 

Thomas, George H 73 

Thomas, Theodore 172 

Thurman, Allen G 90 

Thurston, John M 166 

Tilden, Samuel J 4S 

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan Ill) 

Toombs, Robert 205 

"Twain, Mark" 86 

Tyler, |ohn 93 

Van Buren, Martin 78 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius 35 

Vail, Alfred 154 

Vest, George Graham 214 


Vilas, William Freeman 140 

Voorhees, Daniel Wolsey 95 

Wane, Morrison Remich 125 

Wallace, Lewis 199 

Wallack, Lester 121 

Wallack, John Lester 121 

Wanamaker, John 89 

Ward, "Artemus" 91 

Washburne, Elihu Benjamin. . 189 

Washington, George 17 

Watson, Thomas E 178 

Watterson, Henry 76 

Weaver, James B 123 

Webster, Daniel 19 


Webster, Noah 49 

Weed, Thurlow 91 

West, Benjamin 115 

Whipple, Henry Benjamin. .. . 161 

White, Stephen V 162 

Whiterield, George 150 

Whitman, Walt 197 

Whitney, Eli 120 

Whitney, William Collins 92 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 67 

Willard, Frances E 133 

Wilson, William L 180 

Winchell, Alexander 175 

Windom, William 138 



Alger, Russell A 16 

Allison, William B 99 

Anthony, Susan B 63 

Armour, Philip D 151 

Arthur, Chester A 81 

Barnum, Phineas T 117 

Beecher, Henry Ward 27 

Blaine, James G 151 

Booth, Edwin 63 

Bryan, Wm. 1 63 

Bryant, William Cullen 185 

Buchanan, James 81 

Buckner, Simon B 16 

Butler Benjamin F I'd 

Carlisle, John G 151 

Chase, Salmon P 16 

Childs, George W 99 

Clay, Henry 81 

Cleveland, Grover 45 

Cooper, Peter 99 

Dana, Charles A 151 

1 )( pew, Chauncey M 117 

Douglass, Fred 63 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 27 

Evans, William M 99 

Farragut, Com. D. G 185 

Field, Cyrus W 63 


Field, Marshall 117 

Franklin, Benjamin 63 

Fremont, Gen. John C 16 

Gage, Lyman J 151 

Garfield, lames A 45 

Garrison, William Lloyd 63 

George, Henry 117 

Gould, Jay 99 

Grant, Gen. U. S 185 

Greeley, Horace 81 

Hampton, Wade 16 

Hancock, Gen. Winfield S 185 

Hanna, Mark A 117 

Harrison, Benjamin 81 

Hayes, R. B 45 

Hendricks, Thomas A 81 

Holmes, Oliver W 151 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph 16 

Ingersoll, Robert G 117 

Irving, Washington 27 

Jackson, Andrew 45 

Jefferson, Thomas 45 

Johnston, Gen. J. E 16 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 185 

Lincoln, Abraham 81 

Logan, Gen. John A 16 

Longfellow, Henry W 185 


Longstreet, Gen. James 16 

Lowell, James Russell 27 

McKinley, William 45 

Morse, S. F. B 1S5 

Phillips, Wendell 27 

Porter, Com. D. D 185 

Pullman, George M 117 

Quay, M. S.... 99 

Reed, Thomas B 151 

Sage, Russell 117 

Scott, Gen. Winfield 185 

Seward, William H 45 

Sherman, John * 99 

Sherman, Gen. W. T 151 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 27 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 27 

Sumner, Charles 45 

Talmage, T. DeWitt 63 

Teller, Henry M 99 

Thurman, Allen G 81 

Tilden, Samuel J 117 

Van Buren, Martin 81 

Vanderbilt, Commodore 99 

Webster, Daniel 27 

Whittier, John G 2"! 

Washington, George 45 

Watterson, Henry 63 



Aldrich, Charles 47- 

Anderson, Charles F 318 

Anderson, John 311 

Anderson. Rev. J. A 226 

Arie. B 392 

Armstrong. A. F 302 

Baker. Moses 354 

Bakley. D. E 625 

Barclay. James 547 

Barkley, A. J 244 

liirklev. Mrs. A. J 251 

Barnett, J. B 358 

Bass, D. M 464 

Bass, John 368 

Beiter. Adam 300 

Bengston. S. A 645 

Benson. William , 237 

Bergman, Henrv 517 

Bicket, Mrs. Ellen 396 

Bilsland. John 371 

Bolle, William 589 

Bollenbaugh, A. J 518 

Boone, William M 381 

Bouton, Burr 359 

Bovd. George J 387 

. I H 265 

Brainard, John M 256 

Brigham. L. E 44.8 

Burk, Thomas 229 

Burnside, A. M 296 

Buttolph, John R 293 

Campbell, C. S 604 

Capron, Benjamin 582 

Carlson, Carl 485 

Charles R 486 

Carter. CO 660 

Cassel. C. J 418 

Clark & Clark, Drs 372 

1 I irl , Arthur 212 

Clark. L. W V'.; 

Clark. R. D 295 

Chile. Jacob J 623 

Cook, Carsten 506 

lohn 528 

Crim. John 3-* 

Crook,. G. W 552 

Crowe, William 440 

Culver. Charles T 234 

Cutler. F. E 365 

Dalander, E. P 643 

Dale. R. F 533 

Dana, J. J 35-' 

Davis. C. M 611 

De Fore. H. C 536 

DeTar, Dr. D. N 41.2 

Dickinson, Dr. J. W 507 

Dolloff, Franklin 488 

Doran, J. R 434 

Dyer, Sidney R 316 

Elliott. S. J 390 

Elwell. J. K 566 

Enfield. G. L 

Engler. John 254 

Ericson, C. J. A 2.3 

Farr, Dr. H. S 462 

Freie. George F 285 

Frey, John F 

Friedley, Henry 240 

Ganoe, H. L 550 

Gay, F. D 325 

Gever. T. 1 4S0 

Gildea, J. N 467 

Gceppinger. Henry 339 

Gceppinger, John L 350 

Gceppinger, Louis 349 

Goetzinann. Charles 6;o 

Goldthwaite, S G 270 

Good. Hon. John L 544 

Goodrich. W. W 233 

Graves, H. M 496 

Hagge, Ciaus 4,-0 

Hagge. Hans 579 

Halliday. J. F (.41 

Halliday, lohn W 640 

Hall. day. O. J 044 


Hamilton, H. M 471 

Heidi. Hans 

Heldt. Peter 

Hennings, Herman 301 

Herman. J. H 

Herman, John F 

Herman. Otto C 

Herring. John 

Herron. ]. R 264 

1 1' - racob =17 

Hindman, D. R 285 

Holmes, A. J 

Holmes. T. B 10s 

Hoist. B. P...., -11 

Hopkins. Hon. John F. . . . =40 

Horn-. J. D. W 

Houghton, H. A 

Houghton. Orvil 

Hull. H. W 120 

Hull. Jackson ',33 

Hurlburt, J. B 

Irving, E. R 

Irwin. George L 410 

1 .1-'. John 

Jennings. Hon. J. H ... 

Johnsi hi. Andrew 555 

Johnst 'ii. Andrew 590 

Johnson, A. J 642 

Johnson. Fred 1 

Johnson, William 

Johnson. W. D 

Joice. Austin 

Jones, Richard cm 

Jones, T. L 

Ionian. Edward C U7 

Jordan R. F 

Judge, M. E 

Keigley, W. J 537 

Kelly, Mike 

Kendall. F. S 

Kennison. J. S 

Kirkendall, J. X 

Krtise, Hans 


Kruse, John 241 

Kuhl, George 321 

Larson, Charles 578 

Lehman, Daniel 398 

Lind, John E ''4 = 

Loomis, W \\ 206 

1 w. w 

Lucas, C. L 

Lund, Howard 

Luther, Milden 

McCall. William --1 

McCaskey, H. A. K 

McGrath, Thomas D 624 

>. A. H 431 

McGregor. John 

McLaughlin. Mike 

Malmquist, John N - . . . I 

Martenson, J. G 335 

Mason. George 

Mayer, 1. H 228 

Melott. Dr. E. H .... 

Menton, W. F 263 

Mertz, A. H 494 

Meyers. Harrison 597 

Miller. James -'7-? 

Miller, John F 534 

Montgomery, W. B . 


Moyers H. L 

Munn, Wesley 232 

Myers, H. C 636 

Myers, lay 406 

Myers, West 379 

Nelson, Oscar A 4' > 

Noyes, Dr. James H 59* 

Ntitt, 1. E 417 

Nylander, John 603 

Orr. Hon. Jackson 438 

Otis, H. H 428 


Fage, J. W 347 

Parker, H. J 401 


Payne. Thomas 382 

. . . 652 

Pendarvis, I. P 444 

Pettv. W. M 4 ■: 

Pilcher, Charles F . .. . 

W illiam L 374 

Pollock, Dr. W. L 

Price. C. J 

Pugsley. Smith 

I ihn 

VI 45'' 

Rice. C. E 291 

1 mies !■ 450 

erg, J H 402 

Rinehart, Jerry 23] 

Rinker, George J 658 

Rinker, I. H 282 

v C 55" 

on, I. E 255 

r p 


S 608 

Rundberg, John 4- 1 

Sellard, E. B 

Shadle, A. T 3.V> 

Shadle, George 

Sherman. Charles A 445 

Sherman. Chirk- B 4-17 

W. H 403 

Slater. John 572 

Smalley, T. J 143 

Smith. Ira 227 

Smvth, John 558 

Sne'll, J. J 45* 

Soderland, Eric 271 

Sparks C. I . . ■•■ 322 


\\ 11 

- I ... 2t>2 

\! ... 314 

Dr. S. O 

I U 
Swisher, George 500 

Temple, John J 

n, J. W 

': I' 27* 

Tingwald, John 

Todd. W. I 

Tonsfeldt, Jacob 
Turner. Orsamus 

Upton, C. A 553 

\ .in Zandt, John W . 
Veneman, R V 

Walter. Phillip 54') 

- R ',11 

Webb, 1 E 410 

' Inlander .... 
Wentz, F. E 

g, A. P I' 

Morris . 
Whitaker, Charles 543 

F W 455 

William.. J. C 

i ,hn I - 

William-. Squire R 405 

; imuel |0 

WoM,' Fred 

Wolf, Henry 

Wolf, William 051 

1 •■- 54^ 

! red A 



Celebrated Americans 

the first president of the Unit- 
ed States, called the "Father 
of his Country," was one of 
the most celebrated characters 
in history. He was born Feb- 
ruary 22, 1732, in Washing- 
ton Parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Washington, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four 
children, and March 6, 1730, he .married 
Mary Ball. Of six children by his second 
marriage, George was the eldest. 

Little is known of the early years of 
Washington, beyond the fact that the house 
in which he was born was burned during his 
early childhood, and that his father there- 
upon moved to another farm, inherited from 
his paternal ancestors, situated in Stafford 
county, on the north bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, and died there in 1743. From ea-liest 
childhood George developed a noble charac- 
ter. His education was somewhat defective, 
being confined to the elementary branches 
taught him by his mother and at a neighbor- 
ing school. On leaving school he resided 
some time at Mount Vernon with his half 

brother, Lawrence, who acted as his guar- 
dian. George's inclinations were for a sea- 
faring career, and a midshipman's warrant 
was procured for him; but through the oppo- 
sition of his mother the project was aban- 
doned, and at the age of sixteen he was 
appointed surveyor to the immense estates 
of the eccentric Lord Fairfax. Three years 
were passed by Washington in a rough fron- 
tier life, gaining experience which afterwards 
proved very esse-itial to him ,In 1751, 
when the Virginia militia were put under 
training with a view to active service against 
France, Washington, though only nineteen 
years of age, was appointed adjutant, with 
the rank of major. In 1752 Lawrence 
Washington died, leaving his large property 
to an infant daughter. In his will George 
was named one of the executors and as an 
eventual heir to Mount Vernon, and by the 
death of the infant niece, soon succeeded to 
that estate. In 1753 George was commis- 
sioned adjutant-general of the Virginia 
militia, and performed important work at 
the outbreak of the French and Indian 
war, was rapidly promoted, and at the close of 
that war we find him commander-in-chier of 



all the forces raised in Virginia. A cessation 
of Indian hostilities on the frontier having 
followed the expulsion of the French from 
the Ohio, he resigned his commission as 
commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, 
and then proceeded to Williamsburg to take 
his seat in the Virginia Assembly, of which 
he had been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington marred 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Curtis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and 
devoted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by the annual attendance in 
winter upon the colonial legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his coun- 
try to enter upon that other arena in which 
his fame was to become world-wide. The 
war for independence called Washington 
into service again, and he was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces, and 
was the most gallant and conspicuous figure 
in that bloody struggle, serving until Eng- 
land acknowledged the independence of 
each of the thirteen States, and negotiated 
with them jointly, as separate sovereignties. 
December 4, 1783, the great commander 
took leave of his officers in most affection- 
ate and patriotic terms, and went to An- 
napolis, Maryland, where the congress of 
the States was in session, and to that body, 
when peace and order prevailed everywhere, 
resigned his commission and retired to 
Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1789 that Washington was 
called to the chief magistracy of the na- 
tion. The inauguration took place April 
30, in the presence of an immense multi- 
tude which had assembled to witness the new 
and imposing ceremony. In the manifold de- 
tails of his civil administration Washington 
proved himself fully equal to the requirements 
of his position. In 1792, at the second presi- 

dential election, Washington was desirous 
to retire; but he yielded to the general wish 
of the country, and was again chosen presi- 
dent. At the third election, in 1796, he 
was again most urgently entreated to con- 
sent to remain in the executive chair. This 
he positively refused, and after March 4, 
1797, he again retired to Mount Vernon 
for peace, quiet, and repose. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 
chief to quit his repose at Mount Ver- 
non and take command of all the United 
States forces, with rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, when war was threatened with France 
in 179S, nothing need here be stated, ex- 
cept to note the fact as an unmistakable 
testimonial of the high regard in which he 
was still held by his countrymen of all 
shades of political opinion. He patriotic- 
ally accepted this trust, but a treaty of 
peace put a stop to all action under it. He 
again retired to Mount Vernon, where he 
died December 14, 1799, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. His remains were depos- 
ited in a family vault on the banks of the 
Potomac, at Mount Vernon, where they still 
lie entombed. 

American statesman and scientist, was 
born of poor parentage, January 17, 1706, 
in Boston, Massachusetts. He was appren- 
ticed to his brother James to learn the print- 
er's trade to prevent his running away and 
going to sea, and also because of the numer- 
ous family his parents had to support (there 
being seventeen children, Benjamin being 
the fifteenth). He was a great reader, and 
soon developed a taste for writing, and pre- 
pared a number of articles and had them 
published in the paper without his brother's 
knowledge, and when the authorship be- 
came known it resulted in difficulty for the 

C OMPEXDIL .1/ OF Bit > G RA J 'H T. 

young apprentice, although his articles had 
been received with favor by the public. 
James was afterwards thrown into prison for 
political reasons, and young Benjamin con- 
ducted the paper alone during the time. In 
1823, however, he determined to endure his 
bonds no longer, and ran away, going to 
Philadelphia, where he arrived with only 
three pence as his store of wealth. With 
these he purchased three rolls, and ate them 
as he walked along the streets. He soon 
found employment as a journeyman printer. 
Two years later he was sent to England by 
the governor of Pennsylvania, and was 
promised the public printing, but did not get 
it. On his return to' Philadelphia he estab- 
lished the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and 
soon found himself a person of great popu- 
larity in the province, his ability as a writer, 
philosopher, and politician having reached 
the neighboring colonies. He rapidly grew 
in prominence, founded the Philadelphia Li- 
brary in 1842, and two years later the 
American Philosophical Society and the 
University of Pennsylvania. He was made 
Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 
1775. His world-famous investigations in 
electricity and lightning began in 1746. He 
became postmaster-general of the colonies 
in 1753, having devised an inter-colonial 
postal system. He advocated the rights of 
the colonies at all times, and procured the 
repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was 
elected to the Continental congress of 1775, 
and in 1776 was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, being one of the commit- 
tee appointed to draft that paper. He rep- 
resented the new nation in the courts of 
Europe, especially at Paris, where his simple 
dignity and homely wisdom won him the 
admiration of the court and the favor of the 
people. He was governor of Pennsylvania 
lour vears; was also a member of the con- 

vention in 17S7 that drafted the constitution 
of the United States. 

His writings upon political topics, anti- 
slavery, finance, and economics, stamp him 
as one of the greatest statesmen of his time, 
while his "Autobiography" and "Poor 
Richard's Almanac " give him precedence in 
the literary field. In early life he was an 
avowed skeptic in religious matters, but 
later in life his utterances on this subject 
were less extreme, though he never ex- 
pressed approval of any sect or creed. He 
died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 

DANIEL WEBSTER.— Of world wide 
reputation for statesmanship, diplo- 
macy, and oratory, there is perhaps no more 
prominent figure in the history of our coun- 
try in the interval between 181 5 and 1S61, 
than Daniel Webster. He was born at 
Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, 
I January 18, 1782, and was the second son 
of Ebenezer and Abigail (Eastman) Webster. 
He enjoyed but limited educational advan- 
tages in childhood, but spent a few months 
in 1797, at Phillip Exeter Academy. He 
completed his preparation for college in the 
family of Rev. Samuel Wood, at Boscawen, 
and entered Dartmouth College in the fall 
of 1797. He supported himself most of the 
time during these years by teaching school 
and graduated in 1801, having the credit of 
being the foremost scholar of his class. He 
entered the law office of Hon. Thomas W. 
Thompson, at Salisbury. In 1S02 he con- 
tinued his legal studies at Fryeburg, Maine, 
where he was principal of the academy and 
copyist in the office of the register of 
deeds. In the office of Christopher Gore, 
at Boston, he completed his studies in 
1804-5, an( l was admitted to the bar in the 
latter year, and at Boscawen and at Ports- 
mouth soon rose to eminence in his proles- 


sion. He became known as a federalist 
but did not court political honors; but, at- 
tracting attention by his eloquence in oppos- 
ing the war with England, he was elected 
to congress in 1812. During the special 
session of May, 1813, he was appointed on 
the committee on foreign affairs and made 
his maiden speech June 10, 1S13. Through- 
out this session (as afterwards) he showed 
his mastery of the great economic questions 
of the day. He was re-elected in 18 14. In 
1 8 16 he removed to Boston and for seven 
years devoted himself to his profession, 
:arning by his arguments in the celebrated 
"Dartmouth College Case" rank among 
•he most distinguished jurists of the country. 
In 1S20 Mr. Webster was chosen a member 
of the state convention of Massachusetts, to 
revise the constitution. The same year he 
delivered the famous discourse on the " Pil- 
grim fathers," which laid the foundation for 
his fame as an orator. Declining a nomi- 
nation for United States senator, in 1S22 he 
was elected to the lower house of congress 
and was re-elected in 1824 and 1826, but in 
1827 was transferred to the senate. He 
retained his seat in the latter chamber until 
1841. During this time his voice was ever 
lifted in defence of the national life and 
honor and although politically opposed to 
him he gave his support to the administra- 
tion of President Jackson in the latter's con- 
test with nullification. Through all these 
rears he was ever found upon the side of 
,'ight and justice and his speeches upon all 
ihe great questions of the day have be- 
come household words in almost every 
family. In 1841 Mr. Webster was appointed 
secretary of state by President Harrison 
and was continued in the same office by 
President Tyler. While an incumbent of 
this office he showed consummate ability as 
a diplomat in the negotiation of the " Ash- 

burton treaty " of August 9, 1849, which 
settled many points of dispute between the 
United States and England. In May, 1843, 
he resigned his post and resumed his pro- 
fession, and in December, 1845, to °k his 
place again in the senate. He contributed 
in an unofficial way to the solution of the 
Oregon question with Great Britain in 1S47. 
He was disappointed in 1S4S in not receiv- 
ing the nomination for the presidency. He 
became secretary of state under President 
Fillmore in 1850 and in dealing with all the 
complicated questions of the day showed a 
wonderful mastery of the arts of diplomacy. 
Being hurt in an accident he retired to his 
home at Marshfieid, where he died Octo- 
ber 24, 1S52. 

HORACE GREELEY— As journalist, 
author, statesman and political leader, 
there is none more widely known than the 
man whose name heads this article. He 
was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1S1 1, and was reared upon a farm. 
At an early age he evinced a remarkable 
intelligence and love of learning, and at 
the age of ten had read every book he could 
borrow for miles around. About 1821 the 
family removed to Westhaven, Vermont, 
and for some years young Greeley assisted 
in carrying on the farm. In 1826 he entered 
the office of a weekly newspaper at East 
Poultney, Vermont, where he remained 
about four years. On the discontinuance 
of this paper he followed his father's 
family to Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
whither they had moved, and for a time 
worked at the printer's trade in that neigh- 
borhood. In 1 S3 1 Horace went to New 
York City, and for a time found employ- 
ment as journeyman printer. January, 
1833, in partnership with Francis Story, he 
published the Morning Post, the first penny 



paper ever printed. This proved a failure 
and was discontinued after three weeks. 
The business of job printing was carried on, 
however, until the death of Mr. Story in 
July following. In company with Jonas 
Winchester, March 22, 1834, Mr. Greeley 
commenced the publication of the New 
Yorker, a weekly paper of a high character. 
For financial reasons, at the same time, 
Greeley wrote leaders for other papers, and, 
in 1S38, took editorial charge of the Jeffer- 
sonian, a Whig paper published at Albany. 
In 1 S40, on the discontinuance of that sheet, 
he devoted his energies to the Log Cabin, a 
campaign paper in the. interests of the Whig 
party. In the fall of 184 1 the latter paper 
was consolidated with the New Yorker, un- 
der the name of the Tribune, the first num- 
ber of which was issued April 10, 1S41. At 
the head of this paper Mr. Greeley remained 
until the day of his death. 

In 1848 Horace Greeley was elected to 
the national house of representatives to 
fill a vacancy, and was a member of that 
body until March 4, 1S49. In 185 1 he went 
to Europe and served as a juror at the 
World's Fair at the Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don. In 1S55, he made a second visit to 
the old world. In 1S59 he crossed the 
plains and received a public reception at 
San Francisco and Sacramento. He was a 
member of the Republican national con- 
vention, at Chicago in i860, and assisted in 
the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
President. The same year he was a presi- 
dential elector for the state of New York, 
and a delegate to the Loyalist convention 
at Philadelphia. 

At the close of the war, in 1S65, Mr. 
Greeley became a strong advocate of uni- 
versal amnesty and complete pacification, 
and in pursuance of this consented to be- 
come one of the bondsmen for I 

Davis, who was imprisoned for treason. la 
1867 he was a delegate to the Now York 
state convention for the revision of the 
constitution. In 1S70 he was defeated for 
congress in the Sixth New York district. 
At the Liberal convention, which met in 
Cincinnati, in May, [872, on the fifth ballot 
Horace Greeley was nominated for presi- 
dent and July following was nominated for 
the same office by the Democratic conven- 
tion at Baltimore. He was defeated by a 
large majority. The large amount of work 
done by him during the campaign, together 
with the loss of his wife about the same 
time, undermined his strong constitution, 
and he was seized with inflammation of the 
brain, and died November 29, 1872. 

In addition to his journalistic work, Mr. 
Greeley was the author of several meritori- 
ous works, among which were: "Hints 
toward reform," "Glances at Europe," 
"History of the struggle for slavery exten 
sion," "Overland journey to San Francis- 
co," "The American conflict," and " Rec- 
ollections of a busy life." 

HENRY CLAY.— In writing of this em- 
inent American, Horace Greeley once 
said: "He was a matchless party chief, an 
admirable orator, a skillful legislator, wield- 
ing unequaled influence, not only over his 
friends, but even over those of his political 
antagonists who were subjected to the magic 
of his conversation and manners. " A law- 
yer, legislator, orator, and statesman, few 
men in history have wielded greater influ- 
ence, or occupied so prominent a place in 
the hearts of the generation in which they 

Henry Clay was bo 1 hmond, 

in Hanover county, Virginia, April 12, 
1777, the son of a poor Baptist preacher 
who died when Henry was but lr 



old. The mother married again about ten 
years later and removed to Kentucky leav- 
ing Henry a clerk in a store at Richmond. 
Soon afterward Henry Clay secured a posi- 
tion as copyist in the office of the clerk of the 
high court of chancery, and four years later 
entered the law office of Robert Brooke, 
then attorney general and later governor of 
his native state. In 1797 Henry Clay was 
licensed as a lawyer and followed his mother 
to Kentucky, opening an office at Lexington 
and soon built up a profitable practice. 
Soon afterward Kentucky, in separating from 
Virginia, called a state convention for the 
purpose of framing a constitution, and Clay 
at that time took a prominent part, publicly 
urging the adoption of a clause providing 
for the abolition of slavery, but in this he 
was overruled, as he was fifty years later, 
when in the height of his fame he again ad- 
vised the same course when the state con- 
stitution was revised in 1850. Young Clay 
took a very active and conspicuous part in 
the presidential campaign in 1S00, favoring 
the election of Jefferson; and in 1S03 was 
choson to represent Fayette county in the 
state 'egislature. In 1806 General John 
Adair, then United States senator from 
Kentucky, resigned and Henry Clay was 
elected to fill the vacancy by the legislature 
and served through one session in which he 
at once assumed a prominent place. In 
1807 he was again a representative in the 
legislature and was elected speaker of the 
house. At this time originated his trouble 
with Humphrey Marshall. Clay proposed 
that each member clothe himself and family 
wholly in American fabrics, which Marshall 
characterized as the " language of a dema- 
gogue." This led to a duel in which both 
parties were slightly injured. In 1S09 
Henry Clay was again elected to fill a va- 
cancy in the United States senate, and two 

years later elected representative in tne low- 
er house of congress, being chosen speaker 
of the house. About this time warwas de- 
clared against Great Britain, and Clay took 
a prominent public place during this strug- 
gle and was later one of the commissioners 
sent to Europe by President Madison to ne- 
gotiate peace, returning in September. 181 5. 
having been re-elected speaker of the 
house during his absence, and was re-elect- 
ed unanimously. He was afterward re- 
elected to congress and then became secre- 
tary of state und^r John Quincy Adams. 
In 1 83 1 he was again elected senator from 
Kentucky and remained in the senate most 
of the time until his death. 

Henry Clay was three times a candidate 
for the presidency, and once very nearly 
elected. He was the unanimous choice, of 
the Whig party in 1844 for the presidency, 
and a great effort was made to elect him 
but without success, his opponent, James K. 
Polk, carrying both Pennsylvania and New 
York by a very slender margin, while either 
of them alone would have elected Clay. 
Henry Clay died at Washington June 29, 

of the most distinguished of American 
statesmen and legislators. He was born 
January 31, 1830, in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and received a thorough edu- 
cation, graduating at Washington College in 
1S47. In early life he removed to Maine 
and engaged in newspaper work, becoming 
editor of the Portland "Advertiser." While 
yet a young man he gained distinction as a 
debater and became a conspicuous figure in 
political and public affairs. In 1862 he was 
elected to congress on the Republican ticket 
in Maine and was re-elected five times. In 
March, 1S69, he was chosen speaker of the 



house of representatives and was re-elected 
in 1871 and again in 1873. In iS/6he was 
a representative in the lower house of con- 
gress and during that year was appointed 
United States senator by the Governor to 
fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Senator Morrill, who had been appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Mr. Blaine 
served in the senate until March 5, 1S81, 
when President Garfield appointed him sec- 
retary of state, which position he resigned 
in December, 1881. Mr. Blaine was nom- 
inated for the presidency by the Republic- 
ans, at Chicago in June, 1SS4, but was de- 
feated by Grover Cleveland after an exciting 
and spirited campaign. During the later 
years of his life Mr. Blaine devoted most of 
his time to the ' completion of his work 
"Twenty Years in Congress," which had a 
remarkably large sale throughout the United 
States. Blaine was a man of great mental 
ability and force of character and during the 
latter part of his life was one of the most 
noted men of his time. He was the origina- 
tor of what is termed the " reciprocity idea" 
in tariff matters, and outlined the plan of 
carrying it into practical effect. In 1S76 
Robert G. Ingersoll in making a nominating 
speech placing Blaine's name as a candidate 
for president before the national Republican 
convention at Cincinnati, referred to Blaine 
as the "Plumed Knight" and this title clung 
to him during the remainder of his life. His 
death occurred at Washington, January 27, 

tinguished American statesman, was a 
native of South Carolina, born in Abbeville 
district, March iS, 1782. He was given 
the advantages of a thorough education, 
graduating at Yale College in 1804, and 
adopted the caiiing of a lawyer. A Demo- 

crat politically, at that time, he took a fore- 
most part in the councils of his party and 
was elected to congress in 1S1 1, supp irting 
the tariff of 18 16 and the establishing of 
the United States Bank. In 18 17 he be- 
came secretary of war in President Monroe's 
cabinet, and in 1S24 was elected vice-president 
of the United States, on the ticket with John 
Ouincy Adams, and re-elected in 1 82S, on the 
ticket with General Jackson. Shortly after 
this Mr. Calhoun became one of the strongest 
advocates of free trade and the principle of 
sovereignty of the states and was one of 
the originators of the doctrine that "any 
state could nullify unconstitutional laws of 
congress." Meanwhile Calhoun had be- 
come an aspirant for the presidency, and 
the fact that General Jackson advanced the 
interests of his opponent, Van Buren, led 
to a quarrel, and Calhoun resigned the vice- 
presidency in 1S32 and was elected United 
States senator from South Carolina. It was 
during the same year that a convention was 
held in South Carolina at which the " Nul- 
lification ordinance " was adopted, the ob- 
ject of which was to test the constitution- 
ality of the protective tariff measures, and 
to prevent if possible the collection of im- 
port duties in that state which had been 
levied more for the purpose of "protection'' 
than revenue. This ordinance was to go 
into effect in February, 1833, and created a 
great deal of uneasiness throughout the 
country as it was feared there would be a 
clash between the state and federal authori- 
ties. It was in this serious condition oi 
public affairs that Henr\ Claj came forward 
with the the famous "tariff compromise" 
of 1853, to which measure Calhoun and 
most of his followers gave their support and 
the crisis was averted. In 1843 Mr. Cal- 
houn was appointed secretary ol 
President Tyier's cabinet, and it was under 



his administration that the treaty concern- 
ing the annexation of Texas was negotiated. 
In 1845 he was re-elected to the United 
States senate and continued in the senate 
until his death, which occurred in March, 
1850. He occupied a high rank as a scholar, 
student and orator, and it is conceded that 
he was one of the greatest debaters America 
has produced. The famous debate between 
Calhoun and Webster, in 1833, is regarded 
as the most noted for ability and eloquence 
in the history of the country. 

of America's most brilliant and pro- 
found lawyers and noted public men, was 
a native of New England, born at Deer- 
field, New Hampshire, November 5, 1S18. 
His father, Captain John Butler, was a 
prominent man in his day, commanded a 
company during the war of 18 12, and 
served under Jackson at New Orleans. 
Benjamin F. Butler was given an excellent 
education, graduated at Waterville College, 
Maine, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1840, at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where he commenced the practice of his 
profession and gained a wide reputation for 
his ability at the bar, acquiring an extensive 
practice and a fortune. Early in life he 
began taking an active interest in military 
affairs and served in the state militia through 
all grades from private to brigadier-general. 
In 1853 he was elected to the state legisla- 
ture on the Democratic ticket in Lowell, 
and took a prominent part in the passage of 
legislation in the interests of labor. Dur- 
ing the same year he was a member of the 
constitutional convention, and in 1S59 rep- 
resented his district in the Massachusetts 
senate. When the Civil war broke out 
General Butler took the field and remained 
at the front most of the time during that 

bloody struggle. Part of the time he had 
charge of Fortress Monroe, and in Febru- 
ary, 1S62, took command of troops forming 
part of the expedition against New Orleans, 
and later had charge of the department of 
the Gulf. He was a conspicuous figure dur- 
ing the continuance of the war. After the 
close of hostilities General Butler resumed 
his law practice in Massachusetts and in 
1866 was elected to congress from the Es- 
sex district. In 1S82 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and in 1S84 was the 
nominee of the "Greenback" party for 
president of the United States. He con- 
tinued his legal practice, and maintained his 
place as one of the most prominent men in 
New England until the time of his death, 
which occurred January 10, 1893. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS, an officer, states- 
man and legislator of prominence in 
America, gained the greater part of his fame 
from the fact that he was president of the 
southern confederacy. Mr. Davis was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, June 3, 
1808, and his early education and surround- 
ings were such that his sympathies and in- 
clinations were wholly with the southern 
people. He received a thorough education, 
graduated at West Point in iS2S : and for a 
number of years served in the army at west- 
ern posts and in frontier service, first as 
lieutenant and later as adjutant. In 1835 
he resigned and became a cotton planter in 
Warren county, Mississippi, where he took 
an active interest in public- affairs and be- 
came a conspicuous figure in politics. In 
1844 he was a presidential elector from 
Mississippi and during the two following 
years served as congressman from his d'S- 
trict. He then became colonel of a Missis- 
sippi regiment in the war with Mexico ano 
participated in some of the most severe cat- 



ties, being seriously wounded at Buena 
Vista. Upon his return to private life he 
again took a prominent part in political af- 
fairs and represented his state in the United 
States senate from 1847 to 185 1. He then 
entered President Pierce's cabinet as secre- 
tary of war, after which he again entered 
the United States senate, remaining until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He then be- 
came president of the southern confederacy 
and served as such until captured in May, 
1865, at Irwinville, Georgia. He was held 
as prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, until 
1867, when he was released on bail and 
finally set free in 1868. His death occurred 
December 6, 1889. 

Jefferson Davis was a man of excellent 
abilities and was recognized as one of the 
best organizers of his day. He was a 
forceful and fluent speaker and a ready 
writer. He wrote and published the " Rise 
and Fall of the Southern Confederacy." a 
work which is considered as authority by 
the southern people 

JOHN ADAMS, the second president of 
the United States, and one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the early struggles of 
his country for independence, was born in 
the present town of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachusetts, October 30, 
1735. He received a thorough education, 
graduating at Harvard College in 1755, 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1758. He was well adapted for this profes- 
sion and after opening an office in his native 
town rapidly grew in prominence and public 
favor and soon was regarded as one of the 
leading lawyers of the country. His atten- 
tion was called to political affairs by the 
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and he 
drew up a set of resolutions on the subject 
which were very popular. In 1768 he re- 

moved to Boston and became one of the 
most courageous and prominent advocates 
of the popular cause and was chosen a 
member of the Colonial legislature from 
Boston. He was one of the delegates that 
represented Massachusetts in the first Con- 
tinental congress, which met in September, 
1774. In a letter written at this crisis he 
uttered the famous words: "The die is now 
cast; I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish with my 
country, is my unalterable determination." 
He was a prominent figure- in congress and 
advocated the movement for independence 
when a majority of the members were in- 
clined to temporize and to petition the King. 
In May, 1776, he presented a resolution in 
congress that the colonies should assume 
the duty of self-government, which was 
passed. In June, of the same year, a reso- 
lution that the United States "are, and ol 
right ought to be, free and independent," 
was moved by Richard H. Lee, seconded by 
Mr. Adams and adopted by a small majority. 
Mr. Adams was a member of the committee 
of five appointed June 1 1 to prepare a 
declaration of independence, in support of 
which he made an eloquent speech. He was 
chairman of the Board of War in 1776 and 
in 1 778 was sent as commissioner to France, 
but returned the following year. In 1780 
he went to Europe, having been appointed 
as minister to negotiate a treaty of peace 
and commerce with Great Britain. Con- 
jointly with Franklin and Jay he negotiated 
a treaty in 17S2. He was employed as a 
minister to the Court of St. James from 
1785 to 1788, and during that period wrote 
his famous " Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions. " In 1789 he became vice-presi- 
dent of the United States and was re-elected 
in 1792. 

In 1 796 Mr. Adams was chosen presi- 



dent of the United States, his competitor 
being Thomas Jefferson, who became vice- 
president. In 1800 he was the Federal 
candidate for president, but he was not 
cordially supported by Gen. Hamilton, the 
favorite leader of his party, and was de- 
feated by Thomas Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams then retired from public life 
to his large estate at Quincy, Mass., where 
he died July 4, 1826, on the same day that 
witnessed the death of Thomas Jefferson. 
Though his physical frame began to give way 
many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was glad- 
dened by .the elevation of his son, John 
Quincy Adams, to the presidential office. 

most celebrated American preachers 
and authors, was born at Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, June 24, 1 8 1 3. His father was Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, also an eminent divine. At 
an early age Henry Ward Beecher had a 
strong predilection for a sea-faring life, and 
it was practically decided that he would fol- 
low this inclination, but about this time, in 
consequence of deep religious impressions 
which he experienced during a revival, he 
renounced his former intention and decided 
to enter the ministry. After having grad- 
uated at Amherst College, in 1834, he stud- 
ied theology at Lane Seminary under the 
tuition of his father, who was then president 
of that institution. In 1847 he became pas- 
tor of the Plymouth Congregational church 
in Brooklyn, where his oratorical ability and 
original eloquence attracted one of the larg- 
est congregations in the country. He con- 
tinued to served this church until the time 
of his death, March 8, 1887. Mr. Beecher 
also found time for a great amount of liter- 
ary work For a number of years he was 

editor of the "Independent" and also the 
" Christian Union. " He also produced many 
works which are widely known. Among his 
principal productions are ' 'Lectures to Young 
Men," " Star Papers, " "Life of Christ," 
"Life Thoughts," "Royal Truths" (a 
novel), "Norwood," " Evolution and Rev- 
olution," and "Sermons on Evolution and 
Religion." Mr. Beecher was also long a 
prominent advocate of anti-slavery princi- 
ples and temperance reform, and, at a later 
period, of the rights of women. 


OHN A. LOGAN, the illustrious states- 
man and general, was born in Jackson 
county, Illinois, February 9, 1824. In his 
boyhood days he received but a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of his native county. 
On the breaking out of the war with Mexico 
he enlisted in the First Illinois Volunteers 
and became its quartermaster. At the close 
of hostilities he returned home and was 
elected clerk of the courts of Jackson county 
in 1849. Determining to supplement his 
education Logan entered the Louisville Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1852 
and taking up the study of law was admitted 
to the bar. He attained popularity and suc- 
cess in his chosen profession and was elected 
to the legislature in 1852, 1S53, 1856 and 
1857. He was prosecuting attorney from 
1853 to 1857. He was elected to congress 
in [858 to fill a vacancy and again in i860. 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion, Logan re- 
signed his office and entered the army, and 
in September, 1 S61 , was appointed colonel 
of the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, which he 
led in the battles of Belmont and Fort Don- 
elson. In the latter engagement he was 
wounded. In March, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general and in the 
following month participated in the battles 
of p ittsburg Landing. In November, 1862, 



for gallant conduct he was made major-gen- 
eral. Throughout the Yicksburg campaign 
he was in command of a division of the Sev- 
enteenth Corps and was distinguished at 
Port Gibson, Champion Kills and in the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg. In October, 
1863, he was placed in command of the 
Fifteenth Corps, which he led with great 
credit. During the terrible conflict before 
Atlanta, July 22, 1864, on the death of 
General McPherson, Logan, assuming com- 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, led it 
on to victory, saving the day by his energy 
and ability. He was shortly after succeeded 
by General O. O. Howard and returned to 
the command of his corps. He remained 
in command until the presidential election, 
when, feeling that his influence was needed 
at home he returned thither and there re- 
mained until the arrival of Sherman at Sa- 
vannah, when General Logan rejoined his 
command. In May, 1865, he succeeded 
General Howard at the head of the Army of 
the Tennessee. He resigned from the army 
in August, the same year, and in November 
was appointed minister to Mexico, but de- 
clined the honor. He served in the lower 
house of the fortieth and forty-first con- 
gresses, and was elected United States sena- 
tor from his native state in 1S70, 1878 and 
1S85. He was nominated for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1 884 on the ticket with Blaine, but 
was defeated. General Logan was the 
author of "The Great Conspiracy, its origin 
and history," published in 1885. He died 
at Washington, December 26, 1886. 

<J Republican candidate for president, was 
born in Savannah, Georgia, January 21, 
1S13. He graduated from Charleston Col- 
lege (South Carolina) in 1S30, and turned his 
attention to civil engineering. He was shortly 

afterward employed in the department of 
government surveys on the Mississippi, and 
constructing maps of that region. He was 
made lieutenant of engineers, and laid be- 
fore the war department a plan for \> ne- 
trating the Rocky Mountain regions, which 
was accepted, and in 1842 he set out upon 
his first famous exploring expedition and ex- 
plored the South Pass. He also planned an 
expedition to Oregon by a new route further 
south, but afterward joined his expedition 
with that of Wilkes in the region of the 
Great Salt Lake. He made a later expedi- 
tion which penetrated the Sierra Nevadas, 
and the San Joaquin and Sacramento river 
valleys, making maps of all regions explored. 
In 1845 he conducted the great expedi- 
tion which resulted in the acquisition of 
California, which it was believed the Mexi- 
can government was about to dispose of to 
England. Learning that the Mexican gov- 
ernor was preparing to attack the American 
settlements in his dominion, Fremont deter- 
mined to forestall him. The settlers rallied 
to his camp, and in June, 1846, he defeated 
the Mexican forces at Sonoma Pass, and a 
month later completely routed the governor 
and his entire army. The Americans at 
once declared their independence of Mexico, 
and Fremont was elected governor of Cali- 
fornia. By this time Commodore Stockton 
had reached the coast with instructions from 
Washington to conquer California. Fre- 
mont at once joined him in that effort, which 
resulted in the annexation of California with 
its untold mineral wealth. Later Fremont 
became involved in a difficulty with fellow 
officers which resulted in>.a court martial, 
and the surrender of his commission. He 
declined to accept reinstatement. He af- 
terward laid out a great road from the Mis- 
sissippi river to San Francisco, and became 
the first United States senator from Califor- 


nia, in 1S49. In 1S56 he was nominated 
by the new Republican party as its first can- 
didate for president against Buchanan, and 
received 114 electoral votes, out of 296. 

In 1S61 he was made major-general and 
placed in charge of the western department. 
He planned the reclaiming of the entire 
Mississippi valley, and gathered an army of 
thirty thousand men, with plenty of artil- 
lery, and was ready to move upon the con- 
federate General Price, when he was de- 
prived of his command. He was nominated 
for the presidency at Cincinnati in 1864, but 
withdrew. He was governor of Arizona in 
1878, holding the position four years. He 
was interested in an engineering enterprise 
looking toward a great southern trans-con- 
tinental railroad, and in his later years also 
practiced law in New York. He died July 1 3, 

WENDELL PHILLIPS, the orator and 
abolitionist, and a conspicuous figure 
in American history, was born November 
29, 181 1, at Boston, Massachusetts. He 
received a good education at Harvard 
College, from which he graduated in 1831, 
and then entered the Cambridge Law School. 
After completing his course in that institu- 
tion, in 1833, he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1834, at Suffolk. He entered the arena 
of life at the time when the forces of lib- 
erty and slavery had already begun their 
struggle that was to culminate in the Civil 
war. William Lloyd Garrison, by his clear- 
headed, courageous declarations of the anti- 
slavery principles, had done much to bring 
about this struggle. Mr. Phillips was not a 
man that could stand aside and see a great 
struggle being carried on in the interest of 
humanity and look passively on. He first 
attracted attention as an orator in 1837, at 
a meeting that was called to protest against 

the murder of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy. 
The meeting would have ended in a few 
perfunctory resolutions had not Mr. Phillip? 
by his manly eloquence taken the meeting 
out of the hands of the few that were in- 
clined to temporize and avoid radical utter- 
ances. Having once started out in this ca- 
reer as an abolitionist Phillips never swerved 
from what he deemed his duty, and never 
turned back. He gave up his legal practice 
and launched himself heart and soul in the 
movement for the liberation of the slaves. 
He was an orator of very great ability and 
by his earnest efforts and eloquence he did 
much in arousing public sentiment in behalt 
of the anti-slavery cause — possibly more 
than any one man of his time. After the 
abolition of slavery Mr. Phillips was, if pos- 
| sible, even busier than before in the literary 
and lecture field. Besides temperance and 
women's rights, he lectured often and wrote 
much on finance, and the relations of labor 
and capital, and his utterances on whatever 
subject always bore the stamp of having 
emanated from a master mind. Eminent 
clitics have stated that it might fairly be 
questioned whether there has ever spoken 
in America an orator superior to Phillips. 
The death of this great man occurred Feb- 
ruary 4, 1884. 

was one of the greatest generals that 
the world has ever produced and won im- 
mortal fame by that strategic and famous 
" march to the sea," in the war of the Re- 
bellion. He was born February 8, 1S20, at 
Lancaster, Ohio, and was reared in the 
family of the Hon. Thomas Ewing, as his 
father died when he was but nine years of 
age. He entered West Point in 1S36, was 
graduated from the same in 1840, and ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Third 



Artillery. He passed through the various 
grades of the service and at the outbreak of 
the Civil war was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Regular Infantry. A full history 
of General Sherman's conspicuous services 
would be to repeat a history ol the army. 
He commanded a division at Shiloh, and 
was instrumental in the winning of that bat- 
tle, and was also present at the siege of Vicks- 
burg. On July 4, 1S63, he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the regular army, and 
shared with Hooker the victory of Mission- 
ary Ridge. He was commander of the De- 
partment of the Tennessee from October 
27th until the appointment of General 
Grant as lieutenant-general, by whom he 
was appointed to the command of the De- 
partment of the Mississippi, which he as- 
sumed in March, 1864. He at once began 
organizing the army and enlarging his com- 
munications preparatory to his march upon 
Atlanta, which he started the same time of 
;he beginning of the Richmond campaign by 
Grant. He started on May 6, and was op- 
posed by Johnston, who had fifty thousand 
men, but by consummate generalship, he 
captured Atlanta, on September 2, after 
several months of hard fighting and a severe 
loss of men. General Sherman started on 
his famous march to the sea November 15, 
1864, and by December 10 he was before 
Savannah, which he took on December 23. 
This campaign is a monument to the genius 
of General Sherman as he only lost 567 
men from Atlanta to the sea. After rest- 
ing his army he moved northward and occu- 
pied the following places: Columbia, 
Cheraw, Fayetteville, Ayersboro, Benton- 
ville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and April iS, he 
accepted the surrender of Johnston's army 
on a basis of agreement that was not re- 
ceived by the Government with favor, but 
finally accorded Johnston the same terms as 

Lee was given by General Grant. He was 
present at the grand review at Washington, 
and after the close of the war was appointed 
to the command of the military division of 
the Mississippi; later was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general, and assigned to the military 
division of the Missouri. When' General 
Grant was elected president Sherman became 
general, March 4, 1869, and succeeded to 
the command of the army. His ileal h 1 c- 
curred February 14, 1891, at Washington. 

most prominent of the early American 
statesmen and financiers, was born in Nevis, 
an island of the West Indies, January 11, 
1757, his father being a Scotchman and his 
mother of Huguenot descent. Owing to the 
death of his mother and business reverses 
which came to his father, young Hamilton 
was sent to his mother's relatives in Santa 
Cruz; a few years later was sent to a gram- 
mar school at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 
and in 1773 entered what is now known as 
Columbia College. Even at that time he 
began taking an active part in public affairs 
and his speeches, pamphlets, and newspaper 
articles on political affairs of the day at- 
tracted considerable attention. In 1776 he 
received a captain's commission and served 
in Washington's army with credit, becoming 
aide-de-camp to Washington with rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In 1 781 he resigned his 
commission because of a rebuke from Gen- 
eral Washington. He next received com- 
mand of a New York battalion and partici- 
pated in the battle of Yorktown. After 
this Hamilton studied law, served several 
terms in congress and was a member of the 
convention at which the Federal Constitu- 
tion was drawn up. His work connected 
with " The Federalist " at about this time 
attracted much attention. Mr. Hamilton 



was chosen as the first secretary of the 
United States treasury and as such was the 
author of the funding system and founder of 
the United States Bank. In 1798 he was 
made inspector-general of the army with the 
rank of major-general and was also for a 
short time commander-in-chief. In 1804 
Aaron Burr, then candidate for governor of 
New York, challenged Alexander Hamilton 
to fight a duel, Burr attributing his defeat 
to Hamilton's opposition, and Hamilton, 
though declaring the code as a relic of bar- 
barism, accepted the challenge. They met 
at Weehawken, New Jersey, July 11, 1S04. 
Hamilton declined to fire at his adversary, 
but at Burr's first fire was fatally wounded 
and died July 12, 1804. 

ENS, vice-president of the southern 
confederacy, a former United States senator 
and governor of Georgia, ranks among the 
great men of American history. He was born 
February 11, 1812, near Crawfordsville, 
Georgia. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and admitted to the bar 
in 1834. In 1837 he made his debut in 
political life as a member of the state house 
of representatives, and in 1 841 declined the 
nomination for the same office; but in 1842 
he was chosen by the same constituency as 
state senator. Mr. Stephens was one of 
the promoters of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad. In 1843 he was sent by his dis- 
trict to the national house of representatives, 
which office he held for sixteen consec- 
utive years. He was a member of the 
house during the passing of the Compromise 
Bill, and was one of its ablest and most 
active supporters. The same year (1S50) 
Mr. Stephens was a delegate to the state 
convention that framed the celebrated 
" Georgia Platform." and was also a dele- 

gate to the convention that passed the ordi- 
nance of secession, though he bitterly op- 
posed that bill by voice and vote, yet he 
readily acquiesced in their decision after 
it received the votes of the majority of the 
convention. He was chosen vice-president 
of the confederacy without opposition, and 
in 1S65 he was the head of the commis- 
sion sent by the south to the Hampton 
Roads conference. He was arrested after 
the fall of the confederacy and was con- 
fined in Fort Warren as a prisoner of state 
but was released on his own parole. Mr. 
Stephens was elected to the forty-third, 
forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth and for- 
ty-seventh congresses, with hardly more than 
nominal opposition. He was one of the 
Jeffersonian school of American politics. 
He wrote a number of works, principal 
among which are: "Constitutional View 
of the War between the States," and a 
" Compendium of the History of the United 
States." He was inaugurated as governor 
of Georgia November 4th, 1S82, but died 
March 4, 18S3, before the completion of 
his term. 

ROSCOE CONKLIXG was one of the 
most noted and famous of American 
statesmen. He was among the most fin- 
ished, fluent and eloquent orators that have 
ever graced the halls of the American con- 
gress; ever ready, witty and bitter in de- 
bate he was at once admired and feared by 
his political opponents and revered by his 
followers. True to his friends, loyal to the 
last degree to those with whom his inter- 
ests were associated, he was unsparing to his 
foes and it is said "never forgot an injury." 
Roscoe Conkling was born at Albany, 
New York, on the 30th of October, 1S29, 
being a son of Alfred Conkling. Alfred 
Conkling was also a native of New York, 


born at East Hampton, October 12, 1789, 
and became one of the most eminent law- 
yers in the Empire state; published several 
legal works; served a term in congress; aft- 
erward as United States district judge for 
Northern New York, and in 1S52 was min- 
ister to Mexico. Alfred Conkling died in 

Roscoe Conkling, whose name heads 
this article, at an early age took up the 
study of law and soon became successful and 
prominent at the bar. About 1846 he re- 
moved to Utica and in 1S58 was elected 
mayor of that city. He was elected repre- 
sentative in congress from this district and 
was re-elected three times. In 1867 he was 
elected United States senator from the state 
of New York and was re-elected in 1S73 
and 1S79. In May, 1SS1, he resigned on 
account of differences with the president. 
In March, 1882, he was appointed and con- 
firmed as associate justice of the United 
States supreme court but declined to serve. 
His death occurred April 18, 18S8. 

most eminent, talented and popu- 
lar of American authors, was born in New 
York City, April 3, 1783. His father was 
William Irving, a merchant and a native of 
Scotland, who had married an English lady 
and emigrated to America some twenty- 
years prior to the birth of Washington. 
Two of the older sons, William and Peter, 
were partially occupied with newspaper 
work and literary pursuits, and this fact 
naturally inclined Washington to follow 
their example. Washington Irving wasgiven 
the advantages afforded by the common 
schools until about sixteen years of age 
when he began studying law, but continued 
to acquire his literary training by diligent 
perusal at home of the older English writers. 

When nineteen he made his first literary 
venture by printing in the ' ' Morning Chroni- 
cle," then edited by his brother, Dr. Peter 
Irving, a series of local sketches under the 
nom-de- plume of "Jonathan Oldstyle." In 
1804 he began an extensive trip through 
Europe, returned in 1806, quickly com- 
pleted his legal studies and was admitted to 
the bar, but never practiced the profession. 
In 1 S07 he began the amusing serial "Sal- 
magundi," which had an immediate suc- 
cess, and not only decided his future 
career but long determined the charac- 
ter of his writings. In 1808, assisted by 
his brother Peter, he wrote " Knickerbock- 
er's History of New York," and in 18 10 an 
excellent biography of Campbell, the poet, 
After this, for some time, Irving's attention 
was occupied by mercantile interests, but 
the commercial house in which he was a 
partner failed in 1817. In 1814 he was 
editor of the Philadelphia " Analectic Maga- 
zine." About 181 8 appeared his "Sketch- 
Book, " over the nom-de-plume of ' 'Geoffrey 
Crayon," which laid the foundation of Ir- 
ving's fortune and permanent fame. This 
was soon followed by the legends of 
"Sleepy Hollow," and " Rip Van Winkle," 
which at once took high rank as literary 
productions, and Irving's reputation was 
firmly established in both the old and new 
worlds. After this the path of Irving was 
smooth, and his subsequent writings ap- 
peared with rapidity, including "Brace- 
bridge Hall," "The Tales of a Traveler," 
" History of the Life and Voyages of Chris- 
topher Columbus," "The Conquest of 
Granada," "The Alhambra," " Tour on 
the Prairies," "Astoria," " Adventure ol 
Captain Bonneville," "Wolfert's Roost," 
" Mahomet and his Successors," and "Life 
of Washington," besides other works. 

Washington Irving was never married. 



He resided during the closing years of his 
life at Sunnyside (Tarrytown) on the Hud- 
son, where he died November 28, 1859. 

CHARLES SUMNER.— Boldly outlined 
on the pages of our history stands out 
the rugged figure of Charles Sumner, states- 
man, lawyer and writer. A man of unim- 
peachable integrity, indomitable will and 
with the power of tireless toil, he was a fit 
leader in troublous times. First in rank as 
an anti-slavery leader in the halls of con- 
gress, he has stamped his image upon the 
annals of his time. As an orator he took 
front rank and, .in wealth of illustration, 
rhetoric and lofty tone his eloquence equals 
anything to be found in history. 

Charles Sumner was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 6, 181 1, and was 
the son of Charles P. and Relief J. Sumner. 
The family had long been prominent in that 
state. Charles was educated at the Boston 
Public Latin School; entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1826, and graduated therefrom in 
1830. In 1 83 1 he joined the Harvard Law 
School, then under charge of Judge Story, 
and gave himself up to the study of law 
with enthusiasm. His leisure was devoted 
to contributing to the American Jurist. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1834 he was appointed 
reporter to the circuit court by Judge Story. 
He published several works about this time, 
and from 1835 to 1837 and again in 1843 
was lecturer in the law school. He had 
planned a lawyer's life, but in 1845 he gave 
his attention to politics, speakingand working 
against the admission of Texas to the Union 
and subsequently against the Mexican war. 
In 1848 he was defeated for congress on the 
Free Soil ticket. His stand on the anti- 
slavery question at that time alienated both 
friends and clients, but he never swerved 
from his convictions. In 1851 he was elected 

to the United States senate and took his 
seat therein December 1 of that year. From 
this time his life became the history of the 
anti-slavery cause in congress. In August, 
1852, he began his attacks on slavery by a 
masterly argument for the repeal of the 
fugitive slave law. On May 22, 1S56, Pres- 
ton Brooks, nephew of Senator Butler, of 
South Carolina, made an attack upon Mr. 
Sumner, at his desk in the senate, striking 
him over the head with a heavy cane. The 
attack was quite serious in its effects and 
kept Mr. Sumner absent from his seat in the 
senate for about four years. In 1857, 1863 
and 1869 he was re-elected to the office of 
senator, passing some twenty-three years in 
that position, always advocating the rights 
of freedom and equity. He died March II, 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, the third pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
near Charlottesville, Albemarle county. Vir- 
ginia, April 13, 1743, and was the son of 
Peter and Jane (Randolph) Jefferson. He 
received the elements of a good education, 
and in 1760 entered William and Mary Col- 
lege. After remaining in that institution for 
two years he took up the study of law with 
George Wythe, of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
one of the foremost lawyers of his day, and 
was admitted to practice in 1767. He ob- 
tained a large and profitable practice, which 
he held for eight years. The conflict be- 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies then 
drew him into public life, he having for 
some time given his attention to the study 
of the sources of law, the origin of liberty 
and equal rights. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to the Virginia 
house of burgesses in 1769, and served in 
that body several years, a firm supporter of 
liberal measures, and, although a slave- 



holder himself, an opponent of slaver}'. 
With others, he was a leader among the op- 
position to the king. He took his place as 
a member of the Continental congress June 
21, 1775, and after serving on several com- 
mittees was appointed to draught a Declara- 
tion of Independence, which he did, some 
corrections being suggested by Dr. Franklin 
and John Adams. This document was pre- 
sented to congress June 28, 1776, and after 
six days' debate was passed and was signed. 
In the following September Mr. Jefferson 
resumed his seat in the Virginia legislature, 
and gave much time to the adapting of laws 
of that state to the new condition of things. 
He drew up the law, the first ever passed by 
a legislature or adopted by a government, 
which secured perfect religious freedom. 
June 1, 1779, he succeeded Patrick Henry 
as governor of Virginia, an office which, 
after co-operating with Washington in de- 
fending the country, he resigned two years 
later. One of his own estates was ravaged 
by the British, and his house at Monticello 
was held by Tarleton for several days, and 
Jefferson narrowly escaped capture. After 
the death of his wife, in 17S2, he accepted 
the position of plenipotentiary to France, 
which he had declined in 1776. Before 
leaving he served a short time in congress 
at Annapolis, and succeeded in carrying a 
bill for establishing our present decimal sys- 
tem of currency, one of his most useful pub- 
lic services. He remained in an official ca- 
pacity until October, 1789, and was a most 
active and vigilant minister. Besides the 
onerous duties of his office, during this time, 
he published "Notes on Virginia," sent to 
the United States seeds, shrubs and plants, 
forwarded literary and scientific news and 
gave useful advice to some of the leaders of 
the French Revolution. 

Mr. Jefferson landed in Virginia Novem- 

ber 18. 1789, having obtained a leave of 
absence from his post, and shortly after ac- 
cepted Washington's offer of the portfolio 
of the department of state in his cabinet. 
He entered upon the duties of his office in 
March, 1 791 , and held it until January 1, 
1794, when he tendered his resignation. 
About this time he and Alexander Hamilton 
became decided and aggressive political op- 
ponents, Jefferson being in warm sympathy 
with the people in the French revolution 
and strongly democratic in his feelings, 
while Hamilton took the opposite side. In 
1796 Jefferson was elected vice-president of 
the United States. In 1S00 he was elected 
to the presidency and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1801. During his administration, 
which lasted for eight years, he having been 
re-elected in 1804, he waged a successful 
war against the Tripolitan pirates; purchased 
Louisiana of Napoleon; reduced the public 
debt, and was the originator of many wise 
measures. Declining a nomination for a 
third term he returned to Monticello, where 
he died July 4, 1S26, but a few hours before 
the death of his friend, John Adams. 

Mr. Jefferson was married January 1, 
1772, to Mrs. Martha Skelton, a young, 
beautiful, and wealthy widow, who died 
September 6, 1782, leaving three children, 
three more having died previous to her 

"Commodore" Vanderbilt, was the 
founder of what constitutes the present im- 
mense fortune of the Vanderbilt family. He 
was born May 27, 1794. at Port Richmond, 
Staten Island, Richmond county, New 
York, and we find him at sixteen years run- 
ning a small vessel between his home and 
New York City. The fortifications of Sta- 
ten and Long Islands were just in course of 



construction, and he carried the laborers 
from New York to the fortifications in his 
" perianger, " as it was called, in the day, 
and at night carried supplies to the fort on 
the Hudson. Later he removed to New 
York, where he added to his little fleet. At 
the age of twenty-three he was free from 
debt and was worth $9,000, and in 1S17, 
with a partner he built the first steamboat 
that was run between New York and New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, and became her 
captain at a salary of $1,000 a year. The 
next year he took command of a larger and 
better boat and by 1S24 he was in complete 
control of the Gibbon's Line, as it was 
called, which he had brought up to a point 
where it paid $40,000 a year. Commodore 
Vanderbilt acquired the ferry between New 
York and Elizabethport, New Jersey, on a 
fourteen years' lease and conducted this on 
a paying basis. He severed his connections 
with Gibbons in 1829 and engaged in 
business alone and for twenty years he was 
the leading steamboat man in the country, 
building and operating steamboats on the 
Hudson River, Long Island Sound, on the 
Delaware River and the route to Boston, 
and he had the monopoly of trade on these 
routes. In 1S50 he determined to broaden 
his field of operation and accordingly built 
the steamship Prometheus and sailed for 
the Isthmus of Darien, where he desired to 
make a personal investigation of the pros- 
pects of the American Atlantic and Pacific 
Ship Canal Company, in which he had pur- 
chased a controlling interest. Commodore 
Vanderbilt planned, as a result of this visit, 
a transit route from Greytown on the At- 
lantic coast to San Juan del Sud on the Pa- 
cific coast, which was a saving of 700 miles 
over the old route. In 185 1 he placed three 
steamers on the Atlantic side and four on 
the Pacific side to accommodate the enor- 

mous traffic occasioned by the discovery of 
gold in California. The following year 
three more vessels were added to his fleet 
and a branch line established from New 
Orleans to Greytown. In 1853 the Com- 
modore sold out hisNicarauguaTransit Com- 
pany, which had netted him $1,000,000 
and built the renowned steam yacht, the 
"North Star." He continued in the ship- 
ping business nine years longer and accu- 
mulated some $10,000,000. In 1861 he 
presented to the government his magnifi- 
cent steamer "Vanderbilt, " which had cost 
him $800,000 and for which he received the 
thanks of congress. In 1S44 he became 
interested in the railroad business which he 
"followed in later years and became one of 
the greatest railroad magnates of his time. 
He founded the Vanderbilt University at a 
cost of $1,000,000. He died January 4, 
1877, leaving a fortune estimated at over 
$100,000,000 to his children. 

DANIEL BOONE was one of the most 
famous of the many American scouts, 
pioneers and hunters which the early settle- 
ment of the western states brought into 
prominence. Daniel Boone was born Feb- 
ruary 11, 1735, in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania, but while yet a young man removed 
to North Carolina, where he was married. 
In 1769, with five companions, he pene- 
trated into the forests and wilds of Kentucky 
— then uninhabited by white men. He had 
frequent conflicts with the Indians and was 
captured by them but escaped and continued 
to hunt in and explore that region for over 
a year, when, in 1 771, he returned to his 
home. In the summer of 1773, he removed 
with his own and five other families into 
what was then the wilderness of Kentucky, 
and to defend his colony against the savages, 
he built, in 1775, a fort at Boonesborough, 



on the Kentucky river. This fort was at- 
tacked by the Indians several times in 1777, 
but they were repulsed. The following 
year, however, Boone was surprised and 
captured by them. They took him to De- 
troit and treated him with leniency, but he 
soon escaped and returned to his fort which 
he defended with success against four hun- 
dred and fifty Indians in August, 177S. His 
son, Enoch Boone, was the first white male 
child born in the state of Kentucky. In 
1 795 Daniel Boone removed with his family 
to Missouri, locating about forty-five miles 
west of the present site of St. Louis, where 
he found fresh fields for his favorite pursuits 
■ — adventure, hunting, and pioneer life. His 
death occurred September 20, 1820. 

LOW, said to have been America's 
greatest "poet of the people," was born at 
Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. He 
entered Bowdoin College at the age of four- 
teen, and graduated in 1S25. During his 
college days he distinguished himself in mod- 
ern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, one of the best known of which was 
the " Hymn of the Moravian Nuns." After 
his graduation he entered the law office of 
his father, but the following year was offered 
the professorship of modern languages at 
Bowdoin, with the privilege of three years 
study in Europe to perfect himself in French, 
Spanish, Italian and German. After the 
three years were passed he returned to the 
United States and entered upon his profes- 
sorship in 1829. His first volume was a 
small essay on the "Moral and Devotional 
Poetry of Spain" in 1S33. In 1S35 he pub- 
lished some prose sketches of travel under 
the title of " Outre Mer, a Pilgrimage be- 
yond the Sea." In 1835 he was elected to 
the chair of modern languages and literature 

at Harvard University and spent a year in 
Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, culti- 
vating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature and entered upon his professor- 
ship in 1S36. Mr. Longfellow published in 
1839 " Hyperion, a Romance," and "Voices 
of the Night, " and his first volume of original 
verse comprising the selected poems of 
twenty years work, procured him immediate 
recognition as a poet. " Ballads and other 
poems" appeared in 1S42, the "Spanish 
Student " a drama in three acts, in 1843, 
"The Belfry of Bruges " in 1846, "Evan- 
geline, a Tale of Acadia," in 1847, which 
was considered his master piece. In 1845 
he published a large volume of the "Poets 
and Poetry of Europe," 1849 " Kavanagh, 
a Tale," "The Seaside and Fireside" in 
1850, "The Golden Legend " in 1S51, "The 
Song of Hiawatha " in 1855, "The Court- 
ship of Miles Standish " in 1858, " Tales of 
a Wayside Inn " in 1863; " Flower de Luce" 
in 1866;" "New England Tragedies" in 
1869; "The Divine Tragedy" in 1871; 
"Three Books of Song" in 1872; "The 
Hanging of the Crane " in 1874. He also 
published a masterly translation of Dante 
in 1S67-70 and the " Morituri Salutamus," 
a poem read at the fiftieth anniversary of 
his class at Bowdoin College. Prof. Long- 
fellow resigned his chair at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1854, but continued to reside at Cam- 
bridge. Some of his poetical works have 
been translated into many languages, and 
their popularity rivals that of the best mod- 
ern English poetry. He died March 24, 
1S82, but has left an imperishable fame as 
one of the foremost of American poets. 

PETER COOPER was in three partic- 
ulars — as a capitalist and manufacturer, 
as an inventor, and as a philanthropist — 
connected intimately with some of the most 


JmDortant and useful accessions to the in- 
dustrial arts of America, its progress in in- 
vention and the promotion of educational 
and benevolent institutions intended for the 
benefit of people at large. He was born 
in New York city, February 12, 1 79 1 . His 
life was one of labor and struggle, as it was 
with most of America's successful men. In 
early boyhood he commenced to help his 
father as a manufacturer of hats. He at- 
tended school only for half of each day for 
a single year, and beyond this his acquisi- 
tions were all his own. When seventeen 
vears old he was placed with John Wood- 
ward to learn the trade of coach-making and 
served his apprenticeship so satisfactorily 
chat his master oPered to set him up in busi- 
ness, but this he declined because of the 
debt and obligation it would involve. 

The foundation of Mr. Cooper's fortune 
was laid in the invention of an improvement 
in machines for shearing cloth. This was 
largely called into use during the war of 
1812 with England when all importations 
of cloth from that country were stopped. 
The machines lost their value, however, on 
the declaration of peace. Mr. Cooper then 
turned his shop into the manufacture of 
cabinet ware. He afterwards went into the 
grocery business in New York and finally he 
engaged in the manufacture of glue and isin- 
glass which he carried en for more than 
fifty years. In 1830 he erected iron works 
in Canton, near Baltimore. Subsequenily 
he erected a rolling and a wire mill in the 
city of New York, in which he first success- 
fully applied anthracite to the puddling of 
iron. In these works, he was the first to 
roll wrought-iron beams for fire-proof build- 
ings. These works grew to be very exten- 
sive, including mines, blast furnaces, etc. 
Wmle in Baltimore Mr. Cooper built in 
1830. after his own designs, the first loco- 

motive engine ever constructed on this con- 
tinent and it was successfully operated on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He also 
took a great interest and invested large cap- 
ital in the extension of the electric telegraph, 
also in the laying of the first Atlantic cable; 
besides interesting himself largely in the 
New York state canals. But the most 
cherished object of Mr. Cooper's life was 
the establishment of an institution for the 
instruction of the industrial classes, which 
he carried out on a magnificent scale in New 
York city, where the "Cooper Union" 
ranks among the most important institu- 

In May, 1876, the Independent party 
nominated Mr. Cooper for president of the 
United States, and at the election following 
he received nearly 100,000 votes. His 
death occurred April 4, 1883. 

one of the most conspicuous Confeder- 
ate generals during the Civil war, and one 
of the ablest military commanders of mod- 
ern times, was born at Stratford House, 
Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 19, 
1807. In 1S25 he entered the West Point 
academy and was graduated second in his 
class in 1829, and attached to the army as 
second lieutenant of engineers. For a 
number of years he was thus engaged in en- 
gineering work, aiding in establishing the 
boundary line between Ohio and Michigan, 
and superintended various river and harbor 
improvements, becoming captain of engi- 
neers in 1838. He first saw field service in 
the Mexican war, and under General Scott 
performed valuable and efficient service. 
In that brilliant campaign he was conspicu- 
ous for professional ability as well as gallant 
and meritorious conduct, winning in quick 
succession the brevets of major, lieutenant- 


colonel, and colonel for his part in the bat- 
tles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, 
Chapultepec, and in the capture of the city 
Mexico. At the close of that war he re- 
sumed his engineering work in connection 
with defences along the Atlantic coast, and 
from 1S52 to 1855 was superintendent of 
the Military Academy, a position which he 
gave up to become lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Cavalry. For several years there- 
after he served on the Texas border, but 
happening to be near Washington at the 
time of John Brown's raid, October 17 to 
25, 1 8 59, Colonel Lee was placed in com- 
mand of the Federal forces employed in its 
repression. He soon returned to his regi- 
ment in Texas where he remained the 
greater part of i860, and March 16, 1861, 
became colonel of his regiment by regular 
promotion. Three weeks later, April 25, he 
resigned upon the secession of Virginia, 
went at once to Richmond and tendered his 
services to the governor of that state, being 
by acclamation appointed commander-in- 
chief of its military and naval forces, with 
the rank of major-general. 

He at once set to work to organize and 
develop the defensive resources of his state 
and within a month directed the occupation 
in force of Manassas Junction. Meanwhile 
Virginia having entered the confederacy and 
Richmond become the capitol, Lee became 
one of the foremost of its military officers 
and was closely connected with Jefferson 
Davis in planning the moves of that tragic 
time. Lee participated in many of the 
hardest fought battles of the war among 
which were Fair Oaks, White Lake Swamps, 
Cold Harbor, and the Chjckahominy, Ma- 
nassas, Cedar Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Malvern Hill, Get- 
tysburg, the battles of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, all the campaigns about Richmond, 

Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Lee's 
surrender at Appomatox brought the- war to 
a close. It is said of General Lee that but 
few commanders in history have been so 
quick to detect the purposes of an opponent 
or so quick to act upon it. Never surpassed, 
if ever equaled, in the art of winning the 
passionate, personal love and admiration of 
•his troops, he acquired and held an influ- 
ence over his army to the very last, founded 
upon a supreme trust in his judgment, pre- 
science and skill, coupled with his cool, 
stable, equable courage. A great writer has 
said of him: "As regards the proper meas- 
ure of General Lee's rank among the sol- 
diers of history, seeing what he wrought 
with such resources as he had, under all the 
disadvantages that ever attended his oper- 
ations, it is impossible to measure what he 
might have achieved in campaigns and bat- 
tles with resources at his own disposition 
equal to those against which he invariably 

Left at the close of the war without es- 
tate or profession, he accepted the presi- 
dency of Washington College at Lexington, 
Virginia, where he died October 12, 1870. 

JOHN JAY, first chief-justice of the 
United States, was born in New York, 
December 12, 1745. He took up the study 
of law, graduated from King's College 
(^Columbia College), and was admitted to 
the bar in 176S. He was chosen a member 
of the committee of New York citizens to 
protest against the enforcement by the 
British government of the Boston Port Bill, 
was elected to the Continental congress 
which met in 1774, and was author of the 
addresses to the people of Great Britian and 
of Canada adopted by that and the suc- 
ceeding congress. He was chosen to the 
provincial assembly of his own state, and 



resigned from the Continental congress to 
serve in that body, wrote most of its public 
papers, including the constitution of the new 
state, and was then made chief-justice. He 
was again chosen as a member of the Con- 
tinental congress in 1778, and became presi- 
dent of that body. He was sent to Spain 
as minister in 1780, and his services there 
resulted in substantial and moral aid for the 
struggling colonists. Jay, Franklin, and 
Adams negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain in. 1782, and Jay was ap- 
pointed secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, 
and held the position until the adoption of 
the Federal constitution. During this time 
he had contributed strong articles to the 
"Federalist" in favor of the adoption of 
the constitution, and was largely instru- 
mental in securing the ratification of that 
instrument by his state. He was appointed 
by Washington as first chief-justice of the 
United States in 1789. In this high capac- 
ity the great interstate and international 
questions that arose for immediate settle- 
ment came before him for treatment. 

In 1794, at a time when the people in 
gratitude for the aid that France had ex- 
tended to us, were clamoring for the privilege 
of going to the aid of that nation in her 
struggle with Great Britain and her own op- 
pressors, John Jay was sent to England as 
special envoy to negotiate a treaty with 
that power. The instrument known as 
"Jay's Treaty " was the result, and while 
in many of its features it favored our nation, 
yet the neutrality clause in it so angered the 
masses that it was denounced throughout 
the entire country, and John Jay was burned 
in effigy in the city of New York. The 
treaty was finally ratified by Washington, 
and approved, in August, 1795. Having 
been elected governor of his state for three 
consecutive terms, he then retired from 

active life, declining an appointment as 
chief-justice o f the supreme court, made by- 
John Adams and confirmed by the senate. 
He died in New York in 1S29. 

one of the greatest American cavalry 
generals. He was born March 6, 1S31, at 
Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, and was ap- 
pointed to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at W T est Point, from which he graduat- 
ed and was assigned to the First Infantry as 
brevet second lieutenant July 1, 1S53. 
After serving in Texas, on the Pacific coast, 
in Washington ar.d Oregon territories until ■ 
the fall of 1 86 1, he was recalled to the 
states and assigned to the army of south- 
west Missouri as chief quartermaster from 
the duties of which he was soon relieved. 
After the battle of Pea Ridge, he was quar- 
termaster in the Corinth campaign, and on 
May 25 he was appointed colonel of the 
Second Michigan Cavalry. On July 1, in 
command of a cavalry brigade, he defeated 
a superior force of the enemy and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
General Sheridan was then transferred to 
the army of the Ohio, and commanded a 
division in the battle of Perrysville and also 
did good service at the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, where he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers. He fought with 
great gallantry at Chickamauga, after which 
Rosecrans was succeeded by General Grant, 
under whom Sheridan fought the battle of 
Chattanooga and won additional renown. 
Upon the promotion of Grant to lieutenant- 
general, he applied for the transfer of Gen- 
eral Sheridan to the east, and appointed 
him chief of cavalry in the army of the 
Potomac. During the campaign of [864 
the cavalry covered the front and flanks ol 
the infantry until May 8, when it was wit,. 


drawn and General Sheridan started on a 
raid against the Confederate lines of com- 
munication with Richmond and on May 25 
he rejoined the army, having destroyed con- 
siderable of the confederate stores and de- 
feated their cavalry under General Stuart at 
Yellow Tavern. The outer line of defences 
around Richmond were taken, but the sec- 
ond line was too strong to be taken by as- 
sault, and accordingly Sheridan crossed the 
Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge, reaching 
James River May 14, and thence by White 
House and Hanover Court House back to 
the army. The cavalry occupied Cold 
Harbor May 31, which they held until the 
arrival of the infantry. On General Sheri- 
dan's next raid he routed Wade Hampton's 
cavalry, and August 7 was assigned to the 
command of the Middle Military division, 
and during the campaign of the Shenan- 
doah Valley he performed the unheard of 
feat of " destroying an entire army." He 
was appointed brigadier-general of the reg- 
ular army and for his victory at Cedar Creek 
he was promoted to the rank of major-gen- 
eral. General Sheridan started out Febru- 
ary 27, 1865, with ten thousand cavalry 
and destroyed the Virginia Central Railroad 
and the James River Canal and joined the 
army again at Petersburg March 27. He 
commanded at the battle of Five Forks, the 
decisive victory which compelled Lee to 
evacuate Petersburg. On April 9, Lee tried 
to break through Sheridan's dismounted 
command but when the General drew aside 
his cavalry and disclosed the deep lines of 
infantry the attempt was abandoned. Gen- 
eral Sheridan mounted his men and was about 
to charge when a white Hag was flown at the 
head of Lee's column which betokened the 
surrender of the army. After the war Gen- 
eral Sheridan had command of the army of 
• the southwest, of the gulf and the depart- 

ment of Missouri until he was appointed 
lieutenant-general and assigned to the di- 
vision of Missouri with headquarters at Chi- 
cago, and assumed supreme command of 
the army November 1, 18S3, which post he 
held until his death, August 5, 1888. 

PHINEAS T. BARNUM, the greatest 
showman the world has ever seen, was 
born at Danbury, Connecticut, July 5, 18 10. 
At the age of eighteen years he began busi- 
ness on his own account. - He opened a re- 
tail fruit and confectionery house, including 
a barrel of ale, in one part of an old car- 
riage house. He spent fifty dollars in fitting 
up the store and the stock cost him seventy 
dollars. Three years later he put in a full 
stock, such as is generally carried in a 
country store, and the same year he started 
a Democratic newspaper, known as the 
"Herald of Freedom." He soon found 
himself in jail under a sixty days' sentence 
for libel. During the winter of 1834-5 he 
went to New York and began soliciting busi- 
ness for several Chatham street houses. In 
1835 he embarked in the show business at 
Niblo's Garden, having purchased the cele- 
brated " Joice Heth" for one thousand dol- 
lars. He afterward engaged the celebrated 
athlete, Sig. Yivalia, and Barnum made his 
" first appearance on any stage," acting as a 
"super" to Sig. Vivalia on his opening 
night. He became ticket seller, secretary 
and treasurer of Aaron Turner's circus in 
1S36 and traveled with it about the country. 
His next venture was the purchase of a 
steamboat on the Mississippi, and engaged 
a theatrical company to show in the princi- 
pal towns along that river. In 1840 he 
opened Vaux Hall Garden, New York, with 
variety performances, and introduced the 
celebrated jig dancer, John Diamond, to the 
public. The next year he quit the show 



business and settled down in New York as 
agent of Sear's Pictorial Illustration of the 
Bible, but a few months later again leased 
Vaux Hall. In September of the same year 
he again left the business, and became 
' ' puff " writer for the Bowery Amphitheater. 
In December he bought the Scudder Museum, 
and a year later introduced the celebrated 
Tom Thumb to the world, taking him to 
England in 1S44, and remaining there three 
years. He then returned to New York, and 
in 1849, through James Hall Wilson, he en- 
gaged the "Swedish Nightingale," Jenny 
Lind, to come to this country and make a 
tour under his management. He also had 
sent the Swiss Bell Ringers to America in 
1S44. He became owner of the Baltimore 
Museum and the Lyceum and Museum at 
Philadelphia. In 1850 he brought a dozen 
elephants from Ceylon to make a tour of this 
country, and in 1S51 sent the " Bateman 
Children " to London. During 1S51 and 
1852 he traveled as a temperance lecturer, 
and became president of a bank at Pequon- 
nock, Connecticut. In 1S52 he started a 
weekly pictorial paper known as the " Illus- 
trated News." In 1865 his Museum was 
destroyed by fire, and he immediately leased 
the Winter Garden Theatre, where he played 
his company until he opened his own 
Museum. This was destroyed by fire in 
1868, and he then purchased an interest in 
the George Wood Museum. 

After dipping into politics to some ex- 
tent, he began his career as a really great 
showman in 187 1. Three years later he 
erected an immense circular building in New 
York, in which he produced his panoramas. 
He has frequently appeared as a lecturer, 
some times on temperance, and some times 
on other topics, among which were ' ' Hum- 
bugs of the World," "Struggles and 
Triumphs," etc. He was owner of the im- 

mense menagerie and circus known as the 
"Greatest Show on Earth," and his fame 
extended throughout Europe and America. 
He died in 1891. 

JAMES MADISON, the fourth president 
of the United States, 1809-17, was 
born at Port Conway, Prince George coun- 
ty, Virginia, March 16, 1 75 1 . He was the 
son of a wealthy planter, who lived on a fine 
estate called " Montpelier, " which was but 
twenty-five miles from Monticello, the home 
of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Madison was the 
eldest of a family of seven children, all of 
whom attained maturity. He received his 
early education at home under a private 
tutor, and consecrated himself with unusual 
vigor to study. At a very early age he was 
a proficient scholar in Latin, Greek, French 
and Spanish, and in 1769 he entered Prince- 
ton College, New Jersey. He graduated in 
1 77 1, but remained for several months after 
his graduation to pursue a course of study 
under the guidance of Dr. Witherspoon. 
He permanently injured his health at this 
time and returned to Virginia in 1772, and 
for two years he was immersed in the study 
of law, and at the same time made extend- 
ed researches in theology, general literature, 
and philosophical studies. He then directed 
his full attention to the impending struggle 
of the colonies for independence, and also 
took a prominent part in the religious con- 
troversy at that time regarding so called 
persecution of other religious denominations 
by the Church of England. Mr. Madison 
was elected to the Virginia assembly in 1776 
and in November, 1777, he was chosen 
a member of the council of state. He took 
his seat in the continental congrt-ss in 
March, 1780. He was made chairman of 
the committee on foreign relations, and 
drafted an able memoranda for the use of 



the American ministers to the French and 
Spanish governments, that established the 
claims of the republic to the territories be- 
tween the Alleghany Mountains and the 
Mississippi River. He acted as chairman of 
the ways and means committee in 1783 and 
as a member of the Virginia legislature in 
1784-S6 he rendered important services to 
the state. Mr. Madison represented Yir- 
giana in the national constitutional conven- 
tion at Philadelphia in 17S7, and was one of 
the chief framers of the constitution. He 
was a member of the first four congresses, 
1789-97, and gradually became identified 
with the anti-federalist or republican party 
of which he eventually became the leader. 
He remained in private life during the ad- 
ministration of John Adams, and was secre- 
tary of state under President Jefferson. Mr. 
Madison administered the affairs of that 
post with such great ability that he was the 
natural successor of the chief magistrate 
and was chosen president by an electoral 
vote of 122 to 53. He was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at that critical period in our 
history when the feelings of the people were 
embittered with those of England, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
which finally resulted in the declaration of 
war, June 18, 1812. In the autumn of that 
year President Madison was re-elected by a 
vote of 128 to 89, and conducted the war 
for three years with varying success and 
defeat in Canada, by glorious victories at 
sea, and by the battle of New Orleans that 
was fought after the treaty of peace fn.d 
been signed at Ghent, December 24, 1S14. 
During this war the national capitol at 
Washington was burned, and many valuable 
papers were destroyed, but the declaration 
of independence was saved to the country 
by the bravery and courage of Mr. Madi- 
son's illustrious wife. A commercial treat} 

was negotiated with Great Britain in 1S15, 
and in April, 1S16, a national bank was in- 
corporated by congress. Mr. Madison was 
succeeded. March 4, 1 S 1 7, by James Monroe, 
and retired into private life on his estate at 
Montpelier, where he died June 28, 1836. 

American character, was a protege of 
the great abolitionist, William Lloyd Garri- 
son, by whom he was aided in gaining his 
education. Mr. Douglass was born in Tuck- 
ahoe county, Maryland, in February, 1817, 
his mother being a negro woman and his 
father a white man. He was born in slav- 
ery and belonged to a man by the name of 
Lloyd, under which name he went until he 
ran away from his master and changed it to 
Douglass. At the age of ten years he was 
sent to Baltimore where he learned to read 
and write, and later his owner allowed him 
to hire out his own time for three dollars a 
week in a shipyard. In September, 1838, 
he fled from Baltimore and made his way to 
New York, and from thence went to New 
Bedford, Massachusetts. Here he was mar- 
ried and supported himself and family by 
working at the wharves and in various work- 
shops. In the summer of 1S41 he attended 
an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket, 
and made a speech which was so well re- 
ceived that he was offered the agency of the 
Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society. In this 
capacity he traveled through the New En- 
gland states, and about the same time he 
published his first book called " Narrative 
of my Experience in Slavery." Mr. Doug- 
lass went to England in 1845 and lectured 
on slavery to large and enthusiastic audi- 
ences in all the large towns of the country, 
and his friends made up a purse of seven 
1 nd fifty dollars and purchased his 
freedom in due form of law. 


Mr. Douglass applied himself to the de- 
livery of lyceum lectures after the abolition 
of slavery, and in iSjohe became the editor 
of the " New National Era " in Washington. 
In 1S71 he was appointed assistant secretary 
of the commission to San Domingo and on 
his return he was. appointed one of the ter- 
ritorial council for the District of Colorado 
by President Grant. He was elected presi- 
dential elector-at-large for the state of New 
York and was appointed to carry the elect- 
oral vote to Washington. He was also 
United States marshal for the District of 
Columbia in 1876, and later was recorder 
of deeds for the same, from which position 
he was removed by President Cleveland in 
1S86. In the fall of that year he visited 
England to inform the friends that he had 
made while there, of the progress of the 
colored race in America, and on his return 
he was appointed minister to Hayti, by 
President Harrison in 1S89. His career as 
a benefactor of his race was closed by his 
death in February, 1895, near Washington. 

ear for rhythm and the talent for 
graceful expression are the gifts of nature, 
and they were plentifully endowed on the 
above named poet. The principal charac- 
teristic of his poetry is the thoughtfulness 
and intellectual process by which his ideas 
ripened in his mind, as all his poems are 
bright, clear and sweet. Mr. Bryant was 
born November 3, 1794, at Cummington, 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, and was 
educated at Williams College, from which 
he graduated, having entered it in 1810. 
He took up the study of law, and in 1S15 
was admitted to the bar, but after practicing 
successfully for ten years at Plainfield and 
Great Barrington, he removed to New York 
in 1825. The following year he became 

the editor of the "Evening Post," which 
he edited until his death, and under his di- 
rection this paper maintained, through a 
long series of years, a high standing by the 
boldness of its protests against slavery be- 
fore the war, by its vigorous support of the 
government during the war, and by the 
fidelity and ability of its advocacy of the 
Democratic freedom in trade. Mr. Bry- 
ant visited Europe in 1S34, 1845, 1849 and 
1857, and presented to the literary world 
the fruit of his travels in the series of "Let- 
ters of a Traveler," and "Letters from 
Spain and Other Countries." In the world 
of literature he is known chiefly as a poet, 
and here Mr. Bryant's name is illustrious, 
both at home and abroad. He contributed 
verses to the "Country Gazette " before he 
was ten years of age, and at the age of nine- 
teen he wrote " Thanatopsis, " the most im- 
pressive and widely known of his poems. 
The later outgrowth of his genius was his 
translation of Homer's "Iliad" in 1870 
and the " Odyssey " in 1871. He also 
made several speeches and addresses which 
have been collected in a comprehensive vol- 
ume called "Orations and Addresses." He 
was honored in many ways by his fellow 
citizens, who delighted to pay tributes of 
respect to his literary eminence, the breadth 
of his public spirit, the faithfulness of his 
service, and the worth of his private char- 
acter. Mr. Bryant died in New York City 
June 12, 1878. 

secretary of state during one of the 
most critical times in the history of our 
country, and the right hand man of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, ranks among the greatest 
statesmen America has produced. Mr. 
Seward was born May 16, 1801, at Florida, 
Orange county, New York, and with such 


facilities as the place afforded he fitted him- 
self for a college course. He attended 
Union College at Schenectady, New York, 
at the age of fifteen, and took his degree in 
the regular course, with signs of promise in 
1820, after which he diligently addressed 
himself to the study of law under competent 
instructors, and started in the practice of 
his profession in 1823. 

Mr. Seward entered the political arena 
and in 1828 we find him presiding over a 
convention in New York, its purpose being 
the nomination of John Quincy Adams for a 
second term. He was married in 1824 and 
in 1830 was elected to the state senate. 
From 1838 to 1842 he was governor of the 
state of New York. Mr. Seward's next im- 
portant position was that of United States 
senator from New York. 

W. H. Seward was chosen by President 
Lincoln to fill the important office of the 
secretary of state, and by his firmness and 
diplomacy in the face of difficulties, he aided 
in piloting the Union through that period of 
strife, and won an everlasting fame. This 
great statesman died at Auburn, New York, 
October 10, 1872, in the seventy-second 
year of his eventful life. 

JOSEPH JEFFERSON, a name as dear 
as it is familiar to the theater-going 
world in America, suggests first of all a fun- 
loving, drink-ioving, mellow voiced, good- 
natured Dutchman, and the name of "Rip 
Van Winkle " suggests the pleasant features 
of Joe Jefferson, so intimately are play ard 
player associated in the minds of those who 
have had the good fortune to shed tears of 
laughter and sympathy as a tribute to the 
greatness of his art. Joseph Jefferson was 
born in Philadelphia, February 20, 1829. 
His genius was an inheritance, if there be 
such, as his great-grandfather, Thomas 

Jefferson, was a manager and actor in Eng 
land. His grandfather, Joseph Jefferson, 
was the most popular comedian of the New 
York stage ia his time, and his father, Jos- 
eph Jefferson, the second, was a good actor 
also, but the third Joseph Jefferson out- 
shone them all. 

At the age of three years Joseph Jeffer- 
son came on the stage as the child in "Pi- 
zarro," and his training was upon the stage 
from childhood. Later on he lived and 
acted in Chicago, Mobile, and Texas. After 
repeated misfortunes he returned to New 
Orleans from Texas, and his brother-in-law, 
Charles Burke, gave him money to reach 
Philadelphia, where he joined the Burton 
theater company. Here his genius soon as- 
serted itself, and his future became promis- 
ing and brilliant. His engagements through- 
out the United States and Australia were 
generally successful, and when he went to 
England in 1865 Mr. Boucicault consented 
to make some important changes in his 
dramatization of Irving's story of Rip Van 
Winkle, and' Mr. Jefferson at once placed 
it in the front rank as a comedy. He made 
a fortune out of it, and played nothing else 
for many years. In later years, however, 
Mr. Jefferson acquitted himself of the charge 
of being a one-part actor, and the parts of 
"Bob Acres," "Caleb Plummer" and 
"Golightly " all testify to the versatility of 
his genius. 

a noted American general, was born 
in Philadelphia, December 3, 1826. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1S46 from West Point, and 
was breveted second lieutenant of engineers. 
He was with Scott in the Mexican war, 
taking part in all the engagements from 
Vera Cruz to the final capture of the Mexi- 



can capital, and was breveted first lieuten- 
ant and captain for gallantry displayed on 
various occasions. In 1857 he resigned his 
commission and accepted the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, and became presi- 
dent of the St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company. He was commissioned major- 
general by the state of Ohio in 1861, 
placed in command of the department of 
the Ohio, and organized the first volunteers 
called for from that state. In May he was 
appointed major-general in the United 
States army, and ordered to disperse the 
confederates overrunning West Virginia. 
He accomplished this task promptly, and 
received the thanks of congress. After the 
first disaster at Bull Run he was placed 
in command of the department of Wash- 
ington, and a few weeks later of the 
Army of the Potomac. Upon retirement 
of General Scott the command of the en- 
tire United States army devolved upon Mc- 
Clellan, but he was relieved of it within a 
few months. In March, 1S62, after elabor- 
ate preparation, he moved upon Manassas, 
only to find it deserted by the Confederate 
army, which had been withdrawn to im- 
pregnable defenses prepared nearer Rich- 
mond. He then embarked his armies for 
Fortress Monroe and after a long delay at 
Yorktown, began the disastrous Peninsular 
campaign, which resulted in the Army of the 
Potomac being cooped up on the James 
River below Richmond. His forces were 
then called to the support of General Pope, 
near Washington, and he was left without an 
army. After Pope's defeat McClellan was 
placed in command of the troops for the de- 
fense of the capital, and after a thorough or- 
ganization he followed Lee into Maryland 
and the battles of Antietam and South Moun- 
tain ensued. The delay which followed 

caused general dissatisfaction, and he was re- 
lieved of his command, and retired from active 

In 1864 McClellan was nominated for 
the presidency by the Democrats, and over- 
whelmingly defeated by Lincoln, three 
states only casting their electoral votes for 
McClellan. On election day he resigned 
his commission and a few months later went 
to Europe where he spent several years. 
He wrote a number of military text- books 
and reports. His death occurred October 
29, 1885. 

SAMUEL J. TILDEN.— Among the great 
statesmen whose names adorn the pages 
of American history may be found that of 
the subject of this sketch. Known as a 
lawyer of highest ability, his greatest claim 
to immortality will ever lie in his successful 
battle against the corrupt rings of his native 
state and the elevation of the standard of 
official life. 

Samuel J. Tilden was born in New Leb- 
anon, New York, February 9, 1S14. He 
pursued his academic studies at Yale Col- 
lege and the University of New York, tak- 
ing the course of law at the latter. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. His rare 
ability as a thinker and writer upon public 
topics attracted the attention of President 
Van Buren, of whose policy and adminis- 
tration he became an active and efficient 
champion. He made for himself a high 
place in his profession and amassed quite a 
fortune as the result of his industry and 
judgment. During the days of his greatest 
professional labor he was ever o:;e of the 
leaders and trusted counsellors of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was a member of the 
conventions to revise the state constitution, 
both in 1846 and 1867, and served two 
terms in the lower branch of the state leg- 



islature. Ke was one of the controlling 
spirits in the overthrow of the notorious 
" Tweed ring " and the reformation of the 
government of the city of New York. In 
1874 he was elected governor of the state 
of New York. While in this position he 
assailed corruption in high places, success- 
fully battling with the iniquitous "canal 
ring " and crushed its sway over all depart- 
ments of the government. Recognizing his 
character and executive ability Mr. Tilden 
was nominated for president by the na- 
tional Democratic convention in 1876. At 
the election he received a much larger popu- 
lar vote than his opponent, and 184 uncon- 
tested electoral votes. There being some 
electoral votes contested, a commission ap- 
pointed by congress decided in favor of the 
Republican electors and Mr. Hayes, the can- 
didate of that party was declared elected. 
In 1S80, the Democratic party, feeling that 
Mr. Tilden had been lawfully elected to the 
presidency tendered the nomination for the 
same office to Mr. Tilden, but he declined, 
retiring from all public functions, owing to 
failing health. He died August 4, 1S86. 
By will he bequeathed several millions of 
dollars toward the founding of public libra- 
ries in New York City, Yonkers, etc. 

NOAH WEBSTER.— As a scholar, law- 
yer, author and journalist, there is no 
one who stands on a higher plane, or whose 
reputation is better established than the 
honored gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. He was a native of West Hartford, 
Connecticut, and was born October 17, 
1758. He came of an old New England 
family, his mother being a descendant of 
Governor William Bradford, of the Ply- 
mouth colony. After acquiring a solid edu- 
cation in early life Dr. Webster entered 
Yale College, from which he graduated in 

1778. For a while he taught school in 
Hartford, at the same time studying law. 
and was admitted to the bar in 1781. He 
taught a classical school at Goshen, Orange 
county, New York, in 1782-S3, and while 
there prepared his spelling book, grammar 
and reader, which was issued under the title 
of "A Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language," in three parts, — so successful a 
work that up to 1S76 something like forty 
million of the spelling books had been 
sold. In 1786 he delivered a course of lec- 
tures on the English language in the seaboard 
cities and the following year taught an 
academy at Philadelphia. From December 
[7, [787, until November, 17S8, he edited 
the "American Magazine, "a periodical that 
proved unsuccessful. In 1789-93 he prac- 
ticed law in Hartford having in the former 
year married the daughter of William Green- 
leaf, of Boston. He returned to New York 
and November, 1793, founded a daily paper, 
the "Minerva," to which was soon added a 
semi-weekly edition under the name of the 
" Herald." The former is still in existence 
under the name of the "Commercial Adver- 
tiser." In this paper, over the signature of 
"Curtius," he published a lengthy and schol- 
arly defense of "John Jay's treaty." 

In 1798, Dr. Webster moved to New 
Haven and in 1807 commenced the prepar- 
ation of his great work, the "American Dic- 
tionary of the English Language," which 
was not completed and published until 1828. 
He made his home in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, for the ten years succeeding 1S12, and 
was instrumental in the establishment cf 
Amherst College, of which institution he was 
the first president of the board of trustees. 
During 1824-5 he resided in Europe, pursu- 
ing his philological studies in Paris. He 
completed his dictionary from the libraries 
of Cambridge University in 1S25, and de- 



voted his leisure for the remainder of his 
life to the revision of that and his school 

Dr. Webster was a member of the legis- 
latures of both Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, was judge of one of the courts of the 
former state and was identified with nearly 
all the literary and scientific societies in the 
neighborhood of Amherst College. He died 
in New Haven, May 28, 1843. 

Among the more prominent works ema- 
nating from the fecund pen of Dr. Noah 
Webster besides those mentioned above are 
the following: "Sketches of American 
Policy," " Winthrop's Journal," " A Brief 
History of Epidemics," " Rights of Neutral 
Nations in time of War," "A Philosophical 
and Practical Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage," "Dissertations on the English 
Language," "A Collection of Essays," 
"The Revolution in France," "Political 
Progress of Britain," "Origin, History, and 
Connection of the Languages of Western 
Asia and of Europe ," and many others. 

great anti-slavery pioneer and leader, 
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
December 12, 1804. He was apprenticed 
to the printing business, and in 1828 was in- 
duced to take charge of the "Journal of the 
Times" at Bennington, Vermont. While 
supporting John Quincy Adams for the presi- 
dency he took occasion in that paper to give 
expression of his views on slavery. These 
articles attracted notice, and a Quaker 
named Lundy, editor of the "Genius of 
Emancipation," published in Baltimore, in- 
duced him to enter a partnership with him 
for the conduct of his paper. It soon 
transpired that the views of the partners 
were not in harmony, Lundy favoring grad- 
ual emancipation, while Garrison favored 

immediate freedom. In 1850 Mr. Garrison 
was thrown into prison for libel, not being 
able to pay a fine of fifty dollars and costs. 
In his cell he wrote a number of poems 
which stirred the entire north, and a mer- 
chant, Mr. Tappan, of New York, paid his 
fine and liberated him, after seven weeks of 
confinement. He at once began a lecture 
tour of the northern cities, denouncing 
slavery as a sin before God, and demanding 
its immediate abolition in the name of re- 
ligion and humanity. He opposed the col- 
onization scheme of President Monroe and 
other leaders, and declared the right of 
every slave to immediate freedom. 

In 1 83 1 he formed a partnership with 
Isaac Knapp, and began the publication of 
the " Liberator " at Boston. The " imme- 
diate abolition " idea began to gather power 
in the north, while the south became 
alarmed at the bold utterance of this jour- 
nal. The mayor of Boston was besought 
by southern influence to interfere, and upon 
investigation, reported upon the insignifi- 
cance, obscurity, and poverty of the editor 
and his staff, which report was widely 
published throughout the country. Re- 
wards were offered by the southern states 
for his arrest and conviction. Later Garri- 
son brought from England, where an eman- 
cipation measure had just been passed, 
some of the great advocates to work for the 
cause in this country. In 1835 a mob 
broke into his office, broke up a meeting of 
women, dragged Garrison through the street 
with a rope around his body, and his life 
was saved only by the interference of the 
police, who lodged him in jail. Garrison 
declined to sit in the World's Anti-Slaverv 
convention at London in 1840, because 
that body had refused women representa- 
tion. He opposed the formation of a po- 
litical party with emancipation as its basis. 



He favored a dissolution of the union, and 
declared the constitution which bound the 
free states to the slave states " A covenant 
with death and an agreement with hell." 
In I S43 he became president of the Amer- 
ican Anti-Slavery society, which position he 
held until 1S65, when slavery was no more. 
During all this time the " Liberator " had 
continued to promulgate anti-slavery doc- 
trines, but in 1865 Garrison resigned his 
position, and declared his work was com- 
pleted. He died May 24, 1879. 

JOHN BROWN ;"Brown of Ossawato- 
mie"), .a noted character in American 
history, wasbornatTorrington, Connecticut, 
May 9, 1800. In his childhood he removed 
to Ohio, where he learned the tanner's 
trade. He married there, and in 1S55 set- 
tled in Kansas. He lived at the village of 
Ossawatomie in that state, and there began 
his fight against slavery. He advocated im- 
mediate emancipation, and held that the 
negroes of the slave states merely waited 
for a leader in an insurrection that would re- 
sult in their freedom. He attended the 
convention called at Chatham, Canada, in 
1859, and was the leading spirit in organiz- 
ing a raid upon the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plans were 
well laid, and carried out in great secrecy. 
He rented a farm house near Harper's Ferry 
in the summer of 1859, and on October 
1 6th of that year, with about twenty follow- 
ers, he surprised and captured the United 
States arsenal, with all its supplies and 
arms. To his surprise, the negroes did not 
come to his support, and the next day he 
was attacked by the Virginia state militia, 
wounded and captured. He was tried in 
the courts of the state, convicted, and was 
hanged at Charlestown, December 2, 1S59. 
The raid and its results had a tremendous 

effect, and hastened the culmination of the 
troubles between the north and south. The 
south had the advantage in discussing this 
event, claiming that the sentiment which 
inspired this act of violence was shared by 
the anti-slavery element of the country. 

EDWIN BOOTH had no peer upon the 
American stage during his long career 
as a star actor. He was the son of a famous 
actor, Junius Brutus Booth, and was born 
in 1833 at his father's home at Belair, near 
Baltimore. At the age of sixteen he made his 
first appearance on the stage, at the Boston 
Museum, in a minor part in "Richard III." 
It was while playing in California in 1 851 
that an eminent critic called general atten- 
tion to the young actor's unusual talent. 
However, it was not until 1S63, at the great 
Shakspearian revival at the Winter Garden 
Theatre, New York, that the brilliancy of 
his career began. His Hamlet held the 
boards for 100 nights in succession, and 
from that time forth Booth's reputation was 
established. In 1868 he opened his own 
theatre (Booth's Theater) in New York. 
Mr. Booth never succeeded as a manager, 
however, but as an actor he was undoubted- 
ly the most popular man on the American 
stage, and perhaps the most eminent one in 
the world. In England he also won the 
greatest applause. 

Mr. Booth's work was confined mostly 
to Shakspearean roles, and his art was 
characterized by intellectual acuteness, 
fervor, and poetic feeling. His Hamlet, 
Richard II, Richard III, and Richelieu gave 
play to his greatest powers. In 1865, 
when his brother, John Wilkes Booth, 
enacted his great crime, Edwin Booth re- 
solved to retire from the stage, but waspur- 
suaded to reconsider that decision. The 
odium did not in any way attach to the 


great actor, and his popularity was not 
affected. In all his work Mr. Booth clung 
closely to the legitimate and the traditional 
in drama, making no experiments, and offer- 
ing little encouragement to new dramatic 
authors. His death occurred in New York, 
June 7, 1894. 

JOSEPH HOOKER, a noted American 
officer, was born at Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, November 13, 18 14. He graduated 
from West Point Military Academy in 1S37, 
and was appointed lieutenant of artillery. 
He served in Florida in the Seminole war, 
and in garrison until the outbreak of the 
Mexican war. During the latter he saw 
service as a staff officer and was breveted 
captain, major and lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Monterey, National Bridge and 
Chapultepec. Resigning his commission in 
1833 he took up farming in California, which 
he followed until 1861. During this time 
he acted as superintendent of military roads 
in Oreeon. At the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion Hooker tendered his services to the 
government, and, May 17, 1S61, was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
served in the defence of Washington and on 
the lower Potomac until his appointment to 
the command of a division in the Third 
Corps, in March, 1862. For gallant con- 
duct at the siege of Yorktown and in the 
battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Fra- 
zier's Farm and Malvern Hill he was made 
major-general. At the head of his division 
he participated in the battles of Manassas 
and Chantillv. September 6. 1S62, he was 
placed at the head of the First Corps, and 
in the battles of South Mountain and An- 
tietam acted with his usual gallantry, being 
wounded in the latter engagement. On re- 
joining the army in November he was made 
brigadier-general in the regular army. On 

General Burnside attaining the command of 
the Army of the Potomac General Hooker 
was placed in command of the center grand 
division, consisting of the Second and Fifth 
Corps. At the head of these gallant men 
he participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1862. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, General Hooker assumed com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, and in 
May following fought the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville. At the time of the invasion of 
Pennsylvania, owing to a dispute with Gen- 
eral Halleck, Hooker requested to be re- 
lieved of his command, and June 28 was 
succeeded by George G. Meade. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, General Hooker was given 
command of the Twentieth Corps and trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and 
distinguished himself at the battles of Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ring- 
gold. In the Atlanta campaign he saw 
almost daily service and merited his well- 
known nickname of "Fighting Joe." July 
30, 1 S64, at his own request, he was re- 
lieved of his command. He subsequently 
was in command of several military depart- 
ments in the north, and in October, 1868, 
was retired with the full rank of major-gen- 
eral. He died October 31, 1879. 

JAY GOULD, one of the greatest finan- 
ciers that the world has ever produced, 
was born May 27, 1S36, at Roxbury, Dela- 
ware county, New York. He spent his early 
years on his father's farm and at the age of 
fourteen entered Hobart Academy, New 
York, and kept books for the village black- 
smith. He acquired a taste for mathematics 
and surveying and on leaving school found 
employment in making the surveyor's map 
of Ulster county. He surveyed very exten- 
sively in the state and accumulated five thou- 
sand dollars as the fruits of his !s.bor. He 


was then stricken with typhoid fever but re- 
covered and m^ae the acquaintance of one 
Zadock Pratt, who sent him into the west- 
ern part of the state to locate a site for a 
tannery. He chose a fine hemlock grove, 
built a sawmill and blacksmith shop and 
was soon doing a large lumber business with 
Mr. Pratt. Mr. Gould soon secured control 
of the entire plant, which he sold out just 
before the panic of 1S57 and in this year he 
became the largest stock holder in the Strouds- 
burg, Pennsylvania, bank. Shortly after the 
crisis he bought the bonds of the Rutland 
& Washington Railroad at ten cents on the 
dollar, and put all his money into railroad 
securities. For a long time he conducted 
this road which he consolidated with the 
Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad. In 1S59 
he removed to New York and became a 
heavy investor in Erie Railroad stocks, en- 
tered that company and was president until 
its reorganization in 1872. In December, 
1880, Mr. Gould was in control of ten thou- 
sand miles of railroad. In 1887 he pur- 
chased the controlling interest in the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co., and 
was a joint owner with the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railroad Co. of the western 
portion of the Southern Pacific line. Other 
lines soon came under his control, aggregat- 
ing thousand of miles, and he soon was rec- 
ognized as one of the world's greatest rail- 
road magnates. He continued to hold his 
place as one of the master financiers of the 
century until the time of his death which 
occurred December 2, 1892. 

prominent United States senator and 
statesman, was born at Hillsborough, North 
Carolina, March 14, 1782. He removed to 
Tennessee in early life, studied law, and be- 
gan to practice at Nashville about 1S10. 

During the war of 1S12-1S15 he served as 
colonel of a Tennessee regiment under Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson. In 1S15 he removed 
to St. Louis, Missouri, and in 1820 was 
chosen United States senator for that state. 
Having been re-elected in 1826, he sup- 
ported President Jackson in his opposition 
to the United States bank and advocated a 
gold and silver currency, thus gaining the 
name of " Old Bullion," by which he was 
familiarly known. For many years he was 
the most prominent man in Missouri, and 
took rank among the greatest statesmen of 
his day. He was a member of the senate 
for thirty years and opposed the extreme 
states' rights policy of John C. Calhoun. 
In 1S52 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in which he opposed the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise. He was op- 
p ,sed by a powerful party of States' Rights 
Democrats in Missouri, who defeated him as a 
candidate for governor of that state in 1856. 
Colonel Benton published a considerable 
work in two volumes in 1854-56, entitled 
" Thirty Years' View, or a History of the 
Working of the American Government for 
Thirty Years, 1S20-50." He died April 10, 

of the most prominent figures in politic- 
al circles during the intensely exciting days 
that preceded the war, and a leader of the 
Union branch of the Democratic party was 
the gentleman whose name heads this 

He was born at Brandon, Rutland coun- 
ty, Vermont, April 23, 1S15, of poor but 
respectable parentage. His father, a prac- 
ticing physician, died while our subject was 
but an infant, and his mother, with two 
small children and but small means, could 
give him but the rudiments of an education. 


At the age of fifteen young Douglas engaged 
at work in the cabinei making business to 
raise fimds to carry him through college. 
After a few years of labor he was enabled to 
pursue an academical course, first at Bran- 
don, and later at Canandaigua, New York. 
In the latter place he remained until 1S33, 
taking up the study of law. Before he was 
twenty, however, his iunas running low, he 
abandoned all further attempts at educa- 
tion, determining to enter at once the battle 
of life. After some wanderings tnrough the 
western states he tooK up his residence at 
Jacksonville, Illinois, where, after teaching 
school for three months, he was admitted to 
the bar, and opened an office in 1S34. 
Within a year from that time, so rapidly had 
he risen in his profession, he was chosen 
attorney general of the state, and warmly 
espoused the principles of the Democratic 
party. He soon became one of the most 
popular orators in Illinois. It was at this 
time he gained the name of the "Little 
Giant." In 1835 he resigned the position 
of attorney general having been elected to 
the legislature. In 1 841 he was chosen 
judge of the supreme 'court of Illinois which 
he resigned two years later to take a seat in 
congress. It was during this period of his 
life, while a member of the lower house, 
that he established his reputation and took 
the side of those who contended that con- 
gress had no constitutional right to restrict 
the extension of slavery further than the 
agreement between the states made in 1820. 
This, in spite of his being opposed to slav- 
ery, and only on grounds which he believed 
to be right, favored what was called the 
Missouri compromise. In 1S47 ^ r - Doug- 
las was chosen United States senator for 
six years, and greatly distinguished himself. 
In 1852 he was re-eiected to the same office. 
During this latter term, under his leader- 

ship, the " Kansas-Nebraska bill " was car- 
ried in the senate. In 1858, nothwith- 
standing the fierce contest made by his able 
competitor for the position, Abraham Lin- 
coln, and with the administration of Bu- 
chanan arrayed against him, Mr. Douglas 
was re-elected senator. After the trouble 
in the Charleston convention, when by the 
withdrawal of several state delegates with- 
out a nomination, the Union Democrats, 
in convention at Baltimore, in 1860, nomi- 
nated Mr. Douglas as their candidate for 
presidency. The results of this election are 
well' known and the great events of 1861 
coming on, Mr. Douglas was spared their 
full development, dying at Chicago, Illinois. 
June 3, 1 86 1, after a short illness. His 
last words to his children were, " to obey 
the laws and support the constitution of the 
United States." 

JAMES MONROE, fifth president of the 
United States, was born in Westmore- 
land county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. At 
the age of sixteen he entered William and 
Mary College, but two years later the 
Declaration of Independence having been 
adopted, he left college and hastened to New 
York where he joined Washington's army as 
a military cadet. 

At the battle of Trenton Monroe per- 
formed gallant service and received a wound 
in the shoulder, and was promoted to a 
captaincy. He acted as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling at the battles of Brandy wine, German- 
town and Monmouth. Washington then 
sent him to Virginia to raise a new regimen: 
of which he was to be colonel. The ex- 
hausted condition of Virginia made this im 
possible, but he received his commission. 
He next entered the law office of Thomas 
Jefferson to study law, as there was no open- 
ing for him as an officer in the army, in 



1782 he was elected to the Virginia assem- 
bly, and the next year he was elected to the 
Continental congress. Realizing the inade- 
quacy of the old articles of confederation, 
he advocated the calling of a convention to 
consider their revision, and introduced in 
congress a resolution empowering congress 
to regulate trade, lay import duties, etc. 
This resolution was referred to a committee, 
of which he was chairman, and the report 
led to the Annapolis convention, which 
called a general convention to meet at Phila- 
delphia in 17S7, when the constitution was 
drafted. Mr. Monroe began the practice of 
law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and was 
soon after "'-cted to the legislature, and ap- 
pointed as one of the committee to pass 
upon the adoption of the constitution. He 
opposed it, as giving too much power to the 
central government. He was elected to the 
United States senate in 17S9, where he 
allied himself with the Anti-Federalists or 
"Republicans," as they were sometimes 
called. Although his views as to neutrality 
between France and England were directly 
opposed to those of the president, yet Wash- 
ington appointed him minister to France. 
His popularity in France was so great that 
the antagonism of England and her friends 
in this country- brought about his recall. He 
then became governor of Virginia. He was 
sent as envoy to France in 1S02; minister 
to England in 1803; and envoy to Spain in 
1805. The next year he returned to his 
estate in Virginia, and with an ample in- 
heritance enjoyed a few years of repose. He 
was again called to be governor of Virginia, 
and was then appointed secretary of state 
by President Madison. The war with Eng- 
land soon resulted, and when the capital 
was burned by the British, Mr. Monroe be- 
came secretary of war also, and planned the 
measures for the defense of New Orleans. 

The treasury being exhausted and credit 
gone, he pledged his own estate, and thereby 
made possible the victory of Jackson at New 

In 1 S 1 7 Mr. Monroe became president 
of the United States, having been a candi- 
date of the "Republican" party, which at 
that time had begun to be called the ' ' Demo- 
cratic" party. In 1820 he was re-elected, 
having two hundred and thirty-one electoral 
votes out of two hundred and thirty-two. 
His administration is known as the "Era of 
good-feeling, " and party lines were almost 
wiped out. The slavery question began to 
assume importance at this time, and the 
Missouri Compromise was passed. The 
famous "Monroe Doctrine" originated in a 
great state paper of President Monroe upon 
the rumored interference of the Holy Alli- 
ance to prevent the formation of free repub- 
lics in South America. President Monroe 
acknowledged their independence, and pro- 
mulgated his great "Doctrine," which has 
been held in reverence since. Mr. Monroe's 
death occurred in New York on July 4, 1831. 

wizard of electrical science and whose 
name is synonymous with the subjugation 
of electricity to the service of man, was 
born in 1S47 at Milan, Ohio, and it was at 
Port Huron, Michigan, whither his parents 
had moved in 1854, that his self-education 
began — for he never attended school for 
more than two months. He eagerly de- 
voured every book he could lay his hands on 
and is said to have read through an encyclo- 
pedia without missing a word. At thirteen lie 
began his working life as a trainboy upon the 
Grand Trunk Railway between Port Huron 
and Detroit. Much of his time was now 
spent in Detroit, where he found increased 
facilities for reading at the public libraries. 



He was not content to be a newsboy, so he . 
got togetner three hundred pounds of type 
and started the issue of the " Grand Trunk 
Herald." It was only a small amateur 
weekly, printed on one side, the impression 
being made from the type by hand. Chemi- 
cal research was his next undertaking and 
a laboratory was added to his movable pub- 
lishing house, which, by the way, was an 
old freight car. One day, however, as he 
was experimenting with some phosphorus, 
it ignited and the irate conductor threw the 
young seeker after the truth, chemicals and 
all, from the train. His office and laboratory 
were then removed to the cellar of his fa- 
ther's house. As he grew to manhood he 
decided to become an operator. He won 
his opportunity by saving the life of a child, 
whose father was an old operator, and out of 
gratitude he gave Mr. Edison lessons in teleg- 
raphy. Five months later he was compe- 
tent to fill a position in the railroad office 
at Port Huron. Hence he peregrinated to 
Stratford, Ontario, and thence successively 
to Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati, Memphis, Louisville and Boston, 
gradually becoming an expert operator and 
gaining experience that enabled him to 
evolve many ingenious ideas for the im- 
provement of telegraphic appliances. At 
Memphis he constructed an automatic re- 
peater, which enabled Louisville and New- 
Orleans to communicate direct, and received 
nothing more than the thanks of his em- 
ployers. Mr. Edison came to New York in 
1S70 in search of an opening more suitable 
to his capabilities and ambitions. He hap- 
pened to be in the office of the Law- Gold 
Reporting Company when one of the in- 
struments got out of order, and even the 
inventor of the system could not make it 
work. Edison requested to be allowed to 
attempt the task, and in a few minutes he 

had overcome the difficulty and secured an 
advantageous engagement. For several 
) ears he had a contract with the Western 
Union and the Gold Stock companies, 
whereby he received a large salary, besides 
a special price for all telegraphic improve- 
ments he could suggest. Later, as the 
head of the Edison General Electric com- 
pany, with its numerous subordinate organ- 
izations and connections all over the civil- 
ized world, he became several times a 
millionaire. Mr. Edison invented the pho- 
nograph and kinetograph which bear his 
name, the carbon telephone, the tasimeter, 
and the duplex and quadruplex systems of 

JAMES LONGSTREET, one of the most 
conspicuous of the Confederate generals 
during the Civil war, was born in 1820, in 
South Carolina, but was early taken by his 
parents to Alabama where he grew to man- 
hood and received his early education. He 
graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1S42, entering the army as 
lieutenant and spent a few years in the fron- 
tier service. When the Mexican war broke 
out he was called to the front and partici- 
pated in all the principal battles of that war 
up to the storming of Chapultepec, where 
he received severe wounds. For gallant 
conduct at Contreras, Cherubusco, and Mo- 
lino del Rey he received the brevets of cap- 
tain and major. After the close of the 
Mexican war Longstreet served as adjutant 
and captain on frontier service in Texas un- 
til iS;S when he was transferred to the staff 
as paymaster with rank of major. In June, 
1 86 1, he resigned to join the Confederacy 
and immediately went to the front, com- 
manding a brigade at Bull Run the follow- 
ing month. Promoted to be major-general 
in 1862 he thereafter bore a conspicuous 


part and rendered valuable service to the 
Confederate cause. He participated in 
many of the most severe battles of the Civil 
war including Bull Run (first and second), 
Seven Pines, Gained Mill, Fraziers Farm, 
Malvern Hill, Antietam, Frederickburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, 
the Wilderness, Petersburg and most of the 
fighting about Richmond. 

When the war closed General Long- 
street accepted the result, renewed his alle- 
giance to the government, and thereafter 
labored earnestly to obliterate all traces of 
war and promote an era of good feeling be- 
tween all sections of the country. He took 
up his residence in New Orleans, and took 
an active interest and prominent part in 
public affairs, served as surveyor of that 
port for several years; was commissioner of 
engineers for Louisiana, served four years 
as school commissioner, etc. In 1875 he 
was appointed supervisor of internal revenue 
and settled in Georgia. After that time he 
served four years as United States minister 
to Turkey, and also for a number of years 
was United States marshal of Georgia, be- 
sides having held other important official 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, the second chief- 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739. 
He was a son of John Rutledge, who had 
left Ireland for America about five years 
prior to the birth of our subject, and a 
brother of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. John Rut- 
ledge received his legal education at the 
Temple, London, after which he returned 
to Charleston and soon won distinction at 
the bar. He was elected to the old Colonial 
congress in 1765 to protest against the 
" Stamp Act," and was a member of the 

South Carolina convention of 1774, am! of 
the Continental congress of that and the 
succeeding year. In 1776 he was chairman 
of the committee that draughted the con- 
stitution of his state, and was president of 
the congress of that state. He was not 
pleased with the state constitution, how- 
ever, and resigned. In 1779 he was again 
chosen governor of the state, and granted 
extraordinary powers, and he at once took 
the field to repel the British. He joined 
the army of General Gates in 1782, and the 
same year was elected to congress. He 
was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention which framed our present constitu- 
tion. In 1789 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the first supreme court of the 
United States. He resigned to accept the 
position of chief- justice of his own state. 
Upon the resignation of Judge Jay, he was 
appointed chief-justice of the United States 
in 1795. The appointment was never con- 
firmed, for, after presiding at one session, 
his mind became deranged, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Ellsworth. He died at 
Charleston, July 23, 1800. 

of the most noted literary men of his 
time. He was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, May 25, 1S03. He had a minister for 
an ancestor, either on the paternal or ma- 
ternal side, in every generation for eight 
generations back. His father, Rev. Will- 
iam Emerson, was a native of Concord, 
Massachusetts, born May 6, 1769, graduated 
at Harvard, in 17S9, became a Unitarian 
minister; was a fine writer and one of the 
best orators of his day; died in 181 1. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson was fitted for 
college at the public schools of Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1821, win- 
ning about this time several prizes for es- 



says. For five years he taught school in 
Boston; in 1826 was licensed to preach, and 
in 1829 was ordained as a colleague to Rev. 
Henry Ware of the Second Unitarian church 
in Boston. In 1S32 he resigned, making 
the announcement in a sermon of his un- 
willingness longer to administer the rite of 
..he Lord's Supper, after which he spent 
about a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he began his career as a lecturer before the 
Boston Mechanics Institute, his subject be- 
ing "Water." His early lectures on " Italy" 
and "Relation of Man to the Globe " also 
attracted considerable attention; as did also 
his biographical lectures on Michael Angelo, 
Milton, Luther, George Fox, and Edmund 
Burke. After that time he gave many 
courses of lectures in Boston and became 
one of the best known lecturers in America. 
But very few men have rendered such con- 
tinued service in this field. He lectured for 
forty successive seasons before the Salem, 
Massachusetts, Lyceum and also made re- 
peated lecturing tours in this country and in 
England. In 1835 Mr. Emerson took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts, 
where he continued to make his home until 
his death which occurred April 27, 1882. 

Mr. Emerson's literary work covered a 
wide scope. He wrote and published many 
works, essays and poems, which rank high 
among the works of American literary men. 
A few of the many which he produced are 
the following: "Nature;" "The Method 
of Nature;" " Man Thinking;" "The Dial;" 
"Essays;" "Poems;" "English Traits;" 
"The Conduct of Life;" "May-Day and 
other Poems " and " Society and Solitude;" 
besides many others. He was a prominent 
member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the American Philosophical 
Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and other kindred associations. 

the famous merchant princes of New- 
York, was born near the c\iy of Belfast, Ire- 
land, in 1803, and before he was eight years 
of age was left an orphan without any near 
relatives, save an aged grandfather. The 
grandfather being a pious Methodist wanted 
to make a minister of young Stewart, and 
accordingly put him in a school with that 
end in view and he graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, in Dublin. When scarcely twenty- 
years of age he came to New York. His 
first employment was that of a teacher, but 
accident soon made him a merchant. En- 
tering into business relations with an ex- 
perienced man of his acquaintance he soon 
found himself with the rent of a store on 
his hands and alone in a new enterprise. 
Mr. Stewart's business grew rapidly in all 
directions, but its founder had executive 
ability sufficient for any and all emergencies, 
and in time his house became one of the 
greatest mercantile establishments of mod- 
ern times, and the name of Stewart famous. 
Mr. Stewart's death occurred April 10, 

speaking of this noted American nov- 
elist, William Cullen Bryant said: " He 
wrote for mankind at large, hence it is that 
he has earned a fame wider than any Amer- 
ican author of modern times. The crea- 
tions of his genius shall survive through 
centuries to come, and only perish with our 
language." Another eminent writer (Pres- 
cott) said of Cooper: " In his productions 
every American must take an honest pride; 
for surely no one has succeeded like Cooper 
in the portraiture of American character, or 
has given such glowing and eminently truth- 
ful pictures of American scenery." 

James Fenimore Cooper was born Sep- 


tember 15, 1789, at Burlington, New Jer- 
sey, and was a son of Judge William Cooper. 
About a year after the birth of our subject 
the family removed to Otsego count)-, New 
York, and founded the town called " Coop- 
erstown." James Fenimore Cooper spent 
his childhood there and in 1802 entered 
Yale College, and four years later became a 
midshipman in the United States navy. In 
1 Si 1 he was married, quit the seafaring life, 
and began devoting more or less time to lit- 
erary pursuits. His first work was ' ' Pre- 
caution," a novel published in 18 19, and 
three years later he produced ' ' The Spy, a 
Tale of Neutral Ground," which met with 
great favor and was a universal success. 
This was followed by many other works, 
among which may be mentioned the follow- 
ing: " The Pioneers," "The Pilot," " Last 
of the Mohicans," "The Prairie," "The 
Red Rover," "The Manikins," "Home- 
ward Bound," "Home as Found," "History 
of the United States Navy," "The Path- 
finder," "Wing and Wing," "Afloat and 
Ashore," "The Chain-Bearer," "Oak- 
Openings," etc. J. Fenimore Cooper died 
at Cooperstown, New York, September 14, 

MARSHALL FIELD, one of the mer- 
chant princes of America, ranks among 
the most successful business men of the cen- 
tury. He was born in 1S35 at Conway, 
Massachusetts. He spent his early life on 
a farm and secured a fair education in the 
common schools, supplementing this with a 
course at the Conway Academy. His 
natural bent ran in the channels of commer- 
cial life, and at the age of seventeen he was 
given a position in a store at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Field remained there 
four years and removed to Chicago in 1856. 
He began his career in Chicago as a clerk 

in the wholesale dry goods house of Cooley, 
Wadsworth iS: Company, which later be- 
came Cooley. Farwell cS: Company, and still 
later John V. Farwell & Company. He 
remained with them four years and exhibit- 
ed marked ability, in recognition of which 
he was given a partnership. In 1865 Mr. 
Field and L. Z. Leiter, who was also a 
member of the firm, withdrew and formed 
the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter, the 
third partner being Potter Palmer, and they 
continued in business until 1867, when Mr. 
Palmer retired and the firm became Field, 
Leiter & Company. They ran under the 
latter name until 1SS1, when Mr. Leiter re- 
tired and the house has since continued un- 
der the name of Marshall Field & Company. 
The phenomenal success accredited to the 
house is largely due to the marked ability 
of Mr. Field, the house had become one of 
the foremost in the west, with an annua] 
sale of $S, 000, 000 in 1870. The total loss 
of the firm during the Chicago fire was 
$3,500,000 of which $2,500,000 was re- 
covered through the insurance companies. 
It rapidly recovered from the effects of this 
and to-day the annual sales amount to over 
$40,000,000. Mr. Field's real estate hold- 
ings amounted to $10,000,000. He was 
one of the heaviest subscribers to the Bap- 
tist University fund although he is a Presby- 
terian, and gave $1,000,000 for the endow- 
ment of the Field Columbian Museum — 
one of the greatest institutions of the kind 
in the world. 

EDGAR WILSON NYE, who won an im- 
mense popularity under the pen name 
of " Bill Nye," was one of the most eccen- 
tric humorists of his day. He was born Au- 
gust 25, 1 S 50, at Shirley, Piscataqua coun- 
tv, Maine, "at a very early age " as he ex- 

presses it. He took an academic course in 



River Falls, Wisconsin, from whence, after 
his graduation, he removed to Wyoming 
Territory. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1876. He began when 
quite young to contribute humorous sketches 
to the newspapers, became connected with 
various western journals and achieved a 
brilliant success as a humorist. Mr. Nye 
settled later in New York City where he 
devoted his time to writing funny articles for 
the big newspaper syndicates. He wrote for 
publication in book form the following : 
"Bill Nye and the Boomerang," "The 
Forty Liars," "Baled Hay," " Bill Nye's 
Blossom Rock," "Remarks," etc. His 
death occurred February 21, 1896, at Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina. 

the most celebrated American preach- 
ers, was born January 7, 1S32, and was the 
youngest of twelve children. He made his 
preliminary studies at the grammar school 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey. At the age 
of eighteen he joined the church and entered 
the University of the City of New York, and 
graduated in May, 1853. The exercises 
were held in Niblo's Garden and his speech 
aroused the audience to a high pitch of en- 
thusiasm. At the close of his college duties 
he imagined himself interested in the law 
and for three years studied law. Dr. Tal- 
mage then perceived his mistake and pre- 
pared himself for the ministry at the 
Reformed Dutch Church Theological Semi- 
nary at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Just 
after his ordination the young minister re- 
ceived two calls, one from Piermont, New 
York, and the other from Belleville, New 
Jersey. Dr. Talmage accepted the latter 
and for three years filled that charge, when 
he was called to Syracuse, New York. Here 
it was that his sermons first drew large 

crowds of people to his church, and from 
thence dates his popularity. Afterward he 
became the pastor of the Second Reformed 
Dutch church, of Philadelphia, remaining 
seven years, during which period he first 
entered upon the lecture platform and laid 
the foundation for his future reputation. At 
the end of this time he received three calls, 
one from Chicago, one from San Francisco, 
and one from the Central Presbyterian 
church of Brooklyn, which latter at that 
time consisted of only nineteen members 
with a congregation of about thirty-five. 
This church offered him a salary of seven 
thousand dollars and he accepted the call. 
He soon induced the trustees to sell the old 
church and build a new one. They did so 
and erected the Brooklyn Tabernacle, but 
it burned down shortly after it was finished. 
By prompt sympathy and general liberality 
a new church was built and formally opened 
in February, 1874. It contained seats for 
four thousand, six hundred and fifty, but if 
necessary seven thousand could be accom- 
modated. In October, 1878, his salary was 
raised from seven thousand dollars to twelve 
thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 18S9 
the second tabernacle was destroyed by fire. 
A third tabernacle was built and it was for- 
mally dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1891. 

JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, conceded as 
vJ being one of the greatest band leaders 
in the world, won his fame while leader of 
the United States Marine Band at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia. He was not 
originally a band player but was a violinist, 
and at the age of seventeen he was conduc- 
tor of an opera company, a profession which 
he followed for several years, until he was 
offered the leadership of the Marine Band 
at Washington, The proposition was re- 
pugnant to him at first but he accepted the 



offer and then ensued ten years of brilliant 
success with that organization. When he 
first took the Marine Band he began to 
gather the national airs of all the nations 
that have representatives in Washington, 
and compiled a comprehensive volume in- 
cluding nearly all the national songs of the 
different nations. He composed a number 
of marches, waltzes and two-steps, promi- 
nent among which are the "Washington 
Post," "Directorate," "King Cotton," 
"High School Cadets," "Belle of Chica- 
go," "Liberty Bell March," "Manhattan 
Beach," "On Parade March," " Thunderer 
March," "Gladiator March," " El Capitan 
March," etc. He became a very extensive 
composer of this class of music. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, sixth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, July u, 1767, 
the son of John Adams. At the age of 
eleven he was sent to school at Paris, and 
two years later to Leyden, where he entered 
that great university. He returned to the 
United States in 1785, and graduated from 
Harvard in 1788. He then studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1 791 . His 
practice brought no income the first two 
years, but he won distinction in literary 
fields, and was appointed minister to The 
Hague in 1794. He married in 1797, and 
went as minister to Berlin the same year, 
serving until 1S01, when Jefferson became 
president. He was elected to the senate in 
1S03 by the Federalists, but was condemned 
by that party for advocating the Embargo 
Act and other Anti-Federalist measures. He 
was appointed as professor of rhetoric at 
Harvard in 1S05, and in 1809 was sent as 
minister to Russia. He assisted in negotiat- 
ing the treaty of peace with England in 
1 8 14, and became minister to that power 

the next year. He served during Monroe's 
administration two terms as secretary of 
state, during which time party lines were 
obliterated, and in 1S24 four candidates for 
president appeared, all of. whom were iden- 
tified to some extent with the new '« Demo- 
cratic" party. Mr. Adams received 84 elec- 
toral votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41, and 
Clay 37. As no candidate had a majority 
of all votes, the election went to the house 
of representatives, which elected Mr. Adams. 
As Clay had thrown his influence to Mr. 
Adams, Clay became secretary of state, and 
this caused bitter feeling on the part of the 
Jackson Democrats, who were joined by 
Mr. Crawford and his following, and op- 
posed every measure of the administration. 
In the election of 1828 Jackson was elected 
over Mr. Adams by a great majority. 

Mr. Adams entered the lower house of 
congress in 1830, elected from the district 
in which he was born and continued to rep- 
resent it for seventeen years. He was 
known as " the old man eloquent," and his 
work in congress was independent of party. 
He opposed slavery extension and insisted 
upon presenting to congress, one at a time, 
the hundreds of petitions against the slave 
power. One of these petitions, presented in 
1842, was signed by forty-five citizens of 
Massachusetts, and prayed congress for a 
peaceful dissolution of the Union. His 
enemies seized upon this as an opportunity 
to crush their powerful foe, and in a caucus 
meeting determined upon his expulsion from 
congress. Finding they would not be able 
to command enough votes for this, they de- 
cided upon a course that would bring equal 
disgrace. They formulated a resolution to 
i that while he merited expulsion, 
the house would, in great mercy, substitute 
its severest censure. When it was read in the 
house the old man, then in his seventy-fifth 



year, arose and demanded that the first para- 
graph of the Declaration of Independence 
be read as his defense. It embraced the 
famous sentence, "that whenever any form 
of government becomes destructive to those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
etc., etc." After eleven days of hard fight- 
ing his opponents were defeated. On Febru- 
ary 21, 1S48, he rose to address the speaker 
on the Oregon question, when he suddenly 
fell from a stroke of paralysis. He died 
soon after in the rotunda of the capitol, 
where he had been conveyed by his col- 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY was one of the 
most famous women of America. She 
was born at South Adams, Massachusetts, 
February 15, 1820, the daughter of a 
Quaker. She received a good education 
and became a school teacher, following that 
profession for fifteen years in New York. 
Beginning with about 1852 she became the 
active leader of the woman's rights move- 
ment and won a wide reputation for her 
zeal and ability. She also distinguished 
herself for her zeal and eloquence in the 
temperance and anti-slavery causes, and 
became a conspicuous figure during the war. 
After the close of the war she gave most of 
her labors to the cause of woman's 

PHILIP D. ARMOUR, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the mercantile 
history of America, was born May 16, 1S32, 
on a farm at Stockbridge, Madison count}, 
New York, and received his early education 
in the common schools of that county. He 
was apprenticed to a farmer and worked 
faithfully and well, being very ambitious and 
desiring to start out for himself. At the 
age of twenty he secured a release from his 

indentures and set out overland for the 
gold fields of California. After a great 
deal of hard work he accumulated a little 
money and then came east and settled 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He went into 
the grain receiving and warehouse busi- 
ness and was fairly successful, and later on 
he formed a partnership with John Plankin- 
ton in the pork packing line, the style of the 
firm being Plankinton & Armour. Mr. Ar- 
mour made his first great "deal" in selling 
pork "short " on the New York market in 
the anticipation of the fall of the Confed- 
eracy, and Mr. Armour is said to have made 
through this deal a million dollars. He then 
established packing houses in Chicago and 
Kansas City, and in 1S75 he removed to 
Chicago. He increased his business by add- 
ing to it the shipment of dressed beef to 
the European markets, and many other lines 
of trade and manufacturing, and it rapidly 
assumed vast proportions, employing an 
arm} - of men in different lines of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Armour successfully conducted a 
great many speculative deals in pork and 
grain of immense proportions and also erected 
many large warehouses for the storage of 
grain. He became one of the representative 
business men of Chicago, where he became 
closely identified with all enterprises of a 
public nature, but his fame as a great busi- 
ness man extended to all parts of the world. 
He founded the "Armour Institute " at Chi- 
cago and also contributed largely to benevo- 
lent and charitable institutions. 

ROBERT FULTON.— Although Fulton 
is best known as the inventor of the 
first successful steamboat, yet his claims to 
distinction do not rest alone upon that, for 
he was an inventor along other lines, a 
painter and an author. He was born at 
Liule Britain, Lancaster county, Pennsyl 



vania, in 1765, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
At the age of seventeen he removed to Phila- 
delphia, and there and in New York en- 
gaged in miniature painting with success 
both from a pecuniar)- and artistic point of 
view. With the results of his labors he pur- 
chased a farm for the support of his mother. 
He went to London and studied under the 
great painter, Benjamin West, and all 
through life retained his fondness for art 
and gave evidence of much ability in that 
line. While in England he was brought in 
contact with the Duke of Bridgewater, the 
father of the English canal system; Lord 
Stanhope, an eminent mechanician, and 
James Watt, the inventor of the steam en- 
gine. Their influence turned his mind to its 
true field of labor, that of mechanical in- 
vention. Machines for flax spinning, 
marble sawing, rope making, and for remov- 
ing earth from excavations, are among his 
earliest ventures. His "Treatise on the 
Improvement of Canal Navigation," issued 
in 1796, and a series of essays on canals 
were soon followed by an English patent 
for canal improvements. In 1797 he went 
to Paris, where he resided until 1S06, and 
there invented a submarine torpedo boat for 
maritime defense, but which was rejected 
by the governments of France, England and 
the United States. In 1 S03 he offered to con- 
struct for the Emperor Napoleon a steam- 
boat that would assist in carrying out the 
plan of invading Great Britain then medi- 
tated by that great captain. In pursuance 
he constructed his first steamboat on the 
Seine, but it did not prove a full success 
and the idea was abandoned by the French 
government. By the aid of Livingston, 
then United States minister to France, 
Fulton purchased, in 1S06. an engine which 
he brought to this country. After studying 
the defects of his own and other attempts in 

this line he built and launched in 1S07 the 
Clermont, the first successful steamboat. 
This craft only attained a speed of five 
miles an hour while going up North river. 
His first patent not fully covering his in- 
vention, Fulton was engaged in many law 
suits for infringement. He constructed 
many steamboats, ferryboats, etc., among 
these being the United States steamer 
" Fulton the First," built in 1S14, the first 
war steamer ever built. This craft never 
attained any great speed owing to some de- 
fects in construction and accidentally blew 
up in 1S29. Fulton died in New York, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1S15. 

chief-justice of the United States, and 
one of the most eminent of American jurists, 
was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, Jan- 
uary 15, 1808. At the age of nine he was 
left in poverty by the death of his father, 
but means were found to educate him. He 
was sent to his uncle, a bishop, who con- 
ducted an academy near Columbus, Ohio, 
and here young Chase worked on the farm 
and attended school. At the age of fifteen 
he returned to his native state and entered 
Dartmouth College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1 S26. He then went to Washington, 
and engaged in teaching school, and study- 
ing law under the instruction of William 
Wirt. He was licensed to practice in 1829, 
and went to Cincinnati, where he had a 
hard struggle for several years following 
He had in the meantime prepared notes on 
the statutes of Ohio, which, when published, 
brought him into prominence locally. He 
was soon after appointed solicitor of the 
United States Bank. In 1837 he appeared 
1 for a fugitive slave woman. Ma- 
tilda, and sought by all the powers of his 
learning and eloquence to prevent her owner 


from reclaiming her. He acted in many 
other cases, and devolved the trite expres- 
sion, "Slavery is sectional, freedom is na- 
tional." He was employed to defend Van 
Zandt before the supreme court of the United 
States in 1846, which was one of the most 
noted cases connected with the great strug- 
gle against slavery. By this time Mr. Chase 
had become the recognized leader of that 
element known as " free-soilers." He was 
elected to the United States senate in 1S49, 
and was chosen governor of Ohio in 1855 
and re-elected in 1857. He was chosen to 
the United States senate from Ohio in 1861, 
but was made secretary of the treasury by 
Lincoln and accepted. He inaugurated a 
financial system to replenish the exhausted 
treasury and meet the demands of the great- 
est war in history and at the same time to 
revive the industries of the country. One 
of the measures which afterward called for 
his judicial attention was the issuance of 
currency notes which were made a legal 
tender in payment of debts. When this 
question came before him as chief-justice 
of the United States he reversed his former 
action and declared the measure unconstitu- 
tional. The national banking system, by 
which all notes issued were to be based on . 
funded government bonds of equal or greater 
amounts, had its direct origin with Mr. Chase. 
Mr. Chase resigned the treasury port- 
folio in 1864, and was appointed the same j 
year as chief-justice of the United States 1 
supreme court. The great questions that 
came up before him at this crisis in the life 
of the nation were no less than those which 
confronted the first chief-justice at the for- 
mation of our government. Reconstruction, 
private, state and national interests, the 
constitutionality ot the acts of congress 
nasspH in tinaes of great excitement, the 
construction and interpretation to be placed | 

upon the several amendments to the national 
constitution, — these were among the vital 
questions requiring prompt decision. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1870, which 
impaired his health, though his mental 
powers were not affected. He continued to 
preside at the opening terms for two years 
following and died May 7, 1S73. 

STOWE, a celebrated American writ- 
er, was born June 14, 1S12, at Litchfield, 
Connecticut. She was a daughter of Lyman 
Beecher and a sister of Henry Ward Beecher, 
two noted divines; was carefully educated, 
and taught school for several years at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. In 1832 Miss Beecher 
married Professor Stowe, then of Lane Semi- 
nary, Cincinnati, Ohio, and afterwards at 
Bowdoin College and Andover Seminary. 
Mrs. Stowe published in 1S49 "The May- 
flower, or sketches of the descendants of the 
Pilgrims," and in 1851 commenced in the 
' ' National Era " of Washington, a serial story 
which was published separately in 1852 under 
the title of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." This 
book attained almost unparalleled success 
both at home and abroad, and within ten years 
it had been translated in almost every lan- 
guage of the civilized world. Mrs. Stowe pub- 
lished in 1853 a "Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
in which the data that she used was published 
and its truthfulness was corroborated. In 
1853 she accompanied her husband and 
brother to Europe, and on ner return puo- 
|ished "Sunny .Memories of Foreign Lands " 
in 1354. Mrs. Stowe was for some time 
one ot the editors of the " Atlantic Monthly " 
and the " Hearth and Home," for which 
she had written a number of articles. 
Among these, also published separately, are 
• ' Dred, a tale of the Great Dismal Swamp " 
(later published under the title of " Nina 



Gordon"); "The Minister's Wooing;" "The 
Pearl of Orr's Island;" "Agnes of Sorrento;" 
"Oldtown Folks;" "My Wife and I;" "Bible 
Heroines," and "A Dog's Mission." Mrs. 
Stowe's death occurred July I, 1S96, at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

ter known as "Stonewall" Jackson, 
was one of the most noted of the Confeder- 
ate generals of the Civil war. He was a 
soldier by nature, an incomparable lieuten- 
ant, sure to execute any operation entrusted 
to him with marvellous precision, judgment 
and courage, and all his individual cam- 
paigns and combats bore the stamp of a 
masterly capacity for war. He was born 
January 21, 1S24, at Clarksburg, Harrison 
county, West Virginia. He was early in 
life imbued with the desire to be a soldier 
and it is said walked from the mountains of 
Virginia to Washington, secured the aid of 
his congressman, and was appointed cadet 
at the United States Military Academy at 
West Point from which he was graduated in 

1846. Attached to the army as brevet sec- 
ond lieutenant of the First Artillery, his first 
service was as a subaltern with Magruder's 
battery of light artillery in the Mexican war. 
He participated at the reduction of Vera 
Cruz, and was noticed for gallantry in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Moline 
del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of 
the city of Mexico, receiving the brevets of 
captain for conduct at Contreras and Cher- 
ubusco and of major at Chapultepec. In 
the meantime he had been advanced by 
regular promotion to be first lieutenant in 

1847. In 1852, the war having closed, he 
resigned and became professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy and artillery 
instructor at the Virginia State Military 
Institute at Lexington, Virginia, where he 

remained until Virginia declared for seces- 
sion, he becoming chiefly noted for intense 
religious sentiment coupled with personal 
eccentricities. Upon the breaking out nf 
the war he was made colonel and placed in 
command of a force sent to sieze Harper's 
Ferry, which he accomplished May 3, 1S61. 
Relieved by General J. E. Johnston, May 
23, he took command of the brigade of 
Valley Virginians, whom he moulded into 
that brave corps, baptized at the first 
Manassas, and ever after famous as the 
" Stonewall Brigade." After this "Stone- 
wall " Jackson was made a major-general, 
in 1S61, and participated until his death in 
all the famous campaigns about Richmond 
and in Virginia, and was a conspicuous fig- 
ure in the memorable battles of that time. 
May 2, 1S63, at Chancellorsville, he was 
wounded severely by his own troops, two 
balls shattering his left arm and another 
passing through the palm of his right hand. 
The left arm was amputated, but pneumonia 
intervened, and, weakened by the great loss 
of blood, he died May 10, 1863. The more 
his operations in the Shenandoah valley in 
1S62 are studied the more striking must the 
merits of this great soldier appear. 

Near to the heart of the people of the 
Anglo-Saxon race will ever lie the verses of 
this, the "Quaker Poet." The author of 
"Barclay of Ury," "Maud Muller" and 
"Barbara Frietchie," always pure, fervid 
and direct, will be remembered when many 
a more ambitious writer has been forgotten. 
John G. Whittier was born at Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 7, 1807. of 
Quaker parentage. He had but a common- 
school education and passed his boyhood 
days upon a farm. In early life he learned 
the trade of shoemaker. At the age of 



eighteen he began to write verses for the 
Haverhill " Gazette." He spent two years 
after that at the Haverhill academy, after 
which, in 1829, he became editor of the 
"American Manufacturer," at Boston. In 
1830 he succeeded George D. Prentice as 
editor of the "New England Weekly Re- 
view," but the following year returned to 
Haverhill and engaged in farming. In 1S32 
and in 1836 he edited the "Gazette." In 
1835 he was elected a member of the legis- 
lature, serving two years. In 1836 he became 
secretary of the Anti-slavery Society of Phil- 
adelphia. In 1338 and 1S39 he edited the 
" Pennsylvania Freeman," but in the latter 
year the office was sacked and burned by a 
mob. In 1840 Whittier settled at Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts. In 1847 he became 
corresponding editor of the "National Era," 
an anti-slavery paper published at Washing- 
ton, and contributed to its columns many of 
his anti-slavery and other favorite lyrics. 
Mr. Whittier lived for many years in retire- 
ment of Quaker simplicity, publishing several 
volumes of poetry which have raised him to 
a high place among American authors and 
brought to him the love and admiration of 
his countrymen. In the electoral colleges 
of i860 and 1864 Whittier was a member. 
Much of his time after 18/6 was spent at 
Oak Knoll, Danvers, Massachusetts, but 
still retained his residence at Amesbury. 
He never married. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 7, 1892. 

The more prominent prose writings of 
John G. Whittier are as follows: "Legends 
of New England," " Justice and Expediency, 
or Slavery Considered with a View to Its Abo- 
lition," " The Stranger in Lowell," "Super- 
naturalism in New England," " Leaves from 
Margaret Smith's Journal," "Old Portraits 
and Modern Sketches" and " Literary 

DAVID DIXON PORTER, illustrious as 
admiral of the United States navy, and 
famous as one of the most able naval offi- 
cers of America, was born in Pennsylvania, 
June S, iS 14. His father was also a naval 
officer of distinction, who left the service of 
the United States to become commander of 
the naval forces of Mexico during the war 
between that country and Spain, and 
through this fact David Dixon Porter was 
appointed a midshipman in the Mexican 
navy. Two years later David D. Porter 
joined the United States navy as midship- 
man, rose in rank and eighteen years later 
as a lieutenant he is found actively engaged 
in all the operations of our navy along the 
east coast of Mexico. When the Civil war 
broke out Porter, then a commander, was 
dispatched in the Powhattan to the relief of 
Fort Pickens, Florida. This duty accom- 
plished, he fitted out a mortar flotilla for 
the reduction of the forts guarding the ap- 
proaches to New Orleans, which it was con- 
sidered of vital importance for the govern- 
ment to get possession of. After the fall of 
New Orleans the mortar flotilla was actively 
engaged at Vicksburg, and in the fall of 
1862 Porter was made a rear-admiral and 
placed in command of all the naval forces 
on the western rivers above New Orleans. 
The ability of the man was now con- 
spicuously manifested, not only in the bat- 
tles in which he was engaged, but also in 
the creation of a formidable fleet out of 
river steamboats, which he covered with 
such plating as they would bear. In 1864 
he was transferred to the Atlantic coast to 
command the naval forces destined to oper- 
ate against the defences of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and on Jan. 15, 1865, the 
fall of Fort Fisher was hailed by the country 
as a glorious termination of his arduous war 
service. In 1S66 he was made vice-admiral 



and appointed superintendent of the Naval 
Academy. On the death of Farragut, in 
1870, he succeeded that able man as ad- 
miral of the navy. His death occurred at 
Washington, February 13, 1891. 

NATHANIEL GREENE was one of the 
best known of the distinguished gen- 
erals who led the Continental soldiery 
against the hosts of Great Britain during 
the Revolutionary war. He was the son 
of Quaker parents, and was born at War- 
wick, Rhode Island, May 27, 1712. In 
youth he acquired a good education, chiefly 
by his own efforts, as he was a tireless 
reader. In 1770 he was elected a member 
of the Assembly of his native state. The 
news of the battle of Lexington stirred 
his blood, 'and he offered his services to 
the government of the colonies, receiving 
the rank of brigadier-general and the com- 
mand of the troops from Rhode Island. 
He led them to the camp at Cambridge, 
and for thus violating the tenets of their 
faith, he was cast out of the Society of 
Friends, or Quakers. He soon won the es- 
teem of General Washington. In August, 

1776, Congress promoted Greene to the 
rank of major-general, and in the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton he led a division. 
At the battle of Brandy wine, September 11, 

1777, he greatly distinguished himself, pro- 
tecting the retreat of the Continentals by 
his firm stand. At the battle of German- 
town, October 4, the same year, he com- 
manded the left wing of the army with 
credit. In March, 1778, he reluctantly ac- 
cepted the office of quartermaster-general, 
but only with the understanding that his 
rank in the army would not be affected and 
that in action he should retain his command. 
On the bloody field of Monmouth, June 28, 

1778, he commanded the right wing, as he 

did at the battle of Tiverton Heights. He 
was in command of the army in 1780, dur- 
ing the absence of Washington, and was 
president of the court-martial that tried and 
condemned Major Andre. After General 
Gates' defeat at Camden, North Carolina, in 
the summer of 1780, General Greene was ap- 
pointed to the command of the southernarmy. 
He sent out a force under General Morgan 
who defeated General Tarleton at Cowpens, 
January 17, 1781. On joining his lieuten- 
ant, in February, he found himself out num- 
bered by the British and retreated in good 
order to Virginia, but being reinforced re- 
turned to North Carolina where he fought 
the battle of Guilford, and a few days later 
compelled the retreat of Lord Cornwallis. 
The British were followed by Greene part 
of the way, when the American army 
marched into South Carolina. After vary- 
ing success he fought the battle of Eutaw 
Springs, September 8, 17S1. For the latter 
battle and its glorious consequences, which 
virtually closed the war in the Carolinas, 
Greene received a medal from Congress and 
many valuable grants of land from the 
colonies of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. On the return of peace, after a 
year spent in Rhode Island, General Greene 
took up his residence on his estate near 
Savannah, Georgia, where he died June 19, 
1786. __ 

EDGAR ALLEN POE.— Among the 
many great literary men whom this 
country has produced, there is perhaps no 
name more widely known than that of Ed- 
gar Allen Poe. He was born at Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 19, 1809. His 
parents were David and Elizabeth (Arnold) 
Poe, both actors, the mother said to have 
been the natural daughter of Benedict Ar- 
| nold. The parents died while Edgar was 


still a child and he was adopted by John 
Allen, a wealthy and influential resident of 
Richmond, Virginia. Edgar was sent to 
school at Stoke, Newington, England, 
where he remained until he was thirteen 
years old; was prepared for college by pri- 
vate tutors, and in 1826 entered the Virginia 
University at Charlottesville. He made 
rapid progress in his studies, and was dis- 
tinguished for his scholarship, but was ex- 
pelled within a year for gambling, after 
which for several years he resided with his 
benefactor at Richmond. He then went to 
Baltimore, and in 1829 published a 71 -page 
pamphlet called " Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane 
and Minor Poems," which, however, at- 
tracted no attention and contained nothing 
of particular merit. In 1830 he was ad- 
mitted as a cadet at West Point, but was 
expelled about a year later for irregulari- 
ties. Returning to the home of Mr. Allen 
he remained for some time, and finally 
quarrelled with his benefactor and enlisted 
as a private soldier in the U. S. army, but 
remained only a short time. Soon after 
this, in 1833, Poe won several prizes for 
literary work, and as a result secured the 
position of editor of the "Southern Liter- 
ary Messenger," at Richmond, Virginia. 
Here he married his cousin, Virginia 
Clemm, who clung to him with fond devo- 
tion through all the many trials that came 
to them until her death in January, 184S. 
Poe remained with the "Messenger" for 
several years, writing meanwhile many 
tales, reviews, essays and poems. He aft- 
erward earned a precarious living by his 
pen in New York for a time; in 1839 be- 
came editor of "Burton's Gentleman's 
Magazine" ; in 1840 to 1S42 was editor of 
" Graham's Magazine," and drifted around 
Irom one place to another, returning to 
New York in i8j.a. In 184 5 his best 

known production, "The Raven," appeared 
in the "Whig Review," and gained him a 
reputation which is now almost world-wide. 
He then acted as editor and contributor on 
various magazines and periodicals until the 
death of his faithful wife in 1848. In 'the 
summer of 1849 he was engaged to be mar- 
ried to a lady of fortune in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and the day set for the wedding. 
He started for New York to make prepara- 
tions for the event, but, it is said, began 
drinking, was attacked with dilirium tre- 
mens in Baltimore and was removed to a 
hospital, where he died, October 7, 1849. 
The works of Edgar Allen Poe have been 
repeatedly published since his death, both 
in Europe and America, and have attained 
an immense popularity. 

HORATIO GATES, one of the prom- 
inent figures in the American war for 
Independence, was not a native of the col- 
onies but was born in England in 1728. In 
early life he entered the British army and 
attained the rank of major. At the capture 
of Martinico he was aide to General Monk- 
ton and after the peace of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, he was among the first troops that 
landed at Halifax. He was with Braddock 
at his defeat in 1755. and was there severe- 
ly wounded. At the conclusion of the 
French and Indian war Gates purchased an 
estate in Virginia, and, resigning from the 
British army, settled down to life as a 
planter. On the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary war he entered the service of the 
colonies and was made adjutant-general of 
the Continental forces with the rank o| 
brigadier-general. He accompanied Wash- 
ington when he assumed the command ol 
the army. In June. 1776, he was appoint- 
ed to the command of the army of Canada, 
but was suoerseded in May of the following 



year by General Schuyler. In August, 
1777, however, the command of that army 
was restored to General Gates and Septem- 
ber 19 he fought the battle of Beinis 
Heights. October 7, the same year, he 
won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, 
and October 17 received the surrender of : 
General Burgoyne and his army, the pivotal 
point of the war. This gave him a brilliant ! 
reputation. June 13, 1780. General Gates I 
was appointed to the command ot the 
sou' hern military division, and August 16 of 
that year suffered defeat at the hands of 
Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, North Car- 
olina. In December following he was 
superseded in the command by General 
Nathaniel Greene. 

On the signing of the peace treaty Gen- 
eral Gates retired to his plantation in 
Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived 
until 1790, when, emancipating all his 
slaves, he removed to New York City, where 
he resided until his death, April 10, 1806. 

LYMAN J. GAGE.— When President Mc- 
Kinley selected Lyman J. Gage as sec- 
retary of the treasury he chose one of the 
most eminent financiers of the century. Mr. 
Gage was born June 28, 1836, at De Ruy- 
ter, Madison county. New York, and was of 
English descent. He went to Rome, New 
York, with his parents when he was ten 
years old, and received his early education 
in the Rome Academy. Mr. Gage gradu- 
ated from the same, and his first position 
was that of a clerk in the post office. When 
he was fifteen years of age he was detailed 
as mail agent on the Rome & Watertown 
R. R. until the postmaster-general appointed 
regular agents for the route. In 1 854, when 
he was in his eighteenth year, he entered 
the Oneida Central Bank at Rome as a 
junior clerk at a salary of one hundred dol- 

lars per year. Being unable at the end 01 
one year and a half's service to obtain an 
in saiary he determined to seek a 
wider field of labor. Mr. Gage set out in 
the fall of 1855 and arrived in Chicago, 
Illinois, on October 3, and soon obtained a 
situation in Nathan Cobb's lumber yard and 
planing mill. He remained there tin 
as a bookkeeper, teamster, etc., and left on 
account of change in the management. But 
not being able to find anything else to do he 
accepted the position of night watchman in 
the place for a period of six weeks. He 
then became a bookkeeper for the Mer- 
chants Saving, Loan and Trust Company at 
a salary of five hundred dollars per year. 
He rapidly advanced in the service of this 
company and in 1 868 he was made cashier. 
Mr. Gage was next offered the position of 
cashier of the First National Bank and ac- 
cepted the offer. He became the president 
of the First National Bank of Chicago Jan- 
uary 24, 1 89 1 , and in 1 897 he was appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Hi; ability as a 
financier and the prominent part ne took in 
the discussion of financial arV-rs while presi- 
dent of the great Chicago b' ;._•. ave him a 
national reputation. 

ANDREW JACKSON, the seventh pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
at the Waxhaw settlement, Union county, 
North Carolina, March 15, 1767. His 
parents were Scotch-Irish, natives of Carr- 
ickfergus, who came to this country in 1665 
and settled on Twelve-Mile creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His father, who 
was a poor farm laborer, died shortly be- 
fore Andrew's birth, when the mother re- 
moved to Waxhaw, where some relatives 
lived. Andrew's education was very limited, 
he showing no aptitude for study. In 1780 
when but thirteen years of age, he and his 


brother Robert volunteered to serve in the 
American partisan troops under General 
Sumter, and witnessed the defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. The following year the boys 
were both taken prisoners by the enemy 
and endured brutal treatment from the 
British officers while confined at Camden. 
They both took the small pox, when the 
mother procured their exchange but Robert 
died shortly after. The mother died in 
Charleston of ship fever, the same year. 

Young Jackson, now in destitute cir- 
cumstances, worked for about six months in 
a saddler's shop, and then turned school 
master, although but little fitted for the 
position. He now began to think of a pro- 
fession and at Salisbury, North Carolina, 
entered upon the study of law, but from all 
accounts gave but little attention to his 
books, being one of the most roistering, 
rollicking fellows in that town, indulging in 
many of the vices of his time. In 1786 he 
was admitted to the bar and in 17S8 re- 
moved to Nashville, then in North Carolina, 
with the appointment of public prosecutor, 
then an office of little honor or emolument, 
but requiring much nerve, for which young 
Jackson was already noted. Two years 
later, when Tennessee became a territory 
he was appointed by Washington to the 
position of United States attorney for that 
district. In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel 
Robards, a daughter of Colonel John Don- 
elson, who was supposed at the time to 
have been divorced from her former hus- 
band that year by act of legislature of Vir- 
ginia, but two years later, on finding that 
this divorce was not legal, and a new bill of 
separation being granted by the courts of 
Kentucky, they were remarried in 1793. 
This was used as a handle by his oppo- 
nents in the political campaign afterwards. 
Jackson was untiring in his efforts as United 

States attorney and obtained much influence. 
He was chosen a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1796, when Tennessee 
became a state and was its first represent- 
ative in congress. In 1797 he was chosen 
United States senator, but resigned the fol- 
lowing year to accept a seat on the supreme 
court of Tennessee which he held until 
1804. He was elected major-general of 
the militia of that state in 1S01. In 1804, 
being unsuccessful in obtaining the govern- 
orship of Louisiana, the new territory, he 
retired from public life to the Hermitage, 
his plantation. On the outbreak of the 
war with Great Britain in 1S12 he tendered 
his services to the government and went to 
New Orleans with the Tennessee troops in 
January, 1813. In March of that year he 
was ordered to disband his troops, but later 
marched against the Cherokee Indians, de- 
feating them at Talladega, Emuckfaw 
and Tallapoosa. Having now a national 
reputation, he was appointed major-general 
in the United States army and was sent 
against the British in Florida. He con- 
ducted the defence of Mobile and seized 
Pensacola. He then went with his troops 
to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained 
the famous victory of January S, 181 5. In 
1817-18 he conducted a war against the 
Seminoles, and in 1821 was made governor 
of the new territory of Florida. 1111823 
he was elected United States senator, but 
in [824 was the contestant with J. Q. Adams 
for the presidency. Four years later he. 
was elected president, and served two terms. 
In 1S32 he took vigorous action against the 
nullifiers of South Carolina, and the next 
year removed the public money from the 
United States bank. During his second 
term the national debt was extinguished. At 
the close of his administration he retired to 
the Hermitage, where he died June 8, [845 



ANDREW CARNEGIE, the largest manu- 
facturer of pig-iron, steel rails and 
coke in the world, well deserves a place 
among America's celebrated men. He was 
born November 25, 1S35, at Dunfermline, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States 
with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg. 
Two years later Mr. Carnegie began his 
business career by attending a small station- 
ary engine. This work did not suit him and 
he became a telegraph messenger with the 
Atlantic and Ohio Co., and later he became 
an operator, and was one of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound. Mr. Carnegie 
was afterward sent to the Pittsburg office 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., as clerk 
to the superintendent and manager of the 
telegraph lines. While in this position he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Woodruff, the 
inventor of the sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie 
immediately became interested and was one 
of the organizers of the company for its con- 
struction after the railroad had adopted it, 
and the success of this venture gave him the 
nucleus of his wealth. He was promoted 
to the superintendency of the Pittsburg 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
about this time was one of the syndicate 
that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek 
which cost forty thousand dollars and in one 
year it yielded over one million dollars in 
cash dividends. Mr. Carnegie later was as- 
sociated with others in establishing a rolling- 
mill, and from this has grown the most ex- 
tensive and complete system of iron and 
steel industries ever controlled by one indi- 
vidual, embracing the Edgar Thomson 
Steel Works; Pittsburg Bessemer Steel 
Works; Lucy Furnaces; Union Iron Mills; 
Union Mill; Keystone Bridge Works; Hart- 
man Steel Works; Frick Coke Co.; Scotia 
Ore Mines. Besides directing his immense 
iron industries he owned eighteen English 

newspapers which he ran in the interest or 
the Radicals. He has also devoted large 
sums of money to benevolent and educational 
purposes. In 1879 he erected commodious 
swimming baths for the people of Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, and in the following year 
gave forty thousand dollars for a free library. 
Mr. Carnegie gave fifty thousand dollars to 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1884 
to found what is now called "Carnegie Lab- 
oratory," and in 1885 gave five hundred 
thousand dollars to Pittsburg for a public 
library. He also gave two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for a music hall and library 
in Allegheny City in 1886, and two hundred 
and lift)- thousand dollars to Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, for a free library. He also established 
free libraries at Braddock, Pennsylvania, 
and other places for the benefit of his em- 
ployes. He also published the following 
works, "An American Four-in-hand in 
Britain;" "Round the World;" "Trium- 
phant Democracy; or Fifty Years' March of 
the Republic." 

GEORGE H. THOMAS, the " Rock of 
Chickamauga," one of the best known 
commanders during the late Civil war, was 
born in Southampton county, Virginia, July 
31, 1S16, his parents being of Welsh and 
French origin respectively. In 1836 young 
Thomas was appointed a cadet at the Mili- 
tary Academy, at West Point, from which 
he graduated in 1S40, and was promoted to 
the office of second lieutenant in the Third 
Artillery. Shortly after, with his company, 
he went to Florida, where he served for two 
years against the Seminole Indians. In 
1 84 1 he was brevetted first lieutenant for 
gallant conduct. He remained in garrison 
in the south and southwest until 1845, at 
I which date with the regiment he joined the 
I army under General Taylor, and participat- 



ed in the defense of Fort Brown, the storm- 
ing of Monterey and the battle of Buena 
Vista. After the latter event he remained 
in garrison, now brevetted major, until the 
close of the Mexican war. After a year 
spent in Florida, Captain Thomas was or- 
dered to West Point, where he served as in- 
structor until 1S54. He then was trans- 
ferred to California. In May, 1S55, Thom- 
as was appointed major of the Second Cav- 
alry, with whom he spent five years in Texas. 
Although a southern man, and surrounded 
by brother officers who all were afterwards 
; n the Confederate service, Major Thomas 
never swerved from his allegiance to the 
government. A. S. Johnston was the col- 
onel of the regiment, R. E. Lee the lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and W. J. Hardee, senior ma- 
jor, while among the younger officers were 
Hood, Fitz Hugh Lee, Van Dorn and Kirby 
Smith. When these officers left the regi- 
ment to take up arms for the Confederate 
cause he remained with it, and April 17th, 
1 86 1, crossed the Potomac into his native 
state, at its head. After taking an active part 
in the opening scenes of the war on the Poto- 
mac and Shenandoah, in August, 1861, he 
was promoted to be brigadier-general and 
transferred to the Army of the Cumberland. 
January 19-20, 1862, Thomas defeated 
Crittenden at Mill Springs, and this brought 
him into notice and laid the foundation of 
his fame. He continued in command of his 
division until September 20, 1862, except 
during the Corinth campaign when he com- 
manded the right wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee. He was in command of the 
latter at the battle of Perryville, also, Octo- 
ber 8, 1862. 

On the division of the Army of the Cum- 
berland into corps, January 9. 1863, Gen- 
eral Thomas was assigned to the command 
of the Fourteenth, and at the battle of Chick- 

amauga, after the retreat of Rosecrans, 
firmly held his own against the hosts of Gen- 
eral Bragg. A history of his services from 
that on would be a history of the war in the 
southwest. On September 27, 1864, Gen- 
eral Thomas was given command in Ten- 
nessee, and after organizing his army, de- 
feated General Hood in the battle of Nash- 
ville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Much 
complaint was made before this on account 
of what they termed Thomas' slowness, and 
he was about to be superseded because he 
would not strike until he got ready, but 
when the blow was struck General Grant 
was the first to place on record this vindica- 
tion of Thomas judgment. He received a 
vote of thanks from Congress, and from the 
legislature of Tennessee a gold medal. Af- 
ter the close of the war General Thomas 
had command of several of the military di- 
visions, and died at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, March 28, 1870. 

GEORGE BANCROFT, one of the most 
eminent American historians, was a 
native of Massachusetts, born at Worcester, 
October 3, 1S00, and a son of Aaron 
Bancroft, D. D. The father. Aaron Ban- 
croft, was born at Reading, Massachus'etts, 
November 10, 1755. He graduated at 
Harvard in 177S, became a minister, and for 
half a century was rated as one of the ablest 
preachers in New England. He was also a 
prolific writer and published a number of 
works among which was ' ' Life of George 
gton." Aaron Bancroft died August 

19. 1^39- 

The subject of our present biography, 
George Bancroft, graduated at Harvard in 
1 81 7, and the following year entered the 
University of Gottingen, where he studied 
history and philology under the most emi- 
nent teachers, and in 1820 received the de- 


gree of doctor of philosophy at Gottingen. 
Upon his return home he published a volume 
of poems, and later a translation of Heeren's 
"Reflections on the Politics of Ancient 
Greece." In 1834 he produced the first 
volume of his " History of the United 
States," this being followed by other vol- 
umes at different intervals later. This was 
his greatest work and ranks as the highest 
authority, taking its place among the great- 
est of American productions. 

George Bancroft was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Polk in 1845, but 
resigned in 1846 and became minister pleni- 
potentiary to England. In 1849 he retired 
from public life and took up his residence at 
Washington, D. C. In 1S67 he was ap- 
pointed United States minister to the court of 
Berlin and negotiated the treaty by which Ger- 
mans coming to the United States were re- 
leased from their allegiance to the govern- 
ment of their native land. In 1871 he was 
minister plenipotentiary to the German em- 
pire and served until 1874. The death of 
George Bancroft occurred January 17, 1S91. 

mous Union general, was born at 
Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 181 5, his father 
being United States naval agent at that 
port. After receiving a good education he 
entered the West Point Military Academy 
in 1 83 1. From here he was graduated 
June 30, 1835, and received the rank of 
second lieutenant of artillery. He par- 
ticipated in the Seminole war, but resigned 
from the army in October, 1836. He en- 
tered upon the profession of civil engineer, 
which he followed for several years, part of 
the time in the service of the government in 
making surveys of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river. His report and results of some 
experiments made by him in this service 

gained Meade much credit. He alsu was 
employed in surveying the boundary hue of 
Texas and the northeastern boundary line 
between the United States and Car.ada. 
In 1842 he was reappointed in the amy to 
the position of second lieutenant of engineers. 
During the Mexican war he served with dis- 
tinction on the staff of General Taylor in 
the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Pakna 
and the storming of Monterey. He received 
his brevet of first lieutenant for the latter 
action. In 1851 he was made full first 
lieutenant in his corps; a captain in 1856, 
and major soon after. At the close of the; 
war with Mexico he was employed in light- 
house construction and in geodetic surveys 
until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 
which he gained great reputation. In 
August, 1 861 , he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers and placed in command of the 
second brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
a division of the First Corps in the Army of 
the Potomac. In the campaign of 1862, 
under McClellan, Meade took an active 
part, being present at the battles of Mechan- 
icsville, Gaines' Mill and Glendale, in the 
latter of which he was severely wounded. 
On rejoining his command he was given a 
division and distinguished himself at its head 
in the battles of South- Mountain and Antie- 
tam. During the latter, on the wounding 
of General Hooker, Meade was placed in 
command of the corps and was himself 
s'ightly wounded. For services he was 
promoted, November, 1862, to the rank 
of major-general of volunteers. On the 
recovery of General Hooker General Meade 
returned to his division and in December. 
1862, at Fredericksburg, led an attack 
which penetrated Lee's right line and swept 
to his rear. Being outnumbered and un- 
supported, he finally was driven back. The 
same month Meade was assigned to the 


command of the Fifth Corps, and at Chan- 
cellorsville in May, 1863, his sagacity and 
ability so struck General Hooker that when 
the latter asked to be relieved of the com- 
mand, in June of the same year, he nomi- 
nated Meade as his successor. June 28, 
1863, President Lincoln commissioned Gen- 
eral Meade commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Potomac, then scattered and moving 
hastily through Pennsylvania to the great 
and decisive battlefield at Gettysburg, at 
which he was in full command. With the 
victory on those July days the name of 
Meade will ever be associated. From that 
time until the close of the war he com- 
manded the Army of the Potomac. In 
1864 General Grant, being placed at the 
head of all the armies, took up his quarters 
with the Army of the Potomac. From that 
time until the surrender of Lee at Appo- 
matox Meade's ability shone conspicuously, 
and his tact in the delicate position in lead- 
ing his army under the eye of his superior 
officer commanded the respect and esteem 
of General Grant. For services Meade was 
promoted to the rank of major-general, and 
on the close of hostilities, in July, 1865, 
was assigned to the command of the military 
division of the Atlantic, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia. This post he held, with 
the exception of a short period on detached 
duty in Georgia, until his death, which took 
place November 6, 1S72. 

DAVID CROCKETT was a noted hunter 
and scout, and also one of the earliest 
of American humorists. He was born Au- 
gust 17, 17S6, in Tennessee, and was one 
of the most prominent men of his locality, 
serving as representative in congress from 
1827 until 1 83 1. He attracted consider- 
able notice while a member of congress and 
was closely associated with General Jack- 

son, of whom he was a personal fiiend. He. 
went to Texas and enlisted in the Texan 
army at the time of the revolt of Texas 
against Mexico and gained a wide reputa- 
tion as a scout. He was one of the famous 
one hundred and forty men under Colonel 
W. B. Travis who were besieged in Fort 
Alamo, near San Antonio, Texas, by Gen- 
eral Santa Anna with some five thousand 
Mexicans on February 23, 1S36. The fort 
was defended for ten days, frequent assaults 
being repelled with great slaughter, over 
one thousand Mexicans being killed or 
wounded, while not a man in the fort was 
injured. Finally, on March 6, three as- 
saults were made, and in the hand-to-hand 
fight that followed the last, the Texans were 
wofully outnumbered and overpowered. 
They fought desperately with clubbed mus- 
kets till only six were left alive, including 
W. B. Travis, David Crockett and James 
Bowie. These surrendered under promise 
of protection; but when they were brought 
before Santa Anna he ordered them all to 
be cut to pieces. 

HENRY WATTERSON, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the history of 
American journalism, was born at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, February 16, 
1840. His boyhood days were mostly spent 
in the city of his birth, where his father, 
Harvey M. Watterson, was editor of the 
"Union," a well known journal. 

Owing to a weakness of the eyes, which 
interfered with a systematic course of study, 
young Watterson was educated almost en- 
tirely at home. A successful college career 
was out of the question, but he acquired a 
good knowledge of music, literature and art 
from private tutors, but the most valuable 
part of the training he received was bv as- 
sociating with his father and the throng 01 



public men whom he met in Washington 
in the stirring days immediate]} - preceding 
the Civil war. He began his journalistic 
career at an early age as dramatic and 
musical critic, and in 1858, became editor 
of the "Democratic Review" and at the 
same time contributed to the "States," 
a journal of liberal opinions published in 
Washington. In this he remained until 
the breaking out of the war, when the 
"States," opposing the administration, was 
suppressed, and young Watterson removed 
to Tennessee. He next appears as editor 
of the Nashville "Republican Banner," the 
most influential paper in the state at that 
time. After the occupation of Nashville by 
the Federal troops, Watterson served as a 
volunteer staff officer in the Confederate 
service until the close of the war, with the 
exception of a year spent in editing the 
Chattanooga "Rebel." On the close of 
the war he returned to Nashville and re- 
sumed his connection with the "Banner." 
After a trip to Europe he assumed control 
of the Louisville "Journal," which he soon 
combined with the "Courier" and the 
"Democrat" of that place, founding the 
well-known "Courier-Journal," the first 
number of which appeared November 8, 
1868. Mr. Watterson also represented his 
district in congress for several years. 

one of the most successful and widely 
known bandmasters and musicians of the 
last half century in America, was born in 
Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. 
He attended a public school until appren- 
ticed to a wholesale merchant at Athlone, 
of the brass band of which town he soon 
became a member. His passion for music 
conflicting with the duties of a mercantile 
life, his position as clerk was exchanged for 

that of musical instructor to the young: sons 
of his employer. At the age of nineteen he 
sailed for America and two days after his 
arrival in Boston was put in charge of the 
band instrument department of a prominent 
music hous^. In the interests of the pub- 
lications of this house he organized a minstrel 
company known as " Ordway's Eolians," 
with which he first achieved success as a 
cornet soloist. Later on he was called the 
best E-flat cornetist in the United States. 
He became leader, successively, of the Suf- 
folk, Boston Brigade and Salem bands. 
During his connection with the latter he 
inaugurated the famous Fourth of July con- 
certs on Boston Common, since adopted as 
a regular programme for the celebration of 
Independence Day. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore 
founded the organization famous thereafter 
as Gilmore's Band. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war this band was attached to the 
Twenty-Fourth .Massachusetts Infantry. 
Later, when the economical policy of dis- 
pensing with music had proved a mistake, 
Gilmore was entrusted with the re-organiza- 
tion of state military bands, and upon his 
arrival at New Orleans with his own band 
was made bandmaster-general by General 
Banks. On the inauguration of Governor 
Hahn, later on, in Lafayette square, New 
Orleans, ten thousand children, mostly of 
Confederate parents, rose to the baton of 
Gilmore and, accompanied by six hundred 
instruments, thirty-six guns and the united 
fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the 
Star-Spangled Banner, America and other 
patriotic Union airs. In June, 1867, Mr. 
Gilmore conceived a national musical festi- 
val, which was denounced as a chimerical 
undertaking, but he succeeded and June 15. 
1869, stepped upon the stage of the Boston 
Colosseum, a vast structure erected for the 
occasion, and in the presence of over fifty 



thousand people lifted his baton over an 
orchestra of one thousand and a chorus of 
ten thousand. On the 17th of June, 1872, 
he opened a still greater festival in Boston, 
when, in addition to an orchestra of two 
thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand, 
were present the Band of the Grenadier 
Guards, of London, of the Garde Repub- 
licaine, of Paris, of Kaiser Franz, of Berlin, 
and one from Dublin, Ireland, together with 
Johann Strauss, Franz Abt and many other 
soloists, vocal and instrumental. Gilmore's 
death occurred September 24, 1S92. 

MARTIN VAN BUREN was the eighth 
president of the United States, 1837 
to 1841. He was of Dutch extraction, and 
his ancestors were among the earliest set- 
tlers on the banks of the Hudson. He was 
born December 5, 17S2, at Kinderhook, 
New York. Mr. Van Buren took up the 
study of law at the age of fourteen and took 
an active part in political matters before he 
had attained his majority. He commenced 
the practice of law in 1803 at his native 
town, and in 1S09 he removed to Hudson, 
Columbia county, New York, where he 
spent seven years gaining strength and wis- 
dom from his contentions at the bar with 
some of the ablest men of the profession. 
Mr. Van Buren was elected to the state 
senate, and from 1S15 until 18 19 he was at- 
torney-general of the state. He was re- 
elected to the senate in 1S16, and in 1 Si 8 
he was one of the famous clique of politi- 
cians known as the "Albany regency." 
Mr. Van Buren was a member of the con- 
vention for the revision of the state consti- 
tution, in 1821. In the same year he was 
elected to the United States senate and 
served his term in a manner that caused his 
re-election to that body in 1827, but re- 
signed the following year as he had been 

elected governor of New York. Mr. Van 
Buren was appointed by President Jackson as 
secretary of state in March, 1829, but resigned 
in 1831, and during the recess of congress 
he was appointed minister to England. 
The senate, however, when it convened in 
December refused to ratify the appointment. 
In Ma)-, 1S32, he was nominated by the 
Democrats as their candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with Andrew Jackson, 
and he was elected in the following Novem- 
ber. He received the nomination to suc- 
ceed President Jackson in 1836, as the 
Democratic candidate, and in the electoral 
college he received one hundred and seventy 
votes out of two hundred and eighty-three, 
and was inaugurated March 4, 1S37. His 
administration was begun at a time of great 
business depression, and unparalled financial 
distress, which caused the suspension of 
specie payments by the banks. Nearly 
every bank in the country was forced to 
suspend specie payment, and no less than 
two hundred and fifty-four business houses 
failed in New York in one week. The 
President urged the adoption of the inde- 
pendent treasury idea, which passed through 
the senate twice but each time it was de- 
feated in the house. However the measure 
ultimately became a law near the close of 
President Van Buren's term of office. An- 
other important measure that was passed 
was the pre-emption law that gave the act- 
ual settlers preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery had 
begun to assume great preponderance dur- 
ing this administration, and a great conflict 
was tided over by the passage of a resolu- 
tion that prohibited petitions or papers that 
in any way related to slavery to be acted 
upon. In the Democratic convention of 
1840 President Van Buren secured the 
nomination for re-election on that ticket 



without opposition, but in the election he 
only received the votes of seven states, his 
opponent, W. H. Harrison, being elected 
president. In 1S4S Mr. Van Buren was 
the candidate of the " Free-Soilers," but 
was unsuccessful. After this he retired 
from public life and spent the remainder of 
his life on his estate at Kinderhook, where 
he died July 24, 1862. 

W INFIELD SCOTT, a distinguished 
American general, was born June 13, 
1786, near Petersburg, Dinwiddie county, 
Virginia, and was educated at the William 
and Mary College. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1S08 he accepted 
an appointment as captain of light artillery, 
and was ordered to New Orleans. In June, 

181 2, he was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel, and on application was sent to the 
frontier, and reported to General Smyth, 
near Buffalo. He was made adjutant-gen- 
eral with the rank of a colonel, in March, 

18 1 3, and the same month attained the colo- 
nelcy of his regiment. He participated in 
the principal battles of the war and was 
wounded many times, and at the close of 
the war he was voted a gold medal by con- 
gress for his services. He was a writer of 
considerable merit on military topics, and 
he gave to the military science, "General 
Regulations of the Army " and " System of 
Infantry and Rifle Practice." He took a 
prominent part in the Black Hawk war, 
and at the beginning of the Mexican war he 
was appointed to take the command of the 
army. Gen. Scott immediately assembled 
his troops at Lobos Island from which he 
moved by transports to Vera Cruz, which 
he took March 29, 1847, ar >d rapidly fol- 
lowed up his first success. He fought the 
battles of Cerro Gordo and Jalapa, both of 
which he won, and proceeded to Pueblo 

where he was preceded by Worth's division 
which had taken the town and waited for the 
coming of Scott. The army was forced to 
wait here for supplies, and August 7th, 
General Scott started on his victorious 
march to the city of Mexico with ten thou- 
sand, seven hundred and thirty-eight men. 
The battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and 
San Antonio were fought August 19-20, 
and on the 24th an armistice was agreed 
upon, but as the commissioners could not 
agree on the terms of settlement, the fight- 
ing was renewed at Molino Del Rey, and 
the Heights of Chapultepec were carried 
by the victorious army of General Scott. 
He gave the enemy no respite, however, 
and vigorously followed up his advantages. 
On September 14, he entered the City of 
Mexico and dictated the terms of surrender 
in the very heart of the Mexican Republic. 
General Scott was offered the presidency of 
the Mexican Republic, but declined. Con- 
gress extended him a vote of thanks and 
ordered a gold medal be struck in honor of 
his generalship and bravery. He was can- 
didate for the presidency on the Whig plat- 
form but was defeated. He'was honored by 
having the title of lieutenant-general con- 
ferred upon him in 1855. At the beginning of 
the Civil war he was too infirm to take charge 
of the army, but did signal service in be- 
half of the government. He retired from 
the service November 1, 1861, and in 1864 
he published his "Autobiography." Gen- 
eral Scott died at West Point, May 29, 1866 

years occupied a high place among the 
most honored of America's citizens. As 
a preacher he ranks among the I 
in the Ni Utes, but to I 

eral public he is best known through his 
writings. Born mi Boston, Mass., April j. 


1822, a descendant of one of the most 
prominent New England families, he enjoyed 
in his youth many of the advantages denied 
the majority of boys. He received his pre- 
paratory schooling at the Boston Latin 
School, after which he finished his studies at 
Harvard where he was graduated with high 
honors in 1839. Having studied theology 
at home, Mr. Hale embraced the ministry 
and in 1846 became pastor of a Unitarian 
church in Worcester, Massachusetts, a post 
which he occupied about ten years. He 
then, in 1856, became pastor of the South 
Congregational church in Boston, over which 
he presided many years. 

Mr. Hale also found time to write a 
great many literary works of a high class. 
Among many other well-known productions 
~>i his are " The Rosary," " Margaret Per- 
cival in America," "Sketches of Christian 
■listory," "Kansas and Nebraska," "Let- 
ters on Irish Emigration," " Ninety Days' 
Worth of Europe," " If, Yes, and Perhaps," 
"Ingham Papers," "Reformation," "Level 
Best and Other Stories, " " Ups and Downs, " 
"Christmas Eve and Christmas Day," "In 
His Name," "Our New Crusade," "Work- 
ingmen's Homes," " Boys' Heroes," etc., 
etc., besides many others which might be 
mentioned. One of his works, "In His 
Name," has earned itself enduring fame by 
the good deeds it has called forth. The 
numerous associations known as ' 'The King's 
Daughters," which has accomplished much 
good, owe their existence to the story men- 

pre-eminent as one of the greatest na- 
val officers of the world. He was born at 
Campbell's Station, East Tennessee, July 
5, 1801, and entered the navy of the United 
States as a midshipman. He had the good 

fortune to serve under Captain David Por- 
ter, who commanded the " Essex," and by 
whom he was taught the ideas of devotion 
to duty from which he never swerved dur- 
ing all his career. In 1823 Mr. Farragut 
took part in a severe fight, the result of 
which was the suppression of piracy in the 
West Indies. He then entered upon the 
regular duties of his profession which was 
only broken into by a year's residence with 
Charles Folsom, our consul at Tunis, who 
was afterwards a distinguished professor at 
Harvard. Mr. Farragut was one of the best 
linguists in the navy. He had risen through 
the different grades of the service until the 
war of 1861-65 found him a captain resid- 
ing at Norfolk, Virginia. He removed with 
his family to Hastings, on the Hudson, and 
hastened to offer his services to the Federal 
government, and as the capture of New 
Orleans had been resolved upon, Farragut 
was chosen to command the expedition. 
His force consisted of the West Gulf block- 
ading squadron and Porter's mortar flotilla. 
In January, 1S62, he hoisted his pennant at 
the mizzen peak of the "Hartford" at 
Hampton roads, set sail from thence on the 
3rd of February and reached Ship Island on 
the 20th of the same month. A council of 
war was held on the 20th of April, in which 
it was decided that whatever was to be done 
must be done quickly. The signal was made 
from the flagship and accordingly the fleet 
weighed anchor at 1:55 on the morning of 
April 24th, and at 3:30 the whole force was 
under way. The history of this brilliant strug- 
gle is well known, and the glory of it made Far- 
ragut a hero and also made him rear admir- 
al. In the summer of 1 S62 he ran the batteries 
at Vicksburg, and on March 14. 1863, !;e 
passed through the fearful and destructive 
fire from Port Hudson, and opened up com- 
munication with Flag-officer Porter, who 



had control of the upper Mississippi. On 
Way 24th he commenced active operations 
against that fort in conjunction with the army 
and it fell on July 9th. Mr. Farragut filled 
the measure of his fame on the 5th of Au- 
gust, 1864, by his great victory, the capture 
of Mobile Bay and the destruction of the 
Confederate fleet, including the formidable 
ram Tennessee. For this victory the rank 
of admiral was given to Mr. Farragut. He 
died at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 4, 1870. 

GEORGE W. CHILDS, a philanthropist 
whose remarkable personality stood 
for the best and highest type of American 
citizenship, and whose whole life was an 
object lesson in noble living, was born in 
1829 at Baltimore, Maryland, of humble 
parents, and spent his early life in unremit- 
ting toil. He was a self-made man in the 
fullest sense of the word, and gained his 
great wealth by his own efforts. He was a 
man of very great influence, and this, in 
conjunction with his wealth, would have 
been, in the hands of other men, a means of 
getting them political preferment, but Mr. 
Childs steadily declined any suggestions that 
would bring him to figure prominently in 
public affairs. He did not choose to found 
a financial dynasty, but devoted all his 
powers to the helping of others, with the 
most enlightened beneficence and broadest 
sympathy. Mr. Childs once remarked that 
his greatest pleasure in life was in doing 
good to others. He always despised mean- 
ness, and one of his objects of life was to 
prove that a man could be liberal and suc- 
cessful at the same time. Upon these lines 
Mr. Childs made a name for himself as the 
director of one of the representative news- 
papers of America, "The Philadelphia Pub- 
lic Ledger," which was owned jointly by 

himself and the Drexel estate, and which he 
edited for thirty years. He acquired con- 
trol of the paper at a time when it was be- 
ing published at a heavy loss, set it upon a 
firm basis of prosperity, and he made it 
more than a money- making machine — he 
made it respected as an exponent of the 
best side of journalism, and it stands as a 
monument to his sound judgment and up- 
right business principles. Mr. Childs' char- 
itable repute brought him many applications 
for assistance, and he never refused to help 
any one that was deserving of aid; and not 
only did he help those who asked, but he 
would by careful inquiry find those who 
needed aid but were too proud to solicit it. 
He was a considerable employer of labor 
and his liberality was almost unparalleled. 
The death of this great and good man oc- 
curred February 3d, 1894. 

PATRICK HENRY won his way to un 
dying fame in the annals of the early 
history of the United States by introducing 
into the house of burgesses his famous reso- 
lution against the Stamp Act, which he car- 
ried through, after a stormy debate, by a 
majority of one. At this time he exclaimed 
" Cassar had his Brutus, Charles I his Crom- 
well and George III " (here he was inter- 
rupted by cries of " treason ") " may profit 
by their example. If this be treason make 
the most of it." 

Patrick Henry was born at Studley, 
Hanover county, Virginia, May 29, 1736, 
and was a son of Colonel John Henry, a 
magistrate and school teacher of Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and a nephew of Robertson, the 
historian. He received his education from 
his father, and was married at the age of 
eighteen. He was twice bankrupted before 
he had reached his twenty-fourth year, when 
after six weeks of study he was admitted to 



the bar. He worked for three years with- 
out a case and finally was applauded for his 
plea lor the people's rights and gained im- 
mense popularity. After his famous Stamp 
Act resolution he was the leader of the pa- 
triots in Virginia. In 1769 he was admitted 
to practice in the general courts and speed- 
ily won a fortune by his distinguished ability 
as a speaker. He was the first speaker o.f 
the General Congress at Philadelphia in 
1774. He was for a time a colonel of 
militia in 1775, and from 1776 to -1779 and 
1 78 1 to 1786 he was governor of Virginia. 
For a number of years he retired from pub- 
lic life and was tendered and declined a 
number of important political offices, and in 
March, 1789, he was elected state senator 
but aid not take his seat on account of his 
death which occurred at Red Hill, Charlotte 
county, Virginia, June 6, 1799. 

general and traitor of the Revolution- 
ary war, is one of the noted characters in 
American history. He was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, January 3, 1740. He 
ran away and enlisted in the army when 
young, but deserted in a short time. He 
then became a merchant at New Haven, 
Connecticut, but failed. In 1775 he was 
commissioned colonel in the Massachusetts 
militia, and in the autumn of that year was 
placed in command of one thousand men 
for the invasion of Canada. He marched 
his army through the forests of Maine and 
joined General Montgomery before Quebec. 
Their combined forces attacked that city on 
December 31, 1775, and Montgomery was 
killed, and Arnold, severely wounded, was 
compelled to retreat and endure a rigorous 
winter a few miles from the city, where they 
were at the mercy of the Canadian troops 
had they cared to attack them. On his re- 

turn he was raised to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was given command of a small 
flotilla on Lake Champlain, with which he 
encountered an immense force, and though 
defeated, performed many deeds of valor. 
He resented the action of congress in pro- 
moting a number of his fellow officers and 
neglecting himself. In 1777 he was made 
major-general, and under General Gates at 
Bemis Heights fought valiantly. For some 
reason General Gates found fault with his 
conduct and ordered him under arrest, and 
he was kept in his tent until the battle of 
Stillwater was waxing hot, when Arnold 
mounted his horse and rode to the front of 
his old troop, gave command to charge, and 
rode like a mad man into the thickest of 
the fight and was not overtaken by Gates' 
courier until he had routed the enemy and 
fell wounded. Upon his recovery he was 
made general, and was placed in command 
at Philadelphia. Here he married, and his 
acts of rapacity soon resulted in a court- 
martial. He was sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief, and 
though Washington performed this duty 
with utmost delicacy and consideration, it 
was never forgiven. Arnold obtained com- 
mand at West Point, the most important 
post held by the Americans, in 17N0, and 
immediately offered to surrender it to Sir 
Henry Clinton, British commander at New 
York. Major Andre was sent to arrange 
details with Arnold, but on his return trip 
to New York he was captured by Americans, 
the plot was detected, and Andre suffered 
the death penalty as a spy. Arnold es- 
caped, and was paid about $40,000 by the 
British for his treason and was made briga- 
dier-general. He afterward commanded an 
expedition that plundered a portion of Vir- 
ginia, and another that burned New' Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and captured Fort Trum- 


bull, the commandant of which Arnold mur- 
dered with the sword he had just surren- 
dered. He passed the latter part of his life 
in England, universally despised, and died 
in London June 14, 1S01. 

ROBERT G. INGERSOLL, one of the 
most brilliant orators that America has 
produced, also a lawyer of considerable 
merit, won most of his fame as a lecturer. 
Mr. Ingersoll was born August 24, 1833, 
at Dryden, Gates county, New York, and 
received his education in the common schools. 
He went west at the age of twelve, and for 
a short time he attended an academy in 
Tennessee, and also taught school in that 
state. He began the practice of law in the 
southern part of Illinois in 1S54. Colonel 
Lgtrsoll's principal fame was made in 
the lecture room by his lectures in which he 
ridiculed religious faith and creeds and criti- 
cised the Bible and the Christian religion. 
He was the orator of the day in the Decora- 
tion Day celebration in the city- of New York 
in 1SS2 and his oration was widely com- 
mended. He first attracted political notice 
in the convention at Cincinnati in 1876 by 
his brilliant eulogy on James G. Blaine. He 
practiced law in Peoria, Illinois, for a num- 
ber of years, but later located in the city ot 
New York. He published the follow- 
ing: "The Gods and other Lectures;" "The 
Ghosts;" "Some Mistakes of Moses;" 
"What Shall I Do To Be Saved;" "Inter- 
views on Talmage and Presbyterian Cate- 
chism ;" The "North American Review 
Controversy;" "Prose Poems;" "A Vision 
of War ;" etc. 

J a noted general in the Confederate army, 
was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, 
in 1S07. He graduated from West Point 

and entered the army in 1829. For a num- 
ber of years his chief service was garrison 
duty. He saw active service, however, in 
the Seminole war in Florida, part of the 
time as a staff officer of General Scott. He 
resigned his commission in 1837, but re- 
turned to the army a year later, and was 
brevetted captain for gallant services in 
Florida. He was made first lieutenant of 
topographical engineers, and was engaged 
in river and harbor improvements and also 
in the survey of the Texas boundary and 
the northern boundary of the United 
States until the beginning of the war 
with Mexico. He was at the siege of Vera 
Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo was 
wounded while reconnoitering the enemy's 
position, after which he was brevetted major 
and colonel. He was in all the battles about 
the city of Mexico, and was again wounded 
in the final assault upon that city. After 
the Mexican war closed he returned to duty 
as captain of topographical engineers, but 
in 1855 he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry and did frontier duty, and was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the expedition 
to Utah. In i860 he was appointed quar- 
termaster-general with rank of brigadier- 
general. At the outbreak of hostilities in 
1 86 1 he resigned his commission and re- 
ceived the appointment of major-general of 
the Confederate army. He held Harper's 
Ferry, and later fought General Patterson 
about Winchester. At the battle of Bull 
Run he declined command in favor of Beau- 
regard, and acted under that general's direc- 
tions. He commanded the Confederates in 
the famous Peninsular campaign, and was 
severely wounded at Fair Oaks and was 
succeeded in command by General Lee. 
Upon his recovery he was made lieutenant- 
general and assigned to the command of the 
tern department. He attempted 


to raise the siege of Vicksburg, and was 
finally defeated at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Having been made a general he succeeded 
General Bragg in command of the army of 
Tennessee and was ordered to check General 
Sherman's advance upon Atlanta. Not 
daring to risk a battle with the overwhelm- 
ing forces of Sherman, he slowly retreated 
toward Atlanta, and was relieved of com- 
mand by President Davis and succeeded by 
General Hood. Hood utterly destroyed his 
own army by three furious attacks upon 
Sherman. Johnston was restored to com- 
mand in the Carolinas, and again faced 
Sherman, but was defeated in several en- 
gagements and continued a slow retreat 
toward Richmond. Hearing of Lee's sur- 
render, he communicated with General 
Sherman, and finally surrendered his army 
at Durham, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. 
General Johnston was elected a member 
of the forty-sixth congress and was ap- 
pointed United States railroad commis- 
sioner in 1S85. His death occurred March 
21, 1891. 

known throughout the civilized world 
as "Mark Twain," is recognized as one of 
the greatest humorists America has pro- 
duced. He was born in Monroe county, 
Missouri, November 30, 1835. Hespenthis 
boyhood days in his native state and many 
of his earlier experiences are related in vari- 
ous forms in his later writings. One of his 
early acquaintances, Capt. Isaiah Sellers, 
at an early day furnished river news for the 
New Orleans " Picayune, " using the nom- 
de-plume of "Mark Twain." Sellers died 
in 1863 and Clemens took up his nom-de- 
piume and made it famous throughout the 
world by his literary work. In [862 Mr. 
Clemens became a journalist at Virginia, 

Nevada, and afterward followed the same pro- 
fession at San Francisco and Buffalo, New 
York. He accumulated a fortune from the 
sale of his man}' publications, but in later 
years engaged in business enterprises, partic- 
ularly the manufacture of a typesetting ma- 
chine, which dissipated his fortune and re- 
duced him almost to poverty, but with resolute 
heart he at once again took up his pen and 
engaged in literary work in the effort to 
regain his lost ground. Among the best 
known of his works may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: ' ' The Jumping Frog, " ' ' Tom Saw- 
yer," " Roughing it," " Innocents Abroad," 
"Huckleberry Finn," "Gilded Age," 
"Prince and Pauper," "Million Pound 
Bank Note," "A Yankee in King Arthur's 
Court," etc. 

known as "Kit Carson;" was an Amer- 
ican trapper and scout who gained a wide 
reputation for his frontier work. He was a 
native of Kentucky, born December 24th, 
1809. He grew to manhood there, devel- 
oping a natural inclination for adventure in 
the pioneer experiences in his native state. 
When yet a young -man he became quite 
well known on the frontier. He served as 
a guide to Gen Fremont in his Rocky 
Mountain explorations and enlisted in the 
army. He was an officer in 'the United 
States service in both the Mexican war and 
the great Civil war, and in the latter received 
a brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious 
service. His death occurred May 23, 

JOHN SHERMAN.- Statesman, politi- 
cian, cabinet officer andsenator, the name 
of the gentleman who heads this sketch is al- 
most a household word throughout this 
country. Identified with some of the most 



important measures adopted by our Govern- 
ment since the close of the Civil war, he may 
well be called one of the leading men of his 

John Sherman was born at Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, May ioth, 1S23, 
the son of Charles R. Sherman, an emi- 
nent lawyer and judge of the supreme court 
of Ohio and who died in 1S29. The subject 
of this article received an academic educa- 
tion and was admitted to the bar in 1S44. 
In the Whig conventions of 1844 and 1848 
he sat as a delegate. He was a member of 
the National house of representatives, 
from 1855 to 1S61. In 1S60 he was re- 
elected to the same position but was chosen 
United States senator before he took his 
seat in the lower house. He was re-elected 
senator in 1866 and 1872 and was long 
chairman of the committee on finance and 
on agriculture. He took a prominent part 
in debates on finance and on the conduct of 
the war, and was one of the authors of the 
reconstruction measures in 1866 and 1867, 
and was appointed secretary of the treas- 
ury March 7th, 1877. 

Mr. Sherman was re-elected United States 
senator from Ohio January 1 Sth, 1881, and 
again in 1886 and 1892, during which time 
he was regarded as one of the most promi- 
nent leaders of the Republican party, both 
in the senate and in the country. He was 
several times the favorite of his state for the 
nomination for president. 

On the formation of his cabinet in March, 
1897, President McKinley tendered the posi- 
tion of secretary of state to Mr. Sherman, 
which was accepted. 

president of the United States, was 
born in Charles county, Virginia, February 
9, 1773, the son of Governor Benjamin 

Harrison. He took a course in Hampden- 
Sidney College with a view to the practice 
of medicine, and then went to Philadelphia 
to study under Dr. Rush, but in 1791 he 
entered the army, and obtained the commis- 
sion of ensign, was soon promoted to the 
lieutenancy, and was with General Wayne 
in his war against the Indians. For his 
valuable service he was promoted to the 
rank of captain and given command of Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati. He was ap- 
pointed secretary of the Northwest Territory 
in 1797, and in 1799 became its representa- 
tive in congress. In 1801 he was appointed 
governor of Indiana Territory, and held the 
position for twelve years, during which time 
he negotiated important treaties with the In- 
dians, causing them to relinquish millions of 
acres of land, and also won the battle of 
Tippecanoe in 181 1. He succeeded in 
obtaining a change in the law which did not 
permit purchase of public lands in less tracts 
than four thousand acres, reducing the limit 
to three hundred and twenty acres. He 
became major-general of Kentucky militia 
and brigadier-general in the United States 
army in 1812, and won great renown in 
the defense of Fort Meigs, and his victory 
over the British and Indians under Proctor 
and Tecumseh at the Thames river, October 
5, 1813. 

In 1 8 16 General Harrison was elected to 
congress from Ohio, and during the canvass 
was accused of corrupt methods in regard tc 
the commissariat of the army. He demanded 
an investigation after the election and was 
exonerated. In 18 19 he was elected to 
the Ohio state senate, and in 1824 he gave 
his vote as a presidential elector to Henry 
Clay. He became a member of the United 
States senate the same year. During the 
last year of Adams' administration he was 
sent as minister to Colombia, but was re- 


called by President Jackson the following 
year. He then retired to his estate at North 
Bend, Ohio, a few miles below Cincinnati. In 
1836 he was a. candidate for the presidency, 
but as there were three other candidates 
the votes were divided, he receiving seventy- 
three electoral votes, a majority going to 
Mr. Van Buren, the Democratic candidate. 
Four years later General Harrison was again 
nominated by the Whigs, and elected by a 
tremendous majority. The campaign was 
noted for its novel features, many of which 
have found a permanent place in subsequent 
campaigns. Those peculiar to that cam- 
paign, however, were the " log-cabin" and 
" hard cider" watchwords, which produced 
great enthusiasm among his followers. One 
month after his inauguration he died from 
an attack of pleurisy, April 4, 1 841 . 

CHARLES A. DANA, the well-known 
and widely-read journalist of New York 
City, a native of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, 
was born August 8, 18 19. He received 
the elements of a good education in his 
youth and studied for two years at Harvard 
University. Owing to some disease of the 
eyes he was unable to complete his course 
and graduate, but was granted the degree of 
A. M. notwithstanding. For some time he 
was editor of the " Harbinger," and was a 
regular contributor to the Boston " Chrono- 
type." In 1847 he became connected with 
the New York ' ' Tribune. " and continued on 
the staff of that journal until 1858. In the 
latter year he edited and compiled "The 
Household Book of Poetry," and later, in 
connection with George Ripley, edited the 
"New American Cyclopaedia." 

Mr. Dana, on severing his connection 
with the " Tribune " in 1S67, became editor 
of the New York "Sun," a paper with 
which he was identified for many years, and 

which he made one of the leaders of thought 
in the eastern part of the United States. 
He wielded a forceful pen and fearlessly 
attacked whatever was corrupt and unworthy 
in politics, state or national. The same 
year, 1867, Mr. Dana organized the New 
York "Sun " Company. 

During the troublous days of the war, 
when the fate of the Nation depended upon 
the armies in the field, Mr. Dana accepted 
the arduous and responsible position of 
assistant secretary of war, and held the 
position during the greater part of 1863 
and 1C64. He died October 17, 1S97. 

ASA GRAY was recognized throughout the 
scientific world as one of the ablest 
and most eminent of botanists. He was 
born at Paris, Oneida county, New York, 
November 1 S, 1S10. He received his medi- 
cal degree at the Fairfield College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, in Herkimer county, 
New York, and studied botany with the late 
Professor Torrey, of New York. He was 
appointed botanist to the Wilkes expedition 
in 1834, but declined the offer and became 
professor of natural history in Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1842. He retired from the active 
duties of this post in 1S73, and in 1874 he 
was the regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at Washington, District of Columbia. 
Dr. Gray wrote several books on the sub- 
ject of the many sciences of which he was 
master. In 1836 he published his " Ele- 
ments of Botany," "Manual of Botany" in 
1S4S; the unfinished "Flora of North 
America," by himself and Dr. Torrey, the 
publication of which commenced in 183S. 
There is another of his unfinished works 
called "Genera Boreali-Americana," pub- 
lished in 1S48, and the "Botany of the 
United States Pacific Exploring Expedition 
in 1854." Hj wiote many elaborate papers 



on the botany of the west and southwest 
that were published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions, Memoirs, etc., of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which in- 
stitution he was president for ten years. 
He was also the author of many of the 
government reports. "How Plants Grow," 
"Lessons in Botany," " Structural and Sys- 
tematic Botany," are also works from his 
ready pen. 

Dr. Gray published in 1861 his "Free 
Examination of Darwin's Treatise" and his 
" Darwiniana," in 1876. Mr. Gray was 
elected July 29, 1878, to a membership in 
the Institute of France, Academy of Sciences. 
His death occurred at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, January 30, 1889. 

one of the greatest leaders of the 
American bar. He was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 6, 1818, and grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1837. He took 
up the study of law, which he practiced in 
the city of New York and won great renown 
as an orator and advocate. He affiliated 
with the Republican party, which he joined 
soon after its organization. He was the 
leading counsel employed for the defense of 
President Johnson in his trial for impeach- 
.nent before the senate in April and May of 

la July, 1868, Mr. Evarts was appointed 
attorney-general of the United States, and 
served until March 4, 1869. He was one 
of the three lawyers who were selected by 
President Grant in 1871 to defend the inter- 
ests of the citizens of the United States be- 
fore the tribunal of arbitration which met 
at Geneva in Switzerland to settle the con- 
troversy over the " Alabama Claims." 

He was one of the most eloquent advo- 
cates in the United States, and many of his 

public addresses have been preserved and 
published. He was appointed secretary of 
state March 7, 1877, by President Hayes, 
and served during the Hayes administration. 
He was elected senator from the state of 
New York January 21, 1SS5, and at once 
took rank among the ablest statesmen in 
Congress, and the prominent part he took 
in the discussion of public questions gave 
him a national reputation. 

JOHN WANAMAKER.— The life of this 
<J great merchant demonstrates the fact 
that the great secret of rising from the ranks 
is, to-day, as in the past ages, not so much the 
ability to make money, as to save it, or in 
other words, the ability to live well within 
one's income. Mr. Wanamaker was born in 
Philadelphia in 1838. He started out in 
life working in a brickyard for a mere pit- 
tance, and left that position to work in a 
book store as a clerk, where he earned 
the sum of $5.00 per month, and later on 
was in the employ of a clothier where he 
received twenty-five cents a week more. 
He was only fifteen years of age at that 
time, but was a " money-getter " by instinct, 
and laid by a small sum for a possible rainy 
day. By strict attention to business, com- 
bined with natural ability, he was promoted 
many times, and at the age of twenty he 
had saved $2,000. After several months 
vacation in the south, he returned to Phila- 
delphia and became a master brick mason, 
but this was too tiresome to the 3 ou 
and he opened up the " Oak Hall " clothing 
store in April, 1S61, at Philadelphia. The 
capital of the firm was rather limil 
finally, after many discouragements, they 
laid the foundations of one of the largest 
business houses in the world. Th 
lishmcnt covers at the present writii 
fourteen acres ol and furnishes 



employment for five thousand persons. Mr. 
Wanamaker was also a great church worker, 
and built a church that cost him $60,000, 
and he was superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which had a membership of over 
three thousand children. He steadily re- 
fused to run for mayor or congress and the 
only public office that he ever held was that 
of postmaster-general, under the Harrison 
administration, and here he exhibited his 
extraordinary aptitude for comprehending 
the details of public business. 

cratic politician who gained a na- 
tional reputation, was born August 29, 
1843, at Havana, New York. He was 
educated at the academy of his native town, 
and removed to Elmira, New York, in 1862, 
where he studied law. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1864, in which year he was ap- 
pointed city attorney. Mr. Hill soon gained 
a considerable practice, becoming prominent 
in his profession. He developed a taste for 
politics in which he began to take an active 
part in the different campaigns and became 
the recognized leader of the local Democ- 
racy. In 1870 he was elected a member of 
the assembly and was re-elected in 1872. 
While a member of this assembly he formed 
the acquaintance of Samuel J. Tilden, after- 
ward governor of the state, who appointed 
Mr. Hill, W. M. Evarts and Judge Hand 
as a committee to provide a uniform charter 
for the different cities of the state. The 
pressure of professional engagements com- 
pelled him to decline to serve. In 1877 
Mr. Hill was made chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state convention at Albany, his elec- 
tion being due to the Tilden wing of the 
party, and he he'd the same position again 
in 1881. He served one term as alderman 
in Elmira, at the expiration of which term, 

in 1882, he was elected mayor of Elmira, 
and in September of the same year was 
nominated for lieutenant-governor on the 
Democratic state ticket. He was success- 
ful in the campaign and two years later, 
when Grover Cleveland was elected to the 
presidency, Mr. Hill succeeded to the gov- 
ernorship for the unexpired term. In 1885 
he was elected governor for a full term of 
three years, at the end of which he was re- 
elected, his term expiring in 1 891, in which 
year he was elected United States senator. 
In the senate he became a conspicuous 
figure and gained a national reputation. 

ALLEN G. THURMAN. — " The noblest 
Roman of them all " was the title by 
which Mr. Thurman was called by his com- 
patriots of the Democracy. He was the 
greatest leader of the Democratic party in 
his day and held the esteem of all the 
people, regardless of their political creeds. 
Mr. Thurman was born November 13, 1813, 
at Lynchburg, Virginia, where he remained 
until he had attained the age of six years, 
when he moved to Ohio. He received an 
academic education and after graduating, 
took up the study of law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1835, and achieved a brilliant 
success in that line. In political life he was 
very successful, and his first office was that 
of representative of the state of Ohio in the 
twenty-ninth congress. He was elected 
judge of the supreme court of Ohio in 185 1, 
and was chief justice of the same from 1854 
to 1856. In 1867 he was the choice of the 
Democratic party of his state for governor, 
and was elected to the United States senate 
in 1869 to succeed Benjamin F. Wade. 
ami was re-elected to the same position in 
1S/4. He was a prominent figure in the 
senate, until the expiration of his service i 1 
1S81. Mr. Thurman was also one of the 



principal pres'dental possibilities in the 
Democratic convention held at St. Louis in 
1876. In 1888 he was the Democratic 
nominee for vice-president on the ticket 
with Grover Cleveland, but was defeated. 
Allen Granberry Thurman died December 
12, 1895, at Columbus, Ohio. 

known as " Artemus Ward," was born 
April 26, 1834, i n the village of Waterford, 
Maine. He was thirteen years old at the 
time of his father's death, and about a year 
later he was apprenticed to John M Rix, 
who published the "Coos County Dem- 
ocrat " at Lancaster, New Hampshire. Mr. 
' Browne remained with him one year, when, 
hearing that his brother Cyrus was starting 
a paper at Norway, Maine, he left Mr. Rix 
and determined to get work on the new 
paper. He worked for his brother until the 
failure of the newspaper, and then went to 
Augusta, Maine, where he remained a few 
weeks and then removed to Skowhegan, 
and secured a position on the "Clarion." 
But either the climate or the work was not 
satisfactory to him, for one night he silently 
left the town and astonished his good mother 
by appearing unexpectedly at home. Mr. 
Browne then received some letters of recom- 
mendation to Messrs. Snow and Wilder, of 
Boston, at whose office Mrs. Partington's 
(B. P. Shillaber) ' ' Carpet Bag " was printed, 
and he was engaged and remained there for 
three years. He then traveled westward in 
search of employment and got as far as Tif- 
fin, Ohio, where he found employment in the 
office of the "Advertiser," and remained 
there some months when he proceeded to 
Toledo, Ohio, where he became one of the 
staff of the "Commercial," which position 
he heid until 1857. Mr. Browne next went 
to Cleveland, Ohio, anc; became the locai 

editor of the " Plain Dealer," and it was in 
the columns of this paper that he published 
his first articles and signed them "Artemus 
Ward." In i860 he went to New York and 
became the editor of " Vanity Fair," but 
the idea of lecturing here seized him, and he 
was fully determined to make the trial. 
Mr. Browne brought out his lecture, "Babes 
in the Woods "at Clinton Hall, December 
23, 1861, and in 1862 he published his first 
book entitled, " Artemus Ward; His Book." 
He attained great fame as a lecturer and his 
lectures were not confined to America, for 
he went to England in 1866, and became 
exceedingly popular, both as a lecturer and 
a contributor to "Punch." Mr. Browne 
lectured for the last time January 23, 1867. 
He died in Southampton, England, March 
6, 1867. 

THURLOW WEED, a noted journalist 
and politician, was born in Cairo, New 
York, November 15, 1797. He learned the 
printer's trade at the age of twelve years, 
and worked at this calling for several years 
in various villages in centra! New York. He 
served as quartermaster-sergeant during the 
war of 1812. In 18 18 he established the 
"Agriculturist," at Norwich, New York, 
and became editor of the "Anti-Masonic 
Enquirer," at Rochester, in 1826. In the 
same year he was elected to the legislature 
and re-elected in 1830, when he located in 
Albany, New York, and there started the 
" Evening Journal," and conducted it in op- 
position to the Jackson administration and 
the nullification doctrines of Calhoun. He 
became an adroit party manager, and was 
instrumental in promoting the nominations 
of Harrison, Taylor and Scott for the pre?- 
idency. In 1856 and in i860 he threw his 
support to W. H. Seward, but when defeat- 
ed in his object, he gave cordiai support to 


Fremont and Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln pre- 
VE\led upon him to visit the various capitals 
of Europe, where he proved a valuable aid 
tc the administration in moulding the opin- 
ions of the statesmen of that continent 
favorable to the cause of the Union. 

Mr. Weed's connection with the ' ' Even- 
ing Journal " was severed in 1862, when he 
settled in New York, and for a time edited 
the "Commercial Advertiser." In 1868 he 
retired from active life. His " Letters from 
Europe and the West Indies," published in 
1 866, together with some interesting ' ' Rem- 
iniscences," published in the "Atlantic 
Monthly," in 1870, an autobiography, and 
portions of an extensive correspondence will 
be of great value to writers of the political 
history of the United States. Mr.' Weed 
died in New York, November 22, 1882. 

one of the prominent Democratic 
politicians of the country and ex-secretary of 
the navy, was born July 5th, 1841, at Con- 
way, Massachusetts, and received his edu- 
cation at Williston Seminary, East Hamp- 
ton, Massachusetts. Later he attended 
Yale College, where he graduated in 1863, 
and entered the Harvard Law School, which 
he left in 1864. Beginning practice in New 
York city, he soon gained a reputation as 
an able lawyer. He made his first appear- 
ance in public affairs in 1871, when he was 
active in organizing a young men's Demo- 
cratic club. In 1872 he was the recognized 
leader of the county Democracy and in 1875 
was appointed corporation counsel for the 
city of New York. He resigned the office, 
1882, to attend to personal interests and on 
March 5, 1885, he was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Cleveland. Under 
his administration the navy of the United 
States rapidly rose in rank among the navies 

of the world. When he retired from office 
in 1889, the vessels of the United States 
navy designed and contracted for by him 
were five double-turreted monitors, twc 
new armor-clads, the dynamite cruiser "Ve- 
suvius," and five unarmored steel and iron 

Mr. Whitney was the leader of the 
Cleveland forces in the national Democratic 
convention of 1892. 

EDWIN FORREST, the first and great- 
est American tragedian, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1806. His father was a 
tradesman, and some accounts state that he 
had marked out a mercantile career for his 
son, Edwin, while others claim that he had 
intended him for the ministry. His wonder- 
ful memory, his powers of mimicry and his 
strong musical voice, however, attracted at- 
tention before he was eleven years old, and 
at that age he made his first appearance on 
the stage. The costume in which he appeared 
was so ridiculous that he left the stage in a 
fit of anger amid a roar of laughter from 
the audience. This did not discourage him, 
however, and at the age of fourteen, after 
some preliminary training in elocution, he 
appeared again, this time as Young Norvel, 
and gave indications of future greatness. 
Up to 1826 he played entirely with strolling 
companies through the south and west, but 
at that time he obtained an engagement at 
the Bowery Theater in New York. From 
that time his fortune was made. His man- 
ager paid him $40 per night, and it is stated 
that he loaned Forrest to other houses from 
time to time at $200 per night. His great 
successes were Virginius, Damon, Othello. 
Coriolanus, William Tell, Spartacus and 
Lear. He made his first appearance in 
London in 1836, and his success was un- 
questioned from the start. In 1845, on his 


second appearance in London, he became 
involved in a bitter rivalry with the great 
English actor, Macready, who had visited 
America two years before. The result was 
that Forrest was hissed from the stage, and 
it was charged that Macready had instigated 
the plot. Forrest's resentment was so bitter 
that he himself openly hissed Macready 
from his box a few nights later. In 1848 
Macready again visited America at a time 
when American admiration and enthusiasm 
for Forrest had reached its height. Macready 
undertook to play at Astor Place Opera 
House in May, 1849, but was hooted off the 
stage. A few nights later Macready made a 
second attempt to play at the same house, 
this time under police protection. The house 
was filled with Macready 'sfriends, butthe vio- 
olence of the mob outside stopped the play, 
and the actor barely escaped with his life. 
Upon reading the riot act the police and 
troops were assaulted with stones. The 
troops replied, first with blank cartridges, 
and then a volley of lead dispersed the 
mob, leaving thirty men dead or seriously 

After this incident Forrest's popularity 
waned, until in 1855 he retired from the 
stage. He re-appeared in i860, however, 
and probably the most remunerative period 
of his life was between that date and the 
close of the Civil war. His last appearance 
on the stage was at the Globe Theatre, 
Boston, in Richelieu, in April, 1872, his 
death occurring December 12 of that year. 

NOAH PORTER, D. D., LL. D., was 
one of the most noted educators, au- 
thors and scientific writers of the United 
States. He was born December 14, 181 1, 
at Farmington, Connecticut, graduated at 
Yale College in 1831, and was master of 
Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven in 

1831-33. During 1833-35 he was a tutor 
at Yale, and at the same time was pursuing 
his theological studies, and became pastor 
of the Congregational church at New Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, in April, 1836. Dr. 
Porter removed to Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1843, and was chosen professor of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale 
in 1846. He spent a year in Germany in 
the study of modern metaphysics in 1 853— 
54, and in 1871 he was elected president of 
Yale College. He resigned the presidency 
in 1885, but still remained professor of met- 
aphysics and moral philosophy. He was 
the author of a number of works, among 
which are the following: " Historical Es 
say," written in commemorationof the 200th 
aniversary of the settlement of the town ol 
Farmington; " Educational System of the 
Jesuits Compared;" "The Human Intel- 
lect," with an introduction upon psychology 
and the soul; " Books and Reading;" 
'American Colleges and the American Pub- 
lic;" " Elementsof Intellectual Philosophy;" 
" The Science of Nature versus the Science 
of Man;" " Science and Sentiment;" " Ele- 
ments of Moral Science." Dr. Porter was 
the principal editor of the revised edition of 
Webster's Dictionary in 1864, and con- 
tributed largely to religious reviews and 
periodicals. Dr. Porter's death occurred 
March 4, 1 892, at New Haven, Connecticut. 

JOHN TYLER, tenth president of the 
kJ United States, was born in Charles City 
county, Virginia, March 29, 1790, and was 
the son of Judge John Tyler, one of the 
most distinguished men of his day. 

When but twelve years of age young 
John Tyler entered William and Mary Col- 
lege, graduating from there in 1806. He 
took up the study of law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1809, when but nineteen years 



of age. On attaining his majority in 1811 
he was elected a member of the state legis- 
lature, and for five years held that position 
by the almost unanimous vote of his county. 
He was elected to congress in 18 16, and 
served in that body for four years, after 
which for two years he represented his dis- 
trict again in the legislature of the state. 
While in congress, he opposed the United 
States bank, the protective policy and in- 
ternal improvements by the United States 
government. 1825 saw Mr. Tyler governor 
of Virginia, but in 1827 he was chosen 
member of the United States senate, and 
held that office for nine years. He therein 
opposed the administration of Adams and 
the tariff bill of 1828, sympathized with the 
nullifers of South Carolina and was the 
only senator who voted against the Force 
bill lor the suppression of that state's insip- 
ient rebellion. He resigned his position as 
senator on account of a disagreement with 
the legislature of his state in relation to his 
censuring President Jackson. He retired to 
Williamsburg, Virginia, but being regarded 
as a martyr by the Whigs, whom, hereto- 
fore, he had always opposed, was supported 
by many of that party for the vice- presi- 
dency in 1836. He sat in the Virginia leg- 
islature as a Whig in 1839-40, and was a 
delegate to the convention of that party in 
1 8 -9. This national convention nominated 
him for the second place on the ticket with 
General William H. H. Harrison, and he 
was elected vice-president in November, 
1840. President Harrison dying one month 
after his inauguration, he was succeeded by 
John Tyler. He retained the cabinet chosen 
by his predecessor, and for a time moved in j 
harmony with the Whig party. He finally 
instructed the secretary of the treasury. 
Thomas Ewing, to submit to congress a bill 
for the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the 

United States, which was passed by con- 
gress, but vetoed by the president on ac- 
count of some amendments he considered 
unconstitutional. For this and other meas- 
ures he was accused of treachery to his 
party, and deserted by his whole cabinet, 
except Daniel Webs' ar. Things grew worse 
until he was abandoned by the Whig party 
formally, when Mr. Webster resigned. He 
was nominated at Baltimore, in May, 1844, 
at the Democratic convention, as their pres- 
idential candidate, but withdrew from the 
canvass, as he saw he had not succeed- 
ed in gaining the confidence of his old 
party. He then retired from politics until 
February, 1861, when he was made presi- 
dent of the abortive peace congress, which 
met in Washington. He shortly after re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States 
and was elected a member of the Confeder- 
ate congress. He died at Richmond, Janu- 
ary 17, 1862. 

Mr. Tyler married, in 18 13, Miss Letitia 
Christian, who died in 1842 at Washington. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage, with Miss Julia Gardner, of New York. 

one of the great men of his time and 
who has left his impress upon the history of 
our national development, was born October 
22, 1 82 1, at Harwinton, Connecticut. 
He received a common-school education 
and at the age of fourteen his spirit of get- 
ting along in the world mastered his educa- 
tional propensities and his father's objec- 
tions and he left school. He went to Cali- 
fornia in the early days and had opportunities 
which he handled masterfully. Others had 
the same opportunities but they did not have 
his brains nor his energy, and it was he who 
overcame obstacles and reaped the reward 
of his genius. franscontinental railways 



were inevitable, but the realization of this 
masterful achievement would have been de- 
layed to a much later day if there had been 
no Huntington. He associated himself with I 
Messrs. Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, 
and Charles Crocker, and they furnished the 
money necessary for a survey across the 
Sierra Nevadas, secured a charter for the 
road, and raised, with the government's aid, 
money enough to construct and equip that 
railway, which at the time of its completion 
was a marvel of engineering and one of the 
wonders of the world. Mr. Huntington be- 
came president of the Southern Pacific rail- 
road, vice-president of the Central Pacific; 
trustee of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, and a director of the Occidental 
and Oriental Steamship Company, besides 
being identified with many other business 
enterprises of vast importance. 

GEORGE A. CUSTER, a famous In- 
dian fighter, was born in Ohio in 1840. 
He graduated at West Point in 1861, an- 
served in the Civil war; was at Bull Run id 
1 86 1, and was in the Peninsular campaign, 
being one of General McClellan's aides-de, 
camp. He fought in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam in 1863, and was 
with General Stoneman on . his famous 
cavalry raid. He was engaged in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and was there made brevet- 
major. In 1863 was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers. General Custer was 
in many skirmishes in central Virginia in 
1863-64, and was present at the following 
battles of the Richmond campaign: Wil- 
derness, Todd'sTavern, Yellow Tavern, where 
hewasbrevetted lieutenant-colonel; Meadow 
Bridge, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevil- 
lian Station. In the Shenandoah Valley 
1 864-65 he was brevetted colonel at Opequan 
Creek, and at Cedar Creek he was made 

brevet major-general for gallant conduct 
during the engagement. General Custer 
was in command ot a cavalry division in the 
pursuit ot Lee's army in 1865, and fought 
at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, 
where he was made brevet brigadier-general; 
Sailors Creek and Appomattox, where he 
gained additional honors and was made 
brevet major-general, and was given the 
command of the cavalry in the military 
division of the southwest and Gulf, in 1865. 
After the establishment of peace he went 
west on frontier duty and performed gallant 
and valuable service in the troubles with the 
Indians. He was killed in the massacre on 
the Little Big Horn river. South Dakota, 
June 25, 1876. 

brated as ' ' The Tall Sycamore of the 
Wabash," was born September 26, 1827, 
in Butler county, Ohio. When he was two 
months old his parents removed to Fount- 
ain county, Indiana. He grew to manhood 
on a farm, engaged in all the arduous work 
pertaining to rural life. In 1845 he entered 
the Indiana Asbury University, now the De 
Pauw, from which he graduated in 1849. 
He took up the study of law at Crawfords- 
ville, and in 1851 began the practice of his 
profession at Covington, Fountain county, 
Indiana. He became a law partner of 
United States Senator Hannegan, of Indi- 
ana, in 1852, and in 1856 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for congress. In the fol- 
lowing year he took up his residence in Terre 
Haute, Indiana. He was United States 
district attorney for Indiana from 1857 until 
1 86 1, and he had during this period been 
elected to congress, in i860. Mr. Voorhees 
was re-elected to congress in 1862 and 1864, 
but he was unsuccessful in the election of 
1866. However, he was returned to con- 



gress in 1868, where he remained until 1874, 
having been re-elected twice. In 1877 he 
was appointed United States senator from 
Indiana to fill a vacancy caused by the death 
of O. P. Morton, and at the end of the term 
was elected for the ensuing term, being re- 
elected in 1885 and in 1891 to the same of- 
fice. He served with distinction on many 
of the committees, and took a very prom- 
inent part in the discussion of all the im- 
portant legislation of his time. His death 
occurred in August, 189 . 

mous as one of the inventors of the tele- 
phone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
March 3rd, 1847. He received his early 
education in the high school and later he 
attended the university, and was specially 
trained to follow his grandfather's profes- 
sion, that of removing impediments of 
speech. He emigrated to the United States 
in X872, and introduced into this country 
his father's invention of visible speech in the 
institutions for deaf-mutes. Later he was 
appointed professor of vocal physiology in 
the Boston University. He worked for 
many years during his leisure hours on his 
telephonic discovery, and finally perfected 
it and exhibited it publicly, before it had 
reached the high state of perfection to which 
he brought it. His first exhibition of it was 
at the Centennial Exhibition that was held 
in Philadelphia in 1876. Its success is now 
established throughout the civilized world. 
In 1882 Prof. Bell received a diploma and 
the decoration of the Legion of Honor from 
the Academy of Sciences of France. 

the justly celebrated historian and 
author, was a native of Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and was born May 4, 1796. He was 

the son of Judge William Prescott and the 
grandson of the hero of Bunker Hill, Colonel 
William Prescott. 

Our subject in 1808 removed with the 
family to Boston, in the schools of which 
city he received his early education. He 
entered Harvard College as a sophomore in 
181 1, having been prepared at the private 
classical college of Rev. Dr. J. S. J. Gardi- 
jner. The following year he received an in- 
ury in his left eye which made study 
through life a matter of difficulty. He 
graduated in 18 14 with high honors in the 
classics and belle lettres. He spent several 
months on the Azores Islands, and later 
visited England, France and Italy, return- 
ing home in 1817. In June, 1818, he 
founded a social and literary club at Boston 
for which he edited "The Club Room," a 
periodical doomed to but a short life. May 
4, 1820, he married Miss Susan Amory. 
He devoted several years after that event to 
a thorough study of ancient and modern 
history and literature. As the fruits of his 
labors he published several well written 
essays upon French and Italian poetry and 
romance in the " North American Review." 
January 19, 1826, he decided to take up his 
first great historical work, the " History of 
the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella." To 
this he gave the labor of ten years, publish- 
ing the same December 25, 1837. Although 
placed at the head of all American authors, 
so diffident was Prescott of his literary merit 
that although he had four copies of this 
work printed for his own convenience, he 
hesitated a long time before giving it to the 
public, and it was only by the solicitation of 
friends, especially of that talented Spanish 
scholar, George Ticknor, that he was in- 
duced to do so. Soon the volumes were 
translated into French, Italian, Dutch and 
German, and the work was recognized 


throughout the world as one of the most 
meritorious of historical compositions. In 
1843 he published the "Conquest of Mexi- 
co," and in 1847 the "Conquest of Peru." 
Two years later there came from his pen a 
volume of " Biographical and Critical Mis- 
cellanies." Going abroad in the summer of 
1S50, he was received with great distinction 
in the literary circles of London, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Antwerp and Brussels. Oxford Uni- 
versity conferred the degree of D. C. L. 
upon him. In 1855 he issued two volumes 
of his "History of the Reign of Philip the 
Second," and a third in 1858. In the 
meantime he edited Robertson's "Charles 
the Fifth," adding a history of the life of 
that monarch after his abdication. Death 
cut short his work on the remaining volumes 
of " Philip the Second," coming to him at 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 28, 1859. 

American commodore, was born in 
South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 
1785. He saw his first service as a mid- 
shipman in the United States navy in April, 
1799. He cruised with his father, Captain 
Christopher Raymond Perry, in the West In- 
dies for about two years. In 1804 he was 
in the war against Tripoli, and was made 
lieutenant in 1807. At the opening of hostili- 
ties with Great Britain in 1 8 1 2 he was given 
command of a fleet of gunboats on the At- 
lantic coast. At his request he was trans- 
ferred, a year later, to Lake Ontario, where 
he served under Commodore Chauncey, and 
took an active part in the attack on Fort 
George. He was ordered to fit out a squad- 
ron on Lake Erie, which he did, building 
most of his vessels from the forests along 
the shore, and by the summer of 1 8 1 3 he had 
a fleet of nine vessels at Presque Isle, now 
Erie, Pennsylvania. September 10th he 

attacked and captured the British fleet near 
Put-in-Bay, thus clearing the lake of hostile 
ships. His famous dispatch is part of his 
fame, " We have met the enemy, and they 
are ours." He co-operated with Gen. Har- 
rison, and the success of the campaign in 
the northwest was largely due to his victory. 
The next year he was transferred to the Po- 
tomac, and assisted in the defense of Balti- 
more. After the war he was in constant 
service with the various squadrons in cruising 
in all parts of the world. He died of yellow 
fever on the Island of Trinidad, August 23, 
1 8 19. His remains were conveyed to New- 
port, and buried there, and an imposing 
obelisk was erected to his memory by the 
State of Rhode Island. A bronze statue 
was also erected in his honor, the unveiling 
taking place in 1885. 

JOHN PAUL JONES, though a native 
of Scotland, was one of America's most 
noted fighters during the Revolutionary war. 
He was born July 6, 1747. His father was 
a gardener, but the young man soon be- 
came interested in a seafaring life and at 
the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a 
sea captain engaged in the American trade. 
His first voyage landed him in Virginia, 
where he had a brother who had settled 
there several years prior. The failure of 
the captain released young Jones from his 
apprenticeship bonds, and he was engaged 
as third mate of a vessel engaged in the 
slave trade. He abandoned this trade after 
a few years, from his own sense of disgrace. 
He took passage from Jamaica for Scotland 
in 1768, and on the voyage both the captain 
and the mate died and he was compelled to 
take command of the vessel for the re- 
mainder of the voyage. He soon after 
became master of the vessel. He returned 
to Virginia about 1773 to settle up the estate 


of his brother, and at this time added the 
name "Jones," having previously been 
known as John Paul. He settled down in 
Virginia, but when the war broke out in 
1775 he offered his services to congress and 
was appointed senior lieutenant of the flag- 
ship "Alfred," on which he hoisted the 
American flag with his own hands, the first 
vessel that had ever carried a flag of the 
new nation. He was afterward appointed 
to the command of the " Alfred," and later 
of the "Providence," in each of which ves- 
sels he did good service, as also in the 
"Ranger," to the command of which he 
was later appointed. The fight that made 
him famous, however, was that in which he 
captured the " Serapis," off the coast of 
Scotland. He was then in command of the 
"Bon Homme Richard," which had been 
fitted out for him by the French government 
and named by Jones in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, or "Good Man Richard," Frank- 
lin being author of the publication known 
as " Poor Richard's Almanac." The fight 
between the " Richard" and the "Serapis" 
lasted three hours, all of which time the 
vessels were at close range, and most of the 
time in actual contact. Jones' vessel was 
on fire several times, and early in the en- 
gagement two of his guns bursted, rendering 
the battery useless. Also an envious officer 
of the Alliance, one of Jones' own fleet, 
opened fire upon the " Richard " at a crit- 
ical time, completely disabling the vessel. 
Jones continued the fight, in spite of coun- 
sels to surrender, and after dark the " Ser- 
apis " struck her colors, and was hastily 
boarded by Jones and his crew, while the 
"Richard" sank, bows first, after the 
wounded had been taken on board the 
"Serapis." Most of the other vessels of 
the fleet of which the "Serapis" was con- 
voy, surrendered, and were taken with the 

"Serapis" to France, where Jones was 
received with greatest honors, and the king 
presented him with an elegant sword and 
the cross of the Order of Military Merit. 
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and 
made him commander of a new ship, the 
"America," but the vessel was afterward 
given to France and Jones never saw active 
sea service again. He came to America again, 
in 1787, after the close of the war, and was 
voted a gold medal by congress. He went to 
Russia and was appointed rear-admiral and 
rendered service of value against the Turks, 
but on account of personal enmity of the fav- 
orites of the emperor he was retired on a pen- 
sion. Failing to collect this, he returned to 
France, where he died, July 18, 1792. 

THOMAS MORAN, the well-known 
painter of Rocky Mountain scenery, 
was born in Lancashire, England, in 1837. 
He came to America when a child, and 
showing artistic tastes, he was apprenticed 
to a wood engraver in Philadelphia. Three 
years later he began landscape painting, and 
his style soon began to exhibit signs of genius. 
His first works were water-colors, and 
though without an instructor he began the 
use of oils, he soon found it necessary to 
visit Europe, where he gave particular at- 
tention to the works of Turner. He joined 
the Yellowstone Park exploring expedition 
and visited the Rocky Mountains in 1871 
and again in 1873, making numerous 
sketches of the scenery. The most note- 
worthy results were his ' ' Grand Canon of 
the Yellowstone," and " The Chasm of the 
Colorado," which were purchased by con- 
gress at $10,000 each, the first of which is 
undoubtedly the finest landscape painting 
produced in this country. Mr. Moran has 
subordinated art to nature, and the subjects 
he has chosen leave little ground for fault 



finding on that account. "The Mountain 
of the Holy Cross," "The Groves Were 
God's First Temples," " The Cliffs of Green 
River," " The Children of the Mountain," 
" The Ripening of the Leaf," and others 
have given him additional fame, and while 
they do not equal in grandeur the first 
mentioned, in many respects from an artis- 
tic standpoint they are superior. 

L ELAND STANFORD was one of the 
greatest men of the Pacific coast and 
also had a national reputation. He was 
born March 9, 1S24, in Albany county, New 
York, and passed his early life on his 
father's farm. He attended the local 
schools of the county and at the age of 
twenty began the study of law. He 
entered the law office of Wheaton, Doolittle 
and Hadley, at Albany, in 1845, an d a * ew 
years later he moved to Port Washington, 
Wisconsin, where he practiced law four 
years with moderate success. In 1852 Mr. 
Stanford determined to push further west, 
and, accordingly went to California, where 
three of his brothers were established in 
business in the mining towns. They took 
Leland into partnership, giving him charge 
of a branch store at Michigan Bluff, in 
Placer county. There he developed great 
business ability and four years later started 
a mercantile house of his own in San Fran- 
cisco, which soon became one of the most 
substantial houses on the coast. On the 
formation of the Republican party he inter- 
ested himself in politics, and in i860 was 
sent as a delegate to the convention that 
nominated Abraham Lincoln. In the 
autumn of 1861 he was elected, by an im- 
mense majority, governor of California. 
Prior to his election as governor he had 
been chosen president of the newly-orga- 
nized Central Pacific Railroad Company, | 

and after leaving the executive chair he de- 
voted all of his time to the construction of 
the Pacific end of the transcontinental rail- 
way. May 10, 1869, Mr. Stanford drove 
the last spike of the Central Pacific road, 
thus completing the route across the conti- 
nent. He was also president of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental Steamship Company. 
He had but one son, who died of typhoid 
fever, and as a monument to his child he 
founded the university which bears his son's 
name, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 
Mr. Stanford gave to this university eighty- 
three thousand acres of land, the estimated 
value of which is $8,000,000, and the entire 
endowment is $20,000,000. In 18S5 Mr. 
Stanford was elected United States senator 
as a Republican, to succeed J. T. Farley, a 
Democrat, and was re-elected in 189 1 . His 
death occurred June 20, 1894, at Palo Alto, 

STEPHEN DECATUR, a famous com- 
modore in the United States navy, was 
born in Maryland in 1779. He entered the 
naval service in 1798. In 1804, when the 
American vessel Philadelphia had been run 
aground and captured in the harbor of Trip- 
oli, Decatur, at the head of a few men, 
boarded her and burned her in the face of 
the guns from the city defenses. For this 
daring deed he was made captain. He was 
given command of the frigate United States 
at the breaking out of the war of 18 12, and 
in October of that year he captured the 
British frigate Macedonian, and was re- 
warded with a gold medal by congress. Af- 
ter the close of the war he was sent as com- 
mander of a fleet of ten vessels to chastise 
the dey of Algiers, who was preying upon 
American commerce with impunity and de- 
manding tribute and ransom for the release 
of American citizens captured. Decatur 



captured a number of Algerian vessels, and 
compelled the dey to sue for peace. He 
was noted for his daring and intrepidity, 
and his coolness in the face of danger, and 
helped to bring the United States navy into 
favor with the people and congress as a 
means of defense and offense in time of 
war. He was killed in a duel by Commo- 
dore Barron, March 12, 1820. 

JAMES KNOX POLK, the eleventh 
president of the United States, 1845 to 
1849, was born November 2, 1795, in Meck- 
lenburg county, North Carolina, and was 
the eldest child of a family of six sons. He 
removed with his father to the Valley of the 
Duck River, in Tennessee, in 1806. He 
attended the common schools and became 
very proficient in the lower branches of 
education, and supplemented this with 
a course in the Murfreesboro Academy, 
which he entered in 1 8 1 3 and in the autumn 
of 181 5 he became a student in the sopho- 
more class of the University of North Caro- 
lina, at Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 
18 1 8. He then spent a short time in re- 
cuperating his health and then proceeded to 
Nashville, Tennessee, where he took up the 
study of law in the office of Felix Grundy. 
After the completion of his law studies he 
was admitted to the bar and removed to 
Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, and 
started in the active practice of his profes- 
sion. Mr. Polk was a Jeffersonian " Re- 
publican " and in 1823 he was elected to the 
legislature of Tennessee. He was a strict 
constructionist and did not believe that the 
general government had the power to carry 
on internal improvements in the states, but 
deemed it important that it should have that 
power, and wanted the constitution amended 
to that effect. But later on he became 
alarmed lest the general government might 

become strong enough to abolish slavery 
and therefore gave his whole support to the 
" State's Rights" movement, and endeavored 
to check the centralization of power in the 
general government. Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of congress in 1825, and held that 
office until 1839. He then withdrew, as he 
was the successful gubernatorial candidate 
of his state. He had become a man of 
great influence in the house, and, as the 
leader of the Jackson party in that body, 
weilded great influence in the election of 
General Jackson to the presidency. He 
sustained the president in all his measures 
and still remained in the house after Gen- 
eral Jackson had been succeeded by Martin 
Van Buren. He was speaker of the house 
during five sessions of congress. He was 
elected governor of Tennessee by a large 
majority and took the oath of office at Nash- 
ville, October 4, 1839. He was a candidate 
for re-election but was defeated by Governor 
Jones, the Whig candidate. In 1844 the 
most prominent question in the election was 
the annexation of Texas, and as Mr. Polk 
was the avowed champion of this cause he 
was nominated for president by the pro- 
slavery wing of the democratic party, was 
elected by a large majority, and was inaug- 
urated March 4, 1845. President Polk 
formed a very able cabinet, consisting of 
James Buchanan, Robert J. Walker, Will- 
iam L. Marcy, George Bancroft, Cave John- 
son, and John Y. Mason. The dispute re- 
garding the Oregon boundary was settled 
during his term of office and a new depart- 
ment was added to the list of cabinet po- 
sitions, that of the Interior. The low tariff 
bill of 1846 was carried and the financial 
system of the country was reorganized. It 
was also during President Polk's term that 
the Mexican war was successfully conducted, 
which resulted in the acquisition of Califor-- 



nia and New Mexico. Mr. Polk retired from 
the presidency March 4, 1849, after having 
declined a re-nomination, and was succeeded 
by General Zachary Taylor, the hero of the 
Mexican war. Mr. Polk retired to private 
life, to his home in Nashville, where he died 
at the age of fifty-four on June 9, 1S49. 

ANNA DICKINSON (Anna Elizabeth 
Dickinson), a noted lecturer and pub- 
lic speaker, was born at Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 28, 1842. Her parents were Quakers, 
and she was educated at the Friends' free 
schools in her native city. She early man- 
ifested an inclination toward elocution and 
public speaking, and when, at the age of iS, 
she found an opportunity to appear before 
a national assemblage for the discussion of 
woman's rights, she at once established her 
reputation as a public speaker. From i860 
to the close of the war and during the ex- 
citing period of reconstruction, she was one 
of the most noted and influential speakers 
before the American public, and her popu- 
larity was unequaled by that of any of her 
sex. A few weeks after the defeat and 
death of Colonel Baker at Ball's Bluff, Anna 
Dickinson, lecturing in New York, made 
the remarkable assertion, " Not the incom- 
petency of Colonel Baker, but the treachery 
of General McClellan caused the disaster at 
Ball's Bluff." She was hissed and hooted 
off the stage. A year later, at the same 
hall and with much the same class of audi- 
tors, she repeated the identical words, and 
the applause was so great and so long con- 
tinued that it was impossible to go on with 
her lecture for more than half an hour. The 
change of sentiment had been wrought by 
the reverses and dismissal of McClellan and 
his ambition to succeed Mr. Lincoln as presi- 

Ten years after the close of the war. Anna 

Dickinson was not heard of on the lec- 
ture platform, and about that time she made 
an attempt to enter the dramatic profession, 
but after appearing a number of times in dif- 
ferent plays she was pronounced a failure. 

sonal characteristics of Mr. Burdette 
were quaintly given by himself in the follow- 
ing words: "Politics? Republican after 
the strictest sect. Religion ? Baptist. Per- 
sonal appearance ? Below medium height, 
and weigh one hundred and thirty-five 
pounds, no shillings and no pence. Rich ? 
Not enough to own a yacht. Favorite read- 
ing? Poetry and history — know Longfellow 
by heart, almost. Write for magizines I 
Have mo.-e ' declined with thar.ks ' letters 
than would fill a trunk. Never able to get 
into a magazine with a line. Care about it? 
Mad as thunder. Think about starting a 
magazine and rejecting everbody's articles 
except my own." Mr. Burdette was born 
at Greensborough, Pennsylvania, in 1844. 
He served through the war of the rebellion 
under General Banks " on an excursion 
ticket" as he felicitously described it, "good 
both ways, conquering in one direction and 
running in the other, pay going on just the 
same." He entered into journalism by the 
gateway of New York correspondence for 
the "Peoria Transcript," and in 1874 went 
on the "Burlington Hawkeye" of which he 
became the managing editor, and the work 
that he did on this paper made both him- 
self and the paper famous in the world of 
humor. Mr. Burdette married in 1870, 
and his wife, whom he called "Her Little 
Serene Highness," was to him a guiding 
light until the day of her death, and it was 
probably the unconscious pathos with which 
he described her in his work that broke the 
barriers that had kept him out of the maga- 



zines and secured him the acceptance of his 
"Confessions" by Lippincott some years 
ago, and brought him substantial fame and 
recognition in the literary world. 

of the leading novelists of the present 
century and author of a number of works 
that gained for him a place in the hearts of 
the people, was born March i, 1837, at 
Martinsville, Belmont county, Ohio. At 
the age of three years he accompanied his 
father, who was a printer, to Hamilton, 
Ohio, where he learned the printer's trade. 
Later he was engaged on the editorial staff 
of the ' ' Cincinnati Gazette " and the " Ohio 
State Journal." During 1861-65 ne was 
the United States consul at Venice, and 
from 1 87 1 to 1878 he was the editor-in- 
chief of the "Atlantic Monthly." As a 
writer he became one of the most fertile 
and readable of authors and a pleasing poet. 
In 1885 he became connected with " Har- 
per's Magazine." Mr. Howells was author 
of the list of books that we give below: 
"Venetian Life," " Italian Journeys," "No 
Love Lost," "Suburban Sketches," "Their 
Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaint- 
ance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "Dr. 
Breen's Practice," "A Modern Instance," 
"The Rise of Silas Lapham," "Tuscan 
Cities," "Indian Summer," besides many 
others. He also wrote the " Poem of Two 
Friends," with J. J. Piatt in 1860, and 
some minor dramas: "The Drawing 
Room Car," "The Sleeping Car," etc., 
that are full of exqusite humor and elegant 

of the Rev. Charles Lowell, and was born 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 
1 8 19. He graduated at Harvard College in 

1838 as class poet, and went to Harvard 
Law School, from which he was graduated 
in 1840, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in Boston, but soon gave his un- 
divided attention to literary labors. Mr. 
Lowell printed, in 1841, a small volume of 
poems entitled ' ' A Year's Life, " edited with 
Robert Carter; in 1843, " The Pioneer," a 
literary and critical magazine (monthly), and 
in 1848 another book of poems, that con- 
tained several directed against slavery. He 
published in 1844 a volume of "Poems" 
and in 1845 "Conversations on Some 
of the Old Poets," "The Vision of Sir 
Launfal," "A Fable for Critics," and "The 
Bigelow Papers," the lattei satirical es- 
says in dialect poetry directed against 
slavery and the war with Mexico. In 
1851-52 he traveled in Europe and re- 
sided in Italy for a considerable time, and 
delivered in 1854-55 a course of lectures on 
the British poets, before the Lowell Insti- 
tute, Boston. Mr. Lowell succeeded Long- 
fellow in January, 1855, as professor of 
modern languages and literature at Harvard 
College, and spent another year in Em ope 
qualifying himself for that post. He edited 
the "Atlantic Monthly " from 1857 to 1862, 
and the "North American Review" from 
1863 until 1872. From 1864 to 1870 he 
published the following works: "Fireside 
Travels," "Under the Willows," "The 
Commemoration Ode," in honor of the 
alumni of Harvard who had fallen in the 
Civil war; "The Cathedral," two volumes 
of essays; "Among My Books" and "My 
Study Windows," and in 1867 he published 
a new series of the " Bigelow Papers. " He 
traveled extensively in Europe in 1872-74, 
and received in person the degree of D. C. 
L at Oxford and that of LL. D. at the 
University of Cambridge, England. He 
was also interested in political life and held 



many important offices. He was United 
States minister to Spain in 1877 an d was 
also minister to England in 1SS0-85. On 
January 2, 1884, he was elected lord rector 
of St. Andrew University in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, but soon after he resigned the same. 
Mr. Lowell's works enjoy great popularity 
in the United States and England. He 
died August 12, 1S91. 

JOSEPH HENRY, one of America's 
greatest scientists, was born at Albany, 
New York, December 17, 1797. He was 
educated in the common schools of the city 
and graduated from the Albany Academy, 
where he* became a professor of mathemat- 
ics in 1826. In 1827 he commenced a 
course of investigation, which he continued 
for a number of years, and the results pro- 
duced had great effect on the scientific world. 
The first success was achieved by producing 
the electric magnet, and he next proved the 
possibility of exciting magnetic energy at a 
distance, and it was the invention of Pro- 
fessor Henry's intensity magnet that first 
made the invention of electric telegraph a 
possibility. He made a statement regarding 
the practicability of applying the intensity 
magnet to telegraphic uses, in his article to 
the "American Journal of Science " in 1831. 
During the same year he produced the first 
mechanical contrivance ever invented for 
maintaining continuous motion by means of 
electro-magnetism, and he also contrived a 
machine by which signals could be made at 
a distance by the use of his electro-magnet, 
the signals being produced by a lever strik- 
ing on a bell. Some of his electro-magnets 
were of great power, one carried over a ton 
and another not less than three thousand six 
hundred pounds. In 1832 he discovered 
that secondary currents could be produced 
1 >i g conductor by the induction of the 

primary current upon itself, and also in the 
same year he produced a spark by means of 
a purely magnetic induction. Professor 
Henry was elected, in 1832, professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in the College of New Jer- 
sey, and in his earliest lectures at Princeton, 
demonstrated the feasibility of the electric 
telegraph. He visited Europe in 1837, and 
while there he had an interview with Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone, the inventor of the 
needle magnetic telegraph. In 1846 he was 
elected secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, being the first incumbent in that office, 
which he held until his death. Professor 
Henry was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science, in 1849, and of the National 
Academy of Sciences. He was made chair- 
man of the lighthouse board of the United 
States in 1871 and held that position up to 
the time of his death. He received the 
honorary degree of doctor of laws from 
Union College in 1829, and from Harvard 
University in 1851, and his death occurred 
May 13, 1878. Among his numerous works 
may be mentioned the following: "Contri- 
butions to Electricity and Magnetism," 
" American Philosophic Trans," and many 
articles in the "American Journal of 
Science," the journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute; the proceedings of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
and in the annual reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institution from its foundation. 

rear-admiral of the Confederate navy 
during the rebellion, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland. He became a United States 
midshipman in 18 15 and was promoted 
through the various grades of the service 
and became a captain in 1855. Mr. Buch 
anan resigned his captaincy in order t<> join 



the Confederate service in 1861 and later he 
asked to be reinstated, but his request was 
refused and he then entered into the service 
of the Confederate government. He was 
placed in command of the frigate " Merri- 
mac " after she had been fitted up as an iron- 
clad, and had command of her at the time 
of the battle of Hampton Roads. It was 
he who had command when the "Merri- 
mac" sunk the two wooden frigates, " Con- 
gress " and "Cumberland," and was also 
in command during part of the historical 
battle of the " Merrimac " and the "Moni- 
tor," where he was wounded and the com- 
mand devolved upon Lieutenant Catesby 
Jones. He was created rear-admiral in the 
Confederate service and commanded the 
Confederate fleet in Mobile bay, which was 
defeated by Admiral Farragut, August 5, 
1864. Mr. Buchanan was in command of 
the "Tennessee," an ironclad, and during 
the engagement he lost one of his legs and 
was taken prisoner in the end by the Union 
fleet. After the war he settled in Talbot 
county, Maryland, where he died May 11, 

RICHARD PARKS BLAND, a celebrated 
American statesman, frequently called 
"the father of the house," because of his 
many years of service in the lower house 
of congress, was born August 19, 1835, 
near Hartford, Kentucky, where he received 
a plain academic education. He moved, 
in 1855, to Missouri, from whence he went 
overland to California, afterward locating in 
Virginia City, now in the state of Nevada, 
but then part of the territory of Utah. 
While there he practiced law, dabbled in 
mines and mining in Nevada and California 
for several years, and served for a time as 
treasurer of Carson county, Nevada. Mr. 
Bland returned to Missouri in 1865, where 

he engaged in the practice ot law at Rolla, 
Missouri, and in 1869 removed to Lebanon, 
Missouri. He began his congressional career 
in 1873, when he was elected as a Demo- 
crat to the forty-third congress, and he was 
regularly re-elected to every congress after 
that time up to the fifty-fourth, when he was 
defeated for re-election, but was returned 
to the fifty-fifth congress as a Silver Demo- 
crat. During all his protracted service, 
while Mr. Bland was always steadfast in his 
support of democratic measures, yet he won 
his special renown as the great advocate of 
silver, being strongly in favor of the free 
and unlimited coinage of silver, and on ac- 
count of his pronounced views was one of 
the candidates for the presidential nomina- 
tion of the Democratic party at Chicago in 

port) was of British birth, but she be- 
longs to the American stage. She was the 
daughter of the famous actor, E. L. Daven- 
port, and was born in London in 1850. 
She first went on the stage as a child at the 
Howard Athenaeum, Boston, and her entire 
life was spent upon the stage. She played 
children's parts at Burton's old theater in 
Chambers street, and then, in 1862, appeared 
as the King of Spain in " Faint Heart Never 
Won Fair Lady. " Here she attracted the 
notice of Augustin Daly, the noted mana- 
ger, then at the Fifth Avenue theater, who 
offered her a six weeks' engagement with 
her father in "London Assurance." She 
afterwards appeared at the same house in a 
variety of characters, and her versatility 
was favorably noticed by the critics. After 
the burning of the old Fifth Avenue, the 
present theater of that name was built at 
Twenty-eighth street, and here Miss Daven- 
port appeared in a play written for her by 



Mr. Dal) - . She scored a great success. 
She then starred in this play throughout the 
country, and was married to Mr. Edwin F. 
Price, an actor of her company, in 1880. 
In 1882 she went to Paris and purchased 
the right to produce in America Sardou's 
great emotional play, "Fedora." It was 
put on at the Fourteenth Street theater in 
New York, and in it she won popular favor 
and became one of the most famous actresses 
of her time. 

of the greatest merchants America has 
produced, was born in Milford, Massachu- 
setts, a son of John Claflin, also a mer- 
chant. Young Claflin started his active life 
as a clerk in his father's store, after having 
been offered the opportunity of a college 
education, but with the characteristic 
promptness that was one of his virtues he 
exclaimed, "No law or medicine for me." 
He had set his heart on being a merchant, 
and when his father retired he and his 
brother Aaron, and his brother-in-law, Sam- 
uel Daniels, conducted the business. Mr. 
Claflin was not content, however, to run a 
store in a town like Milford, and accordingly 
opened a dry goods store at Worcester, with 
his brother as a partner, but the partnership 
was dissolved a year later and H. B. Claflin 
assumed complete control. The business 
in Worcester had been conducted on ortho- 
dox principles, and when Mr. Claflin came 
there and introduced advertising as a means 
of drawing trade, he created considerable 
animosity among the older merchants. Ten 
years later he was one of the most prosper- 
ous merchants. He disposed of his busi- 
ness in Worcester for $30,000, and went to 
New York to search for a wider field than 
that of a shopkeeper. Mr. Claflin and 
William M. Bulkley started in the dry goods 

business there under the firm name of Bulk- 
ley & Claflin, in 1843, and Mr. Bulkley was 
connected with the firm until 185 1, when he 
retired. A new firm was then formed under 
the name of Claflin, Mellin & Co. This 
firm succeeded in founding the largest dry 
goods house in the world, and after weather- 
ing the dangers of the civil war, during 
which the house came very near going un- 
der, and was saved only by the superior 
business abilities of Mr. Claflin, continued to 
grow. The sales of the firm amounted to 
over $72,000,000 a year after the close of 
the war. Mr. Claflin died November 14, 

Saunders Cushman), one of the most 
celebrated American actresses, was born in 
Boston, July 23, 18 16. She was descended 
from one of the earliest Puritan families. 
Her first attempt at stage work was at the 
age of fourteen years in a charitable concert 
given by amateurs in Boston. From this 
time her advance to the first place on the 
American lyric stage was steady, until, in 
1835, while singing in New Orleans, she 
suddenly lost control of her voice so far as 
relates to singing, and was compelled to re- 
tire. She then took up the study for the 
dramatic stage under the direction of Mr. 
Barton, the tragedian. She soon after 
made her debut as " Lady Macbeth." She 
appeared in New York in September, 1836, 
and her success was immediate. Her 
"Romeo" was almost perfect, and she is 
the only woman that has ever appeared in 
the part of "Cardinal Wolsey." She at 
different times acted as support of Forrest 
and Macready. Her London engagement, 
secured in 1845, after many and great dis- 
couragements, proved an unqualified sue- 



Her farewell appearance was at Booth's 
theater, New York, November 7, 1874, in 
the part of " Lady Macbeth," and after that 
performance an Ode by R. H. Stoddard 
was read, and a body of citizens went upon 
the stage, and in their name the venerable 
poet Longfellow presented her with a wreath 
of laurel with an inscription to the effect 
that "she who merits the palm should bear 
it." From the time of her appearance as a 
modest girl in a charitable entertainment 
down to the time of final triumph as a tragic 
queen, she bore herself with as much honor 
to womanhood as to the profession she rep- 
resented. Her death occurred in Boston, 
February 18, 1876. By her profession she 
acquired a fortune of $600, coo. 

NEAL DOW, one of the most prominent 
temperance reformers our country has 
known, was born in Portland, Me., March 20, 
1804. He received his education in the 
Friends Seminary, at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, his parents being members of that 
sect. After leaving school he pursued a 
mecrantile and manufacturing career for a 
number of years. He was active in the 
affairs of his native city, and in 1839 be- 
came chief of the fire department, and in 
1 85 1 was elected mayor. He was re-elected 
to the latter office in 1854. Being opposed 
to the liquor traffic he was a champion of 
the project of prohibition, first brought for- 
ward in 1839 by James Appleton. While 
serving his first term as mayor he drafted a 
bill for the "suppression of drinking houses 
and tippling shops," which he took to the 
legislature and which was passed without an 
alteration. In 185S Mr. Dow was elected 
to the legislature. On the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Maine Infantry and accompanied 
General Butler's expedition to New Orleans. 

In 1862 he was made brigadier-general. At 
the battle of Port Hudson May 27, 1863, he 
was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He 
was confined at Libby prison and Mobile 
nearly a year, when, being exchanged, he 
resigned, his health having given way under 
the rigors of his captivity. He made sev- 
eral trips to England in the interests of 
temperance organization, where he addressed 
large audiences. He was the candidate of 
the National Prohibition party for the presi- 
dency in 1880, receiving about ten thousand 
votes. In 1884 he was largely instrumental 
in the amendment of the constitution of 
Maine, adopted by an overwhelming popular 
vote, which forever forbade the manufacture 
or sale of any intoxicating beverages, and 
commanding the legislature to enforce the 
prohibition. He died October 2, 1897. 

ZACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Orange county, Virginia, September 24, 
1784. His boyhood was spent on his fath- 
er's plantation and his education was lim- 
ited. In 1808 he was made lieutenant of 
the Seventh Infantry, and joined his regi- 
ment at New Orleans. He was promoted 
to captain in 18 10, and commanded at Fort 
Harrison, near the present site of Terre 
Haute, in 181 2, where, for his gallant de- 
fense, he was brevetted major, attaining full 
rank in 18 14. In 181 5 he retired to an es- 
tate near Louisville. In 1S16 here-entered 
the army as major, and was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel and then to colonel. 
Having for many years been Indian agent 
over a large portion of the western country, 
he was often required in Washington to give 
advice and counsel in matters connected 
with the Indian bureau. He served through 
the Black Hawk r ndian war of 1832, and in 
1837 was ordered to the command of the 


army in Florida, where he attacked the In- 
dians in the swamps and brakes, defeated 
them and ended the war. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general and made commander-in- 
chief of the army in Florida. He was as- 
signed to the command of the army of the 
southwest in 1840, but was soon after re- 
lieved of it at his request. He was then 
stationed at posts in Arkansas. In 1845 ne 
was ordered to prepare to protect and de- 
fend Texas boundaries from invasion by 
Mexicans and Indians. On the annexation 
of Texas he proceeded with one thousand 
five hundred men to Corpus Christi, within 
the disputed territory. After reinforcement 
he was ordered by the Mexican General Am- 
pudia to retire beyond the Nueces river, 
with which order he declined to comply. 
The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma followed, and he crossed the Rio 
Grande and occupied Matamoras May 1 8th. 
He was commissioned major-general for this 
campaign, and in September he advanced 
upon the city of Monterey and captured it 
after a hard fight. Here he took up winter 
quarters, and when he was about to resume 
activity in the spring he was ordered to send 
the larger part of his army to reinforce 
General Scott at Vera Cruz. After leaving 
garrisons at various points his army was re- 
duced to about five thousand, mostly fresh 
recruits. He was attacked by the army of 
Santa Anna at Buena Vista, February 22, 
1847, and after a severe fight completely 
routed the Mexicans. He received the 
thanks of congress and a gold medal for 
this victory. He remained in command of 
the "army of occupation" until winter, 
when he returned to the United States. 

In 1848 General Taylor was nominated 
by the Whigs for president. He was elected 
over his two opponents, Cass and Van 
Buren. Great bitterness was developing in 

the struggle for and against the extension of 
slavery, and the newly acquired territory in 
the west, and the fact that the states were 
now equally divided on that question, tended 
to increase the feeling. President Taylor 
favored immediate admission of California 
with her constitution prohibiting slavery, 
and the admission of other states to be 
formed out of the new territory as they 
might elect as they adopted constitutions 
from time to time. This policy resulted in 
the " Omnibus Bill," which afterward passed 
congress, though in separate bills; not, how- 
ever, until after the death of the soldier- 
statesman, which occurred July 9, 1850. 
One of his daughters became the wife of 
Jefferson Davis. 

MELVILLE D. LANDON, better known 
as " Eli Perkins, "author, lecturer and 
humorist, was born in Eaton, New York, 
September 7, 1839. He was the son of 
John Landon and grandson of Rufus Lan- 
don, a revolutionary soldier from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. Melville was edu- 
cated at the district school and neighboring 
academy, where he was prepared for the 
sophomore class at Madison University. He 
passed two years at the latter, when he was 
admitted to Union College, and graduated 
in the class of 1861, receiving the degree of 
A. M., in 1862. He was, at once, ap- 
pointed to a position in the treasury depart- 
ment at Washington. This being about the 
time of the breaking out of the war, and 
before the appearance of any Union troops 
at the capital, he assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the " Clay Battalion/' of Washing- 
ton. Leaving his clerkship some time later, 
he took up duties on the staff of Gem ral A. 
L. Chetlain, who was in command at Mem- 
phis. In 1864 he resigned from the army 
and engaged in cotton planting in Arkansas 



and Louisiana. In 1867 he went abroad, 
making the tour of Europe, traversing Rus- 
sia. While in the latter country his old 
commander of the " Clay Battalion," Gen- 
eral Cassius M. Clay, then United States 
minister at St. Petersburg, made him secre- 
tary of legation. In 1871, on returning to 
America, he published a history of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and followed it with 
numerous humorous writings for the public 
press under the name of "Eli Perkins," 
which, with his regular contributions to the 
" Commercial Advertiser," brought him into 
notice, and spread his reputation as a hu- 
morist throughout thecountry. He also pub- 
lished "Saratoga in 1891," "Wit, Humor 
and Pathos, " ' ' Wit and Humor of the Age, " 
" Kings of Platform and Pulpit," "Thirty 
Years of Wit and Humor," " Fun and Fact," 
and " China and Japan." 

LEWIS CASS, one of the most prom- 
inent statesman and party leaders of his 
day, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1782. He studied law, and hav- 
ing removed to Zanesville, Ohio, commenced 
the practice of that profession in 1802. He 
entered the service of the American govern- 
ment in 1 81 2 and was made a colonel in 
the army under General William Hull, and 
on the surrender of Fort Maiden by that 
officer was held as a prisoner. Being re- 
leased in 181 3, he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general and in 18 14 ap- 
pointed governor of Michigan Territory. 
After he had held that office for some 
sixteen years, negotiating, in the meantime, 
many treaties with the Indians, General 
Caos was made secretary of war in the cabi- 
nel "i President Jackson, in 1831. He was, 
in 1836, appointed minister to France, 
whii h office he held for six years. In 1S44 
ne - as elected United States senator from 

Michigan. In 1846 General Cass opposed 
the Wilmot Proviso, which was an amend- 
ment to a bill for the purchase of land from 
Mexico, which provided that in any of the 
territory acquired from that power slavery 
should not exist. For this and other reasons 
he was nominated as Democratic candidate 
for the presidency of the United States in 
1848, but was defeated by General Zachary 
Taylor, the Whig candidate, having but 
one hundred and thirty-seven electoral votes 
to his opponent's one hundred and sixty- 
three. In 1849 General Cass was re-elected 
to the senate of the United States, and in 
1S54 supported Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska 
bill. He became secretary of state in 
March, 1857, under President Buchanan, 
but resigned that office in December, i860. 
He died June 17, 1S66. The published 
works of Lewis Cass, while not numerous, 
are well written and display much ability. 
He was one of the foremost men of his day 
in the political councils of the Democratic 
party, and left a reputation for high probity 
and honor behind him. 

DE WITT CLINTON.— Probably there 
were but few men who were so popular 
in their time, or who have had so much in- 
fluence in moulding events as the individual 
whose name honors the head of this article. 
De Witt Clinton was the son of General 
James Clinton, and a nephew of Governor 
George Clinton, who was the fpurth vice- 
president of the United States. He was a 
native of Orange county, New York, born at 
Little Britain, March 2, 1769. He gradu- 
ated from Columbia College, in his native 
state, in 1 796, and took up the study of law. 
In 1790 he became private secretary to his 
uncle, then governor of New York. He en- 
tered public life as a Republican or anti- 
Federalist, and was elected to the lower 



house of the state assembly in 1797, and the 
senate of that body in 1 798. At that time 
he was looked on as " the most rising man 
in the Union." In 1801 he was elected to 
the United States senate. In 1803 he was 
appointed by the governor and council 
mayor of the city of New York, then a 
very important and powerful office. Hav- 
ing been re-appointed, he held the office 
of mayor for nearly eleven years, and 
rendered great service to that city. Mr. 
Clinton served as lieutenant-governor of 
the state of New York, 1811-13, and 
was one of the commissioners appointed 
to examine and survey a route for a canal 
from the Hudson river to Lake Erie. Dif- 
fering with President Madison, in relation to 
the war, in 18 12, he was nominated for the 
presidency against that gentleman, by a 
coalition party called the Clintonians, many 
of whom were Federalists. Clinton received 
eight-nine electoral votes. His course at 
this time impaired his popularity for a time. 
He was removed from the mayoralty in 
1814, and retired to private life. In 1815 
he wrote a powerful argument for the con- 
struction of the Erie canal, then a great and 
beneficent work of which he was the prin- 
cipal promoter. This was in the shape of 
a memorial to the legislature, which, in 
18 17, passed a bill authorizing the construc- 
tion of that canal. The same year he was 
elected governor of New York, almost unani- 
mously, notwithstanding the opposition of 
a few who pronounced the scheme of the 
canal visionary. He was re-elected governor 
in 1820. He was at this time, also, presi- 
dent of the canal commissioners. He de- 
clined a re-election to the gubernatorial 
chair in 1822 and was removed from his 
place on the canal board two years later. 
But he was triumphantly elected to the of- 
fice of governor that fall, and his pet project, 

the Erie canal, was finished the next year. 
He was re-elected governor in 1826, but 
died while holding that office, February II, 

AARON BURR, one of the many brilliant 
figures on the political stage in the early 
days of America, was born at Newark, New 
Jersey, February 6, 1756. He was the son 
of Aaron and Esther Burr, the former the 
president of the College of New Jersey, and 
the latter a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, 
who had been president of the same educa- 
tional institution. Young Burr graduated 
at Princeton in 1772. In 1775 he joined 
the provincial army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. For a time, he served as a private 
soldier, but later was made an aide on the 
staff of the unfortunate General Montgom- 
ery, in the Quebec expedition. Subse- 
quently he was on the staffs of Arnold, Put- 
nam and Washington, the latter of whom 
he disliked. He was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a 
brigade on Monmouth's bloody field. In 
x 779. on account of feeble health, Colonel 
Burr resigned from the army. He took up 
the practice of law in Albany, New York, 
but subsequently removed to New York City. 
In 1789 he became attorney-general of that 
state. In 1 79 1 he was chosen to represent 
the state of New York in the United States 
senate and held that position for six years. 
In 1800 he and Thomas Jefferson were both 
candidates for the presidency, and there 
being a tie in the electoral college, each 
having seventy-three votes, the choice was 
left to congress, who gave the first place to 
Jefferson and made Aaron Burr vice-presi- 
dent, as the method then was. In [804 Mr. 
Burr and his great rival, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, met in a duel, which resulted in the 
death of the latter, Burr losing thereby con- 



siderable political and social influence. He 
soon embarked in a wild attempt upon 
Mexico, and as was asserted, upon the 
southwestern territories of the United 
States. He was tried for treason at 
Richmond, Virginia, in 1807, but acquitted, 
and to avoid importunate creditors, fled to 
Europe. After a time, in 18 12, he returned 
to New York, where he practiced law, and 
where he died, September 14, 1836. A man 
of great ability, brilliant and popular talents, 
his influence was destroyed by his unscrupu- 
lous political actions and immoral private 

ALBERT GALLATIN, one of the most 
distinguished statesmen of the early 
days of the republic, was born at Geneva, 
Switzerland, January 29, 1761. He was 
the son of Jean de Gallatin and Sophia A. 
Rolaz du Rosey Gallatin, representatives of 
an old patrician family. Albert Gallatin 
was left an orphan at an early age, and was 
educated under the care of friends of his 
parents. He graduated from the University 
of Geneva in 1779, and declining employ- 
ment under one of the sovereigns of Ger- 
many, came to the struggling colonies, land- 
ing in Boston July 14, 1780. Shortly after 
his arrival he proceeded to Maine, where he 
served as a volunteer under Colonel Allen. 
He made advances to the government for 
the support of the American troops, and in 
November, 1780, was placed in command 
of a small fort at Passamaquoddy, defended 
by a force of militia, volunteers and Indians. 
In 1783 he was professor of the French 
language at Harvard University. A year 
later, having received his patrimony from 
Europe, he purchased large tracts of land 
in western Virginia, but was prevented by 
the Indians from forming the large settle- 
ment he proposed, and, in 1786, purchased 

a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. 
In 1789 he was a member of the convention 
to amend the constitution of that state, and 
united himself with the Republican party, 
the head of which was Thomas Jefferson. 
The following year he was elected to the 
legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he was 
subsequently re-elected. In 1793 he was 
elected to the United States senate, but 
could not take his seat on account of not 
having been a citizen long enough. In 1794 
Mr. Gallatin was elected to the representa- 
tive branch of congress, in which he served 
three terms. He also took an important 
position in the suppression of the "whiskey 
insurrection." In 1801, on the accession of 
Jefferson to the presidency, Mr. Gallatin 
was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
In 1809 Mr. Madison offered him the posi- 
tion of secretary of state, but he declined, 
and continued at the head of the treasury 
until 1 8 1 2, a period of twelve years. He 
exercised a great influence on the other de- 
partments and in the general administration, 
especially in the matter of financial reform, 
and recommended measures for taxation, 
etc., which were passed by congress, and be- 
came laws May 24, 1813. The same year he 
was sent as an envoy extraordinary to Rus- 
sia, which had offered to mediate between 
this country and Great Britain, but the lat- 
ter country refusing the interposition of 
another power, and agreeing to treat di- 
rectly with the United States, in 18 14, at 
Ghent, Mr. Gallatin, in connection with his 
distinguished colleagues, negotiated and 
signed the treaty of peace. In 181 5. in 
conjunction with Messrs. Adams and Clay, 
he signed, at London, a commercial treaty 
between the two countries. In 18 16, de- 
clining his old post at the head of the treas- 
urv, Mr. Gallatin was sent as minister to 
■ h re lie remained until 1823. 



After a year spent in England as envoy ex- 
traordinary, he took up his residence in New 
York, and from that time held no public 
office. In 1S30 he was chosen president of 
the council of the University of New York. 
He was, in 1831, made president of the 
National bank, which position he resigned 
in 1839. He died August 12, 1849. 

M 1 

ILLARD FILLMORE, the thirteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born of New England parentage in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga county, New York, January 7, 
1800. His school education was very lim- 
ited, but he occupied his leisure hours in 
study. He worked in youth upon his fa- 
ther's farm in his native county, and at the 
age of fifteen was apprenticed to a wool 
carder and cloth dresser. Four years later 
he was induced by Judge Wood to enter his 
office at Montville, New York, and take up 
the study of law. This warm friend, find- 
ing young Fillmore destitute of means, 
loaned him money, but the latter, not wish- 
ing to incur a heavy debt, taught school 
during part of the time and in this and other 
ways helped maintain himself. In 1822 he 
removed to Buffalo, New York, and the year 
following, being admitted to the bar, he 
commenced the practice of his profession 
at East Aurora, in the same state. Here 
he remained until 1830, having, in the 
meantime, been admitted to practice in the 
supreme court, when he returned to Buffalo, 
where he became the partner of S. G. 
Haven and N. K. Hall. He entered poli- 
tics and served in the state legislature from 
1829 to 1832. He was in congress in 1833— 
35 and in 1837-41, where he proved an 
active and useful member, favoring the 
views of John Quincy Adams, then battling 
almost alone the slave-holding party in na- 
tional politics, and in most of public ques- 

tions acted with the Whig party. While 
chairman of the committee of ways and 
means he took a leading part in draughting 
the tariff bill of 1842. In 1844 Mr. Fill- 
more was the Whig candidate for governor 
of New York. In 1847 he was chosen 
comptroller of the state, and abandoning 
his practice and profession removed to Al- 
bany. In 1848 he was elected vice presi- 
dent on the ticket with General Zachary 
Taylor, and they were inaugurated the fol- 
lowing March. On the death of the presi- 
dent, July 9, 1850, Mr. Fillmore was in- 
ducted into that office. The great events 
of his administration were the passage of 
the famous compromise acts of 1850, and 
the sending out of the Japan expedition of 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office, and 
in 1855 went to Europe, where he received 
marked attention. On returning home, in 
1856, he was nominated for the presidency 
by the Native American or " Know-Noth- 
ing" party, but was defeated, James Buch- 
anan being the successful candidate. 

Mr. Fillmore ever afterward lived in re- 
tirement. During the conflict of Civil war 
he was mostly silent. It was generally sup- 
posed, however, that his sympathy was with 
the southern confederacy. He kept aloof 
from the conflict without any words of cheer 
to the one party or the other. For this rea- 
son he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 

PETER F. ROTHERMEL, one of Amer- 
ica's greatest and best-known historical 
painters, was born in Luzerne county, Penn- 
sylvania, July 8, 1817, and was of German 
ancestry. He received his earlier education 
in his native county, and in Philadelphia 


learned the profession of land surveying. 
But a strong bias toward art drew him away 
and he soon opened a studio where he did 
portrait painting. This soon gave place to 
historical painting, he having discovered the 
bent of his genius in that direction. Be- 
sides the two pictures in the Capitol at 
Washington — ' 'De Soto Discovering the Mis- 
sissippi" and "Patrick Henry Before the 
Virginia House of Burgesses" — Rothermel 
painted many others, chief among which 
are: "Columbus Before Queen Isabella," 
"Martyrs of the Colosseum," "Cromwell 
Breaking Up Service in an English Church, " 
and the famous picture of the "Battle 
of Gettysburg." The last named was 
painted for the state of Pennsylvania, for 
which Rothermel received the sum of $25,- 
000, and which it took him four years to 
plan and to paint. It represents the portion 
of that historic field held by the First corps, 
an exclusively Pennsylvania body of men, 
and was selected by Rothermel for that 
reason. For many years most of his time 
was spent in Italy, only returning for short 
periods. He died at Philadelphia, August 
16, 1895. 

distinguished leaders upon the side of the 
south in the late Civil war, was born at St. 
Augustine, Florida, in 1824. After receiv- 
ing the usual education he was appointed to 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated in 1845 and 
entered the army as second lieutenant of 
infantry. During the Mexican war he was 
made first lieutenant and captain for gallant 
conduct at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. 
From 1849 to 1852 he was assistant pro- 
fessor of mathematics at West Point. He 
was transferred to the Second cavalry with 
the rank of captain in 1855, served on the 

frontier, and was wounded in a fight with 
Comanche Indians in Texas, May 13, 1859. 
In January, 18.61, he became major of his 
regiment, but resigned April 9th to fol- 
low the fortunes of the southern cause. 
He was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army and served in Virginia. 
At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, 
he arrived on the field late in the day, but 
was soon disabled by a wound. He was 
made major-general in 1862, and being trans- 
ferred to East Tennessee, was given com- 
mand of that department. Under General 
Braxton Bragg he led the advance in the 
invasion of Kentucky and defeated the Union 
forces at Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, 

1862, and advanced to Frankfort. Pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he 
was engaged at the battle of Perryville, 
October 10, and in the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, December 31, 1862, and January 3, 

1863. He was soon made general, the 
highest rank in the service, and in com- 
mand of the trans-Mississippi department 
opposed General N. P. Banks in the famous 
Red River expedition, taking part in the 
battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, and 
other engagements of that eventful cam- 
paign. He was the last to surrender the 
forces under his command, which he did 
May 26, 1865. After the close of the war 
he located in Tennessee, where he died 
March 28, 1893. 

American statesman, was born Decem- 
ber 29, 1833, at Middleton, Massachusetts, 
where he was reared and received his early 
education. He went to Kansas in 1858 
and joined the free-soil army, and a year 
after his arrival he was a member of the his- 
torical Wyandotte convention, which drafted 
a free-state constitution. In i860 he was 



made secretary of the territorial council, 
and in 1S61 was secretary of the state sen- 
ate. The next year he was duly elected to 
the legitimate state senate from Atchison, 
where he had made his home. From that 
time he was the leader of the radical Re- 
publican element in the state. He became 
the editor of the "Atchison Champion " in 
1863, which was a "red-hot free-soil Re- 
publican organ." In 1862 he was the anti- 
Lane candidate for lieutenant-governor, but 
was defeated. He was elected to the Unit- 
ed States senate to succeed Senator Pom- 
eroy, and took his seat in the forty-third 
congress and served until the fiftieth. In 
the forty-ninth congress he succeeded Sen- 
ator Sherman as president pro tern. , which 
position he held through the fiftieth con- 

BENJAMIN WEST, the greatest of the 
early American painters, was of Eng- 
lish descent and Quaker parentage. He was 
born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738. 
From what source he inherited his genius it 
is hard to imagine, since the tenets and 
tendencies of the Quaker faith were not cal- 
culated to encourage the genius of art, but 
at the age of nine years, with no suggestion 
except that of inspiration, we find him choos- 
ing his model from life, and laboring over 
his first work calculated to attract public 
notice. It was a representation of a sleep- 
ing child in its cradle. The brush with 
which he painted it was made of hairs 
which he plucked from the cat's tail, and 
the colors were obtained from the war paints 
of friendly Indians, his mother's indigo bag, 
and ground chalk and charcoal, and the juice 
of berries, but there were touches in the rude 
production that he declared in later days 
were a credit to his best works. The pic- 
ture attracted notice, for a council was 

called at once to pass upon the boy's con- 
duct in thus infringing the laws of the so- 
ciety. There were judges among them who 
saw in his genius a rare gift and their wis- 
dom prevailed, and the child was given per- 
mission to follow his inclination. He studied 
under a painter named Williams, and then 
spent some years as a portrait painter with 
advancing success. At the age of twenty- 
two he went to Italy, and not until he had 
perfected himself by twenty-three years of 
labor in that paradise of art was he satisfied 
to turn his face toward home. However, he 
stopped at London, and decided to settle 
there, sending to America for his intended 
bride to join him. Though the Revolution- 
ary war was raging, King George III showed 
the American artist the highest considera- 
tion and regard. His remuneration from 
works for royalty amounted to five thou- 
sand dollars per year for thirty years. 

West's best known work in America is, 
perhaps, "The Death of General Wolf." 
West was one of the thirty-six original mem- 
bers of the Royal academy and succeeded 
Joshua Reynolds as president, which posi- 
tion he held until his death. His early 
works were his best, as he ceased to display 
originality in his later life, conventionality 
having seriously affected his efforts. He 
died in 1820. 

Georgia evangelist, was born October 
if>, 1S47, in Chambers county, Alabama. 
He did not attend school regularly during 
his boyhood, but worked on a farm, and 
went to school at intervals, on account of 
ill health. His father removed to Carters- 
ville, Georgia, when Mr. Jones was a small 
boy. He quit school at the age of nineteen 
and never attended college. The war inter- 
fered with his education, which was intended 


to prepare him for the legal profession. 
After the war he renewed his preparation 
for college, but was compelled to desist from 
such a course, as his health failed him en- 
tirely. Later on, however, he still pursued 
his legal studies and was admitted to the 
bar. Soon after this event he went to Dal- 
las, Paulding county, Georgia, where he was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, 
and in a few months removed to Cherokee 
county, Alabama, where he taught school. 
In 1869 he returned to Cartersville, Georgia, 
and arrived in time to see his father die. 
Immediately after this event he applied for 
a license to preach, and went to Atlanta, 
Georgia, to the meeting of the North Geor- 
gia Conference of the M. E. church south, 
which received him on trial. He became 
an evangelist of great note, and traveled 
extensively, delivering his sermons in an 
inimitable style that made him very popular 
with the masses, his methods of conducting 
revivals being unique and original and his 
preaching practical and incisive. 

character in political affairs and for 
many years United States senator from 
Illinois, was born November 22, 1829, at 
Monticello, Kentucky. He came with his 
parents to Illinois in 1830 and spent his early 
yearson afarm, but havingformed the purpose 
of devoting himself to the lawyer's profession 
he spent two years study at the Rock River 
seminary at Mount Morris, Illinois. In 1853 
Mr. Cullom entered the law office of Stuart 
and Edwards at Springfield, Illinois, and two 
years later he began the independent prac- 
tice of law in that city. He took an active 
interest in politics and was soon elected city 
attorney of Springfield. In 1856 he was 
elected a member of the Illinois house of 
representatives. He identified himself with 

the newly formed Republican party and in 
i860 was re-elected to the legislature of his 
state, in which he was chosen speaker of the 
house. In 1862 President Lincoln appoint- 
ed a commission to pass upon and examine 
the accounts of the United States quarter- 
masters and disbursing officers, composed 
as follows: Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; 
Charles A. Dana, of New York, and 
Gov. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Cullom was nominated for congress in 
1864, and was elected by a majority of 
1,785. In the house of representatives he 
became an active and aggressive member, 
was chairman of the committee on territories 
and served in congress until 1868. Mr. 
Cullom was returned to the state legislature, 
of which he was chosen speaker in 1872, 
and was re-elected in 1874. In 1876 he 
was elected governor of Illinois and at the 
end of his term he was chosen for a second 
term. Hewaselected United States senator 
in 1883 and twice re-elected. 

American inventor of much note, was 
born in Hertford county, North Carolina, 
September 12, 1818. At an early age he 
gave promise of an inventive genius. The 
first emanation from his mind was the 
invention of a screw for the propulsion 01 
water craft, but on application for a 
patent, found that he was forestalled but 
a short time by John Ericsson. Subse- 
quently he invented a machine for sowing 
wheat in drills, which was used to a great 
extent throughout the west. He then stud- 
ied medicine, and in 1847-8 attended 
lectures at the Indiana Medical College 
at Laporte, and in 1848-9 at the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati. He later 
discovered a method of transmitting power 
through the medium of compressed air. A 

y 7 1 1 x ■^..^oaiG.iwj^soLLl^ 



double-acting hemp break was also invented 
by him. The invention, however, by which 
Dr. Gatling became best known was the 
famous machine gun which bears his name. 
This he brought to light in 1861-62, and on 
the first trial of it, in the spring of the latter 
year, two hundred shots per minute were 
fired from it. After making some improve- 
ments which increased its efficiency, it was 
submitted to severe trials by our govern- 
ment at the arsenals at Frankfort, Wash- 
ington and Fortress Monroe, and at other 
points. The gun was finally adopted by 
•our government, as well as by that of Great 
Britain, Russia and others. 

a national fame in politics, was born 
August 11, 1847, in Edgefield county, South 
Carolina. He received his education in the 
Oldfield school, where he acquired the 
rudiments of Latin and Greek, in addition 
to a good English education. He left school 
in 1864 to join the Confederate army, but 
was prevented from doing so by a severe 
illness, which resulted in the loss of an eye. 
In 1867 he removed to Florida, but returned 
in 1868, when he was married and devoted 
himself to farming. He was chairman of 
the Democratic organization of his county, 
but except a few occasional services he took 
no active part in politics then. Gradually, 
however, his attention was directed to the 
depressed condition of the farming interests 
of his state, and in August, 1885, before a 
joint meeting of the agricultural society and 
state grange at Bennettsville, he made a 
speech in which he set forth the cause of 
agricultural depression and urged measures 
of relief. From his active interest in the 
farming class he was styled the " Agricult- 
ural Moses." He advocated an industrial 
school for women and for a separate agri- 

cultural college, and in 1887 he secured a 
modification in the final draft of the will of 
Thomas G. Clemson, which resulted in the 
erection of the Clemson Agricultural Col- 
lege at Fort Hill. In 1890 he was chosen 
governor on the Democratic ticket, and 
carried the election by a large majority. 
Governor Tillman was inaugurated Decem- 
ber 4, 1890. Mr. Tillman was next elected 
to the United States senate from South 
Carolina, and gained a national reputation 
by his fervid oratory. 

No journalist of America was so cele- 
brated in his time for the wit, spice, and 
vigor of his writing, as the gentleman whose 
name heads this sketch. From Atlantic to 
Pacific 'rje, was well known by his witticism 
as well as by strength and force of his edi- 
torials. He was a native of Preston, Con- 
necticut, born December 18, 1802. After 
laying the foundation of a liberal education 
in his youth, he entered Brown University, 
from which he was graduated in 1823. Tak- 
ing up the study of law, he was admitted to 
the bar in 1829. During part of his time 
he was editor of the " New England Weekly 
Review," a position which he relinquished 
to go south and was succeeded by John 
Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet. 

On arriving in Louisville, whither he 
had gone to gather items for his history of 
Henry Clay, Mr. Prentice became identified 
with the "Louisville Journal," which, undei 
his hands, became one of the leading Whig 
newspapers of the country. At the head of 
this he remained until the day of his death. 
This latter event occurred January 22, 1S70, 
and he was succeeded in the control of the 
"Journal" by Colonel Henry Watterson. 

Mr. Prentice was an author of consider- 
able celebrity, chief among his works being 



"The Life of Henry Clay," and "Prentice- 
ana," a collection of wit and humor, that 
passed through several large editions. 

SAM. HOUSTON, in the opinion of some 
critics one of the most remarkable men 
who ever figured in American history, was a 
native of Rockbridge county, Virginia, born 
March 2, 1793. Early in life he was left in 
destitute circumstances by the death of his 
father, and, with his mother, removed to 
Tennessee, then almost a boundless wilder- 
ness. He received but little education, 
spending the most of his time among the 
Cherokee Indians. Part of the time of his 
residence there Houston acted as clerk for a 
trader and also taught one of the primitive 
schools of the day. In 1813 he enlisted as 
private in the United States army and was 
engaged under General Jackson in the war 
with the Creek Indians. When peace was 
made Houston was a lieutenant, but he re- 
signed his commission and commenced the 
study of law at Nashville. After holding 
some minor offices he was elected member 
of congress from Tennessee. This was in 
1823. He retained this office until 1827, 
when he was chosen governor of the state. 
In 1829, resigning that office before the ex- 
piration of his term, Sam Houston removed 
to Arkansas, and made his home among the 
Cherokees, becoming the agent of that 
tribe and representing their interests at 
Washington. On a visit to Texas, just 
prior to the election of delegates to a con- 
vention called for the purpose of drawing 
up a constitution previous to the admission 
of the state into the Mexican union, he was 
unanimously chosen a delegate. The con- 
vention framed the constitution, but, it be- 
ing rejected by the government of Mexico, 
and the petition for admission to the Con- 
federacy denied and the Texans told by the 

president of the Mexican union to give up 
their arms, bred trouble. It was determined 
to resist this demand. A military force was 
soon organized, with General Houston at 
the head of it. War was prosecuted with 
great vigor, and with varying success, but 
at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, 
the Mexicans were defeated and their leader 
and president, Santa Anna, captured. Texas 
was then proclaimed an independent repub- 
lic, and in October of the same year Hous- 
ton was inaugurated president. On the ad- 
mission of Texas to the Federal Union, in 
1845, Houston was elected senator, and 
held that position for twelve years. Oppos- 
ing the idea of secession, he retired from 
political life in 1861, and died at Hunts- 
ville, Texas, July 25, 1863. 

ELI WHITNEY, the inventor of the cot- 
ton-gin, was born in Westborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 8, 1765. After his 
graduation from Yale College, he went to 
Georgia, where he studied law, and lived 
with the family of the widow of General 
Nathaniel Greene. At that time the only 
way known to separate the cotton seed from 
the fiber was by hand, making it extremely 
slow and expensive, and for this reason cot- 
ton was little cultivated in this country. 
Mrs. Greene urged the inventive Whitney 
to devise some means for accomplishing 
this work by machinery. This he finally 
succeeded in doing, but he was harassed by 
attempts to defraud him by those who had 
stolen his ideas. He at last formed a part- 
nership with a man named Miller, and they 
began the manufacture of the machines at 
Washington, Georgia, in 1795. The suc- 
cess of his invention was immediate, and the 
legislature of South Carolina voted the sum 
of $50,000 for his idea. This sum he had 
great difficulty in collecting, after years of 



litigation and delay. North Carolina al- 
lowed him a royalty, and the same was 
agree 1 to by Tennessee, but was never paid. 

While his fame rests upon the invention 
cf tiie cotton-gin, his fortune came from his 
improvements in the manufacture and con- 
strue' ion of firearms. In 1798 the United 
States government gave him a contract for 
this purpose, and he accumulated a fortune 
from it. The town of Whitney vi lie, Con- 
necticut, was founded by this fortune. 
Whitney died at New Haven, Connecticut, 
January 8, 1825. 

The cotton-gin made the cultivation of 
cotton profitable, and this led to rapid in- 
troduction of slavery in the south. His in- 
vention thus affected our national history in 
a manner little dreamed of by the inventor. 

LESTER WALLACK (John Lester Wal- 
lack), for many years the leading light 
comedian upon the American stage, was 
the son of James W. Wallack, the " Brum- 
mell of the Stage." Both father and son 
were noted for their comeliness of feature 
and form. Lester Wallack was born in 
New York, January 1, 1819. He received 
his education in England, and made his first 
appearance on the stage in 1848 at the New 
Broadway theater, New York. He acted 
light comedy parts, and also occasion- 
ally in romantic plays like Monte Cristo, 
which play made him his fame. He went 
to England and played under management 
of such men as Hamblin and Burton, and then 
returned to New York with his father, who 
opened the first Wallack's theater, at the 
corner of Broome and Broadway, in 1852. 
The location was afterward changed to 
Thirteenth and Broadway, in 1861, and 
later to its present location, Broad 
Thirteenth, in 1882. The elder Wallack 
died in 18G4, after which Lester assumed 

management, jointly with Theodore Moss. 
Lester Wallack was commissioned in the 
queen's service while in England, and there 
he also married a sister to the famous artist, 
the late John Everett Millais. While Les- 
ter Wallack never played in the interior 
cities, his name was as familiar to the public 
as that of our greatest stars. He die.! Sep- 
tember 6, 1888, at Stamford, Connecticut. 

the palace car magnate, inventor, 
multi-millionaire and manufacturer, may 
well be classed among the remarkable 
self-made men of the century. He was 
born March 3, 1831, in Chautauqua county, 
New York. His parents were poor, and 
his education was limited to what he could 
learn of the rudimentary branches in the 
district school. At the age of fourteen he 
went to work as clerk for a country mer- 
chant. He kept this place three years, 
studying at night. When seventeen he 
went to Albion, New York, and worked for 
his brother, who kept a cabinet shop there. 
Five years later he went into business for 
himself as contractor for moving buildings 
along the line of the Erie canal, which was 
then being widened by the state, and was 
successful in thii. In 1858 he removed to 
Chicago and engaged in the business of 
moving and raising houses. The work was 
novel there then and he was quite success- 
ful. About this time the discomfort attend- 
ant on traveling at night attracted his at- 
tention. He reasoned that the public would 
gladly pay for comfortable sleeping accom- 
modations. A few sleeping cars were in 
use at that time, but they were wretchedly 
crude, uncomfortable affairs. In 1859 he 
bought two old day coaches from the Chi- 
cago&Alton road and remodeled them some- 
thing like the general plan of the sleeping 



cars of the present day. They were put 
into service on the Chicago & Alton and 
became popular at once. In 1863 he built 
the first sleeping-car resembling the Pullman 
cars of to-day. It cost $18,000 and was 
the "Pioneer." After that the Pullman 
Palace Car Company prospered. It had 
shops at different cities. In 1880 the Town 
of Pullman was founded by Mr. Pullman 
and his company, and this model manufac- 
turing community is known all over the 
world. Mr. Pullman died October 19, 1897. 

JAMES E. B. STUART, the most famous 
cavalry leader of the Southern Confed- 
eracy during the Civil war, was born in 
Patrick county, Virginia, in 1833. On 
graduating from the United States Military 
Academy, West Point, in 1854, he was as- 
signed, as second lieutenant, to a regiment 
of mounted rifles, receiving his commission 
in October. In March, 1855, he was trans- 
ferred to the newly organized First cavalry, 
and was promoted to first lieutenant the 
following December, and to captain April 
22, 1861. Taking the side of the south, 
May 14, 1 861, he was made colonel of a 
Virginia cavalry regiment, and served as 
such at Bull Run. In September, 186 1, he 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
erai. and major-general early in 1862. On 
the reorganization of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, in June of the latter year, when 
R. E. Lee assumed command, General Stu- 
art made a reconnoissance with one thou- 
sand five hundred cavalry and four guns, 
and in two days made the circuit of McClel- 
lan's army, producing much confusion and 
gathering useful information, and losing but 
one man. August 25, 1862, he captured 
part of Pope's headquarters' train, including 
that general's private baggage and official 
correspondence, and the next night, in a 

descent upon Manasses, capturing immense 
quantities of commissary and quartermaster 
store, eight guns, a number of locomotives 
and a few hundred prisoners. During the 
invasion of Maryland, in September, 1862, 
General Stuart acted as rearguard, resisting 
the advance of the Federal cavalry at South 
Mountain, and at Antietam commanded the 
Confederate left. Shortly after he crossed 
the Potomac, making a raid as far as Cham- 
bersburg, Pennsylvania. In the battle of 
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Gen- 
eral Stuart's command was on the extreme 
right of the Confederate line. At Chancel- 
lorsville, after "Stonewall " Jackson's death 
and the wounding of General A. P. Hill, 
General Stuart assumed command of Jack- 
son's corps, which he led in the severe con- 
test of May 3, 1863. Early in June, the 
same year, a large force of cavalry was 
gathered under Stuart, at Culpepper, Vir- 
ginia, which, advancing to join General Lee 
in his invasion of Pennsylvania, was met at 
Brandy Station, by two divisions of cavalry 
and two brigades of infantry, under General 
John I. Gregg, and driven back. During the 
movements of the Gettysburg campaign he 
rendered important services. In May, 1864, 
General Stuart succeeded, by a detour, in 
placing himself between Richmond and 
Sheridan's advancing column, and at Yellow 
Tavern was attacked in force. During the 
fierce conflict that ensued General Stuart 
was mortally wounded, and died at Rich- 
mond, May 11, 1864. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth 
president of the United States — from 
1853 until 1857 — was born November 23, 
1804, at Hillsboro, New Hampshire. He 
came of old revolutionary stock and his 
father was a governor of the state. Mr. 
Pierce entered Bowdoin College in 1820, 



was graduated in 1S24, and took up the 
study of law in the office of Judge Wood- 
bury, and later he was admitted to the bar. 
Mr. Pierce practiced his profession with 
varying successes in his native town and 
also in Concord. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1833 and served in that 
body until 1837, the last two years of his 
term serving as speaker of the house. He 
was elected to the United States senate in 
1837, just as President Van Buren began 
his term of office. Mr. Pierce served until 
1842, and many times during Polk's term he 
declined important public offices. During 
the war with Mexico Mr. Pierce was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and he embarked 
with a portion of his troops at Newport, 
Rhode Island, May 27, 1847, an d went with 
them to the field of battle. He served 
through the war and distinguished himself 
by his skill, bravery and excellent judg- 
ment. When he reached his home in his 
native state he was received coldly by the 
opponents of the war, but the advocates of 
the war made up for his cold reception by 
the enthusiastic welcome which they ac- 
corded him. Mr. Pierce resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, and in the political 
strife that followed he gave his support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party. The Democratic convention met in 
Baltimore, June 12, 1852, to nominate a 
candidate for the presidency, and they con- 
tinued in session four days, and in thirty- 
five ballotings no one had secured the re- 
quisite two-thirds vote. Mr. Pierce had not 
received a vote as yet, until the Virginia 
delegation brought his name forward, and 
finally on the forty-ninth ballot Mr. Pierce 
received 282 votes and all the other candi- 
dates eleven. His opponent on the Whig 
ticket was General Winfield Scott, who 
only received the electoral votes of four 

states. Mr. Pierce was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the United States March 4, 1S53, 
with W. R. King as vice president, and the 
following named gentlemen were afterward 
chosen to fill the positions in the cabinet: 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jeffer- 
son Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert Mc- 
Clelland, James Campbell and Caleb Cush- 
ing. During the administration of President 
Pierce the Missouri compromise law was 
repealed, and all the territories of the Union 
were thrown open to slavery, and the dis- 
turbances in Kansas occurred. In 1857 he 
was succeeded in the presidency by James 
Buchanan, and retired to his home in Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. He always cherished 
his principles of slavery, and' at the out- 
break of the rebellion he was an adherent of 
the cause of the Confederacy. He died at 
Concord, New Hampshire, October 8, 1869. 

JAMES B. WEAVER, well known as a 
leader of the Greenback and later of the 
Populist party, was born at Dayton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1833. He received his earlier 
education in the schools of his native town, 
and entered the law department of the Ohio 
University, at Cincinnati, from which he 
graduated in 1854. Removing to the grow- 
ing state of Iowa, he became connected 
with "The Iowa Tribune," at the state 
capital, Des Moines, as one of its editors. 
He afterward practiced law and was elected 
district attorney for the second judicial dis- 
trict of Iowa, on the Republican ticket in 
1866, which office he held for a short time. 
In 1867 Mr. Weaver was appointed assessor 
of internal revenue for the first district of 
Iowa, and filled that position until some- 
time in 1873. He was elected and served 
in the forty-sixth congress. In 1880 the 
National or Greenback party in convention 
at Chicago, nominated James B. Weaver as. 



its candidate for the presidency. By a 
union of the Democratic and National 
parties in his district, he was elected to the 
forty-ninth congress, and re-elected to the 
same office in the fall of 1886. Mr. Weaver 
was conceded to be a very fluent speaker, 
and quite active in all political work. On 
July 4, 1892, at the National convention 
of the People's party, General James B. 
Weaver was chosen as the candidate for 
president of that organization, and during 
the campaign that followed, gained a na- 
tional reputation. 

of the leading bankers and financiers of 
the United States, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1826, and was the son of 
Francis M. Drexel, who had established 
the large banking institution of Drexel & 
Co., so well known. The latter was a native 
of Dornbirn, in the Austrian Tyrol. He 
studied languages and fine arts at Turin, 
Italy. On returning to his mountain home, 
in 1809, and finding it in the hands of the 
French, he went to Switzerland and later 
to Paris. In i8i2,aftera short visit home, 
he went to Berlin, where he studied paint- 
ing until 18 1 7, in which year he emigrated 
to America, and settled in Philadelphia. A 
few years later he went to Chili and Peru, 
where he executed some fine portraits of 
notable people, including General Simon 
Bolivar. After spending some time in Mex- 
ico, he returned to Philadelphia, and en- 
gaged in the banking business. In 1837 he 
founded the house of Drexel & Co. He 
died in 1837, and was succeeded by his two 
sons, Anthony J. and Francis A. His son, 
Anthony J. Drexel, Jr. , entered the bank 
when he was thirteen years of age, before he 
was through with his schooling, and after 
that the history of the banking business of 

which he was the head, was the history of his 
life. The New York house of Drexel, Mor- 
gan & Co. was established in 1850; the 
Paris house, Drexel, Harjes & Co., in 1867. 
The Drexel banking houses have supplied 
iand placed hundreds of millions of dollars 
n government, corporation, railroad and 
other loans and securities. The reputation 
of the houses has always been held on the 
highest plane. Mr. Drexel founded and 
heavily endowed the Drexel Institute, in 
Philadelphia, an institution to furnish better 
and wider avenues of employment to young 
people of both sexes. It has departments 
of arts, science, mechanical arts and domes- 
tic economy. Mr. Drexel, Jr. .departed this 
life June 30, 1893. 

inventor of the recording telegraph in- 
strument, was born in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, April 27, 1 79 1. He graduated 
from Yale College in 18 10, and took up art 
as his profession. He went to London with 
the great American painter, Washington 
Allston, and studied in the Royal Academy 
under Benjamin West. His "Dying Her- 
cules," his first effort in sculpture, took the 
gold medal in 1813. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 18 1 5 and continued to pursue his 
profession. He was greatly interested in 
scientific studies, which he carried on in 
connection with other labors. He founded 
the National Academy of Design and was 
many years its president. He returned to 
Europe and spent three years in study 
in the art centers, Rome, Florence, Venice 
and Paris. In 1832 he returned to America 
and while on the return voyage the idea of 
a recording teiegraph apparatus occurred to 
him, and he made a drawing to represent his 
conception. He was the first to occupy the 
chair of fine arts in the University of New 



York City, and in 1835 he set up his rude 
instrument in his room in the university. 
But it was not until after many years of 
discouragement and reverses of fortune that 
lie finally was successful in placing his inven- 
tion before the public. In 1844, by aid of 
the United States government, he had con- 
structed a telegraph line forty miles in length 
from Washington to Baltimore. Over this 
line the test was made, and the first tele- 
graphic message was flashed May 24, 1844, 
from the United States supreme court rooms 
to Baltimore. It read, "What hath God 
wrought!" His fame and fortune were es- 
tablished in an instant. Wealth and honors 
poured in upon him from that day. The 
nations of Europe vied with each other 
in honoring the great inventor with medals, 
titles and decorations, and the learned 
societies of Europe hastened to enroll his 
name upon their membership lists and confer 
degrees. In 1858 he was the recipient of an 
honor never accorded to an inventor before. 
The ten leading nations of Europe, at the 
suggestion of the Emporer Napoleon, ap- 
pointed representatives to an international 
congress, which convened at Paris for the 
special purpose of expressing gratitude of the 
nations, and they voted him a present of 
400,000 francs. 

Professor Morse was present at the unveil- 
ing of a bronze statue erected in his honor in 
Central Pajk, New York, in 1871. His last 
appearance in public was at the unveiling 
of the statue of Benjamin Franklin in New 
York in 1872, when he made the dedica- 
tory speech and unveiled the statue. He 
died April 2, 1872, in the city of New York. 

chief justice of the United States, was 
born at Lyme, Connecticut, November 29, 
1 8 16. He was a graduate from Yale Col- 

lege in 1837, in the class with William M. 
Evarts. His father was judge of the su- 
preme court of errors of the state of Con- 
necticut, and in his office young W'aite 
studied law. He subsequently removed to 
Ohio, and was elected to the legislature of 
that state in 1849. He removed from 
Maumee City to Toledo and became a prom- 
inent legal light in that state. He was 
nominated as a candidate for congress re- 
peatedly but declined to run, and also de- 
clined a place on the supreme bench of the 
state. He won great distinction for his able 
handling of the Alabama claims at Geneva, 
before the arbitration tribunal in 1871, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States in 1874 on the 
death of Judge Chase. When, in 1876, elec- 
toral commissioners were chosen to decide 
the presidential election controversy between 
Tilden and Hayes, Judge Waite refused to 
serve on that commission. 

His death occurred March 23, 1S88. 

ELISHA KENT KANE was one of the 
distinguished American explorers of the 
unknown regions of the frozen north, and 
gave to the world a more accurate knowl- 
edge of the Arctic zone. Dr. Kane was 
born February 3, 1820, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. He was a graduate of the 
universities of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
and took his medical degree in 1843. He 
entered the service of the United States 
navy, and was physician to the Chinese 
embassy. Dr. Kane traveled extensively 
in the Levant, Asia and Western Africa, 
and also served in the Mexican war, in 
which he was severely wounded. His 
first Arctic expedition was under De Haven 
in the first Grinnell expedition in search 
of Sir John Franklin in 1850. He com- 
manded the second Grinnell expedition 



in 1853-55, and discovered an open polar 
sea. For this expedition he received a gold 
medal and other distinctions. He published 
a narrative of his first polar expedition in 
I853, and in 1856 published two volumes 
relating to his second polar expedition. He 
was a man of active, enterprising and cour- 
ageous spirit. His health, which was al- 
ways delicate, was impaired by the hard- 
ships of his Arctic expeditions, from which 
he never fully recovered and from which he 
died February 16, 1857, at Havana. 

daughter of Judge Daniel Cady and 
Margaret Livingston, and was born Novem- 
ber 12, 181 5, at Johnstown, New York. She 
was educated at the Johnstown Academy, 
vhere she studied with a class of boys, and 
was fitted for college at the age of fifteen, 
•after which she pursued her studies at Mrs. 
Willard's Seminary, at Troy. Her atten- 
tion was called to the disabilities of her sex 
by her own educational experiences, and 
through a study of Blackstone, Story, and 
Kent. Miss Cady was married to Henry B. 
Stanton in 1840, and accompanied him to 
the world's anti-slavery convention in Lon- 
don. While there she made the acquain- 
tance of Lucretia, Mott. Mrs. Stanton 
resided at Boston until 1847, when the 
family moved to Seneca Falls, New York, 
and she and Lucretia Mott signed the first 
call for a woman's rights convention. The 
meeting was held at her place of residence 
July 19-20, 1848. This was the first oc- 
casion of a formal claim of suffrage for 
women that was made. Mrs. Stanton ad- 
dressed the New York legislature, in 1854, 
on the rights of married women, and in 
i860, in advocacy of the granting of di- 
vorce for drunkenness. She also addressed 
the legislature and the constitutional con- 

vention, and maintained that during the 
revision of the constitution the state was 
resolved into its original elements, and that 
all citizens had, therefore, a right to vote 
for the members of that convention. After 
1869 Mrs. Stanton frequently addressed 
congressional committees and state consti- 
tutional conventions, and she canvassed 
Kansas, Michigan, and other states when 
the question of woman suffrage was sub- 
mitted in those states. Mrs. Stanton was 
one of the editors of the " Revolution," and 
most of the calls and resolutions for con- 
ventions have come from her pen. She 
was president of the national committee, 
also of the Woman's Loyal League, and 
of the National Association, for many years. 

American jurist, was born in Connecti- 
cut in i8o5- He Williams College 
when sixteen years old, and commenced the 
study of law in 1825. In 1828 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and went to New York, 
where he soon came into prominence be- 
fore the bar of that state. He entered upon 
the labor of reforming the practice and 
procedure, which was then based upon the 
common law practice of England, and had 
become extremely complicated, difficult and 
uncertain in its application. His first paper 
on this subject was published in 1839, and 
after eight years of continuous efforts in this, 
direction, he was appointed one of a com- 
mission by New York to reform the practice 
of that state. The result was embodied in 
the two codes of procedure, civil and crimi- 
nal, the first of which was adopted almost 
entire by the state of New York, and has 
since been adopted by more than half the 
states in the Union, and became the basis 
of the new practice and procedure in Eng- 
land, contained in the Judicature act. He 



was later appointed chairman cf a new com- 
mission to codify the entire body of laws. 
This great work employed many years in its 
completion, but when finished it embraced 
a civil, penal, and political code, covering 
the entire field of American laws, statutory 
and common. This great body of law was 
adopted by California and Dakota territory 
in its entirety, and many other states have 
since adopted its substance. In 1867 the 
British Association for Social Science heard 
a proposition from Mr. Field to prepare an 
international code. This led to the prepara- 
tion of his " Draft Outlines of an Interna- 
tional Code," which was in fact a complete 
body of international laws, and introduced 
the principle of arbitration. Other of his 
codes of the state of New York have since 
been adopted by that state. 

In addition to his great works on law, 
Mr. Field indulged his literary tastes by fre- 
quent contributions to general literature, 
and his articles on travels, literature, and 
the political questions of the hour gave 
him rank with the best writers of his time. 
His father was the Rev. David Dudley Field, 
and his brothers were Cyrus W. Field, Rev. 
Henry Martin Field, and Justice Stephen 
J. Field of the United States supreme 
court. David Dudley Field died at New 
York, April 13, 1894. 

HENRY M. TELLER, a celebrated 
American politician, and secretary of 
the interior under President Arthur, was born 
May 23, 1830, in Allegany county, New 
York. He was of Hollandish ancestry and 
received an excellent education, after which 
he took up the study of law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the state of New York. 
Mr. Teller removed to Illinois in January, 
1858, and practiced for three years in that 
state. From thence he moved to Colorado 

in 1 86 1 and located at Central City, which 
was then one of the principal mining towns 
in the state. His exceptional abilities as 
a lawyer soon brought him into prominence 
and gained for him a numerous and profit- 
able clientage. In politics he affiliated with 
the Republican party, but declined to become 
a candidate for office until the admission of 
Colorado into the Union as a state, when 
he was elected to the United States senate. 
Mr. Teller drew the term ending March 
4, 1877, but was re-elected December 11, 
1876, and served until April 17, 1882, when 
he was appointed by President Arthur as 
secretary of the interior. He accepted a 
cabinet position with reluctance, and on 
March 3, 1885, he retired from the cabinet, 
having been elected to the senate a short 
time before to succeed Nathaniel P. Hill. 
Mr. Teller took his seat on March 4, 1885,. 
in the senate, to which he was afterward 
re-elected. He served as chairman on the 
committee of pensions, patents, mines and 
mining, and was also a member of commit- 
tees on claims, railroads, privileges and 
elections and public lands. Mr. Teller came 
to be recognized as one of the ablest advo- 
cates of the silver cause. He was one of the 
delegates to the Republican National conven- 
tion at St. Louis in 1896, in which he took 
an active part and tried to have a silver 
plank inserted in the platform of the party. 
Failing in this he felt impelled to bolt the 
convention, which he did and joined forces 
with the great silver movement in the cam- 
paign which followed, being recognized in 
that campaign as one of the most able and 
eminent advocates of "silver" in America. 

JOHN ERICSSON, an eminent inven- 
tor and machinist, who won fame in 
America, was born in Sweden, July 31,1 803. 
In early childhood he evinced a decided in- 



ciination to mechanical pursuits, and at the 
age of eleven he was appointed to a cadet- 
ship in the engineer corps, and at the age of 
seventeen was promoted to a lieutenancy. 
In 1826 he introduced a "flame engine," 
which he had invented, and offered it to 
.English capitalists, but it was found that it 
could be operated only by the use of wood 
for fuel. Shortly after this he resigned his 
commission in the army of Sweden, and de- 
voted himself to mechanical pursuits. He 
discovered and introduced the principle of 
artificial draughts in steam boilers, and re- 
ceived a prize of two thousand five hundred 
dollars for his locomotive, the "Novelty," 
which attained a great speed, for that day. 
The artificial draught effected a great saving 
in fuel and made unnecessary the huge 
smoke-stacks formerly used, and the princi- 
ple is still applied, in modified form, in boil- 
ers. He also invented a steam fire-engine, 
and later a hot-air engine, which he at- 
tempted to apply in the operation of his 
ship, "Ericsson," but as it did not give the 
speed required, he abandoned it, but after- 
wards applied it to machinery for pumping, 
hoisting, etc. 

Ericsson was first to apply the screw 
propeller to navigation. The English peo- 
ple not receiving this new departure readily, 
Ericsson came to America in 1839, and 
built the United States steamer, "Prince- 
ton." in which the screw-propeller was util- 
ized, the first steamer ever built in which 
the propeller was under water, out of range 
of the enemy's shots. The achievement 
which gave him greatest renown, however, 
was the ironclad vessel, the " Monitor," an 
ei tirely new type of vessel, which, in March, 
1862, attacked the Confederate monster 
ironclad ram, "Virginia, " and after a fierce 
struggle, compelled her to withdraw from 
Hampton Roads for repairs. After the war 

one of his most noted inventions was his 
vessel, " Destroyer," with a submarine gun, 
which carried a projectile torpedo. In 1886 
the king of Spain conferred on him the 
grand cross of the Order of Naval Merit. 
He died in March, 1889, and his body was 
transferred, with naval honors, to the country 
of his birth. 

TAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth presi- 
<J dent of the United States, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and was born in Franklin 
county, April 23, 1 791. He was of Irish 
ancestry, his father having come to this 
country in 1783, in quite humble circum- 
stances, and settled in the western part of 
the Keystone state. 

James Buchanan remained in his se- 
cluded home for eight years, enjoying but 
few social or intellectual advantages. His 
parents were industrious and frugal, and 
prospered, and, in 1799, the family removed 
to Mercersbur Pennsylvania, where he 
was placed in school. His progress was 
rapid, and in 1801 he entered Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, where he took his place 
among the best scholars in the institution. 
In 1809 he graduated with the highest hon- 
ors in his class. He was then eighteen, tall, 
graceful and in vigorous health. He com- 
menced the study of law at Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He. rose 
very rapidly in his profession and took a 
stand with the ablest of his fellow lawyers. 
When but twenty-six years old he success- 
fully defended, unaided by counsel, one of 
the judges of the state who was before the 
bar of the state senate under articles of im- 

During the war of 1812-15, Mr. Buch- 
anan sustained the government with all his 
power, eloquently urging the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war, and enlisted as a private 



volunteer to assist in repelling the British 
who had sacked and burned the public 
buildings of Washington and threatened 
Baltimore. At that time Buchanan was 
a Federalist, but the opposition of that 
party to the war with Great Britain and the 
alien and sedition laws of John Adams, 
brought that party into disrepute, and drove 
many, among them Buchanan, into the Re- 
publican, or anti-Federalist ranks. He was 
elected to congress in 1828. In 1831 he 
was sent as minister to Russia, and upon 
his return to this country, in 1833, was ele- 
vated to the United States senate, and re- 
mained in that position for twelve years. 
Upon the accession of President Polk to 
office he made Mr. Buchanan secretary of 
state. Four years later he retired to pri- 
vate life, and in 1853 he was honored with 
the mission to England. In 1856 the na- 
tional Democratic convention nominated 
him for the presidency and he was elected. 
It was during his administration that the 
rising tide of the secession movement over- 
took the country. Mr. Buchanan declared 
that the national constitution gave him no 
power to do anything against the movement 
to break up the Union. After his succession 
by Abraham Lincoln in i860, Mr. Buchanan 
retired to his home at Wheatland, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he died June 1, 1868. 

JOHN HARVARD, the founder of the 
Harvard University, was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1608. He received his 
education at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
and came to America in 1637, settling in 
Massachusetts. He was a non-conformist 
minister, and a tract of land was set aside 
for him in Charlestown, near Boston. He 
was at once appointed one of a committee to 
formulate a body of laws for the colony. 
One year before his arrival in the colony 

the general court had voted the sum of four 
hundred pounds toward the establishment of 
a school or college, half of which was to be 
paid the next year In 1637 preliminary 
plans were made for starting the school. In 
1638 John Harvard, who had shown great 
interest in the new institution o* learning 
proposed, died, leaving his entire property, 
about twice the sum originally voted, to the 
school, together with three hundred volumes 
as a nucleus for a library. The institution 
was then given the name of Harvard, and 
established at Newton (now Cambridge), 
Massachusetts. It grew to be one of the two 
principal seats of learning in the new world, 
and has maintained its reputation since. It 
now consists of twenty-two separate build- 
ings, and its curriculum embraces over one 
hundred and seventy elective courses, and it 
ranks among the great universities of the 

jurist and chief justice of the United 
States supreme court, was born in Calvert 
county, Maryland, March 17, 1777. He 
graduated fiom Dickinson College at the 
age of eighteen, took up the study of law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1799. He 
was chosen to the legislature from his county, 
and in 1801 removed to Frederick, Mary- 
land. He became United States senator 
from Maryland in 18 16, and took up his 
permanent residence in Baltimore a few 
years later. In 1824 he became an ardent 
admirer and supporter of Andrew Jackson, 
and upon Jackson's election to the presi- 
dency, was appointed attorney general of 
the United States. Two years later he was 
appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
after serving in that capacity for nearly one 
year, the senate refused to con linn the ap- 
pointment. In 1835, upon the death of 



Chief-justice Marshall, he was appointed to 
that place, and a political change having 
occurred in the make up of the senate, he 
was confirmed in 1836. He presided at 
bis first session in January of the following 

The case which suggests itself first to 
the average reader in connection with this 
jurist is the celebrated " Dred Scott " case, 
which came before the supreme court for 
decision in 1856. In his opinion, delivered 
on behalf of a majority of the court, one 
remarkable statement occurs as a result of 
an exhaustive survey of the historical 
grounds, to the effect that " for more than 
a century prior to the adoption of the con- 
stitution they (Africans) had been regarded 
so far inferior that they had no rights which 
a white man was bound to respect." Judge 
Taney retain' d the office of chief justice 
until his death, in 1864. 

tleman had a world-wide reputation as 
an historian, which placed him in the front 
rank of the great men of America. He was 
born April 15, 18 14, at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, was given a thorough preparatory 
education and then attended Harvard, from 
which he was graduated in 1831. He also 
studied at Gottingen and Berlin, read law 
and in 1836 was admitted to the bar. In 
1 84 1 he was appointed secretary of the 
legation at St. Petersburg, and in T866-67 
served as United States minibter to Austria, 
serving in the same capacity during 1869 
and 1870 to England. In 1856, after 1 >ng 
and exhau tive research and preparation, he 
published in Lopdon "The Rise of the 
Dutch Rep;iM c." It embraced three vol- 
umes and im nediatety attracted great at- 
tention throughout Europe and America as 
a work of unusual merit. From 1861 to 

1868 he produced "The History of the 
United Netherlands," in four volumes. 
Other works followed, with equal success, 
and his position as one of the foremost his- 
torians and writers of his day was firmly 
established. His death occured May 29, 

ELIAS HOWE, the inventor of the sew- 
ing machine, well deserves to be classed 
among the great and noted men of Amer- 
ica. He was the son of a miller and farmer 
and was born at Spencer, Massachusetts, 
July 9, 1 8 1 9. In 1835 he went to Lowell 
and worked there, and later at Boston, in the 
machine shops. His first sewing machine 
was completed in 1845, and he patented it in 
1846, laboring with the greatest persistency 
in spite of poverty and hardships, working 
for a time as an engine driver on a railroad 
at pauper wages and with broken health. 
He then spent two years of unsuccessful ex- 
ertion in England, striving in vain to bring 
his invention into public notice and use. 
He returned to the United States in almost 
hopeless poverty, to find that his patent 
had been violated. At last, however, he 
found friends who assisted him financially, 
and after years of litigation he made good 
his claims in the courts in 1S54. His inven- 
tion afterward brought him a large fortune. 
During the Civil war he volunteered as a 
private in the Seventeenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers, and served for some time. During 
his life time he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor and many other medals. 
His death occurred October 3, 1S67, at 
Brooklvn, New York. 

PHILLIPS BROOKS, celebrated as an' 
eloquent preacher and able pulpit ora- 
tor, was born in Boston on the 13th day of 
December, r S3 5 . He received excellent 



educational advantages, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1855. Early in life he decided 
upon the ministry as his life work and 
studied theology in the Episcopal Theolog- 
ical Seminary, at Alexandria, Virginia. In 
1859 he was ordained and the same year 
became pastor of the Church of the Advent, 
in Philadelphia. Three years later he as- 
sumed the pastorate of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, where he remained until 1870. 
At the expiration of that time he accepted 
the pastoral charge of Trinity Church in 
Boston, where his eloquence and ability at- 
tracted much attention and built up a pow- 
erful church organization. Dr. Brooks also 
devoted considerable time to lecturing and 
literary work and attained prominence in 
these lines. 

WILLIAM B. ALLISON, a statesman 
of national reputation and one of the 
leaders of the Republican party, was born 
March 2, 1829, at Perry, Ohio. He grew 
up on his father's farm, which he assisted 
in cultivating, and attended the district 
school. When sixteen years old he went 
to the academy at Wooster, and subse- 
quently spent a year at the Allegheny Col- 
lege, at Meadville, Pennsylvania. He next 
taught school and spent another year at the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio. 
Mr. Allison then took up the study of law 
at Wooster, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1 85 1, and soon obtained a position 
as deputy county clerk. His political lean- 
ings were toward the old line Whigs, who 
afterward laid the foundation of the Repub- 
lican party. He was a delegate to the state 
convention in 1856, in the campaign of 
which he supported Fremont for president. 
Mr Allison removed to Dubuque, Iowa, 
in the following year. He rapidly rose to 
prominence at the bar and in politics. In 

i860 he was chosen as a delegate to the 
Republican convention held in Chicago, of 
which he was elected one of the secretaries. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the governor. His 
congressional career opened in 1862, when 
he was elected to the thirty-eighth congress; 
he was re-elected three times, serving from 
March 4, 1863, to March 3, 1871. Hewas 
a member of the ways and means committee 
a good part of his term. His career in the 
United States senate began in 1873, and he 
rapidly rose to eminence in national affairs, 
his service of a quarter of a century in that 
body being marked by close fealty to the 
Republican party. He twice declined the 
portfolio of the treasury tendered him by 
Garfield and Harrison, and his name was 
prominently mentioned for the presidency 
at several national Republican conventions. 

turer and writer, was born in Boston, 
December 19, 1821. She was the daughter 
of Timothy Rice, and married D. P. Liver- 
more, a preacher of the Universalist church. 
She contributed able articles to many of the 
most noted periodicals of this country and 
England. During the Civil war she labored 
zealously and with success on behalf of the 
sanitary commission which played so impor- 
tant a part during that great struggle. She 
became editor of the " Woman's Journal," 
published at Boston in 1870. 

She held a prominent place as a public 
speaker and writer on woman's suffrage, 
temperance, social and religious questions, 
and her influence was great in every cause 
she advocated. 

JOHN B. GOUGH, a noted temperance 
lecturer, who won his fame in America, 
was born in the village of Sandgate, Kent, 



England, August 22, 1817. He came to 
the United States at the age of twelve. 
He followed the trade of bookbinder, and 
lived in great poverty on account of the 
liquor habit. In 1843, however, he re- 
formed, and began his career as a temper- 
ance lecturer. He worked zealously in the 
cause of temperance, and his lectures and 
published articles revealed great earnestness. 
He formed temperance societies throughout 
the entire country, and labored with great 
success. He visited England in the same 
cause about the year 1853 and again in 
1878. He also lectured upon many other 
topics, in which he attained a wide reputa- 
tion. His death occurred February 18, 

sculptor and painter, was born in Ches- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1822. 
He early evinced a taste for art, and began 
the study of sculpture in Cincinnati. Later 
he found painting more to his liking. He 
went to New York, where he followed this 
profession, and later to Boston. In 1846 
he located in Philadelphia. He visited 
Italy in 1850, and studied at Florence, 
where he resided almost continuously for 
twenty-two years. He returned to America 
in 1872, and died in New York May 11 of 
the same year. 

He was the author of many heroic 
poems, but the one giving him the most re- 
nown is his famous "Sheridan's Ride," of 
which he has also left a representation in 

EUGENE V. DEBS, the former famous 
president of the American Railway 
Union, and great labor leader, was born in 
the city of Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1855. 
He received his education in the public 

schools of that place and at the age of 
sixteen years began work as a painter in 
the Yandalia shops. After this, for some 
three years, he was employed as a loco- 
motive fireman on the same road. His 
first appearance in public life was in his 
canvass for the election to the office of city 
clerk of Terre Haute. In this capacity he 
served two terms, and when twenty six 
years of age was elected a member of the 
legislature of the state of Indiana. While 
a member of that body he secured the 
passage of several bills in the interest of 
organized labor, of which he was always 
a faithful champion. Mr. Debs' speech 
nominating Daniel Voorhees for the United 
States senate gave him a wide reputation for 
oratory. On the expiration of his term in 
the legislature, he was elected grand secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Fireman and filled that office 
for fourteen successive years. He was 
always an earnest advocate of confederation 
of railroad men and it was mainly through 
his efforts that the United Order of Railway 
Employes, composed of the Brotherhood 
of Railway Trainmen and Conductors, 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association was 
formed, and he became a member of its 
supreme council. The order was dissolved 
by disagreement between two of its leading 
orders, and then Mr. Debs conceived the 
idea of the American Railway Union. He 
worked on the details and the union came 
into existence in Chicago, June 20, 1893. For 
a time it prospered and became one of the 
largest bodies of railway men in the world. 
It won in a contest with the Great Northern 
Railway. In the strike made by the union 
in sympathy with the Pullman employes 
inaugurated in Chicago June 25. 1894, and 
the consequent rioting, the Railway Union 


lost much prestige and Mr. Debs, in company 
with others of the officers, being held as in con- 
tempt of the United States courts, he suffered 
a sentence of six months in jail at Wood- 
stock, McHenry county, Illinois. In 1S97 
Mr. Debs, on the demise of the American 
Railway Union. organized the Social 
Democracy, an institution founded on the 
best lines of the communistic idea, which 
was to provide homes and employment for 
its members. 

JOHN G. CARLISLE, famous as a law- 
yer, congressman, senator and cabinet 
officer, was born in Campbell (now Kenton) 
county, Kentucky, September 5, 1835, on a 
farm. He received the usual education of 
the time and began at an early age to teach 
school and, at the same time, the study of 
law. Soon opportunity offered and he 
entered an office in Covington, Kentucky, 
and was admitted to practice at the bar in 
1858. Politics attracted his attention and 
in 1859 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in the legislature of his native 
state. On the outbreak of the war in 1861, 
he embraced the cause of the Union and was 
largely instrumental in preserving Kentucky 
to the federal cause. He resumed his legal 
practice for a time and declined a nomina- 
tion as presidential elector in 1864. In 
1866 and again in 1S69 Mr. Carlisle was 
elected to the senate of Kentucky. He re- 
signed this position in 1871 and was chosen 
lieutenant governor of the state, which office 
he held until 1875. He was one of the 
presidential electors-at-large for Ken- 
tucky in 1876. He first entered congress in 
1877, and soon became a prominent leader 
on the Democratic side of the house of rep- 
resentatives, and continued a member of 
that body through the forty-sixth, forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth and forty-ninth con- 

gresses, and was speaker of the house during 
the two latter. He was elected to the 
United States senate to succeed Senator 
Blackburn, and remained a member of that 
branch of congress until March, 1S93, when 
he was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
He performed the duties of that high office 
until March 4, 1897, throughout the en- 
tire second administration of President 
Cleveland. His ability and many years of 
public service gave him a national reputa- 

FRANCES E. WILLARD, for many years 
president of the 'Woman's Christian 
Tpmperance Union, and a noted American 
lecturer and writer, was born in Rochester, 
New York, September 28, 1S39. Graduating 
from the Northwestern Female College at the 
age of nineteen she began teaching and met 
with great success in many cities of the west. 
She was made directress of Genesee Wes- 
leyan Seminary at Lima, Ohio, in 1867, and 
four years later was elected president of the 
Evanston College for young ladies, a branch 
of the Northwestern University. 

During the two years succeeding 1869 
she traveled extensively in Europe and the 
east, visiting Egypt and Palestine, and 
gathering materials for a valuable course of 
lectures, which she delivered at Chicago on 
her return. She became very popular, and 
won great influence in the temperance 
cause. Her work as president of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union greatly 
strengthened that society, and she made 
frequent trips to Europe in the interest of 
that cause. 

RICHARD OLNEY.— Among the promi- 
nent men who were members of the 
cabinet of President Cleveland in his second 
administration, the gentleman whose nama 



heads this sketch held a leading place, oc- 
cupying the positions of attorney general 
and secretary of state. 

Mr. Olney came from one of the oldest 
and most honored New England families; 
the first of his ancestors to come from Eng- 
land settled in Massachusetts in 1635. This 
was Thomas Olney. He was a friend and 
co-religionist of Roger Williams, and when 
the latter moved to what is now Rhode 
Island, went with him and became one of 
the founders of Providence Plantations. 

Richard Olney was born in Oxford, 
Massachusetts, in 1835, and received the 
elements of his earlier education in the com- 
mon schools which New England proud 
of. He entered Brown University, from 
which he graduated in 1856, and passed the 
Harvard law school two years later. He 
began the practice of his profession with 
Judge B. F. Thomas, a prominent man of 
that locality. For years Richard Olney was 
regarded as one of the ablest and most 
learned lawyers in Massachusetts. Twice 
he was offered a place on the bench of the 
supreme court of the state, but both times 
he declined. He was always a Democrat 
in his political tenets, and for many years 
was a trusted counsellor of members of that 
party. In 1874 Mr. Olney was elected a 
member of the legislature. In 1876, during 
the heated presidential campaign, to 
strengthen the cause of Mr. Tilden in the 
New England states, it was intimated that 
in the event of that gentleman's election to 
the presidency, Mr. Olney would be attor- 
eey general. 

When Grover Cleveland was elected presi- 
dent of the United States, on his inaugura- 
tion in March, 1S93, he tendered the posi- 
tion of attorney general to Richard Olney. 
This was accepted, and that gentleman ful- 
611ed the duties of the office until the death 

of Walter Q. Gresham, in May, 1895, made 
vacant the position of secretary of state. 
This post was filled by the appointment of 
Mr. Olney. While occupying the later 
office, Mr. Olney brought himself into inter- 
national prominence by some very able state 

JOHN JAY KNOX, for many years comp- 
troller of the currency, and an eminent 
financier, was born in Knoxboro, Oneida 
county, New York, May 19, 1828. He re- 
ceived a good education and graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1849. For about 
thirteen years he was engaged as a private 
banker, or in a position in a bank, where 
he laid the foundation of his knowledge of 
the laws of finance. In 1862, Salmon P. 
Chase, then secretary of the treasury, ap- 
pointed him to an office in that department 
of the government, and later he had charge 
of the mint coinage correspondence. In 1867 
Mr. Knox was made deputy comptroller 
of the currency, and in that capacity, in 
1870, he made two reports on the mint 
service, with a codification of the mint and 
ccinage laws of the United States, and 
suggesting many important amendments 
These reports were ordered printed by reso- 
lution of congress. The bill which he pre- 
pared, with some slight changes, was sub- 
sequently passed, and has been known in 
history as the " Coinage Act of 1873." 

In 1872 Mr. Knox was appointed comp- 
troller of the currency, and held that re- 
sponsible position until 1884, when he re- 
signed. He then accepted the position of 
president of the National Bank of the Re- 
public, of New York City, which institution 
he served for many years. He was the 
author of " United States Notes," published 
in 1884. In the reports spoken of above, a 
history of the two United States banks i? 



given, together with that of the state and 
national banking system, and much valuable 
statistical matter relating to kindred sub- 

opinion of many critics Hawthorne is 
pronounced the foremost American novelist, 
and in his peculiar vein of romance is said 
to be without a peer. His reputation is 
world-wide, and his ability as a writer is 
recognized abroad as well as at home. 
He was born July 4, 1804, at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. On account of feeble health he 
spent some years of his boyhood on a farm 
near Raymond, Maine. He laid the foun- 
dation of a liberal education in his youth, 
and entered Bowdoin College, from which 
he graduated in 1825 in the same class with 
H W Longfellow and John S. C. Abbott. 
He then returned to Salem, where he gave 
his attention to literature, publishing several 
tales and other articles in various periodi- 
cals. His first venture in the field of ro- 
mance, " Fanshaw,'' proved a failure. In 
1836 he removed to Boston, and became 
editor of the "American Magazine," which 
soon passed out of existence. In 1837 ne 
published " Twice Told Tales," which were 
chiefly made up of his former contributions 
to magazines. In 1838-41 he held a posi- 
tion in the Boston custom house, but later 
took part in the "Brook farm experiment," 
a socialistic idea after the plan of Fourier. 
In 1843 he was married and took up his 
residence at the old parsonage at Concord, 
Massachusetts, which he immortalized in 
his next work, "Mosses From an Old 
Manse," published in 1846. From the lat- 
ter date until 1850 he was surveyor of the 
port of Salem, and while thus employed 
wrote one of his strongest works, "The 
Scarlet Letter." For the succeeding two 

years Lenox, Massachusetts, was his home, 
and the " House of the Seven Gables" was 
produced there, as well as the " Blithedale 
Romance." In 1852 he published a "Life 
of Franklin Pierce, "a college friend whom 
he warmly regarded. In 1S53 he was ap- 
pointed United States consul to Liverpool, 
England, where he remained some years, 
after which he spent some time in Italy. 
On returning to his native land he took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts. 
While taking a trip for his health with ex- 
President Pierce, he died at Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, May 19, 1864. In addition to 
the works mentioned above Mr. Hawthorne 
gave to the world the following books: 
" True Stories from History," "The Won- 
der Book," " The Snow Image," "Tangle- 
wood Tales," "The Marble Faun," and 
' ' Our Old Home. " After his death appeared 
a series of "Notebooks," edited by his wife, 
Sophia P. Hawthorne; " Septimius Felton," 
edited by his daughter, Una, and "Dr. 
Grimshaw's Secret," put into shape by his 
talented son, Julian. He left an unfinished 
work called " Dolliver Romance," which has 
been published just as he left it. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, sixteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was born 
February 12, 18C9, in Larue county (Har- 
din county), Kentucky, in a log-cabin near 
Hudgensville. When he was eight years 
old he removed with his parents to Indiana, 
near the Ohio river, and a year later his 
mother died. His father then married Mis. 
Elizabeth (Bush) Johnston, of Elizabeth- 
town, Kentucky, who proved a kind of fos- 
ter-mother to Abraham, and encouraged 
him to study. He worked as a farm hand 
and as a clerk in a store at Gentryville, and 
was noted for his athletic feats and strength, 
fondness for debate, a fund of humorous 



anecdote, as well as the composition of rude 
verses. He made a trip at the age of nine- 
teen to New Orleans on a flat-boat, and set- 
tled in Illinois in 1830. He assisted his 
father to build a log house and clear a farm 
on the Sangamon river near Decatur, Illinois, 
and split the rails with which to fence it. In 
185 1 he was employed in the building of a 
flat-boat on the Sangamon, and to run it to 
New Orleans. The voyage gave him anew 
insight into the horrors of slavery in the 
south. On his return he settled at New 
Salem and engaged, first as a clerk in a store, 
then as giocer, surveyor and postmaster, and 
he piloted the first steamboat that as- 
cended the Sangamon. He participated in 
the Black Hawk war as captain of volun- 
teers, and after his return he studied law, 
interested himself in politics, and became 
prominent locally as a public speaker. He 
was elected to the legislature in 1834 as a 
" Clay Whig, " and began at once to dis- 
play a command of language and forcible 
rhetoric that made him a match for his 
more cultured opponents. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1837, and began prac- 
tice at Springfield. He married a lady of a 
prominent Kentucky family in 1842. He 
was active in the presidential campaigns of 
1840 and 1844 and was an elector on the 
Harrison and Clay tickets, and was elected 
to congress in 1846, over Peter Cartwright. 
He voted for the Wilmot proviso and the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and opposed the war with Mexico, but 
gained little prominence during his two 
years' service. He then returned to Spring- 
field and devoted his attention to law, tak- 
ing little interest in politics, until the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise and the passage 
of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1854. This 
awakened his interest in politics again and 
he attacked the champion of that measure, 

Stephen A. Douglas, in a speech at Spring- 
field that made him famous, and is said 
by those who heard it to be the greatest 
speech of his life. Lincoln was selected as 
candidate for the United States senate, but 
was defeated by Trumbull. Upon the pas- 
sage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill the Whig 
party suddenly went to pieces, and the Re- 
publican party gathered head. At the 
Bloomington Republican convention in 1856 
Lincoln made an effective address in which 
he first took a position antagonistic to the ex- 
istence of slavery. He was a Fremont elector 
and received a strong support for nomina- 
tion as vice-president in the Philadelphia 
convention. In 1858 he was the unanimous 
choice of the Republicans for the United 
States senate, and the great campaign of de- 
bate which followed resulted in the election 
of Douglas, but established Lincoln's repu- 
tation as the leading exponent of Republican 
doctrines. He began to be mentioned in 
Illinois as candidate for the presidency, and 
a course of addresses in the eastern states 
attracted favorable attention. When the 
national convention met at Chicago, his 
rivals, Chase, Seward, Bates and others, 
were compelled to retire before the western 
giant, and he was nominated, with Hannibal 
Hamlin as his running mate. The Demo- 
cratic party had now been disrupted, and 
Lincoln's election assured. He carried 
practically every northern state, and the 
secession of South Carolina, followed by a 
number of the gulf states, took place before 
his inauguration. Lincoln is the only presi- 
dent who was ever compelled to reach 
Washington in a secret manner. He es- 
caped assassination by avoiding Baltimore, 
and was quietly inaugurated March 4, 1861. 
His inaugural address was firm but con- 
ciliatory, and he said to the secessionists: 
"You have no oath registered in heaven. 



to destroy the government, while I have the 
most solemn one to preserve, protect and 
defend it.' He made up his cabinet chiefly 
uf those political rivals in his own party — 
Seward. Chase, Cameron, Bates — and se- 
cured the co-operation of the Douglas Dem- 
ocrats. His great deeds, amidst the heat 
and turmoil of war, were: His call for 
seventy-five thousand volunteers, and the 
blockading of southern ports; calling of con- 
gress in extra session, July 14, 1861, and 
obtaining four hundred thousand men and 
four hundred million dollars for the prosecu- 
tion of the war; appointing Stanton secre- 
tary of war; issuing the emancipation proc- 
lamation; calling three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers; address at Gettysburg 
c-metery; commissioned Grant as lieuten- 
ant-general and commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States; his second 
inaugural address; his visit to the army be- 
fore Richmond, and his entry into Rich- 
mond the day after its surrender. 

Abraham Lincoln was shot by John 
Wilkes Booth in a box in Ford's theater 
at Washington the night of April 14, 1865. 
and expired the following morning. His 
body was buried at Oak Ridge cemetery, 
Springfield, Illinois, and a monument com- 
memorating his great work marks his resting 

STEPHEN GIRARD, the celebrated 
philanthropist, was born in Bordeaux, 
France, May 24, 1750. He became a sailor 
engaged in the American coast trade, and 
also made frequent trips to the West Indies. 
During the Revolutionary war he was a 
grocer and liquor seller in Philadelphia. 
He married in that city, and afterward 
separated from his wife. After the war he 
again engaged in the coast and West India 
trade, and his began to accumulate 

, from receiving goods from West Indian 
planters during the insurrection in llayti, 

i little of which was ever called for again. 

1 He became a private banker in Philadelphia 
in 1812, and afierward was a director in the 
United Slates Bank. He made much money 
by leasing property in the city in times of 
depression, and upon the revival of industry 
sub-leasing at enormous profit. He became 
the wealthiest citizen of the United States 
of his time. 

He was eccentric, ungracious, and a 
freethinker. He had few, if any, friends in 
his lifetime. However, he was most chari- 
tably disposed, and gave to charitable in- 
stitutions and schools with a liberal hand. 
He did more than any one else to relieve 
the suffering and deprivations during the 
great yellow fever scourge in Philadelphia, 
devoting his personal attention to the sick. 
He endowed and made a free institution, 
the famous Will's Eye and Ear Infirmary 
of Philadelphia — one of the largest institu- 
tions of its kind in the world. At his death 
practically all his immense wealth was be- 
queathed to charitable institutions, more 
than two millions of dollars going to the 
founding of Girard College, which was to- 
be devoted to the education and training of 
boys between the ages of six and ten years. 
Large donations were also made to institu- 
tions in Philadelphia and New Orleans. 
The principal building of Girard College is 
the most magnificent example of Greek 
architecture in America. Girard died De- 
cember 26, 1 83 1. 

LOUIS J. R. AGASSIZ, the eminent nat- 
uralist and geologist, was born in the 
parish of Motier, near Lake Xeuchatel, Swit- 
zerland, May 28, 1S07, but attained his 
greatest fame after becoming an American 
citizen. He studied the medical sciences at 


Zurich, Heidelberg and Munich. His first 
work was a Latin description of the fishes 
which Martius and Spix brought from Brazil. 
This was published in 1 829-3 1 • He devoted 
much time to the study of fossil fishes, and 
in 1832 was appointed professor of natural 
history at Neuchatel. He greatly increased 
his reputation by a great work in French, 
entitled " Researches on Fossil Fishes," in 
1832-42, in which he made many important 
improvements in the classification of fishes. 
Having passed many summers among the 
Alps in researches on glaciers, he propounded 
some new and interesting ideas on geology, 
and the agency of glaciers in his "Studies 
by the Glaciers." This was published in 
1840. This latter work, with his " System 
of the Glaciers," published in 1847, are 
among his principal works. 

In 1846, Professor Agassiz crossed the 
ocean on a scientific excursion to the United 
States, and soon determined to remain here. 
He accepted, about the beginning of 1848, 
the chair of zoology and geology at Harvard. 
He explored the natural history of the 
United States at different times and gave an 
impulse to the study of nature in this 
country. In 1865 he conducted an expedi- 
tion to Brazil, and explored the lower Ama- 
zon and its tributaries. In 1868 he was 
made non-resident professor of natural his- 
tory at Cornell University. In December, 
1 87 1, he accompanied the Hassler expedi- 
tion, under Professor Pierce, to the South 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. He died at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 14, 

Among other of the important works of 
Professor Agassiz may be mentioned the fol- j 
lowing: "Outlines of Comparative Physi- 
ology," "Journey to Brazil," and "Contri- 
butions to the Natural History of the United 
States." It is said of Professor Agassiz, 

that, perhaps, with the exception of Hugh 
Miller, no one had so popularized science in 
his day, or trained so many young natural- 
ists. Many of the theories held by Agassiz 
are not supported by many of the natural- 
ists of these later days, but upon many of 
the speculations into the origin of species and 
in physics he has left the marks of his own 
strongly marked individuality. 

WILLIAM WINDOM.— As a prominent 
and leading lawyer of the great north- 
west, as a member of both houses of con- 
gress, and as the secretary of the treasury, 
the gentleman whose name headsthis sketch 
won for himself a prominent position in the 
history of our country. 

Mr. Windom was a native of Ohio, 
born in Belmont county, May 10, 1827. 
He received a good elementary education in 
the schools of his native state, and took up 
the study of law. He was admitted to the 
bar, and entered upon the practice of his 
profession in Ohio, where he remained until 
1855. In the latter year he made up his 
mind to move further west, and accordingly 
went to Minnesota, and opening an office, 
became identified with the interests of that 
state, and the northwest generally. In 
1858 he took his place in the Minnesota 
delegation in the national house of repre- 
sentatives, at Washington, and continued 
to represent his constituency in that body 
for ten years. In 1 871 Mr. Windom was 
elected United States senator from Min- 
nesota, and was re-elected to the same office 
after fulfilling the duties of the position for 
a full term, in 1876. On the inauguration 
of President Garfield, in March, 1SS1, Mr. 
Windom became secretary of the treasury 
in his cabinet. He resigned this office Oc- 
tober 27, 1 88 1 , and was elected senator 
from the North Star state to fill the va- 



cancy caused by the resignation of A. J. 
Edgerton. Mr. Windom served in that 
chamber until March, 1883. 

William Windom died in New York 
City January 29, 1S91. 

DON M. DICKINSON, an American 
politician and lawyer, was born in 
Port Ontario, New York, January 17, 1846. 
He removed with his parents to Michigan 
when he was but two years old. He was 
educated in the public schools of Detroit 
and at the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-one. In 1872 he was made 
secretary of the Democratic state central 
committee of Michigan, and his able man- 
agement of the campaign gave him a prom- 
inent place in the councils of his party. In 
1876, during the Tilden campaign, he acted 
as chairman of the state central committee. 
He was afterward chosen to represent his 
state in the Democratic national committee, 
and in 1886 he was appointed postmaster- 
general by President Cleveland. After the 
expiration of his term of office he returned 
to Detroit and resumed the practice of law. 
In the presidential campaign of 1896, Mr. 
Dickinson adhered to the "gold wing" of 
the Democracy, and his influence was felt 
in the national canvass, and especially in 
his own state. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOR, the founder of 
the Astor family and fortunes, while not 
a native of this country, was one of the 
most noted men of his time, and as all his 
wealth and fame were acquired here, he 
may well be classed among America's great 
men, He was born near Heidelberg, Ger- 
many, July 17, 1763, and when twenty 
years old emigrated to the United States. 
Even at that age he exhibited remarkable 

business ability and foresight, and soon he 
was investing capital in furs which he took 
to London and sold at a great profit. lie 
next settled at New York, and engaged ex- 
tensively in the fur trade. He exported 
furs to Europe in his own vessels, which re- 
turned with cargoes of foreign commodities,, 
and thus he rapidly amassed an immense 
fortune. In 181 1 he founded Astoria on 
the western coast of North America, near 
the mouth of the Columbia river, as a depot 
for the fur trade, for the promotion of 
which he sent a number of expeditions to 
the Pacific ocean. He also purchased a 
large amount of real estate in New York, 
the value of which increased enormously 
All through life his business ventures were 
a series of marvelous successes, and he 
ranked as one of the most sagacious and 
successful business men in the world. He 
died March 29, 1848, leaving a fortune es- 
timated at over twenty million dollars to 
his children, who have since increased it. 
John Jacob Astor left $400,000 to found a 
public library in New York City, and his son, 
William B. Astor, who died in 1875, left 
$300,000 to add to his father's bequest. 
This is known as the Astor Library, one of 
the largest in the United States. 

SCHUYLER COLFAX, an eminent 
American statesman, was born in New 
York City, March 23, 1823, being a grand- 
son of General William Colfax, the com- 
mander of Washington's life-guards. In 
1836 he removed with his mother, who was 
then a widow, to Indiana, settling at South 
Bend. Young Schuyler studied law, and 
in 1845 became editor of the "St. Joseph 
Valley Register," a Whig paper published 
at South Bend. He was a member of the 
convention which formed a new constitu- 
tion for Indiana in 1 8 50, and he opposed 



the clause that prohibited colored men 
from settling in that state. In 185 I he was 
defeated as the Whig candidate for congress 
but was elected in 1854, and, being repeat- 
edly re-elected, continued to represent that 
district in congress until 1869. He became 
one of the most prominent and influential 
members of the house of representatives, 
and served three terms as speaker. During 
the Civil war he was an active participant 
in all public measures of importance, and 
was a confidential friend and adviser of 
President Lincoln. In May, 1868, Mr. 
Colfax was nominated for vice-president on 
the ticket with General Grant, and was 
elected. After the close of his term he re- 
tired from office, and for the remainder of 
his life devoted much of his time to lectur- 
ing and literary pursuits. His death oc- 
curred January 23, 1885. He was one of 
the most prominent members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows in America, 
and that order erected a bronze statue to 
his memory in University Park. Indianapo- 
lis, Indiana, which was unveiled in May, 

tained a national reputation as an able 
lawyer, statesman, and cabinet officer, was 
born at Chelsea, Vermont, July 9, 1840. 
His parents removed to Wisconsin when 
our subject was but eleven years of age, 
and there with the early settlers endured all 
the hardships and trials incident to pioneer 
life. William F. Vilas was given all the 
advantages found in the common schools, 
and supplemented this by a course of study 
in the Wisconsin State University, after 
which he studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and began practicing at Madison. 
Shortly afterward the Civil war broke out 
and Mr. Vilas enlisted and became colonel 

of the Twenty-third regiment of Wisconsin 
Volunteers, serving throughout the war with 
distinction. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to Wisconsin, resumed his law prac- 
tice, and rapidly rose to eminence in this 
profession. In 1885 he was selected by 
President Cleveland for postmaster-general 
and at the close of his term again returned 
to Madison, Wisconsin, to resume the prac- 
tice of law. 

inent American jurist and law writer, 
was born in Attica, New York, January 6, 
1 824. He was admitted to the bar in 1 846, 
and four years later was appointed reporter 
of the supreme court of Michigan, which 
office he continued to hold for seven years. 
In the meantime, in 1859, he became pro- 
fessor of the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and soon afterward was 
made dean of the faculty of that depart- 
ment. In 1864 he was elected justice of 
the supreme court of Michigan, in 1867 be- 
came chief justice of that court, and in 
1869 was re-elected for a term of eight 
years. In 1881 he again joined the faculty 
of the University of Michigan, assuming the 
professorship of constitutional and adminis- 
trative law. His works on these branches 
have become standard, and he is recog- 
nized as authority on this and related sub- 
jects. Upon the passage of the inter-state 
commerce law in 1887 he became chairman 
of the commission and served in that capac- 
ity four years. 

American politician and writer on social 
questions, was born in Germany, December 
30, 1847. He came to America with his 
parents and settled in Ohio when two years 
old. In 1864 he entered the Union army 



and served till the close of the war, after 
which he settled in Chicago, Illinois. He 
was elected judge of the superior court of 
Cook county, Illinois, in 1SS6. in which 
capacity he served until elected governor of 
Illinois in 1892, as a Democrat. During 
the first year of his term as governor he at- 
tracted national attention by his pardon of 
the anarchists convicted of the Haymarket 
murder in Chicago, and again in 1894 by 
his denunciation of President Cleveland for 
calling out federal troops to suppress the 
rioting in connection with the great Pull- 
man strike in Chicago. At the national 
convention of the Democratic party in Chi- 
cago, in July, 1896, he is said to have in- 
spired the clause in the platform denuncia- 
tory of interference by federal authorities in 
local affairs, and "government by injunc- 
tion." He was gubernatorial candidate for 
re-election on the Democratic ticket in 1 896, 
but was defeated by John R. Tanner, Re- 
publican. Mr. Altgeld published two vol- 
umes of essays on " Live Questions," evinc- 
ing radical views on social matters. 

ican statesman and politician, was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, October 23, 
1835, and removed with the family to 
Bloomington, Illinois, in 1S52. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, and set- 
tled in the practice of his profession 
in Metamora, Illinois. In 1861 he was 
made master in chancery of Woodford 
county, and in 1864 was elected state's at- 
torney. In 1868 he returned to Blooming- 
ton and formed a law partnership with 
James S. Ewing. He had served as a pres- 
idential elector in 1864, and in 1868 was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, receiv- 
ing a majority vote from every county in his 
district. He became prominent in his 

party, and was a delegate to the national 
convention in 1S84. On the election of 
Cleveland to the presidency Mr. Stevenson 
was appointed first assistant postmaster- 
general. After the expiration of his term 
he continued to exert a controlling influence 
in the politics of his state, and in 1892 was 
elected vice-president of the United States 
on the ticket with Grover Cleveland. At 
the expiration of his term of office he re- 
sumed the practice of law at Bloomington, 

SIMON CAMERON, whose name is 
prominently identified with the history 
of the United States as a political leader 
and statesman, was born in Lancaster coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1799. He grew 
to manhood in his native county, receiving 
good educational advantages, and develop- 
ing a natural inclination for political life. 
He rapidly rose in prominence and became 
the most influential Democrat in PennsyJ* 
vania, and in 1845 was elected by that party 
to the United States senate. Upon the 
organization of the Republican party he was 
one of the first to declare his allegiance to 
it, and in 1856 was re-elected United States 
senator from Pennsylvania as a Republican. 
In March, 1861, he was appointed secretary 
of war by President Lincoln, and served 
until early in 1862, when he was sent as 
minister to Russia, returning in 1863. In 
1866 he was again elected United States 
senator and served until 1877, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by his son, James 
Donald Cameron. He continued to exert a 
powerful influence in political affairs up to 
the time of his death, June 26, 1889. 

James Donald Cameron was the eld- 
est son of Simon Cameron, and also 
attained a high rank among American 
statesmen. He was born at Harrishurg, 



Pennsylvania, May 14, 1833, and received an 
excellent education, graduating at Princeton 
College in 1852. He rapidly developed into 
one of the most able and successful business 
men of the country and was largely inter- 
ested in and identified with the develop- 
ment of the coal, iron, lumber and manu- 
facturing interests of his native state. He 
served as cashier and afterward president of 
the Middletown bank, and in 1861 was made 
vice-president, and in 1863 president of 
the Northern Central railroad, holding this 
position until 1874, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Thomas A. Scott. This 
road was of great service to the government 
during the war as a means of communica- 
tion between Pennsylvania and the national 
capital, via Baltimore. Mr. Cameron also 
took an active part in political affairs, 
always as a Republican. In May, 1876, 
he was appointed secretary of war in Pres- 
ident Grant's cabinet, and in 1877 suc- 
ceeded his father in the United States 
senate. He was re-elected in 1885, and 
again in 1891, serving until 1896, and was 
recognized as one of the most prominent and 
influential members of that body. 

American arctic explorer, was born at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, March 27, 
1844. He graduated from Brown High 
School at the age of sixteen, and a year 
later enlisted in Company B, Nineteenth 
Massachusetts Infantry, and was made first 
sergeant. In 1863 he was promoted to 
second lieutenant. After the war he was 
assigned to the Fifth United States Cavalry, 
and became first lieutenant in 1873. He 
was assigned to duty in the United States 
signal service shortly after the close of the 
war. An expedition was fitted out by the 
United States government in 1881, un- 

der auspices of the weather bureau, and 
Lieutenant Greeley placed in command. 
They set sail from St. Johns the first week 
in July, and after nine days landed in Green- 
land, where they secured the services of two 
natives, together with sledges, dogs, furs 
and equipment. They encountered an ice 
pack early in August, and on the 28th of 
that month freezing weather set in. Two 
of his party, Lieutenant Lockwood and Ser- 
geant Brainard, added to the known maps 
about forty miles of coast survey, and 
reached the highest point yet attained by 
man, eighty-three degrees and twenty-four 
minutes north, longitude, forty-four degrees 
and five minutes west. On their return to 
Fort Conger, Lieutenant Greeley set out 
for the south on August 9, 1883. He 
reached Baird Inlet twenty days later with 
his entire party. Here they were compelled 
to abandon their boats, and drifted on an 
ice-floe for one month. They then went 
into camp at Cape Sabine, where they suf- 
fered untold hardships, and eighteen of the 
party succumbed to cold and hunger, and 
had relief been delayed two days longer 
none would have been found alive. They 
were picked up by the relief expedition, 
under Captain Schley, June 22, 1884. The 
dead were taken to New York for burial. 
Many sensational stories were published 
concerning the expedition, and Lieutenant 
Greeley prepared an exhaustive account 
of his explorations and experiences. 

LEVI P. MORTON, the millionaire poli- 
tician, was born in Shoreham, Ver- 
mont, May 16, 1824, and his early educa- 
tion consisted of the rudiments which he 
obtained in the common school up to the 
age of fourteen, and after that time what 
knowledge he gained was wrested from the 
hard school of experience. He removed to. 



Hanover, Vermont, then Concord, Vermont, 
and afterwards to Boston. He had worked 
in a store at Shoreham, his native village, 
and on going to Hanover he established a 
store and went into business for himself. 
In Boston he clerked in a dry goods store, 
and then opened a business of his own in 
the same line in New York. After a short 
career he failed, and was compelled to set- 
tle with his creditors at only fifty cents on 
the dollar. He began the struggle anew, 
and when the war began he established a 
banking house in New York, with Junius 
Morgan as a partner. Through his firm 
and connections the great government war 
loans were floated, and it resulted in im- 
mense profits to his house. When he was 
again thoroughly established he invited his 
former creditors to a banquet, and under 
each guest's plate was found a check cover- 
ing the amount of loss sustained respec- 
tively, with interest to date. 

President Garfield appointed Mr. Mor- 
ton as minister to France, after he had de- 
clined the secretaryship of the navy, and in 
1888 he was nominated as candidate for 
vice-president, with Harrison, and elected. 
In 1894 he was elected governor of New 
York over David B. Hill, and served one 

of the most talented and prominent 
educators this country has known, was born 
January 24, 1835, at Derby, Vermont. He 
received an elementary education in the 
common schools, and studied two terms in 
the Derby Academy. Mr. Adams moved 
with his parents to Iowa in 1856. He was 
very anxious to pursue a collegiate course, 
but this was impossible until he had attained 
the age of twenty-one. In the autumn of 
1856 he began the study of Latin and Greek 

at Denmark Academy, and in September, 
1857, he was admitted to the University of 
Michigan. Mr. Adams was wholly depend- 
ent upon himself for the means of his edu- 
cation. During his third and fourth year 
he became deeply interested in historical 
studies, was assistant librarian of the uni- 
versity, and determined to pursue a post- 
graduate course. In 1864 he was appointed 
instructor of history and Latin and was ad- 
vanced to an assistant professorship in 1865, 
and in 1S67, on the resignation o s . Professoi 
White to accept the presidency of Cornell, 
he was appointed to fill the chair of profes- 
sor of history. This he accepted on con- 
dition of his being allowed to spend a year 
for special study in Germany, France and 
Italy. Mr. Adams returned in 1868, and 
assumed the duties of his professorship. 
He introduced the German system for the 
instruction of advanced history classes, and 
his lectures were largely attended. In 1885, 
on the resignation of President White at 
Cornell, he was elected his successor and 
held the office for seven years, and on Jan- 
uary 17, 1893, he was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin. Pres- 
ident Adams was prominently connected 
with numerous scientific and literary organ- 
izations and a frequent contributor, to the 
historical and educational data in the peri- 
odicals and journals of the country. He 
was the author of the following: " Dem- 
ocracy and Monarchy in France," " Manual 
of Historical Literature," " A Plea for Sci- 
entific Agriculture," " Higher Education in 

JOSEPH B. FORAKER, a prominent po- 
litical leader and ex-governor of Ohio,, 
was born near Rainsboro, Highland county, 
Ohio, July 5, 1846. His parents operated 
a small farm, with a grist and sawmill, hav- 



ing emigrated hither from Virginia and 
Delaware on account of their distaste for 

Joseph was reared upon a farm until 
1862, when he enlisted in the Eighty-ninth 
Ohio Infantry. Later he was made ser- 
geant, and in 1864 commissioned first lieu- 
tenant. The next year he was brevetted 
captain. At the age of nineteen he was 
mustered out of the army after a brilliant 
service, part of the time being on the staff 
of General Slocum. He participated in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mount- 
ain and Kenesaw Mountain and in Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

For two years subsequent to the war 
young Foraker was studying at the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at Delaware, but later 
went to Cornell University, at Unity, New 
York, from which he graduated July 1, 
1869. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar. In 1879 Mr. Foraker was elected 
judge of the superior court of Cincinnati 
and held the office for three years. In 1883 
he was defeated in the contest for the gov- 
ernorship with Judge Hoadly. In 1885, 
however, being again nominated for the 
same office, he was elected and served two 
terms. In 1889, in running for governor 
again, this time against James E. Camp- 
bell, he was defeated. Two years later his 
career in the United States senate began. 
Mr. Foraker was always a prominent figure 
at all national meetings of the Republican 
party, and a strong power, politically, in his 
native state. 

LYMAN ABBOTT, an eminent American 
preacher and writer on religious sub- 
jects, came of a noted New England 
family. His father, Rev. Jacob Abbott, was 
a prolific and popular writer, and his uncle, 
Rev. John S. C. Abbott, was a noted 

preacher and author. Lyman Abbott was 
born December 18, 1835, in Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. He graduated at the New 
York University, in 1853, studied law, and 
practiced for a time at the bar, after which 
he studied theology with his uncle, Rev. 
John S. C. Abbott, and in i860 was settled 
in the ministry at Terre Haute, Indiana, re- 
maining there until after the close of the 
war. He then became connected with the 
Freedmen's Commission, continuing this 
until 1868, when he accepted the pastorate 
of the New England Congregational church, 
in New York City. A few years later he re- 
signed, to devote his time principally to lit- 
erary pursuits. For a number of years he 
edited for the American Tract Society, its 
"Illustrated Christian Weekly," also the 
New York "Christian Union." He pro- 
duced many works, which had a wide circu- 
lation, among which may be mentioned the 
following: "Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and 
Teachings," "Old Testament Shadows of 
New Testament Truths," "Morning and 
Evening Exercises, Selected from Writings 
of Henry Ward Beecher," " Laicus, or the 
Experiences of a Layman in a Country 
Parish," "Popular Religious Dictionary," 
and "Commentaries on Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, John and Acts." 

well-known author, orator and journal- 
ist whose name heads this sketch, was born 
at Providence, Rhode Island, February 24, 
1824. Having laid the foundation of a 
most excellent education in his native land, 
he went to Europe and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. He made an extensive 
tour throughout the Levant, from which he 
returned home in 1850. At that early age 
literature became his field of labor, and in 
1 85 1 he published his first important work, 



«' Nile Notes of a Howadji." In 1852 two 
works issued from his facile pen, "The 
Howadji in Syria," and " Lotus-Eating. " 
Later on he was the author of the well- 
known " Potiphar Papers," " Prue and I," 
and "Trumps." He greatly distinguished 
himself throughout this land as a lecturer 
on many subjects, and as an orator had but 
few peers. He was also well known as one 
of the most fluent speakers on the stump, 
making many political speeches in favor of 
the Republican party. In recognition of 
his valuable services, Mr. Curtis was ap- 
pointed by President Grant, chairman of 
the advisory board of the civil service. Al- 
though a life-long Republican, Mr. Curtis 
refused to support Blaine for the presidency 
in 1884, because of his ideas on civil ser- 
vice and other reforms. For his memorable 
and magnificent eulogy on Wendell Phillips, 
delivered in Boston, in 1884, that city pre- 
sented Mr. Curtis with a gold medal. 

George W. Curtis, however, is best 
known to the reading public of the United 
States by his connection with the Harper 
Brothers, having been editor of the " Har- 
per's Weekly, " and of the "Easy Chair," 
in " Harper's Monthly Magazine, "for many 
years, in fact retaining that position until 
the day of his death, which occurred August 
31. 1892- 

ANDREW JOHNSON, the seventeenth 
president of the United States, served 
from 1865 to 1869. He was born Decem- 
ber 8, 1808, at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
and was left an orphan at the age of four 
years. He never attended school, and was 
apprenticed to a tailor. While serving his 
apprenticeship he suddenly acquired a pas- 
sion for knowledge, and learned to read. 
From that time on he spent all his spare 
time in reading, and after working for two 

years as a journeyman tailor at Lauren's 
Court House, South Carolina, he removed 
to Greenville, Tennessee, where he worked 
at his trade and was married. Under his 
wife's instruction he made rapid progress in 
his studies and manifested such an interest 
in local politics as to be elected as ' ' work- 
ingmen's candidate " alderman in 1828, and 
in 1830 to the mayoralty, and was twice 
re-elected to each office. Mr. Johnson 
utilized this time in cultivating his talents 
as a public speaker, by taking part in a de- 
bating society. He was elected in 1835 to 
the lower house of the legislature, was re- 
elected in 1839 as a Democrat, and in 
1 841 was elected state senator. Mr. John- 
son was elected representative in congress 
in 1843 and was re-elected four times in 
succession until 1853, when he was the suc- 
cessful candidate for the gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. He was re-elected in 1855 
and in 1857 he entered the United States 
senate. In i860 he was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention for the presidential nomination, 
and lent his influence to the Breckinridge 
wing of the party. At the election of Lin- 
coln, which brought about the first attempt 
at secession in December, i860, Mr. John- 
son took a firm attitude in the senate for 
the Union. He was the leader of the loy- 
alists in East Tennessee. By the course 
that Mr. Johnson pursued in this crisis he 
was brought prominently before the north- 
ern people, and when, in March, 1862, he 
was appointed military governor of Ten- 
nessee with the rank of brigadier-general, 
he increased his popularity by the vigorous 
manner in which he labored to restore 
order. In the campaign of 1864 he was 
elected vice-president on the ticket with 
President Lincoln, and upon the assassi- 
nation of the latter he succeeded to the 



presidency, April 15, 1865. He retained 
the cabinet of President Lincoln, and at 
first exhibited considerable severity towards 
the former Confederates, but he soon inau- 
gurated a policy of reconstruction, pro- 
claimed a general amnesty to the late Con- 
federates, and established provisional gov- 
ernments in the southern states. These 
states claimed representation in congress in 
the following December, and then arose the 
momentous question as to what should be 
the policy of the victorious Union against 
their late enemies. The Republican ma- 
jority in congress had an apprehension that 
the President would undo the results of the 
war, and consequently passed two bills over 
the executive veto, and the two highest 
branches of the government were in open 
antagonism. The cabinet was reconstructed 
in July, and Messrs. Randall, Stanbury and 
Browning superseded Messrs. Denison, 
Speed and Harlan. In August, 1867, Pres- 
ident Johnson removed the secretary of war 
and replaced him with General Grant, but 
when congress met in December it refused 
to ratify the removal of Stanton, who re- 
sumed the functions of his office. In 1868 
the president again attempted to remove 
Stanton, who refused to vacate his post 
and was sustained by the senate. Presi- 
dent Johnson was accused by congress of 
high crimes and misdemeanors, but the trial 
resulted in his acquittal. Later he was Uni- 
ted States senator from Tennessee, and 
died July 31, 1875. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH, first attorney- 
general of the United States, was born 
in Virginia, August 10, 1753. His father, 
John Randolph, was attorney-yeneral of 
Virginia, and lived and died a royalist. Ed- 
mund was educated in the law, but joined 
the army as aide-de-camp to Washington 

in 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He 
was elected to the Virginia convention in 
1776, and attorney-general of the state the 
same year. In 1779 he was elected to the 
Continental congress, and served four years 
in that body. He was a member of the con- 
vention in 1787 that framed the constitu- 
tion. In that convention he proposed what 
was known as the " Virginia plan" of con- 
federation, but it was rejected. He advo- 
cated the ratification of the constitution in 
the Virginia convention, although he had re- 
fused to sign it. He became governor of 
Virginia in 1788, and the next year Wash- 
ington appointed him to the office of at- 
torney-general of the United States upon 
the organization of the government under 
the constitution. He was appointed secre- 
tary of state to succeed Jefferson during 
Washington's second term, but resigned a 
year later on account of differences in the 
cabinet concerning the policy pursued to- 
ward the new French republic. He died 
September 12, 181 3. 

born in Montgomery county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 14, 1824. He received 
his early education at the Norristown 
Academy, in his native county, and, in 1840, 
was appointed a cadet in the United States 
Military Academy, at West Point. He was 
graduated from the latter in 1844, and brev- 
etted as second lieutenant of infantry. In 
1853 he was made first lieutenant, and two 
years later transferred to the quartermaster's 
department, with the rank of captain, and 
in 1863 promoted to the rank of major. He 
served on the frontier, and in the war with 
Mexico, displaying conspicuous gallantry dur- 
ing the latter. He also took a part in the 
Seminole war, and in the troubles in Kan- 
sas, in 1857, and in California, at the out- 


break of the Civil war, as chief quarter- 
master of the Southern district, he exerted 
a powerful influence. In 1861 he applied 
for active duty in the field, and was assigned 
to the department of Kentucky as chief 
quartermaster, but before entering upon that 
duty, was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers. His subsequent history during 
the war was substantially that of the Army 
of the Potomac. He participated in the 
campaign, under McClellan, and led the 
gallant charge, which captured Fort Magru- 
der, won the day at the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, and by services rendered at 
Savage's Station and other engagements, 
won several grades in the regular service, 
and was recommended by McClellan for 
major-general of volunteers. He was a con- 
spicuous figure at South Mountain and An- 
tietam. He was commissioned major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, November 29, 1862, and 
made commander of the First Division of 
the Second Corps, which he led at Fred- 
ricksburg ar i at Chancellorsville. He was 
appointed to the command of the Second 
Corps in June, 1863, and at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July 1, 2 and 3, of that year, 
took an important part. On his arrival on 
the field he found part of the forces then 
in retreat, but stayed the retrograde 
movement, checked the enemy, and on the 
following day commanded the left center, 
repulsed, on the third, the grand assault of 
General Lee's army, and was severely 
wounded. For his services on that field 
General Hancock received the thanks of 
congress. On recovering from his wound, 
he was detailed to go north to stimulate re- 
cruiting and fill up the diminished corps, and 
was the recipient of many public receptions 
and ovations. In March, 1864, he returned 
to his command, and in the Wilderness and 
at Spottsylvania led large bodies of nun 

successfully and conspicuously. From that 
on to the close of the campaign he was a 
prominent figure. In November, 1864, he 
was detailed to organize the First Veteran 
Reserve Corps, and at the close of hostilities 
was appointed to the command of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. In July, 1866, he 
was made major-general of the regular 
service. He was at the head of various 
military departments until 1872, when he 
was assigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Atlantic, which post he held 
until his death. In 1869 he declined the 
nomination for governor of Pennsylvania. 
He was the nominee of the Democratic 
party for president, in 1880, and was de- 
feated by General Garfield, who had a popu- 
lar majority of seven thousand and eighteen 
and an electoral majority .of fifty-nine. Gen- 
eral Hancock died February 9, 1886. 

THOMAS PAINE, the most noted polit- 
ical and deistical writer of the Revolu- 
tionary period, was born in England, Jan- 
uary 29, 1737, of Quaker parents. Hisedu- 
cation was-obtained in the grammar schools 
of Thetford, his native town, and supple- 
mented by hard private study while working 
at his trade of stay-maker at London and 
other cities of England. He was for a time 
a dissenting preacher, although he did not 
relinquish his employment. He married a 
revenue official's daughter, and was employed 
in the revenue service for some time. He 
then became a grocer and duringall this time 
he was reading and cultivating his literary 
tastes, and had developed a clear and forci- 
ble style of composition. He was chosen to 
represent the interests of the excisemen, 
and published a pamphlet that brought 
him considerable notice. He was soon after- 
ward introduced to Benjamin Franklin, and 
having been dismissed from the service on a. 



charge of smuggling, his resentment led him 
to accept the advice of that statesman to 
come to America, in 1774. He became 
editor of the "Pennsylvania Magazine," and 
the next year published his "Serious 
Thoughts upon Slavery" in the "Penn- 
sylvania Journal." His greatest political 
work, however, was written at the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Rush, and entitled "Common 
Sense." It was the most popular pamphlet 
written during the period and he received 
two thousand five hundred dollars from the 
state of Pennsylvania in recognition of its 
value. His periodical, the "Crisis," began 
in 1776, and its distribution among the 
soldiers did a great deal to keep up the spirit 
of revolution. He was made secretary of 
the committee of foreign affairs, but was dis- 
missed for revealing diplomatic secrets in 
one of his controversies with Silas Deane. 
He was originator and promoter of a sub- 
scription to relieve the distress of the soldiers 
near the close of the war, and was sent to 
France with Henry Laurens to negotiate the 
treaty with France, and was granted three 
thousand dollars by congress for his services 
there, and an estate at New Rochelle, by the 
state of New York. 

In 1787, after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, he went to France, and a few 
years later published his " Rights of Man," 
defending the French revolution, which 
gave him great popularity in France. He 
was made a citizen and elected to the na- 
tional convention at Calais. He favored 
banishment of the king to America, and 
opposed his execution. He was imprisoned 
for about ten months during 1794 by the 
Robespierre party, during which time he 
wrote the " Age of Reason," his great deis- 
tical work. He was in danger of the guillo- 
tine for several months. He took up his 
residence with the family of James Monroe, 

then minister to France and was chosen 
again to the convention. He returned 
to the United States in 1802, and was 
cordially received throughout the coun- 
try except at Trenton, where he was insulted 
by Federalists. He retired to his estate at 
New Rochelle, and his death occurred June 
8, 1809. 

America's noted men, both in the de- 
velopment of the western coast and the 
building of the Mackay and Bennett cable. 
He was born in 183 1 at Dublin, Ireland; 
came to New York in 1840 and his boyhood 
days were spent in Park Row. He went 
to California some time after the argonauts 
of 1849 and took to the primitive methods 
of mining — lost and won and finally drifted 
into Nevada about i860. The bonanza dis- 
coveries which were to have such a potent 
influence on the finance and statesmanship 
of the day came in 1872. Mr. Mackay 
founded the Nevada Bank in 1878. He is 
said to have taken one hundred and 
fifty million dollars in bullion out of 
the Big Bonanza mine. There were as- 
sociated with him in this enterprise James 
G. Fair, senator from Nevada; William 
O'Brien and James C. Flood. When 
vast wealth came to Mr. Mackay he be- 
lieved it his duty to do his country some 
service, and he agitated in his mind the 
building of an American steamship line, 
and while brooding over this his attention 
was called to the cable relations between 
America and Europe. The financial man- 
agement of the cable was selfish and ex- 
travagant, and the capital was heavy with 
accretions of financial " water" and to pay 
even an apparent dividend upon the sums 
which represented the nominal value of the 
cables, it was necessary to hold the rates 


at an exorbitant figure. And, moreover, 
the cables were foreign; in one the influence 
of France being paramount and in the other 
that of England; and in the matter of intel- 
ligence, so necessary in case of war, we 
would be at the mercy of our enemies. This 
train of thought brought Mr. Mackay into re- 
lation with James Gordon Bennett, the pro- 
prietor of the " New York Herald." The 
result of their intercourse was that Mr. Mac- 
kay so far entered into the enthusiasm of 
Mr. Bennett over an independent cable, 
that he offered to assist the enterprise with 
five hundred thousand dollars. This was the 
inception of the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany, or of what has been known for years 
as the Mackav-Bennett cable. 

ELISHA GRAY, the great inventor and 
electrician, was born August 2, 1835. 
at Barnesville, Belmont county, Ohio. He 
was, as a child, greatly interested in the 
phenomena of nature, and read with avidity 
all the books he could obtain, relating to 
this subject. He was apprenticed to various 
trades during his boyhood, but his insatiable 
thirst for knowledge dominated his life and 
he found time to study at odd intervals. 
Supporting himself by working at his trade, 
he found time to pursue a course at Oberlin 
College, where he particularly devoted him- 
self to the study of physicial science. Mr. 
Gray secured his first patent for electrical 
or telegraph apparatus on October 1, 1867. 
His attention was first attracted to tele- 
phonic transmission during this year and he 
saw in it a way of transmitting signals for 
telegraph purposes, and conceived the idea 
of electro-tones, tuned to different tones in 
the scale. He did not then realize the im- 
portance of his invention, his thoughts being 
employed on the capacity of the apparatus 
for transmitting musical tones through an 

electric circuit, and it was not until 1874 
that he was again called to consider the re- 
production of electrically-transmitted vibra- 
tions through the medium of animal tissue. 
He continued experimenting with various 
results, which finally culminated in his 
taking out a patent for his speaking tele- 
phone on February 14, 1876. He took out 
fifty additional patents in the course of 
eleven years, among which were, telegraph 
switch, telegraph repeater, telegraph annun- 
ciator and typewriting telegraph. From 
1869 until 1873 he was employed in the 
manufacture of telegraph apparatus in Cleve- 
land and Chicago, and filled the office of 
electrician to the Western Electric Com- 
pany. He was awarded the degree of D. 
S., and in 1874 he went abroad to perfect 
himself in acoustics. Mr. Gray's latest in- 
vention was known as the telautograph or 
long distance writing machine. Mr. Gray 
wrote and published several works on scien- 
tific subjects, among which were: "Tele- 
graphy and Teiephonv," and "Experi- 
mental Research in Electro-Harmonic Tele- 
graphy and Telephony." 

WHITELAW REID.— Among the many 
men who have adorned the field of 
journalism in the United States, few stand 
out with more prominence than the scholar, 
author and editor whose name heads this ar- 
ticle. Born at Xenia, Greene county, Ohio, 
October 27, 1837, he graduated at Miami 
University in 1856. For about a year be 
was superintendent of the graded schools of 
South Charleston, Ohio, after which he pur- 
chased the "Xenia News," which he edited 
for about two years. This paper wis the 
first one outside of Illinois to advocate the 
nomination of Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Reid 
having been a Republican since the birth of 
that party in 1856. Mter taking an active 



part in the campaign, in the winter of 1860- 
61, he went to the state capital as corres- 
pondent of three daily papers. At the close 
of the session of the legislature he became 
city editor of the "Cincinnati Gazette," 
and at the breaking out of the war went to 
the front as a correspondent for that journal. 
For a time he served on the staff of General 
Morris in West Virginia, with the rank of 
captain. Shortly after he was on the staff 
of General Rosecrans, and, under the name 
of "Agate," wrote most graphic descrip- 
tions of the movements in the field, espe- 
cially that of the battle ol Pittsburg Land- 
ing. In the spring of 1862 Mr. Reid went 
to Washington and was appointed librarian 
to the house of representatives, and acted as 
correspondent of the " Cincinnati Gazette." 
His description of the battle of Gettysburg, 
written on the field, gained him added 
reputation. In 1865 he accompanied Chief 
Justice Chase on a southern tour, and pub- 
lished "After the War; a Southern Tour." 
During the next two years he was engaged 
in cotton planting in Louisiana and Ala- 
bama, and published "Ohio in the War. " 
In 1868 he returned t6 the " Cincinnati Ga- 
zette," becoming one of its leading editors. 
The same year he accepted the invitation of 
Horace Greeley and became one of the staff 
on the " New York Tribune." Upon the 
death of Mr. Greeley in 1872, Mr. Reid be- 
came editor and chief proprietor of that 
paper. In 1S78 he was tendered the United 
States mission to Berlin, but declined. The 
offer was again made by the Garfield ad- 
ministration, but again he declined. In 
1878 he was elected by the New York legis- 
lature regent of the university, to succeed 
General John A. Dix. Under the Harrison 
administration he served as United States 
minister to France, and in 1892 was the 
Republican nominee for the vice-presidency 

of the United States. Among other works 
published by him were the " Schools of 
Journalism," "The Scholar in Politics," 
"Some Newspaper Tendencies," and 
"Town-Hall Suggestions." 

the most powerful and effective preach- 
ers the world has ever produced, swaying 
his hearers and touching the hearts of im- 
mense audiences in a manner that has rarely 
been equalled and never surpassed. While 
not a native of America, yet much of his 
labor was spent in this country. He wielded 
a great influence in the United States in 
early days, and his death occurred here; so 
that he well deserves a place in this volume 
as one of the most celebrated men America 
has known. 

George Whitefield was born in the Bull 
Inn, at Gloucester, England, December 16, 
1 7 14. He acquired the rudiments of learn- 
ing in St. Mary's grammar school. Later 
he attended Oxford University for a time, 
where he became intimate with the Oxford 
Methodists, and resolved to devote himself 
to the ministry. He was ordained in the 
Gloucester Cathedral June 20, 1836, and 
the following day preached his first sermon 
in the same church. On that day there 
commenced a new era in Whitefield's life. 
He went to London and began to preach at 
Bishopsgate church, his fame soon spread- 
ing over the city, and shortly he was en- 
gaged four times on a single Sunday in ad- 
dressing audiences of enormous magnitude, 
and he preached in various parts of his native 
country, the people crowding in multitudes 
to hear him and hanging upon the rails and 
rafters of the churches and approaches there- 
to. He finally sailed for America, landing 
in Georgia, where he stirred the people to 
great enthusiasm. During the balance of 



his life he divided his time between Great 
Britain and America, and it is recorded that 
he crossed the Atlantic thirteen times. He 
came to America for the seventh time in 
1770. He preached every day at Boston 
from the 17th to the 20th of September, 
1770, then traveled to Newburyport, preach- 
ing at Exeter, New Hampshire, September 
29, on the way. That evening he went to 
Newburyport, where he died the next day, 
Sunday, September 30, 1770. 

' ' YYhitefield's dramatic power was amaz- 
ing," says an eminent writer in describing 
him. " His voice was marvelously varied, 
and he ever had it at command — an organ, 
a flute, a harp, all in one. His intellectual 
powers were not of a high order, but he had 
an abundance of that ready talent and that 
wonderful magnetism which makes the pop- 
ular preacher; and beyond all natural en- 
dowments, there was in his ministry the 
power of evangelical trut! , and, as his con- 
verts believed, the presence of the spirit of 

America's prominent men in the devel- 
opment of electrical science, was born March 
17, 1849, near Cleveland, Ohio, and spent 
his early life on his father's farm. From 
the district school at Wickliffe, Ohio, he 
passed to the Shaw Academy at Collamer, 
and then entered the high school at Cleve- 
land. His interest in chemistry, physics 
and engineering was already marked, and 
during his senior year he was placed in 
charge of the chemical and physical appar- 
atus. During these years he devised a plan 
for lighting street lamps, constructed tele- 
scopes, and his first electric arc lamp, also 
an electric motor. In September, 1867, he 
entered the engineering department of the 
University of Michigan and graduated in 

1869, which was a year in advance of his 
class, with the degree of M. E. He theri 
returned to Cleveland, and for three years 
was engaged as an analytical chemist and 
for four years in the iron business. In 
1S75 Mr. Brush became interested in elec- 
tric lighting, and in 1876, after four months' 
experimenting, he completed the dynamo- 
electric machine that has made his name 
famous, and in a shorter time produced the 
series arc lamps. These were both patent- 
ed in the United States in 1876, and he 
afterward obtained fifty patents on his later 
inventions, including the fundamental stor- 
age battery, the compound series, shunt- 
winding for dynamo-electric machines, and 
the automatic cut-out for arc lamps. His 
patents, two-thirds of which have already 
been profitable, are held by the Brush 
Electric Company, of Cleveland, while his 
foreign patents are controlled by the Anglo- 
American Brush Electric Light Company, 
of London. In 1880 the Western Reserve 
University conferred upon Mr. Brush the 
degree of Ph. D., and in 1881 the French 
government decorated him as a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 

HENRY CLEWS, of Wall-street fame, 
was one of the noted old-time opera- 
tors on that famous street, and was also an 
author of some repute. Mr. Clews was 
born in Staffordshire, England, August 14, 
1840. His father had him educated with 
the intention of preparing him for the minis- 
try, but on a visit to the United States the 
young man became interested in a business 
life, and was allowed to engage as a clerk in 
the importing house of Wilson G. Hunt cS: 
Co., of New York. Here he learned the 
first principles of business, and when the war 
broke out in [861 young Clews saw in the 
needs of the government an opportunity to 


reap a golden harvest. He identified him- 
self with the negotiating of loans for the 
government, and used his powers of pur- 
suasion upon the great money powers to 
convince them of the stability of the govern- 
ment and the value of its securities. By 
enthusiasm and patriotic arguments he in- 
duced capitalists to invest their money in 
government securities, often against their 
judgment, and his success was remarkable. 
His was one of the leading firms that aided 
the struggling treasury department in that 
critical hour, and his reward was great. In 
addition to the vast wealth it brought, 
President Lincoln and Secretary Chase 
both wrote important letters, acknowledging 
his valued service. In 1873, by the repu- 
diation of the bonded indebtedness of the 
state of Georgia, Mr. Clew:, lost six million 
dollars which he had invested in those se- 
curities. It is said that he is the only man, 
with one exception, in Wall street, who 
ever regained great wealth after utter dis- 
aster. His " Twenty-Eight Years in Wall 
Street " has been widely read. 

ALFRED VAIL was one of the men that 
gave to the world the electric telegraph 
and the names of Henry, Morse and Vail 
will forever remain linked as the prime fac- 
tors in that great achievement. Mr. Vail 
was born September 25, 1807, at Morris- 
town, New Jersey, and was a son of Stephen 
Vail, the proprietor of the Speedwell Iron 
Works, near Morristown. At the age of 
seventeen, after he had completed his stud- 
ies at the Morristown Academy, Alfred Vail 
went into the Speedwell Iron Works and 
contented himself with the duties of his 
position until he reached his majority. He 
then determined to prepare himself for the 
ministry, and at the age of twenty-five he 
entered the University of the City of New 

York, where he was graduated in 1836. His 
health becoming impaired he labored for a 
time under much uncertainty as to his future 
course. Professor S. F. B. Morse had come 
to the university in 1835 as professor of lit- 
erature and fine arts, and about this time, 

1837, Professor Gale, occupying the chair 
of chemistry, invited Morse to exhibit his 
apparatus for the benefit of the students. 
On Saturday, September 2, 1837, the exhi- 
bition took place and Vail was asked to at- 
tend, and with his inherited taste for me- 
chanics and knowledge of their construction, 
he saw a great future for the crude mechan- 
ism used by Morse in giving and recording 
signals. Mr. Vail interested his father in 
the invention, and Morse was invited to 
Speedwell and the elder Vail promised to 
help him. It was stipulated that Alfred 
Vail should construct the required apparatus 
and exhibit before a committee of congress 
the telegraph instrument, and was to receive 
a quarter interest in the invention. Morse 
had devised a series of ten numbered leaden 
types, which were to be operated in giving 
the signal. This was not satisfactory to 
Vail, so he devised an entirely new instru- 
ment, involving a lever, or "point," on a 
radically different principle, which, when 
tested, produced dots and dashes, and de- 
vised the famous dot-and-dash alphabet, 
misnamed the " Morse." At last the ma- 
chine was in working order, on January 6, 

1838. The machine was taken to Wash- 
ington, where it caused not only wonder, 
but excitement. Vail continued his experi- 
ments and devised the lever and roller. 
When the line between Baltimore and 
Washington was completed. Vail was sta- 
tioned at the Baltimore end and received 
the famous first message. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that not a single feature of the 
original invention of Morse, as formulated 


by his caveat and repeated in his original 
patent, is to be found in Vail's apparatus. 
From 1837 to 1844 it was a combination of 
the inventions of Morse, Henry and Vail, 
but the work of Morse fell gradually into 
desuetude, while Vail's conception of an 
alphabet has remained unchanged for half a 
century. Mr. Vail published but one work, 
"American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 
in 1845, and died at Morristown at the com- 
paratively early age of fifty-one, on January 
19. 1S59- 

ULYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born April 27, 1S22, at Point Pleasant, Cler- 
mont county, Ohio. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered the United States Military 
Academy at West Point, from which he 
graduated in June, 1843, and was given his 
brevet as second lieutenant and assigned to 
the Fourth Infantry. He remained in the 
service eleven years, in which time he 
was engaged in the Mexican war with gal- 
lantry, and was thrice brevetted for conduct 
in the field. In 1848 he married Miss Julia 
Dent, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of captain, he resigned and engaged 
in farming near St. Louis. In i860 he en- 
tered the leather business with his father at 
Galena, Illinois. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he commenced to drill a company at Ga- 
lena, and at the same time offered his serv- 
ices to the adjutant-general of the army, 
but he had few influential friends, so re- 
ceived no answer. He was employed by 
the governor of Illinois in the organization 
of the various volunteer regiments, and at 
the end of a few weeks was given the 
colonelcy of the Twenty-first Infantry, from 
that state. His military training and knowl- 
edge soon attracted the attention of his su- 

perior officers, and on reporting to General 
Pope in Missouri, the latter put him in 
the way of advancement. August 7, 1S61, 
he was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and for a few weeks 
was occupied in watching the movements of 
partisan forces in Missouri. September 1, 
the same year, he was placed in command 
of the Department of Southeast Missouri, 
with headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th 
of the month, without orders, seized Padu- 
cah, which commanded the channel of the 
Ohio and Tennessee rivers, by which he se- 
cured Kentucky for the Union. He now 
received orders to make a demonstration on 
Belmont, which he did, and with about three 
thousand raw recruits held his own against 
the Confederates some seven thousand 
strong, bringing back about two hundred 
prisoners and two guns. In February,] 1862, 
he moved up the Tennessee river with 
the naval fleet under Commodore Foote. 
The latter soon silenced Fort Henry, and 
Grant advanced against Fort Donelson and 
took their fortress and its garrison. His 
prize here consisted of sixty-five cannon, 
seventeen thousand six hundred stand of 
arms, and fourteen thousand six hundred 
and twenty-three prisoners. This was the 
first important success won by the Union 
forces. Grant was immediately made a 
major-general and placed in command of 
the district of West Tennessee. In April, 
1 S62, he fought the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, and after the evacuation of Corinth by 
the enemy Grant became commander of the 
Department of the Tennessee. He now 
made his first demonstration toward Vicks- 
burg, but owing to the incapacity of subor- 
dinate officers, was unsuccessful. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, he took command of all the 
troops in the Mississippi Valley and devoted 
several months to the siege of Vicksburg, 



which was finally taken possession of by him 
July 4, with thirty-one thousand six hundred 
prisoners and one hundred and seventy-two 
cannon, thus throwing the Mississippi river 
open to the Federals. He was now raised 
to the rank of major-general in the regular 
army. October following, at the head of 
the Department of the Mississippi, General 
Grant went to Chattanooga, where he over- 
threw the enemy, and united with the Army 
of the Cumberland. The remarkable suc- 
cesses achieved by him pointed Grant out 
for an appropriate commander of all na- 
tional troops, and in February, 1864, the 
rank of lieutenant-general was made for him 
by act of congress. Sending Sherman into 
Georgia, Sigel into the Valley of West Vir- 
ginia and Butler to attempt the capture of 
Richmond he fought his way through the 
Wilderness to the James and pressed the 
siege of the capital of the Confederacy. 
After the fall of the latter Grant pressed 
the Confederate army so hard that their 
commander surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, April 9, 1865. This virtually 
ended the war. 

After the war the rank of general was 
conferred upon U. S. Grant, and in 1868 he 
was elected president of the United States, 
and re-elected his own successor in 1S72. 
After the expiration of the latter term he 
made his famous tour of the world. He died 
at Mt. McGregor, near Saratoga, New York, 
July 23, 1885, and was buried at Riverside 
Park, New York, where a magnificent tomb 
has been erected to hold the ashes of the 
nation's hero. 

JOHN MARSHALL, the fourth chief jus- 
tice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Germantown, Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1755 His father. Colonel Thomas 
Marshall, served with distinction in the Rev- 

olutionary war, while he also served from 
the beginning of the war until 1779, where 
he became noted in the field and courts 
martial. While on detached service he at- 
tended a course of law lectures at William 
and Mary College, delivered by Mr. Wythe, 
and was admitted to the bar. The next year 
he resigned his commission and began his 
career as a lawyer. He was a distinguished 
member of the convention called in Virginia 
to ratify the Federal constitution. He was 
tendered the attorney-generalship of the 
United States, and also a place on the su- 
preme bench, besides other places of less 
honor, all of which he declined. He 
went to France as special envoy in 1798, 
and the next year was elected to congress. 
He served one year and was appointed, first, 
secretary of war, and then secretary of state, 
and in 1801 was made chief justice of the 
United States. He held this high office un- 
til his death, in 1835. 

Chief Justice Marshall's early education 
was neglected, and his opinions, the most 
valuable in existence, are noted for depth 
of wisdom, clear and comprehensive reason- 
ing, justice, and permanency, rather than for 
wide learning and scholarly construction. 
His decisions and rulings are resorted to 
constantly by our greatest lawyers, and his 
renown as a just judge and profound jurist 
was world wide. 

known more widely as a producer of 
new plays than as a great actor. He was 
born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1838, and 
educated himself as best he could, and at 
the age of sixteen years became salesman 
for a Detroit dry goods house. He after- 
wards began to go upon the stage as a 
supernumerary, and his ambition was soon 
rewarded by the notice of the management. 



During the war of the Rebellion he was a 
soldier, and after valiant service for his 
country he returned to the stage. He went 
to Europe and appeared in Liverpool, and 
returning in 1869, he began playing at 
Booth's theater, with Mr. Booth. He was 
afterward associated with John McCullough 
in the management of the California 
theater. Probably the most noted period 
of his work was during his connection with 
Edwin Booth as manager of that great 
actor, and supporting him upon the stage. 
Mr. Barrett was possessed of the crea- 
tive instinct, and, unlike Mr. Booth, he 
sought new fields for the display of his 
genius, and only resorted to traditional 
drama in response to popular demand. He 
preferred new plays, and believed in the 
encouragement of modern dramatic writers, 
and was the only actor of prominence in his 
time that ventured to put upon the stage 
new American plays, which he did at his 
own expense, and the success of his experi- 
ments proved the quality of his judgment. 
He died March 21, 1891. 

ebrated Catholic clergyman, was born 
at Annaboghan, Tyrone county, Ireland, 
June 24, 1797, and emigrated to America 
when twenty years of age, engaging for 
some time as a gardener and nurseryman. 
In 1 8 19 he entered St. Mary's College, 
where he secured an education, paying his 
way by caring for the college garden. In 
1825 he was ordained a deacon of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, and in the same year, 
a priest. Until 1 838 he had pastoral charges 
in Philadelphia, where he founded St. John's 
Asylum in 1829, and a few years later es- 
tablished the "Catholic Herald." In 1S3S 
he was made bishop of Basileopolis in parti- 
bus and coadjutor to Bishop Dubois, of 

New York, and in 1842 became bishop of 
New York. In 1839 he founded St. John's 
College, at Fordham. In 1850 he was 
made archbishop of New York. In 186 [-2 
he was a special agent of the United States 
in Europe, after which he returned to this 
country and remained until his death, Jan- 
uary 3, 1864. Archbishop Hughes early 
attracted much attention by his controver- 
sial correspondence with Rev. John Breck- 
inridge in 1833-35. He was a man of great 
ability, a fluent and forceful writer and an 
able preacher. 

was the nineteenth president of the 
United States and served from 1877 to 1881. 
He was born October 4, 1822, at Delaware, 
Ohio, and his ancestry can be traced back 
as far as 1280, when Hayes and Rutherford 
were two Scottish chieftans fighting side by 
side with Baliol, William Wallace and 
Robert Bruce. The Hayes family had for 
a coat of arms, a shield, barred and sur- 
mounted by a flying eagle. There was a 
circle of stars about the eagle, while on a 
scroll underneath was their motto, "Recte." 
Misfortune overtook the family and in 16S0 
George Hayes, the progenitor of the Ameri- 
can family, came to Connecticut and settled 
at Windsor. Rutherford B. Hayes was 
a very delicate child at his birth and was 
not expected to live, but he lived in spite of 
all and remained at home until he was 
seven years old, when he was placed in 
school. He was a very tractable pupil, being 
always very studious, and in 1838 entered 
Kenyon College, graduating from the same 
in 1842. He then took up the study of law 
in the office of Thomas Sparrow at Colum- 
bus, but in a short time he decided to enter 
a law school at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where for two years he was immersed in the 



study of law. Mr. Hayes was admitted to 
the bar in i S45 in Marietta. Ohio, and very 
soon entered upon the active practice of his 
profession with Ralph P. Buckland, of 
Fremont. Ohio. He remained there three 
years, and in 1S49 removed to Cincinnati. 
Ohio, where his ambition found a new 
stimulus. Two events occurred at this 
period that had a powerful influence on his 
after life. One was his marriage to Miss 
Lac; Wire Webb, and the other was his 
introduction to a Cincinnati literary club, 
a body embracing such men as Salmon P. 
Chase. John Pope, and Edward F N 

• \ be was nominated for judge of the 
court of common pleas, but declined, and 
two years later he was appointed city 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
Mr Hayes was appointed major of the 
Twenty-third Ohio Infantry. June - 
and in July the regiment was ordered to 
and October i;. 1861, saw him 
I to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment. He was made colonel of the 
Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry, but refused to 
leave his old comrades: and in the battle of 
South Mountain he was wounded very 
severely and was unable to rejoin his regi- 
ment until Novemb 1 He had 
been promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment on October 15. [862. In the 
mbei he was appointed to 
command the Kanawa division and was 
given the rank of brigadier-general for 
meritorious services in several battles, and 
in 1864 he was bre vetted major-general for 
shed services in 1S64. during 
which campaign he was wounded several 
: rive horses had been shot under 
him. Mr. Hayes' rirst venture in politics 
was as a Whig, and later he was one of the 
first to unite with the Republican party. In 
1S64 he was elected from the Second Ohio 

district to congress, re-elected in 1866, 
and in 1S67 was elected governor of Ohio 
over Allen G. Thurman, and was re-elected 
Mr. Hayes was elected to the 
presidency in 1S76, for the term of four 
years, and at its close retired to private life, 
and went to his home in Fremont, Ohio, 
where he died on January 17 

a celebrated character as the nominee 
of the Democratic and Populist parties for 
president of the United States in 1S96. He 
was born March 19. 1S60. at Salem, Illi- 
nois. He received his early education in 
the public schools of his native county, and 
later on he attended the Whipple Academy 
at Jacksonville. He also took a course in 
Illinois College, and after his graduation 
from the same went to Chicago to study 
law. and entered the Union College of Law 
a* a student. He was associated with the 
late Lyman Trumbull, of Chicago, during 
his law studies, and devoted considerable 
time to the questions of government. He 
graduated from the college, was admitted to 
the bar, and went to Jacksonville. Illinois, 
where he was married to Miss Mary Eliza- 
beth Baird. In 1887 Mr Bryan removed 
to Lincoln, Nebraska, and formed a law 
partnership with Adolphus R. Talbot. He 
entered the field of politics, and in 1 SSS 
as a delegate to the state con- 
vention, which was to choose del e§ 
the national convention, during which he 
made a speech which immediately won him 
a high rank in political affairs. He declined, 
in the next state convention, a nomination 
for lieutenant-governor, and in iSoc he was 
elected congressman from the First district 
-ka. and was the youngest member 
of the fifty-second congress. He cham- 
pioned the Wilson tariff bill, and served 

coMPExniryr of biographt. 


three terms in the house of representatives. 
He next ran for senator, but was defeated 
by John M. Thurston, and in 1896 he was 
selected by the Democratic and Populist 
parties as their nominee for the presidency, 
being defeated by William McKinley. 

MARVIN HUGHITT, one of America's 
famous railroad men, was born in 
Genoa, New York, and entered the railway 
service in 1856 as superintendent of tele- 
graph and trainmaster of the St. Louis, Al- 
ton & Chicago, now Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road. Mr. Hughitt was superintendent of 
the southern division of the Illinois Central 
Railroad from 1862 until 1864, and was, later 
on, the general superintendent of the road 
until 1870. He was then connected with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road as assistant general manager, and re- 
tained this position until 1871, when he be- 
came the general manager of Pullman's 
Palace Car Company. In 1872 he was made 
general superintendent of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad. He served during 
1876 and up to 1880 as general manager, 
and from 1880 until 1887 as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. He was elected 
president of the road in 1887, in recog- 
nition of his ability in conducting the 
affairs of the road. He was also chosen 
president of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha Railway; the Fremont, Elk- 
horn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and the 
Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railroad, 
and his services in these capacities stamped 
him as one of the most able railroad mana- 
gers of his day. 

JOSEPH MEDILL, one of the most 
eminent of American journalists, was 
born in New Brunswick, Canada, April 6, 
1823. In 1831 his father moved to Stark 

county, Ohio, and until 1841 Joseph Medill 
worked on his father's farm. Later he 
studied law, and began the practice of that 
profession in 1846 at New Philadelphia, 
Ohio. But the newspaper field was more 
attractive to Mr. Medill, and three years 
later he founded a free-soil Whig paper at 
Coshocton, Ohio, and after that time jour- 
nalism received all his abilities. "The 
Leader, " another free-soil Whig paper, was 
founded by Mr. Medill at Cleveland in 1852. 
In that city he also became one of the first 
organizers of the Republican party. Shortly 
after that event he removed to Chicago and 
in 1855, with two partners, he purchased 
the " Chicago Tribune." In the contest for 
the nomination for the presidency in 1860, 
Mr. Medill worked with unflagging zeal for 
Mr. Lincoln, his warm personal friend, and 
was one of the president's stanchest sup- 
porters during the war. Mr. Medill was a 
member of the Illinois Constitutional con- 
vention in 1870. President Grant, in 1871, 
appointed the editor a member of the firs' 
United States civil service commission, and 
the following year, after the fire, he was 
elected mayor of Chicago by a great ma- 
jority. During 1873 and 1874 Mr. Medill 
spent a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he purchased a controlling interest in the 
" Chicago Tribune." 

CLAUSSPRECKELS, the great " sugar 
baron," and one of the most famous 
representatives of commercial life in Amer- 
ica, was born in Hanover, Germany, and 
emigrated to the United States in 1840, 
locating in New York. He very soon be- 
came the proprietor of a small retail gro- 
cery store on Church street, and embarked 
on a career that has since 
world. He sold out his business and went 
to California with the argonauts of 1849, 


not as a prospector, but as a trader, and for 
years after his arrival on the coast he was 
still engaged as a grocer. At length, after a 
quarter of a century of fairly prosperous 
business life, he found himself in a position 
where an ordinary man would have retired, 
but Mr. Spreckles did not retire; he had 
merely been gathering capital for the real 
work of his life. His brothers had followed 
him to California, and in combination with 
them he purchased for forty thousand dollars 
an interest in the Albany Brewery in San 
Francisco. But the field was not extensive 
enough for the development of his business 
abilities, so Mr. Sprecklas branched out 
extensively in the sugar business. He suc- 
ceeded in securing the entire output of 
sugar that was produced on the Sand- 
wich Islands, and after 1885 was known as 
the "Sugar King of Sandwich Islands." 
He controlled absolutely the sugar trade of 
the Pacific coast which was known to be 
not less than ten million dollars a year. 

famous as a clergyman, and for many 
years president of the Society for the 
Prevention of Crime, was born April 17, 
1842, at Framingham, Massachusetts, of 
English descent. At the age of sixteen 
he was pupil in the grammar school at 
Clinton, Massachusetts, and for the ensu- 
ing two years was a clerk in a dry goods 
store, which position he gave up to prepare 
himself for college at Lancaster academy. 
Mr. Parkhurst went to Amherst in 1862, 
and after taking a thorough course lit gradu- 
ated in 1866, and in 1S67 became the prin- 
cipal of the Amherst High School. He re- 
tained this position until 1870, when he 
visited Germany with the intention of tak- 
ing a course in philosophy and theology, 
but was forced to abandon this intention on 

account of illness in the family causing his 
early return from Europe. He accepted the 
chair of Latin and Greek in Williston Semi- 
nary, Easthampton, Massachusetts, and re- 
mained there two years. He then accom- 
panied his wife to Europe, and devoted two 
years to study in Halle, Leipsic and Bonn. 
Upon his return home he spent considerable 
time in the study of Sanscrit, and in 1874 
he became the pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional church at Lenox, Massachusetts. He 
gained here his reputation as a pulpit ora- 
tor, and on March 9, 1880, he became the 
pastor of the Madison Square Presbyterian 
church of New York. He was, in 1890, 
made a member of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Crime, and the same year be- 
came its president. He delivered a sermon 
in 1892 on municipal corruption, for which 
he was brought before the grand jury, which 
body declared his charges to be without suffi- 
cient foundation. But the matter did not end 
here, for he immediately went to work on a 
second sermon in which he substantiated his 
former sermon and wound up by saying, 
"I know, for I have seen." He was again 
summoned before that august body, and as 
a result of his testimony and of the investi- 
gation of the jurors themselves, the police 
authorities were charged with incompetency 
and corruption. Dr. Parkhurst was the 
author of the following works: "The Forms 
of the Latin Verb, Illustrated by Sanscrit," 
"The Blind Man's Creed and Other Ser- 
mons," "The Pattern on the Mount," and 
" Three Gates on a Side." 

HENRY BERGH, although a writer, 
diplomatist and government official, 
was noted as a philanthropist — the founder 
of the American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals. On his labors for 
the dumb creation alone rests his fame. 



Alone, in the face of indifference, opposition 
and ridicule, he began the reform which is 
now recognized as one of the beneficent 
movements of the age. Through his exer- 
tions as a speaker and lecturer, but above 
all as a bold worker, in the street, in the 
court room, before the legislature, the cause 
he adopted gained friends and rapidly in- 
creased in power until it has reached im- 
mense proportions and influence. The work 
of the society covers all cases of cruelty to 
all sorts of animals, employs every moral 
agency, social, legislative and personal, and 
touches points of vital concern to health as 
well as humanity. 

Henry Bergh was born in New York 
City in 1823, and was educated at Colum- 
bia College. In 1S63 he was made secre- 
tary of the legation to Russia and also 
served as vice-consul there. He also de- 
voted some time to literary pursuits and was 
the author of " Love's Alternative," a 
drama; "Married Off," a poem; "'The 
Portentous Telegram, " "The Ocean Para- 
gon;" "The Streets of New York," tales 
and sketches. 

of the most eminent of American di- 
vines, was born in Adams, Jefferson county, 
New York, February 15, 1822. He was 
brought up in the mercantile business, and 
early in life took an active interest in polit- 
ical affairs. In 1847 ne became a candidate 
for holy orders and pursued theological 
studies with Rev. W. D. Wilson, D. D., 
afterward professor in Cornell University. 
He was ordained deacon in 1849, in Trinity 
church, Geneva, New York, by Rt. Rev. 
W. H. De Lancey, D. D., and took charge 
of Zion church, Rome, New York, Decem- 
ber 1, 1849. In 1850, our subject was or- 
dained priest by Bishop De Lancey. In 

1857 he became rector of the Church of the 
Holy Communion, Chicago. On the 30th 
of June, 1859, he was chosen bishop of 
Minnesota, and took charge of the interests- 
of the Episcopal church in that state, being 
located at Faribault. In i860 Bishop 
Whipple, with Revs. I. L. Breck, S. W. 
Mauncey and E. S. Peake, organized the 
Bishop Seabury Mission, out of which has 
grown the Cathedral of Our Merciful Savior, 
the Seabury Divinity School, Shattuck 
School and St. Mary's Hall, which have 
made Faribault City one of the greatest 
educational centers of the northwest. Bishop 
Whipple also became noted as the friend 
and defender of the North American In- 
dians and planted a number of successful 
missions among them. 

EZRA CORNELL was one of the greatest 
philanthropists and friends of education 
the country has known. He was born at 
Westchester Landing, New York, January 
11, 1807. He grew to manhood in his na- 
tive state and became a prominent figure in 
business circles as a successful and self-made 
man. Soon after the invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph, he devoted his attention to 
that enterprise, and accumulated an im- 
mense fortune. In 1865, by a gift of five 
hundred thousand dollars, he made possible 
the founding of Cornell University, which 
was named in his honor. He afterward 
made additional bequests amounting to many 
hundred thousand dollars. His death oc- 
curred at Ithaca, New York, December 9, 

TGNATIUS DONNELLY, widely knowi. 
I as an author and politician, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3, 
1 83 1. He was educated at the public 
schools of that city, and graduated from the 



Central High School in 1849. He studied 
law in the office of Judge B. H. Brewster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1852. In 
the spring of 1856, Mr. Donnelly emigrated 
to Minnesota, then a new territory, and, at 
Hastings, resumed the practice of law in 
partnership with A. M. Hayes. In 1857, 
and again in 1858, he was defeated for state 
senator, but in 1859 he was elected by the 
Republicans as lieutenant-governor, and re- 
elected in 1 86 1. In 1862 he was elected to 
represent the Second district of Minnesota 
in congress. He was re-elected to the same j 
office in 1864 and in 1866. He was an 
abolitionist and warmly supported President 
Lincoln's administration, but was strongly 
in favor of leniency toward the people of 
the south, after the war. In many ways he 
was identified with some of the best meas- 
ures brought before the house during his 
presence there. In the spring of 1868, at 
the request of the Republican national com- 
mittee, he canvassed New Hampshire and 
Connecticut in the interests of that party. 
E. B. Washburne about this time made an 
attack on Donnelly in one of the papers of 
Minnesota, which was replied to on the floor 
of the house by a fierce phillipic that will 
long be remembered. Through the inter- 
vention of the Washburne interests Mr. Don- 
nelly failed of a re-election in 1870. In 
1873 he was elected to the state senate from 
Dakota county, and continuously re-elected 
until 1878. In 1 886 he was elected mem- 
ber of the house for two years. In later 
years he identified himself with the Popu- 
list party. 

In 1882, Mr. Donnelly became known as 
an author, publishing his first literary work, 
••Atlantis, the Antediluvian World," which 
passed through over twenty-two editions in 
America, several in England, and was trans- 
lated into French. This was followed by 

" Ragnarok, the Age of Fire and Gravel," 
which attained nearly as much celebrity as 
the first, and these two, in the opinion of 
scientific critics, are sufficient to stamp the 
author as a most capable and painstaking 
student of the facts he has collated in them. 
The work by which he gained the greatest 
notoriety, however, was ' ' The Great Cryp- 
togram, or Francis Bacon's Cipher in the 
Shakespeare Plays." "Caesar's Column," 
" Dr. Huguet," and other works were pub- 
lished subsequently. 

STEVEN V. WHITE, a speculator of 
Wall Street of national reputation, was 
born in Chatham county, North Carolina, 
August 1, 1 83 1, and soon afterward re- 
moved to Illinois. His home was a log 
cabin, and until his eighteenth year he 
worked on the farm. Then after several 
years of struggle with poverty he graduated 
from Knox College, and went to St. Louis, 
where he entered a wholesale boot and shoe 
house as bookkeeper. He then studied law 
and worked as a reporter for the "Missouri 
Democrat." After his admission to the bar 
he went to New York, in 1865, and became 
a member of the banking house of Marvin 
& White. Mr. White enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of having engineered the only corner 
in Wall Street since Commodore Vander- 
bilt's time. This was the famous Lacka- 
wanna deal in 1883, in which he made a 
profit of two million dollars. He was some- 
times called " Deacon" White, and, though 
a member for many years of the Plymouth 
church, he never held that office. Mr. 
White was one of the most noted characters 
of the street, and has been called an orator, 
poet, philanthropist, linguist, abolitionist, 
astronomer, schoolmaster, plowboy, and 
trapper. He was a lawyer, ex-congress- 
man, expert accountant, art critic and theo- 


logian. He laid the foundation for a 
"Home for Colored People," in Chatham 
county, North Carolina, where the greater 
part of his father's life was spent, and in 
whose memory the work was undertaken. 

JAMES A. GARFIELD, the twentieth 
president of the United States, was born 
November 19, 1831, in Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, and was the son of Abram and Eliza 
(Baliou) Garfield. In 1833 the father, an 
industrious pioneer farmer, died, and the 
care of the family devolved upon Thomas, 
to whom James became deeply indebted for 
educational and other advantages. As James 
grew up he was industrious and worked on 
the farm, at carpentering, at chopping wood, 
or anything else he found to do, and in the 
meantime made the most of his books. 

Until he was about sixteen, James' high- 
est ambition was to become a sea naptain. 
On attaining that age he walked to 
Cleveland, and, not being able to find work, 
he engaged as a driver on the Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania canal, but quit this after a short 
time. He attended the seminary at Ches- 
ter for about three years, after which he 
entered Hiram Institute, a school started by 
the Disciples of Christ in 1850. In order 
to pay his way he assumed the duties of 
janitor and at times taught school. After 
completing his course at the last named edu- 
cational institution he entered Williams Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1856. He 
afterward returned to Hiram College as its 
president. He studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1859. November II, 1858, 
Mr. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph were 

In 1859 Mr. Garfield made his first polit- 
ical speeches, at Hiram and in the neighbor- 
hood. The same year he was elected to the 
state senate. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty- 
second Ohio Infantry, and, while but a ne* 
soldier, was given command of four regi- 
ments of infantry and eight companies of 
cavalry, with which he drove the Confeder- 
ates under Humphrey Marshall out of Ken 
tucky. January 11, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general. He participated 
with General Buell in the battle of Shiloh 
and the operations around Corinth, and was 
then detailed as a member of the Fitz John 
Porter court-martial. Reporting to General 
Rosecrans, he was assigned to the position 
of chief of staff, and resigned his position, 
with the rank of major-general, when his 
immediate superior was superseded. In 
the fall of 1862 Mr. Garfield was elected to 
congress and remained in that body, either 
in the house or senate, until 1880. 

June 8, 1880, at the national Republican 
convention, held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the presidency, and 
was elected. He was inaugurated March 
4, 1 88 1, but, July 2, following, he was shot 
and fatally wounded by Charles Guiteau for 
some fancied political slight, and died Sep- 
tember 19, 1 88 1. 

INCREASE MATHER was one of the 
most prominent preachers, educators and 
authors of early times in the New England 
states. He was born at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, June 21, 1639, and was given an 
excellent education, graduating at Harvard 
in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, 
two years later. He was ordained a min- 
ister, and preached in England and America, 
and in 1664 became pastor of the North 
church, in Boston. In 1685 he became 
president of Harvard University, serving 
until 1701. In 1692 he received the first 
doctorate in divinity conferred in English 



speaking America. The same year he pro- 
cured in England a new charter for Massa- 
chusetts, which conferred upon himself the 
power of naming the governor, lieutenant- 
governor and council. He opposed the 
severe punishment of witchcraft, and took 
a prominent part in all public affairs of his 
day. He was a prolific writer, and became 
the author of nearly one hundred publica- 
tions, large and small. His death occurred 
August 23, 1723, at Boston. 

COTTON MATHER, a celebrated minis- 
ter in the "Puritan times" of New 
England, was born at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, February 12, 1663, being a son of 
Rev. Increase Mather, and a grandson of 
John Cotton. A biography of his father 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 
Cotton Mather received his early education 
in his native city, was trained by Ezekiel 
Cheever, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1678; became a teacher, and in 1684 
was ordained as associate pastor of North 
church, Boston, with his father, having by 
persistent effort overcome an impediment in 
his speech. He labored with great zeal as 
a pastor, endeavoring also, to establish the 
ascendancy of the church and ministry in 
civil affairs, and in the putting down of 
witchcraft by legal sentences, a work in 
which he took an active part and through 
which he is best known in history. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. in 17 10, con- 
ferred by the University of Glasgow, and 
F. R. S. in 17 1 3. His death occurred at 
Boston, February 13, 1728. He was the 
author of many publications, among which 
were " Memorable Providences Relating to 
Witchcraft," "Wonders of the Invisible 
World," "Essays to Do Good," " Mag- 
nalia Christi Americana," and " Illustra- 
tions of the Sacred Scriptures." Some of 

these works are quaint and curious, full of 
learning, piety and prejudice. A well- 
known writer, in summing up the life and 
character of Cotton Mather, says: ' ' Mather, 
with all the faults of his early years, was a 
man of great excellence of character. He 
labored zealously for the benefit of the 
poor, for mariners, slaves, criminals and 
Indians. His cruelty and credulity were 
the faults of his age, while his philanthro- 
phy was far more rare in that age than in 
the present." 

WILLIAM A. PEFFER, who won a 
national reputation during the time 
he was in the United States senate, was 
born on a farm in Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, September 10, 1831. He 
drew his education from the public schools 
of his native state and at the age of fifteen 
taught school in winter, working on a farm 
in the summer. In June, 1853, while yet a 
young man, he removed to Indiana, and 
opened up a farm in St. Joseph county. 
In 1859 he made his way to Missouri and 
settled on a farm in Morgan county, but on 
account of the war and the unsettled state 
of the country, he moved to Illinois in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and enlisted as a private in 
Company F, •Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, 
the following August. He was promoted 
to the rank of second lieutenant in 
March, 1863, and served successively as 
quartermaster, adjutant, post adjutant, 
judge advocate of a military commission, 
and depot quartermaster in the engineer 
department at Nashville. He was mustered 
out of the service June 26, 1865. He had, 
during his leisure hours while in the army, 
studied law, and in August, 1865, he com- 
menced the practice of that profession at 
Clarksville, Tennessee. He removed to 
Kansas in 1870 and practiced there until 


1878, in the meantime establishing and 
conducting two newspapers, the " Fredonia 
Journal " and " Coffey ville Journal." 

Mr. Peffer was elected to the state senate 
in 1874 and was a prominent and influential 
member of several important committees. 
He served as a presidential elector in 1880. 
The year following he became editor of the 
" Kansas Farmer," which he made a promi- 
nent and useful paper. In 1890 Mr. Peffer 
■was elected to the United States senate as 
a member of the People's party and took 
his seat March 4, 1891. After six years of 
service Senator Peffer was succeeded in 
March, 1897, by William A. Harris. 

ROBERT MORRIS.— The name of this 
financier, statesman and patriot is 
closely connected with the early history of 
the United States. He was a native of 
England, born January 20, 1734, and came 
to America with his father when thirteen 
years old. Until 1754 he served in the 
counting house of Charles Willing, then 
formed a partnership with that gentleman's 
son, which continued with great success until 
1793. In 1776 Mr. Morris was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, and, although 
once voting against the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, signed that paper on its adop- 
tion, and was several times thereafter re- 
elected to congress. During the Revolu- 
tionary war the services of Robert Morris 
in aiding the government during its finan- 
cial difficulties were of incalculable value; he 
freely pledged his personal credit for sup- 
plies for the army, at one time to the amount 
of about one and a half million dollars, with- 
out which the campaign of 1781 would have 
been almost impossible. Mr. Morris was 
appointed superintendent of finance in 1781 
and served until 1784, continuing to employ 
his personal credit to facilitate the needs of 

his department. He also served as mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature, and 
from 1786 to 1795 was United States sena- 
tor, declining meanwhile the position of sec- 
retary of the treasury, and suggesting the 
name of Alexander Hamilton, who was ap- 
pointed to that post. During the latter 
part of his life Mr. Morris was engaged ex- 
tensively in the China trade, and later be- 
came involved inland speculations, which 
ruined him, so that the remaining days of 
this noble man and patriot were passed 
in confinement for debt. His death occurreJ 
at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806. 

WILLIAM SHARON, a senator anr» 
capitalist, and mine owner of na 
tional reputation, was born at Smithfield, 
Ohio, January 9, 1821. He was reared 
upon a farm and in his boyhood given excel- 
lent educational advantages and in 1842 
entered Athens College. He remained in 
that institution about two years, after which 
he studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and 
was admitted to the bar at St. Louis and 
commenced practice. His health failing, 
however, he abandoned his profession and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Carrollton, 
Greene county, Illinois. During the time 
of the gold excitement of 1849, Mr. Sharon 
went to California, whither so many went, 
and engaged in business at Sacramento. 
The next year he removed to San Francisco, 
where he operated in real estate. Being 
largely interested in its silver mines, he re- 
moved to Nevada, locating at Virginia City, 
and acquired an immense fortune. He be- 
came one of the trustees of the Bank of 
California, and during the troubles that 
arose on the death of William Ralston, the 
president of that institution, was largely in- 
strumental in bringing its affairs into a satis- 
factory shape. 


Mr. Sharon was elected to represent the 
state of Nevada in the United States senate 
in 1875, and remained a member of that 
body until 188 1. He was always distin- 
guished for close application to business. 
Senator Sharon died November 13, 1885. 

HENRY W. SHAW, an American hu- 
morist who became celebrated unde r 
the non-de-plume of " Josh Billings," gained 
his fame from the witticism of his writing, 
and peculiar eccentricity of style and spell- 
ing. He was born at Lanesborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 18 1 8. For twenty-five years 
he lived in different parts of the western 
states, following various lines of bus ; ness, 
including farming and auctioneering, and in 
the latter capacity settled at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, in 1858. In 1863 he began 
writing humorous sketches for the news- 
papers over the signature of "Josh Bill- 
ings," and became immediately popular 
both as a writer and lecturer. He pub- 
lished a number of volumes of comic 
sketches and edited an " Annual Allminax " 
for a number of years, which had a wide cir- 
culation. His death occurred October 14, 
1885, at Monterey, California. 

JOHN M. THURSTON, well known 
throughout this country as a senator 
and political leader, was born at Mont- 
pelier, Vermont, August 21, 1847, of an 
old Puritan family which dated back their 
ancestry in this country to 1636, and among 
whom were soldiers of the Revolution and 
of the war of 18 12-15. 

Young Thurston was brought west by 
the family in 1854, they settling at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and two years later at Beaver 
Dam, where John M. received his schooling 
in the public schools and at Wayland Uni- 
versity. His father enlisted as a private in 

the First Wisconsin Cavalry and died while 
in the service, in the spring of 1863. 

Young Thurston, thrown on his own 
resources while attaining an education, sup- 
ported himself by farm work, driving team 
and at other manual labor. He studied law 
and was admitted to the bar May 21, 1869, 
and in October of the same year located in 
Omaha, Nebraska. He was elected a 
member of the city council in 1872, city 
attorney in 1874 and a member of the Ne- 
braska legislature in 1874. He was a mem- 
ber of the Republican national convention 
of 1884 and temporary chairman of that of 
1888. Taking quite an interest in the 
younger members of his party he was instru- 
mental in forming the Republican League 
of the United States, of which he was presi- 
dent for two years. He was then elected a 
member of the United States senate, in 
1895, to represent the state of Nebraska. 

As an attorney John M. Thurston occu- 
pied a very prominent place, and for a num- 
ber of years held the position of general 
solicitor of the Union Pacific railroad sys- 

JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, a celebrated 
American naturalist, was born in Louis- 
iana, May 4, 1780, and was the son of an 
opulent French naval officer who owned a 
plantation in the then French colony. In 
his childhood he became deeply interested 
in the study of birds and their habits. About 
1794 he was sent to Paris, France, where 
he was partially educated, and studied de- 
signing under the famous painter, Jacques 
Louis David. He returned to the Unit- 
ed States about 1798, and settled on a 
farm his father gave him, on the Perkiomen 
creek in eastern Pennsylvania. He mar- 
ried Lucy Kakewell in 1808, and, disposing 
of his property, removed to Louisville, Ken- 


tucky, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. About two years later he began to 
make extensive excursions through the pri- 
meval forests of the southern and south- 
western states, in the exploration of which 
he passed many years. He made colored 
drawings of all the species of birds that he 
found. For several years he made his home 
with his wife and children at Henderson, on 
the Ohio river. It is said that about this 
time he had failed in business and was re- 
duced to poverty, but kept the wolf from the 
door by giving dancing lessons and in portrait 
painting. In 1824, at Philadelphia, he met 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who encouraged 
him to publish a work on ornithology. Two 
years later he went to England and com- 
menced the publication of his great work, 
"The Birds of America." He obtained a 
large number of subscribers at one thousand 
dollars a copy. This work, embracing five 
volumes of letterpress and five volumes of 
beautifully colored plates, was pronounced 
byCuvier "the most magnificent monument 
that art ever raised to ornithology." 

Audubon returned to America in 1829, 
and explored the forests, lakes and coast 
from Canada to Florida, collecting material 
for another work. This was his " Ornitho- 
logical Biography; or, An Account of the 
Habits of the Birds of the United States, 
Etc." He revisited England in 1831, and 
returned in 1839, after which he resided on 
the Hudson, near New York City, in which 
place he died January 27, 185 1. During 
his life he issued a cheaper edition of his 
great work, and was, in association with 
Dr. Bachman, preparing a work on the 
quadrupeds of North America. 

OUGH gained his principal fame from 
he celebrated victory which he gained over 

the superior British squadron, under Com- 
modore Dovvnie, September 11, 1814. Com- 
modore McDonough was born in N 
county, Delaware, December 23, 1783, and 
when seventeen years old entered the 
United States navy as midshipman, serving 
in the expedition to Tripoli, under Decatur, 
in 1803-4. In 1807 he was promoted to 
lieutenant, and in July, 18 13, was made a 
commander. The following year, on Lake 
Champlain, he gained the celebrated victory 
above referred to, for which he was again 
promoted; also received a gold medal from 
congress, and from the state of Vermont an 
estate on Cumberland Head, in view of the 
scene of the engagement. His death oc- 
curred at sea, November 16, 1825, while he 
was returning from the command of the 
Mediterranean squadron. 

America's most celebrated arctic ex- 
plorers, was born in Rochester, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1821. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and located in' Cincinnati, where later 
he became a journalist. For several years 
he devoted a great deal of attention to cal- 
orics. Becoming interested in the fate of the 
explorer, Sir John Franklin, he joined the 
expedition fitted out by Henry Grinnell and 
sailed in the ship "George Henry," under 
Captain Buddington, which left New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, in i860. He returned in 
1862, and two years later published his 
" Arctic Researches." He again joined the 
expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell, and 
sailed in the ship, " Monticello," under 
Captain Buddington, this time remaining in 
the arctic region over four years. On his 
return he brought back many evidences of 
having found trace of Franklin. 

In 1 87 1 the " Polaris " was fitted out by 
the United States government, and Captain 


Hall again sailed for the polar regions. He 
died in Greenland in October, 1871, and the 
"Polaris" was finally abandoned by the 
crew, a portion of which, under Captain 
Tyson, drifted with the icebergs for one 
hundred and ninety-five days, until picked 
up by the " Tigress," on the 30th of April, 
1873. The other portion of the crew built 
boats, and, after a perilous voyage, were 
picked up in June, 1873, by a whaling vessel. 

OLIVER ELLSWORTH, the third chief 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Windsor, Connecticut, April 29, 1745. 
After graduating from Princeton, he took 
up the study of law, and was licensed 
to practice in 177 1. In 1777 he was elected 
as a delegate to the Continental congress. 
He was judge of the superior court of his 
state in 1784, and was chosen as a delegate 
to the constitutional convention in 1787. 
He sided with the Federalists, was elected 
to the United States senate in 1789, and 
was a firm supporter of Washington's policy. 
He won great distinction in that body, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States by Washington 
in 1796. The relations between this coun- 
try and France having become violently 
strained, he was sent to Paris as envoy ex- 
traordinary in 1799, and was instrumental 
in negotiating the treaty that averted war. 
He resigned the following year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Chief Justice Marshall. His 
death occurred November 26, 1S07. 

eminent American jurist and chief 
justice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Augusta, Maine, in 1833. His 
education was looked after in boyhood, and 
at the age of sixteen he entered Bowdoin 
College, and on graduation entered the law 

department of Harvard University. He then 
entered the law office of his uncle at Ban- 
gor, Maine, and soon after opened an office 
for the practice of law at Augusta. He was 
an alderman from his ward, city attorney, 
and editor of the " Age," a rival newspaper 
of the "Journal," which was conducted by 
James G. Blaine. He soon decided to re- 
move to Chicago, then springing into notice 
as a western metropolis. He at once iden- 
tified himself with the interests of the 
new city, and by this means acquired an 
experience that fitted him for his future 
work. He devoted himself assiduously to 
his profession, and had the good fortune to 
connect himself with the many suits grow- 
ing out of the prorogation of the Illinois 
legislature in 1863. It was not long before 
he became one of the foremost lawyers in 
Chicago. He made a three days' speech in 
the heresy trial of Dr. Cheney, which added 
to his fame. He was appointed chief jus- 
tice of the United States by President Cleve- 
land in 1888, the youngest man who ever 
held that exalted position. His income from 
his practice had for many years reached 
thirty thousand dollars annually. 

first president of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Vermont, Octo- 
ber 5, 1830. He was educated at Union 
College, Schenectady, New York, from 
which he graduated with honor, and en- 
gaged in teaching school. After two years 
he entered the law office of Judge E. D. 
Culver, of New York, as a student. He was 
admitted to the bar, and formed a partner- 
ship with an old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
in the west, but after a few months' search 
for a location, they returned to New York 
and opened an office, and at once entered 



upon a profitable practice. He was shortly 
afterwards married to a daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States navy. 
Mrs. Arthur died shortly before his nomina- 
tion for the vice-presidency. In 1856 a 
colored woman in New York was ejected 
from a street car and retained Mr. Arthur 
in a suit against the company, and obtained 
a verdict of five hundred dollars. It result- 
ed in a general order by all superintendents 
of street railways in the city to admit col- 
ored people to the cars. 

Mr. Arthur was a delegate to the first 
Republican national convention, and was 
appointed judge-advocate for the Second 
Brigade of New York, and then chief engi- 
neer of Governor Morgan's staff. At the 
close of his term he resumed the practice of 
iaw in New York. In 1872 he was made 
collector of the port of New York, which 
position he held four years. At the Chi- 
cago convention in 1880 Mr. Arthur was 
nominated for the vice-presidency with 
Garfield, and after an exciting campaign 
was elected. Four months after the inau- 
guration President Garfield was assassinated, 
and Mr. Arthur was called to take the reins 
of government. His administration of 
affairs was generally satisfactory. At its 
close he resumed the practice of law in New 
York. His death occurred November 18, 

ISAAC HULL was one of the most con- 
spicuous and prominent naval officers in 
the early history of America. He was born 
at Derby, Connecticut, March 9, 1775, be- 
ing the son of a Revolutionary officer. Isaac 
Hull early in life became a mariner, and 
when nineteen years of age became master 
of a merchant ship in the London trade. 
In 1798 he became a lieutenant in the United 
States navy, and three years later was made 

first lieutenant of the frigate "Constitution." 
He distinguished himself by skill and valor 
against the French on the coast of Hayti, and 
served with distinction in the Barbary expe- 
ditions. July 12, 1812, he sailed from 
Annapolis, in command of the "Constitu- 
tion," and for three days was pursued by a 
British squadron of five ships, from which 
he escaped by bold and ingenious seaman- 
ship. In August of the same year he cap- 
tured the frigate " Guerriere," one of his 
late pursuers and for this, the first naval 
advantage of that war, he received a gold 
medal from congress. Isaac Hull was later 
made naval commissioner and had command 
of various navy yards. His death occurred 
February 13, 1843, at Philadelphia. 

as a prominent business man, political 
manager and senator, was born in New Lis- 
bon, Columbiana county, Ohio, September 
24, 1837. He removed with his father's 
family to Cleveland, in the same state, in 
1852, and in the latter city, and in the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio, 
received his education. He became an em- 
ploye of the wholesale grocery house of 
Hanna, Garrettson & Co., his father being 
the senior member of the firm. The latter 
died in 1862, and Marcus represented his 
interest until 1867, when the business was 
closed up. 

Our subject then became a member of 
the firm of Rhodes & Co., engaged in the 
iron and coal business, but at the expira- 
tion of ten years this firm was changed to 
that of M. A. Hanna lS: Co. Mr. Hanna 
was long identified with the lake carrying 
business, being interested in vessels on the 
lakes and in the construction of them. As 
a director of the Globe Ship Manufacturing 
Company, of Cleveland, president of the 



Union Nationai Bank, of Cleveland, president 
of the Cleveland City Railway Company, 
and president of the Chapin Mining Com- 
pany, oi Lake Superior, he became promi- 
nently identified with the business world. 
He was one of the government directors of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, being appointed 
to that position in 1885 by President Cleve- 

Mr. Hanna was a delegate to the na- 
tional Republican convention of 1884, which 
was his first appearance in the political 
world. He was a delegate to the con- 
ventions of 1888 and 1896, and was elect- 
ed chairman of the Republican national 
committee the latter year, and practically 
managed the campaign of William McKin- 
ley for the presidency. In 1897 Mr. Hanna 
was appointed senator by Governor Bush- 
nell, of Ohio, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of John Sherman. 

GEORGE PEABODY was one of the 
best known and esteemed of aii philan- 
thropists, whose munificent gifts to Ameri- 
can institutions have proven of so much 
benefit to the cause of humanity. He was 
born February 18, 1795, at South Danvers, 
Massachusetts, which is now called Pea- 
body in honor of him. He received but a 
meager education, and during his early life 
he was a mercantile clerk at Thetford, Ver- 
mont, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 
1 8 14 he became a partner with Elisha 
Riggs, at Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
and in 1 8 1 5 they moved to Baltimore, Mary- 
land. The business grew to great propor- 
tions, and they opened branch houses at 
New York and Philadelphia. Mr. Peabody 
made several voyages to Europe of com- 
mercial importance, and in 1829 became the 
head of the firm, which was then called 
Peabody, Riggs & Co., and in 1838 he re- 

moved to London, England. He retired 
from the firm, and established the cele- 
brated banking house, in which he accumu- 
lated a large fortune. He aided Mr. Grin- 
nell in fitting out Dr. Kane's Arctic expedi- 
tion, in 1852, and founded in the same year 
the Peabody Institute, in his native town, 
which he afterwards endowed with two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Peabody visited 
the United States in 1857, and gave three 
hundred thousand dollars for the establish- 
ment at Baltimore of an institute of science, 
literature and fine arts. In 1 862 he gave 
two million five hundred thousand dollars 
for the erecting of lodging houses for the 
poor in London, and on another visit to the 
United States he gave one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars to establish at Harvard a 
museum and professorship of American 
archaeology and ethnology, an equal sum for 
the endowment of a department of physical 
science at Yale, and gave the "Southern 
Educational Fund " two million one hundred 
thousand dollars, besides devoting two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to various objects of 
public utility. Mr. Peabody made a final 
visit to the United States in 1869, and on 
this occasion he raised the endowment of 
the Baltimore Institute one million dollars, 
created the Peabody Museum, at Salem, 
Massachusetts, with a fund of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, gave sixty thou- 
sand dollars to Washington College, Vir- 
ginia; fifty thousand dollars for a "Peabody 
Museum, " at North Danvers, thirty thousand 
dollars to Phillips Academy, Andover; twen- 
ty-five thousand dollars to Kenyon College, 
Ohio, and twenty thousand dollars to the 
Maryland Historical Society. Mr. Peabody 
also endowed an art school at Rome, in 

1868. He died in London, November 4, 

1869, less then a month after he had re- 
turned from the United States, and his 



remains were brought to the United States 
and interred in his native town. He made 
several other bequests in his will, and left 
his family about five million dollars. 

MATTHEW S. QUAY, a celebrated 
public man and senator, was born at 
Dillsburgh, York county, Pennsylvania, 
September 30, 1S33, of an old Scotch-Irish 
family, some of whom had settled in the 
Keystone state in 171 5. Matthew received 
a good education, graduating from the Jef- 
ferson College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 
at the age of seventeen. He then traveled, 
taught school, lectured, and studied law 
under Judge Sterrett. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1854, was appointed a prothon- 
otaiy in 1855 and elected to the same 
office in 1856 and 1859. Later he was 
made lieutenant of the Pennsylvania Re 
serve>, lieutenant-colonel and assistant com- 
missary-general of the state, private secre- 
tary of the famous war governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, Andrew G. Curtin, colonel of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylva- 
nia Infantry (nine months men), military 
state agent and held other offices at different 

Mr. Quay was a member of the house of 
representatives of the state of Pennsylvania 
from 1865 to 1 868. He filled the office of 
secretary of the commonwealth from 1872 
to 1878, and the position of delegate-at- 
large to the Republican national conventions 
of 1872, 1876, i8Soand 1888. Hewasthe 
editor of the "Beaver Radical" and the 
"Philadelphia Record" for a time, and held 
many offices in the state conventions and on 
their committees. He was elected secre- 
tary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
1869, and served three years, and in 1885 
was chosen state treasurer. In 1886 his 
great abilities pointed him out as the 

natural candidate for United States senator, 
and he was accordingly elected to that posi- 
tion and re-elected thereto in 1892. He 
was always noted for a genius for organiza- 
tion, and as a political leader had but tew 
peers. Cool, serene, far-seeing, resourceful, 
holding his impulses and forces in hand, he 
never quailed from any policy he adopted, 
and carried to success most, if not all, of 
the political campaigns in which he took 

JAMES K. JONES, a noted senator and 
political leader, attained national fame 
while chairman of the national executive 
committee of the Democratic party in the 
presidential campaign of 1896. He was a 
native of Marshall county, Mississippi, and 
was born September 29, 1839. His father, 
a well-to-do planter, settled in Dallas county, 
Arkansas, in 1848, and there the subject of 
this sketch received a carelul education. 
During the Civil war he served as a private 
soldier in the Confederate army. From 
1866 to 1873 he passed a quiet life as a 
planter, but in the latter year was admitted 
to the bar and began the practice of iaw. 
About the same time he was elected to the 
Arkansas senate and re-elected in 1874. In 
1877 he was made president of the senate 
and the following year was unsuccessful in 
obtaining a nomination as member of con- 
gress. In 1S80 he was elected representa- 
tive and his ability at once placed him in a 
foremost position. He was re-elected to 
congress in 1882 and in 1884, and served as 
an influential member on the committee of 
ways and means. March 4, 1885, Mr. Jones 
took his seat in the United States senate to 
succeed James D. Walker, and was after- 
ward re-elected to the same office. In this 
branch of the national legislature his capa- 
bilities had a wider scope, and he was rec- 



ognized as one of the ablest leaders of his 

On the nomination of William J. Bryan 
as its candidate for the presidency by the 
national convention of the Democratic 
party, held in Chicago in 1896, Mr. Jones 
was made chairman of the national com- 

THEODORE THOMAS, one of the most 
celebrated musical directors America 
has known, was born in the kingdom of Han- 
over in 1835, and received his musical educa- 
tion from his father. He was a very apt scholar 
and played the violin at public concerts at 
the age of six years. He came with his 
parents to America in 1845, and joined the 
orchestra of the Italian Opera in New York 
City. He played the first violin in the 
orchestra which accompanied Jenny Lind 
in her first American concert. In 1S61 Mr. 
Thomas established the orchestra that be- 
came famous under his management, and 
gave his first symphony concerts in New 
York in 1864. He began his first "summer 
night concerts" in the same city in 1868, 
and in 1869 he started on his first tour of 
the principal cities in the United States, 
which he made every year for many years. 
He was director of the College of Music in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, but resigned in 1880, after 
having held the position for three years. 

Later he organized one of the greatest 
and most successful orchestras ever brought 
together in the city of Chicago, and was 
very prominent in musical affairs during the 
World's Columbian Exposition, thereby add- 
ing greatly to his fame. 

mous inventor and manufacturer, was 
born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, February 
1 5, 1809. When he was seven years old his 

father invented a reaping machine. It was 
a rude contrivance and not successful. In 
1 83 1 Cyrus made his invention of a reaping 
machine, and had it patented three years 
later. By successive improvements he was 
able to keep his machines at the head of 
its class during his life. In 1845 he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and two , years later 
located in Chicago, where he amassed a 
great fortune in manufacturing reapers and 
harvesting machinery. In 1859 he estab- 
lished the Theological Seminary of the 
Northwest at Chicago, an institution for pre- 
paring young men for the ministry in the 
Presbyterian church, and he afterward en- 
dowed a chair in the Washington and Lee 
College at Lexington, Virginia. He mani- 
fested great interest in educational and re- 
ligious matters, and by his great wealth he 
was able to extend aid and encouragement 
to many charitable causes. His death oc- 
curred May 13, 1884. 

pen name of Petroleum V. Nasby, this 
well-known humorist and writer made for 
himself a household reputation, and estab- 
lished a school that has many imitators. 

The subject of this article was born at 
Vestal, Broome county, New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1833. After receiving his edu- 
cation in the county of his birth he en- 
tered the office of the " Democrat," at Cort- 
land, New York, where he learned the 
printer's trade. He was successively editor 
and publisher of the "Plymouth Advertiser," 
the "Mansfield Herald," the " Bucyrus 
Journal," and the "Findlay Jeffersonian." 
Later he became editor of the "Toledo 
Blade." In i860 he commenced his 
" Nasby" articles, several series of which 
have been given the world in book form. 
Under a mask of misspelling, and in a auaiDt 



and humorous style, a keen political satire 
is couched — a most effective weapon. 
Mr. Locke was the author of a num- 
ber of serious political pamphlets, and 
later on a more pretentious work, " The 
Morals of Abou Ben Adhem." As a news- 
paper writer he gained many laurels and his 
works are widely read. Abraham Lincoln 
is said to have been a warm admirer of P. 
V. Nasby, of " Confedrit X Roads" fame. 
Mr. Locke died at Toledo, Ohio, February 
15, 1S88. 

RUSSELL A. ALGER, noted as a sol- 
dier, governor and secretary of war, 
was born in Medina county, Ohio, February 
27, 1836, and was the son of Russell and 
Caroline (Moulton) Alger. At the age of 
twelve years he was left an orphan and pen- 
niless. For about a year he worked for 
his board and clothing, and attended school 
part of the time. In 1850 he found a place 
which paid small wages, and out of his 
scanty earnings helped his brother and sister. 
While there working on a farm he found 
time to attend the Richfield Academy, and 
by hard work between times managed to get 
a fair education for that time. The last 
two years of his attendance at this institu- 
tion of learning he taught school during the 
winter months. In 1857 he commenced the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1859. For a while he found employ- 
ment in Cleveland, Ohio, but impaired 
health induced him to remove to Grand 
Rapids, where he engaged in the lumber 
business. He was thus engaged when the 
Civil war broke out, and, his business suf- 
fering and his savings swept away, he en- 
listed as a private in the Second Michigan 
Cavalry. He was promoted to be captain 
the following month, and major for gallant 
conduct at Boonesville, Mississippi, July 1, 

1862. October 16, 1862, he was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Michigan 
Cavalry, and in February, 1863, colonel of 
the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. He rendered 
excellent service in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. He was wounded at Boonesboro, 
Maryland, and on returning to his command 
took part with Sherman in the campaign in 
the Shenandoah Valley. For services ren- 
dered, that famous soldier recommended 
him for promotion, and he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers. In 1 866 Gen- 
eral Alger took up his residence at Detroit, 
and prospered exceedingly in his business, 
which was that of lumbering, and grew 
quite wealthy. In 1884 he was a delegate 
to the Republican national convention, and 
the same year was elected governor of 
Michigan. He declined a nomination for 
re-election to the latter office, in 1887, and 
was the following year a candidate for the 
nomination for president. In 1889 he was 
elected commander-in-chief of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and at different 
times occupied many offices in other or- 

In March, 1897, President McKinley 
appointed General Alger secretary of war. 

CYRUS WEST FIELD, the father of 
submarine telegraphy, was the son of 
the Rev. David D. Field, D.D., a Congre- 
gational minister, and was born at Stock- 
bridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 1819. 
He was educated in his native town, and at 
the age of fifteen years became a clerk in a 
store in New York City. Being gifted with 
excellent business ability Mr. Field pros- 
pered and became the head of a large met 
cantile house. In 1853 he spent about six 
months in travel in South America. On his 
return he became interested in ocean teleg- 
raphy. Being solicited to aid in the con- 



struction of a land telegraph across New 
Foundland to receive the news from a line 
of fast steamers it was proposed to run from 
from Ireland to St. Johns, the idea struck 
him to carry the line across the broad At- 
lantic. In 1850 Mr. Field obtained a con- 
cession from the legislature of Newfound- 
land, giving him the sole right for fifty years 
to land submarine cables on the shores of 
that island. In company with Peter Cooper, 
Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and 
Chandler White, he organized a company 
under the name of the New York, New- 
foundland & London Telegraph Company. 
In two years the line from New York across 
Newfoundland was built. The first cable 
connecting Cape Breton Island with New- 
foundland having been lost in a storm while 
being laid in 1855, another was put down in 
1856. In the latter year Mr. Field went to 
London and organized the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company, furnishing one-fourth of the 
capital himself. Both governments loaned 
ships to carry out the enterprise. Mr. Field 
accompanied the expeditions of 1857 and 
two in 1858. The first and second cables 
were failures, and the third worked but a 
short time and then ceased. The people of 
both continents became incredulous of the 
feasibility of laying a successful cable under 
so wide an expanse of sea, and the war 
breaking out shortly after, nothing was done 
until 1865-66. Mr. Field, in the former 
year, again made the attempt, and the Great 
Eastern laid some one thousand two hun- 
dred miles when the cable parted and was 
lost. The following year the same vessel 
succeeded in laying the entire cable, and 
picked up the one lost the year before, and 
both were carried to America's shore. After 
thirteen years of care and toil Mr. Field had 
his reward. He was the recipient of many 
medals and honors from both home and 

abroad. He gave his attention after this 
to establishing telegraphic communication 
throughout the world and many other large 
enterprises, notably the construction of ele- 
vated railroads in New York. Mr. Field 
died July 1 1, 1892. 

G ROVER CLEVELAND, the twenty- 
second president of the United States, 
was born in Caldwell, Essex county, New 
Jersey, March 18, 1837, and was the son 
of Rev. Richard and Annie (Neale) Cleve- 
land. The father, of distinguished New 
England ancestry, was a Presbyterian min- 
ister in charge of the church at Caldwell at 
the time. 

When Grover was about three years of 
age the family removed to Fayetteville, 
Onondaga county, New York, where he 
attended the district school, and was in the 
academy for a short time. His father be- 
lieving that boys should early learn to labor, 
Grover entered a village store and worked 
for the sum of fifty dollars for the first year. 
While he was thus engaged the family re- 
moved to Clinton, New York, and there 
young Cleveland took up Hs studies at the 
academy. The death of his father dashed 
all his hopes of a collegiate education, the 
family being left in straightened circum- 
stances, and Grover started out to battle 
for himself. After acting for a year (1853- 
54) as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind at New York 
City, he went to Buffalo. A short time 
after he entered the law office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of that city, and after a 
hard struggle with adverse circumstances, 
was admitted to the bar in 1859. Hebe- 
came confidential and managing clerk for 
the firm under whom he had studied, and 
remained with them until 1863. In the lat- 
ter year he was appointed district attorney 



of Erie county. It was during his incum- 
bency of this office that, on being nominated 
by the Democrats for supervisor, he came 
within thirteen votes of election, although 
the district was usually Republican by two 
hundred and fifty majority. In i866Grover 
Cleveland formed a partnership with Isaac 
V. Vanderpoel. The most of the work here 
fell upon the shoulders of our subject, and 
he soon won a good standing at the bar of 
the state. In 1869 Mr. Cleveland associated 
himself in business with A. P. Laning and 
Oscar Folsom, and under the firm name of 
Laning, Cleveland & Folsom soon built up a 
fair practice. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Cleve- 
land was elected sheriff of Erie county, an 
office which he filled for four years, after 
which he resumed his profession, with L. K. 
Bass and Wilson S. Bissell as partners. 
This firm was strong and popular and 
shortly was in possession of a lucrative 
practice. Mr. Bass retired from the firm 
in 1879, and George J. Secard was admit- 
ted a member in 188 1. In the latter year 
Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo, 
and in 1882 he was chosen governor by 
the enormous majority of one hundred and 
ninety-two thousand votes. July 11, 1884, 
he was nominated for the presidency by the 
Democratic national convention, and in 
November following was elected. 

Mr. Cleveland, after serving one term as 
president of the United States, in 1888 was 
nominated by his party to succeed himself, 
but he failed of the election, being beaten 
by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892, however, 
being nominated again in opposition to the 
then incumbent of the presidency, Mr. Har- 
rison, Grover Cleveland was elected pres- 
ident for the second time and served for the 
usual term of four years. In 1897 Mr. 
Cleveland retired from the chair of the first 
magistrate of the nation, and in New York 

City resumed the practice of law, in which 
city he had established himself in 1S89. 

June 2, 1886, Grover Cleveland was 
united in marriage with Miss Frances Fol- 
som, the daughter of his former partner. 

years one of the greatest of American 
scientists, and one of the most noted and 
prolific writers on scientific subjects, was 
born in Duchess county, New York, Decem- 
ber 31, 1824. He received a thorough col- 
legiate education, and graduated at the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connect- 
icut, in 1847. His mind took a scientific 
turn, which manifested itself while he was 
yet a boy, and in 1848 he became teacher 
of natural sciences at the Armenian Semi- 
nary, in his native state, a position which 
he filled for three years. In 1 85 1-3 he oc- 
cupied the same position in the Mesopo- 
tamia Female Seminary, in Alabama, after 
which he was president of the Masonic Fe- 
male Seminary, in Alabama. In 1853 he 
became connected with the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at which institu- 
tion he performed the most important work 
of his life, and gained a wide reputation as 
a scientist. He held many important posi- 
tions, among which were the following: 
Professor of physics and civil engineering at 
the University of Michigan, also of geology, 
zoology and botany, and later professor of 
geology and palaeontology at the same insti- 
tution. He also, for a time, was president 
of the Michigan Teachers' Association, and 
state geologist of Michigan. Professor 
Winchell was a very prolific writer on scien- 
tific subjects, and published many standard 
works, his most important and widely known 
being those devoted to geology. He also 
contributed a large number of articles tc 
scientific and popular journals. 



United States navy, was a native of 
New England, born at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, May 4, 1808. He entered the 
navy, as a midshipman, December 4, 1822. 
He slowly rose in his chosen profession, at- 
taining the rank of lieutenant in 1830, com- 
mander in 1852 and captain in 1861. 
Among the distinguished men in the break- 
ing out of the Civil war, but few stood higher 
in the estimation of his brother officers than 
Foote, and when, in the fall of 1S61. he 
was appointed to the command of the flotilla 
then building on the Mississippi, the act 
gave grea . satisfaction to the service. 
Although embarrassed by want of navy 
yards and supplies, Foote threw himself into 
his new work with unusual energy. He 
overcame all obstacles and in the new, and, 
until that time, untried experiment, of creat- 
ing and maintaining a navy on a river, 
achieved a success beyond the expectations 
of the country. Great incredulity existed as 
to the possibility of carrying on hostilities 
on a river where batteries from the shore 
might bar the passage. But in spite of all, 
Foote soon had a navy on the great river, 
and by the heroic qualities of the crews en- 
trusted to him, demonstrated the utility- of 
this new departure in naval architecture. 
All being prepared, February 6, 1862, Foote 
took Fort Henry after a hotly-contested 
action. On the 14th of the same month, 
for an hour and a half engaged the batteries 
of Fort Donelson, with four ironclads and 
two wooden gunboats, thereby dishearten- 
ing the garrison and assisting in its capture. 
April 7th of the same year, after several 
hotly-contested actions. Commodore Foote 
received the surrender of Island No. 10, one 
of the great strongholds of the Confederacy 
on the Mississippi river. Foote having been 
wounded at Fort Donelson, and by neglect 

it having become so serious as to endanger 
his life, he was forced to resign his command 
and return home. June 16, 1862, he re- 
ceived the thanks of congress and was pro- 
moted to the rank of rear admiral. He was 
appointed chief of the bureau of equipment 
and recruiting. June 4, 1863, he was 
ordered to the fleet 06 Charleston, to super- 
cede Rear Admiral Dupont, but on his way 
to that destination was taken sick at New 
York, and died June 26, 1863. 

NELSON A. MILES, the well-known sol- 
dier, was born at Westminster, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8,1839. His ancestors set- 
tled in that state in 1643 among the early 
pioneers, and their descendants were, many 
of them, to be found among those battling 
against Great Britain during Revolutionary 
times and during the war of 1812. Nelson 
was reared on a farm, received an academic 
education, and in early manhood engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Boston. Early in 
1 86 1 he raised a company and offered his 
services to the government, and although 
commissioned as captain, on account of his 
youth went out as first lieutenant in the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry. In 
1 S62 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of the Sixty-first New York In- 
fantry. At the request of Generals Grant 
and Meade he was made a brigadier by 
President Lincoln. He participated in all 
but one of the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac until the close of the war. During 
the latter part of the time he commanded 
the first division of the Second Corps. 
General Miles was wounded at the battles 
of Fair Oaks, Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, and received four brevets for 
distinguished service. During the recon- 
struction period he commanded in North 
Carolina, and on the reorganization of the 



regular army he was made colonel of in- 
fantry. In 1SS0 he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and in 1890 to 
that of major-general. He successfully con- 
ducted several campaigns among the In- 
dians, and his name is known among the 
tribes as a friend when they are peacefully 
inclined. He many times averted war 
with the red men by judicious and humane 
settlement of difficulties without the military 
power. In 1S92 General Miles was given 
command of the proceedings in dedicating 
the World's Fair at Chicago, and in the 
summer of 1S94, during the great railroad 
strike at the same city, General Miles, then 
in command of the department, had the 
disposal of the troops sent to protect the 
United States mails. On the retirement of 
General J. M. Schofield, in 1895, General 
Miles became the ranking major-general of 
the United States army and the head of its 

J actor, though born in London (1796), is 
more intimately connected with the Amer- 
ican than with the English stage, and bis 
popularity in America was almost un- 
bounded, while in England he was not a 
prime favorite. He presented " Richard III." 
in Richmond on his first appearance on the 
American stage in 1821. This was his 
greatest role, and in it he has never had an 
equal. In October of the same year he 
appeared in New York. After a long and 
successful career he gave his final perform- 
ance at New Orleans in 1S52. He con- 
tracted a severe cold, and for lack of proper 
medical attention, it resulted in his death 
on November 30th of that year. He was, 
without question, one of ihe greatest tra- 
gedians that ever lived. In addition to his 
professional art and genius, he was skilled 

in languages, drawing, painting and sculp- 
ture. In his private life he was reserved, 
and even eccentric. Strange stories are 
related of his peculiarities, and on his farm 
near Baltimore he forbade the use of animal 
food, the taking of animal life, and even the 
felling of trees, and brought his butter and 
eggs to the Baltimore markets in person. 

Junius Brutus Booth, known as the elder 
Booth, gave to the world three sons of note: 
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr., the husband of 
Agnes Booth, the actress; John Wilkes 
Booth, the author of the greatest tragedy 
in the life of our nation; Edwin Booth, in 
his day the greatest actor of America, if not 
of the world. 

t- mous as the "Danbury News Man," 
was one of the best known American humor- 
ists, and was born September 2;, 1S41. at 
Albany, N. Y. He adopted journalism as a 
profession and started in his chosen work on 
the "Danbury Times," which paper he pur- 
chased on his return from the war. Mr. 
Bailey also purchased the "Jeffersonian," 
another paper of Danbury, and consolidated 
them, forming the "Danbury News," which 
paper soon acquired a celebrity throughout 
the United States, from an incessant flow of 
rich, health} - , and original humor, which the 
pen of the editor imparted to its columns, 
and he succeeded in raising the circulation 
of the paper from a few hundred copies a 
week to over forty thousand. The facilities 
of a country printing office were not so com- 
plete in those days as they are now, but Mr. 
Bailey was resourceful, and he put on re- 
lays of help and ran his presses night and 
day, and always prepared his matter a week 
ahead of time. The "Danbury News Man" 
was a new figure in literature, as his humor 
was so different from that of the newspaper 



wits — who had preceded him, and he maybe 
called the pioneer of that school now so 
familiar. Mr. Bailey published in book 
form "Life in Danbury" and "The Danbury 
News Man's Almanac. " One of his most 
admirable traits was philanthrophy, as he 
gave with unstinted generosity to all comers, 
and died comparatively poor, notwithstand- 
ing his ownership of a very profitable busi- 
ness which netted him an income of $40,000 
a year. He died March 4, 1894. 

famous lawyer, orator and senator, 
was born in Moretown, Vermont, December 
22, 1824. After receiving a common-school 
education he entered the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, but only 
remained two years. On returning to his 
home he commenced the study of law with 
Paul Dillingham, afterwards governor of 
Vermont, and whose daughter he married. 
In 1847 he was admitted to practice at the 
bar in Vermont, but he went to Boston and 
for a time studied with Ruf us Choate. In 1848 
he moved west, settling at Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and commencing the practice of his profes- 
sion soon obtained a wide reputation for 
ability. In 1856 Mr. Carpenter removed to 
Milwaukee, where he found a wider field for 
his now increasing powers. During the 
Civil war, although a strong Democrat, he 
was loyal to the government and aided the 
Union cause to his utmost. In 1868 he 
was counsel for the government in a test 
case to settle the legality of the reconstruc- 
tion act before the United States supreme 
court, and won his case against Jeremiah S. 
Black. This gave him the election for sen- 
ator from Wisconsin in 1869, and he served 
until 1875, during part of which time he was 
president pro tempore of the senate. Failing 
01 a re-election Mr. Carpenter resumed the 

practice of law, and when William W. 
Belknap, late secretary of war, was im- 
peached, entered the case for General 
Belknap, and secured an acquittal. During 
the sitting of the electoral commission of 
1877, Mr. Carpenter appeared for Samuel 
J. Tilden, although the Republican man- 
agers had intended to have him represent 
R. B. Hayes. Mr. Carpenter was elected 
to the United States senate again in 1879, 
and remained a member of that body until 
the day of his death, which occurred at 
Washington, District of Columbia, Feb- 
ruary 24, 18S1. 

Senator Carpenter's real name was De- 
catur Merritt Hammond Carpenter but about 
1852 he changed it to the one by which he 
was universally known. 

THOMAS E. WATSON, lawyer and 
congressman, the well-known Geor- 
gian, whose name appears at the head of 
this sketch, made himself a place in the his- 
tory of our country by his ability, energy 
and fervid oratory. He was born in Col- 
umbia (now McDuffie) county, Georgia, 
September 5, 1856. He had a common- 
school education, and in 1872 entered Mer- 
cer University, at Macon, Georgia, as fresh- 
man, but for want of money left the college 
at the end of his sophomore year. He 
taught school, studying law at the same 
time, until 1875, when he was admitted to 
the bar. He opened an office and com- 
menced practice in Thomson, Georgia, in 
November, 1876. He carried on a success- 
ful business, and bought land and farmed on 
an extensive scale. 

Mr. Watson was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic state convention of 1880, and was a 
member of the house of representatives of 
the legislature of his native state in 1S82. 
In 1888 he was an elector-at-large on the 



Cleveland ticket, and in 1890 was elected 
to represent his district in the fifty-second 
congress. This latter election is said to have 
been due entirely to Mr. Watson's "dash- 
ing display of ability, eloquence and popular 
power." In his later years he championed 
the alliance principles and policies until he 
became a leader in the movement. In the 
heated campaign of 1896, Mr. Watson was 
nominated as the candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the Bryan ticket by that part of the 
People's party that would not endorse the 
nominee for the same position made by the 
Democratic party. 

matician, physicist and educator, was 
born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5, 1809. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1828, and 
in 1830 became a tutor in the same. From 
1837 to 1848 he was professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Alabama, and from 1848 to 1850, 
professor of chemistry and natural history 
in the same educational institution. In 
1854 he became connected with the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, of which he became 
president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. 
In 1854 he took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. In 186 1 Professor Barnard 
resigned his chancellorship and chair in the 
university, and in 1863 and 1864 was con- 
nected with the United States coast survey 
in charge of chart printing and lithography. 
In May, 1864, he was elected president of 
Columbia College, New York City, which 
he served for a number of years. 

Professor Barnard received * he honorary 
degree of LL. D. from Jefferson College, 
Mississippi, in 1855, and from Ya ! e College 
in 1859; also the degree of S. T. D. from 
the University of Mississippi in 1861, and 
that of L. H. D. from the regents of the 

University of the State of New York in 1 872. 
In i860 he was a member of the eclipse 
party sent by the United States coast sur- 
vey to Labrador, and during his absence 
was elected president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. la 
the act of congress establishing the National 
Academy of Sciences in 1863, he was named 
as one of the original corporators. In 1867 
he was one of the United States commis- 
sioners to the Paris Exposition. He was 
a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, associate member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
many other philosophical and scientific 
societies at home and abroad. Dr. Barnard 
was thoroughly identified with the progress 
of the age in those branches. His published 
works relate wholly to scientific or educa- 
tional subjects, chief among which are the 
following: Report on Collegiate Education; 
Art Culture; History of the American Coast 
Survey; University Education; Undulatory 
Theory of Light; Machinery and Processes 
of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus of the 
Exact Sciences, Metric System of Weights 
and Measures, etc. 

secretary of war during the great Civil 
war, was recognized as one of America's 
foremost public men. He was born Decem- 
ber ig, 1 8 14, at Steubenville, Ohio, where 
he received his education and studied law. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and 
was reporter of the supreme court of Ohio 
from 1842 until 1845. He removed to 
Washington in 1856 to attend to his prac- 
tice before the United States supreme 
court, and in 1858 he went to California as 
counsel for the government in certain land 
cases, which he carried to a successful 
conclusion. Mr. Stanton was appointed 



attorney-general of the United States in 
December, i860, by President Buchanan. 
On March 4, 1861, Mr. Stanton went with 
the outgoing administration and returned to 
the practice of his profession. He was 
appointed secretary of war by President 
Lincoln January 20, 1862, to succeed Simon 
Cameron. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and the accession of Johnson 
to the presidency, Mr. Stanton was still in 
the same office. He held it for three years, 
and by his strict adherence to the Repub- 
lican party, he antagonized President John- 
son, who endeavored to remove him. On 
August 5, 1867, the president requested him 
to resign, and appointed General Grant to 
succeed him, but when congress convened 
in December the senate refused to concur in 
the suspension. Mr. Stanton returned to 
his post until the president again removed 
him from office, but was again foiled by 
congress. Soon after, however, he retired 
voluntarily from office and took up the 
practice of law, in which he engaged until 
his death, on December 24, 1869. 

theologian and founder of the church 
known as Disciples of Christ, was born in 
the country of Antrim, Ireland, in June, 
1788, and was the son of Rev. Thomas 
Campbell, a Scoth-Irish "Seceder. " After 
studying at the University of Glasgow, he, 
in company with his father, came to America 
in 1808, and both began labor in western 
Pennsylvania to restore Christianity to 
apostolic simplicity. They organized a 
church at Brush Run, Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, in 18 i I, which, however, the 
year following, adopted Baptist views, and 
in 1 81 3, with other congregations joined a 
Baptist association. Some of the under- 
lying principles and many practices of the 

Campbells and their disciples were repug- 
nant to the Baptist church and considerable 
friction was the result, and 1827 saw the 
separation of that church from the Church 
of Christ, as it is sometimes called. The 
latter then reorganized themselves anew. 
They reject all creeds, professing to receive 
the Bible as their only guide. In most mat- 
ters of faith they are essentially in accord with 
the other Evangelical Christian churches, 
especially in regard to the person and worlc 
of Christ, the resurrection and judgment. 
They celebrate the Lord's Supper weekly, 
hold that repentance and faith should precede 
baptism, attaching much importance to the 
latter ordinance. On all other points they 
encourage individual liberty of thought. In 
1841, Alexander Campbell founded Bethany 
College, West Virginia, of which he was- 
president for many years, and died March 4, 

The denomination which they founded 
is quite a large and important church body 
in the United States. They support quite 
a number of institutions of learning, among 
which are: Bethany College, West Virginia; 
Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio; Northwestern 
Christian University, Indianapolis, Indiana^ 
Eureka College, Illinois; Kentucky Univer- 
sity, Lexington, Kentucky; Oskaloosa 
College, Iowa; and a number of seminaries 
and schools. They also support several 
monthly and quarterly religious periodicals 
and many papers, both in the United States 
and Great Britain and her dependencies. 

WILLIAM L.WILSON, the noted West 
Virginian, who was postmaster-gener- 
al under President Cleveland's second ad- 
ministration, won distinction as the father 
of the famous " Wilson bill," which became 
a law under the same administration. Mr. 
Wilson was born May 3, 1843, in Jeffer- 


son county, West Virginia, and received 
a good education at the Charlestown 
Academy, where he prepared himself for 
college. He attended the Columbian Col- 
lege in the District of Columbia, from 
which he graduated in i860, and then 
attended the University of Virginia. Mr. 
Wilson served in the Confederate army dur- 
ing the war, after which he was a professor 
in Columbian College. Later he entered 
into the practice of law at Charlestown. 
He attended the Democratic convention 
held at Cincinnati in 1880, as a delegate, 
and later was chosen as one of the electors 
for the state-at-large on the Hancock 
ticket. In the Democratic convention at 
Chicago in 1892, Mr. Wilson was its per- 
manent president. He was elected pres- 
ident of the West Virginia University in 
1882, entering upon the duties of his office 
on September 6, but having received the 
nomination for the forty-seventh congress 
on the Democratic ticket, he resigned the 
presidency of the university in June, 1883, 
to take his seat in congress. Mr. Wil- 
son was honored by the Columbian Uni- 
versity and the Hampden-Sidney College, 
both of which conferred upon him the de- 
gree of LL. D. In 1S84 he was appointed 
regent of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington for two years, and at the end 
of his term was re-appointed. He was 
elected to the forty-seventh, forty-ninth, 
fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-second and fifty- 
third congresses, but was defeated for re- 
election to the fifty-fourth congress. Upon 
the resignation of Mr. Bissell from the office 
of postmaster-general, Mr. Wilson was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy by President 
Cleveland. Hi^ many years of public serv- 
ice and the prominent part he took in the 
discussion of public questions gave him a 
national reputation. 

CALVIN S. BRICE, a successful and 
noted financier and politician, was 
born at Denmark, Ohio, September 17, 
1845, of an old Maryland family, who trace 
their lineage from the Bryces, or Bruces, of 
Airth, Scotland. The father of our subject 
was a prominent Presbyterian clergyman, 
who removed to Ohio in 1812. Calvin S. 
Brice was educated in the common schools 
of his native town, and at the age of thir- 
teen entered the preparatory department of 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and the 
following year entered the freshman class. 
On the breaking out of the Civil war, 
although but fifteen years old, he enlisted in 
a company of three-months men. He re- 
turned to complete his college course, but 
rt enlisted in Company A, Eighty-sixth 
Ohio Infantry, and served in the Virginia 
campaign. He then returned to college, 
from which he graduated in 1863. In 1864 
he organized Company E, One Hundred 
and Eightieth Ohio Infantry, and served 
until the close of hostilities, in the western 

On his return home Mr. Brice entered 
the law department of the University of 
Michigan, and in 1866 was admitted to the 
bar in Cincinnati. In the winter of 1870- 
71 he went to Europe in the interests of the 
Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad and pro- 
cured a foreign loan. This road became 
the Lake Erie & Western, of which, in 
1887, Mr. Brice became president. This 
was the first railroad in which he had a 
personal interest. The conception, build- 
ing and sale of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railroad, known as the "Nickel 
Plate," was largely due to him. He was 
connected with many other railroads, among 
which may be mentioned the following: 
Chicago & Atlantic; Ohio Central; Rich- 
mond & Danville; Richmond & West Point 



Terminal; East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia; Memphis & Charleston; Mobile & 
Birmingham; Kentucky Central; Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic, and the Marquette, 
Houghton & Ontonagon. In 1890 he was 
elected United States senator from Ohio. 
Notwithstanding his extensive business inter- 
ests, Senator Brice gave a considerable 
time to political matters, becoming one of 
the leaders of the Democratic party and one 
of the most widely known men in the 

BENJAMIN HARRISON, twenty-third 
president of the United States, was 
born August 20, 1833, at North Bend, 
Hamilton county, Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, General William Henry Har- 
rison, afterwards president of the United 
States. His great-grandfather, Benjamin 
Harrison, was a member of the Continental 
congress, signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and was three times elected gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

The subject of this sketch entered Farm- 
ers College at an early age, and two years 
later entered Miami University, at Oxford, 
Ohio. Upon graduation he entered the 
office of Stover & Gwyne, of Cincinnati, as a 
law student. He was admitted to the bar 
two years later, and having inherited about 
eight hundred dollars worth of property, he 
married the daughter of Doctor Scott, pres- 
ident of a female school at Oxford, Ohio, 
and selected Indianapolis, Indiana, to begin 
practice. In i860 he was nominated by 
ihe Republicans as candidate for state 
supreme court reporter, and did his first 
political speaking in that campaign. He 
was elected, and after two years in that 
position he organized the Seventieth Indi- 
ana Infantry, of which he was made colonel, 
and with his regiment joined General' Sher- 

man's army. For bravery displayed at Re- 
saca and Peach Tree Creek he was made a 
brigadier-general. In the meantime the 
office of supreme court reporter had been 
declared vacant, and another party elected 
to fill it. In the fall of 1864, having been 
nominated for that office, General Harrison 
obtained a thirty-day leave of absence, went 
to Indiana, canvassed the state and was 
elected. As he was about to rejoin his 
command he was stricken down by an attack 
of fever. After his recovery he joined 
General Sherman's army and participated in 
the closing events of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined to 
be a candidate for the office of supreme 
court reporter, and returned to the practice 
of the law. His brilliant campaign for the 
office of governor of Indiana in 1876, 
brought him into public notice, although he 
was defeated. He took a prominent part 
in the presidential canvass of 1880, and was 
chosen United States senator from Indiana, 
serving six years. He then returned to the 
practice of his profession. In 1888 he was 
selected by the Republican convention at 
Chicago as candidate for the presidency, and 
after a heated campaign was elected over 
Cleveland. He was inaugurated March 4, 
1889, and signed the McKinley bill October 
1, 1890, perhaps the most distinctive feature 
of his administration. In 1892 he was 
again the nominee of the Republican party 
for president, but was defeated by Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, and 
again resumed the practice of law in Indian- 

celebrated merchant and sugar refiner, 
was born in New York City in 1833. His 
father, William F. Havemeyer, and grand- 
father, William Havemeyer, were both sugar 


refiners. The latter named came from 
Buckeburg, Germany, in 1799, and settled 
in New York, establishing one of the first 
refineries in that city. William F. succeeded 
his father, and at an early age retired from 
business with a competency. He was three 
times mayor of his native city, New York. 
John C. Havemeyer was educated in 
private schools, and was prepared for college 
at Columbia College grammar school. 
Owing to failing eyesight he was unable to 
finish his college course, and began his 
business career in a wholesale grocery store, 
where he remained two years. In 1854, 
after a year's travel abroad, he assumed the 
responsibility of the office work in the sugar 
refinery of Havemeyer & Molter, but two 
years later etablished a refinery of his OvvTi 
in Brooklyn. ThL ^.ft-rwards developed into 
the immense businf .so' Havemeyer & Elder 
The capital was furn.shed by his father, 
and, chafing under the anxiety caused by the 
use of borrowed money, he sold out his 
interest and returned to Havemeyer & 
Molter. This firm dissolving the next year, 
John C. declined an offer of partnership 
from the successors, not wishing to use 
borrowed money. For two years he remain- 
ed with the house, receiving a share of the 
profits as compensation. For some years 
thereafter he was engaged in the commission 
business, until failing health caused his 
retirement. In 1871, he again engaged in 
the sugar refining business at Greenport, 
Long Island, with his brother and another 
partner, under the firm name of Havemeyer 
Brothers & Co. Here he remained until 
1880, when his health again declined. 
During the greater part of his life Mr. 
Havemeyer was identified with many benev- 
olent societies, including the New York 
Port Society, Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Church, American Bible Society, 

New York Sabbath School Society and 
others. He was active in Young Men's 
Christian Association work in New York. 
and organized and was the first president of 
an affiliated society of the same at Yonkers. 
He was director of several railroad corpo- 
rations and a trustee of the Continental Trust 
Company of New York. 

eminent American statesman and 
jurist, was born March 17, 1833, near Cory- 
don, Harrison county, Indiana. He ac- 
quired his education in the local schools of 
the county and at Bloomington Academy, 
akhough he did not graduate. After leav- 
ing college he read law with Judge Porter 
^t Corydon, and just beiorc the wa; N be- 
gan to take an interest in politics. Mr. 
Gresham was elected to the legislatir' .rom 
Harrison county as a Republ.can; previous 
to this the district had been represented by 
a Democrat. At the commencement of 
hostilities he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry, but 
served in that regiment only a short time, 
when he was appointed colonel of the Fifty- 
third Indiana, and served under General 
Grant at the siege of Vicksburg as brigadier- 
general. Later he was under Sherman in 
the famous "March to the Sea," and com- 
manded a division of Blair's corps at the 
siege of Atlanta where he was so badly 
wounded in the leg that he was compelled 
to return home. On his way home he was 
forced to stop at New Albany, where he re- 
mained a year before 'he was able to leave. 
He was brevetted major-general at the close 
of the war. While at New Albany, Mr. 
Gresham was appointed state agent, his 
duty being to pay the interest on the state 
debt in New York, and he ran twice for 
congress against ex-Speaker Kerr, but was 



defeated in both cases, although he greatly 
reduced the Democratic majority. He was 
held in high esteem by President Grant, 
who offered him the portfolio of the interior 
but Mr. Gresham declined, but accepted 
the appointment of United States judge for 
Indiana to succeed David McDonald. 
Judge Gresham served on the United States 
district court bench until 1883, when he 
was appointed postmaster-general by Presi- 
dent Arthur, but held that office only a few 
months when he was made secretary of the 
treasury. Near the end of President 
Arthur's term. Judge Gresham was ap- 
pointed judge of the United States circuit 
court of the district composed of Indiana, 
Illinois and contiguous states, which he held 
until 1893. Judge Gresham was one of the 
presidential possibilities in the National Re- 
publican convention in 1888, when General 
Harrison was nominated, and was also men- 
tioned for president ; o 1892. Later the 
People's party maue a strenuous effort to 
induce him to become their candidate for 
president, he refusing the offer, however, 
and a few weeks before the election he an- 
nounced that he would support Mr. Cleve- 
land, the Democratic nominee for president. 
Upon the election of Mr. Cleveland in the 
fall of 1892, Judge Gresham was made the 
secretary of state, and filled that position 
until his death on May 28, 1895, at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia. 

ELISHA B. ANDREWS, noted as an ed- 
ucator and college president, was born 
at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, January 10, 
1844, his father and mother being Erastus 
and Elmira (Bartlett) Andrews. In 1861, 
he entered the service of the general gov- 
ernment as private and non-commissioned 
officer in the First Connecticut Heavy Ar- 
tillery, and in 1863 was promoted to the 

rank of second lieutenant. Returning home 
he was prepared for college at Powers In- 
stitute and at the Wesleyan Academy, and 
entered Brown University. From here he 
was graduated in 1870. For the succeeding 
two years he was principal of the Connecti- 
cut Literary Institute at Suffield, Connecticut. 
Completing a course at the Newton Theo- 
logical Institute, he was ordained pastor of 
the First Baptist church at Beverly, Massa- 
chusetts, July 2, 1874. The following 
year he became president of the Denison 
University, at Granville, Ohio. In 1879 
he accepted the professorship of homiletics, 
pastoral duties and church polity at Newton 
Theological Institute. In 1882 he was 
elected to the chair of history and political 
economy at Brown University. The Uni- 
versity of Nebraska honored him with an 
LL. D. in 1884, and the same year Colby 
University conferred the degree of D. D. 
In 1888 he became professor of political 
economy and public economy at Cornell 
University, but the next year returned to 
Brown University as its president, ^rom 
the time of his inauguration the college work 
broadened in many ways. Many timely 
and generous donations from friends and 
alumni of the college were influenced by 
him, and large additions made to the same. 
Professor Andrews published, in 1887, 
"Institutes of General History," and in 
1888, " Institutes of Economics." 

of the present biography, was, during his 
life, one of the most distinguished chemists 
and scientific writers in America. He was 
an Englishman by birth, born at Liverpool, 
May 5, 181 1, and was reared in his native 
land, receiving an excellent education, 
graduating at the University of London. In 
1833 he came to the United States, and 



settled first in Pennsylvania. He graduated 
in medicine at the University of Philadel- 
phia, in 1836, and for three years following 
was professor of chemistry and physiology 
at Hampden-Sidney College. He then be- 
came professor of chemistry in the New York 
University, with which institution he was 
prominently connected for many years. It 
is stated on excellent authority that Pro- 
fessor Draper, in 1839, took the first photo- 
graphic picture ever taken from life. He 
was a great student, and carried on many 
important and intricate experiments along 
scientific lines. He discovered many of the 
fundamental facts of spectrum analysis, 
which he published. He published a number 
of works of great merit, many of which are 
recognized as authority upon the subjects of 
which they treat. Among his work were: 
"Human Physiology, Statistical and Dyna- 
mical of the Conditions and Cause of Life 
in Man," "History of Intellectual Develop- 
ment of Europe," " History of the Ameri- 
can Civil War," besides a number of works 
on chemistry, optics and mathematics. Pro- 
fessor Draper continued to hold a high place 
among the scientific scholars of America 
until his death, which occurred in January, 

GEORGE W. PECK, ex-governor of 
the state of Wisconsin and a famous 
journalist and humorist, was born in Jeffer- 
son county. New York, September 28, 1840. 
When he was about three years of age his 
parents removed to Wisconsin, settling near 
Whitewater, where young Peck received his 
education at the public schools. At fifteen 
he entered the office of the "Whitewater 
Register," where he learned the printer's 
art. He helped start the "Jefferson County 
Republican" later on, but sold out his 

interest therein and set type in the office of 

the "State Journal," at Madison. At the 
outbreak of the war he enlisted in the 
Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry as a private, and 
after serving four years returned a 3econd 
lieutenant. He then started the " Ripon 
Representative," which he sold not long 
after, and removing to New York, was on 
the staff of Mark Pomeroy's "Democrat." 
Going to La Crosse, later, he conducted the 
La Crosse branch paper, a half interest in 
which he bought in 1874. He next started 
"Peck's Sun," which four years later he 
removed to Milwaukee. While in La 
Crosse he was chief of police one year, and 
also chief clerk of the Democratic assembly 
in 1874. It was in 1878 that Mr. Peck 
took his paper to Milwaukee, and achieved 
his first permanent success, the circulation 
increasing to 80,000. For ten years he was 
regarded as one of the most original, versa- 
tile and entertaining writers in the country, 
and he has delineated every phase of 
country newspaper life, army life, domestic 
experience, travel and city adventure. Up 
to 1890 Mr. Peck took but little part in 
politics, but in that year was elected mayor 
of Milwaukee on the Democratic ticket. 
The following August he was elected gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin by a large majority, 
the "Bennett School Bill" figuring to a 
large extent in his favor. 

Mr. Peck, besides many newspaper arti- 
cles in his peculiar vein and numerous lect- 
ures, bubbling over with fun, is known to 
fame by the following books: " Peck's Bad 
Boy and his Pa," and "The Grocery Man 
and Peck's Bad Boy." 

CHARLES O'CONOR, who was for 
many years the acknowledged leader 
of the legal profession of New York City, 
was also conceded to be one of the greatest 
lawyers America has produced. He was 



born in New York City in 1804, his father 
being an educated Irish gentleman. Charles 
received a common-school education, and 
early took up the study of law, being ad- 
mitted to practice in 1824. His close ap- 
plication and untiring energy and industry 
soon placed him in the front rank of the 
profession, and within a few years he was 
handling many of the most important cases. 
One of the first great cases he had and which 
gained him a wide reputation, was that of 
"Jack, the Fugitive Slave," in 1835, in which 
his masterful argument before the supreme 
court attracted wide attention and com- 
ment. Charles O'Conor was a Democrat 
all his life. He did not aspire to office- 
holding, however, and never held any office 
except that ofdistrict attorney under Presi- 
dent Pierce's administration, which he only 
retained a short time. He took an active 
interest, however, in public questions, and 
was a member of the state (New York) con- 
stitutional convention in 1864. In 1868 he 
was nominated for the presidency by the 
" Extreme Democrats." His death occurred 
in May, 1884. 

American officer and major-general in 
the Confederate army, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1823. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1844, served in 
the United States infantry and was later as- 
signed to commissary duty with the rank of 
captain. He served several years at fron- 
tier posts, and was assistant professor in the 
military academy in 1846. He was with 
General Scott in the Mexican war, and en- 
gaged in all the battles from Vera Cruz to 
the capture of the Mexican capital. He 
was wounded at Cherubusco and brevetted 
first lieutenant, and at Molino del Rey was 
brevetted captain. After the close of the 

Mexican war he returned to West Point as 
assistant instructor, and was then assigned 
to commissary duty at New York. He re- 
signed in 1855 and became superintendent 
of construction of the Chicago custom house. 
He was made adjutant-general, with the 
rank of colonel, of Illinois militia, and was 
colonel of Illinois volunteers raised for the 
Utah expedition, but was not mustered into 
service. In i860 he removed to Kentucky, 
where he settled on a farm near Louisville 
and became inspector-general in command 
of the Kentucky Home Guards. At the 
opening of the Civil war he joined the Con- 
federate army, and was given command at 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, which he was 
compelled to abandon after the capture of 
Fort Henry. He then retired to Fort Don- 
elson, and was there captured with sixteen 
thousand men, and an immense store of pro- 
visions, by General Grant, in February, 
1862. He was held as a prisoner of war 
at Fort Warren until August of that year. 
He commanded a division of Hardee's corps 
in Bragg's Army of the Tennessee, and was 
afterward assigned to the third division and 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, 
and Murfreesboro. He was with Kirby 
Smith when that general surrendered his 
army to General Canby in May, 1865. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the vice- 
presidency on the Gold Democratic ticket 
with Senator John M. Palmer in 1896. 

SIMON KENTON, one of the famous pio- 
neers and scouts whose names fill the 
pages of the early history of our country, 
was born in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
April 3, 1755. In consequence of an affray, 
at the age of eighteen, young Kenton went 
to Kentucky, then the "Dark and Bloody- 
Ground," and became associated with Dan- 
iel Boone and other pioneers of that region. 


For a short time he acted as a scour and 
spy for Lord Dunmore, the British governor 
of Virginia, but afterward taking the side 
oi the struggling colonists, participated in 
the war for independence west of the Alle- 
ghanies. In 1784 he returned to Virginia, 
but did not remain there long, going back 
with his family to Kentucky. From 
that time until 1793 he participated in all 
the combats and battles of that time, and 
until "Mad Anthony" Wayne swept the 
Valley of the Ohio, and settled the suprem- 
acy of the whites in that region. Kenton 
laid claim to large tracts of land in the new 
country he had helped to open up, but 
through ignorance of law, and the growing 
value of the land, lost it all and was reduced 
1 1 ty. During the war with England 
in iS 12-15, Kenton took part in the inva- 
sion of Canada with the Kentucky troops 
and participated in the battle of the Thames. 
He finally had land granted him by the 
legislature of Kentucky, and received a pen- 
sion from the United States government. 
He died in Logan county, Ohio, April 29, 

American statesman of eminence, was 
born in Livermore, Maine, September 23, 
1 8 16. He learned the trade of printer, but 
abandoned that calling at the age of eight- 
een and entered the Kent's Hill Academy at 
Reading, Maine, and then took up the study 
of law, reading in Hallowell, Boston, and at 
the Harvard Law School. He began prac- 
tice at Galena, Illinois, in 1840. He was 
elected to congress in 1852, and represented 
his district in that body continuously until 
March, 1869, and at the time of his retire- 
ment he had served a greater number of 
consecutive terms than any other member 
of the house. In 1873 President Grant ap- 

pointed him secretary of state, which posi- 
tion he resigned to accept that of minister 
to France. During the Franco- Prussian 
war, including the siege of Paris and the 
reign of the Commune, Mr. Washburne re- 
mained at his post, protecting the lives and 
property of his countrymen, as we'll as that 
of other foreign residents in Paris, while the 
ministers of all other powers abandoned 
their posts at a time when they were most 
needed. As far as possible he extended 
protection to unfortunate German residents, 
who were the particular objects of hatred of 
the populace, and his firmness and the suc- 
cess which attended his efforts won the ad- 
miration of all Europe. Mr. Washburne 
died at Chicago, Illinois, October 22, 1887. 

WILLIAM CRAMP, one of the most 
extensive shipbuilders of this coun- 
try, was born in Kensington, then a suburb, 
now a part of Philadelphia, in 1S06. He 
received a thorough English education, and 
when he left school was associated with 
Samuel Grice, one of the most eminent 
naval architects of his day. In 1830, hav- 
ing mastered all the details of shipbuilding, 
Mr. Cramp engaged in business on his own 
account. By reason of ability and excel- 
lent work he prospered from the start, until 
now, in the hands of his sons, under the 
name of William Cramp & Sons' Ship and 
Engine Building Company, it has become the 
most complete shipbuilding plant and naval 
arsenal in the western hemisphere, and fully 
equal to any in the world. As Mr. Cramp's 
sons attained manhood they learned their 
father's profession, and were admitted to a 
partnership. In 1872 the firm was incor- 
porated under the title given above. Until 
i860 wood was used in building vessels, al- 
though pace was kept with all advances in 
the art of shipbuilding. At the opening of 



the war came an unexpected demand for 
war vessels, which they promptly met. The 
sea-going ironclad "New Ironsides" was 
built by them in 1862, followed by a num- 
ber of formidable ironclads and the cruiser 
"Chattanooga." They subsequently built 
several war vessels for the Russian and 
other governments which added to their 
reputation. When the American steamship 
line was established in 1870, the Cramps 
were commissioned to build for it four first- 
class iron steamships, the "Pennsylvania," 
"Ohio," "Indiana" and " Illinois," which 
they turned out in rapid order, some of the 
finest specimens of the naval architecture of 
their day. William Cramp remained at the 
head of the great company he had founded 
until his death, which occurred January 6, 

Charles H. Cramp, the successor of his 
father as head of the William Cramp & 
Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, 
was born in Philadelphia May 9, 1829, and 
received an excellent education in his native 
city, which he sedulously sought to sup- 
plement by close study until he became 
an authority on general subjects and the 
best naval architect on the western hemis- 
phere. Many of the best vessels of our 
new navy were built by this immense con- 

the greatest American painter, was 
born in South Carolina in 1779. He was 
sent to school at the age of seven years at 
Newport, Rhode Island, where he met Ed- 
ward Malbone, two years his senior, and 
who later became a painter of note. The 
friendship that sprang up between them un- 
doubtedly influenced young Allston in the 
choice of a profession. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1800, and went to England the 

following year, after pursuing his studies for 
a year under his friend Malbone at his home 
in South Carolina. He became a student 
at the Royal Academy where the great 
American, Benjamin West, presided, and 
who became his intimate friend. Allston 
later went to Paris, and then to Italy, where 
four years were spent, mostly at Rome. In 
1809 he returned to America, but soon after 
returned to London, having married in the 
meantime a sister of Dr. Channing. In 
a short time his first great work appeared, 
"The Dead Man Restored to Life by the 
Bones of Elisha," which took the British 
Association prize and firmly established his 
reputation. Other paintings followed in 
quick succession, the greatest among which 
were "Uriel in the Center of the Sun," 
"Saint Peter Liberated by the Angel," and 
"Jacob's Dream," supplemented by many 
smaller pieces. Hard work, and grief at the 
death of his wife began to tell upon his health, 
and he left London in 1 818 for America. 
The same year he was elected an associate 
of the Royal Academy. During the next 
few years he painted "Jeremiah," "Witch 
ofEndor," and "Beatrice." In 1830 Alls- 
ton married a daughter of Judge Dana, and 
went to Cambridge, which was his home 
until his death. Here he produced the 
"Vision of the Bloody Hand," "Rosalie," 
and many less noted pieces, and had given 
one week of labor to his unfinished master- 
piece, "Belshazzar's Feast," when death 
ended his career July 9, 1843. 

JOHN ROACH, ship builder and manu- 
facturer, whose career was a marvel of 
industrial labor, and who impressed his in- 
dividuality and genius upon the times in 
which he lived more, perhaps, than anv 
other manufacturer in America. He was 
born at Mitchelstown, County Cork, Ire- 



land, December 25, 1815, the son of a 
wealthy merchant. He attended school 
until he was thirteen, when his father be- 
came financially embarrassed and failed 
and shortly after died; John determined to 
come to America and carve out a fortune 
for himself. He landed in New York at the 
age of sixteen, and soon obtained employ- 
ment at the Howell Iron Works in New Jer- 
sey, at twenty-five cents a day. He soon 
made himself a place in the world, and at 
the end of three years had saved some 
twelve hundred dollars, which he lost by 
the failure of his employer, in whose hands 
it was left. Returning to New York he 
began to learn how to make castings for 
marine engines and ship work. Having 
again accumulated one thousand dollars, in 
company with three fellow workmen, he 
purchased a small foundry in New York, 
but soon became sole proprietor. At the 
end of four years he had saved thirty thou- 
sand dollars, besides enlarging his works. 
In 1856 his works were destroyed by a 
boiler explosion, and being unable to collect 
the insurance, was left, after paying his 
debts, without a dollar. However, his 
credit and reputation for integrity was good, 
and he built the Etna Iron Works, giving it 
capacity to construct larger marine engines 
than any previously built in this country. 
Here he turned out immense engines for 
the steam ram Dunderberg, for the war ves- 
sels Winooski and Neshaning, and other 
large vessels. To accommodate his increas- 
ing business, Mr. Roach, in 1869, pur- 
chased the Morgan Iron Works, one of the 
largest in New York, and shortly after sev- 
eral others. In 1871 he bought the Ches- 
ter ship yards, which he added to largely, 
erecting a rolling mill and blast furnace, and 
providing every facility for building a ship 
out of the ore and timber. This immense 

plant covered a large area, was valued at 
several millions of dollars, and was known 
as the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding 
and Engine Works, of which Mr. Roach 
was the principal owner. He built a large 
percentage of the iron vessels now Hying 
the American flag, the bulk of his business 
being for private parties. In 1875 he built 
the sectional dry docks at Pensacola. He, 
about this time, drew the attention of the 
government to the use of compound marine 
engines, and thus was the means of im- 
proving the speed and economy of the ves- 
sels of our new navy. In 1883 Mr. Roach 
commenced work on the three cruisers for 
the government, the "Chicago," "Boston" 
and "Atlanta," and the dispatch boat 
" Dolphin." For some cause the secretary 
of the navy refused to receive the latter and 
decided that Mr. Roach's contract would 
not hold. This embarrassed Mr. Roach, 
as a large amount of his capital was in- 
volved in these contracts, and for the pro- 
tection of bondsmen and creditors, July 18, 
1885, he made an assignment, but the 
financial trouble broke down his strong con- 
stitution, and January 10, 1887, he died. 
His son, John B. Roach, succeeded to the 
shipbuilding interests, while Stephen W. 
Roach inherited the Morgan Iron Works at 
New York. 

the two great painters who laid the 
foundation of true American art, was born 
in Boston in 1737, one year earlier than his 
great contemporary, Benjamin West. His 
education was limited to the common schools 
of that time, and his training in art he ob- 
tained by his own observation and experi- 
ments solely. When he was about seven- 
teen years old he had mapped out his future, 
however, by choosing painting as his pro- 



fession. If he ever studied under any 
teacher in his early efforts, we have no au- 
thentic account of it, and tradition credits 
the young artist's wonderful success en- 
tirely to his own talent and untiring effort. 
It is almost incredible that at the age of 
twenty-three years his income from his 
works aggregated fifteen hundred dollars 
per annum, a very great sum in those days. 
In 1774 he went to Europe in search of ma- 
terial for study, which was so rare in his 
native land. After some time spent in Italy 
he finally took up his permanent residence 
in England. In 1783 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, and later his 
son had the high honor of becoming lord 
chancellor of England and Lord Lyndhurst. 
Many specimens of Copley's work are to 
be found in the Memorial Hall at Harvard 
and in the Boston Museum, as well as a few 
of the works upon which he modeled his 
style. Copley was essentially a portrait 
painter, though his historical paintings at- 
tained great celebrity, his masterpiece 
being his " Death of Major Bierson," though 
that distinction has by some been given to 
his "Death of Chatham." It is said that 
he never saw a good picture until he was 
thirty-five years old, yet his portraits prior 
to that period are regarded as rare speci- 
mens. He died in 181 5. 

HENRY B. PLANT, one of the greatest 
railroad men of the country, became 
famous as president of the Plant system of 
railway and steamer lines, and also the 
Southern & Texas Express Co. He was 
born in October, 18 19, at Branford, 
Connecticut, and entered the railroad serv- 
ice in 1844, serving as express messenger 
on the Hartford & New Haven Railroad until 
1853, during which time he had entire 
charge of the expr^.s? business of that road. 

He went south in 1853 and established ex- 
press lines on various southern railways, and 
in 1 86 1 organized the Southern Express 
Co., and became its president. In 1879 he 
purchased, with others, the Atlantic & Gulf 
Railroad of Georgia, and later reorganized 
the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad, 
of which he became president. He pur- 
chased and rebuilt, in 1880, the Savannah 
& Charleston Railroad, now Charleston & 
Savannah. Not long after this he organ- 
ized the Plant Investment Co., to control 
these railroads and advance their interests 
generally, and later established a steamboat 
line on the St. John's river, in Florida. 
From 1853 until i860 he was general 
superintendent of the southern division of 
the Adams Express Co., and in 1867 be- 
came president of the Texas Express Co. 
The "Plant system" of railway, steamer 
and steamship lines is one of the greatest 
business corporations of the southern states. 

WADE HAMPTON, a noted Confeder- 
ate officer, was born at Columbia, 
South Carolina, in 1818. He graduated 
from the South Carolina College, took an 
active part in politics, and was twice elected 
to the legislature of his state. In 1861 he 
joined the Confederate army, and command- 
ed the " Hampton Legion" at the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run, in July, 1861. He did 
meritorious service, was wounded, and pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. He command- 
ed a brigade at Seven Pines, in. 1862, and 
was again wounded. He was engaged in 
the battle of Antietam in September of the 
same year, and participated in the raid into 
Pennsylvania in October. In 1863 he was 
with Lee at Gettysburg, where he was 
wounded for the third time. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
commanded a troop of cavalry in Lee's 


army during 1864, and was in numerous en- 
gagements. In 1865 he was in South Car- 
olina, and commanded the cavalry rear 
guard of the Confederate army in its stub- 
born retreat before General Sherman on his 
advance toward Richmond. 

After the war Hampton took an active 
part in politics, and was a prominent figure 
at the Democratic national convention in 
1868, which nominated Seymour and Blair 
for president and vice-president. He was 
governor of South Carolina, and took his 
seat in the United States senate in 1879, 
where he became a conspicuous figure in 
national affairs. 

NIKOLA TESLA, one of the most cele- 
brated electricians America has known, 
was born in 1857, at Smiljau, Lika, Servia. 
He descended from an old and representative 
family of that country. His father was a 
a minister of the Greek church, of high rank, 
while his mother was a woman of remarka- 
ble skill in the construction of looms, churns 
and the machinery required in a rural home. 
Nikola received early education in the 
public schools of Gospich, when he was 
sent to the higher "Real Schule" at Karl- 
stadt, where, after a three years' course, 
he graduated in 1873. He devoted him- 
self to experiments in electricity and 
magnetism, to the chagrin of his father, 
who had destined him for the ministry, 
but giving way to the boy's evident genius 
he was allowed to continue his studies in 
the polytechnic school at Gratz. He in- 
herited a wonderful intuition which enabled 
him to see through the intricacies of ma- 
chinery, and despite his instructor's demon- 
stration that a dynamo could not be oper- 
ated without commutators or brushes, 
began experiments which finally resulted in 
his rotating field motors. After the study 

of languages at Prague and Buda-Pesth, he 
became associated with M. Puskas, who 
had introduced the telephone into Hungary. 
He invented several improvements, but 
being unable to reap the necessary benefit 
from them, he, in search of a wider field, 
went to Paris, where he found employment 
with one of the electric lighting companies 
as electrical engineer. Soon he set his face 
westward, and coming to the United States 
for a time found congenial employment wrth 
Thomas A. Edison. Finding it impossible, 
overshadowed as he was, to carry out his 
own ideas he left the Edison works to join 
a company formed to place his own inven- 
tions on the market. He perfected his 
rotary field principle, adapting it to circuits 
then in operation. It is said of him that 
some of his proved theories will change the 
entire electrical science. It would, in an 
article of this length, be impossible to ex- 
plain all that Tesla accomplished for the 
practical side of electrical engineering. 
His discoveries formed the basis of the at- 
tempt to utilize the water power of Niagara 
Falls. His work ranges far beyond the 
vast department of polyphase currents and 
high potential lighting and includes many 
inventions in arc lighting, transformers, 
pyro and thermo-magnetic motors, new 
forms of incandescent lamps, unipolar dyna- 
mos and many others. 

CHARLES B. LEWIS won fame as an 
American humorist under the name of 
"M. Quad." It is said he owes his 
celebrity originally to the fact that he was 
once mixed up in a boiler explosion on the 
Ohio river, and the impressions he received 
from the event he set up from his case when 
he was in the composing room of an ob- 
scure Michigan paper. His style possesses a 
peculiar quaintness, and there runs through 



it a vein of philosophy. Mr. Lewis was 
born in 1844, near a town called Liverpool, 
Ohio. He was, however, raised in Lansing, 
Michigan, where he spent a year in an agri- 
cultural college, going from there to the 
composing room of the "Lansing Demo- 
crat." At the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed in the service, remained during the 
entire war, and then returned to Lansing. 
The explosion of the boiler that "blew him 
into fame," took place two years later, while 
he was on his way south. When he re- 
covered physically, he brought suit for dam- 
ages against the steamboat company, which 
he gained, and was awarded a verdict of 
twelve thousand dollars for injuries re- 
ceived. It was while he was employed by 
the " Jacksonian " of Pontiac, Mich., that he 
set up his account of how he felt while being 
blown up. He says that he signed it " M 
Quad," because "a bourgeoise em quad is 
useless except in its own line — it won't 
justify with any other type." Soon after, 
because of the celebrity he attained by this 
screed, Mr. Lewis secured a place on the 
staff of the "Detroit Free Press," and made 
for that paper a wide reputation. His 
sketches of the "Lime Kiln Club" and 
" Brudder Gardner " are perhaps the best 
known of his humorous writings. 

HIRAM S. MAXIM, the famous inventor, 
was born in Sangersville, Maine, 
February 5, 1840, the son of Isaac W. 
and Harriet B. Maxim. The town of his 
birth was but a small place, in the 
woods, on the confines of civilization, 
and the family endured many hardships. 
They were without means and entirely 
dependent on themselves to make out of 
raw materials all they needed. The mother 
was an expert spinner, weaver, dyer and 
seamstress and the father a trapper, tanner, 

miller, blacksmith, carpenter, mason and 
farmer. Amid such surroundings young 
Maxim gave early promise of remarkable 
aptitude. With the universal Yankee jack- 
knife the products of his skill excited the 
wonder and interest of the locality. His 
parents did not encourage his latent genius 
but apprenticed him to a coach builder. 
Four years he labored at this uncongenial 
trade but at the end of that time he forsook 
it and entered a machine shop at Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts. Soon mastering the details 
of that business and that of mechanical 
drawing, he went to Boston as the foreman 
of the philosophical instrument manufactory. 
From thence he went to New York and with 
the Novelty Iron Works Shipbuilding Co. 
he gained experience in those trades. His 
inventions up to this time consisted of 
improvements in steam engines, and an 
automatic gas machine, which came into 
general use. In 1877 he turned his attention 
to electricity, and in 1878 produced an 
incandescent lamp, that would burn 1,000 
hours. He was the first to design a process 
for flashing electric carbons, and the first 
to "standardize" carbons for electric light- 
ing. In 1880 he visited Europe and exhibit- 
ing, at the Paris Exposition of 1881, a self- 
regulating machine, was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor. In 1883 he returned to 
London as the European representative of the 
United States Electric Light Co. An incident 
of his boyhood, in which the recoil of a rifle 
was noticed by him, and the apparent loss 
of power shown, in 188 1-2 prompted the 
invention of a gun which utilizes the recoil to 
automatically load and fire seven hundred 
and seventy shots per minute. The Maxim- 
Nordenfelt Gun Co., with a capital of nine 
million dollars, grew from this. In 1883 he 
patented his electric training gear for large 
guns. And later turned his attention to fly- 



ing machines, which he claimed were not an 
impossibility. He took out over one hundred 
patents for smokeless gunpowder, and for pe- 
troleum and other motors and autocycles. 

U one of America's very greatest financiers 
and philanthropists, was born in Richford, 
Tioga county, New York, July 8, 1839. He 
received a common-school education in his 
native place, and in 1853, when his parents 
removed to Cleveland, Ohio, he entered the 
high school of that city. After a two-years' 
course of diligent work, he entered the com- 
mission and forwarding house of Hewitt & 
Tuttle, of Cleveland, remaining with the 
firm some years, and then began business 
for himself, forming a partnership with 
Morris B. Clark. Mr. Rockefeller was then 
but nineteen years of age, and during the 
year i860, in connection with others, they 
started the oil refining business, under the 
firm name of Andrews, Clark & Co. Mr. 
Rockefeller and Mr. Andrews purchased the 
interest of their associates, and, after taking 
William Rockefeller into the firm, established 
offices in Cleveland under the name of 
William Rockefeller & Co. Shortly after 
this the house of Rockefeller & Co. was es- 
tablished in New York for the purpose of 
finding a market for their products, -and two 
years later all the refining companies were 
consolidated under the firm name of Rocke- 
feller, Andrews & Flagler. This firm was 
succeeded in 1870 by the Standard Oil 
Company of Ohio, said to be the most 
gigantic business corporation of modern 
times. John D. Rockefeller's fortune has 
been variously estimated at from one hun- 
dred million to two hundred million dollars. 
Mr. Rockefeller's philanthropy mani- 
fested itself principally through the American 
Baptist Educational Society. He donated 

the building for the Spelman Institute at 
Atlanta, Georgia, a school for the instruction 
of negroes. His other gifts were to the 
University of Rochester, Cook Academy, 
Peddie Institute, and Vassar College, be- 
sides smaller gifts to many institutions 
throughout the country. His princely do- 
nations, however, were to the University of 
Chicago. His first gift to this institution 
was a conditional offer of six hundred thou- 
sand dollars in 1889, and when this amount 
was paid he added one million more. Dur- 
ing 1892 he made it two gifts of one million 
each, and all told, his donations to this one 
institution aggregated between seven and 
eight millions of dollars. 

JOHN M. PALMER.— For over a third 
of a century this gentleman occupied a 
prominent place in the political world, both 
in the state of Illinois and on the broader 
platform of national issues. 

Mr. Palmer was born at Eagle Creek,, 
Scott county, Kentucky, September 13, 
18 17. The family subsequently removed 
to Christian county, in the same state, where 
he acquired a common-school education, and 
made his home until 1831. His father was 
opposed to slavery, and in the latter year 
removed to Illinois and settled near Alton. 
In 1834 John entered Alton College, or- 
ganized on the manual-labor plan, but his 
funds failing, abandoned it and entered a 
cooper shop. He subsequently was en- 
gaged in peddling, and teaching a district 
school near Canton. In 1S38 he began the 
study of law, and the following year re- 
moved to Carlinville, where, in December of 
that year, he was admitted to the bar. He 
was shortly after defeated for county clerk. 
In 1843 he was elected probate judge. In 
the constitutional convention of 1847, Mr. 
Palmer was a delegate, and from 1849 to 



1 85 1 he was county judge. In 1852 he be- 
came a member of the state senate, but not 
being with his party on the slavery question 
he resigned that office in 1854. In 1856 
Mr. Palmer was chairman of the first Re- 
publican state convention held in Illinois, 
and the same year was a delegate to the 
national convention. In i860 he was an 
elector on the Lincoln ticket, and on the 
breaking out of the war entered the service 
as colonel of the Fourteenth Illinois Infan- 
try, but was shortly after brevetted brigadier- 
general. In August, 1862, he organized 
the One Hundred and Twenty-second Illi- 
nois Infantry, but in September he was 
placed in command of the first division of 
the Army of the Mississippi, afterward was 
promoted to the rank of major-general. In 
1865 he was assigned to the military ad- 
ministration in Kentucky. In 1867 General 
Palmer was elected governor of Illinois and 
served four years. In 1872 he went with 
the Liberal Republicans, who supported 
Horace Greeley, after which time he was 
identified with the Democratic party. In 
1890 he was elected United States senator 
from Illinois, and served as such for six 
years. In 1896, on the adoption of the sil- 
ver plank in the platform of the Democratic 
party, General Palmer consented to lead, 
as presidential candidate, the National Dem- 
ocrats, or Gold Democracy. 

WILLIAM H. BEARD, the humorist 
among American painters, was born 
at Painesville, Ohio, ini82i. His father, 
James H. Beard, was also a painter of na- 
tional reputation. William H. Beard be- 
gan his career as a traveling portrait 
painter. He pursued his studies in New 
York, and later removed to Buffalo, where 
he achieved reputation. He then went to 

Italy and after a short stay returned to New 
York and opened a studio. One of his 
earliest paintings was a small picture called 
"Cat and Kittens, " which was placed in 
the National Academy onexhibition. Among 
his best productions are "Raining Cats and 
Dogs," "The Dance of Silenus," "Bears 
on a Bender," "Bulls and Bears," " Whoo!" 
" Grimalkin's Dream," "Little Red Riding 
Hood," "The Guardian of the Flag." His 
animal pictures convey the most ludicrous 
and satirical ideas, and the intelligent, 
human expression in their faces is most 
comical. Some artists and critics have re- 
fused to give Mr. Beard a place among the 
first circles in art, solely on account of the 
class of subjects he has chosen. 

WW. CORCORAN, the noted philan- 
thropist, was born at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia ; December 27, 1798. 
At the age of twenty-five he entered the 
banking business in Washington, and in 
time became very wealthy. He was 
noted for his magnificent donations to char- 
ity. Oak Hill cemetery was donated to 
Georgetown in 1847, and ten years later the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, Temple of Art, was 
presented to the city of Washington. The 
uncompleted building was utilized by the 
government as quartermaster's headquar- 
ters during the war. The building was 
completed after the war at a cost of a mil- 
lion and a half dollars, all the gift of Mr. 
Corcoran. The Louise Home for Women 
is another noble charity to his credit. Its 
object is the care of women of gentle breed- 
ing who in declining years are without 
means of support. In addition to this he 
gave liberally to many worthy institutions 
of learning and charity. He died at Wash- 
ington February 24, 1888. 



ALBERT BIERSTADT, the noted paint- 
er of American landscape, was born in 
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1829, and was 
brought to America by his parents at the 
age of two years. He received his early 
education here, but returned to Dusseldorf 
to study painting, and also went to Rome. 
On his return to America he accompanied 
Lander's expedition across the continent, in 
1858, and soon after produced his most 
popular work, "The Rocky Mountains — 
Lander's Peak. " Its boldness and grandeur 
were so unusual that it made him famous. 
The picture sold for twenty-five thousand 
dollars. In 1867 Mr. Bierstadt went to 
Europe, with a government commission, 
and gathered materials for his great historic- 
al work. "Discovery of the North River 
by Hendrik Hudson." Others of his great 
works were "Storm in the Rocky Mount- 
ains," "Valley of the Yosemite," "North 
Fork of the Platte," "Diamond Pool," 
"Mount Hood," "Mount Rosalie," and 
■"The Sierra Nevada Mountains." His 
"Estes Park" sold for fifteen thousand 
dollars, and "Mount Rosalie" brought 
thirty-five thousand dollars. His smaller 
Rocky mountain scenes, however, are vast- 
ly superior to his larger works in execution 
and coloring. 

ADDISON CAMMACK, a famous mill- 
ionaire Wall street speculator, was 
born in Kentucky. When sixteen years old 
he ran away from home and went to New 
Orleans, where he went to work in a ship- 
ping house. He outlived and outworked 
all the partners, and became the head of the 
firm before the opening of the war. At 
that time he fitted out small vessels and en- 
gaged in running the blockade of southern 
ports and carrying ammunition, merchan- 
dise, etc., to the southern peopie. This 

made him a fortune. At the close of the 
war he quit business and went to New 
York. For two years he did not enter any 
active business, but seemed to be simply an 
on-looker in the great speculative center of 
America. He was observing keenly the 
methods and financial machinery, however, 
and when, in 1867, he formed a partnership 
with the popular Charles J. Osborne, the 
firm began to prosper. He never had an. 
office on the street, but wandered into the 
various brokers' offices and placed his orders 
as he saw fit. In 1873 he dissolved his 
partnership with Osborne and operated 
alone. He joined a band of speculative 
conspirators known as the "Twenty-third 
pprty," and was the ruling spirit in that or- 
ganization for the control of the stock mar- 
ket. He was always on the ' ' bear " side and 
the only serious obstacle he ever encoun- 
tered was the persistent boom in industrial 
stocks, particularly sugar, engineered by 
James R. Keane. Mr. Cammack fought 
Keane for two years, and during the time is 
said to have lost no less than two million 
dollars before he abandoned the fight. 

WALT. WHITMAN.— Foremost among 
the lesser poets of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century, the gentleman whose 
name adorns the head of this article takes 
a conspicuous place. 

Whitman was born at West Hills, Long 
Island, New York, May 13, 1809. In the 
schools of Brooklyn he laid the foundation 
of his education, and early in life learned the 
printer's trade. For a time he taught coun- 
try schools in his native state. In 1846-7 
he was editor of the "Brooklyn Eagle," 
but in 1848-9 was on the editorial staff of 
the "Crescent," of New Orleans. He 
made an extended tour throughout the 
United States and Canada, and returned to 


Brooklyn, where, in 1850, he published the 
"Freeman. " For some years succeeding 
yiis he was engaged as carpenter and builder. 
During the Civil war, Whitman acted as 
a volunteer nurse in the hospitals at 
Washington and vicinity and from the close 
of hostilities until 1873 he was employed 
in various clerkships in the government 
offices in the nation's capital. In the latter 
year he was stricken with paralysis as a 
result of his labors in the hospital, it is 
said, and being partially disabled lived for 
many years at Camden, New Jersey. 

The first edition of the work which was 
to bring him fame, "Leaves of Grass," was 
published in 1855 and was but a small 
volume of about ninety-four pages. Seven 
or eight editions of "Leaves of Grass" have 
been issued, each enlarged and enriched with 
new poems. "Drum Taps," at first a 
separate publication, has been incorporated 
with the others. This volume and one 
prose writing entitled "Specimen Days and 
Collect," constituted his whole work. 

Walt. Whitman died at Camden, New 
Jersey, March 26, 1892. 

HENRY DUPONT, who became cele- 
brated as America's greatest manufact- 
urer of gunpowder, was a native of Dela- 
ware, born August 8, 18 12. He received 
his education in its higher branches at the 
United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated and entered 
the army as serond lieutenant of artillery in 
1S33. In 1834 he resigned and became 
proprietor of the extensive gunpowder 
manufacturing plant that bears his name, 
near Wilmington, Delaware. His large 
business interests interfered with his tak- 
ing any active participation in political 
life, although for many years he served 
as adjutant-general of his native state, and 

during the war as major-general command- 
ing the Home Guards. He died August 8, 
1889. His son, Henry A. Dupont, also was- 
a native of Delaware, and was born July 30, 
1838. After graduating from West Point 
in 1 86 1, he entered the army as second 
lieutenant of engineers. Shortly after he 
was transferred to the Fifth Artillery as first 
lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank 
of captain in 1864, serving in camp and 
garrison most of the time. He was in com- 
mand of a battery in the campaign of 
1863-4. As chief of artillery of the army of 
West Virginia, he figured until the close of 
the war, being in the battles of Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, besides 
many minor engagements. He afterward 
acted as instructor in the artillery school at 
Fortress Monroe, and on special duty at 
West Point. He resigned from the army 
March 1, 1875. 

WILLIAM DEERING, one of the fa- 
mous manufacturers of America, and 
also a philanthropist and patron of educa- 
tion, was born in Maine in 1S26. His an- 
cestors were English, having settled in New 
England in 1634. Early in life it was Will- 
iam's intention to become a physician, and 
after completing his common-school educa- 
tion, when about eighteen years of age, he 
began an apprenticeship with a physician. 
A short time later, however, at the request 
of his father, he took charge of his father's 
business interests, which included a woolen 
mill, retail store and grist mill, after which 
he became agent for a dry goods commission 
house in Portland, where he was married. 
Later he became partner in the firm, and 
removed to New York. The business pros- 
pered, and after a number of years, on ac- 
count of failing health, Mr. Deering sold his 
interest to his partner, a Mr. Milner. The 


business has since made Mr. Milner a mill- 
ionaire many times over. A few years 
later Mr. Deering located in Chicago. His 
beginning in the manufacture of reapers, 
which has since made his name famous, 
was somewhat of an accident. He had 
loaned money to a man in that business, 
and in 1878 was compelled to buy out the 
business to protect his interests. The busi- 
ness developed rapidly and grew to immense 
proportions. The factories now cover sixty- 
two acres of ground and employ many thou- 
sands of men. 

tohn McAllister schofield, an 

<J American general, was born in Chautau- 
qua county, New York, September 29, 1831. 
He graduated at West Point in 1853, and 
was for five years assistant professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in that institution. In 1861 
he entered the volunteer service as major of 
the First Missouri Volunteers, and was ap- 
pointed chief of staff by General Lyon, under 
whom he fought at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek. In November, 1S61, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
was placed in command of the Missouri 
militia until November, 1862, and of the 
army of the frontier from that time until 
1863. In 1862 he was made major-general 
of volunteers, and was placed in command of 
the Department of the Missouri, and in 1864 
of the Department of the Ohio. During the 
campaign through Georgia General Scho- 
field was in command of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps, and was engaged in most of the 
fighting of that famous campaign. Novem- 
ber 30, 1864, he defeated Hood's army at 
Franklin, Tennessee, and then joined Gen- 
eral Thomas at Nashville. He took part in 
the battle of Nashville, where Hood's army 
was destroyed. In January, 1865, he led 
his corps into North Carolina, captured 

Wilmington, fought the battle of Kingston, 
and joined General Sherman at Goldsboro 
March 22, 1865. He executed the details 
of the capitulation of General Johnston to 
Sherman, which practically closed the war. 
In June, 1868, General Schofield suc- 
ceeded Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of 
war, but was the next year appointed major- 
general of the United States army, and order- 
ed to the Department of the Missouri. From 
1870 to 1876 he was in command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific; from 1876 to 1881 
superintendent of the West Point Military 
Academy; in 1883 he was in charge of the 
Department of the Missouri, and in 18S6 of 
the division of the Atlantic. In 1888 he 
became general-in-chief of the United States 
army, and in February, 1895, was appoint- 
ed lieutenant-general by President Cleve- 
land, that rank having been revived by con- 
gress. In September, 1895, he was retired 
from active service. 

LEWIS WALLACE, an American gen- 
eral and famous author, was born iri 
Brookville, Indiana, April 10, 1827. He 
served in the Mexican war as first lieutenant 
of a company of Indiana Volunteers. After 
his return from Mexico he was admitted to 
the bar, and practiced law in Covington and 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, until 1861. At the 
opening of the war he was appointed ad- 
jutant-general of Indiana, and soon after be- 
came colonel of the Eleventh Indiana Vol- 
unteers. He defeated a force of Confeder- 
ates at Romney, West Virginia, and was 
made brigadier-general in September, 1861. 
At the capture of Fort Donelson in 1862 he 
commanded a division, and was engaged in 
the second day's fight at Shiloh. In 1863 
his defenses about Cincinnati saved that city 
from capture by Kirby Smith. At Monoc- 
acy in July, 1864, he was defeated, but 



his resistance delayed the advance of Gen- 
eral Early and thus saved Washington from 

General Wallace was a member of the 
court that tried the assassins of President 
Lincoln, and also of that before whom Cap- 
tain Henry Wirtz, who had charge of the 
Andersonville prison, was tried. In 1881 
General Wallace was sent as minister to 
Turkey. When not in official service he 
devoted much of his time to literature. 
Among his better known works are his 
"Fair God," "Ben Hur," "Prince of 
India," and a " Life of Benjamin Harrison." 

can statesman and diplomat, was born 
at Wilmington, Delaware, October 29, 1828. 
He obtained his education at an Episcopal 
academy at Flushing, Long Island, and 
after a short service in a mercantile house in 
New York, he returned to Wilmington and 
entered his father's law office to prepare 
himself for the practice of that profession. 
He was admitted to the bar in 185 1. He 
was appointed to the office of United States 
district attorney for the state of Delaware, 
serving one year. In 1869 he was elected to 
the United States senate, and continuously 
represented his state in that body until 1885, 
and in 1881, when Chester A. Arthur entered 
the presidential chair, Mr. Bayard was 
chosen president pro tempore of the senate. 
Hje had also served on the famous electoral 
commission that decided the Hayes-Tilden 
contest in 1876-7. In 1885 President Cleve- 
land appointed Mr. Bayard secretary of 
state. At the beginning of Cleveland's sec- 
ond term, in 1893, Mr. Bayard was selected 
for the post of ambassador at the court of 
St. James, London, and was the first to hold 
that rank in American diplomacy, serving 
until the beginning of the McKinley admin- 

istration. The questions for adjustment at 
that time between the two governments 
were the Behring Sea controversy and the 
Venezuelan boundary question. He was 
very popular in England because of his 
tariff views, and because of his criticism of 
the protective policy of the United States 
in his public speeches delivered in London, 
Edinburgh and other places, he received, in 
March, 1896, a vote of censure in the lower 
house of congress. 

JOHN WORK GARRETT, for so many 
years at the head of the great Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad system, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, July 31, 1820. His father, 
Robert Garrett, an enterprising merchant, 
had amassed a large fortune from a smalt 
beginning. The son entered Lafayette Col- 
lege in 1834, but left the following year and 
entered his father's counting room, and in 
1839 became a partner. John W. Gar- 
rett took a great interest in the develop- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He 
was elected one of the directors in 1857, 
and was its president from 1858 until his 
death. When he took charge of the road 
it was in an embarrassed condition, but 
within a year, for the first time in its exist- 
ence, it paid a dividend, the increase in its 
net gains being $725,385. After the war, 
during which the road suffered much damage 
from the Confederates, numerous branches 
and connecting roads were built or acquired, 
until it reached colossal proportions. Mr. 
Garrett was also active in securing a regular 
line of steamers between Baltimore and 
Bremen, and between the same port and 
Liverpool. He was one of the most active 
trustees of Johns Hopkins University, and a 
liberal contributor to the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Baltimore. He 
died September 26, 1884. 


Robert Garrett, the son of John W. 
Garrett, was born in Baltimore April 9, 
1847, and graduated from Princeton in 1867. 
He received a business education in the 
banking house of his father, and in 1871 
became president of the Valley Railroad of 
Virginia. He was made third vice-presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 
1879, and first vice-president in 188 1. He 
succeeded his father as president in 1884. 
Robert Garrett died July 29, 1896. 

CARL SCHURZ, a noted German-Ameri- 
can statesman, was born in Liblar, Prus- 
sia, March 2, 1829. Hestudied at the Uni- 
versity of Bonn, and in 1849 was engaged in 
an attempt to excite an insurrection at that 
place. After the surrender of Rastadt by 
the revolutionists, in the defense of which 
Schurz took part, he decided to emigrate to 
America. He resided in Philadelphia three 
years, and then settled in Watertown, Wis- 
consin, and in 1859 removed to Milwaukee, 
where he practiced law. On the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he became a 
leader of the German element and entered 
the campaign for Lincoln in i860. He was 
appointed minister to Spain in 1861, but re- 
signed in December of that year to enter 
the army. He was appointed brigadier- 
general- in 1862, and participated in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and also at 
Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he had 
temporary command of the Eleventh Army 
Corps, and also took part in the battle of 

After the war he located at St. Louis, 
and in 1869 was elected United States sena- 
tor from Missouri. He supported Horace 
Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and in 
the campaign of 1876, having removed to 
New York, he supported Hayes and the Re- 
publican ticket, and was appointed secre- 

tary of the interior in 1877. In 1881 he 
became editor of the "New York Evening 
Post," and in 1884 was prominent in his 
opposition to James G. Blaine, and became 
a leader of the "Mugwumps," thus assist- 
ing in the election of Cleveland. In the 
presidential campaign of 1896 his forcible 
speeches in the interest of sound money 
wielded an immense influence. Mr. Schurz 
wrote a " Life of Henry Clay," said to be 
the best biography ever published of that 
eminent statesman. 

GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, an American 
statesman of national reputation, was 
born in Richmond, Vermont, February 1, 
iS_8. His education was ohtained in the 
public schools and from the instructions of 
a private tutor. He was admitted to the 
bar, practiced law, and served in the state 
legislature from 1854 to 1859, during three 
years of that time being speaker of the lower 
house. He was elected to the state senate 
and acted as president pro tempore of that 
body in 1861 and 1862. He became promi- 
nent for his activity in the impeachment 
proceedings against President Johnson, and 
was appointed to the United States senate 
to fill out the unexpired term of Solomon 
Foot, entering that body in 1866. He was 
re-elected to the senate four times, and 
served on the electoral commission in 1877. 
He became president pro tempore of the 
senate after the death of President Garfield, 
and was the author of the bill which put an 
end to the practice of polygamy in the ter- 
ritory of Utah. In November, 1891, owing 
to impaired health, he retired from the sen- 
ate and again resumed the practice of law. 

LUCIUS Q. C. LAMAR, a prominent 
political leader, statesman and jurist, 
was born in Putnam county, Georgia, Sep- 



temberi7, 1825. He graduated from Emory 
College in 1845, studied law at Macon under 
Hon. A. H. Chappell, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1847. He moved to Oxford, 
Mississippi, in 1849, and was elected to a 
professorship in the State University. He 
resigned the next year and returned to Cov- 
ington, Georgia, and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1853 he was elected to the 
Georgia Legislature, and in 1854 he removed 
to his plantation in Lafayette county, Mis- 
sissippi, and was elected to represent his 
district in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth 
congresses. He resigned in i860, and was 
sent as a delegate to the secession conven- 
tion of the state. He entered the Confed- 
erate service in 1861 as lieutenant-colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, and was soon 
after made colonel. In 1863 President 
Davis appointed him to an important diplo- 
matic mission to Russia. In 1866 he was 
elected professor of political economy and 
social science in the State University, and 
was soon afterward transferred to the pro- 
fessorship of the law department. He rep- 
resented his district in the forty-third and 
forty-fourth congresses, and was elected 
United States senator from Mississippi in 
1877, and re-elected in 1882. In 1885, be- 
fore the expiration of his term, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland as secre- 
tary of the interior, which position he held 
until his appointment as associate justice of 
the United States supreme court, in 1S88, 
in which capacity he served until his death, 
January 23, 1894. 

BER won fame in the world of 
humorists under the name of "Mrs. Parting- 
ton." He was born in 1841 at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and started out in life as a 
printer. Mr. Shillaber went to Dover, 

where he secured employment in a printing 
office, and from there he went to Demerara, 
Guiana, where he was employed as a com- 
positor in 1835-37. I n l ^4° ne became 
connected with the "Boston Post," and 
acquired quite a reputation as a humorist 
by his "Sayings of Mrs. Partington." He 
remained as editor of the paper until 1850, 
when he printed and edited a paper of his 
own called the "Pathfinder," which he con- 
tinued until 1852. Mr. Shillaber be- 
came editor and proprietor of the "Carpet 
Bag," which he conducted during 1850-52, 
and then returned to the "Boston Post," 
with which he was connected until 1856. 
During the same time he was one of the 
editors of the "Saturday Evening Gazette," 
and continued in this line after he severed 
his connection with the "Post," for ten 
years. After 1866 Mr. Shillaber wrote for 
various newspapers and periodicals, and 
during his life published the following 
books: "Rhymes with Reason and Without," 
"Poems," "Life and Sayings of Mrs. Part- 
ington," "Knitting Work," and others. 
His death occurred at Chelsea, Massachu- 
setts, November 25, 1890. 

EASTMAN JOHNSON stands first among 
painters of American country life. He 
was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824, and be- 
gan his work in drawing at the age of eight- 
een years. His first works were portraits, 
and, as he took up his residence in Wash- 
ington, the most famous men of the nation 
were his subjects. In 1846 he went to Bos- 
ton, and there made crayon portraits of 
Longfellow, Emerson, Sumner, Hawthorne 
and other noted men. In 1849 he went to 
Europe. He studied at Dusseldorf, Ger- 
man}-; spent a year at the Royal Academy, 
and thence to The Hague, where he spent 
four years, producing there his first pictures 


of consequence, "The Card-Players " and 
"The Savoyard." He then went to Paris, 
but was called home, after an absence from 
America of six years. He lived some time 
in Washington, and then spent two years 
among the Indians of Lake Superior. In 
1858 he produced his famous picture, "The 
Old Kentucky Home." He took up his 
permanent residence at New York at that 
time. His " Sunday Morning in Virginia " 
is a work of equal merit. He was espe- 
cially successful in coloring, a master of 
drawing, and the expression conveys with 
precision the thought of the artist. His 
portrayal of family life and child life is un- 
equalled. Among his other great works are 
"The Confab," "Crossing a Stream,' 
"Chimney Sweep," "Old Stage Coach," 
" The New Bonnet," " The Drummer Boy," 
" Childhood of Lincoln," and a great vari- 
ety of equally familiar subjects. 

REGARD, one of the most distin- 
guished generals in the Confederate army, 
was born near New Orleans, Louisiana, 
May 28, 181 8. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1838, and was 
made second lieutenant of engineers. He 
was with General Scott in Mexico, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, and the battles near the City of 
Mexico, for which he was twice brevetted. 
After the Mexican war closed he was placed 
in charge of defenses about New Orleans, 
and in i860 was appointed superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point. He held this position but a 
few months, when he resigned February 20, 
1 86 1, and accepted a commission of briga- 
dier-general in the Confederate army. He 
directed the attack on Fort Sumter, the 

first engagement of the Civil war. He was 

in command of the Confederates at the first 
battle of Bull Run, and for this victory was 
made general. In 1862 he was placed in 
command of the Army of the Mississippi, 
and planned the attack upon General Grant 
at Shiloh, and upon the death of General 
Johnston he took command of the army 
and was only defeated by the timely arrival 
of General Buell with reinforcements. He 
commanded at Charleston and successfully 
defended that city against the combined at- 
tack by land and sea in 1863. In 1864 he 
was in command in Virginia, defeating Gen- 
eral Butler, and resisting Grant's attack 
upon Petersburg until reinforced from Rich- 
mond. During the long siege which fol- 
lowed he was sent to check General Sher- 
man's march to the sea, and was with Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston when that general 
surrendered in 1865. After the close of the 
war he was largely interested in railroad 
management. In 1866 he was offered chief 
command of the Army of Roumania, and in 
1869, that of the Army of Egypt. He de- 
clined these offers. His death occurred 
February 20, 1893. 

HENRY GEORGE, one of America's 
most celebrated political economists, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 2, 1839. He received acommon- 
school education and entered the high 
school in 1853, and then went into a mer- 
cantile office. He made several voyages on 
the sea, and settled in California in 1858. 
He then worked at the printer's trade for a 
number of years, which he left to follow the 
editorial profession. He edited in succession 
several daily newspapers, and attracted at- 
tention by a number of strong essays and 
speeches on political and social questions. 
In 1 87 1 he edited a pamphlet, entitled " Oui 
Land and Policy," in which he outlined a 



theory, which has since made him so widely 
known. This was developed in " Progress 
and Poverty," a book which soon attained a 
large circulation on both sides of the Atlan- 
tic, which has been extensively translated. 
In 1880 Mr. George located in New York, 
where he made his home, though he fre- 
quently addressed audiences in Great Britain, 
Ireland, Australia, and throughout the 
United States. In 1886 he was nominated 
by the labor organizations for mayor of New 
York, and made a campaign notable for its 
development of unexpectedpower. In 1887 he 
was candidate of the Union Labor party for 
secretary of state of New York. These cam- 
paigns served to formulate the idea of a single 
tax and popularize the Australian ballot sys- 
tem. Mr. George became a free trader in 
1888. and in 1892 supported the election of 
Grover Cleveland. His political and eco- 
nomic ideas, known as the "single tax," 
have a large and growing support, but are 
not confined to this country alone. He 
wrote numerous miscellaneous articles in 
support of his principles, and also published: 
"The Land Question," " Social Problems," 
"Protection or Free Trade," "The Condi- 
tion of Labor, an Open Letter to Pope Leo 
XIII.," and " Perplexed Philosopher." 

name is indissolubly connected with 
the history and development of the railway 
systems of the United States. Mr. Scott 
was born December 28, 1823, at London, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He was first 
regularly employed by Major James Patton, 
the collector of tolls on the state road be- 
tween Philadelphia and Columbia, Penn- 
sylvania. He entered into the employ of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1 850, 
and went through all the different branches 
of work until he had mastered all the details 

of the office work, and in 1858 he was ap- 
pointed general superintendent. Mr. Scott 
was the next year chosen vice-president of 
the road. This position at once brought 
him before the public, and the enterprise 
and ability displayed by him in its manage- 
ment marked him as a leader among the 
railroad men of the country. At the out- 
break of the rebellion in 1861, Mr. Scott 
was selected by Governor Curtin as a mem- 
ber of his staff, and placed in charge of the 
equipment and forwarding of the state troops 
to the seat of war. On April 27, 1861, the 
secretary of war desired to establish a new 
line of road between the national capital 
and Philadelphia, for the more expeditious 
transportation of troops. He called upon 
Mr. Scott to direct this work, and the road 
by the way of Annapolis and Perryville was 
completed in a marvelously short space of 
time. On May 3, 1861, he was commis- 
sioned colonel of volunteers, and on the 23d 
of the same month the government railroads 
and telegraph lines were placed in his charge. 
Mr. Scott was the first assistant secretary 
of war ever appointed, and he took charge 
of this new post August 1, 1861. In Janu- 
ary, 1862, he was directed to organize 
transportation in the northwest, and in 
March he performed the same service on 
the western rivers. He resigned June 1, 
1862, and resumed his direction of affairs on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. Colonel Scott 
directed the policy that secured to his road 
the control of the western roads, and be- 
came the president of the new company to 
operate these lines in 1871. For one year, 
from March, 1871, he was president of the 
Union Pacific Railroad, and in 1874 he suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of the Pennsyl- 
vania Company. He projected the Texas 
Pacific Railroad and was for many years its 
president. Colonel Scott's health failed 



him and he resigned the presidency of the 
road June i, 18S0, and died at his home in 
Duby, Pennsylvania, May 21, 1SS1. 

ROBERT TOOMBS, an American states- 
man of note, was born in Wilkes coun- 
ty, Georgia, July 2, 1810. He attended 
the University < f Georgia, and graduated 
from Union College, Schenectady, New 
York, and then took a law course at the 
University of Virginia. In 1830, before he 
had attained his majority, he was admitted 
to the bar by special act of the legislature, 
and rose rapidly in his profession, attracting 
the attention of the leading statesmen and 
judges of that time. He raised a volunteer 
company for the Creek war, and served as 
captain to the close. He was elected to the 
slate legislature in 1837, re-elected in 1842, 
and in 1 S44 was elected to congress. He 
had been brought up as a Jeffersonian 
Democrat, but voted for Harrison in 1840 
and for Clay in 1844. He made his first 
speech in congress on the Oregon question, 
and immediately took rank with the greatest 
debaters of that body. In 1853 he was 
elected to the United States senate, and 
again in 1859, but when his native state 
seceded he resigned his seat in the senate 
and was elected to the Confederate con- 
gress. It is stated on the best authority 
that had it not been for a misunderstanding 
which could not be explained till too late he 
would have been elected president of the 
Confederacy. He was appointed secretary 
of state by President Davis, but resigned 
after a few months and was commissioned 
brigadier-general in the Confederate army. 
He won distinction at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, but resigned 
his commission soon after and returned to 
Georgia. He organized the militia of 
Georgia to resist Sherman, and was made 

brigadier-general of the state troops. He 
left the country at the close of the war and 
did not return until 1867. He died Decem- 
ber 15, 1885. 

AUSTIN CORBIN, one of the greatest 
raihvay magnates of the United States, 
was born July 11, 1827, at Newport, New 
Hampshire. He studied law with Chief 
Justice Cushing and Governor Ralph Met- 
calf, and later took a course in the Harvard 
Law School, where he graduated in 1849. 
He was admitted to the bar, and practiced 
law, with Governor Metcalf as his partner, 
until October 12, 1851. Mr. Corbin then 
rem ved to Davenport, Iowa, where he re- 
mained until 1865. In 1854 he was a part- 
ner in the banking firm of Macklot & Cor- 
bin, and later he organized the First Na- 
tional bank of Davenport, Iowa, which 
commenced business June 29, 1863, and 
which was the first national bank op.n for 
business in the United States. Mr. Corbin 
sold out his business in the Davenport bank, 
and removed to New York in 1865 and com- 
menced business with partners under the 
style of Corbin Banking Company. Soon 
after his removal to New York he became 
interested in railroads, and became one of 
the leading railroad men of the country. 
The development of the west half of Coney 
Island as a summer resort first brought him 
into general prominence. He built a rail- 
road from New York to the island, and 
built great hotels on its ocean front. He 
next turned his attention to Long Island, 
and secured all the railroads and consoli- 
dated them under one management, became 
president of the system, and under his con- 
trol Long Island became the great ocean 
suburb of New York. His latest public 
achievement was the rehabilitation of the 
Reading Railroad, of Pennsylvania, and 



during the same time he and his friends 
purchased the controlling interest of the 
New Jersey Central Railroad. He took it 
out of the hands of the receiver, and in 
three years had it on a dividend-paying 
basis. Mr. Corbin's death occurred June 
4, 1896. 

was one of the greatest journalists of 
America in his day. He was born Septem- 
ber 1, 1795, at New Mill, near Keith, Scot- 
land. At the age of fourteen he was sent 
to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, 
but, convinced that he was mistaken in his 
vocation, he determined to emigrate. He 
landed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1S19, 
where he attempted to earn a living by 
teaching bookkeeping. Failing in this he 
went to Boston and found employment as a 
proof reader. Mr. Bennett went to New 
York about 1822 and wrote for the news- 
papers. Later on he became assistant 
editor in the office of the "Charleston 
Courier, "but returned to New York in 1824 
and endeavored to start a commercial 
school, but was unsuccessful in this, and 
again returned to newspaper work. He 
continued in newspaper work with varying 
su&cess until, it his suggestion, the "En- 
quirer" was consolidated with another 
paper, and became the "Courier and En- 
quirer," with James Watson Webb as 
editor and Mr. Bennett for assistant. At 
this time this was the leading American 
newspaper. He, however, severed his con- 
nection with this newspaper and tried, 
without success, other ventures in the line 
of journalism until May 6, 1835, when he 
issued the first number of the "New York 
Herald." Mr. Bennett wrote the entire 
paper, and made, up for lack of news by his 
own imagination. The paper became popu- 

lar, and in 1838 he engaged European jour- 
nalists as regular correspondents. In 1841 
the income derived from his paper was at 
least one hundred thousand dollars. Dur- 
ing the Civil war the " Herald " had on its 
staff sixty-three war correspondents and the 
circulation was doubled. Mr. Bennett was 
interested with John W. Mackay in that great 
enterprise which is now known as the Mac- 
kay-Bennett Cable. He had collected for use 
in his paper over fifty thousand biographies, 
sketches and all manner of information re- 
garding every well-known man, which are 
still kept in the archives of the "Herald" 
office. He died in the city of New York in 
1872, and left to his son, James Gordon, 
Jr., one of the greatest and most profitable 
journals in the United States, or even in the 

noted American, won distinction in the 
field of literature, in which he attained a 
world-wide reputation. He was born at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. 
He received a collegiate education and grad- 
uated from Harvard in 1829, at the age of 
twenty, and took up the study of law and 
later studied medicine. Dr. Holmes at- 
tended several years in the hospitals of 
Europe and received his degree in 1836. 
He became professor of anatomy and phys- 
iology in Dartmouth in 1838, and re- 
mained there until 1847, when he was 
called to the Massachusetts Medical School 
at Boston to occupy the same chair, which 
position he resigned in 18S2. The first 
collected edition of his poems appeared in 
1836, and his "Phi Beta Kappa Poems," 
"Poetry," in 1836; "Terpsichore," in 1843; 
"Urania," in 1846, and "Astra;a," won for 
him many fresh laurels. His series of 
papers in the "Atlantic Monthly," were: 


"Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," "Pro- 
fessor at the Breakfast Table," "Poet at 
the Breakfast Table," and are a series of 
masterly wit, humor and pathos. Among 
his medical papers and addresses, are: "Cur- 
rents and Counter-currents in the Medical 
Science," and "Borderland in Some Prov- 
inces of Medical Science." Mr. Holmes 
edited quite a number of works, of which 
we quote the following: "Else Venner," 
"Songs in Many Keys," "Soundings from 
the Atlantic," "Humorous Poems," "The 
Guardian Angel," "Mechanism in Thoughts 
and Morals," "Songs of Many Seasons," 
"John L. Motley" — a memoir, "The Iron 
Gate and Other Poems," "Ralph Waldo 
Emerson," "A Moral Antipathy." Dr. 
Holmes visited England for the second time, 
and while there the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon him by the University 
of Edinburgh. His death occurred October 
7. 1894. 

RUFUS CHOATE, one of the most em- 
inent of America's great lawyers, was 
born October 1, 1799, at Essex, Massachu- 
setts. He entered Dartmouth in 181 5, 
and after taking his degree he remained as 
a teacher in the college for one year. He 
took up the study of law in Cambridge, and 
subsequently studied under the distinguished 
lawyer, Mr. Wirt, who was then United 
States attorney-general at Washington. Mr. 
Choatebegan the practice of law in Danvers, 
Massachusetts, and from there he went to 
Salem, and afterwards to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. While living at Salem he was 
elected to congress in 1832, and later, in 
1 84 1, he was chosen United States senator 
to succeed Daniel Webster, Mr. Webster 
having been appointed secretary of state 
under William Henry Harrison. 

After the death of Webster. Mr- Choate 

was the acknowledged leader of the Massa- 
chusetts bar, and was looked upon by the 
younger members of the profession with an 
affection that almost amounted to a rever- 
ence. Mr. Choate's powers as an orator 
were of the rarest order, and his genius 
made it possible for him to enchant and in- 
terest his listeners, even while discussing the 
most ordinary theme. He was not merely 
eloquent on the subjects that were calculated 
to touch the feelings and stir the passions 
of his audience in themselves, but could at 
all times command their attention. He re- 
tired from active life in 1858, and was on 
his way to Europe, his physician having 
ordered a sea voyage for his health, but had 
only reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, when 
he died, July 13, 1858. 

D WIGHT L. MOODY, one of the most 
noted and effective pulpit orators and 
evangelists America has produced, was born 
in Northfield, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, February 5, 1837. He received but 
a meager education and worked on a farm 
until seventeen years of age, when he be- 
came clerk in a boot and shoe store in 
Boston. Soon after this he joined the Con- 
gregational church and went to Chicago, 
where he zealously engaged in missionary 
work among the poor classes. He met 
with great success, and in less than a year 
he built up a Sunday-school which numbered 
over one thousand children. When the 
war broke out he became connected with 
what was known as the "Christian Com- 
mission," and later became city missionary 
of the Young Men's Christian Association at 
Chicago. A church was built there for his 
converts and he became its unordained pas- 
tor. In the Chicago fire of 1871 the church 
and Mr. Moody's house and furniture, which 
had been given him, were destroyed. The 



church edifice was afterward replaced by a 
new church erected on the site of the old 
one. In 1873, accompanied by Ira D. 
Sankey, Mr. Moody went to Europe and 
excited great religious awakenings through- 
out England, Ireland and Scotland. In 
1875 they returned to America and held 
large meetings in various cities. They 
afterward made another visit to Great 
Britain for the same purpose, meeting with 
great success, returning to the United States 
in 1884. Mr. Moody afterward continued 
his evangelistic work, meeting everywhere 
with a warm reception and success. Mr. 
Moody produced a number of works, some 
of which had a wide circulation. 

of world-wide reputation, and famous 
as the head of one of the largest banking 
houses in the world, was born April 17, 
1837, at Hartford, Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his early education in the English 
high school, in Boston, and later supple- 
mented this with a course in the University 
of Gottingen, Germany. He returned to 
the United States, in 1857, and entered the 
banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co., 
of New York, and, in i860, he became 
agent and attorney, in the United States, for 
George Peabody & Co., of London. He 
became the junior partner in the banking 
firm of Dabney, Morgan & Co., in 1864, 
and that of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871. 
This house was among the chief negotiators 
of railroad bonds, and was active in the re- 
organization of the West Shore Railroad, 
and its absorption by the New York Central 
Railroad. It was conspicuous in the re- 
organization of the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad, in 1887, which a syndicate of 
capitalists, formed by Mr. Morgan, placed 
on a sound financial basis. After that time 

many other lines of railroad and gigantic 
financial enterprises were brought under Mr. 
Morgan's control, and in some respects it 
may be said he became the foremost financier 
of the century. 

the most eminent of American states- 
men, was born October 18, 1839, at Port- 
land, Maine, where he received his early 
education in the common schools of the 
city, and prepared himself for college. Mr. 
Reed graduated from Bowdoin College in 
i860, and won one of the highest honors of 
the college, the prize for excellence in Eng- 
lish composition. The following four years 
were spent by him in teaching and in the 
study of law. Before his admission to the 
bar, however, he was acting assistant pay- 
master in the United States navy, and 
served on the "tin-clad" Sybil, which pa- 
trolled the Tennessee, Cumberland and 
Mississippi rivers. After his discharge in 
1865, he returned to Portland, was admit- 
ted to the bar, and began the practice of his 
profession. He entered into political life, 
and in 1S68 was elected to the legislature 
of Maine as a Republican, and in 1869 he 
was re-elected to the hpuse, and in 1870 
was made state senator, from which he 
passed to attorney-general of the state. 
He retired from this office in 1873, and 
until 1877 he was solicitor for the city 
of Portland. In 1876 he was elected to 
the forty-fifth congress, which assembled 
in 1877. Mr. Reed sprung into prominence 
in that body by one of the first speeches 
which he delivered, and his long service in 
congress, coupled with his ability, gave him 
a national reputation. His influence each 
year became more strongly marked, and the 
leadership of his part)' was finally conceded 
to him, and in the forty-ninth and fiftieth 


congresses the complimentary nomination 
for the speakership was tendered him by the 
Republicans. That party having obtained 
the ascendency in the fifty-first congress he 
was elected speaker on the first ballot, and 
he was again chosen speaker of the fifty- 
fourth and fifth-fifth congresses. As a 
writer, Mr. Reed contributed largely to the 
magazines and periodicals, and his book 
upon parliamentary rules is generally rec- 
ognized as authority on that subject. 

CLARA BARTON is a celebrated char- 
acter among what might be termed as 
the highest grade of philanthropists Amer- 
ica has produced. She was born on a farm 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, a daughter of 
Captain Stephen Barton, and was educated 
at Clinton, New York. She engaged in 
teaching early in life, and founded a free 
school at Bordentown, the first in New Jer- 
sey. She opened with six pupils, but the 
attendance had grown to six hundred up to 
1854, when she went to Washington. She 
was appointed clerk in the patent depart- 
ment, and remained there until the out- 
break of the Civil war, when she resigned 
her position and devoted herself to the al- 
leviation of the sufferings of the soldiers, 
serving, not in the hospitals, but on the bat- 
tle field. She was present at a number of 
battles, and after the war closed she origi- 
nated, and for some time carried on at her 
own expense, the search for missing soldiers. 
She then for several years devoted her time 
to lecturing on "Incidents of the War." 
About 1868 she went to Europe for her 
health, and settled in Switzerland, but on the 
outbreak of the Franco-German war she ac- 
cepted the invitation of the grand duchess 
v)f Baden to aid in the establishment of her 
hospitals, and Miss Barton afterward fol- 
lowed the German army She was deco- 

rated with the golden cross Dy the granc 
duke of Baden, and with the iron cross by 
the emperor of Germany. She aiso served 
for many years as president of the famous 
Red Cross Society and attained a world- 
wide reputation. 

the most eminent Catholic clergymen 
in America, was born in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, July 23, 1834. He was given a 
thorough education, graduated at St. Charles 
College, Maryland, in 1 857, and studied 
theology in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, 
Maryland. In 1861 he became pastor of 
St. Bq^get's church in BaltimoEe, and in 
1868 was consecrated vicar apostolic of 
North Carolina. In 1872 our subject be- 
came bishop of Richmond, Virginia, and 
five years later was made archbishop of Bal- 
timore. On the 30th of Tune, 1886, he 
was admitted to the full degree of cardinal 
and primate of the American Catholic 
church. He was a fluent writer, and his 
book, "Faith of Our Fathers,' had a wide 

This name is, without doubt, one ot 
the most widely known in the United States. 
Mr. Depew was born April 23, 1834, at 
Peekskill, New York, the home of the Depew 
family for two hundred years. He attended 
the common schools of his native place, 
where he prepared himself to enter college. 
He began his collegiate course at Yale at 
the age of eighteen and graduated in 1856. 
He early took an active interest in politics 
and joined the Republican party at its for- 
mation. He then took up the study of law 
and went into the office of the Hon. Will- 
iam Nelson, of Peekskill, for that purpose, 
and in 1858 he was admitted to the bar. 



He was sent as a delegate by the new party 
to the Republican state convention of that 
year. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1859, but though he was a good 
worker, his attention was detracted by the 
campaign of 1 SGo, in which he took an act- 
ive part. During this campaign he gained 
his first laurels as a public speaker. Mr. 
Depew was elected assemblyman in 1862 
from a Democratic district. In 1863 he se- 
cured the nomination for secretary of state, 
and gained that post by a majority of thirty 
thousand. In 1866 he left the field of pol- 
itics and entered into the active practice 
of his law business as attorney for the 
New York & Harlem Railroad Company, 
and in 1869 when this road was consoli- 
dated with the New York Central, and 
called the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad, he was appointed the attor- 
ney for the new road. His rise in the rail- 
road business was rapid, and ten years after 
his entrance into the Vanderbilt system as 
attorney for a single line, he was the gen- 
eral counsel for one of the largest railroad 
systems in the world. He was also a 
director in the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, Michigan Central, Chicago & 
Northwestern, St. Paul & Omaha, West 
Shore, and Nickel Plate railroad companies. 
In 1874 Mr. Depew was made regent of 
the State University, and a member of the 
commission appointed to superintend the 
erection of the capitol at Albany. In 1882, 
on the resignation of W. H. Vanderbilt 
from the presidency of the New York Cen- 
tral and the accession to that office by 
James H. Rutter, Mr. Depew was made 
second vice-president, and held that posi- 
tion until the death of Mr. Rutter in 18S5. 
In this year Mr. Depew became the execu 
tive head of this great corporation. Mr. 
Depew's greatest fame grew from his ability 

and eloquence as an orator and "after-din- 
ner speaker," and it has been said by emi- 
nent critics that this country has never pro- 
duced his equal in wit, fluency and eloquence. 

PHILIP KEARNEY.— Among the most 
dashing and brilliant commanders ill 
the United States service, few have outshone 
the talented officer whose name heads this 
sketch. He was born in New York City, 
June 2, 1815. and was of Irish ancestry and 
imbued with all the dash and bravery of the 
Celtic race. He graduated from Columbia 
College and studied law, out in 1837 ac- 
cepted a commission as lieutenant in the 
First United States Dragoons, of which his 
uncle, Stephen W. Kearney, was then colo- 
nel. He was sent by the government, 
soon after, to Europe to examine and report 
upon the tactics of the French cavalry. 
There he attended the Polytechnic School, 
at Samur, and subsequently served as a vol- 
unteer in Algiers, winning the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. He returned to the 
United States in 1840, and on the staff of 
General Scott, in the Mexican war, served 
with great gallantry. He was made a cap- 
tain of dragoons in 1846 and made major 
for services at Contreras and Cherubusco. 
In the final assault on the Citv of Mexico 
at the San Antonio Gate, Kearney lost an 
arm. He subsequently served in California 
and the Pacific coast. In iSq 1 he resigned 
his commission and went to Europe, where 
he resumed his military studies. In the 
Italian war, in 1859, he served as a volun- 
teer on the staff of General Maurier, of the 
French army, and took part in the battles 
of Solferino and Magenta, and for bravery 
was, for the second time, decorated with 
the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the 
opening of the Civil war he hastened home, 
and; offering his services to the general gov- 



eminent, was made brigadier-general of 
volunteers and placed in command of a bri- 
gade of New Jersey troops. In the cam- 
paign under McClellan he commanded a di- 
vision, and at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks 
his services were valuable and briliiant, as 
well as in subsequent engagements. At 
Harrison's Landing he was made major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. In the second battle of 
Bull Run he was conspicuous, and at the 
battle of Chantilly, September i, 1862, 
while leading in advance of his troops, Gen- 
eral Kearney was shot and killed. 

RUSSELL SAGE, one of the financial 
giants of the present century and for 
more than an average generation one of the 
most conspicuous and celebrated of Ameri- 
cans, was born in a frontier hamlet in cen- 
tral New York in August, 18 16. While Rus- 
seli was still a boy an elder brother, Henry 
Risley Sage, established a small grocery 
store at Troy, New York, and here Russell 
found his first employment, as errand boy. 
He served a five-years apprenticeship, and 
then joined another brother, Elisha M. Sage, 
in a new venture in the same line, which 
proved profitable, at least for Russell, who 
soon became its sole owner. Next he 
formed the partnership of Sage & Bates, 
and greatly extended his field of operations. 
At twenty-five he had, by his own exertions, 
amassed what was, in those days, a consid- 
erable fortune, being worth about seventy- 
five thousand dollars. He had acquired an 
influence in local politics, and lour years 
later his party, the Whigs, elected him to 
the aldermanic board of Troy and to the 
treasuryship of Rensselaer county. In 1848 
he was a prominent member of the New 
York delegation to the Whig convention at 
Philadelphia, casting his first votes for Henry 
Clay, but joining the "stampede" which 

nominated Zachary Taylor. In 1850 the 
Whigs oE Troy nominated him for congress, 
but he was not elected — a failure which he 
retrieved two years later, and in 1854 he 
was re-elected by a sweeping majority. At 
Washington he ranked high in influence and 
ability. Fame as a speaker and as a polit- 
ical leader was within his grasp, when he 
gave up public life, declined a renomination 
to congress, and went back to Troy to de- 
vote himself to his private business. Six 
years later, in 1863, he removed to New- 
York and plunged into the arena of Wall 
street. A man of boundless energy and 
tireless pertinacity, with wonderful judg- 
ment of men and things, he soon took his 
place as a king in finance, and, it is said, 
during the latter part of his life he con- 
trolled more ready money than any other 
single individual on this continent. 

United States senator and famous as the 
father of the "Mills tariff bill, "was born 
in Todd county, Kentucky, March 30, 1832.. 
He received a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools, and removed to Palestine, 
Texas, in 1849. He took up the study of 
law, and supported himself by serving as an 
assistant in the post-office, and in the offices 
of the court clerks. In 1850 he was elected 
engrossing clerk of the Texas house of rep- 
resentatives, and in 1852 was admitted to 
the bar, while still a minor, by special act 
of the legislature. He then settled at Cor- 
sicana, Texas, and began the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He was elected to 
the state legislature in 1859, and in 1872 he 
was elected to congress from the state at 
large, as a Democrat. After his first elec- 
tion he was continuously returned to con- 
gress until he resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of United States senator, to which he 



■was elected March 23, 1892, to succeed 
Hon. Horace Chilton. He took his seat in 
the senate March 30, 1892; was afterward 
re-elected and ranked among the most use- 
ful and prominent members of that body. 
In 1876 he opposed the creation of the elec- 
toral commission, and in 1887 canvassed 
the state of Texas against the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to its constitution, 
which was defeated. He introduced into 
the house of representatives the bill that was 
known as the "Mills Bill," reducing duties 
on imports, and extending the free list. 
The bill passed the house on July 21, 1888, 
and made the name of "Mills" famous 
throughout the entire country. 

HAZEN S. PINGREE, the celebrated 
Michigan political leader, was born in 
Maine in 1S42. Up to fourteen years of 
age he worked hard on the stony ground of 
his father's small farm. Attending school 
in the winter, he gained a fair education, 
and when not laboring on the farm, he 
found employment in the cotton mills in the 
vi. inity. He resolved to find more steady 
work, and accordingly went to Hopkinton, 
usetts, where he entered a shoe fac- 
tory, but on the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed at once and was enrolled in the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, which was 
In-, initial fight, and served creditably his 
early term of service, at the expiration of 
which he re-enlisted. He fought in the 
battles of Fredricksburg, Harris Farm, 
Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Har- 
bor In 1 864 he was captured by Mosby, 
and spent five months at Andersonville, 
as a prisoner, but escaped at the 
end of that time. He re-entered the service 
and participated in the battles of Fort 
Fisher, Boyden, and Sailor's Creek. He 

was honorably mustered out of service, and 
in 1866 went to Detroit, Michigan, where 
he made use of his former experience in a 
shoe factory, and found work. Later he 
formed a partnership with another workman 
and started a small factory, which has since 
become a large establishment. Mr. Pin- 
gree made his entrance into politics in 1889, 
in which year he was elected by a surpris- 
ingly large majority as a Republican to the 
mayoralty of Detroit, in which office he was 
the incumbent during four consecutive terms. 
In November, 1S96, he was elected gov- 
ernor of the state of Michigan. While 
mayor of Detroit, Mr. Pingree originated 
and put into execution the idea of allowing 
the poor people of the city the use of va- 
cant city lands and lots for the purpose of 
raising potatoes. The idea was enthusiast- 
ically adopted by thousands of poor families, 
attracted wide attention, and gave its author 
a national reputation as "Potato-patch Pin- 

eminent American statesman and a 
Democratic politician of national fame, was 
born in Muskingum county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 7, 1819. In [822 he removed, with his 
father, to Shelby county, Indiana. He 
graduated from the South Hanover College 
in 1S41, and two years later was admitted 
to the bar. In 1851 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention, 
and took a leading part in the deliberations 
of that body. He was elected to congress 
in 1851, and after serving two terms was 
appointed commissioner of the United States 
general land-office. In 1863 he waselected 
to the United States senate, where his dis- 
tinguished services commanded the respect 
of all parties. He was elected governor of 
Indiana in 1872, serving four years, and in 



1876 was nominated by the Democrats as 
candidate for the vice-presidency with Til- 
den. The returns in a number of states 
were contested, and resulted in the appoint- 
ment of the famous electoral commission, 
which decided in favor of the Republican 
candidates. In 1884 Mr. Hendricks was 
again nominated as candidate for the vice- 
presidency, by the Democratic party, on the 
ticket with Grover Cleveland, was elected, 
and served about six months. He died at 
Indianapolis, November 25, 1885. He was 
regarded as one of the brainiest men in the 
party, and his integrity was never ques- 
tioned, even by his political opponents. 

GARRETT A. HOBART, one of the 
many able men who have held the 
high office of s vice-president of the United 
States, was born June 3, 1844, in Mon- 
mouth county, New jersey, and in i860 en- 
tered the sophomore class at Rutgers Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1S63 at 
the age of nineteen. He then taught 
school until he entered the law office of 
Socrates Tuttle, of Paterson, New Jersey, 
with whom he studied law. and in 1869 
was admitted to the bar. He immediately 
began the active practice of his profession 
in the office of the above named gentleman. 
He became interested in political life, and 
espoused the cause of the Republican party, 
and in 1865 held his first office, serving as 
clerk for the grand jury. He was also city 
counsel of Paterson in 1871, and in May, 
1872, was elected counsel for the board of 
chosen freeholders. He entered the state 
legislature in 1873, and was re-elected to 
the assembly in 1S74. Mr. Hobart was 
made speaker of the assembly in 1S76, and 
and in 1879 was elected to the state senate. 
After serving three years in the same, he 
was elected president of that body in 1881, 

and the following year was re-elected to 
that office. He was a delegate-at 
the Republican national convention >n 1876 
and 1880, and was elected a member of the 
national committee in 18S4, which pos-'tion 
he occupied continuously until 1896. He 
was then nominated for vice-president by 
the Republican national convention, anr* 
was elected to that office in the fall of 1896 
on the ticket with William McKinley. 

as a political leader and senator, was 
born in Lyons, Wayne county, New York, 
August 9, 1^-7, and removed with his par- 
ents while still a small child to Mesopota- 
mia township, Trumbull cpunty, Ohio. He 
attended the Lyons Union school and Farm- 
ington Academy, where he obtained his ed- 
ucation. Later he taught mathematics in 
the former school, while yet a pupil, and 
with the little money thus earned and the 
assistance of James C. Smith, one of the 
judges of the supreme court of New York, 
he entered Yale College. He remained 
there until the winter of 1849-50, when, at- 
tracted by the gold discoveries in California 
he wended his way thither. He arrived at 
San Francisco in May, 1850, and later en- 
gaged in mining with pick and shovel in Ne- 
vada county. In this way he accumulated 
some money, and in the spring of 1852 he 
took up the study of law under John R. 
McConnell. The following December he 
was appointed district attorney, to which 
office he was chosen at the general election 
of the next year. In 1854 he was ap 7 
pointed attorney-general of California and 
in i860 he removed to Virginia City, Ne- 
vada, where he largely engaged in early 
mining litigation. Mr, Stewart was also in- 
terested in the development of the "Corn- 
stock lode," and in [86 1 was chosen a 



member of the territorial council. He was 
elected a member of the constitutional con- 
vention in 1863, and was elected United 
States senator in 1864, and re-elected in 
1869. At the expiration of his term in 
1875, he resumed the practice of law in 
Nevada, California, and the Pacific coast 
generally. He was thus engaged when he 
was elected again to the United States sen- 
ate as a Republican in 1887 to succeed the 
late James G. Fair, a Democrat, and took 
his seat March 4, 1887. On the expiration 
of his term he was again re-elected and be- 
came one of the leaders of his party in con- 
gress. His ability as an orator, and the 
prominent part he took in the discussion of 
public questions, gained him a national rep- 

years a prominent member of the 
United States senate, was born in Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, December 6, 1848. He 
graduated from Center College in 1868, and 
from the law department of the Transyl- 
vania University of Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1853. In the same year he removed to 
Missouri and began the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1 860 he was an elector on the 
Democratic ticket, and was a member of 
the lower house of the Missouri legislature 
in 1860-61. He was elected to the Con- 
federate congress, serving two years in the 
lower house and one in the senate. He 
then resumed the practice of law, and in 
1 879 was elected to the senate of the United 
States to succeed James Shields. He was 
re-elected in 1885, and again in 1891 and 
1897. His many years of service in the 
National congress, coupled with his ability 
as a speaker and the active part he took in 
the discussion of public questions, gave him 
a wide reputation. 

HANNIBAL HAMLIN, a noted American 
statesman, whose name is indissolubly 
connected with the history of this country, 
was born in Paris, Maine, August 27, 1809. 
He learned the printer's trade and followed 
that calling for several years. He then 
studied law, and was admitted to practice 
in 1833. He was elected to the legislature 
of the state of Maine, where he was several 
times chosen speaker of the lower house. 
He was elected to congress by the Demo- 
crats in 1843, and re-elected in 1845. In 
1848 he was chosen to the United States 
senate and served in that body until 1861. 
He was elected governor of Maine in 1857 
on the Republican ticket, but resigned when 
re-elected to the United States senate 
the same year. He was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the United States on the ticket with 
Lincoln in i860, and inaugurated in March, 
1861. In 1865 he was appointed collector 
of the port of Boston. Beginning with 
1869 he served two six-year terms in the 
United States senate, and was then ap- 
pointed by President Garfield as minister to 
Spain in 1881. His death occurred July 4, 

TSHAM G. HARRIS, famous as Confed- 
1 erate war governor of Tennessee, and 
distinguished by his twenty years of service 
in the senate of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Tennessee, and 
educated at the Academy of Winchester. 
He then took up the study of law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and commenced practice 
at Paris, Tennessee, in 1841. He was 
elected to the state legislature in 1847, was 
a candidate for presidential elector on the 
Democratic ticket in 1848, and the next 
year was elected to congress from his dis- 
trict, and re-elected in 1851. In 1853 he 
was renominated by the Democrats of his 


district, but declined, and removed to Mem- 
phis, where he took up the practice of law. 
He was a presidential elector-at-large from 
Tennessee in 1856, and was elected gov- 
ernor of the state the next year, and again 
in 1859, and in 1861. He was driven from 
Nashville by the advance of the Union 
armies, and for the last three years of the 
war acted as aid upon the staff of the com- 
manding general of the Confederate army 
of Tennessee. After the war he went to 
Liverpool, England, where he became a 
merchant, but returned to Memphis in 1867, 
and resumed the practice of law. In 1877 
he was elected to the United States senate, 
to which position he was successively re- 
elected until his death in 1897. 

NELSON DINGLEY, Jr., for nearly a 
quarter of a century one of the leaders 
in congress and framer of the famous 
" Dingley tariff bill," was born in Durham, 
Maine, in 1832. His father as well as all 
his ancestors, were farmers, merchants and 
mechanics and of English descent. Young 
Dingley was given the advantages first of 
the common schools and in vacations helped 
his father in the store and on the farm. 
When twelve years, of age he attended high 
school and at seventeen was teaching in a 
country school district and preparing him- 
self for college. The following year he en- 
tered Waterville Academy and in 1 85 1 en- 
tered Colby University. After a year and a 
half in this institution he entered Dart- 
mouth College and was graduated in 1855 
with high rank as a scholar, debater and 
writer. He next studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1856. But instead of 
practicing his profession he purchased the 
" Lewistown (Me.) Journal," which be- 
came famous throughout the New England 
States as a leader in the advocacy of Repub- 

lican principles. About the same time Mr. 
Dingley began his political career, although 
ever after continuing at the head of the 
newspaper. He was soon elected to the 
state legislature and afterward to the lower 
house of congress, where he became a 
prominent national character. He also 
served two terms as governor of Maine. 

guished American statesman, was born 
in Wayne county, Indiana, August 4, 1823. 
His early education was by private teaching 
and a course at the Wayne County Seminary. 
At the age c c twenty years he entered the 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and at 
the end of two years quit the college, began 
the study of law in the office of John New- 
man, of Centerville, Indiana, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1847. 

Mr. Morton was elected judge on trie 
Democratic ticket, in 1852, but on thi. 
passage of the " Kansas-Nebraska Bill " he 
severed his connection with that party, and 
soon became a prominent leader of the Re- 
publicans. He was elected governor of In- 
diana in 1 86 1, and as war governor became 
well known throughout the country. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1865, which 
partially deprived him of the use of his 
limbs. He was chosen to the United States 
senate from Indiana, in 1867, and wielded 
great influence in that body until the time 
of his death, November 1, 1877. 

JOHN B. GORDON, a brilliant Confeder- 
ate officer and noted senator of the United 
States, was born in Upson county, Georgia, 
February 6, 1832. He graduated from the 
State University, studied law, and took up 
the practice of his profession. At the be- 
ginning of the war he entered the Confederate 
service as captain of infantry, and rapidly 



rose to the rank of lieutenant-general, 
commanding one wing of the Confederate 
army at the close of the war. In 1868 he 
was Democratic candidate for governor of 
Georgia, and it is said was elected by a large 
majority, but his opponent was given the 
office. He was a delegate to the national 
Democratic conventions in 1868 and 1872, 
and a presidential elector both years. In 
1873 he was elected to the United States 
senate. In 1886 he was elected governor 
of Georgia, and re-elected in 1888. He 
was again elected to the United States 
senate in 1890, serving until 1897, when he 
was succeeded by A. S. Clay. He was 
regarded as a leader of the southern Democ- 
racy, and noted for his fiery eloquence. 

trious associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, was born at 
Haddam, Connecticut, November 4, 18 16, 
being one of the noted sons of Rev. D. 
D. Field. He graduated from Williams 
College in 1837. took up the study of law 
with his brother, David Dudley Field, be- 
coming his partner upon admission to the 
bar. He went to California in 1S49. an d at 
once began to take an active interest in the 
political affairs of that state. He was 
elected alcalde of Marysville, in 1850, and 
in the autumn of the same year was elected 
to the state legislature. In 1S57 he was 
elected judge of the supreme court of the 
state, and two years afterwards became its 
chief justice. In 1863 he was appointed by 
President Lincoln as associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United States. During 
his incumbency, in 1873, he was appointed 
by the governor of California one of a corn- 
mission to examine the codes of the state 
and for the preparation of amendments to 
the same for submission to the legislature. 

In 1877 he was one of the famous electoral 
commission of fifteen members, and voted 
as one of the seven favoring the election of 
Tilden to the presidency. In 1880 a Jarge 
portion of the Democratic party favored his 
nomination as candidate for the presidency. 
He retired in the fall of 1897, having 
served a greater number of years on the 
supreme bench than any of his associates or 
predecessors, Chief Justice Marshall coming 
next in length of service. 

JOHN T. MORGAN, whose services in 
the United States senate brought him 
into national prominence, was born in 
Athens, Tennessee, June 20, 1S24. At the 
age of nine years he emigrated to Alabama, 
where he made his permanent home, and 
where he received an academic education. 
He then took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1845. He took a 
leading part in local politics, was a presi- 
dential elector in i860, casting his ballot 
for Breckenridge and Lane, and 111 1861- 
was a delegate to the state convention which 
passed the ordinance of secession. In May, 
of the same year, he joined the Confederate 
army as a private in Company I, Cahawba 
Rifles, and was soon after made major and 
then lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment. 
In 1862 he was commissioned colonel, and 
soon after made brigadier-general and as- 
signed to the command of a brigade in Vir- 
ginia. He resigned to join his old 1 
whose colonel had been killed. He was 
soon afterward again made brigadier-gen- 
eral and given command of the brigade that 
included his regiment. 

After the war he returned to the prac- 
tice of law, and continued it up to the time 
of his election to the United States senate, id 
1877. He was a presidential elector in 1876 
and cast his vote for Tilden and Hendricks 



He was re-elected to the senate in 1S83, 
and again in 1889, and 1895. His speeches 
and the measures he introduced, marked 
as they were by an intense Americanism, 
brought him into national prominence. 

WILLIAM McKINLEY,the twenty-fifth 
president of the United States, was 
born at Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1844. He was of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and received his early education 
in a Methodist academy in the small village 
of Poland, Ohio. At the outbreak of the 
war Mr. McKinley was teaching school, 
earning twenty-five dollars per month. As 
soon as Fort Sumter was fired upon he en- 
listed in a company that was formed in 
Poiand, which was inspected and mustered 
in by General John C. Fremont, who at 
first objected to Mr. McKinley, as being too 
young, but upon examination he was finally 
accepted. Mr. McKinley was seventeen 
when the war broke out but did not look his 
age. He served in the Twenty-third Ohio 
Infantry throughout the war, was promoted 
from sergeant to captain, for good conduct 
on the field, and at the close of the war, 
for meritorious services, he was brevetted 
maior. After leaving the army Major Mc- 
Kinley took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1869 he took 
his initiation into politics, being elected pros- 
ecuting attorney of his county as a Republi- 
can, although the district was usually Demo- 
cratic. In 1 876 he was elected to congress, 
and in a call upon the President-elect, Mr. 
Haves, to whom he went for advice upon the 
way he should shape his career, he was 
told that to achieve fame and success he 
must take one special line and stick to it. 
Mr. McKinley chose tariff legislation and 
he became an authority in regard to import 
duties. He was a member of congress for 

many years, became chairman of the ways 
and means committee, and later he advo- 
cated the famous tariff bill that bore his 
name, which was passed in 1S90. In the 
next election the Republican party was 
overwhelmingly defeated through the coun- 
try, and the Democrats secured more than 
a two thirds majority in the lower house, 
and also had control of the senate, Mr. 
McKinley being defeated in his own district 
by a small majority. He was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio in 1891 by a plurality of 
twenty-one thousand, five hundred and 
eleven, and two years later he was re-elected 
by the still greater plurality of eighty thou- 
sand, nine hundred and ninety-five. He was 
a delegate-at-large to the Minneapolis Re^ 
publican convention in 1892, and was in- 
structed to support the nomination of Mr. 
Harrison. He was chairman of the con- 
vention, and was the only man from Ohio 
to vote for Mr. Harrison upon the roll call. 
In November, 1892, a number of prominent 
politicians gathered in New York to discuss 
the political situation, and decided that the 
result of the election had put an end to Mc- 
Kinley and McKinleyism. But in less than 
four years from that date Mr. McKinley was 
nominated for the presidency against the 
combined opposition of half a dozen rival 
candidates. Much of the credit for his suc- 
cess was due to Mark A. Hanna, of Cleve- 
land, afterward chairman of the Republican 
national committee. At the election which 
occurred in November, 1 896, Mr. McKinley 
was elected president of the United States 
by an enormous majority, on a gold stand- 
ard and protective tariff platform. He was 
inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1S07, 
and called a special session of congress, to 
which was submitted a bill for tariff reform, 
which was passed in the latter part of July 
of that vear. 



known in the literary world as Joaquin 
Miller, " the poet of the Sierras," was born 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1841. When only 
about thirteen years of age he ran away 
from home and went to the mining regions 
in California and along the Pacific coast. 
Some time afterward he was taken prisoner 
by the Modoc Indians and lived with them 
for five years. He learned their language 
and gained great influence with them, fight- 
ing in their wars, and in all modes of living 
became as one of them. In 1858 he left 
the Indians and went to San Francisco, 
where he studied law, and in i860 was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Oregon. In 1866 he 
was elected a county judge in Oregon and 
served four years. Early in the seventies 
he began devoting a good deal of time to 
literary pursuits, and about 1874 he settled 
in Washington, D. C. He wrote many 
poems and dramas that attracted consider- 
able attention and won him an extended 
reputation. Among his productions may be 
mentioned " Pacific Poems," " Songs of the 
Sierras," "Songs of the Sun Lands," 
" Ships in the Desert, " ' ' Adrianne, a Dream 
of Italy," " Danites, " "Unwritten History," 
" First Families of the Sierras " (a novel), 
" One Fair Woman " ia novel), "Songs of 
Italy," "Shadows of Shasta," "The Gold- 
Seekers of the Sierras," and a number of 

noted music publisher and composer, 
was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, on August 30, 1S20. While 
working on his father's farm he found time 
to learn, unaided, several musical instru- 
ments, and in his eighteenth year he went 
to Boston, where he soon found employ- 
ment as a teacher of music. From 1839 

until 1844 he gave instructions in music ;n 
the public schools of that city, and was also 
director of music in two churches. Mr. 
Root then went to New York and taught 
music in the various educational institutions 
of the city. He went to Paris in 1850 and 
spent one year there in study, and on his re- 
turn he published his first song, "Hazel 
Dell." It appeared as the work of " Wur- 
zel," which was the German equivalent of 
his name. He was the originator of the 
normal musical institutions, and when the 
first one was started in New York he 
was one of the faculty. He removed to 
Chicago, Illinois, in i860, and established 
the firm of Root & Cady, and engaged in 
the publication of music. He received, in 
1872, the degree of "Doctor of Music" 
from the University of Chicago. After the 
war the firm became George F. Root & Co., 
of Cincinnati and Chicago. Mr. Root did 
much to elevate the standard of music in this 
country by his compositions and work as a 
teacher. Besides his numerous songs he 
wrote a great deal of sacred music and pub- 
lished many collections of vocal and instru- 
mental music. For many years he was the 
most popular song writer in America, and 
was one of the greatest song writers of the 
war. He is also well-known as an author, 
and his work in that line comprises: ' ' Meth- 
ods for the Piano and Organ," " Hand- 
book on Harmony Teaching," and innumer- 
able articles for the musical press. Among 
his many and most popular songs of the 
wartime are: " Rosalie, the Prairie-flower," 
"Battle Cry of Freedom," " Just Before the 
Battle," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys 
are Marching," " The Old Folks are Gone," 
"A Hundred Years Ago," "Old Potomac 
Shore, "and " There's Music in the Air ." Mr. 
Root's cantatas include ' ' The Flower Queen* 
and "The Haymakers." He died in 1896. 







For almost a third of a century Charles 
J. A. Ericson has been a resident of Boone, 
and his lite work has contributed to the 
commercial and political history of the state. 
Although he began his business career with- 
out capital he is now the cashier and one of 
the leading stockholders of the City Bank of 
Boone. His political service covers two ses- 
sions of the state legislature, in which he 
was a member of the house and three ses- 
sions in the state senate. Although he has 
never sought official or public acknowledg- 
ment for his service, nor does he claim to 
have done more than his duty in the various 
walks of life, all who are acquainted with 
the life record of Mr. Ericson know that his 
labors, directly ami indirectly, have bene- 
fited the city, county and state. 

A native of Sweden. Mr. Ericson was 
born in the province of Calmer, on the 8th 
of March, 1840. His father. Eric Nelson, 
was a farmer by occupation, and with his 
family came to America in 1S52. Two 
older brothers had come to the United States 
about three years before and had settled in 
Rock Island count}-, near Moline. Illinois, 
and thither Mr. Nelson proceeded. The fam- 
ily had taken passage at Gutenburg on a 

three-mast schooner, the Virginia, under 
command of Cap'ain Janson, and after a 
plea-ant voyage of forty-five day- reached 
the harbor of New York. They at once pro- 
ceeded westward, going up the Hudson river 
by boal to Ubany, New York, and by the 
Erie railroad from Albany to Buffalo, lie 
then proceeded by steamer to Dunkirk and 
i'ii by rail to Chicago, and as there was 
then no railroad line extending west of Chi- 
cago, they went by canal boat to Peru. Illi- 
nois, and across the country by team to Mo- 
line. The father came into possession of a 
small tract of land near Moline and turned 
his attention to fanning, and also engaged in 
fishing, an occupation which he had pre- 
viously followed while in Sweden. He was 
thus engaged until 1865. when he removed to 
Webster county. Iowa, beating upon 1 
farm. It was his place of abode until within 
a few years prior to his death, which oc- 
curred in 1801. He died at the home of his 
son, X. P. Peterson, at Mineral Ridge, and 
there the mother of our subject also passed 
away in [889. They were consistent mem- 
bers of the Lutheran church, and in his po- 
litical views Mr. Nelson was a Republican. 
In their family were four children : X. P.. 
who makes lis home in Mineral Ridge, Lwa; 
(,. A., who died in Florida, in [880, at the 


age of fifty-one years; one that died in in- 
fancy: and Charles J. A., of this review. 

The early education of Mr. Ericson was 
i ibtained in the o unim m schi " >ls of his native 
land, where he pursued his studies until 
twelve rears of age. when he accompanied 
the family to the new world and continued 
his studies in the common schools of Rock 
Island county, Illinois. At the age of thir- 
teen he began to work for his elder brother 
upon a farm, hauling wood and logs and 
also 1, leaking the prairie. Me was thus en- 
gaged for three year-, and then found em- 
ployment in a sawmill and soon acquired 
sufficient knowledge to run the stationary 
engine. Later he assisted in running a flat- 
In at fern across Rock river. About this 
time the family removed to Altona, Knox 
county, Illinois, the brothers having built a 
saw and flour mill there, and in the new 
plant Mr. Ericson served as engineer Ear a 
time. The brothers also conducted a gen- 
eral store, and our subject later became a 
clerk in the establishment. This gave him 
an opportunitj to acquire a knowledge of 
the mercantile business — a knowledge which 
afterward proved of much value to him. 

In the spring of [859 Mr. Erii ■ 
rived in Boone county, locating in Mineral 
Ridge, where he opened a little store, having 
hut little capital, and that all having been ac- 
quired through his own efforts in former 
years, lie also engaged in buying and sell- 
ing cattle and other livestock, and in both 
branches of his business met with credible 
success. In 1S70 he purchased the general 
store of Jackson OlT, in Boone, the former 
proprietor having been elected to congress, 
which caused hint to wish to discontinue the 
business. For five years Mr. Ericson then 
carried on general merchandise in this city, 

his patronage steadily increasing as his hon- 
orable business methods and earnest desire 
to please his patrons became recognized by 
the public. In 1S72 Air. Ericson assisted in 
the organization of the First National Bank 
of Boone, and was elected its vice president. 
In 1875 he closed out his mercantile interests 
and became cashier of the First National 
Hank, which surrendered its charter and was 
reorganized as the City Bank in 1S78. Mr. 
Ericson has been continuously in the posi- 
tion since. The original capital stock was 
fifty thousand dollars, and from the earnings 
of this bank alone this has been increased to 
one hundred thousand dollars, and there is 
a surplus of one hundred and fifteen thou- 
sand dollars. The building occupied by the 
City Bank is a handsome and commodious 
structure, which was remodeled in 1892 espe- 
cially for the hank, and is fitted with all the 
equipments of a model banking institution. 
The present officers are: Frank Champlain, 
president; Louis Goeppinger^ vice presi- 
dent; Charles J. A. Ericson', cashier; C. A. 
Rice, assistant cashier; C. H. Goeppinger, 
second assistant cashier, and R. J. 1 luck- 
worth, teller. 

Since attaining his majority, .Mr. Erie- 
son has always taken a deep interest in poli- 
tics, keeping well informed on the issues of 
the day. and while a resident of Mineral 
Ridge was appointed postmaster, in [860, 
during Buchanan's administration, filling the 
position continuously until his removal to 
Boone in 1870. He had also served as road 

supervisor, scl 1 director, school treasurer 

and township clerk. He has been alderman 
of I'.' "lie. cit} treasurer several terms, and 
president and treasurer 1 >f thi 
of the city. 

In 1N71 be was elected a member of the 



fi urteenth general assembly of Iowa, on the 
Republican ticket, his opponent being Judge 
M. K. Ramsey, lie served during the reg- 
ular session and during an extra session, 
which was caile 1 in [873, to revise the code. 
Senator Allison was at that time elected to 
succeed Senat< r James Harland. and Mr. 
Ericson was one of his stalwart supporters. 
Twenty-five years later he consented to be- 
come the candidate for state senator, and 
was elected in the year 1895. While in the 
senate he introduced a bill, and was largely 
instrumental in securing its passage, where- 
by corporations are taxed, and this has re- 
sulted in bringing hundreds of thousands of 
dollars into the state treasury. PR 1 also se- 
cured the passage of a bill for the reduction 
of the interest on state warrants from six 
to five per cent. His official record is that 
of a business man who looks at things from 
a practical standpoint, who can see beyond 
the conditions of the moment to the exigen- 
cies of the future, and labors not only for 
the present but for the future of the state, 
placing the government before partisanship 
and the general welfare before personal ag- 

Mr. Ericson ha- been twice married. In 
[858 he wedded Miss Matilda Nelson, and 
unto them were born two daughters, Alice 
and Rorena. who are with their father. In 
[873 Mr. Ericson as united in marriage to 
Miss Nellie Linderblood, who died in [899. 
The family have an attractive home in 
Boone, and in addition to this Mr. Ericson 
owns much 1 ther valuable real estate, includ- 
ing one thousand acres of land in Hancock 
count v. 

on, m c mpai 

his daughter Lorena, made an extensive tr 
abn ad, sailing fr< m New- York to Gibralt; 

thence to Italy, Greece, Egypt, Palestine and 

Turkey on their return. They then made 
their way to sunny Italy, and as the season 
advanced journeyed north through Switzer- 
land, France. Belgium, ( rermany, Denmark. 
and Norway and Sweden, returning home by 
way of England and the British Isles. In 
[863 Mr. Ericson became a Mason and 111 w 
holds membership in Mount Olive Lodge, 
No. 79, F. & A. M. He is also a member 
of Tuscan Chapter, R. A. M. ; F-calibur 
Commandery, No. 13. R. T., and has held 
all the principal offices in these organiza- 
tions, having served as treasurer of the a m- 
mandery since his arrival in Boone. He has 
taken a deep interest in the welfare and 
progress of his adopted city, and has. co- 
operated in many movemnts for the general 
good. At a cost of ten thousand and seven 
hundreds dollars he built a handsome library 
building, which he presented to the city, 
known as the Ericson Memorial Library. 
In 1901 he was requested by the hoard of 
direob rs of the State Historical Scciet} of 
Des Moines, through the Hon. Charles 
Aldrich, curator, to furnish a marble bust of 
himself, to be placed in the Iowa hall of his- 
tory. After much hesitation as to the pn - 
priety of complying with this unexpected re- 
quest, being a modest man. he finally con- 
sented to do so. A fine carara marble bust, 
made by a noted artist in Florence, Italy, 
has been placed a- desired in the [owa hall 
of history. 

In a summary of his career one of the 
most noticeable facts is his continued ad- 
vancement from the time when as a boy of 
thirteen years he stai led . m! ti 1 earn his 1 1\\ n 
living at hauling 1< gs and breaking prairie. 
A laudable ambition prompted him to con 
tinned effi n in the legitimate channels of 


business, and he stands today among those 
who command wealth as the result of untir- 
ing industry and capable management above 
all of honorable methods. Whether as a 
private citizen or an official in local or state 
offices he has labored for the general good 
along lines of substantia) and lasting im- 
provement. He commands uniform confi- 
dence and respect, not by reason of any 
claim which he makes upon the regard of his 
fellow men. but because his salient charac- 
teristic- are those which in even- land and 
every clime win esteem. 

He has been a liberal contributor to edu- 
cational institutions, especially to Augustana 
College, of Rock Island. Illinois, a Swedish 
theological seminary, which he endowed by 
the contribution of two hundred and eighty 
acres of valuable coal land, worth thirty 
thousand dollars, for the endowment of a 
Swt lish chair, and the sum of thirteen thou- 
sand dollars. For this a valuable tract of 
land was purchased, and .Mr. Ericson agreed 
to give one-half of the amount if the faculty 
would raise the other half. This was done, 
the land being purchased for twenty-six 
thousand dollars, and it has been given the 
name i f Ericson Park, in his honor. It was 

there that a part of his childh 1 was passed, 

having often -one hunting upon that very 
tract in early days. 

ability, being one of the most popular and 
best known clergymen in the Des Moines 
and Stanton districts, having served both 
districts in the highest official capacity. His 
influence is broad and dominant and arises 
from a deep human sympathy, combined 
with an earnest desire to aid his fellow men 
and promote the cause of Christianity. 

Joseph Alfred Anderson was born in 
Sweden. July 10, 1868, and is a son of J. M. 
and Louisa (Samuelson) Anderson, who 
were natives of the same country, but before 
their son Joseph was a year old the family 
circle was broken by the death of the mother 
and six years later the father left his native 
country and with bis son Joseph came to 
America, locating in Des Moines, Iowa. 
Here the subject of this review became a 
student in the public schools and was after- 
ward graduated in the Augustana College at 
Rock Island. Illinois, with the class of 1888. 
lie had thus acquired a good literary know- 
ledge to serve as a foundation upon which to 
rear the superstructure of bis theological 
learning. In [89] he again entered his alma 
mater, where he won the degree of Master 
of \rt-. and in [892 he was ordained as a 
minister of the gospel, since which time be 
has devoted his attention untiringly to the 
work of promulating the great principles of 
Christianity which lead to the salvation of 


Rev. Joseph A. Anderson is pastor of 
the I /angelical Lutheran Augustana Synod 
of North America, having local charge in 
Boone, Iowa, lie reside- in the Des Moines 
district and is a young man of exceptional 

Rev. Anderson was at once given a 
church at Creston, Tow a. and there be re- 
mained for eight years, his labors proving 
effective in advancing the interests of hi 
denomination. In the meantime he was 
elected to Till the office of secretary of the con- 
ference for a term of five years. I le was also 
elected president of the Stanton conference 
district and capably tilled that position for 



two years. He was likewise a member of the 
board of trustees for tbree years and has been 
elected twice as a delegate to the general 
council of his church, but served only once. 
Other sacred offices have been conferred up- 
on him. for he was elected as president of the 
Des Moines conference district and is at the 
present time the incumbent in that office 
whereby he has largely extended the useful- 
ness of the church and made its efforts more 
effective. As a pastor of the church in Boone 
he looks after the spiritual welfare of three 
hundred and fifty church members. Under 
his g-uidence the church is growing both 
numerically and spiritually and his work is 
proving an important element in the moral 
development and progress of this part of 

On the 23d of September, 1896. Mr. An- 
derson was united in the holy bonds of 
matrimony to Miss Ellen Carlson, a daugh- 
ter of A. G. and Mary ( Rydhold ) Carlson. 
by whom he had two children, Gerald and 
Lydia. Mrs. Anderson is a native of Cres- 
ton, Iowa, her birth having occurred on the 
6th of July, 1879. She is an able assistant to 
her husband in his holy work and her labors 
in the church have been attended with good 
results. In his political views Mr. Ander- 
son is a Republican. He belongs to that 
cla<s of citizens who. while realizing fully 
the importance of preparation for the spirit- 
ual world, is also cognizant of his duties in 
this life. He keeps well informed on the 
political questions of the day and votes as he 
believes right. His kindly disposition, hu- 
manitarian principles and broad sympathy 
have gained for him the confidence of many 
whom he has desired to help, while his logi- 
cal and earnest utterances from the pulpit 
have had their effect upon mam- lives; bul 

the influences of one who deals with the 
moral nature of man cannot be determined 
by any known rule or standard and it is not 
until the books of eternity are opened that 
the full measure of his life work will be 


Ira Smith has always been loyal to duty 
and principle as has been demonstrated by 
his faithful service as justice of the peace 
of Moingona and his valiant defense of the 
Union's cause during the Civil war. He is 
a pioneer of Boone county, where he has 
made his home since 1869, twenty years be- 
fore the county had been organized; but 
during that period its growth had been com- 
paratively small and frontier conditions still 
existed when Ira Smith took up his abode 

He is a native of Waldo county. Maine, 
born December 8, 1831, and is a son of 
Owen and Annie (Fenderson) Smith, both 
of whom were natives of the Fine Tree state. 
The father was a millwright by trade and 
with his son. our subject, came to the west 
in 1856, settling in Jasper county. Iowa, 
where he worked at his trade until 1858. 
He then returned to Maine, settling in Pen- 
obscot county, where both he and his wife 

Ira Smith, their son, was reared under 
the parental roof and to the common school 
system of his native county he is indebted 
for the educational privileges which he en- 
joyed. He was married in Jasper county, 
Iowa, in 1857, '" Miss Annie Slater, who 
was born in England, October 9, 1839, ami 
is a sister of John Slater, a brick manu- 


facturer of Moingona, who is represented 
elsewhere in this volume. Unto our subject 
and his wife have been born five children : 
Charles \Y. married Alice Munson and is 
a carpenter living in Moingona; Ira E. mar- 
ried Ida Horton and resides in the city of 
Boone; Thomas R. is a brakeman running 
out of Boone on the Chicago & Northwest- 
ern Railway; .Mary E. is deceased: and a 
second Mary died in infancy. 

After his marriage Mr. Smith worked at 
the carpenter's trade in Jasper county. Iowa, 
until 1862. In the meantime a dissension in 
the county over the question of slavery had 
brought on civil war and in that year Mr. 
Smith with patriotic spirit offered his ser- 
vices to the government, enlisting as a mem- 
ber of Company A, Second Iowa Cavalry, 
under the command of Colonel Hatch and 
Captain Charles C. Horton He took part 
in the engagements al Water Valley, Mis- 
sissippi, in the fall of [862; Coffeeville in 
December; the Grierson raid in April, 1863; 
the engagements of Okolona, Birming- 
ham, and Moline; that of Palo Alt", in 
April, [863; Jackson, Mississippi, July 13, 
[863; and Colliersville in the month of No- 
vember of 1l1.1t year. At that point Mr. 
Smith knocked the supper tal 
Forest to pieces with a ten-pound parrot 
shell, lie afterward took part in the bat- 
tles of Moscow, December 4. (863; West 
Point. February 21, [864; and Tupelo, July 
13. [864. At Colliersville November 23. 
1863, Mr. Smith was accidental!} 
by a piece of blank cartridge which struck 
him in the fa< 1 
sight of one e\ e. He wa I 
charged at Washington, 1 >. C, in Novem- 
ber, 1864. 

Mr. Smith then returned to New ton. 

Iowa, where he worked at the carpenter's 
trade until he came to Boone county, in 
1869. He became identified with building 
interests in this locality and worked at car- 
pentering for four years, after which he re- 
turned to Jasper county, making that his 
place of residence for several years. His 
next home was in Kansas for four years and 
then at Franklin, Nebraska, where he con- 
ducted a furniture and undertaking business, 
being one of the merchants and representa- 
tive men of that town through fourteen 
years. In December, 1895, he returned to 
Boone count} - , settling in the village of 
Moingona. where he has since lived retired. 
He has been justice of the peace there for 
the pasl five years and his decisions indicate 
Strict impartiality and careful attention to 
the points in evidence. In politics he is a 
Republican and has been a member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, while both be 
and his wife are identified with the Metho- 
disl Episcopal church of Moingona. Mr. 
Smith is a prominent and well-to-do citizen 
lure, of social manners and genial deposi- 
tion, and ha- won main warm friends. 


'Idie fanning interests of Boone county 
are well represented by John H. Mayer, who 
is interested in agricultural pursuits 
den township, his home being on so 
He was born in Washington county, this 
state, February 22, (863, bis fath 
Mayer, having become one of the < 
tiers of that locality. He removed to Iowa 
from Pennsylvania and in this state entered 
land from the government, carrying on the 


farm work in connection with his father. 
He improved an excellent farm and thus 
contributed to the general progress and de- 
velopment of this section of the state. His 
death occurred in Washington county, in 
1874, and his wife, surviving him a quarter 
of a century, passed away in 1899. 

John H. Mayer was reared upon the old 
family homestead there and at the usual age 
entered the common schools where he ac- 
quired a good knowledge of the common 
English branches of learning. After his 
father's death he remained with his mother 
and assisted her in carrying on the home 
farm until he sought a home of his own and 
to this end he was married on the 6th of 
March. 1892, in Washington county, to Miss 
Isabelle Mason, a most estimable lad}-. She 
is a native of Illinois and a daughter of 
George Mason, who removed from that state 
to Washington county, Iowa, where he en- 
gaged in farming for a number of years, but 
at the present time he is living a retired life 
in Madrid. His wife was reared and edu- 
cated in Illinois and was for several years 
engaged in teaching music there. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mayer began their domestic life in 
Washington county upon a farm which was 
their home for two years and in 1S04 they 
came to Boone count}", our subject purchas- 
ing his present farm on section id. Garden 
township. There was an old house upon the 
place and a few improvements, but the farm 
bore little resemblance to the substantially 
developed property of the present day. Mr. 
Mayer has erected a good residence and has 
divided his farm into fields of convenient 
size li\ well kept fences. lie has also 
planted fruit tree.-, tilled his land and added 
all modern equipments. He has a flowing 
well upon the place and is engaged in the 

raising of g 1 graded stock. He has some 

very high grade short horn cattle, a pure 
blooded hull and also some standard bred 
Clydesdale horses. He is regarded as one 
of the most successful stock raisers of the 
county and is an excellent judge of -tods. 
quickly recognizing the tine point-, of a do- 
mestic animal. His business has been care- 
fully conducted and his enterprise and in- 
dustry have succeeded in bringing to him 

Called to public office by his fellow 
townsmen, Mr. Mayer has served as super- 
visor of highways, yet political honors have 
never had any attraction for him as he has 
desired rather to give his undivided atten- 
tion to his business. He has always been a 
Democrat, voting first for Cleveland in 1884. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mayer have one son, Glenn. 
They are highly esteemed people of the 
community, their home is noted for its 
gracious hospitality and their circle of 
friends is an extensive one. 


Thomas P.urk. who is residing on sec- 
tion 15, Des Moines township, is one of the 
active and enterprising farmers of Boone 
county, owning a valuable tract of land ad- 
joining the City of Boone. He is also a 
public-spirited man and one who has long 
been actively identified with the progress 
and improvement of this portion of the 
state, having taken up his abode here in 1885" 
Mr. Burk is a native of Pennsylvania, his 
birth having occurred in the city of Phila- 
delphia on the 1 1 tli day of June, 1843. l' c 
received g 1 school privileges in his native 


state and when a young man made his way 
to the west, hoping to secure good business 
opportunities in the Mississippi valley. He 
located in Bloomington. Illinois, in 1861. 
By trade he is a painter and he followed 
that pursuit in Bloomington for about three 
years, after which he worked in Chicago. 
Subsequently he removed to Iowa, and en- 
gaged in teaching school in Boone county, 
during the winter of 1867-8. At a later date 
he returned to Chicago and gain worked at 
the painter's trade for several years in that 
city. He took up his abode permanently in 
Boone county in 1885. and purchased land 
near the city, since which time he has de- 
voted his attention to general farming. He 
secured one hundred and sixty-two acres of 
land upon which some improvements had 
been made and began the further develop- 
ment of the property. lit then sold his 
first farm and purchased eighty acre- in 1 »es 
Moines township upon which, he now resides, 
lie has since rebuilt and remodeled the 
house and has erected a good barn, has 
planted splendid fruit and shade trees and 
made many other substantial improvements 
which add to the value and attractive ap- 
pearance of the place. The farm is pleas- 
antly and conveniently located just outside 
the city limit - of Boone, so that Mr. Burk 
and his family are enable. 1 1 1 enjoj • 
forts and conveniences of city life as well 
a-, the freedom and pleasure of farm life. 

In the city of Bloomington, Illinois, in 
18(14, \l .- Burk w a- unite I 
Mrs. Mary E. Home, a native of McLean 
county, Illinois, and a widow at the time of 
her marriage to .Mr. Burk. Her father was 
John Mabary, one of the old settlers of Mc- 
Lean county. By her former marriage she 
had one son, John C. I [orne, who is mar- 

ried and lives in Chicago. Unto Mr. and 
Mrs. Burk have been born three children, 
who are yet living, the eldest being Charles 
T.. who assists in the operation of the 
farm. Barbara E., is the wife of Professor 
C. C. Gray, principal of the schools of Wyo- 
ming, Iowa. He is a man of brilliant educa- 
tion, a graduate of Cornell College and is 
regarded as one of the prominent instructors 
in the state. Anna M. is the wife of William 
M. Bass, a farmer of Boone county Mr. 
and Mrs. Burk lost their first child. Fran- 
cis M., who died in Chicago, September 5, 
1 881, when about sixteen years of age. 
Mrs. Burk is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church of Boone, and Mr. Lurk 
attends services with her and contributes to 
its support. 

In politics he has been a life-long Re- 
publican since casting his first presidential 
vote for Abraham Lincoln in 18(14. He has 
taken an active interest in local politics and 
ha- been honored with a number of public 
offices. lie served for six years a- town- 
ship clerk and in 1896 he was elected super- 
visor ami re-elected to that office until he 
has tilled the position for six consecutive 
years, being an active and leading member 
of the county board. For four years he has 
been it- chairman and he does everything in 
his power to promote the substantial im- 
provement of the county through the exer- 
cise of In- official prerogatives. He is a 
friend of education, a believer in good 
schools and the employment of callable 
teachers, and through many years service on 
the school board he has labored to advance 
educational facilities in this county. For 
fourteen years he has served a- secretary of 
the the -cho,,l board, lie has been a dele- 
gate to numerous county, congressional and 


>tate conventions and was one of the dele- 
gates to the state convention of 1901, when 
Governor Cummins was nominated. Thir- 
ty-five years have passed since Mr. Burl; 
first came to Boone county and during this 
time he has witnessed much of the growth 
and upbuilding of this portion of the state, 
having seen its wild lands transformed into 
fine farms, while the county has been crossed 
and recrossed by the network of railroads 
the telegraph and telephone have been intro- 
duced and agricultural, commercial and pro- 
fessional interests have been carried on until 
the county has grown and developed into 
one of the leading counties of this greac 


Extensively engaged in farming in 
Amaqua township. Jerry Rinehart is a rep- 
resentative of one of the oldest families in 
that part of Boone county, their connection 
with the development and progress of the 
locality dating from 1865. Half the width 
of the a continent separates him from his 
birthplace, for he is a native of Washington 
county, Maryland, born July 26, 1837. His 
parents, Samuel and Lydia ( Prett ) Rine- 
hart, were both natives of Maryland, their 
home being in Washington county, where 
the father was engaged in farming for sev- 
eral years. He afterward removed to Hardy 
county, West Virginia, where he carried on 
agricultural pursuits until he was called to 
his final rest. His wife also passed away in 
that locality. A brave man. he served his 
country in both the Mexican and Civil wars. 
Unto him and his wife were burn twelve 
children, seven of whom are yet living, as 

follows: Henry, who resides in Washing- 
ton, D. C..: Jane, the wife of Rev. A. M. 
Everetts, a resident of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land; Mary, the wife of Jacob Snyder, who 
is living in Estherville, Iowa; Susan, the 
wife of Rev. Zimeri Umstadt, who makes 
his home near Kaiser, West Virginia ; Lydia, 
the wife of Calvin Smith, also of West Vir- 
ginia ; William, a large and prominent 
farmer of Amaqua township, living on sec- 
tion 1 1 ; and Jerry, whose name introduces 
this review. 

In the common schools of his native state 
Jerry Rinehart pursued his education and 
while living in Hardy county, West Vir- 
ginia, he was married on the 7th of June, 
1859. to Miss Lydia Cosner, a native of 
Hardy county, born August 10, 1839. Her 
parents were Adam and Rachel Cosner, and 
the former followed farming in West Vir- 
ginia until his death. His widow afterward 
removed with her children to Missouri, 
where she spent her last days. Unto Mr. 
and Mrs. Rinehart have been born sixteen 
children, of whom eight are yet living, 
namely: Allen, a minister, who married 
Sadie Dufheld and lives in Shelby county, 
Towa: Armedia the wife of Amiel Vaug- 
niaux. who is in the employ of the Chicago 
& Northwestern Railroad and resides in 
Boone, Iowa ; Benona, who married Rosa 
Irwin and is a farmer of Amaqua township; 
Washington, who married Lottie McCaske) 
and is a resident farmer in Yell township; 
Minnie, the wife of George Duffield, a 
painter who is now living in Lincoln. Ne- 
braska; Curtis, Vera and Herbert, all at 
home with their parents. Those who have 
passed away are: Cornelia, Charles. ( Irlena. 
Emma, Bertha, Audia, Jasper and Francis. 
All died in Boone county. 


After his marriage Mr. Rinehart re- 
moved to the west in a wagon and for one 
year lived in Tama. Iowa, after which he 
came to Bonne comity, settling on his pres- 
ent farm in Amaqua township. Here he 
purchased one hundred and sixty acres of 
land at five dollars per acre and at once be- 
gan making improvements. His first home 
was a little sod house but it has long since 
been replaced by a more modern structure. 
He now has a beautiful residence located on 
section 24, Amaqua township. His farm is 
splendidly improved with all modern equip- 
ments : the buildings are kept in good repair : 
the iidds well tilled and excellent grade- of 
stock are found in the pastures. He also 
own- another farm in Amaqua township, his 
landed possessions comprising two hundred 
and Fort) acre- and in addition to farming 
and stock raising for the past quarter of a 
century he lias also engaged in the opera- 
tion of a threshing machine throughoul this 
part of Boone county. He 'likewise built a 
gristmill in Ogden and lie conducted its 
operation for several years. For a number 
of years he conducted a creamery in Ogden. 
His business interests have thus been varied 
and extensive and through his capable man- 
agement, hi- enterprise and, sound business 
judgment he has won very creditable sue 

For six years Mr. Rinehart filled the 
office of justice of the peace and won high 
commendation because hi- decisions were 
Strictly fair and impartial, lie also filled the 
position of school director. In politics he at 
fust supported the Republican party, hut is 
now a Prohibitionist. He and his wife hold 
membership in the United Brethren church 
of \m.iqua township, and take a great inter- 
est in church work, doing .ill in their power 

to extend the influence of Christianity and 
promote the upbuilding of the denomination 
with which they are identified. Thirty-seven 
years have passed since Mr. Rinehart came 
to this county and it has been within this 
period that he has advanced from a humble 
financial position to one of affluence. He 
owe- hi- success entirely to his own effort 
and well has he merited the proud American 
title of a -elf-made man. 


Wesley Munn, now deceased, was con- 
nected with the operative department of the 
railroad service in this portion of [owa, 
making his home in Boone^ where he had 
many warm friends. He was horn Julv 24, 
1N41). in U'tica, Xew York, a -on of James 
and Abigail (Patterson) Munn. In the 
schools of the Empire state he pursued his 
education and after putting a-ide his text 
books lie followed fanning for some time. 
Later he turned hi- attention 1. > the butcher- 
ing business, m he Kali.. Illinois, and about 
ime connected with the railroad 
service in the employ of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railway Companj a- a brake- 
man. There hi- fidelity to duty, combined 
with his capability, won him promotion and 
he was made a conductor 011 a freight train 
and later became a passenger conductor, 
serving in that capacity with credit to him- 
self and satisfaction to the company until 
In- death. lie wa- killed in an accident 
caused h\ an open -witch which allowed hi- 
engine and thirteen car- to run off the track, 
lie wa- on the engine at the time and was 
killed, "flu- accidenl occurred September 



i, 1883, and was the cause of deep and wide- 
spread regret amid his large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. 

1 >n the 7th of November, 1S7S Mr. Munn 
was united in marriage t< 1 Miss Ellen Mitch- 
ell, a daughter of George Washington and 
Lydia 1 Inman ) Mitchell. She was born in 
Belvidere, Illinois, and by her marriage lie- 
came the mother of two interesting daugh- 
ters, Alice Josephine and Ida .May. The 
family was an old one of the east, having 
been established in Delaware at an early day. 
Her father was born in thai state, while the 
mother of Mrs. Mitchell was a native of the 
Empire state. The death of Mr. Munn came 
as a telling blow to his wife and daughters, 
for he was a devoted husband ami father 
ami counted no personal sacrifice too great 
that would increase the happiness of his 
family. He attended the services of the 
Presbyterian church ami molded his life in 
accordance with honorable, manly principles. 
In politics he was a Democrat and held some 
public offices, but the greater part of his at- 
tention was given to his business affairs. His 
family reside in their pleasant home at Xo. 
1004 Fifth street, in Boone. The mother 
and daughters are widely and favorably 
known in the city and the hospitality of the 
best homes is extended to them. Mr. Munn 
left to his family the priceless 'Heritage of an 
untarnished name and for years to come his 
memory will be cherished by those who 
knew him. 


Wilston \Y. Goodrich, whose home is in 
Luther, was for many years an active and 
influential farmer of Garden township, but 

is now living retired. IK- -till owns, how- 
ever, a valuable farm of eighty acre-. 1 [e is 
numbered among the old settlers of the 
county, dating his residence in low a from 
185O and in Boone count}' from [859. lie 
was twenty-seven years of age at the time 
of his arrival here, his birth having occurred 
in Steuben county, Xew York, April S, [832. 
He was reared to manhood upon a farm in 
that county and was married there in 1853 
to Margaret Jane Chambers, whose birth oc- 
curred in Sussex count}-, Xew Jersey, in 
1836. He aftervv rd located upon his farm 
in Steuben county, where he carried on agri- 
cultural pursuits until 1850. the year of his 
arrival in Iowa. He first located in what is 
now Hamilton county and secured a claim 
which he cultivated and improved. After 
farming in that count}- for more than two 
years he came to Boone county in 1859 ;mi ' 
purchased a claim of eighty acres, on which 
he built a cabin, living in it for seven years 
while opening up his farm, breaking his laud 
by placing it under the plow. He also 
fenced the place and made many substantial 
improvements upon his laud, including the 
erection of a good residence and barns and 
outbuildings. Fruit and shade tree- an 
found upon his place, adding to its value as 
well as to its attractive appearance, and the 
property is a very desirable one in this por- 
tion of the county. 

On the nth of August, 1862, Mr. Good- 
rich enlisted as a member of the Thirty-.sec- 
ond Iowa Volunteer Infantry, lie was as- 
signed to Company 1). and with his regi- 
ment joined the Western Army. A valiant 
soldier of the Union he participated in man} 
engagement- that led to its preservation, lie 
took part in the battle of Cape Girardeau and 
went with General Banks on the Red river 


expedition, during which he was under fire 
continuously for a number of days. During 
that time he sustained a gun-shot wound in 
the right knee and was thus permanently 
disabled, being sent to the hospital in Mem- 
phis, Tennessee. He there remained for 
four months, lying flat on his back, not be- 
ing able to turn over during that entire time. 
He was then transferred to the St. Louis 
hospital in Jefferson Barracks, where he con- 
tinued for two months. On the expiration 
of that period he was sent home and has 
never yet recovered the entire use of his 
limb. After he had recovered partially he 
resumed business and until his retirement 
from active life was identified with agricul- 
tural pursuits in this county. 

In [899 Mr. Goodrich was '.ailed upon 
to mourn the loss of his wife, who died on 
the 1 Nth uf April, that year and was laid 
to rest in Clark cemetery. They had be- 
come the parents of three children : Charles 
L... a farmer of Colfax township, James C, 
win 1 is married and operates the home farm; 
and Sarah, who became the wife of Hiram 
Shutts. They then settled upon their farm. 
and Mrs. Shutts then- died May 9, 1884, 

lc;i\ in- two children. 

Mr. < ii » idrich is a faithful member 1 if the 
Methodist Episcopal church and is serving 
as one of the trustees of the church of that 
denomination in Luther. He also belongs 
to the Grand Army Post at Madrid, and 
since casting his first presidential vote For 
John C. Fremont in 1856 he has supported 
each presidential nominee of the Re 
party without one exception. He served for 
one term as assessor ami lias been a delegate 
to 1 o inventions of the party. He takes a deep 
interest in its growth and success, yet he has 
never been an office seeker, preferring to de- 

vote his attention to his business affairs. 
Forty-six years have passed since he came 
tn Biiniie count}", years in which great 
changes have occurred. The pioneer settlers 
are passing away one by one their work will 
endure for years and, in fact, throughout 
future ages generations will be benefitted 
by what they accomplished in reclaiming 
wild lands for the purposes of civilization. 
Mr. Goodrich has now reached the allotted 
psalmist's span of three score years and ten, 
he is enjoying a well-earned rest in his home 
in Luther, and is respected and highly es- 
teemed citizen of that place. 


The name of Charles T. Culver figured 
for many years upon the pages of the busi- 
ness annals of Boone county and now he is 
enjoying a well-merited resl after the years 
of labor and has put aside business cares. 
living in honorable retirement, one of the 
men of worth and value in the community. 
lie makes his home at No. [211, Storj 
street, in the city of Boone, a place far re- 
moved from the locality in which he first 
opened his eyes to the light of day. I te 
was born in Hampshire county, Massachu- 
setts. June [2, 1836, ami comes of a family 
of Scotch ancestry that was founded in the 
old Ba) state at a very early epoch in its 
history. The grand father of our subject 
was Charles Culver, who was born in Mass- 
achusetts, and Titus Culver, the father, was 
likewise a native of Hampshire county. 
where he grew to manhood and married 
Ruth Slade. She. too. was born in Hamp- 
shire county ami was a daughter of Jacob 


Slade, a representative of another old fam- 
ily of the Bay state. Titus Culver engaged 
in farming in his native county and there 
spent his entire life, passing away on the 
30th of December, 1862, when he was sev- 
enty years of age. His wife survived him 
nineteen years, departing this life in 1881, 
in Boone, having spent her last years in the 
home of her son, C. T. Culver. In their 
faniiij were twelve children, three sons and 
nine daughters, of whom our subject was the 
eleventh in order of birth. 

Charles T. Culver spent the first twenty 
years of his life in the county of his nativity, 
receiving fair school advantages there. In 
1856, however, he left the Atlantic coast and 
made his way to the Mississippi valley, stop- 
ping first in Illinois. He established his 
home in Boone county, that state, where he 
learned the carpenter's trade, which he fol- 
lowed for eight years. During that period 
he was married in Boone county, Illinois, 
January 19, 1862, to Hannah E. White, a 
native of St. Lawrence county, Xew York. 
and a daughter of Nathan White, one of 
the early settlers of Illinois, who there 
opened up a farm, upon which Mrs. Culver 
was reared, while her education was pursued 
in the district schools near by. 

In 1865 Mr. Culver removed from 
Boone county, Illinois, to Boone county, 
Iowa, and made a permanent location here. 
From that time to the present he has been 
identified with public progress and improve- 
ment, and Boone county owes not a little (if 
its advancement to his efforts in its behalf. 
He was elected a member of the first city 
council and aided in organizing the town 
and tn his efforts is attributable the sub- 
stantial improvement of the municipality in 
no small measure. Here he engaged in con- 

tracting and building fur a number of years, 
following that pursuit until 1872, when he 
established a sawmill in Worth township and 
was engaged in the manufacture of lumber, 
that enterprise claiming his attention fur a 
number of years. He afterward engaged 
in buying anil shipping grain in the city of 
Boone for five years. His health then failed 
him and not desiring to make further in- 
roads upon his vitality or to undermine his 
constitution he retired from business life. 
As the years have passed he has made ju- 
dicious investments in real estate and has 
built and owns several residence properties. 
Mr. Culver has rilled the offices of as- 
sessor, marshal and councilman. Both he 
and his wife are members of the First Meth- 
odist Episcopal church of Boone. Xo his- 
tory of the city would be complete without 
the mention of Charles T. Culver, for his 
work has been closely interwoven with its 
progress and improvement. He has 
watched the development of Boone from a 
crossroads village to one of the important 
municipalities of the state and no measure 
<>r movement calculated to prove of public 
good has ever solicited his aid or co-opera- 
tion in vain. 



George Mason, a retired farmer living in 
Madrid, well merits the rest that has come 
to him, because his life has been character- 
ized by unremitting diligence. He took up 
bis abode in the town in 1895, but has been 
a resident of the state since 1884. He wa9 
born in the neighboring state of Illinois, his 
birth having occurred on the Fox river, in 
La Salle county. February i<). 1839. He 



was reared to manhood in La Salle county. 
Illinois, upon the old home farm and there 
early became familiar with the work of field 
and meadow as he assisted his father in car- 
rying on the old home place. At the usual 
age he entered the common schools and later 
continued his studies in a private school in 
that locality. For two terms he engaged in 
teaching in La Salle county. Under the par- 
ental roof he remained until his marriage, 
which was celebrated in La Salle county, 
July 3, [862, the lady of his choice being 
Sarah Ann Kennison, who was born in Ver- 
mont, but -pent the greater part of her girl- 
hood days in [llinois. She is a sister of J. 
S. Kennison, of Garden township, who is 
represented on another page of this work. 
After his marriage Mr. Mason located upon 
a farm in Kendall county, Illinois, near 

Joliet, and there purchased a g 1 tract of 

land which he continued to cultivate for 
eighteen years. He then soid the property 
and removed to Washington county, towa, 
purchasing there a farm of two hundred and 
forty acres. Many improvements he placed 
upon the land during his eight years' resi- 
dence there, and on the expiration of that 
period he sold the property for nearly double 
the amount which he had paid for it. For 
two years be then resided in Washington 
county and then in [895 lie removed to Ma- 
drid, purchasing ten acres of land in the vil- 
lage. ( )u this lie erected a large white resi- 
dence which is one of the attractive homes 
of the town and here he is now living re- 

Mr. and Mrs. Mason are the parents of 
five children, of whom four are living: 
Isabelle, die wife of John II. Mayer, a sub- 
stantial farmer of Garden township: E. <i.. 
who carries ..n farming near Washington. 

Iowa: L. F... who is also an agriculturist of 
Garden township; and Florence, the wife of 
Dr. E. C. Brown, of [Madrid. They also 
lost one son, Delbert, who died at the age of 
four years. They have also reared a niece, 
Mis, Edna Copp, who was left an orphan in 
infancy and has since been a member of the 
Mason household. Our subject and his wife 
are Christian people, belonging to the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church of Madrid, and Mr. 
Mason is now- serving as president of the 
church board. He is also identified with the 
Masonic fraternity which he joined in 1856. 
At the present time he is associated with 
Madrid Lodge and is likewise a member of 
the chapter and commandery of Morris, Illi- 
nois, thus having become a Knight Templar 
Mason. He votes with the Democracy, hav- 
ing cast his first presidential ballot for Ste- 
phen A. Douglas, the "Little Giant" of Illi- 
nois. At local elections, however, be does 
not consider himself bound bj party ties, 
supporting the candidates whom he thinks 
best qualified for the office. While residing 
in Kendall county. Illinois, be was elected 
and served for eleven consecutive years as 
justice of the peace. This was a well-de- 
served honor and indicated his personal pop- 
u!arit\ and the confidence reposed in him, 
for, although a Democrat, he was continu- 
ally elected in a Republican township. in 
Washington county. Iowa, he served for 
seven years as justice of the peace and was 
also assessor, school treasurer and filled 
other positions of honor and trust, lie is 
in >w sen ing as justice of the peace ot Doug- 
las township, Boone count}". Mis decisions 
have ever been strictly fair and impartial 
and have won for him golden opinions. Mr. 
Mason has ever commanded the respect and 
confidence of the people, for be has ever been 


loyal to public duty and the obligations of 
the home and of friendship. His career is 
in all respects an exemplary one and his ex- 
ample might well serve as one worthy of 


William Benson, whose home is at No. 
203 West Fifth street, is one of the leading 
and influential business men not only of the 
city of Boone but of the county and is closely 
associated with the development of her coal 
mines, owning and operating a coal bank 
near Boonesboro. He is largely self- 
educated as well as a self-made man finan- 
cially, but experience, reading and observa- 
tion have broadened his knowledge, while 
untiring energy and unfaltering purpose 
have gained for him success in the business 
world. He came to this county in 1877 a,K ' 
with his family located permanently here in 

Mr. Benson is a native of Scotland, his 
birth having occurred near Glasgow, on 
the 10th of February. 1840. bis parents be- 
ing Peter and Margaretta Benson. His fa- 
ther was also born and reared in Scotland, 
and removed from Dumfrieshire to Lanark, 
where he reared his family and there died. 
The subject of this review spent the days of 
his childhood and youth in that place. He 
had but limited school privileges for at a 
very early age he started out to make his own 
way in the world, being employed in a coal 
bank. For a number of years he was con 
nected with coal mining in Scotland and 
while there residing he ch< >se as a c< unpanion 
and helpmate for the journey of life Miss 
Margaret Clark, their wedding being cele- 

brated in Scotland, in October, i860. She 
also is a native of the land of bills and 
heather and was there reared to womanhood. 
Two years after their marriage our subject 
and bis wife came to the new world, taking 
passage on a vessel at Glasgow which was 
bound for Quebec. They did not tarry long- 
in the Dominion of Canada, however, but 
made their way to La Salle, Illinois, where 
Mr. Benson secured work as a coal miner,. 
spending the winter there. He then removed 
to Pennsylvania ami was engaged in work 
in the mines along the Monongahela river. 
After a few months, however, he returned to 
Scotland in 1864. The same year he re- 
moved to England and obtained employment 
in the mines of Staffordshire, residing in 
that portion of the country for two years. 
However, he had become imbued with a 
strong liking for the new world and in e866 
he returned with his family to America, lo- 
cating first in Pennsylvania, near the Eagle 
coal works on the Monongahela river. He 
was there employed for a time and afterward 
removed to Center county. Pennsylvania, 
where he secured a situation in the coal 
mines. Afterward, however, he removed 
with his family to Middlesex. Penn- 
sylvania, where he was employed for 
two or three years. during which 
tine he built and occupied a resi- 
dence there. His next home was in Trum- 
bull county, Ohio, where for a year and a 
half he was engaged in digging coal. 1 ,eav- 
ing his family at that place he came to Iowa, 
settling in Boone county about 1X07. He 
began work at Shepardtown and being 
pleased with the slate ami its future pros- 
pects be sent for his family and was joined 
by his w ife and children in his new home in 
t86q. Mis first purchase of laud in this 



county consisted of a tract of forty acres on 
which was a little brick house. There he 
carried on farming and also worked in the 
coal mines to some extent. Subsequently he 
purchased fifty acres of land adjoining the 
first tract. About [895 he opened a brick 
yard and began its operation. 'If is located 
on the farm and for four years he engaged 
in burning brick to the extent of about three 
or four hundred thousand brick annually. 
The product of his kilns was of such excel- 
lent quality that it found a ready sale on 
the market and the enterprise contributed in 
no small degree to his business success. He 
also added to his farm until it comprises one 
hundred and forty acres of rich land. He 
erected thereon a good residence and a sub- 
stantial barn and other outbuildings for the 
shelter of the stock and gram. In 1901 he 
sunk a coal shaft and found a rich vein of 
a thickness of three feet. Since that time he 
has been engaged in digging out coal, work- 
ing about twenty men and doing a g 1 


In [900 Mr. Benson erected a pleasant 
and substantial residence at No. 203 West 
Fifth street, in Boone, and there he now re- 
sides with his family. Unto him and his 
wife have been born several children: one 
daughter was born 111 Lanarkshire, Scot- 
land, while one daughter was horn in Staf- 
fordshire, England, the others in the United 
States. Peter was born in Allegheny 
county. Pennsylvania, while Jennie. William 
and Sadie are native- of Mercer county, that 
state. James is a native of Trumbull coun- 
ty, < >hio, and Robena and Robert were born 
in this county. Margaret is the wife of 
James Trow, who owns and operate- a coal 
bank in Boone county, \nnic is the wife 
of George Heeps, who operates a mine near 

Boonesboro. Jennie is the wife oi Al. Fra- 
zier, of Marshalltown, Iowa. Sadie is at 
home. Robena is the wife of Charles Ol- 

son, county recorder of Boone county. Pe- 
ter is the eldest son. James. William and 
Peter are connected with their father in the 
coal business and Robert is still a student. 

Politically Mr. Benson is a stanch Re- 
publican, having voted with the party since 
he cast his first ballot for General Grant, but 
he has never sought office, preferring to give 
his attention to his business interest-. For 
a quarter of a century he has made his 
home in this county and has witnessed the 
upbuilding of the town, the introduction of 
railroads and the addition of all modern 
equipments to the locality. His efforts in 
agricultural lines and in other departments 
of business activity have brought to him 
creditable success and he is now one of the 
substantia] as well as one of the highly es- 
teemed citizens of Boone. 


Near the town of Ogden, on section 6. 
Peoples township, lives F. S. Kendall, who 
1- classed among the wide-awake and ener- 
getic farmer- of Boone county. His place of 
one hundred and seventy acres is a monu- 
ment to his life of industry and thrift. He 
was born in Madison county, Ohio, March 
(8, [833, and erne- of an old Virginia fam- 
ily. Mi- father James Kendall, was born in 
\ irginia, but when a young man removed to 
Kentucky, and later crossed the Ohio river 
into the stateof Ohio, establishing his home 
in Madison county among it- early settlers. 
I he greater part of that region was covered 



with a dense growth of timber, the trees 
standing in their primeval strength, but soon 
the rrtonarchs of the forest fell before his 
sturdy strokes and he continued the task of 
clearing his land until the sun shone down 
Up m the rich fields of gulden grain. He was 
married in that county to Margaret Seltzer, 
a native of Virginia who removed to Ohio 
with her parents both of whom were natives 
of Germany. Mr. Kendall reared his fam- 
ily upon the farm there and made it his 
home continuously until his life's labors 
were ended in death in the year 1848. 

F. S. Kendall of this review was only 
fifteen years of age at the time of his fa- 
ther's demise. 1 le was reared on the old fam- 
ily homestead, which he had aided in clear- 
ing ami in cultivating. His school privi- 
leges were limited for the educational ad- 
vantages of the neighborhood were then of 
a primitive character and he also had little 
time even then to attend school, his aid being 
needed in clearing and improving the farm. 
At length he attained his majority and then 
he desired to establish a home of his own. 
To this end he was married on the 1st of 
January, 1854, to Ann Eliza Huffman, a 
native of Madison county, Ohio, and a 
daughter of Amos Huffman, whose birth oc- 
curred in Germany. The young couple be- 
gan their domestic life upon the old Kendall 
homestead, which continued to be their 
place of residence for a few years, 
during which time four children were born 
unto them. 

In 1805 our subject came to the west and 
first took up his abode in Polk county, [owa, 
where he rented a farm, but later bought 
land in Boone count}-. This was raw prai- 
rie, having - never been reclaimed for pur- 
poses of civilization, lie also purchased a 

tract of land in Dallas county, near Perry, 
and with characteristic energy began the 
task of clearing and developing his fields. 
He fanned there for two years and then 
came to his present home, where he has since 
erected a good house. He at first built a 
little barn, but this was replaced in time by 
a large barn, one of the best in Peoples 
township. His labors, too, wrought a great 
change in the land, which was transformed 
into a rich and arable tract. To-day his val- 
uable farm of one hundred and seventy 
acres is equipped with all modern accessor- 
ies and the efforts of the owned result in 
gaining good harvests as a return for his 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Kendall has 
been blessed with'eight children who arc yet 
living : John A. is now a substantial farmer 
of Peoples township; Alva J. follows farm- 
ing in Yell township ; George is living in Og- 
den; Fred is a farmer of Peoples township. 
Ada is the wife of Ben Treloar, a resident 
farmer of Mason township; Maggie is the 
wife of James Phillips, a worthy citizen of 
Boone, Iowa, in the employ of the Chicago 
cc Northwestern Railway Company; Mar- 
garet is the wife of Rev. Joseph E. Treloar. 
a minister of the Baptist church, and Dora 
is a s UCC essful teacher of the county. 
The family is one of prominence in 
the community, and have the respect of one 
and all. 

Mr. Kendall belongs to the Peoples Bap- 
tist church, becoming a charter member upon 
its organization. In fact, it was organized 
in his home and for many years he lias been 
one of its deacons. He has served for a 
number of years 011 the school board and 
the cause of education found in him a 
warm' advocate and friend. He has filled 


the position of justice of the peace and his 
fair and impartial rulings have won him 
high commendation. He was also elected 
and served for nine years as township trus- 
tee in Peoples township and since casting his 
first presidential vote for John C. Fremont 
in 1856, he has given his ballot at each presi- 
dential election for the candidates of the na- 
tional Republican party. In this part of the 
state F. S. Kendall is numbered among the 
pioneer settlers who took up their abode in 
this region when Boone county was upon 
the western frontier. His interest in public 
progress lias led him to put forth every ef- 
fort in behalf of his adopted county and his 
hearty co-operation is given to all measures 
for the general gcx "1. 


Living on section 9, Dodge township, 
and devoting his energies b > general tanning 
and stock-raising and to the raising and sale 
of nursery stuck. Mr. Friedley has beo m< 
weil known in this portion of the state, lie 
was born in Clark county, Indiana. February 
jo. [834, and is a son of Daniel Fried- 
ley, a native of Kentucky. The family i- of 
German descent, and was founded in Amer- 
ica by the grandfather of our subject, who 
emigrated to the new world, settling 
sylvania. He afterward- removed t" Ken- 
tucky and there resided for a number of 
years, but ultimately took up his abode in 
Han Lsi m '■' iunt) . [ndiana I ater he be- 
came a resident of Clark count}'. His son, 
Daniel Friedley, was married in Harrison 
county to Miss Rebe< ca I [iestand, 
horn in Ohio., but ren I diana be- 

fore the state was admitted to the Union. 
For a few years after their marriage Mr. 
Friedley remained in Clark county and then 
removed to Clay county, where his remain- 
ing days were passed, his death occurring 
in 1849. H' s wife had departed this life 
three years previous. 

In taking up the personal history of 
Henry Friedley we present to our readers 
the life record of one who j s widely and fa- 
vorably known. He spent the first sixteen 

1 lis life in Indiana and in 1850 came 
to Boone county, Iowa, where for a half 
century he has made his home. He first 
lived with his brother-in-law. Logan Defore, 
one of the early settlers of this portion of 
the -tate and a very prominent resident of 
Boone county. .Air. Friedley worked with 
Mr. Defore. broke the prairie during the 
spring ami summer months and in the win- 
ter engaged in making rails. He later be- 
came the owner of a breaking team of from 
lour to six yoke of cattle. His first plow 
cut a furmw twenty-two inches wide and 
bad a wooden mold board. I le eng 
breaking the prairie for a number of years 
and turned the first furrow, upon many hun- 
dreds of acres of the virgin soil of 1', le 

county. During the cold season of the year 
he cut and split rails and many rods of 
fence were built from rails which he hid 
prepared, for the purpose. He thus became 
an active factor in the early development of 

ty. In [852 he entered a tract 
of land of eighty acres from the government 
and about two years later he bought an ad- 
ji ming eighty acres. This lie broke and cul- 
tivated, making an excellent farm com- 
prising a fourth section. In the 5p 
[859, hi -v. !■'. ei . he 51 Id thai pn iperty. He 
had previous!} purchased where hi 


j 4 i 

liveSj having here one hundred sixty acres 
upon which the usual work of the farm was 
carried on. He built fences and good build- 
in-- that he might provide shelter and com- 
fort for his family and for the stock and 
might provide a place which would protect 
the crops from the storms of winter. Fruit 
tree> were planted until now there is a good 
orchard and shade and ornamental trees 
adorn the lawn. He purchased an additional 
tract of eighty acres and thus became the 
owner of a good farm of two hundred and 
forty acres. In 1884, in connection with 
his sons, he began raising nursery stock and 
has since conducted that business, supplying 
his neighbors and many residents of adjacent 
counties. His stock is of an excellent grade 
and this branch of his business has proved a 
profitable source of income and to-day he 
is a prosperous farmer. 

On the 25th of August. 1858, in this 
county, was celebrated the marriage of Air. 
Friedley and .Miss Man- Coe, a daughter of 
Joshua Coe, who removed here from Ohio 
and was among the early settlers. Mrs. 
Friedley was born in the Buckeye state and 
was a maiden of fourteen summers when 
she came to [owa. Her death occurred 
April 11. 1899, and -lie was laid to rest in 
Ridgeporl cemetery. Five children have 
been born of the marriage: John S.. who is 
married and resides upon the farm, carry- 
ing on the place; Florence, the wife of John 
Condon, a resident farmer of Dodge town- 
ship; Clara, who became the wife of J. Pe- 
terson, but is now deceased; Ed. who owns 
and operates a farm near his father; and 
I\a, the wife of Charles Burke, who resides 
upon a farm adjoining the city of | ', ie, 

Mr. Friedley is known as a stalwart ad- 
vocate of Republican principles, his identi- 

fication with the party dating from the time 
when its first presidential candidate was 
placed in the field. The only office he has 
ever held has been that of supervisor of high- 
ways and a member of the school board, for 
he has never sought or desired political pre- 
ferment. He belongs to the Ridgeport 
Methodist Episcopal church and his has 
been an honorable and upright career, in 
consistent harmony with his religious be- 
liefs and principles. His genial manner, his 
devotion to the public good and above all his 
known reliability and honesty, have made 
Mr. Friedley one of the respected and val- 
ued men of Dodge township. 


Among the leading farmers of the north- 
ern part of Beaver township is John Kruse, 
who has spent his entire life in Boone coun- 
ty, having been born in Yell township, No- 
vember 6. 1808. His parents were Peter 
and Margaret (Schosen) Kruse, the father 
being a native of Northstoble, Germany, who 
in the year 1865 came to America. He aft- 
erward worked for a year upon a farm near 
Clinton. Iowa, ami thence came to Boone 
county, being employed in a similar capacity 
in Yell township for two years. He then 
purchased the farm upon which he now re- 
sides, it being located upon section 19, Yell 
township, and also extending into A.maqua 
township. He i- a prominent agriculturist 
and year by year gathers rich harvest- from 
the well tilled fields. He has held the office' 
of schi " '1 director < if hi- tow nship for -e\ era! 
vears and is a leading and influential citi- 
zen there. Unto him and his wife have been 



born eleven children: Maggie, the wife of 
Hans Hendrichs, a farmer of Fairmonnt, 
Minnesota; John, of this review: Katie, the 
wife > f Herman Paulson, a resident of Am- 
aqua township; George, a farmjer in the 
same township; Anna, the wife of Claus 
Heldt, an agriculturist of Yell township: 
Phoebe, the wife of Dave Hardin, a farmer 
of Amaqua township : Emma, who died sev- 
eral years ago; Hans H., who assists his 
father in the work of the home farm : Lena, 
the wife of Claus Peters, who resides upon 
his father's farm ; Peter, also at home, and 
Henry, who died at the age of seven years. 

Like the other members of the family. 
John Kruse acquired a common-school edu- 
cation and early became familiar with farm 
work in all its departments. He remained 
upon the old homestead until he was twenty- 
six years of age. when he was united in 
marriage to Miss Emma T. Bierfeldt, a 
daughter of Efenning and Katie 
Bierfeldt, both of whom were natives of 
Germany, the father coining as an early set- 
tler to Boone county, lie resided upon a 
farm in Amaqua township and continued its 
cultivation until [898, when lie retro ved to 
Ogden. where he 1- now living retired. 
Unto him and his wife have been born -i\ 
children. George, who is engaged in farm- 
ing and is operating a thresher and grain 
sheller, his home being in Ogden; Maggie, 
the wife of Clinton McCaskey, a resident 
of Yell township; Katie, the wife of 1',. I". 
Ritter, a farmer of Yell township: Anna C. 
the wife of William F. Paulson, a resident 
farmer of Amaqua township; Mrs. Kruse, 
the wife of our subject; and Maria F., the 
wife of Charles Paulson, who resides on the 
Bierfeldt homestead in Amaqua 1 
Unto Mr. and Mis. Kruse have been born 

three children : Freda. Albertie and Yelma, 
aged respectively six, four and two years. 

After his marriage Mr. Kruse settled 
upon his present farm on section j. Beaver 
township, where he has one hundred and 
twenty acres of choice land and neat and 
substantial buildings adorn the place, while 
the fields are well tilled. He also takes 
great interest in the raising of fine stock and 
is a very enterprising and progressive agri- 
culturist. Throughout his entire life he 
has carried on farm work and is a worthy 
representative of agricultural interests 111 
his native county. In politics he is a 
1 democrat being deeply interested in the 
growth and success of his party. He and 
iiis wife attend the German Lutheran church 
and are people of the highest respectability, 
enjoying the warm regard of many friends. 


John Sparks is a prominent and inllu- 
irmer of Marcy township and a 
representative of one of the old families of 
the county, lie has made Ins home within 
Boone county since [851 and 
therefore for more than half a century has 
been a w itness of the changes which have oc- 
curred and have brought the community 
from its primitive condition to one of 
marked advancement. At the time of his ar- 
rival Mr. Sparks was ;, youth of only about 
ten years, his birth having occurred in < 'wen 
county, Indiana. < >ct< ber 31, 1 N4 1 . 1 le is 
a son of Rev. William J. and Sarah 1 Jen- 
whom were ni 
n Jina. Becoming residents of In- 
diana, they remained in the latter state un- 



til 1851, when they brought their family to 
Boone county, Iowa, settling on a farm in 
Worth township. Later they came to Mar- 
cy township, locating on the Berry farm, 
where the father made his home until his 
death, which occurred in 1878, when he was 
se\ enty-two years of age, while his wife died 
at the advanced age of eighty-nine years. 
Both were consistent Christian people and 
held membership in the Baptist church and 
the father was a minister of that denomina- 
tion, devoting much of his time and energy 
to the work of advancing the cause of Chris- 
tianity. This worthy couple were the par- 
ents of thirteen children, of whom five are 
now living: Mary, the widow of Francis 
Williams, and a resident of Marcy township; 
Milley, wife of Joe Staley, of the same 
township; William, a retired farmer living 
in Taylor county, Iowa; Sarah Ann, the 
wife of Louis Phipps, a resident farmer of 
Des Moines township; and John, of this re- 

Like the other members of the family, 
John Sparks pursued his education in the 
common schools, beginning his studies in 
Indiana. Later he continued his school work 
in Boone county. He assisted in the arduous 
task of developing a new farm here and 
continued to work in the fields and meadows 
of the old homestead until he had attained 
his majority. About the time the Civil war 
was begun and with patriotic spirit Mr. 
Sparks offered his services to the govern- 
ment, enlisting under Captain DeTar. but 
was taken ill and was unable to go to the 
fn nit. I Ie afterward purchased a farm in the 
southern part of Marcy township and was 
there engaged in agricultural pursuits for 
alii mt thirty years. He als< 1 a inducted a saw- 
mill there and both branches of his business 

proved a source of a good income to him. In 
February, i88_\, he removed to his present 
farm known as the old Jerry Gordon farm, 
comprising two hundred thirty-three acres 
on section 14, Marcy township. Since that 
time Mr. Sparks has made excellent improve- 
ments on his property and now has a good 
set of farm buildings, together with the lat- 
est improved machinery and all the modern 
accessories for facilitating farm work. He 
is successfully carrying on general farming 
and stock raising and trades to a consider- 
able extent in stc:k. For some time he also 
operated a threshing machine in Marcy 
township and was very busy during the har- 
vest season. 

Mr. Sparks has been twice married. He 
first wedded Miss Adelina Phipps, a daugh- 
ter of Solomon Phipps, a farmer of Boone 
county. She died and their only child died 
in infancy. For his second wife Mr. Sparks 
chose Nancy S. Cartwright, who was horn 
in Pike county, Ohio, November 25, 1848, a 
daughter of William A. Cartwright, an ag- 
riculturist of the Buckeye state, now de- 
ceased. Unto Mr. Sparks and his present 
wife have been born eleven children. The 
eldest is Sarah Jane, the wife of Wallace 
McCall, a resident of Marcy township. The 
others are: Alice, George L., Delia, Grover, 
John Franklin, Carl, Justin. Arville C, 
Clinton M. and Flossie, all at home. 

Mr. Sparks has always given his politi- 
cal support to- the Democracy and never fails 
to exercise his right of franchise in sup- 
port of the men and measures of the party. 
He has served for several terms a- con- 
stable in his township, has been mad super- 
visor and scl 1 director. Fraternally he is 

connected with Moingona Lodge No. 258 I''. 
& A. -M., of Moingona. Almost his entire 


life has been passed in this county and as the 
years have gone by he has taken a deep in- 
terest in public progress and improvement, 
doing what he could to promote the general 
welfare along such lines. He has a vivid 
recollection of the county as it was a half 
century ago, when the prairies were largely 
uncultivated and one could ride for miles 
without meeting a fence to impede progress. 
The work of improvement lay almost entire- 
ly in the future, but there has come to Boone 
county a progressive and enterprising class 
of citizens who have reclaimed the region 
for purposes of civilization and today it is 
the home of a prosperous and contented 
people who enjoy the conveniences and im- 
provements of the older east. 


Alonzo J. Barkley was burn upon a farm 
in Linn county. Iowa. March 2j. 1842. His 
father was James Newton Barkley, a native 
of Virginia, while his mother, Lydia Hob- 
son, was a Carolinian. The father, while 
yet a child, was taken by bis parents to Ken- 
tucky, thence to Indiana. When about 
twenty-one years old, he came to Iowa in the 
year 1841, settling in Linn county. He was 
a carpenter, also engaging- to some extent 
in farming. In the summer of 1856 he re- 
mi >\ ed with his family fc > I '» - me o >unty. set- 
tling on land in Dodge township, about eight 
miles from Boonesboro, on the then un- 
broken prairie. In politic- he was a 
Republican, which in those days, preced- 
ing and during the Civil war. required 
much firmness; and in religious faith he 
was a Methodist. He died April 6. 

1866. He was married at Bedford. In- 
diana, to Miss Lydia Hobson, who was a 
Quaker in faith, but subsequently became 
connected with the Methodist Episcopal 
church. Prior to her marriage and subse- 
quent to the death of her mother, she found 
a temporary home in the family of the late 
L. Q. Hoggatt. of Ames, Story county. Iowa, 
then a resident of Indiana. She died in 
1887. at the age 1 if seventy-four years, canon- 
ized by her children, respected and regretted 
by nil her acquaintance-. To this family the 
following children were born, three of w h< >m 
survive: Mary, deceased; A. J., the subject 
of this article ; Harriet M.. widow of Eugene 
Favre; Levina : Linzv. deceased; Mazzini ; 
and 1 lenry. deceased. 

The boy Alonzo derived his primary 
education chiefly by contact with nature and 
from the Bible, interpreted at his mother's 
knee and illustrated by applications to the 
moral questions which arise in the progress 
of a young life. The schoolhouse at Ridge- 
port being seven miles from his home, he 
spent his winters in the woods making rails 
ami post- and hauling them with oxen to the 
farm. The year rS6l he spent in chop- 
ping cord wood, farming and attending 
school in Boonesboro. In the spring time 
he returned to the duties of the farm, for the 
father was mostly away from home con- 
structing habitations for the immigrants. 
He t' » ik a principle in grammar 1 >r a pn «bleni 
in mathematics with himself to work and 
solved it in his own way. The "rule in the 

1 k" and its textual explanations were in 

- unrecognized by him. but behind 
the plow or while breaking the prairie were 
melted in the "converter" of his brain, anil. 
when reduced the product turned on its 
minions appeared in definitions which for 





conciseness and perspicuity of statement 
often excelled those of the book and aston- 
ished his preceptors. Thus the years passed, 
from the aye of fourteen to that of twenty, 
in plowing and thinking-, harvesting and 
selling', an experience in common with many 
of the great men of America. 

Then came the great clash between the 
two civilizations in our country, diametric- 
ally opposite, which had thus far in its his- 
tory struggled to discover some method of 
existing- side by side in peace, but ineffect- 
ively. The war tocsin sounded throughout 
the land and roused the sleeping giant in the 
bosom of every American youth. Young 
Barkley recognized the voice, and on August 
11, 1862. took the oath as a soldier of the 
Union, with the members of Company D, 
Thirty-second Iowa Volunteer Infantry, in 
the courthouse square at Boonesboro, and 
marched away with Captain DeTar to the 
army. After the regimental organization 
at Camp Franklin. Dubuque, it received or- 
ders to move to the front, and a detachment 
of four companies, A. F. G ami D. command- 
ed by Major G. A. Eberhart. went to Cape 
Girardeau, spending the fall, winter and 
spring in southern Missouri building forti- 
fications for the Cape and at Bloomfield. The 
tachment assisted in defeating Marmaduke's 
army at Cape Girardeau and driving it into 
Arkansas, returning in time to accompany 
General Davidson's cavalry division on its 
famous five-hundred-mile march through 
Missouri and Arkansas to Little Rock, where 
Price's army was defeated and driven out. 
Mr. Barkley was oik- of the sixty men that 
went up the river from Clarendon to Searcy 
and burned the pontoon bridge aero-- the 
Little Red river after a portion of Marma- 

duke's army had crossed. These sixty men 
captured ers, '"The Tom 

Sugg" and '"Kaskaskia," and returned to 
on, one-third of their number having 
been killed or w ire their return 

to the command. He part in the 

right at Bayou Metoe, where 1 ne of his com- 
pany was killed and two severely wounded. 

The regiment was reunited at Vicksburg 
and in the spring of 1864 joined in Banks's 
Red River expedition. It participated in the 
skirmishes and battles of that dis; 
campaign until Pleasant Hill was reached on 
April 8, 1864. The next day that fierce con- 
flict raged and Shaw's brigade, in which was 
Colonel Scott's Thirty-second Iowa Infan- 
try, held the center until nightfall, when it 
was surrounded and obliged to cut its wSay 
out. Private Barkley was dangerously 
wounded and the next morning fell into the 
hands of the Confederates as a prisoner of 
war. the Union army having retreated, 
leaving its dead and wounded to the tender 
mercies of the enemy. A thrilling descrip- 
tion of this battle is that by Mr. Barkley as 
seen from the point of view of the private 
soldier, written for and published in "The 
Annals of Iowa." the organ of the Iowa 
Historical Department, Vol. III., page 23, 
wherein this action is duly set forth. 

For more than two months he was a 
prisoner of war, and then selected for parole, 
as one who could never be of farther service 
to the enemy, was sent down Red river to its 
mouth and turned over to the Federal army. 
Surgeon Sanger, surgeon-general of the 
Nineteenth Army Corp-, dressed his wounds 
on the battlefield; and meeting- him when pa- 
roled '>n the boat nearly three months after- 
ward, again performed tin- service. It is a 


coincidence that nearly twenty years since 
the war this same medical gentleman again 
discovered his former "army lad," had a 
photograph of his arm taken, showing the 
uses which it was capable of. and incorpor- 
ated the "interesting case"' in a medical work 
which he published at his home, Bangor, 
Maine. At Benton Barracks, while yet a 
paroled prisoner, Mr. Barkley was given a 
discharge and arrived home on Christmas, 
[864, opening the door of his father's farm- 
house without notice — a happy holiday for 

In March, 1805. he went to Cornell Col- 
lege, at Mount Vernon, Iowa, and made in- 
dustrious use of its advantages until the 
death of his father in April, 1866, then came 
home and herded cattle on the prairies with 
his ami in a sling, until autumn, meanwhile 
having been placed 011 the Republican ticket 
for the office of county recorder and elected 
at the November poll, taking the office in 
January, [867. lie was re-elected m [868. 
During this official term he wrote a set of 
abstract books for the real estate in Boone 
county, doing the labor out of hours, and 
devising hi- own system, having never be- 
fore -'en a set of abstract records, the result 
being a- complete a set a- an) in Iowa, and 
now in use by Mbore & Crooks of B 

At the close of bis office as recorder, he 
entered the real estate business : was the local 
agenl for the Iowa Railroad Laud Company, 
'.lie Blair Town Lot and Land Company, 
and on his own account continuing in this 
business until [882, when he sold out. In 
[889 he constructed for bis own use a tele- 
phone line from his office to the courthouse. 
In [891 be organized the Boone County 
lie Company, started the first tele- 

phone exchange in Boone county, and as 
president of the corporation, sold out in 1S82 
to what is known as the "Bell," or "Old 

In February, 18S4. he was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Boone County Bank, a pri- 
vate institution, in which the first officers 
were R. J. Hiatt, president; A. J. Barkley, 
vice president, and Oscar Schleiter, cashier. 
Six years later Mr. Schleiter and Mr. Hiatt 
left the state and the bank was reorganized, 
with Mr. Barkley as president, which posi- 
tion he still holds. It has always been a 
conservative hank and long in good repute 
and successful in its affairs. He has also 
served two terms as a member of the city- 
council of Boone. In 1899 he was elected a 
member of the house of representatives in 
the twenty-eighth general assembly to repre- 
sent Boone county and two years thereafter 
was returned in the same capacity. During 
the fust term he was a member of the library 
committee, agisted in preparing the bill 
creating the Iowa library commission, which 
became a law and has proven to be of much 
service in promoting this educational feature 
of our state; ami in his second was a mem- 
ber of the ways and means and other import- 
ant committees, and chairman of the library 
committee. His bill became a law consoli- 
dating the associate and traveling library 
with the Iowa library commission, increas- 
ing the former appropriation from two thou- 
sand dollars to six thiusand dollars. 

Mr. Barkley is one of the trustees of Cor- 
nell College. He has long been a member 
of the Masonic orders and served his breth- 
ren of the blue lodge at Boone for four terms 
as its master : and is a member of the chapter. 
commandery and Mystic Shrine: also is 1 



•nifinl.LT of J. G. Miller Post. G. A. R.. of 
Boonesboro, and never forgets that lie was 
one of the boys who went down into rebel- 
lious Dixie. 

As might be inferred from his southern 
ancestry, Mr. Barkley is hospitable and 
social, delighting- in association with his 
fellowmen, and his home is the center of 
much geniality. He is large in person and 
with a leonine face, as shown in his por- 
trait; in mind, not rapid to arrive at conclu- 
sions, but certain, and a position once as- 
sumed, cannot be shaken, save by new evi- 
dence, lie is humorous, can enjoy the jokes 
of others and delights in perpetrating one 
himself to the extent of prolonging the 
luxury of it. Children love him, and the do- 
mestic animals about the place know he is 
their friend. 

Mr. Barkley has been twice married; his 
first wife was Miss Henrietta Trickey, to 
whom he was united November 6, 1866, in 
Boone county. She died in 1889. On July 
28, 1891, he was married at Ainsworth, 
Nebraska, to Miss Flora E. Spencer, who 
had been for a number of years a successful 
educator in the high school of Boone. Their 
home here is a haven of rest to them and a 
magnet which attracts a large coterie of 
pleasant friends. May they live long to 
enjoy both. 


Flora R. Spencer, wife of Hon. A. J. 
Barkley. was born February 28, t86o, in 
Rice county, Minnesota, about forty miles 
south of St. Paul and Minneapolis. Her 
father was Wilson Spencer, a native of Her- 
kimer county, New York. 1 lis grand father. 

John Spencer, served in the War of 1812. 
Her mother, whose maiden name was Caro- 
line Beaver Goodykoontz, is a native of In- 
diana. She traces her lineage through the 
Beaver family of Pennsylvania, to the immi- 
grant ancestor in Alsace, who came over in 
1740 and settled in the Keystone state. The 
family were leaders in public affairs in the 
great commonwealth and have "furnished 
"food tor powder" in every war which 
America has waged since their accession to 
its citizenship. One of them was General 
James A. Beaver, four times wounded dur- 
ing his service with the Army of the Poto- 
mac, the last received at the battle of Ream 
Station, on the Weldou railroad, necessi- 
tating the amputation of his leg and his dis- 
charge from the military service of the 
country. He was governor of Pennsylvania 
from 1882 to 1886. 

Mrs. Barkley was one of a family of 
eight children, and her youthful years illus- 
trate the fact that "the strenuous life" is not 
confined to the sex which, "roams the court. 
the camp, the field." When she was five 
years of age her parents removed from Min- 
nesota to the neighborhood of Waukon. 
Allamakee county, Iowa, residing on a farm. 
Here the young child attended the country 
schools until eleven years old, when the fam- 
ily removed into the town of Waukon. This 
gave her better educational opportunities, of 
which she made diligent use, in the high 
school until the age of seventeen. Thirst- 
ing still for knowledge she began to plan 
and work for the higher planes of educa- 
tional opportunities, and to this end entered 
tlit teachers' profession, finding occupation 
in the country schools of her neighborhood. 
With money thus and otherwise earned, 
and entirely bv her own unaided efforts, she 


took the course in the Northern Indiana 
Normal School at Valparaiso, graduating 
therefrom July 28, 1880. a date which has 
ever since been "A Red Letter Day" in her 

After a year as teacher in the Valparaiso 
public schools, she returned to Waukon and 
took a position in the high school as teacher, 
which she retained until she resigned to ac- 
cept a similar position in the high school at 
Boone, biwa. in 1887. This she retained 
for four years, doing most efficient and 
highly acceptable service in behalf of the 
young people committed to her instructs n. 

In 1885 her parents removed and found 
a new home at Ainsworth, Nebraska. There, 
on July 28, 1891, she was married to Hon. 
A. J. Barkley, erf Boone, Iowa, and has since 
presided over his comfortable and hospitable 

Unlike many ladies, Mrs. Barkley did 
not lay down her activities after marriage. 
Though children have been denied her she 
has found, a- all w'ho search can find, many 
avenues of helpfulness for humanity. She 
was the first president of the Lowell Club, a 
study club of Boone ladies; the fir-; presi- 
dent of the City Federation of Women's 
Clubs, in the same city; in 1891 wa 
vice president of the Iowa Federation of 
Women's Clubs, and made chairnia 
library committee. As such she aided \erj 
materially in securing the enactment by the 
twenty-eighth general assemblj of the law 
creating a library commission in fowa, an 
act which has been of inestimable beneftl 1 
the library cause in ibis state. S 
member of the board of trustees of the Eric- 
son Library in Boone, has thrice been its 
vice-president, and is now holding that posi- 
tion. When the Eleanor Moore Hospital 

was recently instituted in Boone, she was 
chi >sen as one of its board of directors. She 
t< K>k an active part in securing the enactment 
of the compulsory education law by the 
twenty-ninth general assembly of Iowa. 
These are some of her works known to the 
public; but her help in times of need, in sor- 
row and distress, where the general eye is 
not turned, will not be known save to the 
Great One who presides over the good acts 
of I lis children and to the grateful recipients 
of her ministrations. 

In Mrs. Barkley are found strength of 
intellect and womanly tact, high aspiration 
and delicacy in the use of means to the 
end. acute feminine sympathies with that 
judgment which holds them in due check. 
While at times her health has not been 
so good as could be wished, the fact 
seems never for long- to have deterred her 
altruistic activities. Her home is the abode 
of hospitality and she delights in the society 
of her friends. She is fond of good litera- 
ture, and Lowell is her favorite poet. Art, 
111 all its subdivisions, claims her apprecia- 
te 'it. and the beauties of nature are to her as 
the breath of Deity. Her married life has 
been most happy with the kind husband by 
her side, who truly sympathizes with and 
assists in her endeavors as she does with his 
ambitions. To all human eyes they have 
man) useful years before them, and to all 
this promise their many friends say. Amen! 


Arthur Clark is the president of the Og- 
den State Bank, of Ogden, Iowa, and his 
name figures conspicuously in connection 
with financial circles in this part of the state. 



where lie is honored and respected by all 
wlm know him. not only because of his excel- 
lent success, Int because "i* the straightfor- 
ward and honorable business policy he has 
ever followed. Air. Clark is a native of 
Java, Wyoming county, Xew York, born 
February 14. 1839, his parents being Samuel 
and Anna ( Bryant) Clark, both of Hanover 
City, Vermont, whence they removed to 
Wyoming county, Xew York, at an early 
daw There the father engaged in fann- 
ing throughout the remainder of his life 1 
and was a very prominent and influen- 
tial man of that county. He filled either the 
office of a justice of the peace or that of 
county supervisor for a quarter of a century 
and was most loyal to the trust reposed in 
him. His wife is still living at the age of 
eighty-seven years and makes her home with 
her granddaughter, A. Blanche Clark, in 
Ogden, Iowa. She has long been a very 
active member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church and has retained her mental and phy- 
sical faculties to a marked degree. Bv her 
marriage she became the mother of nine 
children, five of whom are yet living, as fol- 
lows : William, a merchant and horse deal- 
er at Ames. Iowa; Arthur, the second, in or- 
der birth; Orson, a prominent practic-" 
ing physician of Ogden ; Lucina ; and James, 
a banker of Ravenna, Buffalo county, Ne- 

Arthur Clark received a common -school 
education in early life and was married on 
reaching man's estate, the lady of his choice 
being Mis- Mary Watson, a daughter of 
John Watson, of Eagle, Wyoming count v. 
who was proprietor of a saw and flour mil', 
ai that place. There Mr-. Clark passed away 
in 1874. Three children were born of this 
union: Samuel Watson, who came to 

Ogden m 1886, was engaged in the banking 

business until his death, which occurred 
February 12, 1891. Lillian is the wife of 
Ellsworth Cheney, who is now traveling in 
the interests of a large woolen mill of San- 
dusky, Xew York. A, Blanche, the young- 
est, has for several years been the efficient 
assistant cashier in the Ogden State Bank. 
After the death of bis first wife Air. Clark 
was again married, his second union being 
with Miss Marian Holmes, a daughter of 
Myron Holmes, of Sandusky, Xew York, 
who was a leader in general merchandise 
until his death, which occurred in 1894. Un- 
to Air. Clark and his wife has been born one 
child, Arthur, wdio, in connection with his 
sister. A. Blanche, purchased the old Cutler 
farm in Beaver township, upon which they 
are now living. 

During the Civil war Arthur Clark was 
drafted and detailed to Colonel Tracy's of- 
fice for camp distribution at Elmira, New 
^ oik. At one time there were eleven thou- 
sand Confederate soldiers there. He was 
mustered out in 1863 with the Sixty-third 
New York regiment. For one year he was 
a. clerk in Governor Fenton's office, which 
position he satisfactorily filled. He resided 
upon the old homestead in Wyoming county, 
Xew York, and there engaged in farming 
until 1891, when he removed to the west and 
established his home in Ogden. Here he at 
once began the hanking business and was 
chosen president of the Ogden State Bank, 
in which capacity he has since served. In 
politics he is a stanch Republican and in 
[862 he became a delegate to the first Union 
convention, composed of Whigs, War-Dem- 
ocrats and Republicans, at which Morgan 
was nominated for governor of Yew York. 
While residing in the Empire state our sub- 



ject was elected to represent his district in 
the state legislature, serving in 1876-7. So- 
cially he is identified with Rhodes Lodge, 
No. 303, F. & A. M.j of Ogden, and has 
been a member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic since its organization. During the 
greater part of the summer months he spends 
his time upon his farm with his wife 
and son, on section 27, Beaver township. 
This is known as the Forest Home farm and 
is being placed under a high state of culti- 
vation, a variety of grains, vegetables and 
fruits being raised. At the front has been 
planted a grove of evergreens, elms, maples 
and other trees, which is said to be the fin- 
est grove in the state. Mr. Clark owns a fine 
residence on Alain street in Ogden and in- 
tends to make his home here. He is one 
of the prominent citizens of the place and 
the family is well known throughout Boone 
county. Few men are more prominent or 
more widely known in the enterprising city 
ot Ogden than Mr. Clark, lie has been an 
important factor in business circles and his 
popularity is well deserved, as in him are 
embraced the characteristics of an unbend- 
ing integrity, unabating energy and indus- 
try that never flags, lie 1- public spirited 
ami thoroughly interested in whatever tends 
to promote the moral, intellectual and ma- 
terial welfare of his community. 


In the citizenship of Bonne county are 
found representatives of many lands. From 
Switzerland John Engler came to the United 
States and is now a representative farmer 
of Jackson township, Boonecounty. He was 
born in the land of the Alps, Aug 
is jo. hi- parent- being < lallus and Margaret 

Engler. The father was a farmer and in 
the year 1852 emigrated to America. He 
took up his abode in Fond du Lac county, 
Wisconsin, where he spent his remaining 
days, passing away at the age of sixty-two 
years. His wife is also deceased. In 
their family were six children, of whom 
four are yet living, Ursula and Ulrich, the 
eldest and youngest, having passed away. 
The others are: Christina, Margaret, John 
and Jacob. 

John Engler was reared to manhood in 
Switzerland, pursuing his education in the 
public schools there. At the age of nine- 
teen years he crossed the briny deep and 
became a resident of Fond du Lac county, 
Wisconsin. This was in the year 1841; and 
he; lived in the Badger state until 1807, at 
which time he came to Boone county. Iowa. 
1" Wisconsin he had owned and operated 
eight) acres of land. The first land 
which he purchased in this county was a 
two hundred acres upon which he 
yet lives. Here he has carried on mixed 
fanning. lie ha- one hundred acres of 
splendid grain while the remainder of his 
farm is devoted to the raising of hay and 
to pasture land. He keeps about fifty head 
of short-horn cattle of a high grade and 
In stock sells for good prices because of 
its excellent condition. There are good 
buildings upon the place and everything 
■ farm is indicative of the thrift, 
enterprise and up-to-date business methods 
of the owner. 

In 1858 Mr. Engler was united in mar- 
Miss Mary Tischauser, who died 
in 1878, and on the 20th of October, t88o, 
again married, his second union 
being with Clara Cronk, who was horn in 
Washington county. New York, Decem- 
ber 25. 1855. a daughter of Robert and 



Adeline Cronk. Her father was a native 
of Northumberland, New York, while her 
mother's birth occurred in Herkimer coun- 
ty, that state. He is now deceased, but 
his widow is living in Boone. By his first 
marriage Mr. Engler had four children : 
Christian. Ulrich, Margaret and John, and 
the children of the second marriage are : 
Adeline, Ursula and Zeruah. In his polit- 
ical views Mr. Engler largely endorses the 
Republican party, generally voting its tick- 
et. He is a believer in the Dutch Reformed 
church, while his wife is connected with 
the Baptist church. They are people of 
the highest respectability and have lived 
lives of industry ami honesty, and thorough- 
out the community they enjoy the high re- 
gard of a large number of friends. Mr. 
Engler is one of the men of foreign birth 
who realized the advantages offered by the 
new world, have improved the opportunities 
of America and have achieved success 
through earnest and honorable effort. 


Upon a farm where for many years he 
was actively engaged in the cultivation of 
the soil. James E. Robertson is 11 •w living 
a retired life and his rest is well merited foi 
his business career was one of untiring ac- 
tivity and honor. Mr. Robertson is a na- 
tive of Canada, his birth having occurred 
near Toronto, September 26, 1833. He is 
a son of James Robertson, who was born, 
reared and married in Scotland. The lady 
of his choice bore the nmaiden name of 
Mackintosh and her death occurred when 
her son James was a little child. He was 
then reared by his maternal grandparents 

ami spent the first sixteen or seventeen 
years of his life in Canada, after which he 
came to the United States, locating in Erie 
county, Pennsylvania, where he was en- 
gaged in teaming in connection with rail- 
road construction. He followed railroad 
work until 1858 on the Cleveland & Erie 
road for three years and subsequently be- 
came an engineer on the Milwaukee road 
running from Chicago. Illinois, to Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin, for four years. 

In 1858 he went to California, going by 
way of New York, the Isthmus of Pana- 
ma and Aspinwall, proceeding thence up the 
Pacific coast to San Francisco. On land- 
ing at the Golden Gate he made his way to 
the mines, where he devoted his attention to 
searching for the precious metal for sev- 
eral years. In 1861 he left California for 
Montana, where he engaed in mining for a 
number of years. On the expiration of 
that period he came to Boone county, Iowa, 
and with the capital he had acquired 
through his former labors he purchased one 
hundred ami sixty acres of prairie land. 
He built there a little home and locating on 
the place began to break the prairie and 
cultivate the fields. Now, in connection 
with is son, he owns five hundred and 
sixty acres of valuable land, all in Grant 
township, comprising three farms which art 
valuable and well improved. Coming to 
the United States when a young man. with- 
out capital, he resolved that he would win 
success if it could be gained through de- 
termined effort and honorable purpose. 
Those qualities are foundation stones for 
main fortunes and it was upon those that 
Mr. Robertson budded his prosperity. 
Upon the home farm he erected a large 
and substantial residence, also built good 

2 5 6 


barns and buildings for the shelter of grain 
and stock. He has planted trees which are 
now of splendid size, while his orchard 
yields to him excellent fruits. 

Mr. Robertson was married in Mon- 
tana, in 1869, to Mrs. Ann Griffin, a 
widow. She was born in Ireland and dur- 
ing her girlhood was brought to America. 
being reared mostly in Montana and Color- 
ado. Her death occurred in July, 1898. 
By her former marriage was born one son, 
Frank, who was adopted, reared and edu- 
cated by our subject and is now one of the 
prominent men of the township. He is a 
leading Republican and at the present time 
is serving as township trustee. Mr. Rob- 
ertson has also been a lifelong Republican 
and attained the right of franchise at the 
time the Republican party sprang into ex- 
istence and placed its first candidate in the 
field. He voted for John C. Fremont and 
has since never faltered in his allegiance to 
the time-honored principles of the party, 
lie was elected to serve for six years as 
justice of the peace ami for eighteen years 
was township trustee, while on the school 
board he has done effective service fur the 
cause <<\ education. He belongs to the 
Masonic fraternity, although he is now di- 
mitted from active membership. 1 1 i >- son 
Frank is likewise identified with the era it. 

Mr. Robertson ha- had a somewhat 
eventful life: his youth vyas passed in Can- 
ada, his early manhood in the east. lie 
afterward came to the Mississippi valley, 
being connected with railroad construction 
and the operative departmenl of railroads 
in Wisconsin and Illinois, lie then SOUghl 
a home upon the Pacific coasl and b fa 
miliar with all the experiences of mining 
life 111 the early days when the story of the 

mines was far different from that at the 
present time. He was also one of the pio- 
neers in mining prospectors in Montana, 
then settled down to the cpriet pursuits of 
the farm in the rich agricultural state of 
Iowa. Here he has been a valued represent- 
ative citizen for a third of a century and 
as the years have passed prosperity has at- 
tended his well directed efforts until now 
he can rest in the enjoyment of the fruits 
of his former toil. 


By Charles Aldrich. 

John McCrea Brainard was born in 
Blairsville. Indiana county. Pennsylvania. 
March 30. 183d, in the seventh generation 
<>f English ancestry. The immigrant ances- 
tor was Daniel Brainard, who crossed the 
seas when but eight years of age. and found 
a home in Hartford. Connecticut, in 
it>_io. In 1662 he became a citizen 
of and large landholder in lladdam. 
Connecticut. was a successful colonist, 
reared eight children — seven sons ami 
one daughter — died and was buried in Had- 
dam, April t . 1 71 5. 

The father of , mr subject, Martin Brain- 
ard, sjxth in line of descent from this im- 
migrant ancestor, was a son of Isaac and 
Mice (Brainard) Brainard 1 not relatives 1. 
born at Randolph. Vermont, ]unv _>o. 1796; 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1817; 
studied and was admitted to the bar at I'tica, 
New York; practiced at Rochester and Buf- 
falo 111 that state, and in Pennsylvania and 
Wisconsin; died at St. Augustine, Florida, 
April 17. 1883 (whither the family had re- 




moved in the autumn of 1875), and was 
buried in the "Old Huguenot Cemetery" in 

that city. The mother was Agnes (more 
generally known by her pet name, Nancy), 
daughter of Samuel and Martha (Bell) 
Moorhead, was born near Blairsville, Penn- 
sylvania. March 13, 181 3, -married November 
6, 1830, and died at St. Augustine, Florida, 
December 14. 1893. She was a woman of 
more than usual education for those days, 
was possessed of a tenacious memory and a 
capacity for ready and pertinent quotation, 
generally recognized among her acquaint- 
ances. Her ancestry was Scotch-Irish, im- 
migrating in the early part of the eighteenth 
or latter part of the seventeenth century, via 
Baltimore, and settling in the rich Cumber- 
land valley. Franklin county. Pennsylvania, 
near Chambersburg. Her grandfather, Sam- 
uel Moorhead, of Westmoreland county, 
Pennsylvania, married Agnes, daughter of 
Samuel Craig, also of Scotch-Irish stock, 
who was a soldier of the Revolutionary war 
and lost his life in the line of duty, being 
killed by the Indian allies of the British while 
crossing Chestnut Ridge on his way to Fort 
I.igi nier, in the same county. The intermar- 
riages of the Moorhead families were almost 
without exception with persons of Scotch- 
Irish descent : and this was also true to a con- 
siderable extent on the Brainard side of the 
house, the first — Daniel — having married a 
Scotch lassie, Hannah Spencer, and Scotch 
names appearing frequently in the list 1 f 
brides in later generations. 

John M. was the fourth child in a family 
of thirteen, three older brothers dying in 
early childhood. The remaining ten children 
— three girls and seven buys — are still living : 
John M., the subject of this sketch, Boone, 
Iowa: lustin M., Waterloo, [owa; Mary 

Alice (Seymour), Chicago; Joseph, Boone, 
[owa; David \Y.. South Orange. New Jer- 
sey; R. H. Curwensville, Pennsylvania; 

W'iliam A,, St. Augustine, Florida; Martha 
E. (Kidder). Ripon, Wisconsin; Harriet H. 
(Foster), St. Augustine. Florida; and 
Hair) M.. South Orange. Xew Jersey. 

John M. Brainard received his primary 
education, including the elements of the 
Latin language, from his parents at home. 
Then, after a few terms in the common 
sctn "Is. which were excellent for that period* 
he was sent, in the autumn of 1851. to the 
preparatory academy at Eldersridge, in the 
same county. He was then fifteen years of 
age and soon became self-supporting. At 
this school he was prepared for the junior 
year at Jefferson College, teaching school in 
the winter and attending the five months" 
terms at the academy. One of his pupils in 
those earl}- days was Ell Torrance, now com- 
mander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. Another was Lieutenant Geary, 
son of General and afterwards Governor 
Geary. Lieutenant Geary was killed in the 
battle of Lookout Mountain (General Hook- 
er's movement), which introduced the battle 
of Chattanooga. In the spring of 1853 his 
father's family removed from Pennsylvania 
to Beloit. Wisconsin. He entered the college 
at that place, but only remaine 1 until fall, 
when he returned to Pennsylvania, where he 
alternately studied in the academy and taught 
school until the spring of 1856. 

So. in after his completion of the academic 
course he decided to go west. This westward 
migration was preceded by his marriage to 
Miss Martha Wile \\ ilson, daughter of San- 
ford and Letitia (Clark) Wilson, of West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania. The mar- 
riage was in Callensburg, Clarion county. 



Pennsylvania. March 18, 1856. (Letitia 
Clark was a a usin of Governor James 
Clark, the third and last territorial governor 
of Iowa, who died by cholera shortly after 
the close of his official term, and lies buiiod 
at Burlington, Iowa.) The children of this 
marriage are seven, all but two of whom are 
living : Justin. b< >rn May 9. 1858, at Charles. 
City. Ii wa; married Gladys J. Calonkey Sep- 
tember 4. 1884. living in Boone. Walter L., 
horn March 12. i860, at Clear Lake. Iowa: 
married Lizzie A. Shackleton, June 20. 1886. 
,11 Boone; died September 23. 1887, buried 
at Boone. Frank S.. horn February 18. 
1862. at Clear Lake, b wa : lives at Centralia. 
Ellin* is. Elmer F.. horn January 31, 1864, 
at Nevada, Iowa: married Fannie E. Wo d- 
ward. January 2, [889, at Elkader, Iowa; 
lives at Pocatello, Idaho. Mabel Alice, born 
December 24. [865, at Nevada, Iowa: mar- 
ried J. T. Coveny, M. D., October 17. [889; 
lives in Oskaloosa, 1< wa. They have two 
sons, 1 1. \\ ,-inl and ( larence C. Emma Wale. 
horn May j^,. 1 87 1 . at Boone, low a : married 
Stillman Pearson, Februar) 17. 1896: lives 
in Aim >ra, Illinois. A twin brother of the 
latter ( unnamed ) died a few days after birth. 
The young husband and wife came 1 rut ti 1 
Wisconsin, and July 21 of the same year. 
[856, removed t< Floyd county. Iowa, taking 
up their abode in Charles City, since which 
time they haw resided continuously in Iowa. 
In the autumn of [856 he was employed to 
teach the public schools in Charles City, 
where he remained for a year. 1 fe wa- after" 
wards employed in the hank of Ferguson & 
Eastman, in the -tore of Ferguson & Stan- 
ley, and in the county offices lie remained 
in Charles City until 1S5S. when having se- 
cured a school at Mason City, he removed 
there and taught it during tiie ensuing year. 

In the autumn of 1859 ne removed to 
Clear Lake and taught the school there dur- 
ing the ensuing winter. While so employed 
he became associated with Silan Noyes in the 
establishment of the first newspaper in Cleat- 
Lake. The paper was known as "The Clear 
Lake Independent." Journalism was from 
that time forward his life work. At the time 
of entering this profession he was twenty- 
three years ( if age. The following year "The 
Independent" suspended, and the office was 
removed to New Amsterdam. Hancock 
count}', where it was published for a portion 
of the year 1861. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war times became verv hard for coun- 
try journals on the frontier, and "The Inde- 
pendent" was again suspended, the proprie- 
tor- engaging in merchandising at Clear 
Lake. This venture proved to he an unfor- 
tunate one. Many of their o-.,,„ls went to 
persons who were afterwards lost in the war, 
and to their dependent wives and children on 
the frontier, and such account- were never 
collected. In the summer of [863 Mr. Brain- 
ard sought a new field, going to Nevada, 
Story county, Iowa, where he bought the 
"Reveille" from George Schoonover, which 
he rechristened "The Story County ^Egis." 
lie remained in Nevada f< r live year-, ami 
in the autumn of [868 acquired John Chap- 
man's interest in the "Council Bluffs Non- 
pareil," which he edited the latter portion of 
that year and into the summer of [869. 
About this time he purchased "The Boone 
Standard." when his editorial wanderings 
ceased. I le had attended the first sale of lot- 
in the embryo town three years before. The 
paper wa- published without missing 
until January 1. 1902, or nearly a third of a 
cumin. Its publication became too great a 
burden, owing to hi- advancing years, and 



the changed circumstances of newspaper pub- 
lication, which rendered a weekly paper un- 
profitable, and to the public undesirable. 
Only daily papers can meet the demands of 
the people these days of telegraphs and rural 
mail delivery. While Brainard's modest lit- 
tle "Standard" was always readable from the 
first line to the last, the propiti* us days for a 
weekly in Boone county. Iowa, had "faded 
into the azure of the past." Some men of his 
years, when compelled by the logic of their 
environments to give up a line of business 
and retire to a life wholly private, become 
soured and misanthropic, imagining that they 
have been ill-used, that "republics are un- 
grateful" and all that sort of thing. Not so 
was it with John M. Brainard. He saw that 
the days of the country weekly had passed 
away never to return, and he accepted the 
situation cheerfully without a word of com- 
plaint, turning his attention to other fields 
of usefulness. 

While he has never been in the generally 
accepted sense an officeseeker. at times the 
favor of the people or of influential friends 
has called upon him for public service. In 
1862 he was elected a member of the state 
hoard of education from the sixth district of 
Iowa to till a vacancy; but the action 1 E the 
general assembly March 24, 1864, relieved 
him from further duty by the abolition of the 
board. On February 14, 1873. his "valen- 
tine" was President Grant's commission as 
postmaster for Boone. Iowa, a position which 
he filled for the usual term of four years. 
He served a term on the Boone school b 'aid, 
by appointment, in 1877 an( l l %7%- In !886 
he was elected, for the term of two years, a 
member of the city council of Boone, a peril id 
of development in its growth which gave him 
opportunity for the impress of some of his 

cherished conceptions of civic improvement 
upon the eommunity. In 1893, when the 
city decided to construct a general .-ewer sys- 
tem, he was largely instrumental in securing 
as its advisory engineer in this work the dis- 
tinguished Colonel George I-'.. Waring, Jr., 
whose plans were substantially adopted. In 
[881-82 he was active in the promotion of 
the St. Louis. Des Moines & Northern Rail 
way. from Boone to He- Moines, now th' 
property of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St 
Paul Railway Company. The opening o: 
this line in July. 1882. marked the commence- 
ment of an era of new prosperity for the city 
of Boone and the territory adjoining the new 

The writer has known Mr. Brainard inti- 
mately and well for nearly fort}' years, and it 
is a pleasure to bear testimony to his many 
excelent qualities of head ami heart. As a 
writer for the press he was one of the first 
among those who came as pioneers into 
northwestern Iowa prior t' > r86o. His paper 
was a clean piece of writing and printing. 
Xo parent ever felt any hesitancy in having it 
come into the home. It always contained 
much aside from the news of the day that 
was in the highest degree instructive. Even 
now "Id settlers speak in most cordial terms 
of what John Brainard's paper was a quarter 
of a century ago. A complete tile of that 
most excellent journal is in the State His- 
ti >rical Library at Des Moines. Among other 
good works he has always been a persistent 
advocate of public libraries. The city of 
Boone is now, thanks t" a few excellent peo- 
ple, building up a growing library, to which 
all are welcomed. But the sentiment in its 
favor has arisen mainly from the untiring 
work of John M. Brainard. This is conceded 
bv everybody. Another point may be men- 


tionefl. He has labored in season and out of 
season for the best interests of the public 
schools. No other ten men in Boone have 
done so much unrequited labor for the cause 
of education. Others have been "too busy" ; 
but a man with tastes in these directions, 
whose heart is in the work, can generally find 
time to help a good cause. 

His many appreciative, abiding friends 
will join the writer in the hope that many 
happy years vet remain to Mr. Brainard, and 
that — among the trees and rli wers planted by 
his own hand, and fondly cherished from 
year to year, and cheered by the songs of the 
birds which always find protection within his 
gates — he may. in content and happiness, 
"crown a life of labor with an age of ease." 


S. T. Steelsmith is filling the position 
of township trustee in Beaver township. 
Boone count}-. Iowa, where he is well 
known as an extensive Stock Inner and a 
prominent fanner, his home living one sec- 
tion id. A native of < mio, he was born in 
Tuscarawas county, on the loth of Sep- 
tember, 1N4-. lie is a son of John and 
Lydia (Foreman) Steelsmith, the latter a 
native of Ohio and the former of Wesl 
moreland county, Pennsylvania. The 
Father was bom in [805 and from his na- 
tive state removed to Tuscarawas county, 
Ohio, where he resided until 1859, when 
he came direct to Iowa by way of the river 
route, the water being very high at that 
time. He first settled in Warren county, 

but after a shorl time came '" 1'. le 

c.nnty, because of an uncle living lure. 

He settled upon a farm near Boone, then 
in Worth township, and there spent his re- 
maining days, being engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. He died June 20, 1865, 
and his wife, long surviving him, passed 
away in November, 1888. In their family 
were six children : John, who is now living 
on the old homestead in Worth township; 
Solomon W., who resides upon the home 
place; Peter W., a carpenter residing in 
South Prairie, Washington: Samuel T., of 
this review; Luther M., who is engaged in 
mining in Troy, Idaho; and Benjamin F., 
who died in California in 1880. 

Like the other members of the family. 
S. T. Steelsmith was educated in the com- 
mon schools. His early boyhood days were 
spent in the county of his nativity. When 
about twelve years of age he accompanied 
his parents to Iowa, where lie has since re- 
mained, being a resident of Boone county 
during the greater part of the time. After 
arriving at years of maturity he married 
Mi— 1 atherine A. Davis, of this county, 
a daughter of Lewis Davis, of Worth 
township, one of the early settlers and a 
representative of an eminent family of 
Boone county. Here he died in [898. 
Unto Mr. and Mrs. Steelsmith have been 
born six children; Lydia. who died in in- 
fancy; Clarence, who is engaged in teach- 
in- school and is making his home with 
Ins parents, for his wife, who bore the 
maiden name of II. Xolin. is now de- 
ceased; ('. Fred, who married Erne Gon- 
der and resides two miles south of Boone; 
John V. Benjamin I-"., and Florence Belle. 
all at home. 

After his marriage Mr. Steelsmith 
rented a small farm on section 10. Beaver 
township, where he resided for two years, 



when he removed to the old Ten Eyck 

place, making- it his place of residence until 
the spring of 1878. He then removed to 
his present farm, known as the old Lloyd 
property. His farm is well improved, the 
buildings have all been erected here since 
its purchase. He has one hundred and 
sixty acres upon section iG, Beaver town- 
ship, and is accounted one of the promi- 
nent, progressive and practical agricultur- 
ists of his community. He carries on gen- 
eral farming and stuck raising, also buys 
and sells cattle. He now holds the office 
of township trustee in Beaver township and 
has filled other local positions. In politics 
he has always voted with the Republican 
party and is unfaltering' in his allegiance 
thereto and in the support of any measure 
or movement which he believes will con- 
tribute to the general good. He keeps well 
informed on the issues and questions of the 
day. both political and otherwise, and is a 
wide-awake, representative American citi- 
zen who realizes that industry is the found- 
ation of all success and has therefore made 
it one of the salient features in his career. 


W. F. Menton, who is connected with 
journalistic interests in Boone, Iowa, as one 
of the owners and publishers of the Boone 
County Democrat, was born in Colfax town- 
ship on the 13th of September. 1874, and 
i- a -on of John and Joanna (O'Lear) I 
Menton, both of whom were natives of Ire- 
land, whence they emigrated to the United 
State- and took up their abode in Boston. 
The father was first employed upon a farm 

and later was for twelve years an employe 
in the Ames Shovel Factory, near Brockton, 
Massachusetts. In April, 1866, he came to 
Iowa, locating in Colfax township, Boone 
county, upon the farm where our subject 
was born. He purchased fifty-eight acres 
of land and in the spring of 1889 he re- 
moved to Boone, where he i> now living re- 
tired, having for about a quarter of a cen- 
tury been an active factor in agricultural 
interests. He is now enjoying a well- 
earned rest, for in the years of his business 
activity he accumulated a considerable com- 
petence. In his family were nine children, 
of whom eight are yet living: Julia; 
Daniel; John A., Catherine, wife of D. P. 
[vis, of Boone county: Ellen Elizabeth; 
Thomas P.; William F., and Edward J. 
One son, Dennis, died at the age of twenty- 
five years, on the 19th of February, 1888. 
He had been admitted to practice at the 
Boone county bar, after completing a course 
in the State Agricultural College at Ames, 
Iowa, and in the Iowa State University, 
where he pursued his law course. He 
seemed to have a bright future before him, 
hut his career was terminated in death. 

W. F. Menton. whose name introduces 
this record, pursued his education in the 
public schools and in early life became fa- 
miliar with all the work of the farm, early 
assisting in the cultivation of the fields. At 
length, however, he left the old home- 
stead and on the 3d of September, 1900, 
purchased a half interest in the Boone 
County Democrat, becoming the partner of 
J. R. Herron. This relation ha- -nice been 
maintained and the paper is conducted un- 
der the firm name of Herron & Menton. 
The Democrat was established in [868 and 
has the largest circulation ,.i any Memo- 



cratic weekly published in Boone county . It 
also 1- the strongest organ of the party in 
central Iowa. Its owners and publishers 
are men of good business ability, wide 
awake and enterprising and their paper has 
now a large and constantly increasing cir- 
culation. It supports every measure calcu- 
lated to benefit the general welfare and has 
been a valued factor in advancing the pub- 
lic good. 

Mr. Mentor is a member of the Im- 
proved Order of Red Men., belonging to 
Oneida Tribe. No. 22, of Boone, and he 
now holds the office of great senior saga- 
more of Iowa. He is also identified with 
Boonesboro Lodge, K. of P. and with the 
Fraternal Choppers of America. Mr. Men- 
ton is a young man who exemplifies the 
progressive spirit of the west. He has a 
■wide acquaintance in Boone county where 
be has always resided, and the circle of his 
friends is almost co-extensive with the cir- 
cle of his acquaintances. 


In the promotion ami conservation of 
advancement in all the normal line- of hu- 
man progress and civilization, there 1- no 
factor which has exercised a mure potent 
influence than the press, which is both the 
director and the mirror of public opinion. 
Iowa has been signally favored in the char- 
acter of its newspapers, which have been 
vital, enthusiastic and progressive, ever 
aiming to advance the intersts of this fa- 
vored section of the Union, to aid in laying 
fast and sure the foundations of an enlight- 
ened commonwealth, to further the ends of 
justice and to uphold the banner of the 
Hawk-eve state. In a compilation of ibis 

nature, then, it is clearly incumbent that 
due recognition be accorded the newspaper 
press and in this connection we are glad to 
mention The Boone County Democrat and 
its proprietor, John R. Herron. 

Mr. Herron was born in Des Moines 
township, Boone count}". Iowa, March 19, 
1874, and is a son of Richard and Sabina 
i Payton) Herron. The paternal grand- 
father also bore the name of Richard and 
was a native of Ireland. Crossing the At- 
lantic to America at an early date, he lo- 
cated in Canada and followed the occupa- 
tion of farming. His wife bore the maid- 
en name of Mary Henneberry. ' In their 
family were four children, three sons and a 
daughter: Richard; Mary, the wife of "['. 
McDermott. of Eagle Gn we. Iowa ; William, 
of Missouri Valley, Iowa; and John, de- 
ceased. The father of our subject was also 
a native of the Emerald Isie and when he 
sought a home beyond the Atlantic, took 
up his abode in Stratford, Ontario, in 1847. 
making his home there until 1865. In the 
meantime, in the year 1858, he wed- 
ded Sabina Payton, a daughter of Rat- 
rick Payton. who was born in Ire- 
land but in the '^os removed to Can- 
ada and there spent his remaining days. 
IM- wife bore the maiden name of Hogan 
and died when her daughter. Mrs. Herron. 
was quite young. In the family were 
eight children: Catherine. Bernard, 
Thomas, Jane. Sabina. Ann. Alice ami Mar- 
garet. While residing in Canada Mr. Her- 
ron engaged in farming and in [865 be 
came to Iowa, residing for two months in 
Cedar Rapids, after which he removed to 
Boone. The railroad at that time extend- 
ed only to Nevada and there were but two 
houses in what is now the city of Boone. 
Mr. Herron and hi- family took up their 



abode in the little hamlet where they re- 
mained until 1869 when they settled upon 
a farm in Des Moines township, three and 
one-half miles southeast of the city. It was 
there that our subject was born. The fam- 
ily resided continuously upon the farm un- 
til the spring- ,.f 1886, when the parents re- 
moved to Boone, where they yet make their 
home. Their children are Mary, deceased. 
and John R. 

In the common schools John R. Herron 
began his education, attending- the parochial 
school of Boone and also the high school of 
this city. His connection with journalistic 
work began when he was sixteen years of 
age. in the capacity of a printer's devil in 
the office of The Boone County Democrat. 
There he remained, winning" advancement 
from time to time until he became the 
owner of a half interest in the plant, pur- 
chasing this on the 1st of January, [899. 
He had previously served as an apprentice 
and local editor. His partner in the enter- 
prise i- \Y. F. Menton, the partnership be- 
ing designated by the style of Herron & 
Menton. They are both wide-awake, en- 
terprising young business men a;;d are pub- 
lishing a journal which is creditable to the 
city and which is ever found as the cham- 
pion of movements and measures for the 
general good. Socially Mr. Herron is con- 
nected with the Woodmen of the World, 
the Fraternal Choppers of America, and 
other social and fraternal ors:anizatCn- : . 


John II. Hoys is well-known in journa 
istic interests in Boone. He is a youn 
man possessing the enterprising spirit s 

typical of the west. His birth place was in 
the Mississippi valley, for he is a native of 
Metamora. Illinois, born October S. 1X70. 
His father. Isaac Boys, was also born there 
and was widely known as a stock dealer, 
extensively engaged in the raising of thor- 
oughbred cattle. He is still living at the 
age of sixty-two years. His father. James 
Boys, was a native of Pennsylvania and a 
farmer by occupation. 

The subject of this review- pursued his 
education in the Northwestern University 
of Evanston, Illinois, and in Knox College, 
of Galesburg, completing- the course with 
the class of 1893. While in college he en- 
gaged in newspaper work and after the 
completion of his collegiate course he con- 
tinued in that line of industrial activity in 
connection with the publication of the 
Council Bluffs Nonpareil. After one year 
he became advertising manager for the 
Peoria Transcript and the Evening Times, 
and two years later he was made managing 
editor of the latter and in that capacity 
served for one year. In the winter of 1899 
he removed to Atlantic. Iowa, where he 
purchased the Atlantic Messenger, conduct- 
ing that paper until August, iqoo, when he 
entered into partnership with W. W. 
Loomis, with whom he has since been as- 
sociated. Together they conducted the 
Messenger until March, kjoi, when they 
purchased the Boone Daily Republican, 
which was established as a weekly journal 
111 1865 and the daily on the 1 st of Jan- 
uary. 1899. The present proprietors have 
enlarged the plant and added the first type 
setting machine ever brought to Boone. 
They publish both the daily and weekly 
papers. The Republican is a leading po- 
litical factor, its support being indicated by 



its name. Its influence is widely felt in lie- 
half of the party and also in advocacy of 
every measure which tends to promote the 
social, intellectual and moral welfare of the 
community. Mr. Boys is business mana- 
ger and the enterprise is proving a profita- 
ble one. In 1896 was celebrated the mar- 
riage of Mr. Boy- and Miss Jean Caskey, 
a daughter of Alex Caskey, of Chicago 
Heights. They have one son. Philip, lorn 
.March 21, 1901. 


William W. Loomis is associated with 
J. H. Boys in the publication of the Even- 
ing Republican and has editorial charge of 
the paper. Mr. Loomis was born in Fay- 
ette county. Iowa, and came to Boone in 
March, tool. 


For twenty-nine- consecutive years Will- 
iam Johnson was successfully engaged in 
merchandising in Madrid, and was one of 
the leading representative men of thai place. 
He passed away April 29, [902, and his death 
was mourned throughout the entire commu- 
nity, for he was a man who had endeared 
himself to his fellow men by reason of his 
possession of those sterling traits of character 
which in every country and every clime com- 
mand respect. In his business affairs he was 
found to be reliable, just, accurate and dili 
gent, and in social life his friendly interest in 
his fellow men. his genial manner and kindly 
disposition won for him the high regard of 
those with whom he came in contact. It is 

therefore proper that the sketch of his career 
should be given in a volume, the purpose of 
which is to preserve the history of the men 
who have taken a part in molding the prog- 
ress, improvement and upbuilding of Boone 
c< lunty. 

His name indicates his Swedish lineage. 
He was born in the kingdom of Sweden on 
the 1 -t 1 >f June. 1830. and when a lad of four, 
teen years crossed the briny deep to the new- 
world in company with his brother, arriving 
in August. 1852. They remained for some 
time in Xew York city and state, als. 1 resid- 
ing for a time in Pennsylvania, during which 
period Mr. Johnson of this review worked as 
a farm hand. He had few advantages, edu- 
cational or otherwise, in his youth. He 
early had to depend upon his own resources 
for a living, and whatever be achieved or 
gained in life was the result of his indefa- 
tigable efforts. In [859 he went to Califor- 
nia, where he secured employment, and later 
he engaged in farming 011 rented land until 
he was enabled to purchase a farm of his 
own. He then operated his property until 
1S70. when he sold his possessions in the 
far west and came to Iowa, establishing 
his home in Polk county, lie purchased 
a farm 111 Madison township, that count}-, 
and continued its cultivation for four 
years, hut in 1 S7 j he again sold out and 
in that year he came to Boone county, making 
his home in Madrid. 1 [ere he purchased an 
interest in an established general mercantile 
store, and as the war- passed built up an ex- 
cellent trade. For twenty-nine years he was 
a representative of the mercantile int< 
this place. He carried a large and well se- 
lected stock of general goods, and his reason- 
able prices and his earnest desire to please, 
together with his trustworthy methods, se- 




cured to him a very desirable patronage. 
After residing in Madrid for a time he pur- 
chased a grx id business house and also erect- 
ed a comfortable home and two other brick 
business blocks in this city. He likewise pur- 
chased and sold several other business houses 
and aided materially in the improvement of 
the town. His assistance was never sought 
in vain in behalf of any movement 
intended to promote the public wel- 
fare. When he came to America he 
was a poor hoy. with no capital and 
no influential friends to aid him, but he 
possessed energy, resolution and strong will, 
and these enabled him to meet business 
opportunities in a way to make them return 
to him a good income. He thereby accumu- 
lated a very desirable estate, a good home. 
and moreover he won an honored name in 
the land of his adoption. 

Mr. Johnson was married in Boone county 
July 7, 1871, to Miss Anna Johnson, a native 
of Sweden, who came to America when a lit- 
tle maiden of twelve years, and was reared in 
this county. She was born December 12,1853, 
and is a daughter of Jonas and Josephine 
( Barnquist ) Johnson. Her birth occurred in 
the town of Mjolby, Sweden, and there she 
pursued her studies until she attained the 
age of twelve years, when the family re- 
moved to America, settling at Swede Point. 
now Madrid, and it was here on the 7th of 
July, 1N71, that she gave her hand in mar- 
riage to William Johnson. Her parents are 
both dead, her father having passed away 
Feb. -><>. 1873. while her mother died on the 
2ist of March. [902. They were residents 
of Madrid and were laid to rest in the ceme- 
tery of this place. They were the first pas- 
sengers into Boone over the railroad, having 
come here in a freight car on the first train 

that entered the city. They left Sweden in 
the month of May and arrived at their destin- 
ation in September. Two children blessed 
the union of William and Anna Johnson: 
Arthur, a young man. who assisted his father 
in the store; and Selma. at home. Mr. John- 
son was a pronounced Republican in his po- 
litical views, and when he became a natural- 
ized citizen of America he cast his first presi- 
dential vote for Abraham Lincoln, in i860, 
and at each presidential election from that 
time until his death he supported the men 
and measures of the party, but was never an 
aspirant for office himself, his time and at- 
tention being occupied by his business affairs- 
He. hi iwever, served as a member of the town 
board, as town treasurer and as school treas- 
urer for seventeen years. Both he and his 
wife were reared in the Lutheran faith and 
he adhered to the church of that denomina- 
tion until his death. Air. Johnson aided in 
building and supporting various churches, 
not only in Madrid but in the adjoining dis- 
tricts. He looked at life from a broad and 
practical standpoint and realized that there is 
nothing of true value in the world save char- 
acter, and he so lived as to develop an up- 
right, honorable manhood. He was known 
as a reliable merchant and a loyal citizen, a 
de\ 1 ted husband and father, as well as a con- 
sistent Christian man. and thus in his life 
record there is much that is worthy of emula- 


The fitting reward of a well-spenl life 
is honorable retirement from labor and this 
has been vouchsafed to Mr. Soderland, who 
has put aside business cares and is now liv- 


ing a retired life in Madrid, although for 
thirty-seven years he was actively asso- , 
ciated with farming interests. He is num- 
bered among the old settlers of Iowa, dat- 
ing his residence in the state from 1858, 
while since [865 he has made his home in 
Boone county. Sweden has sent a large 
quota of citizens to this portion of the state 
and they have been important factors in 
advancing public progress. Among the 
number is Mr. Soderland, who was born hi 
Sweden June 2^, 1831, During the period 
of his youth there he learned the shoemak- 
er's trade and followed it for some time. 
He had but little opportunity to attend 
school and is largely a self-educated man. 
learning many valuable lessons in the 
school of experience and thus supplement- 
ing the knowledge which he had gained in 
early manhood. 

In the year 1857 lie emigrated to the 
new world, sailing from Stockholm and go- 
ing by vyay of Hamburg to Xcw York city. 
On reaching the shores of the new world he 
did not delaj in the east, but made his way 
at once to the Mississippi valley, settling in 
Knox county, Illinois, where he remained 
for more than a year, working upon a farm. 
In [868 he arrived in Boone county. Iowa, 
and was employed as a farm band by the 
month for one year. In [859 he purchased 
his first land, becoming the owner of a tract 
of eighty acres of raw prairie in Hamilton 
count}'. This he broke and planted and en- 
closed it within a fence, but he put aside 
business cares in [862 in order that he 
might aid the government in the 
to preserve the union intact. 

He enlisted at Boonesboro, as a mem- 
ber of Company 1. Thirty-ninth Iowa Vol- 
unteer Infantry, and after drilling in Des 

Moines and Davenport for a time, receiv- 
ing uniform in the latter city, he went with 
his regiment to the south and was assigned 
to the Army of the Tennessee. He first 
participated in the battle of Parker's Cross 
Roads and subsequently in the engagement 
at Corinth. Later the regiment was as- 
signed to the Sixteenth Army Corps and 
took part in the Vicksburg campaign. After 
participating in numerous engagements Mr. 
Soderland was also in the battles of Chat- 
tanooga, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge 
and LookOvrt Mountain, and then joined the 
Fifteenth Army Corps and went with Sher- 
man in the Atlanta campaign, fighting all 
along the line. He aided in capturing the 
city, then marched through, to Savannah. 
going with Sherman on his celebrated 
march to the sea. which was a continual 
triumph. He then took part in the North 
Carolina campaign to Columbus, and after 
the destruction of that city participated in 
the lasl battle of the war at Bentonville. 
marching thence to Richmond and on to 
Washington, D, C, where he participated 
in the grand review at the close of the war. 
lb losl very little time from sickness or 
other causes and returned home v ith a mosl 
creditable military record, being honorably 
discharged in Clinton, Iowa, in June. (865. 
Mr. Soderland then made his way to 
Madrid and purchased land near the town. 
in Garden township, becoming the owner 
of eighty-seven acres upon which no fur- 
rows been turned or improvements 
made, but his energetic labors resulted in 
1 ringing a change in a very short cours< of 
I the wild lands returned to him 
good harvests. He first built two small 
houses m which he lived for several years. 
lie afterwards added forty acres ;,, pis lajKJ 



and then built a good, substantial and com- 
modious residence and also erected barns 
and outbuildings, while fruit and shade 
trees were planted and modern machinery 
was purchased and all the accessories of a 
good farm were added. There Mr. Soder- 
land continued to make his home until 
1902, when he purchased residence prop- 
erty in Madrid and is now living retired in 
the town. He still owns his farm, however, 
and is also possessor of three hundred acres 
of land in Lincoln county, Minnesota, of 
which two hundred acres are under cultiva- 

Mr. Soderland was married January 22. 
1866, in Boone county, to Miss Hattie An- 
derson, who was born and reared in Swe- 
den and was a daughter of Andrew Carl- 
son, who came to Iowa in 1854. Mr. and 
Mrs. Soderman now have six living chil- 
dren: Christina, the wife of Haney John- 
son, of Slater, Iowa : Maggie, at home ; An- 
drew, who is married and is operating the 
home farm : Emil. who is married and is 
now in Arizona, for his health : Siegel, who 
is assisting his brother on the old home- 
stead; and Hannah, who is still under the 
parental roof. They also lost two chil- 
dren : Arthur, who met death by accident 
when nine years of age; and Peter, who. 
died in infancy. 

Mr. Soderland is a member of the 
(.rand Army Post at Madrid, and his wife 
belongs to the Lutheran church there. In 
politics he is a pronounced Republican and 
probably cast his first vote for Abraham 
Lincoln, in [864, at Rome. Georgia, while 
lie was serving in the army. He has never 
been an office seeker but has never wavered 
in his allegiance to Republican principles. 
He commenced life a poor man. coming t' 

America with no capital. He realized, 
however, that energy, strong purpose and 
honorable methods prove an excellent 
foundation upon which to rear the super- 
structure of success and as the architect of 
his own fortunes he has builded wisely and 
well. During a residence of thirty-seven 
years in Boone county, he has become fa- 
miliar through experience with the history 
of its development and progress, has seen 
the building of towns and cities, the con- 
struction of railroads, the development of 
farms and the work of improvement along 
all lines leading to the substantial upbuild- 
ing- of this portion of the state. He de- 
serves great credit for what he has accom- 
plished in life and well does he merit rep- 
resentation in this volume. 


Farmer, teacher. California argonaut, 
citizen, soldier and civil officer, Jehiel P.. 
Hurlburt was born in the town of Win- 
chester, Litchfield county. Connecticut. 
June I. 182S. in the sixth generation from 
English ancestry and is a son of Erastus 
G. and Clarissa (Goodwin) Hurlburt, both 
natives of Hartford county. Connecticut, the 
father born in 1787. He traces his ances- 
try back to Thomas H. Hurlburt, the immi- 
grant who came from England in 1637; 
through Stephen 1 2 ) ; Thomas (3); Elijah 
141 ; and Erastus G., the father of our sub- 
ject. The immigrant ancestor was the 
father 1 if five si >iis. 

Erastus G. Hurlburt, the father of our 
subject, was a farmer and was assisted in 
his occupation by a family of eleven chil- 


dren. all born on the home place. In 1S42 
he removed to Ashtabula county, Ohio, one 
of the counties of "The Connecticut Re- 
serve," as it was popularly called, and then 
a comparatively new country. As the land 
in that region was covered with a dense 
growth of timber - , young Jehiel found occa- 
sion for the plentiful use of his spare ener- 
gies in clearing it. After three years his 
father died, in 1845; his wife survived him 
for eleven year-, passing away in 1856. In 
their family was seven suns and four 
daughters, of whom four sons and one 
daughter are now living, namely : Mrs. 
Louisa Freer, a widow, residing at Mount 
Vernon, Iowa, at eighty-four years of age; 
Judge Belden G.. of San Jose. California, 
eighty-two years old; Jehiel Burr, of tin- 
review: H. ('.. df Osborn county. Kansas; 
and Captain David F... of Ashtabula comity. 
Ohio, who commanded Company K. of the 
Twenty-ninth Ohio Infantry, during the 
Civil war. 

Young Jehiel spent hi- boyhood in the 
usual manner of the lads of that daw work- 
ing on the farm in summer and attending 
the country schools in the winter. His re- 
moval to Ohio when fourteen year- old did 
not materially vary the order of his occu- 
pations, for the citizen- had a common an- 
cestry and like eagerness for educational 
advantages tor their children. Thus it 
came, in the most natural wav, that he 
graduated from the school benches to the 
.-eat of the teacher, and se\ en consecutive 
winters saw him occupied in the latter ca- 
pacity in Ohio and Illinois. In the latter 
state he taught in the town- of Blooming- 
dale and Xauvoo. While thus eng 
the latter place, he contracted the prevail- 
ing "gold fever" and prepared during the 

winter of 185 1-2 for an overland trip to the 
Pacific coast country, which design was car- 
ried out in 1852, consuming six months of 
the summer season. The departure of him- 
self and brother, B. G.. was from Xauvoo, 
and arriving in central Iowa 1 they found 
that the grass was not yet grown sufficiently 
lor their oxen and they encamped for a 
month on what is now the site of Mitchell- 
ville, a few miles east of the city of Des 
Moines, until the herbage was sufficiently 
advanced. This period of rest gave oppor- 
tunity to observe the richness of Iowa's 
prairie soil and doubtless afterward had its 
influence in determining his future location. 
There was nothing ut of the common hap- 
pened to his party in this long, weary and 
monotonous journey; the way lined with 
the wreck of wagons, ox-bows, discarded 
boxes, hones of dead cattle and sometimes 
those of human being-: all conditions re- 
quiring the utmost endurance, patience and 
whatever of hope was left yet in their weary 
bodies or more weary minds. Arrived at 
the long sought Eldorado August 28 Air. 
Ilurlhurt engaged in mining for a short 
time, hut meeting with indifferent success 
took up truck farming in the Sacramento 
\ alley, forty mile- north of the city of the 
same name. This he followed for three 
years, returning in the early part of 1N50 to 
his home in Ohio, by way of Nicaragua 
Lake and New York city. 

In [857 Mr. Hurlburt came to Iowa and 
purchased a farm in Worth town-hip. 
Boone county. After this investment he re- 
turned to Ohio and pursued the work of 
farming until r86o, on November mth of 
which year he was united in marriage 
with .Mi-- Myra S. Lloyd, a native of Lake 
county, the ceremony occurring in Ashta- 



hula county. The bride had been engaged 
in teaching successfully prior to her mar- 
riage, and was a daughter of Lester Lloyd. 
who was Massachusetts born and engaged 
in agriculture after his removal to Ohio. 
Shortly after the wedding Mr. and Mrs. 
Hurlburt came on to Iowa and took up their 
residence on the land previously acquired, 
building first temporary quarters and break- 
ing the prairie sod, and in due course of 
time establishing themselves in a comforta- 
ble farm home. In recent years — in 1896 — 
they have built and occupy a pleasant resi- 
dence in the village of Luther, which town 
owes its existence to the construction of the 
line of the Milwaukee railway within a 
mile or two of the home farm. 

Seven children blessed this union, only 
four of whom are now living, namely : 
Mrs. Anna L. is the wife of Edwin Moss, 
whose farm lies not far from that of the 
parents, and they have one son, Howard L. : 
Myra S. is the wife of C. D. Todhunter. of 
Indianola, Iowa, and they have a son, 
Lewis J.; Jay B. is a merchant of Luther; 
Lillian L. is a trusted employe in the post- 
office at Luther. 

A youth who imbibed his views of po- 
litical equity and the rights of man from 
perusing the Xew York Weekly Tribune 
ever since his thirteenth year could not be 
indifferent to the assault upon the nation's 
integrity by open rebellion, and in 1862 Mr. 
Hurlburt responded to the call for troops 
by enlisting, August nth, in the ranks of 
Company! ]>.. Thirty-second Iowa Volun- 
teer Infantry, commanded by Colonel John 
Scott. The regiment rendezvoused at Du- 
buque for organization and equipment and 
was promptly sent southward. It was di- 
vided at Cairo, one portion going into gar- 

rison duty at Xew Madrid and a battalion 
of four companies under command of Ma- 
jor Eberhart being detached for a long and 
anluou> campaign which took it into south- 
ern Missouri and to Little Rock. Arkansas, 
often skirmishing and capturing the capital 
aforesaid. After lying ill in the hospital 
at Memphis, Mr. Hurlburt received an hon- 
orable discharge and returned home in July, 
1864. To have been a member of this regi- 
ment was itself an honor; its regimental 
colors, now in the capitol building, are in- 
scribed with the battles of Cape Girardeau, 
Bayou Metaire, Fort De Russey, Pleasant 
Hill (where the regiment suffered '"the 
greatest loss in modern battles"'), Marks- 
ville. Yellow Bayou, Lake Chicot. Tupelo. 
Old Town Creek, Nashville, Brentwood 
Hills and Fort Blakely. 

Upon the organization of the Republican 
party Mr. Hurlburt became identified with 
it and voted for John C. Fremont, its first 
presidential candidate. He is of the same 
political faith yet. In 1865 he was elected 
to the responsible office of treasurer of 
Boone county for the term of two years. 
In 1873 he was elected sheriff of the same 
county, serving the customary term of two 
years. He has at all times taken an intelli- 
gent interest in promoting the best local 
government, often seeing his prevision of 
public policies become true, and patientl} 
waiting the slower conception of these by 
his less discerning neighbors. His religious 
convictions have caused his affiliation with 
the Methodist Episcopal church. In the 
welfare of the young he takes a kindly. 
fatherly interest, and is a most excellent 
neighbor as is the habit of all pioneer set- 
tlers, imbibed in the times when com en 
iences were few and all were mutually help- 

2 7 6 


ful. He is entirely too modest to permit 
the recitation here of the good qualities 
which his intimates ascribe to his nature, 
but we can not retrain from the remark that 
the man who was nurtured from the col- 
umns of the Xew York Tribune, who reads 
habitually the Forum ami like substantial 
literature, takes his cue in morals from the 
pages of the Bible, bears in these his own 
banner of respectability, sincerity and abil- 
ity. May he have many years before is 
"beat the last tattoo." 


Stephen G. Goldthwaite is a representa- 
tive of the newspaper interests of Boone. 
It is said that no other one industry indi- 
cates so clearly the social, business and mor- 
al status of the community as do the news- 
papers and as this is so, many words of com- 
mendation may be written concerning 
Boone, for its journalistic interests are cer- 
tainly most creditable. Mr. Goldthwaite 
was horn in this city November 22. [868; Iris 
parents being Nathan E. and Mary A. 
(Thayer) Goldthwaite, both of whom were 
natives of .Massachusetts, hut are now resi- 
dents of Boone. In the public chcols our 
subject was educated, completing the high 
school course bj graduation in 1885. He 
then attended I >es Moines College for two 
years ami afterward entered Brown Univer- 
sity in Providence, Rhode Island, where lie 
was graduated in the class of [890. He 
then returned to his native city and accepted 
a position as reporter on the Daily News, in 
which capacity he served continuously for 
three years. At the expiration of that peri- 
od he became one of the proprietors of the 

Boone County Republican, in partnership 
with W. H. Gallup. He conducted that 
paper until November, 1896, when he sold 
out to his partner. He then held a position 
with the Chicago Dry Goods Reporter, re- 
maining in Chicago until 1899. when 
he returned to Boone and became a 
half owner in the Boone Daily News, enter- 
ing into partnership with C. O. Carter. To- 
gether they published the daily and weekly 
journal with a combined circulation of four 

On the 5th of June, 1 S< > 5 . Mr. Gold- 
thwaite was united in marriage to Miss Eva 
Bryant, a daughter of Dr. and Mrs. H. F. 
Bryant, ^i Boone, and they now have one 
child. Mary Thayer, who was born March 
30. 1902. Mr. Goldthwaite is a Republican 
in his political views and does all in his 
power to promote the growth and insure the 
success of that party. As a citizen he is 
public spirited ami deeply interested in ev- 
erything pertaining to the general good and 
his efforts through the columns of his paper 
have largely resulted to the public benefit. 


Upon his farm on section 30. Garden 
township. James Miller is devoting his time 
and attention to the cultivation of field and 
meadow and to the raising of stock and his 
work has been so energetically prosecuted 
that gratifying success has attended his ef- 
forts. He today owns four hundred and 
forty acres of land, covering portions of sec- 
tions _>, !_l. jj. 27 and 28, which is a well 
improved farm on which are three sets of 
farm buildings. lie also has a place of 
thirty acres adjoining Madrid. 


Mr. .Miller is a native of New York, his 
birth having occurred on the St. Lawrence 
river, in St. Lawrence county, February 6, 
1842. His father, John Miller, was a native 
of Ireland and on leaving the Green Isle of 
Erin crossed the briny deep to the new world 
when a young man. St. Lawrence county, 
Xew York, was his destination, and he lo- 
cated on a farm in Lisbon township, where 
he carried on agricultural pursuits, becom- 
ing one of the substantial fanners of that 
locality. There he reared his Family and 
spent his remaining- days, his death occur- 
ring there in 1891 at the ripe old age of 
eight)- years. He was married in that coun- 
ty to Mary Burk, also a native of Ireland. 
She died in 1864. By her marriage she 
became the mother of four sons and a daugh- 
ter, all of whom reached adult age. 

Of this number James Miller was the 
eldest and upon the old home farm in the 
Empire state he was reared to manhood, re- 
maining under the parental roof until he had 
reached his majority. He had fair common 
school advantages and on starting out on an 
independent business career he secured em- 
ployment as a farm hand and his time was 
thus passed for eleven years. He was mar- 
ried March _\ 1874, to Matilda Miller, a 
native of St. Lawrence county, reared and 
educated there. The wedding journey of 
the young couple consisted of a trip to the 
west. They made their way direct to Boone 
county. Iowa, arriving on the 4th of March 
and for two years they resided upon a rented 
farm. Mr. Miller then purchased the first 
farm which he ever owned, becoming the 
possessor of one hundred and sixty acres 
on section 14. Garden township. Nota fur- 
row had been turned or improvement made 
U| ion the place but with characteristic ener- 

gy he undertook the work of developing a 
good farm there. He built a small house 
and began to break the land and fence the 
fields. Later his first home was replaced 
with a good residence, while substantial 
barns and outbuildings were provided for the 
shelter of grain and stock. In his new home 
success attended his efforts and he purchased 
a tract of land, adding to his property from 
time to time until he secured two hundred 
acres in the home place and other lands near- 
by. In 1900 he removed to his present 
home, adjoining Madrid and rented his orig- 
inal farm. The place had been purchased in 
1891 and in September, 1900, he took up 
his abode there. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Miller has been born 
one son, Linnie J., who it is home with his 
parents. Mr. Miller is most earnest in bis 
advocacy of the principles of the Republi- 
can party and in 18O4 be cast bis presidential 
ballot of Abraham Lincoln, while to each 
candidate of the party since that time he has 
given unwavering allegiance. He firmly be- 
lieves in the principles of the organization, 
including the protection of American indus- 
tries, sound money and expansion. He has 
never desired or sought office, but has served 
as township trustee and also as supervisor 
of highways. The cause of education finds 
in him a warm friend and he endorses all 
measures which he believes will contribute 
to the general good. Both he and his wife 
arc devoted members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church of Madrid and Mr. Miller is 
serving as one of the church trustees. He 
is a respected citizen of the county in which 
he has made his home for twenty-eight years- 
and in which he has been known as a pro- 
gressive and enterprising agriculturist. lie 
came to the county a poor man. empty 

2 7 8 


handed but possessed of courage and deter- 
mination. He has met obstacles and diffi- 
culties on his path but has overcome these 
by strong purpose and to-day he stands 
among the substantial men who owe their 
advancement to indefatigable labor. His 
life history is an illustration of what may be 
accomplished through unremitting diligence 
when guided by practical common sense and 
should serve to encourage and inspire many 
young men starting out for themselves with- 
out capital. 


[..Mali Pierce Tillson, deceased, was born 
on a farm in Otsego county. New York, 
April 17, 1839. son of Ass and Camilla 

(Pierce) Tillson. He grew to rnanh 1 on 

the home place, receiving bis education in 
very good rural schools of the Empire Mate 
and at the Gilbertville Academy. At the age 
of twenty-five years he emigrated ti 1 Wiso in- 
sin in 1864, but the climate did not agree 
with him. and two years afterward, in (866, 
he came to l..\va. locating in Boone county. 
His first occupation was conducting a brick 
yard, a prime necessity in the neighborhood 
of a rapidl) growing town. the work- being in 
the vicinity of what has since come to be 
known as the historical "Kate Shelley 
Bridge." This he managed For a year or 
more and then removed to the town of Mon- 
tana, as the present city 1 E Boone was then 
called. He immediately found occupation, in 

1867, in the freight dep< t of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railwaj Company, which he 
served for the greater portion of his lifetime. 

\- an occasional variation of this work, he 
took employment in grocery stores, the 

woolen mill, and at the date < f his final ill- 
ness was employed as a carpenter by the rail- 
way company. 

Josiah P. Tillson was the fourth child 
and oldest son of his parents, the brothers 
and sisters being: Mrs. Louisa Fessenden.of 
Clyde. Kansas; Mrs. Ruth Eaton, of Maple 
Grove, New York; Mrs. Marcella Baker, of 
Binghamton, Xew York; Albert, of Maple 
Grove, Yew York; Mrs. Rosaline Hunt, 
Mrs. Marcia Holliday, Warren. Hiram and 
Sidney, all deceased. 

On February 4. 1868, Josiah P. Tillson 
was united in marriage to Miss ( Hive Lucas, 
at Belvidere, Illinois, she being the fifth 
child of Horace and Elizabeth (Hinkson) 
Lucas, and was born February 26, 1847, 
near Flora, Boone county. Illinois. She was 
. ne of -even brothers and sisters, namely: 
Walter, of Belvidere, Illinois; Oscar F. and 
Moses, also of Belvidere, Illinois; Cather- 
ine, deceased wife of Hawley Main, Boone, 
Iowa; Horace, deceased; and Mrs. Mila Ann 
Gibbs, deceased. 

The children horn to Josiah P. Tillson 
and wife were as follows: Ida May. de- 
ceased; Clarence 1).. head clerk of Fraternal 
( !hoppers of America. Boone, Iowa: Edward 
E., machinist, Chicago& Northwestern Rail- 
way Company, at Boone; Lloyd A.. 
plumber, of Boone; Harry I... student in 
the b.wa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

In all that makes for good American citi- 
zenship Josiah P. Tills.n was well equipped. 
He was industrious, companionable and 
thrifty. He took interest in public affairs, 
was active in the incorporation of the new 
city of Boone, and one of its early council- 
men, serving as such in the years 1868 ami 
1871. He was later i< .reman of the fire 
company, and always alert to the necessity 



of securing good and capable men in public 
office. Upon the organization of the Uni- 
versaJist Church Society of Boone he was 
one of its charter members, connecting him- 
self with the church, May 9, 1870, and al- 
ways taking an active part in its work. Fi >r 
many years he was one of its trustees and at 
the time of his decease was the superinten- 
dent of its Sabbath school. 

Mr. Tillson always showed a preference 
for fraternal societies and was a member of 
the Legion of Honor in which he carried in- 
surance, as he also did in several other or- 
ganizations, a precaution which was highly 
commendable. Perhaps his nature derived 
the greater enjoyment from his association 
with the Masonic bodies. He was a mem- 
ber of Mount Olive Lodge. No. 79, F. & A. 
M.; of Tuscan Chapter, Xo. 31, R. A. M. : 
and of Excalibur Commandry. Xo. 13. K. 
T. He took an active part in all Masonic 
work, and was the Tyler for each of these 
bodies for many years. The members of the 
fraternity who survive him are wont to re- 
call his many pleasantries during their 
"hours of refreshment." 

He died March 8, 1886, within a few 
weeks of his forty-seventh birthday, and was 
buried with full Masonic honors. He had 

been ill but three weeks, his malady being 
a malignant form of typhoid fever. From 
a notice published shortly after in one of the 
local papers, the manner of the man is char- 
acteristically delineated : 

"In disposition the deceased was one of 
the must equable of men; with a cheerful 
temperament, hopeful, sturdy, independent; 
conceding to all men similar independence of 
action and the same purity of motive which 
actuated himself. He made few enemies and 
was respected by all. lie was a thoroughly 

reliable man, one of the conservatives of so- 
ciety, neither too fast nor too slow, making 
few mistakes and generally attaining his ends. 
with< >nt undue display of the means. A com- 
munity of such persons would have little use 
for statutes. He will be sadly missed in the 
church, the home, the lodge and in society."" 


Life is meaningless unless it is universal 
and coherent. It is in the helpful spirit of 
the times that strength is found and when 
much good is accomplished. The concerted 
efforts of the day are those which lead to 
results and there has been no one element 
of greater importance to the world than that 
represented by fraternities, in their helpful 
spirit bringing aid to those who through co- 
operation with others have also aided their 
fellow men. Clarence D. Tillson is the 
founder of one of these fraternal organiza- 
tions and his effort in this direction was a 
humanitarian spirit as well as business 

Mr. Tillson was born March 21. 1871, 
in Boone, Iowa, where he still makes his 
home, his parents being Josiah P. and Olive 
(Lucas) Tillson. the former a native of 
New York and the latter of Boone county, 
[llinois. The father was a son of Cephas 
Tillson and the family was of English line- 
age. He was born in the Empire state and 
died at the age of seventy years, while his 
wife reached the age of eighty-eight years. 

In the public schools Clarence I ). Till- 
son began his early education and continued 
in the high schools of Boone, being a grad- 
uate- and the valedictorian of the class of 
r88o. Later Ik- attended Cornell College at 



Mount Vernon* Iowa, for two years and 
then became a student in the Gem City Busi- 
ness College of Quincy, Illinois, where he 
completed a business and shorthand course 
in [892. For one year thereafter lie was 
employed as a shorthand reporter in St. 
Louis, Missouri. On the expiration of that 
peri, id he returned to Boone, where he en- 
tered the service of the Northwestern Rail- 
road Company, with which he continued for 
a year and a half. Me next became stenog- 
rapher for the National Building and Sav- 
ings Association, with which be was con- 
nected until September, 1900. During this 
time lie had taken a deep interest in fra- 
ternal societies, and in August, 1900, in 
connection with B. ( '. Wood, now deceased, 
as head consul, he was the chief promulgator 
of the new organization of Woodcraft 
known as the Fraternal Choppers of Amer- 
ica, the general office of the organization be- 
ing a; Boone. On the death of Mr. Wood 
11. A. Miller became head consul, while C. 
1). Tillson was made bead clerk. Other 
prominent men of the state filled the other 
important positions ami the society has al- 
ready won a large following. Mr. Tillson 
is also interested in Boone real estate and is 
the owner of considerable valuable property. 
In [897 occurred the marriage of Mr. 
Tills. 111 and Miss Kittie Hill, a daughter of 
J. II. and Rebecca 1 Moore) Hill. The chil- 
dren born of this union are Elizabeth and 
Ralph C. Mrs. Tillson is connected with the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. So- 
cially Mr. Tillson is identified with the Ma- 
sonic Lodge of Bo 'lie. of which be is wor- 
shipful master. He has also taken the de- 
grees of the chapter and the commandery 
and lias crossed the sands of the deserl with 
the Mvstic Shrine. Roth be and his wife 

belong to the Eastern Star Lodge and be is 
a member of the Modern Woodmen of 
America and of the Woodmen of the World. 
Under his able guidance the new organiza- 
tion, the Fraternal Choppers, is winning 
creditable and gratifying success, having al- 
ready been endorsed by many prominent and 
reliable men throughout this section of the 


J. H. Rinker is the owner of a valuable 
farm of one hundred ami twenty acres situ- 
ated on section id. Beaver township, where 
be has resided since 1895. He was horn 
near the Atlantic coast, his birth having 
occurred in Woodstock, Shenandoah 
county. Virginia, on the 9th of May, 1841. 
He is a son of Rev. Henry St. John and 
Mary ( Fravel) Rinker, both of whom were 
natives of Woodstock, Virginia. The 
father began studying for the ministry at 
Woodstock. He attended the high school 
at York, Pennsylvania, for two years and 
afterward became a student in Marshall Col- 
lege at Mercerburg, Pennsylvania. On the 
completion of his literary course be took Up 
the study of theology, having determined to 
devote his life to the holy calling of pro- 
claiming the gospel among men. For over 
a half century be devoted his time and en- 
ergies t" tiie work of the ministry in the 
Reformed church, and his influence was 
of no restricted order. After his mar- 
riage he took charge of what was then 
the Mill Creek work and held it for 
twent) five years, gaining the love, confi- 
dence and esteem of all with whom be came 
in contact, lie was then called to Lovetts- 



ville, Loudoun county, Virginia, where he 
served the congregation acceptably for six- 
teen vears. and at the end of that time re- 
turned to his old home in the valley of Vir- 
ginia, where he spent his last days, dying 
in February, iqoo. At his funeral there 
were fourteen ministers present, represent- 
ing different denominations. His loss was 
deeply and widely felt, fi >r where\ er he was 
known he had gained the respect and confi- 
dence as well as the friendship and love of 
those with whom he was associated. Many 
were led to choose the better way of life 
through his teachings and his influence, his 
memory remaining as a blessed benediction 
to those who knew him. His wife passed 
away on the 7th of April, 1895. 

Their marriage was blessed with four- 
teen children, the eldest being Jonathan H.. 
of this review. The others are: Robert 
D., proprietor of a livery stable in Newark, 
Ohio: Jacob G., a railroad bridge builder, 
living in Corning. Arkansas; Anna Mar- 
garet, who resides upon the old homestead 
in Shenandoah county, Virginia : Joseph F., 
a clerk in Grottos. Rockingham count} - , 
Virginia; Susan E., wdio resides upon the 
old homestead in the Old Dominion: X. 
Eugene, a traveling salesman living in Co- 
lumbus, Ohio: John Casper, who died at the 
age of fourteen months: Philip S.. a farmer 
also living on the old homestead: Charles 
1'.. a traveling salesman for a dry goods 
house in St. Louis. Missouri: Cabin IL. a 
farmer near Woodstock; James William, 
who died at the age of a year and a half; 
one that died in infancy: and Kirby I., who 
1- agent on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
at Brunswick, Maryland, having charge of 
the transfer in the freight department. 

To the public school system of his na- 

tive state J. H. Rinker of this review is in- 
debted for the educational privileges which 
be enjoyed. He spent the days of his boy- 
hood and youth under the parental roof and 
continued a resident of Virginia until 1870. 
when he removed in Ohio, where be resided 
for two years, during which time he fol- 
lowed teaming, lie then removed to Illi- 
nois, locating near Arrow smith, McLean 
county, where he live 1 until the 1 si of 
March, 1877. His next home was in Ford 
county, that state, but March i. 1886, he 
returned to McLean county, and from there 
came to Iowa in [895, when he took up his 
residence upon bis present farm in Beaver 
township, Boone county, having purchased 
this property three years before. He now 
lias a well improved and valuable tract of 
land and carries on general farming and 
stock raising. In his work be is prosperous 
and has a well developed place, upon which 
are seen all the evidences of advanced farm 

Mr. Rinker was united in marriage to 
Sarah C. Hoover, a daughter of Reuben 
and Rachel Hoover, of Woodstock. Vir- 
ginia. Her father was a captain in the 
slate militia and during his business career 
carried on farming, his death occurring in 
W Istock, in [866. His widow after- 
ward removed to Illinois, where she located 
in 1888, there remaining until [895, when 
she came to the Rinker home in Beaver 
township. Boone county, Iowa, and here 
died at the very advanced age of ninety-one 
vcars. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hoover were 
members of the Reformed, church. Unto 
our subject and his wife have been born 
twelve children: Mary M., who died in in- 
fancy; Harvey 11.. who is married and is 
engaged in farming near In- father: John 

28 4 


Casper, who was born March 2. 1867, and 
died April 2, r S 7 7 : George J., a farmer of 
Amaqua township; Lizzie A., the wife of 
Albert E. Rose, a resident farmer of Mc- 
Lean county, Illinois: Willie, who died in 
infancy; Lucy A., the wife of M. S. Wise, 
a dealer in farming implements, in Arrow- 
smith, Illinois; Sallie M., the wife of Bur- 
ton Van Pelt, a resident of Amaqua town- 
ship; Robbie, who died in infancy; Charles 
R., a resident farmer of Amaqua township; 
and Milton J. and Ernest E., who are at 
home with their parents. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Rinker hold mem- 
bership in the Methodist Episcopal church 
and take an active part in its work. He 
votes with the Democracy and has served as 
road supervisor ami school director of his 
district, having held these offices for five 
years. Although he is one of the recent ar- 
rivals in Boone count v. Mr. Rinker is al- 
ready widely known as an enterprising and 
progressive farmer and as 2 valued citizen, 
and he and his estimable wife have a large 
circle of friends in this locality. 


It would not lie a complete history of 
Boone county if William McCal' was not 
mentioned upon its pages, for fifty-five 
years have passed since he became a resi- 
dent of this portion of the state. He came 
from Indiana in [846, settling first in Dal- 
las county, hut on the 7th of April, 1847. 
took up his abode near Centertown, Boone 
county, where he secured a claim. From 
that time forward he has been a witness of 
the progress and improvement of this por- 
tion of the state. 

Mr. McCall was born in Rush county, 
Indiana, November iS, 1S29. and is a son 
of Montgomery and Charlotte I McCane) 
McCall, the former a native of Pennsyl- 
vania and the latter of Ohio. In an early 
day the father removed to Indiana, where 
he made his home until he came to Boone 
county. Iowa. He entered here four hun- 
dred acres of land from the government. 
On the tract not an improvement had been 
made or a furrow turned, but he located 
upon the place and at once began its de- 
velopment and cultivation. After two 
\ ears, hi iwever, he returned to Dallas county, 
Iowa, where he conducted a gristmill and 
sawmill, carrying on business along those 
lines until his death, which occurred in 
1855. His wife survived him for a number 
of years, passing away in Marcy township. 
Boone county, in 1872. In their family 
were nine children: Emily, the wife of 
Reuben S. Clark, a resident of Ray county, 
Missouri; Samuel P... who is living in Los 
Angeles. California, where he is in charge 
of the Soldiers' Home of the state: Will- 
iam, of this review : Margaret M.. who be- 
came the wife of J. Bowles, hut is now de- 
ceased; Martha, who has also passed away; 
Solomon, a resident farmer of Marcy town- 
ship; John, who died in March. 1902: Mar- 
garet, the wife of Samuel Parks, of Boones- 
boro; and James, who i> living in Boone. 
All were educated in the common schools 
and thus acquired knowledge fitting them 
for the practical duties of business life. 

William McCall of this review spent the 
firsl seventeen years of his life in his native 
state and at the usual age began his edu- 
cation there. He also worked upon the 
home farm and thus early became familiar 
with the duties and labors that fall to the 



lot of the agriculturist. At the age of 
se\enteen he came with his parents to Iowa 
and in 1847 took up his abode in Boone 
county, where he secured a claim, residing 
thereon for eight years. He then removed 
tn a place near his present home. After his 
marriage he entered land where the village 
of Moingona is located. This he cleared 
and made excellent improvements upon the 
property. Since that time he has resided 
continuously in this locality with the excep- 
tion of one summer which he spent in Ray 
county, Missouri. He now owns ninety 
acres of land on section 12. Marcy town- 
ship, adjoining the village of Moingona. 
and here has a comfortable home. In con- 
nection with his son he is carrying on gen- 
eral farming and the united labors of the 
two result in the acquirement of a good 

Mr. McCall was united in marriage to 
Miss Sarah Rose, a native of Ohio and a 
daughter of Colonel John Rose, an early 
resident of Marcy township, settling here 
in 1850. From that time forward he was 
identified with farming interests in this lo- 
cality until his death. Unto Mr. and Mrs. 
McCall have been born two children: 
Charles Henry, who is residing in Boone: 
and William Wallace, who married Sarah 
J. Sparks and resides upon the old home- 
stead. He has two children. Roy and 

In his political affiliation- Mr. McCall is 
a Democrat and fraternally he is connected 
with the Masonic Lodge of Moingona and 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 01' 
that place, lie re; resents one of the oldest 
families in this part o!" the state and de- 
serves ureal credit for the work be has ac- 
complished in laying the foundation for the 

present prosperity and development of 
Boone county. He was familiar with the 
hardships and trials of pioneer life and it 
is but justice that he now enjoys the fruits 
of his former toil and has become the pos j 
lessor of a comfortable home in which to 
spend the evening of his life. He has 
reached the age of seventy-three years and 
all along life's journey he has won and re- 
tained the friendship and respect of those 
with win mi he has been associated. 


D. R. Hindman, of Boone, was born in 
Otsego county, Xew York. May 10. 1834, 
of Scottish parentage. He was educated 
in the state of Xew York, served in the war 
of the Rebellion as a member of the Nine- 
teenth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and 
has served for ten and a half years as judge 
of the eleventh judicial district of Iowa and 
is now actively engaged in the practice of 
law in B01 me. b >\\ a. 


George F. Freie, who i< living on sec- 
tion 33, Grant township, near the town of 
Ogden, is one of the more recent arrivals 
in Boone Count), dating hi- resilience here 
from March, 1885. He was bom in Cook 
county. Illinois, September 28, 1860. His 
father. John Freie, was ;| native of Ger- 
many and when a lad of fourteen years 
crossed the brim deep to the United States, 
taking up bis abode in Coo 

itv, II 


nois. He was afterward married there to 
Katarina Bu'berd, a native of Germany, 
who died when her son George was only 
five years of age. The father afterward 
married again and had several children by 
his second wife, but our subject is the only 
son horn of the first marriage in a family of 
four children. < )f the second marriage, two 
sons and six daughters are still living. The 
father devdted his attention to agricultural 
pursuits in Cook and Kankakee counties, 
Illinois, and his last years were spent in re- 
tirement in Chicago. His second wife still 
survives him. 

George F. Freie remained in the county 
of his nativity until he was twelve year- of 
age and in [872 accompanied his father on 
his removal to Kankakee county, Illinois. 
lie worked by the month as a farm hand 
from that time forward ami gave his father 
his earnings until he was twenty-two years 
of age. Me then began working for himself 
and was employed as a farm hand in Kan- 
kakee. La Salle and Cook counties. He 
afterward rented land in La Salle county, 
continuing its cultivation for three years, 
and in the spring of 1885 lie came to Boone 
countw Iowa, where he again leased a farm, 
which he operated for ten years. On the 
expiration of that period he purchased the 
place upon which he now resides, first be- 
coming the owner of eighty acres, upon 
which he built a summer house and stable. 
In 1895 he took up bis abode here and has 
since purchased an additional tract of 
eight) acres so that he now owns a quarter 
section in Grant township, lie has also re- 
modeled the house, to which he has made 
additions and has built a large barn. An 
air of neatness and thrift pervades his place 
and Mr. Freie is well known as one of the 

progressive and enterprising agriculturists 
of the community. He has planted fruit 
and shade trees upon his place. Me now 
makes a specialty of the production of po- 
tatoes, planting from fifteen to twenty acres 
each year to that tuber, ra;sni:_; about two 
thousand bushels annually. During the sea- 
son of 1901 he had thirteen hundred bush- 
els although it was considered a very bad 
year for crops of all kinds. He also raises 
a good grade of stock, making a specialty 
of Poland China hogs and is known as a 
breeder and dealer in pure blooded animals, 
lie has some very fine Poland China hogs 
and these command prices upon the markets. 
In [902 he further extended his business in- 
terests by the purchase of the Rentier 
Creamery, located in this neighborhood, lie 
employs a butter maker ami his business is 
now being successful)- conducted. 

Mr. Freie was married in La Salic 
county. Ilhiois. in the winter of [885, to 
Miss Anna Peter, a native of Germany, who 
came 1- the new world in childhood. She 
was reared in La Salle count) and he her 
marriage she ha- become the mother of six 
children: Nora Ella, Benjamin. Edward, 
Xettte. Esther and, Lillie. .Mr. Freie 
and his family are prominently connected 
with the Evangelical Association, and he 
heartily supports the men and measures of 
the Republican party. his first vote 
being cast for James (i. Blaine, in 
1SS4. While not a politician in the usually 
accepted sense of office seeking be always 
keep- well informed on the is-ues and ques- 
tions of the da) and for foul" years he 
served as justice of the peace and likewise 
held the position of constable, filling 
both offices with credit to himself and satis- 
faction to hi- constituents. Me is a -elf- 



made man. owing his prosperity entirely to 
his own efforts. Possessed of laudable am- 
bition to secure a home for himself and 
family he steadily worked his way upward 
and to-day is classed among the substantial 
agriculturists of (Irani township. 


Mike Kelly is now living a retired life 
in Ogden. Years of active connection with 
business interests, the capable control of his 
affairs and untiring energy in the prosecu- 
tion of his work led to the acquirement of a 
handsome competence, so that he is now 
enabled to rest from his labors, lie lias re- 
sided in this county for twenty years. He 
was born in county Kildare, Ireland, on the 
8th of April, [835, and is a son of John 
and Catherine (Owens) Kelly, who were 
also natives of the same county. The fa- 
ther followed the occupation of farming 
there. In the year 1X4S he emigrated with 
his family to America, settling in Xew York, 
where he remained until the fall of iS;;. 
when he went to Chicago, Illinois, and after 
spending the winter in that city he went to 
Boone count}-, Illinois, where he was en- 
gaged in farming for several years. He 
afterward returned to New York and from 
that state removed to Missouri, where he 
died at the age of seventy-five years. His 
wife passed away in Boone county. Illinois, 
on the 28th of February, 1SN7. This worthy 
couple were the parents of eight children, 
the eldest being the subject of this review. 
John died March [6, [857, at the age of 
twenty-one years. Edward, who enlisted in 
a Chicago regiment at the time of the l nil 
war, was detailed for service in Virginia, 

where he was mustered out at the close of 
the Rebellion. He then enlisted in the 
United States Regulars and was stationed 
at Fort Laramie. Wyoming, while later he 
wa- transferred to Xew Mexico. .Simon has 
resided in Lincoln, Nebraska, for thirty 
years. Patrick died in that city 1:: the fall 
of 1000. after having spent a quarter of a 
century there. Thomas died at Walker, 
Iowa, in the spring of [894. Ellen became 
the wife of helix McCune and died in [897, 
while her husband and children are still liv- 
ing in Boone county, Illinois. James is en- 
gaged in mining at Cripple Creek', Colorado. 
All received common-school educations. 

At the age of twenty-one years Mike 
Kelly started out in life on his own account. 
For four years he was employed as a farm 
hand. Then he resolved to make a home of 
his own. He was united in marriage to Miss 
Sarah Horton, a daughter of Abraham and 
Lena Horton. both of whom were natives 
of Xew York. In 1855 they removed to 
Boone count}', Illinois, and there engaged in 
farming for many years. The mi ither died 
in [867, but the father passed away in this 
county about 1S85. The home of Mr. and 
Mrs. Kelly has heen blessed with ten chil- 
dren : Kate, the wife of William McConley, 
a farmer residing at Red Cloud. Nebraska; 
Mary Elizabeth, the wife of I'. Cronin, a 
traveling salesman representing a firm of St. 
Joseph, Missouri, living in Lawrence, Ne- 
braska; Simon, who is engaged in mining 
in the Sierra Nevada mountains; Emma 
Josephine, the wife of Henry Johnson, a 
farmer living at Kcd Cloud. Nebraska; 
Francis Edward, who married Sarah < lavey, 
of Boone county, and follows farming in 
Beaver township: John A., who is engaged 
in the lumber business in California; lames 


M ., a resident farmer of Beaver township ; 
and Sarah Jane, who resides at home. Those 
who have passed away are William and Har- 
vey. The children have all been provided 
with good educational privileges and two of 
the daughters were teachers in this county. 
Mr. Kelly has firm faith in the principles 
of the Democracy and has taken quite an 
active interest in politics, keeping well in- 
formed on the issues and questions of the 
<lay. lie and his family are communicants 
of the Catholic church of Ogden, and are 
actively interested in church work. He has 
been a very industrious and successful man. 
carrying his business operations to a suc- 
cessful conclusion. He is to-day the owner 
of a fine farm in Beaver township compris- 
ing two hundred and eighty acres, which is 
well improved. He settled upon that tract 
when there was not a building between his 
house and Grand Junction. Iowa, except the 
section-house on the Chicago & Northwest- 
ern railroad. For many years he carried 
on farming and as time passed his well tilled 
fields brought to him a handsome return for 
his labor. On the tst of March. (898, he 
gave over his farm to the supervision of his 
sons and removed to the village of 1 >gden, 
where he has a pleasant home and is now 
living a retired life. He is a very prominent 
citizen and no man is better known through- 
out this part of the county than Mike Kelly. 


Jacob Tonsfeldt, now deceased, was one 
of the early settlers of Boone county and as 
he was a reliable business man and a val- 
ued citizen his loss was deeply felt through 

out the community when he was called to 
his final rest. His birth occurred in Ger- 
many, March 13, 1838, and he was a son 
of Eggert Tonsfeldt, who always lived in the 
fatherland, working there as a laborer 
throughout his entire life. Both and his 
wife died in Germany. There were only two 
of the family that ever crossed the Atlantic 
to the new world — Jacob and his brother 
Hans, the latter now a retired farmer living 
in Davenport, Iowa. 

These two brothers came to America in 
iS-S, settling in Davenport. The subject 
of this review had attended the schools of 
his native country and thus had been fitted 
for life's practical and responsible duties, 
lie was a young man of twenty years when 
he sailed across the briny deep to the United 
States. For four or live years he worked 
on a farm in the vicinity of Davenport and 
then removed to Omaha, Nebraska, where 
he was employed in a brick yard for two 
years. On the expiration of that period he 
came to Boone county and purchased a farm 
in Amaqua township, on which his widow is 
now living. From that time until his death 
he devoted his attention and energies to ag- 
ricultural pursuits and soon his practical 
work was manifested in the improved con- 
dition of the land which came into his pos- 
session. As year after year went by he har- 
vested good crops as the result of his ca- 
pable and energetic labors and became the 
owner of two hundred and forty acres of 
rich tannin-- land, constituting one of the 
best country homes in this portion of the 

Mr. Tonsfeldt was united in marriage to 
Miss Elsie Lohse, who was born in Ger- 
many. January 7. [839, a daughter of John 
Lohse, a resident farmer who always lived 





in Germany and there died. Unto Mr. and 
Mrs. Tonsfeldt were born nine children: 
John, who wedded Emma Dierks and is 
farming near Terril, Clay county. Iowa; 
Henry, who wedded Emma Hagge and is 
a resident tanner of Amaqua township; 
Anna, who resides at home with her mother; 
Jacob, who married Lizzie Knhl and fol- 
lows farming in Cirant township : Eggert, 
who died at the age of two years and five 
months; Lena, at home; Herman and Emil. 
twins, who manage the home farm for their 
mother; and Charlie, who is yet under UK- 
parental roof. 

Mr. Tonsfeldt served as a trustee in his 
township for two terms, and fur several 
years acceptably tilled the othce of road su- 
pervisor. He was a Democrat in his polit- 
ical views, strongly endorsing the principles 
of the party. Classed among the progres- 
sive farmers of the county, he deserved this 
position because of his untiring energy and 
the success which attended his efforts. He 
continued his farming operations until May 
iS. [9 10, when he was called to his final 
rest, his death being' deeply mourned by 
many friends as well as his immediate 
Eamib . 

Mrs. Tonsfeldt now owns the farm of 
two hundred and forty acres on section 12. 
Amaqua township, where she and her chil- 
dren are now living. This is one of the best 
improved farms in her part of the country, 
and her sons are successfully engaged in the 
tilling i>f the soil and in the raising of 
stuck. The mother and her children are all 
members of the German Luthern church of 
< >gden, and the family is one of prominence 
in the community, the members of the house- 
hold occupying an enviable position in the 
social circles in which they move. 

C. E. RICE. 

The true measure of success is deter- 
mined by what one has accomplished, and. 
as taken in contradistinction to the ..1,1 adage 
that a prophet is never without honor save 
in his own country, there is particular in- 
terest attaching to the career of the subject 
of this review, since he is a native son of 
the county in which he has passed his entire 
life and so directed his ability and efforts 
as t. . gain recognition as one of the repre- 
sentative citizens of Bonne. He is actively 
connected with a business which has im- 
portant bearing upon the progress and stable 
prosperity of any section or community, ami 
in the City Bank he has worked his way 
steadily upward from the position of errand 
boj 1.. tiiat..f assistant cashier. 

Mr. Rice was born November 10, 1856, 
in Boonesboro, his parents being B. J. and 
Jennie I. ( Moffatt) Rice, both of whom were 
natives >.f Jefferson county, Xew York. At 
the usual age he entered the public sch. ...Is 
and was graduated in the Boonesboro high 
school. In 1S75 he pursued a pharmacy 
course in the University of Michigan, at 
Ann Arbor, and in 1875 became interested 
in a drug business in Boone with his fa- 
ther. The latter became an active factor in 
the conduct of the City Bank in 1880 and 
our subject then succeeded to the drug busi- 
ness, in which he continued until 1885, when 
he also became connected with the bank, in 
which his father was vice-president. IBs 
advancement has come entirely through his 
own efforts, lie began work in the humble 
capacity of errand boy and mastered every 
detail of the business as it came t.> him. 
Eater he was made bookkeeper and since 
r8g2 he has been assistanl cashier of the 


bank which was organized in 1872, with a 
capita] of lift} thousand dollars. It was or- 
ganized as a national bank and later sur- 
rendered its charter and continued as the 
City Bank of Boone. Its present capital and 
surplus amounts to two hundred and fifteen 
thousand dollars. Its officers are Frank 
Champlin, president: Louis Goeppinger, 
vice-president; C. J. A. Ericson, cashier; C. 
E. Rice, assistant cashier, and C. H. Goep- 
pinger, second assistant cashier. 

In 1879 Mr. Rice was united in marriage 
to Miss .May Belle Jackson, of Boone, who 
died November 13, 1881, at the age of 
eighteen years, leaving one child. Charles, 
born August 12, 1881, and died at the age 
of two years and nine months. Mr. Rice 
was again married, June 14. 1SS7. the lady 
of his choice being May Goetzman, a daugh- 
ter of Charles Goetzman, of Boone, and 
their children are Howard, born May 1, 
1N00; Margaret, born January S. [894. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. Rice are well known in 
Boone and the hospitality of the hesl homes 
is extended to them. Mr. Rice is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, lie possesses the 
typical spirit of the west, being enterprising. 
progressive and always alert and watchful 
for favorable business opportunities, nor is 
he afraid of thai lab irious attention to labor 
without which there is little real success. 


Milden Luther, who is one of the thrift) 
farmers and stock-raisers of Boone coun 
ty. owns and operates a farm on section 13 
Douglas township, comprising two hundret 

acres (if well improved and most valuable 

laud. It is also pleasantly located within 
three miles of Madrid, The owner is one 
of the honored pioneer settlers of the coun- 
ty, dating his residence here from 1849. ' ' e 
was born in Indiana, his birth having oc- 
curred in Clay county, on the J2<1 of March, 
1S40. 'His father, Samuel Luther, was born 
in North Carolina in 1S02. and came of 
German ancestry, the family having been 
established in Pennsylvania at an early day. 
Samuel Luther was reared iruNorth Caro- 
lina and was married there to Dova Green, 
a lady of English lineage, also a native of 
North Carolina. After their marriage they 
removed from the old north state to Indi- 
an;., settling in Clay county, and were 
among its early residents. The father had 
a farm which he continued to cultivate and 
improve for a number of years, lint in [849 
lie sought a home in Iowa and took up bis 
abode in Douglas township, Boone county, 
where he entered land from the government, 
becoming the owner of over a thousand 
acres. This he broke', fenced and improved, 
and through cultivation he made it a very 
valuable farm, spending thereon his remain- 
ing days, lie passed away at the advanced 
age of seventy years, his wife surviving him 
about four years. The subject of this re- 
view was the eighth in a family of nine chil- 
dren, four sons and live daughters, all of 
whom reached mature years. 

Milden Luther was a lad of about nine 
years when he arrived in tow a. and amid the 
wild scenes of frontier life in Boone county- 
he -pent the days of his youth, living upon 
the old home farm and assisting in the ardu- 
ous task of developing fields hitherto uncul- 
tivated, lie remained with his father, ren- 
dering him such assistance as was possible 
until he was almost twenty-two years of age. 



During that time he acquired a common- 
school education and gained much practical 
knowledge of farm work in all its depart- 
ments. In early life he also engaged in 
teaching, but during the greater part of his 
business career has carried on agricultural 

On the 6th of March, 1862, in Boone 
county, Mr. Luther was united in marriage 
to Miss Mary Hull, a daughter of Dr. James 
Hull, one of the pioneer settlers of Boone 
county, whither he came from Indiana. Mrs. 
Luther was born in Jefferson county, Iowa, 
and was reared in this county. After their 
marriage our subject and his wife began 
their domestic life upon the farm which is 
yet his home. He at once began to improve 
it and to-day has a tract of two hundred 
acres, which is rich and arable and returns 
a splendid harvest for the care and labor 
bestowed upon it. In 1874 he built a good, 
substantia] residence and has also erected 
large barns am! the necessary outbuildings 
for the shelter of grain and stock. He has 
also splendid shade and fruit trees which 
adil tn the value ami attractive appearance of 
the place, and he is now the owner of one 
of the best improved farms in the township. 
The home, tun, has been Messed with the 
presence of four children. The eldest, I.illie. 
is now the wife of W. H. \\ illiams, a farmer 
ni Douglas township. Ella married Dr. 11. 
S. Farr. Zylpha is the wife 1 if < iei irge I fut- 
ton, a teacher of Madrid. Carrie is the 
wife of 11. D. Lucas, of Madrid. Mr, and 
Mrs. Luther also lost three children, two 
who died in early infanc) and Libby M-, 
who died in her second year. 

Tn his political views Mr. Luther was 
long a Democrat. He' was reared in the 
faith of that party and gave to it his un- 

faltering allegiance through an extended 
period, but he has always been a strong 
temperance man and now believes that is 
one of the dominant issues before the people, 
so that in recent years he has given his sup- 
port to the men and measures of the Pro 
hibition party. He was elected and served 
as township trustee For a number of years 
and has also been a member of the school 
board and its secretary, but has given little 
time to seeking office, preferring tn devote 
his attention to his business affairs. Both 
he and his wife are members of the Madrid 
Christian church, in which he is serving as 
trustee and also as one of the elders. He is 
likewise a Master Mason, identified with 
Madrid Lodge, in which he has filled all of 
the chairs and is now- a past master. He 
also represented his lodge in the grand lodge 
for four or five terms. For more than half 
a century lie has been a resident of Boone 
county, the entire period of his manhood be- 
ing here passed. He has never desired to 
leave this district, believing that it is a fa- 
vored one. and he has borne his part in all 
measures tending to the substantial impn >\ e- 
ment and upbuilding of the community. 
Widely and favorably known, his worth is 
acknowledged by a large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. He is a man of un- 
faltering integrity a id unflagging diligence, 
—two characteristics which contribute to the 
development of genuine worth. 


Near the village of Ogden resides John 
Buttolph, whose home is on section ;,_>. 
-I Mound township. Almost a half cen 



tury has passed since his arrival in Iowa, and 
since 1856 he lias made his home in Boone 
county. He was born in Lorain county. 
Ohio, August 18. 1842, and is a son of 
George Buttolph, a native of Massachusetts, 
while the grandfather of our subject was 
Starr Buttolph, a native of Connecticut. The 
family is of English lineage and was estab- 
lished in America in early colonial days by 
representatives of the name, who settled in 
the Charter Oak state. George Buttolph 
grew to manhood in Massachusetts, and 
when a young man removed westward, tak- 
ing up his abode in Lorain county. Ohio, 
about 1828. It was then a sparsely settled 
region and with its pioneer development he 
became identified. 1 le was married there in 
[829 to Dorothy Clark, a native of Maine 
and a daughter of Bunker Clark. Mr. 
Buttolph cleared away the timber from a 
tract of land, then built a barn and in course 
of time improved an excellent farm in Lo- 
rain county, where he remained for a num- 
ber of years. He removed to St. Joseph 
county, Indiana, in 1842. Seven children 
were born in Lorain county, Ohio, and four 
in St. Joseph county, Indiana, eleven alto- 
gether. In 1845 he came to [owa, estab- 
lishing his home in Linn county, but about 
1850 he came to Boone county locating in 
Pilot Mount township, where he engaged in 
fanning. I lis remaining days were spent 
here, and in 1872. when sixty-six years of 
age. lie was called to his final rest. I lis vvife 
survived him for a number of years, passing 
away in [895, at the ripe old age oi eight) 

John R. Buttolph was a lad of twelve 
summers when he came to Iowa and was 
fourteen years of age when lie arrived in 
Boone countv. lie acquired a good com 

mon-school education in Linn and Boone 
counties, returning to the former county in 
order to attend school there during the win- 
ter terms. When the country became in- 
volved in Civil war he was found as a loyal 
defender of the Union, enlisting in June, 
j No 1. for three months' service. Later he 
re-enlisted for three years' service, becom- 
ing a member of the Second Iowa Battery, 
and was in the Army of the Tennessee in 
tlie "Eagle Brigade," participating in the 
battles of Xew Madrid. Island Number 10, 
Farmington, siege and battle of Corinth, the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg, Meridan, 
Jackson. Black River Bridge. Iuka, Tupelo 
and Xashville. in altogether twenty-seven 
battles. He received two slight gunshot 
wounds at Vicksburg, but was not disabled, 
and he lost no time from illness and other 
causes during four years of active service. 
He was honorable discharged and mustered 
out on the 7th of August, 1865, as first ser- 
geant of his battery, at Davenport, and 
with a most creditable military record re- 
turned to his home, for he was a loyal sol- 
dier, never failing in the discharge of his 
duty, whether upon the picket line or in the 
thickest of the light. 

Again coming to Boone county. Mr. 
Buttolph then entered upon his business ca- 
reer, renting land which he cultivated for 
some time. About [869 he purchased eight) 
acres where he now resides. There were no 
ments upon the place, hut he 1 milt a 
little house and lived in it while opening up 
the farm, lie afterward purchased an ad- 
joining tract 1 f eighty acres. This he fenced 
and built upon u a large substantial resi- 
dence, also elected a big bant and convenient 
outbuildings, while fruit trees were planted 
excellent orchard developed. Shade 



and ornamental trees were set out upon the 
land and substantial improvements of a val- 
uable and attractive kind were added. Air. 
Buttolph also engaged in raising a good 
grade of stuck in addition to the cultivation 
of his place and is one of the pn igressn e ag- 
riculturists of his community. 

On the 24th of December, 1865, our sub- 
ject was united in marriage to Sarah A. 
Myers, who was born in Seneca county, 
Ohio, a daughter of Jacob Myers, who was 
one of the first settlers of the county, locat- 
ing here in 1854. Mrs. Buttolph was reared 
and educated in Boone c< mnty and is a most 
estimable lady, who has indeed proven a 
faithful companion and helpmate to her hus- 
band since they started out on the journey 
of life together. They have three children : 
Ada C, now the wife of Sherman Elliott, 
of Fraser, Iowa; Ida L., the wife of Ralph 
Casey, of Beaver: and J. Frank, who is mar- 
ried and is now carrying on the home farm. 

Mr. Buttolph is well known in fraternal 
circles, being a valued member of Pilot 
Mound Lodge. I. O. O. F., and of J. G. 
Miller Post, G. A. R., at Boonesboro. He 
is quite prominent in political circles also, 
and since 1868 has voted the Republican 
ticket. He was elected and served for five 
years as township clerk, has also been as- 
sessor, filling the position for twenty con- 
secutive years, and at the present time he is 
serving as township trustee. In the dis- 
charge of his official duties he has ever been 
prompt, reliable and faithful and has fre- 
quently been a delegate to the county and 
-late conventions of the Republican party. 
lli- official career has ever been a blameless 
one, as is indicated by his long retention in 
office. During forty-six years he has made 
his home in Boone county, witnessing almost 

its entire growth and improvement, as the 
conveniences of an advanced civilization 
have been added to the pioneer district. He 
is a man of tried and true integrity, faithful 
to the duties of home life and to friendship 
and is as loyal in the discharge of his duties 
of citizenship as when he followed the starry 
banner of the nation upon the battle-fields 
of the south. 


Boone county has been kind to her citi- 
zens, for the rich land can be brought tinder 
a very high state of cultivation and there- 
fore yields good return for the care and labor 
bestowed upon it. Mr. Clark is numbered 
among those who in following agricultural 
pursuits have won success and now he is liv- 
ing a retired life in Luther, where for five 
years he has made his home. He is a native 
of Indiana, his birth having occurred on the 
Wabash river, where the old fort Harrison 
once stood, his natal day being April 1, 183 1. 
His father, Samuel Clark, was born in 
Pennsylvania, but was reared in Ohio, and 
subsequently removed to Vigo county, In- 
diana, where his remaining days were 
passed, his death occurring there in 1 84 1 . 

Robert D. Clark, of this review, was 
reared in the Hoosier state until sixteen 
years of age. .and in 1847 nc removed to 
Bureau county, Illinois, and later to Peru, 
La Salle county, while subsequently he made 
his home in Livingston county, that state, 
where he remained until [874. His school 
privileges were very limited, but his train- 
ing at farm work was not meager. lie is a 
self-educated as well as a self-made man. 
There have been main- traits of character in 



his life record worthy of commendation. 
His faithfulness to duty is indicated by the 
fact that for seven years he was in the em- 
plo) of one man engaged in the livery busi- 
ness in Peru, Illinois. 

( hi the 9th of May, 1855, in Livingston 
county. Mr. Clark was united in marriage 
to Hannah Maria ( tetrander, a native of Erie 
county, Xew York, born near the city of 
Buffalo. About [852, however, she became 
a resident of Illinois, After their marriage 
Mr. and Airs. Clark located upon a farm and 
for three years he devoted his energies ti its 
cultivation, after which he engaged in the 
hotel business at Old Redding continuing 
there and upon the farm for twelve years. 
He became .a prominent and influential citi- 
zen of the community ami was elected and 
served as county supervisor, township clerk 
and justice of the peace. Me was deput) 
sheriff and tilled other positions of In, nor and 
trust. In [866 he came to [owa and pur- 
chased land in Colfax township. Boone coun- 
ty, becoming the owner of one hundred and 
sixty acres of raw prairie. I fe then returned 
to Illinois, hut in [874 took up his per- 
manent abode in Boone county, locating 

upon the land which he had previousl) pur- 
ch Lsed. The buildings there were erected by 
him and the work of cultivation and im- 
provement was aKo the result of his energy 
audi determination. For twenty-three years 
he successfully earned on general farming 
and stock-raising and his efforts were so dis 
cerningly directed that he gained for Inn 
self very creditable success, in [897, how 
ever, he resolved to live a retired life and 
rented his place, removing to Luther, where 
lie purchased a residence property, having 
since made it his home. He is now enjov- 

ing the fruits of former toil and his rest is 
well merited. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Clark were horn 
tour children. Chester W. is a farmer of 
Calhoun county. Iowa. He is married and 
has five children. The daughter, Ida, is the 
wife of E. K. Luther, a resident farmer of 
Douglas township. Boone county, and they 
have three children. Mr. and Mrs. Clark 
lost two children. Eliza Jane, who died in 
her sixth year, and Rosetta, who died at the 
age of fifteen months. Mr. Clark voted for 
John C. Fremont in [856 and at each presi- 
dential election since that time has supported 
the Republican party, for he believes firmly 
in its principles of sound money, of protec- 
tion and of expansion. His business career 
as well as his private record has been an 
honorable one and shows that success may 
be attained through diligence and persever- 
ance when guided by sound judgment, lie 
had no friends or wealth to aid him in start- 
ing o,,t up, .n ins career, hut steadily he has 
advanced and to-day his competence is suf- 
ficient to enable him to li\e without future 


Boone county figures as one of the most 
attractive, progressive and prosperous di- 
visions of the state of Iowa, justly claiming 
a high order of citizenship ami a spirit of 
enterprise which is certain to conserve con- 
secutive developmenl and marked advance- 
ment m the material upbuilding of the sec- 
tion. The county has been .and is signally 
favored in the class of men who have con- 
trolled its affairs in official capacity, and in 


this connection the subject of this review de- 
mands representation as one who has served 
the county faithfully and well in positions 
of distinct trust and responsibility. He is 
now filling' the office of county auditor, to 
which he was elected on the Republican 

Mr. Burnside was born in Ames. Iowa. 
December 14, 1869, his parents being John 
A. and Margaret P. (Smyth) Burnside. 
both of whom were natives of Ohio and in 
1869 came to Iowa, locating first in Ames. 
The father followed farming in that portion 
of the state. His death occurred September 
14. [883 when he was thirty-seven years of 
age. in his family were four children, name- 
ly : A. M., of this review; Mary L.. the 
wife of T. J. McGregor, of Ogden; Anna 
M., the wife of E. E. Beatty, of Grand Junc- 
tion. Iowa; and Alice E.. now a teacher in 
the Bonne schools. 

Mr. Burnside, of this review, pursued his 
education in the common schools of Ohio, 
Ogden. Iowa, and at Highland Park, 1 )es 
Moines. He remained upon the farm until 
about four years ago and in the meantime 
he engaged in teaching school in the win- 
ter nv mths. assisting in the labors of the 
fields during the summer seasons. In No- 
vember, iS()S, however, he was elected to 
office and on the 1st of January. 1899. en- 
tered upon the duties of county auditor, 
which he discharged so acceptably that in 
1900 he was re-elected and is now the pres- 
ent incumbent. He received a majority of 
two thousand at the second election, which 
proved conclusively that his first term's 
service w as highly satisfactory to the public. 
He has ever been a stanch Republican, un- 
faltering in his advocacy of the principles of 
the party and his efforts in its behalf have 

b< discerningly directed that they have 

resulted in promoting the party's success. 
Socially tie is connected with Ogden Lodge. 
Xo. 281, 1. 0. ( t. 1-.. and with the Knights 
of Pythias fraternity. 


Alfred Morgan is a retired farmer, land 
owner and prominent citizen now living re- 
tired in the village of Ogden. and his con- 
nection with Boone count}- and its interests 
covers a period of twenty-eight years. He 
is a native of Cambridgeshire. England, born 
October 7. 1843. anc ^ ls a son oi William and 
Rebecca X. 1 Hart) Morgan, both of whom 
were also natives of the "Merrie Isle." The 
father there engaged in carpentering and in 
cabinet-making, following those pursuits in 
England until 1857. "hen with his family 
he sailed for America landing in Xew York 
city on the 6th of July. 1857. He went di- 
rect to Bureau county, Illinois, and there 
worked at his trade for two years, after 
which he turned his attention to farming 
upon a tract of land in Bureau county. In 
1875 he put aside agricultural pursuits, how- 
ever, and lived retired from active lab r" un- 
til his death, which occurred January 28, 
[892. For but a brief period he had sur- 
vived his wife, who died on the 19th of No- 
vember, [890. In their family were sj\ 
children, the eldest being the subject of this 
review. The others are: William, a resi- 
dent farmer of Bureau county. Illinois; 
[saac, who died at the age of nine years; 
John, who married Margaret J. Miller and is 
a retired farmer now living in Ogden; Ar- 
thur, who died at the age of -i\ vears : and 



David, who is living upon the old homestead 
farm in Bureau county, Illinois. 

Alfred Morgan, of this review, spent the 
first fourteen years of his life in the land of 
his nativity and then came with his parents 
to the United States. When twenty-one 
years of age he started out upon an inde- 
pendent business career and was engaged in 
farming in Bureau county, Illinois, for six 
years. As a companion and helpmate on 
life's journey he chose Miss Rosamond M. 
Tilson, their wedding being celebrated on the 
28th of November, 1866, her parents being 
T. T. and Sarah (Ballard) Tilson, of 
Princeton, Illinois. Her father was a car- 
penter and builder by trade, but after his re- 
moval to Boone county Iowa, he engaged in 
farming in Peoples township until his death. 
which occurred in March. 1892. His widow 
still resides in Wyanet. Unto Mr. and Mrs. 
Morgan have been born six children: Will- 
iam L., who married Dora Caylor, is a 
farmer living in Peoples town-hip. A. A. 
(better known as Fred) married Lama 
Jenner and is also a farmer of Peoples town- 
ship. Clyde C, carries on agricultural pur- 
suits in Marcy township: Amy L. is the wife 
of Percy Clark, a resident farmer of Peo- 
ples township. Ralph D. follows farming 
in Marcy township. Jessie B. is at home. 

After his marriage Mr. Morgan engaged 
in farming and in the operation of a thresh- 
ing machine in Bureau county. Illinois, un- 
til the spring of 1X74, when lie resolved to 
establish his home in Boone county, Iowa, 
and settied in Peoples township. Here he 
purchased a tract of land and al once began 
its improvement. \s time passed and his 
financial resources increased he afterward 
added to that property and also bought land 
in Marcy township. He was successfully 

engaged in general farming and stock rais- 
ing until 1 90 1. when he removed to Ogden 
and purchased what was known as the 
Charles Baker residence, which is a nice 
modern home on one of the main streets of 
Ogden, and here Mr. Morgan has since lived 
retired. He has made judicious investment 
in property as the years have gone by, and 
now owns between seven and eight hundred 
acres of land in Boone county, both in Marcy 
and Peoples townships, upon which his sons 
are now living. He is a stanch Democrat 
in his political views, unswerving in his al- 
legiance to the party. Socially he is con- 
nected with the Rhodes Lodge. Xo. 303, F. 
& A. A I., of Ogden. He has become very 
widely and favorably known throughout 
J !. i' >ne n unity and is a man of genuine worth 
who was active in business and has always 
been found to be reliable and thrustworthy 
in all life's relations. 


John Herring, now deceased, was a man 
who throughout life enjoyed the respect and 
esteem of those with whom he was associated 
and whin death came to him Boone losl one 
of it- valued citizens. He had long been in 
the railroad service and was a most trusted 
employe of the corporation. A native 01 
England, he was burn al Barnstable, in 1840, 
and when only four years of age came to 
the United States, being brought to this 
country by his parents, who settled near 
R ichester, Nev York. He was a 
William and Margaret (Cox) Herring. 
The father remained in the Empire state, 
following the occupation of farming 
throughout the entire period of his active 



business life and thus providing for his fam- 
ily. Bofh he and his wife died upon the 
old homestead in New York when about 
eighty years of age. 

Mr. Herring, of this review, remained 
upon the old farmstead in the Empire state 
until lie was twenty-one years of age, and 
during that time he acquired a good knowl- 
edge of the branches of learning taught in 
the common schools and also was trained to 
to various departments of farm work, early 
becoming familiar with the labors of field 
and meadow. At the age of eighteen, how- 
ever, he sought a home in the west, making 
his way to Chicago, [llinois, where he was 
employed for a number of years. He then 
resinned his westward journey and took up 
his almde at Belle I'laine, Iowa, where he 
entered the service of the Northwestern 
Railroad Company, being employed as tire- 
man for two years, after which he was pro- 
moted to the position of engineer and in thai 
capacity served continuously until twelve 1 
years ago. when he was injured in a wreck 
on the line. He was then running on the 
limited and in the accident he lost his right 
leg. \fter this he did not again engage in 
active service. He was a member of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and 
was also a Mason in his fraternal relations. 

Mr. Herring was married in the city of 
Boone to Miss Celia Alcott, a second cousin 
of Louisa M. Alcott. the noted author, and 
a daughter of Addison and Almira Alcott. 
The parents were both natives of Connecti- 
cut, bom near the city of New Haven, and 
shortly after their marriage the}' removed to 
Ohio and subsequently to Illinois. After 
spending some time in the latter state they 
came to [owa about [873 and took up their 
abode in Boone, where thev spent their re- 

maining days, but both have now passed 

away. Mr. Alcott was a wagonmaker by 
trade, hut did not follow thai pursuit during 
the later years of his life. Both he and his 
wife passed away in the city of Boone when 
seventy-nine years of age. Unto Mr. and 
Mrs. Herring were born five children, four 
of whom are still living: Gertrude A., now 
the wife of Jonas Nichols, a resident of 
Santa Anna., California, where he is en- 
gaged in the grocery business, living there 
with his wife and their son Jonas; John II., 
a mail carrier of Boone, who has served in 
that capacity since the establishment of the 
free delivery system; Nita, who is at home; 
Alfred, now sixteen years of age: and Rob- 
ert, who died at the age of seventeen years. 
In his political views Mr. LJerring was 
a Republican and believed the principles of 
that party were best calculated to conserve 
the general good. His fellow townsmen, rec- 
ognizing his worth and ability, called him 
to public office, and for a number of years 
he served as a member of the city council 

of I! ie, taking an active part in its work 

and promoting as far as possible all meas- 
ures which he believed would prove of pub- 
lic benefit. He resided in Boone about one- 
third of a century and was highly respected 
by many friends there. He passed away 
March 15. 1898, and was laid to rest in the 
I 1 .' 11 me cemetery. There was in his life much 
that is worthy of emulation. He was loyal 
in friendship, faithful in business and true 
to every -public trust, while in his family he 
was a devoted and loving husband and fa- 
ther. His widow with her younger chil- 
dren Still resides at her pleasant home at No. 
1 jo Tama street. Mrs. Herring has a wide 
acquaintance in Roone, including a large 
number of friends. 




The name of Garden township is an in- 
dex or indication of the portion of the 
country included within its borders. Rich 
farming lands produce excellent crops in 
return for the care and labor bestowed upon 
the place and Garden township has aided in 
winning for Iowa its splendid reputation as 
an agricultural state. Connected with the 
work of cultivating the sod is Andrew F. 
Armstrong, who lives on section 29, (jar- 
den township, where he owns a tract of 
land of seventy-seven acre- that is located, 
a mile and a half from .Madrid. During 
forty-five years he has resided in Boone 
county and has contributed in every meas- 
ure to the growth and development of this 
portion of the state along agricultural lines. 

He is a native of Sweden, born June 21, 
1844, and iv a son of Peter Armstrong, 
whose birth also occurred in thai country. 
The mother bore the maiden name of 
Christina Nelson and she, too, was a native 
(if Sweden. The father carried on agricul- 
tural pursuits in order to provide for his 
family, consisting of his wife and two chil- 
dren. In [857, however, he came to the 
new world, taking passage on a -ailing ves- 
sel, the Eclipse, in the command of Captain 
Conrad. The) left the harbor of Gotten 
borg ami proceeding across the pathless 
ocean, arrived at the harbor of Boston in 
June. 1857, after what was considered n 
very quick voyage of three weeks. By rail 
the) made their way westward to Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa, and from there to Jeffer 
son county, taking up their abode near the 
town of Xew Sweden, where the) remained 
for six weeks. They then continued their 
journey with ox teams to Boone county. 

Here Mr. Armstrong purchased the land 
which his son) now owns. He bought a 
tract of eighty acres which was raw and un- 
improved and on which he built a small 
house. Soon the track of the plow was to 
he seen across the hitherto unbroken prairie, 
the seed was sown over the fields and the 
sun and rain came, bringing forth good har- 
vests. Air. Armstrong also purchased 
eighty acres on section 20, and this, too, ho 
improved. He resided upon the homestead 
which he developed until his death, which 
occurred in the fall of 190 1, when he had 
attained the advanced age of more than 
eighty years. His wife passed away Jan- 
uary 8, [900, and both were laid to rest in 
the DeJander cemetery. In their family 
were but two children, the daughter being 
Christina S.. who became the wife of An- 
drew W. Anderson. They located in Gar- 
den township and she died leaving one son, 
who is also now deceased. 

Andrew F. Armstrong, of this review, 
was a lad of thirteen years at the time of 
hi- arrival in Boone county, llis memory 
carries him hack to pioneer days, when the 
famil) experienced the hardship, and trials 
as well as the pleasures of pioneer life. For 
miles awav stretched the unbroken prairies, 
ami improvement and progress seemed yet 
a work of the future. Mr. Armstrong 
aided in developing the farm, remaining 
with liis father until twenty-four years of 
age. lie had hut limited educational ad- 
vantages, being almost wholly self-edu- 
cated. hu» he has made the mosl of his op- 
portunities in life and has not only secured 
impetence, but through experience 
and observation he has largely broadened 
his know : ining a practical view -f 




Or. the 23rd of < >ctober, t8i 8, occurred 
the marriage of Mr. Armstrong and Miss 
Christina W. Segren, a native of Sweden. 
who came to the new world in l86l, when 
a child of nine years and was reared in 
Boone county. Four children have been 
bom of this marriage: Elma, Peter E., 
Frederick and Jennie, all of whom are at 
home and the sun- assist their father in the 
work of the farm. 

After his marriage Mr. Armstrong lo- 
cated "ii section 20, Garden township, there 
improving a place on which he erected a 
good residence and also substantial barns 
and outbuildings. Trees were planted 
around the house, casting grateful shades 
over the lawn and home, and an orchard 
was also set out and its fruit stored in the 
cellar for winter use. Mr. Armstrong be' 
came the owner of four hundred and thirty- 
two acres of land and three business blocks 
in .Madrid and continued to carry on farm- 
ing until 1896, when he rented his 
land, which is divided into four farms and 
supplied with four sets of buildings. In 
the spring of [897 lie returned to the old 
homestead, carrying for hi.- father during 
his declining years. In 1899 he erected a 
large, neat and attractive residence. It is 
built in modern style of architecture and 
forms a pleasing feature of the landscape. 
In it is a furnace, which heats the house 
with hot water and other modern equip- 
ments are found, and altogether it 1- one 
of the besl residences in the township. Po- 
litically Mr. Armstrong has been a life-long 
Republican and cast his first presidential 
vote for U. S. Grant. The honor- and 
emoluments of office have had no attraction 
for him for hi- labor- have been concen- 
trated upon his farm. Both he and hi- wife 

are members of the Swedish Lutheran 
church of Madrid and are honored and re- 
spected people a- well a- pioneers of the 
county, where Mr. Armstrong ha- made his 
home for nearly a half century, while his 
wife has been equally long a resident of 
this port 1,111 of the -late. lie 1- a man of 
integrity and worth and in the time when 
Boone count} was a frontier region, he 
took an active interest in promoting it- 
growth and improvement, while as the years 
have passed he has manifested a deep regard 
for the general good and as far as possible 
has aided in promoting its general welfare. 


With the farming ami stock-raising in- 
terests of Boone county L. \Y. Clark is 
identified, his home being -on section 2j, 
Peoples township. He is an extensive land 
owner, having live hundred and twenty 
acre- all in one farm. His is a splendidly 
improved tract, regarded as one of the best 
farms in the district. Mr. Clark i- : na- 
tive of Vermont, his birth having occurred 
in Caledonia county, in the to en of 
Peacham, Ma\ 14. [842. His father. Gid- 
eon Clark, was born in Connecticut, about 
the year 1808, while the grandfather, John 
Clark, was also a native of the (-'barter Oak 
state and with his family removed to Ver- 
mont settling in Caledonia county. The 
father of our subject was married there to 
Miss Harriet Watt-, whose birth occurred 
in that county. Mr. ( lark was a mechanic 
and Followed the machinist's trade for some 
time, [n [857 he resolved to seek a home 
in the west and make his waj I 1 Clinton 


county, Iowa, where he secured a tract of 
land, turning his attention to agricultural 
pursuits. For several years he pursued 
this vocation while residing there and then 
removed to Calhoun county where he spent 
his remaining days, his death occurring 
about 1897. 

In taking up the personal history of L. 
W. Clark we present to our readers the life 
record of one widely and favorably known 
in this portion of the state, for his residence 
in Iowa dates from [856 and in Boone 
county from 1867. lie spent the first four- 
teen year- of his life in the Green Mountain 
state and then came to the west with an 
uncle, who settled in Clinton county. Iowa. 

where Mr. Clark grew to manh 1. His 

educational privileges were somewhat 
meagre, but through reading, experience 
and observation he has broadened his 
knowledge. Upon the farm in Clinton 
county he gamed a practical knowledge of 
agricultural pursuits and his experience in 
that direction has proven of value to him in 
later year-. 

On the the 20th of January, 1862, Mr. 
Clark was united in marriage to Amelia 
Davis, a native of Schoharie county. New 
York. Seven children have been horn of 
this union: George who is married and is 
a farmer o\ Peoples township; Elmer, who 
works upon the home farm: Charles and 
Francis who also assist in the work there; 
Kl'rie, the wife of Henry Smith, of Mont- 
gomery county. Iowa: Jennie, the wife of 
Ed Vickroy, a farmer of Peoples township; 
and A Hie, who is yet under the parental 

After his marriage Mr. Clark carried on 
farming in Clinton county, Iowa, for five 
vears and then came to Boone county. As 

he had but limited capital he rented land 
for two years and on the expiration of that 
period he located upon the farm where he 
now resides. It was totally unimproved, 
but the forty acres which lie secured was 
soon placed under cultivation and rich fields 
brought to him golden harvests. He pros- 
pered in his undertakings and from time 
to time he has made judicious investments 
in property until his landed possessions now- 
aggregate five hundred and twenty acres all 
in one body. This is a very valuable farm 
and certainly indicates the life of industry 
and enterprise which Mr. Clark has led. A 
good residence, four barns and other large 
outbuildings for grain and slock stand as 
monuments to the enterprise and labor of 
the owner. Many rods of fences inclose 
this place ami fruit and shade trees add to 
its value and attractive appearance. In 
connection with the cultivation of grain Mr. 
Clark is extensively engaged in the raising 
of good graded stock and anniuliv feed- 
and ships a large number of cattle and hogs 
which bring a good price upon the market, 
due to the excellent condition in which they 
are when sent to the city. 

Although reared in the faith of the 
Democratic party. Mr. Clark endorsed the 
principles of the new Republican party when 
in 1 So 1 he cast his first presidential vote. 
He has been elected and served for nine 
years as township trustee and his official 
work has been of a character to win him 
high commendation. He has also been a 
member of the school hoard for a number of 
years and in his official ix>sition he has man- 
ifested marked fidelity to the general good. 
lie takes a deep interest in politics doing 
everything in bis power to promote the 
growth and insure the success of his party. 



His wife is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church and although Mr. Clark 
1- not identified with any religious organiz- 
ation he attends the services of the church 
to which his wife belongs and contributes 
to its support. From an early age Mr. 
Clark has been dependent upon his own re- 
sources. When quite young he started out 
to tight life's battles and in the strife he has 
come off conqueror. His life history 
should serve to inspire and encourage oth- 
ers who are dependent upon their own re- 
sources, for his record certainly proves that 
prosperity may be gained by determined 
purpose, laudable ambition and capable 
management together with honesty in all 
business dealings. During thirty-six years 
residence in Boone count)' Mr. Clark has 
ever commanded the respect and confidence 
of his fellow men. and it is with pleasure 
that we present the record of bis life to our 
readers knowing that it will be gladly re- 
ceived by bis manv friends. 


Thomas 1',. Holmes, who is filling the 
office of deputy sheriff of Boone county. 
lias always resided in this count) and is 
widely and favorably known to its citizens. 
His birth occurred October 29. 1N57. 111 
Boonesboro. His father, William Holmes, 
was a native of Greene county. Ohio, born 
January 17, [814. The grandfather, Sam- 
uel Holmes, was born in this country. 
March 2, ijjj, but was of Irish parentage. 
He was left an orphan when only five years 
of age and was reared by German people 
in Pennsylvania. He joined the United 

States arm}- at the time of the war of [812 
and took part in the battle known as St. 
Clair's defeat, where he received two 
wounds. He afterward married Martha 
Miller, who was born January 15. 17N1. and 
was of English lineage. Samuel Holmes 
died in Ohio in August, [830, at the age of 
fifty-eight years and bis wife passed away 
in Iowa, on the nth of October, [852. 

In early life William Holmes re- 
moved to Indiana, taking up bis abode near 
Thorntown, where he lived with his mother. 
Subsequently be removed to Illinois and af- 
ter a year came to Iowa in [838, long be- 
fore the admisison of the territory into the 
Union. He took up bis abode at West 
Point in Lee county, where be was married 
September 22, 183S. to Elizabeth Abbott, 
who was born May 24, 1819, in Allegheny 
county, Pennsylvania. of German and 
Scotch parentage. When only eight years 
of age she accompanied her father and 
mother on their removal westward, the 
journey being made on a fiat boat down the 
Ohio river to a point near Cairo. Illinois. 
There Mrs. Holmes was reared to woman- 
hood and later she became a resident oi 
Iowa. The parents of our subject con- 
tinued residents of Lee county, until 1 H4 _' . 
when they removed to Wapello county, 
locating on a claim near Agenc) City. 
There the father engaged in farming until 
the fall of [849, when lie visited Boone 
county, locating on a claim west of the pres- 
ent city of Boone. In May, 1N51. however, 
attracted by the discovery of gold in Cal- 
ifornia, be started with '/.. S. McCall and 
Others for the Pacific slope. They were 

three nths in making the trip and having 

abandoned their wagons, the iasl four hill] 
dred miles was accomplished on 1 



Mr. Holmes at first engaged in mining, but 
did not find that a very profitable venture 
and began packing provisions from the set- 
tlements to the mines. This proved to be 
much more lucrative and eventually he re- 
turned home by way of the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama and New York city. By sailing ves- 
sel he proceeded to New York, thence by 
rail to Buffalo, and from there to Chicago 
by way of the lakes, continuing his journey 
bv stage to Agencj City and then coming 
on horseback to Boonesboro. He arrived 
at his home after an absence of two and 
one-half years and here again engaged in 
carpenter work, building many of the fin- 
est houses of Boonesboro. In [856 be was 
elected sheriff of Boone county, taking 
charge of that office on the first Monday in 
January, [857. For four years lie there 
remained ami during hi- term the Pardee 
riot and the river land trouble occurred. 
It was also the period of the critical politi 
cal arguments preceding the Rebellion. 
As an officer he -bowed neither fear nor fa- 
vor, and it is said that he never went after 
.1 horse thief and failed to get him. Mr. 
Holmes also acted a- a member of the board 
of supervisors. On the expiration ,,f his 
term as sheriff he again engaged in carpen- 
tering winch he followed until [865, when 
he purchased a farm in Marcy township, 
spending his remaining days thereon. IIP 
death occurred November 10. [895, and 
hi- wil\'. who bail shared with him in the. 
pii nicer I rials 1 f the west, died 1 Vrcinb -r [6, 
1893. They left four children . 
\\\. now of St. Joseph, Missouri; Miriam. 
the wife of Jacob 1 [oleomb of Dallas county, 
Iowa : Sarah ].. the wife f\ I fenr} 
Shockey, 1 if I Ireg* m ; and ["hoi - B., of 
tin- review. 

In his youth Thomas B. Holmes ac- 
quired a common school education and 
upon the home farm he remained until 
twenty years of age. He then went to 
Kansas where he engaged in teaching 
school in [878-9, after which he returned 
to Iowa and was identified with educa- 
tional work here from 1879 until 1885, 
proving himself a competent instructor by 
the readiness with which he imparted to 
others the knowledge that he had acquired. 
At the latter date, however, he turned his 
attention to farming which he followed con- 
tinuously until 1898, when he was ap- 
pointed deputy sheriff of Boone county for 
a term of four years and is now serving in 
that office. He has also been township as- 

On the 1st of November, 1885, Mr. 
Holmes was united in marriage to Emma 
Hardcastle, a daughter of Thomas and Sy- 
bil Hardcastle, the former a native of Lan- 
caster, England, and the latter of Mercer 
county. Pennsylvania. Mr-. Hardcastle 
wa- of English and Scotch lineage. In 
[859 they removed to Minnesota, and after 
us there came to Iowa, settling in 
Stor) county. The father of Mrs. Holmes 
is still residing there, hut the mother 
passed away in 1875 at the age of forty- 
two years. Their children were Anna, the 
wife of George ( hapman, of Nevada, Iowa; 
Emma, the wife of our subject ; William K. ; 
Mary, the wife <-i ('. II. Elliott, and Dan- 
iel, who is living in Ames. Iowa. The 
marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Holme- has been 
blessed with three children: Bessie E., 
Jasper Leroy and William R. In the dis- 
charge of bis official duties Mr. Holmes 
has followed in the foot-tens of his father 
and has been most loyal to the trust re- 


posed m him. lie has always resided in 
this county where he is widely known, and 
the fact that many who have been ac- 
quainted with him from boyhood are num- 
bered among his stanchest friends, is an in- 
dication that his career has ever been up- 
right ami honorable one. 


Switzerland, the land of the Alps, has 
furnished many worthy citizens to America. 
They are men of strong resolution, un- 
daunted purpose and unflagging industry 
and are 3 valued acquisition of the industrial 
ranks of the new world. Samuel Wirtz 
comes from that little mountainous country 
and in America he has worked his way 
steadily upward to a position of affluence, so 
that he is now living a retired life. His 
birth occurred July 28, [841, his parents be- 
ing facob and Rosalia 1 Ximhelmann ) 
Wirtz. also natives of Switzerland. The 
father came to the new world in 18(13 and 
made his way across the country to Boone 
count v. Iowa, settling in Des Moines town- 
ship. Here he spent his remaining days. 
passing away when nearly eighty years of 
age. His wife still survives him and is now 
residing 1 >n the 1 ild hi «ne place, having passed 
the eightieth mile-stone on life's journey. 
The) were the parent- of five sons and a 
daughter, who are vet living: Samuel, Ed- 
ward, (iotlieh. Media, Daniel and Charles. 
They also lust six children. 

Samuel Wirtz spent the days of his boy- 

h 1 and youth in the land of the Alps and 

when twenty years of age crossed the broad 
Atlantic to the new world, believing that 

he might have better business opportunities 
and privileges in this country. Boone coun- 
ty was his destination and in [862 he took 
up his abode here. In his native land he had 
learned the stone-cutter's trade ami he also 
mastered the trade of silk-weaving, follow- 
ing it for some time in his native country. 
After he arrived in America he learned the 
shoemaker's trade, which he folk, wed for 
three years and then turned his attention to 
agricultural pursuits, fi >r with the capital 
that he had acquired through his own efforts 
he purchased eighty acres of land on section 
2, Des Moines township. This he subse- 
quently sold and bought his present farm in 
[881. He owns one hundred and twenty 
acres of rich and arable land on the home 
place and has made excellent improvements 
upon it. the buildings standing as monu- 
ments to his thrift and enterprise. His ef- 
forts return to him a good harvest and he 
makes a specialty of the raising of corn, 
oats and hay. He also keeps from twenty to 
thirty head of cattle, preferring the short- 
horns. In both branches of his business he 
has been very successful and is now prac- 
tically living retired. He expect- soon to re 
move td Boone, where he will put aside all 
business cares and rest in the enjoyment of 
the fruits of his former labors. In addition 
to the home farm he also owns another tract 
of -lie hundred and sixty acres in Beaver 
township, which he now rents to his eldest 

in 1K71 Mr. Wirtz was united in mar- 
riage to Caroline llennan, who died in [882. 
The following year be was again married, 
In- second union being with Christina 
(iesein. She was also bora in Switzerland. 
By the first marriage there wa- one child, 
while the children of the second marriage 



numbered four. They are Edward, Adolph, 
Emma, Samuel and Jacob. 

Mr. Wirtz is one of the honored early 
settlers of Boone county, and has witnessed 
almost its entire development, as it has 
emerged from primitive conditions to take 
its place among the leading counties of the 
state. He has been an active factor in its 
agricultural interests and his business af- 
fairs have been so capably conducted that he 
has won most creditable and gratifying suc- 
cess. In politics he is a Republican, and has 
served as school director in this district and 
also in Beaver township. His religious faith 
is indicated 1>\ bis membership in the Ger- 
man Reformed church. The hope thai led 
him to seek a home in the new world has 
been more than realized, for here be has 
found bow potent is industry in the active 
affair^ of life and that labor directed b) 
sound judgment always brings its reward. 
lie has gained prosperity and has also won 
the warm regard "i a larg< circle of friends 
in Ins adi ipted o >unt\ . 


[esse C. Williams, who is extensively en- 
gaged in farming on section 24, Marcy 
township, has made bis home in Boone conn 
tv since April 6, 1851, when he came to this 
locality with bis father. Comparatb 
of the residents of the county have so long 
resided within its borders, and classed among 
the honored pioneer settlers Mr. Williams 
well deserves representation in this volume. 
He was bom in Henry county, Kentucky. 
April 2, 1825. and is a son of Jesse and 
Susanna (Simmons) Williams, both of 
whom were natives of Virginia, whence they 

removed to Kentucky, where the father en- 
gaged in farming until the year 1828. At 
that time lie became a resident of Mont- 
gomery county. Indiana, where he purchased 
a farm, residing thereon until be came to 
this state in 1850. At that time he settled 
near Des Moines, but after a year came to 
Boone count}-, arriving in April, 1851. He 
took up bis abode in Cass township and 
there he devoted bis energies to agricultural 
pursuits until bis life's labors were ended in 
death, lie was one of the earliest settlers 
in the community and aided in laying broad 
and deep the foundation for the present 
progress and improvement of the locality. 
He died in 1854, while bis wife passed away 
in 1869. In their family were eight chil- 
dren, but Polly, Annie. John. Nancy and 
Samuel are all deceased. The next is Jesse 
C, of this review. Sanford 1'.., the seventh. 
now resides upon the old homestead in Cass 
township, while Francis, the youngest of the 
family, is deceased. 

When the Family came to Boone county 
the fa'ber and two .if his sons located in 
(ass township, but Jesse ( '. Williams came 
t<> Marcy township and took up bis abode 
on bis present farm. 1 le bad spent the years 
of his minority in bis native state and was 
about twenty-five years of age when the 
family came to [owa. lie was die first set- 
tler in bis part of Marcy township and se- 
cured bis farm through a land warrant. He 
also bouglu land o! tlie River Company and 
thus secured a very large tract, being to-day 
one of the extensive land owners of the 
community. lie has three hundred and 
twenty acres, all in Marcy township, and 
has been numbered among the progressive 
and enterprising agriculturists of this por- 
tion of the state. At the present time, how- 



ever, lie is practically living retired from 
business life, while his son-in-law conducts 
his farming interests. 

Mr. Williams was married in Indiana 
t' > Miss Letitia Hopper, of Wayne county, 
that state, and fur many years she was to 
him a faithful companion and helpmate on 
life's journey, hut on the 26th of August. 
[892, she was called t<> the home beyond. 
In the family were nine children: James F., 
a resident fanner living near Woodward, 
Bi one county; Mary K., the wife of Thomas 
Johnson, of Washington ; Sarah E., the wife 
of Oliver Hblloway, who is living- in Mon- 
tana: Robert, who married Jane Hollowaj 
and resides near his father: Harriet, the 
wife of Jerry Shaw, a representative of an 
old familv. by whom she had five children: 
Xettie: \"i< .let. deceased: Pearl; Opal: 
and Roy T., deceased. Mr. Shaw now op- 
erates the farm belonging to Mr. Williams 
and is a practical and progressive agricult- 
urist. The children of the familv that have 
passed away are: John Gilson, Drusilla, 
Martha and Jesse. 

At the time of the Mexican war Mr. 
Williams, of this review, entered the army 
and fought for American rights, lie was 
never injured in any way. He had alsi 1 ren- 
dered effective service in civic affairs. At 
the time oi the Civil war he was for Four 
years a member of the county board of su- 
pervisors, lie has filled various township 
uffices. He votes with the Democracy and 
takes a deep interest in the growth an 1 suc- 
cess oi his party. His daughter, Mrs. Shaw. 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church oi Marry township, lie has always 
been a hard-working man ami as the result 
1 if In- enterprise and careful management he 
i- now the owner of a tine farm. I lis life 

histor) proves that success ma j be won 
through strong determination, earnest pur- 
pose and honorable effort, and in many re- 
spects his hie is well worthv of emulation. 


Boone county is situated in the center 
1 if a rich agricultural district. The line farms 
of [owa are noted throughout the entire 
land, and of one of these John Anderson is 
the owner, having two hundred and seventy- 
five acres which is well improved and highh 
cultivated. His home is only two miles from 
Madrid and thus he is enabled to enjoy the 
conveniences and comforts of city life as 
well as the pleasures which can only be ob- 
tained upon a farm. In the fall of 1S40 he 
arrived in Boone county and throughout the 
intervening years he has been interested in 
its development and progress, while his la- 
bors have been of a character that have ad- 
vanced its substantial improvement. 

As his name indicates he is of Swedish 
birth and first opened his eyes to the light of 
day in the countrj of Sweden on the 23d of 
June. [832. His father, Magnas Anderson, 
was ,-ils,, a nati\e of Sweden, where he was 
reared, married and followed farming for 
some years. Six children were born unto 
him in that country, and in [846 he emi 
grated with his family to the new world. 
landing at New York. He thence made his 
wa\ across the country to [owa and estab- 
lished his permanent home in Boone county. 
although he first 1,, rated in Polk county, 
coming to this count) in 1847 al which time 
he took I'p hi- abode in Douglas township. 
Mere he had entered some land and his at- 
tention was now given to the development 


and improvement of his farm, but he was not 
long permitted to enjoy his new home, for 
he died the same year. 

John Anderson was a lad of fourteen 
years when he came to the United States. 
He had acquired a fair education in the 
schools 'if his native land. 1ml is entirely 
self-educated in the English language, hav- 
ing acquired a knowledge of that language 
since attaining his majority. When still a 
young lad he started out in life "ii his own 
acounl. being employed as a farm hand, 
lie was inured to hardships and privations 
from early youth, owing t> > his father's 
death, hut he then developed self reliance 
and force of character that have proved im- 
portant elements in his later success. When 
he had acquired a sufficient capital he pur- 
chased eighty acres of land which was the 
nucleus of his present farm. It was we'd 
watered and upon it he 1 milt a log h<>use in 
which he lived during the time when he was 
opening up his farm. lie turned the first 
furrows of the virgin soil, fenced In- prop- 
erty and in course <<\ time garnered rich 
harvests from the fields which he had cul- 
tivated. From time t" time as his financial 
resources increased he purchased other land 
until he is to-day the owner of two hundred 
and seventy-five acres. I le has built a large 
residence upon the place, also substantia] 
outbuildings and the entire tract is under 
cultivation. Everything about the place is 
kept in good repair, ami the air of neatness 
and thrift which pervades the place indicates 
the practical and progressive spirit of the 
owner. An orchard yields iis fruits in sea 
son and shade trees adorn the lawn and pro- 
tect the home from the hoi rays of the sum- 
mer sun. The farm is now a valuable one 
and the owner deserves great credit for what 

he has accomplished. There are two sets of 
faun buildings there and all of the improve- 
ments upon the place are visible evidences 
of the life of industry which Mr. Anderson 
has led. 1 lis efforts too, have been extended 
to other lines. He was oik- of the organizers 
of the Madrid State Bank. He was elected 
iis first president and has acted continuously 
in that position from the organization of the 
bank in 1895. It has become one of the 
strong banking institutions of the county 
and is a valued and enterprising concern in 
the business activity of this section of the 

Mr. Anderson was married in Boone 
county in 1S57 to Miss Caroline Nelson, 
who was born and reared in Sweden. She 
died in 1S-0, leaving three children, the eld- 
est being John i\, who is now a resident 
of Minnesota. Alma is the wife of If. 1'. 
Dalander, a prominent business man of Ma- 
drid. C. \. Silford is the editor and prop- 
rietor of the .Madrid Register News. Mr. 
Anderson was again married in 1S77. his 
second union being with Olive Anderson, 

11 a her -irlh 1 days in Sweden, her 

native land, bight children have been born 
of this union: Selma. the wife of Mines 
< Hson, a fanner of Douglas township; Dora, 
I eresa, ilven, \rthur. I [arold, Roy and 
Ester, all at hi 'inc. 

In his political affiliations Mr. Anderson 

is a stanch Republican, having been allied to 

that party since casting his first presidential 

\oi, For Abraham Lincoln in i860. For 

1 ounty supervisor, has 

filled the office of assessor for more than 

twenty years and has been secretary of the 

Swedish Mutual Insurance Company for 

ars being one of its prominent pro- 

nd organizers. The cause of cdue 1- 



tii m has ever found in him a warm friend. 
He believes in having good schools and 
capable teachers and has long served as a 
member of the school board and as its treas- 
urer. He has been a delegate to various 
state and county conventions of the Repub- 
lican part\- and in all public offices has been 
loyal and true to the trust reposed in him. 
He and his wife are members of the Swed- 
ish Lutheran church of Madrid and contrib- 
uted liberally to the erection of the present 
lmuse of worship. Few men car, antedate 
his residence in Boone county, where he has 
passed fifty-six years. He has been an eye 
witness of its wonderful growth and de- 
velopment and has also contributed to its 
progress along many lines. The sterling 
characteristics of his race are manifest in 
his career and America has no more valued 
citizens than Sweden has furnished to this 

john McGregor. 

John McGregor is the proprietor of the 
Orchard farm, one of the most desirable 
farms of Boone county. It comprises two 
hundred and forty acres of arable land on 
section iS, Beaver township, and while he 
carrier mi general farming he is also ex- 
tensively engaged in fruit growing, his hor- 
ticultural interests proving a remunerative 

source of income. Upon his place are g 1 

buildings and all modern equipments, and 
the neal and thrifty appearance of the farm 
indicate- the practical and progressive 
spirit of the owner, who for thirteen years 
has made his home in Boone county. 

Mr. McGregor was born in Bedford 
count)-. Pennsylvania, November 7. 1845, ' 

son of Duncan and Sarah ( Blackburn I Mc- 
Gregor, both of whom are native- of l'.ed- 
tnty, Pennsylvania, where they were 
reared and married. There the father en- 
gaged in farming until May, [853, when he 
removed with his family to Peoria county, 
Illinois, spending two years in that place. 
He purchased a farm in Princeville town- 
ship, Peoria county, and was engaged in 
farming until the death of his wife in Feb- 
ruary, 1889. He then came to Boone 
county. Iowa, in 1S90. and died here in the 
same year. Unto him and his estimable 
wife were born eight children: A. II.. win 
1- extensively engaged in farming and 
stock-raising in Beaver township; John, of 
this review: Ella, the wife of J. II. Miller, 
a farmer and stock raiser of Warren county, 
Iowa, who served for two terms in the state 
legislature and" also an extra session, and 
was a loyal soldier in the Union army in the 
Civil war: William, a retired farmer living 
in .Monica. Peoria county, Illinois; George, 
who is conducting a large cattle ranch in 
South Dakota; Margaret, the wife of 
Ihotnas Darby, an agriculturist of Peoria 
county. Illinois; Daniel, who is engaged in 
the cattle business in western Kansas; and 
Jackson, who died in infancy. 

To the common school system of bis na- 
tive county, John McGregor is indebted for 
the educational privileges which he en- 
joyed. In his youth he earl\ became famil- 
iar with farm work in all it- departments, 
lor he assisted his father from an earl) age 
remaining upon the old home farm until lie 
was twenty-three years of age. \t thai 
time he was married to Martha Colwell, a 
daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Daw- 
son 1 < '.< dwell, the former a farmer and 
Stock buyer of Stark county, Illinois. Af- 



ter their marriage the young couple began 
their domestic life upon a farm in Peoria 
count}-. They started with very little, but 
working with the steady purpose to become 
independent and to give their children a 
good education, they have gained a hand- 
some competence which will supply them 
with all the necessities and many of the lux- 
uries of life in their declining days. It was 
about 1889 that they left Illinois and be- 
came residents of Bonne county. Iowa. 
They now have in the home farm two hun- 
dred and forty acres of valuable land and 
most of the improvements upon the place 
stand as monuments to the enterprise, thrift 
and progressive spirit of John McGregor. 
In addition to general farming he has one 
of the largest orchards in this part of the 
state, including apples, crabapples, peaches, 
plums, cherries and a large variety of small 
fruits. He likewise has a fine grove which 
consists of soft maples and ash tree- and 
constitute- one of the finest groves in this 
part of the country. Everything about the 
place is in keeping with the ideas of a model 
farm of the twentieth century and Mr. Mc- 
Gregor's opinions concerning fruit growing 
are largely considered as authority in this 

The home of our subject and his wife 
has hceii blessed with nine children. C. D.. 
the eldest, is occupying the position of pro- 
fessor of shorthand in the commercial de- 
partment of Drake University, at Des 
Moines. Iowa. William died in infancy. 
I. J, 1- a resident fanner of Beaver town- 
ship. M. 1'. follows farming in Greene 
county, h-wa. \. I >. is a farmer of Beaver 
town-hip. Ilattie is attending Drake Uni- 
versity. LeRoy is a resident farmer of Ama- 
qua township. Ollie is also a student in 

Drake University. Frank, who completes 

the family, is at home. 

In the spring of 1892, in company with 
Mr. Steelsmith, of Beaver township. Mr. 
McGregor look an extensive trip to the Pa- 
cific coast, visiting many places of interest 
and spending about three weeks in that way. 
In the fall of the same year he traveled 
through Colorado, Texas, Xew Mexico and 
the republic of Mexico and also visited Ok- 
lahoma and Arkansas, looking for a good 
location for his sons. Mr. McGregor and 
his family are numbered among the leading 
citizens of Boone county and his life has 
been one of untiring activity and energy 
whereby a comfortable competence has been 
won ami a leading position in reliable finan- 
cial circles has been gained. 


Samuel M. Sterrett, who is familiarly 

called "Uncle Sam" by his numerous 

w ide-awake and pn - 

Farmers of I lodge township, living 

on section _> 1 . where lie owns and cultivates 

tw< hundred and forty acres of rich land. 

pleasantl) situated six miles north of Boone. 

Mr. Sterrett is numbered among the native 

Indiana, his birth having occurred 

in I . rroll county of that state on the 14th. 

of October, [835. His father. Robert Ster- 

a native of Ireland, and 1 1 
inq the \ tlantic t< 1 the new world took up 
[1 in 1 am '11 county. Indiana. By 
trade he was a weaver, following that voca- 
ti in in early life, but after his removal to 
Carroll Count) he carried on agricultural 
pursuits. IMs death there occurred in 1837 


and bis wife passed away about five years 


Mr. Sterrett of this review was only two 
years old at the time of bis father's death 
and was left an orphan at the age of seven. 

He then went to make his home with his 
uncle, but from early youth has been tie- 
pendent entirely upon his own resources. 
After attaining- his majority he rented land 
and engaged in fanning upon his own ac- 
count in Carroll county. Indiana, for four 
years. The year 1805 witnessed his ar- 
rival in Boone count)', I> i.wa. He had vis- 
ited this district in 1859 al "' XNiS married 
here to Miss Mary Hawkins, a native of 
Kentucky, her girlhood days being spent in 
that state and in Indiana and Iowa. Mr. 
and Mrs. Sterrett began their domestic life 
in the Hoosier state where he continued his 
farming pursuits until 1865 when he made 
preparations to establish a home in Iowa. 
In January. 1866, he purchased two hun- 
dred and forty acres of raw prairie land on 
section 21, Dodge township and he at once 
began the work of making bis fields culti- 
vable. He built a fence around the place 
and soon the breaking plow was seen on the 
tract, turning' the first furrows and getting 
the land into a condition for cultivation. 
From year to year his farm has been im- 
proved and today is a very valuable tract. 
He has a large and pleasant home which 
was erected in 1888. There are also two 
good barns and he has planted fruit, shade 
and ornamental trees. The substantial im- 
provements on all parts of the farm are in- 
dicative of the enterprise and progressive 
spirit of the owner who commenced lite a 
poor young man. in fact, has depended upon 
his own resources from early boyhood, lie 
found that industry, close application and 

reliability won him advancement and these 

qualities have been salient characteristics in 
his entire career. 

Ah'- Sterrett lost his first wife after com- 
ing to Boone county, her death occurring 
in [869. Three children were born of 
that union: Telitha J., the wife of John 
Hunnan, of Boone, who is in the employ of 
the Northwestern Railway Company; Ce- 
lesta, the wife of Rev. \. T. Carpenter, a 
Methodist Episcopal minister now located 
in Keyapaha county, Nebraska: and Mar- 
garet E., the wife of John Boucher, of 
Churdan, Iowa. In 1870 Mr. Sterrett was 
again married, his second union being with 
Winnie Baker, win, was born in Clay 
count\, Indiana, but during her infancy was 
brought to Iowa where she was reared to 
womanhood. Ten children were horn of 
this marriage: Docia, the wife of Herman 
Stotts. of Dodge township: Mae. the wife 
of Arthur Stotts of the same township; Eva 
at home: Mabel, who is a student in the 
high school of Boone; Clara Belle; William 
Alexander; Lillie. and Irene. They also 
lost one son, Robert L., who died when 
about eight years of age. The parents are 
consistent and active members of the .Meth- 
odist Episcopal church of Ridgeport, and 
in politics Mr. Sterrett is a Prohibitionist. 
He has ever been fearless in the defense of 
his honest convictions and has newer fal- 
tered in announcing the same. In early life 
be was a Jackson Democrat and cast bis 
first ballot for James Buchanan, in 1850, 
and bis next vote for Stephen A. Douglas, 
lie afterward supported the men and meas- 
ures of the Republican part) for several 
years ami is now a Prohibitionist, having 

long been a warm friend of the cause of 

temperance, lie has served for a few terms 



as township trustee and has been a member 
of the school board. Mr. Sterrett is a man of 
known integrity who enjoys and merits the 
confidence and good will of his fellow men. 
He is true to every cause or interest 'which 
he believes to lie right and dues not hesitate 
to denounce those which he believes will 
prove detrimental to the general welfare. 
That he has a pleasant and genial manner 
is indicated by his large circle of friends 
and by the name of "Uncle Sam" with 
which they usually greet him. 


When the history of Boone county and 
her public men shall have been written, its 
pages will bear no mure illustrious name 
and record no more prominent career ca- 
reer that that of Mr. Dyer. If "biography 
is the home aspect of history" as Wilmot 
has expressed it, it is entirely within the 
province of true history to commemorate 
and perpetuate the lives and characters, the 
achievements and honor of the leading sons 
of a community. For thirty years Mr. 
Dyer has figured prominently in connection 
with the judicial annals of this portion of 
the state, having practiced continuously in 
Boone since [872. 

A native of Lockport, New York, he 
was horn December 28, 1845, and is a son 
of John and Sarah A. 1 Webb) Dyer. 
His paternal grandfather was Isaac Dyer, 
a native of Vermont, while John Dyer was 
horn in Watertown, New York. His 
grandfather was a cooper by trade, and his 
father successfully followed the and 
shoe business for a number of years in Ful- 
ton. Illinois. He had left the Empire 

state in 1856 and had taken up his abode in 
Fulton, where he remained until 1S99. when 
he came to Boone to make his home with 
the subject of this review. Here he is yet 
living at the age of seventy-eight years, 
while his wife passed away at the age of 
seventy-two years. In their family were 
four children: Eva E., the wife of G. K. 
Bent: Sidney R. ; Frances A., the wife of 
S. A. Austin: and Leamon A., who com- 
pletes the family. 

Mr. Dyer of this review was quite 
young when his parents removed to Illinois. 
In Fulton, that state, he attended the pub- 
lic schools and a military academy at that 
place, continuing his studies until after the 
inauguration of the Civil war. when, at the 
aye of seventeen years he enlisted in July. 
a member of Company F, Ninety- 
third Illinois Infantry, in which lie became 
a drummer hoy. being mustered out in 1865. 

\fter his return home Mr. Dyer at- 
tended the Northern Soldiers College. 
where he completed hi- studies and in 1S70 
he took up the study of law in the office of 
\\ I-'. Leffingwell, of Lyons. Iowa. He 
diligently continued his reading until 1872, 
when he was admitted to the Clinton county 
bar. lie then practiced law for a time in 
Fulton, Illinois, hut in November, [872, 
opened an office in Boone, where he has re- 
mained continuously since. Few lawyers 
have made a more la-ting impression upon 
the bar of the state, both for lega' ability of 
a high order and for the individuality of a 
personal character. He has gained a high 
place in Ins profession by hard work. The 
zeal with, which he has devoted his energies 
to his profession, the careful regard evinced 
for the interests ,,f his clients, and assidu 
ous and unrelaxing attention to all the de- 


tails of his cases, have brought him a large 
business and made him very successful in 
it- conduct. His arguments have elicited 
warm commendation, not only from his as- 
sociate- at the har. but also from the bench. 
He is a very able writer; his briefs always 
show- wide research, careful thought, and 
the best and strongest reasons which can be 
urged for his contention, presented in cogent 
and logical form, and illustrated by a style 
unusually lucid and clear. 

In 1870 Mr. Dyer was married to Jen- 
nie L. Moffatt, a daughter of Charles M. 
and Charlotte ( Bascom) Moffatt, natives of 
Xew York. Her father ..lied at the age of 
fifty-eight year- but her mother is si ill liv- 
ing. In their family were lour children 
and unto Mr. and Mrs. Dyer have been born 
two sons. John S. and Walter R. Mr. 
Dyer belongs to the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and to the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks. His political sup- 
port is given with unflinching loyalty to the 
Republican party and he has served as a 
member of the school hoard, while for two 
terms he has,been mayor of Boone. Such 
in brief is the history of Sidney R. Dyer. 
In whatever relation of life we find him, — 
in the government service, in political cir- 
cles, in business or in social relations — he is 
always the same honorable and honored 
gentleman, whose worth well merits the 
high regard which is uniformly given him. 


Edward C. Jordan, who is engaged in 
the feed and fuel business in Boone, is a 
worthy representative of that class which 
forms the great majority of our citizens— 

the men who do not owe their business 
standing and prosperity to inheritance or to 
influence hut who have won it through close 
application and honorable effort, lie has 
always lived in the Mississippi valley, his 
birth having occurred near Dixon, Illinois, 
on the ji-t .if December, 1X01. It was in 
that city that his grandfather, Richard for- 
dan, died in 1876. at the age of seventy-five 
year-. In this family were two daughters 
and four s. .11-.. including John Jordan, the 
father of our subject, who was horn on the 
Emerald Island and in 1848 crossed the 
briny deep to the new world. Here he mar- 
ried Anna 1 ionnoly, also a native of Ireland, 
the year of her emigration to the new world 
being [850. From [856 until [866 he car- 
ried on farming near Dixon. Illinois, and 
then came to Boone county, Iowa, where he 
has since made his home. His wife died, 
however, December 5. 1899. at the age of 
sixty-seven years. Mr. Jordan has Keen 
honored with a number of local offices. He 
has served as township trustee; was for sev- 
eral years treasurer of the school fund: and 
ii: [890 was elected a member of the city 
council of Boone, in which capacity he 
served for two year.-. He is a citizen of 
worth, honorable in business, reliable in of- 
fice, and trustworthy in friendship. In his 
family were rive children: Richard E, 
now deceased; Minnie, the wife of C. Deer- 
ing, of Boone; Maurice, an engineer on the 
Union Pacific railroad: and Alice, wife of 
Matt Welsh. 

During the period of his boyhood and 
youth Edward C. Jordan remained under 
the parental roof, assisting in the labors of 
the farm and acquiring a good education in 
the common schools, At die age of twen- 
appi linted to a pi isition in the 



railway mail service during President 
Cleveland's administration. He resigned 
the office in February, 1889. In 1894 he 
came to Boone and entering into partner- 
ship with Patrick Brody has since been en- 
gaged in the fuel and feed business, in 
which they have secured a good trade, their 
patronage now being large and profitable. 
On the 30th of October, 1S88, Mr. Jor- 
dan was united in marriage to Miss Eliza- 
beth M. Cooper, of DeWitt, Clinton county. 
Iowa, and their children are Helen. Anna 
T., Genevjeve M., Edward C. and Richard 
Francis Clement. Fraternally Mr. Jordan is 
connected with the Ah idem Woodmen. His 
political support is given to the Democratic 
party and fur two terms he has served as a 
member of the city council, filling that posi- 
tion from 1897 until 1901, discharging his 
duties in a manner which was unmistakable 
proof of his deep interest in the progress 
and welfare of his adopted city. His bus- 
iness methods and qualifications have 
gained him confidence, his social nature has 
won him many friends. 


( harles F. Anderson, now deceased, was 

a man who merited and received the trust. 
confidence and friendship of his fellow men, 
because they bad learned to appreciate his 
worth and to value his regard, lb was a 
native of Sweden and came to the United 
States when eighteen years of age. His 
bnih had occurred in December, 1844. His 
mother died when he was quite young and 
the father passed away in Sweden after the 
subject of this review bad attained to years 
of maturity. Crossing the Atlantic to the 

new world. Mr. Anderson landed at New 
York and remained in that city for some 
time, removing thence to Delaware, Xew 
Jersey. He was a carpenter and contractor, 
having learned the trade in his native land, 
fie was also a bridge builder and for some 
time followed that department of industrial 
activity in the state of Xew York. 

In the spring of 1S81 Mr. Anderson 
came to the west, locating in Eagle Grove, 
Iowa, where be resided for eight years, dur- 
ing which time he worked in the water sup- 
ply department of the Northwestern Rail- 
road Company, repairing pumps, tanks, etc.. 
along the line of the road. In the fall of 
iSSii be removed with his family to the city 
oil li n me. where he spent his remaining days, 
still continuing in the employ of the same 
company and at the same work until his de- 

In 1885 Mr. \nderson was united in 
marriage to Miss Sarah Joyce, the wedding 
ceremony being performed in the month of 
July in Webster City. The lady is a native 
of Ujica, New York, and a daughter of John 
and Elizabeth 1 Bott) Joyce, both of whom 
were natives of England, in which land they 
were reared and married. After coming to 
the United States they look up their abode 
in Utica, Xew York, and the father was em- 
ployed as a gardener, but both he and his 
wife are now deceased. Unto Mr. and Mrs. 
Anderson was born one son, Charles Ed- 
ward, whose birth occurred in Eagle Grove, 
Iowa, and who at the age of fifteen years is 
now attending school. 

Mr. Anderson was a valued member of 
the Independent Order of Odd bellows', be- 
longing to the lodge at Eagle Grove, lie 
held membership in the Lutheran church, but 
attended the Presbyterian church at Boone, 



because his wife was not able to understand 
the Swedish language, in which tongue the 
sermons were preached in the Lutheran 
church. In politics he was a Republican and 
had firm faith in the principles of the party, 
but never sought or desired office. His 
death was the result of an accident in one 
of the wells of the railroad company that he 
was repairing. He passed away October 10, 
1898, and was laid to rest in the cemetery 
in Boone. He was a trusted employe, an 
exemplary and useful citizen, a devoted, kind 
and loving husband and father, and a man 
who enjoyed and deserved the respect of all 
who knew him. His widow still resides in 
Boone, having a pleasant home at No. 1 .2 1 3 
Carroll street, and throughout the city she 
has many friends. 


George Kuhl is a well known farmer of 
Amaqua township and diligence and enter- 
prise are numbered among his salient char- 
acteristics. These elements in his character 
have made him successful and to-day he 
is the owner of two hundred and forty acres 
of valuable land on sections 13 and 14. Ama- 
qua township. He is numbered among the 
worthy citizens that Germany has furnished 
to Boone county, his birth having occurred 
in the fatherland on the 26th of November, 
1846. His parents. Clans and Tepka Kuhl. 
always lived in Germany and the father was 
a weaver by trade, but both are now de- 
ceased. Five children of the family came ti 1 
this country and all are now residents of 
Boone county: Annie, the wife of Hans 
Hcldt. who makes his home in Amaqua 
township; George, of this review : Catherine, 

tin wife of Hans Hagge, a well known 
farmer of Veil township; -Maria, the wife of 
Claus Terns, a resident of the village of Og- 
den ; and Lena, the wife of Hans Cook, a 
fanner of Amaqua township. 

The educational advantages offered by 
the excellent schools of Germany were those 
enjoyed by the members of the Kuhl family. 
It was thus that our subject gained the 
knowledge which fitted him for active par- 
ticipation in the business world. Having 
heard favorable reports of the opportunities 
offered in America to ambitious young men 
he determined to seek a home be- 
yond the Atlantic and sailed for 
New York city, but be did not 
tarry long in the eastern metropolis, making 
his way westward to Clinton county, Iowa, 
where he remained for a year and a half and 
then came to Boone county and began work- 
ing as a farm laborer, being employed in 
the capacity of a farm hand in this locality 
for several years. All this time he mani- 
fested determination, perseverance and dili- 
gence and at length his labors brought to 
him capital sufficient to enable him to begin 
farming on his own account. After his mar- 
riage he located on section 6, Yell township, 
where he resided for eleven years. He then 
removed to his present farm in Amaqua 
township, known as the old Lark place. 
Here he now owns two hundred and forty 
acres of land which is highly cultivable 

and is ever kept in g 1 condition, the fields 

annually returning to him golden harvests. 

He also raises g 1 graded stock and both 

branches of his business are proving profit- 

In [880 Mr. Kuhl was united in marriage 
to Miss Alvina Henson, a native of Jackson 
couutv, Iowa, born December 24, [860, ami 


a daughter of Detlef F. and Franka Henson. 

Her father was a farmer of Boone county 
for a number of years but is now living re- 
tired in the village of Ogden. The home 
of Mr. and Mrs. Kuhl has been blessed with 
six children, but they lost their first bom in 
infancy. The others are : Lizzie, the wife 
of Jacob Tonsfeldt, a resident farmer of 
Grant township. Boone county: John; Ber- 
tha; Detlef .and Henry, all at home. 

Mr. Kuhl exercises his right of franchise 
in support of the men and measures of the 
Demi cracy. \\< ith he and his wife are mem- 
bers of the German Lutheran church of < >g- 
den and take a deep and active interest in all 
movements pertaining to the general welfare 
and to progress along substantial lines of 
development. Mr. Kuhl is a leading and in- 
fluential fanner of his township, well known 
and respected by all with whom he has been 
associated, lie has never had occasion to 
regret his determination to seek a home in 
America fur here he found the business op- 
portunities he sought and has not only profit- 
ed in this way but has also achieved success 
in gaining the regard of his fellow men. 


C. 1. Sparks, who is filling the position 
of county attorney of Boone count) is one 

of the younger members of the bar of this 

locality, but has attained a creditable posi 

tion as a representatn i 

nitv and sets at naughl the i >ld ada$ 

prophet i- not without honor save in his own 

country, for Mr. Spark- is a native of 

lackson township. His birth occut 

the 22d of December, 1 872, his pare 

A. B. and Jennie K. i Weston 1 Sparks His 

paternal grandparents were Isaac and Cath- 
erine Sparks, who lived in Ohio for some 
years, removing thence to Boone county. 
Iowa, where their remaining days were 
passed. The father of our subject was born 
in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, and came to 
Iowa in 1850, locating first in Jackson town- 
ship upon a farm, where he carried on agri- 
cultural pursuits until about three years ago, 
since which time he has lived retired. He 
was a progressive farmer, following modern 
methods and using the latest improved ma- 
chinery that would facilitate his work. He 
married Jennie R. Weston, a native of Jef- 
ferson county. Xew York, and a daughter of 
Charles Weston, who was the first Repub- 
lican county clerk of Boone county. I [e also 
tilled other political positions, serving as a 
member of the board of supervi 
township trustee and township assessor, lie 
had three brothers, Jndson; Clark, who is 
living in Oxbow. Xew York; and John, who 
was killed at Pleasant Hill. Louisiana, in the 
Civil war. Mr. and Mrs. Sparks are now 
residing in Boone and the father is fifty- 
three wars of age. lie is living retired in 
the enjoyment of the fruits of his former 
toil. In their family were the following 
children: Charles [saac, Augusta W., 
Jeremy X.. George A.. Lawrence B., Bernice 
Edna, Miranda J. and Dorothy. 

After acquiring his elementary education 
in the district schools Mr. Sparks of this re- 
view, continued his studies in Simpson Col- 
lege at Indianola. Warren county, towa, 
where he pursued a four years' course. Not 
wishing to follow the plow as a life work. 
but desiring I 1 entei fessional 

career, in [895 he took up the study of law 
in [owa City. Iowa, completing his course 
luation in June, 1896. He then be- 


gan practice in Boone in the same month 
and has since been a well known factor at 
the bar of this county, winning distinction 
by reason of his thorough knowledge of the 
principles of jurisprudence and the correct- 
fiess with which he applies these to the points 
of litigation. He is also very prominent in 
political circles and in 1897 became chairman 
of the Republican central committee, at 
which time he was the youngest county 
chairman in the state. With excellent fore- 
sight and ability he planned the work of the 
party and his labors contributed in no small 
degree b • its success, in 1 898 he was electe I 
county attorney by a majority of four hun- 
dred and fifty and entered upon the duties 
of the office in January, ie'99. In 1900 he 
was elected for a second term by an in- 
creased majority of over seventeen hundred. 
although he ran against one of the strongest 
men in the Democratic party. The large 
vote was certainly an indication of his per- 
sonal popularity and of the confidence re- 
posed in him by his fellow citizens. He was 
only twenty- four years of age when made 
chairman of the Republican central commit- 
tee and was about twenty-five when elected 
county attorney, probably the youngest can- 
didate ever chosen for such an office in Iowa. 
That he discharged his duties with marked 
capability and without fear or favor is be- 
yond question. He is strong in argument 
and his deductions follow in logical se- 
qttence. He has won several notable cases 
and the profession as well as the public ac- 
cord him a leading place in its ranks. 

On the 28th of September, [895, Mr. 
Sparks was united in marriage to [da 1). 
Roberts, a daughter of E. D. and Catherine 
Roberts, natives of Pennsylvania and Indi- 
ana, respectively. Her grandfather was a 

member of Abraham Lincoln's company in 
tin Black Hawk war. He serve 
of county mines for a Ion 
and was a prominent and influential citizen 
of his community. The marriage of Mr. 
and Mrs. Sparks has been blessed with two 
children— ( atherine 1). and Charles Alden. 
Air. Sparks is a valued member of Mount 
< 'live 1 odge, No. 79, F. & A. M., and of 
Centra] Lodge, No. 73, K. P. He is also 
identified with the Bar Association. Earn- 
est effort, application and the exercise 
of his native talents have won him prestige 
a.s a lawyer at a bar which numbers many 
pn uninent ami able men. 


No histor) of Madrid. Iowa, would be 
complete without the history of C. L. Lucas. 
so actively and efficiently has he been ident- 
ified with the work of progress and im- 
provement here. He has left the impress 
of individuality upon its commercial cir- 
cles and is still identified with business af- 
fairs here as a dealer in real estate and in- 
surance. Numbered among the early set- 
tlers of Boone county, he dates his residence 
within its borders from October, 1853. 

The Lucas family is of English lineage 
and was founded in Virginia at a very early 
day. The grandfather of our subject was 
there born, while Hiram Lucas, the father, 
was a name of Kentucky, in which stale he 
was reared. In Indiana he married Susan 
Payne, al ol Kentucky . I le had 

tier of Indiana, there 
1 ipening up a farm in Putnam o iuntj . 

here he made his home 

ian\ year: 


Seven children were bom unto him and his 
wife in that county, including Air. Lucas of 
this review j whose birth occurred on the 
19th of November. 1838. In 1S53. Hiram 
Lucas removed with his family to Iowa, 
Boone county being his destination. He lo- 
cated in Worth township, where he pur- 
chased some land, and also entered a tract 
from the government. With characteristic 
energy he began the cultivation and im- 
provement of his farm of one hundred and 
sixty acres and in the course of time the 
fields brought to him a splendid return for 
their care and cultivation. The station of 
Gracon is located upon his land. He still 
lives upon the old home place and is now 
a venerable man of eighty-seven years, 
while his wife, who has been spared to him 
through all these year-, has reached the age 
of eighty-four. They have long traveled 
life'-, journey together, sharing with each 
other the joys and sorrows, the adversity 
and prosperity which checker the careers of 

C. L. Lucas was a youth of about fif- 
teen years when he accompanied hi- parents 
on their removal to [owa, He had attended 
the common schools, but is largely a self- 
educated as well as a self-made man. 
and although he is now well in- 
formed his knowledge has been largely ac- 
quired through reading, experience and ob- 
servation, lie remained with his father, 
assisting in the development of the home 
farm, until he had attained bis majority, 
when he began farming on bis own account 
purchasing land near Belle Point. There 
he engaged in the tilling of the soil for 
twenty years and as time passed he pros- 
pered, gradually adding to his capital until 
he had acquired a fair remuneration for his 

efforts. He then came to Madrid and for 
the past "twelve years has been engaged in 
real estate and insurance here, prosperity 
attending his efforts in this direction, the 
only interval that has occurred during his 
business connection with Madrid, covering 
a period of four years.during which time he 
served as postmaster from 1893 until 1S97 
under the administration of President 

Throughout his entire life Mr. Lucas 
has been identified with the Democracy and 
cast his first presidential ballot for Stephen 
A. Douglas, the "Little Giant of Illinois," 
in r86o. He takes quite an active inter- 
est in local politics and has been elected and 
served in different offices. For ten years he 
was justice of the peace and has also beer. 
township trustee and township clerk for a 
number of years. He was Madrid's first 
mayor and tilled that office for one term 
and sevral years later was again elected to 
the same office which he filled for 
two terms. discharging his duties 
in such a manner that promoted the 
welfare, progress and improvement of the 
city. He ha- also been a delegate to the 
county ami state conventions and in every 
office in which he has served he has effi- 
ciently and faithfully performed his duties. 
In other ways he has taken an active part 
in public improvement here. In [860, in 
company with Ins brother. H. M. Lucas, he 
became one of the editors of the Boonesboro 
I lerald and for one year he was editor of the 
Granger's column in the Boone County 
1 >emocrat. 1 le has been almost constantly a 
correspondent of the county press for many 
years. Muring those years he wrote many 
histi iric sketches and articles of pioneer times 
which were read with much interest and 



which were copied by many papers in central 
Iowa. He purchased what was known as the 
Anderson second addition to Madrid and is 
now known as the Lucas addition. He has 
made improvements upon his property and 
it is now a desirable residence section of the 

On the 9th of February. 1862, Air. Lu- 
cas was united in marriage in this county to 
Miss Nancy Sturdivant, a native of Clay 
county, Indiana, born in the same neigh- 
borhood where the birth of Air. Lucas oc- 
curred. She is a daughter of John Sturdi- 
vant. one of the old settlers of Boone county 
who arrived here in 1851. Unto our sub- 
ject and his wife have been born four chil- 
dren, but Pandora died at the age of six 
years. John \Y. is engaged in the real es- 
tate business in Madrid, is married, and has 
-one child. H. D. is married and is engaged 
in business in Madrid. J. G. is a young 
man at home, and is a printer by trade. Mr. 
Lucas and bis family are connected with the 
Christian church of Madrid. Almost bait 
a century has passed since his arrival in this 
county and the history of its development 
and improvement is therefore very familiar 
to him. He can remember the building of 
the railroad and the introduction of many 
business enterprises which 'nave contributed 
in a marked measure to public advancement 
and improvement. He is widely known as 
a man of integrity and worth and he and 
In- estimable wife have a large circle of 
friends throughout this portion of the state. 

\ country has but one chief ruler, be he 
king, emperor or president. Comparatively 


len can aitam t' 

the highest offices 

in civil or military life but commerce 
offers a broad and almosl limitless field 
in which one may exercise his 
unrestrained and gain a leadership as the 
head of a chosen calling. Drawing the 
lessons which we do from the life of Mr. 
Gay, we learn that the qualifications neces- 
sary for success are a high ambition and :i 
resolute, honorable purpose to reach the ex- 
alted standard that has been set up. From 
an early age he has depended upon his own 
resources and has won the proud American 
title of self-made man. 

Mr. Gay was born in Pittston, Maine, 
September 25, 1853, and 1- a -on of Joshua 
S. and Sarah E. (Jordan) Gay, the former 
a native of Stoughton. Massachusetts, and 
the latter of Biddeford, Maine. In the pa- 
ternal line the ancestry can be traced back- 
to John Gay, who came from the west of 
England and landed in Boston. Massachu- 
setts, on the 30th of May. 1630. He took 
up hi- abode at Watertown in the Massachu- 
setts colony but in [635 removed to Ded- 
ham, in Massachusetts, in company with 
eighteen others and there he was married in 
[639. Unto him and his wife. Joanna, were 
born nine children. Calvin daw the great- 
grandfather of our subject, took up his 
d sen ed his country in 
the war for independence, valiantly aiding 
in the struggle, which resulted in the estab- 
lishment ol ican republic. He mar- 
ried Joanna Kingsbury. Ebenezer Gay, his 
son. was born October 1 1. 1792, at Walpole, 
Massachusetts. In [8l0 be entered Harvard 
College and on completion of a four years' 
course was graduated in 1N14. in a class of 
sixty-two and was the last survivor of that 
clas--. The diary, which he kepi in his early 
years, show- a young man of earnest piety. 



He was a regular and devout attendent on 
public worships and the notes which he 
made upon sermons that lie heard show at 
once a judicious criticism and a jealous re- 
gard fur the doctrine which he believed t'> 
be true. Immediately after entering college 
he commenced reading the Greek testament 
— a chapter daily — and continued that habit 
until the last week of his life, using the same 
copy of the sacred text for three-quarters of 
a century. Air. Gay was pastor of the Trin- 
itarian Congregational church at Bridge- 
water. Massachusetts, from 1823 until 1S42. 
when he was dismissed at his own request. 
He remained a resident of Bridgewater. 
however, supplying churches in the vicinity 
either temporarily or as a regular pastor for 
nearly thirty years. His interest in the cause 
of education was manifested in his effective 
labor as a member of the school board of the 
town and as a trustee of the Academy of 
Bridgeport fur a generation. He was also 
active in the establishment of the normal 
school in Bridgewater. He also served as 
the representative from his town in the state 
legislature in [842. A.S a preacher of the 
Gospel he ranked among the ablest of his de- 
nomination and his Catholic spirit opened 
the pulpits of the Unitarian churches in his 
vicinity, where he frequently acceptably 
preached. \t length he removed from 
Bridgewater to Tompkins Cove, New ^ ork, 
and spent his declining years with his young- 
est son. lie was married May [3, iSiS, to 
Laura Sanders, of Wrentham and unto 
them were born three son- and two daugh- 
ters. Mr. Gay retained his mental vigor to 
the lasl ami ever found special satisfaction in 
reading the current literature of the day and 
all classical works, lie was a man of schol- 
arly attainments and broad and general in- 

formation. His old age was full of peace 
to himself and comfort to his children. Like 
his father, who served in the Revolutionary 
war, he was a patriotic lover of his country, 
at all times and under all circumstances. 

The Rev. Joshua S. Gay, the father of 
our subject also became a Congregational 
minister and for about forty years labored 
continuously in the ministry of that denom- 
ination in different churches in Xew Eng- 
land. He also did much missionary work 
in that part of the country. Through his 
own force of character and business ability 
he was enabled to make bis way through 
college and theological school. His life was 
indeed an honorable one and the world is 
certainly better for his having lived. He 
married Miss Sarah E. Jordan, who proved 
to him a faithful companion and helpmate 
on life's journey. Her father. Captain Rich- 
ard Jordan, was born in Biddeford, Maine, 
and when twenty-one years of age turned his 
attention to the seafaring life and followed 
the same until two old to longer engage in 
that kind of work. He was one of the old- 
est .Masons in the state at the time of his 
death and was a worthy exemplar of that 
craft, which is based upon the principles of 

tin- brotherh 1 of man. lie served his 

Country in defense of Fort Hill in the war of 
1812. He made monthly trips by boat be- 
tween Boston and Saco and was well known 
in both ports. He died at the advanced age 
of ninety-five years and his mother was 
ninety-seven years at the time of her demise. 
It was his daughter that became the wife of 
Joshua S. Gay. By their marriage there 
were sj\ children born, of whom Frederic 
I 1, Gay was the second in order of birth. 
Three younger children died within fourteen 
diphtheria, and those still living are 



Ebenezer. a resident of New Jersey; Robert 
Henry, who is living in Maine: and the sub- 
ject 1 if this review. 

Frederic D. Gay acquired his early edu- 
cation in the public schools and at the age 
of sixteen years began earning his own liv- 
ing in Chelsea. Massachusetts, in the employ 
of a carpenter and builder with whom be re- 
mained for six months. The succeeding 
winter he attended school in Newburypi irt, 
Massachusetts, and the following spring re- 
moved to Vermont, where he began work on 
a farm. For four years he was employed in 
Massachusetts at farm labor and in [876 he 
came to Iowa, settling first at Dubuque, 
whence he removed to Boone, in September, 
1S77. Here he has since resided and has 
been an active factor in business circles 
throughout the intervening period. He is 
especially well known in insurance circles. 
For four years he served as collection clerk 
in the McFarland Bank from 1880 until 
i8S_i and during that time was also con- 
nected with insurance interests. In 18S2 he 
was elected city clerk, in which capacity he 
served until 1889 with the exception of the 
year [884. In 1894 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the city council, in which he served 
for two years. In the Business Men's Asso- 
ciation he has been honored with offices, 
serving as its secretary during the past three 
years. He is also secretary of the Boone 
Building and Loan Asociation, filling this 
position since its organization in [886. He 
is likewise secretary and treasurer of the 
Iowa Domestic Local Building and Loan 
Association League, having filled this posi- 
tion for the past eight years. Dunn- all 
this time Mr. Gay has likewise been con- 
nected with the insurance business as a rep- 

resentative of some of the most reliable com- 
panies of the country and he owes his success 
entirely to his own effort-, his business capa- 
bility and his resolute purpose. 

In [884 was celebrated the man, 1 
Mr. Gay and Miss Anna A. Boss, daughter 
of John II. ami Martha A. 1 Hoxsie) Boss 
of Rhode Island. Her father. I 
Boss, died about (lie year [868, being killed 
on the Erie Railroad during the infancy of 
his daughter. Mis Cay. Her mother and 
brother, Walter A. lioss, came to Boone in 
the '70s and the latter was killed on the 
Northern Pacific Railroad in May. [889, in 
a head-end collision, at which time he was 
serving as engineer on the passenger train. 
The accident occurred at Crystal Springs. 
The mother was born at White Brook, 
Rhode Island. September 26, 1833, and died 
at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Cay, De- 
cember 20. 1897, in her sixty-fourth year. 
She was married September 6, [859. She 
held membersip in the Baptist church and 
her social and moral qualities made her re- 
spected and loved by all who knew her. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gay have one son. Walter 
L. who was born February 1 1. [889. Fra- 
ternally Mr. Cay is connected with the In- 
dependent ( )rder of Odd Fellows, belonging 
to both the subordinate lodge and encamp- 
ment. In political thought and action he has 
always been independent, carrying out his 
honest views without fear or favor. In busi- 
ness he has achieved success through honor- 
able efforts, untiring industry and capable 
management, and in private life he has 
gained that warm personal regard which 
arises from true nobility of character, de 
ference for the opinion of others, kindliness 




John Crim, living' on section 8, Dodge 
township, is practically living retired upon 
the old home farm which has been the scene 
of his active labor for many years. He was 
born in Loudoun county, Virginia. October 
2. 1825. The same year his parents removed 
westward, settling in Carroll county, < >hio, 
ami mg the frontier people there living. The 
father chopped down the great forest trees. 
grubbed up the stumps, cleared away the 
brush and eventually was enabled to 
carry on the work of plowing and 
planting upon his farm of one hun- 
dred and sixty acres. In course of time 
the tract of land became rich and arable. 
He spent his last years upon that place and 
was the leading agriculturist of I 

Upon the home farm John Crim was 
reared and in early youth he took his place 
behind the plow and continued to assist in 
the work of the farm through a long period. 
About [8/| 8 he married Salina Kail and then 
to provide a home for his bride he rented a 
tract of land, continuing its cultivation until 
1854, when he came to Iowa. The first 

after his arrival was sp< 
Madrid, and in the spring of 185: 
to Dodge township, entering from the gov- 
ernment land which he now owns and oc 
cupies. It was a tract of raw praii < 
ing eighty acres and also an eight} 
of timberland. Preparing it 
In continued the work of a progressive and 
practical agriculturist for man} war-. He 
also bought eighty acres adjoining his first 
purchase, erected a good residence and put 
up all the other buildings which constitute 
the necessary and desirable improvements 

upon a farm. He has an excellent orchard, 
good forest trees and splendid equipments, 
and all these stand as monuments to his en- 
terprise and thrift. 

Mr. Crim for many years enjoyed the 
companionship and aid of his estimable wife, 
but on the 12th of December, 1893, was 
called upon to mourn her loss, for she died 
on that date and was laid to rest in the 
Ricigeport cemetery. They became the par- 
ents of nine children : C. W., a lawyer, now- 
enjoying a large clientage in Esthervilfe, 
Iowa, is married and has two children. Al- 
bert, a resident farmer of Emmet county, 
Iowa, is married and has four children, one 
of his daughters being engaged in teaching. 
John B.. who is occupying the home place, 
is married and has three children, — Floyd, 
Ruby and Edgar. Maggie is the wife of 
Columbus Richardson, by whom she has 
five children, four of whom have reached 
years of maturity. Virginia is the wife of 
David Richardson, of Hancock count} - , 
Iowa, and has four living children. Mrs. 
Ettie Hanson is a widow of Webster City, 
Iowa, and has five children. Carrie is the 
wite oi Mort Condon, of North Dakota, and 
has five children. Dora is the wife of Peter 
Mather, of Stanhope, Iowa, and has two 
childi en. 

In his political views Mr. Crim is a Jef- 
fersonian Democrat and never failed to vote 
each presidential election since casting his 
first vote for Franklin Pierce, in 1852. with 
the exception of the last two times when he 
was not able to go to the polls. For a few 
terms he served as township trustee and has 
also been school director, but has never been 
a politician in the commonly accepted sense 
seeking. He lu lop-- to the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church of Ridgeport and is 






a valued man whose advancement in life has 
come as a direct result of his own efforts. 
He had no friends to aid him and no inherit- 
ance came to him, but with strong purpose 
he resolved to work his way upward, and as 
the years have passed his labors have borne 
excellent fruit. 1 le now has a valuable farm 
upon which he is living in retirement, for 
his former toil has brought him a comfort- 
able competence that now supplies him with 
al of the necessities and comforts and many 
of the luxuries of life. 


lacksim Hull, who follows agricultural 
pursuits on section 34. Worth township, has 
been a resident of Boone county for a 1. inger 
period than almost any of its citizens, the 
date of his arrival here being the fall of 
1848. He is a native of Schuyler county. 
Missouri, born April 25, 1841. His father, 
George Hull, was born in Virginia, in 1779. 
and was a soldier in the war of 1812, at the 
close of which he moved to Muskingum 
county, Ohio, where he remained for sev- 
eral years, moving finally to Fulton county. 
Illinois, and thence to Schuyler county, 
Missouri. During the Black Hawk and 
other Indian wars, he commanded a com- 
pany of the regiment commanded by Colo- 
nel Farris. After the death of his first wife 
he married Lucy Farris, the sister of his 
old colonel, and the mother of Jackson 
Hull, the subject of this sketch. In 1848 
they moved to Boone county, towa, where 
he died in [855, bis wife having died in 

After the death of his father, Jackson 
Hull resided with his older brother. Jesse 

Hull, until he was sixteen years of age. 
when he began earning his own living by 
working a- a farm band by the month. He 
then went to Colorado, in the spring of 
1 80, making his wax to Denver and Pikes 
Peak where be engaged in prospecting for a 
time. Subsequently he was employed in a 
quart/ mill in Colorado, spending aboul 
eighteen months in that state, after which 
he returned to his home in Iowa. At the 
time of the Civil war his loyalty to the Un- 
ion was manifested by his enlistment, in 
December, 1861, at which time he joined 
the boys in blue of Company D, Sixteenth 
Iowa Infantry. The regiment went south, 
was attached to the Army of the Tennes- 
see and particpated in the battles of Pitts- 
burg Landing. Corinth, Iuka, Black River 
Bridge, the -lege of Yicksburg and the cap- 
ture of that Confederate stronghold. Mr. 
Hull then veteranized and was granted a 
furlough of thirty days, at the end of 
which time he rejoined the army at Clifton, 
Kentucky, and participated in the Atlanta 
campaign, including many noted battles. 
He was taken prisoner at Atlanta. July jj. 
1864, and was then sent to Andersonville, 
where be was incarcerated for two months 
when he was exchanged and rejoined the 
army. He went with Sherman on his cel- 
ebrated march to the sea and participated in 
all of the engagements of that campaign, 
then marched through to Richmond and on 
to Washington, where he participated in the 
in.i-l celebrated military pageant ever seen 
on the western hemisphere the "grand re- 
view'* — a most fit tmg close of the brilliant 
if the northern army. I le was then 
sent to Louisville, Kentucky, where be re- 
mained until mustered out. Returning to 
Iowa he wa< honorably discharged at Dav- 



cnp' lit. in July. 1865. He was only twenty 
years of age when he enlisted, but his loy- 
alty and valor were equal to that of many 
an older soldier and his military record is 
a most creditable one. 

During the summer season following 
his return to Boone county. Mr. Hull rented 
land and engaged in farming. As soon as 
possible he purchased a tract comprising 
forty acres in Douglas township. Clearing 
away the timber and brush he built a home 
and witli characteristic energy began the 
improvement of the farm upon which he 
lived fur several years when he sold the 
propert) and purchased a part of the farm 
upon which he now resides, becoming the 
owner of thirty-five acres. Taking up his 
abode here lie has each season since culti- 
vated the fields and year by year has suc- 
cessfully carried mi fanning until he is now- 
one of the substantial agriculturist of the 
community, having one hundred and forty- 
li\e acres of rich land which brings him 
splendid harvests. lie lias a g 1 resi- 
dence upon the place, substantial improve- 
ments, barns, a bearing orchard and beauti- 
ful evergreen trees winch adorn the lawn 
and shade the home. X" equipments of a 
model farm are lacking, lie has purchased 
improved machinery \<> facilitate the work 
of the licliN and he alsi 1 raises a gi 
of stock, this branch of his business likc- 
w ise proA ing pn ifitable. 

Throughout the greater part of his busi- 
ness career Mr. Hull lias enjoyed the com- 
panionship and assistance of a most estim- 
able lad_\'. who in her maidenhood was Mary 
J. Payne, and whom he made his wife on 
the 17th of March. [867. She is a native 
of Indiana and a daughter of Benjamin and 

Rebecca Payne. Benjamin Payne died dur- 
ing the early girlhood of Mrs. Hull. She 
was largely reared in Boone county, and 
has become the mother of three children: 
Ida, now the wife of P. H. Zenar, a resident 
farmer of Worth township, formerly a tele- 
graph operator on the Northwestern Kail- 
road; Rebecca May, who was married to B. 
F. I lull and died at the age of twenty-one 
years; and Frank, who is married and as- 
sists in the operation of the home farm. 

In early life Mr. Hull was a Democral 
but in 1864 he cast his ballot for Abraham 
Lincoln. He endorsed the Democracy af- 
ter the war. but of recent years has been 1 
Prohibition-Republican. He was elected 
and served as township trustee, tilling the 
position for six years and also has keen a 
member of the school board, doing every- 
thing in his power to advance the cause of 
education in this locality. He and his wife 
belong to the Christian church known as the 
\lcadou Grove church, and Mr. Hull is 
serving as one of its elders and as a trus- 
tee lie was formerly a Master Mason, 
but is now dimmed from the lodge. Fif- 
ty four years have passed since he came to 
I '.'.one county. He is .me of the few re- 
maining early settlers who have witnessed 
the development of this portion of the state 
through a half century. There we're 110 

railroads when he came and few wagmi 
roads. The greater portion of the land was 
still in possession of the government and 
upon the prairies grew the native grasses 
or timber. He has taken a just pride in 
what has keen accomplished in the way of 
improvement and development here and has 
borne his part in the work of progress. 
His efforts have not been without result and 



as the year- have been added to the cycle of 
eternitv, Jackson Hull has been numbered 
among the valued and representative men 
of his county. 


In the history of Boone county it will be 
found that many of its citizens are of Swed- 
ish birth, or descent, and that the Swedish- 
American element has been an important 
one in the development of this portion of the 
state. The sons and daughters of Sweden 
are characterized by thrift, energy and 
strong determination, ami these qualities 
prove important elements in winning success. 
They are also honest and reliable and in 
the life record of Mr. Martenson we note 
many of the sterling- characteristics of his 
people. He is now- one of the thrift}- and 
prominent farmers of Douglas township, 
owning- and cultivating a farm of one hun- 
dred acres which is not far from Madrid, so 
that the accessories of city life are easily ob- 

Coming to Boone county on the .24th of 
May, 1869, he has since made it his home. 
lie was then a young man of thirty years. 
hi- birth having- occurred in Sweden on the 
[5th of September, C839. Me was reared to 

manhood upon the farm there and had, g 1 

school privileges in hi- native town, hut his 
knowledge of English ha- been acquired en- 
tirely through hi- own efforts sinc< 
gration to the new world. 1 le worked upon 
his father's farm for a number of year- and 
then with the family crossed the broad At- 
lantic to the Tnited Slate- in [869. The} 
sailed from Gottenborg on a steamship 
hound for New York and thence made their 

way 1. 1 Boone c unty, towa, where Mr. Mar 
tenson lived with his father, mother and 
brothers. Two brother- had located here 
four years pre\ ious, and one had returned to 
the old country and again came to America 
with the father and his family. John Gusl 
Martensi m ami 1 me of his brother- purchased 
a farm in Dallas county. Iowa, and locating 
thereon continued its cultivation for about 
three years when they -old out. .Mr. Mar- 
I thi- review then came to Madrid 
and purchased the farm upon which he now 
lives, in the spring of 1873. It was a place 
with fair improvements and he at once un- 
dertook the further development of the farm. 
He has built two ham- and granary cribs 
and all other necessary outbuildings and has 
planted a large number of fruit trees. In 
his yard are evergreen trees and other shade 
tree- ami altogether his place i- an attractive 
'■lie. presenting a pleasing appearance to the 
traveler who passes his way. 

Mr. Marten-011 was married 111 Boon* 
county. January i<>. [873, to Miss Matilda 
Carlson, a native of Sweden who came i<> 
the United States when a maiden of ten sum- 
mers, the year of her arrival being 1853. 
She is a daughter of Andrew Carlson who 
settled upon the place now owned and occu- 
pied by Mr. Martenson. ddte latter i- a 
stanch Republican, having never wavered in 
lii- allegiance to the party since he gained the 
right of franchise, yet he ha- never desired 
office and ha- continually refused to become 
a candidate. Both he and his wife were 
reared in the Lutheran faith and are now 
members of the Swedish Lutheran church 
of Madrid. 1 le ha- been a resident -1 towa 
for thirtv three v ear- and hi- wife for forty- 

ears, and she was reared upon the 
f :Mm v hicli is now her home l'he> are 



well known people of the community for 
during the period of their long residence 
here they have gained a large circle of 
friends, many of whom entertain for them 
warm regard and cherish for them warm 


Austin T. Shadle. who is a representa- 
tive of the farming interests of Amaqua 
township, living on section 26, possesses 
good business ability, a fact which has been 
demonstrated by the success which has 
crowned his efforts in the years that have 
passed, during which lie has given his atten- 
tion to general farming and to the buying 
and shipping of stock. He is also interested 
in the grain business, being part owner of 
one of the largest grain elevators in ( Igden. 

Numbered among Iowa's native sons, his 
birth occurred in Clinton comity, in October. 
[866, his parents being George and Susan 
(Hilman) Shadle. During his infancy his 
parents removed to this county and in his 
boyhood days he largel) assisted his father 
in the operation of the home farm in Ama- 
qun township. He attended the public 
schools during the winter months and thus 
gained a fair knowledge of the common 
branches of English learning. To his father 
he gave tlie benefit of his services until he 
was twenty years of age when he was mar 
ried on the 15th of June. 1N87. the lady of 
his choice being .Miss Laura Powers, of 
\m.'n|>ia township, a daughter of William 
Powers^ a prominent and influential citizen 
and an earl} settler of this county. He yet 
lives in Boone county and his children are 
all around him, the family being one highlv 

respected in the community. The home of 
Mr. and Mrs. Shadle has been blessed with 
seven children and the family circle vet re- 
mains unbroken by the hand of death. In 
order of birth these are as follows : Myrtle, 
Ida, Minnie. Orin. Eva, Goldie and Gay, all 
living at home. 

After their marriage our subject and his 
wife began their domestic life upon a farm 
upon section 15, Amaqua township, where 
they lived for a few years and then removed 
to the village of Beaver, where Mr. Shadle 
was engaged in the real estate business for 
a year. On the expiration of that period he 
took up his abode 011 section 23, Amaqua 
township, and rented a farm for five years, 
after which he removed to his present home 
on section 26. Amaqua township. This is 
known as the "Id clap]! farm. Here he owns 
two hundred acres of rich land capable of 
high cultivation and his fields are well tilled 
while in the autumn he garners rich harvests. 
He is also engaged in the stock business, 
buying and selling all kinds of stock and his 
annual shipments return to him a good in- 
come. During the season he operates a 
threshing machine. In partnership with the 
firm of Xylander Brothers, he recently pur- 
chased tlie Henning & Hagge grain elevator 
at ()gden. which they now conduct under 
the firm style of Xylander Brothers & 
Shadle. It being splendidly located the Xy- 
lander Brothers have removed their stock of 
agricultural implements there, not having 
sufficient roi 'in at their 1 rid li icatii m. 

Air. Shadle served as constable of his 
township for one term and for one term has 
been school director, He votes with tlie Re- 
publican party and is deeph interested in all 
that tends to promote the growth and insure 
tli' sikvc-- -1" die party. His wife, a most 



estimable lady, is a member of the German 
Baptist church of Dallas Center. Mr. Shadle 
is vet a young- man but has already attained 
a degree of success which many an older 
man might well envy. He is very progres- 
sive in all bis business methods, is far- 
sighted and possesses sound judgment, 
forming- his plans carefully, he is then deter- 
mined in their execution and through the 
conduct of his varied business interests he 
has met with desirable and gratifying pros- 


\Y. J. Keigley is now living a retired 
life in Madrid, but for a number of years 
was classed among the successful business 
men of Boone county. For fourteen years 
he engaged in merchandising here and 
prior to that time was a representative of 
the agricultural interests of the state and 
county. Pennsylvania is the state of his 
nativity, his birth having occurred in 
Greene county u|pon a farm, June 12,1824. 
His father, John Keigley, was also a native 
of that state, his birth having occurred near 
Cumberland, Maryland, but across the bor- 
ders of Pennsylvania, in 1789. After ar- 
riving at man's estate he wedded Rachel 
Anderson, also a native of Pennsylvania. 
He devoted his attention to farming in 
Greene county for many years and there 
four sons and three daughters were born 
unto himself and wife. In the year 1852 
he sought a home in Iowa, locating at Belle 
Point, Boone county. He improved a 
farm and throughout his remaining days 
was interested in agricultural pursuits here. 
His death occurred about 1856 and the com- 

munity thereby lost a valued and represent- 
ative citizen, a man who. 111 all life's rela- 
tions was true to duty, although there were 
no exciting chapters in his history. His 
wife survived him about nine years and 
was then laid to rest by his side, in the 
Lutheran cemetery. 

Air. Keigley of this review was reared 
to manhood in the county of his nativity. 
He bad little opportunity to attend school 
for his services were needed upon the home 
farm, but as the years have passed he has 
gained practical knowledge and moreover 
he has developed a character of sterling 
worth. He remained with his father until 
his twenty-fourth year, when he was mar- 
ried in Greene county, Pennsylvania, on the 
29th of February, 1848, to Miss Elizabeth 
Throckmorton, also a native of the Key- 
stone state and a daughter of Joseph 
Throckmorton. Her father was a native of 
Xew Jersey, and represented an early fam- 
ily of that state, of English ancestry. Airs. 
Keigley was born November 2~. 1824, in 
Greene county, Pennsylvania, and is about 
four months younger than her husband. 

After their marriage the young couple 
began their domestic life upon the old Keig- 
ley homestead in Pennsylvania, where they 
remained for four years, afterward spend- 
ing one year upon the Throckmorton farm. 
In the spring of 1854, however, they re- 
solved to test the truth of the favorable re- 
ports which they had heard concerning 
Iowa and in that year they traveled across 
country to Boone county, where they ar- 
rived on the 12th of April. Mr. Keigley 
purchased a farm, of which only ten acres 
had been broken. Few improvement- had 
been made, a small amount of fence had 
been built but the greater part of the tract 



was unfenced. He built a cabin and for 
four years lived in it in pioneer style, endur- 
ing many of tbe trials and hardships of 
frontier life, at the same time enjoying 
ninny of its pleasures. At the end of that 
period, however, the little cabin and all its 
contents were destroyed by fire. In order 
to provide a home for his family Mr. Keig- 
ley at once rebuilt, erecting a good frame 
house. He first owned eighty acres of land 
and afterward he added to this as his fin- 
ancial resources made additional purchases 
possible, becoming the owner of about five 
hundred acres of rich land of which two 
hundred and sixty acres lay in the home 
farm. The years witnessed the addition of 
many improvements to the place. He re- 
modeled ami improved the house, built a 
good barn, planted fruit and shade trees and 
in the course of time gathered good cro] 
from his orchard as well as from his fields. 
For thirty-two years he carried on agricul- 
tural pursuit^, and then put aside the labors 
of the farm, removing to .Madrid in t886. 
Here he turned his attention to merchan- 
dising and for fourteen years sue 
conducted a general store. Many men who 
have been identified with agricultural pur- 
suits, retire and turn their 
to commercial interests, but Mr. Keiglev 
displayed excellent business and executive 
ability, meeting with prosperity in his new 
undertaking. After fourteen years had 
passed he sold his store to his son and lias 
since lived retired. He is now in tl 
ing of life and well merits rest from active 
labor. His efforts have been of benefit to 
the town along the lines of substantial im- 
provemenl and progress. I te now owns a 
brick business Mock here which was erected 
bv his two sons and he also has a very- 

pleasant residence. Mr. Keiglev began life 
in Boone county a very poor man, having 
scarcely any capital, but through the assis- 
tance of his estimable wife and. as a result of 
his capable management and unremitting 
diligence he has steadily advanced until to- 
day he is accounted one of the men of af- 
fluence in this portion of the state. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Keigley have been 
bom se\en children: John Warren, who is 
married and resides in Boone; C. C, who is 
married and owns a rice plantation at Crow- 
ley. Louisiana; T. H.. who is married and 
resides upon a farm in Colfax township, 
Boone county: Lionel F., who is engaged 
in merchandising in Madrid; Robert M.. 
who is a partner of his brother Lionel 1-'. : 
Emma, the wife of Andrew Sutherland, of 
Madrid; and Wilbur, who is married and 
1 1 sides in Madrid. 

Politically Mr, Keigley is a Democrat, 
whose allegiance to the party has never 
wavered through all the years of his man- 

h 1. He has served as a member of the 

county board of supervisors, as a member 
of the town council and as a delegate to va- 
rious county and state conventions, but has 
to no extent sought public office as a re- 
ward for party fealty, his business interests 
having made heavy demands upon his time; 
neither did he care for the excitement Ot 
the political arena. Both he and his wife 
to the Methodist Episcopal church of 
Madrid and enjoy an unusual degree of the 
esteem and respect of all with whom they 
have been brought in contact. Few indeed 
of the s, - ie county have 

resided in this portion of the state as Mr. 
Keigley, whose residence here covers more 
than forty-eight years. He truly deserves 
re] resentation among the honored \ ioneers 


who have laid the foundation for the pres- 
ent prosperity and upbuilding of the county 
as not only did he take part in the beginning 
of business here, but throughout many 
years was an active factor in industrial cir- 
cles leading to substantial improvement. 


For nearly thirty-seven years Henrv 
Gceppinger has been associated with the 
business interests and general development 
of the city of Boone. He is the junior 
member of the firm of L. & H. Gceppinger, 
wholesale leather and saddlery hardware 
merchants. A native of Germany, he was 
born October 31, 1843, at Reutlingen, 
Wurtemburg, son of Johannes and Kath- 
arine ( Ammer) Gcepplinger, with whom he 
came to America in 1851. The father. Jo- 
hannes, was born January 10. 1700. 
and died at Boone, Iowa, October 4, 1873. 
The mother, born December 12, 1800, died 
April 9. 1888. in Boone. The family 
stopped, for the first six months after their 
arrival, in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, 
then removed to Xew Chambersburg, Ohio, 
and after the close of the Civil war the 
father went to Ravenna, in the same state, 
dwelling with the daughter, Lena, until he 
removed to Boone. The children were fif- 
teen 111 number, -i\ of whom died in in- 
fancy. The living are: Frederick, horn 
July 10. 1828, now residing at Albion, In 
diana: Louis; Henry: Christian, born June 
-'5- lN .v- residing at Bushnell, [llinois; 
Charles, bom October 25, 1848. residing at 
Denver, Colorado. The following adult 
children have passed to the great beyond: 

John, bom September 10. 1830, duel June 
[9, [893, at Kendallville, Indiana: Maria 
1 Buren 1. horn March iS. [832, dud August 
21, 1894. at Boone, Iowa: Lena (Gretzin- 
ger) horn October 26, [834, died July 27, 
1899, .it Ravenna, Ohio; and Gotthilf (Ca- 
leb), born April 20, [839, died July 27, 

In Germany Henry Gceppinger hail 
commenced bis primary education which he 
continued in this country, acquiring read- 
ily a masten of the English la 
Then he worked in his father's tannery at 
Chambersburg, Ohio, until twenty-one 
years of age, continuing' the same occupa- 
tion until 1864. Having contracted rheu- 
matism through exposure, he abandoned the 
tanning business and engaged in that of 
general merchandising for a year. This he 
sold to his sister. Maria I'.uren.and entering 
into partnership with his brother, Louis, 
came to Boone. March 31. 1866, and estab- 
lished the wholesale saddlery business 
which the firm has continued to the present. 
The brothers have found the partnershi] 
mutually pleasant and profitable, and it bids 
fair to continue so for many years. 

M11 January 13. 1N07, Mr. Gceppinger 
was united in marriage to Mis^. \nna 
Mary Le Mean, who was horn March 
_'8. JS48, and wa> the eighth 111 a 
family of eleven children, whose father 
was Charles Le Beau of Malvern, Carroll 
county, Ohio. IA Henry Gceppinger and 
wife have been born seven children, but 
three of whom survive: Ursula Caroline, 
1 Mrs. J M. I ferrhan 1. bi >rn February 1 . 
[869; John II.. born November 30, [870; 
and Marj Matilda, bom ( Ictober 13. [875. 

The children deceased were: Mary Cath- 
erine, l)i in I lecember 31 >. 1867, died January 



17, 1863; Emma Catherine, born May 7. 
1873, died July 18, 1887; Magdalene Mar- 
garet, born August 21, 1880, died August 
3, 1897; and Henrietta Catherine, born Oc- 
tober i, 1886, died January 3, 18S9. Mr. 
Gceppinger and his wife are members 
of the German Evangelical Lutheran 
church in the teachings of which they firm- 
ly believe and confidently hope to rejoin 
their lost ones in another and a better 

Though always a busy man Mr. Gcep- 
pinger has liberally given of his time to the 
cause of education and city government. 
He was for four years a member of the city- 
school board, during one of which he filled 
the responsible position of president ; for 
another four years he served the public in- 
terests as a member of the city council : and 
in other like positions he has served the gen- 
eral interests of this community, unre- 
quited save in the knowledge of things well 
done. He has financial interests in the 
City Bank, Security Savings Bank of Boone 
and in real estate. 

Though not at all an invalid, the ad- 
vance of years and close application to busi- 
ness, has made it desirable to seek more 
genial climes in the winter season, which he 
and his wife have done of late in California 
and other warm localities. — a recreation 
wholly justifiable. Henry Gceppinger's 
most distinguished personal traits might 
well be stated in the two adjectives — kindly 
and placid. He is never knowingly unjust. 
Bv nature and in practice he is deliberate, 
hence has little to regret. Properly careful 
of his own, he readily concedes the same to 
others, and no man can say he has ever en- 
dured wrong at his hands. Guided by such 
principles, his life Hows along as a smooth 

river, whose banks are bordered by the love 
of his family, the esteem of his acquaint- 
ances and the respect of his business friends, 
each and all of whom join in the hope that 
it> ocean is vet afar awav. 


Axloniram Judson Holmes was a man of 
the strenuous life. He was born March 2. 
1842, at Jackson, Wayne county, Ohio, son 
of Dr. Benjamin Franklin Holmes, who saw 
the light first near East Aurora, Xew York, 
in [816, and who died in Palmyra, Wiscon- 
sin, at the age of fifty-seven years. The im- 
migrant ancestor of the Holmes family was 
Captain George Holmes, of Xew Amster- 
dam, who was born in England about the 
year 1600. In 1635 he was captain of a 
party which effected a settlement on the 
Delaware river. His descendants afterward 
settled in Virginia, Ohio, Wisconsin and 
low.i. \. J. Holmes' mother. Susan (Par- 
ker) Holmes, d