Skip to main content

Full text of "The biographical record of Webster County, Iowa .."

See other formats



Biographical Record 




The people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors will never achieve 
anything -worthy to be remembered with pride by remote generations. — Macaulay. 


The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. 

Biography is the only true History. — Emerson. 

L people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors 

will nevei achieve anything worthy to be remembered with 

pride by remote generations. — Macaulay. 


HE greatest of English historians, Macaulay, and one of the most 
brilliant writers of the present century, has said : "The history of a 
country is best told in a record of the lives of its people." In con- 
formity with this idea, the Biographical Record has been prepared. 
Instead of going to musty records, and taking therefrom dry statistical 
matter that can be appreciated by but few, our corps of writers have 
gone to the people, the men and women who have, by their enterprise 
and industry, brought this county to a rank second to none among 
those comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelligent 
public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the imitation 
of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by industry and 
economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited advantages for securing 
an education, have become learned men and women, with an influence extending throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who have risen from the lower walks of 
life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have become famous. It tells of those in 
every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and records how that success has usually 
crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very many, who, not seeking the applause of the 
world, have pursued the " even tenor of their way," content to have it said of them, as Christ 
said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — " They nave done what they could." It 
tells how many, in the pride and strength of young manhood, left the plow and the anvil, the 
lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly " to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was 
restored and peace once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every 
woman is a lesson that should not be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from 
the fact that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which 
would otherwise be inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work 
and every opportunity possible given to those represented to insure correctness in what has 
been written ; and the publishers flatter themselves that they give to their readers a work with 
few errors of consequence. In addition to biographical sketches, portraits of a number of 
representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume _ 
For this the publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some 
refused to give the information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. 
Occasionally some member of the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such 
opposition the support of the interested one would be withheld. In a few instances mer. 
never could be found, though repeated calls were made at their residence or place of business. 

May, 190?. 

The S. J- Clarke Publishing Co. 



Table of Contents, 

Compendium of National Biography, 
Compendium of Local Biography, 




Compendium of National Biography. 

Biographical Sketches of National Celebrities. 


Abbott, Lyman 144 

Adams, Charles Kendall 143 

Adams, John 25 

Adams, John Quincy 61 

Agassiz, Louis J. R 137 

Alger, Russell A 173 

Allison, William B 131 

Allston, Washington 190 

Altgeld, John Peter 140 

Andrews, Elisha B 184 

Anthony, Susan B 62 

Armour, Philip D 62 

Arnold, Benedict 84 

Arthur, Chester Allen 168 

Astor, John Jacob 139 

Audubon, John James 166 

Bailey, James Montgomery... 177 

Bancroft, George 74 

Barnard, Frederick A. P 179 

Barnum, Phineas T 41 

Barrett, Lawrence 156 

Barton, Clara 209 

Bayard, Thomas Francis 200 

Beard, William H 196 

Beauregard, Pierre G. T 203 

Beecher, Henry Ward 26 

Bell, Alexander Graham 96 

Bennett, James Gordon 206 

Benton, Thomas Hart 53 

Bergh, Henry 160 

Bierstadt, Albert 197 

Billings, Josh 166 

Blaine, James Gillespie 22 

Bland, Richard Parks 106 


Boone, Daniel 36 

Booth, Edwin 51 

Booth, Junius Brutus 177 

Brice, Calvin S 181 

Brooks, Phillips 130 

Brown, John 51 

Brown, Charles Farrar 91 

Brush, Charles Francis 153 

Bryan, William Jennings 158 

Bryant, William Cullen 44 

Buchanan, Franklin 105 

Buchanan, James 128 

Buckner, Simon Boliver 188 

Burdette, Robert J 103 

Burr, Aaron Ill 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin .... 24 

Calhoun, John Caldwell 23 

Cameron, James Donald 141 

Cameron, Simon 141 

Cammack, Addison 197 

Campbell, Alexander 180 

Carlisle, John G 133 

Carnegie, Andrew 73 

Carpenter, Matthew Hale 17* 

Carson, Christopher (Kit). ... 86 

Cass, Lewis 110 

Cha=e, Salmon Portland 65 

Childs, George W 83 

Choate, Rufus 207 

Chaflin, Horace Brigham 107 

Clay, Henry 21 

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. . 86 

Cleveland, Grover 174 

Clews, Henry 153 


Clinton, DeWitt 110 

Colfax, Schuyler, 139 

Conklin, Alfred 32 

Conklin, Roscoe 32 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre... 140 

Cooper, James Fenimore 58 

Cooper, Peter 37 

Copely, John Singleton 191 

Corbin, Austin 205 

Corcoran, W. W 196 

Cornell, Ezra 161 

Cramp, William 189 

Crockett, David 76 

Cullom, Shelby Moore 116 

Curtis, George William 144 

Cushman, Charlotte 107 

Custer, George A 95 

Dana, Charles A 88 

"Danbury News Man" 177 

Davenport, Fanny.. 106 

Davis, Jefferson 24 

Debs, Eugene V 132 

Decatur, Stephen 101 

Deering, William 198 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell... 209 

Dickinson, Anna 103 

Dickinson, Don M 139 

Dingley, Nelson, Jr 215 

Donnelly, Ignatius 161 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 53 

Douglass, Frederick 43 

Dow, Neal 108 

Draper, John William 184 



Drexel, Anthony Joseph 124 

Dupont, Henry 198 

Edison, Thomas Alva 55 

Edmunds, George F 201 

Ellsworth, Oliver 1G8 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 57 

Ericsson, John 127 

Evarts, William Maxwell 89 

Farragut, David Glascoe 80 

Field, Cyrus West 173 

Field, U'avid Dudley 126 

Field. Marshall 59 

Field, Stephen Johnson 216 

Fillmore, Millard 113 

Foote, Andrew Hull 176 

Foraker, Joseph B 143 

Forrest, Edwin 92 

Franklin, Benjamin 18 

Fremont, John Charles 29 

Fuller, Melville Weston 168 

Fulton, Robert 62 

Gage, Lyman J 71 

GaTlatml Alnert 112 

Garfield, James A .... 163 

Garrett, John Work 200 

Garrison, William Lloyd 50 

Gates, Horatio ....*. 70 

Gatling, Richard Jordan 116 

( leorge, Henry 203 

Gibbons, Cardinal James 209 

Gilmofe, Patrick Sarsfield 77 

Girard, Stephen 137 

Gough, John B 131 

Gould, Jay 52 

Gordon, John B 215 

Grant, Ulysses S 155 

Gray, Asa , 88 

Gray, Elisha 149 

Greeley, Adolphus W 142 

Greeley, Horace 20 

Greene, Nathaniel 69 

Gresham, Walter Quintin 183 

Hale, Edward Everett 79 

Hall, Charles Francis 167 

Hamilton, Alexander 31 

Hamlin, Hannibal 214 

Hampton, Wade 192 

Hancock, Winfield Scott 146 

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo 169 

Harris, Isham G 214 

Harrison, William Henry 87 

Harrison, Benjamin 182 

Harvard, John 129 

Havemeyer, John Craig 182 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 135 

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard... 157 

Hendricks, Thomas Andrew. . 212 

Henry, Joseph 105 

Henrv, 'Patrick 83 

Hill, David Bennett 90 

Hobart, Garrett A 213 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 206 

Hooker, Joseph 52 

Howe, Elias 130 

Howells, William Dean 104 


Houston, Sam 120 

Hughes, Archbishop John 157 

Hughitt, Marvin 159 

Hull, Isaac 169 

Huntington, Collis Potter 94 

Ingalls, John James 114 

Ingersoll, Robert G 85 

Irving, Washington 33 

Jackson, Andrew 71 

Jackson, " Stonewall " 67 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan 67 

Jay, John 39 

Jefferson, Joseph 47 

Jefferson, Thomas 34 

Johnson, Andrew 145 

Johnson, Eastman 202 

Johnston, Joseph Eccleston... . 85 

Jones, James K .. 171 

Jones, John Paul 97 

Jones, Samuel Porter 115 

Kane, Elisha Kent 125 

Kearney, Philip 210 

Kenton, Simon 188 

Knox, John Jay 134 

Lamar, Lucius Q. C 201 

Lando'n, Melville D 109 

Lee, Robert Edward 38 

Lewis, Charles B 193 

Lincoln, Abraham 135 

Livermore, Mary Ashton 131 

Locke, David Ross 172 

Logan, John A 26 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 37 

Longstreet, James 56 

Lowell, James Russell 104 

Mackay, John William 148 

Madison, lames 42 

Marshall, John 156 

Mather, Cotton 164 

Mather, Increase 163 

Maxim, Hiram S 194 

McClellan, George Brinton.... 47 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall 172 

McDonough, Com. Thomas.. . 167 

McKinley; William 217 

Meade, George Gordon 75 

Medill, Joseph 159 

Miles, Nelson A 176 

Miller, Cincinnatus Heine 218 

Miller, Joaquin 218 

Mills, Roger Quarles 211 

Monroe, ]ames 54 

Moody, Dwight L 207 

Moran, Thomas 98 

Morgan, John Pierpont 208 

Morgan, John T 216 

Morris, Robert 165 

Morse, Samuel F. B 124 

Morton, Levi P 142 

Morton, Oliver Perrv 215 

Motley, John Lathro'p 130 

"Nye, Bill" 59 

Nye, Edgar Wilson 59 


O'Conor, Charles 187 

Olney, Richard 133 

Paine, Thomas 147 

Palmer, John M 195 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry 160 

"Partington, Mrs." 202 

Peabody, George 170 

Peck, George W 187 

Peffer, William A 164 

Perkins, Eli 109 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 97 

Phillips, Wendell 30 

Pierce, Franklin 122 

Pingree, Hazen S 212 

Plant, Henry B 192 

Poe, Edgar Allen 69 

Polk, James Knox 102 

Porter, David Dixon 6S 

Porter, Noah 93 

Prentice, George Denison. . . 119 

Prescott, William Hickling. .. 96 
Pullman, George Mortimer.. .. 121 

Quad, M 193 

Quay MatthewS 171 

Randolph, Edmund 136 

Read, Thomas Buchanan 132 

Reed, Thomas Brackett 208 

Reid, Whitelaw 149 

Roach, John 190 

Rockefeller, John Davison.... 195 

Root, George Frederick 218 

RothermeK Peter F 113 

Rutledge, John 57 

Sage, Russell 211 

Schofield, John McAllister 199 

Schurz, Carl 201 

Scott, Thomas Alexander 204 

Sett, Winfield 79 

Seward, William Henry .... 44 

Sharon, William 165 

Shaw, Henry W 166 

Sheridan, Phillip Henry 40 

Sherman, Charles R 87 

Sherman, John ... ... 86 

Shillaber, Benjamin Penhallow 202 

Sherman, William Tecumseh.. 30 

Smith, Edmund Kirby 114 

Sousa, John Philip 60 

Spreckels, Claus 159 

Stanford, Leland 101 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters . 179 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 126 

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton 32 

Stephenson, Adlai Ewing... . 141 

Stewart, Alexander T 58 

Stewart, William Morris 213 

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth 

Beecher 66 

Stuart, James K. B 122 

Sumner, Charles 34 

Talmage, Thomas DeWitt . . 60 

Taney, Roger Bror '.- 129 

Tavlor, Zacharv 108 

Teller, Henrv M 127 



Tesla, Nikola 193 

Thomas, George H 73 

Tin ■mas, Theodore 172 

Thurman, Allen G 90 

Thurston, John M 106 

Tilden, Samuel J 48 

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan 119 

Toombs, Robert 205 

"Twain, Mark" 86 

Tyler, John 93 

Van Buren, Martin 78 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius 35 

Vail, Alfred 154 

Vest, George Graham 214 


Vilas, William Freeman 140 

Voorhees, Daniel Wolsey 95 

Waite, Morrison Remich 125 

Wallace, Lewis 199 

Wallack, Lester 121 

Wallack, John Lester 121 

Wanamaker, John 89 

Ward, "Artemus " 91 

Washburne, Elihu Benjamin. . 189 

Washington, George 17 

\\ atson, Thomas £ 178 

Watterson, Henry 76 

Weaver, James B 123 

Webster, 'Daniel 19 


Webster, Noah 49 

Weed, Thurlow 91 

West, Benjamin 115 

Whipple, Henry Benjamin. . . . 161 

White, Stephen V 162 

Whitefield, George 150 

Whitman, Walt 197 

Whitney, Eli 120 

Whitney, William Collins 92 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 67 

Willard, Frances E 133 

Wilson, William L 180 

Winchell, Alexander 175 

Windom, William 138 



Alger, Russell A 16 

Allison, William B 99 

Anthonv, Susan B 63 

Armour, Philip D 151 

Arthur, Chester A 81 

Barnum, Phineas T 117 

Beecher, Henry Ward 27 

Blaine, James G 151 

Booth, Edwin 63 

Bryan, Wm. J 63 

Bryant, William Cullen 185 

Buchanan, James 81 

Buckner, Simon B 16 

Butler Benjamin F 151 

Carlisle, John G 151 

Chase, Salmon P 16 

Childs, George W 99 

Clay, Henry 81 

Cleveland, Grover 45 

Cooper, Peter 99 

Dana, Charles A 151 

Depew, Chauncey M 117 

Douglass, Fred 63 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 27 

Evarts, William M 99 

Farragut, Com. D. G 185 

Field, Cyrus W 63 


Field, Marshall 117 

Franklin, Benjamin 63 

Fremont, Gen. John C 16 

Gage, Lyman J 151 

Garfield, James A 45 

Garrison, William Lloyd 63 

George, Henry 117 

Gould, Jay 99 

Grant, Gen. U. S 185 

Greeley, Horace 81 

Hampton, Wade 16 

Hancock, Gen. Winfield S. . .. 185 

Hanna, Mark A 117 

Harrison, Benjamin 81 

Hayes, R. B 45 

Hendricks, Thomas A 81 

Holmes, Oliver W 151 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph 16 

Ingersoll, Robert G 117 

Irving, Washington 27 

Jackson, Andrew 45 

Jefferson, Thomas 45 

Johnston, Gen. J. E 16 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 185 

Lincoln, Abraham 81 

Logan, Gen. John A 16 

Longfellow, Henry W 185 


Longstreet, Gen. James 16 

Lowell, James Russell 27 

Mckinley, William 45 

Morse, S. F. B 185 

Philiips, Wendell 27 

Porter, Com. D. D 185 

Pullman, George M 117 

Quay, M. S 99 

Reed, Thomas B 151 

Sage, Russell 117 

Scott, Gen. Winfield 185 

Seward, William H 45 

Sherman, John 99 

Sherman, Gen. W. T. 151 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 27 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 27 

Sumner, Charles 45 

Talmage, T. DeWitt 63 

Teller, Henry M 99 

Thurman, Alien G 81 

Tilden, Samuel J 117 

Van Buren, Martin 81 

Vanderbilt, Commodore 99 

Webster, Daniel 27 

Whittier, John G 21 

Washington, George 45 

Watterson, Henry 63 



Allen. M. II C75 

Anderson, Abe 630 

Anderson, A. G 689 

Anderson, Andrew 662 

Anderson, E. L 453 

Anderson, Johan 353 

Anderson, J. A 610 

Anderson, il. F 504 

Anderson. M. F., D. D. S 603 

Andrew-. M. H 692 

Andrews. Mary H 614 

Arent. Andrew 267 

Arnold. Christopher 436 

Bailey. M. J 411 

Baldwin, H. 528 

Bass, .lames 575 

Bell, Isaac 330 

Bilst'ad, T. S 4s4 

Plai I . I'.. F 56g 

blain, R. W 329 

Bl nlierg, John 660 

Brakke. J. P 429 

Burnett, Cyrus 304 

Burns. Ji ihn 704 

Byer, Ant. in 499 

Cahill. 'I homas 324 

Carpenter. C. C 230 

Carr. Henry }s7 

Carver. W. F., M. D 412 

Chinburg, S. I.. D. I). S 3-* 

Christen-on. Carl • 605 

Qvristenson, Rev. I. A 314 

Churchill. C. 11.. M. D 447 

Churchill, E. A 471 

Coffin, L. S ->-',!, 

1 lolburn, E. E 6S3 

Golby, Charles 292 

Colby. W. H. H. & Brother.... 338 

Conklin, J. E 526 

Coomber, George 440 

1 li 'i n. \ , Ji ihn 725 

Corey, Sila- 544 

Cram. John 668 

Crandall, \\\ B 553 

Crimins, Timothy .512 

( Irouse, \. .1 623 

Daniels, Ufred 580 

Daniels, C. X* 629 


Daniel- Daniel 298 

Daniel-. D. D 667 

Daniels. D. M 546 

Daniels. J. E 672 

Daniels, Sarah E 372 

Daniels. \Y. W 65] 

Daniel-011. Mr-. Hattie 500 

Dayton, Frank '178 

Dodge. C A 519 

Dolliver. J. P 238 

1 >onahi ie, Thomas 438 

Douglass. A. C 483 

Dowd, F. A -74 

Dowd, W. V 244 

Drake. F. B 430 

I 'tin. 1 imbe, J F 250 

Dutcher, \Y. H 506 

Easley, F. E .v* 

Erickson, C. E. . .' 707 

Erickson, Louis 342 

I wing, W. S 608 

Fallon. Henry 540 

Fallon. John 319 

Fawkes, Francis 462 

Fidilick. Frank 403 

Findlay, J. L 708 

Flattery, Robert 272 

Flickinger, Christian 626 

Flower, G. W 39° 

Freed, G. \ 663 

Frosland. L. K 4'7 

Gabrielson, C. A 634 

Gabrielson, John 665 

i.ilirul-on. Cj. A 564 

Gatarielson, Victor 325 

Garmoe, Isaac 257 

lates, C. L 396 

'.ill. J. B 38? 

Girdey, Sherman 727 

jirdey, Henry 516 

Inch. \Y. C 418 

Grabenhorst, H. C 7-'.? 

: Irabenihi ir 1. W. II 302 

Granger. C. L 318 

1 rrayson, Benjamin 3-2 

Grebner, Frederick 7 1 - 

1 ,1 . isenbaugh. Augusl 3 ' 1 

Guild. C. A 284 


' lustafson, G. A 588 

Guthrie, J. M 731 

Hamilton. J. L 702 

Hannon. Andrew 577 

Hannon, J. L 514 

Hannon, Nicholas 528 

Hannan. Robert ?J2 

Hanson, Amund 398 

Hardine. \V. K 242 

Hart, G [>.. M. I) 484 

Hart. X. H 636 

Hart. L. W 652 

Hastings. L. G 279 

Havler. Henry 385 

Hedlund, J. L 696 

Heffner, Samuel 404 

Heileman. Charles 586 

Heitkamp, L. H 482 

Herrington. S. W 513 

Hill, Daniel 552 

I 1!'. J P 2/ ) 

Houge. A. M 360 

Houge, CI 568 

\ndrew 443 

Huglin. Charles 716 

Hunter. R. P 464 

Hutchisi m, William 2-7 

IK -. Van 724 

tngalls. I. B 415 

Installs. T. B 416 

Intermill, Jacob 621 

Jaques, Theodore 636 

Johnson. A. B 595 

fohnson, Andrew 

Ibhnson, August 673 

fohnson, Augustus 525 

Johnsi 11. J P ''47 

fohnson, Swan 625 

Jones, Benjamin 505 

Karcher, Phillip 308 

Keefer, Hiram 377 

I 11 

Kinne'j . J. L 24X 

Knndson. Christopher 558 

i fi iin. Ir 326 

Is". II. Ji hu. Sr 296 

Kruckman, F. A 5& 


Knsterer, J. F. 


•■ 379 

Larson. Bertel 472 

Larson, George 325 

Larson. P. L 388 

Lemon. G. C 6"0 

Le Valley, S. E 619 

Linn, Peter 687 

Lilyard, J. P 

Loehr, A. J ' 428 

1 1 mg, Lemuel 380 

Looby, John 371 

Low, E. E 424 

Lund R. S 587 

Lundblad, C. A 715 

Lungren, C. 1 611 

Mack. H. J 602 

Manchester, W. V 5.38 

Mapes, Perry 343 

Marsh. George >6o 

Marsh, G. W. 268 

Marsh, Tame-- 4,; 

Marsh. W. T 545 

McBane, Angus >o8 

McCarville, T. A 426 

McDonald. Michael 4.30. 

McGuire. Franklin 282 

McGuire, W. R ,301 

McMahon, George '282 

Meservey, S. T 365 

1 . \V. X '30 3 

Mitchell. \V. L 557 

Mortimer. R. T 530 

Mulroney, J. M 359 

Munn, William 402 

Musburger, George .354 

Nelsi hi. Elias 537 

Nelson, H. E., M. D 606 

Nelson, J. 384 

Neudeck. L. \V '3 >o 

Nicholson, W. L., M. D. 266 

NlXOn, J. A :;, 

' lldheime, Jonas 004 

1 Hney, R E., M D 694 

< »lney, S. B., M. D 693 

< )'Li mglilin. John 371 


Palmer, A. E 492 

Payne, G. H 337 

Payne. F. E 520 

Pearsons, G. R 480 

Peterson, B. E 205 

Peterson, I). A 671 

Petersi in, F. G 401 

Peterson, Rasmus 565 

Petersen, Thomas 508 

Pingel. Charles 313 

Porter. E. D 650 

Powers, J. E 291 

Prall. A. A., M. D 695 

Pratt. C. S 680 

Putzke, August 613 

Putzke, Fred 7,30 

Quick. Richard 470 

Rasmussen, N. C 728 

Redman, fohn 594 

Reed. O. L 648 

Remington. Rev. C. H 281 

Reynolds, A. S. R 34S 

Reynolds, C. H 521 

Rhoades, A J 004 

Rhoades, G. F 050 

Richey, S. B 490 

Risk. David 351 

Rol fe. E. A 709 

I. R 237 

Rose, H., M. D 713 

Ryan. Rev. Father 396 

Sanborn. H. W 259 

Sayli James 491 

Scallv. Patrick 328 

Scroll. C. J .'36.3 

Rchmoker, Christian .30(1 

Schrader, Carl 668 

Schram, William 477 

Scleichhardt. G. C 4.37 

Scott, A. \V 703 

Sen. F T 721 

Sheerer. Henry 295 

Sheldon, O. A 614 

Sheldon. Ole 612 

Smith. L. Y 698 


Snyder. ( rodfrey 714 

Solso, C. M. . . 461 

Sniumcrville. Thomas 711 

Sorber, E. W 478 

Southard, Albert 042 

Sperry, \Y. F 616 

Spirek, Anton 573 

Stegner, Martin 555 

Steven-. Charles 596 

Stine, A. L 366 

Stine, J I) 278 

Sin niiii.Tg, A 729 

Suer, Bernard 632 

Swanson, C. A...* 674 

Tapper. C. M 593 

I aj J ir, Erwin 448 

Thissell, J. F 2S.3 

Thomas, Z. \Y 446 

Tomlinson, C. S 609 

Toohey, James 697 

Urelius, J. P 


Vandevender, D. \Y 633 

Vandevender, J. H 258 

Vandevender, John ;66 

Van Osdoll, W. J 327 

Vinsand, A. A , 691 

Waterbury, C. D 706 

Weaver. W. R 532 

Weiss. F. E 387 

Welch, James 529 

Welch. J. W 58S 

Weller, D. A 307 

Widick, Henry 444 

Widick, W. H. 687 

Wilkinson, A. A 456 

Willey, Henry 579 

Williamson, Ole 297 

W !. 1 Hiver 510 

Woodard, D. D 710 

Woodard, Mrs. Ella 554 

Wooddle, E. L 620 

Wrede, William 657 

Yungclas, G. F 688 

Zuerrer, Rev. E 558 



Celebrated Americans 


[ the first president of the Unit- 
l ed States, called the "Father 
of his Country," was one of 
the most celebrated characters 
in history. He was born Feb- 
ruary 22, 1732, in Washing- 
ton Parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Washington, first 
married Jane Butler, who bcre him four 
children, and March t, 1730, he married 
Mary Ball. Of six children by his second 
marriage, George was the eldest. 

Little is known of the early years of 
Washington, beyond the fact that the house 
in which he was born was burned during his 
early childhood, and that his father there- 
upon moved to another farm, inherited from 
his paternal ancestors, situated in Stafford 
county, on the north bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, and died there in 1743. From earliest 
childhood George developed a noble charac- 
ter. His education was somewhat defective, 
being confined to the elementary branches 
taught him by his mother and at a neighbor- 
ing school. On leaving school he resided 
some time at Mount Vernon with his half 

brother, Lawrence, who acted as his guar, 
dian. George's inclinations were for a sea- 
faring career, and a midshipman's warrant 
was procured for him; but through the oppo- 
sition of his mother the project was aban- 
doned, and at the ags of sixteen he was 
appointed surveyor to the immense estates 
of the eccentric Lord Fairfax. Three years 
were passed by Washington in a rough fron- 
tier life, gaining experience which afterwards 
proved very esse'itial to him. In 175 1, 
when the Virginia militia were put under 
training with a view to active service against 
France, Washington, though only nineteen 
years of age, was appointed adjutant, with 
the rank of major. In 1752 Lawrence 
Washington died, leaving his large property 
to an infant daughter. In his will George 
was named one of the executors and as an 
eventual heir to Mount Vernon, and by the 
death of the infant niece, soon succeeded to 
that estate. In 1753 George was commis- 
sioned adjutant-general of the Virginia 
militia, and performed important work at 
the outbreak of the French and Indian 
war, was rapidly promoted, and at the close of 
that war we find him commander-in-chief of 


all the forces raised in Virginia. A cessation 
of Indian hostilities on the frontier having 
followed the expulsion of the French from 
the Ohio, he resigned his commission as 
commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, 
and then proceeded to Williamsburg to take 
his seat in the Virginia Assembly, of which 
he had been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Curtis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and 
devoted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by the annual attendance in 
winter upon the colonial legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his coun- 
try to enter upon that other arena in which 
his fame was to become world-wide. The 
war for independence called Washington 
into service again, and he was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces, and 
was the most gallant and conspicuous figure 
in that bloody struggle, serving until Eng- 
land acknowledged the independence of 
each of the thirteen States, and negotiated 
with them jointly, as separate sovereignties. 
December 4, 1783, the great commander 
took leave of his officers in most affection- 
ate and patriotic terms, and went to An- 
napolis, Maryland, where the congress of 
the States was in session, and to that body, 
when peace and order prevailed everywhere, 
resigned his commission and retired to 
Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1789 that Washington was 
called to the chief magistracy of the na- 
tion. The inauguration took place ' April 
30, in the presence of an immense multi- 
tude which had assembled to witness the new 
and imposing ceremony. In the manifold de- 
tails of his civil administration Washington 
proved himself fully equal to the requirements 
of his position. In 1792, at the second presi- 

dential election, Washington was desirous 
to retire; but he yielded to the general wish 
of the country, and was again chosen presi- 
dent. At the third election, in 1796, he 
was again most urgently entreated to con- 
sent to remain in the executive chair. This 
he positively refused, and after March 4, 
1797, he again retired to Mount Vernon 
for peace, quiet, and repose. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 
chief to quit his repose at Mount Ver- 
non and take command of all the United 
States forces, with rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, when war was threatened with France 
in 1798, nothing need here be stated, ex- 
cept to note the fact as an unmistakable 
testimonial of the high regard in which he 
was still held by his countrymen of all 
shades of political opinion. He patriotic- 
ally accepted this trust, but a treaty of 
peace put a stop to all action under it. He 
again retired to Mount Vernon, where he 
died December 14, 1799, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. His remains were depos- 
ited in a family vault on the banks of the 
Potomac, at Mount Vernon, where they still 
lie entombed. 

American statesman and scientist, was 
born of poor parentage, January 17, 1706, 
in Boston, Massachusetts. He was appren- 
ticed to his brother James to learn the print- 
er's trade to prevent his running away and 
going to sea, and also because of the numer- 
ous family his parents had to support (there 
being seventeen children, Benjamin being 
the fifteenth). He was a great reader, and 
soon developed a taste for writing, and pre- 
pared a number of articles and had them 
published in the paper without his brother's 
knowledge, and when the authorship be- 
came known it resulted in difficulty for tne 



young apprentice, although his articles had 
been received with favor by the public. 
James was afterwards thrown into prison for 
political reasons, and young Benjamin con- 
ducted the paper alone during the time. In 
1823, however, he determined to endure his 
bonds no longer, and ran away, going to 
Philadelphia, where he arrived with only 
three pence as his store of wealth. With 
these he purchased three rolls, and ate them 
as he walked along the streets. He soon 
found employment as a journeyman printer. 
Two years later he was sent to England by 
the governor of Pennsylvania, and was 
promised the public printing, but did not get 
it. On his return to Philadelphia he estab- 
lished the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and 
soon found himself a person of great popu- 
larity in the province, his ability as a writer, 
philosopher, and politician having reached 
the neighboring colonies. He rapidly grew 
in prominence, founded the Philadelphia Li- 
brary in 1S42, and two years later the 
American Philosophical Society and the 
University of Pennsylvania. He was made 
Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 
1775. His world-famous investigations in 
electricity and lightning began in 1746. He 
became postmaster-general of the colonies 
in 1753, having devised an inter-colonial 
postal system. He advocated the rights of 
the colonies at all times, and procured the 
repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was 
elected to the Continental congress of 1775, 
and in 1776 was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, being one of the commit- 
tee appointed to draft that paper. He rep- 
resented the new nation in the courts of 
Europe, especially at Paris, where his simple 
dignity and homely wisdom won him the 
admiration of the court and the favor of the 
people. He was governor of Pennsylvania 
tour years; was also a member of the con- 

vention in 1787 that drafted the constitution 
of the United States. 

His writings upon political topics, anti- 
slavery, finance, and economics, stamp him 
as one of the greatest statesmen of his time, 
while his "Autobiography" and "Poor 
Richard's Almanac " give him precedence in 
the literary field. In early life he was an 
avowed skeptic in religious matters, but 
later in life his utterances on this subject 
were less extreme, though he never ex- 
pressed approval of any sect or creed. He 
died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 

DANIEL WEBSTER.— Of world wide 
reputation for statesmanship, diplo- 
macy, and oratory, there is perhaps no more 
prominent figure in the history of our coun- 
try in the interval between 181 5 and 1861, 
than Daniel Webster. He was born at 
Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, 
January 18, 1782, and was the second son 
of Ebenezer and Abigail (Eastman) Webster. 
He enjoyed but limited educational advan- 
tages in childhood, but spent a few months 
in 1797, at Phillip Exeter Academy. He 
completed his preparation for college in the 
family of Rev. Samuel Wood, at Boscawen, 
and entered Dartmouth College in the fall 
of 1797. He supported himself most of the 
time during these years by teaching school 
and graduated in 1801, having the credit of 
being the foremost scholar of his class. He 
entered the law office of Hon. Thomas W. 
Thompson, at Salisbury. In 1S02 he con- 
tinued his legal studies at Fryeburg, Maine, 
where he was principal of the academy and 
copyist in .the office of the register of 
deeds. In the office of Christopher Gore, 
at Boston, he completed his studies in 
1804—5, an d w as admitted to the bar in the 
latter year, and at Boscawen and at Ports- 
mouth soon rose to eminence in his profes- 



sion. He became known as a federalist 
but did not court political honors; but, at- 
tracting attention by his eloquence in oppos- 
ing the war with England, he was elected 
to congress in 1812. During the special 
session of May, 181 3, he was appointed on 
the committee on foreign affairs and made 
his maiden speech June io, 1813. Through- 
out this session (as afterwards) he showed 
his mastery of the great economic questions 
of the day. He was re-elected in 18 14. In 
1 8 16 he removed to Boston and for seven 
years devoted himself to his profession, 
earning by his arguments in the celebrated 
"Dartmouth College Case" rank among 
the most distinguished jurists of the country. 
[n 1820 Mr. Webster was chosen a member 
of the state convention of Massachusetts, to 
revise the constitution. The same year he 
delivered the famous discourse on the "Pil- 
grim fathers," which laid the foundation for 
his fame as an orator. Declining a nomi- 
nation for United States senator, in 1822 he 
was elected to the lower house of congress 
and was re-elected in 1824 and 1826, but in 
1827 was transferred to the senate. He 
retained his seat in the latter chamber until 
1841. During this time his voice was ever 
lifted in defence of the national life and 
honor and although politically opposed to 
him he gave his support to the administra- 
tion of President Jackson in the latter's con- 
test with nullification. Through all these 
years he was ever found upon the side of 
eight and justice and his speeches upon all 
the great questions of the day have be- 
come household words in almost every 
family. In 1841 Mr. Webster was appointed 
secretary of state by President Harrison 
and was continued in the same office by 
President Tyler. While an incumbent of 
this office he showed consummate ability as 
a diplomat in the negotiation of the " Ash- 

burton treaty " of August 9, 1849, which 
settled many points of dispute between the 
United States and England. In May, 1843, 
he resigned his post and resumed his pro- 
fession, and in December, 1845, took his 
place again in the senate. He contributed 
in an unofficial way to the solution of the 
Oregon question with Great Britain in 1847. 
He was disappointed in 1848 in not receiv- 
ing the nomination for the presidency. He 
became secretary of state under President 
Fillmore in 1850 and in dealing with all the 
complicated questions of the day showed a 
wonderful mastery of the arts of diplomacy. 
Being hurt in an accident he retired to his 
home at Marshfield, where he died Octo- 
ber 24, 1852. 

HORACE GREELEY.— As journalist, 
author, statesman and political leader, 
there is none more widely known than the 
man whose name heads this article. He 
was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, Feb- 
ruary 3, 181 1, and was reared upon a farm. 
At an early age he evinced a remarkable 
intelligence and love of learning, and at 
the age of ten had read every book he could 
borrow for miles around. About 1821 the 
family removed to Westhaven, Vermont, 
and for some years young Greeley assisted 
in carrying on the farm. In 1826 he entered 
the office of a weekly newspaper at East 
Poultney, Vermont, where he remained 
about four years. On the disc6ntinuance 
of this paper he followed his father's 
family to Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
whither they bad moved, and for a time 
worked at the printer's trade in that neigh- 
borhood. In 1831 Horace went to New 
York City, and for a time found employ- 
ment as journeyman printer. January, 
1833, in partnership with Francis Story, he 
published the Morning Post, the first penny 



paper ever printed. This proved a failure 
and was discontinued after three weeks. 
The business of job printing was carried on, 
however, until the death of Mr. Story in 
July following. In company with Jonas 
Winchester, March 22, 1834, Mr. Greeley 
commenced the publication of the New 
Yorker, a weekly paper of a high character. 
For financial reasons, at the same time, 
Greeley wrote leaders for other papers, and, 
in 1838, took editorial charge of the Jeffer- 
sonian, a Whig paper published at Albany. 
In 1840, on the discontinuance of that sheet, 
he devoted his energies to the Log Cabin, a 
campaign paper in the interests of the Whig 
party. In the fall of 1841 the latter paper 
was consolidated with the New Yorker, un- 
der the name of the Tribune, the first num- 
ber of which was issued April 10, 1841. At 
the head of this paper Mr. Greeley remained 
until the day of his death. 

In 1848 Horace Greeley was elected to 
the national house of representatives to 
fill a vacancy, and was a member of that 
bodyuntil March 4, 1849. In 1851 he went 
to Europe and served as a juror at the 
W 7 orld's Fair at the Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don. In 1855, he made a second visit to 
the old world. In 1859 he crossed the 
plains and received a public reception at 
San Francisco and Sacramento. He was a 
member of the Republican national con- 
vention, at Chicago in i860, and assisted in 
the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
President. The same year he was a presi- 
dential elector for the state of New York, 
and a delegate to the Loyalist convention 
at Philadelphia. 

At the close of the war, in 1865, Mr. 
Greeley became a strong advocate of uni- 
versal amnesty and complete pacification, 
and in pursuance of this consented to be- 
come one of the bondsmen for Jefferson 

Davis, who was imprisoned for treason. In 
1867 he was a delegate to the New York 
state convention for the revision of the 
constitution. In 1870 he was defeated for 
congress in the Sixth New York district. 
At the Liberal convention, which met in 
Cincinnati, in May, 1872, on the fifth ballot 
Horace Greeley was nominated for presi- 
dent and July following was nominated for 
the same office by the Democratic conven- 
tion at Baltimore. He was defeated by a 
large majority. The large amount of work 
done by him during the campaign, together 
with the loss of his wife about the same 
time, undermined his strong constitution, 
and he was seized with inflammation of the 
brain, and died November 29, 1872. 

In addition to his journalistic work, Mr. 
Greeley was the author of several meritori- 
ous works, among which were: "Hints 
toward reform," "Glances at Europe," 
" History of the struggle for slavery exten 
sion," "Overland journey to San Francis 
co," "The American conflict," and " Rec- 
ollections of a busy life." 

HENRY CLAY.— In writing of this em- 
inent American, Horace Greeley once 
said: "He was a matchless party chief, an 
admirable orator, a skillful legislator, wield- 
ing unequaled influence, not only over his 
friends, but even over those of his political 
antagonists who were subjected to the magic 
of his conversation and manners. " A law- 
yer, legislator, orator, and statesman, few 
men in history have wielded greater influ- 
ence, or occupied so prominent a place in 
the hearts of the generation in which they 

Henry Clay was born near Richmond, 
in Hanover county, Virginia, April 12, 
1777, the son of a poor Baptist preacher 
who died when Henry was but five years 



old. The mother married again about ten 
years later and lemoved to Kentucky leav- 
ing Henry a clerk in a store at Richmond. 
Soon afterward Henry Clay secured a posi- 
tion as copyist in the office of the clerk of the 
high court of chancery, and four years later 
entered the law office of Robert Brooke, 
then attorney general and later governor of 
his native state. In 1797 Henry Clay was 
licensed as a lawyer and followed his mother 
to Kentucky, opening an office at Lexington 
and soon built up a profitable practice. 
Soon afterward Kentucky, in separating from 
Virginia, called a state convention for the 
purpose of framing a constitution, and Clay 
at that time took a prominent part, publicly 
urging the adoption of a clause providing 
for the abolition of slavery, but in this he 
was overruled, as he was fifty years later, 
when in the height of his fame he again ad- 
vised the same course when the state con- 
stitution was revised in 1850. Young Clay 
took a very active and conspicuous part in 
the presidential campaign in 1S00, favoring 
the election of Jefferson; and in 1803 was 
chosen to represent Fayette county in the 
state legislature. In 1806 General John 
Adair, then United States senator from 
Kentucky, resigned and Henry Clay was 
elected to fill the vacancy by the legislature 
and served through one session in which he 
at once assumed a prominent place. In 
1807 he was again a representative in the 
legislature and was elected speaker of the 
house. At this time originated his trouble 
with Humphrey Marshall. Clay proposed 
that each member clothe himself and family 
wholly in American fabrics, which Marshall 
characterized as the " language of a dema- 
gogue." This led to a duel in which both 
parties were slightly injured. In 1809 
Henry Clay was again elected to fill a va- 
cancy in the United States senate, and two 

years later elected representative in the low- 
er house of congress, being chosen speaker 
of the house. About this time warwas de- 
clared against Great Britain, and Clay took 
a prominent public place during this strug- 
gle and was later one of the commissioners 
sent to Europe by President Madison to ne- 
gotiate peace, returning in September, 181 5, 
having been re-elected speaker of the 
house during his absence, and was re-elect- 
ed unanimously. He was afterward re- 
elected to congress and then became secre- 
tary of state under John Quincy Adams. 
In 1 83 1 he was again elected senator from 
Kentucky and remained in the senate most 
of the time until his death. 

Henry Clay was three times a candidate 
for the presidency, and once very nearly 
elected. He was the unanimous choice of 
the Whig party in 1844 for the presidency, 
and a great effort was made to elect him 
but without success, his opponent, James K. 
Polk, carrying both Pennsylvania and New 
York by a very slender margin, while either 
of them alone would have elected Clay. 
Henry Clay died at Washington June 29, 

J of the most distinguished of American 
statesmen and legislators. He was born 
January 31, 1830, in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and received a thorough edu- 
cation, graduating at Washington College in 
1847. In early life he removed to Maine 
and engaged in newspaper work, becoming 
editor of the Portland ' 'Advertiser. " While 
yet a young man he gained distinction as a 
debater and became a conspicuous figure in 
political and public affairs. In 1862 he was 
elected to congress on the Republican ticket 
in Maine and was re-elected five times. In 
March, 1869, he was chosen speaker of the 



house of representatives and was re-elected 
in 1S71 and again in 1873. In 1876 he was 
a representative in the lower house of con- 
gress and during that year was appointed 
United States senator by the Governor to 
fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Senator Morrill, who had been appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Mr. Blaine 
served in the senate until March 5, 1 88 1 , 
when President Garfield appointed him sec- 
retary of state, which position he resigned 
in December, 1881. Mr. Blaine was nom- 
inated for the presidency by the Republic- 
ans, at Chicago in June, 1884, but was de- 
feated by Grover Cleveland after an exciting 
and spirited campaign. During the later 
years of his life Mr. Blaine devoted most of 
his time to the completion of his work 
"Twenty Years in Congress," which had a 
remarkably large sale throughout the United 
States. Blaine was a man of great mental 
ability and force of character and during the 
latter part of his life was one of the most 
noted men of his time. He was the origina- 
torof what is termed the " reciprocity idea" 
in tariff matters, and outlined the plan of 
carrying it into practical effect. In 1876 
Robert G. Ingersoll in making a nominating 
speech placing Blaine's name as a candidate 
for president before the national Republican 
convention at Cincinnati, referred to Blaine 
as the " Plumed Knight " and this title clung 
to him during the remainder of his life. His 
death occurred at Washington, January 27, 

tinguished American statesman, was a 
native of South Carolina, born in Abbeville 
district, March 18, 1782. He was given 
the advantages of a thorough education, 
graduating at Yale College in 1804, and 
adopted the calling of a lawyer. A Demo- 

crat politically, at that time, he took a fore- 
most part in the councils of his party and 
was elected to congress in iSri, supporting 
the tariff of 18 16 and the establishing of 
the United States Bank. In 18 17 he be- 
came secretary of war in President Monroe's 
cabinet, and in 1824 was elected vice-president 
of the United States, on the ticket with John 
Quincy Adams, and re-elected in 1 828, on the 
ticket with General Jackson. Shortly after 
this Mr. Calhoun became one of the strongest 
advocates of free trade and the principle of 
sovereignty of the states and was one of 
the originators of the doctrine that "any 
state could nullify unconstitutional laws of 
congress." Meanwhile Calhoun had be- 
come an aspirant for the presidency, and 
the fact that General Jackson advanced the 
interests of his opponent, Van Buren, led 
to a quarrel, and Calhoun resigned the vice- 
presidency in 1832 and was elected United 
States senator from South Carolina. It was 
during the same year that a convention was 
held in South Carolina at which the " Nul- 
lification ordinance " was adopted, the ob- 
ject of which was to test the constitution- 
ality of the protective tariff measures, and 
to prevent if possible the collection of im- 
port duties in that state which had been 
levied more for the purpose of ' ' protection " 
than revenue. This ordinance was to go 
into effect in February, 1833, and created a 
great deal of uneasiness throughout the 
country as it was feared there would be a 
clash between the state and federal authori- 
ties. It was in this' serious condition ot 
public affairs that Henry Clay came forward 
with the the famous "tariff compromise " 
of 1833, to which measure Calhoun and 
most of his followers gave their support and 
the crisis was averted. In 1S43 Mr. Cal- 
houn was appointed secretary of state in 
President Tyler's cabinet, and it was under 



his administration that the treaty concern- 
ing the annexation of Texas was negotiated. 
In 1845 he was re-elected to the United 
States senate and continued in the senate 
until his death, which occurred in March, 
j 8 50. He occupied a high rank as a scholar, 
student and orator, and it is conceded that 
he was one of the greatest debaters America 
has produced. The famous debate between 
Calhoun and Webster, in 1833, is regarded 
as the most noted for ability and eloquence 
in the history of the country. 

of America's most brilliant and pro- 
found lawyers and noted public men, was 
a native of New England, born at Deer- 
field, New Hampshire, November 5, 1818. 
His father, Captain John Butler, was a 
prominent man in his day, commanded a 
company during the war of 1812, and 
served under Jackson at New Orleans. 
Benjamin F. Butler was given an excellent 
education, graduated at Waterville College, 
Maine, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1840, at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where he commenced the practice of his 
profession and gained a wide reputation for 
his ability at the bar, acquiring an extensive 
practice and a fortune. Early in life he 
began taking an active interest in military 
affairs and served in the state militia through 
all grades from private to brigadier-general. 
In 1853 he was elected to the state legisla- 
ture on the Democratic ticket in Lowell, 
and took a prominent part in the passage of 
legislation in the interests of labor. Dur- 
ing the same year he was a member of the 
constitutional convention, and in 1S59 rep- 
resented his district in the Massachusetts 
senate. When the Civil war broke out 
General Butler took the field and remained 
at the front most of the time during that 

bloody struggle. Part of the time he had 
charge of Fortress Monroe, and in Febru- 
ary, 1862, took command of troops forming 
part of the expedition against New Orleans, 
and later had charge of the department of 
the Gulf. He was a conspicuous figure dur- 
ing the continuance of the war. After the 
close of hostilities General Butler resumed 
his law practice in Massachusetts and in 
1866 was elected to congress from the Es- 
sex district. In 1882 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and in 1884 was the 
nominee of the " Greenback" party for 
president of the United States. He con- 
tinued his legal practice, and maintained his 
place as one of the most prominent men in 
New England until the time of his death, 
which occurred January 10, 1893. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS, an officer, states- 
man and legislator of prominence in 
America, gained the greater part of his fame 
from the fact that he was president of the 
southern confederacy. Mr. Davis was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, June 3, 
1808, and his early education and surround- 
ings were such that his sympathies and in- 
clinations were wholly with the southern 
people. He received a thorough education, 
graduated at West 'Point in 1828. and for a 
number of years served in the army at west- 
ern posts and in frontier service, first as 
lieutenant and later as adjutant. In 1835 
he resigned and became a cotton planter in 
Warren county, Mississippi, where he took 
an active interest in public affairs and be- 
came a conspicuous figure in politics. In 
1844 he was a presidential elector from 
Mississippi and during the two following 
years served as congressman from his d ; s- 
trict. He then became colonel of a Missis- 
sippi regiment in the war with Mexico ano. 
participated in some of the most severe eat- 



ties, being seriously wounded at Buena 
Vista. Upon his return to private life he 
again took a prominent part in political af- 
fairs and represented his state in the United 
States senate from 1847 to 1851. He then 
entered President Pierce's cabinet as secre- 
tary of war, after which he again entered 
the United States senate, remaining until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He then be- 
came president of the southern confederacy 
and served as such until captured in May, 
1865, at Irwinville, Georgia. He was held 
as prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, until 
1867, when he was released on bail and 
finally set free in 1868. His death occurred 
December 6, 1889. 

Jefferson Davis was a man of excellent 
abilities and was recognized as one of the 
best organizers of his day. He was a 
forceful and fluent speaker and a ready 
writer. He wrote and published the " Rise 
and Fall of the Southern Confederacy," a 
work which is considered as authority by 
the southern people. 

JOHN ADAMS, the second president of 
the United States, and one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the early struggles of 
his country for independence, was born in 
the present town of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachusetts, October 30, 
1735. He received a thorough education, 
graduating at Harvard College in 1755, 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1758. He was well adapted for this profes- 
sion and after opening an office in his native 
town rapidly grew in prominence and public 
favor and soon was regarded as one of the 
leading lawyers of the country. His atten- 
tion was called to political affairs by the 
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and he 
drew up a set of resolutions on the subject 
which were very popular. In 1768 he re- 

moved to Boston and became one of the 
most courageous and prominent advocates 
of the popular cause and was chosen a 
member of the Colonial legislature from 
Boston. He was one of the delegates that 
represented Massachusetts in the first Con^ 
tinental congress, which met in September, 
1774. In a letter written at this crisis he 
uttered the famous words: "The die is now 
cast; I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish with my 
country, is my unalterable determination." 
He was a prominent figure in congress and 
advocated the movement for independence 
when a majority of the members were in- 
clined to temporize and to petition the King. 
In May, 1776, he presented a resolution in 
congress that the colonies should assume 
the duty of self-government, which was 
passed. In June, of the same year, a reso- 
lution that the United States "are, and of 
right ought to be, free and independent," 
was moved by Richard H. Lee, seconded by 
Mr. Adams and adopted by a small majority. 
Mr. Adams was a member of the committee 
of five appointed June 1 1 to prepare a 
declaration of independence, in support of 
which he made an eloquent speech. He was 
chairman of the Board of War in 1776 and 
in 1 778 was sent as commissioner to France, 
but returned the following year. In 1780 
he went to Europe, having been appointed 
as minister to negotiate a treaty of peace 
and commerce with Great Britain. Con- 
jointly with Franklin and Jay he negotiated 
a treaty in 1782. He was employed as a 
minister to the Court of St. James from 
1785 to 1788, and during that period wrote 
his famous " Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions." In 1789 he became vice-presi- 
dent of the United States and was re-elected 
in 1792. 

In 1796 Mr. Adams was chosen presi- 



dent of the United States, his competitor 
being Thomas Jefferson, who became vice- 
president. In 1800 he was the Federal 
candidate for president, but he was not 
cordially supported by Gen. Hamilton, the 
favorite leader of his party, and was de- 
feated by Thomas Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams then retired from public life 
to his large estate at Quincy, Mass., where 
he died July 4, 1826, on the same day that 
witnessed the death of Thomas Jefferson. 
Though his physical frame began to give way 
many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was glad- 
dened by .the elevation of his son, John 
Quincy Adams, to the presidential office. 

most celebrated American preachers 
and authors, was born at Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, June 24, 18 1 3. His father was Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, also an eminent divine. At 
an early age Henry Ward Beecher had a 
strong predilection for a sea-faring life, and 
it was practically decided that he would fol- 
low this inclination, but about this time, in 
consequence of deep religious impressions 
which he experienced during a revival, he 
renounced his former intention and decided 
to enter the ministry. After having grad- 
uated at Amherst College, in 1834, he stud- 
ied theology at Lane Seminary under the 
tuition of his father, who was then president 
of that institution. In 1847 he became pas- 
tor of the Plymouth Congregational church 
in Brooklyn, where his oratorical ability and 
original eloquence attracted one of the larg- 
est congregations in the country. He con- 
tinued to served this church until the time 
of his death, March 8, 1887. Mr. Beecher 
also found time for a great amount of liter- 
ary work. For a number of years he was 

editor of the "Independent" and also the 
"Christian Union." He also produced many 
works which are widely known. Among his 
principal productions are "Lectures to Young 
Men," " Star Papers, " "Life of Christ," 
"Life Thoughts," "Royal Truths" (a 
novel), "Norwood," " Evolution and Rev- 
olution," and " Sermons on Evolution and 
Religion." Mr. Beecher was also long a 
prominent advocate of anti-slavery princi- 
ples and temperance reform, and, at a later 
period, of the rights of women. 

JOHN A. LOGAN, the illustrious states- 
man and general, was born in Jackson 
county, Illinois, February 9, 1824. In his 
boyhood days he received but a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of his native county. 
On the breaking out of the war with Mexico 
he enlisted in the First Illinois Volunteers 
and became its quartermaster. At the close 
of hostilities he returned home and was 
elected clerk of the courts of Jackson county 
in 1849. Determining to supplement his 
education Logan entered the Louisville Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1852 
and taking up the study of law was admitted 
to the bar. He attained popularity and suc- 
cess in his chosen profession and was elected 
to the legislature in 1852, 1853, 1856 and 
1857. He was prosecuting attorney from 
1853 to 1857. He was elected to congress 
in 1858 to fill a vacancy and again in i860. 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion, Logan re- 
signed his office and entered the army, and 
in September, 1861, was appointed colonel 
of the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, which he 
led in the battles of Belmont and Fort Don- 
elson. In the latter engagement he was 
wounded. In March, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general and in the 
following month participated in the battles 
of p ittsburg Landing. In November, 1862, 



f ji- gallant conduct he was made major-gen- 
ernl. Throughout the Vicksburg campaign 
he was in command of a division of the Sev- 
enteenth Corps and was distinguished at 
I'ort Gibson, Champion Kills and in the 
si ge and capture cf Vicksburg. In October, 
1863, he was placed in command of the 
Fifteenth Corps, which he led with great 
credit. During the terrible conflict before 
Atlanta, July 22, 1864, on the death of 
General McPherson, Logan, assuming com- 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, led it 
on to victory, saving the day by his energy 
and ability. He was shortly after succeeded 
by General O. O. Howard and returned to 
the command of his corps. He remained 
in command until the presidential election, 
when, feeling that his influence was needed 
at home he returned thither and there re- 
mained until the arrival of Sherman at Sa- 
vannah, when General Logan rejoined his 
command. In May, 1865, he succeeded 
General Howard at the head of the Army of 
the Tennessee. He resigned from the army 
in August, the same year, and in November 
was appointed minister to Mexico, but de- 
clined the honor. He served in the lower 
house of the fortieth and forty-first con- 
gresses, and was elected United States sena- 
tor from his native state in 1870, 1878 and 
1885. He was nominated for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1 884 on the ticket with Blaine, but 
was defeated. General Logan was the 
author of " The Great Conspiracy, its origin 
and history," published in 1885. He died 
at Washington, December 26, 1886. 

Republican candidate for president, was 
born in Savannah, Georgia, January 21, 
181 3. He graduated from Charleston Col- 
lege (South Carolina) in 1830, and turned his 

attention to civil engineering. He was shortly 

afterward employed in the department of 
government surveys on the Mississippi, and 
constructing maps of that region. He was 
made lieutenant of engineers, and laid be- 
fore the war department a plan for p ne- 
trating the Rocky Mountain regions, which 
was accepted, and in 1842 he set out upon 
his first famous exploring expedition and ex- 
plored the South Pass. He also planned an 
expedition to Oregon by a new route further 
south, but afterward joined his expedition 
with that of Wilkes in the region of the 
Great Salt Lake. He made a later expedi- 
tion which penetrated the Sierra Nevadas, 
and the San Joaquin and Sacramento river 
valleys, making maps of all regions explored. 
In 1845 he conducted the great expedi- 
tion which resulted in the acquisition of 
California, which it was believed the Mexi- 
can government was about to dispose of to 
England. Learning that the Mexican gov- 
ernor was preparing to attack the American 
settlements in his dominion, Fremont deter- 
mined to forestall him. The settlers rallied 
to his camp, and in June, 1846, he defeated 
the Mexican forces at Sonoma Pass, and a 
month later completely routed the governor 
and his entire army. The Americans at 
once declared their independence of Mexico, 
and Fremont was elected governor of Cali- 
fornia. By this time Commodore Stockton 
had reached the coast with instructions from 
Washington to conquer California. Fre- 
mont at once joined him in that effort, which 
resulted in the annexation of California with 
its untold mineral wealth. Later Fremont 
became involved in a difficulty with fellow 
officers which resulted in a court martial, 
and the surrender of his commission. He 
declined to accept reinstatement. He af- 
terward laid out a great road from the Mis- 
sissippi river to San Francisco, and became 
the first United States senator from Califor- 



nia, in 1849. In 1856 he was nominated 
by the new Republican party as its first can- 
didate for president against Buchanan, and 
received 114 electoral votes, out of 296. 

In 1 86 1 he was made major-general and 
placed in charge of the western department. 
He planned the reclaiming of the entire 
Mississippi valley, and gathered an army of 
thirty thousand men, with plenty of artil- 
lery, and was ready to move upon the con- 
federate General Price, when he was de- 
prived of his command. He was nominated 
for the presidency at Cincinnati in 1864, but 
withdrew. He was governor of Arizona in 
1878, holding the position four years. He 
was interested in an engineering enterprise 
looking toward a great southern trans-con- 
tinental railroad, and in his later years also 
practiced law in New York. He died July 1 3, 

WENDELL PHILLIPS, the orator and 
abolitionist, and a conspicuous figure 
in American history, was born November 
29, 181 1, at Boston, Massachusetts. He 
received a good education at Harvard 
College, from which he graduated in 1831, 
and then entered the Cambridge Law School. 
After completing his course in that institu- 
tion, in 1833, he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1834, at Suffolk. He entered the arena 
of life at the time when the forces of lib- 
erty and slavery had already begun their 
struggle that was to culminate in the Civil 
war. William Lloyd Garrison, by his clear- 
headed, courageous declarations of the anti- 
slavery principles, had done much to bring 
about this struggle. Mr. Phillips was not a 
man that could stand aside and see a great 
struggle being carried on in the interest of 
humanity and look passively on. He first 
attracted attention as an orator in 1837, at 
a meeting that was called to protest against 

the murder of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy. 
The meeting would have ended in a few 
perfunctory resolutions had not Mr. Phillip? 
by his manly eloquence taken the meeting 
out of the hands of the few that were in- 
clined to temporize and avoid radical utter- 
ances. Having once started out in this ca- 
reer as an abolitionist Phillips never swerved 
from what he deemed his duty, and never 
turned back. He gave up his legal practice 
and launched himself heart and soul in the 
movement for the liberation of the slaves. 
He was an orator of very great ability and 
by his earnest efforts and eloquence he did 
much in arousing public sentiment in behalf 
of the anti-slavery cause — possibly more 
than any one man of his time. After the 
abolition of slavery Mr. Phillips was, if pos- 
sible, even busier than before in the literary 
and lecture field. Besides temperance and 
women's rights, he lectured often and wrote 
much on finance, and the relations of labor 
and capital, and his utterances on whatever 
subject always bore the stamp of having 
emanated from a master mind. Eminent 
ciitics have stated that it might fairly be 
questioned whether there has ever spoken 
in America an orator superior to Phillips. 
The death of this great man occurred Feb- 
ruary 4, 1884. 

was one of the greatest generals that 
the world has ever produced and won im- 
mortal fame by that strategic and famous 
" march to the sea," in the war of the Re- 
bellion. He was born February 8, 1820, at 
Lancaster, Ohio, and was reared in the 
family of the Hon. Thomas Ewing, as his 
father died when he was but nine years of 
age. He entered West Point in 1836, was 
graduated from the same in 1840, and ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Third 



Artillery. He passed through the various 
grades of the service and at the outbreak of 
the Civil war was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Regular Infantry. A full history 
of General Sherman's conspicuous services 
would be to repeat a history of the army. 
He commanded a division at Shiloh, and 
was instrumental in the winning of that bat- 
tle, and was also present at the siege of Vicks- 
burg. On July 4, 1863, he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the regular army, and 
shared with Hooker the victory of Mission- 
ary Ridge. He was commander of the De- 
partment of the Tennessee from October 
27th until the appointment of General 
Grant as lieutenant-general, by whom he 
was appointed to the command of the De- 
partment of the Mississippi, which he as- 
sumed in March, 1864. He at once began 
organizing the army and enlarging his com- 
munications preparatory to his march upon 
Atlanta, which he started the same time of 
ihe beginning of the Richmond campaign by 
Grant. He started on May 6, and was op- 
posed by Johnston, who had fifty thousand 
men, but by consummate generalship, he 
captured Atlanta, on September 2, after 
several months of hard fighting and a severe 
loss of men. General Sherman started on 
his famous march to the sea November 15, 
1864, and by December 10 he was before 
Savannah, which he took on December 23. 
This campaign is a monument to the genius 
of General Sherman as he only lost 567 
men from Atlanta to the sea. After rest- 
ing his army he moved northward and occu- 
pied the following places: Columbia, 
Cheraw, Fayetteville, Ayersboro, Benton- 
ville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and April 18, he 
accepted the surrender of Johnston's army 
on a basis of agreement that was not re- 
ceived by the Government with favor, but 
finally accorded Johnston the same terms as 

Lee was given by General Grant. He was 
present at the grand review at Washington, 
and after the close of the war was appointed 
to the command of the military division of 
the Mississippi; later was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general, and assigned to the military 
division of the Missouri. When General 
Grant was elected president Sherman became 
general, March 4, 1869, and succeeded to 
the command of the army. His death oc- 
curred February 14, 1891, at Washington. 

most prominent of the early American 
statesmen and financiers, was born in Nevis, 
an island of the West Indies, January 11, 
1757, his father being a Scotchman and his 
mother of Huguenot descent. Owing to the 
death of his mother and business reverses 
which came to his father, young Hamilton 
was sent to his mother's relatives in Santa 
Cruz; a few years later was sent to a gram- 
mar school at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 
and in 1773 entered what is now known as 
Columbia College. Even at that time he 
began taking an active part in public affairs 
and his speeches, pamphlets, and newspaper 
articles on political affairs of the day at- 
tracted considerable attention. In 1776 he 
received a captain's commission and served 
in Washington's army with credit, becoming 
aide-de-camp to Washington with rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In 1781 he resigned his 
commission because of a rebuke from Gen- 
eral Washington. He next received com- 
mand of a New York battalion and partici- 
pated in the battle of Yorktown. After 
this Hamilton studied law, served several 
terms in congress and was a member of the 
convention at which the Federal Constitu- 
tion was drawn up. His work connected 
with " The Federalist " at about this time 
attracted much attention. Mr. Hamilton 



was chosen as the first secretary of the 
United States treasury and as such was the 
author of the funding system and founder of 
the United States Bank. In 1798 he was 
made inspector-general of the army with the 
rank of major-general and was also for a 
short time commander-in-chief. In 1804 
Aaron Burr, then candidate for governor of 
New York, challenged Alexander Hamilton 
to fight a duel, Burr attributing his defeat 
to Hamilton's opposition, and Hamilton, 
though declaring the code as a relic of bar- 
barism, accepted the challenge. They met 
at Weehawken, New Jersey, July 11, 1804. 
Hamilton declined to fire at his adversary, 
but at Burr's first fire was fatally wounded 
and died July 12, 1804. 

ENS, vice-president of the southern 
confederacy, a former United States senator 
and governor of Georgia, ranks among the 
great men of American history. He was born 
February 11, 18 12, near Crawfordsville, 
Georgia. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and admitted to the bar 
in 1834. In 1837 he made his debut in 
political life as a member of the state house 
of representatives, and in 1841 declined the 
nomination for the same office; but in 1842 
he was chosen by the same constituency as 
state senator. Mr. Stephens was one of 
the promoters of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad. In 1843 he was sent by his dis- 
trict to the national house of representatives, 
which office he held for sixteen consec- 
utive years. He was a member of the 
house during the passing of the Compromise 
Bill, and was one of its ablest and most 
active supporters. The same year (1850) 
Mr. Stephens was a delegate to the state 
convention that framed the celebrated 
" Georgia Platform," and was also a dele- 

gate to the convention that passed the ordi- 
nance of secession, though he bitterly op- 
posed that bill by voice and vote, yet he 
readily acquiesced in their decision after 
it received the votes of the majority of the 
convention. He was chosen vice-president 
of the confederacy without opposition, and 
in 1865 he was the head of the commis- 
sion sent by the south to the Hampton 
Roads conference. He was arrested after 
the fall of the confederacy and was con- 
fined in Fort Warren as a prisoner of state 
but was released on his own parole. Mr. 
Stephens was elected to the forty-third, 
forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth and for- 
ty-seventh congresses, with hardly more than 
nominal opposition. He was one of the 
Jeffersonian school of American politics. 
He wrote a number of works, principal 
among which are: "Constitutional View 
of the War between the States," and a 
" Compendium of the History of the United 
States." He was inaugurated as governor 
of Georgia November 4th, 1882, but died 
March 4, 1883, before the completion of 
his term. 

ROSCOE CONKLING was one of the 
most noted and famous of American 
statesmen. He was among the most fin- 
ished, fluent and eloquent orators that have 
ever graced the halls of the American con- 
gress; ever ready, witty and bitter in de- 
bate he was at once admired and feared by 
his political opponents and revered by his 
followers. True to his friends, loyal to the 
last degree to those with whom his inter- 
ests were associated, he was unsparing to his 
foes and it is said "never forgot an injury." 
Roscoe Conkling was born at Albany, 
New York, on the 30th of October, 1829, 
being a son of Alfred Conkling. Alfred 
Conkling was also a native of New York, 



born at East Hampton, October 12, 1789, 
and became one of the most eminent law- 
yers in the Empire state; published several 
legal works; served a term in congress; aft- 
erward as United States district judge for 
Northern New York, and in 1852 was min- 
ister to Mexico. Alfred Conkling died in 

Roscoe Conkling, whose name heads 
this article, at an early age took up the 
study of law and soon became successful and 
prominent at the bar. About 1846 he re- 
moved to Utica and in 1858 was elected 
mayor of that city. He was elected repre- 
sentative in congress from this district and 
was re-elected three times. In 1867 he was 
elected United States senator from the state 
of New York and was re-elected in 1873 
and 1879. In May, 1 88 1 , he resigned on 
account of differences with the president. 
In March, 1882, he was appointed and con- 
firmed as associate justice of the United 
States supreme court but declined to serve. 
His death occurred April 18, 1888. 

most eminent, talented and popu- 
lar of American authors, was born in New 
York City, April 3, 1783. His father was 
William Irving, a merchant and a native of 
Scotland, who had married an English lady 
and emigrated to America some twenty 
years prior to the birth of Washington. 
Two of the older sons, William and Peter, 
were partially occupied with newspaper 
work and literary pursuits, and this fact 
naturally inclined Washington to follow 
their example. Washington Irving was given 
the advantages afforded by the common 
schools until about sixteen years of age 
when he began studying law, but continued 
to acquire his literary training by diligent 
perusal at home of the older English writers. 

When nineteen he made his first literary 
venture by printing in the ' ' Morning Chroni- 
cle," then edited by his brother, Dr. Peter 
Irving, a series of local sketches under the 
nom-de-plume of "Jonathan Oldstyle." In 
1804 he began an extensive trip through 
Europe, returned in 1806, quickly com- 
pleted his legal studies and was admitted to 
the bar, but never practiced the profession. 
In 1807 he began the amusing serial "Sal- 
magundi," which had an immediate suc- 
cess, and not only decided his future 
career but long determined the charac- 
ter of his writings. In 1808, assisted by 
his brother Peter, he wrote " Knickerbock- 
er's History of New York," and in 1810 an 
excellent biography of Campbell, the poet, 
After this, for some time, Irving's attention 
was occupied by mercantile interests, but 
the commercial house in which he was a 
partner failed in 18 17. In 18 14 he was 
editor of the Philadelphia " Analectic Maga- 
zine." About 1 8 1 8 appeared his "Sketch- 
Book, " over the nom-de-plume of ' 'Geoffrey 
Crayon," which laid the foundation of Ir- 
ving's fortune and permanent fame. This 
was soon followed by the legends of 
"Sleepy Hollow," and " Rip Van Winkle," 
which at once took high rank as literary 
productions, and Irving's reputation was 
firmly established in both the old and new 
worlds. After this the path of Irving was 
smooth, and his subsequent writings ap- 
peared with rapidity, including "Brace- 
bridge Hall," "The Tales of a Traveler," 
" History of the Life and Voyages of Chris- 
topher Columbus," "The Conquest of 
Granada," "The Alhambra," "Tour on 
the Prairies," "Astoria," "Adventures of 
Captain Bonneville," "Wolfert's Roost," 
" Mahomet and his Successors," and "Life 
of Washington," besides other works. 

Washington Irving was never married. 



He resided during the closing years of his 
life at Sunnyside (Tarrytown) on the Hud- 
son, where he died November 28, 1859. 

CHARLES SUMNER.— Boldly outlined 
on the pages of our history stands out 
the rugged figure of Charles Sumner, states- 
man, lawyer and writer. A man of unim- 
peachable integrity, indomitable will and 
with the power of tireless toil, he was a fit 
leader in troublous times. First in rank as 
an anti-slavery leader in the halls of con- 
gress, he has stamped his image upon the 
annals of his time. As an orator he took 
front rank and, in wealth of illustration, 
rhetoric and lofty tone his eloquence equals 
anything to be found in history. 

Charles Sumner was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 6, 181 1, and was 
the son of Charles P. and Relief J. Sumner. 
The family had long been prominent in that 
state. Charles was educated at the Boston 
Public Latin School; entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1826, and graduated therefrom in 
1830. In 1 83 1 he joined the Harvard Law 
School, then under charge of Judge Story, 
and gave himself up to the study of law 
with enthusiasm. His leisure was devoted 
to contributing to the American Jurist. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1834 he was appointed 
reporter to the circuit court by Judge Story. 
He published several works about this time, 
and from 1835 to 1837 and again in 1843 
was lecturer in the law school. He had 
planned a lawyer's life, but in 1845 he gave 
his attention to politics, speakingand working 
against the admission of Texas to the Union 
and subsequently against the Mexican war. 
In 1848 he was defeated for congress on the 
Free Soil ticket. His stand on the anti- 
slavery question at that time alienated both 
friends and clients, but he never swerved 
from his convictions. In 1851 he was elected 

to the United States senate and took his 
seat therein December 1 of that year. From 
this time his life became the history of the 
anti-slavery cause in congress. In August, 
1852, he began his attacks on slavery by a 
masterly argument for the repeal of the 
fugitive slave law. On May 22, 1856, Pres- 
ton Brooks, nephew of Senator Butler, of 
South Carolina, made an attack upon Mr. 
Sumner, at his desk in the senate, striking 
him over the head with. a heavy cane. The 
attack was quite serious in its effects and 
kept Mr. Sumner absent from his seat in the 
senate for about four years. In 1857, 1863 
and 1869 he was re-elected to the office of 
senator, passing some twenty-three years in 
that position, always advocating the rights 
of freedom and equity. He died March II, 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, the third pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
near Charlottesville, Albemarle county, Vir- 
ginia, April 13, 1743, and was the son of 
Peter and Jane (Randolph) Jefferson. He 
received the elements of a good education, 
and in 1760 entered William and Mary Col- 
lege. After remaining in that institution for 
two years he took up the study of law with 
George Wythe, of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
one of the foremost lawyers of his day, and 
was admitted to practice in 1767. He ob- 
tained a large and profitable practice, which 
he held for eight years. The conflict be- 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies then 
drew him into public life, he having for 
some time given his attention to the study 
of the sources of law, the origin of liberty 
and equal rights. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to the Virginia 
house of burgesses in 1769, and served in 
that body several years, a firm supporter of 
liberal measures, and, although a slave- 

coMPExnnwr of biography. 


holder himself, an opponent of slavery. 
With others, he was a leader among the op- 
position to the king. He took his place as 
a member of the Continental congress June 
21, 1775, and after serving on several com- 
mittees was appointed to draught a Declara- 
tion of Independence, which he did, some 
corrections being suggested by Dr. Franklin 
and John Adams. This document was pre- 
sented to congress June 28, 1776, and after 
six days' debate was passed and was signed. 
In the following September Mr. Jefferson 
resumed his seat in the Virginia legislature, 
and gave much time to the adapting of laws 
of that state to the new condition of things. 
He drew up the law, the first ever passed by 
a legislature or adopted by a government, 
which secured perfect religious freedom. 
June 1, 1779, he succeeded Patrick Henry 
as governor of Virginia, an office which, 
after co-operating with Washington in de- 
fending the country, he resigned two years 
later. One of his own estates was ravaged 
by the British, and his house at Monticello 
was held by Tarleton for several days, and 
Jefferson narrowly escaped capture. After 
the death of his wife, in 1782, he accepted 
the position of plenipotentiary to France, 
which he had declined in 1776. Before 
leaving he served a short time in congress 
at Annapolis, and succeeded in carrying a 
bill for establishing our present decimal sys- 
tem of currency, one of his most useful pub- 
lic services. He remained in an official ca- 
pacity until October, 1789, and was a most 
active and vigilant minister. Besides the 
onerous duties of his office, during this time, 
he published "Notes on Virginia," sent to 
the United States seeds, shrubs and plants, 
forwarded literary and scientific news and 
gave useful advice to some of the leaders of 
the French Revolution. 

Mr. Jefferson landed in Virginia Novem- 

ber 18, 1789, having obtained a leave of 
absence from his post, and shortly after ac- 
cepted Washington's offer of the portfolio 
of the department of state in his cabinet. 
He entered upon the duties of his office in 
March, 1791, and held it until January 1, 
1794, when he tendered his resignation. 
About this time he and Alexander Hamilton 
became decided and aggressive political op- 
ponents, Jefferson being in warm sympathy 
with the people in the French revolution 
and strongly democratic in his feelings, 
while Hamilton took the opposite side. In 
1796 Jefferson was elected vice-president of 
the United States. In 1800 he was elected 
to the presidency and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1801. During his administration, 
which lasted for eight years, he having been 
re-elected in 1804, he waged a successful 
war against the Tripolitan pirates; purchased 
Louisiana of Napoleon; reduced the public 
debt, and was the originator of many wise 
measures. Declining a nomination for a 
third term he returned to Monticello, where 
he died July 4, 1826, but a few hours before 
the death of his friend, John Adams. 

Mr. Jefferson was married January 1, 
1772, to Mrs. Martha Skelton, a young, 
beautiful, and wealthy widow, who died 
September 6, 1782, leaving three children, 
three more having died previous to her 

"Commodore" Vanderbilt, was the 
founder of what constitutes the present im- 
mense fortune of the Vanderbilt family. He 
was born May 27, 1794, at Port Richmond, 
Staten Island, Richmond county, New 
York, and we find him at sixteen years run- 
ning a small vessel between his home and 
New York City. The fortifications of Sta- 
ten and Long Islands were just in course of 



construction, and he carried the laborers 
from New York to the fortifications in his 
" perianger, " as it was called, in the day, 
and at night carried supplies to the fort on 
the Hudson. Later he removed to New 
York, where he added to his little fleet. At 
the age of twenty-three he was free from 
debt and was worth $9,000, and in 1817, 
with a partner he built the first steamboat 
that was run between New York and New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, and became her 
captain at a salary of $1,000 a year. The 
next year he took command of a larger and 
better boat and by 1824 he was in complete 
control of the Gibbon's Line, as it was 
called, which he had brought up to a point 
where it paid $40,000 a year. Commodore 
Vanderbilt acquired the ferry between New 
York and Elizabethport, New Jersey, on a 
fourteen years' lease and conducted this on 
a paying basis. He severed his connections 
with Gibbons in 1829 and engaged in 
business alone and for twenty years he was 
the leading steamboat man in the country, 
building and operating steamboats on the 
Hudson River, Long Island Sound, on the 
Delaware River and the route to Boston, 
and he had the monopoly of trade on these 
routes. In 1850 he determined to broaden 
his field of operation and accordingly built 
the steamship Prometheus and sailed for 
the Isthmus of Darien, where he desired to 
make a personal investigation of the pros- 
pects of the American Atlantic and Pacific 
Ship Canal Company, in which he had pur- 
chased a controlling interest. Commodore 
Vanderbilt planned, as a result of this visit, 
a transit route from Greytown on the At- 
lantic coast to San Juan del Sud on the Pa- 
cific coast, which was a saving of 700 miles 
over the old route. In 185 1 he placed three 
steamers on the Atlantic side and four on 
the Pacific side to accommodate the enor- 

mous traffic occasioned by the discovery of 
gold in California. The following year 
three more vessels were added to his fleet 
and a branch line established from New 
Orleans to Greytown. In 1853 the Com- 
modore sold out hisNicarauguaTransit Com- 
pany, which had netted him $[,000,000 
and built the renowned steam yacht, the 
"North Star." He continued in the ship- 
ping business nine years longer and accu- 
mulated some $10,000,000. In 1861 he 
presented to the government his magnifi- 
cent steamer " Vanderbilt, " which had cost 
him $800,000 and for which he received the 
thanks of congress. In 1844 he became 
interested in the railroad business which he 
followed in later years and became one of 
the greatest railroad magnates of his time. 
He founded the Vanderbilt University at a 
cost of $1,000,000. He died January 4, 
1877, leaving a fortune estimated at over 
$100,000,000 to his children. 

DANIEL BOONE was one of the most 
famous of the many American scouts, 
pioneers and hunters which the early settle- 
ment of the western states brought into 
prominence. Daniel Boone was born Feb- 
ruary 11, 1735, in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania, but while yet a young man removed 
to North Carolina, where he was married. 
In 1769, with five companions, he pene- 
trated into the forests and wilds of Kentucky 
— then uninhabited by white men. He had 
frequent conflicts with the Indians and was 
captured by them but escaped and continued 
to hunt in and explore that region for over 
a year, when, in 177 1, he returned to his 
home. In the summer of 1773, he removed 
with his own and five other families into 
what was then the wilderness of Kentucky, 
and to defend his colony against the savages, 
he built, in 1775, a fort at Boonesborough, 



on the Kentucky river. This fort was at- 
tacked by the Indians several times in 1777, 
but they were repulsed. The following 
year, however, Boone was surprised and 
captured by them. They took him to De- 
troit and treated him with leniency, but he 
soon escaped and returned to his fort which 
he defended with success against four hun- 
dred and fifty Indians in August, 1778. His 
son, Enoch Boone, was the first white male 
child born in the state of Kentucky. In 
1795 Daniel Boone removed with his family 
to Missouri, locating about forty-five miles 
west of the present site of St. Louis, where 
he found fresh fields for his favorite pursuits 
— adventure, hunting, and pioneer life. His 
death occurred September 20, 1820. 

LOW, said to have been America's 
greatest "poet of the people," was born at 
Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. He 
entered Bowdoin College at the age of four- 
teen, and graduated in 1825. During his 
college days he distinguished himself in mod- 
ern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, one of the best known of which was 
the "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns." After 
his graduation he entered the law office of 
his father, but the following year was offered 
the professorship of modern languages at 
Bowdoin, with the privilege of three years 
study in Europe to perfect himself in French, 
Spanish, Italian and German. After the 
three years were passed he returned to the 
United States and entered upon his profes- 
sorship in 1829. His first volume was a 
small essay on the "Moral and Devotional 
Poetry of Spain" in 1833. In 1835 ne pub- 
lished some prose sketches of travel under 
the title of " Outre Mer, a Pilgrimage be- 
yond the Sea." In 1835 he was elected to 
the chair of modern languages and literature 

at Harvard University and spent a year in 
Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, culti- 
vating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature and entered upon his professor- 
ship in 1836. Mr. Longfellow published in 
1839 " Hyperion, a Romance," and "Voices 
of the Night, " and his first volume of original 
verse comprising the selected poems of 
twenty years work, procured him immediate 
recognition as a poet. " Ballads and other 
poems" appeared in 1842, the "Spanish 
Student " a drama in three acts, in 1843, 
"The Belfry of Bruges " in 1846, "Evan- 
geline, a Tale of Acadia," in 1847, which 
was considered his master piece. In 1845 
he published a large volume of the "Poets 
and Poetry of Europe," 1849 " Kavanagh, 
a Tale," ''The Seaside and Fireside" in 
1850, "The Golden Legend " in 185 1, "The 
Song of Hiawatha " in 1855, " The Court- 
ship of Miles Standish " in 1858, " Tales of 
a Wayside Inn " in 1863; " Flower de Luce'' 
in 1866;" "New England Tragedies" in 
1869; "The Divine Tragedy" in 1871; 
"Three Books of Song" in 1872; "The 
Hanging of the Crane " in 1874. He also 
published a masterly translation of Dante 
in 1867-70 and the " Morituri Salutamus," 
a poem read at the fiftieth anniversary of 
his class at Bowdoin College. Prof. Long- 
fellow resigned his chair at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1854, but continued to reside at Cam- 
bridge. Some of his poetical works have 
been translated into many languages, and 
their popularity rivals that of the best mod- 
ern English poetry. He died March 24, 
1882, but has left an imperishable fame as 
one of the foremost of American poets. 

PETER COOPER was in three partic- 
ulars — as a capitalist and manufacturer, 
as an inventor, and as a philanthropist — 
connected intimately with some of the most 



important and useful accessions to the in- 
dustrial arts of America, its progress in in- 
vention and the promotion of educational 
and benevolent institutions intended for the 
benefit of people at large. He was born 
in New York city, February 12, 179 1. His 
iife was one of labor and struggle, as it was 
with most of America's successful men. In 
early boyhood he commenced to help his 
'ather as a manufacturer of hats. He at- 
tended school only for half of each day for 
a single year, and beyond this his acquisi- 
tions were all his own. When seventeen 
vears old he was placed with John Wood- 
ward to learn the trade of coach-making and 
served his apprenticeship so satisfactorily 
chat his master offered to set him up in busi- 
ness, but this he declined because of the 
debt and obligation it would involve. 

The foundation of Mr. Cooper's fortune 
was laid in the invention of an improvement 
in machines for shearing cloth. This was 
largely called into use during the war of 
18 1 2 with England when all importations 
of cloth from that country were stopped. 
The machines lost their value, however, on 
the declaration of peace. Mr. Cooper then 
turned his shop into the manufacture of 
cabinet ware. He afterwards went into the 
grocery business in New York and finally he 
engaged in the manufacture of glue and isin- 
glass which he carried on for more than 
fifty years. In 1830 he erected iron works 
in Canton, near Baltimore. Subsequently 
he erected a rolling and a wire mill in the 
city of New York, in which he first success- 
fully applied anthracite to the puddling of 
iron. In these works, he was the first to 
roll wrought-iron beams for fire-proof build- 
ings. These works grew to be very exten- 
sive, including mines, blast furnaces, etc. 
While in Baltimore Mr. Cooper built in 
1830, after his own designs, the first loco- 

motive engine ever constructed on this con- 
tinent and it was successfully operated on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He also 
took a great interest and invested large cap- 
ital in the extension of the electric telegraph, 
also in the laying of the first Atlantic cable; 
besides interesting himself largely in the 
New York state canals. But the most 
cherished object of Mr. Cooper's life was 
the establishment of an institution for the 
instruction of the industrial classes, which 
he carried out on a magnificent scale in New 
York city, where the "Cooper Union" 
ranks among the most important institu- 

In May, 1876, the Independent party 
nominated Mr. Cooper for president of the 
United States, and at the election following 
he received nearly 100,000 votes. His 
death occurred April 4, 1883. 

one of the most conspicuous Confeder- 
ate generals during the Civil war, and one 
of the ablest military commanders of mod- 
ern times, was born at Stratford House, 
Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 19, 
1807. In 1825 he entered the West Point 
academy and was graduated second in his 
class in 1829, and attached to the army as 
second lieutenant of engineers. For a 
number of years he was thus engaged in en- 
gineering work, aiding in establishing the 
boundary line between Ohio and Michigan, 
and superintended various river and harbor 
improvements, becoming captain of engi- 
neers in 1838. He first saw field service in 
the Mexican war, and under General Scott 
performed valuable and efficient service. 
In that brilliant campaign he was conspicu- 
ous for professional ability as well as gallant 
and meritorious conduct, winning in quick 
succession the brevets of major, lieutenant- 



colonel, and colonel for his part in the bat- 
tles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, 
Chapultepec, and in the capture of the city 
Mexico. At the close of that war he re- 
sumed his engineering work in connection 
with defences along the Atlantic coast, and 
from 1852 to 1855 was superintendent of 
the Military Academy, a position which he 
gave up to become lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Cavalry. For several years there- 
after he served on the Texas border, but 
happening to be near Washington at the 
time of John Brown's raid, October 17 to 
2 5. 1859, Colonel Lee was placed in com- 
mand of the Federal forces employed in its 
repression. He soon returned to his regi- 
ment in Texas where he remained the 
greater part of i860, and March 16, 1861, 
became colonel of his regiment by regular 
promotion. Three weeks later, April 25, he 
resigned upon the secession of Virginia, 
went at once to Richmond and tendered his 
services to the governor of that state, being 
by acclamation appointed commander-in- 
chief of its military and naval forces, with 
the rank of major-general. 

He at once set to work to organize and 
develop the defensive resources of his state 
and within a month directed the occupation 
in force of Manassas Junction. Meanwhile 
Virginia having entered the confederacy and 
Richmond become the capitol, Lee became 
one of the foremost of its military officers 
and was closely connected with Jefferson 
Davis in planning the moves of that tragic 
time. Lee participated in many of the 
hardest fought battles of the war among 
which were Fair Oaks, White Lake Swamps, 
Cold Harbor, and the Chickahominy, Ma- 
nassas, Cedar Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Malvern Hill, Get- 
tysburg, the battles of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, all the campaigns about Richmond, 

Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Lee's 
surrender at Appomatox brought the war to 
a close. It is said of General Lee that but 
few commanders in history have been so 
quick to detect the purposes of an opponent 
or so quick to act upon it. Never surpassed, 
if ever equaled, in the art of winning the 
passionate, personal love and admiration of 
his troops, he acquired and held an influ- 
ence over his army to the very last, founded 
upon a supreme trust in his judgment, pre- 
science and skill, coupled with his cool, 
stable, equable courage. A great writer has 
said of him: "As regards the proper meas- 
ure of General Lee's rank among the sol- 
diers of history, seeing what he wrought 
with such resources as he had, under all the 
disadvantages that ever attended his oper- 
ations, it is impossible to measure what he 
might have achieved in campaigns and bat- 
tles with resources at his own disposition 
equal to those against which he invariably 

Left at the close of the war without es- 
tate or profession, he accepted the presi- 
dency of Washington College at Lexington, 
Virginia, where he died October 12, 1870. 

JOHN JAY, first chief-justice of the 
United States, was born in New York, 
December 12, 1745. He took up the study 
of law, graduated from King's College 
(Columbia College), and was admitted to 
the bar in 1768. He was chosen a member 
of the committee of New York citizens to 
protest against the enforcement by the 
British government of the Boston Port Bill, 
was elected to the Continental congress 
which met in 1774, and was author of the 
addresses to the people of Great Britian and 
of Canada adopted by that and the suc- 
ceeding congress. He was chosen to the 
provincial assembly of his own state, and 



resigned from the Continental congress to 
serve in that body, wrote most of its public 
papers, including the constitution of the new 
state, and was then made chief-justice. He 
was again chosen as a member of the Con- 
tinental congress in 1778, and became presi- 
dent of that body. He was sent to Spain 
as minister in 1780, and his services there 
resulted in substantial and moral aid for the 
struggling colonists. Jay, Franklin, and 
Adams negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain in 1782, and Jay was ap- 
pointed secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, 
and held the position until the adoption of 
the Federal constitution. During this time 
he had contributed strong articles to the 
"Federalist" in favor of the adoption of 
the constitution, and was largely instru- 
mental in securing the ratification of that 
instrument by his state. He was appointed 
by Washington as first chief-justice of the 
United States in 1789. In this high capac- 
ity the great interstate and international 
questions that arose for immediate settle- 
ment came before him for treatment. 

In 1794, at a time when the people in 
gratitude for the aid that France had ex- 
tended to us, were clamoring for the privilege 
of going to the aid of that nation in her 
struggle with Great Britain and her own op- 
pressors, John Jay was sent to England as 
special envoy to negotiate a treaty with 
that power. The instrument known as 
"Jay's Treaty " was the result, and while 
in many of its features it favored our nation, 
yet the neutrality clause in it so angered the 
masses that it was denounced throughout 
the entire country, and John Jay was burned 
in effigy in the city of New York. The 
treaty was finally ratified by Washington, 
and approved, in August, 1795. Having 
been elected governor of his state for three 
consecutive terms, he then retired from 

active life, declining an appointment as 
chief-justice o f the supreme court, made by 
John Adams and confirmed by the senate. 
He died in New York in 1829. 

one of the greatest American cavalry 
generals. He was born March 6, 183 1, at 
Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, and was ap- 
pointed to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, from which he graduat- 
ed and was assigned to the First Infantry as 
brevet second lieutenant July 1, 1853. 
After serving in Texas, on the Pacific coast, 
in Washington and Oregon territories until 
the fall of 1 86 1, he was recalled to the 
states and assigned to the army of south- 
west Missouri as chief quartermaster from 
the duties of which he was soon relieved. 
After the battle of Pea Ridge, he was quar- 
termaster in the Corinth campaign, and on 
May 25 he was appointed colonel of the 
Second Michigan Cavalry. On July 1, in 
command of a cavalry brigade, he defeated 
a superior force of the enemy and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
General Sheridan was then transferred to 
the army of the Ohio, and commanded a 
division in the battle of Perrysville and also 
did good service at the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, where he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers. He fought with 
great gallantry at Chickamauga, after which 
Rosecrans was succeeded by General Grant, 
under whom Sheridan fought the battle of 
Chattanooga and won additional renown. 
Upon the promotion of Grant to lieutenant- 
general, he applied for the transfer of Gen- 
eral Sheridan to the east, and appointed 
him chief of cavalry in the army of the 
Potomac. During the campaign of 1864 
the cavalry covered the front and flanks of 
the infantry until May 8, when it was witft 


drawn and General Sheridan started on a 
raid against the Confederate lines of com- 
munication with Richmond and on May 25 
he rejoined the army, having destroyed con- 
siderable of the confederate stores and de- 
feated their cavalry under General Stuart at 
Yellow Tavern. The outer line of defences 
around Richmond were taken, but the sec- 
ond line was too strong to be taken by as- 
sault, and accordingly Sheridan crossed the 
Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge, reaching 
James River May 14, and thence by White 
House and Hanover Court House back to 
the army. The cavalry occupied Cold 
Harbor May 31, which they held until the 
arrival of the infantry. On General Sheri- 
dan's next raid he routed Wade Hampton's 
cavalry, and August 7 was assigned to the 
command of the Middle Military division, 
and during the campaign of the Shenan- 
doah Valley he performed the unheard of 
feat of " destroying an entire army." He 
was appointed brigadier-general of the reg- 
ular army and for his victory at Cedar Creek 
he was promoted to the rank of major-gen- 
eral. General Sheridan started out Febru- 
ary 27, 1865, with ten thousand cavalry 
and destroyed the Virginia Central Railroad 
and the James River Canal and joined the 
army again at Petersburg March 27. He 
commanded at the battle of Five Forks, the 
decisive victory which compelled Lee to 
evacuate Petersburg. On April 9, Lee tried 
to break through Sheridan's dismounted 
command but when the General drew aside 
his cavalry and disclosed the deep lines of 
infantry the attempt was abandoned. Gen- 
eral Sheridan mounted his men and was about 
to charge when a white flag was flown at the 
head of Lee's column which betokened the 
surrender of the army. After the war Gen- 
eral Sheridan had command of the army of 
the southwest, of the gulf and the depart- I 

ment of Missouri until he was appointed 
lieutenant-general and assigned to the di- 
vision of Missouri with headquarters at Chi- 
cago, and assumed supreme command of 
the army November 1, 1883, which post he 
held until his death, August 5, 1888. 

PHINEAS T. BARNUM, the greatest 
showman the world has ever seen, was 
born at Danbury, Connecticut, July 5, 18 10. 
At the age of eighteen years he began busi- 
ness on his own account. He opened a re- 
tail fruit and confectionery house, including 
a barrel of ale, in one part of an old car- 
riage house. He spent fifty dollars in fitting 
up the store and the stock cost him seventy 
dollars. Three years later he put in a full 
stock, such as is generally carried in a 
country store, and the same year he started 
a Democratic newspaper, known as the 
"Herald of Freedom." He soon found 
himself in jail under a sixty days' sentence 
for libel. During the winter of 1834-5 he 
went to New York and began soliciting busi- 
ness for several Chatham street houses. In 

1835 he embarked in the show business at 
Niblo's Garden, having purchased the cele- 
brated " Joice Heth" for one thousand dol- 
lars. He afterward engaged the celebrated 
athlete, Sig. Vivalia, and Barnum made his 
' ' first appearance on any stage, " acting as a 
"super" to Sig. Vivalia on his opening 
night. He became ticket seller, secretary 
and treasurer of Aaron Turner's circus in 

1836 and traveled with it about the country. 
His next venture was the purchase of a 
steamboat on the Mississippi, and engaged 
a theatrical company to show in the princi- 
pal towns along that river. In 1840 he 
opened Vaux Hall Garden, New York, with 
variety performances, and introduced the 
celebrated jig dancer, John Diamond, to the 
public. The next year he quit rhe show 



business and settled down in New York as 
agent of Sear's Pictorial Illustration of the 
Bible, but a few months later again leased 
Vaux Hall. In September of the same year 
he again left the business, and became 
' ' puff " writer for the Bowery Amphitheater. 
In December he bought the Scudder Museum, 
and a year later introduced the celebrated 
Tom Thumb to the world, taking him to 
England in 1844, and remaining there three 
years. He then returned to New York, and 
in 1849, through James Hall Wilson, he en- 
gaged the "Swedish Nightingale," Jenny 
Lind, to come to this country and make a 
tour under his management. He also had 
sent the Swiss Bell Ringers to America in 
1844. He became owner of the Baltimore 
Museum and the Lyceum and Museum at 
Philadelphia. In 1850 he brought a dozen 
elephants from Ceylon to make a tour of this 
country, and in 1851 sent the " Bateman 
Children" to London. During 1S51 and 
1852 he traveled as a temperance lecturer, 
and became president of a bank at Pequon- 
nock, Connecticut. In 1852 he started a 
weekly pictorial paper known as the " Illus- 
trated News." In 1865 his Museum was 
destroyed by fire, and he immediately leased 
the Winter Garden Theatre, where he played 
his company until he opened his own 
Museum. This was destroyed by fire in 
1868, and he then purchased an interest in 
the George Wood Museum. 

After dipping into politics to some ex- 
tent, he began his career as a really great 
showman in 1871. Three years later he 
erected an immense circular building in New 
York, in which he produced his panoramas. 
He has frequently appeared as a lecturer, 
some times on temperance, and some times 
on other topics, among which were ' ' Hum- 
bugs of the World," "Struggles and 
Triumphs," etc. He was owner of the im- 

mense menagerie and circus known as the 
"Greatest Show on Earth," and his fame 
extended throughout Europe and America. 
He died in 1891. 

JAMES MADISON, the fourth president 
o ( the United States, 1S09-17, was 
born at Port Conway, Prince George coun- 
ty, Virginia, March 16, 175 1. He was the 
son of a wealthy planter, who lived on a fine 
estate called " Montpelier," which was but 
twenty-five miles from Monticello, the home 
of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Madison was the 
eldest of a family of seven children, all of 
whom attained maturity. He received his 
early education at home under a private 
tutor, and consecrated himself with unusual 
vigor to study. At a very early age he was 
a proficient scholar in Latin, Greek, French 
and Spanish, and in 1769 he entered Prince- 
ton College, New Jersey. He graduated in 
1 77 1, but remained for several months after 
his graduation to pursue a course of study 
under the guidance of Dr. Witherspoon. 
He permanently injured his health at this 
time and returned to Virginia in 1772, and 
for two years he was immersed in the study 
of law, and at the same time made extend- 
ed researches in theology, general literature, 
and philosophical studies. He then directed 
his full attention to the impending struggle 
of the colonies for independence, and also 
took a prominent part in the religious con- 
troversy at that time regarding so called 
persecution of other religious denominations 
by the Church of England. Mr. Madison 
was elected to the Virginia assembly in 1776 
and in November, 1777, he was chosen 
a member of the council of state. He took 
his seat in the continental congress in 
March, 1780. He was made chairman of 
the committee on foreign relations, and 
drafted an able memoranda for the use of 

com r i:\ni I'M of biography. 


the American ministers to the French and 
Spanish governments, that established the 
claims of the republic to the territories be- 
tween the Alleghany Mountains and the 
Mississippi River. He acted as chairman of 
the ways and means committee in 1783 ar| d 
as a member of the Virginia legislature in 
1784-86 he rendered important services to 
the state. Mr. Madison represented Vir- 
giana in the national constitutional conven- 
tion at Philadelphia in 1787, and was one of 
the chief framers of the constitution. He 
was a member of the first four congresses, 
1789-97, and gradually became identified 
with the anti-federalist or republican party 
of which he eventually became the leader. 
He remained in private life during the ad- 
ministration of John Adams, and was secre- 
tary of state under President Jefferson. Mr. 
Madison administered the affairs of that 
post with such great ability that he was the 
natural successor of the chief magistrate 
and was chosen president by an electoral 
vote of 122 to 53. He was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at that critical period in our 
history when the feelings of the people were 
embittered with those of England, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
which finally resulted in the declaration of 
war, June 18, 1812. In the autumn of that 
year President Madison was re-elected by a 
vote of 128 to 89, and conducted the war 
for three years with varying success and 
defeat in Canada, by glorious victories at 
sea, and by the battle of New Orleans that 
was fought after the treaty of peace had 
been signed at Ghent, December 24, 18 14. 
During this war the national capitol at 
Washington was burned, and many valuable 
papers were destroyed, but the declaration 
of independence was saved to the country 
by the bravery and courage of Mr. Madi- 
son's illustrious wife. A commercial treaty 

was negotiated with Great Britain in 181 5, 
and in April, 1816, a national bank was in- 
corporated by congress. Mr. Madison was 
succeeded, March 4, 1 817, by James Monroe, 
and retired into private life on his estate at 
Montpelier, where he died June 28, 1836. 

American character, was a protege of 
the great abolitionist, William Lloyd Garri- 
son, by whom he was aided in gaining his 
education. Mr. Douglass was born in Tuck- 
ahoe county, Maryland, in February, 18 17, 
his mother being a negro woman and his 
father a white man. He was born in slav- 
ery and belonged to a man by the name of 
Lloyd, under which name he went until he 
ran away from his master and changed it to 
Douglass. At the age of ten years he was 
sent to Baltimore where he learned to read 
and write, and later his owner allowed him 
to hire out his own time for three dollars a 
week in a shipyard. In September, 1838, 
he fled from Baltimore and made his way to 
New York, and from thence went to New 
Bedford, Massachusetts. Here he was mar- 
ried and supported himself and family by 
working at the wharves and in various work- 
shops. In the summer of 1841 he attended 
an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket, 
and made a speech which was so well re- 
ceived that he was offered the agency of the 
Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society. In this 
capacity he traveled through the New En- 
gland states, and about the same time he 
published his first book called ' ' Narrative 
of my Experience in Slavery." Mr. Doug- 
lass went to England in 1845 and lectured 
on slavery to large and enthusiastic audi- 
ences in all the large towns of the country, 
and his friends made up a purse of seven 
hundred and fifty dollars and purchased his 
freedom in due form of law. 



Mr. Douglass applied himself to the de- 
livery of lyceum lectures after the abolition 
of slavery, and in 1870 he became the editor 
of the " New National Era " in Washington. 
In 1 87 1 he was appointed assistant secretary 
of the commission to San Domingo and on 
his return he was appointed one of the ter- 
ritorial council for the District of Colorado 
by President Grant. He was elected presi- 
dential elector-at-large for the state of New 
York and was appointed to carry the elect- 
oral vote to Washington. He was also 
United States marshal for the District of 
Columbia in 1876, and later was recorder 
of deeds for the same, from which position 
he was removed by President Cleveland in 
1886. In the fall of that year he visited 
England to inform the friends that he had 
made while there, of the progress of the 
colored race in America, and on his return 
he was appointed minister to Hayti, by 
President Harrison in 1889. His career as 
a benefactor of his race was closed by his 
death in February, 1895, near Washington. 

ear for rhythm and the talent for 
graceful expression are the gifts of nature, 
and they were plentifully endowed on the 
above named poet. The principal charac- 
teristic of his poetry is the thoughtfulness 
and intellectual process by which his ideas 
ripened in his mind, as all his poems are 
bright, clear and sweet. Mr. Bryant was 
born November 3, 1794, at Cummington, 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, and was 
educated at Williams College, from which 
he graduated, having entered it in 18 10. 
He took up the study of law, and in 181 5 
was admitted to the bar, but after practicing 
successfully for ten years at Plainfield and 
Great Barrington, he removed to New York 
in 1825. The following year he became 

the editor of the "Evening Post," which 
he edited until his death, and under his di- 
rection this paper maintained, through a 
long series of years, a high standing by the 
boldness of its protests against slavery be- 
fore the war, by its vigorous support of the 
government during the war, and by the 
fidelity and ability of its advocacy of the 
Democratic freedom in trade. Mr. Bry- 
ant visited Europe in 1834, 1845, 1849 and 
1857, and presented to the literary world 
the fruit of his travels in the series of "Let- 
ters of a Traveler," and "Letters from 
Spain and Other Countries." In the world 
of literature he is known chiefly as a poet, 
and here Mr. Bryant's name is illustrious, 
both at home and abroad. He contributed 
verses to the "Country Gazette " before he 
was ten years of age, and at the age of nine- 
teen he wrote " Thanatopsis, " the most im- 
pressive and widely known of his poems. 
The later outgrowth of his genius was his 
translation of Homer's "Iliad" in 1870 
and the "Odyssey" in 1871. He also 
made several speeches and addresses which 
have been collected in a comprehensive vol- 
ume called " Orations and Addresses." He 
was honored in many ways by his fellow 
citizens, who delighted to pay tributes of 
respect to his literary eminence, the breadth 
of his public spirit, the faithfulness of his 
service,' and the worth of his private char- 
acter. Mr. Bryant died in New York City 
June 12, 1878. 

secretary of state during one of the 
most critical times in the history of our 
country, and the right hand man of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, ranks among the greatest 
statesmen America has produced. Mr. 
Seward was born May 16, 1S01, at Florida, 
Orange county, New York, and with such 



facilities as the place afforded he fitted him- 
self for a college course. He attended 
Union College at Schenectady, New York, 
at the age of fifteen, and took his degree in 
the regular course, with signs of promise in 
1S20, after which he diligently addressed 
himself to the study of law under competent 
instructors, and started in the practice of 
his profession in 1823. 

Mr. Seward entered the political arena 
and in 1828 we find him presiding over a 
convention in New York, its purpose being 
the nomination of John Quincy Adams for a 
second term. He was married in 1824 and 
in 1830 was elected to the state senate. 
From 1 8 38 to 1842 he was governor of the 
state of New York. Mr. Seward's next im- 
portant position was that of United States 
senator from New York. 

W. H. Seward was chosen by President 
Lincoln to fill the important office of the 
secretary of state, and by his firmness and 
diplomacy in the face of difficulties, he aided 
in piloting the Union through that period of 
strife, and won an everlasting fame. This 
great statesman died at Auburn, New York, 
October 10, 1872, in the seventy-second 
year of his eventful life. 

JOSEPH JEFFERSON, a name as dear 
as it is familiar to the theater-going 
world in America, suggests first of all a fun- 
loving, drink-ioving, mellow voiced, good- 
natured Dutchman, and the name of "Rip 
Van Winkle " suggests the pleasant features 
of Joe Jefferson, so intimately are play and 
player associated in the minds of those who 
have had the good fortune to shed tears of 
laughter and sympathy as a tribute to the 
greatness of his art. Joseph Jefferson was 
born in Philadelphia, February 20, 1829. 
His genius was an inheritance, if there be 

such, as his great-grandfather, Thomas 

Jefferson, was a manager and actor in Eng 
land. His grandfather, Joseph Jeff 
was the most popular comedian of the New 
York stage in his time, and his father, Jos- 
eph Jefferson, the second, was a good actor 
also, but the third Joseph Jefferson out- 
shone them all. 

At the age of three years Joseph Jeffer- 
son came on the stage as the child in "Pi- 
zarro," and his training was upon the stage 
from childhood. Later on he lived and 
acted in Chicago, Mobile, and Texas. After 
repeated misfortunes he returned to New 
Orleans from Texas, and his brother-in-law, 
Charles Burke, gave him money to reach 
Philadelphia, where he joined the Burton 
theater company. Here his genius soon as- 
serted itself, and his future became promis- 
ing and brilliant. His engagements through- 
out the United States and Australia were 
generally successful, and when he went to 
England in 1865 Mr. Boucicault consented 
to make some important changes in his 
dramatization of Irving's story of Rip Van 
Winkle, and Mr. Jefferson at once placed 
it in the front rank as a comedy. He made 
a fortune out of it, and played nothing else 
for many years. In later years, however, 
Mr. Jefferson acquitted himself of the charge 
of being a one-part actor, and the parts of. 
"Bob Acres," "Caleb Plummer" and 
"Golightly " all testify to the versatility of 
his genius. 

a noted American general, was born 
in Philadelphia, December 3, 1826. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1846 from West Point, and 
was breveted second lieutenant of engineers. 
He was with Scott in the Mexican war, 
taking part in all the engagements from 
Vera Cruz to the final capture of the Mexi- 



can capital, and was breveted first lieuten- 
ant and captain for gallantry displayed on 
various occasions. In 1857 he resigned his 
commission and accepted the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, and became presi- 
dent of the St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company. He was commissioned major- 
general by the state of Ohio in 1861, 
placed in command of the department of 
the Ohio, and organized the first volunteers 
called for from that state. In May he was 
appointed major-general in the United 
States army, and ordered to disperse the 
confederates overrunning West Virginia. 
He accomplished this task promptly, and 
received the thanks of congress. After the 
first disaster at Bull Run he was placed 
in command of the department of Wash- 
ington, and a few weeks later of the 
Army of the Potomac. Upon retirement 
of General Scott the command of the en- 
tire United States army devolved upon Mc- 
Clellan, but he was relieved of it within a 
few months. In March, 1862, after elabor- 
ate preparation, he moved upon Manassas. 
only to find it deserted by the Confederate 
army, which had been withdrawn to im- 
pregnable defenses prepared nearer Rich- 
mond. He then embarked his armies for 
Fortress Monroe and after a long delay at 
Yorktown, began the disastrous Peninsular 
campaign, which resulted in the Army of the 
Potomac being cooped up on the James 
River below Richmond. His forces were 
then called to the support of General Pope, 
near Washington, and he was left without an 
army. After Pope's defeat McClellan was 
placed in command of the troops for the de- 
fense of the capital, and after a thorough or- 
ganization he followed Lee into Maryland 
and the battles of Antietam and South Moun- 
tain ensued. The delay which followed 

caused general dissatisfaction, and he was re- 
lieved of his command, and retired from active 

In 1864 McClellan was nominated for 
the presidency by the Democrats, and over- 
whelmingly defeated by Lincoln, three 
states only casting their electoral votes for 
McClellan. On election day he resigned 
his commission and a few months later went 
to Europe where he spent several years. 
He wrote a number of military text- books 
and reports. His death occurred October 
29, 1885. 

SAMUEL J. TILDEN.— Among the great 
statesmen whose names adorn the pages 
of American history may be found that of 
the subject of this sketch. Known as a 
lawyer of highest ability, his greatest claim 
to immortality will ever lie in his successful 
battle against the corrupt rings of his native 
state and the elevation of the standard of 
official life. 

Samuel J. Tilden was born in New Leb- 
anon, New York, February 9, 18 14. He 
pursued his academic studies at Yale Col- 
lege and the University of New York, tak- 
ing the course of law at the latter. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. His rare 
ability as a thinker and writer upon public 
topics attracted the attention of President 
Van Buren, of whose policy and adminis- 
tration he became an active and efficient 
champion. He made for himself a high 
place in his profession and amassed quite a 
fortune as the result of his industry and 
judgment. During the days of his greatest 
professional labor he was ever one of the 
leaders and trusted counsellors of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was a member of the 
conventions to revise the state constitution, 
both in 1S46 and 1867, and served two 
terms in the lower branch of the state leg- 



islature. He was one of the controlling 
spirits in the overthrow of the notorious 
" Tweed ring " and the reformation of the 
government of the city of New York. In 
1874 he was elected governor of the state 
of New York. While in this position he 
assailed corruption in high places, success- 
fully battling with the iniquitous "canal 
ring " and crushed its sway over all depart- 
ments of the government. Recognizing h-is 
character and executive ability Mr. Tilden 
was nominated for president by the na- 
tional Democratic convention in 18.76. At 
the election he received a much larger popu- 
lar vote than his opponent, and 184 uncon- 
tested electoral votes. There being some 
electoral votes contested, a commission ap- 
pointed by congress decided in favor of the 
Republican electors and Mr. Hayes, the can- 
didate of that party was declared elected. 
In 1880, the Democratic party, feeling that 
Mr. Tilden had been lawfully elected to the 
presidency tendered the nomination for. the 
same office to Mr. Tilden, but he declined, 
retiring from all public functions, owing to 
failing health. He died August 4, 1886. 
By will he bequeathed several millions of 
dollars toward the founding of public libra- 
ries in New York City, Yonkers, etc. 

NOAH WEBSTER.— As a scholar, law- 
yer, author and journalist, there is no 
one who stands on a higher plane, or whose 
reputation is better established than the 
honored gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. He was a native of West Hartford, 
Connecticut, and was born October 17, 
1758. He came of an old New England 
family, his mother being a descendant of 
Governor William Bradford, of the Ply- 
mouth colony. After acquiring a solid edu- 
cation in early life Dr. Webster entered 
Yale College, from which he graduated in 

1778. For a while he taught school in 
Hartford, at the same time studying law. 
and was admitted to the bar in 17S1. He 
taught a classical school at Goshen, Orange 
county, New York, in 17S2-83, and while 
there prepared his spelling book, grammar 
and reader, which was issued under the title 
of "A Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language," in three parts, — so successful a 
work that up to 1876 something like forty 
million of the spelling books had been 
sold. In 1786 he delivered a course of lec- 
tures on the English language in the seaboard 
cities and the following year taught an 
academy at Philadelphia. From December 
17, 1787, until November, 1788, he edited 
the "American Magazine, "a periodical that 
proved unsuccessful. In 1789-93 he prac- 
ticed law in Hartford having in the former 
year married the daughter of William Green- 
leaf, of Boston. He returned to New York 
and November, 1793, founded a daily paper, 
the "Minerva," to which was soon added a 
semi-weekly edition under the name of the 
" Herald." The former is still in existence 
under the name of the "Commercial Adver- 
tiser." In this paper, over the signature of 
' ' Curtius , " he published a lengthy and schol- 
arly defense of " John Jay's treaty." 

In 1798, Dr. Webster moved to New 
Haven and in 1807 commenced the prepar- 
ation of his great work, the "American Dic- 
tionary of the English Language," which 
was not completed and published until 1828. 
He made his home in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, for the ten years succeeding 1812, and 
was instrumental in the establishment of 
Amherst College, of which institution he was 
the first president of the board of trustees. 
During 1824-5 he resided in Europe, pursu- 
ing his philological studies in Paris. He 
completed his dictionary from the libraries 
of Cambridge University in 1S25, and de- 



voted his leisure for the remainder of his 
life to the revision of that and his school 

Dr. Webster was a member of the legis- 
latures of both Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, was judge of one of the courts of the 
former state and was identified with nearly 
all the literary and scientific societies in the 
neighborhood of Amherst College. He died 
in New Haven, May 28, 1843. 

Among the more prominent works ema- 
nating from the fecund pen of Dr. Noah 
Webster besides those mentioned above are 
the following: "Sketches of American 
Policy," " Winthrop's Journal," " A Brief 
History of Epidemics," " Rights of Neutral 
Nations in time of War," "A Philosophical 
and Practical Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage," "Dissertations on the English 
Language," "A Collection of Essays," 
"The Revolution in France," "Political 
Progress of Britain," "Origin, History, and 
Connection of the Languages of Western 
Asia and of Europe," and many others. 

great anti-slavery pioneer and leader, 
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
December 12, 1804. He was apprenticed 
to the printing business, and in 1828 was in- 
duced to take charge of the "Journal of the 
Times" at Bennington, Vermont. While 
supporting John Quincy Adams for the presi- 
dency he took occasion in that paper to give 
expression of his views on slavery. These 
articles attracted notice, and a Quaker 
named Lundy, editor of the "Genius of 
Emancipation," published in Baltimore, in- 
duced him to enter a partnership with him 
for the conduct of his paper. It soon 
transpired that the views of the partners 
were not in harmony, Lundy favoring grad- 
ual emancipation, while Garrison favored 

immediate freedom. In 1850 Mr. Garrison 
was thrown into prison for libel, not being 
able to pay a fine of fifty dollars and costs. 
In his cell he wrote a number of poems 
which stirred the entire north, and a mer- 
chant, Mr. Tappan, of New York, paid his 
fine and liberated him, after seven weeks of 
confinement. He at once began a lecture 
tour of the northern cities, denouncing 
slavery as a sin before God, and demanding 
its immediate abolition in the name of re- 
ligion and humanity. He opposed the col- 
onization scheme of President Monroe and 
other leaders, and declared the right of 
every slave to immediate freedom. 

In 1 83 1 he formed a partnership with 
Isaac Knapp, and began the publication of 
the "Liberator" at Boston. The "imme- 
diate abolition " idea began to gather power 
in the north, while the south became 
alarmed at the bold utterance of this jour- 
nal. The mayor of Boston was besoughi 
by southern influence to interfere, and upon 
investigation, reported upon the insignifi- 
cance, obscurity, and poverty of the editor 
and his staff, which report was widely 
published throughout the country. Re- 
wards were offered by the southern states 
for his arrest and conviction. Later Garri- 
son brought from England, where an eman- 
cipation measure had just been passed, 
some of the great advocates to work for the 
cause in this country. In 1835 a mob 
broke into his office, broke up a meeting of 
women, dragged Garrison through the street 
with a rope around his body, and his life 
was saved only by the interference of the 
police, who lodged him in jail. Garrison 
declined to sit in the World's Anti-Slaverv 
convention at London in 1840, because 
that body had refused women representa- 
tion. He opposed the formation of a po- 
litical party with emancipation as its basis. 



He favored a dissolution of the union, and 
declared the constitution which bound the 
free states to the slave states " A covenant 
with death and an agreement with hell." 
In 1843 he became president of the Amer- 
ican Anti-Slavery society, which position he 
held until 1865, when slavery was no more. 
During all this time the " Liberator " had 
continued to promulgate anti-slavery doc- 
trines, but in 1865 Garrison resigned his 
position, and declared his work was com- 
pleted. He died May 24, 1879. 

JOHN BROWN ("Brown of Ossawato- 
mie"), a noted character in American 
history, wasbornatTorrington, Connecticut, 
May 9, 1800. In his childhood he removed 
to Ohio, where he learned the tanner's 
trade. He married there, and in 1855 set- 
tled in Kansas. He lived at the village of 
Ossawatomie in that state, and there began 
his fight against slavery. He advocated im- 
mediate emancipation, and held that the 
negroes of the slave states merely waited 
for a leader in an insurrection that would re- 
sult in their freedom. He attended the 
convention called at Chatham, Canada, in 
1859, and was the leading spirit in organiz- 
ing a raid upon the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plans were 
well laid, and carried out in great secrecy. 
He rented a farm house near Harper's Ferry 
in the summer of 1859, and on October 
1 6th of that year, with about twenty follow- 
ers, he surprised and captured the United 
States arsenal, with all its supplies and 
arms. To his surprise, the negroes did not 
come to his support, and the next day he 
was attacked by the Virginia state militia, 
wounded and captured. He was tried in 
the courts of the state, convicted, and was 
hanged at Charlestown, December 2, 1859. 
The raid and its results had a tremendous 

effect, and hastened the culmination of the 
troubles between the north and south. The 
south had the advantage in discussing this 
event, claiming that the sentiment which 
inspired this act of violence was shared by 
the anti-slavery element of the country. 

EDWIN BOOTH had no peer upon the 
American stage during his long career 
as a star actor. He was the son of a famous 
actor, Junius Brutus Booth, and was born 
in 1833 at his father's home at Belair, near 
Baltimore. At the age of sixteen he made his 
first appearance on the stage, at the Boston 
Museum, in a minor part in " Richard III." 
It was while playing in California in 1851 
that an eminent critic called general atten- 
tion to the young actor's unusual talent. 
However, it was not until 1863, at the great 
Shakspearian revival at the Winter Garden 
Theatre, New York, that the brilliancy ol 
his career began. His Hamlet held the 
boards for 100 nights in succession, and 
from that time forth Booth's reputation was 
established. In 1868 he opened his own 
theatre (Booth's Theater) in New York. 
Mr. Booth never succeeded as a manager, 
however, but as an actor he was undoubted- 
ly the most popular man on the American 
stage, and perhaps the most eminent one in 
the world. In England he also won the 
greatest applause. 

Mr. Booth's work was confined mostly 
to Shakspearean roles, and his art was 
characterized by intellectual acuteness, 
fervor, and poetic feeling. His Hamlet, 
Richard II, Richard III, and Richelieu gave 
play to his greatest powers. In 1865, 
when his brother, John Wilkes Booths 
enacted his great crime, Edwin Booth re- 
solved to retire from the stage, but waspur- 
suaded to reconsider that decision. The 
odium did not in any way attach to the 



Kreat actor, and his popularity was not 
affected. In all his work Mr. Booth clung 
closely to the legitimate and the traditional 
in drama, making no experiments, and offer- 
ing little encouragement to new dramatic 
authors. His death occurred in New York, 
June 7, 1894. 

JOSEPH HOOKER, a noted American 
officer, was born at Hadley, Massachu- 
setts. November 13, 18 14. He graduated 
from West Point Military Academy in 1837, 
and was appointed lieutenant of artillery. 
He served in Florida in the Seminole war, 
and in garrison until the outbreak of the 
Mexican war. During the latter he saw 
service as a staff officer and was breveted 
captain, major and lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Monterey, National Bridge and 
Chapultepec. Resigning his commission in 
1833 he took up farming in California, which 
he followed until 1861. During this time 
he acted as superintendent of military roads 
in Oreeon. At the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion Hooker tendered his services to the 
government, and. May 17, 1861, was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
served in the defence of Washington and on 
the lower Potomac until his appointment to 
the command of a division in the Third 
Corps, in March, 1862. For gallant con- 
duct at the siege of Yorktown and in the 
battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Fra- 
zier's Farm and Malvern Hill he was made 
major-general. At the head of his division 
he participated in the battles of Manassas 
and Chantilly. September 6, 1862, he was 
placed at the head of the First Corps, and 
in the battles of South Mountain and An- 
tietam acted with his usual gallantry, being 
wounded in the latter engagement. On re- 
joining the army in November he was made 
brigadier-general in the regular army. On 

General Burnside attaining the command of 
the Army of the Potomac General Hooker 
was placed in command of the center grand 
division, consisting of the Second and Fifth 
Corps. At the head of these gallant men 
he participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1862. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, General Hooker assumed com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, and in 
May following fought the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville. At the time of the invasion of 
Pennsylvania, owing to a dispute with Gen- 
eral Halleck, Hooker requested to be re- 
lieved of his command, and June 28 was 
succeeded by George G. Meade. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, General Hooker was given 
command of the Twentieth Corps and trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and 
distinguished himself at the battles of Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ring- 
gold. In the Atlanta campaign he saw 
almost daily service and merited his well- 
known nickname of " Fighting Joe." July 
30, 1864, at his own request, he was re- 
lieved of his command. He subsequently 
was in command of several military depart- 
ments in the north, and in October, 1868, 
was retired with the full rank of major-gen- 
eral. He died October 31, 1879. 

JAY GOULD, one of the greatest finan- 
ciers that the world has ever produced, 
was born May 27, 1836, at Roxbury, Dela- 
ware county, New York. He spent his early 
years on his father's farm and at the age of 
fourteen entered Hobart Academy, New 
York, and kept books for the village black- 
smith. He acquired a taste for mathematics 
and surveying and on leaving school found 
employment in making the surveyor's map 
of Ulster county. He surveyed very exten- 
sively in the state and accumulated five thou- 
sand dollars as the fruits of his labor. He 



was then stricken with typhoid fever but re- 
covered and made the acquaintance of one 
Zadock Pratt, who sent him into the west- 
ern part of the state to locate a site for a 
tannery. He chose a fine hemlock grove, 
built a sawmill and blacksmith shop and 
was soon doing a large lumber business with 
Mr. Pratt. Mr. Gould soon secured control 
of the entire plant, which he sold out just 
before the panic of 1857 and in this year he 
became the largest stockholderintheStrouds- 
burg, Pennsylvania, bank. Shortly after the 
crisis he bought the bonds of the Rutland 
& Washington Railroad at ten cents on the 
dollar, and put all his money into railroad 
securities. For a long time he conducted 
this road which he consolidated with the 
Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad. In 1859 
he removed to New York and became a 
heavy investor in Erie Railroad stocks, en- 
tered that company and was president until 
its reorganization in 1872. In December, 
1880, Mr. Gould was in control of ten thou- 
sand miles of railroad. In 18S7 he pur- 
chased the controlling interest in the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co., and 
was a joint owner with the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railroad Co. of the western 
portion of the Southern Pacific line. Other 
lines soon came under his control, aggregat- 
ing thousand of miles, and he soon was rec- 
ognized as one of the world's greatest rail- 
road magnates. He continued to hold his 
place as one of the master financiers of the 
century until the time of his death which 
occurred December 2, 1892. 

prominent United States senator and 
statesman, was born at Hillsborough, North 
Carolina, March 14, 1782. He removed to 
Tennessee in early life, studied law, and be- 
gan to practice at Nashville about 18 10. 

During the war of 1812-1815 he served as 
colonel of a Tennessee regiment under Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson. In 181 5 he removed 
to St. Louis, Missouri, and in 1820 was 
chosen United States senator for that state. 
Having been re-elected in 1826, he sup- 
ported President Jackson in his opposition 
to the United States bank and advocated a 
gold and silver currency, thus gaining the 
name of " Old Bullion," by which he was 
familiarly known. For many years he was 
the most prominent man in Missouri, and 
took rank among the greatest statesmen of 
his day. He was a member of the senate 
for thirty years and opposed the extreme 
states' rights policy of John C. Calhoun. 
In 1852 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in which he opposed the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise. He was op- 
posed by a powerful party of States' Rights 
Democrats in Missouri, who defeated him as a 
candidate for governor of that state in 1856. 
Colonel Benton published a considerable 
work in two volumes in 1854-56, entitled 
" Thirty Years' View, or a History of the 
Working of the American Government for 
Thirty Years, 1S20-50." He died April 10, 

of the most prominent figures in politic- 
al circles during the intensely exciting days 
that preceded the war, and a leader of the 
Union branch of the Democratic party was 
the gentleman whose name heads this 

He was born at Brandon, Rutland coun- 
ty, Vermont, April 23, 1813, of poor but 
respectable parentage. His father, a prac- 
ticing physician, died while our subject was 
but an infant, and his mother, with two 
small children and but small means, could 
give him but the rudiments of an education. 



>\t the age of fifteen young Douglas engaged 
at work in the cabinet making business to 
raise funds to carry him through college. 
After a few years of labor he was enabled to 
pursue an academical course, first at Bran- 
don, and later at Canandaigua, New York. 
tn the latter place he remained until 1833, 
taking up the study of law. Before he was 
twenty, however, his funds running low, he 
abandoned all further attempts at educa- 
tion, determining to enter at once the battle 
of life. After some wanderings through the 
western states he tooK up his residence at 
Jacksonville, Illinois, where, after teaching 
school for three months, he was admitted to 
the bar, and opened an office in 1834. 
Within a year from that time, so rapidly had 
he risen in his profession, he was chosen 
attorney general of the state, and warmly 
espoused the principles of the Democratic 
party. He soon became one of the most 
popular orators in Illinois. It was at this 
time he gained the name of the "Little 
Giant." In 1835 he resigned the position 
of attorney general having been elected to 
the legislature. In 1841 he was chosen 
judge of the supreme court of Illinois which 
he resigned two years later to take a seat in 
congress. It was during this period of his 
iife, while a member of the lower house, 
that he established his reputation and took 
the side of those who contended that con- 
gress had no constitutional right to restrict 
the extension of slavery further than the 
agreement between the states made in 1820. 
This, in spite of his being opposed to slav- 
ery, and only on grounds which he believed 
to be right, favored what was called the 
Missouri compromise. In 1847 Mr. Doug- 
las was chosen United States senator for 
six years, and greatly distinguished himself, 
in 1852 he was re-elected to the same office. 
During this latter term, under his leader- 

ship, the " Kansas-Nebraska bill " was car- 
ried in the senate. In 1858, nothwith- 
standing the fierce contest made by his able 
competitor for the position, Abraham Lin- 
coln, and with the administration of Bu- 
chanan arrayed against him, Mr. Douglas 
was re-elected senator. After the trouble 
in the Charleston convention, when by the 
withdrawal of several state delegates with- 
out "a nomination, the Union Democrats, 
in convention at Baltimore, in i860, nomi- 
nated Mr. Douglas as their candidate for 
presidency. The results of this election are 
well known and the great events of 1861 
coming on, Mr. Douglas was spared their 
full development, dying at Chicago, Illinois, 
June 3, 1 86 1, after a short illness. His 
last words to his children were, ' ' to obey 
the laws and support the constitution of the 
United States." 

JAMES MONROE, fifth president of the 
United States, was born in Westmore- 
land county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. At 
the age of sixteen he entered William and 
Mary College, but two years later the 
Declaration of Independence having been 
adopted, he left college and hastened to New 
York where he joined Washington's army as 
a military cadet. 

At the battle of Trenton Monroe per- 
formed gallant service and received a wound 
in the shoulder, and was promoted to a 
captaincy. He acted as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling at the battles of Brandywine, German- 
town and Monmouth. Washington then 
sent him to Virginia to raise a new regiment 
of which he was to be colonel. The ex- 
hausted condition of Virginia made this im • 
possible, but he received his commission. 
He next entered the law office of Thomas 
Jefferson to study law, as there was no open- 
ing for him as an officer in the army. In 



1782 he was elected to the Virginia assem- 
bly, and the next year he was elected to the 
Continental congress. Realizing the inade- 
quacy of the old articles of confederation, 
he advocated the calling of a convention to 
consider their revision, and introduced in 
congress a resolution empowering congress 
to regulate trade, lay import duties, etc. 
This resolution was referred to a committee, 
of which he was chairman, and the report 
led to the Annapolis convention, which 
called a general convention to meet at Phila- 
delphia in 1787, when the constitution was 
drafted. Mr. Monroe began the practice of 
law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and was 
soon after elected to the legislature, and ap- 
pointed as one of the committee to pass 
upon the adoption of the constitution. He 
opposed it, as giving too much power to the 
central government. He was elected to the 
United States senate in 1789, where he 
allied himself with the Anti-Federalists or 
"Republicans," as they were sometimes 
called. Although his views as to neutrality 
between France and England were directly 
opposed to those of the president, yet Wash- 
ington appointed him minister to France. 
His popularity in France was so great that 
the antagonism of England and her friends 
in this country brought about his recall. He 
then became governor of Virginia. He was 
sent as envoy to France in 1802; minister 
to England in 1803; and envoy to Spain in 
1805. The next year he returned to his 
estate in Virginia, and with an ample in- 
heritance enjoyed a few years of repose. He 
was again called to be governor of Virginia, 
and was then appointed secretary of state 
by President Madison. The war with Eng- 
land soon resulted, and when the capital 
was burned by the British, Mr. Monroe be- 
came secretary of war also, and planned the 
measures for the defense of New Orleans. 

The treasury being exhausted and credit 
gone, he pledged his own estate, and thereby 
made possible the victory of Jackson at New 

In 1 81 7 Mr. Monroe became president 
of the United States, having been a candi- 
date of the "Republican" party, which at 
that time had begun to be called the ' ' Demo- 
cratic" party. In 1820 he was re-elected, 
having two hundred and thirty-one electoral 
votes out of two hundred and thirty-two. 
His administration is known as the "Era of 
good-feeling, " and party lines were almost 
wiped out. The slavery question began to 
assume importance at this time, and the 
Missouri Compromise was passed. The 
famous ' ' Monroe Doctrine " originated in a 
great state paper of President Monroe upon 
the rumored interference of the Holy Alli- 
ance to prevent the formation of free repub- 
lics in South America. President Monroe 
acknowledged their independence, and pro- 
mulgated his great "Doctrine," which has 
been held in reverence since. Mr. Monroe's 
death occurred in New York on July 4, 1831. 

wizard of electrical science and whose 
name is synonymous with the subjugation 
of electricity to the service of man, was 
born in 1847 at Milan, Ohio, and it was at 
Port Huron, Michigan, whither his parents 
had moved in 1854, that his self-education 
began — for he never attended school for 
more than two months. He eagerly de- 
voured every book he could lay his hands on 
and is said to have read through an encyclo- 
pedia without missing a word. At thirteen he 
began his working life as a trainboy upon the 
Grand Trunk Railway between Port Huron 
and Detroit. Much of his time was now 
spent in Detroit, where he found increased 
facilities for reading at the public libraries, 



He was not content to be a newsboy, so he 
got togetner three hundred pounds of type 
and started the issue of the " Grand Trunk 
Herald." It was only a small amateur 
weekly, printed on one side, the impression 
being made from the type by hand. Chemi- 
cal research was his next undertaking and 
a laboratory was added to his movable pub- 
lishing house, which, by the way, was an 
old freight car. One day, however, as he 
was experimenting with some phosphorus, 
it ignited and the irate conductor threw the 
young seeker after the truth, chemicals and 
all, from the train. His office and laboratory 
were then removed to the cellar of his fa- 
ther's house. As he grew to manhood he 
decided to become an operator. He won 
his opportunity by saving the life of a child, 
whose father was an old operator, and out of 
gratitude he gave Mr. Edison lessons in teleg- 
raphy. Five months later he was compe- 
tent to fill a position in the railroad office 
at Port Huron. Hence he peregrinated to 
Stratford, Ontario, and thence successively 
to Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati, Memphis, Louisville and Boston, 
gradually becoming an expert operator and 
gaining experience that enabled him to 
evolve many ingenious ideas for the im- 
provement of telegraphic appliances. At 
Memphis he constructed an automatic re- 
peater, which enabled Louisville and New 
Orleans to communicate direct, and received 
nothing more than the thanks of his em- 
ployers. Mr. Edison came to New York in 
1870 in search of an opening more suitable 
to his capabilities and ambitions. He hap- 
pened to be in the office of the Laws Gold 
Reporting Company when one of the in- 
struments got out of order, and even the 
inventor of the system could not make it 
work. Edison requested to be allowed to 
attempt the task, and in a few minutes he 

had overcome the difficulty and secured an 
advantageous engagement. For several 
years he had a contract with the Western 
Union and the Gold Stock companies, 
whereby he received a large salary, besides 
a special price for all telegraphic improve- 
ments he could suggest. Later, as the 
head of the Edison General Electric com- 
pany, with its numerous subordinate organ- 
izations and connections all over the civil- 
ized world, he became several times a 
millionaire. Mr. Edison invented the pho- 
nograph and kinetograph which bear his 
name, the carbon telephone, the tasimeter, 
and the duplex and quadruplex systems of 

JAMES LONGSTREET, one of the most 
conspicuous of the Confederate generals 
during the Civil war, was born in 1820, in 
South Carolina, but was early taken by his 
parents to Alabama where he grew to man- 
hood and received his early education. He 
graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1842, entering the army as 
lieutenant and spent a few years in the fron- 
tier service. When the Mexican war broke 
out he was called to the front and partici- 
pated in all the principal battles of that war 
up to the storming of Chapultepec, where 
he received severe wounds. For gallant 
conduct at Contreras, Cherubusco, and Mo- 
lino del Rey he received the brevets of cap- 
tain and major. After the close of the 
Mexican war Longstreet served as adjutant 
and captain on frontier service in Texas un- 
til 1858 when he was transferred to the staff 
as paymaster with rank of major. In June, 
1 86 1, he resigned to join the Confederacy 
and immediately went to the front, com- 
manding a brigade at Bull Run the follow- 
ing month. Promoted to be major-general 
in 1862 he thereafter bore a conspicuous 



part and rendered valuable service to the 
Confederate cause. He participated in 
many of the most severe battles of the Civil 
war including Bull Run (first and second), 
Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Fraziers Farm, 
Malvern Hill, Antietam, Frederickburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, 
the Wilderness, Petersburg and most of the 
fighting about Richmond. 

When the war closed General Long- 
street accepted the result, renewed his alle- 
giance to the government, and thereafter 
labored earnestly to obliterate all traces of 
war and promote an era of good feeling be- 
tween all sections of the country. He took 
up his residence in New Orleans, and took 
an active interest and prominent part in 
public affairs, served as surveyor of that 
port for several years; was commissioner of 
engineers for Louisiana, served four years 
as school commissioner, etc. In 1875 he 
was appointed supervisor of internal revenue 
and settled in Georgia. After that time he 
served four years as United States minister 
to Turkey, and also for a number of years 
was United States marshal of Georgia, be- 
sides having held other important official 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, the second chief- 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739. 
He was a son of John Rutledge, who had 
left Ireland for America about five years 
prior to the birth of our subject, and a 
brother of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. John Rut- 
ledge received his legal education at the 
Temple, London, after which he returned 
to Charleston and soon won distinction at 
the bar. He was elected to the old Colonial 
congress in 1765 to protest against the 
" Stamp Act, " and was a member of the 

South Carolina convention of 1774, and of 
the Continental congress of that and the 
succeeding year. In 1776 he was chairman 
of the committee that draughted the con- 
stitution of his state, and was president of 
the congress of that state. He was not 
pleased with the state constitution, how- 
ever, and resigned. In 1779 he was again 
chosen governor of the state, and granted 
extraordinary powers, and he at once took 
the field to repel the British. He joined 
the army of General Gates in 1782, and the 
same year was elected to congress. He 
was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention which framed our present constitu- 
tion. In 1789 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the first supreme court of the 
United States. He resigned to accept the 
position of chief-justice of his own state. 
Upon the resignation of Judge Jay, he was 
appointed chief-justice of the United States 
in 1795. The appointment was never con- 
firmed, for, after presiding at one session, 
his mind became deranged, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Ellsworth. He died at 
Charleston, July 23, 1800. 

of the most noted literary men of his 
time. He was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, May 25, 1803. He had a minister for 
an ancestor, either on the paternal or ma- 
ternal side, in every generation for eight 
generations back. His father, Rev. Will- 
iam Emerson, was a native of Concord, 
Massachusetts, born May 6, 1769, graduated 
at Harvard, in 17S9, became a Unitarian 
minister; was a fine writer and one of the 
best orators of his day; died in 181 1. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson was fitted for 
college at the public schools of Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1821, win- 
ning about this time several prizes for es- 



says. For five years he taught school in 
Boston; in 1826 was licensed to preach, and 
in 1829 was ordained as a colleague to Rev. 
Henry Ware of the Second Unitarian church 
in Boston. In 1832 he resigned, making 
the announcement in a sermon of his un- 
willingness longer to administer the rite of 
Ae Lord's Supper, after which he spent 
about a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he began his career as a lecturer before the 
Boston Mechanics Institute, his subject be- 
ing "Water." His early lectures on " Italy" 
and "Relation of Man to the Globe" also 
attracted considerable attention; as did also 
his biographical lectures on Michael Angelo, 
Milton, Luther, George Fox, and Edmund 
Burke. After that time he gave many 
courses of lectures in Boston and became 
one of the best known lecturers in America. 
But very few men have rendered such con- 
tinued service in this field. He lectured for 
forty successive seasons before the Salem, 
Massachusetts, Lyceum and also made re- 
peated lecturing tours in this country and in 
England. In 1835 Mr. Emerson took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts, 
where he continued to make his home until 
his death which occurred April 27, 1882. 

Mr. Emerson's literary work covered a 
wide scope. He wrote and published many 
works, essays and poems, which rank high 
among the works of American literary men. 
A few of the many which he produced are 
the following: "Nature;" "The Method 
ofNature;" "Man Thinking;" "The Dial;" 
"Essays;" "Poems;" "English Traits;" 
"The Conduct of Life;" "May-Day and 
other Poems " and " Society and Solitude;" 
besides many others. He was a prominent 
member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the American Philosophical 
Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and other kindred associations. 

the famous merchant princes of New 
York, was born near the city of Belfast, Ire- 
land, in 1803, and before he was eight years 
of age was left an orphan without any near 
relatives, save an aged grandfather. The 
grandfather being a pious Methodist wanted 
to make a minister of young Stewart, and 
accordingly put him in a school with that 
end in view and he graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, in Dublin. When scarcely twenty 
years of age he came to New York. His 
first employment was that of a teacher, but 
accident soon made him a merchant. En- 
tering into business relations with an ex- 
perienced man of his acquaintance he soon 
found himself with the rent of a store on 
his hands and alone in a new enterprise. 
Mr. Stewart's business grew rapidly in all 
directions, but its founder had executive 
ability sufficient for any and all emergencies, 
and in time his house became one of the 
greatest mercantile establishments of mod- 
ern times, and the name of Stewart famous. 
Mr. Stewart's death occurred April 10, 

speaking of this noted American nov- 
elist, William Cullen Bryant said: " He 
wrote for mankind at large, hence it is that 
he has earned a fame wider than any Amer- 
ican author of modern times. The crea- 
tions of his genius shall survive through 
centuries to come, and only perish with our 
language." Another eminent writer (Pres- 
cott) said of Cooper: " In his productions 
every American must take an honest pride; 
for surely no one has succeeded like Cooper 
in the portraiture of American character, or 
has given such glowing and eminently truth- 
ful pictures of American scenery." 

James Fenimore Cooper was born Sep- 



tember 15, 1789, at Burlington, New Jer- 
sey, and was a son of Judge William Cooper. 
About a year after the birth of our subject 
the family removed to Otsego county, New 
York, and founded the town called " Coop- 
erstown. " James Fenimore Cooper spent 
his childhood there and in 1802 entered 
Yale College, and four years later became a 
midshipman in the United States navy. In 
181 1 he was married, quit the seafaring life, 
and began devoting more or less time to lit- 
erary pursuits. His first work was "Pre- 
caution," a novel published in 1S19, and 
three years later he produced "The Spy, a 
Tale of Neutral Ground," which met with 
great favor and was a universal success. 
This was followed by many other works, 
among which may be mentioned the follow- 
ing: ' ' The Pioneers, " ' ' The Pilot, " ' ' Last 
of the Mohicans," "The Prairie," "The 
Red Rover," "The Manikins," "Home- 
ward Bound," "Home as Found," "History 
of the United States Navy," "The Path- 
finder," "Wing and Wing," "Afloat and 
Ashore," "The Chain-Bearer," "Oak- 
Openings," etc. J. Fenimore Cooper died 
at Cooperstown, New York, September 14, 

MARSHALL FIELD, one of the mer- 
chant princes of America, ranks among 
the most successful business men of the cen- 
tury. He was born in 1835 at Conway, 
Massachusetts. He spent his early life on 
a farm and secured a fair education in the 
common schools, supplementing this with a 
course at the Conway Academy. His 
natural bent ran in the channels of commer- 
cial life, and at the age of seventeen he was 
given a position in a store at Pittsfie'.d, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Field remained there 
four years and removed to Chicago in 1856. 
He began his career in Chicago as a clerk 

in the wholesale dry goods house of Cooley, 
Wadsworth & Company, which later be- 
came Cooley, Farwell & Company, and still 
later John V. Farwell & Company. He 
remained with them four years and exhibit- 
ed marked ability, in recognition of which 
he was given a partnership. In 1865 Mr. 
Field and L. Z. Leiter, who was also a 
member of the firm, withdrew and formed 
the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter, the 
third partner being Potter Palmer, and they 
continued in business until 1867, when Mr. 
Palmer retired and the firm became Field, 
Leiter & Company. They ran under the 
latter name until 1SS1, when Mr. Leiter re- 
tired and the house has since continued un- 
der the name of Marshall Field & Company. 
The phenomenal success accredited to the 
house is largely due to the marked ability 
of Mr. Field, the house had become one of 
the foremost in the west, with an annual 
sale of $8,000,000 in 1870. The total loss 
of the firm during the Chicago fire was 
$3,500,000 of which $2,500,000 was re- 
covered through the insurance companies. 
It rapidly recovered from the effects of this 
and to-day the annual sales amount to over 
$40,000,000. Mr. Field's real estate hold- 
ings amounted to $10,000,000. He was 
one of the heaviest subscribers to the Bap- 
tist University fund although he is a Presby- 
terian, and gave $1,000,000 for the endow- 
ment of the Field Columbian Museum — 
one of the greatest institutions of the kind 
in the world. 

EDGAR WILSON NYE, who won an im- 
mense popularity under the pen name 
of " Bill Nye," was one of the most eccen- 
tric humorists of his day. He was born Au- 
gust 25, 1850, at Shirley, Piscataqua coun- 
ty, Maine, "at a very early age " as he ex- 
presses it. He took an academic course in 



River Falls, Wisconsin, from whence, after 
his graduation, he removed to Wyoming 
Territory. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1876. He began when 
quite young to contribute humorous sketches 
to the newspapers, became connected with 
various western journals and achieved a 
brilliant success as a humorist. Mr. Nye 
settled later in New York City where he 
devoted his time to writing funny articles for 
the big newspaper syndicates. He wrote for 
publication in book form the following : 
"Bill Nye and the Boomerang," "The 
Forty Liars," "Baled Hay," "Bill Nye's 
Blossom Rock," "Remarks," etc. His 
death occurred February 21, 1896, at Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina. 

the most celebrated American preach- 
ers, was born January 7, 1832, and was the 
youngest of twelve children. He made his 
preliminary studies at the grammar school 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey. At the age 
of eighteen he joined the church and entered 
the University of the City of New York, and 
graduated in May, 1853. The exercises 
were held in Niblo's Garden and his speech 
aroused the audience to a high pitch of en- 
thusiasm. At the close o-f his college duties 
he imagined himself interested in the law 
and for three years studied law. Dr. Tal- 
mage then perceived his mistake and pre- 
pared himself for the ministry at the 
Reformed Dutch Church Theological Semi- 
nary at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Just 
after his ordination the young minister re- 
ceived two calls, one from Piermont, New 
York, and the other from Belleville, New 
Jersey. Dr. Talmage accepted the latter 
and for three years filled that charge, when 
he was called to Syracuse, New York. Here 
it was that his sermons first drew large 

crowds of people to his church, and from 
thence dates his popularity. Afterward he 
became the pastor of the Second Reformed 
Dutch church, of Philadelphia, remaining 
seven years, during which period he first 
entered upon the lecture platform and laid 
the foundation for his future reputation. At 
the end of this time he received three calls, 
one from Chicago, one from San Francisco, 
and one from the Central Presbyterian 
church of Brooklyn, which latter at that 
time consisted of only nineteen members 
with a congregation of about thirty-five. 
This church offered him a salary of seven 
thousand dollars and he accepted the call. 
He soon induced the trustees to sell the old 
church and build a new one. They did so 
and erected the Brooklyn Tabernacle, but 
it burned down shortly after it was finished. 
By prompt sympathy and general liberality 
a new church was built and formally opened 
in February, 1874. It contained seats for 
four thousand, six hundred and fifty, but if 
necessary seven thousand could be accom- 
modated. In October, 1878, his salary was 
raised from seven thousand dollars to twelve 
thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 1889 
the second tabernacle was destroyed by fire. 
A third tabernacle was built and it was for- 
mally dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1891. 

JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, conceded as 
being one of the greatest band leaders 
in the world, won his fame while leader of 
the United States Marine Band at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia. He was not 
originally a band player but was a violinist, 
and at the age of seventeen he was conduc- 
tor of an opera company, a profession which 
he followed for several years, until he was 
offered the leadership of the Marine Band 
at Washington. The proposition was re- 
pugnant to him at first but he accepted the 



offer and then ensued ten years of brilliant 
success with that organization. When he 
first took the Marine Band he began to 
gather the national airs of all the nations 
that have representatives in Washington, 
and compiled a comprehensive volume in- 
cluding nearly all the national songs of the 
different nations. He composed a number 
of marches, waltzes and two-steps, promi- 
nent among which are the "Washington 
Post," "Directorate," "King Cotton," 
"High School Cadets," "Belle of Chica- 
go," "Liberty Bell March," "Manhattan 
Beach," "On Parade March," "Thunderer 
March," "Gladiator March," " El Capitan 
March," etc. He became a very extensive 
composer of this class of music. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, sixth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, July II, 1767, 
the son of John Adams. At the age of 
eleven he was sent to school at Paris, and 
two years later to Leyden, where he entered 
that great university. He returned to the 
United States in 1785, and graduated from 
Harvard in 1788. He then studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1791. His 
practice brought no income the first two 
years, but he won distinction in literary 
fields, and was appointed minister to The 
Hague in 1794. He married in 1797, and 
went as minister to Berlin the same year, 
serving until 1801, when Jefferson became 
president. He was elected to the senate in 
1803 by the Federalists, but was condemned 
by that party for advocating the Embargo 
Act and other Anti-Federalist measures. He 
was appointed as professor of rhetoric at 
Harvard in 1805, and in 1809 was sent as 
minister to Russia. He assisted in negotiat- 
ing the treaty of peace with England in 
1 8 14, and became minister to that power 

the next year. He served during Monroe's 
administration two terms as secretary of 
state, during which time party lines were 
obliterated, and in 1824 four candidates for 
president appeared, all of whom were iden- 
tified to some extent with the new " Demo- 
cratic" party. Mr. Adams received 84 elec- 
toral votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41, and 
Clay 37. As no candidate had a majority 
of all votes, the election went to the house 
of representatives, which elected Mr. Adams. 
As Clay had thrown his influence to Mr. 
Adams, Clay became secretary of state, and 
this caused bitter feeling on the part of the 
Jackson Democrats, who were joined by 
Mr. Crawford and his following, and op- 
posed every measure of the administration. 
In the election of 1828 Jackson was elected 
over Mr. Adams by a great majority. 

Mr. Adams entered the lower house of 
congress in 1830, elected from the district 
in which he was born and continued to rep- 
resent it for seventeen years. He was 
known as " the old man eloquent," and his 
work in congress was independent of party. 
He opposed slavery extension and insisted 
upon presenting to congress, one at a time, 
the hundreds of petitions against the slave 
power. One of these petitions, presented in 
1842, was signed by forty-five citizens of 
Massachusetts, and prayed congress for a 
peaceful dissolution of the Union. His 
enemies seized upon this as an opportunity 
to crush their powerful foe, and in a caucus 
meeting determined upon his expulsion from 
congress. Finding they would not be able 
to command enough votes for this, they de- 
cided upon a course that would bring equal 
disgrace. They formulated a resolution to 
the effect that while he merited expulsion, 
the house would, in great mercy, substitute 
its severest censure. When it was read in the 
house the old man, then in his seventy-fifth 



yen , arose and denial K led tliat the first para- 

graph n[ the Declaration of Independence 
be read as his del. use. It embraced the 
famous sentence, " that whenevei any form 
of governmanl becomes destructive to those 

ends, it IS tile right ol Hie people td alter nr 

abolish it, and to institute new government, 

etc ., BtO " Alter eleven days nf hard fight" 

ing his opponents were defeated. On Fefcru 

.11 \ ' i , iS.pX, he rose to address the speaker 

on the * Oregon question, when he suddenly 
fell from a stroke of paralysis, lie died 

soon after in the rotunda of the e.apitol, 

where he had been conveyed l>v his col- 
|i agues 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY was one of the 
in":. t I. ii a women of Amei ica. She 

was bora at South Adams, Massachusetts, 
February 15, 1X20, the daughter of a 
Quaker. She received a good education 
and became a school teai her, following that 
profession for fifteen years in New York. 
r< ginning with about 1852 she became the 
active leadei ol the woman's rights move 
nient and won a wide reputation for her 
zeal and ability. She also distinguished 
herself for her zeal and eloquence in the 

temperance and anti-slavery causes, and 
became a conspicuous figure during the wai , 
After the close of the war she gave most of 
her labors to the cause of woman's suffrage. 

PHILIP I). ARMOUR, one of the most 
1 onspii nous figures in the mercantile 
history of America, was born May 10, 1832, 
• mi a In in at Stockbridge, Madison county, 

New York, and received his early edu( a In mi 

in the common schools of that county. He 

was apprenticed to a lancer and winked 

fa it lil 11 1 1\ and well, being verj ambitious and 
desiring to start out for himself. At tin- 
age of twenty he secured a release from his 

indentures and set out overland for the 
gold fields of California. After a great 
deal of hard work he accumulated a little 
money and then came east and settled 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He went into 
the grain receiving and warehouse busi- 
ness and was fairly successful, and later on 
he formed a partnership with John I'lankin- 
ton in the pork packing line, the style of the 
linn being Plankinton & Armour. Mr. Ar- 
mour made his first great "deal" in selling 
pork "short" on the New York market in 
the anticipation of the fall of the Confed- 
eracy, and Mr. Armour is said to have made 
through this deal a million dollars. Ilothen 
established packing houses in Chicago and 
Kansas City, and in 1X75 he removed to 
< hicago. I le increased his business by add- 
ing to it the shipment of dressed beef to 
the European markets, and many other lines 
of trade and manufacturing, and it rapidly 
assumed vast proportions, employing an 
army of men in different lines of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Armour successfully conducted a 
great many speculative deals in pork and 
grain of immense proportions and also erected 
many lar^e warehouses for the storage of 
grain. He became one of the representative 
business men of Chicago, where he became 
closely identified with all enterprises of a 
public nature, hut his fame as a great husi- 
ness man extended to all parts of the world. 
He founded the "Armour Institute " at Chi- 
cago and also contributed largely to benevo- 
lent and charitable institutions. 

ROBERT FULTON.— Although Fulton 
is best known as the inventor of the 
first successful steamboat, yet his claims to 

dist Miction di 1 m 'I rest alone upon licit, for 

he was an inventor along other lines, a 

paintei and an author. lie was horn at 
Little Britain, Lancaster county, Pcnnsyl 



vania, in 1765, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
At the age of seventeen he removed to Phila- 
delphia, and there and in New York en- 
gaged in miniature painting with success 
both from a pecuniary and artistic point of 
view. With the results of his labors he pur- 
chased a farm for the support of his mother. 
He went to London and studied under the 
great painter, Benjamin West, and all 
through life retained his fondness for art 
and gave evidence of much ability in that 
line. While in England he was brought in 
contact with the Duke of Bridgewater, the 
father of the English canal system; Lord 
Stanhope, an eminent mechanician, and 
James Watt, the inventor of the steam en- 
gine. Their influence turned his mind to its 
true field of labor, that of mechanical in- 
vention. Machines for flax spinning, 
marble sawing, rope making, and for remov- 
ing earth from excavations, are among his 
earliest ventures. His "Treatise on the 
Improvement of Canal Navigation," issued 
in 1796, and a series of essays on canals 
were soon followed by an English patent 
for canal improvements. In 1797 he went 
to Paris, where he resided until 1806, and 
there invented a submarine torpedo boat for 
maritime defense, but which was rejected 
by the governments of France, England and 
the United States. In 1 803 he offered to con- 
struct for the Emperor Napoleon a steam- 
boat that would assist in carrying out the 
plan of invading Great Britain then medi- 
tated by that great captain. In pursuance 
he constructed his first steamboat on the 
Seine, but it did not prove a full success 
and the idea was abandoned by the French 
government. By the aid of Livingston, 
then United States minister to France, 
Fulton purchased, in 1806, an engine which 
he brought to this country. After studying 
the defects of his own and other attempts in 

this line he built and launched in 1807 the 
Clermont, the first successful steamboat 
This craft only attained a speed of five 
miles an hour while going up North river. 
His first patent not fully covering his in- 
vention, Fulton was engaged in many law 
suits for infringement. He constructed 
many steamboats, ferryboats, etc., among 
these being the United States steamer 
" Fulton the First," built in 18 14, the first 
war steamer ever built. This craft never 
attained any great speed owing to some de- 
fects in construction and accidentally blew 
up in 1829. Fulton died in New York, Feb- 
ruary 21, l8 I 5. 

chief-justice of the United States, and 
one of the most eminent of American jurists, 
was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, Jan- 
uary 13, 1808. At the age of nine he was 
left in poverty by the death of his father, 
but means were found to educate him. He 
was sent to his uncle, a bishop, who con- 
ducted an academy near Columbus, Ohio, 
and here young Chase worked on the farm 
and attended school. At the age of fifteen 
he returned to his native state and entered 
Dartmouth College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1 826. He then went to Washington, 
and engaged in teaching school, and study- 
ing law under the instruction of William 
Wirt. He was licensed to practice in 1829, 
and went to Cincinnati, where he had a 
hard struggle for several years following. 
He had in the meantime prepared notes on 
the statutes of Ohio, which, when published, 
brought him into prominence locally. He 
was soon after appointed solicitor of the 
United States Bank. In 1837 he appeared 
as counsel for a fugitive slave woman, Ma- 
tilda, and sought by all the powers of hih 
learning and eloquence to prevent her owner 



from reclaiming her. He acted in many 
other cases, and devolved the trite expres- 
sion, "Slavery is sectional, freedom is na- 
tional." He was employed to defend Van 
Zandt before the supreme court of the United 
States in 1846, which was one of the most 
noted cases connected with the great strug- 
gle against slavery. By this time Mr. Chase 
had become the recognized leader of that 
element known as " free-soilers." He was 
elected to the United States senate in 1849, 
and was chosen governor of Ohio in 1855 
and re-elected in 1857. He was chosen to 
the United States senate from Ohio in 1861, 
but was made secretary of the treasury by 
Lincoln and accepted. He inaugurated a 
financial system to replenish the exhausted 
treasury and meet the demands of the great- 
est war in history and at the same time to 
revive the industries of the country. One 
of the measures which afterward called for 
his judicial attention was the issuance of 
currency notes which were made a legal 
tender in payment of debts. When this 
question came before him as chief-justice 
of the United States he reversed his former 
action and declared the measure unconstitu- 
tional. The national banking system, by 
which all notes issued were to be based on 
funded government bonds of equal or greater 
amounts, had its direct origin with Mr. Chase. 
Mr. Chase resigned the treasury port- 
folio in 1864, and was appointed the same 
year as chief-justice of the United States 
supreme court. The great questions that 
came up before him at this crisis in the life 
of the nation were no less than those which 
confronted the first chief-justice at the for- 
mation of our government. Reconstruction, 
private, state and national interests, the 
constitutionality of the acts of congress 
passed in times of great excitement, the 
construction and interpretation to be placed 

upon the several amendments to the national 
constitution, — these were among the vital 
questions requiring prompt decision. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1870, which 
impaired his health, thcugh his mental 
powers were not affected. He continued to 
preside at the opening terms for two years 
following and died May 7, 1873. 

STOWE, a celebrated American writ- 
er, was born June 14, 1812, at Litchfield, 
Connecticut. She was a daughter of Lyman 
Beecher and a sister of Henry Ward Beecher, 
two noted divines; was carefully educated, 
and taught school for several years at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. In 1832 Miss Beecher 
married Professor Stowe, then of Lane Semi- 
nary, Cincinnati, Ohio, and afterwards at 
Bowdoin College and Andover Seminary. 
Mrs. Stowe published in 1849 "The May- 
flower, or sketches of the descendants of the 
Pilgrims," and in 1851 commenced in the 
' ' National Era " of Washington, a serial story 
which was published separately in 1852 under 
the title of " Uncle Tom's Cabin." This 
book attained almost unparalleled success 
both at home and abroad, and within ten years 
it had been translated in almost every lan- 
guage of the civilized world. Mrs. Stowe pub- 
lished in 1853 a "Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
in which the data that she used was published 
and its truthfulness was corroborated. In 
1853 she accompanied her husband and 
brother to Europe, and on her return pub- 
lished "Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands" 
in 1854. Mrs. Stowe was for some time 
one of the editors of the ' ' Atlantic Monthly " 
and the " Hearth and Home," for which 
she had written a number of articles. 
Among these, also published separately, are 
" Dred, a tale of the Great Dismal Swamp " 
(later published under the title of "Nina 



Gordon"); "The Minister's Wooing;" "The 
Pearl of Orr's Island;" "Agnes of Sorrento;" 
"Oldtovvn Folks;" "My Wife and I;" "Bible 
Heroines," and "A Dog's Mission." Mrs. 
Stowe's death occurred July I, 1896, at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

ter known as "Stonewall" Jackson, 
was one of the most noted of the Confeder- 
ate generals of the Civil war. He was a 
soldier by nature, an incomparable lieuten- 
ant, sure to execute any operation entrusted 
to him with marvellous precision, judgment 
and courage, and all his individual cam- 
paigns and combats bore the stamp of a 
masterly capacity for war. He was born 
January 21, 1824, at Clarksburg, Harrison 
county, West Virginia. He was early in 
life imbued with the desire to be a soldier 
and it is said walked from the mountains of 
Virginia to Washington, secured the aid of 
his congressman, and was appointed cadet 
at the United States Military Academy at 
West Point from which he was graduated in 

1846. Attached to the army as brevet sec- 
ond lieutenant of the First Artillery, his first 
service was as a subaltern with Magruder's 
battery of light artillery in the Mexican war. 
He participated at the reduction of Vera 
Cruz, and was noticed for gallantry in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Moline 
del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of 
the city of Mexico, receiving the brevets of 
captain for conduct at Contreras and Cher- 
ubusco and of major at Chapultepec. In 
the meantime he had been advanced by 
regular promotion to be first lieutenant in 

1847. In 1852, the war having closed, he 
resigned and became professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy and artillery 
instructor at the Virginia State Military 
Institute at Lexington, Virginia, where he 

remained until Virginia declared for seces- 
sion, he becoming chiefly noted for intense 
religious sentiment coupled with personal 
eccentricities. Upon the breaking out of 
the war he was made colonel and placed in 
command of a force sent to sieze Harper's 
Ferry, which he accomplished May 3, 1861. 
Relieved by General J. E. Johnston, May 
23, he took command of the brigade ol 
Valley Virginians, whom he moulded into 
that brave corps, baptized at the first 
Manassas, and ever after famous as the 
" Stonewall Brigade." After this "Stone- 
wall " Jackson was made a major-general, 
in 1 861, and participated until his death in 
all the famous campaigns about Richmond 
and in Virginia, and was a conspicuous fig- 
ure in the memorable battles of that time. 
May 2, 1863, at Chancellorsville, he was 
wounded severely by his own troops, two 
balls shattering his left arm and another 
passing through the palm of his right hand. 
The left arm was amputated, but pneumonia 
intervened, and, weakened by the great loss 
of blood, he died May 10, 1863. The more 
his operations in the Shenandoah valley in 
1862 are studied the more striking must the 
merits of this great soldier appear. 

J Near to the heart of the people of the 
Anglo-Saxon race will ever lie the verses of 
this, the "Quaker Poet." The author of 
"Barclay of Ury," "Maud Muller" and 
"Barbara Frietchie," always pure, fervid 
and direct, will be remembered when many 
a more ambitious writer has been forgotten. 
John G. Whitticr was born at Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 7, 1807. of 
Quaker parentage. He had but a common- 
school education and passed his boyhood 
days upon a farm. In early life he learned 
the trade of shoemaker. At the age of 



eighteen he began to write verses for the 
Haverhill " Gazette." He spent two years 
after that at the Haverhill academy, after 
which, in 1829, he became editor of the 
"American Manufacturer," at Boston. In 
1830 he succeeded George D. Prentice as 
editor of the "New England Weekly Re- 
view," but the following year returned to 
Haverhill and engaged in farming. In 1832 
and in 1836 he edited the "Gazette." In 
1835 he was elected a member of the legis- 
lature, serving two years. In 1 S36 he became 
secretary of the Anti-slavery Society of Phil- 
adelphia. In 1838 and 1839 he edited the 
" Pennsylvania Freeman," but in the latter 
year the office was sacked and burned by a 
mob. In 1840 Whittier settled at Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts. In 1847 he became 
corresponding editor of the " National Era," 
an anti-slavery paper published at Washing- 
ton, and contributed to its columns many of 
his anti-slavery and other favorite lyrics. 
Mr. Whittier lived for many years in retire- 
ment of Quaker simplicity, publishing several 
volumes of poetry which have raised him to 
a high place among American authors and 
brought to him the love and admiration of 
his countrymen. In the electoral colleges 
of i860 and 1864 Whittier was a member. 
Much of his time after 1S76 was spent at 
Oak Knoll, Danvers, Massachusetts, but 
still retained his residence at Amesbury. 
He never married. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 7, 1892. 

The more prominent prose writings of 
John G. Whittier are as follows: "Legends 
of New England," "Justice and Expediency, 
or Slavery Considered with a View to Its Abo- 
lition," " The Stranger in Lowell," "Super- 
naturalism in New England," " Leaves from 
Margaret Smith's Journal," "Old Portraits 
and Modern Sketches" and " Literary 

DAVID DIXON PORTER, illustrious as 
admiral of the United States navy, and 
famous as one of the most able naval offi- 
cers of America, was born in Pennsylvania, 
June 8, 18 14. His father was also a naval 
officer of distinction, who left the service of 
the United States to become commander of 
the naval forces of Mexico during the war 
between that country and Spain, and 
through this fact David Dixon Porter was 
appointed a midshipman in the Mexican 
navy. Two years later David D. Porter 
joined the United States navy as midship- 
man, rose in rank and eighteen years later 
as a lieutenant he is found actively engaged 
in all the operations of our navy along the 
east coast of Mexico. When the Civil war 
broke out Porter, then a commander, was 
dispatched in the Powhattan to the relief of 
Fort Pickens, Florida. This duty accom- 
plished, he fitted out a mortar flotilla for 
the reduction of the forts guarding the ap- 
proaches to New Orleans, which it was con- 
sidered of vital importance for the govern- 
ment to get possession of. After the fall of 
New Orleans the mortar flotilla was actively 
engaged at Vicksburg, and in the fall of 
1862 Porter was made a rear-admiral and 
placed in command of all the naval forces 
on the western rivers above New Orleans. 
The ability of the man was now con- 
spicuously manifested, not only in the bat- 
tles in which he was engaged, but also in 
the creation of a formidable fleet out of 
river steamboats, which he covered with 
such plating as they would bear. In 1864 
he was transferred to the Atlantic coast to 
command the naval forces destined to oper- 
ate against the defences of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and on Jan. 15, 1865, the 
fall of Fort Fisher was hailed by the country 
as a glorious termination of his arduous war 
service. In 1866 he was made vice-admiral 



and appointed superintendent of the Naval 
Academy. On the death of Farragut, in 
1870, he succeeded that able man as ad- 
miral of the navy. His death occurred at 
Washington, February 13, 1891. 

NATHANIEL GREENE was one of the 
best known of the distinguished gen- 
erals who led the Continental soldiery 
against the hosts of Great Britain during 
the Revolutionary war. He was the son 
of Quaker parents, and was born at War- 
wick, Rhode Island, May 27, 1742. In 
youth he acquired a good education, chiefly 
by his own efforts, as he was a tireless 
reader. In 1770 he was elected a member 
of the Assembly of his native state. The 
news of the battle of Lexington stirred 
his blood, and he offered his services to 
the government of the colonies, receiving 
the rank of brigadier-general and the com- 
mand of the troops from Rhode Island. 
He led them to the camp at Cambridge, 
and for thus violating the tenets of their 
faith, he was cast out of the Society of 
Friends, or Quakers. He soon won the es- 
teem of General Washington. In August, 

1776, Congress promoted Greene to the 
rank of major-general, and in the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton he led a division. 
At the battle of Brandy wine, September 1 1, 

1777, he greatly distinguished himself, pro- 
tecting the retreat of the Continentals by 
his firm stand. At the battle of German- 
town, October 4, the same year, he com- 
manded the left wing of the army with 
credit. In March, 1778, he reluctantly ac- 
cepted the office of quartermaster-general, 
but only with the understanding that his 
rank in the army would not be affected and 
that in action he should retain his command. 
On the bloody field of Monmouth, June 28, 

1778, he commanded the right wing, as he 

did at the battle of Tiverton Heights. He 
was in command of the army in 1780, dur- 
ing the absence of Washington, and was 
president of the court-martial that tried and 
condemned Major Andre. After General 
Gates' defeat at Camden, North Carolina, in 
the summer of 1780, General Greene was ap- 
pointed to the command of the southern army. 
He sent out a force under General Morgan 
who defeated General Tarleton at Cowpens, 
January 17, 178 1 . On joining his lieuten- 
ant, in February, he found himself out num- 
bered by the British and retreated in good 
order to Virginia, but being reinforced re- 
turned to North Carolina where he fought 
the battle of Guilford, and a few days later 
compelled the retreat of Lord Cornwallis. 
The British were followed by Greene part 
of the way, when the American army 
marched into South Carolina. After vary- 
ing success he fought the battle of Eutaw 
Springs, September 8, 1781. For the latter 
battle and its glorious consequences, which 
virtually closed the war in the Carolinas, 
Greene received a medal from Congress and 
many valuable grants of land from the 
colonies of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. On the return of peace, after a 
year spent in Rhode Island, General Greene 
took up his residence on his estate near 
Savannah, Georgia, where he died June 19, 

EDGAR ALLEN POE.— Among the 
many great literary men whom this 
country has produced, there is perhaps no 
name more widely known than that of Ed- 
gar Allen Poe. He was born at Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 19, 1809. His 
parents were David and Elizabeth (Arnold) 
Poe, both actors, the mother said to have 
been the natural daughter of Benedict Ar- 
nold. The parents died while Edgar was 



still a child and he was adopted by John 
Allen, a wealthy and influential resident of 
Richmond, Virginia. Edgar was sent to 
school at Stoke, Newington, England, 
where he remained until he was thirteen 
years old; was prepared for college by pri- 
vate tutors, and in 1 826 entered the Virginia 
University at Charlottesville. He made 
rapid progress in his studies, and was dis- 
tinguished for his scholarship, but was ex- 
pelled within a year for gambling, after 
which for several years he resided with his 
benefactor at Richmond. He then went to 
Baltimore, and in 1829 published a 71 -page 
pamphlet called "Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane 
and Minor Poems," which, however, at- 
tracted no attention and contained nothing 
of particular merit. In 1830 he was ad- 
mitted as a cadet at West Point, but was 
expelled about a year later for irregulari- 
ties. Returning to the home of Mr. Allen 
he remained for some time, and finally 
quarrelled with his benefactor and enlisted 
as a private soldier in the U. S. army, but 
remained only a short time. Soon after 
this, in 1833, Poe won several prizes for 
literary work, and as a result secured the 
position of editor of trhe "Southern Liter- 
ary Messenger," at Richmond, Virginia. 
Here he married his cousin, Virginia 
Clemm, who clung to him with fond devo- 
tion through all the many trials that came 
to them until her death in January, 1848. 
Poe remained with the "Messenger" for 
several years, writing meanwhile many 
tales, reviews, essays and poems. He aft- 
erward earned a precarious living by his 
pen in New York for a time; in 1839 be- 
came editor of "Burton's Gentleman's 
Magazine" ; in 1840 to 1842 was editor of 
" Graham's Magazine," and drifted around 
from one place to another, returning to 
New York in 1844. In 1845 his best 

known production, "The Raven," appeared 
in the "Whig Review," and gained him a 
reputation which is now almost world-wide. 
He then acted as editor and contributor on 
various magazines and periodicals until the 
death of his faithful wife in 1848. In the 
summer of 1849 he was engaged to be mar- 
ried to a lady of fortune in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and the day set for the wedding. 
He started for New York to make prepara- 
tions for the event, but, it is said, began 
drinking, was attacked with dilirium tre- 
mens in Baltimore and was removed to a 
hospital, where he died, October 7, 1849. 
The works of Edgar Allen Poe have beer, 
repeatedly published since his death, both 
in Europe and America, and have attained 
an immense popularity. 

HORATIO GATES, one of the prom- 
inent figures in the American war for 
Independence, was not a native of the col- 
onies but was born in England in 1728. In 
early life he entered the British army and 
attained the rank of major. At the capture 
of Martinico he was aide to General Monk- 
ton and after the peace of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, he was among the first troops that 
landed at Halifax. He was with Braddock 
at his defeat in 1755, and was there severe- 
ly wounded. At the conclusion of the 
French and Indian war Gates purchased an 
estate in Virginia, and, resigning from the 
British army, settled down to life as a 
planter. On the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary war he entered the service of the 
colonies and was made adjutant-general of 
the Continental forces with the rank o\ 
brigadier-general. He accompanied Wash- 
ington when he assumed the command ol 
the army. In June, 1776, he was appoint- 
ed to the command of the army of Canada, 
but was superseded in May of the following 


year by General Schuyler. In August, 
1777, however, the command of that army 
was restored to General Gates and Septem- 
ber 19 he fought the battle of Bemis 
Heights. October 7, the same year, he 
won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, 
and October 17 received the surrender of 
General Burgoyne and his army, the pivotal 
point of the war. This gave him a brilliant 
reputation. June 13, 1780, General Gates 
was appointed to the command of the 
southern military division, and August 16 of 
that year suffered defeat at the hands of 
Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, North Car- 
olina. In December following he was 
superseded in the command by General 
Nathaniel Greene. 

On the signing of the peace treaty Gen- 
eral Gates retired to his plantation in 
Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived 
until 1790, when, emancipating all his 
slaves, he removed to New York City, where 
' he resided until his death, April 10, 1806. 

LYMAN J. GAGE.— When President Mc- 
Kinley selected Lyman J. Gage as sec- 
retary of the treasury he chose one of the 
most eminent financiers of the century. Mr. 
Gage was born June 28, 1836, at De Ruy- 
ter, Madison county, New York, and was of 
English descent. He went to Rome, New 
York, with his parents when he was ten 
years old, and received his early education 
in the Rome Academy. Mr. Gage gradu- 
ated from the same, and his first position 
was that of a clerk in the post office. When 
he was fifteen years of age he was detailed 
as mail agent on the Rome & Watertown 
R. R. until the postmaster-general appointed 
regular agents for the route. In 1854, when 
he was in his eighteenth year, he entered 
the Oneida Central Bank at Rome as a 
junior clerk at a salary of one hundred dol- 

lars per year. Being unable at the end of 
one year and a half's service to obtain an 
increase in salary he determined to seek a 
wider field of labor. Mr. Gage set out in 
the fall of 1855 and arrived in Chicago, 
Illinois, on October 3, and soon obtained a 
situation in Nathan Cobb's lumber yard and 
planing mill. He remained there three years 
as a bookkeeper, teamster, etc., and left on 
account of change in the management. But 
not being able to find anything else to do he 
accepted the position of night watchman in 
the place for a period of six weeks. He 
then became a bookkeeper for the Mer- 
chants Saving, Loan and Trust Company at 
a salary of five hundred dollars per year. 
He rapidly advanced in the service of this 
company and in 1868 he was made cashier. 
Mr. Gage was next offered the position of 
cashier of the First National Bank and ac- 
cepted the offer. He became the president 
of the First National Bank of Chicago Jan- 
uary 24, 1 89 1, and in 1897 he was appointed 
secretary of the treasury. His ability as a 
financier and the prominent part he took in 
the discussion of financial affairs while presi- 
dent of the great Chicago bank gave him a 
national reputation. 

ANDREW JACKSON, the seventh pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
at the Waxhaw settlement, Union county, 
North Carolina, March 15, 1767. His 
parents were Scotch-Irish, natives of Carr- 
ickfergus, who came to this country in 1665 
and settled on Twelve-Mile creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His father, who 
was a poor farm laborer, died shortly be- 
fore Andrew's birth, when the mother re- 
moved to Waxhaw, where some relatives 
lived. Andrew's education was very limited, 
he showing no aptitude for study. In 1780 
when but thirteen years of age, he and his 



brother Robert volunteered to serve in the 
American partisan troops under General 
Sumter, and witnessed the defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. The following year the boys 
were both taken prisoners by the enemy 
and endured brutal treatment from the 
British officers while confined at Camden. 
They both took the small pox, when the 
mother procured their exchange but Robert 
died shortly after. The mother died in 
Charleston of ship fever, the same year. 

Young Jackson, now in destitute cir- 
cumstances, worked for about six months in 
a saddler*s shop, and then turned school 
master, although but little fitted for the 
position. He now began to think of a pro- 
fession and at Salisbury, North Carolina, 
entered upon the study of law, but from all 
accounts gave but little attention to his 
books, being one of the most roistering, 
rollicking fellows in that town, indulging in 
many of the vices of his time. In 1786 he 
was admitted to the bar and in 1788 re- 
moved to Nashville, then in North Carolina, 
with the appointment of public prosecutor, 
then an office of little honor or emolument, 
but requiring much nerve, for which young 
Jackson was already noted. Two years 
later, when Tennessee became a territory 
he was appointed by Washington to the 
position of United States attorney for that 
district. In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel 
Robards, a daughter of Colonel John Don- 
elson, who was supposed at the time to 
have been divorced from her former hus- 
band that year by act of legislature of Vir- 
ginia, but two years later, on finding that 
this divorce was not legal, and a new bill of 
separation being granted by the courts of 
Kentucky, they were remarried in 1793. 
This was used as a handle by his oppo- 
nents in the political campaign afterwards. 
Jackson was untiring in his efforts as United 

States attorney and obtained much influence. 
He was chosen a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1796, when Tennessee 
became a state and was its first represent- 
ative in congress. In 1797 he was chosen 
United States senator, but resigned the fol- 
lowing year to accept a seat on the supreme 
court of Tennessee which he held until 
1804. He was elected major-general of 
the militia of that state in 1801. In 1804, 
being unsuccessful in obtaining the govern- 
orship of Louisiana, the new territory, he 
retired from public life to the Hermitage, 
his plantation. On the outbreak of the 
war with Great Britain in 1812 he tendered 
his services to the government and went to 
New Orleans with the Tennessee troops in 
January, 181 3. In March of that year he 
was ordered to disband his troops, but later 
marched against the Cherokee Indians, de- 
feating them at Talladega, Emuckfaw 
and Tallapoosa. Having now a national 
reputation, he was appointed major-general 
in the United States army and was sent 
against the British in Florida. He con- 
ducted the defence of Mobile and seized 
Pensacola. He then went with his troops 
to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained 
the famous victory of January 8, 1815. In 
18x7-18 he conducted a war against the 
Seminoles, and in 1821 was made governor 
of the new territory of Florida. In 1823 
he was elected United States senator, but 
in 1 824 was the contestant with J. Q. Adams 
for the presidency. Four years later he 
was elected president, and served two terms. 
In 1832 he took vigorous action against the 
nullifiers of South Carolina, and the next 
year removed the public money from the 
United States bank. During his second 
term the national debt was extinguished. At 
the close of his administration he retired to 
the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845. 



ANDREW CARNEGIE, the largest manu- 
facturer of pig-iron, steel rails and 
coke in the world, well deserves a place 
among America's celebrated men. He was 
born November 25, 1835, at Dunfermline, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States 
with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg. 
Two years later Mr. Carnegie began his 
business career by attending a small station- 
ary engine. This work did not suit him and 
he became a telegraph messenger with the 
Atlantic and Ohio Co., and later he became 
an operator, and was one of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound. Mr. Carnegie 
was afterward sent to the Pittsburg office 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., as clerk 
to the superintendent and manager of the 
telegraph lines. While in this position he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Woodruff, the 
inventor of the sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie 
immediately became interested and was one 
of the organizers of the company for its con- 
struction after the railroad had adopted it, 
and the success of this venture gave him the 
nucleus of his wealth. He was promoted 
to the superintendency of the Pittsburg 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
about this time was one of the syndicate 
that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek 
which cost forty thousand dollars and in one 
year it yielded over one million dollars in 
cash dividends. Mr. Carnegie later was as- 
sociated with others in establishing a rolling- 
mill, and from this has grown the most ex- 
tensive and complete system of iron and 
steel industries ever controlled by one indi- 
vidual, embracing the Edgar Thomson 
Steel Works; Pittsburg Bessemer Steel 
Works; Lucy Furnaces; Union Iron Mills; 
Union Mill; Keystone Bridge Works; Hart- 
man. Steel Works; Frick Coke Co.; Scotia 
Ore Mines. Besides directing his immense 
iron industries he owned eighteen English 

newspapers which he ran in the interest o: 
the Radicals. He has also devoted large 
sums of money to benevolent and educational 
purposes. In 1879 he erected commodious 
swimming baths for the people of Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, and in the following year 
gave forty thousand dollars for a free library. 
Mr. Carnegie gave fifty thousand dollars to 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1884 
to found what is now called "Carnegie Lab- 
oratory," and in 1885 gave five hundred 
thousand dollars to Pittsburg for a public 
library. He also gave two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for a music hall and library 
in Allegheny City in 1886, and two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars to Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, for a free library. He also established 
free libraries at Braddock, Pennsylvania, 
and other places for the benefit of his em- 
ployes. He also published the following 
works, "An American Four-in-hand in 
Britain;" "Round the World;" "Trium- 
phant Democracy; or Fifty Years' March of 
the Republic." 

GEORGE H. THOMAS, the " Rock of 
Chickamauga," one of the best known 
commanders during the late Civil war, was 
born in Southampton county, Virginia, July 
31, 1 8 16, his parents being of Welsh and 
French origin respectively. In 1836 young 
Thomas was appointed a cadet at the Mili- 
tary Academy, at West Point, from which 
he graduated in 1840, and was promoted to 
the office of second lieutenant in the Third 
Artillery. Shortly after, with his company, 
he went to Florida, where he served for two 
years against the Seminole Indians. In 
1 84 1 he was brevetted first lieutenant for 
gallant conduct. He remained in garrison 
in the south and southwest until 1845, at 
which date with the regiment he joined the 
army under General Taylor, and participat- 



ed yz +he defense of Fort Brown, the storm- 
ing of Monterey and the battle of Buena 
Vista. After the latter event he remained 
in garrison, now brevetted major, until the 
close of the Mexican war. After a year 
spent in Florida, Captain Thomas was or- 
dered to West Point, where he served as in- 
structor until 1854. He then was trans- 
ferred to California. In May, 1855, Thom- 
as was appointed major of the Second Cav- 
alry, with whom he spent five years in Texas. 
Although a southern man, and surrounded 
by brother officers who all were afterwards 
tn the Confederate service, Major Thomas 
never swerved from his allegiance to the 
government. A. S. Johnston was the col- 
onel of the regiment, R. E. Lee the lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and W. J. Hardee, senior ma- 
jor, while among the younger officers were 
Hood, Fitz Hugh Lee, Van Dorn and Kirby 
Smith. When these officers left the regi- 
ment to take up arms for the Confederate 
cause he remained with it, and April 17th, 
1 86 1, crossed the Potomac into his native 
state, at its head. After taking an active part 
in the opening scenes of the war on the Poto- 
mac and Shenandoah, in August, 1861, he 
was promoted to be brigadier-general and 
transferred to the Army of the Cumberland. 
January 19-20, 1862, Thomas defeated 
Crittenden at Mill Springs, and this brought 
him into notice and laid the foundation of 
his fame. He continued in command of his 
division until September 20, 1862, except 
during the Corinth campaign when he com- 
manded the right wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee. He was in command of the 
latter at the battle of Perryville, also, Octo- 
ber 8, 1862. 

On the division of the Army of the Cum- 
berland into corps, January 9, 1863, Gen- 
eral Thomas was assigned to the command 
of the Fourteenth, and at the battle of Chick- 

amauga, after the retreat of Rosecrans ; 
firmly held his own against the hosts of Gen- 
eral Bragg. A history of his services from 
that on would be a history of the war in the 
southwest. On September 27, 1864, Gen- 
eral Thomas was given command in Ten- 
nessee, and after organizing his army, de- 
feated General Hood in the battle of Nash- 
ville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Much 
complaint was made before this on account 
of what they termed Thomas' slowness, and 
he was about to be superseded because he 
would not strike until he got ready, but 
when the blow was struck General Grant 
was the first to place on record this vindica- 
tion of Thomas' judgment. He received a 
vote of thanks from Congress, and from the 
legislature of Tennessee a gold medal. Af- 
ter the close of the war General Thomas 
had command of several of the military di- 
visions, and died at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, March 28, 1870. 

GEORGE BANCROFT, one of the most 
eminent American historians, was a 
native of Massachusetts, born at Worcester, 
October 3, 1800, and a son of Aaron 
Bancroft, D. D. The father, Aaron Ban- 
croft, was born at Reading, Massachusetts, 
November 10, 1755. He graduated at 
Harvard in 1778, became a minister, and for 
half a century was rated as one of the ablest 
preachers in New England. He was also a 
prolific writer and published a number of 
works among which was " Life of George 
Washington." Aaron Bancroft died August 
19, 1839. 

The subject of our present biography, 
George Bancroft, graduated at Harvard in 
1817, and the following year entered the 
University of Gottingen, where he studied 
history and philology under the most emi- 
nent teachers, and in 1820 received the de- 



gree of doctor of philosophy at Gottingen. 
Upon his return home he published a volume 
of poems, and later a translation of Heeren's 
" Reflections on the Politics of Ancient 
Greece." In 1834 he produced the first 
volume of his " History of the United 
States," this being followed by other vol- 
umes at different intervals later. This was 
bis greatest work and ranks as the highest 
authority, taking its place among the great- 
est of American productions. 

George Bancroft was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Polk in 1845, but 
resigned in 1846 and became minister pleni- 
potentiary to England. In 1849 he retired 
from public life and took up his residence at 
Washington, D. C. In 1867 he was ap- 
pointed United States minister to the court of 
Berlin and negotiated thetreatyby which Ger- 
mans coming to the United States were re- 
leased from their allegiance to the govern- 
ment of their native land. In 1871 he was 
minister plenipotentiary to the German em- 
pire and served until 1874. The death of 
George Bancroft occurred January 17, 1891. 

mous Union general, was born at 
Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 1815, his father 
being United States naval agent at that 
port. After receiving a good education he 
entered the West Point Military Academy 
in 1 83 1. From here he was graduated 
June 30, 1835, and received the rank of 
second lieutenant of artillery. He par- 
ticipated in the Seminole war, but resigned 
from the army in October, 1836. He en- 
tered upon the profession of civil engineer, 
which he followed for several years, part of 
the time in the service of the government in 
making surveys of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river. His report and results of some 
experiments made by him in this service 

gained Meade much credit. He also was 
employed in surveying the boundary line of 
Texas and the northeastern boundary line 
between the United States and Canada. 
In 1842 he was reappointed in the army to 
the position of second lieutenant of engineers. 
During the Mexican war he served with dis- 
tinction on the staff of General Taylor in 
the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma 
and the storming of Monterey. He received 
his brevet of first lieutenant for the latter 
action. In 1 8 5 1 he was made full first 
lieutenant in his corps; a captain in 1856, 
and major soon after. At the close of the 
war with Mexico he was employed in light- 
house construction and in geodetic surveys 
until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 
which he gained great reputation. In 
August, 1 861 , he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers and placed in command of the 
second brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
a division of the First Corps in the Army of 
the Potomac. In the campaign of 1862, 
under McClellan, Meade took an active 
part, being present at the battles of Mechan- 
icsville, Gaines' Mill and Glendale, in the 
latter of which he was severely wounded. 
On rejoining his command he was given a 
division and distinguished himself at its head 
in the battles of South Mountain and Antie- 
tam. During the latter, on the wounding 
of General Hooker, Meade was placed in 
command of the corps and was himself 
slightly wounded. For services he was 
promoted, November, 1862, to the rank 
of major-general of volunteers. On the 
recovery of General Hooker General Meade 
returned to his division and in December, 
1862, at Fredericksburg, led an attack 
which penetrated Lee's right line and swept 
to his rear. Being outnumbered and un- 
supported, he finally was driven back. The 
same month Meade was assigned to the 


command of the Fifth Corps, and at Chan- 
cellorsville in May, 1863, his sagacity and 
ability so struck General Hooker that when 
the latter asked to be relieved of the com- 
mand, in June of the same year, he nomi- 
nated Meade as his successor. June 28, 
1863, President Lincoln commissioned Gen- 
eral Meade commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Potomac, then scattered and moving 
hastily through Pennsylvania to the great 
and decisive battlefield at Gettysburg, at 
which he was in full command. With the 
victory on those July days the name of 
Meade will ever be associated. From that 
time until the close of the war he com- 
manded the Army of the Potomac. In 
1864 General Grant, being placed at the 
head of all the armies, took up his quarters 
with the Army of the Potomac. From that 
time until the surrender of Lee at Appo- 
matox Meade's ability shone conspicuously, 
and his tact in the delicate position in lead- 
ing his army under the eye of his superior 
officer commanded the respect and esteem 
of General Grant. For services Meade was 
promoted to the rank of major-general, and 
on the close of hostilities, in July, 1865, 
was assigned to the command of the military 
division of the Atlantic, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia. This post he held, with 
the exception of a short period on detached 
duty in Georgia, until his death, which took 
place November 6, 1872. 

DAVID CROCKETT was a noted hunter 
and scout, and also one of the earliest 
of American humorists. He was born Au- 
gust 17, 1786, in Tennessee, and was one 
of the most prominent men of his locality, 
serving as representative in congress from 
1827 until 1 83 1. He attracted consider- 
able notice while a member of congress and 
was closely associated with General Jack- 

son, of whom he was a personal friend. He 
went to Texas and enlisted in the Texan 
army at the time of the revolt of Texas 
against Mexico and gained a wide reputa- 
tion as a scout. He was one of the famous 
one hundred and forty men under Colonel 
W. B. Travis who were besieged in Fort 
Alamo, near San Antonio, Texas, by Gen- 
eral Santa Anna with some five thousand 
Mexicans on February 23, 1836. The fort 
was defended for ten days, frequent assaults 
being repelled with great slaughter, over 
one thousand Mexicans being killed or 
wounded, while not a man in the fort was 
injured. Finally, on March 6, three as- 
saults were made, and in the hand-to-hand 
fight that followed the last, the Texans were 
wofully outnumbered and overpowered. 
They fought desperately with clubbed mus- 
kets till only six were left alive, including 
W. B. Travis, David Crockett and James 
Bowie. These surrendered under promise 
of protection; but when they were brought 
before Santa Anna he ordered them all to 
be cut to pieces. 

HENRY WATTERSON, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the history of 
American journalism, was born at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, February 16, 
1840. His boyhood days were mostly spent 
in the city of his birth, where his father, 
Harvey M. Watterson, was editor of the 
"Union," a well known journal. 

Owing to a weakness of the eyes, which 
interfered with a systematic course of study, 
young Watterson was educated almost en- 
tirely at home. A successful college career 
was out of the question, but he acquired a 
good knowledge of music, literature and art 
from private tutors, but the most valuable 
part of the training he received was by as- 
sociating with his father and the throng ot 



public men whom he met in Washington 
in the stirring days immediately preceding 
the Civil war. He began his journalistic 
career at an early age as dramatic and 
musical critic, and in 1858, became editor 
of the "Democratic Review" and at the 
same time contributed to the "States," 
a journal of liberal opinions published in 
Washington. In this he remained until 
the breaking out of the war, when the 
"States," opposing the administration, was 
suppressed, and young Watterson removed 
to Tennessee. He next appears as editor 
of the Nashville "Republican Banner," the 
most influential paper in the state at that 
time. After the occupation of Nashville by 
the Federal troops, Watterson served as a 
volunteer staff officer in the Confederate 
service until the close of the war, with the 
exception of a year spent in editing the 
Chattanooga "Rebel." On the close of 
the war he returned to Nashville and re- 
sumed his connection with the "Banner." 
After a trip to Europe he assumed control 
of the Louisville "Journal," which he soon 
combined with the "Courier" and the 
"Democrat" of that place, founding the 
well-known "Courier-Journal," the first 
number of which appeared November 8, 
1868. Mr. Watterson also represented his 
district in congress for several years. 

one of the most successful and widely 
known bandmasters and musicians of the 
last half century in America, was born in 
Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. 
He attended a public school until appren- 
ticed to a wholesale merchant at Athlone, 
of the brass band of which town he soon 
became a member. His passion for music 
conflicting with the duties of a mercantile 
life, his position as clerk was exchanged for 

that of musical instructor to the young sons 
of his employer. At the age of nineteen he 
sailed for America and two days after his 
arrival in Boston was put in charge of the 
band instrument department of a prominent 
music house. In the interests of the pub- 
lications of this house he organized a minstrel 
company known as " Ord way's Eolians," 
with which he first achieved success as a 
cornet soloist. Later on he was called the 
best E-flat cornetist in the United States. 
He became leader, successively, of the Suf- 
folk, Boston Brigade and Salem bands. 
During his connection with the latter he 
inaugurated the famous Fourth of July con- 
certs on Boston Common, since adopted as 
a regular programme for the celebration of 
Independence Day. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore 
founded the organization famous thereafter 
as Gilmore's Band. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war this band was attached to the 
Twenty-Fourth .Massachusetts Infantry. 
Later, when the economical policy of dis- 
pensing with music had proved a mistake, 
Gilmore was entrusted with the re-organiza- 
tion of state military bands, and upon his 
arrival at New Orleans with his own band 
was made bandmaster-general by General 
Banks. On the inauguration of Governor 
Hahn, later on, in Lafayette square, New 
Orleans, ten thousand children, mostly of 
Confederate parents, rose to the baton of 
Gilmore and, accompanied by six hundred 
instruments, thirty-six guns and the united 
fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the 
Star-Spangled Banner, America and other 
patriotic Union airs. In June, 1867, Mr. 
Gilmore conceived a national musical festi- 
val, which was denounced as a chimerical 
undertaking, but he succeeded and June 15. 
1869, stepped upon the stage of the Boston 
Colosseum, a vast structure erected for the 
occasion, and in the presence of over fifty 



thousand people lifted his baton over an 
orchestra of one thousand and a chorus of 
ten thousand. On the 17th of June, 1872, 
he opened a still greater festival in Boston, 
when, in addition to an orchestra of two 
thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand, 
were present the Band of the Grenadier 
Guards, of London, of the Garde Repub- 
licans, of Paris, of Kaiser Franz, of Berlin, 
and one from Dublin, Ireland, together with 
Johann Strauss, Franz Abt and-many other 
soloists, vocal and instrumental. Gilmore's 
death occurred September 24, 1892. 

MARTIN VAN BUREN was the eighth 
president of the United States, 1837 
to 1 84 1. He was of Dutch extraction, and 
his ancestors were among the earliest set- 
tlers on the banks of the Hudson. He was 
born December 5, 1782, at Kinderhook, 
New York. Mr. Van Buren took up the 
study of law at the age of fourteen and took 
an active part in political matters before he 
had attained his majority. He commenced 
the practice of law in 1803 at his native 
town, and in 1809 he removed to Hudson, 
Columbia county, New York, where he 
spent seven years gaining strength and wis- 
dom from his contentions at the bar with 
some of the ablest men of the profession. 
Mr. Van Buren was elected to the state 
senate, and from 181 5 until 18 19 he was at- 
torney-general of the state. He was re- 
elected to the senate in 18 16, and in 18 18 
he was one of the famous clique of politi- 
cians known as the "Albany regency." 
Mr. Van Buren was a member of the con- 
vention for the revision of the state consti- 
tution, in 1 82 1. In the same year he was 
elected to the United States senate and 
served his term in a manner that caused his 
re-election to that body in 1827, but re- 
signed the following year as he had been 

elected governor of New York. Mr. Van 
Buren was appointed by President Jackson as 
secretary of state in March, 1829, but resigned 
in 1 83 1, and during the recess of congress 
he was appointed minister to England. 
The senate, however, when it convened in 
December refused to ratify the appointment. 
In May, 1832, he was nominated by the 
Democrats as their candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with Andrew Jackson, 
and he was elected in the following Novem- 
ber. He received the nomination to suc- 
ceed President Jackson in 1-836, as the 
Democratic candidate, and in the electoral 
college he received one hundred and seventy 
votes out of two hundred and eighty-three, 
and was inaugurated March 4, 1837. His 
administration was begun at a time of great 
business depression, and unparalled financial 
distress, which caused the suspension of 
specie payments by the banks. Nearly 
every bank in the country was forced to 
suspend specie payment, and no less than 
two hundred and fifty-four business houses 
failed in New York in one week. The 
President urged the adoption of the inde- 
pendent treasury idea, which passed through 
the senate twice but each time it was de- 
feated in the house. However the measure 
ultimately became a law near the close of 
President Van Buren's term of office. An- 
other important measure that was passed 
was the pre-emption law that gave the act- 
ual settlers preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery had 
begun to assume great preponderance dur- 
ing this administration, and a great conflict 
was tided over by the passage of a resolu- 
tion that prohibited petitions or papers that 
in any way related to slavery to be acted 
upon. In the Democratic convention of 
1840 President Van Buren secured the 
nomination for re-election on that ticket 



without opposition, but in the election he 
only received the votes of seven states, his 
opponent, W. H. Harrison, being elected 
president. In 1S48 Mr. Van Buren was 
the candidate of the " Free-Soilers," but 
was unsuccessful. After this he retired 
from public life and spent the remainder of 
his life on his estate at Kinderhook, where 
he died July 24, 1862. 

W INFIELD SCOTT, a distinguished 
American general, was born June 13, 
1786, near Petersburg, Dinwiddie county, 
Virginia, and was educated at the William 
and Mary College. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1808 he accepted 
an appointment as captain of light artillery, 
and was ordered to New Orleans. In June, 

1 812, he was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel, and on application was sent to the 
frontier, and reported to General Smyth, 
near Buffalo. He was made adjutant-gen- 
eral with the rank of a colonel, in March, 

1 8 1 3, and the same month attained the colo- 
nelcy of his regiment. He participated in 
the principal battles of the war and was 
wounded many times, and at the close of 
the war he was voted a gold medal by con- 
gress for his services. He was a writer of 
considerable merit on military topics, and 
he gave to the military science, "General 
Regulations of the Army " and " System of 
Infantry and Rifle Practice." He took a 
prominent part in the Black Hawk war, 
and at the beginning of the Mexican war he 
was appointed to take the command of the 
army. Gen. Scott immediately assembled 
his troops at Lobos Island from which he 
moved by transports to Vera Cruz, which 
he took March 29, 1847, and rapidly "fol- 
lowed up his first success. He fought the 
battles of Cerro Gordo and Jalapa, both of 
which he won, and proceeded to Pueblo 

where he was preceded by Worth's division 
which had taken the town and waited for the 
coming of Scott. The army was forced to 
wait here for supplies, and August 7th, 
General Scott started on his victorious 
march to the city of Mexico with ten thou- 
sand, seven hundred and thirty-eight men. 
The battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and 
San Antonio were fought August 19-20, 
and on the 24th an armistice was agreed 
upon, but as the commissioners could not 
agree on the terms of settlement, the fight- 
ing was renewed at Molino Del Rey, and 
the Heights of Chapultepec were carried 
by the victorious army of General Scott. 
He gave the enemy no respite, however, 
and vigorously followed up his advantages. 
On September 14, he entered the City of 
Mexico and dictated the terms of surrender 
in the very heart of the Mexican Republic. 
General Scott was offered the presidency of 
the Mexican Republic, but declined. Con- 
gress extended him a vote of thanks and 
ordered a gold medal be struck in honor of 
his generalship and bravery. He was can- 
didate for the presidency on the Whig plat 
form but was defeated. He was honored by 
having the title of lieutenant-general con- 
ferred upon him in 1 8 5 5 . At the beginning of 
the Civil war he was too infirm to take charge 
of the army, but did signal service in be- 
half of the government. He retired from 
the service November 1, 1861, and in 1864 
he published his "Autobiography." Gen- 
eral Scott died at West Point, May 29, 1 866 

years occupied a high place among the 
most honored of America's citizens. As 
a preacher he ranks among the foremost 
in the New England states, but to the gen 
eral public he is best known through his 
writings. Born in Boston, Mass., April 3, 



1822, a descendant of one of the most 
prominent New England families, he enjoyed 
in his youth many of the advantages denied 
the majority of boys. He received his pre- 
paratory schooling at the Boston Latin 
School, after which he finished his studies at 
Harvard where he was graduated with high 
honors in 1839. Having studied theology 
at home, Mr. Hale embraced the ministry 
and in 1846 became pastor of a Unitarian 
church in Worcester, Massachusetts, a post 
which he occupied about ten years. He 
then, in 1856, became pastor of the South 
Congregational church in Boston, over which 
he presided many years. 

Mr. Hale also found time to write a 
great many literary works of a high class. 
Among many other well-known productions 
5f his are " The Rosary," " Margaret Per- 
cival in America," "Sketches of Christian 
iistory," "Kansas and Nebraska," "Let- 
ters on Irish Emigration," " Ninety Days' 
Worth of Europe," " If, Yes, and Perhaps," 
"Ingham Papers," "Reformation," "Level 
Best and Other Stories, " ' ' Ups and Downs, " 
"Christmas Eve and Christmas Day," " In 
His Name," "Our New Crusade," "Work- 
ingmen's Homes," " Boys' Heroes," etc., 
etc., besides many others which might be 
mentioned. One of his works, "In His 
Name," has earned itself enduring fame by 
the good deeds it has called forth. The 
numerous associations known as ' 'The King's 
Daughters," which has accomplished much 
good, owe their existence to the story men- 

pre-eminent as one of the greatest na- 
val officers of the world. He was born at 
Campbell's Station, East Tennessee, July 
5, 1 801, and entered the navy of the United 
States as a midshipman. He had the good 

fortune to serve under Captain David Por- 
ter, who commanded the " Essex," and by 
whom he was taught the ideas of devotion 
to duty from which he never swerved dur- 
ing all his career. In 1823 Mr. Farragut 
took part in a severe fight, the result of 
which was the suppression of piracy in the 
West Indies. He then entered upon the 
regular duties of his profession which was 
only broken into by a year's residence with 
Charles Folsom, our consul at Tunis, who 
was afterwards a distinguished professor at 
Harvard. Mr. Farragut was one of the best 
linguists in the navy. He had risen through 
the different grades of the service until the 
war of 1861-65 found him a captain resid- 
ing at Norfolk, Virginia. He removed with 
his family to Hastings, on the Hudson, and 
hastened to offer his services to the Federal 
government, and as the capture of New 
Orleans had been resolved upon, Farragut 
was chosen to command the expedition. 
His force consisted of the West Gulf block- 
ading squadron and Porter's mortar flotilla. 
In January, 1862, he hoisted his pennant at 
the mizzen peak of the "Hartford" at 
Hampton roads, set sail from thence on the 
3rd of February and reached Ship Island on 
the 20th of the same month. A council of 
war was held on the 20th of April, in which 
it was decided that whatever was to be done 
must be done quickly. The signal was made 
from the flagship and accordingly the fleet 
weighed anchor at 1:55 on the morning of 
April 24th, and at 3:30 the whole force was 
under way. The history of this brilliant strug- 
gle is well known, and the glory ofit made Far- 
ragut a hero and also made him rear admir- 
al. In the summer of 1 862 he ran the batteries 
at Vicksburg, and on March 14, 1863, he 
passed through the fearful and destructive 
fire from Port Hudson, and opened up com- 
munication with Flag-officer Porter, who 



had control of the upper Mississippi. On 
May 24th he commenced active operations 
against that fort in conjunction with the army 
and it fell on July 9th. Mr. Farragut filled 
the measure of his fame on the 5th of Au- 
gust, 1864, by his great victory, the capture 
of Mobile Bay and the destruction of the 
Confederate fleet, including the formidable 
ram Tennessee. For this victory the rank 
of admiral was given to Mr. Farragut. He 
died at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 4, 1870. 

GEORGE W. CHILDS, a philanthropist 
whose remarkable personality stood 
for the best and highest type of American 
citizenship, and whose whole life was an 
object lesson in noble living, was born in 
1829 at Baltimore, Maryland, of humble 
parents, and spent his early life in unremit- 
ting toil. He was a self-made man in the 
fullest sense of the word, and gained his 
great wealth by his own efforts. He was a 
man of very great influence, and this, in 
conjunction with his wealth, would have 
been, in the hands of other men, a means of 
getting them political preferment, but Mr. 
Childs steadily declined any suggestions that 
would bring him to figure prominently in 
public affairs. He did not choose to found 
a financial dynasty, but devoted all his 
powers to the helping of others, with the 
most enlightened beneficence and broadest 
sympathy. Mr. Childs once remarked that 
his greatest pleasure in life was in doing 
good to others. He always despised mean- 
ness, and one of his objects of life was to 
prove that a man could be liberal and suc- 
cessful at the same time. Upon these lines 
Mr. Childs made a name for himself as the 
director of one of the representative news- 
papers of America, "The Philadelphia Pub- 
lic Ledger," which was owned jointly by 

himself and the Drexel estate, and which he 
edited for thirty years. He acquired con- 
trol of the paper at a time when it was be- 
ing published at a heavy loss, set it upon a 
firm basis of prosperity, and he made it 
more than a money-making machine — he 
made it respected as an exponent of the 
best side of journalism, and it stands as a 
monument to his sound judgment and up- 
right business principles. Mr. Childs' char- 
itable repute brought him many applications 
for assistance, and he never refused to help 
any one that was deserving of aid; and not 
only did he help those who asked, but he 
would by careful inquiry find those who 
needed aid but were too proud to solicit it. 
He was a considerable employer of labor 
and his liberality was almost unparalleled. 
The death of this great and good man oc- 
curred February 3d, 1894. 

PATRICK" HENRY won his way to un- 
dying fame in the annals of the early 
history of the United States by introducing 
into the house of burgesses his famous reso- 
lution against the Stamp Act, which he car- 
ried through, after a stormy debate, by a 
majority of one. At this time he exclaimed 
" Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Crom r 
well and George III " (here he was inter- 
rupted by cries of " treason ") " may profit 
by their example. If this be treason make 
the most of it." 

Patrick Henry was born at Studley, 
Hanover county, Virginia, May 29, 1736, 
and was a son of Colonel John Henry, a 
magistrate and school teacher of Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and a nephew of Robertson, the 
historian. He received his education from 
his father, and was married at the age of 
eighteen. He was twice bankrupted before 
he had reached his twenty-fourth year, when 
after six weeks of study he was admitted to 



the bar. He worked for three years with- 
out a case and finally was applauded for his 
plea for the people's rights and gained im- 
mense popularity. After his famous Stamp 
Act resolution he was the leader of the pa- 
triots in Virginia. In 1769 he was admitted 
to practice in the general courts and speed- 
ily won a fortune by his distinguished ability 
as a speaker. He was the first speaker of 
the General Congress at Philadelphia in 
1774. He was for a time a colonel of 
militiain 1775, and from 1776 to 1779 and 
1 78 1 to 1786 he was governor of Virginia. 
For a number of years he retired from pub- 
lic life and was tendered and declined a 
number of important political offices, and in 
March, 1789, he was elected state senator 
but did not take his seat on account of his 
death which occurred at Red Hill, Charlotte 
county, Virginia, June 6, 1799. 

general and traitor of the Revolution- 
ary war, is one of the noted characters in 
American history. He was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, January 3, 1740. He 
ran away and enlisted in the army when 
young, but deserted in a short time. He 
then became a merchant at New Haven, 
Connecticut, but failed. In 1775 he was 
commissioned colonel in the Massachusetts 
militia, and in the autumn of that year was 
placed in command of one thousand men 
for the invasion of Canada. He marched 
his army through the forests of Maine and 
joined General Montgomery before Quebec. 
Their combined forces attacked that city on 
December 31, 1775, and Montgomery was 
killed, and Arnold, severely wounded, was 
compelled to retreat and endure a rigorous 
winter a few miles from the city, where they 
were at the mercy of the Canadian troops 
had they cared to attack them. On his re- 

turn he was raised to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was given command of a small 
flotilla on Lake Champlain, with which he 
encountered an immense force, and though 
defeated, performed many deeds of valor. 
He resented the action of congress in pro- 
moting a number of his fellow officers and 
neglecting himself. In 1777 he was made 
major-general, and under General Gates at 
Bemis Heights fought valiantly. For some 
reason General Gates found fault with his 
conduct and ordered him under arrest, and 
he was kept in his tent until the battle of 
Stillwater was waxing hot, when Arnold 
mounted his horse and rode to the front of 
his old troop, gave command to charge, and 
rode like a mad man into the thickest of 
the fight and was not overtaken by Gates' 
courier until he had routed the enemy and 
fell wounded. Upon his recovery he was 
made general, and was placed in command 
at Philadelphia. Here he married, and his 
acts of rapacity soon resulted in a court- 
martial. He was sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief, and 
though Washington performed this duty 
with utmost delicacy and consideration, it 
was never forgiven. Arnold obtained com- 
mand at West Point, the most important 
post held by the Americans, in 1780, and 
immediately offered to surrender it to Sir 
Henry Clinton, British commander at New 
York. Major Andre was sent to arrange 
details with Arnold, but on his return trip 
to New York he was captured by Americans, 
the plot was detected, and Andre suffered 
the death penalty as a spy. Arnold es- 
caped, and was paid about $40,000 by the 
British for his treason and was made briga- 
dier-general. He afterward commanded an 
expedition that plundered a portion of Vir- 
ginia, and another th-at burned New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and captured Fort Trum- 



bull, the commandant of which Arnold mur- 
dered with the sword he had just surren- 
dered. He passed the latter part of his life 
in England, universally despised, and died 
in London June 14, 1801. 

ROBERT G. INGERSOLL, one of the 
most brilliant orators that America has 
produced, also a lawyer of considerable 
merit, won most of his fame as a lecturer. 
Mr. Ingersoll was born August 24, 1833, 
at Dryden, Gates county, New York, and 
received his education in the common schools. 
He went west at the age of twelve, and for 
a short time he attended an academy in 
Tennessee, and also taught school in that 
state. He began the practice of law in the 
southern part of Illinois in 1854. Colonel 
Ingersoll's principal fame was made in 
the lecture room by his lectures in which he 
ridiculed religious faith and creeds and criti- 
cised the Bible and the Christian religion. 
He was the orator of the day in the Decora- 
tion Day celebration in the city of New York 
in 1882 and his oration was widely com- 
mended. He first attracted political notice 
in the convention at Cincinnati in 1876 by 
his brilliant eulogy on James G. Blaine. He 
practiced law in Peoria, Illinois, for a num- 
ber of years, but later located in the city of 
New York. He published the follow- 
ing: "The Gods and other Lectures;" "The 
Ghosts;" "Some Mistakes of Moses;" 
"What Shall I Do To Be Saved;" " Inter- 
views on Talmage and Presbyterian Cate- 
chism;" The "North American Review 
Controversy;" "Prose Poems;" " A Vision 
of War;" etc. 

<j a noted general in the Confederate army, 
was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, 
in 1807. He graduated from West Point 

and entered the army in 1829. For a num- 
ber of years his chief service was garrison 
duty. He saw active service, however, in 
the Seminole war in Florida, part of the 
time as a staff officer of General Scott. He 
resigned his commission in 1837, but re- 
turned to the army a year later, and was 
brevetted captain for gallant services in 
Florida. He was made first lieutenant of 
topographical engineers, and was engaged 
in river and harbor improvements and also 
in the survey of the Texas boundary and 
the northern boundary of the United 
States until the beginning of the war 
with Mexico. He was at the siege of Vera 
Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo was 
wounded while reconnoitering the enemy's 
position, after which he was brevetted major 
and colonel. He was in all the battles about 
the city of Mexico, and was again wounded 
in the final assault upon that city. After 
the Mexican war closed he returned to duty 
as captain of topographical engineers, but 
in 1855 he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry and did frontier duty, and was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the expedition 
to Utah. In i860 he was appointed quar- 
termaster-general with rank of brigadier- 
general. At the outbreak of hostilities in 
1 86 1 he resigned his commission and re- 
ceived the appointment of major-general of 
the Confederate army. He held Harper's 
Ferry, and later fought General Patterson 
about Winchester. At the battle of Bull 
Run he declined command in favor of Beau- 
regard, and acted under that general's direc- 
tions. He commanded the Confederates in 
the famous Peninsular campaign, and was 
severely wounded at Fair Oaks and was 
succeeded in command by General Lee. 
Upon his recovery he was made lieutenant- 
general and assigned to the command of the 
southwestern department. He attempted 



to raise the siege of Vicksburg, and was 
finally defeated at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Having been made a general he succeeded 
General Bragg in command of the army of 
Tennessee and was ordered to check General 
Sherman's advance upon Atlanta. Not 
daring to risk a battle with the overwhelm- 
ing forces of Sherman, he slowly retreated 
toward Atlanta, and was relieved of com- 
mand by Fresident Davis and succeeded by 
General Hood. Hood utterly destroyed his 
own army by three furious attacks upon 
Sherman. Johnston was restored to com- 
mand in the Carolinas, and again faced 
Sherman, but was defeated in several en- 
gagements and continued a slow retreat 
toward Richmond. Hearing of Lee's sur- 
render, he communicated with General 
Sherman, and finally surrendered his army 
at Durham, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. 
General Johnston was elected a member 
of the forty-sixth congress and was ap- 
pointed United States railroad commis- 
sioner in 1885. His death occurred March 

21, I 89 1. 

known throughout the civilized world 
as "Mark Twain," is recognized as one of 
the greatest humorists America has pro- 
duced. He was born in Monroe county, 
Missouri, November 30, 1835. Hespenthis 
boyhood days in his native state and many 
of his earlier experiences are related in vari- 
ous forms in his later writings. One of his 
early acquaintances, Capt. Isaiah Sellers, 
at an early day furnished river news for the 
New Orleans " Picayune," using the nom- 
dc- plume of "Mark Twain." Sellers died 
in 1863 and Clemens took up his nom-de- 
plume and made it famous throughout the 
world by his literary work. In 1862 Mr. 
Clemens became a journalist at Virginia, 

Nevada, and afterward followed the same pro- 
fession at San Francisco and Buffalo, New 
York. He accumulated a fortune from the 
sale of his many publications, but in later 
years engaged in business enterprises, partic- 
ularly the manufacture of a typesetting ma- 
chine, which dissipated his fortune and re- 
duced him almost to poverty , but with resolute 
heart he at once again took up his pen and 
engaged in literary work in the effort to 
regain his lost ground. Among the best 
known of his works may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: ' ' The Jumping Frog, " ' ' Tom Saw- 
yer," " Roughingit," " Innocents Abroad," 
"Huckleberry Finn," "Gilded Age," 
"Prince and Pauper," "Million Pound 
Bank Note," "A Yankee in King Arthur's 
Court," etc. 

known as "Kit Carson;" was an Amer- 
ican trapper and scout who gained a wide 
reputation for his frontier work. He was a 
native of Kentucky, born December 24th, 
1809. He grew to manhood there, devel- 
oping a natural inclination for adventure in 
the pioneer experiences in his native state. 
When yet a young man he became quite 
well known on the frontier. He served as 
a guide to Gen. Fremont in his Rocky 
Mountain explorations and enlisted in the 
army. He was an officer in the United 
States service in both the Mexican war and 
the great Civil war, and in the latter received 
a brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious 
service. His death occurred May 23, 

JOHN SHERMAN.— Statesman, politi- 
cian, cabinet officer and senator, the name 
of the gentleman who heads this sketch is al- 
most a household word throughout this 
country. Identified with some of the most 



important measures adopted by our Govern- 
ment since the close of the Civil war, he may 
well be called one of the leading men of his 

John Sherman was born at Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, May ioth, 1823, 
the son of Charles R. Sherman, an emi- 
nent lawyer and judge of the supreme court 
of Ohio and who died in 1829. The subject 
of this article received an academic educa- 
tion and was admitted to the bar in 1844. 
In the Whig conventions of 1844 and 1848 
he sat as a delegate. He was a member of 
the National house of representatives, 
from 1855 to 1 86 1. In i860 he was re- 
elected to the same position but was chosen 
United States senator before he took his 
seat in the lower house. He was re-elected 
senator in 1866 and 1872 and was long 
chairman of the committee on finance and 
on agriculture. He took a prominent part 
in debates on finance and on the conduct of 
the war, and was one of the authors of the 
reconstruction measures in 1866 and 1867, 
and was appointed secretary of the treas- 
ury March 7th, 1877. 

Mr. Sherman was re-elected United States 
senator from Ohio January 1 8th, 1881, and 
again in 1886 and 1892, during which time 
he was regarded as one of the most promi- 
nent leaders of the Republican party, both 
in the senate and in the country. He was 
several times the favorite of his state for the 
nomination for president. 

On the formation of his cabinet in March, 
1897, President McKinley tendered the posi- 
tion of secretary of state to Mr. Sherman, 
which was accepted. 

president of the United States, was 
born in Charles county, Virginia, February 
9, 1773, the son of Governor Benjamin 

Harrison. He took a course in Hampden- 
Sidney College with a view to the practice 
of medicine, and then went to Philadelphia 
to study under Dr. Rush, but in 1791 he 
entered the army, and obtained the commis- 
sion of ensign, was soon promoted to the 
lieutenancy, and was with General Wayne 
in his war against the Indians. For his 
valuable service he was promoted to the 
rank of captain and given command of Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati. He was ap- 
pointed secretary of the Northwest Territory 
in 1797, and in 1799 became its representa- 
tive in congress. In 1801 he was appointed 
governor of Indiana Territory, and held the 
position for twelve years, during which time 
he negotiated important treaties with the In- 
dians, causing them to relinquish millions of 
acres of land, and also won the battle of 
Tippecanoe in 181 1. He succeeded in 
obtaining a change in the law which did not 
permit purchase of public lands in less tracts 
than four thousand acres, reducing the limit 
to three hundred and twenty acres. He 
became major-general of Kentucky militia 
and brigadier-general in the United States 
army in 18 12, and won great renown in 
the defense of Fort Meigs, and his victory 
over the British and Indians under Proctor 
and Tecumseh at the Thames river, October 
5. 1813. 

In 1 8 16 General Harrison was elected to 
congress from Ohio, and during the canvass 
was accused of corrupt methods in regard tc 
the commissariat of the army. He demanded 
an investigation after the election and was 
exonerated. In 18 19 he was elected to 
the Ohio state senate, and in 1824 he gave 
his vote as a presidential elector to Henry 
Clay. He became a member of the United 
States senate the same year. During the 
last year of Adams' administration he was 
sent as minister to Colombia, but was re- 


called by President Jackson the following 
year. He then retired to his estate at North 
Bend, Ohio, a few miles below Cincinnati. In 
1836 he was a candidate for the presidency, 
but as there were three other candidates 
the votes were divided, he receiving seventy- 
three electoral votes, a majority going to 
Mr. Van Buren, the Democratic candidate. 
Four years later General Harrison was again 
nominated by the Whigs, and elected by a 
tremendous majority. The campaign was 
noted for its novel features, many of which 
have found a permanent place in subsequent 
campaigns. Those peculiar to that cam- 
paign, however, were the " log-cabin" and 
" hard cider" watchwords, which produced 
great enthusiasm among his followers. One 
month after his inauguration he died from 
an attack of pleurisy, April 4, 1841. 

CHARLES A. DANA, the well-known 
and widely-read journalist of New York 
City, a native of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, 
was born August 8, 18 19. He received 
the elements of a good education in his 
youth and studied for two years at Harvard 
University. Owing to some disease of the 
eyes he was unable to complete his course 
and graduate, but was granted the degree of 
A. M. notwithstanding. For some time he 
was editor of the " Harbinger," and was a 
regular contributor to the Boston " Chrono- 
type." In 1847 he became connected with 
the New York ' ' Tribune, " and continued on 
the staff of that journal until 1858. In the 
latter year he edited and compiled "The 
Household Book of Poetry," and later, in 
connection with George Ripley, edited the 
"New American Cyclopaedia." 

Mr. Dana, on severing his connection 
with the ' ' Tribune " in 1 867, became editor 
of the New York "Sun," a paper with 
which he was identified for many years, and 

which he made one of the leaders of thought 
in the eastern part of the United States. 
He wielded a forceful pen and fearlessly 
attacked whatever was corrupt and unworthy 
in politics, state or national. The same 
year, 1867, Mr. Dana organized the New 
York " Sun " Company. 

During the troublous days of the war, 
when the fate of the Nation depended upon 
the armies in the field, Mr. Dana accepted 
the arduous and responsible position of 
assistant secretary of war, and held the 
position during the greater part of 1863 
and 1864. He died October 17, 1897. 

ASA GRAY was recognized throughout the 
scientific world as one of the ablest 
and most eminent of botanists. He was 
born at Paris, Oneida county, New York, 
November 18, 1810. He received his medi- 
cal degree at the Fairfield College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, in Herkimer county, 
New York, and studied botany with the late 
Professor Torrey, of New York. He was 
appointed botanist to the Wilkes expedition 
in 1834, but declined the offer and became 
professor of natural history in Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1842. He retired from the active 
duties of this post in 1873, and in 1874 he 
was the regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at Washington, District of Columbia. 
Dr. Gray wrote several books on the sub- 
ject of the many sciences of which he was 
master. In 1836 he published his "Ele- 
ments of Botany," " Manual of Botany" in 
1848; the unfinished "Flora of North 
America," by himself and Dr. Torrey, the 
publication of which commenced in 1838. 
There is another of his unfinished works 
called "Genera Boreali-Americana, " pub- 
lished in 1848, and the "Botany of the 
United States Pacific Exploring Expedition 
in 1854." He wrote many elaborate papers 


on the botany of the west and southwest 
that were published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions, Memoirs, etc., of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which in- 
stitution he was president for ten years. 
He was also the author of many of the 
government reports. " How Plants Grow," 
" Lessons in Botany," " Structural and Sys- 
tematic Botany," are also works from his 
ready pen. 

Dr. Gray published in 1861 his "Free 
Examination of Darwin's Treatise " and his 
" Darwiniana," in 1876. Mr. Gray was 
elected July 29, 1878, to a membership in 
the Institute of France, Academy of Sciences. 
His death occurred at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, January 30, 1889. 

one of the greatest leaders of the 
American bar. He was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 6, 18 18, and grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1837. He took 
up the study of law, which he practiced in 
the city of New York and won great renown 
as an orator and advocate. He affiliated 
with the Republican party, which he joined 
soon after its organization. He was the 
leading counsel employed for the defense of 
President Johnson in his trial for impeach- 
ment before the senate in April and May of 

In July, 1868, Mr. Evarts was appointed 
attorney-general of the United States, and 
served until March 4, 1869. He was one 
of the three lawyers who were selected by 
President Grant in 1 871 to defend the inter- 
ests of the citizens of the United States be- 
fore the tribunal of arbitration which met 
at Geneva in Switzerland to settle the con- 
troversy over the " Alabama Claims." 

He was one of the most eloquent advo- 
cates in the United States, and many of his 

public addresses have been preserved and 
published. He was appointed secretary of 
state March 7, 1877, by President Hayes, 
and served during the Hayes administration. 
He was elected senator from the state of 
New York January 21, 1885, and at once 
took rank among the ablest statesmen in 
Congress, and the prominent part he took 
in the discussion of public questions gave 
him a national reputation. 

JOHN WANAMAKER.— The life of this 
<J great merchant demonstrates the fact 
that the great secret of rising from the ranks 
is, to-day, as in the past ages, not so much the 
ability to make money, as to save it, or in 
other words, the ability to live well within 
one's income. Mr. Wanamaker was born in 
Philadelphia in 1838. He started out in 
life working in a brickyard for a mere pit- 
tance, and left that position to work in a 
book store as a clerk, where he earned 
the sum of $5.00 per month, and later on 
was in the employ of a clothier where he 
received twenty-five cents a week more. 
He was only fifteen years of age at that 
time, but was a " money-getter " by instinct, 
and laid by a small sum for a possible rainy 
day. By strict attention to business, com- 
bined with natural ability, he was promoted 
many times, and at the age of twenty he 
had saved $2,000. After several months 
vacation in the south, he returned to Phila- 
delphia and became a master brick mason, 
but this was too tiresome to the young man, 
and he opened up the " Oak Hall " clothing 
store in April, 1861, at Philadelphia. The 
capital of the firm was rather limited, but 
finally, after many discouragements, they 
laid the foundations of one of the largest 
business houses in the world. The estab- 
lishment covers at the present writing some 
fourteen acres of floor space, and furnishes 



employment for five thousand persons. Mr. 
Wanamaker was also a great church worker, 
and built a church that cost him $60,000, 
and he was superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which had a membership of over 
three thousand children. He steadily re- 
fused to run for mayor or congress and the 
only public office that he ever held was that 
of postmaster-general, under the Harrison 
administration, and here he exhibited his 
extraordinary aptitude for comprehending 
the details of public business. 

cratic politician who gained a na- 
tional reputation, was born August 29, 
1843, at Havana, New York. He was 
educated at the academy of his native town, 
and removed to Elmira, New York, in 1862, 
where he studied law. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1864, in which year he was ap- 
pointed city attorney. Mr. Hill soon gained 
a considerable practice, becoming prominent 
in his profession. He developed a taste for 
politics in which he began to take an active 
part in the different campaigns and became 
the recognized leader of the local Democ- 
racy. In 1870 he was elected a member of 
the assembly and was re-elected in 1872. 
While a member of this assembly he formed 
the acquaintance of Samuel J. Tilden, after- 
ward governor of the state, who appointed 
Mr. Hill, W. M. Evarts and Judge Hand 
as a committee to provide a uniform charter 
for the different cities of the state. The 
pressure of professional engagements com- 
pelled him to decline to serve. In 1877 
Mr. Hill was made chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state convention at Albany, his elec- 
tion being due to the Tilden wing of the 
party, ana he held the same position again 
in 1 88 1. He served one term as alderman 
in Eimira, at the expiration of which term, 

in 1882, he was elected mayor of Elmira, 
and in September of the same year was 
nominated for lieutenant-governor on the 
Democratic state ticket. He was success- 
ful in the campaign and two years later, 
when Grover Cleveland was elected to the 
presidency, Mr. Hill succeeded to the gov- 
ernorship for the unexpired term. In 1885 
he was elected governor for a full term of 
three years, at the end of which he was re- 
elected, his term expiring in 1891, in which 
year he was elected United States senator. 
In the senate he became a conspicuous 
figure and gained a national reputation. 

ALLEN G. THURMAN. — " The noblest 
Roman of them all " was the title by 
which Mr. Thurman was called by his com- 
patriots of the Democracy. He was the 
greatest leader of the Democratic party in 
his day and held the esteem of all the 
people, regardless of their political creeds. 
Mr. Thurman was born November 13, 18 13, 
at Lynchburg, Virginia, where he remained 
until he had attained the age of six years, 
when he moved to Ohio. He received an 
academic education and after graduating, 
took up the study of law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1835, and achieved a brilliant 
success in that line. In political life he was 
very successful, and his first office was that 
of representative of the state of Ohio in the 
twenty-ninth congress. He was elected 
judge of the supreme court of Ohio in 1851, 
and was chief justice of the same from 1854 
to 1856. In 1867 he was the choice of the 
Democratic party of his state for governor, 
and was elected to the United States senate 
in 1869 to succeed Benjamin F. Wade, 
and was re-elected to the same position in 
1874. He was a prominent figure in the 
senate, until the expiration of his service i.i 
1 88 1. Mr. Thurman was also one of the 



principal presidental possibilities in the 
Democratic convention held at St. Louis in 
1876. In 18S8 he was the Democratic 
nominee for vice-president on the ticket 
with Grover Cleveland, but was defeated. 
Allen Granberry Thurman died December 
12, 1895, at Columbus, Ohio. 

known as " Artemus Ward," was born 
April 26, 1834, in the village of Waterford, 
Maine. He was thirteen years old at the 
time of his father's death, and about a year 
later he was apprenticed to John M. Rix, 
who published the "Coos County Dem- 
ocrat " at Lancaster, New Hampshire. Mr. 
Browne remained with him one year, when, 
hearing that his brother Cyrus was starting 
a paper at Norway, Maine, he left Mr. Rix 
and determined to get work on the new 
paper. He worked for his brother until the 
failure of the newspaper, and then went to 
Augusta, Maine, where he remained a few 
weeks and then removed to Skowhegan, 
and secured a position on the "Clarion." 
But either the climate or the work was not 
satisfactory to him, for one night he silently 
left the town and astonished his good mother 
by appearing unexpectedly at home. Mr. 
Browne then received some letters of recom- 
mendation to Messrs. Snow and Wilder, of 
Boston, at whose office Mrs. Partington's 
(B. P. Shillaber) ' ' Carpet Bag " was printed, 
and he was engaged and remained there for 
three years. He then traveled westward in 
search of employment and got as far as Tif- 
fin, Ohio, where he found employment in the 
office of the "Advertiser," and remained 
there some months when he proceeded to 
Toledo, Ohio, where he became one of the 
staff of the "Commercial," which position 
he held until 1857. Mr. Browne next went 
lit Cleveland, Ohio, and became the local 

editor of the "Plain Dealer," and it was in 
the columns of this paper that he published 
his first articles and signed them " Artemus 
Ward." In i860 he went to" New York and 
became the editor of " Vanity Fair," but 
the idea of lecturing here seized him, and he 
was fully determined to make the trial. 
Mr. Browne brought out his lecture, "Babes 
in the Woods" at Clinton Hall, December 
23, 1 86 1, and in 1862 he published his first 
book entitled, " Artemus Ward; His Book. " 
He attained great fame as a lecturer and his 
lectures were not confined to America, for 
he went to England in 1866, and became 
exceedingly popular, both as a lecturer and 
a contributor to "Punch." Mr. Browne 
lectured for the last time January 23, 1867. 
He died in Southampton, England, March 
6,' 1867. ______ 

THURLOW WEED, a noted journalist 
and politician, was born in Cairo, New 
York, November 15, 1797. He learned the 
printer's trade at the age of twelve years, 
and worked at this calling for several years 
in various villages in centra! New York. He 
served as quartermaster-sergeant during the 
war of 18 1 2. In 18 18 he established the 
"Agriculturist," at Norwich, New York, 
and became editor of the "Anti-Masonic 
Enquirer," at Rochester, in 1826. In the 
same year he was elected to the legislature 
and re-elected in 1830, when he located in 
Albany, New York, and there started the 
" Evening Journal," and conducted it in op- 
position to the Jackson administration and 
the nullification doctrines of Calhoun. He 
became an adroit party manager, and was 
instrumental in promoting the nomination; 
of Harrison, Taylor and Scott for the pres- 
idency. In 1856 and in i860 he threw his 
support to W. H. Seward, but when defeat- 
ed in his object, he gave cordial support to 



Fremont and Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln pre- 
vailed upon him to visit the various capitals 
of Europe, where he proved a valuable aid 
tc the administration in moulding the opin- 
ions of the statesmen of that continent 
favorable to the cause of the Union. 

Mr. Weed's connection with the ' ' Even- 
ing Journal " was severed in 1862, when he 
settled in New York, and for a time edited 
the "Commercial Advertiser." In 1868 he 
retired from active life. His " Letters from 
Europe and the West Indies," published in 
1 866, together with some interesting "Rem- 
iniscences, " published in the "Atlantic 
Monthly," in 1870, an autobiography, and 
portions of an extensive correspondence will 
be of great value to writers of the political 
history of the United States. Mr. Weed 
died in New York, November 22, 1882. 

one of the prominent Democratic 
politicians of the country and ex-secretary of 
the navy, was born July 5th, 1841, at Con- 
way, Massachusetts, and received his edu- 
cation at Williston Seminary, East Hamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, Later he attended 
Yale College, where he graduated in 1863, 
and entered the Harvard Law School, which 
he left in 1864. Beginning practice in New 
York city, he soon gained a reputation as 
an able lawyer. He made his first appear- 
ance in public affairs in 1871, when he was 
active in organizing a young men's Demo- 
cratic club. In 1872 he was the recognized 
leader of the county Democracy and in 1875 
was appointed corporation counsel for the 
city of New York. He resigned the office, 
1882, to attend to personal interests and on 
March 5, 1885, he was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Cleveland. Under 
his administration the navy of the United 
States rapidly rose in rank among the navies 

of the world. When he retired from office 
in 1889, the vessels of the United States 
navy designed and contracted for by him 
were five double-turreted monitors, twc 
new armor-clads, the dynamite cruiser "Ve- 
suvius," and five unarmored steel and iron 

Mr. Whitney was the leader of the 
Cleveland forces in the national Democratic 
convention of 1892. 

EDWIN FORREST, the first and great- 
est American tragedian, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1806. His father was a 
tradesman, and some accounts state that he 
had marked out a mercantile career for his 
son, Edwin, while others claim that he had 
intended him for the ministry. His wonder- 
ful memory, his powers of mimicry and his 
strong musical voice, however, attracted at- 
tention before he was eleven years old, and 
at that age he made his first appearance on 
the stage. The costume in which he appeared 
was so ridiculous that he left the stage in a 
fit of anger amid a roar of laughter from 
the audience. This did not discourage him, 
however, and at the age of fourteen, after 
some preliminary training in elocution, he 
appeared again, this time as Young Norvel, 
and gave indications of future greatness. 
Up to 1826 he played entirely with strolling 
companies through the south and west, but 
at that time he obtained an engagement at 
the Bowery Theater in New York. From 
that time his fortune was made. His man- 
ager paid him $40 per night, and it is stated 
that he loaned Forrest to other houses from 
time to time at $200 per night. His great 
successes were Virginius, Damon, Othello, 
Coriolanus, William Tell, Spartacus and 
Lear. He made his first appearance in 
London in 1836, and his success was un- 
questioned from the start. In 1845, on his 



second appearance in London, he became 
involved in a bitter rivalry with the great 
English actor, Macready, who had visited 
America two years before. The result was 
that Forrest was hissed from the stage, and 
it was charged that Macready had instigated 
the plot. Forrest's resentment was so bitter 
that he himself openly hissed Macready 
from his box a few nights later. In 1848 
Macready again visited America at a time 
when American admiration and enthusiasm 
for Forrest had reached its height. Macready 
undertook to play at Astor Place Opera 
House in May, 1849, but was hooted off the 
stage. A few nights later Macready made a 
second attempt to play at the same house, 
this time under police protection. The house 
was filled with Macready 's friends, but the vio- 
olence of the mob outside stopped the play, 
and the actor barely escaped with his life. 
Upon reading the riot act the police and 
troops were assaulted with stones. The 
troops replied, first with blank cartridges, 
and then a volley of lead dispersed the 
mob, leaving thirty men dead or seriously 

After this incident Forrest's popularity 
waned, until in 1855 he retired from the 
stage. He re-appeared in i860, however, 
and probably the most remunerative period 
of his life was between that date and the 
close of the Civil war. His last appearance 
on the stage was at the Globe Theatre, 
Boston, in Richelieu, in April, 1872, his 
death occurring December 12 of that year. 

NOAH PORTER, D. D., LL. D., was 
one of the most noted educators, au- 
thors and scientific writers of the United 
States. He was born December 14, 181 1, 
at Farmington, Connecticut, graduated at 
Yale College in 183 1, and was master of 
Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven in 

l8 3!-33- During 1833-35 he was a tutor 
at Yale, and at the same time was pursuing 
his theological studies, and became pastor 
of the Congregational church at New Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, in April, 1836. Dr. 
Porter removed to Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1843, and was chosen professor of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale 
in 1846. He spent a year in Germany in 
the study of modern metaphysics in 1 853— 
54, and in 1871 he was elected president of 
Yale College. He resigned the presidency 
in 1885, but still remained professor of met- 
aphysics and moral philosophy. He was 
the author of a number of works, among 
which are the following: " Historical Es- 
say," written in commemorationof the 200th 
aniversary of the settlement of the town of 
Farmington; " Educational System of the 
Jesuits Compared;" "The Human Intel- 
lect," with an introduction upon psychology 
and the soul; " Books and Reading;" 
"American Colleges and the American Pub- 
lic;" " Elementsof Intellectual Philosophy;" 
" The Science of Nature versus the Science 
of Man;" "Science and Sentiment;" "Ele- 
ments of Moral Science." Dr. Porter was 
the principal editor of the revised edition of 
Webster's Dictionary in 1864, and con- 
tributed largely to religious reviews and 
periodicals. Dr. Porter's death occurred 
March 4, 1892, at New Haven, Connecticut. 

JOHN TYLER, tenth president of the 
United States, was born in Charles City 
county, Virginia, March 29, 1790, and was 
the son of Judge John Tyler, one of the 
most distinguished men of his day. 

When but twelve years of age young 
John Tyler entered William and Mary Col- 
lege, graduating from there in 1806. He 
took up the study of law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1809, when but nineteen years 



of age. On attaining his majority in 1811 
he was elected a member of the state legis- 
lature, and fcfr five years held that position 
by the almost unanimous vote of his county. 
He was elected to congress in 18 16, and 
served in that body for four years, after 
which for two years he represented his dis- 
trict again in the legislature of the state. 
While in congress, he opposed the United 
States bank, the protective policy and in- 
ternal improvements by the United States 
government. 1825 saw Mr. Tyler governor 
of Virginia, but in 1827 he was chosen 
member of the United States senate, and 
held that office for nine years. He therein 
opposed the administration of Adams and 
the tariff bill of 1828, sympathized with the 
milliners of South Carolina and was the 
only senator who voted against the Force 
bill for the suppression of that state's insip- 
ient rebellion. He resigned his position as 
senator on account of a disagreement with 
the legislature of his state in relation to his 
censuring President Jackson. He retired to 
Williamsburg, Virginia, but being regarded 
as a martyr by the Whigs, whom, hereto- 
fore, he had always opposed, was supported 
by many of that party for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1836. He sat in the Virginia leg- 
islature as a Whig in 1839-40, and was a 
delegate to the convention of that party in 
1859. This national convention nominated 
him for the second place on the ticket with 
General William H. H. Harrison, and he 
was elected vice-president in November, 
1840. President Harrison dying one month 
after his inauguration, he was succeeded by 
John Tyler. He retained the cabinet chosen 
by his predecessor, and for a time moved in 
harmony with the Whig party. He finally 
instructed the secretary of the treasury, 
Thomas Ewing, to submit to congress a bill 
for the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the 

United States, which was passed by con- 
gress, but vetoed by the president on ac- 
count of some amendments he considered 
unconstitutional. For this and other meas- 
ures he was accused of treachery to his 
party, and deserted by his whole cabinet, 
except Daniel Webs' er. Things grew worse 
until he was abandoned by the Whig party 
formally, when Mr. Webster resigned. He 
was nominated at Baltimore, in May, 1844, 
at the Democratic convention, as their pres- 
idential candidate, but withdrew from the 
canvass, as he saw he had not succeed- 
ed in gaining the confidence of his old 
party. He then retired from politics until 
February, 1861, when he was made presi- 
dent of the abortive peace congress, which 
met in Washington. He shortly after re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States 
and was elected a member of the Confeder- 
ate congress. He died at Richmond, Janu- 
ary 17, 1862. 

Mr. Tyler married, in 181 3, Miss Letitia 
Christian, who died in 1842 at Washington. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage, with Miss Julia Gardner, of New York. 

one of the great men of his time and 
who has left his impress upon the history of 
our national development, was born October 
22, 1 82 1, at Harwinton, Connecticut. 
He received a common-school education 
and at the age of fourteen his spirit of get- 
ting along in the world mastered his educa- 
tional propensities and his father's objec- 
tions and he left school. He went to Cali- 
fornia in the early days and had opportunities 
which he handled masterfully. Others had 
the same opportunities but they did not have 
his brains nor his energy, and it was he who 
overcame obstacles and reaped the reward 
of his genius. Transcontinental railways 



were inevitable, but the realization of this 
masterful achievement would have been de- 
layed to a much later day if there had been 
no Huntington. He associated himself with 
Messrs. Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, 
and Charles Crocker, and they furnished the 
money necessary for a survey across the 
Sierra Nevadas, secured a charter for the 
road, and raised, with the government's aid, 
money enough to construct and equip that 
railway, which at the time of its completion 
was a marvel of engineering and one of the 
wonders of the world. Mr. Huntington be- 
came president of the Southern Pacific rail- 
road, vice-president of the Central Pacific; 
trustee of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, and a director of the Occidental 
and Oriental Steamship Company, besides" 
being identified with many other business 
enterprises of vast importance. 

GEORGE A. CUSTER, a famous In- 
dian fighter, was born in Ohio in 1840. 
He graduated at West Point in 1861, an- 
served in the Civil war; was at Bull Run id 
1861, and was in the Peninsular campaign, 
being one of General McClellan's aides-de, 
camp. He fought in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam in 1863, and was 
with General Stoneman on his famous 
cavalry raid. He was engaged in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and was there made brevet- 
major. In 1863 was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers. General Custer was 
in many skirmishes in central Virginia in 
1863-64, and was present at the following 
battles of the Richmond campaign: Wil- 
derness, Todd's Tavern, Yellow Tavern, where 
he wasbrevetted lieutenant-colonel ; Meadow 
Bridge, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevil- 
lian Station. In the Shenandoah Valley 
j 864-65 he was brevetted colonel at Opequan 
Creek, and at Cedar Creek he was made 

brevet major-general for gallant conduct 
during the engagement. General Custer 
was in command of a cavalry division in the 
pursuit of Lee's army in 1865, and fought 
at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, 
where he was made brevet brigadier-general ; 
Sailors Creek and Appomattox, where he 
gained additional honors and was made 
brevet major-general, and was given the 
command of the cavalry in the military 
division of the southwest and Gulf, in 1865. 
After the establishment of peace he went 
west on frontier duty and performed gallant 
and valuable service in the troubles with the 
Indians. He was killed in the massacre on 
the Little Big Horn river, South Dakota, 
June 25, 1876. 

brated as ' ' The Tall Sycamore of the 
Wabash," was born September 26, 1827, 
in Butler county, Ohio. When he was two 
months old his parents removed to Fount- 
ain county, Indiana. He grew to manhood 
on a farm, engaged in all the arduous work 
pertaining to rural life. In 1845 he entered 
the Indiana Asbury University, now the De 
Pauw, from which he graduated in 1849. 
He took up the study of law at Crawfords- 
ville, and in 1851 began the practice of his 
profession at Covington, Fountain county, 
Indiana. He became a law partner of 
United States Senator Hannegan, of Indi- 
ana, in 1852, and in 1856 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for congress. In the fol- 
lowing year he took up his residence in Terre 
Haute, Indiana. He was United States 
district attorney for Indiana from 1857 until 
1 86 1, and he had during this period been 
elected to congress, in i860. Mr. Voorhees 
was re-elected to congress in 1862 and 1864, 
but he was unsuccessful in the election of 
1866. However, he was returned to con- 


gress in 1868, where he remained until 1874, 
having been re-elected twice. In 1877 he 
was appointed United States senator from 
Indiana to fill a vacancy caused by the death 
of 0. P. Norton, and at the end of the term 
was elected for the ensuing term, being re- 
elected in 1885 and in 1891 to the same of- 
fice. He served with distinction on many 
of the committees, and took a very prom- 
inent part in the discussion of all the im- 
portant legislation of his time. His death 
occurred in August, 189 . 

mous as one of the inventors of the tele- 
phone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
March 3rd, 1847. He received his early 
education in the high school and later he 
attended the university, and was specially 
trained to follow his grandfather's profes- 
sion, that of removing impediments of 
speech. He emigrated to the United States 
in 1872, and introduced into this country 
his father's invention of visible speech in the 
institutions for deaf-mutes. Later he was 
appointed professor of vocal physiology in 
the Boston University. He worked for 
many years during his leisure hours on his 
telephonic discovery, and finally perfected 
it and exhibited it publicly, before it had 
reached the high state of perfection to which 
he brought it. His first exhibition of it was 
at the Centennial Exhibition that was held 
in Philadelphia in 1876. Its success is now 
established throughout the civilized world. 
In 1882 Prof. Bell received a diploma and 
the decoration of the Legion of Honor from 
the Academy of Sciences of France. 

the justly celebrated historian and 
author, was a native of Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and was born May 4, 1796. He was 

the son of Judge William Prescott and the 
grandson of the hero of Bunker Hill, Colonel 
William Prescott. 

Our subject in 1808 removed with the 
family to Boston, in the schools of which 
city he received his early education. He 
entered Harvard College as a sophomore in 
181 1, having been prepared at the private 
classical college of Rev. Dr. J. S. J. Gardi- 
jner. The following year he received an in- 
ury in his left eye which made study 
through life a matter of difficulty. He 
graduated in 18 14 with high honors in the 
classics and belle lettres. He spent several 
months on the Azores Islands, and later 
visited England, France and Italy, return- 
ing home in 18 17. In June, 1818, he 
founded a social and literary club at Boston 
for which he edited "The Club Room," a 
periodical doomed to but a short life. May 
4, 1820, he married Miss Susan Amory. 
He devoted several years after that event to 
a thorough study of ancient and modern 
history and literature. As the fruits of his 
labors he published Several well written 
essays upon French and Italian poetry and 
romance in the " North American Review." 
January 19, 1826, he decided to take up his 
first great historical work, the " History of 
the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella." To 
this he gave the labor of ten years, publish- 
ing the same December 25, 1837. Although 
placed at the head of all American authors, 
so diffident was Prescott of his literary merit 
that although he had four copies of this 
work printed for his own convenience, he 
hesitated a long time before giving it to the 
public, and it was only by the solicitation of 
friends, especially of that talented Spanish 
scholar, George Ticknor, that he was in- 
duced to do so. Soon the volumes were 
translated into French, Italian, Dutch and 
German, and the work was recognized 



throughout the world as one of the most 
meritorious of historical compositions. In 
1843 he published the "Conquest of Mexi- 
co," and in 1847 the "Conquest of Peru." 
Two years later there came from his pen a 
volume of " Biographical and Critical Mis- 
cellanies." Going abroad in the summer of 
1850, he was received with great distinction 
in the literary circles of London, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Antwerp and Brussels. Oxford Uni- 
versity conferred the degree of D. C. L. 
upon him. In 1855 he issued two volumes 
of his "History of the Reign of Philip the 
Second," and a third in 1858. In the 
meantime he edited Robertson's "Charles 
the Fifth," adding a history of the life of 
that monarch after his abdication. Death 
cut short his work on the remaining volumes 
of " Philip the Second," coming to him at 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 28, 1859. 

American commodore, was born in 
South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 
1785. He saw his first service as a mid- 
shipman in the United States navy in April, 
1799. He cruised with his father, Captain 
Christopher Raymond Perry, in the West In- 
dies for about two years. In 1804 he was 
in the war against Tripoli, and was made 
lieutenant in 1 807. At the opening of hostili- 
ties with Great Britain in 1812 he was given 
command of a fleet of gunboats on the At- 
lantic coast. At his request he was trans- 
ferred, a year later, to Lake Ontario, where 
he served under Commodore Chauncey, and 
took an active part in the attack on Fort 
George. He was ordered to fit out a squad- 
ron on Lake Erie, which he did, building 
most of his vessels from the forests along 
the shore, and by the summer of 181 3 he had 
a fleet of nine vessels at Presque Isle, now 
Erie, Pennsylvania September 10th he 

attacked and captured the British fleet near 
Put-in-Bay, thus clearing the lake of hostile 
ships. His famous dispatch is part of his 
fame, " We have met the enemy, and they 
are ours." He co-operated with Gen. Har- 
rison, and the success of the campaign in 
the northwest was largely due to his victory. 
The next year he was transferred to the Po- 
tomac, and assisted in the defense of Balti- 
more. After the war he was in constant 
service with the various squadrons in cruising 
in all parts of the world. He died of yellow 
fever on the Island of Trinidad, August 23, 
1 8 19. His remains were conveyed to New- 
port, and buried there, and an imposing 
obelisk was erected to his memory by the 
State of Rhode Island. A bronze statue 
was also erected in his honor, the unveiling 
taking place in 1885. 

JOHN PAUL JONES, though a native 
of Scotland, was one of America's most 
noted fighters during the Revolutionary war. 
He was born July 6, 1747. His father was 
a gardener, but the young man soon be- 
came interested in a seafaring life and at 
the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a 
sea captain engaged in the American trade. 
His first voyage landed him in Virginia, 
where he had a brother who had settled 
there several years prior. The failure of 
the captain released young Jones from his 
apprenticeship bonds, and he was engaged 
as third mate of a vessel engaged in the 
slave trade. He abandoned this trade after 
a few years, from his own sense of disgrace. 
He took passage from Jamaica for Scotland 
in 1768, and on the voyage both the captain 
and the mate died and he was compelled to 
take command of the vessel for the re- 
mainder of the voyage. He soon after 
became master of the vessel. He returned 
to Virginia about 1773 to settle up the estate 


of his brother, and at this time added the 
name "Jones," having previously been 
known as John Paul. He settled down in 
Virginia, but when the war broke out in 
1775 ne offered his services to congress and 
was appointed senior lieutenant of the flag- 
ship "Alfred," on which he hoisted the 
American flag with his own hands, the first 
vessel that had ever carried a flag of the 
new nation. He was afterward appointed 
to the command of the "Alfred," and later 
of the "Providence," in each of which ves- 
sels he did good service, as also in the 
" Ranger," to the command of which he 
was later appointed. The fight that made 
him famous, however, was that in which he 
captured the " Serapis," off the coast of 
Scotland. He was then in command of the 
"Bon Homme Richard," which had been 
fitted out for him by the French government 
and named by Jones in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, or " Good Man Richard," Frank- 
lin being author of the publication known 
as " Poor Richard's Almanac." The fight 
between the " Richard" and the "Serapis" 
lasted three hours, all of which time the 
vessels were at close range, and most of the 
time in actual contact. Jones' vessel was 
on fire several times, and early in the en- 
gagement two of his guns bursted, rendering 
the battery useless. Also an envious officer 
of the Alliance, one of Jones' own fleet, 
opened fire upon the " Richard " at a crit- 
ical time, completely disabling the vessel. 
Jones continued the fight, in spite of coun- 
sels to surrender, and after dark the " Ser- 
apis "struck her colors, and was hastily 
boarded by Jones and his crew, while the 
"Richard" sank, bows first, after the 
wounded had been taken on board the 
"Serapis." Most of the other vessels of 
the fleet of which the " Serapis" was con- 
voy, surrendered, and were taken with the 

"Serapis" to France, where Jones was 
received with greatest honors, and the king 
presented him with an elegant sword and 
the cross of the Order of Military Merit. 
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and 
made him commander of a new ship, the 
"America," but the vessel was afterward 
given to France and Jones never saw active 
sea service again. He came to America again, 
in 1787, after the close of the war, and was 
voted a gold medal by congress. He went to 
Russia and was appointed rear-admiral and 
rendered service of value against the Turks, 
but on account of personal enmity of the fav- 
orites of the emperor he was retired on a pen- 
sion. Failing to collect this, he returned to 
France, where he died, July 18, 1792. 

THOMAS MORAN, the well-known 
painter of Rocky Mountain scenery, 
was born in Lancashire, England, in 1837. 
He came to America when a child, and 
showing artistic tastes, he was apprenticed 
to a wood engraver in Philadelphia. Three 
years later he began landscape painting, and 
his style soon began to exhibit signs of genius. 
His first works were water-colors, and 
though without an instructor he began the 
use of oils, he soon found it necessary to 
visit Europe, where he gave particular at- 
tention to the works of Turner. He joined 
the Yellowstone Park exploring expedition 
and visited the Rocky Mountains in 1871 
and again in 1873, making numerous 
sketches of the scenery. The most note- 
worthy results were his "Grand Canon of 
the Yellowstone," and " The Chasm of the 
Colorado," which were purchased by con- 
gress at $10,000 each, the first of which is 
undoubtedly the finest landscape painting 
produced in this country. Mr. Moran has 
subordinated art to nature, and the subjects 
he has chosen leave little ground for fault 



finding on that account. "The Mountain 
of the Holy Cross," "The Groves Were 
God's First Temples," " The Cliffs of Green 
River, "" The Children of the Mountain," 
" The Ripening of the Leaf," and others 
have given him additional fame, and while 
they do not equal in grandeur the first 
mentioned, in many respects from an artis- 
tic standpoint they are superior. 

L ELAND STANFORD was one of the 
greatest men of the Pacific coast and 
also had a national reputation. He was 
born March 9, 1824, in Albany county, New 
York, and passed his early life on his 
father's farm. He attended the local 
schools of the county and at the age of 
twenty began the study of law. He 
entered the law office of Wheaton, Doolittle 
and Hadley, at Albany, in 1845, and a few 
years later he moved to Port Washington, 
Wisconsin, where he practiced law four 
years with moderate success. In 1852 Mr. 
Stanford determined to push further west, 
and, accordingly went to California, where 
three of his brothers were established in 
business in the mining towns. They took 
Leland into partnership, giving him charge 
of a branch store at Michigan Bluff, in 
Placer county. There he developed great 
business ability and four years later started 
a mercantile house of his own in San Fran- 
cisco, which soon became one of the most 
substantial houses on the coast. On the 
formation of the Republican party he inter- 
ested himself in politics, and in i860 was 
sent as a delegate to the convention that 
nominated Abraham Lincoln. In the 
autumn of 1861 he was elected, by an im- 
mense majority, governor of California. 
Prior to his election as governor he had 
been chosen president of the newly-orga- 
nized Central Pacific Railroad Company, 

and after leaving the executive chair he de- 
voted all of his time to the construction of 
the Pacific end of the transcontinental rail- 
way. May 10, 1869, Mr. Stanford drove 
the last spike of the Central Pacific road, 
thus completing the route across the conti- 
nent. He was also president of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental Steamship Company. 
He had but one son, who died of typhoid 
fever, and as a monument to his child he 
founded the university which bears his son s 
name, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 
Mr. Stanford gave to this university eighty- 
three thousand acres of land, the estimated 
value of which is $8,000,000, and the entire 
endowment is $20,000,000. In 18S5 Mr. 
Stanford was elected United States senator 
as a Republican, to succeed J. T. Farley, a 
Democrat, and was re-elected in 1891. His 
death occurred June 20, 1894, at Palo Alto, 

STEPHEN DECATUR, a famous com- 
modore in the United States navy, was 
born in Maryland in 1779. He entered the 
naval service in 1798. In 1804, when the 
American vessel Philadelphia had been run 
aground and captured in the harbor of Trip- 
oli, Decatur, at the head of a few men, 
boarded her and burned her in the face of 
the guns from the city defenses. For this 
daring deed he was made captain. He was 
given command of the frigate United States 
at the breaking out of the war of 18 12, and 
in October of that year he captured the 
British frigate Macedonian, and was re- 
warded with a gold medal by congress. Af- 
ter the close of the war he was sent as com- 
mander of a fleet of ten vessels to chastise 
the dey of Algiers, who was preying upon 
American commerce with impunity and de- 
manding tribute and ransom for the release 
of American citizens captured. Decatur 



captured a number of Algerian vessels, and 
compelled the dey to sue for peace. He 
was noted for his daring and intrepidity, 
and his coolness in the face of danger, and 
helped to bring the United States navy into 
favor with the people and congress as a 
means of defense and offense in time of 
war. He was killed in a duel by Commo- 
dore Barron, March 12, 1820. 

JAMES KNOX POLK, the eleventh 
president of the United States, 1845 to 
1849, was born November 2, 1795, in Meck- 
lenburg county, North Carolina, and was 
the eldest child of a family of six sons. He 
removed with his father to the Valley of the 
Duck River, in Tennessee, in 1806. He 
attended the common schools and became 
very proficient in the lower branches of 
education, and supplemented this with 
a course in the Murfreesboro Academy, 
which he entered in 18 13 and in the autumn 
of 18 1 5 he became a student in the sopho- 
more class of the University of North Caro- 
lina, at Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 
1 8 1 8. He then spent a short time in re- 
cuperating his health and then proceeded to 
Nashville, Tennessee, where he took up the 
study of law in the office of Felix Grundy. 
After the completion of his law studies he 
was admitted to the bar and removed to 
Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, and 
started in the active practice of his profes- 
sion. Mr. Polk was a Jeffersonian "Re- 
publican " and in 1823 he was elected to the 
legislature of Tennessee. He was a strict 
constructionist and did not believe that the 
general government had the power to carry 
on internal improvements in the states, but 
deemed it important that it should have that 
power, and wanted the constitution amended 
to that effect. But later on he became 
alarmed lest the general government might 

become strong enough to abolish slavery 
and therefore gave his whole support to the 
" State's Rights" movement, and endeavored 
to check the centralization of power in the 
general government. Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of congress in 1825, and held that 
office until 1839. He then withdrew, as he 
was the successful gubernatorial candidate 
of his state. He had become a man of 
great influence in the house, and, as the 
leader of the Jackson party in that body, 
weilded great influence in the election of 
General Jackson to the presidency. He 
sustained the president in all his measures 
and still remained in the house after Gen- 
eral Jackson had been succeeded by Martin 
Van Buren. He was speaker of the house 
during five sessions of congress. He was 
elected governor of Tennessee by a large 
majority and took the oath of office at Nash- 
ville, October 4, 1839. He was a candidate 
for re-election but was defeated by Governor 
Jones, the Whig candidate. In 1844 the 
most prominent question in the election was 
the annexation of Texas, and as Mr. Polk 
was the avowed champion of this cause he 
was nominated for president by the pro- 
slavery wing of the democratic party, was 
elected by a large majority, and was inaug- 
urated March 4, 1S45. President Polk 
formed a very able cabinet, consisting of 
James Buchanan, Robert J. Walker, Will- 
iam L.'Marcy, George Bancroft, Cave John- 
son, and John Y. Mason. The dispute re- 
garding the Oregon boundary was settled 
during his term of office and a new depart- 
ment was added to the list of cabinet po- 
sitions, that of the Interior. The low tariff 
bill of 1846 was carried and the financial 
system of the country was reorganized. It 
was also during President Polk's term that 
the Mexican war was successfully conducted, 
which resulted in the acquisition of Califor- 



nia and New Mexico. Mr. Polk retired from 
the presidency March 4, 1849, after having 
declined a re-nomination, and was succeeded 
by General Zachary Taylor, the hero of the 
Mexican war. Mr. Polk retired to private 
life, to his home in Nashville, where he died 
at the age of fifty-four on June 9, 1849. 

ANNA DICKINSON (Anna Elizabeth 
Dickinson), a noted lecturer and pub- 
lic speaker, was born at Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 28, 1842. Her parents were Quakers, 
and she was educated at the Friends' free 
schools in her native city. She early man- 
ifested an inclination toward elocution and 
public speaking, and when, at the age of 18, 
she found an opportunity to appear before 
a national assemblage for the discussion of 
woman's rights, she at once established her 
reputation as a public speaker. From i860 
to the close of the war and during the ex- 
citing period of reconstruction, she was one 
of the most noted and influential speakers 
before the American public, and her popu- 
larity was unequaled by that of any of her 
sex. A few weeks after the defeat and 
death of Colonel Baker at Ball's Bluff, Anna 
Dickinson, lecturing in New York, made 
the remarkable assertion, "Not the incom- 
petency of Colonel Baker, but the treachery 
of General McClellan caused the disaster at 
Ball's Bluff." She was hissed and hooted 
off the stage. A year later, at the same 
hall and with much the same class of audi- 
tors, she repeated the identical words, and 
the applause was so great and so long con- 
tinued that it was impossible to go on with 
her lecture for more than half an hour. The 
change of sentiment had been wrought by 
the reverses and dismissal of McClellan and 
his ambition to succeed Mr. Lincoln as presi- 

Ten years after the close of the war, Anna 

Dickinson was not heard of on the lec- 
ture platform, and about that time she made 
an attempt to enter the dramatic profession, 
but after appearing a number of times in dif- 
ferent plays she was pronounced a failure. 

sonal characteristics of Mr. Burdette 
were quaintly given by himself in the follow- 
ing words: "Politics? Republican after 
the strictest sect. Religion ? Baptist. Per- 
sonal appearance ? Below medium height, 
and weigh one hundred and thirty-five 
pounds, no shillings and no pence. Rich ? 
Not enough to own a yacht. Favorite read- 
ing? Poetry and history — know Longfellow 
by heart, almost. Write for magizines ? 
Have mOi-e ' declined with thanks ' letters 
than would fill a trunk. Never able to get 
into a magazine with a line. Care about it? 
Mad as thunder. Think about starting a 
magazine and rejecting everbody's articles 
except my own." Mr. Burdette was born 
at Greensborough, Pennsylvania, in 1844. 
He served through the war of the rebellion 
under General Banks "on an excursion 
ticket" as he felicitously described it, "good 
both ways, conquering in one direction and 
running in the other, pay going on just the 
same." He entered into journalism by the 
gateway of New York correspondence for 
the "Peoria Transcript," and in 1874 wenf 
on the " Burlington Hawkeye" of which he 
became the managing editor, and the work 
that he did on this paper made both him- 
self and the paper famous in the world of 
humor. Mr. Burdette married in 1870, 
and his wife, whom he called " Her Little 
Serene Highness," was to him a guiding 
light until the day of her death, and it was 
probably the unconscious pathos with which 
he described her in his work that broke the 
barriers that had kept him out of the maga- 



zines and secured him the acceptance of his 
"Confessions" by Lippincott some years 
ago, and brought him substantial fame and 
recognition in the literary world. 

of the leading novelists of the present 
century and author of a number of works 
that gained for him a place in the hearts of 
the people, was born March I, 1837, at 
Martinsville, Belmont county, Ohio. At 
the age of three years he accompanied his 
father, who was a printer, to Hamilton, 
Ohio, where he learned the printer's trade. 
Later he was engaged on the editorial staff 
of the " Cincinnati Gazette" and the " Ohio 
State Journal." During 1861-65 ne was 
the United States consul at Venice, and 
from 1871 to 1878 he was the editor-in- 
chief of the "Atlantic Monthly." As a 
writer he became one of the most fertile 
and readable of authors and a pleasing poet. 
In 18S5 he became connected with " Har- 
per's Magazine. " Mr. Howells was author 
of the list of books that we give below: 
"Venetian Life," " Italian Journeys," "No 
Love Lost," " Suburban Sketches," "Their 
Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaint- 
ance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "Dr. 
Breen's Practice," "A Modern Instance," 
"The Rise of Silas Lapham," "Tuscan 
Cities," "Indian Summer," besides many 
others. He also wrote the " Poem of Two 
Friends," with J. J. Piatt in i860, and 
some minor dramas: "The Drawing 
Room Car," "The Sleeping Car," etc., 
that are full of exqusite humor and elegant 

<J of the Rev. Charles Lowell, and was born 
lit Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 
1819. He graduated at Harvard College in 

1838 as class poet, and went to Harvard 
Law School, from which he was graduated 
in 1840, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in Boston, but soon gave his un- 
divided attention to literary labors. Mr. 
Lowell printed, in 1841, a small volume of 
poems entitled " A Year's Life," edited with 
Robert Carter; in 1843, " The Pioneer, " a 
literary and critical magazine (monthly), and 
in 1848 another book of poems, that con- 
tained several directed against slavery. He 
published in 1844 a volume of "Poems" 
and in 1845 " Conversations on Some 
of the Old Poets," "The Vision of Sir 
Launfal," "A Fable for Critics, " and "The 
Bigelow Papers," the latter satirical es- 
says in dialect poetry directed against 
slavery and the war with Mexico. In 
1851-52 he traveled in Europe and re- 
sided in Italy for a considerable time, and 
delivered in 1854-55 a course of lectures on 
the British poets, before the Lowell Insti- 
tute, Boston. Mr. Lowell succeeded Long- 
fellow in January, 1855, as professor of 
modern languages and literature at Harvard 
College, and spent another year in Emope 
qualifying himself for that post. He edited 
the " Atlantic Monthly" from 1857 to 1862, 
and the "North American Review" from 
1863 until 1872. From 1864 to 1870 he 
published the following works: " Fireside 
Travels," "Under the Willows," "The 
Commemoration Ode," in honor of the 
alumni of Harvard who had fallen in the 
Civil war; "The Cathedral," two volumes 
of essays; "Among My Books" and "My 
Study Windows," and in 1867 he published 
a new series of the " Bigelow Papers." He 
traveled extensively in Europe in 1872-74, 
and received in person the degree of D. C. 
L. at Oxford and that of LL. D. at the 
University of Cambridge, England. He 
was also interested in political life and held 



many important offices. He was United 
States minister to Spain in 1877 and was 
also minister to England in 1880-85. On 
January 2, 1884, he was elected lord rector 
of St. Andrew University in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, but soon after he resigned the same. 
Mr. Lowell's works enjoy great popularity 
in the United States and England. He 
died August 12, 1S91. 

JOSEPH HENRY, one of America's 
greatest scientists, was born at Albany, 
New York, December 17, 1797. He was 
educated in the common schools of the city 
and graduated from the Albany Academy, 
where he became a professor of mathemat- 
ics in 1826. In 1827 he commenced a 
course of investigation, which he continued 
for a number of years, and the results pro- 
duced had great effect on the scientific world. 
The first success was achieved by producing 
the electric magnet, and he next proved the 
possibility of exciting magnetic energy at a 
distance, and it was the invention of Pro- 
fessor Henry's intensity magnet that first 
made the invention of electric telegraph a 
possibility. He made a statement regarding 
the practicability of applying the intensity 
magnet to telegraphic uses, in his article to 
the ' 'American Journal of Science " in 1 83 1 . 
During the same year he produced the first 
mechanical contrivance ever invented for 
maintaining continuous motion by means of 
electro-magnetism, and he also contrived a 
machine by which signals could be made at 
a distance by the use of his electro-magnet, 
the signals being produced by a lever strik- 
ing on a bell. Some of his electro-magnets 
were of great power, one carried over a ton 
and another not less than three thousand six 
hundred pounds. In 1832 he discovered 
that secondary currents could be produced 
in a long conductor by the induction of the 

primary current upon itself, and also in the 
same year he produced a spark by means of 
a purely magnetic induction. Professor 
Henry was elected, in 1832, professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in the College of New Jer- 
sey, and in his earliest lectures at Princeton, 
demonstrated the feasibility of the electric 
telegraph. He visited Europe in 1837, and 
while there he had an interview with Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone, the inventor of the 
needle magnetic telegraph. In 1846 he was 
elected secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, being the first incumbent in that office, 
which he held until his death. Professor 
Henry was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science, in 1849, and of the National 
Academy of Sciences. He was made chair- 
man of the lighthouse board of the United 
States in 1871 and held that position up to 
the time of his death. He received the 
honorary degree of doctor of laws from 
Union College in 1829, and from Harvard 
University in 185 1, and his death occurred 
May 13, 1878. Among his numerous works 
may be mentioned the following: "Contri- 
butions to Electricity and Magnetism," 
"American Philosophic Trans, " and many 
articles in the "American Journal of 
Science," the journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute; the proceedings of the American As- 
sociation for the- Advancement of Science, 
and in the annual reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institution from its foundation. 

rear-admiral of the Confederate navy 
during the rebellion, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland. He became a United States 
midshipman in 18 15 and was promoted 
through the various grades of the service 
and became a captain in 1855. ^ r - Buch- 
anan resigned his captaincy in order to join 



the Confederate service in 1861 and later he 
asked to be reinstated, but his request was 
refused and he then entered into the service 
of the Confederate government. He was 
placed in command of the frigate " Merri- 
mac " after she had been fitted up as an iron- 
clad, and had command of her at the time 
of the battle of Hampton Roads. It was 
he who had command when the " Merri- 
mac" sunk the two wooden frigates, " Con- 
gress" and "Cumberland," and was also 
in command during part of the historical 
battle of the " Merrimac " and the "Moni- 
tor," where he was wounded and the com- 
mand devolved upon Lieutenant Catesby 
Jones. He was created rear-admiral in the 
Confederate service and commanded the 
Confederate fleet in Mobile bay, which was 
defeated by Admiral Farragut, August 5, 
1864. Mr. Buchanan was in command of 
the "Tennessee," an ironclad, and during 
the engagement he lost one of his legs and 
was taken prisoner in the end by the Union 
fleet. After the war he settled in Talbot 
county, Maryland, where he died May 11, 

RICHARD PARKS BLAND, a celebrated 
American statesman, frequently called 
"the father of the house," because of his 
many years of service in the lower house 
of congress, was born August 19, 1835, 
near Hartford, Kentucky, where he received 
a plain academic education. He moved, 
in 1855, to Missouri, from whence he went 
overland to California, afterward locating in 
Virginia City, now in the state of Nevada, 
but then part of the territory of Utah. 
While there he practiced law, dabbled in 
mines and mining in Nevada and California 
for several years, and served for a time as 
treasurer of Carson county, Nevada. Mr. 
Bland returned to Missouri in 1865, where 

he engaged in the practice of law at Rolla, 
Missouri, and in 1869 removed to Lebanon, 
Missouri. He began his congressional career 
in 1873, when he was elected as a Demo- 
crat to the forty-third congress, and he was 
regularly re-elected to every congress after 
that time up to the fifty-fourth, when he was 
defeated for re-election, but was returned 
to the fifty-fifth congress as a Silver Demo- 
crat. During all his protracted service, 
while Mr. Bland was always steadfast in his 
support of democratic measures, yet he won 
his special renown as the great advocate of 
silver, being strongly in favor of the free 
and unlimited coinage of silver, and on ac- 
count of his pronounced views was one of 
the candidates for the presidential nomina- 
tion of the Democratic party at Chicago in 

port) was of British birth, but she be- 
longs to the American stage. She was the 
daughter of the famous actor, E. L. Daven- 
port, and was born in London in 1850. 
She first went on the stage as a child at the 
Howard Athenaeum, Boston, and her entire 
life was spent upon the stage. She played 
children's parts at Burton's old theater in 
Chambers street, and then, in 1862, appeared 
as the King of Spain in " Faint Heart Never 
Won Fair Lady." Here she attracted the 
notice of Augustin Daly, the noted mana- 
ger, then at the Fifth Avenue theater, who 
offered her a six weeks' engagement with 
her father in "London Assurance." She 
afterwards appeared at the same house in a 
variety of characters, and her versatility 
was favorably noticed by the critics. After 
the burning of the old Fifth Avenue, the 
present theater of that name was built at 
Twenty-eighth street, and here Miss Daven- 
port appeared in a play written for her by 



Mr. Daly. She scored a great success. 
She then starred in this play throughout the 
country, and was married to Mr. Edwin F. 
Price, an actor of her company, in 1880. 
In 1882 she went to Paris and purchased 
the right to produce in America Sardou's 
great emotional play, "Fedora." It was 
put on at the Fourteenth Street theater in 
New York, and in it she won popular favor 
and became one of the most famous actresses 
of her time. 

of the greatest merchants America has 
produced, was born in Milford, Massachu- 
setts, a son of John Claflin, also a mer- 
chant. Young Claflin started his active life 
as a clerk in his father's store, after having 
been offered the opportunity of a college 
education, but with the characteristic 
promptness that was one of his virtues he 
exclaimed, "No law or medicine for me." 
He had set his heart on being a merchant, 
and when his father retired he and his 
brother Aaron, and his brother-in-law, Sam- 
uel Daniels, conducted the business. Mr. 
Claflin was not content, however, to run a 
store in a town like Milford, and accordingly 
opened a dry goods store at Worcester, with 
his brother as a partner, but the partnership 
was dissolved a year later and H. B. Claflin 
assumed complete control. The business 
in Worcester had been conducted on ortho- 
dox principles, and when Mr. Claflin came 
there and introduced advertising as a means 
of drawing trade, he created considerable 
animosity among the older merchants. Ten 
years later he was one of the most prosper- 
ous merchants. He disposed of his busi- 
ness in Worcester for $30,000, and went to 
New York to search for a wider field than 
that of a shopkeeper. Mr. Claflin and 
William M. Bulkley started in the dry goods 

business there under the firm name of Bulk- 
ley & Claflin, in 1843, a °d Mr Bulkley was 
connected with the firm until 1851, when he 
retired. A new firm was then formed under 
the name of Claflin, Mellin & Co. This 
firm succeeded in founding the largest dry 
goods house in the world, and after weather- 
ing the dangers of the civil war, during 
which the house came very near going un- 
der, and was saved only by the superior 
business abilities of Mr. Claflin, continued to 
grow. The sales of the firm amounted to 
over $72,000,000 a year after the close of 
the war. Mr. Claflin died November 14, 

Saunders Cushman), one of the most 
celebrated American actresses, was born in 
Boston, July 23, 1816. She was descended 
from one of the earliest Puritan families. 
Her first attempt at stage work was at the 
age of fourteen years in a charitable concert 
given by amateurs in Boston. From this 
time her advance to the first place on the 
American lyric stage was steady, until, in 
1835, while singing in New Orleans, she 
suddenly lost control of her voice so far as 
relates to singing, and was compelled to re- 
tire. She then took up the study for the 
dramatic stage under the direction of Mr. 
Barton, the tragedian. She soon after 
made her debut as "Lady Macbeth." She 
appeared in New York in September, 1836, 
and her success was immediate. Her 
"Romeo" was almost perfect, and she is 
the only woman that has ever appeared in 
the part of "Cardinal Wolsey." She at 
different times acted as support of Forrest 
and Macready. Her London engagement, 
secured in 1845, after many and great dis- 
couragements, proved an unqualified suc- 



Her farewell appearance was at Booth's 
theater, New York, November 7, 1874, in 
the part of " Lady Macbeth," and after that 
performance an Ode by R. H. Stoddard 
was read, and a body of citizens went upon 
the stage, and in their name the venerable 
poet Longfellow presented her with a wreath 
of laurel with an inscription to the effect 
that "she who merits the palm should bear 
it." From the time of her appearance as a 
modest girl in a charitable entertainment 
down to the time of final triumph as a tragic 
queen, she bore herself with as much honor 
to womanhood as to the profession she rep- 
resented. Her death occurred in Boston, 
February 18, 1876. By her profession she 
acquired a fortune of $600,000. 

NEAL DOW, one of the most prominent 
temperance reformers our country has 
known, was born in Portland, Me., March 20, 
1804. He received his education in the 
Friends Seminary, at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, his parents being members of that 
sect. After leaving school he pursued a 
mecrantile and manufacturing career for a 
number of years. He was active in the 
affairs of his native city, and in 1839 be- 
came chief of the fire department, and in 
1851 was elected mayor. He was re-elected 
to the latter office in 1 854. ' Being opposed 
to the liquor traffic he was a champion of 
the project of prohibition, first brought for- 
ward in 1 S39 by James Appleton. While 
serving his first term as mayor he drafted a 
bill for the "suppression of drinking houses 
and tippling shops," which he took to the 
legislature and which was passed without an 
alteration. In 1858 Mr. Dow was elected 
to the legislature. On the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Maine Infantry and accompanied 
General Butler's expedition to New Orleans. 

In 1862 he was made brigadier-general. At 
the battle of Port Hudson May 27, 1863, he 
was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He 
was confined at Libby prison and Mobile 
nearly a year, when, being exchanged, he 
resigned, his health having given way under 
the rigors of his captivity. He made sev- 
eral trips to England in the interests of 
temperance organization, where he addressed 
large audiences. He was the candidate of 
the National Prohibition party for the presi- 
dency in 1880, receiving about ten thousand 
votes. In 1884 he was largely instrumental 
in the amendment of the constitution of 
Maine, adopted by an overwhelming popular 
vote, which forever forbade the manufacture 
or sale of any intoxicating beverages, and 
commanding the legislature to enforce the 
prohibition. He died October 2, 1897. 

ZACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Orange county, Virginia, September 24, 
1784. His boyhood was spent on his fath- 
er's plantation and his education was lim- 
ited. In 1808 he was made lieutenant of 
the Seventh Infantry, and joined his regi- 
ment at New Orleans. He was promoted 
to captain in 18 10, and commanded at Fort 
Harrison, near the present site of Terre 
Haute, in 18 12, where, for his gallant de- 
fense, he was brevetted major, attaining full 
rank in 18 14. In 1815 he retired to an es- 
tate near Louisville. In 18 16 here-entered 
the army as major, and was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel and then to colonel. 
Having for many years been Indian agent 
over a large portion of the western country, 
he was often required in Washington to give 
advice and counsel in matters connected 
with the Indian bureau. He served through 
the Black Hawk Indian war of 1832, and in 
1837 was ordered to the command of the 



army in Florida, where he attacked the In- 
dians in the swamps and brakes, defeated 
them and ended the war. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general and made commander-in- 
chief of the army in Florida. He was as- 
signed to the command of the army of the 
southwest in 1840, But was soon after re- 
lieved of it at his request. He was then 
stationed at posts in Arkansas. In 1845 he 
was ordered to prepare to protect and de- 
fend Texas boundaries from invasion by 
Mexicans and Indians. On the annexation 
of Texas he proceeded with one thousand 
five hundred men to Corpus Christi, within 
the disputed territory. After reinforcement 
he was ordered by the Mexican General Am- 
pudia to retire beyond the Nueces river, 
with which order he declined to comply. 
The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma followed, and he crossed the Rio 
Grande and occupied Matamoras May 1 8th. 
He was commissioned major-general for this 
campaign, and in September he advanced 
upon the city of Monterey and captured it 
after a hard fight. Here he took up winter 
quarters, and when he was about to resume 
activity in the spring he was ordered to send 
the larger part of his army to reinforce 
General Scott at Vera Cruz. After leaving 
garrisons at various points his army was re- 
duced to about five thousand, mostly fresh 
recruits. He was attacked by the army of 
Santa Anna at Buena Vista, February 22, 
1847, and after a severe fight completely 
routed the Mexicans. He received the 
thanks of congress and a gold medal for 
this victory. He remained in command of 
the " army of occupation " until winter, 
when he returned to the United States. 

In 1848 General Taylor was nominated 
by the Whigs for president. He was elected 
over his two opponents, Cass and Van 
Buren. Great bitterness was developing in 

the struggle for and against the extension of 
slavery, and the newly acquired territory in 
the west, and the fact that the states were 
now equally divided on that question, tended 
to increase the feeling. President Taylor 
favored immediate admission of California 
with her constitution prohibiting slavery, 
and the admission of other states to be 
formed out of the new territory as they 
might elect as they adopted constitutions 
from time to time. This policy resulted in 
the " Omnibus Bill," which afterward passed 
congress, though in separate bills; not, how- 
ever, until after the death of the soldier- 
statesman, which occurred July 9, 1850. 
One of his daughters became the wife of 
Jefferson Davis. 


ELVILLE D. LANDON, better known 
as " Eli Perkins, " author, lecturer and 
humorist, was born in Eaton, New York, 
September 7, 1839. He was the son of 
John Landon and grandson of Rufus Lan- 
don, a revolutionary soldier from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. Melville was edu- 
cated at the district school and neighboring 
academy, where he was prepared for the 
sophomore class at Madison University. He 
passed two years at the latter, when he was 
admitted to Union College, and graduated 
in the class of 1861, receiving the degree of 
A. M., in 1862. He was, at once, ap- 
pointed to a position in the treasury depart- 
ment at Washington. This being about the 
time of the breaking out of the war, and 
before the appearance of any Union troops 
at the capital, he assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the " Clay Battalion," of Washing- 
ton. Leaving his clerkship some time later, 
he took up duties on the staff of General A. 
L. Chetlain, who was in command at Mem- 
phis. In 1864 he resigned from the army 
and engaged in cotton planting in Arkansas 



and Louisiana. In 1867 he went abroad, 
making the tour of Europe, traversing Rus- 
sia. While in the latter country his old 
commander of the " Clay Battalion," Gen- 
eral Cassius M. Clay, then United States 
minister at St. Petersburg, made him secre- 
tary of legation. In 1 87 1, on returning to 
America, he published a history of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and followed it with 
numerous humorous writings for the public 
press under the name of "Eli Perkins," 
which, with his regular contributions to the 
" Commercial Advertiser," brought him into 
notice, and spread his reputation as,a hu- 
morist throughout thecountry. He also pub- 
lished "Saratoga in 1891," "Wit, Humor 
and Pathos," ' ' Wit and Humor of the Age," 
■' Kings of Platform and Pulpit," " Thirty 
Years of Wit and Humor," " Fun and Fact," 
and " China and Japan." 

LEWIS CASS, one of the most prom- 
inent statesman and party leaders of his 
day, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1782. He studied law, and hav- 
ing removed to Zanesville, Ohio, commenced 
the practice of that profession in 1802. He 
entered the service of the American govern- 
ment in 18 12 and was made a colonel in 
the army under General William Hull, and 
on the surrender of Fort Maiden by that 
officer was held as a prisoner. Being re- 
leased in 1813, he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general and in 18 14 ap- 
pointed governor of Michigan Territory. 
After he had held that office for some 
sixteen years, negotiating, in the meantime, 
many treaties with the Indians, General 
Cass was made secretary of war in the cabi- 
net of President Jackson, in 1 83 1. He was, 
in 1836, appointed minister to France, 
which office he held for six years. In 1844 
he was elected United States senator from 

Michigan. In 1846 General Cass opposed 
the Wilmot Proviso, which was an amend- 
ment to a bill for the purchase of land from 
Mexico, which provided that in any of the 
territory acquired from that power slavery 
should not exist. For this and other reasons 
he was nominated as Democratic candidate 
for the presidency of the United States in 
1848, but was defeated by General Zachary 
Taylor, the Whig candidate, having but 
one hundred and thirty-seven electoral votes 
to his opponent's one hundred and sixty- 
three. In 1849 General Cass was re-elected 
to the senate of the United States, and in 
1854 supported Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska 
bill. He became secretary of state in 
March, 1857, under President Buchanan, 
but resigned that office in December, i860. 
He died June 17, 1866. The published 
works of Lewis Cass, while not numerous, 
are well written and display much ability. 
He was one of the foremost men of his day 
in the political councils of the Democratic 
party, and left a reputation for high probity 
and honor behind him. 

DEWITT CLINTON.— Probably there 
were but few men who were so popular 
in their time, or who have had so much in- 
fluence in moulding events as the individual 
whose name honors the head of this article. 
De Witt Clinton was the son of General 
James Clinton, and a nephew of Governor 
George Clinton, who was the fourth vice- 
president of the United States. He was a 
native of Orange county, New York, born at 
Little Britain, March 2, 1769. He gradu- 
ated from Columbia College, in his native 
state, in 1796, and took up the study of law. 
In 1790 he became private secretary to his 
uncle, then governor of New York. He en- 
tered public life as a Republican or anti- 
Federalist, and was elected to the lower 



house of the state assembly in 1797, and the 
senate of that body in 1798. At that time 
he was looked on as "the most rising man 
in the Union." In 1801 he was elected to 
the United States senate. In 1803 he was 
appointed by the governor and council 
mayor of the city of New York, then a 
very important and powerful office. Hav- 
ing been re-appointed, he held the office 
of mayor for nearly eleven years, and 
rendered great service to that city. Mr. 
Clinton served as lieutenant-governor of 
the state of New York, 1811-13, and 
was one of the commissioners appointed 
to examine and survey a route for a canal 
from the Hudson river to Lake Erie. Dif- 
fering with President Madison, in relation to 
the war, in 18 12, he was nominated for the 
presidency against that gentleman, by a 
coalition party called the Clintonians, many 
of whom were Federalists. Clinton received 
eight-nine electoral votes. His course at 
this time impaired his popularity for a time. 
He was removed from the mayoralty in 
1814, and retired to private life. In 1815 
he wrote a powerful argument for the con- 
struction of the Erie canal, then a great and 
beneficent work of which he was the prin- 
cipal promoter. This was in the shape of 
a memorial to the legislature, which, in 
18 17, passed a bill authorizing the construc- 
tion of that canal. The same year he was 
elected governor of New York, almost unani- 
mously, notwithstanding the opposition of 
a few who pronounced the scheme of the 
canal visionary. He was re-elected governor 
in 1820. He was at this time, also, presi- 
dent of the canal commissioners. He de- 
clined a re-election to the gubernatorial 
chair in 1822 and was removed from his 
place on the canal board two years later. 
But he was triumphantly elected to the of- 
fice of governor that fall, and his pet project, 

the Erie canal, was finished the next year. 
He was re-elected governor in 1826, but 
died while holding that office, February II, 

AARON BURR, one of the many brilliant 
figures on the political stage in the early 
days of America, was born at Newark, New 
Jersey, February 6, 1756. He was the son 
of Aaron and Esther Burr, the former the 
president of the College of New Jersey, and 
the latter a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, 
who had been president of the same educa- 
tional institution. Young Burr graduated 
at Princeton in 1772. In 1775 he joined 
the provincial army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. For a time, he served as a private 
soldier, but later was made an aide on the 
staff of the unfortunate General Montgom- 
ery, in the Quebec expedition. Subse- 
quently he was on the staffs of Arnold, Put- 
nam and Washington, the latter of whom 
he disliked. He was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a 
brigade on Monmouth's bloody field. In 
I 779> on account of feeble health, Colonel 
Burr resigned from the army. He took up 
the practice of law in Albany, New York, 
but subsequently removed to New York City. 
In 1789 he became attorney-general of that 
state. In 1791 he was chosen to represent 
the state of New York in the United States 
senate and held that position for six years. 
In 1800 he and Thomas Jefferson were both 
candidates for the presidency, and there 
being a tie in the electoral college, each 
having seventy-three votes, the choice was 
left to congress, who gave the first place to 
Jefferson and made Aaron Burr vice-presi- 
dent, as the method then was. In 1 804 Mr. 
Burr and his great rival, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, met in a duel, which resulted in the 
death of the latter, Burr losing thereby con- 



siderable political and social influence. He 
soon embarked in a wild attempt upon 
Mexico, and as was asserted, upon the 
southwestern territories of the United 
States. He was tried for treason at 
Richmond, Virginia, in 1807, but acquitted, 
and to avoid importunate creditors, fled to 
Europe. Afteratime, in 1812, he returned 
to New York, where he practiced law, and 
where he died, September 14, 1836. A man 
of great ability, brilliant and popular talents, 
his influence was destroyed by his unscrupu- 
lous political actions and immoral private 

ALBERT GALLATIN, one of the most 
distinguished statesmen of the early 
days of the republic, was born at Geneva, 
Switzerland, January 29, 1761. He was 
the son of Jean de Gallatin and Sophia A. 
Rolaz du Rosey Gallatin, representatives of 
an old patrician family. Albert Gallatin 
was left an orphan at an early age, and was 
educated under the care of friends of his 
parents. He graduated from the University 
of Geneva in 1779, and declining employ- 
ment under one of the sovereigns of Ger- 
many, came to the struggling colonies, land- 
ing in Boston July 14, 1780. Shortly after 
his arrival he proceeded to Maine, where he 
served as a volunteer under Colonel Allen. 
He made advances to the government for 
the support of the American troops, and in 
November, 1780, was placed in command 
of a small fort at Passamaquoddy, defended 
by a force of militia, volunteers and Indians. 
In 1783 he was professor of the French 
language at Harvard University. A year 
later, having received his patrimony from 
Europe, he purchased large tracts of land 
in western Virginia, but was prevented by 
the Indians from forming the large settle- 
ment he proposed, and, in 1786, purchased 

a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. 
In 1789 he was a member of the convention 
to amend the constitution of that state, and 
united himself with the Republican party, 
the head of which was Thomas Jefferson. 
The following year he was elected to the 
legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he was 
subsequently re-elected. In 1793 he was 
elected to the United States senate, but 
could not take his seat on account of not 
having been a citizen long enough. In 1794 
Mr. Gallatin was elected to the representa- 
tive branch of congress, in which he served 
three terms. He also took an important 
position in the suppression of the "whiskey 
insurrection." In 1S01, on the accession of 
Jefferson to the presidency, Mr. Gallatin 
was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
In 1809 Mr. Madison offered him the posi- 
tion of secretary of state, but he declined, 
and continued at the head of the treasury 
until 1812, a period of twelve years. He 
exercised a great influence on the other de- 
partments and in the general administration, 
especially in the matter of financial reform, 
and recommended measures for taxation, 
etc. , which were passed by congress, and be- 
came laws May 24, 1 8 1 3 . The same year he 
was sent as an envoy extraordinary to Rus- 
sia, which had offered to mediate between 
this country and Great Britain, but the lat- 
ter country refusing the interposition of 
another power, and agreeing to treat di- 
rectly with the United States, in 18 14, at 
Ghent, Mr. Gallatin, in connection with his 
distinguished colleagues, negotiated and 
signed the treaty of peace. In 181 5, in 
conjunction with Messrs. Adams and Clay, 
he signed, at London, a commercial treaty 
between the two countries. In 18 16, de- 
clining his old post at the head of the treas- 
ury, Mr. Gallatin was sent as minister to 
France, where he remained until 1823. 



After a year spent in England as envoy ex- 
traordinary, he took up his residence in New 
York, and from that time held no public 
office. In 1830 he was chosen president of 
the council of the University of New York. 
He was, in 1831, made president of the 
National bank, which position he resigned 
in 1839. He died August 12, 1849. 

MILLARD FILLMORE, the thirteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born of New England parentage in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga county, New York, January 7, 
1800. His school education was very lim- 
ited, but he occupied his leisure hours in 
study. He worked in youth upon his fa- 
ther's farm in his native county, and at the 
age of fifteen was apprenticed to a wool 
carder and cloth dresser. Four years later 
he was induced by Judge Wood to enter his 
office at Montville, New York, and take up 
the study of law. This warm friend, find- 
ing young Fillmore destitute of means, 
loaned him money, but the latter, not wish- 
ing to incur a heavy debt, taught school 
during part of the time and in this and other 
ways helped maintain himself. In 1822 he 
removed to Buffalo, New York, and the year 
following, being admitted to the bar, he 
commenced the practice of his profession 
at East Aurora, in the same state. Here 
he remained until 1830, having, in the 
meantime, been admitted to practice in the 
supreme court, when he returned to Buffalo, 
where he became the partner of S. G. 
Haven and N. K. Hall. He entered poli- 
tics and served in the state legislature from 
1829 to 1832. He was in congress in 1 833— 
35 and in 1837-41, where he proved an 
active and useful member, favoring the 
views of John Quincy Adams, then battling 
almost alone the slave-holding party in na- 
tional politics, and in most of public ques- 

tions acted with the Whig party. While 
chairman of the committee of ways and 
means he took a leading part in draughting 
the tariff bill of 1842. In 1844 Mr. Fill- 
more was the Whig candidate fo r governor 
of New York. In 1847 he was chosen 
comptroller of the state, and abandoning 
his practice and profession removed to Al- 
bany. In 1848 he was elected vice presi- 
dent on the ticket with General Zachary 
Taylor, and they were inaugurated the fol- 
lowing March. On the death of the presi- 
dent, July 9, 1850, Mr. Fillmore was in- 
ducted into that office. The great events 
of his administration were the passage of 
the famous compromise acts of 1850, and 
the sending out of the Japan expedition of 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office, and 
in 1855 went to Europe, where he received 
marked attention. On returning home, in 
1856, he was nominated for the presidency 
by the Native American or "Know-Noth- 
ing" party, but was defeated, James Buch- 
anan being the successful candidate. 

Mr. Fillmore ever afterward lived in re- 
tirement. During the conflict of Civil war 
he was mostly silent. It was generally sup- 
posed, however, that his sympathy was with 
the southern confederacy. He kept aloof 
from the conflict without any words of cheer 
to the one party or the other. For this rea- 
son he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 

PETER F. ROTHERMEL, one of Amer- 
ica's greatest and best-known historical 
painters, was born in Luzerne county, Penn- 
sylvania, July 8, 1817, and was of German 
ancestry. He received his earlier education 
in his native county, and in Philadelphia 



learned the profession of land surveying. 
But a strong bias toward art drew him away 
and he soon opened a studio where he did 
portrait painting. This soon gave place to 
historical painting, he having discovered the 
bent of his genius in that direction. Be- 
sides the two pictures in the Capitol at 
Washington — ' 'DeSoto Discovering the Mis- 
sissippi" and "Patrick Henry Before the 
Virginia House of Burgesses" — Rothermel 
painted many others, chief among which 
are: "Columbus Before Queen Isabella," 
"Martyrs of the Colosseum," "Cromwell 
Breaking Up Service in an English Church, " 
and the famous picture of the "Battle 
of Gettysburg." The last named was 
painted for the state of Pennsylvania, for 
which Rothermel received the sum of $25,- 
000, and which it took him four years to 
plan and to paint. It represents the portion 
of that historic field held by the First corps, 
an exclusively Pennsylvania body of men, 
and was selected by Rothermel for that 
reason. For many years most of his time 
was spent in Italy, only returning for short 
periods. He died at Philadelphia, August 
16, 1895. 

distinguished leaders upon the side of the 
south in the late Civil war, was born at St. 
Augustine, Florida, in 1824. After receiv- 
ing the usual education he was appointed to 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated in 1845 and 
entered the army as second lieutenant of 
infantry. During the Mexican war he was 
made first lieutenant and captain for gallant 
conduct at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. 
From 1849 to 1852 he was assistant pro- 
fessor of mathematics at West Point. He 
was transferred to the Second cavalry with 
the rank of captain in 1855, served on the 

frontier, and was wounded in a fight with 
Comanche Indians in Texas, May 13, 1859. 
In January, 1861, he became major of his 
regiment, but resigned April 9th to fol- 
low the fortunes of the southern cause. 
He was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army and served in Virginia. 
At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, 
he arrived on the field late in the day, but 
was soon disabled by a wound. He was 
made major-general in 1 862, and being trans- 
ferred to East Tennessee, was given com- 
mand of that department. Under General 
Braxton Bragg he led the advance in the 
invasion of Kentucky and defeated the Union 
forces at Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, . 

1862, and advanced to Frankfort. Pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he 
was engaged at the battle of Perryville, 
October 10, and in the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, December 31, 1862, and January 3, 

1863. He was soon made general, the 
highest rank in the service, and in com- 
mand of the trans-Mississippi department 
opposed General N. P. Banks in the famous 
Red River expedition, taking part in the 
battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, and 
other engagements of that eventful cam- 
paign. He was the last to surrender the 
forces under his command, which he did 
May 26, 1865. After the close of the war 
he located in Tennessee, where he died 
March 28, 1893. 

J American statesman, was born Decem- 
ber 29, 1833, at Middleton, Massachusetts, 
where he was reared and received his early 
education. He went to Kansas in 1858 
and joined the free-soil army, and a year 
after his arrival he was a member of the his- 
torical Wyandotte convention, which drafted 
a free-state constitution. In i860 he was 



made secretary of the territorial council, 
and in 1861 was secretary of the state sen- 
ate. The next year he was duly elected to 
the legitimate state senate from Atchison, 
where he had made his home. From that 
time he was the leader of the radical Re- 
publican element in the state. He became 
the editor of the "Atchison Champion " in 
1863, which was a "red-hot free-soil Re- 
publican organ." In 1862 he was the anti- 
Lane candidate for lieutenant-governor, but 
was defeated. He was elected to the Unit- 
ed States senate to succeed Senator Pom- 
eroy, and took his seat in the forty-third 
congress and served until the fiftieth. In 
the forty-ninth congress he succeeded Sen- 
ator Sherman as president pro tern., which 
position he held through the fiftieth con- 

BENJAMIN WEST, the greatest of the 
early American painters, was of Eng- 
lish descent and Quaker parentage. He was 
born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738. 
From what source he inherited his genius it 
is hard to imagine, since the tenets and 
tendencies of the Quaker faith were not cal- 
culated to encourage the genius of art, but 
at the age of nine years, with no suggestion 
except that of inspiration, we find him choos- 
ing his model from life, and laboring over 
his first work calculated to attract public 
notice. It was a representation of a sleep- 
ing child in its cradle. The brush with 
which he painted it was made of hairs 
which he plucked from the cat's tail, and 
the colors were obtained from the war paints 
of friendly Indians, his mother's indigo bag, 
and ground chalk and charcoal, and the juice 
of berries, but there were touches in the rude 
production that he declared in later days 
were a credit to his best works. The pic- 
ture attracted notice, for a council was 

called at once to pass upon the boy's con- 
duct in thus infringing the laws of the so- 
ciety. There were judges among them who 
saw in his genius a rare gift and their wis- 
dom prevailed, and the child was given per- 
mission to follow his inclination. He studied 
under a painter named Williams, and then 
spent some years as a portrait painter with 
advancing success. At the age of twenty- 
two he went to Italy, and not until he had 
perfected himself by twenty-three years of 
labor in that paradise of art was he satisfied 
to turn his face toward home. However, he 
stopped at London, and decided to settle 
there, sending to America for his intended 
bride to join him. Though the Revolution- 
ary war was raging, King George III showed 
the American artist the highest considera- 
tion and regard. His remuneration from 
works for royalty amounted to five thou- 
sand dollars per year for thirty years. 

West's best known work in America is, 
perhaps, "The Death of General Wolf." 
West was one of the thirty-six original mem- 
bers of the Royal academy and succeeded 
Joshua Reynolds as president, which posi- 
tion he held until his death. His early 
works were his best, as he ceased to display 
originality in his later life, conventionality 
having seriously affected his efforts. He 
died in 1820. 

Georgia evangelist, was born October 
16, 1847, in Chambers county, Alabama. 
He did not attend school regularly during 
his boyhood, but worked on a farm, and 
went to school at intervals, on account of 
ill health. His father removed to Carters- 
ville, Georgia, when Mr. Jones was a small 
boy. He quit school at the age of nineteen 
and never attended college. The war inter- 
fered with his education, which was intended 



to prepare him for the legal profession. 
After the war he renewed his preparation 
for college, but was compelled to desist from 
such a course, as his health failed him en- 
tirely. Later on, however, he still pursued 
his legal studies and was admitted to the 
bar. Soon after this event he went to Dal- 
las, Paulding county, Georgia, where he was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, 
and in a few months removed to Cherokee 
county, Alabama, where he taught school. 
In 1869 he returned to Cartersville, Georgia, 
and arrived in time to see his father die. 
Immediately after this event he applied for 
a license to preach, and went to Atlanta, 
Georgia, to the meeting of the North Geor- 
gia Conference of the M. E. church south, 
which received him on trial. He became 
an evangelist of great note, and traveled 
extensively, delivering his sermons in an 
inimitable style that made him very popular 
with the masses, his methods of conducting 
revivals being unique and original and his 
preaching practical and incisive. 

character in political affairs and for 
many years United States senator from 
Illinois, was born November 22, 1829, at 
Monticello, Kentucky. He came with his 
parents to Illinois in 1830 and spent his early 
yearson a farm , but having formed the purpose 
of devoting himself to the lawyer's profession 
he spent two years study at the Rock River 
seminary at Mount Morris, Illinois. In 1853 
Mr. Cullom entered the law office of Stuart 
and Edwards at Springfield, Illinois, and two 
years later he began the independent prac- 
tice of law in that city. He took an active 
interest in politics and was soon elected city 
attorney of Springfield. In 1856 he was 
elected a member of the Illinois house of 
representatives. He identified himself with 

the newly formed Republican party and in 
i860 was re-elected to the legislature of his 
state, in which he was chosen speaker of the 
house. In 1862 President Lincoln appoint- 
ed a commission to pass upon and examine 
the accounts of the United States quarter- 
masters and disbursing officers, composed 
as follows: Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; 
Charles A. Dana, of New York, and 
Gov. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Cullom was nominated for congress in 
1864, and was elected by a majority of 
1,785. In the house of representatives he 
became an active and aggressive member, 
was chairman of the committee on territories 
and served in congress until 1868. Mr. 
Cullom was returned to the state legislature, 
of which he was chosen speaker in 1872, 
and was re-elected in 1874. In 1876 he 
was elected governor of Illinois and at the 
end of his term he was chosen for a second 
term. He was elected United States senator 
in 1883 and twice re-elected. 

American inventor of much note, was 
born in Hertford county, North Carolina, 
September 12, 1 818. At an early age he 
gave promise of an inventive genius. The 
first emanation from his mind was the 
invention of a screw for the propulsion of 
water craft, but on application for a 
patent, found that he was forestalled but 
a short time by John Ericsson. Subse- 
quently he invented a machine for sowing 
wheat in drills, which was used to a great 
extent throughout the west. He then stud- 
ied medicine, and in 1847-8 attended 
lectures at the Indiana Medical College 
at Laporte, and in 1848-9 at the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati. He later 
discovered a method of transmitting power 
through the medium of compressed air. A 



double-acting hemp break was also invented 
by him. The invention, however, by which 
Dr. Gatling became best known was the 
famous machine gun which bears his name. 
This he brought to light in 1861-62, and on 
the first trial of it, in the spring of the latter 
year, two hundred shots per minute were 
fired from it. After making some improve- 
ments which increased its efficiency, it was 
submitted to severe trials by our govern- 
ment at the arsenals at Frankfort, Wash- 
ington and Fortress Monroe, and at other 
points. The gun was finally adopted by 
our government, as well as by that of Great 
Britain, Russia and others. 

a national fame in politics, was born 
August 11, 1847, in Edgefield county, South 
Carolina. He received his education in the 
Oldfield school, where he acquired the 
rudiments of Latin and Greek, in addition 
to a good English education. He left school 
in 1864 to join the Confederate army, but 
was prevented from doing so by a severe 
illness, which resulted in the loss of an eye. 
In 1867 he removed to Florida, but returned 
in 1868, when he was married and devoted 
himself to farming. He was chairman of 
the Democratic organization of his county, 
but except a few occasional services he took 
no active part in politics then. Gradually, 
however, his attention was directed to the 
depressed condition of the farming interests 
of his state, and in August, 1885, before a 
joint meeting of the agricultural society and 
state grange at Bennettsville, he made a 
speech in which he set forth the cause of 
agricultural depression and urged measures 
of relief. From his active interest in the 
farming class he was styled the "Agricult- 
ural Moses." He advocated an industrial 

school for women and for a separate agri- 

cultural college, and in 1887 he secured a 
modification in the final draft of the will of 
Thomas G. Clemson, which resulted in the 
erection of the Clemson Agricultural Col- 
lege at Fort Hill. In 1890 he was chosen 
governor on the Democratic ticket, and 
carried the election by a large majority. 
Governor Tillman was inaugurated Decem- 
ber 4, 1890. Mr. Tillman was next elected 
to the United States senate from South 
Carolina, and gained a national reputation 
by his fervid oratory. 

No journalist of America was so cele- 
brated in his time for the wit, spice, and 
vigor of his writing, as the gentleman whose 
name heads this sketch. From Atlantic to 
Pacific he was well known by his witticism 
as well as by strength and force of his edi- 
torials. He was a native of Preston, Con- 
necticut, born December 18, 1802. After 
laying the foundation of a liberal education 
in his youth, he entered Brown University, 
from which he was graduated in 1823. Tak- 
ing up the study of law, he was admitted to 
the bar in 1S29. During part of his time 
he was editor of the " New England Weekly 
Review," a position which he relinquished 
to go south and was succeeded by John 
Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet. 

On arriving in Louisville, whither he 
had gone to gather items for his history of 
Henry Clay, Mr. Prentice became identified 
with the " Louisville Journal," which, under 
his hands, became one of the leading Whig 
newspapers of the country. At the head of 
this he remained until the day of his death. 
This latter event occurred January 22, 1870, 
and he was succeeded in the control of the 
" Journal " by Colonel Henry Watterson. 

Mr. Prentice was an author of consider- 
able celebrity, chief among his works being 



"The Life of Henry Clay," and " Prentice- 
ana," a collection of wit and humor, that 
passed through several large editions. 

SAM. HOUSTON, in the opinion of some 
critics one of the most remarkable men 
who ever figured in American history, was a 
native of Rockbridge county, Virginia, born 
March 2, 1793. Early in life he was left in 
destitute circumstances by the death of his 
father, and, with his mother, removed to 
Tennessee, then almost a boundless wilder- 
ness. He received but little education, 
spending the most of his time among the 
Cherokee Indians. Part of the time of his 
residence there Houston acted as clerk for a 
trader and also taught one of the primitive 
schools of the day. In 181 3 he enlisted as 
private in the United States army and was 
engaged under General Jackson in the war 
with the Creek Indians. When peace was 
made Houston was a lieutenant, but he re- 
signed his commission and commenced the 
study of law at Nashville. After holding 
some minor offices he was elected member 
of congress from Tennessee. This was in 
1823. He retained this office until 1827, 
when he was chosen governor of the state. 
In 1829, resigning that office before the ex- 
piration of his term, Sam Houston removed 
to Arkansas, and made his home among the 
Cherokees, becoming the agent of that 
tribe and representing their interests at 
Washington. On a visit to Texas, just 
prior to the election of delegates to a con- 
vention called for the purpose of drawing 
up a constitution previous to the admission 
of the state into the Mexican union, he was 
unanimously chosen a delegate. The con- 
vention framed the constitution, but, it be- 
ing rejected by the government of Mexico, 
and the petition for admission to the Con- 
federacy denied and the Texans told by the 

president of the Mexican union to give up 
their arms, bred trouble. It was determined 
to resist this demand. A military force was 
soon organized, with General Houston at 
the head of it. War was prosecuted with 
great vigor, and with varying success, but 
at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, 
the Mexicans were defeated and their leader 
and president, Santa Anna, captured. Texas 
was then proclaimed an independent repub- 
lic, and in October of the same year Hous- 
ton was inaugurated president. On the ad- 
mission of Texas to the Federal Union, in 
1845, Houston was elected senator, and 
held that position for twelve years. Oppos- 
ing the idea of secession, he retired from 
political life in 1861, and died at Hunts- 
ville, Texas, July 25, 1863. 

ELI WHITNEY, the inventor of the cot- 
ton-gin, was born in Westborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 8, 1765. After his 
graduation from Yale College, he went to 
Georgia, where he studied law, and lived 
with the family of the widow of General 
Nathaniel Greene. At that time the only 
way known to separate the cotton seed from 
the fiber was by hand, making it extremely 
slow and expensive, and for this reason cot- 
ton was little cultivated in this country. 
Mrs. Greene urged the inventive Whitney 
to devise some means for accomplishing 
this work by machinery. This he finally 
succeeded in doing, but he was harassed by 
attempts to defraud him by those who had 
stolen his ideas. He at last formed a part- 
nership with a man named Miller, and they 
began the manufacture of the machines at 
Washington, Georgia, in 1795. The suc- 
cess of his invention was immediate, and the 
legislature of South Carolina voted the sum 
of $50,000 for his idea. This sum he had 
great difficulty in collecting, after years of 



litigation and delay. North Carolina al- 
lowed him a royalty, and the same was 
agreed to by Tennessee, but was never paid. 

While his fame rests upon the invention 
of the cotton-gin, his fortune came from his 
improvements in the manufacture and con- 
struction of firearms. In 1798 the United 
States government gave him a contract for 
this purpose, and he accumulated a fortune 
from it. The town of Whitneyville, Con- 
necticut, was founded by this fortune. 
Whitney died at New Haven, Connecticut, 
January 8, 1825. 

The cotton-gin made the cultivation of 
cotton profitable, and this led to rapid in- 
troduction of slavery in the south. His in- 
vention thus affected our national history in 
a manner little dreamed of by the inventor. 

LESTER WALLACK (John Lester Wal- 
lack), for many years the leading light 
comedian upon the American stage, was 
the son of James W. Wallack, the " Brum- 
mell of the Stage." Both father and son 
were noted for their comeliness of feature 
and form. Lester Wallack was born in 
New York, January 1, 18 19. He received 
his education in England, and made his first 
appearance on the stage in 1848 at the New 
Broadway theater, New York. He acted 
light comedy parts, and also occasion- 
ally in romantic plays like Monte Cristo, 
which play made him his fame. He went 
to England and played under management 
of such men as Hamblin and Burton, and then 
returned to New York with his father, who 
opened the first Wallack's theater, at the 
corner of Broome and Broadway, in 1852. 
The location was afterward changed to 
Thirteenth and Broadway, in 1861, and 
later to its present location, Broadway and 
Thirteenth, in 1882. The elder Wallack 
died in 1864, after which Lester assumed 

management, jointly with Theodore Moss. 
Lester Wallack was commissioned in the 
queen's service while in England, and there 
he also married a sister to the famous artist, 
the late John Everett Millais. While Les- 
ter Wallack never played in the interior 
cities, his name was as familiar to the public 
as that of our greatest stars. He died Sep- 
tember 6, 1888, at Stamford, Connecticut. 

the palace car magnate, inventor, 
multi-millionaire and manufacturer, may 
well be classed among the remarkable 
self-made men of the century. He was 
born March 3, 1831, in Chautauqua county, 
New York. His parents were poor, and 
his education was limited to what he could 
learn of the rudimentary branches in the 
district school. At the age of fourteen he 
went to work as clerk for a country mer- 
chant. He kept this place three years, 
studying at night. When seventeen he 
went to Albion, New York, and worked for 
his brother, who kept a cabinet shop there. 
Five years later he went into business for 
himself as contractor for moving buildings 
along the line of the Erie canal, which was 
then being widened by the state, and was 
successful in thii. In 1858 he removed to 
Chicago and engaged in the business of 
moving and raising houses. The work was 
novel there then and he was quite success- 
ful. About this time the discomfort attend- 
ant on traveling at night attracted his at- 
tention. He reasoned that the public would 
gladly pay for comfortable sleeping accom- 
modations. A few sleeping cars were in 
use at that time, but they were wretchedly 
crude, uncomfortable affairs. In 1859 he 
bought two old day coaches from the Chi- 
cago & Alton road and remodeled them some- 
thing like the general plan of the sleeping 



cars of the present day. ' They were put 
into service on the Chicago & Alton and 
became popular at once. In 1863 he built 
the first sleeping-car resembling the Pullman 
cars of to-day. It cost $18,000 and was 
the "Pioneer." After that the Pullman 
Palace Car Company prospered. It had 
shops at different cities. In 1880 the Town 
of Pullman was founded by Mr. Pullman 
and his company, and this model manufac- 
turing community is known all over the 
world. Mr. Pullman died October 19, 1897. 

JAMES E. B. STUART, the most famous 
cavalry leader of the Southern Confed- 
eracy during the Civil war, was born in 
Patrick county, Virginia, in 1833. On 
graduating from the United States Military 
Academy, West Point, in 1854, he was as- 
signed, as second lieutenant, to a regiment 
of mounted rifles, receiving his commission 
in October. In March, 1855, he was trans- 
ferred to the newly organized First cavalry, 
and was promoted to first lieutenant the 
following December, and to captain April 
22, 1 86 1. Taking the side of the south, 
May 14, 1 861, he was made colonel of a 
Virginia cavalry regiment, and served as 
such at Bull Run. In September, 1861, he 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
erai, and major-general early in 1862. On 
the reorganization of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, in June of the latter year, when 
R. E. Lee assumed command, General Stu- 
art made a reconnoissance with one thou- 
sand five hundred cavalry and four guns, 
and in two days made the circuit of McClel- 
lan's army, producing much confusion and 
gathering useful information, and losing but 
one man. August 25, 1862, he captured 
part of Pope's headquarters' train, including 
that general's private baggage and official 
correspondence, and the next night, in a 

descent upon Manasses, capturing immense 
quantities of commissary and quartermaster 
store, eight guns, a number of locomotives 
and a few hundred prisoners. During the 
invasion of Maryland, in September, 1862, 
General Stuart acted as rearguard, resisting 
the advance of the Federal cavalry at South 
Mountain, and at Antietam commanded the 
Confederate left. Shortly after he crossed 
the Potomac, making a raid as far as Cham- 
bersburg, Pennsylvania. In the battle of 
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Gen- 
eral Stuart's command was on the extreme 
right of the Confederate line. At Chancel- 
lorsville, after "Stonewall " Jackson's death 
and the wounding of General A. P. Hill, 
General Stuart assumed command of Jack- 
son's corps, which he led in the severe con- 
test of May 3, 1863. Early in June, the 
same year, a large force of cavalry was 
gathered under Stuart, at Culpepper, Vir- 
ginia, which, advancing to join General Lee 
in his invasion of Pennsylvania, was met at 
Brandy Station, by two divisions of cavalry 
and two brigades of infantry, under General 
John I. Gregg, and driven back. During the 
movements of the Gettysburg campaign he 
rendered important services. In May, 1864, 
General Stuart succeeded, by a detour, in 
placing himself between Richmond and 
Sheridan's advancing column, and at Yellow 
Tavern was attacked in force. During the 
fierce conflict that ensued General Stuart 
was mortally wounded, and died at Rich- 
mond, May 1 1, 1864. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth 
president of the United States — from 
1853 until 1857 — was born November 23, 
1804, at Hillsboro, New Hampshire. He 
came of old revolutionary stock and his 
father was a governor of the state. Mr. 
Pierce entered Bowdoin College in 1820, 



was graduated in 1824, and took up the 
study of law in the office of Judge Wood- 
bury, and later he was admitted to the bar. 
Mr. Pierce practiced his profession with 
varying successes in his native town and 
also in Concord. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1833 and served in that 
body until 1837, the last two years of his 
term serving as speaker of the house. He 
was elected to the United States senate in 
1837, just as President Van Buren began 
his term of office. Mr. Pierce served until 
1842, and many times during Polk's term he 
declined important public offices. During 
the war with Mexico Mr. Pierce was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and he embarked 
with a portion of his troops at Newport, 
Rhode Island, May 27, 1847, and went with 
them to the field of battle. He served 
through the war and distinguished himself 
by his skill, bravery and excellent judg- 
ment. When he reached his home in his 
native state he was received coldly by the 
opponents of the war, but the advocates of 
the war made up for his cold reception by 
the enthusiastic welcome which they ac- 
corded him. Mr. Pierce resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, and in the political 
strife that followed he gave his support to 
the pro- slavery wing of the Democratic 
party. The Democratic convention met in 
Baltimore, June 12, 1852, to nominate a 
candidate for the presidency, and they con- 
tinued in session four days, and in thirty- 
five ballotings no one had secured the re- 
quisite two-thirds vote. Mr. Pierce had not 
received a vote as yet, until the Virginia 
delegation brought his name forward, and 
finally on the forty-ninth ballot Mr. Pierce 
received 282 votes and all the other candi- 
dates eleven. His opponent on the Whig 
ticket was General Winfield Scott, who 
only received the electoral votes of four 

states. Mr. Pierce was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the United States March 4, 1853, 
with W. R. King as vice president, and the 
following named gentlemen were afterward 
chosen to fill the positions in the cabinet: 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jeffer- 
son Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert Mc- 
Clelland, James Campbell and Caleb Cush- 
ing. During the administration of President 
Pierce the Missouri compromise law was 
repealed, and all the territories of the Union 
were thrown open to slavery, and the dis- 
turbances in Kansas occurred. In 1857 he 
was succeeded in the presidency by James 
Buchanan, and retired to his home in Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. He always cherished 
his principles of slavery, and at the out- 
break of the rebellion he was an adherent of 
the cause of the Confederacy. He died at 
Concord, New Hampshire, October 8, 1869. 

JAMES B. WEAVER, well known as a 
leader of the Greenback and later of the 
Populist party, was born at Dayton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1833. He received his earlier 
education in the schools of his native town, 
and entered the law department of the Ohio 
University, at Cincinnati, from which he 
graduated in 1854. Removing to the grow- 
ing state of Iowa, he became connected 
with "The Iowa Tribune," at the state 
capital, Des Moines, as one of its editors. 
He afterward practiced law and was elected 
district attorney for the second judicial dis- 
trict of Iowa, on the Republican ticket in 
1866, which office he held for a short time. 
In 1867 Mr. Weaver was appointed assessor 
of internal revenue for the first district of 
Iowa, and filled that position until some- 
time in 1873. He was elected and served 
in the forty-sixth congress. In 1880 the 
National or Greenback party in convention 
at Chicago, nominated James B. Weaver as 



its candidate for the presidency. By a 
union of the Democratic and National 
parties in his district, he was elected to the 
forty-ninth congress, and re-elected to the 
same office in the fall of 1886. Mr. Weaver 
was conceded to be a very fluent speaker, 
and quite active in all political work. On 
July 4, 1892, at the National convention 
of the People's party, General James B. 
Weaver was chosen as the candidate for 
president of that organization, and during 
the campaign that followed, gained a na- 
tional reputation. 

of the leading bankers and financiers of 
the United States, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1826, and was the son of 
Francis M. Drexel, who had established 
the large banking institution of Drexel & 
Co., so well known. The latter was a native 
of Dornbirn, in the Austrian Tyrol. He 
studied languages and fine arts at Turin, 
Italy. On returning to his mountain home, 
in 1809, and finding it in the hands of the 
French, he went to Switzerland and later 
to Paris. In i8i2,aftera short visit home, 
he went to Berlin, where he studied paint- 
ing until 18 17, in which year he emigrated 
to America, and settled in Philadelphia. A 
few years later he went to Chili and Peru, 
where he executed some fine portraits of 
notable people, including General Simon 
Bolivar. After spending some time in Mex- 
ico, he returned to Philadelphia, and en- 
gaged in the banking business. In 1837 he 
founded the house of Drexel & Co. He 
died in 1837, and was succeeded by his two 
sons, Anthony J. and Francis A. His son, 
Anthony J. Drexel, Jr. , entered the bank 
when he was thirteen years of age, before he 
was through with his schooling, and after 
that the history of the banking business of 

which he was the head, was the history of his 
life. The New York house of Drexel, Mor- 
gan & Co. was established in 1850; the 
Paris house, Drexel, Harjes & Co., in 1867. 
The Drexel banking houses have supplied 
iand placed hundreds of millions of dollars 
n government, corporation, railroad and 
other loans and securities. The reputation 
of the houses has always been held on the 
highest plane. Mr. Drexel founded and 
heavily endowed the Drexel Institute, in 
Philadelphia, an institution to furnish better 
and wider avenues of employment to young 
people of both sexes. It has departments 
of arts, science, mechanical arts and domes- 
tic economy. Mr. Drexel, Jr., departed this 
life June 30, 1893. 

inventor of the recording telegraph in- 
strument, was born in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, April 27, 1 79 1. He graduated 
from Yale College in 18 10, and took up art 
as his profession. He went to London with 
the great American painter, Washington 
Allston, and studied in the Royal Academy 
under Benjamin West. His "Dying Her- 
cules," his first effort in sculpture, took the 
gold medal in 18 13. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 1 81 5 and continued to pursue his 
profession. He was greatly interested in 
scientific studies, which he carried on in 
connection with other labors. He founded 
the National Academy of Design and was 
many years its president. He returned to 
Europe and spent three years in study 
in the art centers, Rome, Florence, Venice 
and Paris. In 1832 he returned to America 
and while on the return voyage the idea of 
a recording telegraph apparatus occurred to 
him, and he made a drawing to represent his 
conception. He was the first to occupy the 
chair of fine arts in the University of New 



York City, and in 1835 he set up his rude 
instrument in his room in the university. 
But it was not until after many years of 
discouragement and reverses of fortune that 
lie finally was successful in placing his inven- 
tion before the public. In 1844, by aid of 
the United States government, he had con- 
structed a telegraph line fort}' miles in length 
from Washington to Baltimore. Over this 
line the test was made, and the first tele- 
graphic message was flashed May 24, 1 844, 
from the United States supreme court rooms 
to Baltimore. It read, "What hath God 
wrought!" His fame and fortune were es- 
tablished in an instant. Wealth and honors 
poured in upon him from that day. The 
nations of Europe vied with each other 
in honoring the great inventor with medals, 
titles and decorations, and the learned 
societies of Europe hastened to enroll his 
name upon their membership lists and confer 
degrees. In 1858 he was the recipient of an 
honor never accorded to an inventor before. 
The ten leading nations of Europe, at the 
suggestion of the Emporer Napoleon, ap- 
pointed representatives to an international 
congress, which convened at Paris for the 
special purpose of expressing gratitude of the 
nations, and they voted him a present of 
400,000 francs. 

Professor Morse was present at the unveil- 
ing of a bronze statue erected in his honor in 
Central Park, New York, in 1871. His last 
appearance in public was at the unveiling 
of the statue of Benjamin Franklin in New 
York in 1872, when he made the dedica- 
tory speech and unveiled the statue. He 
died April 2, 1872, in the city of New York. 

chief justice of the United States, was 
born at Lyme, Connecticut, November 29, 
1816. He was a graduate from Yale Col- 

lege in 1837, in the class with William M. 
Evarts. His father was judge of the su- 
preme court of errors of the state of Con- 
necticut, and in his office young Waite 
studied law. He subsequently removed to 
Ohio, and was elected to the legislature of 
that state in 1849. He removed from 
Maumee City to Toledo and became a prom- 
inent legal light in that state. He was 
nominated as a candidate for congress re- 
peatedly but declined to run, and also de- 
clined a place on the supreme bench of the 
state. He won great distinction for his able 
handling of the Alabama claims at Geneva, 
before the arbitration tribunal in 1871, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States in 1874 on the 
death of Judge Chase. When, in 1876, elec- 
toral commissioners were chosen to decide 
the presidential election controversy between 
Tilden and Hayes, Judge Waite refused to 
serve on that commission. 

His death occurred March 23, 1888. 

ELISHA KENT KANE was one of the 
distinguished American explorers of the 
unknown regions of the frozen north, and 
gave to the world a more accurate knowl- 
edge of the Arctic zone. Dr. Kane was 
born February 3, 1820, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. He was a graduate of the 
universities of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
and took his medical degree in 1843. He 
entered the service of the United States 
navy, and was physician to the Chinese 
embassy. Dr. Kane traveled extensively 
in the Levant, Asia and Western Africa, 
and also served in the Mexican war, in 
which he was severely wounded. His 
first Arctic expedition was under De Haven 
in the first Grinnell expedition in search 
of Sir John Franklin in 1850. He com- 
manded the second Grinnell expedition 



in 1853-55, and discovered an open polar 
sea. For this expedition he received a gold 
medal and other distinctions. He published 
a narrative of his first polar expedition in 
1853, and in 1856 published two volumes 
relating to his second polar expedition. He 
was a man of active, enterprising and cour- 
ageous spirit. His health, which was al- 
ways delicate, was impaired by the hard- 
ships of his Arctic expeditions, from which 
he never fully recovered and from which he 
died February 16, 1857, at Havana. 

daughter of Judge Daniel Cady and 
Margaret Livingston, and was born Novem- 
ber 12, 181 5, at Johnstown, New York. She 
was educated at the Johnstown Academy, 
inhere she studied with a class of boys, and 
was fitted for college at the age of fifteen, 
*fter which she pursued her studies at Mrs. 
Willard's Seminary, at Troy. Her atten- 
tion was called to the disabilities of her sex 
by her own educational experiences, and 
through a study of Blackstone, Story, and 
Kent. Miss Cady was married to Henry B. 
Stanton in 1840, and accompanied him to 
the world's anti-slavery convention in Lon- 
don. While there she made the acquain- 
tance of Lucretia Mott. Mrs. Stanton 
resided at Boston until 1847, when the 
family moved to Seneca Falls, New York, 
and she and Lucretia Mott signed the first 
call for a woman's rights convention. The 
meeting was held at her place of residence 
July 19-20, 1848. This was the first oc- 
casion of a formal claim of suffrage for 
women that was made. Mrs. Stanton ad- 
dressed the New York legislature, in 1854, 
on the rights of married women, and in 
i860, in advocacy of the granting of di- 
vorce for drunkenness. She also addressed 
the legislature and the constitutional con- 

vention, and maintained that during the 
revision of the constitution the state was 
resolved into its original elements, and that 
all citizens had, therefore, a right to vote 
for the members of that convention. After 
1869 Mrs. Stanton frequently addressed 
congressional committees and state consti- 
tutional conventions, and she canvassed 
Kansas, Michigan, and other states when 
the question of woman suffrage was sub- 
mitted in those states. Mrs. Stanton was 
one of the editors of the " Revolution," and 
most of the calls and resolutions for con- 
ventions have come from her pen. She 
was president of the national committee, 
also of the Woman's Loyal League, and 
of the National Association, for many years. 

American jurist was born in Connecti- 
cut in 1805. He emc.ea Williams College 
when sixteen years old, and commenced the 
study of law in 1825. In 1828 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and went to New York, 
where he soon came into prominence be- 
fore the bar of that state. He entered upon 
the labor of reforming the practice and 
procedure, which was then based upon the 
common law practice of England, and had 
become extremely complicated, difficult and 
uncertain in its application. His first paper 
on this subject was published in 1839, and 
after eight years of continuous efforts in this 
direction, he was appointed one of a com- 
mission by New York to reform the practice 
of that state. The result was embodied in 
the two codes of procedure, civil and crimi- 
nal, the first of which was adopted almost 
entire by the state of New York, and has 
since been adopted by more than half the 
states in the Union, and became the basis 
of the new practice and procedure in Eng- 
land, contained in the Judicature act. He 



was later appointed chairman of a new com- 
mission to codify the entire body of laws. 
This great work employed many years in its 
completion, but when finished it embraced 
a civil, penal, ar.d political code, covering 
the entire field of American laws, statutory 
and common. This great body of law was 
adopted by California and Dakota territory 
in its entirety, and many other states have 
since adopted its substance. In 1867 the 
British Association for Social Science heard 
a proposition from Mr. Field to prepare an 
international code. This led to the prepara- 
tion of his " Draft Outlines of an Interna- 
tional Code," which was in fact a complete 
body of international laws, and introduced 
the principle of arbitration. Other of his 
codes of the state of New York have since 
been adopted by that state. 

In addition to his great works on law, 
Mr. Field indulged his literary tastes by fre- 
quent contributions to general literature, 
and his articles on travels, literature, and 
the political questions of the hour gave 
him rank with the best writers of his time. 
His father was the Rev. David Dudley Field, 
and his brothers were Cyrus W. Field, Rev. 
Henry Martin Field, and Justice Stephen 
J. Field of the United States supreme 
court. David Dudley Field died at New 
York, April 13, 1894. 

HENRY M. TELLER, a celebrated 
American politician, and secretary of 
the interior under President Arthur, was born 
May 23, 1830, in Allegany county, New 
York. He was of Hollandish ancestry and 
received an excellent education, after which 
he took up the study of law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the state of New York. 
Mr. Teller removed to Illinois in January, 
1858, and practiced for three years in that 
state. From thence he moved to Colorado 

in 1 86 1 and located at Central City, which 
was then one of the principal mining towns 
in the state. His exceptional abilities as 
a lawyer soon brought him into prominence 
and gained for him a numerous and profit- 
able clientage. In politics he affiliated with 
the Republican party, but declined to become 
a candidate for office until the admission of 
Colorado into the Union as a state, when 
he was elected to the United States senate. 
Mr. Teller drew the term ending March 
4, 1877, but was re-elected December 11, 
1876, and served until April 17, 1882, when 
he was appointed by President Arthur as 
secretary of the interior. He accepted a 
cabinet position with reluctance, and on 
March 3, 1885, he retired from the cabinet, 
having been elected to the senate a short 
time before to succeed Nathaniel P. Hill. 
Mr. Teller took his seat on March 4, 1885, 
in the senate, to which he was afterward 
re-elected. He served as chairman on the 
committee of pensions, patents, mines and 
mining, and was also a member of commit- 
tees on claims, railroads, privileges and 
elections and public lands. Mr. Teller came 
to be recognized as one of the ablest advo- 
cates of the silver cause. He was one of the 
delegates to the Republican National conven- 
tion at St. Louis in 1896, in which he took 
an active part and tried to have a silver 
plank inserted in the platform of the party, 
Failing in this he felt impelled to bolt the 
convention, which he did and joined forces 
with the great silver movement in the cam- 
paign which followed, being recognized in 
that campaign as one of the most able and 
eminent advocates of "silver" in America. 

JOHN ERICSSON, an eminent inven- 
tor and machinist, who won fame in 
America, was born in Sweden, July 31,1 803. 
In early childhood he evinced a decided in- 



clination to mechanical pursuits, and at the 
age of eleven he was appointed to a cadet- 
ship in the engineer corps, and at the age of 
seventeen was promoted to a lieutenancy. 
In 1826 he introduced a "flame engine," 
which he had invented, and offered it to 
English capitalists, but it was found that it 
could be operated only by the use of wood 
for fuel. Shortly after this he resigned his 
commission in the army of Sweden, and de- 
voted himself to mechanical pursuits. He 
discovered and introduced the principle of 
artificial draughts in steam boilers, and re- 
ceived a prize of two thousand five hundred 
dollars for his locomotive, the "Novelty," 
which attained a great speed, for that day. 
The artificial draught effected a great saving 
in fuel and made unnecessary the huge 
smoke-stacks formerly used, and the princi- 
ple is still applied, in modified form, in boil- 
ers. He also invented a steam fire-engine, 
and later a hot-air engine, which he at- 
tempted to apply in the operation of his 
ship, "Ericsson," but as it did not give the 
speed required, he abandoned it, but after- 
wards applied it to machinery for pumping, 
hoisting, etc. 

Ericsson was first to apply the screw 
propeller to navigation. The English peo- 
ple not receiving this new departure readily, 
Ericsson came to America in 1839, and 
built the United States steamer, "Prince- 
ton," in which the screw-propeller was util- 
ized, the first steamer ever built in which 
the propeller was under water, out of range 
of the enemy's shots. The achievement 
which gave him greatest renown, however, 
was the ironclad vessel, the "Monitor," an 
entirely new type of vessel, which, in March, 
1862, attacked the Confederate monster 
ironclad ram, "Virginia," and after a fierce 
struggle, compelled her to withdraw from 
Hampton Roads for repairs. After the war 

one of his most noted inventions was his 
vessel, " Destroyer," with a submarine gun, 
which carried a projectile torpedo. In 1886 
the king of Spain conferred on him the 
grand cross of the Order of Naval Merit. 
He died in March, 1889, and his body was 
transferred, with naval honors, to the country 
of his birth. 

JAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and was born in Franklin 
county, April 23, 1 791 . He was of Irish 
ancestry, his father having come to this 
country in 1783, in quite humble circum- 
stances, and settled in the western part of 
the Keystone state. 

James Buchanan remained in his se- 
cluded home for eight years, enjoying but 
few social or intellectual advantages. His 
parents were industrious and frugal, and 
prospered, and, in 1799, the family removed 
to Mercersbur Pennsylvania, where he 
was placed in school. His progress was 
rapid, and in 1801 he entered Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, where he took his place 
among the best scholars in the institution. 
In 1809 he graduated with the highest hon- 
ors in his class. He was then eighteen, tall, 
graceful and in vigorous health. He com- 
menced the study of law at Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and took a 
stand with the ablest of his fellow lawyers. 
When but twenty-six years old he success- 
fully defended, unaided by counsel, one of 
the judges of the state who was before the 
bar of the state senate under articles of im- 

During the war of 18 12-15, Mr. Buch- 
anan sustained the government with all his 
power, eloquently urging the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war, and enlisted as a private 



volunteer to assist in repelling the British 
who had sacked and burned the public 
buildings of Washington and threatened 
Baltimore. At that time Buchanan was 
a Federalist, but the opposition of that 
party to the war with Great Britain and the 
alien and sedition laws of John Adams, 
brought that party into disrepute, and drove 
many, among them Buchanan, into the Re- 
publican, or anti-Federalist ranks. He was 
elected to congress in 1828. In 1831 he 
was sent as minister to Russia, and upon 
his return to this country, in 1833, was ele- 
vated to the United States senate, and re- 
mained in that position for twelve years. 
Upon the accession of President Polk to 
office he made Mr. Buchanan secretary of 
state. Four years later he retired to pri- 
vate life, and in 1853 he was honored with 
the mission to England. In 1856 the na- 
tional Democratic convention nominated 
him for the presidency and he was elected. 
It was during his administration that the 
rising tide of the secession movement over- 
took the country- Mr. Buchanan declared 
that the national constitution gave him no 
power to do anything against the movement 
to break up the Union. After his succession 
by Abraham Lincoln in i860, Mr. Buchanan 
retired to his home at Wheatland, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he died June 1, 1868. 

JOHN HARVARD, the founder of the 
Harvard University, was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1608. He received his 
education at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
and came to America in 1637, settling in 
Massachusetts. He was a non-conformist 
minister, and a tract of land was set aside 
for him in Charlestown, near Boston. He 
was at once appointed one of a committee to 
formulate a body of laws for the colony. 
One year before his arrival in the colony 

the general court had voted the sum of four 
hundred pounds toward the establishment of 
a school or college, half of which was to be 
paid the next year In 1637 preliminary 
plans were made for starting the school. In 
1638 John Harvard, who had shown great 
interest in the new institution of learning 
proposed, died, leaving his entire property, 
about twice the sum originally voted, to the 
school, together with three hundred volumes 
as a nucleus for a library. The institution 
was then given the name of Harvard, and 
established at Newton (now Cambridge), 
Massachusetts. It grew to be one of the two 
principal seats of learning in the new world, 
and has maintained its reputation since. It 
now consists of twenty-two separate build- 
ings, and its curriculum embraces over one 
hundred and seventy elective courses, and it 
ranks among the great universities of the 

jurist and chief justice of the United 
States supreme court, was born in Calvert 
county, Maryland, March 17, 1777. He 
graduated fiom Dickinson College at the 
age of eighteen, took up the study of law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1799. He 
was chosen to the legislature from his county, 
and in 1801 removed to Frederick, Mary- 
land. He became United States senator 
from Maryland in 18 16, and took up his 
permanent residence in Baltimore a few 
years later. In 1824 he became an ardent 
admirer and supporter of Andrew Jackson, 
and upon Jackson's election to the presi- 
dency, was appointed attorney general of 
the United States. Two years later he was 
appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
after serving in that capacity for nearly one 
year, the senate refused to confirm the ap- 
pointment. In 1835, upon the death of 



Chief-justice Marsha!!, he was appointed to 
that place, and a political change having 
occurred in the make up of the senate, he 
was confirmed in 1836. He presided at 
his first session in January of the following 

The case which suggests itself first to 
the average reader in connection with this 
jurist is the celebrated " Dred Scott " case, 
which came before the supreme court for 
decision in 1856. In his opinion, delivered 
on behalf of a majority of the court, one 
remarkable statement occurs as a result of 
an exhaustive survey of the historical 
grounds, to the effect that " for more than 
a century prior to the adoption of the con- 
stitution they (Africans) had been regarded 
so far inferior that they had no rights which 
a white man was bound to respect." Judge 
Taney retained the office of chief justice 
until his death, in 1864. 

tleman had a world-wide reputation as 
an historian, which placed him in the front 
rank of the great men of America. He was 
born April 15, 18 14, at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, was given a thorough preparatory 
education and then attended Harvard, from 
which he was graduated in 1831. He also 
studied at Gottingen and Berlin, read law 
and in 1836 was admitted to the bar. In 
1 84 1 he was appointed secretary of the 
legation at St. Petersburg, and in 1866-67 
served as United States minister to Austria, 
serving in the same capacity during 1869 
and 1870 to England. In 1856, after long 
and exhaustive research and preparation, he 
published in London "The Rise of the 
Dutch Republic." It embraced three vol- 
umes and immediately attracted great at- 
tention throughout Europe and America as 
a work of unusual merit. From 1S61 to 

1868 he produced "The History of the 
United Netherlands," in four volumes. 
Other works followed, with equal success, 
and his position as one of the foremost his- 
torians and writers of his day was firmly 
established. His death occured May 29, 

ELIAS HOWE, the inventor of the sew- 
ing machine, well deserves to be classed 
among the great and noted men of Amer- 
ica. He was the son of a miller and farmer 
and was born at Spencer, Massachusetts, 
July 9, 1 8 19. In 1835 he went to Lowell 
and worked there, and later at Boston, in the 
machine shops. His first sewing machine 
was completed in 1845, and he patented it in 
1846, laboring with the greatest persistency 
in spite of poverty and hardships, working 
for a time as an engine driver on a railroad 
at pauper wages and with broken health. 
He then spent two years of unsuccessful ex- 
ertion in England, striving in vain to bring 
his invention into public notice and use. 
He returned to the United States in almost 
hopeless poverty, to find that his patent 
had been violated. At last, however, he 
found friends who assisted him financially, 
and after years of litigation he made good 
his claims in the courts in 1854. His inven- 
tion afterward brought him a large fortune. 
During the Civil war he volunteered as a 
private in the Seventeenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers, and served for some time. During 
his life time he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor and many other medals. 
His death occurred October 3, 1867, at 
Brooklyn, New York. 

PHILLIPS BROOKS, celebrated as an 
eloquent preacher and able pulpit ora- 
tor, was born in Boston on the 13th day of 
December, 1835. He received excellent 



educational advantages, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1855. Early in life he decided 
upon the ministry as his life work and 
studied theology in the Episcopal Theolog- 
ical Seminary, at Alexandria, Virginia. In 
1859 he was ordained and the same year 
became pastor of the Church of the Advent, 
in Philadelphia. Three years later he as- 
sumed the pastorate of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, where he remained until 1870. 
At the expiration of that time he accepted 
the pastoral charge of Trinity Church in 
Boston, where his eloquence and ability at- 
tracted much attention and built up a pow- 
erful church organization. Dr. Brooks also 
devoted considerable time to lecturing and 
literary work and attained prominence in 
these lines. 

WILLIAM B. ALLISON, a statesman 
of national reputation and one of the 
leaders of the Republican party, was born 
March 2, 1829, at Perry, Ohio. He grew 
up on his father's farm, which he assisted 
in cultivating, and attended the district 
school. When sixteen years old he went 
to the academy at Wooster, and subse- 
quently spent a year at the Allegheny Col- 
lege, at Meadville, Pennsylvania. He next 
taught school and spent another year at the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio. 
Mr. Allison then took up the study of law 
at Wooster, where he was admitted to the 
barini85i, and soon obtained a position 
as deputy county clerk. His political lean- 
ings were toward the old line Whigs, who 
afterward laid the foundation of the Repub- 
lican party. He was a delegate to the state 
convention in 1856, in the campaign of 
which he supported Fremont for president. 
Mr Allison removed to Dubuque, Iowa, 
in the following year. He rapidly rose to 
prominence at the bar and in politics. In 

i860 he was chosen as a delegate to the 
Republican convention held in Chicago, of 
which he was elected one of the secretaries. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the governor. His 
congressional career opened in 1862, when 
he was elected to the thirty-eighth congress; 
he was re-elected three times, serving from 
March 4, 1863, to March 3, 1871. Hewas 
a member of the ways and means committee 
a good part of his term. His career in the 
United States senate began in 1873, and he 
rapidly rose to eminence in national affairs, 
his service of a quarter of a century in that 
body being marked by close fealty to the 
Republican party. He twice declined the 
portfolio of the treasury tendered him by 
Garfield and Harrison, and his name was 
prominently mentioned for the presidency 
at several national Republican conventions. 

M A * 

rer and writer, was born in Boston, 
December 19, 1821. She was the daughter 
of Timothy Rice, and married D. P. Liver- 
more, a preacher of the Universalist church. 
She contributed able articles to many of the 
most noted periodicals of this country and 
England. During the Civil war she labored 
zealously and with success on behalf of the 
sanitary commission which played so impor- 
tant a part during that great struggle. She 
became editor of the " Woman's Journal," 
published at Boston in 1870. 

She held a prominent place as a public 
speaker and writer on woman's suffrage, 
temperance, social and religious questions, 
and her influence was great in every cause 
she advocated. 

JOHN B. GOUGH. a noted temperance 
lecturer, who won his fame in America, 
was born in the village of Sandgate, Kent, 



England, August 22, 1817. He came to 
the United States at the age of twelve. 
He followed the trade of bookbinder, and 
lived in great poverty on account of the 
liquor habit. In 1843, however, he re- 
formed, and began his career as a temper- 
ance lecturer. He worked zealously in the 
cause of temperance, and his lectures and 
published articles revealed great earnestness. 
He formed temperance societies throughout 
the entire country, and labored with great 
success. He visited England in the same 
cause about the year 1853 and again in 
1878. He also lectured upon many other 
topics, in which he attained a wide reputa- 
tion. His death occurred February 18, 

sculptor and painter, was born in Ches- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1822. 
He early evinced a taste for art, and began 
the study of sculpture in Cincinnati. Later 
he found painting more to his liking. He 
went to New York, where he followed this 
profession, and later to Boston. In 1846 
he located in Philadelphia. He visited 
Italy in 1850, and studied at Florence, 
where he resided almost continuously for 
twenty-two years. He returned to America 
in 1872, and died in New York May 11 of 
the same year. 

He was the author of many heroic 
poems, but the one giving him the most re- 
nown is his famous "Sheridan's Ride," of 
which he has also left a representation in 

EUGENE V. DEBS, the former famous 
president of the American Railway 
Union, and great labor leader, was born in 
the city of Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1855. 
He received his education in the public 

schools of that place and at the age of 
sixteen years began work as a painter in 
the Vandalia shops. After this, for some 
three years, he was employed as a loco- 
motive fireman on the same road. His 
first appearance in public life was in his 
canvass for the election to the office of city 
clerk of Terre Haute. In this capacity he 
served two terms, and when twenty six 
years of age was elected a member of the 
legislature of the state of Indiana. While 
a member of that body he secured the 
passage of several bills in the interest of 
organized labor, of which he was always 
a faithful champion. Mr. Debs' speech 
nominating Daniel Voorhees for the United 
States senate gave him a wide reputation for 
orator}'. On the expiration of his term in 
the legislature, he was elected grand secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Fireman and filled that office 
for fourteen successive years. He was 
always an earnest advocate of confederation 
of railroad men and it was mainly through 
his efforts that the United Order of Railway 
Employes, composed of the Brotherhood 
of Railway Trainmen and Conductors, 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association was 
formed, and he became a member of its 
supreme council. The order was dissolved 
by disagreement between two of its leading 
orders, and then Mr. Debs conceived the 
idea of the American Railway Union. He 
worked on the details and the union came 
into existence in Chicago, June 20, 1 893. For 
a time it prospered and became one of the 
largest bodies of railway men in the world. 
It won in a contest with the Great Northern 
Railway. In the strike made by the union 
in sympathy with the Pullman employes 
inaugurated in Chicago June 25, 1S94, and 
the consequent rioting, the Railway Union 



lost much prestige and Mr. Debs, in company 
with others of the officers, being held as in con- 
tempt of the United States courts, he suffered 
a sentence of six months in jail at Wood- 
stock, McHenry county, Illinois. In 1897 
Mr. Debs, on the demise of the American 
Railway Union, organized the Social 
Democracy, an institution founded on the 
best lines of the communistic idea, which 
was to provide homes and employment for 
its members. 

JOHN G. CARLISLE, famous as a law- 
yer, congressman, senator and cabinet 
officer, was born in Campbell (now Kenton) 
county, Kentucky, September 5, 1835, on a 
farm. He received the usual education of 
the time and began at an early age to teach 
school and, at the same time, the study of 
law. Soon opportunity offered and he 
entered an office in Covington, Kentucky, 
and was admitted to practice at the bar in 
1858. Politics attracted his attention and 
in 1859 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in the legislature of his native 
state. On the outbreak of the war in 1861, 
he embraced the cause of the Union and was 
largely instrumental in preserving Kentucky 
to the federal cause. He resumed his legal 
practice for a time and declined a nomina- 
tion as presidential elector in 1864. In 
1866 and again in 1869 Mr. Carlisle was 
elected to the senate of Kentucky. He re- 
signed this position in 1871 and was chosen 
lieutenant governor of the state, which office 
he held until 1875. He was one of the 
presidential electors-at-large for Ken- 
tucky in 1876. He first entered congress in 
1877, and soon became a prominent leader 
on the Democratic side of the house of rep- 
resentatives, and continued a member of 
that body through the forty-sixth, forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth and forty-ninth con- 

gresses, and was speaker of the house during 
the two latter. He was elected to the 
United States senate to succeed Senator 
Blackburn, and remained a member of that 
branch of congress until March, 1893, when 
he was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
He performed the duties of that high office 
until March 4, 1897, throughout the en- 
tire second administration of President 
Cleveland. His ability and many years of 
public service gave him a national reputa- 

FRANCES E. WILLARD, for many years 
president of the -Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and a noted American 
lecturer and writer, was born in Rochester, 
New York, September 28, 1839. Graduating 
from the Northwestern Female College at the 
age of nineteen she began teaching and met 
with great success in many cities of the west. 
She was made directress of Genesee Wes- 
leyan Seminary at Lima, Ohio, in 1867, and 
four years later was elected president of the 
Evanston College for young ladies, a branch 
of the Northwestern University. 

During the two years succeeding 1869 
she traveled extensively in Europe and the 
east, visiting Egypt and Palestine, and 
gathering materials for a valuable course of 
lectures, which she delivered at Chicago on 
her return. She became very popular, and 
won great influence in the temperance 
cause. Her work as president of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union greatly 
strengthened that society, and she made 
frequent trips to Europe in the interest of 
that cause. 

RICHARD OLNEY.— Among the promi- 
nent men who were members of the 
cabinet of President Cleveland in his second 
administration, the gentleman whose name 



heads this sketch held a leading place, oc- 
cupying the positions of attorney general 
and secretary of state. 

Mr. Olney came from one of the oldest 
and most honored New England families; 
the first of his ancestors to come from Eng- 
land settled in Massachusetts in 1635. This 
was Thomas Olney. He was a friend and 
co-religionist of Roger Williams, and when 
the latter moved to what is now Rhode 
I'sland, went with him and became one of 
the founders of Providence Plantations. 

Richard Olney was born in Oxford, 
Massachusetts, in 1835, an d received the 
elements of his earlier education in the com- 
mon schools which New England is so proud 
of. He entered Brown University, from 
which he graduated in 1856, and passed the 
Harvard law school two years later. He 
began the practice of his profession with 
Judge B. F. Thomas, a prominent man of 
that locality. For years Richard Olney was 
regarded as one of the ablest and most 
learned lawyers in Massachusetts. Twice 
he was offered a place on the bench of the 
supreme court of the state, but both times 
he declined. He was always a Democrat 
in his political tenets, and for many years 
was a trusted counsellor of members of that 
party. In 1874 Mr. Olney was elected a 
member of the legislature. In 1876, during 
the heated presidential campaign, to 
strengthen the cause of Mr. Tilden in the 
New England states, it was intimated that 
in the event of that gentleman's election to 
the presidency, Mr. Olney would be attor- 
sey general. 

When Grover Cleveland was elected presi- 
dent of the United States, on his inaugura- 
tion in March, 1893, he tendered the posi- 
tion of attorney general to Richard Olney. 
This was accepted, and that gentleman ful- 
filled the duties of the office until the death 

of Walter Q. Gresha'm, in May, 1895, made 
vacant the position of secretary of state. 
This post was filled by the appointment of 
Mr. Olney. While occupying the later 
office, Mr. Olney brought himself into inter- 
national prominence by some very able state 

JOHN JAY KNOX, for many years comp- 
troller of the currency, and an eminent 
financier, was born in Knoxboro, Oneida 
county, New York, May 19, 1828. He re- 
ceived a good education and graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1849. For about 
thirteen years he was engaged as a private 
banker, or in a position in a bank, where 
he laid the foundation of his knowledge of 
the laws of finance. In 1862, Salmon P. 
Chase, then secretary of the treasury, ap- 
pointed him to an office in that department 
of the government, and later he had charge 
of the mint coinage correspondence. In 1 867 
Mr. Knox was made deputy comptroller 
of the currency, and in that capacity, in 
1870, he made two reports on the mint 
service, with a codification of the mint and 
coinage laws of the United States, and 
suggesting many important amendments 
These reports were ordered printed by reso- 
lution of congress. The bill which he pre- 
pared, with some slight changes, was sub- 
sequently passed, and has been known in 
history as the " Coinage Act of 1873." 

In 1872 Mr. Knox wns appointed comp- 
troller of the currency, and held that re- 
sponsible position until 1884, when he re- 
signed. He then accepted the position of 
president of the National Bank of the Re- 
public, of New York City, which institution 
he served for many years. He was the 
author of " United States Notes," published 
in 1884. In the reports spoken of above, a 
history of the two United States banks is 



given, together with that of the state and 
national banking system, and much valuable 
statistical matter relating to kindred sub- 

opinion of many critics Hawthorne is 
pronounced the foremost American novelist, 
and in his peculiar vein of romance is said 
to be without a peer. His reputation is 
world-wide, and his ability as a writer is 
recognized abroad as well as at home. 
He was born July 4, 1804, at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. On account of feeble health he 
spent some years of his boyhood on a farm 
near Raymond, Maine. He laid the foun- 
dation of a liberal education in his youth, 
and entered Bowdoin College, from which 
he graduated in 1825 in the same class with 
H W Longfellow and John S. C. Abbott. 
He then returned to Salem, where he gave 
his attention to literature, publishing several 
tales and other articles in various periodi- 
cals. His first venture in the field of ro- 
mance, " Fanshaw," proved a failure. In 
1836 he removed to Boston, and became 
editor of the "American Magazine," which 
soon passed out of existence. In 1837 he 
published "Twice Told Tales," which were 
chiefly made up of his former contributions 
to magazines. In 1838-41 he held a posi- 
tion in the Boston custom house, but later 
took part in the "Brook farm experiment," 
a socialistic idea after the plan of Fourier. 
In 1843 he was married and took up his 
residence at the old parsonage at Concord, 
Massachusetts, which he immortalized in 
his next work, " Mosses From an Old 
Manse," published in 1846. From the lat- 
ter date until 1850 he was surveyor of the 
port of Salem, and while thus employed 
wrote one of his strongest works, "The 
Scarlet Letter." For the succeeding two 

years Lenox, Massachusetts, was his home, 
and the " House of the Seven Gables" was 
produced there, as well as the " Blithedale 
Romance." In 1852 he published a "Life 
of Franklin Pierce," a college friend whom 
he warmly regarded. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed United States consul to Liverpool, 
England, where he remained some years, 
after which he spent some time in Italy. 
On returning to his native land he took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts. 
While taking a trip for his health with ex- 
President Pierce, he died at Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, May 19, 1864. In addition to 
the works mentioned above Mr. Hawthorne 
gave to the world the following books: 
" True Stories from History," "The Won- 
der Book," " The Snow Image," "Tangle- 
wood Tales," "The Marble Faun," and 
" Our Old Home. " After his death appeared 
a series of "Notebooks," edited by his wife, 
Sophia P. Hawthorne; " Septimius Felton," 
edited by his daughter, Una, and "Dr. 
Grimshaw's Secret," put into shape by his 
talented son, Julian. He left an unfinished 
work called " Dolliver Romance," which has 
been published just as he left it. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, sixteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was born 
February 12, 1809, in Larue county (Har- 
din county), Kentucky, in a log-cabin near 
Hudgensville. When he was eight years 
old he removed with his parents to Indiana, 
near the Ohio river, and a year later his 
mother died. His father then married Mrs. 
Elizabeth (Bush) Johnston, of Elizabeth- 
town, Kentucky, who proved a kind of fos- 
ter-mother to Abraham, and encouraged 
him to study. He worked as a farm hand 
and as a clerk in a store at Gentryville, and 
was noted for his athletic feats and strength. 
fondness for debate, a fund of humorous 



anecdote, as well as the composition of rude 
verses. He made a trip at the age of nine- 
teen to New Orleans on a flat-boat, and set- 
tled in Illinois in 1830. He assisted his 
father to build a log house and clear a farm 
on the Sangamon river near Decatur, Illinois, 
and split the rails with which to fence it. In 
1851 he was employed in the building of a 
flat-boat on the Sangamon, and to run it to 
New Orleans. The voyage gave him anew 
insight into the horrors of slavery in the 
south. On his return he settled at New 
Salem and engaged, first as a clerk in a store, 
then as grocer, surveyor and postmaster, and 
he piloted the first steamboat that as- 
cended the Sangamon. He participated in 
the Black Hawk war as captain of volun- 
teers, and after his return he studied law, 
interested himself in politics, and became 
prominent locally as a public speaker. He 
was elected to the legislature in 1834 as a 
" Clay Whig, " and began at once to dis- 
play a command of language and forcible 
rhetoric that made him a match for his 
more cultured opponents. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1837, and began prac- 
tice at Springfield. He married a lady of a 
prominent Kentucky family in 1842. He 
was active in the presidential campaigns of 
1840 and 1844 and was an elector on the 
Harrison and Clay tickets, and was elected 
to congress in 1846, over Peter Cartwright. 
He voted for the Wilmot proviso and the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and opposed the war with Mexico, but 
gained little prominence during his two 
years' service. He then returned to Spring- 
field and devoted his attention to law, tak- 
ing little interest in politics, until the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise and the passage 
of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1854. This 
awakened his interest in politics again and 
he attacked the champion of that measure, 

Stephen A. Douglas, in a speech at Spring- 
field that made him famous, and is said 
by those who heard it to be the greatest 
speech of his life. Lincoln was selected as 
candidate for the United States senate, but 
was defeated by Trumbull. Upon the pas- 
sage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill the Whig 
party suddenly went to pieces, and the Re- 
publican party gathered head. At the 
Bloomington Republican convention in 1856 
Lincoln made an effective address in which 
he first took a position antagonistic to the ex- 
istence of slavery. He was a Fremont elector 
and received a strong support for nomina- 
tion as vice-president in the Philadelphia 
convention. In 1858 he was the unanimous 
choice of the Republicans for the United 
States senate, and the great campaign of de- 
bate which followed resulted in the election 
of Douglas, but established Lincoln's repu- 
tation as the leading exponent of Republican 
doctrines. He began to be mentioned in 
Illinois as candidate for the presidency, and 
a course of addresses in the eastern states 
attracted favorable attention. When the 
national convention met at Chicago, his 
rivals, Chase, Seward, Bates and others, 
were compelled to retire before the western 
giant, and he was nominated, with Hannibal 
Hamlin as his running mate. The Demo- 
cratic party had now been disrupted, and 
Lincoln's election assured. He carried 
practically every northern state, and the 
secession of South Carolina, followed by a 
number of the gulf states, took place before 
his inauguration. Lincoln is the only presi- 
dent who was ever compelled to reach 
Washington in a secret manner. He es- 
caped assassination by avoiding Baltimore, 
and was quietly inaugurated March 4, 1861. 
His inaugural address was firm but con- 
ciliatory, and he said to the secessionists: 
" You have no oath registered in heaven 



to destroy the government, while I have the 
most solemn one to preserve, protect and 
defend it.' He made up his cabinet chiefly 
of those political rivals in his own party — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron, Bates — and se- 
cured the co-operation of the Douglas Dem- 
ocrats. His great deeds, amidst the heat 
and turmoil of war, were: His call for 
seventy-five thousand volunteers, and the 
blockading of southern ports; calling of con- 
gress in extra session, July 14, 1861, and 
obtaining four hundred thousand men and 
four hundred million dollars for the prosecu- 
tion of the war; appointing Stanton secre- 
tary of war; issuing the emancipation proc- 
lamation; calling three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers; address at Gettysburg 
cemetery; commissioned Grant as lieuten- 
ant-general and commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States; his second 
inaugural address; his visit to the army be- 
fore Richmond, and his entry into Rich- 
mond the day after its surrender. 

Abraham Lincoln was shot by John 
Wi'kes Booth in a box in Ford's theater 
at Washington the night of April 14, 1865, 
and expired the following morning. His 
body was buried at Oak Ridge cemetery, 
Springfield, Illinois, and a monument com- 
memorating his great work marks his resting 

STEPHEN GIRARD, the celebrated 
philanthropist, was born in Bordeaux, 
France, May 24, 1750. He became a sailor 
engaged in the American coast trade, and 
also made frequent trips to the West Indies. 
During the Revolutionary war he was a 
grocer and liquor seller in Philadelphia. 
He married in that city, and afterward 
separated from his wife. After the war he 
again engaged in the coast and West India 
trade, and his fortune began to accumulate 

from receiving goods from West Indian 
planters during the insurrection in Hayti, 
little of which was ever called for again. 
He became a private banker in Philadelphia 
in 1812, and afterward was a director in the 
United States Bank. He made much money 
by leasing property in the city in times of 
depression, and upon the revival of industry 
sub-leasing at enormous profit. He became 
the wealthiest citizen of the United States 
of his time. 

He was eccentric, ungracious, and a 
freethinker. He had few, if any, friends in 
his lifetime. However, he was most chari- 
tably disposed, and gave to charitable in- 
stitutions and schools with a liberal hand. 
He did more than any one else to relieve 
the suffering and deprivations during the 
great yellow fever scourge in Philadelphia, 
devoting his personal attention to the sick. 
He endowed and made a free institution, 
the famous Will's Eye and Ear Infirmary 
of Philadelphia — one of the largest institu- 
tions of its kind in the world. At his death 
practically all his immense wealth was be- 
queathed to charitable institutions, more 
than two millions of dollars going to the 
founding of Girard College, which was to 
be devoted to the education and training of 
boys between the ages of six and ten years. 
Large donations were also made to institu- 
tions in Philadelphia and New Orleans. 
The principal building of Girard College is 
the most magnificent example of Greek 
architecture in America. Girard died De- 
cember 26, 1831. 

LOUIS J. R. AGASSIZ, the eminent nat- 
uralist and geologist, was born in the 
parish of Motier, near Lake Neuchatel, Swit- 
zerland, May 28, 1807, but attained his 
greatest fame after becoming an American 
citizen. He studied the medical sciences at 



Zurich, Heidelberg and Munich. His first 
work was a Latin description of the fishes 
which Martius and Spix brought from Brazil. 
This was published in 1 829-3 ' • He devoted 
much time to the study of fossil fishes, and 
in 1832 was appointed professor of natural 
history at Neuchatel. He greatly increased 
his reputation by a great work in French, 
entitled " Researches on Fossil Fishes," in 
1832-42, in which he made many important 
improvements in the classification of fishes. 
Having passed many summers among the 
Alps in researches on glaciers, he propounded 
some new and interesting ideas on geology, 
and the agency of glaciers in his "Studies 
by the Glaciers." This was published in 
1840. This latter work, with his " System 
of the Glaciers," published in 1847, are 
among his principal works. 

In 1846, Professor Agassiz crossed the 
ocean on a scientific excursion to the United 
States, and soon determined to remain here. 
He accepted, about the beginning of 1848, 
the chair of zoology and geology at Harvard. 
He explored the natural history of the 
United States at different times and gave an 
impulse to the study of nature in this 
country. In 1865 he conducted an expedi- 
tion to Brazil, and explored the lower Ama- 
zon and its tributaries. In 1868 he was 
made non-resident professor of natural his- 
tory at Cornell University. In December, 
1 87 1, he accompanied the Hassler expedi- 
tion, under Professor Pierce, to the South 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. He died at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 14, 


Among other of the important works of 
Professor Agassiz may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: "Outlines of Comparative Physi- 
ology," "Journey to Brazil," and "Contri- 
butions to the Natural History of the United 
States." It is said of Professor Agassiz, 

that, perhaps, with the exception of Hugh 
Miller, no one had so popularized science in 
his day, or trained so many young natural- 
ists. Many of the theories held by Agassiz 
are not supported by many of the natural- 
ists of these later days, but upon many of 
the speculations into the origin of species and 
in physics he has left the marks of his own 
strongly marked individuality. 

WILLIAM WINDOM.— As a prominent 
and leading lawyer of the great north- 
west, as a member of both houses of con- 
gress, and as the secretary of the treasury, 
the gentleman whose name heads this sketch 
won for himself a prominent position in the 
history of our country. 

Mr. Windom was a native of Ohio, 
born in Belmont county, May 10, 1827. 
He received a good elementary education in 
the schools of his native state, and took up 
the study of law. He was admitted to the 
bar, and entered upon the practice of his 
profession in Ohio, where he remained until 
1855. In the latter year he made up his 
mind to move further west, and accordingly 
went to Minnesota, and opening an office, 
became identified with the interests of that 
state, and the northwest generally. In 
1858 he took his place in the Minnesota 
delegation in the national house of repre- 
sentatives, at Washington, and continued 
to represent his constituency in that body 
for ten- years. In 1871 Mr. Windom was 
elected United States senator from Min- 
nesota, and was re-elected to the same office 
after fulfilling the duties of the position for 
a full term, in 1876. On the inauguration 
of President Garfield, in March, 1881, Mr. 
Windom became secretary of the treasury 
in his cabinet. He resigned this office Oc- 
tober 27, 1 88 1, and was elected senator 
from the North Star state to fill the va- 



cancy caused by the resignation of A. J. 
Edgerton. Mr. Windom served in that 
chamber until March, 1883. 

William Windom died in New York 
City January 29, 1891. 

DON M. DICKINSON, an American 
politician and lawyer, was born in 
Port Ontario, New York, January 17, 1846. 
He removed with his parents to Michigan 
when he was but two years old. He was 
educated in the public schools of Detroit 
and at the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-one. In 1872 he was made 
secretary of the Democratic state central 
committee of Michigan, and his able man- 
agement of the campaign gave him a prom- 
inent place in the councils of his party. In 
1876, during the Tilden campaign, he acted 
as chairman of the state central committee. 
He was afterward chosen to represent his 
state in the Democratic national committee, 
and in 1886 he was appointed postmaster- 
general by President Cleveland. After the 
expiration of his term of office he returned 
to Detroit and resumed the practice of law. 
In the presidential campaign of 1896, Mr. 
Dickinson adhered to the "gold wing" of 
the Democracy, and his influence was felt 
in the national canvass, and especially in 
his own state. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOR, the founder of 
<J the Astor family and fortunes, while not 
a native of this country, was one of the 
most noted men of his time, and as all his 
wealth and fame were acquired here, he 
may well be classed among America's great 
men. He was born near Heidelberg, Ger- 
many, July 17, 1763, and when twenty 
years old emigrated to the United States. 
Even at that age he exhibited remarkable 

business ability and foresight, and soon he 
was investing capital in furs which he took 
to London and sold at a great profit. He 
next settled at New York, and engaged ex- 
tensively in the fur trade. He exported 
furs to Europe in his own vessels, which re- 
1 m u< id with cargoes of foreign commodities, 
and thus he rapidly amassed an immense 
fortune. In 181 1 he founded Astoria on 
the western coast of North America, near 
the mouth of the Columbia river, as a depot 
for the fur trade, for the promotion of 
which he sent a number of expeditions to 
the Pacific ocean. He also purchased a 
large amount of real estate in New York, 
the value of which increased enormously 
All through life his business ventures were 
a series of marvelous successes, and he 
ranked as one of the most sagacious and 
successful business men in the world. He 
died March 29, 1848, leaving a fortune es- 
timated at over twenty million dollars to 
his children, who have since increased it. 
John Jacob Astor left $400,000 to found a 
public library in New York City, and his son, 
William B. Astor, who died in 1875, left 
$300,000 to add to his father's bequest. 
This is known as the Astor Library, one of 
the largest in the United States. 

SCHUYLER COLFAX, an eminent 
American statesman, was born in New 
York City, March 23, 1823, being a grand- 
son of General William Colfax, the com- 
mander of Washington's life-guards. In 
1836 he removed with his mother, who was 
then a widow, to Indiana, settling at South 
Bend. Young Schuyler studied law, and 
in 1845 became editor of the "St. Joseph 
Valley Register," a Whig paper published 
at South Bend. He was a member of the 
convention which formed a new constitu- 
tion for Indiana in 1850, and he opposed 



the clause that prohibited colored men 
from settling in that state. In 1851 he was 
defeated as the Whig candidate for congress 
but was elected in 1854, and, being repeat- 
edly re-elected, continued to represent that 
district in congress until 1869. He became 
one of the most prominent and influential 
members of the house of representatives, 
and served three terms as speaker. During 
the Civil war he was an active participant 
in all public measures of importance, and 
was a confidential friend and adviser of 
President Lincoln. In May, 1868, Mr. 
Colfax was nominated for vice-president on 
the ticket with General Grant, and was 
elected. After the close of his term he re- 
tired from office, and for the remainder of 
his life devoted much of his time to lectur- 
ing and literary pursuits. His death oc- 
curred January 23, 1885. He was one of 
the most prominent members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows in America, 
and that order erected a bronze statue to 
his memory in University Park, Indianapo- 
lis, Indiana, which was unveiled in May, 

tained a national reputation as an able 
lawyer, statesman, and cabinet officer, was 
born at Chelsea, Vermont, July 9, 1840. 
His parents removed to Wisconsin when 
our subject was but eleven years of age, 
and there with the early settlers endured all 
the hardships and trials incident to pioneer 
life. William F. Vilas was given all the 
advantages found in the common schools, 
and supplemented this by a course of study 
in the Wisconsin State University, after 
which he studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and began practicing at Madison. 
Shortly afterward the Civil war broke out 
and Mr. Vilas enlisted and became colonel 

of the Twenty-third regiment of Wisconsin 
Volunteers, serving throughout the war with 
distinction. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to Wisconsin, resumed his law prac- 
tice, and rapidly rose to eminence in this 
profession. In 1885 he was selected by 
President Cleveland for postmaster-general 
and at the close of his term again returned 
to Madison, Wisconsin, to resume the prac- 
tice of law. 

inent American jurist and law writer, 
was born in Attica, New York, January 6, 
1824. He was admitted to the bar in 1846, 
and four years later was appointed reporter 
of the supreme court of Michigan, which 
office he continued to hold for seven years. 
In the meantime, in 1859, he became pro- 
fessor of the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and soon afterward was 
made dean of the faculty of that depart- 
ment. In 1864 he was elected justice of 
the supreme court of Michigan, in 1867 be- 
came chief justice of that court, and in 
1869 was re-elected for a term of eight 
years. In 1881 he again joined the faculty 
of the University of Michigan, assuming the 
professorship of constitutional and adminis- 
trative law. His works on these branches 
have become standard, and he is recog- 
nized as authority on this and related sub- 
jects. Upon the passage of the inter-state 
commerce law in 1887 he became chairman 
of the commission and served in that capac- 
ity four years. 

American politician and writer on social 
questions, was born in Germany, December 
30, 1847. He came to America with his 
parents and settled in Ohio when two years 
old. In 1864 he entered the Union army 



and served till the close of the war, after 
which he settled in Chicago, Illinois. He 
was elected judge of the superior court of 
Cook county, Illinois, in 1886, in which 
capacity he served until elected governor of 
Illinois in 1892, as a Democrat. D.uring 
the first year of his term as governor he at- 
tracted national attention by his pardon of 
the anarchists convicted of the Haymarket 
murder in Chicago, and again in 1894 by 
his denunciation of President Cleveland for 
calling out federal troops to suppress the 
rioting in connection with the great Pull- 
man strike in Chicago. At the national 
convention of the Democratic party in Chi- 
cago, in July, 1896, he is said to have in- 
spired the clause in the platform denuncia- 
tory of interference by federal authorities in 
local affairs, and "government by injunc- 
tion." He was gubernatorial candidate for 
re-election on the Democratic ticket in 1896, 
but was defeated by John R. Tanner, Re- 
publican. Mr. Altgeld published two vol- 
umes of essays on " Live Questions," evinc- 
ing radical views on social matters. 

ican statesman and politician, was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, October 23, 
1835, and removed with the family to 
Bloomington, Illinois, in 1852. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, and set- 
tled in the practice of his profession 
in Metamora, Illinois. In 1861 he was 
made master in chancery of Woodford 
county, and in 1864 was elected state's at- 
torney. In 1868 he returned to Blooming- 
ton and formed a law partnership with 
James S. Ewing. He had served as a pres- 
idential elector in 1864, and in 1868 was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, receiv- 
ing a majority vote from every county in his 
district. He became prominent in his 

party, and was a delegate to the national 
convention in 1884. On the election of 
Cleveland to the presidency Mr. Stevenson 
was appointed first assistant postmaster- 
general. After the expiration of his term 
he continued to exert a controlling influence 
in the politics of his state, and in 1892 was 
elected vice-president of the United States 
on the ticket with Grover Cleveland. At 
the expiration of his term of office he re- 
sumed the practice of law at Bloomington, 

SIMON CAMERON, whose name is 
prominently identified with the history 
of the United States as a political leader 
and statesman, was born in Lancaster coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1799. He grew 
to manhood in his native county, receiving 
good educational advantages, and develop- 
ing a natural inclination for political life. 
He rapidly rose in prominence and became 
the most influential Democrat in PennsyJ' 
vania, and in 1845 was elected by that party 
to the United States senate. Upon the 
organization of the Republican party he was 
one of the first to declare his allegiance to 
it, and in 1856 was re-elected United States 
senator from Pennsylvania as a Republican. 
In March, 1861, he was appointed secretary 
of war by President Lincoln, and served 
until early in 1862, when he was sent as 
minister to Russia, returning in 1863. In 
1866 he was again elected United States 
senator and served until 1877, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by his son, James 
Donald Cameron. He continued to exert a 
powerful influence in political affairs up to 
the time of his death, June 26, 1889. 

James Donald Cameron was the eld- 
est son of Simon Cameron, and also 
attained a high rank among American 
statesmen. He was born at Harrisburg, 



Pennsylvania, May 14, 1833, and received an 
excellent education, graduating at Princeton 
College in 1852. He rapidly developed into 
one of the most able and successful business 
men of the country and was largely inter- 
ested in and identified with the develop- 
ment of the coal, iron, lumber and manu- 
facturing interests of his native state. He 
served as cashier and afterward president of 
the Middletown bank, and in 1861 was made 
vice-president, and in 1863 president of 
the Northern Central railroad, holding this 
position until 1874, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Thomas A. Scott. This 
road was of great service to the government 
during the war as a means of communica- 
tion between Pennsylvania and the national 
capital, via Baltimore. Mr. Cameron also 
took an active part in political affairs, 
always as a Republican. In May, 1876, 
he was appointed secretary of war in Pres- 
ident Grant's cabinet, and in 1877 suc- 
ceeded his father in the United States 
senate. He was re-elected in 1885, and 
again in 1891, serving until 1896, and was 
recognized as one of the most prominent and 
influential members of that body. 

American arctic explorer, was born at 
. Newburyport, Massachusetts, March 27, 
1844. He graduated from Brown High 
School at the age of sixteen, and a year 
later enlisted in Company B, Nineteenth 
Massachusetts Infantry, and was made first 
sergeant. In 1863 he was promoted to 
second lieutenant. After the war he was 
assigned to the Fifth United States Cavalry, 
and became first lieutenant in 1873. He 
was assigned to duty in the United States 
signal service shortly after the close of the 
war. An expedition was fitted out by the 
United States government in 1881, un- 

der auspices of the weather bureau, and 
Lieutenant Greeley placed in command. 
They set sail from St. Johns the first week 
in July, and after nine days landed in Green- 
land, where they secured the services of two 
natiyes, together with sledges, dogs, furs 
and equipment. They encountered an ice 
pack early in August, and on the 28th of 
that month freezing weather set in. Two 
of his party, Lieutenant Lockwood and Ser- 
geant Brainard, added to the known maps 
about forty miles of coast survey, and 
reached the highest point yet attained by 
man, eighty-three degrees and twenty-four 
minutes north, longitude, forty-four degrees 
and five minutes west. On their return to 
Fort Conger, Lieutenant Greeley set out 
for the south on August 9, 1883. He 
reached Baird Inlet twenty days later with 
his entire party. Here they were compelled 
to abandon their boats, and drifted on an 
ice-floe for one month. They then went 
into camp at Cape Sabine, where they suf- 
fered untold hardships, and eighteen of the 
party succumbed to cold and hunger, and 
had relief been delayed two days longer 
none would have been found alive. They 
were picked up by the relief expedition, 
under Captain Schley, June 22, 1884. The 
dead were taken to New York for burial. 
Many sensational stories were published 
concerning the expedition, and Lieutenant 
Greeley prepared an exhaustive account 
of his explorations and experiences. 

LEVI P. MORTON, the millionaire poli- 
tician, was born in Shoreham, Ver- 
mont, May 16, 1824, and his early educa- 
tion consisted of the rudiments which he 
obtained in the common school up to the 
age of fourteen, and after that time what 
knowledge he gained was wrested from the 
hard school of experience. He removed to 



Hanover, Vermont, then Concord, Vermont, 
and afterwards to Boston. He had worked 
in a store at Shoreham, his native village, 
and on going to Hanover he established a 
store and went into business for himself. 
In Boston he clerked in a dry goods store, 
and then opened a business of his own in 
the same line in New York. After a short 
career he failed, and was compelled to set- 
tle with his creditors at only fifty cents on 
the dollar. He began the struggle anew, 
and when the war began he established a 
banking house in New York, with Junius 
Morgan as a partner. Through his firm 
and connections the great government war 
loans were floated, and it resulted in im- 
mense profits to his house. When he was 
again thoroughly established he invited his 
former creditors to a banquet, and under 
each guest's plate was found a check cover- 
ing the amount of loss sustained respec- 
tively, with interest to date. 

President Garfield appointed Mr. Mor- 
ton as minister to France, after he had de- 
clined the secretaryship of the navy, and in 
1888 he was nominated as candidate for 
vice-president, with Harrison, and elected. 
In 1894 he was elected governor of New 
York over David B. Hill, and served one 

of the most talented and prominent 
educators this country has known, was born 
January 24, 1835, at Derby, Vermont. He 
received an elementary education in the 
common schools, and studied two terms in 
the Derby Academy. Mr. Adams moved 
with his parents to Iowa in 1856. He was 
very anxious to pursue a collegiate course, 
but this was impossible until he had attained 
the age of twenty-one. In the autumn of 
1856 he began the study of Latin and Greek 

at Denmark Academy, and in September, 
1857, he was admitted to the University of 
Michigan. Mr. Adams was wholly depend- 
ent upon himself for the means of his edu- 
cation. During his third and fourth year 
he became deeply interested in historical 
studies, was assistant librarian of the uni- 
versity, and determined to pursue a post- 
graduate course. In 1864 he was appointed 
instructor of history and Latin and was ad- 
vanced to an assistant professorship in 1865, 
and in 1867, on the resignation o^ Professoi 
White to accept the presidency of Cornell, 
he was appointed to fill the chair of profes- 
sor of history. This he accepted on con- 
dition of his being allowed to spend a year 
for special study in Germany, France and 
Italy. Mr. Adams returned in 1868, and 
assumed the duties of his professorship. 
He introduced the German system for the 
instruction of advanced history classes, and 
his lectures were largely attended. In 1885, 
on the resignation of President White at 
Cornell, he was elected his successor and 
held the office for seven years, and on Jan- 
uary 17, 1893, he was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin. Pres- 
ident Adams was prominently connected 
with numerous scientific and literary organ- 
izations and a frequent contributor to the 
historical and educational data in the peri- 
odicals and journals of the country. He 
was the author of the following: " Dem- 
ocracy and Monarchy in France," " Manual 
of Historical Literature," " A Plea for Sci- 
entific Agriculture," " Higher Education in 

JOSEPH B. FORAKER, a prominent po- 
litical leader and ex-governor of Ohio, 
was born near Rainsboro, Highland county, 
Ohio, July 5, 1846. His parents operated 
a small farm, with a grist and sawmill, hav- 



ing emigrated hither from Virginia and 
Delaware on account of their distaste for 

Joseph was reared upon a farm until 
1862, when he enlisted in the Eighty -ninth 
Ohio Infantry. Later he was made ser- 
geant, and in 1864 commissioned first lieu- 
tenant. The next year he was brevetted 
captain. At the age of nineteen he was 
mustered out of the army after a brilliant 
service, part of the time being on the staff 
of General Slocum. He participated in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mount- 
ain and Kenesaw Mountain and in Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

For two years subsequent to the war 
young Foraker was studying at the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at Delaware, but later 
went to Cornell University, at Unity, New 
York, from which he graduated July 1, 
1869. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar. In 1879 Mr. Foraker was elected 
judge of the superior court of Cincinnati 
and held the office for three years. In 1883 
he was defeated in the contest for the gov- 
ernorship with Judge Hoadly. In 1885, 
however, being again nominated for the 
same office, he was elected and served two 
terms. In 1889, in running for governor 
again, this time against James E. Camp- 
bell, he was defeated. Two years later his 
career in the United States senate began. 
Mr. Foraker was always a prominent figure 
at all national meetings of the Republican 
party, and a strong power, politically, in his 
native state. 

LYMAN ABBOTT, an eminent American 
preacher and writer on religious sub- 
jects, came of a noted New England 
family. His father, Rev. Jacob Abbott, was 
a prolific and popular writer, and his uncle, 
Rev. John S. C. Abbott, was a noted 

preacher and author. Lyman Abbott was 
born December 18, 1835, in Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. He graduated at the New 
York University, in 1853, studied law, and 
practiced for a time at the bar, after which 
he studied theology with his uncle, Rev. 
John S. C. Abbott, and in i860 was settled 
in the ministry at Terre Haute, Indiana, re- 
maining there until after the close of the 
war. He then became connected with the 
Freedmen's Commission, continuing this 
until 1868, when he accepted the pastorate 
of the New England Congregational church, 
in New York City. A few years later he re- 
signed, to devote his time principally to lit- 
erary pursuits. For a number of years he 
edited for the American Tract Society, its 
"Illustrated Christian Weekly," also the 
New York "Christian Union." He pro- 
duced many works, which had a wide circu- 
lation, among which may be mentioned the 
following: "Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and 
Teachings," "Old Testament Shadows of 
New Testament Truths," "Morning and 
Evening Exercises, Selected from Writings 
of Henry Ward Beecher," "Laicus, or the 
Experiences of a Layman in a Country 
Parish," "Popular Religious Dictionary," 
and "Commentaries on Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, John and Acts." 

well-known author, orator and journal- 
ist whose name heads this sketch, was born 
at Providence, Rhode Island, February 24, 
1824. Having laid the foundation of a 
most excellent education in his native land, 
he went to Europe and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. He made an extensive 
tour throughout the Levant, from which he 
returned home in 1850. At that early age 
literature became his field of labor, and in 
185 1 he published his first important work, 



" Nile Notes of a Howadji." In 1852 two 
works issued from his facile pen, "The 
Howadji in Syria," and "Lotus-Eating." 
Later on he was the author of the well- 
known " Potiphar Papers," " Prue and I," 
and "Trumps." He greatly distinguished 
himself throughout this land as a lecturer 
on many subjects, and as an orator had but 
few peers. He was also well known as one 
of the most fluent speakers on the stump, 
making many political speeches in favor of 
the Republican party. In recognition of 
his valuable services, Mr. Curtis was ap- 
pointed by President Grant, chairman of 
the advisory board of the civil service. Al- 
though a life-long Republican, Mr. Curtis 
refused to support Blaine for the presidency 
in 1884, because of his ideas on civil ser- 
vice and other reforms. For his memorable 
and magnificent eulogy on Wendell Phillips, 
delivered in Boston, in 1884, that city pre- 
sented Mr. Curtis with a gold medal. 

George W. Curtis, however, is best 
known to the reading public of the United 
States by his connection with the Harper 
Brothers, having been editor of the " Har- 
per's Weekly, " and of the "Easy Chair," 
in " Harper's Monthly Magazine, "for many 
years, in fact retaining that position until 
the day of his death, which occurred August 
31, 1892. 

ANDREW JOHNSON, the seventeenth 
president of the United States, served 
from 1865 to 1869. He was born Decem- 
ber 8, 1808, at -Raleigh, North Carolina, 
and was left an orphan at the age of four 
years. He never attended school, and was 
apprenticed to a tailor. While serving his 
apprenticeship he suddenly acquired a pas- 
sion for knowledge, and learned to read. 
From that time on he spent all his spare 
time in reading, and after working for two 

years as a journeyman tailor at Lauren's 
Court House, South Carolina, he removed 
to Greenville, Tennessee, where he worked 
at his trade and was married. Under his 
wife's instruction he made rapid progress in 
his studies and manifested such an interest 
in local politics as to be elected as " work- 
ingmen's candidate " alderman in 1828, and 
in 1830 to the mayoralty, and was twice 
re-elected to each office. Mr. Johnson 
utilized this time in cultivating his talents 
as a public speaker, by taking part in a de- 
bating society. He was elected in 1835 to 
the lower house of the legislature, was re- 
elected in 1839 as a Democrat, and in 
1841 was elected state senator. Mr. John- 
son was elected representative in congress 
in 1843 and was re-elected four times in 
succession until 1853, when he was the suc- 
cessful candidate for the gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. He was re-elected in 1855 
and in 1857 he entered the United States 
senate. In i860 he was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention for the presidential nomination, 
and lent his 'influence to the Breckinridge 
wing of the party. At the election of Lin- 
coln, which brought about the first attempt 
at secession in December, i860, Mr. John- 
son took a firm attitude in the senate for 
the Union. He was the leader of the loy- 
alists in East Tennessee. By the course 
that Mr. Johnson pursued in this crisis he 
was brought prominently before the north- 
ern people, and when, in March, 1862, he 
was appointed military governor of Ten- 
nessee with the rank of brigadier-general, 
he increased his popularity by the vigorous 
manner in which he labored to restore 
order. In the campaign of 1864 he was 
elected vice-president on the ticket with 
President Lincoln, and upon the assassi- 
nation of the latter he succeeded to the 



presidency, April 15, 1865. He retained 
the cabinet of President Lincoln, and at 
first exhibited considerable severity towards 
the former Confederates, but he soon inau- 
gurated a policy of reconstruction, pro- 
claimed a general amnesty to the late Con- 
federates, and established provisional gov- 
ernments in the southern states. These 
states claimed representation in congress in 
the following December, and then arose the 
momentous question as to what should be 
the policy of the victorious Union against 
their late enemies. The Republican ma- 
jority in congress had an apprehension that 
the President would undo the results of the 
war, and consequently passed two bills over 
the executive veto, and the two highest 
branches of the government were in open 
antagonism. The cabinet was reconstructed 
in July, and Messrs. Randall, Stanbury and 
Browning superseded Messrs. Denison, 
Speed and Harlan. In August, 1867, Pres- 
ident Johnson removed the secretary of war 
and replaced him with General Grant, but 
when congress met in December it refused 
to ratify the removal of Stanton, who re- 
sumed the functions of his office. In 1868 
the president again attempted to remove 
Stanton, who refused to vacate his post 
and was sustained by the senate. Presi- 
dent Johnson was accused by congress of 
high crimes and misdemeanors, but the trial 
resulted in his acquittal. Later he was Uni- 
ted States senator from Tennessee, and 
died July 31, 1875. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH, first attorney- 
general of the United States, was born 
in Virginia, August 10, 1753. His father, 
John Randolph, was attorney-general of 
Virginia, and lived and died a royalist. Ed- 
mund was educated in the law, but joined 
the army as aide-de-camp to Washington 

in 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He 
was elected to the Virginia convention in 
1776, and attorney-general of the state the 
same year. In 1779 he was elected to the 
Continental congress, and served four years 
in that body. He was a member of the con- 
vention in 1787 that framed the constitu- 
tion. In that convention he proposed what 
was known as the " Virginia plan" of con- 
federation, but it was rejected. He advo- 
cated the ratification of the constitution in 
the Virginia convention, although he had re- 
fused to sign it. He became governor of 
Virginia in 1788, and the next year Wash- 
ington appointed him to the office of at- 
torney-general of the United States upon 
the organization of the government under 
the constitution. He was appointed secre- 
tary of state to succeed Jefferson during 
Washington's second term, but resigned a 
year later on account of differences in the 
cabinet concerning the policy pursued to- 
ward the new French republic. He died 
September 12, 181 3. 

born in Montgomery county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 14, 1824. He received 
his early education at the Norristown 
Academy, in his native county, and, in 1840, 
was appointed a cadet in the United States 
Military Academy, at West Point. He was 
graduated from the latter in 1844, andbrev- 
etted as second lieutenant of infantry. In 
1853 he was made first lieutenant, and two 
years later transferred to the quartermaster's 
department, with the rank of captain, and 
in 1863 promoted to the rank of major. He 
served on the frontier, and in the war with 
Mexico, displaying conspicuous gallantry dur- 
ing the latter. He also took a part in the 
Seminole war, and in the troubles in Kan- 
sas, in 1857, and in California, at the out- 



break of the Civil war, as chief quarter- 
master of the Southern district, he exerted 
a powerful influence. In 1861 he applied 
for active duty in the field, and was assigned 
to the department of Kentucky as chief 
quartermaster, but before entering upon that 
duty, was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers. His subsequent history during 
the war was substantially that of the Army 
of the Potomac. He participated in the 
campaign, under McClellan, and led the 
gallant charge, which captured Fort Magru- 
der, won the day at the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, and by services rendered at 
Savage's Station and other engagements, 
won several grades in the regular service, 
and was recommended by McClellan for 
major-general of volunteers. He was a con- 
spicuous figure at South Mountain and An- 
tietam. He was commissioned major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, November 29, 1862, and 
made commander of the First Division of 
the Second Corps, which he led at Fred- 
ricksburg and at Chancellorsville. He was 
appointed to the command of the Second 
Corps in June, 1863, and at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July I, 2 and 3, of that year, 
took an important part. On his arrival on 
the field he found part of the forces then 
in retreat, but stayed the retrograde 
movement, checked the enemy, and on the 
following day commanded the left center, 
repulsed, on the third, the grand assault of 
General Lee's army, and was severely 
wounded. For his services on that field 
General Hancock received the thanks of 
congress. On recovering from his wound, 
he was detailed to go north to stimulate re- 
cruiting and fill up the diminished corps, and 
was the recipient of many public receptions 
and ovations. In March, 1864, he returned 
to his command, and in the Wilderness and 
at Spottsylvania led large bodies of men 

successfully and conspicuously. From that 
on to the close of the campaign he was a 
prominent figure. In November, 1864, he 
was detailed to organize the First Veteran 
Reserve Corps, and at the close of hostilities 
was appointed to the command of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. In July, 1866, he 
was made major-general of the regular 
service. He was at the head of various 
military departments until 1872, when he 
was assigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Atlantic, which post he held 
until his death. In 1869 he declined the 
nomination for governor of Pennsylvania. 
He was the nominee of the Democratic 
party for president, in 1880, and was de- 
feated by General Garfield, who had a popu- 
lar majority of seven thousand and eighteen 
and an electoral majority .of fifty-nine. Gen- 
eral Hancock died February 9, 1886. 

THOMAS PAINE, the most noted polit- 
ical and deistical writer of the Revolu- 
tionary period, was born in England, Jan- 
uary 29, 1737, of Quaker parents. His edu- 
cation was- obtained in the grammar schools 
of Thetford, his native town, and supple- 
mented by hard private study while working 
at his trade of stay-maker at London and 
other cities of England. He was for a time 
a dissenting preacher, although he did not 
relinquish his employment. He married a 
revenue official's daughter, and was employed 
in the revenue service for some time. He 
then became a grocer and during all this time 
he was reading and cultivating his literary 
tastes, and had developed a clear and forci- 
ble style of composition. He was chosen to 
represent the interests of the excisemen, 
and published a pamphlet that brought 
him considerable notice. He was soon after- 
ward introduced to Benjamin Franklin, and 
having been dismissed from the service on a 



charge of smuggling, his resentment led him 
to accept the advice of that statesman to 
come to America, in 1774. He became 
editor of the ' ' Pennsylvania Magazine," and 
the next year published his "Serious 
Thoughts upon Slavery" in the "Penn- 
sylvania Journal." His greatest political 
work, however, was written at the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Rush, and entitled "Common 
Sense." It was the most popular pamphlet 
written during the period and he received 
two thousand five hundred dollars from the 
state of Pennsylvania in recognition of its 
value. His periodical, the "Crisis," began 
in 1776, and its distribution among the 
soldiers did a great deal to keep up the spirit 
of revolution. He was made secretary of 
the committee of foreign affairs, but was dis- 
missed for revealing diplomatic secrets in 
one of his controversies with Silas Deane. 
He was originator and promoter of a sub- 
scription to relieve the distress of the soldiers 
near the close of the war, and was sent to 
France with Henry Laurens to negotiate the 
treaty with France, and was granted three 
thousand dollars by congress for his services 
there, and an estate at New Rochelle, by the 
state of New York. 

In 1787, after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, he went to France, and a few 
years later published his " Rights of Man," 
defending the French revolution, which 
gave him great popularity in France. He 
was made a citizen and elected to the na- 
tional convention at Calais. He favored 
banishment of the king to America, and 
opposed his execution. He was imprisoned 
for about ten months during 1794 by the 
Robespierre party, during which time he 
wrote the " Age of Reason," his great deis- 
tical work. He was in danger of the guillo- 
tine for several months. He took up his 
residence with the family of James Monroe, 

then minister to France and was chosen 
again to the convention. He returned 
to the United States in 1802, and was 
cordially received throughout the coun- 
try except at Trenton, where he was insulted 
by Federalists. He retired to his estate at 
New Rochelle, and his death occurred June 
8, 1809. 

America's noted men, both in the de- 
velopment of the western coast and the 
building of the Mackay and Bennett cable. 
He was born in 1831 at Dublin, Ireland; 
came to New York in 1840 and his boyhood 
days were spent in Park Row. He went 
to California some time after the argonauts 
of 1849 and took to the primitive methods 
of mining — dost and won and finally drifted 
into Nevada about i860. The bonanza dis- 
coveries which were to have such a potent 
influence on the finance and statesmanship 
of the day came in 1872. Mr. Mackay 
founded the Nevada Bank in 1878. He is 
said to have taken one hundred and 
fifty million dollars in bullion out of 
the Big Bonanza mine. There were as- 
sociated with him in this enterprise James 
G. Fair, senator from Nevada; William 
O'Brien and James C. Flood. When 
vast wealth came to Mr. Mackay he be- 
lieved it his duty to do his country some 
service, and he agitated in his mind the 
building of an American steamship line, 
and while brooding over this his attention 
was called to the cable relations, between 
America and Europe. The financial man- 
agement of the cable was selfish and ex- 
travagant, and the capital was heavy with 
accretions of financial " water" and to pay 
even an apparent dividend upon the sums 
which represented the nominal value of the 
cables, it was necessary to hold the rates 



at an exorbitant figure. And, moreover, 
the cables were foreign; in one the influence 
of France being paramount and in the other 
that of England; and in the matter of intel- 
ligence, so necessary in case of war, we 
would be at the mercy of our enemies. This 
train of thought brought Mr. Mackay into re- 
lation with James Gordon Bennett, the pro- 
prietor of the " New York Herald." The 
result of their intercourse was that Mr. Mac- 
kay so far entered into the enthusiasm of 
Mr. Bennett over an independent cable, 
that he offered to assist the enterprise with 
five hundred thousand dollars. This was the 
inception of the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany, or of what has been known for years 
as the Mackav-Bennett cable. 

ELISHA GRAY, the great inventor and 
electrician, was born August 2, 1835. 
at Barnesville, Belmont county, Ohio. He 
was, as a child, greatly interested in the 
phenomena of nature, and read with avidity 
all the books he could obtain, relating to 
this subject. He was apprenticed to various 
trades during his boyhood, but his insatiable 
thirst for knowledge dominated his life and 
he found time to study at odd intervals. 
Supporting himself by working at his trade, 
he found time to pursue a course at Oberlin 
College, where he particularly devoted him- 
self to the study of physicial science. Mr. 
Gray secured his first patent for electrical 
or telegraph apparatus on October 1, 1867. 
His attention was first attracted to tele- 
phonic transmission during this year and he 
saw in it a way of transmitting signals for 
telegraph purposes, and conceived the idea 
of electro-tones, tuned to different tones in 
the scale. He did not then realize the im- 
portance of his invention, his thoughts being 
employed on the capacity of the apparatus 
for transmitting musical tones through an 

electric circuit, and it was not until 1874 
that he was again called to consider the re- 
production of electrically-transmitted vibra- 
tions through the medium of animal tissue. 
He continued experimenting with various 
results, which finally culminated in his 
taking out a patent for his speaking tele- 
phone on February 14, 1876. He took out 
fifty additional patents in the course of 
eleven years, among which were, telegraph 
switch, telegraph repeater, telegraph annun- 
ciator and typewriting telegraph. From 
1869 until 1873 he was employed in the 
manufacture of telegraph apparatus in Cleve- 
land and Chicago, and filled the office of 
electrician to the Western Electric Com- 
pany. He was awarded the degree of D. 
S., and in 1874 he went abroad to perfect 
himself in acoustics. Mr. Gray's latest in- 
vention was known as the telautograph or 
long distance writing machine. Mr. Gray 
wrote and published several works on scien- 
tific subjects, among which were: "Tele- 
graphy and Telephony," and " Experi- 
mental Research in Electro-Harmonic Tele- 
graphy and Telephony." 

WHITELAW REID.— Among the many 
men who have adorned the field of 
journalism in the United States, few stand 
out with more prominence than the scholar, 
author and editor whose name heads this ar- 
ticle. Born at Xenia, Greene county, Ohio, 
October 27, 1837, he graduated at Miami 
University in 1856. For about a year he 
was superintendent of the graded schools of 
South Charleston, Ohio, after which he pur- 
chased the "Xenia News," which he edited 
for about two years. This paper was the 
first one outside of Illinois to advocate the 
nomination of Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Reid 
having been a Republican since the birth of 
that party in 1856. After taking an active 



part in the campaign, in the winter of 1860- 
61, he went to the state capital as corres- 
pondent of three daily papers. At the close 
of the session of the legislature he became 
city editor of the "Cincinnati Gazette," 
and at the breaking out of the war went to 
the front as a correspondent for that journal. 
For a time he served on the staff of General 
Morris in West Virginia, with the rank of 
captain. Shortly after he was on the staff 
of General Rosecrans, and, under the name 
of "Agate," wrote most graphic descrip- 
tions of the movements in the field, espe- 
cially that of the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing. In the spring of 1862 Mr. Reid went 
to Washington and was appointed librarian 
to the house of representatives, and acted as 
correspondent of the " Cincinnati Gazette." 
His description of the battle of Gettysburg, 
written on the field, gained him added 
reputation. In 1865 he accompanied Chief 
Justice Chase on a southern tour, and pub- 
lished "After the War; a Southern Tour." 
During the next two years he was engaged 
in cotton planting in Louisiana and Ala- 
bama, and published "Ohio in the War." 
In 1868 he returned to the " Cincinnati Ga- 
zette," becoming one of its leading editors. 
The same year he accepted the invitation of 
Horace Greeley and became one of the staff 
on the " New York Tribune." Upon the 
death of Mr. Greeley in 1872, Mr. Reid be- 
came editor and chief proprietor of that 
paper. In 1878 he was tendered the United 
States mission to Berlin, but declined. The 
offer was again made by the Garfield ad- 
ministration, but again he declined. In 
1878 he was elected by the New York legis- 
lature regent of the university, to succeed 
General John A. Dix. Under the Harrison 
administration he served as United States 
minister to France, and in 1892 was the 
Republican nominee for the vice-presidency 

of the United States. Among other works 
published by him were the " Schools of 
Journalism," "The Scholar in Politics," 
"Some Newspaper Tendencies," and 
' ' Town-Hall Suggestions. " 

the most powerful and effective preach- 
ers the world has ever produced, swaying 
his hearers and touching the hearts of im- 
mense audiences in a manner that has rarely 
been equalled and never surpassed. While 
not a native of America, yet much of his 
labor was spent in this country. He wielded 
a great influence in the "United States in 
early days, and his death occurred here; so 
that he well deserves a place in this volume 
as one of the most celebrated men America 
has known. 

George Whitefield was born in the Bull 
Inn, at Gloucester, England, December 16, 
1 7 14. He acquired the rudiments of learn- 
ing in St. Mary's grammar school. Later 
he attended Oxford University for a time, 
where he became intimate with the Oxford 
Methodists, and resolved to devote himself 
to the ministry. He was ordained in the 
Gloucester Cathedral June 20, 1836, and 
the following day preached his first sermon 
in the same church. On that day there 
commenced a new era in Whitefield's life. 
He went to London and began to preach at 
Bishopsgate church, his fame soon spread- 
ing over the city, and shortly he was en- 
gaged four times on a single Sunday in ad- 
dressing audiences of enormous magnitude, 
and he preached in various parts of his native 
country, the people crowding in multitudes 
to hear him and hanging upon the rails and 
rafters of the churches and approaches there- 
to. He finally sailed for America, landing 
in Georgia, where he stirred the people to 
great enthusiasm. During the balance of 



his life he divided his time between Great 
Britain and America, and it is recorded that 
he crossed the Atlantic thirteen times. He 
came to America for the seventh time in 
1770. He preached every day at Boston 
from the 17th to the 20th of September, 
1770, then traveled to Newburyport, preach- 
ing at Exeter, New Hampshire, September 
29, on the way. That evening he went to 
Newburyport, where he died the next day, 
Sunday, September 30, 1770. 

" Whitefield's dramatic power was amaz- 
ing, " says an eminent writer in describing 
him. " His voice was marvelously varied, 
and he ever had it at command — an organ, 
a flute, a harp, all in one. His intellectual 
powers were not of a high order, but he had 
an abundance of that ready talent and that 
wonderful magnetism which makes the pop- 
ular preacher; and beyond all natural en- 
dowments, there was in his ministry the 
power of evangelical truth, and, as his con- 
verts believed, the presence of the spirit of 

America's prominent men in the devel- 
opment of electrical science, was born March 
17, 1849, near Cleveland, Ohio, and spent 
his early life on his father's farm. From 
the district school at Wickliffe, Ohio, he 
passed to the Shaw Academy at Collamer, 
and then entered the high school at Cleve- 
land. His interest in chemistry, physics 
and engineering was already marked, and 
during his senior year he was placed in 
charge of the chemical and physical appar- 
atus. During these years he devised a plan 
for lighting street lamps, constructed tele- 
scopes, and his first electric arc lamp, also 
an electric motor. In September, 1867, he 
entered the engineering department of the 
University of Michigan and graduated in 

1869, which was a year in advance of his 
class, with the degree of M. E. He then 
returned to Cleveland, and for three years 
was engaged as an analytical chemist and 
for four years in the iron business. In 
1875 Mr. Brush became interested in elec- 
tric lighting, and in 1876, after four months' 
experimenting, he completed the dynamo- 
electric machine that has made his name 
famous, and in a shorter time produced the 
series arc lamps. These were both patent- 
ed in the United States in 1876, and he 
afterward obtained fifty patents on his later 
inventions, including the fundamental stor- 
age battery, the compound series, shunt- 
winding for dynamo-electric machines, and 
the automatic cut-out for arc lamps. His 
patents, two-thirds of which have already 
been profitable, are held by the Brush 
Electric Company, of Cleveland, while his 
foreign patents are controlled by the Anglo- 
American Brush Electric Light Company, 
of London. In 1880 the Western Reserve 
University conferred upon Mr. Brush the 
degree of Ph. D., and in 1881 the French 
government decorated him as a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 

HENRY CLEWS, of Wall-street fame, 
was one of the noted old-time opera- 
tors on that famous street, and was also an 
author of some repute. Mr. Clews was 
born in Staffordshire, England, August 14, 
1840. His father had him educated with 
the intention of preparing him for the minis- 
try, but on a visit to the United States the 
young man became interested in a business 
life, and was allowed to engage as a clerk in 
the importing house of Wilson G. Hunt & 
Co., of New York. Here he learned the 
first principles of business, and when the war 
broke out in 1861 young Clews saw in the 
needs of the government an opportunity to 



reap a golden harvest. He identified him- 
self with the negotiating of loans for the 
government, and used his powers of pur- 
suasion upon the great money powers to 
convince them of the stability of the govern- 
ment and the value of its securities. By 
enthusiasm and patriotic arguments he in- 
duced capitalists to invest their money in 
government securities, often against their 
judgment, and his success was remarkable. 
His was one of the leading firms that aided 
the struggling treasury department in that 
critical hour, and his reward was great. In 
addition to the vast wealth it brought, 
President Lincoln and Secretary Chase 
both wrote important letters, acknowledging 
his valued service. In 1873, by the repu- 
diation of the bonded indebtedness of the 
state of Georgia, Mr. Clews lost six million 
dollars which he had invested in those se- 
curities. It is said that he is the only man, 
with one exception, in Wall street, who 
ever regained great wealth after utter dis- 
aster. His " Twenty-Eight Years in Wall 
Street " has been widely read. 

ALFRED VAIL was one of the men that 
gave to the world the electric telegraph 
and the names of Henry, Morse and Vail 
will forever remain linked as the prime fac- 
tors in that great achievement. Mr. Vail 
was born September 25, 1807, at Morris- 
town, New Jersey, and was a son of Stephen 
Vail, the proprietor of the Speedwell Iron 
Works, near Morristown. At the age of 
seventeen, after he had completed his stud- 
ies at the Morristown Academy, Alfred Vail 
went into the Speedwell Iron Works and 
contented himself with the duties of his 
position until he reached his majority. He 
then determined to prepare himself for the 
ministry, and at the age of twenty-five he 
entered the University of the City of New 

York, where he was graduated in 1836. His 
health becoming impaired he labored for a 
time under much uncertainty as to his future 
course. Professor S. F. B. Morse had come 
to the university in 1835 as professor of lit- 
erature and fine arts, and about this time, 

1837, Professor Gale, occupying the chair 
of chemistry, invited Morse to exhibit his 
apparatus for the benefit of the students. 
On Saturday, September 2, 1837, the exhi- 
bition took place and Vail was asked to at- 
tend, and with his inherited taste for me- 
chanics and knowledge of their construction, 
he saw a great future for the crude mechan- 
ism used by Morse in giving and recording 
signals. Mr. Vail interested his father in 
the invention, and Morse was invited to 
Speedwell and the elder Vail promised to 
help him. It was stipulated that Alfred 
Vail should construct the required apparatus 
and exhibit before a committee of congress 
the telegraph instrument, and was to receive 
a quarter interest in the invention. Morse 
had devised a series of ten numbered leaden 
types, which were to be operated in giving 
the signal. This was not satisfactory to 
Vail, so he devised an entirely new instru- 
ment, involving a lever, or "point," on a 
radically different principle, which, when 
tested, produced dots and dashes, and de- 
vised the famous dot-and-dash alphabet, 
misnamed the "Morse." At last the ma- 
chine was in working order, on January 6, 

1838. The machine was taken to Wash- 
ington, where it caused not only wonder, 
but excitement. Vail continued his experi- 
ments and devised the lever and roller. 
When the line between Baltimore and 
Washington was completed, Vail was sta- 
tioned at the Baltimore end and received 
the famous first message. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that not a single feature of the 
original invention of Morse, as formulated 



by his caveat and repeated in his original 
patent, is to be found in Vail's apparatus. 
From 1837 to 1844 it was a combination of 
the inventions of Morse, Henry and Vail, 
but the work of Morse fell gradually into 
desuetude, while Vail's conception of an 
alphabet has remained unchanged for half a 
century. Mr. Vail published but one work, 
"American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 
in 1845, and died at Morristown at the com- 
paratively early age of fifty-one, on January 
19- '§59- 

ULYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born April 27, 1822, at Point Pleasant, Cler- 
mont county, Ohio. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered the United States Military 
Academy at West Point, from which he 
graduated in June, 1843, an d was given his 
brevet as second lieutenant and assigned to 
the Fourth Infantry. He remained in the 
service eleven years, in which time he 
was engaged in the Mexican war with gal- 
lantry, and was thrice brevetted for conduct 
in the field. In 1848 he married Miss Julia 
Dent, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of captain, he resigned and engaged 
in farming near St. Louis. In i860 he en- 
tered the leather business with his father at 
Galena, Illinois. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he commenced to drill a company at Ga- 
lena, and at the same time offered his serv- 
ices to the adjutant-general of the army, 
but he had few influential friends, so re- 
ceived no answer. He was employed by 
the governor of Illinois in the organization 
of the various volunteer regiments, and at 
the end of a few weeks was given the 
colonelcy of the Twenty-first Infantry, from 
that state. His military training and knowl- 
edge soon attracted the attention of his su- 

perior officers, and on reporting to General 
Pope in Missouri, the latter put him in 
the way of advancement. August 7, 1861, 
he was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and for a few weeks 
was occupied in watching the movements of 
partisan forces in Missouri. September 1, 
the same year, he was placed in command 
of the Department of Southeast Missouri, 
with headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th 
of the month, without orders, seized Padu- 
cah, which commanded the channel of the 
Ohio and Tennessee rivers, by which he se- 
cured Kentucky for the Union. He now 
received orders to make a demonstration on 
Belmoat, which he did, and with about three 
thousand raw recruits held his own against 
the Confederates some seven thousand 
strong, bringing back about two hundred 
prisoners and two guns. In February,Ji862, 
he moved up the Tennessee river with 
the naval fleet under Commodore Foote. 
The latter soon silenced Fort Henry, and 
Grant advanced against Fort Donelson and 
took their fortress and its garrison. His 
prize here consisted of sixty-five cannon, 
seventeen thousand six hundred stand of 
arms, and fourteen thousand six hundred 
and twenty-three prisoners. This was the 
first important success won by the Union 
forces. Grant was immediately made a 
major-general and placed in command of 
the district of West Tennessee. In April, 
1862, he fought the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, and after the evacuation of Corinth by 
the enemy Grant became commander of the 
Department of the Tennessee. He now 
made his first demonstration toward Vicks- 
burg, but owing to the incapacity of subor- 
dinate officers, was unsuccessful. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, he took command of all the 
troops in the Mississippi Valley and devoted 
several months to the siege of Vicksburg, 



which was finally taken possession of by him 
July 4, with thirty-one thousand six hundred 
prisoners and one hundred and seventy-two 
cannon, thus throwing the Mississippi river 
open to the Federals. He was now raised 
to the rank of major-general in the regular 
army. October following, at the head of 
the Department of the Mississippi, General 
Grant went to Chattanooga, where he over- 
threw the enemy, and united with the Army 
of the Cumberland. The remarkable suc- 
cesses achieved by him pointed Grant out 
for an appropriate commander of all na- 
tional troops, and in February, 1864, the 
rank of lieutenant-general was made for him 
by act of congress. Sending Sherman into 
Georgia, Sigel into the Valley of West Vir- 
ginia and Butler to attempt the capture of 
Richmond he fought his way through the 
Wilderness to the James and pressed the 
siege of the capital of the Confederacy. 
After the fall of the latter Grant pressed 
the Confederate army so hard that their 
commander surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, April 9, 1865. This virtually 
ended the war. 

After the war the rank of general was 
conferred upon U. S. Grant, and in 1868 he 
was elected president of the United States, 
and re-elected his own successor in 1872. 
After the expiration of the latter term he 
made his famous tour of the world. He died 
at Mt. McGregor, near Saratoga, New York, 
July 23, 1885, and was buried at Riverside 
Park, New York, where a magnificent tomb 
has been erected to hold the ashes of the 
nation's hero. 

JOHN MARSHALL, the fourth chief jus- 
tice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Germantown, Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1755 His father, Colonel Thomas 
Marshall, served with distinction in the Rev- 

olutionary war, while he also served from 
the beginning of the war until 1779, where 
he became noted in the field and courts 
martial. While on detached service he at- 
tended a course of law lectures at William 
and Mary College, delivered by Mr. Wythe, 
and was admitted to the bar. The next year 
he resigned his commission and began his 
career as a lawyer. He was a distinguished 
member of the convention called in Virginia 
to ratify the Federal constitution. He was 
tendered the attorney-generalship of the 
United States, and also a place on the su- 
preme bench, besides other places of less 
honor, all of which he declined. He 
went to France as special envoy in 1798, 
and the next year was elected to congress. 
He served one year and was appointed, first, 
secretary of war, and then secretary of state, 
and in 1801 was made chief justice of the 
United States. He held this high office un- 
til his death, in 1835. 

Chief Justice Marshall's early education 
was neglected, and his opinions, the most 
valuable in existence, are noted for depth 
of wisdom, clear and comprehensive reason- 
ing, justice, and permanency, rather than for 
wide learning and scholarly construction. 
His decisions and rulings are resorted to 
constantly by our greatest lawyers, and his 
renown as a just judge and profound jurist 
was world wide. 

known more widely as a producer of 
new plays than as a great actor. He was 
born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1838, and 
educated himself as best he could, and at 
the age of sixteen years became salesman 
for a Detroit dry goods house. He after- 
wards began to go upon the stage as a 
supernumerary, and his ambition was soon 
rewarded by the notice of the management. 



During the war of the Rebellion he was a 
soldier, and after valiant service for his 
country he returned to the stage. He went 
to Europe and appeared in Liverpool, and 
returning in 1869, he began playing at 
Booth's theater, with Mr. Booth. He was 
afterward associated with John McCullough 
in the management of the California 
theater. Probably the most noted period 
of his work was during his connection with 
Edwin Booth as manager of that great 
actor, and supporting him upon the stage. 
Mr. Barrett was possessed of the crea- 
tive instinct, and, unlike Mr. Booth, he 
sought new fields for the display of his 
genius, and only resorted to traditional 
drama in response to popular demand. He 
preferred new plays, and believed in the 
encouragement of modern dramatic writers, 
and was the only actor of prominence in his 
time that ventured to put upon the stage 
new American plays, which he did at his 
own expense, and the success of his experi- 
ments proved the quality of his judgment. 
He died March 21, 189c. 

ebrated Catholic clergyman, was born 
at Annaboghan, Tyrone county, Ireland, 
June 24, 1797, and emigrated to America 
when twenty years of age, engaging for 
some time as a gardener and nurseryman. 
In 1 8 19 he entered St. Mary's College, 
where he secured an education, paying his 
way by caring for the college garden. In 
1825 he was ordained a deacon of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, and in the same year, 
a priest. Until 1 838 he had pastoral charges 
in Philadelphia, where he founded St. John's 
Asylum in 1829, and a few years later es- 
tablished the "Catholic Herald." In 1838 
he was made bishop of Basileopolis in parti- 
bus and coadjutor to Bishop Dubois, of 

New York, and in 1842 became bishop of 
New York. In 1839 he founded St. John's 
College, at Fordharn. In 1850 he was 
made archbishop of New York. In 1 861-2 
he was a special agent of the United States 
in Europe, after which he returned to this 
country and remained until his death, Jan- 
uary 3, 1864. Archbishop Hughes early 
attracted much attention by his controver- 
sial correspondence with Rev. John Breck- 
inridge in 1833-35. He was a man of great 
ability, a fluent and forceful writer and an 
able preacher. 

was the nineteenth president of the 
United States and served from 1877 to 1881. 
He was born October 4, 1822, at Delaware, 
Ohio, and his ancestry can be traced back 
as far as 1280, when Hayes and Rutherford 
were two Scottish chieftans fighting side by 
side with Baliol, William Wallace and 
Robert Bruce. The Hayes family had for 
a coat of arms, a shield, barred and sur- 
mounted by a flying eagle. There was a 
circle of stars about the eagle, while on a 
scroll underneath was their motto, "Recte." 
Misfortune overtook the family and in 1680 
George Hayes, the progenitor of the Ameri- 
can family, came to Connecticut and settled 
at Windsor. Rutherford B. Hayes was 
a very delicate child at his birth and was 
not expected to live, but he lived in spite of 
all and remained at home until he was 
seven years old, when he was placed in 
school. He was a very tractable pupil, being 
always very studious, and in 1838 entered 
Kenyon College, graduating from the same 
in 1842. He then took up the study of law 
in the office of Thomas Sparrow at Colum- 
bus, but in a short time he decided to enter 
a law school at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where for two years he was immersed in the 



study of law. Mr. Hayes was admitted to 
the bar in 1845 in Marietta, Ohio, and very 
soon entered upon the active practice of his 
profession with Ralph P. Buckland, of 
Fremont, Ohio. He remained there three 
years, and in 1849 removed to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, where his ambition found a new 
stimulus. Two events occurred at this 
period that had a powerful influence on his 
after life. One was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, and the other was his 
introduction to a Cincinnati literary club, 
a body embracing such men as Salmon P. 
Chase, John Pope, and Edward F. Noyes. 
In 1856 he was nominated for judge of the 
court of common pleas, but declined, and 
two years later he was appointed city 
solicitor. At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
Mr. Hayes was appointed major of the 
Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, June 7, 1861, 
and in July the regiment was ordered to 
Virginia, and October 15, 1861, saw him 
promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment. He was made colonel of the 
Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry, but refused to 
leave his old comrades; and in the battle of 
South Mountain he was wounded very 
severely and was unable to rejoin his regi- 
ment until November 30, 1862. He had 
been promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment on October 15, 1862. In the 
following December he was appointed to 
command the Kanawa division and was 
given the rank of brigadier-general for 
meritorious services in several battles, and 
in 1864 he was brevetted major-general for 
distinguished services in 1864, during 
which campaign he was wounded several 
times and five horses had been shot under 
him. Mr. Hayes' first venture in politics 
was as a Whig, and later he was one of the 
first to unite with the Republican party. In 
1864 he was elected from the Second Ohio 

district to congress, re-elected in 1866, 
and in 1867 was elected governor of Ohio 
over Allen G. Thurman, and was re-elected 
in 1869. Mr. Hayes was elected to the 
presidency in 1876, for the term of four 
years, and at its close retired to private life, 
and went to his home in Fremont, Ohio, 
where he died on January 17, 1893. 

a celebrated character as the nominee 
of the Democratic and Populist parties for 
president of the United States in 1896. He 
was born March 19, i860, at Salem, Illi- 
nois. He received his early education in 
the public schools of his native county, and 
later on he attended the Whipple Academy 
at Jacksonville. He also took a course in 
Illinois College, and after his graduation 
from the same went to Chicago to study 
law, and entered the Union College of Law 
a? a student. He was associated with the 
late Lyman Trumbull, of Chicago, during 
his law studies, and devoted considerable 
time to the questions of government. He 
graduated from the college, was admitted to 
the bar, and went to Jacksonville, Illinois, 
where he was married to Miss Mary Eliza- 
beth Baird. In 1887 Mr. Bryan removed 
to Lincoln, Nebraska, and formed a law 
partnership with Adolphus R. Talbot. He 
entered the field of politics, and in 188S 
was sent as a delegate to the state con- 
vention, which was to choose delegates to 
the national convention, during which he 
made a speech which immediately won him 
a high rank in political affairs. He declined, 
in the next state convention, a nomination 
for lieutenant-governor, and in 1890 he was 
elected congressman from the First district 
of Nebraska, and was the youngest member 
of the fifty-second congress. He cham- 
pioned the Wilson tariff bill, and served 



three terms in the house of representatives. 
He next ran for senator, but was defeated 
by John M. Thurston, and in 1896 he was 
selected by the Democratic and Populist 
parties as their nominee for the presidency, 
being defeated by William McKinley. 


ARVIN HUGHITT, one of America's 
famous railroad men, was born in 
Genoa, New York, and entered the railway 
service in 1856 as superintendent of tele- 
graph and trainmaster of the St. Louis, Al- 
ton & Chicago, now Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road. Mr. Hughitt was superintendent of 
the southern division of the Illinois Central 
Railroad from 1862 until 1864, and was, later 
on, the general superintendent of the road 
until 1870. He was then connected with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road as assistant general manager, and re- 
tained this position until 1871, when he be- 
came the general manager of Pullman's 
Palace Car Company. In 1872 he was made 
general superintendent of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad. He served during 
1876 and up to 1880 as general manager, 
and from 1880 until 1887 as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. He was elected 
president of the road in 1887, in recog- 
nition of his ability in conducting the 
affairs of the road. He was also chosen 
president of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha Railway; the Fremont, Elk- 
horn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and the 
Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railroad, 
and his services in these capacities stamped 
him as one of the most able railroad mana- 
gers of his day. 

JOSEPH MEDILL, one of the most 
eminent of American journalists, was 
born in New Brunswick, Canada, April 6, 
1823. In 1831 his father moved to Stark 

county, Ohio, and until 1841 Joseph Medill 
worked on his father's farm. Later he 
studied law, and began the practice of that 
profession in 1846 at New Philadelphia, 
Ohio. But the newspaper field was more 
attractive to Mr. Medill, and three years 
later he founded a free-soil Whig paper at 
Coshocton, Ohio, and after that time jour- 
nalism received all his abilities. "The 
Leader, " another free-soil Whig paper, was 
founded by Mr. Medill at Cleveland in 1852. 
In that city he also became one of the first 
organizers of the Republican party. Shortly 
after that event he removed to Chicago and 
in 1855, with two partners, he purchased 
the " Chicago Tribune." In the contest for 
the nomination for the presidency in i860, 
Mr. Medill worked with unflagging zeal for 
Mr. Lincoln, his warm personal friend, and 
was one of the president's stanchest sup- 
porters during the war. Mr. Medill was a 
member of the Illinois Constitutional con- 
vention in 1870. President Grant, in 1871, 
appointed the editor a member of the firs- 
United States civil service commission, and 
the following' year, after the fire, he was 
elected mayor of Chicago by a great ma- 
jority. During 1873 and 1874 Mr. Medill 
spent a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he purchased a controlling interest in the 
" Chicago Tribune." 

CLAUSSPRECKELS, the great " sugar 
baron," and one of the most famous 
representatives of commercial life in Amer- 
ica, was born in Hanover, Germany, and 
emigrated to the United States in 1840, 
locating in New York. He very soon be- 
came the proprietor of a small retail gro- 
cery store on Church street, and embarked 
on a career that has since astonished the 
world. He sold out his business and went 
to California with the argonauts of 1849, 



not as a prospector, but as a trader, and for 
years after his arrival on the coast he was 
still engaged as a grocer. At length, after a 
quarter of a century of fairly prosperous 
business life, he found himself in a position 
where an ordinary man would have retired, 
but Mr. Spreckles did not retire; he had 
merely been gathering capital for the real 
work of his life. His brothers had followed 
him to California, and in combination with 
them he purchased for forty thousand dollars 
an interest in the Albany Brewery in San 
Francisco. But the field was not extensive 
enough for the development of his business 
abilities, so Mr. Sprecklas branched out 
extensively in the sugar business. He suc- 
ceeded in securing the entire output of 
sugar that was produced on the Sand- 
wich Islands, and after 1885 was known as 
the " Sugar King of Sandwich Islands." 
He controlled absolutely the sugar trade of 
the Pacific coast which was known to be 
not less than ten million dollars a year. 

famous as a clergyman, and for many 
years president of the Society for the 
Prevention of Crime, was born April 17, 
1842, at Framingham, Massachusetts, of 
English descent. At the age of sixteen 
he was pupil in the grammar school at 
Clinton, Massachusetts, and for the ensu- 
ing two years was a clerk in a dry goods 
store, which position he gave up to prepare 
himself for college at Lancaster academy. 
Mr. Parkhurst went to Amherst in 1862, 
and after taking a thorough course he gradu- 
ated in 1866, and in 1867 became the prin- 
cipal of the Amherst High School. He re- 
tained this position until 1870, when he 
visited Germany with the intention of tak- 
ing a course in philosophy and theology, 
but was forced to abandon this intention on 

account of illness in the family causing his 
early return from Europe. He accepted the 
chair of Latin and Greek in Williston Semi- 
nary, Easthampton, Massachusetts, and re- 
mained there two years. He then accom- 
panied his wife to Europe, and devoted two 
years to study in Halle, Leipsic and Bonn. 
Upon his return home he spent considerable 
time in the study of Sanscrit, and in 1874 
he became the pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional church at Lenox, Massachusetts. He 
gained here his reputation as a pulpit ora- 
tor, and on March 9, 1880, he became the 
pastor of the Madison Square Presbyterian 
church of New York. He was, in 1890, 
made a member of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Crime, and the same year be- 
came its president. He delivered a sermon 
in 1892 on municipal corruption, for which 
he was brought before the grand jury, which 
body declared his charges to be without suffi- 
cient foundation. But the matter did not end 
here, for he immediately went to work on a 
second sermon in which he substantiated his 
former sermon and wound up by saying, 
"I know, for I have seen." He was again 
summoned before that august body, and as 
a result of his testimony and of the investi- 
gation of the jurors themselves, the police 
authorities were charged with incompetency 
and corruption. Dr. Parkhurst was the 
author of the following works: ' ' The Forms 
of the Latin Verb, Illustrated by Sanscrit," 
"The Blind Man's Creed and Other Ser- 
mons," "The Pattern on the Mount," and 
" Three Gates on a Side." 

HENRY BERGH, although a writer, 
diplomatist and government official, 
was noted as a philanthropist — the founder 
of the American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals. On his labors for 
the dumb creation alone rests his fame. 



Alone, in the face of indifference, opposition 
and ridicule, he began the reform which is 
now recognized as one of the beneficent 
movements of the age. Through his exer- 
tions as a speaker and lecturer, but above 
all as a bold worker, in the street, in the 
court room, before the legislature, the cause 
he adopted gained friends and rapidly in- 
creased in power until it has reached im- 
mense proportions and influence. The work 
of the society covers all cases of cruelty to 
all sorts of animals, employs every moral 
agency, social, legislative and personal, and 
touches points of vital concern to health as 
well as humanity. 

Henry Bergh was born in New York 
City in 1823, and was educated at Colum- 
bia College. In 1863 he was made secre- 
tary of the legation to Russia and also 
served as vice-consul there. He also de- 
voted some time to literary pursuits and was 
the author of "Love's Alternative," a 
drama; "Married Off," a poem; "'The 
Portentous Telegram," "The Ocean Para- 
gon;" "The Streets of New York," tales 
and sketches. 

of the most eminent of American di- 
vines, was born in Adams, Jefferson county, 
New York, February 15, 1822. He was 
brought up in the mercantile business, and 
early in life took an active interest in polit- 
ical affairs. In 1847 he became a candidate 
for holy orders and pursued theological 
studies with Rev. W. D. Wilson, D. D., 
afterward professor in Cornell University. 
He was ordained deacon in 1849, in Trinity 
church, Geneva, New York, by Rt. Rev. 
W. H. De Lancey, D. D., and took charge 
of Zion church, Rome, New York, Decem- 
ber 1, 1849. In 1850, our subject was or- 
dained priest by Bishop De Lancey. In 

1857 he became rector of the Church of the 
Holy Communion, Chicago. On the 30th 
of June, 1859, he was chosen bishop of 
Minnesota, and took charge of the interests 
of the Episcopal church in that state, being 
located at Faribault. In i860 Bishop 
Whipple, with Revs. I. L. Breck, S. W. 
Mauncey and E. S. Peake, organized the 
Bishop Seabury Mission, out of which has 
grown the Cathedral of Our Merciful Savior, 
the Seabury Divinity School, Shattuck 
School and St. Mary's Hall, which have 
made Faribault City one of the greatest 
educational centers of the northwest. Bishop 
Whipple also became noted as the friend 
and defender of the North American In- 
dians and planted a number of successful 
missions among them. 

EZRA CORNELL was one of the greatest 
philanthropists and friends of education 
the country has known. He was born at 
Westchester Landing, New York, January 
11, 1807. He grew to manhood in his na- 
tive state and became a prominent figure in 
business circles as a successful and self-made 
man. Soon after the invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph, he devoted his attention to 
that enterprise, and accumulated an im- 
mense fortune. In 1865, by a gift of five 
hundred thousand dollars, he made possible 
the founding of Cornell University, which 
was named in his honor. He afterward 
made additional bequests amountingto many 
hundred thousand dollars. His death oc- 
curred at Ithaca, New York, December 9, 

1 as an author and politician, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3, 
1831. He was educated at the public 
schools of that city, and graduated from the 



Central High School in 1849. He studied 
law in the office of Judge B. H. Brewster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1852. In 
the spring of 1856, Mr. Donnelly emigrated 
to Minnesota, then a new territory, and, at 
Hastings, resumed the practice of law in 
partnership with A. M. Hayes. In 1857, 
and again in 1858, he was defeated for state 
senator, but in 1859 he was elected by the 
Republicans as lieutenant-governor, and re- 
elected in 1 86 1. In 1862 he was elected to 
represent the Second district of Minnesota 
in congress. He was re-elected to the same 
office in 1864 and in 1866. He was an 
abolitionist and warmly supported President 
Lincoln's administration, but was strongly 
in favor of leniency toward the people of 
the south, after the war. In many ways he 
was identified with some of the best meas- 
ures brought before the house during his 
presence there. In the spring of 1868, at 
the request of the Republican national com- 
mittee, he canvassed New Hampshire and 
Connecticut in the interests of that party. 
E. B. Washburne about this time made an 
attack on Donnelly in one of the papers of 
Minnesota, which was replied to on the floor 
of the house by a fierce phillipic that will 
long be remembered. Through the inter- 
vention of the Washburne interests Mr. Don- 
nelly failed of a re-election in 1870. In 
1873 he was elected to the state senate from 
Dakota county, and continuously re-elected 
until 1878. In 1886 he was elected mem- 
ber of the house for two years. In later 
years he identified himself with the Popu- 
list party. 

In 1882, Mr. Donnelly became known as 
an author, publishing his first literary work, 
"Atlantis, the Antediluvian World," which 
passed through over twenty-two editions in 
America, several in England, and was trans- 
lated into French. This was followed by 

" Ragnarok, the Age of Fire and Gravel," 
which attained nearly as much celebrity as 
the first, and these two, in the opinion of 
scientific critics, are sufficient to stamp the 
author as a most capable and painstaking 
student of the facts he has collated in them. 
The work by which he gained the greatest 
notoriety, however, was "The Great Cryp- 
togram, or Francis Bacon's Cipher in the 
Shakespeare Plays." "Caesar's Column," 
" Dr. Huguet," and other works were pub- 
lished subsequently. 

STEVEN V. WHITE, a speculator of 
Wall Street of national reputation, was 
born in Chatham county, North Carolina, 
August 1, 1 83 1, and soon afterward re- 
moved to Illinois. His home was a log 
cabin, and until his eighteenth year he 
worked on the farm. Then after several 
years of struggle with poverty he graduated 
from Knox College, and went to St. Louis, 
where he entered a wholesale boot and shoe 
house as bookkeeper. He then studied law 
and worked as a reporter for the "Missouri 
Democrat." After his admission to the bar 
he went to New York, in 1865, and became 
a member of the banking house of Marvin 
& White. Mr. White enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of having engineered the only corner 
in Wall Street since Commodore Vander- 
bilt's time. This was the famous Lacka- 
wanna deal in 1883, in which he made a 
profit of two million dollars. He was some- 
times called " Deacon" White, and, though 
a member for many years of the Plymouth 
church, he never held that office. Mr. 
White was one of the most noted characters 
of the street, and has been called an orator, 
poet, philanthropist, linguist, abolitionist, 
astronomer, schoolmaster, plowboy, and 
trapper. He was a lawyer, ex-congress- 
man, expert accountant, art critic andtheo- 

compexdilm of biography 

J 63 

logian. He laid the foundation for a 
"Home for Colored People," in Chatham 
county, North Carolina, where the greater 
part of his father's life was spent, and in 
whose memory the work was undertaken. 

JAMES A. GARFIELD, the twentieth 
president of the United States, was born 
November 19, 1831, in Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, and was the son of Abram and Eliza 
(Baliou) Garfield. In 1833 the father, an 
industrious pioneer farmer, died, and the 
care of the family devolved upon Thomas, 
to whom James became deeply indebted for 
educational and other advantages. As James 
grew up he was industrious and worked on 
the farm, at carpentering, at chopping wood, 
or anything else he found to do, and in the 
meantime made the most of his books. 

Until he was about sixteen, James' high- 
est ambition was to become a sea captain. 
On attaining that age he walked to 
Cleveland, and, not being able to find work, 
he engaged as a driver on the Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania canal, but quit this after a short 
time. He attended the seminary at Ches- 
ter for about three years, after which he 
entered Hiram Institute, a school started by 
the Disciples of Christ in 1850. In order 
to pay his way he assumed the duties of 
janitor and at times taught school. After 
completing his course at the last named edu- 
cational institution he entered Williams Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1856. He 
afterward returned to Hiram College as its 
president. He studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1859. November 11, 1858, 
Mr. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph were 

In 1859 Mr. Garfield made his first polit- 
ical speeches, at Hiram and in the neighbor- 
hood. The same year he was elected to the 
state senate. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty- 
second Ohio Infantry, and, while but a ne^\ 
soldier, was given command of four regi- 
ments of infantry and eight companies of 
cavalry, with which he drove the Confeder- 
ates under Humphrey Marshall out of Ken 
tucky. January 11, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general. He participated 
with General Buell in the battle of Shiloh 
and the operations around Corinth, and was 
then detailed as a member of the Fitz John 
Porter court-martial. Reporting to General 
Rosecrans, he was assigned to the position 
of chief of staff, and resigned his position, 
with the rank of major-general, when his 
immediate superior was superseded. In 
the fall of 1862 Mr. Garfield was elected to 
congress and remained in that body, either 
in the house or senate, until 1880. 

June 8, 1880, at the national Republican 
convention, held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the presidency, and 
was elected. He was inaugurated March 
4, 1 88 1, but, July 2, following, he was shot 
and fatally wounded by Charles Guiteau for 
some fancied political slight, and died Sep- 
tember 19, 1 88 1. 

INCREASE MATHER was one of the 
1 most prominent preachers, educators and 
authors of early times in the New England 
states. He was born at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, June 21, 1639, and was given an 
excellent education, graduating at Harvard 
in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, 
two years later. He was ordained a min- 
ister, and preached in England and America, 
and in 1664 became pastor of the North 
church, in Boston. In 1685 he became 
president of Harvard University, serving 
until 1 70 1. In 1692 he received the first 
doctorate in divinity conferred in English 



speaking America. The same year he pro- 
cured in England a new charter for Massa- 
chusetts, which conferred upon himself the 
power of naming the governor, lieutenant- 
governor and council. He opposed the 
severe punishment of witchcraft, and took 
a prominent part in all public affairs of his 
day. He was a prolific writer, and became 
the author of nearly one hundred publica- 
tions, large and small. His death occurred 
August 23, 1723, at Boston. 

COTTON MATHER, a celebrated minis- 
ter in the "Puritan times" of New 
England, was born at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, February 12, 1663, being a son of 
Rev. Increase Mather, and a grandson of 
John Cotton. A biography of his father 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 
Cotton Mather received his early education 
in his native city, was trained by Ezekiel 
Cheever, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1678; became a teacher, and in 1684 
was ordained as associate pastor of North 
church, Boston, with his father, having by 
persistent effort overcome an impediment in 
his speech. He labored with great zeal as 
a pastor, endeavoring also, to establish the 
ascendancy of the church and ministry in 
civil affairs, and in the putting down of 
witchcraft by legal sentences, a work in 
which he took an active part and through 
which he is best known in history. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. in 17 10, con- 
ferred by the University of Glasgow, and 
F. R. S. in 17 1 3. His death occurred at 
Boston, February 13, 1728. He was the 
author of many publications, among which 
were " Memorable Providences Relating to 
Witchcraft," "Wonders of the Invisible 
World," "Essays to Do Good," " Mag- 
nalia Christi Americana," and " Illustra- 
tions of the Sacred Scriptures." Some of 

these works are quaint and curious, full of 
learning, piety and prejudice. A well- 
known writer, in summing up the life and 
character of Cotton Mather, says : ' ' Mather, 
with all the faults of his early years, was a 
man of great excellence of character. He 
labored zealously for the benefit of the 
poor, for mariners, slaves, criminals and 
Indians. His cruelty and credulity were 
the faults of his age, while his philanthro- 
phy was far more rare in that age than in 
the present." 

WILLIAM A. PEFFER, who won a 
national reputation during the time 
he was in the United States senate, was 
born on a farm in Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, September 10, 1831. He 
drew his education from the public schools 
of his native state and at the age of fifteen 
taught school in winter, working on a farm 
in the Slimmer. In June, 1853, while yet a 
young man, he removed to Indiana, and 
opened up a farm in St. Joseph county. 
In 1859 he made his way to Missouri and 
settled on a farm in Morgan county, but on 
account of the war and the unsettled state 
of the country, he moved to Illinois in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and enlisted as a private in 
Company F, Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, 
the following August. He was promoted 
to the rank of second lieutenant in 
March, 18*63, an d served successively as 
quartermaster, adjutant, post adjutant, 
judge advocate of a military commission, 
and depot quartermaster in the engineer 
department at Nashville. He was mustered 
out of the service June 26, 1865. He had, 
during his leisure hours while in the army, 
studied law, and in August, 1865, he com- 
menced the practice of that profession at 
Clarksville, Tennessee. He removed to 
Kansas in 1870 and practiced there until 



1878, in the meantime establishing and 
conducting two newspapers, the " Fredonia 
Journal " and " Coffey ville Journal." 

Mr. Peffer was elected to the state senate 
in 1874 and was a prominent and influential 
member of several important committees. 
He served as a presidential elector in 1880. 
The year following he became editor of the 
" Kansas Farmer," which he made a promi- 
nent and useful paper. In 1890 Mr. Peffer 
was elected to the United States senate as 
a member of the People's party and took 
his seat March 4, 1891. After six years of 
service Senator Peffer was succeeded in 
March, 1897, by William A. Harris. 

ROBERT MORRIS.— The name of this 
financier, statesman and patriot is 
closely connected with the early history of 
the United States. He was a native of 
England, born January 20, 1734, and came 
to America with his father when thirteen 
years old. Until 1754 he served in the 
counting house of Charles Willing, then 
formed a partnership with that gentleman's 
son, which continued with great success until 
1793. In 1776 Mr. Morris was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, and, although 
once voting against the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, signed that paper on its adop- 
tion, and was several times thereafter re- 
elected to congress. During the Revolu- 
tionary war the services of Robert Morris 
in aiding the government during its finan- 
cial difficulties were of incalculable value; he 
freely pledged his personal credit for sup- 
plies for the army, at one time to the amount 
of about one and a half million dollars, with- 
out which the campaign of 1 78 1 would have 
been almost impossible. Mr. Morris was 
appointed superintendent of finance in 1781 
and served until 1784, continuing to employ 
his personal credit to facilitate the needs of 

his department. He also served as mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature, and 
from 1786 to 1795 was United States sena- 
tor, declining meanwhile the position of sec- 
retary of the treasury, and suggesting the 
name of Alexander Hamilton, who was ap- 
pointed to that post. During the latter 
part of his life Mr. Morris was engaged ex- 
tensively in the China trade, and later be- 
came involved inland speculations, which 
ruined him, so that the remaining days of 
this noble man and patriot were passed 
in confinement for debt. His death occurred 
at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806. 

WILLIAM SHARON, a senator and 
capitalist, and mine owner of na- 
tional reputation, was born at Smithfield, 
Ohio, January 9, 1821. He was reared 
upon a farm and in his boyhood given excel- 
lent educational advantages and in 1842 
entered Athens College. He remained in 
that institution about two years, after which 
he studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and 
was admitted to the bar at St. Louis and 
commenced practice. His health failing, 
however, he abandoned his profession and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Carrollton, 
Greene county, Illinois. During the time 
of the gold excitement of 1849, Mr. Sharon 
went to California, whither so many went, 
and engaged in business at Sacramento. 
The next year he removed to San Francisco, 
where he operated in real estate. Being 
largely interested in its silver mines, he re- 
moved to Nevada, locating at Virginia City, 
and acquired an immense fortune. He be- 
came one of the trustees of the Bank of 
California, and during the troubles that 
arose on the death of William Ralston, the 
president of that institution, was largely in- 
strumental in bringing its affairs into a satis- 
factory shape. 



Mr. Sharon was elected to represent the 
state of Nevada in the United States senate 
in 1875, and remained a member of that 
body until 1881. He was always distin- 
guished for close application to business. 
Senator Sharon died November 13, 1885. 

HENRY W. SHAW, an American hu- 
morist who became celebrated unde r 
the non-de-plume of " Josh Billings," gained 
his fame from the witticism of his writing, 
and peculiar eccentricity of style and spell- 
ing. He was born at Lanesborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1 8 1 8. For twenty-five years 
he lived in different parts of the western 
states, following various lines of business, 
including farming and auctioneering, and in 
the latter capacity settled at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, in 1858. In 1863 he began 
writing humorous sketches for the news- 
papers over the signature of "Josh Bill- 
ings," and became immediately popular 
both as a writer and lecturer. He pub- 
lished a number of volumes of comic 
sketches and edited an " Annual Allminax " 
for a number of years, which had a wide cir- 
culation. His death occurred October 14, 
1885, at Monterey, California. 

JOHN M. THURSTON, well known 
throughout this country as a senator 
and political leader, was born at Mont- 
pelier, Vermont, August 21, 1847, 0I an 
old Puritan family which dated back their 
ancestry in this country to 1636, and among 
whom were soldiers of the Revolution and 
of the war of 1812-15. 

Young Thurston was brought west by 
the family in 1854, they settling at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and two years later at Beaver 
Dam, where John M. received his schooling 
in the public schools and at Wayland Uni- 
versity. His father enlisted as a private in 

the First Wisconsin Cavalry and died while 
in the service, in the spring of 1863. 

Young Thurston, thrown on his own 
resources while attaining an education, sup- 
ported himself by farm work, driving team 
and at other manual labor. He studied law 
and was admitted to the bar May 21, 1869, 
and in October of the same year located in 
Omaha, Nebraska. He was elected a 
member of the city council in 1872, city 
attorney in 1874 and a member of the Ne- 
braska legislature in 1874. He was a mem- 
ber of the Republican national convention 
of 1884 and temporary chairman of that of 
1888. Taking quite an interest in the 
younger members of his party he was instru- 
mental in forming the Republican League 
of the United States, of which he was presi- 
dent for two years. He was then elected a 
member of the United States senate, in 
1895, to represent the state of Nebraska. 

As an attorney John M. Thurston occu- 
pied a very prominent place, and for a num- 
ber of years held the position of general 
solicitor of the Union Pacific railroad sys- 

JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, a celebrated 
American naturalist, was born in Louis- 
iana, May 4, 1780, and was the son of an 
opulent French naval officer who owned a 
plantation in the then French colony. In 
his childhood he became deeply interested 
in the study of birds and their habits. About 
1794 he was sent to Paris, France, where 
he was partially educated, and studied de- 
signing under the famous painter, Jacques 
Louis David. He returned to the Unit- 
ed States about 1798, and settled on a 
farm his father gave him, on the Perkiomen 
creek in eastern Pennsylvania. He mar- 
ried Lucy Bakewell in 1808, and, disposing 
of his property, removed to Louisville, Ken- 



tucky, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. About two years later he began to 
make extensive excursions through the pri- 
meval forests of the southern and south- 
western states, in the exploration of which 
he passed many years. He made colored 
drawings of all the species of birds that he 
found. For several years he made his home 
with his wife and children at Henderson, on 
the Ohio river. It is said that about this 
time he had failed in business and was re- 
duced to poverty, but kept the wolf from the 
door by giving dancing lessons and in portrait 
painting. In 1824, at Philadelphia, he met 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who encouraged 
him to publish a work on ornithology. Two 
years later he went to England and com- 
menced the publication of his great work, 
"The Birds of America." He obtained a 
large number of subscribers at one thousand 
dollars a copy. This work, embracing five 
volumes of letterpress and five volumes of 
beautifully colored plates, was pronounced 
by Cuvier " the most magnificent monument 
that art ever raised to ornithology." 

Audubon returned to America in 1829, 
and explored the forests, lakes and coast 
from Canada to Florida, collecting material 
for another work. This was his " Ornitho- 
logical Biography; or, An Account of the 
Habits of the Birds of the United States, 
Etc." He revisited England in 1831, and 
returned in 1839, after which he resided on 
the Hudson, near New York City, in which 
place he died January 27, 1851. During 
his life he issued a cheaper edition of his 
great work, and was, in association with 
Dr. Bachman, preparing a work on the 
quadrupeds of North America. 

the superior British squadron, under Com- 
modore Downie, September 1 1, 18 14. Com- 
modore McDonough was born in Newcastle 
county, Delaware, December 23, 1783, and 
when seventeen years old entered the 
United States navy as midshipman, serving 
in the expedition to Tripoli, under Decatur, 
in 1803-4. In 1807 he was promoted to 
lieutenant, and in July, 181 3, was made a 
commander. The following year, on Lake 
Champlain, he gained the celebrated victory 
above referred to, for which he was again 
promoted; also received a gold medal from 
congress, and from the state of Vermont an 
estate on Cumberland Head, in view of the 
scene of the engagement. His death oc- 
curred at sea, November 16, 1825, while he 
was returning from the command of the 
Mediterranean squadron. 

OUGH gained his principal fame from 
he celebrated victory which he gained over 

America's most celebrated arctic ex- 
plorers, was born in Rochester, New Hamp- 
shire, in 182 1. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and located in Cincinnati, where later 
he became a journalist. For several years 
he devoted a great deal of attention to cal- 
orics. Becoming interested in the fate of the 
explorer, Sir John Franklin, he joined the 
expedition fitted out by Henry Grinnell and 
sailed in the ship "George Henry," under 
Captain Buddington, which left New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, in i860. He returned in 
1862, and two years later published his 
" Arctic Researches." He again joined the 
expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell, and 
sailed in the ship, " Monticello," under 
Captain Buddington, this time remaining in 
the arctic region over four years. On his 
return he brought back many evidences of 
having found trace of Franklin. 

In 1 S7 1 the ' ' Polaris " was fitted out by 
the United States government, and Captain 



Hall again sailed for the polar regions. He 
died in Greenland in October, 1S71, and the 
"Polaris" was finally abandoned by the 
crew, a portion of which, under Captain 
Tyson, drifted with the icebergs for one 
hundred and ninety-five days, until picked 
up by the " Tigress," on the 30th of April, 
1873. The other portion of the crew built 
boats, and, after a perilous voyage, were 
picked up in June, 1873, by a whaling vessel. 

OLIVER ELLSWORTH, the third chief 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Windsor, Connecticut, April 29, 1745. 
After graduating from Princeton, he took 
up the study of law, and was licensed 
to practice in 177 1. In 1777 he was elected 
as a delegate to the Continental congress. 
He was judge of the superior court of his 
state in 1784, and was chosen as a delegate 
to the constitutional convention in 1787. 
He sided with the Federalists, was elected 
to the United States senate in 1789, and 
was a firm supporter of Washington's policy. 
He won great distinction in that body, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States by Washington 
in 1796. The relations between this coun- 
try and France having become violently 
strained, he was sent to Paris as envoy ex- 
traordinary in 1799, and was instrumental 
in negotiating the treaty that averted war. 
He resigned the following year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Chief Justice Marshall. His 
death occurred November 26, 1807. 

eminent American jurist and chief 
justice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Augusta, Maine, in 1833. His 
education was looked after in boyhood, and 
at the age of sixteen he entered Bowdoin 
College, and on graduation entered the law 

department of Harvard University. He then 
entered the law office of his uncle at Ban- 
gor, Maine, and soon after opened an office 
for the practice of law at Augusta. He was 
an alderman from his ward, city attorney, 
and editor of the " Age," a rival newspaper 
of the "Journal," which was conducted by 
James G. Blaine. He soon decided to re- 
move to Chicago, then springing into notice 
as a western metropolis. He at once iden- 
tified himself with the interests of the 
new city, and by this means acquired an 
experience that fitted him for his future 
work. He devoted himself assiduously to 
his profession, and had the good fortune to 
connect himself with the many suits grow- 
ing out of the prorogation of the Illinois 
legislature in 1863. It was not long before 
he became one of the foremost lawyers in 
Chicago. He made a three days' speech in 
the heresy trial of Dr. Cheney, which added 
to his fame. He was appointed chief jus- 
tice of the United States by President Cleve- 
land in 1888, the youngest man who ever 
held that exalted position. His income from 
his practice had for many years reached 
thirty thousand dollars annually. 

first president of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Vermont, Octo- 
ber 5, 1830. He was educated at Union 
College, Schenectady, New York, from 
which he graduated with honor, and en- 
gaged in teaching school. After two years 
he entered the law office of Judge E. D. 
Culver, of New York, as a student. He was 
admitted to the bar, and formed a partner- 
ship with an old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
in the west, but after a few months' search 
for a location, they returned to New York 
and opened an office, and at once entered 



upon a profitable practice. He was shortly 
afterwards married to a daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States navy. 
Mrs. Arthur died shortly before his nomina- 
tion for the vice-presidency. In 1856 a 
colored woman in New York was ejected 
from a street car and retained Mr. Arthur 
in a suit against the company, and obtained 
a verdict of five hundred dollars. It result- 
ed in a general order by all superintendents 
of street railways in the city to admit col- 
ored people to the cars. 

Mr. Arthur was a delegate to the first 
Republican national convention, and was 
appointed judge-advocate for the Second 
Brigade of New York, and then chief engi- 
neer of Governor Morgan's staff. At the 
close of his term he resumed the practice of 
iaw in New York. In 1872 he was made 
collector of the port of New York, which 
position he held four years. At the Chi- 
cago convention in 1880 Mr. Arthur was 
nominated for the vice-presidency with 
Garfield, and after an exciting campaign 
was elected. Four months after the inau- 
guration President Garfield was assassinated, 
and Mr. Arthur was called to take the reins 
of government. His administration of 
affairs was generally satisfactory. At its 
close he resumed the practice of law in New 
York. His death occurred November 18, 

ISAAC HULL was one of the most con- 
spicuous and prominent naval officers in 
the early history of America. He was born 
at Derby, Connecticut, March 9, 1775, be- 
ing the son of a Revolutionary officer. Isaac 
Hull early in life became a mariner, and 
when nineteen years of age became master 
of a merchant ship in the London trade. 
In 1 798 he became a lieutenant in the United 
States navy, and three years later was made 


first lieutenant of the frigate "Constitution." 
He distinguished himself by skill and valor 
against the French on the coast of Hayti, and 
served with distinction in the Barbary expe- 
ditions. July 12, 1812, he sailed from 
Annapolis, in command of the "Constitu- 
tion, " and for three days was pursued by a 
British squadron of five ships, from which 
he escaped by bold and ingenious seaman- 
ship. In August of the same year he cap- 
tured the frigate " Guerriere," one of his 
late pursuers and for this, the first naval 
advantage of that war, he received a gold 
medal from congress. Isaac Hull was later 
made naval commissioner and had command 
of various navy yards. His death occurred 
February 13, 1843, at Philadelphia. 


as a prominent business man, political 
manager and senator, was born in New Lis- 
bon, Columbiana county, Ohio, September 
24, 1837. He removed with his father's 
family to Cleveland, in the same state, in 
1852, and in the latter city, and in the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio, 
received his education. He became an em- 
ploye of the wholesale grocery house of 
Hanna, Garrettson & Co., his father being 
the senior member of the firm. The latter 
died in 1862, and Marcus represented his 
interest until 1867, when the business was 
closed up. 

Our subject then became a member of 
the firm of Rhodes & Co., engaged in the 
iron and coal business, but at the expira- 
tion of ten years this firm was changed to 
that of M. A. Hanna & Co. Mr. Hanna 
was long identified with the lake carrying 
business,- being interested in vessels on the 
lakes and in the construction of them. As 
a director of the Globe Ship Manufacturing 
Company, of Cleveland, president of the 



Union National Bank, of Cleveland, president 
of the Cleveland City Railway Company, 
and president of the Chapin Mining Com- 
pany, of Lake Superior, he became promi- 
nently identified with the business world. 
He was one of the government directors of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, being appointed 
to that position in 1885 by President Cleve- 

Mr. Hanna was a delegate to the na- 
tional Republican convention of 1884, which 
was his first appearance in the political 
world. He was a delegate to the con- 
ventions of 1888 and 1896, and was elect- 
ed chairman of the Republican national 
committee the latter year, and practically 
managed the campaign of William McKin- 
ley for the presidency. In 1897 Mr. Hanna 
was appointed senator by Governor Bush- 
nell, of Ohio, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of John Sherman. 

GEORGE PEABODY was one of the 
best known and esteemed of ail philan- 
thropists, whose munificent gifts to Ameri- 
can institutions have proven of so much 
benefit to the cause of humanity. He was 
born February 18, 1795, at South Danvers, 
Massachusetts, which is now called Pea- 
body in honor of him. He received but a 
meager education, and during his early life 
he was a mercantile clerk at Thetford, Ver- 
mont, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 
1 8 14 he became a partner with Elisha 
Riggs, at Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
and in 181 5 they moved to Baltimore, Mary- 
Ian i. The business grew to great propor- 
tions, and they opened branch houses at 
New York and Philadelphia. Mr. Peabody 
made several voyages to Europe of com- 
mercial importance, and in 1829 became the 
head of the firm, which was then called 
Peabody, Riggs & Co., and in 1838 he re- 

moved to London, England. He retired 
from the firm, and established the cele- 
brated banking house, in which he accumu- 
lated a large fortune. He aided Mr. Grin- 
nell in fitting out Dr. Kane's Arctic expedi- 
tion, in 1852, and founded in the same year 
the Peabody Institute, in his native town, 
which he afterwards endowed with two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Peabody visited 
the United States in 1857, and gave three 
hundred thousand dollars for the establish- 
ment at Baltimore of an institute of science, 
literature and fine arts. In 1862 he gave 
two million five hundred thousand dollars 
for the erecting of lodging houses for the 
poor in London, and on another visit to the 
United States he gave one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars to establish at Harvard a 
museum and professorship of American 
archaeology and ethnology, an equal sum for 
the endowment of a department of physical 
science at Yale, and gave the "Southern 
Educational Fund" two million one hundred 
thousand dollars, besides devoting two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to various objects of 
public utility. Mr. Peabody made a final 
visit to the United States in 1869, and on 
this occasion he raised the endowment of 
the Baltimore Institute one million dollars, 
created the Peabody Museum, at Salem, 
Massachusetts, with a fund of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, gave sixty thou- 
sand dollars to Washington College, Vir- 
ginia; fifty thousand dollars for a "Peabody 
Museum, " at North Danvers, thirty thousand 
dollars to Phillips Academy, Andover; twen- 
ty-five thousand dollars to Kenyon College, 
Ohio, and twenty thousand dollars to the 
Maryland Historical Society. Mr. Peabody 
also endowed an art school at Rome, in 

1868. He died in London, November 4, 

1869, less then a month after he had re- 
turned from the United States, and his 



remains were brought to the United States 
and interred in his native town. He made 
several other bequests in his will, and left 
his family about five million dollars. 

MATTHEW S. QUAY, a celebrated 
public man and senator, was born at 
Dillsburgh, York county, Pennsylvania, 
September 30, 1833, of an old Scotch-Irish 
family, some of whom had settled in the 
Keystone state in 171 5. Matthew received 
a good education, graduating from the Jef- 
ferson College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 
at the age of seventeen. He then traveled, 
taught school, lectured, and studied law 
under Judge Sterrett. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1854, was appointed a prothon- 
otary in 1855 and elected to the same 
office in 1856 and 1859. Later he was 
made lieutenant of the Pennsylvania Re 
serves, lieutenant-colonel and assistant com- 
missary-general of the state, private secre- 
tary of the famous war governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, Andrew G. Curtin, colonel of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylva- 
nia Infantry (nine months men), military 
state agent and held other offices at different 

Mr. Quay was a member of the house of 
representatives of the state of Pennsylvania 
from 1865 to 1868. He filled the office of 
secretary of the commonwealth from 1872 
to 1878, and the position of delegate-at- 
large to the Republican national conventions 
of 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1888. Hewasthe 
editor of the "Beaver Radical" and the 
"Philadelphia Record" for a time, and held 
many offices in the state conventions and on 
their committees. He was elected secre- 
tary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
1869, and served three years, and in 1885 
was chosen state treasurer. In 1886 his 
great abilities pointed him out as the 

natural candidate for United States senator, 
and he was accordingly elected to that posi- 
tion and re-elected thereto in 1892. He 
was always noted for a genius for organiza- 
tion, and as a political leader had but few 
peers. Cool, serene, far-seeing, resourceful, 
holding his impulses and forces in hand, he 
never quailed from any policy he adopted, 
and carried to success most, if not all, of 
the political campaigns in which he took 

JAMES K. JONES, a noted senator and 
political leader, attained national fame 
while chairman of the national executive 
committee of the Democratic party in the 
presidential campaign of 1896. He was a 
native of Marshall county, Mississippi, and 
was born September 29, 1839. His father, 
a well-to-do planter, settled in Dallas county, 
Arkansas, in 1848, and there the subject of 
this sketch received a careful education. 
During the Civil war he served as a private 
soldier in the Confederate army. From 
1866 to 1873 he passed a quiet life as a 
planter, but in the latter year was admitted 
to the bar and began the practice of law. 
About the same time he was elected to the 
Arkansas senate and re-elected in 1874. In 
1877 he was made president of the senate 
and the following year was unsuccessful in 
obtaining a nomination as member of con- 
gress. In 1880 he was elected representa- 
tive and his ability at once placed him in a 
foremost position. He was re-elected to 
congress in 1882 and in 1884, and served as 
an influential member on the committee of 
ways and means. March 4, 1885, Mr. Jones 
took his seat in the United States senate to 
succeed James D. Walker, and was after- 
ward re-elected to the same office. In this 
branch of the national legislature his capa- 
bilities had a wider scope, and. he was rec- 



ognized as one of the ablest leaders of his 

On the nomination of William J. Bryan 
as its candidate for the presidency by the 
national convention of the Democratic 
party, held in Chicago in 1896, Mr. Jones 
was made chairman of the national com- 

THEODORE THOMAS, one of the most 
celebrated musical directors America 
has known, was born in the kingdom of Han- 
over in 1835, and received his musical educa- 
tion from his father. He was a very apt scholar 
and played the violin at public concerts at 
the age of six years. He came with his 
parents to America in 1845, and joined the 
orchestra of the Italian Opera in New York 
City. He played the first violin in the 
orchestra which accompanied Jenny Lind 
in her first American concert. In 1861 Mr. 
Thomas established the orchestra that be- 
came famous under his management, and 
gave his first symphony concerts in New 
York in 1864. He began his first "summer 
night concerts" in the same city in 1868, 
and in 1869 he started on his first tour of 
the principal cities in the United States, 
which he made every year for many years. 
He was director of the College of Music in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, but resigned in 1880, after 
having held the position for three years. 

Later he organized one of the greatest 
and most successful orchestras ever brought 
together in the city of Chicago, and was 
very prominent in musical affairs during the 
World's Columbian Exposition, thereby add- 
ing greatly to his fame. 

mous inventor and manufacturer, was 
born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, February 
15, 1809. When he was seven years old his 

father invented a reaping machine. It was 
a rude contrivance and not successful. In 
1 83 1 Cyrus made his invention of a reaping 
machine, and had it patented three years 
later. By successive improvements he was 
able to keep his machines at the head of 
its class during his life. In 1 845 he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and two years later 
located in Chicago, where he amassed a 
great fortune in manufacturing reapers and 
harvesting machinery. In 1859 he estab- 
lished the Theological Seminary of the 
Northwest at Chicago, an institution for pre- 
paring young men for the ministry in the 
Presbyterian church, and he afterward en- 
dowed a chair in the Washington and Lee 
College at Lexington, Virginia. He mani- 
fested great interest in educational and re- 
ligious matters, and by his great wealth he 
was able to extend aid and encouragement 
to many charitable causes. His death oc- 
curred May 13, 1884. 

pen name of Petroleum V. Nasby, this 
well-known humorist and writer made for 
himself a household reputation, and estab- 
lished a school that has many imitators. 

The subject of this article was born at 
Vestal, Broome county, New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1833. After receiving his edu- 
cation in the county of his birth he en- 
tered the office of the " Democrat," at Cort- 
land, New York, where he learned the 
printer's trade. He was successively editor 
and publisher of the ' 'Plymouth Advertiser, " 
the "Mansfield Herald," the " Bucyrus 
Journal," and the "Findlay Jeffersonian." 
Later he became editor of the "Toledo 
Blade." In i860 he commenced his 
" Nasby" articles, several series of which 
have been given the world in book form. 
Under a mask of misspelling, and in a quaint 



and humorous style, a keen political satire 
is couched — a most effective weapon. 
Mr. Locke was the author of a num- 
ber of serious political pamphlets, and 
later on a more pretentious work, " The 
Morals of Abou Ben Adhem." As a news- 
paper writer he gained many laurels and his 
works are widely read. Abraham Lincoln 
is said to have been a warm admirer of P. 
V. Nasby, of " Confedrit X Roads" fame. 
Mr. Locke died at Toledo, Ohio, February 
15, 1888. 

RUSSELL A. ALGER, noted as a sol- 
dier, governor and secretary of war, 
was born in Medina county, Ohio, February 
27, 1836, and was the son of Russell and 
Caroline (Moulton) Alger. At the age of 
twelve years he was left an orphan and pen- 
niless. For about a year he worked for 
his board and clothing, and attended school 
part of the time. In 1850 he found a place 
which paid small wages, and out of his 
scanty earnings helped his brother and sister. 
While there working on a farm he found 
time to attend the Richfield Academy, and 
by hard work between times managed to get 
a fair education for that time. The last 
two years of his attendance at this institu- 
tion of learning he taught school during the 
winter months. In 1857 he commenced the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1859. For a while he found employ- 
ment in Cleveland, Ohio, but impaired 
health induced him to remove to Grand 
Rapids,, where he engaged in the lumber 
business. He was thus engaged when the 
Civil war broke out, and, his business suf- 
fering and his savings swept away, he en- 
listed as a private in the Second Michigan 
Cavalry. He was promoted to be captain 
the following month, and major for gallant 
conduct at Boonesville, Mississippi, July 1, 

1862. October 16, 1862, he was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Michigan 
Cavalry, and in February, 1863, colonel of 
the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. He rendered 
excellent service in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. He was wounded at Boonesboro, 
Maryland, and on returning to his command 
took part with Sherman in the campaign in 
the Shenandoah Valley. For services ren- 
dered, that famous soldier recommended 
him for promotion, and he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers. In 1866 Gen- 
eral Alger took up his residence at Detroit, 
and prospered exceedingly in his business, 
which was that of lumbering, and grew 
quite wealthy. In 1884 he was a delegate 
to the Republican national convention, and 
the same year was elected governor of 
Michigan. He declined a nomination for 
re-election to the latter office, in 1887, and 
was the following year a candidate for the 
nomination for president. In 1889 he was 
elected commander-in-chief of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and at different 
times occupied many offices in other or- 

In March, 1897, President McKinley 
appointed General Alger secretary of war. 

CYRUS WEST FIELD, the father of 
submarine telegraphy, was the son of 
the Rev. David D. Field, D.D., a Congre- 
gational minister, and was born at Stock- 
bridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 18 19. 
He was educated in his native town, and at 
the age of fifteen years became a clerk in a 
store in New York City. Being gifted with 
excellent business ability Mr. Field pros- 
pered and became the head of a large mer- 
cantile house. In 1853 he spent about six 
months in travel in South America. On his 
return he became interested in ocean teleg- 
raphy. Being solicited to aid in the con- 



struction of a land telegraph across New 
Foundland to receive the news from a line 
of fast steamers it was proposed to run from 
from Ireland to St. Johns, the idea struck 
him to carry the line across the broad At- 
lantic. In 1850 Mr. Field obtained aeon- 
cession from the legislature of Newfound- 
land, giving him the sole right for fifty years 
to land submarine cables on the shores of 
that island. In company with Peter Cooper, 
Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and 
Chandler White, he organized a company 
under the name of the New York, New- 
foundland & London Telegraph Company. 
In two years the line from New York across 
Newfoundland was built. The first cable 
connecting- Cape Breton Island with New- 
foundland having been lost in a storm while 
being laid in 1855, another was put down in 
1856. In the latter year Mr. Field went to 
London and organized the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company, furnishing one-fourth of the 
capital himself. Both governments loaned 
ships to carry out the enterprise. Mr. Field 
accompanied the expeditions of 1857 and 
two in 1858. The first and second cables 
we're failures, and the third worked but a 
short time and then ceased. The people of 
both continents became incredulous of the 
feasibility of laying a successful cable under 
so wide an expanse of sea, and the war 
breaking out shortly after, nothing was done 
until 1865-66. Mr. Field, in the former 
year, again made the attempt, and the Great 
Eastern laid some one thousand two hun- 
dred miles when the cable parted and was 
lost. The following year the same vessel 
succeeded in laying the entire cable, and 
picked up the one lost the year before, and 
both were carried to America's shore. After 
thirteen years of care and toil Mr. Field had 
his reward. He was the recipient of many 
medals and honors from both home and 

abroad. He gave his attention after this 
to establishing telegraphic communication 
throughout the world and many other large 
enterprises, notably the construction of ele- 
vated railroads in New York. Mr. Field 
died July 1 1, 1892. 

G ROVER CLEVELAND, the twenty- 
second president of the United States, 
was born in Caldwell, Essex county, New 
Jersey, March 18, 1837, and was the son 
of Rev. Richard and Annie (Neale) Cleve- 
land. The father, of distinguished New 
England ancestry, was a Presbyterian min- 
ister in charge of the church at Caldwell at 
the time. 

When Grover was about three years of 
age the family removed to Fayetteville, 
Onondaga county, New York, where he 
attended the district school, and was in the 
academy for a short time. His father be- 
lieving that boys should early learn to labor, 
Grover entered a village store and worked 
for the sum of fifty dollars for the first year. 
While he was thus engaged the family re- 
moved to Clinton, New York, and there 
young Cleveland took up h ; s studies at the 
academy. The death of his father dashed 
all his hopes of a collegiate education, the 
family being left in straightened circum- 
stances, and Grover started out to battle 
for himself. After acting for a year (1853- 
54) as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind at New York 
City, he went to Buffalo. A short time 
after he entered the law office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of that city, and after a 
hard struggle with adverse circumstances, 
was admitted to the bar in 1859. He be- 
came confidential and managing clerk for 
the firm under whom he had studied, and 
remained with them until 1863. In the lat- 
ter year he was appointed district attorney 



of Erie county. It was during his incum- 
bency of this office that, on being nominated 
by the Democrats for supervisor, he came 
within thirteen votes of election, although 
the district was usually Republican by two 
hundred and fifty majority. In i866Grover 
Cleveland formed a partnership with Isaac 
V. Vanderpoel. The most of the work here 
fell upon the shoulders of our subject, and 
he soon won a good standing at the bar of 
the state. In 1869 Mr. Cleveland associated 
himself in business with A. P. Laning and 
Oscar Folsom, and under the firm name of 
Laning, Cleveland & Folsom soon built up a 
fair practice. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Cleve- 
land was elected sheriff of Erie county, an 
office which he filled for four years, after 
which he resumed his profession, with L. K. 
Bass and Wilson S. Bissell as partners. 
This firm was strong and popular and 
shortly was in possession of a lucrative 
practice. Mr. Bass retired from the firm 
in 1879, and George J. Secard was admit- 
ted a member in 188 1. In the latter year 
Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo, 
and in 1882 he was chosen governor by 
the enormous majority of one hundred and 
ninety-two thousand votes. July 11, 1884, 
he was nominated for the presidency by the 
Democratic national convention, and in 
November following was elected. 

Mr. Cleveland, after serving one term as 
president of the United States, in 1888 was 
nominated by his party to succeed himself, 
but he failed of the election, being beaten 
by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892, however, 
being nominated again in opposition to the 
then incumbent of the presidency, Mr. Har- 
rison, Grover Cleveland was elected pres- 
ident for the second time and served for the 
usual term of four years. In 1897 Mr. 
Cleveland retired from the chair of the first 
magistrate of the nation, and in New York 

City resumed the practice of law, in which 
city he had established himself in 1889. 

June 2, 1886, Grover Cleveland was 
united in marriage with Miss Frances Fol- 
som, the daughter of his former partner. 

years one of the greatest of American 
scientists, and one of the most noted and 
prolific writers on scientific subjects, was 
born in Duchess county, New York, Decem- 
ber 31, 1824. He received a thorough col- 
legiate education, and graduated at the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connect- 
icut, in 1847. His mind took a scientific 
turn, which manifested itself while he was 
yet a boy, and in 1848 he became teacher 
of natural sciences at the Armenian Semi- 
nary, in his native state, a position which 
he filled for three years. In 1851-3 he oc- 
cupied the same position in the Mesopo- 
tamia Female Seminary, in Alabama, after 
which he was president of the Masonic Fe- 
male Seminary, in Alabama. In 1853 he 
became connected with the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at which institu- 
tion he performed the most important work 
of his life, and gained a wide reputation as 
a scientist. He held many important posi- 
tions, among which were the following: 
Professor of physics and civil engineering at 
the University of Michigan, also of geology, 
zoology and botany, and later professor of 
geology and palaeontology at the same insti- 
tution. He also, for a time, was president 
of the Michigan Teachers' Association, and 
state geologist of Michigan. Professor 
Winchell was a very prolific writer on scien- 
tific subjects, and published many standard 
works, his most important and widely known 
being those devoted to geology. He also 
contributed a large number of articles tG 
scientific and popular journals. 



United States navy, was a native of 
New England, born at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, May 4, 1808. He entered the 
navy, as a midshipman, December 4, 1822. 
He slowly rose in his chosen profession, at- 
taining the rank of lieutenant in 1830, com- 
mander in 1852 and captain in 1861. 
Among the distinguished men in the break- 
ing out of the Civil war, but few stood higher 
in the estimation of his brother officers than 
Foote, and when, in the fall of 1861, he 
was appointed to the command of the flotilla 
then building on the Mississippi, the act 
gave great satisfaction to the service. 
Although embarrassed by want of navy 
yards and supplies, Foote threw himself into 
his new work with unusual energy. He 
overcame all obstacles and in the new, and, 
until that time, untried experiment, of creat- 
ing and maintaining a navy on a river, 
achieved a success beyond the expectations 
of the country. Great incredulity existed as 
to the possibility of carrying on hostilities 
on a river where batteries from the shore 
might bar the passage. But in spite of all, 
Foote soon had a navy on the great river, 
and by the heroic qualities of the crews en- 
trusted to him, demonstrated the utility of 
this new departure in naval architecture. 
All being prepared, February 6, 1862, Foote 
took Fort Henry after a hotly-contested 
action. On the 14th of the same month, 
for an hour and a half engaged the batteries 
of Fort Donelson, with four ironclads and 
two wooden gunboats, thereby dishearten- 
ing the garrison and assisting in its capture. 
April 7th of the same year, after several 
hotly-contested actions, Commodore Foote 
received the surrender of Island No. 10, one 
of the great strongholds of the Confederacy 
on the Mississippi river. Foote having been 
wounded at Fort Donelson, and by neglect 

it having become so serious as to endanger 
his life, he was forced to resign his command 
and return home. June 16, 1862, he re- 
ceived the thanks of congress and was pro- 
moted to the rank of rear admiral. He was 
appointed chief of the bureau of equipment 
and recruiting. June 4, 1863, he was 
ordered to the fleet off Charleston, to super- 
cede Rear Admiral Dupont, but on his way 
to that destination was taken sick at New 
York, and died June 26, 1863. 

NELSON A.MILES, the well-known sol- 
dier, was born at Westminster, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8, 1 839. His ancestors set- 
tled in that state in 1643 among the early 
pioneers, and their descendants were, many 
of them, to be found among those battling 
against Great Britain during Revolutionary 
times and during the war of 1812. Nelson 
was reared on a farm, received an academic 
education, and in early manhood engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Boston. Early in 

1 86 1 he raised a company and offered hi? 
services to the government, and although 
commissioned as captain, on account of his 
youth went out as first lieutenant in the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry. In 

1 862 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of the Sixty-first New York In- 
fantry. At the request of Generals Grant 
and Meade he was made a brigadier by 
President Lincoln. He participated in all 
but one of the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac until the close of the war. During 
the latter part of the time he commanded 
the first division of the Second Corps. 
General Miles was wounded at the battles 
of Fair Oaks, Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, and received four brevets for 
distinguished service. During the recon- 
struction period he commanded in North 
Carolina, and on the reorganization of the 



regular army he was made colonel of in- 
fantry. In 1880 he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and in 1890 to 
that of major-general. He successfully con- 
ducted several campaigns among the In- 
dians, and his name is known among the 
tribes as a friend when they are peacefully 
inclined. He many times averted war 
with the red men by judicious and humane 
settlement of difficulties without the military 
power. In 1892 General Miles was given 
command of the proceedings in dedicating 
the World's Fair at Chicago, and in the 
summer of 1894, during the great railroad 
strike at the same city, General Miles, then 
in command of the department, had the 
disposal of the troops sent to protect the 
United States mails. On the retirement of 
General J. M. Schofield, in 1895, General 
Miles became the ranking major-general of 
the United States army and the head of its 

<J actor, though born in London (1796), is 
more intimately connected with the Amer- 
ican than with the English stage, and his 
popularity in America was almost un- 
bounded, while in England he was not a 
prime favorite. He presented " Richard III. " 
in Richmond on his first appearance on the 
American stage in 1821. This was • his 
greatest role, and in it he has never had an 
equal. In October of the same year he 
appeared in New York. After a long and 
successful career he gave his final perform- 
ance at New Orleans in 1852. He con- 
tracted a severe cold, and for lack of proper 
medical attention, it resulted in his death 
on Norember 30th of that year. He was, 
without question, one of the greatest tra- 
gedians that ever lived. In addition to his 
professional art and genius, he was skilled 

in languages, drawing, painting and sculp- 
ture. In his private life he was reserved, 
and even eccentric. Strange stories are 
related of his peculiarities, and on his farm 
near Baltimore he forbade the use of animal 
food, the taking of animal life, and even the 
felling of trees, and brought his butter and 
eggs to the Baltimore markets in person. 

Junius Brutus Booth, known as the elder 
Booth, gave to the world three sons of note: 
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr., the husband of 
Agnes Booth, the actress; John Wilkes 
Booth, the author of the greatest tragedy 
in the life of our nation; Edwin Booth, in 
his day the greatest actor of America, if not 
of the world. 

<J mous as the "Danbury News Man," 
was one of the best known American humor- 
ists, and was born September 25, 1841, at 
Albany, N. Y. He adopted journalism as a 
profession and started in his chosen work on 
the "Danbury Times," which paper he pur- 
chased on his return from the war. Mr. 
Bailey also purchased the "Jeffersonian," 
another paper of Danbury, and consolidated 
them, forming the "Danbury News," which 
paper soon acquired a celebrity throughout 
the United States, from an incessant flow of 
rich, healthy, and original humor, which the 
pen of the editor imparted to its columns, 
and he succeeded in raising the circulation 
of the paper from a few hundred copies a 
week to over forty thousand. The facilities 
of a country printing office were not so com- 
plete in those days as they are now, but Mr. 
Bailey was resourceful, and he put on re- 
lays of help and ran his presses night and 
day, and always prepared his matter a week 
ahead of time. The "Danbury News Man" 
was a new figure in literature, as his humor 
was so different from that of the newspaper 



wits who had preceded him, and he maybe 
called the pi< mei c i ii thai si hool now bo 
familiar, Mr, Bailey published in book 
lin in ■ 'l .iff in I (anbury" and "The I )anbury 
News Man's Almanai " One "l his most 
admirable traits was philanthrophy, as he 
:;.i\ e with mi, i inted generosity to all comers, 
and died comparatively pooi . notvi ithstand 
ing In ■ i >\i nership ol a vet) pn ifitable busi 
ness which netted him an income of $.|0,ooo 
.1 yeai , I te died March i, i 894, 

M\ \\ II \l l CARPEN I l R, a 
I. mi ■ lawyer, oratoi and senator, 

was born in Moretown, Vermont, December 

22, 1 8 ■ 1 AH' i rei eiving a common si l I 

. dm at ion he entered the United States 
Military A< ademj al Wesl Point, but only 
remained two years, On returning to his 
home he commenced the study of law with 
Paul Dillingham, afterwards governoi of 
Vermont, and whose daughter he married, 
In 1 84; he was admitted to prai tice at the 
bar in Vermont, but he went to Boston and 
to] a time studied with Ruf us Choate. In 1848 
he moved west, settling al Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and commencing the practice ol his profes 
m ""ii obtained a wide reputation for 
ability. In 1856 Mr. Carpenter removed to 
Milwaukee, where he found a wider held for 
his now increasing powers. During the 
Civil war, although a strong Democrat, he 
w as loyal to the go\ ei nment and aided the 
Union cause to his utmost. In [868 he 
was 1 ounsel foi the government in a te it 
case to settle the legalit} ol the ret onsti ui 
tion act before the United States sup 
court, and won lus i'.isc against Jeremiah S. 
I'.l.n k, This gave him the election for sen- 
ate] from Wisconsin in 1 869, and he served 
until iS;s, during part ol which time he was 
president pro tempore of the senate. Failing 
01 .1 re ele< tion Mi Cai penter resumed the 

practice ol law, and when William W. 

Belknap, late secretary of war, was im- 
peached, entered the 1 ase fi ir I ienei al 
Belknap, and secured anacquittal. During 
the sitting ol the electoral commission of 
1S77, Mr. Carpenter appeared for Samuel 
J. Tilden, although the Republican man- 
agers had intended to have him repre lent 
\\. I'.. Hayes. Mr. Carpenter was elected 
ti 1 the l ' 1 1 1 1 < < I States senate again in 1 879, 
and remained a member of that body until 
the day of his death, which occurred at 
\ \ . 1 1 1 1 1 1 v 1 . 1 1 1 , District of Columbia, Feb- 
ruary ' |. 1 NX 1 . 

Senator Carpenter's real name was De- 
catui Mi 1 1 1 1 1 Hammond Carpenter but about 
[852 he changed it to the one by which he 
was universally known. 

THOMAS E. WATSON, lawyer and 
congressman, the well-known Geor- 
gian, whose name appears al the he. id ol 
this sketch, made himself a place in the liis- 

i"i\ of our country by his ability, energy 
and fei \ id oratory, He w as born in Col- 
umbia mow McDuffie) county, Georgia, 
September 5, [856. He had a common- 
school education, and in [87 • entered Mer- 
cer University, at Macon, Georgia, as fresh- 
man, but for want of money left the college 

,1! the end of his sophomore year. He 
taught school, studying law at the same 

time, until 1S75, when he was admitted to 
the bar. lie opened an office and com- 
menced practice in Thomson, Georgia, in 
November, [876, He carried on a success- 
ful business, and bought land and farmed on 
an extensive scale. 

Mr. Watson was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratii state convention of [880, and was a 

member of the house of representatives of 

1 he legislature "I his native state in 1 882, 
In [888 he was an elector-at-large on the 



Cleveland ticket, and ill [890 was elected 

to represent Ins . 1 1 .t 1 n 1 in the fitly second 

i ongress. This latter election is said to have 
been due entirely to Mr. Watson's "dash- 
ing display of ability, eloquent e ami popular 
power." Ill his later years lie championed 
the alliance principles and policies until he 
became a leader in the movement. In the 
heated campaign of 1896, Mr. Wal ion was 
nominated as the 1 andidate fof \ i< e presi- 
dent on the Bryan ticket by that part of the 
People's party that would not endorse the 
nominee for the same position made by the 
Demoi 1 at ic part y. 

matician, physicist and educator, was 

born in S lie lliel d, Massai li use Its, May 5, 1 Xoij. 
He graduated loan Yale ( ollege in [828, and 
in 1830 became a tutor in the same. From 
1837 to 1848 he was professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in the I'ni 
versity of Alabama, and from [848 to 1850, 
profeSSOl oi I hemistry and natural In i< .. 
in the same educational institution. In 
1 854 he be< ame 1 onnected with the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, of which he became 
president in [856, and chancellor in 1858. 
In 1H54 he took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. In 1861 Professor Barnard 
n tigned bis 1 ham elloi ship and < hail in the 
university, and in [863 and [864 was con- 
nected with the United States coast survey 
inchargeof chart printing and lithography. 
In May, 1 864, he was elected president of 
Columbia ( ollege, New York City, which 
he served for a number of years. 

Profea lor B u nod reci ived the honorary 
degree of LL. I), from Jefferson College, 
Mississippi, in 1-55, and from Yale ' 

in 1859; also the degree of S. T. D, from 

the University of Mississippi in 1861, and 
that of L. II. D. from the regent 1 ol thi 

University of the State of New York in 1872. 
In i860 he was a member of the eclipse 

p. 11 ty sent by the United State lsI sui 

vcy to Labrador, and during hi ibsenci 
was 'in ted president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advam ement of Si iem e. In 
tin ai 1 ni 1 ongress establishing the Nal ional 

Ai ademy ol Si i< in 1 ; in 1 863, he wa . named 

as one "I th< oi iginal < orpoi ators. In 1X67 
he was one of the I mited Si itea • ommis- 

1 is to the Paris Ej pot ition. I fe wa 1 

a member of the American Philosophical 
S01 niy, assoi iate member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Alls and Sciences, and 

many othei philo n iphii al and scientific 

101 il I ieS at home and abroad. I )|. Halliard 

was thoroughly identified with the progri ■ 

of the ag thosi bi am hi s. His publi hed 

works relate wholly to scientifii 01 educa- 
tional subjects, chief among which are the 

following: Report on< ollegi ate Education; 

Art Culture; History of the Ai an I oa il 

Survey; University Education; Undulatory 
l In ory ol I .ight , Mai hinery and Proi 1 sse 
of the fndu iti ial Arts, and Apparaf us ol the 
Exact Sciences, Metrii System of Weights 
ami Mea lures, eti 

tary of war during thi gr< at ( ivil 

wai , was n 1 ognized as one ol Ai a 

foremost public men. He wa 1 bom Dei em- 
ber 19, I 8 1 4, at Steiibenville, Ohio, 

he received his education and studied law. 
I [e was admitted to the bai in 1 8 (6, and 
was reporter of the mpn mi court oi ' >hio 
from [842 until 1845. I le n moved to 
Washington in [856 to attend to his prac- 
t H 1 before the United upreme 

court, and in [858 he went to California as 
1 nun K I I1.1 1 hi gi I in 1 ertain land 

cases, which he carried to a mccessful 
conclusion. Mr. Stanton was appointed 



attorney-general of the United States in 
December, i860, by President Buchanan. 
On March 4, 1861, Mr. Stanton went with 
the outgoing administration and returned to 
the practice of his profession. He was 
appointed secretary of war by President 
Lincoln January 20, 1862, to succeed Simon 
Cameron. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and the accession of Johnson 
to the presidency, Mr. Stanton was still in 
the same office. He held it for three years, 
and by his strict adherence to the Repub- 
lican party, he antagonized President John- 
son, who endeavored to remove him. On 
August 5, 1867, the president requested him 
to resign, and appointed General Grant to 
succeed him, but when congress convened 
in December the senate refused to concur in 
the suspension. Mr. Stanton returned to 
his post until the president again removed 
him from office, but was again foiled by 
congress. Soon after, however, he retired 
voluntarily from office and took up the 
practice of law, in which he engaged until 
his death, on December 24, 1869. 

theologian and founder of the church 
known as Disciples of Christ, was born in 
the country of Antrim, Ireland, in June, 
1788, and was the son of Rev. Thomas 
Campbell, a Scoth-Irish "Seceder. " After 
studying at the University of Glasgow, he, 
in company with his father, came to America 
in 1808, and both began labor in western 
Pennsylvania to restore Christianity to 
apostolic simplicity. They organized a 
church at Brush Run, Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, in 181 1, which, however, the 
year following, adopted Baptist views, and 
in 1 81 3, with other congregations joined a 
Baptist association. Some of the under- 
lying principles and many practices of the 

Campbells and their disciples were repug- 
nant to the Baptist church and considerable 
friction was the result, and 1827 saw the 
separation of that church from the Church 
of Christ, as it is sometimes called. The 
latter then reorganized themselves anew. 
They reject all creeds, professing to receive 
the Bible as their only guide. In most mat- 
ters of faith they are essentially in accord with 
the other Evangelical Christian churches, 
especially in regard to the person and work 
of Christ, the resurrection and judgment. 
They celebrate the Lord's Supper weekly, 
hold that repentance and faith should precede 
baptism, attaching much importance to the 
latter ordinance. On all other points they 
encourage individual liberty of thought. In 
1 84 1, Alexander Campbell founded Bethany 
College, West Virginia, of which he was 
president for many years, and died March 4, 

The denomination which they founded 
is quite a large and important church body 
in the United States. They support quite 
a number of institutions of learning, among 
which are: Bethany College, West Virginia; 
Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio; Northwestern 
Christian University, Indianapolis, Indiana; 
Eureka College, Illinois; Kentucky Univer- 
sity, Lexington, Kentucky; Oskaloosa 
College, Iowa; and a number of seminaries 
and schools. They also support several 
monthly and quarterly religious periodicals 
and many papers, both in the United States 
and Great Britain and her dependencies. 

WILLIAM L.WILSON, the noted West 
Virginian, who was postmaster-gener- 
al under President Cleveland's second ad- 
ministration, won distinction as the father 
of the famous " Wilson bill," which became 
a law under the same administration. Mr. 
Wiison was born May 3, 1843, in Jeffer- 



son county, West Virginia, and received 
a good education at the Charlestown 
Academy, where he prepared himself for 
college. He attended the Columbian Col- 
lege in the District of Columbia, from 
which he graduated in i860, and then 
attended the University of Virginia. Mr. 
Wilson served in the Confederate army dur- 
ing the war, after which he was a professor 
in Columbian College. Later he entered 
into the practice of law at Charlestown. 
He attended the Democratic convention 
held at Cincinnati in 1880, as a delegate, 
and later was chosen as one of the electors 
for the state-at-large on the Hancock 
ticket. In the Democratic convention at 
Chicago in 1892, Mr. Wilson was its per- 
manent president. He was elected pres- 
ident of the West Virginia University in 
1882, entering upon the duties of his office 
on September 6, but having received the 
nomination for the forty-seventh congress 
on the Democratic ticket, he resigned the 
presidency of the university in June, 1883, 
to take his seat in congress. Mr. Wil- 
son was honored by the Columbian Uni- 
versity and the Hampden-Sidney College, 
both of which conferred upon him the de- 
gree of LL. D. In 1884 he was appointed 
regent of 'the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington for two years, and at the end 
of his term was re-appointed. He was 
elected to the forty-seventh, forty-ninth, 
fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-second and fifty- 
third congresses, but was defeated for re- 
election to the fifty-fourth congress. Upon 
the resignation of Mr. Bissell from the office 
of postmaster-general, Mr. Wilson was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy by President 
Cleveland. Hi? many years of public serv- 
ice and the prominent part he took in the 
discussion of public questions gave him a 
national reputation. 

CALVIN S. BRICE, a successful and 
noted financier and politician, was 
born at Denmark, Ohio, September 17, 
1845, of an old Maryland family, who trace 
their lineage from the Bryces, or Bruces, of 
Airth, Scotland. The father of our subject 
was a prominent Presbyterian clergyman, 
who removed to Ohio in 1812. Calvin S. 
Brice was educated in the common schools 
of his native town, and at the age of thir- 
teen entered the preparatory department of 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and the 
following year entered the freshman class. 
On the breaking out of the Civil war, 
although but fifteen years old, he enlisted in 
a company of three-months men. He re- 
turned to complete his college course, but 
re-enlisted in Company A, Eighty-sixth 
Ohio Infantry, and served in the Virginia 
campaign. He then returned to college, 
from which he graduated in 1863. In 1864 
he organized Company E, One Hundred 
and Eightieth Ohio Infantry, and served 
until the close of hostilities, in the western 

On his return home Mr. Brice entered 
the law department of the University of 
Michigan, and in 1866 was admitted to the 
bar in Cincinnati. In the winter of 1870- 
71 he went to Europe in the interests of the 
Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad and pro- 
cured a foreign loan. This road became 
the Lake Erie & Western, of which, in 
1887, Mr. Brice became president. This 
was the first railroad in which he had a 
personal interest. The conception, build- 
ing and sale of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railroad, known as the "Nickel 
Plate," was largely due to him. He was 
connected with many other railroads, among 
which may be mentioned the following: 
Chicago & Atlantic; Ohio Central; Rich- 
mond & Danville; Richmond & West Point 



Terminal; East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia; Memphis & Charleston; Mobile & 
Birmingham; Kentucky Central; Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic, and the Marquette, 
Houghton & Ontonagon. In 1890 he was 
elected United States senator from Ohio. 
Notwithstanding his extensive business inter- 
ests, Senator Brice gave a considerable 
time to political matters, becoming one of 
the leaders of the Democratic party and one 
of the most widely known men in the 
country. •» 

BENJAMIN HARRISON, twenty-third 
president of the United States, was 
born August 20, 1833, at North Bend, 
Hamilton county, Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, General William Henry Har- 
rison, afterwards president of the United 
States. His great-grandfather, Benjamin 
Harrison, was a member of the Continental 
congress, signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and was three times elected gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

The subject of this sketch entered Farm- 
ers College at an early age, and two years 
later entered Miami University, at Oxford, 
Ohio. Upon graduation he entered the 
office of Stover & Gwyne, of Cincinnati, as a 
law student. He was admitted to the bar 
two years later, and having inherited about 
eight hundred dollars worth of property, he 
married the daughter of Doctor Scott, pres- 
ident of a female school at Oxford, Ohio, 
and selected Indianapolis, Indiana, to begin 
practice. In i860 he was nominated by 
the Republicans as candidate for state 
supreme court reporter, and did his first 
political speaking in that campaign. He 
was elected, and after two years in that 
position he organized the Seventieth Indi- 
ana Infantry, of which he was made colonel, 
and with his regiment joined General Sher- 

man's army. For bravery displayed at Re- 
saca and Peach Tree Creek he was made a 
brigadier-general. In the meantime the 
office of supreme court reporter had been 
declared vacant, and another party elected 
to fill it. In the fall of 1864, having been 
nominated for that office, General Harrison 
obtained a thirty-day leave of absence, went 
to Indiana, canvassed the state and was 
elected. As he was about to rejoin his 
command he was stricken down by an attack 
of fever. After his recovery he joined 
General Sherman's army and participated in 
the closing events of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined to 
be a candidate for the office of supreme 
court reporter, and returned to the practice 
of the law. His brilliant campaign for the 
office of governor of Indiana in 1876, 
brought him into public notice, although he 
was defeated. He took a prominent part 
in the presidential canvass of 1880, and was 
chosen United States senator from Indiana, 
serving six years. He then returned to the 
practice of his profession. In 1888 he was 
selected by the Republican convention at 
Chicago as candidate for the presidency, and 
after a heated campaign was elected over 
Cleveland. He was inaugurated March 4, 
1889, and signed the McKinley bill October 
1, 1890, perhaps the most distinctive feature 
of his administration. In 1892 he was 
again the nominee of the Republican party 
for president, but was defeated by Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, and 
again resumed the practice of law in Indian- 

celebrated merchant and sugar refiner, 
was born in New York City in 1833. His 
father, William F. Havemeyer, and grand- 
father, William Havemeyer, were both sugar 



refiners. The latter named came from 
Buckeburg, Germany, in 1799, and settled 
in New York, establishing one of the first 
refineries in that city. William F. succeeded 
his father, and at an early age retired from 
business with a competency. He was three 
times mayor of his native city, New York. 
John C. Havemeyer was educated in 
private schools, and was prepared for college 
at Columbia College grammar school. 
Owing to failing eyesight he was unable to 
finish his college course, and began his 
business career in a wholesale grocery store, 
where he remained two years. In 1854, 
after a year's travel abroad, he assumed the 
responsibility of the office work in the sugar 
refinery of Havemeyer & Molter, but two 
years later etablished a refinery of his own 
in Brooklyn. This afterwards developed into 
the immense business of Havemeyer & Elder. 
The capital was furnished by his father, 
and, chafing under the anxiety caused by the 
use of borrowed money, he sold out his 
interest and returned to Havemeyer & 
Molter. This firm dissolving the next year, 
John C. declined an offer of partnership 
from the successors, not wishing to use 
borrowed money. For two years he remain- 
ed with the house, receiving a share of the 
profits as compensation. For some years 
thereafter he was engaged in the commission 
business, until failing health caused his 
retirement. In 1871, he again engaged in 
the sugar refining business at Greenport, 
Long Island, with his brother and another 
partner, under the firm name of Havemeyer 
Brothers & Co. Here he remained until 
1880, when his health again declined. 
During the greater part of his life Mr. 
Havemeyer was identified with many benev- 
olent societies, including the New York 
Port Society, Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Church, American Bible Society, 

New York Sabbath School Society and 
others. He was active in Young Men's 
Christian Association work in New York, 
and organized and was the first president of 
an affiliated society of the same at Yonkers. 
He was director of several railroad corpo- 
rations and a trustee of the Continental Trust 
Company of New York. 

eminent American statesman and 
jurist, was born March 17, 1833, near Cory- 
don, Harrison county, Indiana. He ac- 
quired his education in the local schools of 
the county and at Bloomington Academy, 
although he did not graduate. After leav- 
ing college he read law with Judge Porter 
at Corydon, and just before the war he be- 
gan to take an interest in politics. Mr. 
Gresham was elected to the legislature from 
Harrison county as a Republican; previous 
to this the district had been represented by 
a Democrat. At the commencement of 
hostilities he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry, but 
served in that regiment only a short time, 
when he was appointed colonel of the Fifty- 
third Indiana, and served under General 
Grant at the siege of Vicksburg as brigadier- 
general. Later he was under Sherman in 
the famous "March to the Sea," and com- 
manded a division of Blair's corps at the 
siege of Atlanta where he was so badly 
wounded in the leg that he was compelled 
to return home. On his way home he was 
forced to stop at New Albany, where he re- 
mained a year before he was able to leave. 
He was brevetted major-general at the close 
of the war. While at New Albany. Mr. 
Gresham was appointed state agent, his 
duty being to pay the interest on the state 
debt in New York, and he ran twice for 
congress against ex-Speaker Kerr, but was 



defeated in both cases, although he greatly 
reduced the Democratic majority. He was 
held in high esteem by President Grant, 
who offered him the portfolio of the interior 
but Mr. Gresham declined, but accepted 
the appointment of United States judge for 
Indiana to succeed David McDonald. 
Judge Gresham served on the United States 
district court bench until 1883, when he 
was appointed postmaster-general by Presi- 
dent Arthur, but held that office only a few 
months when he was made secretary of the 
treasury. Near the end of President 
Arthur's term, Judge Gresham was ap- 
pointed judge of the United States circuit 
court of the district composed of Indiana, 
Illinois and contiguous states, which he held 
until 1893. Judge Gresham was one of the 
presidential possibilities in the National Re- 
publican convention in 1888, when General 
Harrison was nominated, and was also men- 
tioned for president in 1892. Later the 
People's party made a strenuous effort to 
induce him to become their candidate for 
president, he refusing the offer, however, 
and a few weeks before the election he an- 
nounced that he would support Mr. Cleve- 
land, the Democratic nominee for president. 
Upon the election of Mr. Cleveland in the 
fall of 1892, Judge Gresham was made the 
secretary of state, and filled that position 
until his death on May 28, 1895, at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia. 

ELISHA B. ANDREWS, noted as an ed- 
ucator and college president, was born 
at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, January 10, 
1844, his father and mother being Erastus 
and Elmira (Bartlett) Andrews. In 1861, 
he entered the service of the general gov- 
ernment as private and non-commissioned 
officer in the First Connecticut Heavy Ar- 
tillery, and in 1863 was promoted to the 

rank of second lieutenant. Returning home 
he was prepared for college at Powers In- 
stitute and at the Wesleyan Academy, and 
entered Brown University. From here he 
was graduated in 1870. For the succeeding 
two years he was principal of the Connecti- 
cut Literary Institute at Suffield, Connecticut. 
Completing a course at the Newton Theo- 
logical Institute, he was ordained pastor of 
the First Baptist church at Beverly, Massa- 
chusetts, July 2, 1874. The following 
year he became president of the Denison 
University, at Granville, Ohio. In 1879 
he accepted the professorship of homiletics, 
pastoral duties and church polity at Newton 
Theological Institute. In 1882 he was 
elected to the chair of history and political 
economy at Brown University. The Uni- 
versity of Nebraska honored him with an 
LL. D. in 1884, and the same year Colby 
University conferred the degree of D. D. 
In 1888 he became professor of political 
economy and public economy at Cornell 
University, but the next year returned to 
Brown University as its president. From 
the time of his inauguration the college work 
broadened in many ways. Many timely 
and generous donations from friends and 
alumni of the college were influenced by 
him, and large additions made "to the same. 
Professor Andrews published, in 1887, 
"Institutes of General History," and in 
1888, " Institutes of Economics." 

of the present biography, was, during his 
life, one of the most distinguished chemists 
and scientific writers in America. He was 
an Englishman by birth, born at Liverpool, 
May 5, 181 1, and was reared in his native 
land, receiving an excellent education, 
graduating at the- University of London. In 
1833 he came to the United States, and 

r * 



settled first in Pennsylvania. He graduated 
in medicine at the University of Philadel- 
phia, in 1836, and for three years following 
was professor of chemistry and physiology 
at Hampden-Sidney College. He then be- 
came professor of chemistry in the New York 
University, with which institution he was 
prominently connected for many years. It 
is stated on excellent authority that Pro- 
fessor Draper, in 1839, took the first photo- 
graphic picture ever taken from life. He 
was a great student, and carried on many 
important and intricate experiments along 
scientific lines. He discovered many of the 
fundamental facts of spectrum analysis, 
which he published. He published a number 
of works of great merit, many of which are 
recognized as authority upon the subjects of 
which they treat. Among his work were: 
"Human Physiology, Statistical and Dyna- 
mical of the Conditions and Cause of Life 
in Man," "History of Intellectual Develop- 
ment of Europe," " History of the Ameri- 
can Civil War," besides a number of works 
on chemistry, optics and mathematics. Pro- 
fessor Draper continued to hold a high place 
among the scientific scholars of America 
until his death, which occurred in January, 

GEORGE W. PECK, ex-governor of 
the state of Wisconsin and a famous 
journalist and humorist, was born in Jeffer- 
son county, New York, September 28, 1840. 
When he was about three years of age his 
parents removed to Wisconsin, settling near 
Whitewater, where young Peck received his 
education at the public schools. At fifteen 
he entered the office of the "Whitewater 
Register," where he learned the printer's 
art. He helped start the "Jefferson County 
Republican" later on, but sold out his 
interest therein and set type in the office of 

the "State Journal," at Madison. At the 
outbreak of the war he enlisted in the 
Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry as a private, and 
after serving four years returned a second 
lieutenant. He then started the " Ripon 
Representative," which he sold not long 
after, and removing to New York, was on 
the staff of Mark Pomeroy's "Democrat." 
Going to La Crosse, later, he conducted the 
La Crosse branch paper, a half interest in 
which he bought in 1S74. He next started 
"Peck's Sun," which four years later he 
removed to Milwaukee. While in La 
Crosse he was chief of police one year, and 
also chief clerk of the Democratic assembly 
in 1874. It was in 1878 that Mr. Peck 
took his paper to Milwaukee, and achieved 
his first permanent success, the circulation 
increasing to 80,000. For ten years he was 
regarded as one of the most original, versa- 
tile and entertaining writers in the country, 
and he has delineated every phase of 
country newspaper life, army life, domestic 
experience, travel and city adventure. Up 
to 1890 Mr. Peck took but little part in 
politics, but in that year was elected mayor 
of Milwaukee on the Democratic ticket. 
The following August he was elected gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin by a large majority, 
the "Bennett School Bill" figuring to a 
large extent in his favor. 

Mr. Peck, besides many newspaper arti- 
cles in his peculiar vein and numerous lect- 
ures, bubbling over with fun, is known to 
fame by the following books: "Peck's Bad 
Boy and his Pa," and "The Grocery Man 
and Peck's Bad Boy." 

CHARLES O'CONOR, who was for 
many years the acknowledged leader 
of the legal profession of New York City, 
was also conceded to be one of the greatest 
lawyers America has produced. He was 



born in New York City in 1804, his father 
being an educated Irish gentleman. Charles 
received a common-school education, and 
early took up the study of law, being ad- 
mitted to practice in 1824. His close ap- 
plication and untiring energy and industry 
soon placed him in the front rank of the 
profession, and within a few years he was 
handling many of the most important cases. 
One of the first great cases he had and which 
gained him a wide reputation, was that of 
" Jack, the Fugitive Slave, " in 1835, in which 
his masterful argument before the supreme 
court attracted wide attention and com- 
ment. Charles O'Conor was a Democrat 
all his life. He did not aspire to office- 
holding, however, and never held any office 
except that of district attorney under Presi- 
dent Pierce's administration, which he only 
retained a short time. He took an active 
interest, however, in public questions, and 
was a member of the state (New York) con- 
stitutional convention in 1864. In 1868 he 
was nominated for the presidency by the 
" Extreme Democrats." His death occurred 
in May, 1884. 

American officer and major-general in 
the Confederate army, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1823. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1844, served in 
the United States infantry artd was later as- 
signed to commissary duty with the rank of 
captain. He served several years at fron- 
tier posts, and was assistant professor in the 
military academy in 1846. He was with 
General Scott in the Mexican war, and en- 
gaged in all the battles from Vera Cruz to 
the capture of the Mexican capital. He 
was wounded at Cherubusco and brevetted 
first lieutenant, and at Molino del Rey was 
brevetted captain. After the close of the 

Mexican war he returned to West Point as 
assistant instructor, and was then assigned 
to commissary duty at New York. He re- 
signed in 1855 and became superintendent 
of construction of the Chicago custom house. 
He was made adjutant-genenal, with the 
rank of colonel, of Illinois militia, and was 
colonel of Illinois volunteers raised for the 
Utah expedition, but was not mustered into 
service. In i860 he removed to Kentucky, 
where he settled on a farm near Louisville 
and became inspector-general in command 
of the Kentucky Home Guards. At the 
opening of the Civil war he joined the Con- 
federate army, and was given command at 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, which he was 
compelled to abandon after the capture of 
Fort Henry. He then retired to Fort Don- 
elson, and was there captured with sixteen 
thousand men, and an immense store of pro- 
visions, by General Grant, in February, 
1862. He was held as a prisoner of war 
at Fort Warren until August of that year. 
He commanded a division of Hardee's corps 
in Bragg's Army of the Tennessee, and was 
afterward assigned to the third division and 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, 
and Murfreesboro. He was with Kirby 
Smith when that general surrendered his 
army to General Canby in May, 1865. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the vice- 
presidency on the Gold Democratic ticket 
with Senator John M. Palmer in 1896. 

SIMON KENTON, one of the famous pio- 
neers and scouts whose names fill the 
pages of the early history of our country, 
was born in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
April 3, 1755. In consequence of an affray, 
at the age of eighteen, young Kenton went 
to Kentucky, then the "Dark and Bloody 
Ground," and became associated with Dan- 
iel Boone and other pioneers of that region. 



For a short time he acted as a scout and 
spy for Lord Dunmore, the British governor 
of Virginia, but afterward taking the side 
of the struggling colonists, participated in 
the war for independence west of the Alle- 
ghanies. In 1784 he returned to Virginia, 
but did not remain there long, going back 
with his family to Kentucky. From 
that time until 1793 he participated in all 
the combats and battles of that time, and 
until "Mad Anthony" Wayne swept the 
Valley of the Ohio, and settled the suprem- 
acy of the whites in that region. Kenton 
laid claim to large tracts of land in the new 
country he had helped to open up, but 
through ignorance of law, and the growing 
value of the land, lost it all and was reduced 
to poverty. During the war with England 
in 1 812-15, Kenton took part in the inva- 
sion of Canada with the Kentucky troops 
and participated in the battle of the Thames. 
He finally had land granted him by the 
legislature of Kentucky, and received a pen- 
sion from the United States government. 
He died in Logan county, Ohio, April 29, 

American statesman of eminence, was 
born in Livermore, Maine, September 23, 
1 816. He learned the trade of printer, but 
abandoned that calling at the age of eight- 
een and entered the Kent's Hill Academy at 
Reading, Maine, and then took up the study 
of law, reading in Hallowell, Boston, and at 
the Harvard Law School. He began prac- 
tice at Galena, Illinois, in 1840. He was 
elected to congress in 1852, and represented 
his district in that body continuously until 
March, 1869, and at the time of his retire- 
ment he had served a greater number of 
consecutive terms than any other member 
of the house. In 1873 President Grant ap- 

pointed him secretary of state, which posi- 
tion he resigned to accept that of minister 
to France. During the Franco- Prussian 
war, including the siege of Paris and the 
reign of the Commune, Mr. Washburne re- 
mained at his post, protecting the lives and 
property of his countrymen, as well as that 
of other foreign residents in Paris, while the 
ministers of all other powers abandoned 
their posts at a time when they were most 
needed. As far as possible he extended 
protection to unfortunate German residents, 
who were the particular objects of hatred of 
the populace, and his firmness and the suc- 
cess which attended his efforts won the ad- 
miration of all Europe. Mr. Washburne 
died at Chicago, Illinois, October 22, 1887. 

WILLIAM CRAMP, one of the most 
extensive shipbuilders of this coun- 
try, was born in Kensington, then a suburb, 
now a part of Philadelphia, in 1806. He 
received a thorough English education, and 
when he left school was associated with 
Samuel Grice, one of the most eminent 
naval architects of his day. In 1830, hav- 
ing mastered all the details of shipbuilding, 
Mr. Cramp engaged in business on his own 
account. By reason of ability and excel- 
lent work he prospered from the start, until 
now, in the hands of his sons, under the 
name of William Cramp & Sons' Ship and 
Engine Building Company, it has become the 
most complete shipbuilding plant and naval 
arsenal in the western hemisphere, and fully 
equal to any in the world. As Mr. Cramp's 
sons attained manhood they learned their 
father's profession, and were admitted to a 
partnership. In 1872 the firm was incor- 
porated under the title given above. Until 
i860 wood was used in building vessels, al- 
though pace was kept with all advances in 
the art of shipbuilding. At the opening of 



the war came an unexpected demand for 
war vessels, which they promptly met. The 
sea-going ironclad "New Ironsides" was 
built by them in 1862, followed by a num- 
ber of formidable ironclads and the cruiser 
"Chattanooga." They subsequently built 
several war vessels for the Russian and 
other governments which added to their 
reputation. When the American steamship 
line was established in 1870, the Cramps 
were commissioned to build for it four first- 
class iron steamships, the "Pennsylvania," 
"Ohio," "Indiana" and "Illinois," which 
they turned out in rapid order, some of the 
finest specimens of the naval architecture of 
their day. William Cramp remained at the 
head of the great company he had founded 
until his death, which occurred January 6, 


Charles H. Cramp, the successor of his 
father as head of the William Cramp & 
Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, 
was born in Philadelphia May 9, 1829, and 
received an excellent education in his native 
city, which he sedulously sought to sup- 
plement by close study until he became 
an authority on general subjects and the 
best naval architect on the western hemis- 
.phere. Many of the best vessels of our 
new navy were built by this immense con- 

the greatest American painter, was 
born in South Carolina in 1779. He was 
sent to school at the age of seven years at 
Newport, Rhode Island, where he met Ed- 
ward Malbone, two years his senior, and 
who later became a painter of note. The 
friendship that sprang up between them un- 
doubtedly influenced young Allston in the 
choice of a profession. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1800, and went to England the 

following year, after pursuing his studies for 
a year under his friend Malbone at his home 
in South Carolina. He became a student 
at the Royal Academy where the great 
American, Benjamin West, presided, and 
who became his intimate friend. Allston 
later went to Paris, and then to Italy, where 
four years were spent, mostly at Rome. In 
1809 he returned to America, but soon after 
returned to London, having married in the 
meantime a sister of Dr. Channing. In 
a short time his first great work appeared, 
"The Dead Man Restored to Life by the 
Bones of Elisha," which took the British 
Association prize and firmly established his 
reputation. Other paintings followed in 
quick succession, the greatest among which 
were "Uriel in the Center of the Sun," 
"Saint Peter Liberated by the Angel," and 
"Jacob's Dream," supplemented by many 
smaller pieces. Hard work, and grief'at the 
death of his wife began to tell upon his health, 
and he left London in 181 8 for America. 
The same year he was elected an associate 
of the Royal Academy. During the next 
few years he painted "Jeremiah," "Witch 
ofEndor," and "Beatrice." In 1830 Alls- 
ton married a daughter of Judge Dana, and 
went to Cambridge, which was his home 
until his death. Here he produced the 
"Vision of the Bloody Hand," "Rosalie," 
and many less noted pieces, and had given 
one week of labor to his unfinished master- 
piece, "Belshazzar's Feast," when death 
ended his career July 9, 1843. 

JOHN ROACH, ship builder and manu- 
facturer, whose career was a marvel 0/ 
industrial labor, and who impressed his in- 
dividuality and genius upon the times in 
which he lived more, perhaps, than any 
other manufacturer in America. He was 
born at Mitchelstown, County Cork, Ire- 



land, December 25, 181 5, the son of a 
wealthy merchant. He attended school 
until he was thirteen, when his father be- 
came financially embarrassed and failed 
and shortly after died; John determined to 
come to America and carve out a fortune 
for himself. He landed in New York at the 
age of sixteen, and soon obtained employ- 
ment at the Howell Iron Works in New Jer- 
sey, at twenty-five cents a day. He soon 
made himself a place in the world, and at 
the end of three years had saved some 
twelve hundred dollars, which he lost by 
the failure of his employer, in whose hands 
it was left. Returning to New York he 
began to learn how to make castings for 
marine engines and ship work. Having 
again accumulated one thousand dollars, in 
company with three fellow workmen, he 
purchased a small foundry in New York, 
but soon became sole proprietor. At the 
end of four years he had saved thirty thou- 
sand dollars, besides enlarging his works. 
In 1856 his works were destroyed by a 
boiler explosion, and being unable to collect 
the insurance, was left, after paying his 
debts, without a dollar. However, his 
credit and reputation for integrity was good, 
and he built the Etna Iron Works, giving it 
capacity to construct larger marine engines 
than any previously built in this country. 
Here he turned out immense engines for 
the steam ram Dunderberg, for the war ves- 
sels Winooski and Neshaning, and other 
large vessels. To accommodate his increas- 
ing business, Mr. Roach, in 1869, pur- 
chased the Morgan Iron Works, one of the 
largest in New York, and shortly after sev- 
eral others. In 1871 he bought the Ches- 
ter ship yards, which he added to largely, 
erecting a rolling mill and blast furnace, and 
providing every facility for building a ship 
out of the ore and timber. This immense 

plant covered a large area, was valued at 
several millions of dollars, and was known 
as the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding 
and Engine Works, of which Mr. Roach 
was the principal owner. He built a large 
percentage of the iron vessels now flying 
the American flag, the bulk of his business 
being for private parties. In 1875 he built 
the sectional dry docks at Pensacola. He, 
about this time, drew the attention of the 
government to the use of compound marine 
engines, and thus was the means of im- 
proving the speed and economy of the ves- 
sels of our new navy. In 1883 Mr. Roach 
commenced work on the three cruisers for 
the government, the " Chicago," "Boston" 
and "Atlanta," and the dispatch boat 
" Dolphin." For some cause the secretary 
of the navy refused to receive the latter and 
decided that Mr. Roach's contract would 
not hold. This embarrassed Mr. Roach, 
as a large amount of his capital was in- 
volved in these contracts, and for the pro- 
tection of bondsmen and creditors, July 18, 
1885, he made an assignment, but the 
financial trouble broke down his strong con- 
stitution, and January 10, 1887, he died. 
His son, John B. Roach, succeeded to the 
shipbuilding interests, while Stephen W. 
Roach inherited the Morgan Iron Works at 
New York. 

the two great painters who laid the 
foundation of true American art, was born 
in Boston in 1737, one year earlier than his 
great contemporary, Benjamin West. His 
education was limited to the common schools 
of that time, and his training in art he ob- 
tained by his own observation and experi- 
ments solely. When he was about seven- 
teen years old he had mapped out his future, 
however, by choosing painting as his pro ■ 



fession. If he ever studied under any 
teacher in his early efforts, we have no au- 
thentic account of it, and tradition credits 
the young artist's wonderful success en- 
tirely to his own talent and untiring effort. 
It is almost incredible that at the age of 
twenty-three years his income from his 
works aggregated fifteen hundred dollars 
per annum, a very great sum in those days. 
In 1774 he went to Europe in search of ma- 
terial for study, which was so rare in his 
native land. After some time spent in Italy 
he finally took up his permanent residence 
in England. In 1783 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, and later his 
son had the high honor of becoming lord 
chancellor of England and Lord Lyndhurst. 
Many specimens of Copley's work are to 
be found in the Memorial Hall at Harvard 
and in the Boston Museum, as well as a few 
of the works upon which he modeled his 
style. Copley was essentially a portrait 
painter, though his historical paintings at- 
tained great celebrity, his" masterpiece 
being his " Death of Major Pierson," though 
that distinction has by some been given to 
his "Death of Chatham." It is said that 
he never saw a good picture until he was 
thirty-five years old, yet his portraits prior 
to that period are regarded as rare speci- 
mens. He died in 181 5. 

HENRY B. PLANT, one of the greatest 
railroad men of the country, became 
famous as president of the Plant system of 
railway and steamer lines, and also the 
Southern & Texas Express Co. He was 
born in October, 18 19, at Branford, 
Connecticut, and entered the railroad serv- 
ice in 1844, serving as express messenger 
on the Hartford & New Haven Railroad until 
1853, during which time he had entire 
charge of the express business of that road. 

He went south in 1853 and established ex- 
press lines on various southern railways, and 
in 1 86 1 organized the Southern Express 
Co., and became its president. In 1879 he 
purchased, with others, the Atlantic & Gulf 
Railroad of Georgia, and later reorganized 
the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad, 
of which he became president. He pur- 
chased and rebuilt, in 1880, the Savannah 
& Charleston Railroad, now Charleston & 
Savannah. Not long after this he organ- 
ized the Plant Investment Co., to control 
these railroads and advance their interests 
generally, and later established a steamboat 
line on the St. John's river, in Florida. 
From 1853 until i860 he was general 
superintendent of the southern division of 
the Adams Express Co., and in 1867 be- 
came president of the Texas Express Co. 
The "Plant system" of railway, steamer 
and steamship lines is one of the greatest 
business corporations of the southern states. 

WADE HAMPTON, a noted Confeder- 
ate officer, was born at Columbia, 
South Carolina, in 1818. He graduated 
from the South Carolina College, took an 
active part in politics, and was twice elected 
to the legislature of his state. In 1861 he 
joined the Confederate army, and command- 
ed the " Hampton Legion" at the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run, in July, 1861. He did 
meritorious service, was wounded, and pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. He command- 
ed a brigade at Seven Pines, in 1862, and 
was again wounded. He was engaged in 
the battle of Antietam in September of the 
same year, and participated in the raid into 
Pennsylvania in October. In 1863 he was 
with Lee at Gettysburg, where he was 
wounded for the third time. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
commanded a troop of cavalry in Lee's 



army during 1864, and was in numerous en- 
gagements. In 1865 he was in South Car- 
olina, and commanded the cavalry rear 
guard of the Confederate army in its stub- 
born retreat before General Sherman on his 
advance toward Richmond. 

After the war Hampton took an active 
part in politics, and was a prominent figure 
at the Democratic national convention in 
1868, which nominated Seymour and Blair 
for president and vice-president. He was 
governor of South Carolina, and took his 
seat in the United States senate in 1879, 
where he became a conspicuous figure in 
national affairs. 

NIKOLA TESLA, one of the most cele- 
brated electricians America has known, 
was born in 1857, at Smiljau, Lika, Servia. 
He descended from an old and representative 
family of that country. His father was a 
a minister of the Greek church, of high rank, 
while his mother was a woman of remarka- 
ble skill in the construction of looms, churns 
and the machinery required in a rural home. 
Nikola received early education in the 
public schools of Gospich, when he was 
sent to the higher "Real Schule" at Karl- 
stadt, where,, after a three years' course, 
he graduated in 1873. He devoted him- 
self to experiments in electricity and 
magnetism, to the chagrin of his father, 
who had destined him for the ministry, 
but giving way to the boy's evident genius 
he was allowed to continue his studies in 
the polytechnic school at Gratz. He in- 
herited a wonderful intuition which enabled 
him to see through the intricacies of ma- 
chinery, and despite his instructor's demon- 
stration that a dynamo could not be oper- 
ated without commutators or brushes, 
began experiments which finally resulted in 
his rotating field motors. After the study 

of languages at Prague and Buda-Pesth, he 
became associated with M. Puskas, who 
had introduced the telephone into Hungary. 
He invented several improvements, but 
being unable to reap the necessary benefit 
from them, he, in search of a wider field, 
went to Paris, where he found employment 
with one of the electric lighting companies 
as electrical engineer. Soon he set his face 
westward, and coming to the United States 
for a time found congenial employment wrth 
Thomas A. Edison. Finding it impossible, 
overshadowed as he was, to carry out his 
own ideas he left the Edison works to join 
a company formed to place his own inven- 
tions on the market. He perfected his 
rotary field principle, adapting it to circuits 
then in operation. It is said of him that 
some of his proved theories will change the 
entire electrical science. It would, in an 
article of this length, be impossible to ex- 
plain all that Tesla accomplished for the 
practical side of electrical engineering. 
His discoveries formed the basis of the at- 
tempt to utilize the water power of Niagara 
Falls. His work ranges far beyond the 
vast department of polyphase currents and 
high potential lighting and includes many 
inventions in arc lighting, transformers, 
pyro and thermo-magnetic motors, new 
forms of incandescent lamps, unipolar dyna- 
mos and many others. 

CHARLES B. LEWIS won fame as an 
American humorist under the name of 
"M. Quad." It is said he owes his 
celebrity originally to the fact that he was 
once mixed up in a boiler explosion on the 
Ohio river, and the impressions he received 
from the event he set up from his case when 
he was in the composing room of an ob- 
scure Michigan paper. His style possesses a 
peculiar quaintness, and there runs through 



it a vein of philosophy. Mr. Lewis was 
born in 1844, near a town called Liverpool, 
Ohio. He was, however, raised in Lansing, 
Michigan, where he spent a year in an agri- 
cultural college, going from there to the 
composing room of the "Lansing Demo- 
crat." At the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed in the service, remained during the 
entire war, and then returned to Lansing. 
The explosion of the boiler that "blew him 
into fame, " took place two years later, while 
he was on his way south. When he re- 
covered physically, he brought suit for dam- 
ages against the steamboat company, which 
he gained, and was awarded a verdict of 
twelve thousand dollars for injuries re- 
ceived. It was while he was employed by 
the "Jacksonian" of Pontiac, Mich. .that he 
set up his account of how he felt while being 
blown up. He says that he signed it "M 
Quad," because "a bourgeoise em quad is 
useless except in its own line — it won't 
justify with any other type." Soon after, 
because of the celebrity he attained by this 
screed, Mr. Lewis secured a place on the 
staff of the " Detroit Free Press," and made 
for that paper a wide reputation. His 
sketches of the "Lime Kiln Club" and 
" Brudder Gardner " are perhaps the best 
known of his humorous writings. 

HIRAM S. MAXIM, the famous inventor, 
was born in Sangersville, Maine, 
February 5, 1840, the son of Isaac W. 
and Harriet B. Maxim. The town of his 
birth was but a small place, in the 
woods, on the confines of civilization, 
and the family endured many hardships. 
They were without means and entirely 
dependent on themselves to make out of 
raw materials all they needed. The mother 
was an expert spinner, weaver, dyer and 
seamstress and the father a trapper, tanner, 

miller, blacksmith, carpenter, mason and 
farmer. Amid such surroundings young 
Maxim gave early promise of remarkable 
aptitude. With the universal Yankee jack- 
knife the products of his skill excited the 
wonder and interest of the locality. His 
parents did not encourage his latent genius 
but apprenticed him to a coach builder. 
Four years he labored at this uncongenial 
trade but at the end of that time he forsook 
it and entered a machine shop at Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts. Soon mastering the details 
of that business and that of mechanical 
drawing, he went to Boston as the foreman 
of the philosophical instrument manufactory. 
From thence he went to New York and with 
the Novelty Iron Works Shipbuilding Co. 
he gained experience in those trades. His 
inventions up to this, time consisted of 
improvements in steam engines, and an 
automatic gas machine, which came into 
general use. In 1877 he turned his attention 
to electricity, and in 1878 produced an 
incandescent lamp, that would burn 1,000 
hours. He was the first to design a process 
for flashing electric carbons, and the first 
to "standardize" carbons for electric light- 
ing. In 1880 he visited Europe and exhibit- 
ing, at the Paris Exposition of 1881, a self- 
regulating machine, was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor. In 1883 he returned to 
London as the European representative of the 
United States Electric Light Co. An incident 
of his boyhood, in which the recoil of a rifle 
was noticed by him, and the apparent loss 
of power shown, in 188 1-2 prompted the 
invention of a gun which utilizes the recoil to 
automatically load and fire seven hundred 
and seventy shots per minute. The Maxim- 
Nordenfelt Gun Co., with a capital of nine 
million dollars, grew from this. In 1883 he 
patented his electric training gear for large 
guns. And later turned his attention to fly- 



ing machines, which he claimed were not an 
impossibility. He took out over one hundred 
patents for smokeless gunpowder, and for pe- 
troleum and other motors and autocycles. 

one of America's very greatest financiers 
and philanthropists, was born in Richford, 
Tioga county, New York, July 8, 1839. He 
received a common-school education in his 
native place, and in 1853, when his parents 
removed to Cleveland, Ohio, he entered the 
high school of that city. After a two-years' 
course of diligent work, he entered the com- 
mission and forwarding house of Hewitt & 
Tuttle, of Cleveland, remaining with the 
firm some years, and then began business 
for himself, forming a partnership with 
Morris B. Clark. Mr. Rockefeller was then 
but nineteen years of age, and during the 
year i860, in connection with others, they 
started the oil refining business, under the 
firm name of Andrews, Clark & Co. Mr. 
Rockefeller and Mr. Andrews purchased the 
interest of their associates, and, after taking 
William Rockefeller into the firm, established 
offices in Cleveland under the name of 
William Rockefeller & Co. Shortly after 
this the house of Rockefeller & Co. was es- 
tablished in New York for the purpose of 
finding a market for their products, -and two 
years later all the refining companies were 
consolidated under the firm name of Rocke- 
feller, Andrews & Flagler. This firm was 
succeeded in 1870 by the Standard Oil 
Company of Ohio, said to be the most 
gigantic business corporation of modern 
times. John D. Rockefeller's fortune has 
been variously estimated at from one hun- 
dred million to two hundred million dollars. 
Mr. Rockefeller's philanthropy mani- 
fested itself principally through the American 
Baptist Educational Society. He donated 

the building for the Spelman Institute at 
Atlanta, Georgia, a school for the instruction 
of negroes. His other gifts were to the 
University of Rochester, Cook Academy, 
Peddie Institute, and Vassar College, be- 
sides smaller gifts to many institutions 
throughout the country. His princely do- 
nations, however, were to the University of 
Chicago. His first gift to this institution 
was a conditional offer of six hundred thou- 
sand dollars in 1889, and when this amount 
was paid he added one million more. Dur- 
ing 1892 he made it two gifts of one million 
each, and all told, his donations to this one 
institution aggregated between seven and 
eight millions of dollars. 

JOHN M. PALMER.— For over a third 
J of a century this gentleman occupied a 
prominent place in the political world, both 
in the state of Illinois and on the broader 
platform of national issues. 

Mr. Palmer was born at Eagle Creek, 
Scott county, Kentucky, September 13, 
18 17. The family subsequently removed 
to Christian county, in the same state, where 
he acquired a common-school education, and 
made his home until 1831. His father was 
opposed to slavery, and in the latter year 
removed to Illinois and settled near Alton. 
In 1834 John entered Alton College, or- 
ganized on the manual-labor plan, but his 
funds failing, abandoned it and entered a 
cooper shop. He subsequently was en- 
gaged in peddling, and teaching a district 
school near Canton. In 1838 he began the 
study of law, and the following year re- 
moved to Carlinville, where, in December of 
that year, he was admitted to the bar. He 
was shortly after defeated for county clerk. 
In 1843 he was elected probate judge. In 
the constitutional convention of 1847, Mr. 
Palmer was a delegate, and from 1849 to 



185 1 he was county judge. In 1852 he be- 
came a member of the state senate, but not 
being with his party on the slavery question 
he resigned that office in 1854. In 1856 
Mr. Palmer was chairman of the first Re- 
publican state convention held in Illinois, 
and the same year was a delegate to the 
national convention. In i860 he was an 
elector on the Lincoln ticket, and on the 
breaking out of the war entered the service 
as colonel of the Fourteenth Illinois Infan- 
try, but was shortly after brevetted brigadier- 
general. In August, 1862, he organized 
the One Hundred and Twenty-second Illi- 
nois Infantry, but in September he was 
placed in command of the first division of 
the Army of the Mississippi, afterward was 
promoted to the rank of major-general. In 
1865 he was assigned to the military ad- 
ministration in Kentucky. In 1867 General 
Palmer was elected governor of Illinois and 
served four years. In 1872 he went with 
the Liberal Republicans, who supported 
Horace Greeley, after which time he was 
identified with the Democratic party. In 
1890 he was elected United States senator 
from Illinois, and served as such for six 
years. In 1896, on the adoption of the sil- 
ver plank in the platform of the Democratic 
party, General Palmer consented to lead, 
as presidential candidate, the National Dem- 
ocrats, or Gold Democracy. 

WILLIAM H. BEARD, the humorist 
among American painters, was born 
at Painesville, Ohio, in 1821. His father, 
James H. Beard, was also a painter of na- 
tional reputation. William H. Beard be- 
gan his career as a traveling portrait 
painter. He pursued his studies in New 
York, and later removed to Buffalo, where 
he achieved reputation. He then went to 

Italy and after a short stay returned to New 
York and opened a studio. One of his 
earliest paintings was a small picture called 
"Cat and Kittens, " which was placed in 
the National Academy on exhibition. Among 
his best productions are "Raining Cats and 
Dogs," "The Dance of Silenus, " "Bears 
on a Bender," "Bulls and Bears," ' ' Whoo!" 
" Grimalkin's Dream," " Little Red Riding 
Hood," "The Guardian of the Flag." His 
animal pictures convey the most ludicrous 
and satirical ideas, and the intelligent, 
human expression in their faces is most 
comical. Some artists and critics have re- 
fused to give Mr. Beard a place among the 
first circles in art, solely on account of the 
class of subjects he has chosen. 

WW. CORCORAN, the noted philan- 
thropist, was born at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia. December 27, 1798. 
At the age of twenty-five he entered the 
banking business in Washington, and in 
time became very wealthy. He was 
noted for his magnificent donations to char- 
ity. Oak Hill cemetery was donated to 
Georgetown in 1847, and ten years later the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, Temple of Art, was 
presented to the city of Washington. The 
uncompleted building was utilized by the 
government as quartermaster's headquar- 
ters during the war. The building was 
completed after the war at a cost of a mil- 
lion and a half dollars, all the gift of Mr. 
Corcoran. The Louise Home for Women 
is another noble charity to his credit. Its 
object is the care of women of gentle breed- 
ing who in declining years are without 
means of support. In addition to this he 
gave liberally to many worthy institutions 
of learning and charity. He died at Wash- 
ington February 24, 1888. 



ALBERT BIERSTADT, the noted paint- 
er of American landscape, was born in 
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1829, and was 
brought to America by his parents at the 
age of two years. He received his early 
education here, but returned to Dusseldorf 
to study painting, and also went to Rome. 
On his return to America he accompanied 
Lander's expedition across the continent, in 
185S, and soon after produced his most 
popular work, "The Rocky Mountains — 
Lander's Peak. " Its boldness and grandeur 
were so unusual that it made him famous. 
The picture sold for twenty-five thousand 
dollars. In 1867 Mr. Bierstadt went to 
Europe, with a government commission, 
and gathered materials for his great historic- 
al work, "Discovery of the North River 
by Hendrik Hudson." Others of his great 
works were "Storm in the Rocky Mount- 
ains," " Valley of the Yosemite," "North 
Fork of the Platte," "Diamond Pool," 
"Mount Hood," "Mount Rosalie," and 
"The Sierra Nevada Mountains." His 
"Estes Park" sold for fifteen thousand 
dollars, and "Mount Rosalie" brought 
thirty-five thousand dollars. His smaller 
Rocky mountain scenes, however, are vast- 
ly superior to his larger works in execution 
and coloring. 

ADDISON CAMMACK, a famous mill- 
ionaire Wall street speculator, was 
born in Kentucky. When sixteen years old 
he ran away from home and went to New 
Orleans, where he went to work in a ship- 
ping house. He outlived and outworked 
all the partners, and became the head of the 
firm before the opening of the war. At 
that time he fitted out small vessels and en- 
gaged in running the blockade of southern 
ports and carrying ammunition, merchan- 
dise, etc., to the southern people. This 

made him a fortune. At the close of the 
war he quit business and went to New 
York. For two years he did not enter any 
active business, but seemed to be simply an 
on-looker in the great speculative center of 
America. He was observing keenly the 
methods and financial machinery, however, 
and when, in 1867, he formed a partnership 
with the popular Charles J. Osborne, the 
firm began to prosper. He never had an 
office on the street, but wandered into the 
various brokers' offices and placed his orders 
as he saw fit. In 1873 he dissolved his 
partnership with Osborne and operated 
alone. He joined a band of speculative 
conspirators known as the "Twenty-third 
party," and was the ruling spirit in that or- 
ganization for the control of the stock mar- 
ket. He was always on the ' ' bear " side and 
the only serious obstacle he ever encoun- 
tered was the persistent boom in industrial 
stocks, particularly sugar, engineered by 
James R. Keane. Mr. Cammack fought 
Keane for two years, and during the time is 
said to have lost no less than two million 
dollars before he abandoned the fight. 

WALT. WHITMAN.— Foremost among 
the lesser poets of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century, the gentleman whose 
name adorns the head of this article takes 
a conspicuous place. 

Whitman was born at West Hills, Long 
Island, New York, May 13, 1809. In the 
schools of Brooklyn he laid the foundation 
of his education, and early in life learned the 
printer's trade. For a time he taught coun- 
try schools in his native state. In 1846-7 
he was editor of the " Brooklyn Eagle, " 
but in 1848-9 was on the editorial staff of 
the "Crescent," of New Orleans. He 
made an extended tour throughout the 
United States and Canada, and returned to 



Brooklyn, where, in 1850, he published the 
"Freeman. " For some years succeeding 
his he was engaged as carpenter and builder. 
During the Civil war, Whitman acted as 
a volunteer nurse in the hospitals at 
Washington and vicinity and from the close 
of hostilities until 1873 he was employed 
in various clerkships in the government 
offices in the nation's capital. In the latter 
year he was stricken with paralysis as a 
result of his labors in the hospital, it is 
said, and being partially disabled lived for 
many years at Camden, New Jersey. 

The first edition of the work which was 
to bring him fame, "Leaves of Grass," was 
published in 1855 and was but a small 
volume of about ninety-four pages. Seven 
or eight editions of "Leaves of Grass" have 
been issued, each enlarged and enriched with 
new poems. "Drum Taps," at first a 
separate publication, has been incorporated 
with the others. This volume and one 
prose writing entitled " Specimen Days and 
Collect," constituted his whole work. 

Walt. Whitman died at Camden, New 
Jersey, March 26, 1892. 

HENRY DUPONT, who became cele- 
brated as America's greatest manufact- 
urer of gunpowder, was a native of Dela- 
ware, born August 8, 18 12. He received 
his education in its higher branches at the 
United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated and entered 
the army as second lieutenant of artillery in 
1833. In 1834 he resigned and became 
proprietor of the extensive gunpowder 
manufacturing plant that bears his name, 
near Wilmington, Delaware. His large 
business interests interfered with his tak- 
ing any active participation in political 
life, although for many years he served 
as adjutant-general of his native state, and 

during the war as major-general command- 
ing the Home Guards. He died August 8, 
1889. His son, Henry A. Dupont, also was 
a native of Delaware, and was born July 30, 
1838. After graduating from West Point 
in 1 86 1, he entered the army as second 
lieutenant of engineers. Shortly after he 
was transferred to the Fifth Artillery as first 
lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank 
of captain in 1864, serving in camp and 
garrison most of the time. He was in com- 
mand of a battery in the campaign of 
1863-4. As chief of artillery of the army of 
West Virginia, he figured until the close of 
the war, being in the battles of Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, besides 
many minor engagements. He afterward 
acted as instructor in the artillery school at 
Fortress Monroe, and on special duty at 
West Point. He resigned from the army 
March 1; 1875. 

WILLIAM DEERING, one of the fa- 
mous manufacturers of America, and 
also a philanthropist and patron of educa- 
tion, was born in Maine in 1826. His an- 
cestors were English, having settled in New 
England in 1634. Early in life it was Will- 
iam's intention to become a physician, and 
after completing his common-school educa- 
tion, when about eighteen years of age, he 
began an apprenticeship with a physician. 
A short time later, however, at the request 
of his father, he took charge of his father's 
business interests, which included a woolen 
mill, retail store and grist mill, after which 
he became agent for a dry goods commission 
house in Portland, where he was married. 
Later he became partner in the firm, and 
removed to New York. The business pros- 
pered, and after a number of years, on ac- 
count of failing health, Mr. Deering sold his 
interest to his partner, a Mr. Milner. The 



business has since made Mr. Milner a mill- 
ionaire many times over. A few years 
later Mr. Deering located in Chicago. His 
beginning in the manufacture of reapers, 
which has since made his name famous, 
was somewhat of an accident. He had 
loaned money to a man in that business, 
and in 1878 was compelled to buy out the 
business to protect his interests. The busi- 
ness developed rapidly and grew to immense 
proportions. The factories now cover sixty- 
two acres of ground and employ many thou- 
sands of men. 

John McAllister schofield, an 
American general, was born in Chautau- 
qua county, New York, September 29, 1831. 
He graduated at West Point in 1853, and 
was for five years assistant professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in that institution. In 1861 
he entered the volunteer service as major of 
the First Missouri Volunteers, and was ap- 
pointed chief of staff by General Lyon, under 
whom he fought at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek. In November, 1861, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
was placed in command of the Missouri 
militia until November, 1862, and of the 
army of the frontier from that time until 
1863. In 1862 he was made major-general 
of volunteers, and was placed in command of 
the Department of the Missouri, and in 1864 
of the Department of the Ohio. During the 
campaign through Georgia General Scho- 
field was in command of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps, and was engaged in most of the 
fighting of that famous campaign. Novem- 
ber 30, 1864, he defeated Hood's army at 
Franklin, Tennessee, and then joined Gen- 
eral Thomas at Nashville. He took part in 
the battle of Nashville, where Hood's army 
was destroyed. In January, 1865, he led 
his corps into North Carolina, captured 

Wilmington, fought the battle of Kingston, 
and joined General Sherman at Goldsboro 
March 22, 1865. He executed the details 
of the capitulation of General Johnston to 
Sherman, which practically closed the war. 
In June, 1868, General Schofield suc- 
ceeded Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of 
war, but was the next year appointed major- 
general of the United States army, and order- 
ed to the Department of the Missouri. From 
1870 to 1876 he was in command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific; from 1876 to 188 1 
superintendent of the West Point Military 
Academy; in 1883 he was in charge of the 
Department of the Missouri, and in 1886 of 
the division of the Atlantic. In 1888 he 
became general-in-chief of the United States 
army, and in February, 1895, was appoint- 
ed lieutenant-general by President Cleve- 
land, that rank having been revived by con- 
gress. In September, 1895, he was retired 
from active service. 

LEWIS WALLACE, an American gen- 
eral and famous author, was born ir* 
Brookville, Indiana, April 10, 1827. He 
served in the Mexican war as first lieutenant 
of a company of Indiana Volunteers. After 
his return from Mexico he was admitted to 
the bar, and practiced law in Covington and 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, until 1861. At the 
opening of the war he was appointed ad- 
jutant-general of Indiana, and soon after be- 
came colonel of the Eleventh Indiana Vol- 
unteers. He defeated a force of Confeder- 
ates at Rotnney, West Virginia, and was 
made brigadier-general in September, 1861. 
At the capture of Fort Donelson in 1862 he 
commanded a division, and was engaged in 
the second day's fight at Shiloh. In 1863 
his defenses about Cincinnati saved that city 
from capture by Kirby Smith. At Monoc- 
acy in July, 1864, he was defeated, but 



his resistance delayed the advance of Gen- 
eral Early and thus saved Washington from 

General Wallace was a member of the 
court that tried the assassins of President 
Lincoln, and also of that before whom Cap- 
tain Henry Wirtz, who had charge of the 
Andersonville prison, was tried. In 1881 
General Wallace was sent as minister to 
Turkey. When not in official service he 
devoted much of his time to literature. 
Among his better known works are his 
"Fair God," "Ben Hur," "Prince of 
India," and a " Life of Benjamin Harrison." 

can statesman and diplomat, was born 
at Wilmington, Delaware, October 29, 1828. 
He obtained his education at an Episcopal 
academy at Flushing, Long Island, and 
after a short service in a mercantile house in 
New York, he returned to Wilmington and 
entered his father's law office to prepare 
himself for the practice of that profession. 
He was admitted to the bar in 185 1. He 
was appointed to the office of United States 
district attorney for the state of Delaware, 
serving one year. In 1 869 he was elected to 
the United States senate, and continuously 
represented his state in that body until 1885, 
and in 1881, when Chester A. Arthur entered 
the presidential chair, Mr. Bayard was 
chosen president pro tempore of the senate. 
He had also served on the famous electoral 
commission that decided the Hayes-Tilden 
contest in 1876-7. In 1885 President Cleve- 
land appointed Mr. Bayard secretary of 
state. At the beginning of Cleveland's sec- 
ond term, in 1893, Mr. Bayard was selected 
for the post of ambassador at the court of 
St. James, London, and was the first to hold 
that rank in American diplomacy, serving 
until the beginning of the McKinley admin- 

istration. The questions for adjustment at 
that time between the two governments 
were the Behring Sea controversy and the 
Venezuelan boundary question. He was 
very popular in England because of his 
tariff views, and because of his criticism of 
the protective policy of the United States 
in his public speeches delivered in London, 
Edinburgh and other places, he received, in 
March, 1896, a vote of censure in the lower 
house of congress. 

JOHN WORK GARRETT, for so many 
<J years at the head of the great Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad system, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, July 31, 1820. His father, 
Robert Garrett, an enterprising merchant, 
had amassed a large fortune from a small 
beginning. The son entered Lafayette Col- 
lege in 1834, but left the following year and 
entered his father's counting room, and in 
1839 became a partner. John W. Gar- 
rett took a great interest in the develop- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He 
was elected one of the directors in 1857, 
and was its president from 1858 until his 
death. When he took charge of the road 
it was in an embarrassed condition, but 
within a year, for the first time in its exist- 
ence, it paid a dividend, the increase in its 
net gains being $725,385. After the war, 
during which the road suffered much damage 
from the Confederates, numerous branches 
and connecting roads were built or acquired, 
until it reached colossal proportions. Mr. 
Garrett was also active in securing a regular 
line of steamers between Baltimore and 
Bremen,, and between the same port and 
Liverpool. He was one of the most active 
trustees of Johns Hopkins University, and a 
liberal contributor to the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Baltimore. He 
died September 26, 1884. 



Robert Garrett, the son of John W. 
Garrett, was born in Baltimore April 9, 
1847, and graduated from Princeton in 1867. 
He received a business education in the 
banking house of his father, and in 1871 
became president of the Valley Railroad of 
Virginia. He was made third vice-presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 
1879, and first vice-president in 1881. He 
succeeded his father as president in 1884. 
Robert Garrett died July 29, 1896. 

CARL SCHURZ, a noted German-Ameri- 
can statesman, was born in Liblar, Prus- 
sia, March 2, 1829. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Bonn, and in 1849 was engaged in 
an attempt to excite an insurrection at that 
place. After the surrender of Rastadt by 
the revolutionists, in the defense of which 
Schurz took part, he decided to emigrate to 
America. He resided in Philadelphia three 
years, and then settled in Watertown, Wis- 
consin, and in 1859 removed to Milwaukee, 
where he practiced law. On the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he became a 
leader of the German element and entered 
the campaign for Lincoln in i860. He was 
appointed minister to Spain in 1861, but re- 
signed in December of that year to enter 
the army. He was appointed brigadier- 
general in 1862, and participated in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and also at 
Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he had 
temporary command of the Eleventh Army 
Corps, and also took part in the battle of 

After the war he located at St. Louis, 
and in 1869 was elected United States sena- 
tor from Missouri. He supported Horace 
Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and in 
the campaign of 1876, having removed to 
New York, he supported Hayes and the Re- 
publican ticket, and was appointed secre- 

tary of the interior in 1877. In 1881 he 
became editor of the "New York Evening 
Post," and in 1884 was prominent in his 
opposition to James G. Blaine, and became 
a leader of the "Mugwumps," thus assist- 
ing in the election of Cleveland. In the 
presidential campaign of 1S96 his forcible 
speeches in the interest of sound money 
wielded an immense influence. Mr. Schurz 
wrote a " Life of Henry Clay," said to be 
the best biography ever published of that 
eminent statesman. 

GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, an American 
statesman of national reputation, was 
born in Richmond, Vermont, February 1, 
1828. His education was obtained in the 
public schools and from the instructions of 
a private tutor. He was admitted to the 
bar, practiced law, and served in the state 
legislature from 1854 to 1859, during three 
years of that time being speaker of the lower 
house. He was elected to the state senate 
and acted as president pro tempore of that 
body in 1861 and 1862. He became promi- 
nent for his activity in the impeachment 
proceedings against-President Johnson, and 
was appointed to the United States senate 
to fill out the' unexpired term of Solomon 
Foot, entering that body in 1866. He was 
re-elected to the senate four times, and 
served on the electoral commission in 1877. 
He became president pro tempore of the 
senate after the death of President Garfield, 
and was the author of the bill which put an 
end to the practice of polygamy in the ter- 
ritory of Utah. In November, 1891, owing 
to impaired health, he retired from the sen- 
ate and again resumed the practice of law. 

LUCIUS Q. C. LAMAR, a prominent 
political leader, statesman and jurist, 
was born in Putnam county, Georgia, Sep- 



temberi7, 1825. He graduated from Emory 
College in 1845, studied law at Macon under 
Hon. A. H. Chappell, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1847. He moved to Oxford, 
Mississippi, in 1849, and was elected to a 
professorship in the State University. He 
resigned the next year and returned to Cov- 
ington, Georgia, and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1853 he was elected to the 
Georgia Legislature, and in 1854 he removed 
to his plantation in Lafayette county, Mis- 
sissippi, and was elected to represent his 
district in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth 
congresses. He resigned in i860, and was 
sent as a delegate to the secession conven- 
tion of the state. He entered the Confed- 
erate service in 1S61 as lieutenant-colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, and was soon 
after made colonel. In 1863 President 
Davis appointed him to an important diplo- 
matic mission to. Russia. In 1866 he was 
elected professor of political economy and 
social science in the State University, and 
was soon afterward transferred to the pro- 
fessorship of the law department. He rep- 
resented his district in the forty-third and 
forty-fourth congresses, and was elected 
United States senator from Mississippi in 
1877, and re-elected in 1882. In 1885, be- 
fore the expiration of his term, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland as secre- 
tary of the interior, which position he held 
until his appointment as associate justice of 
the United States supreme court, in 1888, 
in which capacity he served until his death, 
January 23, 1894. 

BER won fame in the world of 
humorists under the name of "Mrs. Parting- 
ton. " He was born in 1841 at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and started out in life as a 
printer. Mr. Shillaber went to Dover, 

where he secured employment in a printing 
office, and from there he went to Demerara, 
Guiana, where he was employed as a com- 
positor in 1835-37. I n ^40 he became 
connected with the "Boston Post," and 
acquired quite a reputation as a humorist 
by his "Sayings of Mrs. Partington." He 
remained as editor of the paper until 1S50, 
when he printed and edited a paper of his 
own called the "Pathfinder," which he con- 
tinued until 1852. Mr. Shillaber be- 
came editor and proprietor of the "Carpet 
Bag," which he conducted during 1850-52, 
and then returned to the "Boston Post," 
with which he was connected until 1856. 
During the same time he was one of the 
editors of the "Saturday Evening Gazette," 
and continued in this line after he severed 
his connection with the "Post," for ten 
years. After 1866 Mr. Shillaber wrote for 
various newspapers and periodicals, and 
during his life published the following 
books: "Rhymes with Reason and Without," 
"Poems," "Life and Sayings of Mrs. Part- 
ington," "Knitting Work," and others. 
His death occurred at Chelsea, Massachu- 
setts, November 25, 1890. 

EASTMAN JOHNSON stands first among 
painters of American country life. He 
was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824, and be- 
gan his work in drawing at the age of eight- 
een years. His first works were portraits, 
and, as he took up his residence in Wash- 
ington, the most famous men of the nation 
were his subjects. In 1846 he went to Bos- 
ton, and there made crayon portraits of 
Longfellow, Emerson, Sumner, Hawthorne 
and other noted men. In 1849 he went to 
Europe. He studied at Dusseldorf, Ger- 
many; spent a year at the Royal Academy, 
and thence to The Hague, where he spent 
four years, producing there his first pictures 



of consequence, "The Card -Players " and 
"The Savoyard." He then went to Paris, 
but was called home, after an absence from 
America of six years. He lived some time 
in Washington, and then spent two years 
among the Indians of Lake Superior. In 
1858 he produced his famous picture, "The 
Old Kentucky Home." He took up his 
permanent residence at New York at that 
time. His " Sunday Morning in Virginia " 
is a work of equal merit. He was espe- 
cially successful in coloring, a master of 
drawing, and the expression conveys with 
precision the thought of the artist. His 
portrayal of family life and child life is un- 
equalled. Among his other great works are 
"The Confab," "Crossing a Stream,' 
"Chimney Sweep," "Old Stage Coach," 
" The New Bonnet," " The Drummer Boy," 
•' Childhood of Lincoln," and a great vari- 
ety of equally familiar subjects. 

REGARD, one of the most distin- 
guished generals in the Confederate army, 
was born near New Orleans, Louisiana, 
May 28, 181 8. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1838, and was 
made second lieutenant of engineers. He 
was with General Scott in Mexico, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, and the battles near the City of 
Mexico, for which he was twice brevetted. 
After the Mexican war closed he was placed 
in charge of defenses about New Orleans, 
and in i860 was appointed superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point. He held this position but a 
few months, when he resigned February 20, 
1 86 1, and accepted a commission of briga- 
dier-general in the Confederate army. He 
directed the attack on Fort Sumter, the 

first engagement of the Civil war. He was 

in command of the Confederates at the first 
battle of Bull Run, and for this victory was 
made general. In 1862 he was placed in 
command of the Army of the Mississippi, 
and planned the attack upon General Grant 
at Shiloh, and upon the death of General 
Johnston he took command of the army 
and was only defeated by the timely arrival 
of General Buell with reinforcements. He 
commanded at Charleston and successfully 
defended that city against the combined at- 
tack by land and sea in 1863. In 1864 he 
was in command in Virginia, defeating Gen- 
eral Butler, and resisting Grant's attack 
upon Petersburg until reinforced from Rich- 
mond. During the long siege which fol- 
lowed he was sent to check General Sher- 
man's march to the sea, and was with Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston when that general 
surrendered in 1865. After the close of the 
war he was largely interested in railroad 
management. In 1866 he was offered chief 
command of the Army of Roumania, and in 
1869, that of the Army of Egypt. He de- 
clined these offers. His death occurred 
February 20, 1893. 

HENRY GEORGE, one of America's 
most celebrated political economists, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 2, 1839. He received a common- 
school education and entered the high 
school in 1853, and then went into a mer- 
cantile office. He made several voyages on 
the sea, and settled in California in 1858. 
He then worked at the printer's trade for a 
number of years, which he left to follow the 
editorial profession. He edited in succession 
several daily newspapers, and attracted at- 
tention by a number of strong essays and 
speeches on political and social questions. 
In 1S71 he edited a pamphlet, entitled "Out 
Land and Policy," in which he outlined a 



theory, which has since made him sowidi u 
known. This was developed in " Progress 
.md Poverty," .1 book which soon attained a 
large i irculation on both sides oi the Allan 
tic, which has been extensively translated, 
In 1880 Mr, George located in New York, 
where he mixde his home, though he fre 
quentlj addressed audiences in ( ireal Britain, 
Ireland, Australia, and throughout the 
United States. In \ 886 he was nominated 
by the laboi organizations for mayor of New 
York, and made .1 campaign notable foi its 
development oi unexpected power. In 1887 he 
was candidate ol the Union I abor party for 
sei retai \ ol state ol New Y01 k rhese cam 
pa igns served to formulate the idea of a single 
tax and populari e the Australian ballot sys 
tern. Mi. George became .1 free trader in 
1 sss, a n, 1 in 1 89 • supported the election oi 
Grover Cleveland. His political .in,l eco 
nomic ideas, known as tli<' "single tax," 
have a large and growing support, but are 
not confined to tins country alone. He 
wrote numerous miscellaneous articles in 
support ol his principles, and also published: 
•■ riw l and Question, " "Social Problems," 
"Pi oteel ion oi Free (Trade, " " rhe Condi 
tion oi 1 abor, .in Open Letter to Pope Leo 
Mil .'• and •• Perplexed Philosopher." 

THOMAS \1 I \ W'PI KSiOlT - 11ns 
name is indissolubly connected with 
the history and development of the railwaj 
systems oi the United States. Mr. Scott 
was born December 28, 1823, .it 1 ondon, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania, IK' was first 
regularly employed l>\ Major [ames Patton, 
the collector of tolls on the si. no road be 
tween Philadelphia and Columbia, Penn 
sylvania. He entered into the employ oi 
the Pennsyh ama Railroad Company in 1850, 
and went through .ill the different branches 
of work until he h.ul mastered .ill tin- details 

ol the office work, and in [858 he was ap- 
pointed general superintendent. Mr. Scott 
was the next year chosen vice president ol 
the road. This position at once brought 
him before the public, and the enterprise 
and ability displayed by him in its manage 
nient marked him as a leader among the 
railroad nun of the country . At the out 
bieak ol the rebellion in 1861, Mr. Scott 
was selected byGovernor Curtin as a mem 
ber of his staff , and placed in charge of the 
equipment and forwarding of the state troops 
to the seat ol war. On April 27, [861, the 

Secretary oi War desired to establish a new 
line ol load between the national capital 
and Philadelphia, (or the more expeditions 

transportation of troops. He called upon 
Mr, Seott to direct tins work, and the road 

by the way of Annapolis and IVrryville was 

completed in a marvelously short space ol 
time, t^n May 3, 1861, he was commis- 
sioned colonel of volunteers, and on the 23d 
of the same month the government railroads 
and telegraph lines were placed in his charge. 

Mi Seott was the first assistant socio!. n\ 

ol war ever appointed, and he took charge 
of this new post August 1, [861. In Janu- 
ary, [862, he was directed to organize 

transportation in the northwest, and in 

March he performed the same service on 
the western rivers. He resigned June 1. 
[862, awA resumed his direction oi affairs on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, Colonel Scott 
directed the policy that seemed to Ins road 

the control of the western roads, and he 
came the president of the new company to 

operate those lines in iS,~i. For one year, 

from March, I87I, he was president of the 

Union Pacific Railroad, and in 1874 he suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of the Pennsyl- 
vania Company, lie projected the Texas 

Pacific Railroad .\\\A was tor many years its 
president. Colonel Scott's health tailed 

( I//'/ ND1UM "i- liJOGR !/■/// 

him and he re tigni d th< pn lidi n< v ol the 
road [line I nd died al his home in 

Darby, Pennsylvania, May 2 1, [881. 

ROBERT 'I OOMBS, an Ameri< an stafa 
man ol not >l n in VV ilk':, COUI1 

ty. Geo 1 fuly 2, 18 10. I le attended 
the University ol Gi orgia, and graduate d 
from Union ' illegi Schenei tady, New 
York, and then took a law course al the 
1 rsity of Virginia In 1 8 jo, before he 
had attained his majority, h< was admitted 
to the bar by special act of the legislature, 
and rose rapidly in bis profession, attracting 
the attention of the leading statesmen and 
judges of that time. If': raised a volunteer 
company for the Creek war, and served as 
i aptain to the clo ic He dto the 

gi lal an in 1 837, re ele< t< 'I in (842, 
and in 1 844 was ele< ted to ( ongri «, I le 
had b( n brougbl tip as a Jeffersonian 

Ol rat, but VOted for Ham SOU m [84O 

and for Clay in 1844, He made his firsl 
th< ' >■■• gon question, 
and immediately took rank with th< gr< 
debaters of that body. In \\ 
elected to the United States senate, and 
again in 1859, but when bis native state 
1 at in the senate 
and v. d to the Confederate eon 

t< d on the be il authority 
that bad it not been for a misunderstanding 
which could not be explained till too late he 
would fia-.e been elected president of the 
Confi deracy, f fe was app 
of tate by President Davis, but resigned 
after a few months and was commissioned 
ni ral in the ' onfederate army. 
If': won dit tinction at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, b 

oon after and returned to 
a. He organized the militia of 

.-.■nan, and 

liei gi n< ral ol thi itati troops He 
left the country al the closi ol the wai and 
did not return until 1 86j I le died Dcci m 
her t 5, [885. 

AUS1 IN ' ORBIN, one of thi 
railway magnate 1 of thi United I 
born July 11, [827, al Newport, New 

I lain), .hue lie Studied la .'/ '.villi Chief 

[ustii e ( ,11 thing and < ,• , .< inoi Ralph Ml I 
calf, and later too e in the I lai .■■■id 

Law School, where he graduated in 1 
He was admitted to the bar, and practiced 
law, with Governor Metcall as his partner, 
until Octobi r 12 1851 Mi ' orbin then 
removed to Davenport, Iowa, where hi r< 
mained until 1865, In 1854 he was a pari 
nei in the banking firm of Ma< 

and lati 1 he organic d the Firsl 
tional bank of Davenport, Iowa, which 
commenci d bu in< ss | in< so. 1 < ■ j, and 
which was the firsl national bank open for 
busini ss in the United Stat< a Mi ( orbin 
sold out his business in thi I lavenporl bank, 
and removed to New Voik in 1 865 and < om 
in' 11' ed business with partners undei the 
-,! ( 01 bin Banking ' ompat 

aft':r his i' '"'■ • al to *■ •• Vork lie bl 

ted in railroads, and bi came one of 
the leading railroad men of the country, 

'I lie development of thi 

as a summi 1 re ort. firsl brought dim 
I prominence, He buill a 

road from New York to the island, and 

built great hotel-, on its ocean front He 

I irned bis attention to Long I land, 

■ ured all the railroads and co 
dated them under one nt, became 

nt of the .. t< m, and undi 
trol Long I ad became I 
suburb of New York. His latest public 
acbievemei I I ion of the 

I, of Pel and 



during the same time he and his friends 
purchased the controlling interest of the 
New Jersey Central Railroad. He took it 
out of the hands of the receiver, and in 
three years had it on a dividend-paying 
basis. Mr. Corbin's death occurred June 
4, 1896. 

was one of the greatest journalists of 
America in his day. He was born Septem- 
ber 1, 1795, at New Mill, near Keith, Scot- 
land. At the age of fourteen he was sent 
to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, 
but, convinced that he was mistaken in his 
vocation, he determined to emigrate. He 
landed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 18 19, 
where he attempted to earn a living by 
teaching bookkeeping. Failing in this he 
went to Boston and found employment as a 
proof reader. Mr. Bennett went to New 
York about 1822 and wrote for the news- 
papers. Later on he became assistant 
editor in the office of the "Charleston 
Courier, "but returned to New York in 1824 
and endeavored to start a commercial 
school, but was unsuccessful in this, and 
again returned to newspaper work. He 
continued in newspaper work with varying 
success until, at his suggestion, the "En- 
quirer" was consolidated with another 
paper, and became the "Courier and En- 
quirer," with James Watson Webb as 
editor and Mr. Bennett for assistant. At 
this time this was the leading American 
newspaper. He, however, severed his con- 
nection with this newspaper and tried, 
without success, other ventures in the line 
of journalism until May 6, 1835, when he 
issued the first number of the "New York 
Herald." Mr. Bennett wrote the entire 
paper, and made up for lack of news by his 
own imagination. The paper became popu- 

lar, and in 1838 he engaged European jour- 
nalists as regular correspondents. In 1841 
the income derived from his paper was at 
least one hundred thousand dollars. Dur- 
ing the Civil war the " Herald " had on its 
staff sixty-three war correspondents and the 
circulation was doubled. Mr. Bennett was 
interested with John W. Mackay in that great 
enterprise which is now known as the Mac- 
kay-Bennett Cable. He had collected for use 
in his paper over fifty thousand biographies, 
sketches and all manner of information re- 
garding every well-known man, which are 
still kept in the archives of the "Herald" 
office. He died in the city of New York in 
1872, and left to his son, James Gordon, 
Jr., one of the greatest and most profitable 
journals in the United States, or even in the 

noted American, won distinction in the 
field of literature, in which he attained a 
world-wide reputation. He was born at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. 
He received a collegiate education and grad- 
uated from Harvard in 1829, at the age of 
twenty, and took up the study of law and 
later studied medicine. Dr. Holmes at- 
tended several years in the hospitals of 
Europe and received his degree in 1836. 
He became professor of anatomy and phys- 
iology in Dartmouth in 1838, and re- 
mained there until 1847, when he was 
called to the Massachusetts Medical School 
at Boston to occupy the same chair, which 
position he resigned in 1882. The first 
collected edition of his poems appeared in 
1836, and his "Phi Beta Kappa Poems," 
"Poetry," in 1836; "Terpsichore," in 1843; 
"Urania," in 1846, and "Astrsea," won for 
him many fresh laurels. His series of 
papers in the "Atlantic Monthly," were: 



"Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," "Pro- 
fessor at the Breakfast Table," "Poet at 
the Breakfast Table," and are a series of 
masterly wit, humor and pathos. Among 
hismedical papers and addresses, are: "Cur- 
rents and Counter-currents in the Medical 
Science," and "Borderland in Some Prov- 
inces of Medical Science." Mr. Holmes 
edited quite a number of works, of which 
we quote the following: "Else Venner, " 
"Songs in Many Keys," "Soundings from 
the Atlantic," "Humorous Poems," "The 
Guardian Angel," "Mechanism in Thoughts 
and Morals," "Songs of Many Seasons," 
"John L. Motley" — a memoir, "The Iron 
Gate and Other Poems," "Ralph Waldo 
Emerson," "A Moral Antipathy." Dr. 
Holmes visited England for the second time, 
and while there the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon him by the University 
of Edinburgh. His death occurred October 
7. 1894. 

RUFUS CHOATE, one of the most em- 
inent of America's great lawyers, was 
born October 1, 1799, at Essex, Massachu- 
setts. He entered Dartmouth in 181 5, 
and after taking his degree he remained as 
a teacher in the college for one year. He 
took up the study of law in Cambridge, and 
subsequently studied under the distinguished 
lawyer, Mr. Wirt, who was then United 
States attorney-general at Washington. Mr. 
Choatebegan the practice of law in Danvers, 
Massachusetts, and from there he went to 
Salem, and afterwards to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. While living at Salem he was 
elected to congress in 1832, and later, in 
1 84 1, he was chosen United States senator 
to succeed Daniel Webster, Mr. Webster 
having been appointed secretary of state 
under William Henry Harrison. 

After the death of Webster, Mr- Choate 

was the acknowledged leader of the Massa- 
chusetts bar, and was looked upon by the 
younger members of the profession with an 
affection that almost amounted to a rever- 
ence. Mr. Choate's powers as an orator 
were of the rarest order, and his genius 
made it possible for him to enchant and in- 
terest his listeners, even while discussing the 
most ordinary theme. He was not merely 
eloquent on the subjects that were calculated 
to touch the feelings and stir the passions 
of his audience in themselves, but could at 
all times command their attention. He re- 
tired from active life in 1858, and was on 
his way to Europe, his physician having 
ordered a sea voyage for his health, but had 
only reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, when 
he died, July 13, 1858. 

D WIGHT L. MOODY, one of the most 
noted and effective pulpit orators and 
evangelists America has produced, was born 
in Northfield, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, February 5, 1837. He received but 
a meager education and worked on a farm 
until seventeen years of age, when he be- 
came clerk in a boot and shoe store in 
Boston. Soon after this he joined the Con- 
gregational church and went to Chicago, 
where he zealously engaged in missionary 
work among the poor classes. He met 
with great success, and in less than a year 
he built up a Sunday-school which numbered 
over one thousand children. When the 
war broke out he became connected with 
what was known as the "Christian Com- 
mission," and later became city missionary 
of the Young Men's Christian Association at 
Chicago. A church was built there for his 
converts and he became its unordained pas- 
tor. In the Chicago fire of 1871 the church 
and Mr. Moody's house and furniture, which 
had been given him, were destroyed. The 



church edifice was afterward replaced by a 
new church erected on the site of the old 
one. In 1873, accompanied by Ira D. 
Sankey, Mr. Moody went to Europe and 
excited great religious awakenings through- 
out England, Ireland and Scotland. In 
1875 they returned to America and held 
large meetings in various cities. They 
afterward made another visit to Great 
Britain for the same purpose, meeting with 
great success, returning to the United States 
in 1 884. Mr. Moody afterward continued 
his evangelistic work, meeting everywhere, 
with a warm reception and success. Mr. 
Moody produced a number of works, some 
of which had a wide circulation. 

<J of world-wide reputation, and famous 
as the head of one of the largest banking 
houses in the world, was born April 17, 
1837, at Hartford, Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his early education in the English 
high school, in Boston, and later supple- 
mented this with a course in the University 
of Gottingen, Germany. He returned to 
the United States, in 1857, and entered the 
banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co., 
of New York, and, in i860, he became 
agent and attorney, in the United States, for 
George Peabody & Co., of London. He 
became the junior partner in the banking 
firm of Dabney, Morgan & Co., in 1864, 
and that of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871. 
This house was among the chief negotiators 
of railroad bonds, and was active in the re- 
organization of the West Shore Railroad, 
and its absorption by the New York Central 
Railroad. It was conspicuous in the re- 
organization of the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad, in 1887, which a syndicate of 
capitalists, formed by Mr. Morgan, placed 
on a sound financial basis. After that time 

many other lines of railroad and gigantic 
financial enterprises were brought under Mr. 
Morgan's control, and in some respects it 
may be said he became the foremost financier 
of the century. 

the most eminent of American states- 
men, was born October 18, 1839, at Port- 
land, Maine, where he received his early 
education in the common schools of the 
city, and prepared himself for college. Mr. 
Reed graduated from Bowdoin College in 
i860, and won one of the highest honors of 
the college, the prize for excellence in Eng- 
lish composition. The following four years 
were spent by him in teaching and in the 
study of law. Before his admission to the 
bar, however, he was acting assistant pay- 
master in the United States navy, and 
served on the "tin-clad" Sybil, which pa- 
trolled the Tennessee, Cumberland and 
Mississippi rivers. After his discharge in 
1865, he returned to Portland, was admit- 
ted to the bar, and began the practice of his 
profession. He entered into political life, 
and in 1868 was elected to the legislature 
of Maine as a Republican, and in 1869 he 
was re-elected to the house, and in 1870 
was made state senator, from which he 
passed to attorney-general of the state. 
He retired from this office in 1873, and 
until 1877 he was solicitor for the city 
of Portland. In 1876 he was elected to 
the forty-fifth congress, which assembled 
in 1877. Mr. Reed sprung into prominence 
in that body by one of the first speeches 
which he delivered, and his long service in 
congress, coupled with his ability, gave him 
a national reputation. His influence each 
year became more strongly marked, and the 
leadership of his party was finally conceded 
to him, and in the forty-ninth and fiftieth 



congresses the complimentary nomination 
for the speakership was tendered him by the 
Republicans. That party having obtained 
the ascendency in the fifty-first congress he 
was elected speaker on the first ballot, and 
he was again chosen speaker of the fifty- 
fourth and fifth-fifth congresses. As a 
writer, Mr. Reed contributed largely to the 
magazines and periodicals, and his book 
upon parliamentary rules is generally rec- 
ognized as authority on that subject. 

CLARA BARTON is a celebrated char- 
acter among what might be termed as 
the highest grade of philanthropists Amer- 
ica has produced. She was born on a farm 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, a daughter of 
Captain Stephen Barton, and was educated 
at Clinton, New York. She engaged in 
teaching early in life, and founded a free 
school at Bordentown, the first in New Jer- 
sey. She opened with six pupils, but the 
attendance had grown to six hundred up to 
1854, when she went to Washington. She 
was appointed clerk in the patent depart- 
ment, and remained there until the out- 
break of the Civil war, when she resigned 
her position and devoted herself to the al- 
leviation of the sufferings of the soldiers, 
serving, not in the hospitals, but on the bat- 
tle field. She was present at a number of 
battles, and after the war closed she origi- 
nated, and for some time carried on at her 
own expense, the search for missing soldiers. 
She then for several years devoted her time 
to lecturing on "Incidents of the War." 
About 1868 she went to Europe for her 
health, and settled in Switzerland, but on the 
outbreak of the Franco-German war she ac- 
cepted the invitation of the grand duchess 
of Baden to aid in the establishment of her 
hospitals, and Miss Barton afterward fol- 
lowed the German army She was deco- 

rated with the golden cross by the grand 
duke of Baden, and with the iron cross by 
the emperor of Germany. She aiso served 
for many years as president of the famous 
Red Cross Society and attained a world- 
wide reputation. 

the most eminent Catholic clergymen 
in America, was born in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, July 23, 1834. He was given a 
thorough education, graduated at St. Charles 
College, Maryland, in 1857, and studied 
theology in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, 
Maryland. In 1861 he became pastor of 
St. Bridget's church in Baltimore, and in 
1868 was consecrated vicar apostolic of 
North Carolina. In 1872 our subject be- 
came bishop of Richmond, Virginia, and 
five years later was made archbishop of Bal- 
timore. On the 30th of Tune, i885, he 
was admitted to the full degree of cardinal 
and primate of the American Catholic 
church. He was a fluent writer, and his 
book, " Faith of Our Fathers,' had a wide 

This name is, without doubt, one of 
the most widely known in the United States. 
Mr. Depew was born April 23, 1834, at 
Peekskill, New York, the home of the Depew 
family for two hundred years. He attended 
the common schools of his native place, 
where he prepared himself to enter college. 
He began his collegiate course at Yale at 
the age of eighteen and graduated in 1856. 
He early took an active interest in politics 
and joined the Republican party at its for- 
mation. He then took up the study of law 
and went into the office of the Hon. Will- 
iam Nelson, of Peekskill, for that purpose, 
and in 1858 he was admitted to the bar. 



He was sent as a delegate by the new party 
to the Republican state convention of that 
year. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1859, but though he was a good 
worker, his attention was detracted by the 
rampaign of i860, in which he took an act- 
ive part. During this campaign he gained 
his first laurels as a public speaker. Mr. 
Depew was elected assemblyman in 1862 
from a Democratic district. In 1863 he se- 
cured the nomination for secretary of state, 
and gained that post by a majority of thirty 
thousand. In 1866 he left the field of pol- 
itics and entered into the active practice 
of his law business as attorney for the 
New York & Harlem Railroad Company, 
and in 1869 when this road was consoli- 
dated with the New York Central, and 
called the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad, he was appointed the attor- 
ney for the new road. His rise in the rail- 
road business was rapid, and ten years after 
his entrance into the Vanderbilt system as 
attorney for a single line, he was the gen- 
eral counsel for one of the largest railroad 
systems in the world. He was also a 
director in the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, Michigan Central, Chicago & 
Northwestern, St. Paul & Omaha, West 
Shore, and Nickel Plate railroad companies. 
In 1874 Mr. Depew was made regent of 
the State University, and a member of the 
commission appointed to superintend the 
erection of the capitol at Albany. In 1882, 
on the resignation of W. H. Vanderbilt 
from the presidency of the New York Cen- 
tral and the accession to that office by 
James H. Rutter, Mr. Depew was made 
second vice-president, and held that posi- 
tion until the death of Mr. Rutter in 1885. 
In this year Mr. Depew became the execu- 
tive head of this great corporation. Mr. 
Depew's greatest fame grew from his ability 

and eloquence as an orator and " after-din- 
ner speaker, " and it has been said by emi- 
nent critics that this country has never pro- 
duced his equal in wit, fluency and eloquence. 

PHILIP KEARNEY.— Among the most 
dashing and brilliant commanders in 
the United States service, few have outshone 
the talented officer whose name heads this 
sketch. He was born in New York City, 
June 2, 1815, and was of Irish ancestry and 
imbued with all the clash and bravery of the 
Celtic race. He graduated from Columbia 
College and studied law, but in 1837 ac ~ 
cepted a commission as lieutenant in the 
First United States Dragoons, of which his 
uncle, Stephen W. Kearney, was then colo- 
nel. He was sent by the government, 
soon after, to Europe to examine and report 
upon the tactics of the French cavalry. 
There he attended the Polytechnic School, 
at Samur, and subsequently served as a vol- 
unteer in Algiers, winning the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. He returned to the 
United States in 1840, and on the staff of 
General Scott, in the Mexican war, served 
with great gallantry. He was made a cap- 
tain of dragoons in 1846 and made major 
for services at Contreras and Cherubusco. 
In the final assault on the City of Mexico 
at the San Antonio Gate, Kearney lost an 
arm. He subsequently served in California 
and the Pacific coast. In 1851 he resigned 
his commission and went to Europe, where 
he resumed his military studies. In the 
Italian war, in 1859, he served as a volun- 
teer on the staff of General Maurier, of the 
French army, and took part in the battles 
of Solferino and Magenta, and for bravery 
was, for the second time, decorated with 
the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the 
opening of the Civil war he hastened home, 
and, offering his services to the general gov- 



ernment, was made brigadier-general of 
volunteers and placed in command of a bri- 
gade of New Jersey troops. In the cam- 
paign under McClellan he commanded a di- 
vision, and at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks 
his services were valuable and brilliant, as 
well as in subsequent engagements. At 
Harrison's Landing he was made major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. In the second battle of 
Bull Run he was conspicuous, and at the 
battle of Chantilly, September i, 1862, 
while leading in advance of his troops, Gen- 
eral Kearney was shot and killed. 

RUSSELL SAGE, one of the financial 
giants of the present century and for 
more than an average generation one of the 
most conspicuous and celebrated of Ameri- 
cans, was born in a frontier hamlet in cen- 
tral New York in August, 18 16. While Rus- 
sell was still a boy an elder brother, Henry 
Risley Sage, established a small grocery 
store at Troy, New York, and here Russell 
found his first employment, as errand boy. 
He served a five-years apprenticeship, and 
then joined another brother, Elisha M. Sage, 
in a new venture in the same line, which 
proved profitable, at least for Russell, who 
soon became its sole owner. Next he 
formed the partnership of Sage & Bates, 
and greatly extended his field of operations. 
At twenty-five he had, by his own exertions, 
amassed what was, in those days, a consid- 
erable fortune, being worth about seventy- 
five thousand dollars. He had acquired an 
influence in local politics, and four years 
later his party, the Whigs, elected him to 
the aldermanic board of Troy and to the 
treasuryship of Rensselaer county. In 1848 
he was a prominent member of the New 
York delegation to the Whig convention at 
Philadelphia, casting his first votes for Henry 
Clay, but joining the "stampede" which 

nominated Zachary Taylor. In 1850 the 
Whigs of Troy nominated him for congress, 
but he was not elected — a failure which he 
retrieved two years later, and in 1854 he 
was re-elected by a sweeping majority. At 
Washington he ranked high in influence and 
ability. Fame as a speaker and as a polit- 
ical leader was within his grasp, when he 
gave up public life, declined a renomination 
to congress, and went back to Troy to de- 
vote himself to his private business. Six 
years later, in 1863, he removed to New 
York and plunged into the arena of Wall 
street. A man of boundless energy and 
tireless pertinacity, with wonderful judg- 
ment of men and things, he soon took his 
place as a king in finance, and, it is said, 
during the latter part of his life he con- 
trolled more ready money than any other 
single individual on this continent. 

United States senator and famous as the 
father of the "Mills tariff bill, "was born 
in Todd county, Kentucky, March 30, 1832. 
He received a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools, and removed to Palestine, 
Texas, in 1849. He took up the study of 
law, and supported himself by serving as an 
assistant in the post-office, and in the offices 
of the court clerks. In 1850 he was elected 
engrossing clerk of the Texas house of rep- 
resentatives, and in 1852 was admitted to 
the bar, while still a minor, by special act 
of the legislature. He then settled at Cor- 
sicana, Texas, and began the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He was elected to 
the state legislature in 1859, and in 1872 he 
was elected to congress from the state at 
large, as a Democrat. After his first elec- 
tion he was continuously returned to con- 
gress until he resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of United States senator, to which he 



was elected March 23, 1892, to succeed 
Hon. Horace Chilton. He took his seat in 
the senate March 30, 1892; was afterward 
re-elected and ranked among the most use- 
ful and prominent members of that body. 
In 1876 he opposed the creation of the elec- 
toral commission, and in 1887 canvassed 
the state of Texas against the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to its constitution, 
which was defeated. He introduced into 
the house of representatives the bill that was 
known as the "Mills Bill," reducing duties 
on imports, and extending the free list. 
The bill passed the house on July 21, 1888, 
and made the name of "Mills" famous 
throughout the entire country. 

HAZEN S. PINGREE, the celebrated 
Michigan political leader, was born in 
Maine in 1842. Up to fourteen years of 
age he worked hard on the stony ground of 
his father's small farm. Attending school 
in the winter, he gained a fair education, 
and when not laboring on the farm, he 
found employment in the cotton mills in the 
vicinity. He resolved to find more steady 
work, and accordingly went to Hopkinton, 
Massachusetts, where he entered a shoe fac- 
tory, but on the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed at once and was enrolled in the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, which was 
his initial fight, and served creditably his 
early term of service, at the expiration of 
which he re-enlisted. He fought in the, 
battles of Fredricksburg, Harris Farm, 
Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Har- 
bor. In 1864 he was captured by Mosby, 
and spent five months at Andersonville, 
Georgia, as a prisoner, but escaped at the 
end of that time. He re-entered the service 
and participated in the battles of Fort 
Fisher, Boyden, and Sailor's Creek. He I 

was honorably mustered out of service, and 
in 1866 went to Detroit, Michigan, where 
he made use of his former experience in a 
shoe factory, and found work. Later he 
formed a partnership with another workman 
and started a small factory, which has since 
become a large establishment. Mr. Pin- 
gree made his entrance into politics in 1889, 
in which year he was elected by a surpris- 
ingly large majority as a Republican to the 
mayoralty of Detroit, in which office he was 
the incumbent during four consecutive terms. 
In November, 1896, he was elected gov- 
ernor of the state of Michigan. While 
mayor of Detroit, Mr. Pingree originated 
and put into execution the idea of allowing 
the poor people of the city the use of va- 
cant city lands and lots for the purpose of 
raising potatoes. The idea was enthusiast- 
ically adopted by thousands of poor families, 
attracted wide attention, and gave its author 
a national reputation as "Potato-patch Pin- 

eminent American statesman and a 
Democratic politician of national fame, was 
born in Muskingum county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 7, 1 8 19. In 1822 he removed, with his 
father, to Shelby county, Irtdiana. He 
graduated from the South Hanover College 
in 1 841, and two years later was admitted 
to the bar. In 185 I he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention, 
and took a leading part in the deliberations 
of that body. He was elected to congress 
in 185 1, and after serving two terms was 
appointed commissioner of the United States 
general land-office. In 1863 he was elected 
to the United States senate, where his dis- 
tinguished services commanded the respect 
of all parties. He was elected governor of 
Indiana in 1872, serving four years, and in 



1876 was nominated by the Democrats as 
candidate for the vice-presidency with Til- 
den. The returns in a number of states 
were contested, and resulted in the appoint- 
ment of the famous electoral commission, 
which decided in favor of the Republican 
candidates. In 1884 Mr. Hendricks was 
again nominated as candidate for the vice- 
presidency, by the Democratic party, on the 
ticket with Grover Cleveland, was elected, 
and served about six months. He died at 
Indianapolis, November 25, 1885. Hewas 
regarded as one of the brainiest men in the 
party, and his integrity was never ques- 
tioned, even by his political opponents. 

GARRETT A. HOBART, one of the 
many able men who have held the 
high office of vice-president of the United 
States, was born June 3, 1844, in Mon- 
mouth county, New Jersey, and in i860 en- 
tered the sophomore class at Rutgers Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1863 at 
the age of nineteen. He then taught 
school until he entered the law office of 
Socrates Tuttle, of Paterson, New Jersey, 
with whom he studied law. and in 1869 
was admitted to the bar. He immediately 
began the active practice of his profession 
in the office of the above named gentleman. 
He became interested in political life, and 
espoused the cause of the Republican party, 
and in 1865 held his first office, serving as 
clerk for the grand jury. He was also city 
counsel of Paterson in 1871, and in May, 
1872, was elected counsel for the board of 
chosen freeholders. He entered the state 
legislature in 1873, and was re-elected to 
the assembly in 1874. Mr. Hobart was 
made speaker of the assembly in 1876, and 
and in 1879 was elected to the state senate. 
After serving three years in the same, he 
was elected president of. that body in 1881, 

and the following year was re-elected to 
that office. He was a delegate-at-large to 
the Republican national convention in 1876 
and 1880, and was elected a member of the 
national committee in 1884, which position 
he occupied continuously until 1896. He 
was then nominated for vice-president by 
the Republican national convention, and 
was elected to that office in the fall of 1896 
on the ticket with William McKinley. 

as a political leader and senator, was 
born in Lyons, Wayne county, New York, 
August 9, 1827, and removed with his par- 
ents while still a small child to Mesopota- 
mia township, Trumbull county, Ohio. He 
attended the Lyons Union school and Farm- 
ington Academy, where he obtained his ed- 
ucation. Later he taught mathematics in 
the former school, while yet a pupil, and 
with the little money thus earned and the 
assistance of James C. Smith, one of the 
judges of the supreme court of New York, 
he entered Yale College. He remained 
there until the winter of 1849-50, when, at- 
tracted by the gold discoveries in California 
he wended his way thither. He arrived at 
San Francisco in May, 1850, and later en- 
gaged in mining with pick and shovel in Ne- 
vada county. In this way he accumulated 
some money, and in the spring of 1852 he 
took up the study of law under John R. 
McConnell. The following December he 
was appointed district attorney, to which 
office he was chosen at the general election 
of the next year. In 1854 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of California, and 
in i860 he removed to Virginia City, Ne- 
vada, where he largely engaged in early 
mining litigation. Mr. Stewart was also in- 
terested in the development of the "Corn- 
stock lode," and in 1861 was chosen a 



member of the territorial council. He was 
elected a member of the constitutional con- 
vention in 1863, and was elected United 
States senator in 1864, and re-elected in 
1869. At the expiration of his term in 
1875, he resumed the practice of law in 
Nevada, California, and the Pacific coast 
generally. He was thus engaged when he 
was elected again to the United States sen- 
ate as a Republican in 1887 to succeed the 
late James G. Fair, a Democrat, and took 
his seat March 4, 1887. On the expiration 
of his term he was again re-elected and be- 
came one of the leaders of his party in con- 
gress. His ability as an orator, and the 
prominent part he took in the discussion of 
public questions, gained him a national rep- 

years a prominent member of the 
United States senate, was born in Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, December 6, 1848. He 
graduated from Center College in 1868, and 
from the law department of the Transyl- 
vania University of Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1853. In the same year he removed to 
Missouri and began the practice of his pro- 
fession, In i860 he was an elector on the 
Democratic ticket, and was a member of 
the lower house of the Missouri legislature 
in 1860-61. He was elected to the Con- 
federate congress, serving two years in the 
lower house and one in the senate. He 
then resumed the practice of law, and in 
1879 was elected to the senate of the United 
States to succeed James Shields. He was 
re-elected in 1885, and again in 1891 and 
1897. His many years of service in the 
National congress, coupled with his ability 
as a speaker and the active part he took in 
the discussion of public questions, gave him 
a wide reputation. 

HANNIBAL HAMLIN, a noted American 
statesman, whose name is indissolubly 
connected with the history of this country, 
was born in Paris, Maine, August 27, 1809. 
He learned the printer's trade and followed 
that calling for several years. He then 
studied law, and was admitted to practice 
in 1833. He was elected to the legislature 
of the state of Maine, where he was several 
times chosen speaker of the lower house. 
He was elected to congress by the Demo- 
crats in 1843, and re-elected in 1845. In 
1848 he was chosen to the United States 
senate and served in that body until 1861. 
He was elected governor of Maine in 1857 
on the Republican ticket, but resigned when 
re-elected to the United States senate 
the same year. He was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the United States on the ticket with 
Lincoln in i860, and inaugurated in March, 
1 861. In 1865 he was appointed collector 
of the port of Boston. Beginning with 
1869 he served two six-year terms in the 
United States senate, and was then ap- 
pointed by President Garfield as minister to 
Spain in 1881. His death occurred July 4, 

TSHAM G. HARRIS, famous as Confed- 
1 erate war governor of Tennessee, and 
distinguished by his twenty years of service 
in the senate of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Tennessee, and 
educated at the Academy of Winchester. 
He then took up the study of law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and commenced practice 
at Paris, Tennessee, in 1841. He was 
elected to the state legislature in 1847, was 
a candidate for presidential elector on the 
Democratic ticket in 1848, and the next 
year was elected to congress from his dis- 
trict, and re-elected in 185 1. In 1853 he 
was renominated by the Democrats of his 



district, but declined, and removed to Mem- 
phis, where he took up the practice of law. 
He was a presid.ntial elector-at-large from 
Tennessee in 1856, and was elected gov- 
ernor of the state the next year, and. again 
in 1859, and in 1861. He was driven from 
Nashville by the advance of the Union 
armies, and for the last three years of the 
war acted as aid upon the staff of the com- 
manding general of the Confederate army 
of Tennessee. After the war he went to 
Liverpool, England, where he became a 
merchant, but returned to Memphis in 1867, 
and resumed the practice of law. In 1877 
he was elected to the United States senate, 
to which position he was successively re- 
elected until his death in 1897. 

NELSON DINGLEY, Jr., for nearly a 
quarter of a century one of the leaders 
in congress and framer of the famous 
" Dingley tariff bill," was born in Durham, 
Maine, in 1832. His father as well as all 
his ancestors, were farmers, merchants and 
mechanics and of English descent. Young 
Dingley was given the advantages first of 
the common schools and in vacations helped 
his father in the store and on the farm. 
When twelve years of age he attended high 
school and at seventeen was teaching in a 
country school district and preparing him- 
self for college. The following year he en- 
tered Waterville Academy and in 185 1 en- 
tered Colby University. After a year and a 
half in this institution he entered Dart- 
mouth College and was graduated in 1855 
with high rank as a scholar, debater and 
writer. He next studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1856. But instead of 
practicing his profession he purchased the 
" Lewistown (Me.) Journal," which be- 
came famous throughout the New England 
?fates as a leader in the advocacy of Repub- 

lican principles. About the same time Mr. 
Dingley began his political career, although 
ever after continuing at the head of the 
newspaper. He was soon elected to the 
state legislature and afterward to the lower 
house of congress, where he became a 
prominent national character. He also 
served two terms as governor of Maine. 

guished American statesman, was born 
in Wayne county, Indiana, August 4, 1823. 
His early education was by private teaching 
and a course at the Wayne County Seminary. 
At the age of twenty years he entered the 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and at 
the end of two years quit the college, began 
the study of law in the office of John New- 
man, of Centerville, Indiana, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1847. 

Mr. Morton was elected judge on the 
Democratic ticket, in 1852, but on thi. 
passage of the " Kansas-Nebraska Bill " he 
severed his connection with that party, and 
soon became a prominent leader of the Re- 
publicans. He was elected governor of In- 
diana in 1 86 1, and as war governor became 
well known throughout the country. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1865, which 
partially deprived him of the use of his 
limbs. He was chosen to the United States 
senate from Indiana, in 1867, and wielded 
great influence in that body until the time 
of his death, November 1, 1877. 

JOHN B. GORDON, a brilliant Confeder- 
ateofficer and noted senatorof theUnited 
States, was born in Upson county, Georgia, 
February 6, 1832. He graduated from the 
State University, studied law, and took up 
the practice of his profession. At the be- 
ginning of the war he entered the Confederate 
service as captain of infantry, and rapidly 



rose to the rank of lieutenant-general, 
commanding one wing of the Confederate 
army at the close of the war. In 1868 he 
was Democratic candidate for governor of 
Georgia, and it is said was elected by a large 
majority, but his opponent was given the 
office. He was a delegate to the national 
Democratic conventions in 1868 and 1872, 
and a presidential elector both years. In 
1873 he was elected to the United States 
senate. In 1886 he was elected governor 
of Georgia, and re-elected in 1888. He 
was again elected to the United States 
senate in 1890, serving until 1897, when he 
was succeeded by A. S. Clay. He was 
regarded as a leader of the southern Democ- 
racy, and noted for his fiery eloquence. 

trious associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, was born at 
Haddam, Connecticut, November 4, 18 16, 
being one of the noted sons of Rev. D. 
D. Field. He graduated from Williams 
College in 1837, took up the study of law 
with his brother, David Dudley Field, be- 
coming his partner upon admission to the 
bar. He went to California in 1849, and at 
once began to take an active interest in the 
political affairs of that state'. He was 
elected alcalde of Marysville, in 1850, and 
in the autumn of the same year was elected 
to the state legislature. In 1857 he was 
elected judge of the supreme court of the 
state, and two years afterwards became its 
chief justice. In 1863 he was appointed by 
President Lincoln as associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United States. During 
his incumbency, in 1873, he was appointed 
by the governor of California one of a com- 
mission to examine the codes of the state 
and for the preparation of amendments to 
the same for submission to the legislature. 

In 1877 he was one of the famous electoral 
commission of fifteen members, and voted 
as one of the seven favoring the election of 
Tilden to the presidency. In 1880 a large 
portion of the Democratic party favored his 
nomination as candidate for the presidency. 
He retired in the fall of 1897, having 
served a greater number of years on the 
supreme bench than any of his associates or 
predecessors, Chief Justice Marshall coming 
next in length of service. 

JOHN T. MORGAN, whose services in 
the United States senate brought him 
into national prominence, was born in 
Athens, Tennessee, June 20, 1824. At the 
age of nine years he emigrated to Alabama, 
where he made his permanent home, and 
where he received an academic education. 
He then took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1845. He took a 
leading part in local politics, was a presi- 
dential elector in i860, casting his ballot 
for Breckenridge and Lane, and in 1861 
was a delegate to the state convention which 
passed the ordinance of secession. In May, 
of the same year, he joined the Confederate 
army as a private in Company I, Cahawba 
Rifles, and was soon after made major and 
then lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment. 
In 1862 he was commissioned colonel, and 
soon after made brigadier-general and as- 
signed to the command of a brigade in Vir- 
ginia. He resigned to join his old regiment 
whose colonel had been killed. He was 
soon afterward again made brigadier-gen- 
eral and given command of the brigade that 
included his regiment. 

After the war he returned to the prac- 
tice of law, and continued it up to the time 
of his election to the United States senate, ip 
1877. He was a presidential elector in 1876 
and cast his vote for Tilden and Hendricks 



He was re-elected to the senate in 1S83, 
and again in 1889, and 1895. His speeches 
and the measures he introduced, marked 
as they were by an intense Americanism, 
brought him into national prommence. 

WILLIAM McKINLEY.the twenty-fifth 
president of the United States, was 
born at Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1844. He was of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and received his early education 
in a Methodist academy in *he small village 
of Poland, Ohio. At the outbreak of the 
war Mr. McKinley was teaching school, 
earning twenty-five dollars per month. As 
soon as Fort Sumter was fired upon he en- 
listed in a company that was formed in 
Poland, which was inspected and mustered 
in by General John C. Fremont, who at 
first objected to Mr. McKinley, as being too 
young, but upon examination he was finally 
accepted. Mr. McKinley was seventeen 
when the war broke out but did not look his 
age. He served in the Twenty-third Ohio 
Infantry throughout the war, was promoted 
from sergeant to captain, for good conduct 
on the field, and at the close of the war, 
for meritorious services, he was brevetted 
major. After leaving the army Major Mc- 
Kinley took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1869 he took 
his initiation into politics, being elected pros- 
ecuting attorney of his county as a Republi- 
can, although the district was usually Demo- 
cratic. In 1 876 he was elected to congress, ' 
and in a call upon the President-elect, Mr. 
Hayes, to whom he went for advice upon the 
way he should shape his career, he was 
told that to achieve fame and success he 
must take one special line and stick to it. 
Mr. McKinley chose tariff legislation and 
he became an authority in regard to import 
duties. He was a member of congress for 

many years, became chairman of the ways 
and means committee, and later he advo- 
cated the famous tariff bill that bore his 
name, which was passed in 1890. In the 
next election the Republican party was 
overwhelmingly defeated through the coun- 
try, and the Democrats secured more than 
a two thirds majority in the lower house, 
and also had control of the senate, Mr. 
McKinley being defeated in his own district 
by a small majority. He was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio in 1891 by a plurality of 
twenty-one thousand, five hundred and 
eleven, and two years later he was re-elected 
by the still greater plurality of eighty thou- 
sand, nine hundred and ninety-five. He was 
a delegate-at-large to the Minneapolis Re> 
publican convention in 1892, and was in- 
structed to support the nomination of Mr. 
Harrison. He was chairman of the con^ 
vention, and was the only man from Ohio 
to vote for Mr. Harrison upon the roll call. 
In November, 1892, a number of prominent 
politicians gathered in New York to discuss 
the political situation, and decided that the 
result of the election had put an end to Mc- 
Kinley and McKinleyism. But in less than 
four years from that date Mr. McKinley was 
nominated for the presidency against the 
combined opposition of half a dozen rival 
candidates. Much of the credit for his suc- 
cess was due to Mark A. Hanna, of Cleve- 
land, afterward chairman of the Republican 
national committee. At the election which 
occurred in November, 1896, Mr. McKinley 
was elected president of the United States 
by an enormous majority, on a gold stand- 
ard and protective tariff platform. He was 
inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1897, 
and called a special session of congress, to 
which was submitted a bill for tariff reform, 
which was passed in the latter part of July 
of that vear. 



known in the literary world as Joaquin 
Miller, " the poet of the Sierras," was born 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1841. When only 
about thirteen years of age he ran away 
from home and went to the mining regions 
in California and along the Pacific coast. 
Some time afterward he was taken prisoner 
by the Modoc Indians and lived with them 
for five years. He learned their language 
and gained great influence with them, fight- 
ing in their wars, and in all modes of living 
became as one of them. In 1858 he left 
the Indians and went to San Francisco, 
where he studied law, and in i860 was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Oregon. In 1866 he 
was elected a county judge in Oregon and 
served four years. Early in the seventies 
he began devoting a good deal of time to 
literary pursuits, and about 1874 he settled 
in Washington, D. C. He wrote many 
poems and dramas that attracted consider- 
able attention and won him an extended 
reputation. Among his productions may be 
mentioned "Pacific Poems," "Songs of the 
Sierras," "Songs of the Sun Lands," 
' ' Ships in the Desert, " ' ' Adrianne, a Dream 
of Italy," "Danites," "Unwritten History," 
" First Families of the Sierras " (a novel), 
" One Fair Woman " (a novel), " Songs of 
Italy," " Shadows of Shasta," "The Gold- 
Seekers of the Sierras," and a number of 

noted music publisher and composer, 
was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, on August 30, 1S20. While 
working on his father's farm he found time 
10 learn, unaided, several musical instru- 
ments, and in his eighteenth year he went 
to Boston, where he soon found employ- 
ment as a teacher of music. From 1839 

until 1844 he gave instructions in music in 
the public schools of that city, and was also 
director of music in two churches. Mr. 
Root then went to New York and taught 
music in the various educational institutions 
of the city. He went to Paris in 1850 and 
spent one year there in study, and on his re- 
turn he published his first song, "Hazel 
Dell." It appeared as the work of " Wur- 
zel," which was the German equivalent of 
his name. He was the originator of the 
normal musical institutions, and when the 
first one was started in New York he 
was one of the faculty. He removed to 
Chicago, Illinois, in i860, and established 
the firm of Root & Cady, and engaged in 
the publication of music. He received, in 
1872, the degree of " Doctor of Music " 
from the University of Chicago. After the 
war the firm became George F. Root & Co., 
of Cincinnati and Chicago. Mr. Root did 
much to elevate the standard of music in this 
country by his compositions and work as a 
teacher. Besides his numerous songs he 
wrote a great deal of sacred music and pub- 
lished many collections of vocal and instru- 
mental music. For many years he was the 
most popular song writer in America, and 
was one of the greatest song writers of the 
war. He is also well-known as an author, 
and his work in that line comprises: " Meth- 
ods for the Piano and Organ," "Hand- 
book on Harmony Teaching," and innumer- 
able articles for the musical press. Among 
his many and most popular songs of the 
war time are : ' ' Rosalie, the Prairie-flower, " 
" Battle Cry of Freedom," "Just Before the 
Battle," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys 
are Marching," " The Old Folks are Gone," 
"A Hundred Years Ago," "Old Potomac 
Shore, "and " There's Music in the Air." Mr. 
Root's cantatas include ' ' The Flower Queen" 
and "The Haymakers." He died in 1896. 




Webster County 




Iowa has furnished her full quota of em- 
inent men to the nation, men of pronounced 
ability who have become leaders in states- 
craft, in commercial, industrial and profes- 
sional life, and others whose influence has 
been given for the amelioration of condi- 
tions that in any way oppose or hinder the 
development of their fellow men. Quiet and 
unostentatious in manner, seeking not self 
aggrandizement in any direction, Lorenzo 
S. Coffin has become known as one of the 
most honored sons of the Hawkeye state, 
not because he has won distinction in poli- 
tics, i r even because he has attained excep- 
tional success in business, but because bis 
efforts have been, and are still, unselfishly 
given for the benefit of his fellow men. Rec- 
ognizing the law of universal brotherhood, 
his sympathetic spirit has prompted action 
that, guided by sound practical judgment, 
lias resulted in great good. He has long 
since passed the Psalmist's span of three 
score years and ten, the snows of seventy- 
nine winters having fallen upon his head, 
but old age is not necessarily a synonym of 
weakness and it need not suggest as a mat- 
ter of course inactivity or helplessness. 
There is an old age which is a benediction 
to all with whom it comes in contact: that 
C'ives out of its riches stores of wisdom and 

experience and grows stronger mentally and 
spiritually as the days pass. Such is it with 
Lorenzo S. Coffin, whose career is a source 
of encouragement to his contemporaries and 
an abiding lesson to the young. 

In pioneer days of Webster county Mr. 
Coffin took up his abode within her borders. 
He was born in Alton, New Hampshire, 
April IO, [823, on the farm which was also 
the birthplace of his father, Stephen Coffin. 
The family is of English lineage, and at an 
early epoch in American development was 
founded in Massachusetts, whence the 
grandfather of our subject removed to the 
( iranite State, settling- on the farm on which 
both Stephen and Lorenzo Coffin were born. 
There he spent his remaining days, carrying 
on agricultural pursuits. His death oc- 
curred when he was about seventy-five 
years of age. In his family were nine chil- 
dren, all of whom reached mature years and 
reared families of their own. 

Stephen Coffin was trained to the work 
of the home farm and for many years car- 
ried on agricultural pursuits in Xew Hamp- 
shire. He was also a clergyman of the Bap- 
tist church and his influence was widely felt 
in behalf of Christianity. He died in Dover, 
New Hampshire, when about seventy-five 
years of age. His wife bore the maiden 
name of Deborah Philbrook and died at the 
age of thirty-eight. She was a native of 


Sanbornton, New Hampshire, represent- of the rnosl popular schools of the country 

ing an early family of sturdy pioneers. Her and he wenl there with the intention of pur 

father, David Philbrook, was bom at suing an extended course of study, bul re 

Hampton Beach, New Hampshire, and mained only a year and a half, 
spent the greater part of his life on the [n the meantime Mr. Coffin was united in 

farm ai Sanbornton. He lived to the ad- marriage to Miss Cynthia T. Curtis, and 

vanced age of more than ninety years a they went to Geauga county, Ohio, where 

noble Christian man who commanded the re- both engaged in teaching in the Geauga 

sped of all with whom he came in contact. Seminary. Among their pupils were James 

He Had eight sons and eight daughters, all A. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph, his fu- 

nf whom reached mature years, and to each lure wile, who first met in that school. The 

lie gave good educational privileges, thus [ailing health of Mrs. Coffin obliged them to 

fitting them for life's practical duties. In give up teaching after one year's connection 

the family of Stephen and Deborah t Phil- with Geauga Seminary, and in the winter 

brook) Coffin were three daughters and a of [854-5 Mr. Coffin came t<> fowa imi ,1 

son: Catherine I'. Coffin was a teacher in business trip. Being pleased with Webster 

the seminar)' in Charleston, Massachusetts, county and the advantages it offered and 

She married Benjamin Stanton and both with linn faith in its future he resolved t<> 

engaged in educational work fur several locate here, lie secured a claim oi one 

years at Union College, Schenectady, New hundred and sixty anas, which he entered 

York. Christiana became the wife of Rev. when the government placed the land on 

I). 1'.. ('('well, nf Maine. She possessed con- the market, and thus began the development 

siderable poetical talent and was a writer of his line farm, to which he has added by 
for many magazines and papers. Her "I his line farm, to which he has added 
death occurred in 1863. Sarah, who was by subsequent purchases from time 1" 
the wife of Mr. l.ynde, died when alum! time until he now owns seven hundred 
sixty years of age. and twenty acres. The experience ill 
Upon his father's farm Lorenzo S. his boyhood and early manhood upon 
Coffin spent his youth and earlj became fa- the farm now proved very valuable to 
miliar with the labor of field and meadow. him. With characteristic energy he be- 
H is educational advantages at the time were gan the development of his land, and Wil- 
meager, hut later the family removed to lowwedge Farm is now one of the must d<- 
Wolfboro, New Hampshire, where he he sirable and valuable farming properties in 
came a student in the Wolfboro Academy, the state, supplied with all modern improve 
lie lost his mother when fourteen years of incuts and accessories. On the brow of the 
age hut continued at home until he had at hill about three miles from Fort Dodge, 
tained his majority, when he began work near which he decided to erect his build- 
ing as a farm hand in the home neighbor ings is a large spring of purest water, flow 

h 1, ami thus he acquired a sum sufficient ing continually, while other springs upon 

tn enable him to continue his education and the place feed the stream, the Lizzard, which 

prepare for teaching, a profession which he winds its way, bordered by magnificent for- 

followed with success for some time. < (ber est trees, through the farm. Mr. Coffin has 

lin College, of Oberlin, Ohio, was then one made a specialt) of the breeding and raising 



of fine stock, and now owns one of the larg- 
esl and choicest herds of short horn cattle to 
be found in the west, keeping from one hun- 
dred to two hundred head. I fe alsi ■ breed 
for the market Poland-China hogs and Ox- 
ford Down sheep, generally keeping 
hundred and fifty to two hundred head of 
the former and two hundred and fifty or 
more of the latter. From two to five nun 
are employed upon the farm and the work 
it, under the immediate >upei ision of J. I. 
Rutledge, son-in-law of Mr. Coffin, who is 
3 joint owner in the stock on the farm. Mod- 
ern machinery, practical and improved 
methods and all conveniences and aco 
ies for facilitating the work are here found. 

Not long after coming to this home Mr. 
i was called upon to mourn lh< 
Of his wife, who died \pril 20, [856. In 
February, 1X57. he was again married, his 
second union being with Miss Mary 1 ha 1 
of Orleans county. New York. Three chil- 
dren were horn unto them, but one only liv- 
ing, Carrie C, the wife of J. 1. Rutledge. 
1 »ne child died in infancy and Kitty May 
died at the age of fourteen -ears. 

While successfully conducting his private 
business affair-. Mr. Coffin never confines 
his efforts selfishly to his work. From [859 
to [876 he used to leave his home Sunday 
mornings very early and on horseback 
would ride to differenl parts of the country, 
\ here no minister was sent, and pi each the 
Gospel. He would often ride forty miles 
and in return ne 1 da dollar it 

doing it all for the benefit of his fellow men, 
during which time he also conducted a great 
funerals. In the early days he was 
the edit< r of the agricultural department of 
the Fort Dodge Messenger and many have 
profited by his practical wisdom as set forth 
in the columns of that paper. For many 
years he was also an active member of the 

State Agricultural Society and labored 

earnestl; and efft ctivel it rction with 

thai organization to promote the inte ■ 

the farming people throughoul thi 

bul vhile his interest in the bje 

abated, other duties have made h( a di 

mands upon his time, Eon ing him to 

his work in that held to attend to more 

ng I lie had in the mi it 

served his count) loyally in the Civil war, 
enlisting in the fall of 1862 as a membei ol 
I ompany I. Thirl econd Iowa Infantry. 
I !e i 'ined lire arm) a • a pre. ale hut was 

promi -ted in turn to the office 1 
quartet ma tei et g< anl and < haplain 
ah' nt a < ear In- remained at the fronl 
then 1 eturned to in - h< me. 

Perhaps the work w ha h ha made Mr. 
( ^llii! up -t widely know n and which has 
been of the ho ad< I ben* fil to his fellow 

men is that in co tion with providing 

better condition for railroad 1 mpli yes. In 

I .ir [883 he ".a appl ' Govi 

nor Sherman to fill a vacanc) on tin- rail 
road 1 caused b 1 men! 

of the I Ion. James Wilson, and on tl ■ 
piration of that term in [885 wa 
appointed, < continuing in Hi. office until 
1888. It was during tin- period that Mr. 
Coffin became interested in 'hat . ha I 
making his life ..oil, pn rt • hap 

and improving the con rail 

road men. In speaking 01 
he sa\ - "] 

guiding of ah idence bringing 

me to the position where I might realizi 
condition of the great multitude of suffer- 
ing, helpless men. the misery of 
dirion seemed to he growing wi 
day, with no indication or hope of is grow- 
ing letter, and as I occupied the positii 
railroad commissioner, receiving reports 



continually from, all over the state and the 
United States of the terrible slaughter and 
crippling of the railroad men, I then for the 
first time saw the need for work in this field 
and determined by the help of God to do 
something to alleviate the suffering of those 
men." He then immediately began to in- 
vestigate more fully the conditions and 
surroundings of the railroad men of the 
country and to agitate the subject of the 
automatic brake and car coupler, and finally 
succeeded in securing the enactment of the 
law requiring them to be placed on all cars 
on lines in Iowa, which was passed by the 
Iowa state legislature in 1888. This was 
the first law ever enacted by any state for 
the safety of railroad men. The law was 
strongly opposed by the railroad companies. 
Railroad managers said its enforcement 
would cost them millions of dollars annu- 
ally and would do little, if anything, toward 
lessening the likelihood of accident. 
Through the efforts of Air. Coffin and the 
co-operation of societies of railroad em- 
ployes and df private citizens to whom the 
rec.i rd of railroad accidents was appalling, 
the law was finally passed, with the result 
that the number of accidents on railroads 
caused simply in the coupling of cars alone 
has been reduced three-fourths. 

To the compiler of this sketch Mr. 
Collin said: "To Iowa must be given the 
1 of enacting into law the first bill ever 
presented to any legislature for the safety 
of life and limb of railroad men." It was 
drafted by Air. Coffin and he says that he 
spent a full month on the bill. So anxious 
was he that the bill should be so drawn that 
no court could set it aside as unconstitu- 
tional, that he consulted with one of the 
judges of the Iowa supreme court on every 
section of it. Air. Coffin has the great satis- 
faction of knowing that from the day it be- 

came a law its constitutionality has never 
been questioned. He says that it went 
through the Iowa legislature with practi- 
cally a unanimous vote, not a vote against 
it in the senate and only three or four 
against it in the house. The roads were 
given five years to do- the work of equipping 
their cars with the safety appliances that 
the law required. But here came a great 
dilemma — all of the Iowa roads were inter- 
state roads and engaged in interstate traf- 
fic. Foreign cars from outside roads 
would, of course, have to- be equipped in 
the same maimer as the cars of the Iowa 
roads or they could not receive them, or 
else the lading must all be transferred 
from these foreign cars to 1 the Iowa cars. 
Here was a very serious problem to be 

Air. Coffin said: "The only way to 
solve that problem that showed itself to me 
was through a way so strewn with vast diffi- 
culties that it was absolutely appalling and 
I dared not face it for a while. Yet it 
seemed to me it must be done. Some of 
the states adjoining Iowa copied my bill and 
made it into a law. If only all the states 
would do the same and not change a sec- 
tion it would be just the thing, but I could 
not expect that, and it would take a long 
while ti 1 gi 1 fn mi 1 me state to another to' get 
them to pass the same kind of a law. The 
more I thought of it. I made up my mind 
that it would be a practical impossibility, 
and so the alternative was forced on me 
that a national law must be had. Of course 
this meant that I must go to Washington 
and try to get a bill through congress. This 
seemed so utterly beyond all possibility for 
a man like me to accomplish that for awhile 
I thought that I would not undertake it, but 
I could not rest. In my dreams I would 
see these railroad men crushed between the 



ends of the cars, hear their awful screams 
as the iron wheels ground them to pieces 
under the cars. Finally I thought that I 
must try, or at least that I would go to Chi- 
cago and talk with some of the railroad 
officials there and ask their advice. I felt 
sure that the companies that ran roads 
through Iowa would like to have all other 
roads to equip their cars as theirs were to 
be, so there would be an easy interchange 
(if cars from one road to another. I 
thought that would help in this great move. 
To show how hopeless the undertaking was 
in their judgment I will relate what was 
said in my talk with Marvin Hughitt, presi- 
dent of the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
way. When I went into his office he was 
busy examining some papers, and after a 
little while he said in rather a sharp and 
vexed tone : 'Now, Mr. Coffin, as you have 
g< 't your state to enact that law, I want that 
you should go to every state adjoining Iowa 
and get them to enact such a law as Iowa 
lias.' I said that I realized the great im- 
portance of a uniform law and could see no 
way to secure it only through congress, and 
that I had about made up my mind to go 
down to Washington and get it to pass my 
bill. Mr. Hughitt dropped the papers he 
had in his hand on the table before him and 
looked at me with great amazement and 
said : 'Air. Coffin, congress is a great body ; 
you can't move that.' My after experience 
showed me how well that man judged of 
what, as he well thought, a wild under- 
taking, and how well he understood and 
appreciated the difficulties I would have to 

"In the spring of 1888 the interstate 
commerce commission, then just organized, 
invited what state railroad commissioners 
that were then created to come to Wash- 
ington and hold a conference. That noted 

jurist, Judge Cooley, of Michigan, was 
president of the national commission. Al- 
though my term of office had expired a few 
weeks before the date of that conference, 
cur state commission urged me to attend 
that meeting. I did so, and near the close 
of the last session of that meeting, by the 
request of a member of the Iowa board, I 
was asked by Judge Cooley to address the 
conference. This I, of course, did, giving 
them the mass of statistics I had been com- 
piling, which was new to them all. After 
I had sat down commissioners from 
other states gathered around and said : 'Mr. 
Coffin, you must be wrong, for we can't 
think that it is possible that there is such a 
fearful killing and maiming of our railroad 
men.' I assured them that they were ab- 
solutely correct, as far as Iowa was con- 
cerned, for they were from the reports of 
the roads themselves to our state board, as 
our law required them to report to us every 
accident to their men. 

"As but very few of the states had as 
yet required the roads to report as ours did, 
I had to get the number of killed and in- 
jured in other states by the rule of three. 
If Iowa, with so many miles of road, have 
so many accidents to their men, how many 
will all the miles in the nation give us? 
Afterward, from a talk with an old railroad 
man, I found that my basis of calculation 
was wrong, for I should have taken il by 
the number of engines, for on most all of 
the mads east there would be a great many 
m.ore trains a day than in the then sparsely 
settled Iowa. When I made my computa- 
tions on this basis the total was so awful 
that I clid not dare to give the exact figures 
to the public. Afterward Judge Cooley 
wrote me to give to his national commis- 
sion what facts and figures I had gathered 
up and what other information I had 



gained on this matter in my live years of 
experience as a commissioner. I am telling- 
all this to you, sir, that yon may see, as I 
do, the wonderful way I was led on so as 
to have more and more of the standing be- 
fore the public and the powers that then 
were. Let it be understood all along that 
J now realized that I was only an instru- 
ment in the hand of God and the Father to 
be used by Him for a great good to the 
great army of railroad men who are now an 
absolute necessity to the prosperity of this 
great country. The information I sent to 
judge Cooley was by the request of Gen- 
eral Benjamin Harrison, then president- 
elect of the United States, sent to him. and 
used by him in his inaugural when 
he was sworn into his high office. He did 
it in these words : 'It is a disgrace to our 
civilization that men in a lawful employ- 
ment for a livelihood should be exposed to 
greater danger than soldiers in time of ac- 
tual war.' He very strongly recommended 
speedy action by congress. So you see how 
in this unthought of and unpremeditated 
way a mighty opening was made for me. 
Then I had two especially strong and influ- 
ential friends, one in each house of con- 
gress. One was W. B. Allison in the sen- 
ate, and Colonel David B. Henderson in 
the house, now its speaker. Here again 
was another of the series of special provi- 
dences that show so plainly all along the 
road, but of which I was not aware then, 
but now can see as clearly as the noonday 
sun. Some years before at one of the con- 
gressional elections it was a question 
whether Colonel Henderson would be re- 
turned, as he at that time bad a very strong 
competitor, and I suppose that it is no 
egotism in me to- say what was then pretty 
well understood to be the fact, that my in- 
fluence with the railroad bovs and with the 

farmers of his district had much to do with 
saving him. This had made him a firm 
friend and he was ready to aid me all in his 
power, which was great, and he wielded it 
to good advantage for the bill. "Well, the 
4th of March was coming on. I had been 
working on the bill for congress with a 
great deal of care and labor. I had been 
very anxious before the inauguration to 
have Mr. Harrison say a word for the boys 
in his address. I wanted to know how he 
felt, but never having met him, and there 
being such a throng around him, I could 
see no way to get to him to ask him to re- 
member the boys. Finally Colonel Hender- 
son gave me a letter to him, and so I had 
a chance to speak to him. His first words 
after reading the letter were, 'Well, what is 
it ?' In as few words as I could I told what 
I wanted. In an instant he replied, 'It is in 
there.' meaning' in his address, and those 
were his last words to me. I grasped his 
hand, thanked him with tears in my eyes 
and left. 

"Congress convened. My bills were in- 
troduced and referred to the committee on 
interstate commerce. For four long years 
I was in what was called the third house of 
congress, 'the lobby.' It is not necessary 
for me to try to tell you of the long strug- 
gle. It would fill a book. I fully 
realized that public opinion had much to do 
with acts of congress, so wherever I heard 
of a great gathering of influential men. 
such as great gatherings of church officials 
of every denomination, there I would go and 
get a few moments time to plead for the 
lives and limbs of the railroad boys and for 
Sunday rest as well, getting them to pass 
strong resolutions which I had usually al- 
ready prepared. And so I worked. The 
first congress of Harrison's administration 
closed without my being able to get the bills 



out of the committee's hands. They were 
introduced again at the opening of his last 
congress, and from that time 1 m the rail- 
roads were there in force fighting the bill. 
They told the committee that it would cost 
the roads one hundred million dollars to 
meet the requirements of that bill. But 
God loved these trainmen more than He 
did the millions of the corporations, and 
the bill went through and President Harri- 
son signed it and made it a law the day be- 
fore he left his high office, on the 3d of 
March, 1893. The law gave the roads five 
years to equip their cars as the law directed, 
but near the close of the fifth year the roads 
came before the interstate commerce com- 
mission and pleaded for five years more, 
but the five railroad brotherhoods with my- 
self were there in opposition, and they got 
only two years and then seven months after 
that. As the result of that law there are at 
least fifteen hundred less deaths and over 
five thousand less painful accidents in a 
year than when President Harrison signed 
that bill. So beneficial is this law found to 
l^e in an economical sense, to say nothing of 
the saving of life and limb, that the very 
officials that then called me a crank and 
abused me so unmercifully, now take me by 
the hand and thank me for what they then 
cursed me for. Yet it never seems to me 
that I have done anything but what 
was my plain dutv to do after the 
awful facts came to my knowledge. I 
never could have respected myself if I had 
refused to try, frightened at' the lions I 
really saw in the way. So then let the 
praise go where it belongs, to God." 

Mr. Coffin certainly deserves the un- 
bounded gratitude of all railroad men 
throughout the country, by securing the en- 
actment of the national law which was passed 
by congress March 2. 1893. He has done 

more than any other individual to promote 
temperance among railroad men by the use 
of what is known as the "'white button.'' 
He has had made a little white button, in 
which are the initials R. R. T. A. — Rail- 
road Temperance Association — and these 
buttons he gives to all railroad employes 
who will promise to wear one and abstain 
from the use of liquor. He has paid out 
over five thousand dollars alone for these 
buttons, having distributed more than one 
hundred and fifty thousand of them, and is 
still engaged in the work, always having a 
supply of them when he travels. This in- 
conspicuous little button is a constant re- 
minder to the wearer that he has given his 
v/ord to abstain from the use of those bev- 
erages which destroy manhood and render 
the individual unfitted for the performance 
of life's duties. A lasting monument to the 
work of .Mr. Coffin is seen in the home for 
disabled and infirm railroad men at High- 
land Park, Illinois, near Chicago. All 
brotherhood railroad men are eligible as 
members, the only requirement being that 
they contribute as much as "the expense of 
one cigar a day." This entitles any brother- 
hood man in railroad employ, in case of 
accident or inability, to a good home fi >r 
life, containing all necessities and comforts. 
At this time the work is progressing nicely 
under the guidance of Mr. Coffin and the co- 
operation of the four railroad brotherhood-. 
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineer-, 
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, 
the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen and 
the Order of Railway Conductors. These 
four orders have contributed to the home 
and at the present time they are planning 
an eighty-thousand-dollar fire-proof build- 
ing as an addition to the present home. 
There are now between twenty and thirty 
inmates. Mr. Coffin is the president of the 



Railroad Employes' Home, and, more than 
(.hat, lie is the friend of all railroad men, 
having a warm personal interest in their 

Another important work is now en- 
gaging the attention of Mr. Coffin, who, in 
connection with other leading- citizens of 
Fort 'Dodge and vicinity, is building a 
hi me for ex-convicts. -Mr. Coffin alone has 
donated eighty acres of land and five thou- 
sand dollars in cash for the building, and is 
also devoting a great deal of his time to the 
work. The object of the movement is to 
assist th: ex-convicts in getting work and 
helping them again to win a place in the 
world consistent with upright and useful 

Mr. Coffin has ever been a friend to the 
poi i and needy, to the oppressed and the 
suffering, and. believing that the spark of 
divinity is in every individual and may lie 
fanned into flame, he is ever ready to ex- 
tend a helping hand to those in need of 
cither material or moral assistance. His 
home while in Ohio was a station in the 
famous underground railroad when slavery 
existed in the land and his strong Aboli- 
tion principles led him to ally himself with 
the Republican party when it was formed 
to prevent the further extension of slavery. 
He lias since been one of its stalwart sup- 

To what church does he belong? We 
answer, ti the church which Christ founded 
when he said "Go ye into all the world and 
preach the Gospel," when he gave the 
mandate, "bear ye one another's burdens," 
and said "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto 
one of the least of these, my brethren, ye 
have done it unto me." One of the most 
interesting- features of the Willowedge 
Farm is his chapel, which he built, about 
twelve years ago for the benefit of his 

(laughter, who was greatly interested in 
Sunday-school work. In connection with 
the same is a circulating library for the 
community. Services are held Sunday af- 
ternoons — held in the afternoon that they 
need not conflict with the morning or even- 
ing services of the city churches. Pastors 
and people of all denominations are wel- 
come, and the gospel of Christ — forgive- 
ness and love — is preached. Along the 
same line of Christian liberality is his ef- 
fective work in the Young Men's Christian 
' ssi nation, in which almost each Sunday 
he addresses a meeting of this organization. 
Who can measure the influence of such a 

''Our echoes roll from soul to soul 
And grow forever and forever." 

In business he has achieved splendid 
success, but the most envious could not 
grudge him his prosperity so worthib has 
it been won, so well used. He has builded 
to himself a monument more lasting than 
stone in the freewill offering of grateful 

» « » 


The office of the chief executive of Iowa 
has ever been filled by men of marked abil- 
ity and unfaltering devotion to the best in- 
terests of the commonwealth, but among 
the long list of illustrious men who have 
seiwed as governor none have more de- 
served the honor conferred upon them or 
more loyally advanced the interests of the 
state than Governor Cyrus C. Carpenter. 
He came to Iowa in the earlv days of her 
development and the public life of few 
other citizens in this part of the country 




have extended aver as long a period as did 
his, and certainly the life of none other has 
been more varied in service, mure con- 
stant in honor, more fearless in conduct and 
more stainless in reputation. In his life 
time the people of his state, recognizing his 
merit, rejoiced in his advancement and in 
the honors to which he attained, and since 
his death they have gratefully cherished his 
memory. True men are the crown jewels 
of the republic, and the very names of the 
distinguished dead are a continual inspira- 
tion and an abiding lesson. 

Back to Xew England Governor Car- 
penter traced his ancestry, his people living 
in Massachusetts in an early day, while 
later representatives of the family became 
residents of Pennsylvania, and it was in 
Susquehanna county, that state, that he was 
born in November, 1830. He had neither 
the advantages of wealth or influence to as- 
sist him, but early learned the valued les- 
sons of industry , honesty and self-reliance. 
Although earnest toil was the lot of the 
members of the Carpenter household, he 
was surrounded by the refining influence of 
a home where integrity and character were 
rated at their true worth. He eagerly 
availed himself of the opportunities educa- 
tion afforded by the country schools and 
later continued his studies in the Harford 
Academy, where he prepared himself for 
teaching, a profession which he followed 
at intervals for a number of years. Life 
lay before him. and with a young man's 
bright hope of the future, fortified by laud- 
able ambition, strong determination and 
manly principles, he resolved to seek his 
fortune in the west, where he believed 
greater opportunities were afforded than in 
the older and more thickly settled east. He 
determined to make Iowa his home for the 
reason, as he was often heard to remark in 

later life, "that he liked the looks of it on 
the map." Therefore he started, but his 
pecuniary resources were very limited, and 
when he reached Licking county, Ohio, he 
found it necessary to replenish his depleted 
exchequer. This he did by teaching school 
for two years, and then again followed the 
guidance of the "star of empire" which 
westward takes its way. In June, 1854, he 
reached Des Moines on his way to Fort 
Dodge, then a military outpost in the wil- 
derness of northwestern Iowa. The ele- 
mental strength of his character and the 
purpose of his nature was manifest in many 
act- of his life in those early days, one of 
which will serve to- indicate this. The pro- 
prietor of the hotel at which he had been 
entertained over night in the capital city, 
on learning that it required nearly all his 
money to meet the expense of the night's 
lodging, offered to trust him for the 
amount, but declining the offer, he paid his 
bill in full and on foot started to complete 
the journey of . eighty miles across the 
prairie which lay between the capital and 
his destination. He builded his fortune not 
upon the faith of his fellow 7 men, their in- 
fluence or their aid, but upon the substantial 
qualities of unfaltering determination and 
unflagging integrity. He found in the new 
settlement men of courageous spirit, ready 
to do and to dare in order to make homes 
for themselves and their families, and he 
was soon recognized as a leader in their 
midst. His work in the development and 
upbuilding of the state in pioneer times can- 
not be overestimated, for he aided in laying 
bri ad and deep the foundations for the pres- 
ent progress and prosperity of this great 
commonwealth. His first work in the west 
was in the line of surveying, and he estab- 
lished the boundaries to make farms and 
homes as well as public property. This oc- 

- - 


cupie! . lmer 

I : 



— prided 


.e could gel 

ran be- 



■ement. H 

'■ ~ 

a car ighbor- 


e became a mer 

general assembly upon which he left the im- 
ng individuality. 
About the time he retired from the office 
'jecame in rivilwar and 

he enlisted. He had had previous military 
r vhen the Indians massacred the 
Lake he 
rty that went to the rescue of the few 
:atastrophe. It was in the 
•rrity has hardly 
been paralleled in the history- of the state 
I hardshi; 
greater than were met 

Mr. Carpenter became a private, but, 

- captain and his 

with I fterward with General 

at with the rank 
L _ 
ry record tb the 

rty, personal coon g -trong pur- 

It was during the | e war that 

C. Burkh 

- : 

•he home 

he si 

n the 
where the panionship 

■ ■ 

The nel Carpenter re- 

I was ma'! 


ister of the land office, then a positi 
great responsibility. He not only filled the 
office acceptably, but by his complete mas- 
tery of the details oi the business he con- 
tributed, through a carefully prepared book 
on the subject of surveying, to the success- 
ful administration of the office in after 
years. In 1872 he was elected chief execu- 
tive of the state, and by re-election was 
continued in the office for four years, lit 
speaking- of this period of- his life Senator 
J. P. Dolliver has said: "The years in 
which he was g r were years 

and industrial transition. The 
houses were located but the problems of 
popular education were becoming mon 
more troublesome. The railroad builders 
had finished their work in the midst of 
blunders innumerable on their own part and 
on the part of the law-making power, leav- 
g . thousand problems arising out of their 
to lie solved by than 
or by the people thei si es The public 
lands had all lieen taken up, but the Iowa 
farm was only beginning to approach a 
solution oi those questions which from that 
day to this have lieen prominent in the 
minds of the people everywhere. In all 
- things it may be truly said that Gov- 
ernor Carpenter gave the state a coherent 
and intelligent guidance which has saved 
us from the disasters which have afflicted 
other western communities. It was a time 
when we needed a leader wh 
tmsted both by the people and the strangers 
who had invested their money in Iowa 
lands. He had the confidence oi the people 
1 experience identified him 
in thought and sympathy with them. He 
could speak to them in terms which in other 
men would have struck the note oi insin- 
cerity and affectation. His public ntte 
lied with homely wisdom and .. 

act and full sense as max- 

■ ancients. The peo] 
him because he told their. 

- - 
plainly ind 

and also show forth th< 
man: "The bless g - ck - 

c - servator and prom 
mater greatness bul 
decency oi the world. * * * The « 
material advancement depends 
proper direction and pr t< 
men with ;' . - sition to toil, to dart 

- e." He had no sympathy with the 
notion, not yet altogether extinct, that the 
schov^ls of Iowa - much mom 

lay the hand oi taxation : upon 

the possessions of the rich. "1:' 

g wealth." said he. "would place a g 
over their treasui diaMe than 

or bolts, the per diem of jurors or ti 

• f sheriffs and judges, the - eg 
will be found in enlarging ami 
the common-school system oi Iowa until 

tizen can reach maturity without 
raining tion." Under his 

ministration the laws were frame 
cessfully defended in the courts \vhi< 
the first limits upon the reckless mai _ 
ment of western railroads, which ..: 
time promised not only to despoil the 
munity but to ruin the roads thems* 

- broad-minded man looked 
subject and when he had 

stigations j 
farm against di< gers 

like th< s long as 

appreciate truth in the garb of Ira 
"The exorl 

nor, "is the skeleton in the 
crib." He new 

d if the railroad companies 



spected him and afterward followed his 
counsel it was because he was willing to tell 
them the truth- and without the malice which 
seeks to destroy was anxious that they 
should exercise the wisdom which pre- 
serves. In his message to the legislature 
of 1874 he anticipated the platform of 
peace and mutual advantage upon which 
the people and the railroads of Iowa a w 
stand together. 

After Governor Carpenter retired from 
the offiqe of chief executive of the state he 
held an important position in the treasury 
department under the administration of 
General Grant. Returning home, he was 
appointed a member of the railway com- 
mission, and while he proved a useful mem- 
ber of that body, he soon resigned because 
Ins name had been mentioned in connection 
with the nomination for congress and he did 
not wish to make a canvass for one office 
while holding another. He was elected and 
took an active part in the councils of the 
house, serving on the committees on war 
claims, agriculture, levees of the Missis- 
sippi river, education and labor, and at the 
end of his term he was named a member of 
the committee that waited upon the presi- 
dent to tell him that congress was waiting 
his pleasure to adjourn. While a member 
of congress Governor Carpenter succeeded 
in getting a United States court established 
at Fort Dodge, and as a direct result of his 
labors the handsome government building 
was erected in which court is held and the 
Fort Dodge postoffice is located. He won 
the friendship of .many of the most promi- 
nent men of the nation. He worked for the 
good of the country without thought of self- 
aggrandizement and was an earnest cham- 
pion of every measure which he believed 
would contribute to the general prosperity 
Careful consideration preceded every de- 

cisive stand which he took concerning a 
question up for settlement, but when his 
course was once determined upon neither 
fear nor favor could cause him to change, 
although he always listened courteously to 
argument. Again Senator Dolliver writes 
cf him: "His speech on the national 
finance in the second session of the forty- 
sixth congress was a masterpiece of reason- 
ing and sound philosophy. It was tem- 
perate in tone, simple in manner, fortified 
at every point by the lessons of history and 
experience, while throughout it all the plat 
of genial wit lighted the rugged strength 
of his argument. Probably the most im- 
portant service of his congressional life was 
the work he did in connection with creating 
the department of agriculture. He was a 
member of the committee which framed the 
bill, and in the debate his speech was par- 
ticularly strong and persuasive. The speech 
itself reveals his deep research into the 
needs and resources of the country and his 
wide information in respect to the progress 
of agriculture throughout the world. It 
enabled him also to give his estimate of 
the relation of the American farm to civ- 
ilization of the country, and his comments 
upon the aspect of the question are not only 
instructive but inspiring in the noblest 

After his retirement from congress he 
was again sent to the state legislature and 
held important local positions, and the wel- 
fare of district, state and nation were 
thereby advanced. His was a noble na- 
ture — one that subordinated personal am- 
bition to public good and sought rather to 
benefit others than to advance himself. His 
was a sturdy American character and a 
stalwart patriotism and he bad the strong- 
est attachment for our free institutions and 
was ever willing to make any personal sac- 



rifice for their preservation. A lofty pa- 
triotism and a Christian manhood perme- 
ated his life and actions. The hest monu- 
ment erected to his memory was the spon- 
taneous freewill offering of a grateful peo- 
ple who gathered at his bier when in 1898 
all that was mortal of Cyrus Carpenter was 
laid in the tomb. Men of national fame 
spoke of their regard for him, the president 
voiced his great friendship and respect for 
him, the chiefest men of Iowa attended the 
last sad rites, but the people among whom 
he had lived mourned him as a brother. 
Young and old. rich and poor loved him, 
and he lives enshrined in their hearts. 

"His life was noble, and the elements 
So mixed in him that nature might stand up 
.And say to all the world, 'This was a 
man.' " 



Among- the honored veterans of the 
Ci\il war now residing in Fort Dodge, 
Iowa, is William Hutchison, who since 
1897 has had charge of the city scales, and 
has most creditably filled that position. He 
was born in Wayne county, Ohio. August 
9. 1832, a son of Jimpsey and Rebecca 
(Peppard) Hutchison, both natives of 
Pennsylvania. By occupation the father 
w a- a farmer. In his family were twelve 
children, four sons and eight daughters, of 
v hi nn three si ms fought for the old flag and 
the cause it represented in the Civil war. 
One of these, Jonathan Hutchison, was a 
major in the Thirty-second Iowa Volunteer 

On the home farm in the count}- of his 
nativity William Hutchison grew to man- 
hood, and his education was acquired in the 

schools of Fredericksburg, Ohio. In May, 
1864, be donned the blue and went to the 
defense of his country as third sergeant in 
Company G, One Hundred and Sixty-sixth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was mus- 
tered out and honorably discharged in the 
foil.. wing September, and is now an hon- 
ored member of Fort Donelson Post, No. 
236, G. A. R., of Fort Dodge. 

On leaving the army Mr. Hutchison re- 
turned to his old home in Wayne county, 
< Ihio, hut in 1865 came to Fort Dodge, and 
engaged in carpenter work here until 1897, 
when he took charge of the city scales, and 
has since discharged the duties of that po- 
sition in a most acceptable manner. 

In 1852 Mr. Hutchison married Miss 
Rachel Sands, of Wayne county, Ohio, a 
daughter of William Sands, who was a 
shoemaker by trade. Four children blessed 
this union, namely: Bryson T., born in 
1853, is now engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness in Fort Dodge; Alice, born in 1859, is 
at home with her parents; Charlotte, born 
in i860, died in 1864; and Ida, born in 
1864, is now the wife of A. M. White, who 
is at the head of the White Line Dray busi- 
ness in Fort Dodge. 


J. ihn R. Roscoe, vice-president of the 
Charles Craft Company, has spent almost 
his entire life in Fort Dodge, and is a 
worthy representative of one of its old and 
highly respected families. His father, Gil- 
bert Roscoe, was born in Putnam county, 
Xew York, March 6, 1820, where his an- 
cestors settled at an early day in the de- 
velopment of this country. There he grew 
to manhood and learned the carpenter's 

2 3 8 


trade. On the 3d of September, 1842, he 
was united in marriage with Miss Char- 
lotte Bailey, whose family were also' among 
the pioneers of Putnam county. Deciding 
to try his fortunes in the west, Mr. Roscoe 
came to Fort Dodge, Iowa, in 1856, travel- 
ing by wagon from Dubuque and arriving 
here on the 24th of April after many diffi- 
culties. He pre-empted a farm in Webster 
county, and after residing thereon for three 
years removed to the city, where he en- 
gaged in contracting and building until 
called to his final rest, December 30, 1884. 
His widow is still living at the age of sev- 
enty-seven years and makes her home with 
our subject. For forty-one years his home 
was at the corner of Fourth avenue south 
and Fourteenth street. He was a faithful and 
consistent member of the Methodist church, 
and was highly respected and esteemed by 
all who knew him. Of his nine children 
only our subject is now living. Three of 
the number died within a week after reach- 
ing Fort Dodge from measles contracted in 
I Hibuque. 

John R. Roscoe was born on the 5th of 
September, [855, and was therefore only 
six months old when the family came to 
Fort Dodge from his birthplace in Putnam 
county, New York. In the public schools 
of this city he acquired a good practical ed- 
ucation, and in early life learned the car- 
penter's trade from his father, at which he 
worked for seventeen years. In 1890 he 
entered a retail grocery store in the capacity 
of clerk, and when the Charles Craft Com- 
pany was organized and incorporated under 
the laws of Iowa in 1898 he became a mem- 
ber of the firm and is now vice-president of 
the same. They do a large retail business 
as dealers in both groceries and meats, and 
command a liberal share of the public pat- 
ronage. Mr. Roscoe is an energetic, enter- 

prising business man, and to him is due not 
a little of the success of the concern with 
which he is connected. Fraternally he is a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows and is held in high regard in both 
business and social circles. 

On the 20th of December, 1883, Mr. 
Roscoe wedded Miss Mary E. Cisne, of 
Marshalltown, Iowa, and to them have been 
born two 1 children, namely, Earl R. and 
Melvin G. 


An enumeration of the men of the pres- 
ent generation who have conferred honor 
and dignity upon the state which has holl- 
ered them would be incomplete were there 
failure to make prominent mention of him 
whose name initiates this review. He holds 
distinctive precedence as an eminent lawyer 
and statesman and a man of scientific and 
literary attainments. Through several 
terms in congress he has borne himself 
with such signal dignity and honor as to 
gain him the respect of all. He has been 
and is distinctively a man of affairs and 
one who has wielded a wide influence. A 
strong mentality, an invincible courage, a 
most determined individuality have so en- 
tered into his makeup as to render him a 
natural leader of men and a director of 
opinion, and to-day one of the most dis- 
tinguished men of the nation is Senator 
Jonathan Prentiss Dolliver, of Iowa. 

Mr. Dolliver was born in Kingwood, 
Preston county, Virginia, now West Vir- 
ginia, February 6, 1858. His father, the 
Rev. J. J. Dolliver, was a Methodist min- 
ister, well known in West Virginia and 
Ohio conferences, where he labored most 
earnestly and effectively to advance his 



holy calling. He now resides in Fort 
Dodge. His wife belonged to a pr< mineni 
family of the Old Dominion, being a niece 

of William < I. Brown, i f Kingwood, West 
Virginia, and a sister of the Hon. John 
G. Brown, of Morg West Vir- 


In his bi iyhi » id Senati n Dollive 
forth the elemental strength of his charac- 
ter and gave evidence of that genius and 
preci city, which, combined with his indus- 
try, early placed him iii the front ranks in 
his schi ml days and have since won him 
high honors in the council chambers of the 
nation. In 1870 he took up his abode near 
\b rgantown and there attended the State 
University, completing the course by grad- 
uation in 1875, when he was but seventeen 
vears of age. He afterward spent two 
years engaged in teaching school in Sand- 
wich, Illinois. Naturally he chose as a life- 
work a calling demanding strong mentality, 
keen analytical power and strong reasoning 
powers, for such was the trend of his mind. 
While teaching he also pursued the study 
of law, and in [878 he and his brother were 
admitted to the bar. Mr. Dolliver was then 
but twenty years of age. With his bsother 
he went to Chicago 1 , where they expended 
must of their money for law books, having 
only enough remaining to bring them to 
Fort Dodge, Iowa, which place they had 
chosen as the scene of their labors. Here 
the} - opened a law office and many were 
the hardships and trials they met, but with 
courageous spirit they endured all without 
complaint, and in course of time a good 
practice rewarded them. The marked ora- 
torical ability which J. P. Dolliver had 
early manifested soon drew public atten- 
tion to him and brought him into promi- 
nence. Not only did his clientage increase, 
but he also became active in the local ranks 

of the Republican party, and was calk 
the leadership 1 if its f, , r ces here. 1 [1 
sent as a delegate to the count}- and 
conventions, and when he rose to speak si- 
lence immediately prevailed among his 
auditors and he was listened to with rani 
attention. In [888 he was elected to repre- 
sent the tenth congressional district of 
Iowa in the house of representatives, and, 
from that time until he became United 
States Senator he was recognized as a lead- 
ing member of the lower body. Nol 
did his eloquence hold enchained the atten- 
tion of the house, but his strong reasoning, 
comprehensive thought and logical deduc- 
tions showed that he had made a deep, 
earnest and conscientious study of the 
questions discussed, and therefore many 
were convinced. His work in congress has 
become a matter of history, for he has left 
the impress of his individuality upon the 
legislation of the nation during- the past 
decade. His term in the house would have 
expired in 1901, but after the death of \< h 
Henry Gear, Governor Shaw, of Iowa, on 
the 23d of August, 1900, appointed Mr. Dol- 
liver to fill the vacancy in the United States 
senate. In the Republican national conven- 
tion held in Philadelphia, in [900, he was 
strongly urged to become a candidate for 
the vice-presidency. 

In 1895 Mr. Dolliver was united in 
marriage to Miss Louise Pearson, of Fort 
Dodge, a daughter of George R. Pearson, 
and the}- still maintain their home in the 
[owa city where he entered upon his pro- 
fessional career, although they spend much 
time in the capital. Mr. Dolliver is vet a 
young man, but his name has already been 
ineffacably stamped upon the pages of 
American history. Endowed by nature 
with high intellectual qualities, to which have 
been added the discipline and embellishments 



of culture, his is a most attractive personal- 
ity. Well versed in the learning of his pro- 
fession, and with a deep knowledge of hu- 
man nature and the spring of human con- 
duct, with great shrewdness, sagacity and 
extraordinary tact, he is in the courts an 
advocate of great power and influence. 
Bath judges an<! juries have always heard 
him with attention . and deep interest. On 
the political stage, such is his personal pop- 
ularity and such his personal magnetism, 
that his appearance to address the people is 
the signal for tumultuous enthusiasm. His 
is a sturdy American character and a stal- 
wart patriot, and with the strongest at- 
tachment for our free institutions, he is 
ever willing to make any personal sacrifice 
fi ir their preservation. 


For almost half a century this gentle- 
man has heen a resident of Iowa, and is to- 
day « ne of the leading business men of 
Vincent, where he has mercantile and real 
interests. He is a man win se sound 
common sense and vigorous able manage- 
ment of his affairs have heen important fac- 
tors in his success, and with his undoubted 
integrity of character have given him an 
honorable position among his fellow men. 

Mr. Harding was born in Union coun- 
ty, Indiana. February 5. 1836, and is a son 
of Thomas K. Harding, whose birth oc- 
curred in Butler county. Ohio, in 1810. 
His paternal grandfather, Samuel Harding, 
was a native of New York, and a pioneer of 
Butler county, Ohio. He took an active 
part in the early Indian war. and entered 
the United States service in the war of 
1812 and died while in the army. When a 

young man Tin anas K. Harding left his na- 
tive state and removed to Brownsville, 
Union county, Indiana, where he engaged 
in the manufacture of axes and reap hooks 
for a few years. While there he was united 
in marriage with Miss Rachel Knott, a na- 
tive of North Carolina, and a near relative 
of Senator Knott, of Kentucky. Removing 
to Boone county. Indiana. Mr. Hardin:; 
purchased a tract of land and engaged in 
farming throughout the remainder of his 
dying there about 1870. His wife, who 
survived him ten years, passed away in 

This worth) couple were the parents of 
eight children, five sons and three daugh- 
ters, who m order of birth were as follows: 
Samuel, a resident of Clinton county, In- 
diana; John, of Tipton county, that state; 
William K., of this review; Rebecca, who 
grew to womanhood and married but was 
quite young at the time of her death; Mar- 
garet, now the wife of Charles McDonald, 
of Clinton county. Indiana; Mrs. Martha 
Ann Kutz, a widow residing that count}-; 
Marion, a resident of Kirkland, Indiana ; and 
Thomas J., who died in the service during 
the Civil war. 

William K. Harding received his early 
education in the common schools of his na- 
tive state, and later received private in- 
struction, but the greater part of his educa- 
tion has been obtained by reading and ob- 
servation in later years. On coming to 
Iowa in 1853 ' le nrst located in Benton 
count v. where he learned the carpenter's 
trade and followed that occupation for a 
few vears. There he entered land, which he 
improved, and later engaged in merchandis- 
ing at Marys ville. now Urbana, for about 
two years, selling 1 ut at the end of that 

The country being then engaged in civil 


2 43 

war. Mr. Harding enlisted August 12, 
1863, fi r three years or during the war. 
and assisted in raising a pan of a company, 
which was joined to Captain Sell's com- 
mand at Vinton. It was mustered into the 
United States service as < "■ mpany K, 
Fortieth L \\a Volunteer Infantry, and was 
ned tn the Army of the Southwest, un- 
ieneral ( .rant. Air. I larding, win - had 
entered the service as seo nd lieutenant. 
participated in the siege of Vicksburg, and 
d in taking that stronghold. After 
the surrender he was taken ill and sent b 1 the 
hospital at Mound City. Illinois, where he 
remained six weeks, and was then senl home 
"ii a furlough. Subsequently he returned 
to the hospital at Mound City and reported 
for duty to the Seventh Army Corp 
joining his regiment at Little Rock, Ar- 
kansas, where he spent the winter. Being 
again taken ill, he resigned on the advice of 
the surgeon and returned home in the spring 
of 1864, and for two years thereafter w a- in 
pi 1 >r health. 

That time was spent in Benton county, 
Iowa, and when he had sufficiently recov- 
ered Mr. Harding opened a store in Gilbert- 
ville. hut -i hi 1 ut at the end of a few- months 
and removed to Jessup, where he was en- 
gaged in merchandising for about six 
years. On disposing of that store he came 
to Webster county, and was engaged in the 
grain and stock business at Duncombe, at 
the same time serving as station agent at 
that place for seven years. During his resi- 
dence here lie erected an opera house at 
( edar Falls, Iowa, which he has since dis- 
posed of. In the meantime he opened a 
store in Duncombe and engaged in mer- 
chandising until coming to Vincent, where 
he has now made his home fi >r fi mrteen 
years. Here lie bought property and built 
the first business house and residence in the 

town, being practically its founder. On the 
D mpletii n < f In- -tore building he put in 
a large sti ck 1 f general merchandise, and 
ha- since successfull) engagi 
having by fair and. horn rable dealing built 
up an excellent trade. Since locating here 
he has bi tight and sold considerable farm 
property, and has also dealt quite exten- 
sively in town lots. He is pre-eminently 
public-spirited and progressive, and has ma- 
terially aided in the upbuilding and develop- 
ment of the place. 

In Benton count}-. Iowa. April _\ 1856, 
Mr. J larding was united in marriage with 
Miss Sarah Moore, who was born in John- 
son county, Indiana, ami was a young girl 
when she came to Iowa, her mother, Mrs. 
Matilda Moore, being one of the pioneers 
of Benton county. Our subject and his wife 
have three children, namely: ( 1 ) James 
I).. a resident of Vincent, is married and 
has four children: Cleveland A.. James 
Wilford, Genevieve and Aha Marie. 1 _' ) 
William W. is now a business man of Chi- 
cago. ( 3 ) Jennie M. is the wife of William 
I 1. W'oolsey, who ijs in partnership with our 
subject in the mercantile business. They 
have two children. Derward Delos and 
Gladys L. 

Politicall) Mr. Harding is a Jackson- 
ian Democrat, and has always affiliated with 
that party since casting his first presiden- 
tial vote for Stephen A. Douglas in [860. 
He has been a delegate to both county and 
state conventions, but has never been an 
aspirant fi r office, though he was the can- 
didate of his party for count) treasurer in 
[902, and was once nominated for repre- 
sentative of Buchanan county without his 
knowledge. lie has since declined to serve 
in any official capacity, preferring to give 
his entire time and attention to his business 
interests. He was made a Mason at Center 



l"\\a. and later assisted in organiz- 
ing- Jessup Lodge, but is now dimitted. He 
ep interest in everything pertain- 
ing to the public welfare of the town, and 
withholds his support from no enterprise 
calculated to prove of public benefit. He 
has liKitlc for himself an honorable record 
in lm.Mii.s-~, and by his well-directed ef- 
fi rts has acquired a handsome competence. 
As a citizen, friend and neighbor he is true 
to every duty and justly merits the esteem 
in which he is held. 


The death of William V. Dowd, in June, 
L889, removed from Webster county one 
of its niO'St successful farmers and estimable 
citizens. He was born in Hocking county. 
Ohio, September 25, 1823, a sun of Alex- 
ander and Nancy (Vandeford) Dowd, 
b tli natives of North Carolina, the former 
burn in [799, the latter in 1782. His pa- 
ternal grandparents were Conner Dowd and 
wife, who were born in 1737 and 1777, 
respectively. His grandfather Vande- 
ford was born in 178b. The parents of 
our subject were married in Ohio; in 
which state they resided for about twenty 
years, and then removed to Indiana, where 
the following twelve years were passed. 
in [854 thej came to towa, and after spend- 
ing one year in Madison count}' took up 
their residence at Beecher's Corners, in 
Burnside township, Webster count)-, where 
the father bought a tract of land on which 
a log cabin had already been erected. Five 
years later they went to Colorado and made 
their home near Denver for about two 
years. Returning to Iowa at the end of 
that time, thev settled in Boone county, 

where the mother died in December, [864 
The year following the father married 
Elizabeth Beason, and after residing in 
i 1 1 ne count) for a tune they removed to 
a farm one and a half miles easl of Day- 
ton, low a. where he continued to live until 
his death, which occurred May 27, 1874. 
In- widow, who long survived him, died 
m Colorado in [899. By his second mar- 
riage he had no children. Of the eight 
children born of the first union our subject 
was the eldest, while the others were as 
follows: Sarah is now the widow of Ben- 
jamin F. Allison and resides in California; 
Hannah first married David Miller, who 
died in Tama county. Iowa, and .she later 
wedded J. Kihhy. She died in Butte, Mon- 
tana, in 1899. Nancy married a Mr. Davis 
and died in .Madison county, Iowa. Mary 
wedded George Wilson and died in Golden. 
Colorado. Alexander married Catherine 
Childs ami died in 1867. His widow now 
resides in Guthrie Center, Iowa. Minerva, 
deceased, was the wife of James Kelly, of 
Golden. Colorado. Marion died in child- 

In the county of his nativity Mr. Dowd. 
ot this review, was reared and educated, 
and during his boyhood and youth assisted 
his father in the labors of the farm. He 
was married in 1844 to Miss Martha Alli- 
son, who died, in 1854. By that union six 
children were born, namely: (1) Susan 
M., born in Indiana, October 23, 1 S_j 5 , 
married George Nettles and died in Perry, 
Iowa, in October, 1890. (2) Mary J., 
born in Indiana. April 19, 18-17, 1S the wife 
of Captain John L. Kinney, of Dayton, 
Iowa. (3) Francis A., born in Indiana, 
June 18, 1848, married Mrs. Lindreth 
Burnquest and is now living in Fort Dodge, 
being sheriff of Webster county. 14) 
Alexander, bora in Indiana, Novembei 7, 




[849, resides in B.urnside township, this 
county. He married Loretta Stoughton, and 
they have four children, Charles, Belle, 
Frank and Lee. (5) John H., born in In- 
diana. January 10, 1 S 5 j . first married 
Clarissa Blair, who died, leaving four chil- 
dren, Nellie, Ray, John and Edna, and for 
his second wife he married Tillie Watts, 
by whom he has two children. Fannie and 
Chauncey M. (6) James, born in Indi- 
ana, January 15, 1854, died in infancy. 

Mr. Dowd was again married, his 
second union being- with Elizabeth Hill, 
vvho died, leaving one child, Elizabeth, who 
was born in Webster county, Iowa, Janu- 
ary j j. 1856. She first married Frank 
Rakestraw, by whom she had three chil- 
dren, William. Maud and George. Her 
husband was an engineer and was killed in 
a collision, and she subsequently wedded a 
Mr. Morrison. They have one child, 
Mabel, and now make their home in Spo- 
kane. Washington. 

For his third wife Mr. Dowd married 
Rebecca Kinney, who also died leaving one 
daughter, Nancy E, who was born in Burn- 
side township, this county, December j. 
j So,), ami married T. D. Reese. She died 
in Everett, Washington, in August. 1901, 
leaving three children. Clarence. Marguer- 
ite and Helen. 

< In the 19th of December, 1866, at Day- 
ton, Iowa, Mr. Dowd was united in mar- 
riage with Mrs. Clarissa L. Corbin, win 
was born in Pennsylvania, January 7, 1838, 
a daughter of James and Carressa ('Parker) 
Spring, both natives of Xew York state. 
Her father, who was a farmer by occupa- 
tion, came west in 1850 and settled near 
Homer in what was then Webster county. 
Iowa, but removed to Kansas i n [883, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, 
dying in June. 1888. He first purchased 

forty acre- 0] land, which he placed under 
cultivation, and later added to it 'lie hun- 
dred and sixty acres, in politics he was a 
Republican. I fe bad thirteen childre 
whom Mrs. Dowd is the eldest. The others 
were Ichabod, who married a lad}' of Vir- 
ginian birth and resides in Kansas; 
who died in infancy; William Daniel, win 
died unmarried; Mary, who wedded Ed- 
ward Wells and died near Beatrice. Ne- 
braska; Cynthia C, wife of Edward 
■ if Boone county. Iowa; Sarah, deceased 
wife of Zach Aldridge, of Nebraska: James 
A., who wedded Mary Williams and lives 
in Rutland, Kansas: David M.. who is also 
married and lives in the Sun Flower state: 
Naomi, deceased wife ol George Hitchings, 
of Bonne county, Iowa; Alice, wife of 
Henry Dowel, of Rutland, Kansas: and 
twins who died in infancy. 

Mrs. Dowd was married near Lehigh, 
[owa, January 21, 1858. to Albert G. Cor- 
bin. the ceremony being performed by Ellis 
Mercer, an old settler and justice of the 
peace. Mr. Corbin was born in Hunting- 
don county, Pennsylvania, January 27. 1831, 
and was a son of Benjamin and Margaret 
M. (Park) Corbin. who traveled life's 
journey together for almost seventy years. 
His father was horn in Huntingdon coun- 
ty. Pennsylvania. February 19. 1S07. and 
died in Story county. Iowa, January 27, 
1900, wdiile the mother was hunt in Hunt- 
erdon county. New Jersey, February 22, 
[809, and died in June. 1899. The 
moved to Ohio in 1834, and on coming to 
Iowa in 1853. first 1' cated in Webster 
county, but in 1800 removed to - 
countv. where they ever afterward made 
their home. During the Civil war Albert 
G. Corbin enlisted in Company D. Six- 
teenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and was 
seriously wounded in the battle of Shiloh, 



fn in the effects of which he died on the 
loth of April. 1862, after having a limb 
amputated. He left two sons : W'ilbert X., 
now a resident of Nevada, Iowa, mar- 
ried Ella McKee and their children are 
Blaine, Clara. Lloyd, Mabel, Fay, Bertha,, 
Lee, and Eva. William, the younger 
son, was killed on the railroad, December 
19, 1882, at the age of twenty-two years. 
By her second marriage Mrs. Dowd has 
four children, all horn in Webster county. 
In order of birth they are as follows: 1 1 1 
Alice M., born December 22. 1867, is the 
wife of Eric Bloom, a farmer of Dayton 
township, and they have two children, 
William V. and .Maud. (2) William W., 
born October 31, 1872, is now managing 
the estate left by his father. (3) Clara 
Florence, twin sister of William W., is the 
wife of Edward Putzke, who resides three 
miles northeast of Dayton. I 4 ) Amanda 
M., born August 3. 1876, is the wife of 
Andrew Olson, of Fort Dodge, and has 
1 ne child, Gerald D. 

In 1855 Mr. Dowd came to Webster 
county, Iowa, and was ever afterward 
pn minently identified with agricultural in- 
terests, being one of the most successful 
fanners of his community. At the time 
- death he owned over eight hundred 
acres of valuable land in this county. In 
cial relations he was a Mason, and in 
politics was an ardent Republican. On th? 
4th of June. 1889, he passed away, hon- 
ored and respected by all who knew him. 
and his remains were interred in the Day- 
ton cemetery. In his death the community 
realized that it had lost one of it^ best citi- 
zens; his family a good husband and fa- 
ther; and his memory is tenderly cher- 
ished, not only in his home, but by all who 
knew him. 


Among the brave men who devoted 
their early manhi iod to the service of their 
country as soldiers of the Civil war was 
Captain J. L. Kinney, now one of the promi- 
nent and representative citizens of Dayton, 
Iowa. He was horn in Pennsylvania. June 
13, 1842, and is a son of Aaron and El+za 
J. (McComb) Kinney, the former a native 
of Ohio, the latter of Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, where their marriage was 
celebrated. For about four years they made 
their home in Armstrong county, that 
state, then spent one year in West Virginia, 
and at the end of that time removed to 
Meigs county, Ohio. It was in the spring 
of 185 1 that they came to Iowa, and took 
up their residence in Boone county. One 
year later they removed to Webster county, 
but after spending a year near Fort Dodge 
they returned to Boone county, and in 1858 
went to Greene county, remaining there un- 
til the close of the Civil war. Their next 
home was in Monona county, Iowa, and 
from there they removed to the state of 
Washington, locating near Ellensburg, 
where the mother died in 1894, and the 
father in 1898. 

Their family consisted of twelve chil- 
dren, namely: Eliza J. married I. D. How- 
ard and died in Jefferson, Iowa, in 1897; 
Robert married Sarah Leverton and resides 
in Dallas county, Iowa ; Margaret died at 
the age of eighteen years : Rebecca married 
William V. Dowd and died in Dayton town- 
ship. Webster county, in 1862; the Captain 
is the next in order of birth; Mary E. is the 
wife of James Merida. of Monona county; 
David married Lois Pinkney, now deceased, 
and lives in the state of Washington : Nancy 
is the wife of John Sininis. of Greene 



county, l<>\\ a; Thomas wedded Mercy 
Balis and resides in Monona county; Aaron 
married Tillie Extrand and also lives in 
Al- hi, ma county; William married Gustie 
Reese and makes his home in Ellensburg, 
Washington; and James married Emma 
Smith and also resides in Ellensburg. 

1 aptain Kinney began his education in 
the schools of Meigs county, Ohio, and 
after coming to this state with the family at 
the age of nine years, he continued to at- 
tend school for eight years. Coming to 
Dayton at the age of fifteen, he commenced 
work as a farm hand at twenty-rive cents 
per day and fifteen dollars per month, and 
was thus employed until the country became 
invi >lved in civil war. 

Responding to the President's call for 
troops, our subject enlisted at Jefferson, 
Greene county, August 6, 1861, in Com- 
pany H, Tenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, 
bejng under the command of Captain J. Orr. 
Colonel N. Purcell and General U. S. 
Grant. The regiment rendezvoused at 
Iowa City, and from there went to St. 
Louis, and later to Cape Girardeau and 
Greenfield, Missouri, whence they returned 
tn Cape Girardeau. ■ They next proceeded 
to Bird's Point. Island No. 10 and New 
Madrid, and after the battle of Shiloh went 
up the Tennessee river to Hamburg. They 
were in the siege of Corinth, and were first 
under heavy tiring in the battle of Iuka, fol- 
lowed by the second battle of Corinth. 
They next went to Grand Junction. Holly 
Springs and Oxford, Mississippi, and from 
the last named place returned to Memphis, 
whence they went to Helena. This was fol- 
lowed by the Ya I expedition, and 
after their return to Helena they went to 
Milliken's Bend. They were in the Vicks- 
burg campaign in the spring of 1863, and 
took part in the battles of Thompson's Hill 

near Port Gibson, and also Raymond and 
Jackson, as a pan of McPherson's 
Their next engagement was the batl 
Champion Hill, where they lost more than 
in any other engagement. After this they 
again assisted in the siege ^\ Vicksburg. 
After serving two years our subject was 
commissioned lieutenant in a negro regi- 
ment, the Fiftieth United States Regulars, 
and with his command went to New Or- 
leans in the spring of [865. Under the 
command of General Canby they proceeded 
to Pensacola, Florida, and were later in the 
siege and battle of Mobile. They stormed 
the works at Blakely and took the fort by 
charge, after which they returned to Mo- 
bile, where Captain Kinney resigned, hav- 
ing previously been promoted to that rank. 
He was mustered out on the 1st of May, 
[865, and returned to Dayton with a war 
record of which he may justly be proud. 

On the 6th of September, 1865, the 
Captain led to the marriage altar Miss Mary 
J. Dowd, who was horn in Noble county, 
Indiana. April 19, 1847, her parents being 
William A", and Martha (Allison) Dowd, 
natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania, respect- 
ively. Mr. and Mrs. Dowd were married 
in Indiana, and there five children were 
born to them, namely: Maria, who mar- 
ried George T. Nettles and died in 1 
Marv J., wife of our subject: F. A., who 
married Caroline Burnquisl and makes his 
home in Fori Hodge, having set 
terms as sheriff of this county; Alexander, 
who married Miss Loretta Stoughton and 
livi on a farm near Dayton; and John H., 
who first married Clarissa I Hair and sec- 
ond Tilla Watts, and formerly resided on a 
farm near Dayton but is now living in Okla- 
homa. The mother of these children died 
in 1854. and in the fall of 1855 the father 
married Elizabeth Hill and later removed 


to Webster county, Iowa, locating on a 
farm, where his death occurred in 1889. 
His second wife died in 1857. leaving one 
child, Lizzie. She first married Frank 
Rakestraw, an engineer, who was killed on 
the Rock Island Railroad, and later wedded 
Canity Morrison, and now lives in Spo- 
kane, Washington. In 1858 Mr. Dowd 
married Rebecca Kinney, by whom he had 
one daughter, Nancy, who married T. D. 
Reece, now a resident of Rossland,. Can- 
ada, and she died August 18, 1901. Mr. 
Dowd lost his third wife in 1862, and 
four years later he married Mrs. 
Clarissa Corbin, who now lives on a farm 
near Dayton. By the last marriage there 
were four children: .Mice, wife of Erie 
Bloom, of Dayton township; Clara, wife of 
Ed Putsky, a farmer of the same township; 
W. \V., win. 1 is a twin brqther of Clara and 
resides with his mother in Dayton township; 
and \tnanda, wife of Andrew ( >lsun, of 
Pert Dodge. 

The children horn to Captain Kinney 
and wife are as follows: (1) Harry A., 
born December 6, r866, is an engineer on 
the Chicago Great Western Railroad and 
resides in Dayton. He married Elsie 
Meanor, who died in the spring of 1897, 
leaving six children: Flossie J., Dersey E., 
Georgie, Xellie, Bessie and Robert. (2) 
Willis E., horn March 29, 1868, is a vet- 
erinary surgeon of Madison, South Dakota 
He married Helen Scott and has one child. 
Grace. 13) George F., horn July 1, 1871, 
is a farmer of Harcourt, Webster county. 
He married Emma Gerdie and has two chil- 
dren, Fern and Iva. (4) Fred II., born 
January 8. 1S7X, is a brakeman on the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railroad and lives 
in ( arroll. Iowa. He married Mattie Wil- 
cox and has two children, Florence and 
Bernice. (5) Ralph V., born November 

9, 1877, married Grace Xeece and is a 
brakeman on the Northwestern Railroad, 
residing in Lake City. (6) John W., born 
March 10, 1879, married Abbie Carlson and 
is a farmer of Dayton. (7) Perry D., born 
May 9. 1883. (8) Benjamin H., horn May 
21, 1NN7, and (01 Mary M., horn July 15. 
1888, are all at home. 

Since his marriage Captain Kinney has 
given his time and attention to farming and 
stock raising, and has met with marked 
success, being now the owner of fifteen hun- 
dred acres of valuable farming land in Web- 
ster comity, besides some town property in 
Dayton. He now feeds oyer three hun- 
dred head of stock and ships large numbers 
to the city markets, having been success- 
fully engaged in the stock business for 
many years. 

Captain Kinney attends and contributes 
to the support of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, is a member of Oak Lodge, No 
531, A. F. & A. M., and the Grand Army 
Post of Dayton. As a Republican he has 
.been prominently identified with public af- 
fairs, and was twice a candidate for state 
representative, but unfortunately his party 
was then in the minority in his district. He 
has, however, most creditably and satisfac- 
torily served as supervisor for nine years, 
and has also tilled the office of township 
trustee several terms. As a soldier he was 
brave and fearless, "being always found at 
his post of duty, and as a citizen he has ever 
been found true to every trust reposed in 
him, so that he well merits the high regard 
in which he is held bv his fellow citizens. 


If "biography is the home aspect of 
history," as Wilmott has expressed it. then 
it i- entirely within the province of this 




volume to perpetuate th< 

- who have made the history of the 
Hawkeye state. Wars and conquests have 
formed the annals of the pasl centuries, but 
in the nineteenth century the records were 
those of mind over matter, nol tin 
man over man. and the victories achieved 
have been along the lines of business prog- 
ress and improvement, of substantial de- 
velopment, culture and learning. There is 
esident of northwestern Iowa whose 
efforts have been of more avail in promot- 
ing the transformation of Webster county 
from a wild, unclaimed region to a section 
where every indication of an advanced civ- 
ilization is found. His business interests 
have been so broad and varied that he has 
contributed in large measure to the general 
prosperity, and yet not alone along business 
lines have his efforts been put forth for the 
public good. Almost a half century has 
passed since he took up his abode in Fort 
1 >odge and his life record has since become 
an important chapter in its history. 

John Francis Duncombe was born on 
the homestead farm in Erie county, Penn- 
sylvania, October 22, 1831, and back to 
England he traces his ancestry, where dif 
ferent members of the family served their 
country in parliament and in other import- 
ant public positions. The familj 
Founded in America by Charles Duncombe, 
who. taking up his abode in the new world, 
was a stanch patriot in Rev lutionary days. 
< mm 1 f his large fortune he contributed 
more than sixtv thousand pounds in aid .it 
the colonists who were struggling for lib- 
erty and independence, and he not onl) 
gave a large share of his fortune, bui also 
laid down his life upon the altar of his 
country. His son, the grandfather of John 
.F. Duncombe, was a volunteer in the Amer- 
ican army in the second war with Great 

Britain in [812. Hi Duncombe, 

became a farmer • 1' Erie 1 ennsyl- 

vania, where he gained a comfortable liv- 
ing through the care and cultivation of his 

h was upon this farm th; 
boyhood days of John !•'. Duncombe were 
passed. In_a loo sc l 10O ] house his early 
education was acquired and when sixteen 
years of age he was sent to Allegheny Col- 
lege, at Meadville, where he pursued his 
studies for three years. On the expiration 
of that period he matriculated in Center 
College, in Danville, Kentucky, where he 
was graduated with high honors in the 
class of June. 185.2. He then returned to 
Allegheny College, where he was graduat- 
ed the same month. Subsequently the lat- 
ter institution conferred upon him the de- 
gree of Master of Arts. 

Mr. Duncombe is truly a self-educated 
and self-made man. While attending col- 
te spent the periods of vacation in 
teaching in order to secure the means 
necessary to meet his expenses, having 
charge of his first school before he was sev- 
enteen years of age. On the completion 
of hi- collegiate work he began the study 
of law in Erie, Pennsylvania, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1853, after which he 
at once began practice. While still a resi- 
dent of Erie he was married. I tecember 29, 
1852, to Miss Carrie Perkins, who died No- 
vember 10. [854, in Erie. 

'Die following year .Mr. Duncombe be- 
came a resident of Fort Dodge, arriving 
here in April, lie borrowed three hundred 
dollars from hi- father, having -urrendered 
his interest in the paternal estate in con- 
sideration of moiiex advanced to meet col- 
lege expenses, and with that -mall sum as 
his entire fortune, boldly struck out for 
the west to make In- own way in the 



world. Into the wild western region 
lie made his way, the vast, unclaimed 
and unbroken prairies stretched away 
on every side as far as the eye could 
reach and no railroads connected with 
the outside world the little town of Fort 
Dodge, in which there were no build- 
ings aside from the soldiers' barracks. 
Much of the land in tins locality belonged 
to the government, with the exception of 
the few isolated claims along the streams, 
where timber and springs could be found. 
The pioneers had little money and seldom 
indulged in the luxury of litigation, but 
his keen foresight enabled Mr. Duncombe 
to recognize the possibilities and oppor- 
tunities of the country and to realize that 
it must soon become a thickly settled dis- 
trict, so that he resolved to remain and en- 
dure the privations and hardships which 
must be met in pioneer times in order to 
enjoy the benefits which the future prom- 
ised. Xo .man in the community did more 
to promote progress, to> encourage im- 
provement and to advance the transforma- 
tion which has changed this district from 
a wild, unsettled region to one of prosper- 
ity, where wealth, culture and refinement 
have become important factors in the life 
of the community. The land was reclaimed 
for purposes of civilization and the track 
of the shining pi' v\ 3< i n made its way 
s the once barren prairie; all the com- 
forts and conveniences of the older east 
were introduced, property rose in value and 
labor brought the reward of prosperity. 
Trials and difficulties were of frequent oc- 
currence, but gradually the work of the 
brave, resolute and enterprising early set- 
tlers, who wrought along the lines of great- 
est good, wrought a transformation that 
placed Webster county upon a par with any 
of the counties of this great commonwealth. 

An event deeply impressed upon the annals 
of frontier history occurred in the spring 
of 1857. News was brought to Fort D< dge 
of the extermination by the Sioux Indians 
of the colony which the year before had 
settled aim >ng the groves that surrounded 
the beautiful lakes of Okoboji and vicinity, 
on the extreme northern boundary of the 
state, in Dickinson count)'. Die winter 
had been one of the greatest severity ; the 
whole country was covered with a heavy 
blanket of snow, filling ravines and sloughs 
to a depth of many feet, rendering travel 
very difficult. The report that all of the 
colonists were massacred, with the excep- 
tion of four young women, who were 
dragged away into captivity more terrible 
than death, aroused a frenzy of horror that 
demanded instant pursuit, rescue and pun- 
ishment. Over a hundred fearless young 
men from Webster and the neighboring 
county of Hamilton hastily assembled at 
Fort Dodge, organized into three com- 
panies, choosing for their captains C. - B. 
Richards and John F. Duncombe, of Fort 
Dodge, and J. C. Johnson, of Webster 
City. The veteran Major Williams, then 
nearly sixtv years of age. took command 
and the little battalion, poorly equipped for 
such a perilous winter march, hastened to 
the rescue. Their suffering and heroic en- 
durance of hardships, almost equal to those 
of Napoleon's army in the Moscow- cam- 
paign, are matters of history. Every mem- 
ber of that little army of volunteers proved 
himself a hero and won a place among "the 
bravest of the brave." Captain Johnson 
and William Burkholder perished on the re- 
turn march and many others b?:ely sur- 
vived to reach their homes. The state has 
o mmemorated their heorism by a monu- 
ment, placed on the site where the terri- 
ble massacre began. Mr. Duncombe being 



appropriately appointed one of the com- 
missi ners to superintend its erection. 

But pioneer days passed and other con- 
ditions were found in the once wild, west- 
ern districts. Business developed and in 
the activity of commercial and industrial 
life, as well as in the line of his professii n. 
Mr. Duncornbe bore an active part. In 
1858 he became one of the editors of the 
Fort Dodge Sentinel, which had been estab- 
lished in July. 1836, by A. S. White. Some 
years later he was editor and proprietor of 
the Fort Dodge Democrat, but he never 
relinquished his law practice while connect- 
ed with journalism. His fellow citizens 
recognizing his fitness for leadership, called 
him to public office and throughout the en- 
tire period of his residence here he has ex- 
ercised strong influence in molding public 
thought and opinion. In 1859 he was 
nominated by the Democrats of the thirty- 
second district, consisting of twenty-three 
counties, for the position of state senator 
and the election returns placed him in office 
for a four-years' term. Twice he has rep- 
resented his district in the lower branch 
of the general assembly and for eighteen 
years he was one of the regents of the 
State University, while for ten years he 
lectured on railroad law in that institution. 
He was honored with the appointment to 
the position as one of the Iowa Columbian 
commissioners having charge of the [ov 1 
exhibit at the World's Fair in Chicago in 
1893. Few elective 1 fhces has he tilled, for 
he has always been an advocate of the 
cratic party, which has ever been in 
the minority in Iowa. He has been his 
party's candidate for lieutenant governor, 
supreme judge and representative in con- 
gress, and it is said that had he been a Re- 
publican lie could have gained any office 

within the gift of the party in the state, 
but he has never wavered in his allegiance 
to what he believes to be right and has ever 
maintained his position as a free-trade 
Democrat. He has for many years, how- 
ever, occupied a most distinguished posi- 
tion in Democratic circles. In iXj2 he was 
chairman of the Iowa delegation to the 
Democratic national convention in Balti- 
more, where Horace Greeley was nominated 
for the presidency. In 189J he was again 
chairman of the Iowa delegation at the 
Chicago convention, but having been se- 
lected to present the name of Governor 
Boies as a candidate for the presidency, he 
resigned his chairmanship and in a speech 
characterized by great eloquence and power 
placed the name of Iowa's Democratic ex- 
exutive before the meeting. 

Throughout all the years of his resi- 
dence in Iowa Mr. Dunci mibe has remained 
a distinguished member of the bar and has 
been connected with some of the most im- 
portant litigation tried in the courts of the 
district. As a lawyer he is sound, clear- 
minded and well trained. The limitations 
which were imposed by the constitution on 
federal powers are well understood by him. 
With the long line of decisions, from Mar- 
shall down, by which the constitution has 
been expounded, he is familiar, as are all 
tin n ughly skilled lawyers. He is at home 
in all departments of the law from the 
minutia in practice to the greater topics 
wherein is involved the consideration of 
the ethics and the philosophy 1 i juris- 
prudence and the higher concerns of pub- 
lic policy. But he is not learned in the 
law alone, for he has studied long and care- 
fully the subjects that are to the states- 
man and the man of affairs of the greatest 
import. — the questions of finance, political 


economy, sociology, — and has kept abreasl 
oi the best thinking men of the age. He is 
felicitious and clear in argument, thorough- 
ly in earnest, full of the vigor of convic- 
tion, never abusive of adversaries, imbued 
with the highest courtesies and yet a foe 
worthy of the steel of the most able op- 
ponent. While he has given his services 
largely to the legal business of the Illinois 
Central Railway Company, holding the po- 
sitii 11 of district attorney, having twenty- 
three counties in four states in his jurisdic 
he ha- also a large general practice. 
He has defended in twelve trial- for mur- 
der and prosecuted in three. "When the 
great legal contest was made over the 
validity of the prohibition amendment to 
the state constitution, Mr. Duncombe and 
Judge C. C. Nourse and Senator James F. 
Wilson were appointed by the governor to 
represent the state in sustaining the legality 
of the act. 

Although his attention has been chiefly 
given t>> his law practice, 'Sir. Duncombe has 
also aided in controlling business enter- 
prises of vast importance to the community. 
He was line of the incorporators of the 
Iowa Falls & Sioux City Railway, the Ma- 
son City & Fort Dodge Railroad, the Fort 
Dodge & Fort Ridgely, now the Minneapo- 
lis \ St. Louis Railroad, and all other lines 
projected to enter Fort Dodge. Fie also 
was i me of the first tp develop the coal 
mining interests in that section, and was 
the builder of the principal hotel in Fort 
> dge. For man}- years he has been en- 
gaged largely in coal mining and in the 
manufacture of stucco and all its products 
from the extensive gypsum deposits which 
underlie a large tract of the country about 
Fort Dodge, hi- sons having charge of the 

Mr. Duncombe was married on the 
nth of .May. 1850. the lady of his choice 
being Miss Mary A. Williams, daughter of 
Major Williams, the founder of Fort 
Dodge and for man}- years one of the best 
known citizens of northwestern Iowa. 
They have two sons and three daughters 
living, and the family attends the Episco- 
pal church. Such in brief is the life record 
of one who, for forty-seven years, has 
made his home in Fort Dodge. Materia! 
interests owe their advancement to him ; 
public progress has been promoted through 
his efforts. He has attained distinction 
at the bar and in the walks of private life 
lias ever commanded unqualified respect. 
While undoubtedly he has not been with- 
out that honorable ambition, which is so 
powerful and useful as an incentive to ac- 
tivity in public affairs, he has ever regarded 
the pursuits of private life as being in them- 
selves abundantly worthy of his best ef- 
forts. His is a noble character — one that 
has subordinated personal ambition to pub- 
lic good and sought rather the benefit of 
others than the aggrandizement of self. 
His has been a conspicuotisly successful 
career. Endowed by nature with high in- 
tellectual qualities, to which have been add- 
ed the discipline and embellishments of cul- 
ture, his is a most attractive personality. 
Well versed in the learning of his pro- 
fessii hi and with a deep knowledge of hu- 
man nature and the springs of human con- 
duct, with great shrewdness and sagacity 
and extraordinary tact, he is in the courts 
an advocate of great power and influence. 
Both judges and juries have always heard 
him with deep attention and interest. If 
his efforts had been confined alone to his 
practice, his life had not been in vain, but 
it has been enriched bv an unselfish devo- 


tion to the public good, and Iowa honors 
him as ne oi her most pn miinent am 
ued citizens. 

IS \ \f G \im< »]■:. 

From the days of pioneer development 
in Webster county, Isaac Garmoe has been 
an active factor in all that has tended 
toward the upbuilding and substantial im- 
provement of Fori Dodge. His name is so 
closely associated with its history that no 
record of the county would be complete 
without extended mention of his life work. 
He was born in the neighborhood of Lou- 
den, Franklin count)', Pennsylvania, No- 
vember 9, 1827, and is a son of Isaac and 
Magdalena (Bulger) Garmoe, also natives 
of the Keystone state. The father was of 
French extraction and the mother of Ger- 
man lineage. They became the parents of 
twelve children, including Isaac Garmoe. 
who spent the first twenty years of his life 
in the county of his nativity, and in the 
spring of 1847 accompanied his father's 
family on their emigration westward. Af- 
ter remaining temporarily in Illinois for six 
months they continued their journey until 
they arrived in Jefferson county, Iowa, tak- 
ing up their abode in the "Rich Woods" 
near Fairfield. The journey from McCon- 
nellsbnrg to Pittsburg was by a six-horse 
team and from there to Copperas Creek 
Landing was made by steamboat. Through- 
out their remaining days the parents of our 
subject resided in the vicinity of Fairfield. 

Isaac Garmoe came to Webster county 
in 1854 and purchased land near Border 
Plains, where he farmed until November, 
1861. The county was then but sparsely 
settled and the division of Hamilton and 
Webster counties had not been made. 

\n< r the dh ision Mr. 1 rarmoe was e 

t) treasurer of Webster count) in [861, 
being the second person ever chosen to the 
position, which also included the dutii 
count) recorder at thai time. He served 
for two terms, from January, [862, until 
January. [866, and since that time he has 
made Fort Dodge his home. But whether 
in office or out of it, he has always been 
interested in the welfare of his adopted 
county and has contributed in large meas- 
ure to its progress and improvement. 

Prior to coming to Webster county, Mr. 
( rarmoe had worked at the carpenter's 
trade in summer and taught school in win- 
ter, receiving a salary of forty to sixty dol- 
lars for three months' service and boarding 
himself. Since his retirement from office, 
he has been engaged in the mercantile and 
real estate business and no man in the coun- 
ty has a broader or more accurate know ledge 
of realty values. His business methods 
have ever been above reproach, and while 
adding to his own income, he has in a con- 
scientious manner aided many new comers 
in gaining desirable homes, In recent 
years he has conducted many important real 
estate transfers and his clientage has con- 
tinually grown, bringing to him gratifying 
success. He is also a director in the ( oin 
mercial and Fort Dodge Savings Banks. 

Mr. Garmoe has been twice married. 
In 1849 he wedded Miss Susan Jane Bar- 
gar, who died in 1855, after which he was 
joined in wedlock to -Mrs. Margarel Sher- 
rill Johnson, a native of Alabama, who 
came to Webster county with her first hus- 
band, Mr. Johnson. In his church re- 
lations Mr. Garmoe is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and repre- 
sented the local church at Fort Dodge 
as delegate to the general conference held in 
Baltimore in May, 1876. He is also a mem- 



ber of the board of trustees of the Charles 
City College and of the Morning Side Col- 
lege at Sioux City, Iowa, and a contributor 
to both. He is an Odd Fellow, belonging 
to both the subordinate lodge and the en- 
campment. He was reared in the faith of 
the Whig party, his father having been an 
advocate of its principles, and on the in- 
auguration of the new Republican party he 
joined its ranks and has since been one of 
its warmest advocates. Viewed in a per- 
sonal light, he is a strong man of earnest 
purpose and unflagging determination, and 
his persistency has been an important fac- 
tor jn hi-, success. His labors in behalf of 
the county have been of a very beneficial 
nature, and at all times he has commanded 
the respect, confidence and good will of his 
felli >w citizens. 


J. H. Yandevender, manager of the 
"Western Grain Company, at Buncombe, 
and an extensive farmer and stockraiser of 
Washington township, was born on his fa- 
ther's farm in Webster county, Iowa, Au- 
gust 22, 1858. He was educated in the dis- 
trict schools of his township, and reared to 
an appreciation of the dignity and useful- 
ness of an agricultural life. At the age of 
nineteen years he faced the problem of self- 
support, and for five years worked out as a 
farm band by the month, two years of that 
time being spent in his home neighborhood 
and the remaining three years in northeast- 
ern Kansas. He then returned to Hamilton 
county. Iowa, and in Fremont township 
rented a farm, upon which he lived for four 
years, and at the end of that time purchased 
eighty-six acres of land, where he resided 
with his family until August 1, 1891. 

At Fort Dodge, Iowa. May 1.2. 1882, 
Mr. Yandevender married Sadie M. Ouens, 
who was born in Canada in 1861, a daugh- 
ter of Hugh and Jane Ouens, the former a 
native of Ireland. The parents were mar- 
ried in Canada, and from there removed to 
near Browning, Missouri, where they lived 
for three years. They then came to Fre- 
mont township, Hamilton county. Iowa, 
and lived upon rented land for se\-en years. 
A later place of residence was Pocahontas 
county, Iowa, where the mother died in 
1895, after which the father sold his inter- 
ests in this state and settled in Estberville, 
Iowa, where he is now living a retired life. 
He had five sons and four daughters : Will- 
iam, a resident of Buffalo Center. Iowa ; 
Thomas, who lives in North Dakota: John. 
who is married and lives in Pocahontas 
county. Iowa; Robert, who is engaged in 
the creamery business in Chicago ; Albert, 
who is a farmer in Pocahontas county, 
Iowa; Elizabeth, who is the wife of Eli 
Long and lives in Deer Creek township. 
Webster county, Iowa; Hannah, who re- 
sides in Estberville, Iowa; Belle, who also 
lives in Estherville ; Susie ; and Sadie, the 
wife of Mr. Yandevender. To Mir. and 
Mrs. Yandevender have been born the fol- 
lowing children: Emmet W., born March 
8, 1883, died August 23. 1898; Zelpha B., 
born October 16, 1885, is engaged in edu- 
cational work in Colfax township. Webster 
county: and Alta L.. born October 6. 1887, 
is at present attending school. 

After becoming identified with Dun- 
combe in 1891, Mr. Yandevender engaged 
in the grain business, and although the com- 
panv has undergone many changes and op- 
erated under four different names, his ex- 
pert services have been ever since in de- 
mand as manager. In the meantime he has 
disposed of his farm in Hamilton county, 



and has. instead, a splendidly improved 
farm of one hundred and sixty acres on sec- 
tion 4. Washington township, Webster coun- 
ty, and owns one of the finest residences 
in Duncombe. Other city property has 
come int. 1 his possession, and many public 
interests engage the attention not needed in 
his general grain and fanning husiness. As 
a stanch upholder of Republican institu- 
tions and issues he has been singularly 
trusted and honored by the community, has 
been a member of die city council for six 
years and has also served as township 
urer. Fraternally he is associated with 
the Acacia Lodge, No. 176, A. F. & A. M.. 
at Webster City. Mr. Vandevender is a 
man who has risen solely upon his own 
merits, without early influential hacking or 
money assistance, lie started out in life 
with a capital amounting- to well-balanced 
brain force and large capacity for labor, and 
his reputation and attainments rest upon 
the solid and substantial elements of life. 


Henry W. Sanborn is one of Fort 
Dodge's old citizens, whose useful and well- 
spent life has not only gained for him the 
friendship and good will of his fellow men 
hut has put him in a position to take the 
balance of life easy. 

A native of New York, Air. Sanborn 
was born in Norfolk - , St. Lawrence county, 
November 9, [832, and is the son of Rob- 
ert C. and Cassandre W. ( Stevens ) San- 
born, who were horn in New Hampshire 
and removed to New York just before the 
birth of our subject. He has one sister liv- 
ing. By occupation his father was a con- 
tractor. In 1833 the family removed to 
Buffalo, New York, and in 1841 to Michi- 

gan and located on a farm, where our sub- 
ject passed his boyhood and youth, his edu- 
cation being obtained in the district schools 
of the neighborhood. 

In [852 Mr. Sanborn went to Jackson, 
.Michigan, where he made his home for four 
years. He was present and took part in the 
big mass meeting held on Moody's Hill, 
when the Republican party was organized 
ami first given the name on the 6th of Jul) - , 
[854. The following fall Kingsley S. 
Bingham was triumphantly elected the first 
Republican governor of Michigan. 

Mr. Sanborn then went to Marengo, 
Illinois, where he was engaged in the mar- 
ble business for some time. On the 6th of 
May, 1858, while on a visit to New York 
state he was united in marriage to Miss 
Mary J. Cooper, of Massena, St. Lawrence 
count}-. New York, whose parents were 
farmers. Three children blessed this union, 
namely: Jennie C, born August 20, 
died at the age of five years; Orville E., 
bom February 22, 1864, is now with the 
Great Western Cereal Company, of Fort 
Lodge; and Alberta I'M born August 22, 
[869, is the wife of R. G. Long, who is en- 
gaged in the real estate business in Detroit, 

On the 1 2th of November, 1858, Mr. 
Sanborn took up his residence in his native 
count}-, where be was engaged in the marble 
business until after the Civil war broke out. 
He was enrolled in July, 1863, in Company 
F. Eighty-third New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, under . Captain Jacobs and Colonel 
Moesch. From camp rendezvous, New 
York Git}-, he went to the Army of the Po- 
tomac and joined the regiment at Bealeton 
Station, near the Rappahannock river. The 
regiment was in the Second Brigade under 
Brigadier General Henry Baxter, the Sec- 
ond Division under Brigadier General John 



1 '. K> 'binsi n and the First Army Corps un 
der Major General John F. Reynolds. 
While Mr. Sanborn was with his regiment 
il took part in the battle of Mine Run. Vir- 
ginia, November 28, 1863, and a number 
of smaller engagements. On account of 
disability contracted while with the regi- 
ment he was discharged In un the service 
June in. 1864, al De ('amp general hos- 
pital near Alexandria, Virginia, and went to 
New York city with the old members of the 
regiment whose time was out. 

In the fall of [864 Air. Sanborn became 
interested in the marble business in Corn- 
wall, Canada, but resided in Massena, New 
York. lie was afterward in business in 
Massena until 1869, when he sold out on 
account of ill health. Leaving New York 
1870, he removed to Constantine, St. Jo- 
seph county, Michigan, and in April, 1872, 
came to Fort Dodge, Iowa, where he was 
employed in the marble business fur two 
years. He then located on his homestead, 
where lie resided until April, 1879. when 
he returned to Fort Dodge and went to 
work fur A. M. De Lano, where the follow- 
ing five years were spent. He next went 
tn Sioux Falls, Smith Dakota, but continued 
to make Fort Dodge his home, and since 
1895 has passed his time here, having re- 
tired from active business mi account of ill 
health. Wherever known he is respected, 
and has the good will of all with whom he 
has been brought in contact. 


Among the old and honored citizens of 
Webster county none is more deserving of 
mention in a work' of this character than 
George Marsh, who for forty-five years has 
made hi- In me in Yell township. He was 

born m Count} Kent. England, and was 
there reared and educated. Before leaving 
his native land he was united in marriage 
with Alls- Charlotte Page, who was also 
In 'in in G mnty Kent. 

1 r about five years after nis marriage 
Mi Marsh engaged in farming in Eng- 
land, but at the end of that time decided 
1- tr\ his fortune in the new world, believ- 
ing that here were better opportunities for 
advancement. Accordingly, in 1846, he 
and his family took passage on a sailing 
vessel at Liverpool and after a voyage of 
six weeks landed in New York, Going 
up the Hudson river, they made their way 
westward and finally located at Waukegan, 
Illinois, where they spent eleven years. 

In 1857 Mr. Marsh came to Webster 
county, Iowa, and took up a river claim in 
Yell township, where he has since made his 
home. As time passed he added to the 
original tract until he had two hundred 
and sixty acres on sections 19, 20 and 29. 
which, with the exception of nine acres, 
was all wild land when it came into his 
possession, but it was not long before the 
whole farm was under cultivation. He 
built fences, erected a good house, barn and 
other outbuildings ; and made many other 
useful and valuable improvements until he 
had one of the best farms in the county. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Marsh were born 
thirteen children, namely: Frances, wife 
of James Bloomfietd, of Fair, Kansas; 
George W.. whose sketch is given below; 
John, who married Jennette Wicks and re- 
sides in Steelville, Missouri ; James, who 
married Elizabeth E. Barnette and lives in 
Yell township, this county; Addie, deceased 
wife of X. C. Howard, of Burnside town- 
ship; Carrie, wife of James Baker, of Kim- 
ball, [ndiana; Samuel, who married Aman- 
da Mitchell and died in Yeli township; 





Lydia. wife of Marion Douglass, of Web- 
ster township; William, who married 
Mamie Cram and resides in Burnside town- 
ship; Fred, who married Ella Allen and 
also lives in Burnside township; Emma, wife 
of Miles Kilt, of Alba, Indiana; Rose, de- 
ceased wife of William Mead, of Republic. 
Kansas; Lincoln, who married Nellie 
Clark and died in Yell township, this 
county. The mi ither of these children died 
on the 5th of February, [898, and was laid 
to rest in Oak Grove cemetery. Yell town- 

Although now eighty-seven years of 
age Mr. Marsh is still hale and hearty and 
appears like a man mueh younger. Po- 
litically he is identified with the Republi- 
can party, and in early life took quite an 
active and prominent part in public affairs, 
filling all of the township offices and serv- 
ing. as county supervisor for a time. He is 
an earnest and consistent member of the 
Christian church, and his pleasant, genial 
manner lias endeared him to all with whom 
he has been brought in contact, either in 
business or social life. 


The material prosperity of Fulton town- 
ship has been fostered and maintained by 
the praiseworthy efforts of B. E. Peterson, 
who 1 owns a well-improved farm of eighty 
acres on section 22. Although born in Nor- 
way, April 14, 1858, he is an American 
aside from the accident of birth, for he was 
but eight years of age when his parents. 
Ole and Olena Peterson, emigrated to the 
United States at the close of the Civil war. 
The family came directly to Iowa and lo- 
cated on section 22, Fulton township, 
Webster county, where the mother now 

lives with her daughter, Mrs. Olena Lud- 
dick. the father having died June |. [898. 
The children bom into the family who are 
now living are; B. E.. John, Julius, Mar- 
tin, Fred, Jacob, Olena, I. -ding. Anna 
Field and Louisa. 

In his youth Mr. Peterson was not 
favored with large educational opportuni- 
ties, for the tasks on the home farm were 
arduous and consumed about all of the time 
between the rising and setting of the sun. 
However, he learned much from observa- 
tion and general dealings with men, so that 
at the present time he is a well-informed 
man on current and other events. On De- 
cember 17, 1879, he married Lena Bean, a 
native of La Salle county, Illinois, born 
May 20, 1861. Her parents were born in 
Norway and came to America in i860, and 
lived in La Salle county, Illinois, for three 
years, after which they settled in De Kalb 
county, Illinois, and in 1874 moved to near 
Callender, Webster county. Iowa. Later 
still they settled in the town of Callender, 
where the mother died July 14, 1897, the 
father surviving her until his death at the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. B. E. Peterson, 
March 1, 1898. Mrs. Peterson is one of a 
family of seven children, the others being: 
Nels. who married Ada Johnson and lives 
in Compton, Illinois; Eli, who married 
Lissa Knappenbergh and lives in Fort. 
Dodge, Iowa; Anna, wife of N. L. Randall, 
of Fort Dodge: Cora, widow nf Tin 
Byrd and a resident of Lee, Illinois; Sarah. 
wife of Ike Christopher, of South Dakota: 
and Adeline, widow of Jonas Olson and a 
resident of Seattle, Washington. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Peterson have been born the fol- 
lowing children: Frank Oliver, born De- 
cember 27, 1881, and now attending Tobin 
College, Fort Dodge; and William Cyrus, 
born March 22, 1894. 



Ever since his marriage Mr. Peterson 
has owned the farm upon which he now 
lues, although in the meantime his inter- 
ests have been varied and have called him 
to different parts of the county. On three 
different occasions he has rented his farm 
and lived in Fort Dodge, and at one time 
worked on a dairy farm for a couple of 
years, still later engaging in the sale of 
musical instruments, of which he has an 
extensive knowledge. For a portion of one 
season he ran a feed barn in the city of 
Fort Dodge, and at Callender for two years 
he worked as a section hand. Mr. Peter- 
son is a Republican in national politics, and 
Ids fellow townsmen have honored him 
with their trust by placing him in a num- 
ber of responsible local offices, the duties of 
which he has performed with credit to him- 
•self and the township. Himself and fam- 
ily are members of the Congregational 
church. Mr. Peterson has an enviable repu- 
tation for. integrity and general excellence, 
and is one o-f the progressive influences of 
his locality. 


Dr. William Lloyd Nicholson, deceased, 
was fur many years one of the most highly 
esteemed and honored citizens of Fort 
Dodge, lie was born on the 25th of Sep- 
tember, 1832, in County Waterford, Ire- 
land. His father served with distinction as 
a colonel in the English army. Of his three 
sons one was connected with the Bank of 
Dublin and another was a farmer in Lou- 

The Doctor, who was the oldest son, 
acquired his early education in the national 
schools of Waterford, and also in a col- 
lege that was located on his father's land, 

and later attended the University of Glas- 
gow, where he completed the prescribed 
medical course and was granted the degree 
of M. B. in 1852, at the age of twenty 
years. He then came to the new world, 
and in 1855 took up his residence in Fort 
Dodge, Iowa. Here he taught a private 
school for some time and then engaged in 
the practice of medicine. 

After the country became involved in 
civil war Dr. Nicholson enlisted at Fort 
Dodge, August 16, 1862, for three years or 
during the war, as a private in Company 
]., Thirty-second Iowa Volunteer Infantry, 
under Captain J. Hutchinson and Colonel 
Scott. He was mustered in at Davenport, 
October 6, and was promoted to second 
lieutenant of his company, but resigned his 
commission on the 1st of the following De- 
cember, being appointed assistant surgeon 
of the Twenty-ninth Iowa Volunteer In- 
fantry, under Colonel Benton. Subse- 
quently he was made chief surgeon with 
the rank of major. He participated in the 
White river expedition in January, 1863, 
and Yazoo Pass in the following February, 
and took part in the battles of Helena, Ar- 
kansas, July 4; Bayou Meto, August 27; 
Little Rock, September 10; Terre Moir, 
April 2, 1864; Elkin's Ford, April 4; 
Prairie D'Anne, April 10 and 12; Camden, 
April id; and Jenkins Ferry, April 30. 
At the last named place he was captured, 
but was shortly afterward released on the 
exchange of prisoners. He was granted a 
thirty-day furlough, which he spent at 
home, and on the 31st of December, 1864, 
rejoined his regiment. He took part in the 
campaign against Mobile from the 17th of 
March to the 9th of April, 1865, and was 
in the assault on Spanish Fort, Alabama, 
April 8 ; Fort Blakely, April 9, and Mobile, 
April 12. Fie was then in the Texas cam- 



paign until July, 1805; was mustered out at 
New Orleans on the 10th of August, and 
honorably discharged at Davenport, Iowa, 
September 19, 1865, the war being- over. 

Returning- to his home in Fort Dodge, 
Dr. Nicholson was successfully engaged in 
practice here until his death. A progress- 
ive physician and a constant student, he 
took a post-graduate course at Des Moines 
in 1882 and received a diploma. On the 
8th of March, 1883, he opened a drug store 
in partnership with a Mr. Crawford, but 
soon withdrew, and served one term as city 

The Doctor was first married Decem- 
ber 31, 1865, to Miss Anna J. Leonard, of 
Cedar Rapids, who died January 15, 1875, 
leaving- one child, W. L. Nicholson, who 
is now living in El Paso, Texas. On the 
27th of November, 1S76, Dr. Nicholson 
married Miss Sarah L Sherman, a native 
of Ireland, by whom he had one child, 
Anna Sherman, who is now attending 
school and resides with her mother in Fort 

For four years prior to his death the 
Doctor was in ill health, his sufferings 
being caused by hay fever, and he passed 
away on the 10th of November, 1890. He 
was an honored member of the Fort Donel- 
son Post, No. 236, G. A. R., and during 
President Cleveland"s first administration 
served as pension examiner. He also served 
in that capacity for some years after the 
close of the war, being one of the first ap- 
pointed to that position. He was also ex- 
amining physician for the Catholic Mutual 
Benefit Association, to which he belonged, 
and was a prominent member and president 
at one time of the District Medical Society. 
Up to the time of his death he was surgeon 
For all the railroads entering Fort Dodge. 
He was a great lover of nature, was quite 

a naturalist, and contributed many able 
articles to the magazine known as the 
American Field. He also wrote for news- 
papers and other periodicals and possessed 
considerable ability as a poet. Widely and 
favorably known, he left many friends to 
mourn his loss as well as his immediate 
family. In manner he was pleasant and 
genial, and he was held in the highest re- 
gard by all with whom he came in contact- 
either in professional or social life. 


It has been said that biography yields 
to no other subject in point of interest and 
profit, and it is especially interesting to note 
the progress that has been made and the 
success that has been achieved in various 
lines of business by those of foreign birth 
who have sought homes in America — the 
readiness with which they adapt themselves 
to the different methods and customs of the 
new world, recognize the advantages offered 
and utilize the opportunities which the 
United States affords. 

Probably one of the most successful 
farmers of Webster county whose early 
home was on the other side of the Atlantic 
is Andrew Arent, who is now living a re- 
tired life on his farm on section 13, Badger 
township, two miles and a half east of the 
village of Badger. He was born near 
Christiania. Norway, August 10. 1844. and 
was reared and educated in his native land, 
though his knowledge of the English lan- 
guage has been self-acquired since coming 
to the new world. It was in 1862 that he 
crossed the Atlantic and took up his resi- 
dence in La Salle county, Illinois, where 
he worked on a farm by (he month for four 



years, assisting in the support of the family, 
which consisted of his mother and five chil- 
dren, of whom he was the eldest. They 
had come with him to America. Mr. 
Aren't next engaged in farming on rented 
land for two years, and at the end of that 
time purchased a partially improved farm of 
one hundred and sixty acres in Lee county, 
Illinois, where he made his home for a few 
years. On selling that place he removed to 
De Kalh county, Illinois, and bought an- 
other farm near the city of De Kalb, to the 
cultivation and improvement of which he 
devoted his time and attention until the 
spring i if 18S1, when he sold out and came 
to Webster county, Iowa, where he had 
previously purchased his present farm, con- 
sisting of three hundred and twenty acres. 
Later he built a good, substantial residence 
upon the place, a barn and other outbuild- 
ings, and to-day has one of the most valu- 
able and highly improved farms in Badger 
township. Since coming to this county he 
has steadily prospered, and has added to his 
landed possessions from time to time until 
he now has fifteen hundred acres of land in 
Badger and Newark townships, divided into 
several farms. 

In Lee county, Illinois, on the 27th of 
October, 1872, Mr. Arent was united in 
marriage with Miss Ellen Fredsvig, who 
was born in Norway. August 1. 1841, and 
passed her girlhood in that country. On 
coming to the L T nited States in 1870 she lo- 
cated in Lee county, Illinois. Unto our 
subject and his wife were born eight chil- 
dren, fi ur sons and four daughters, namely : 
Ad: ]]]]i, now a physician of Callender, 
Iowa: Andrew, a merchant and druggist of 
Rutland, Iowa; Asaph, a physician, who is 
now with his brother in Rutland; Arthur, 
a student at Tobin College, Fort Dodge ; 
Minnie, who received a good education and 

is now engaged in teaching school in Fort 
Dodge; Emma, who formerly engaged in 
teaching in this county and is now 7 attend- 
ing the State Normal School ; Leonora, a 
teacher of Webster county; and Lillie, who 
is attending the home school. 

Mr. Arent cast his first presidential bal- 
lot for General U. S. Grant in 1868, but 
afterward became identified with the 
Democracy. He voted for William Mc- 
Kinley, and at national elections now sup- 
ports the Republican party, but at local elec- 
tions votes independent of party lines, sup- 
porting the men whom he believes best 
qualified for office. He and his wife were 
reared in the Lutheran church and still -ad- 
here to that faith. He is one of the lead- 
ing self-made men of the count} - , having 
started out in life with nothing but his own 
indomitable energy, and his accumulation 
of this world's goods is attributable to his 
own industry, perseverance and good man- 


George W. Marsh, one of the most pro- 
gressive and up-to-date agriculturists of 
Webster county, makes his home on sec- 
tion 20, Yell township, and is justly re- 
garded as one of the representative men 
of his community A native of England, 
he was born in County Kent, April 13, 
1844. but was only two years old when 
brought to this country by his parents, 
George and Charlotte ( Page) Marsh 
(see their sketch elsewhere). The family 
first located near Waukegan, in Lake coun- 
ty, Illinois, and while residing there our 
subject attended the Oak Plain district 
school at Gurnee. After the removal of 
the family to Webster county, Iowa, he- 



pursued his studies in a log school house, 
so common in pioneer days. Among the 
earliest buildings erected in the frontier 
settlements were tin se intended to be used 
fi r schools and churches, and primitive as 
they were in all their appi intments, men of 
strength i i both body and mind have gone 
cut from their humble routs, where slabs 
served as seats and light was admitted 
tlir< ugh greased paper windows. 

When the country became involved in 
civil war, among the brave boys who en- 
thusiastically rushed to her defense was our 
subject, then but seventeen years of age. 
On the 25th of July, 186 r, he enlisted in 
Company I, Seventh Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, which was mustered in at Mound 
City. Illinois, and assigned to General 
Grant's brigade. The command was first 
ordered to Sulphur Springs, Missouri, and 
participated in the Iron Mountain and Cape 
Girardeau campaigns under General Fre- 
mont. They next went to Fort Holt, Ken- 
tucky, and in February. 1862. reached Fort 
Henry. Tennessee. They took part in the 
three days' battle which ended in the sur- 
render of Fort Donelson. and then pro- 
ceeded to Nashville, thence to Clarksville, 
and on to Pittsburg Landing. At four 
o'clock on the afternoon of the first day of 
the battle of Pittsburg Landing Mr. Marsh 
was wounded in the left thigh by an ounce 
ball, and on the steamer, City of Memphis, 
was conveyed to the Mound 1 , City hospital, 
but was later transferred to Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Missouri. After a short furlough 
spent at home he rejoined his regiment at 
Corinth, Mississippi, in September, 1862, 
and participated in the battle at that place 
on the 3d and 4th of October, remaining 
there until November, 1863, at which time 
they joined General Sherman's force at 
Pulaski, Tennessee. On the 22nd of De- 

cember Mr. Marsh was veteranized, and 
being granted a thirty-days' furlough, he 
started home on the 7th of January and 
returned to his regiment February 28, 
1864. From Pulaski his command was 
ordered to Florence, Alabama, and after 
taking part in a running fight with the 
guerrillas returned to Pulaski. On the 15th 
1 1 th{ fi Hi wing June the regiment reached 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, and arrived in 
Rome. Georgia, August 20. On the 3rd 
of the following Oct ber they reached Alla- 
toona Pass, where General Sherman gave 
the signal which inspired the writing of 
the famous hymn — "Hold the Fort for I 
am Coming." The regiment then re- 
turned to Rome, Georgia, and on the nth 
of November went to Atlanta, joining Gen- 
eral Sherman's army in time to take part 
in the march to the sea and up through 
the Carolinas to Raleigh, where they re- 
ceived word of the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Mr. Marsh was present at 
the grand review at Washington, D. C, 
and was then mustered out of service, fuly 
9. 1865, at Springfield. Illinois, the war be- 
ing over and his services being no longer 

Returning to his home in Webster coun- 
ty, Iowa. Mr. Marsh remained with his fa- 
ther on the farm until he was married at 
Fort Dodge, October 3. 1867. to Miss 
Sarah Ellen Beem, who was born in Noble 
county, Indiana. January 24. 1840. Her 
parents were John and Sarah (Schissler) 
Beem, the former born in Maryland, and 
the latter near Columbus, Ohio, in which 
state they were married. Later they re- 
moved to Indiana, and finally came to 
Iowa, in 1854. locating in Yell township, 
Webster county, where Mr. Beem bought 
one hundred and forty-six acres of wild 
prairie and timber land and engaged in 



farming. Upon his place he built a log 
cabin, and also erected the second school 
house in the county, which was also a log 
structure. He purchased property in Fort 
Dodge, and at one time owned the lot on 
which the shoe factory is now located. In 
religious faith he was a Baptist and in po- 
litical sentiment was a Rqmblican. As one 
of the leading - citizens of his community he 
was called upon to fill all of the township 
offices, including those of assessor and jus- 
tice of tbe peace. He died on the 15th of 
November, j 885. and his wife passed away 
March 7, 1893, both being laid to rest 111 
Oak Grove cemetery, Yell township. Of 
the ten children burn t" this worthy couple 
three died in infancy and the others are as 
follows: Margaret, wife of David Doug- 
lass, of Otho township, this county; Noble, 
who was drowned in the Des Moines river 
at the age of eighteen years; W. C, who 
married Jane Nichols and resides in Sum- 
ner township ; Angeline, deceased wife of 
James Brundage, of Sheldon, North Da- 
ota; Emily, wife of Aaron D. Rolfe, of 
Burnside township, this county; Sarah El- 
len, wife of our subject; and John 0., who 
married Clara Price, now deceased, and 
resides in Sumner township. 

Mr. and Mrs. Marsh have been the par- 
ents of six children, all born in Yell town- 
ship. In order of birth they are as follows : 
Leota Lena, born August 6, 1868, is now 
the wife of John Grosenbaugh, a grain 
dealer of Nemaha, Sac county, Iowa. W. 
C, born February 18, 187-1, is also engaged 
in the grain business in Nemaha and is a 
member of the Modern Woodmen of Amer- 
ica. He married Myra Wilbur, and they 
have one child, Genevieve M. Alma I., 
born May 5, 1874, is the wife of A. X. 
Rolfe, who resides on the old Marsh home- 
stead in Yell township, and they have one 
child, Vera. Viola, born May 18, 1877, 

is now successfully engaged in teaching mu- 
sic. J. B., born May 2, 1879, is attending 
Drake University at Des Moines, and is a 
member of tbe Masonic fraternity. Dow, 
born March 11, 1886, assists his father in 
the operation of the home farm. 

For three years after his marriage Mr. 
Marsh lived on the Beem farm, and then 
removed to the farm on section 20, Yell 
township, which has since been his home. 
Here he has erected a most comfortable and 
attractive residence and commodious barns, 
and to-day has one of the best improved 
farms in the community. His estate com- 
prises four hundred and two acres of land 
and is one of the best in a county, which is 
noted for its excellent farms. Mr. Marsh 
gives considerable attention to the raising 
of high grade stock for market, and most 
of tbe grain which he raises he feeds to his 
stock. He has been identified with many 
important business enterprises, being at 
one time interested in the coal mining in- 
dustry, and he is to-day a stockholder in 
the First National Bank of Lehigh. He 
r serving both as school treasurer and as- 
sessor of Yell township, and is one of the 
leaders of the Republican party in his com- 
munity. Socially he is connected with the 
Masonic fraternity, the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, and Captain Dowd Post, 
G. A. R., of Dayton, and religiously is one 
of the prominent members and elders of 
the Christian church. In every way Mr. 
Marsh is one of the representative men of 
his locality, and well merits the high re- 
gard in which he is uniformity held. 


Although at present the owner of one of 
the finest farms in Colfax township, Mr. 
Flattery has led an unusually active life 



in other directions, and his many-sided abil- 
ity lias been prolific of continued success. 
A native of Kings county, Ireland, he was 
bum in 1816, his parents, Edward and May 
1 Agan ) Flattery, being natives of Ireland, 
and his father died in the old country. His 
mother, however, came to America about 
1840, and eventually died in Johnstown, 
Pennsylvania. Of the ten children born to 
this worthy couple the youngest, Robert, 
alone survives. 

On the paternal farm in Ireland of 
twenty-five acres Robert Flattery passed his 
youth, and the resources of the property 
were such that little time was permitted him 
to attend the district schools. His first in- 
dependent venture was as a member of the 
police force in County Kilkenny, Ireland, 
which position he sustained for about ten 
years and then resigned. In 1850 he sought 
to broaden his prospects by emigrating to 
the United States, and upon locating in 
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, found employ- 
ment in the warehouses and subsequently 
was a ci inductor on a freight train running 
between Johnstown and Pittsburg. These 
were the very early days of that section, long 
before the introduction of the telegraph or 
other modern means fur facilitating busi- 
ness. When the devastating cholera para- 
lyzed business in Pittsburg in 1854 he came 
to Iowa and continued in the railroad busi- 
ness, and was partially successful as a con- 
tractor for construction work. Thus em- 
ployed he passed nineteen years of his life, 
and at the expiration of that time bought 
the farm upon which he now lives, in 1873, 
and which was then wildest prairie with 
the one neighbor living one mile distant. 
To the improvement of this property Mr. 
Flattery devoted his most intelligent en- 
ergies, with the result that his farm of 
three hundred and twenty acres on sections 

7 and 8 is a distinct credit to his managerial 
and other capabilities. The last contract- 
ing that Air. Flattery was engaged in was 
on the Northern Pacific Railroad between 
the Cheyenne and Lem rivers. At that time 
the Indians were a source of much trouble, 
and, in addition to a company of regular 
soldiers, each one of the laborers was 
armed with a rifle and stood ready In de- 
fend himself at all times, night or day. 

November 27. 1861,' Mr. Flattery was 
united in marriage with Julia Flannery, 
wlin was born in Illinois in [831, and whose 
parents came from Ireland at a very early 
day. They were farmers first in Illinois 
and later in Iowa, where they eventually 
died. Of their three children but two are 
now living, .Mis. Spellman being a resident 
1 1 \namosa. Thirteen children have been 
born tii Air. and Airs. Flattery, namely: 
Ann, win 1 is the wife of Dan Strain and 
lives in Coalville, Iowa; Alaggie, who is the 
wife of William Yucily and lives in Col- 
fax township: John, who married Miss 
Alinnie Powers and lives on section 7, Col- 
fax township; Edward, who married Lizzie 
Brady and lives in Badger township; Mol- 
lie, who is the wife of Edward McLean and 
lives at Red Lodge, Montana; Will: Alike; 
Philip; Hugh ; Julia; and Josephine. Two 
are deceased: Robert, who died at the age 
of twenty-three years: and Kate, who died 
in infancy. Julia and Josephine have quali- 
fied as educators, and both attended Tobin 
College at Fort Dodge. The)- are 
teaching in the district schools of their 
county. The sons are sturdy and capable 
men and are now working their father's 

The Flattery farm is one of the best 
improved in Colfax township, and aside 
from general fanning a large revenue is 
made from feeding and shipping high- 



grade stock. Mr. Flattery and his family 
are members of the Catholic church at Fort 
Dodge. He is a Democrat in national and 
local politics, and has held most of the im- 
portant township offices, including that of 
school director, township trustee and treas- 
urer, and justice of the peace, which latter 
office he creditably maintained fi >r m< ire 
than twenty-five years. He is one of the 
prominent men of the township, and his 
council and assistance are ever at the dis- 
posal of worthy improvements in the com- 


The Dowd family has been connected 
with the history of Webster county from 
its early pioneer days, when much of the 
land was still in possession of the govern- 
ment and the work of progress and civiliza- 
tion had scarcely been begun in this local- 
ity. Its members have ever been found as 
champions of progress and advancement, 
and such a citizen is Frank Alison Dowd, 
who is now capably filling the office of 
county sheriff. 

The Dowd family was founded in 
America about the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century by three brothers. John, 
Owen and Alexander -Dowd. The first 
two went south, but the third became a 
resident of Ross county, Ohio. He was the 
grandfather of our subject. He married 
Nancy Vanderford, who was born in Ross 
county, and in 1837 they removed with 
their family to Noble county, Indiana, 
where they entered land from the govern- 
ment, their warrants being signed by Pres- 
ident Van Buren. These papers are still in 
possession of the family as treasured heir- 
looms. Later Alexander Dowd, his wife, 
his two sons. William and Alexander, and 

their families all came to Webster county, 
Iowa, and cast in their lot with the pioneer 
settlers of this region, the grandparents 
here spending- their remaining days. The 
grandfather died May 27, 1874, at the age 
of seventy-four years, eight months and 
nineteen days, while his wife passed away 
at the age of sixty-three years, one month 
and twenty-three days, on the 22d of No- 
vember, 1863. In their family were seven 
children. Alexander, Jr., was one of the 
'49ers who went to California in search 1 if 
gold, was also among the gold seekers at 
Pikes Peak. Colorado, and at the time 
of the Civil war he entered the Union army 
as captain of Company I. Thirty-second 
Iowa Infantry, with which he served 
throughout the war. His death occurred 
in 1867, when he had reached the age of 
thirty-seven years, five months and nine- 
teen days. William Vanderford Dowd. the 
father of our subject, was the second of 
the family. Hannah became the wife of 
David Miller and both are now deceased. 
Sarah wedded B. F. Alison, and aboul 
1855 they came to Iowa, where they re- 
sided for many years, but both have now 
passed away. Nancy married Lewis Davis, 
and in 1861 they went to Colorado, but 
both are now deceased. Vary became the 
wife of George V. Wilson, who lived near 
Winterset. Iowa, at the time of their mar- 
riage. Later they became early settler-, of 
Webster county, and in 1862 they went to 
Colorado and afterward to Kansas, where 
both died. Minerva is the deceased wife of 
Dr. James Kelly, who lived in the southern 
portion of Webster county, and was the 
first physician to locate in Webster ccmty 
south of Fort Dodge, but in i860 went to 
Colorado, and now makes his home in 
Golden City, that state, where he is en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine. 





William Vanderford Dowd, the father 
of our subject, was born in Ross county, 
Ohio, September 2?. 1823. and tbere mar- 
ried Martha Jane Alison, who was a native 
of the same county. Her death occurred 
in Noble county, Indiana, in 1854. and her 
remains were interred in Wolf Lake cem- 
etery. Our subject was then only six years 
of age. There were five children by that 
marriage. Susan Maria, the eldest, married 
G. T. Nettles, an employe of the Chicago, 
Rick Island & Pacific Railroad Company, 
now living at Dayton, Iowa, but she died 
October 25, 1890, at the age of forty-five 
years. and two days. Alar}' Jane is the wife 
of John L. Kinney, of Dayton. Frank A. 
is the next younger. Alexander is living 
in Dayton township, and John H., the 
youngest, is a resident of Oklahoma. After 
the death of his first wife the father mar- 
ried Elizabeth Hill, and their only child 
was given the mother's maiden name. She 
became the wife of Frank Rakestraw, an 
engineer on the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railroad, who was killed March 30, 
1888, at Walnut. Iowa. His widow after- 
ward became the wife of C. B. Morrison, 
of Spokane, Washington. For his third 
wife William V. Dowd married Rebecca 
Kinney, and they also had one daughter, 
Nannie E., who became the wife of T. D. 
Reese, of Missoula, Montana, and died 
August 18, 1901, at Everett, Washington. 
In 1855 tne entire family, consisting of the 
paternal grandparents of our subject and 
the parents of Alexander Dowd. Jr.. came 
from Indiana to Webster county, locating 
in Dayton township when it was all wild 
land still belonging to the government. 
There was not a house in the village 1 £ 
1 )ayti n and even pioneer development 
had scarcely been begun. The father 
entered the north half of section u, Day- 

ton township, while Alexander I 
the grandfather of our subject, entered 
the south half. From that time till 
his death, which occurred June 4. 1889, 
he remained a resident of Dayton town- 
ship. He did much for the develop- 
ment and progress of the county along ag- 
ricultural lines and was a worthy and high- 
ly respected citizen. 

Frank Allison Dowd was born in Sparta 
township. Noble county, Indiana, June 18, 
1848, and was therefore only about seven 
years of age when with his parents he came 
ti 1 Webster county. He was reared amid the 
wild scenes of the frontier and with the fam- 
ily endured all the hardships and trial- of 
pioneer life. He assisted in the cultivation 
of the fields until 1807, when he entered the 
empli y of the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
road as brakeman. the road having been 
completed to Omaha only the year before. 
In the spring of 1868. however, he returned 
to his home in Dayton, where he remained 
until the fall of 1869. He was elected con- 
stable of Dayton township in that year, and 
on the 3d of November, 1869. he went to 
Le- Moines, where he entered the employ 
of the Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific Rail- 
road as fireman for Go irge T. Xettles. his 
brother-in-law. He continued in that em- 
ploy until 1872, when he went to Colorado 
and worked on the Rio Grande Railroad as 
fireman fi >r a time and was then promi ted to 
engineer, serving until the financial panic of 
1S73, when he was laid off. He next re- 
moved to Saguache, near Lost Pinnos 
Agency, and did the machine work for a 
sawmill, which he operated through the 
winter of 1873. 

On the expiration of that period he re- 
turned to Iowa, locating at Stuart, and for 
one year was employed in the shops of the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. In 187; 



he again went upon the road, running an 
engine on the main line from Stuart to 
Council Bluffs and to Brooklyn until 1882, 
when he went north, entering the service of 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad, in August, as 
engineer, his run being - between Winnipeg 
and the mountains. He was with that road 
until April. 1887, and during the last two 
years ran an engine through the Kicking 
Horse Pass, at the foot of Mt. Stevens. 
Going to Minot, North Dakota, he entered 
the employ of the Great Northern Railroad 
as conductor, running from Minot to Great 
Falls. Montana, on a passenger train until 
he resigned in August, 1890. At that time 
he was appointed deputy collector of cus- 
toms at Sweet Grass, his office being at that 
place on the Great Falls & Canada Railroad, 
one hundred and thirty-three miles north of 
Great Falls, on the Canadian boundary. In 
1893 he resigned that office and returned to 
Dayton to look after his farming interests, 
for since 1863 he has owned a half section 
of valuable land in Dayton township. 

On the 27th of March, 1896. Mr. Dowd 
was united in marriage to Mrs. Caroline 
Burnquist. of Webster county, the widow 
of Samuel Burnquist. They have a wide 
acquaintance in the county and their 
friends are many. In the fall of 1897 
Mr. Dowd was elected sheriff of Webster 
county for a term of four years, which ex- 
pired January 2, 1902. He has served 
as mayor of Dayton for two terms and has 
also been justice of the peace. In his po- 
litical views he has always been a stalwart 
Republican, which has been the political 
faith of the family since the organization of 
the party, previous to which time his father 
and grandfather were Whigs. Mr. Dowd 
i? a prominent Mason. On the 5th of Au- 
gust. 1870, he became a member of Capitol 
Lodge, No. 110, A. F. & A. M., at Des 

Moines, Iowa. In 1877 he became a Royal 

Arch Mason in Adell, Iowa, and the same 
year he joined Temple Commandery, No. 4, 
K. T., of Des Moines, while on the 23d of 
November, 1896, he joined Kaaba Temple 
of the Mystic Shrine. He also has member- 
ship relations with Lincoln Lodge, No. 59, 
K. P., of Stuart, Iowa, was one of its 
charter members and was elected vice chan- 
cellor and chancellor commander. Di- 
mitting from that lodge, he was one of 
the seventeen members to institute Mystic 
Lodge, No. 2, K. P., at Moose Jaw, 
in the Northwest territory of Canada, 
where he was elected vice chancellor, 
but his membership is now in Dayton. 
He likewise belonged to the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks in Fort Dodge. 
There are certain qualities in his nature 
which render him popular with his fellow 
men, and in Webster county he has many 
warm friends. 


John D. Stine, residing at 1507 Third 
avenue south, was born on the 8th of Jan- 
uary, 1850, in Bloomington, Illinois, and 
is one of a family of twelve children, six 
sons and six daughters, whose parents were 
Daniel E. and Mary (Dawson) Stine, na- 
tives of Pennsylvania and Illinois, respect- 
ively. In the fall of 1855 the father, who 
was a carpenter by trade, removed with his 
family to Fort Dodge, and in partnership 
with David Burkbolder engaged in con- 
tracting and building for five years. He 
built the first boat that went clown the Des 
Moines river, it being a side-wheeler, forty 
feet long by six wide, to which he gave the 
name of Whang Doodle. On its first trip 
it carried a load of provisions and pork. 



Soon after his arrival here Mr. Stine built 
a house on the corner of Third avenue south 
and Sixth street, which is still standing — 
one of the few landmarks of pioneer days. 
In 1861 he purchased a farm on the river, 
and to the improvement and cultivation of 
that place he devoted his attention until 
1866, when he had the misfortune to lose 
it. He then removed to Kansas City, but 
spent his last days in Denver, where he died 
December 29, 1888. 

Mr. Stine, whose name introduces this 
sketch, was only five years old on the re- 
moval of his family to Fort Dodge, and the 
greater part of his education was obtained 
in the schools of this citv and count)', 
though he afterward attended school in 
Kansas City for one year while the family 
were living there. He then worked with 
his father at contracting and building for 
two years, and in 1870 entered the employ 
of the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company 
as bridge carpenter, later becoming fore- 
man of a building gang. In the spring of 
1873 Mr. Stine returned to Fort Dodge, 
and engaged in carpenter work here for two 
years, after which he went to Carroll, Iowa. 
where he followed contracting and building 
alone for a time, and later in partnership 
with his father, who had removed from 
Kansas City to that place. In 1879 our sub- 
ject returned to Kansas City, and a year 
later we again find him in Fort Dodge, 
where he remained until going to Denver, 
Colorado, in 1881. There he engaged in 
contracting until 1892, since which time he 
has made his home permanently in Fori 
Dodge and has been foreman of a gang of 
carpenters on contract work. In 1900 he 
took charge of the construction of the Mid- 
land Opera House, and was thus employed 
until the 15th of December, 1900, when he 
sprained both ankles in a fall and was un- 

able to attend to business for seven weeks. 
On his recovery he resumed his former po- 
sitii n as foreman of a contracting gang. 
He is considered one of the best and most 
skillful carpenters in the city, and his work 
always gives the utmost satisfaction. 

On the 2d of November, 1878, Mr. 
Stine was united in marriage with Miss 
Naoma Talbott, of Carroll, Iowa, a daugh- 
ter of Alexander and Nancy (Greenlee) 
Talbott, who were farming people of Car- 
roll county. By this union were born five 
children, whose names and dates of birth 
were as follows: Milo B., August 1, 1879; 
Rico II.. November 2j, 1883; Robert E., 
April 16, 1885; Daniel A., August 9, 1891 ; 
and Florence E., February 21, 1900. The 
only daughter died November 27, 1901. 
Milo B. is now attending the National 
Medical College of Chicago, where he will 
graduate in [902. He was married, Febru- 
ary 22, 1899, h ' ^'' ss Mabel F. Seaman, a 
daughter of Dr. C. O. Seaman, of Chero- 
kee, L >w a. 


Among the honored veterans of the 
Civil war and highly esteemed citizens of 
Fort Dodge is numbered the gentleman 
whose name introduces this sketch. His 
early home was in New England, being born 
in Oakdale, Massachusetts. March 20. 1S22, 
a son of Mahum and Annie (Powers) 
Hastings, in whose family were twelve chil- 
dren, four sons and eight daughters. In 
early life the father was engaged in the 
cooperage business, but after the removal 
of the family to Worcester, Massachusetts, 
in 1 83 1, he engaged in the commission 
business until- called to his final rest in 



During his boyhood and youth Lemuel 
G. Hastings was a student in the schools of 
Oakdale and Worcester, and in 1839 com- 
menced learning the boot maker's trade, at 
which he worked for two years. He was 
next engaged in the restaurant business in 
Lancaster, Massachusetts, until 1849, when 
he closed out his establishment with the in- 
tention of going to California in search of 
the precious metal which had lately been 
discovered there. On the 31st of October 
he sailed from Boston, and, rounding Cape 
Horn, landed in San Francisco, March 6, 
1850, after a long and tedious voyage of 
five months and six days. He worked in 
the gold mines until 1855, when he returned 
to his old home in Oakdale, Massachusetts, 
by way of the Panama route, the return trip 
covering only twenty-one days. 

For six months Mr. Hastings was em- 
ployed as baggage master on the Little 
Miami division of the railroad between 
Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio, and in the 
fall of 1856 returned to California, by way 
of the Isthmus, and remained there until 
1862, working in the mines. On the 29th 
of March, that year, he enlisted in Company 
I, First California Cavalry, under Captain 
Kennedy and Colonel Gorman, who after- 
ward became a general. His regiment was 
attached to the Army of the Rio- Grande, 
and did considerable fighting with the In- 
dians, taking part in many skirmishes. 
After a hard campaign Mr. Hastings was 
finally discharged and mustered out of 
service at San Francisco, April 28, 1865, 
the war being then practically over. He 
acted as one of General McDowell's escorts 
to San Francisco. 

On leaving the army Mr. Hastings re- 
turned to Oakdale, Massachusetts, but two 
months later went to Aurora, Illinois, where 
he worked in the car shops one year, and 

then engaged in general merchandising at 
Geneva, that state, in partnership with his 
brother-in-law fur the following year. Sell- 
ing his interest in the business, he returned 
to Aurora and re-entered the car shops, but 
remained only a few months. We next find 
him engaged in the restaurant business at 
St. Charles, Illinois, for about a year, and 
at the end of that time he again went to 

In 1869 Mr. Hastings came to Fort 
Dodge, and for two years operated a small 
farm on the river, after which he conducted 
a restaurant in the city for about thirteen 
}ears. Selling out at the end of that time, 
he bought a place at the outskirts of the city 
and engaged in the stock business for a 
year, when he disposed of his pn iperty here 
and removed to Marshalltown, Iowa. He 
only remained there a short time, however, 
and then returned to Fort Dodge, where he 
engaged in the restaurant business about 
four years, at the end of which time he sold 
out. The following season was spent in 
California, and on his return to Iowa pur- 
chased a skating rink in Rockwell City, but 
only run it one night, as the insurance men 
would take no risks in insuring it. Mov- 
ing the building to Jefferson, this state, he 
built a house and engaged in the fruit busi- 
ness, remaining there six years. He then 
traded his property at that place for prop- 
erty in Fort Dodge, and here has lived a 
retired life since 1890. 

Mr. Hastings was married in 1846 to 
Miss Martha Stone, of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, by whom he had one child, Charles 
X., who has been in the employ of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad at 
Cleveland, Ohio, for twenty-three years. 
He was a second time married, in 1867, to 
Amanda Conk, of St. Charles, Illinois, who 
died December 2, 1900, leaving no children. 


Mr. Hastings is a member of the Christian 
church, and is also connected with Fort 
Donelson Post, No. 236, G. A. R., of which 
he was chaplain for four years. After a 
useful and honorable career he can well 
afford to lay aside all business cares and 
live in ease and retirement, surrounded 1>\ 
many friends, who esteem him highly for 
his sterling' worth and many excellencies 
of character. 


The true religion has been the strongest 
influence known to man through all time, 
while the many false doctrines which have 
sprung up have flourished only for a day 
and then vanished. More potent at the pres~ 
ent time than at any period in the world's 
history are the work and influence of Chris- 
tianity, and among those who are devoting 
their lives to its inculcation among men is 
P.ev. Charles Hazard Remington, the hon- 
ored pastor of St. Mark's Episcopal church 
of Fort Dodge. 

He was born in Tiskilwa, Illinois, De- 
cember 12, 1865, and is a son of William 
Ellery and Adeline (Stevens) Remington, 
who were natives o>f Rhode Island and Xew 
Hampshire respectively, and both represen- 
tatives of good old Revolutionary families. 
The father was a lineal descendant of Lord 
Remington, one of the original planters of 
Providence, Rhode Island. The mother 
traced her ancestry back through Calvin 
and Jane (Greeley) Stevens. Our subject 
is a great-great-grandson of Asa Stevens 
and Bradford Xewcomb. The former was 
born in Hampsted. Xew Hampshire, in 
1 73 2, and was killed at Quebec, Canada, 
December 31, 1775, at the opening of the 
Revolutionary war. Mr. Remington's fa- 

ther died in Illinois, in 1870, and his mother 
subsequently married Rev. James Cornell, 
now rector of St. John's church at Tanes- 
ville, Minnesota. He served three years in 
a Xew York regiment during the Civil war: 
participated in the battle of Chattanooga, 
and was with Sherman's army on the march 
to the sea. Although he was never 
wounded, he received a sunstroke, from 
which he has never fully recovered, and 
now draws a small pension. Our subject 
has two brothers, William Wallace Rem- 
ington, who is now engaged in the milling 
business at Grand Forks, North Dakota; 
and Paul Calvin Remington, a druggist 
and manufacturing chemist at Bismarck, 
North Dakota. 

Air. Remington's early education was 
acquired at Shattucks school in Faribault, 
Minnesota, which he attended four years, 
graduating in 1886. He then entered Trin- 
ity College at Hartford, Connecticut, and 
"ii graduating from that institution in c88g 
became a student at the Episcopal Theo- 
logical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where he completed the course in June. 
[892, and was granted the degree of B. D. 
Being ordained as a clergyman in the 
Episcopal church, he took charge of a mis- 
sion al West Duluth. Minnesota, in July fol- 
lowing, and remained there one year and a 
half. He was next assistant rector at St. 
Mark's church, Minneapolis, and remained 
there until coming' to Fort Dodge in the 
spring of 1896. as rector of St. Mark's 
church at this place, which then had a mem- 
bership of one hundred and twenty-five. This 
church was founded July - 1 -'. 1855. and the 
present church edifice, at the corner of Tenth 
street and First avenue south, was built in 
1894. Since Mr. Remington became rector 
the chancel and choir room have been built, 
and a three-thousaud-dollar pipe organ put 



in, and other improvements made in the 
church property, so that it is now valued at 
eighteen thousand dollars. 

Mr. Remington is the senior minister of 
Fort Dodge by virtue of the length of resi- 
dence, and is president of the ministerial as- 
sociation of the city. In 1897 he was instru- 
mental in organizing the Associated Chari- 
ties, composed of the charitable societies of 
Fort Dodge, and has since served as secre- 
tary of the 'same. He is a man of thought- 
ful, earnest purpose, of strong intellectual 
endowments, of broad charity and kindly 
nature, and by all denominations, as well as 
his'jwn people, is held in the highest regard. 


George McMahon, who for many years 
came and went among his fellow townsmen 
of Elkhorn township, was born hi Iowa City, 
Iowa, in 1869. His parents, Patrick and 
Mary McMahon, were born, reared and 
married in Ireland, and upon emigrating to 
America settled upon the farm in Elkhorn 
township, Webster county, Iowa, now occu- 
pied by Mrs. George McMahon. In the city 
of Fort Dodge the parents eventually died, 
leaving four children, of whom George was 
the oldest. One brother died when quite 
yi iiiiig, while a sister, Johanna, married John 
Riley, and lives in Fort Dodge, another 
sister, Kate, married John McManah and 
lives near Badger, Iowa. The father was a 
Democrat in politics and a member of the 
Roman Catholic church. 

George McMahon attended the public 
schools until his seventeenth year, after 
which he settled on his father's farm, to 
which he afterwards fell heir. October 28, 
1896, at Fort Dodge, he was united in mar- 

riage at Corpus Christi church with Ella 
Crimins, who was born in Elkhard town- 
ship, February 22, 1876, a daughter of 
Timothy and Mary Crimins, a sketch of 
whose lives appears elsewhere in this work. 
To Mr. and Mrs. McMahon were born two 
sons, Daniel, born August 10, 1897, and 
Joseph C, born December 2$, 1S98. 

In apparently in the best of health and 
spirits Mr. McMahon went away from his 
home April 17, 1901, and in the most un- 
accountable way failed to return to those 
who were dependent upon his sympathy and 
help. A month later to the day he was 
found and restored to his family, his body 
bearing out the supposition that he had been 
murdered. He was a Democrat in political 
affiliations, and was a devoted member of 
the Roman Catholic church. Since her hus- 
band's death Mrs. McMahon has carried out 
his plans as nearly as possible, and with the 
assistance of her uncle, Simon Tramer, ad- 
mirably manages the farm of two hundred 
acres. She has prospered exceedingly and 
proved' an excellent business woman. Mrs. 
McMahon also owns property at Fort 
Dodge, where she has four lots and some 


Prominent among the early settlers and 
representative pioneers of "Webster county is 
numbered Franklin McGuire of Fort Dodge, 
who has made his home here since 1849, an( i 
has therefore witnessed its entire growth and 
development. He was born in Ray county, 
Missouri, March u. 1833, a son of Francis 
and Rebecca McGuire. His ancestors were 
among the pioneers of both Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and his father was a native of the 
latter state. After the mother's death, which 



occurred in Missouri, the father and children 
came to Webster county, Iowa, in the spring 
of 1849. the trip being made overland. They 
first settled on Boone river, but the following 
spring moved up the river about three miles 
to what is now known as McGuire's Bend 
in Veil township. The father gave the name 
of Skillet creek to that stream as mi its 
banks he found the skillet which he had lost 
while hunting. During those early days 
huntingwas the principal occupation of both 
father and sons, and they hunted and trap- 
ped all over this section of the state, deer, 
elk, buffalo and wild turkeys being very 
plentiful at that time. Webster county had 
not yet been surveyed when they settled here 
and it was not until two years later that the 
fort was established at what is known as 
Fori Dodge. The father died in 1861, at 
the age of sixty-five years. 

In the family of this honored pioneer 
were the following children: James, who 
spent his life in this county, but' died in the 
south; Franklin, of this review; Blvthe, now 
a resident of Dakota; Samuel, of Missouri; 
Jane, wife of John Goodrich; Rebecca, wid- 
ow of Francis McGuire and a resident of 
Webster county ; and Jemima, wife of Henry 
Lott, a famous Indian fighter. The fact 
that Mr. Lott had killed so many red men 
was probably the cause of the Spirit Lake 
massacre, in which the Indians tried to re- 
venge themselves. They kidnapped hi. s< oi, 
whom they allowed to freeze to death, and 
killed a great many white settlers in the 
region of Spirit Lake. Mr. Lott then left 
that locality and went to Colorado. He 
settled in Webster county prior to our sub- 
ject's locating (there, and soon afterward 
Jake and Roderic Mericale and Isaac Bell 
settled there. 

Indians were still occasionally seen in 
this locality after Mr. McGuire took up his 

residence here. At that time there were no 
public schools and he attended the first sub- 
scription school started in the county, it be- 
ing in Webster township and taught by 
Lizzie ( lent. 1 [ e became thon rughly famil- 
iar with all the experiences of pioneer life, 
and was forced to endure many hardships' 
and privations in his frontier home. The 
family entered land in Yell township, and he 
assisted in breaking the raw prairie. Later 
he bought a tract of land along the river 
banks and continued to follow farming until 
1890, when he removed to Webster City, 
but after residing in that place four or five 
years he came to Fort Dodge, where he now 
makes his home, enjoying a well earned rest. 
His wife, who bore the maiden name of 
Ehzabeth McDonald, died about twelve 
years ago. They had no children 


John F. Thissell, deceased. Mas one of 
the honored pioneers and highly respected 
citizens of Fort Dodge. A native of Maine, 
he was born near Belfast. May 22, 1821, and 
was a son of Ezra Thissell." who removed 
with Ins family to Muskingum, Ohio, about 
1830, and was engaged in the salt business 
near McConnellsville, but was not long per- 
mitted to enjoy his new home, as both he 
and his wife died about a year after locating 
there. Ah. ut 1835 the children removed to 
Waynesville, DeWitt county, Illinois, where 
our subject made his home with a married 
sister until reaching manhood. He learned 
the cabinetmaker's and carpenter's trades, at 
which he worked for some time! and then 
erected a store building and embarked in 
andising, but as the Illinois Central 
and Chicago & Alton Railroads failed to pass 


through Wuynesville when they were built 
the town was virtually killed, the trade being 
drawn to the railroad centers. Mr. Thissell 
then si Id out and came to Webster county, 
Iowa, and buying land on Brushy creek, he 
engaged in its operation for seven years. At 
the end of that time he opened a hotel in the 
old barracks building in Fort Dodge and 
conducted it for fifteen months. The fol- 
lowing year he worked at the carpenter's 
trade, and was next employed in a lumber 
yard for a year. He also run a meat market 
for about a year, and on selling his farm in 
1866 bought a grocery store, which he con- 
ducted for three years. A year after dispos- 
ing of his store, he again embarked in the 
same line of business, to which he gave his 
time and attention until 1883, when, owing 
to ill health, he retired from business. He 
was known by every one as "Honest John," 
being upright and honorable in all his deal- 
ings, and enjoying the confidence and esteem 
of all w ho knew him. 

At Waynesville, Illinois. November 28, 
1841, Mr. Thissell was united in marriage 
with Miss Mary J. Hoover, who was burn 
in Belmont county, Ohio, March 16, 1824, 
a daughter of Chris and Martha ( Broom- 
hall) Hoover. Her mother reached the ad- 
vanced age of eigthy-seven years, d) ing De- 
cember 22, 1891. Unto Mr. and Mrs. 
Thissell were born two children, but the 
younger, Mary V., who was born March 29, 
1846, died March 20, 1874. Martha J., 
born November 12, 1842, was married July 
22, 1862, to Jasper Bell, by whom she had 
two children, namely: Lucius H., who was 
born April 2S, 1S72, and is now a barber of 
Waverly, , Iowa : Mary C, who was born 
May 26, 1876, and is now the wife of James 
V. Lowry. For her second husband Mrs. 
Bell married Jacob Kirchner and she now 
makes her home with her mother. She is a 

st< ckholder in the First National Bank of 
Fort Dodge. 

Mr. Thissell died on the 31st of August, 
1891, honored and respected by all who 
knew him. He was a man of the strictest 
integrity and many sterling traits of char- 
acter, and in his death the community real- 
ized that the}' had lost one of their best and 
most reliable citizens. He always supported 
the Republican party, but could never be in- 
duced to take any part in political affairs. 


Although his residence in Webster 
county was of comparatively short duration 
Charles A. < luild was widely and favorably 
known, and his untimely death was 
mourned by a host of warm friends. He 
was born on the 29th of December, 186 1, in 
Morgan, Calhoun county, Georgia, and was 
a worthy representative of an honored old 

In the dictionary of obsolete and pro- 
vincial English by Wright. Gild is defined 
as a "village green." In the Guild geneal- 
ogy published by Charles Burleigh we find 
that the first one of the name was Alexander 
Guide, who had property in Sterling, Eng- 
land, in 1449-50. The founder of the 
American branch of the family was John 
Guild, who was born in England in 1616, 
and in 1630 came to the new world with his 
brother and sister, Samuel and Ann Guild. 
He was admitted to the church at Dedham, 
Massachusetts, July 17, 1040, and was mar- 
ried June 24, 1645, to Elizabeth Crooke, of 
Roxbury, Massachusetts. The family has 
been one of the proudest and most aristo- 
cratic in England and Scotland, as the 
genealogical records show, and the coat of 
arms is still used there. 


Dr. Lewis A. Guild, the lather of our 
subject, was born in Franklin. Massachu- 
setts, February 23, 1825, a son of Cyrus and 
Amy (Pierce) Guild, and was educated at 
Harvard University. He made the practice 
of medicine his life work, and became one 
of the most prominent physicians of his 
a immunity. He was als< 1 judge 1 >f the coun- 
ty court for a time and United States com- 
missioner. In politics he was an uncom- 
promising Republican, and in religious be- 
lief he was a Baptist, holding membership 
in the church at Atlanta, Georgia, where his 
last days were spent. There he died June 
14, 1888, honored and respected by all who 
knew him. For his first wife he married 
Rebecca Smith, a native of Massachusetts, 
by whom he had one daughter, Emma L., 
who was born in 1851 and died in 1864. 
After the death of his wife Dr. Guild mar- 
ried Frulilla F. Stubbs, and two children 
blessed this union: Lewis S.. who was born 
in 1858 and was accidentally killed while 
attending- Arlington College in 1874; and 
Charles A., of this review. The Doctor's 
third wife bore the maiden name of Lou C. 
Chipsted, and to them were born five chil- 
dren, whose names and dates of birth were 
as follows: George W., April 13. 1868; 
William E., April 25, 1871 ; Henry A.. 
June 23. 1873; Emma J.. December 16. 
1875: and Lewis A.. February 1, 1881. 

The primary education of our subject 
was acquired in the district school near his 
boyhood home, and after the removal of the 
family to Atlanta, he attended the public 
schools of that city, completing his educa- 
tion at a college there. After leaving 
school at the age of twenty years he as- 
sisted his father in the management of his 
nursery near Atlanta. 

On the 22d of December. 1880. at Ath- 
ens, Tennessee, Mr. Guild was united in 

marriage by Rev. S. S. Richardson, to Mis- 
Molly E. Schaeffer, who was born in Green- 
ville. Virginia, March 15, 1858. Her par- 
ents, Jacob and Elizabeth (Raindhill) 
Schaeffer, were both natives of Frankfort, 
Germany, the former horn June 10. 1808, 
the latter May 30, 1827. They were mar- 
ried in Baltimore, Maryland, where Mr. 
Schaeffer engaged in the manufacture of 
shoes for three years. When Mrs. Guild 
was about three years old the family re- 
moved to Huntsville. Alabama, where her 
father conducted a large shoe factory, doing 
an extensive business. At that place her 
mother died, August 21, [869, and was 
buried there. On the 6th of April. 1N71. 
Mr. Schaeffer was again married at Hunts- 
ville, his second union being with Anna 
Eliza Stubbs, a native of Georgia, and in 
1877 they removed to Athens, Tennessee, 
where he engaged in agricultural pursuit-;, 
having purchased a fine farm of two hun- 
dred and twenty-five acres. On selling that 
place in 1886 he went to Dalton. Georgia, 
and bought a splendid home, where he lived 
retired until called to his final rest June 7. 
[899, his remains being interred there. I lis 
second wife still survives him and continues 
to reside in Dalton. He was an Ancient 
Odd Fellow, a Republican in politics, and a 
faithful and consistent member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. 

Mrs. Guild has one brother, William II. 
Schaeffer, who was born June 4, 1854, and 
now resides in Paris, Tennessee. He first 
married Jennie Lawton, of Memphis Ten- 
nessee, and after her death wedded Tommy 
Fields, of Georgia. Ten children were horn 
to our subject and his wife, as f< >lli >w - : ( Clar- 
ence O., who was born in Atlanta. Georgia, 
November 11, 1881, and was killed at the 
same time as his father. June 28, 1901 ; 
Charles V. who was horn in Des Moines, 



Iowa, November 29, 1883, and is now man- 
aging the farm 'for his mother; Mollie E., 
born in Towner Lake, Polk county, Iowa, 
August 13, 1885 ; Nettie E., born in Grimes, 
Iowa, December 21, 1S86; Ida G., also born 
in Grimes, July 31, 1888; William J., born 
in Webster county, October 8, 1890; Benja- 
min Harrison, born April 5, 1892; Maudie 
Leona, who was born October 1, 1894. and 
died December 18, 1897; Dora Elnora, born 
May S, 1896; and Frank R., born October 
2, 1900. 

After his marriage Mr." Guild engaged 
in the nursery business at Atlanta, Georgia, 
lor a time, and then purchased four acres of 
land, which he converted into a magnificent 
floral park, becoming one of the leading- 
florists and nurserymen of that city. In 
1882 he removed to Des Moines, Iowa, and 
for two years was manager of a large stock 
farm near that city. He next had charge of 
the Ironclad Nursery for one year, and 
during the following two years rented and 
carried on the Towner Lake summer resort. 
At the end of that time he purchased prop- 
erty in Grimes, r< >lk county, where he estab- 
lished his family, and then engaged in op- 
erating a rented farm h>r two years. 

G ming to Webster county, Mr. Guild 
then purchased eighty acres of land in Yell 
township, and to it he subsequently added 
a forty-acre tract adjoining it on the south- 
west. Still later he bought sixty acres 
northeast of the farm, and in the spring of 
90: purchased eighty acres on the north- 
west, making a fine farm of two hundred 
and sixtv acres. A part of this was timber 
land when it came into his possession, but 
was cleared by him and placed under culti- 
vation. Upon his farm he erected a splen- 
did residence, good barns, granaries and 
cattle sheds, making it one of the best im- 

proved places in the locality. In connection 
with general farming he engaged in raising 
a high grade of cattle for market, and in 
both undertakings met with excellent suc- 
cess, so that he was able to leave his family 
in comfortable circumstances. 

On the 28th of June, 1901, within hail- 
ing distance of his own home and in the 
presence of his wife and son Charles, Mr. 
Guild and his son Clarence O. were shot and 
killed. This affair was the outcome of a 
family feud between Mr. Guild and the 
Bricker brothers, and culminated in the "Bad 
tragedy just mentioned. Public sentiment 
was all with the Guild family, the Brickers 
and their relatives for generations back 
having never had a very enviable reputa- 
tion. In the death of our subject the com- 
munity realized that it had lost one of its 
most valued citizens — a man of progressive 
ideas and sterling worth. He attended the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and was a kind 
and loving husband and father. His 
funeral was largely attended by an extensive 
circle of friends and acquaintances, who 
gathered together to pay their last respects 
to the deceased. He was laid to rest in Oak- 
wood cemetery. Stratford. Iowa. He was a 
Republican in politics and a member of the 
Woodmen of the World. 

At the time of his death Clarence O. 
( ruild was just entering manhood. He was 
a bright, promising young man, highly re- 
spected and esteemed by all who- knew him, 
and very popular among his many friends 
in this community. 

Since her husband's death Mrs. Guild 
lia^ assumed the management of the farm, 
and has displayed excellent business and ex- 
ecutive ability. She is a graduate of Hunts- 
ville Female College and is a lady of culture 
and refinement and exceptional intellectual 



charms. She is courteous and entertaining 
and presides with gracious dignity over her 


During his long and active life. John 
E. Powers has envaded many lines of activ- 
ity and by reason of his success in one and 
all of his undertakings has richly earned the 
right to live in comparative remoteness from 
business activity in his Duncombe home. He 
in youth was by no means free from respon- 
sibility, for the paternal farm in Ireland, 
where he was born in 1828. was rendered 
desolate by the death of his mother when 
her son was three years of age, although the 
father survived her until 1845. Until his 
eighteenth year he attended the public 
schools, and in 1849 emigrated to America 
and located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He 
here accepted a position as bookkeeper for 
O'Brien & Fitz Morris, at a salary of one 
hundred dollars per month, a responsibility 
relinquished at the end of a month to fill a 
like position at the same salary for the Mich- 
igan Central Railroad Company, in Indiana. 
When a year had passed, he located in Chi- 
1 ago and engaged as superintendent for the 
building of the Chicago. Rock-Island Rail- 
mad, from Chicago Junction to Blue Island, 
a distance of nine miles, and after the com- 
pletion of this contract he assisted Henry 
Fuller in laying the first iron water pipe in 
Chicago. In 1852 he received a contract 
from Bay & Sherman to do the dry excava- 
tion between the Randolph and Madison 
street bridges, where the American Trans- 
portation Company have their warehouse, to 
the depth of eight feet. On the completion 
of that work Mr. Powers went to Stony 
Island with J. A. Patmor, who had the con- 

tract to get out stone for the protection of 
the Michigan Central Railroad east of Mich- 
igan avenue. Shortly after this when Mr. 
Patmor took a contract at Decatur, Illinois, 
in 1853, he appointed Mr. Powers superin- 
tendent of the work. The following year 
Mr. Hurd. who was one of Mr. Patmor's 
partners in the work at Decatur, employed 
our subject to superintend some work at 
Franklin Grove, near Dixon. Illinois. In 
1855 he had charge of some work four miles 
west of Dixon for George Hurd, a brother 
of his previous employer, and it was while 
serving as foreman for that gentleman that 
Mr. Powers was married at Dixon, in 1855. 
to Miss Ellen Flinn, a native of County Gal- 
way, Ireland. 

Going to Cairo. Illinois, in 185(1. ne be- 
came connected with the big cut on the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad at Villaridge, twelve 
miles north of Cairo, and got that cut of sev- 
enty-five feet down to grade. The follow- 
ing year he became superintendent for C. C. 
Parker, who had a contract to grade ten 
miles of the Jacksonville & Alton Railroad 
from Lake Station. Indiana, and who ab- 
sconded, owing Mr. Powers one thousand 
dollars. In 1858 he went to Vincennes, In- 
diana, to superintend work for Mr. Van- 
duzer on the Mound City Railroad, and 
while there his first wife died, in i860. The 
three children born to them all died in in- 
fancy. In [860 Mr. Powers was superin- 
tendent of the levee built between Alton and 
St. Louis on the Illinois side of the Missis- 
sippi river. 

In 1866 Mr. Powers built four miles of 
the Sioux City e^c Pacific Railroad from Mis- 
souri Valley Junction north. Then in 1867 
he built nine miles of the Iowa Central Rail- 
road from Mason City north. In 1868 he 
became identified with Iowa, at which time 
he built seven miles of the Illinois Central 



Railroad. He then took a contract to build 
several miles of the Northwestern Railroad 
below the Missouri Valley, after which he 
assisted Mr. Flinn as bookkeeper for six or 

seven years. In 1868 he purchased one-half 
section of land, near Border Plains, Iowa, 
upon which he lived, and engaged in farming 
until 1879. In 1X72 he again engaged in 
contracting and built four miles of the Ma- 
son City & Fort Dodge Railroad, from Yin- 
cent to Boone river. 

In the meantime Mr. Powers had become 
much interested in the undertakings of the 
Greenback party, and in 1878 was elected 
clerk of Webster county and removed to 
Fort Dodge, which continued to be his home 
during the two years of his office. At the 
expiration of his term, he again settled on 
his farm, which was his home until 1899, 
during which year he removed to Duncombe 
and purchased a block and erected his fine, 
o unmodious residence. 

At Border Plains, Iowa, in 1808, Mr. 
Powers married Mrs. Elizabeth Ryan, the 
mother of the following children by her 
former marriage: Michael, who is a miner 
in Idaho; James R., who is living in Denver, 
Colorado; John R.. who is very success-ful as 
a miner in British Columbia, and is the own- 
er of several valuable claims; Hugh R.. who 
is working with his brother James in Den- 
ver, Colorado; Frank R., who is running a 
hotel at Wallace, Idaho: Jerry R., who lives 
on a farm near Border Plains : Mary R.. who 
is deceased; Kate R., who is the widow of 
Robert Hannon, of Border Plains ; ami Brid- 
get, who is the wife of John Maloney, of 
Denver, Colorado. No children have been 
b rn of the second union of Mr. Powers. He 
had three brothers : Edward P., who died 
in New York, at the age of fifty-four, leav- 
ing a wife and nine children; Patrick P.. 
who is a resident of California; and Dennis 

P., who died in Ireland at the age of nine- 

In political affiliation Mr. Powers is a 
Republican,' having been allied with that 
party for the past ten years. Of late he has 
neither sought or desired official recognition, 
but has preferred rather to lead a life remote 
from the strife of political competition. He 
is the owner of a farm of one hundred and 
twenty acres of fine land. He is a member 
of the Roman Catholic church of Duncombe. 


For twenty-eight years Charles Colby 
has been an active factor in commercial 
circles in Fort Dodge, and is an enterprising 
and progressive citizen, belonging to that 
class of wide-awake, progressive men whose 
efforts have led to the substantial develop- 
ment and growth of this part of the coun- 
try. He was born in Burke, Caledonia 
county, Vermont, on the 12th of January, 
1847, aiK ' when a small boy accompanied his 
parents on their removal to Wisconsin, 
where he remained for a number of years, 
pursuing his education in the public schools. 
He continued with his father until the lat- 
ter's return to Massachusetts, and in 1S73 
he came to Fort Dodge, where he has since 
made his home. Here he entered into part- 
nership in the livery business in which he 
has since been engaged, and the enterprise 
has met with gratifying success through- 
out the vears of its existence, owing to^ the 
capable management, keen discrimination, 
unfaltering energy and straightforward 
business methods of the proprietors. 

On the 12th of March. 1868, Mr. Colby 
was united in marriage in Massachusetts 
to Eliza A. Howes, an estimable ladv who 




resided in Havvley, Massachusetts. Her 
people resided within fourteen miles of the 
Hoosic tunnel, and Charles Colby sawed 
and sold lumber which was used in the con- 
struction of that tunnel. Six children have 
been born unto Air. and Airs. Colby: 
Charles II., who is clerk of the court of 
Fi nt Dodge ; George Henry, who is a sales- 
man in a hardware store in this city; Jen- 
nie, the wife of John L. Chalmers, a tea 
merchant of Newton, Iowa: Ida B., Minnie 
and Irene, at home. 

Air. Colby exercises his right of fran- 
chise in support of the men and measures 
of the Republican party and believes firmly 
in its principles. He was a member of the 
city council when the water works and gas 
plants were built and favored every pro- 
gressive measure which he believed would 
prove of practical benefit to the city. His 
hie has been characterized by enterprise 
and advancement and has been well spent. 
In- genuine worth commending him to the 
confidence and regard of his fellow towns- 
men among whom he has walked as an 
upright and valued citizen for more than 
a quarter of a century. 


Although long since passed beyond the 
pale of human labor and possibility, Henry 
Sheerer is remembered as a man who made 
the most of his gifts and opportunities, and 
who, in passing by, made many friends, 
whom he knew how to retain. In his' veins 
flowed the Teutonic blood of his conserva- 
tive and industrious forefathers, and in 
Baden, Germany, for centuries the field of 
their activity, he was born March 2. 1834. 
His parents, August and Rosina (Fels) 

'Sheerer, were also born in Baden, where 
they were reared, educated, married, and 
eventually died, the mother in 1859, a,1(1 tllL * 
father in 1861. The father was a man of 
some means, and for many years ci inducted 
a large bakery. To himself and wife were 
horn five children, namely: Caroline, who 
became the wife of Conrad Miller, and died 
in 1863, leaving one daughter; Henrv: 
Sophia, who was unmarried and died at the 
age of fifty-eight years; Stephania. who died 
at the age of forty-five: and August, who 
was a mate of the whaler "Louisiana." and 
while sailing from New Bedford. Massachu 
setts, in 1862, left the ship in a boat in pur- 
suit of whales, and was lost at sea. 

The education of Mr. Sheerer was ac- 
quired in the public schools and at the acad- 
emy at Carlsruhe, Baden, and when fifteen 
years of age he began to learn the trade of 
gardening, at which he became an expert. 
As became an ambitious and aspiring man 
he looked around for a profitable Ii cation in 
which to spend his life, and in 1851 em- 
barked in a sailing vessel from Havre, and 
upon locating in Newark, New Jersev, 
worked as a gardener and florist. February 
24. 1859. ait Newark, he married Emily 
Raab, a native also of Carlsruhe. Baden, 
born February 4, 1837. The parents of Mrs. 
Sheerer were Francis and Minnie (Lankin) 
Raab, who were married in Carlsruhe. where 
the mother died in 185 1. The father mi >ved 
with his family to America in 1853, crossing 
the seas on the good ship "Zurich." and af- 
ter six weeks out from Havre landed in New 
York harbor. They went to Newark. New- 
Jersey, where the father applied his trade 
of tailoring, although he afterwards re- 
moved to La Salle county, Illinois, about 
1872, where his death occurred in 1889. He 
was a Republican in politics, and was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church. To 



himself and wife were born the following 
children: Emily, the widow of Mr. Sheer- 
er; Amalia, the widow of Fred Kappler, re- 
siding in Newark, New Jersey; Francis, who 
married Mollie Combs and resides in Ohio 
Falls, Indiana; Christin, now deceased, who 
lived in Newark, and left one daughter; 
Edward, also deceased, who lived in New- 
ark, and left one daughter; and William, de- 
ceased, who also left one daughter. Eight 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Sheerer: Henry, born December 5, 1859, 
married Lizzie Smith, and is living on a 
farm in Grand Ridge, La Salle county, Illi- 
nois, with his three children, Cora, Jessie 
and Nettie. Herman, born September 3, 
1861, married Emma Smith, lives on a farm 
in Elkhorn township, Webster county, Iowa, 
and has seven children, Hattie, Mable, An- 
na, Lloyd, Emma, Chester and a babe. Ed- 
ward, born April 12, 1864, married Matilda 
Smith, and lives on a farm in Elkhorn town- 
ship. Frank, born May 20, 1866, married 
Caroline Lehr, is a farmer in Elkhorn town- 
ship and has two children, Nellie and Ger- 
trude. George, horn May 20, 1868, married 
Orie Carter, lives in Keithsburg, Illinois, 
and has two children, Delia and Edna. 
Louise, born September 23, 1870, married 
Oscar Gruber, who was born in La Salle 
county, Illinois, February 18, 1868, and who 
is a farmer in Elkhorn township. They 
are the parents of three children : Lewis, 
born March 8, 1893; Emily, born July 31, 
1895; and Frank, born September 2, 1899. 
Emily Sheerer, born March 3, 1873. married 
John Redman. Paul Sheerer, born January 
28, 1875, married Maud Poundstone, and 
lives in Elkhorn township. 

After his marriage, Mr. Sheerer went to 
Bristol county, Massachusetts, and worked 
at his trade for a couple of years, and then 
went to Westchester county, New York, 

where he lived until 1864. A later place 
of residence was La Salle county, Illinois, 
where he rented land, and where his useful 
and meritorious life terminated April 16, 
1876. He is buried at Grand Ridge, La Salle 
county, Illinois. He was a Republican in 
politics, and fraternally was associated with 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 
With his family he was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and contributed 
generously towards its charities and support. 
After the death of her husband, Mrs. Sheer- 
er, no less ambitious as an agriculturist, 
bought one hundred and sixty acres of land 
which, with the assistance of her sons, she 
farmed until 1898. She then removed to 
Iowa, as did most of her children, and in 
Elkhorn township bought three hundred and 
twenty acres of land, which she has since 
rented out. Her sons also bought land, have 
married and settled down to he substantial 
and successful men. 


John Koll, Sr., a well-known resident of 
Fort Dodge, is the possessor of a handsome 
property which now enables him to spend his 
declining years in the pleasurable enjoyment 
of his accumulations. The record of his life, 
previous to 1890, is that of an active, enter- 
prising, methodical and sagacious business 
man, who bent his energies to the acquire- 
ment of a comfortable competence for him- 
self and family. 

A native of German}'. Mr. Koll was born 
in Bavaria June 24, 1822, and is a son of 
Jacob Koll, whose life was devoted to agri- 
cultural pursuits. He had three brothers 
and four sisters, but is the only one of the 
family to crime to America. In his native 



land lie was reared and educated, and at the 
age of sixteen years commenced learning the 
brewery business, at which he worked until 
his emigration to the United States in 1849. 
Landing in New York, he proceeded at once 
to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he soon 
found employment in a brewery, and fol- 
lowed his trade for seven years. In 1856 
he removed to Lyons, Iowa, and started a 
brewery of his own. which he conducted 
three years, and on selling out went to Ana- 
mosa, where he built a brewerv and operated 
it four years or until it ceased to be profitable 
when the Civil war broke out. During the 
following three years lie worked in a brew- 
ery in Dyersville, and then built one for him- 
self, but after operating it with a partner 
for a short time he sold out and came to 
Fort Dodge in the spring of 1865. Here he 
built a house, but the following fall removed 
to Boonesboro, where he spent two years and 
a half. On his return to Fort Dodge in the 
spring of 1868 he commenced the erection 
of a brewery, hauling the lumber from Iowa 
Falls and Boone, a distance of fifty miles, 
and after its completion he engaged in op- 
erating it for two years after the prohibitory 
law was passed in 1883. Destroying all the 
beer in 1885, he embarked in the wholesale 
beer business, which he carried mi until 
1889. when he purchased a farm and en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits for a year. 
He then rented the place, and has since lived 
a retired life in Fort Dodge, enjoying the 
fruits of former labor. He has succeeded 
in accumulating some good property, and 
besides hir own residence he now owns five 
houses and five pieces of business property, 
from which he derives a good inci >me. 

On the 9th of May. 1853, Mr - Kail 
wedded Miss Mary Schnek, of Milwaukee. 
a daughter of John and Annie Schnek, and 
they have become the parents of ten chil- 

dren, as follows: Katrina, born in Mil- 
waukee, March 1, 1854, was killed in the 
Pomeroy cyclone July 12. [893; John. Jr., 
born in Milwaukee December 14, 1856. and 
Henry, born in Lyons, Iowa, October 21, 
1858, are both in the wholesale beer business 
in Fort Dodge; William, born in Anamosa 
November 2y. i860, is an engineer on the 
Burlington & Missouri River Railroad in 
Nebraska ; Mary, born in Anamosa Septem- 
ber 10, 1862, married John Francis, an en- 
gineer on the Minneapolis & St. Louis Rail- 
road, residing in Fort Dodge; Lizzie, born 
in Dyersville May 10, 1864, died October 
18, 1889; Joseph, born in Fort Dodge Sep- 
tember 28, [866, and Albert, born Septem- 
ber 29, 1868, are both engaged in the saloon 
business in this city; Michael, born October 
2^,, 1870, is in the restaurant business in 
Fort Dodge; and Frank, born December 16, 
1872, is a carpenter of this city. 


Among the representative and prominent 
citizens of Badger township, Webster coun- 
ty, Iowa, is numbered Ole Williamson, 
whose home is on section 21. lie dates his 
residence in this county from the 31st of 
July, 1869, and with its development and 
upbuilding he has since been actively identi- 
fied. A native of Norway, he was born near 
Stavanger July 1, 1840, and was there 
reared to manhood upon a farm. In 1862 
he emigrated to the United States and first 
set foot on American soil at Quebec, Can- 
ada, whence he proceeded at once to La 
Salle county, Illinois, where lie worked on 
a farm by the month for one year. 

In the fall of [863 Mr. Williamson was 
united in marriage with Miss Christina 
Sagaard, who was also a native of Norway 



and came to this country on the same vessel 
of which her husband was a passenger. At 
that time they were unacquainted, however. 
After his marriage Mr. Williamson engaged 
in farming on rented land first in La Salle 
county, and later in Livingston county, Illi- 
nois, where he spent several years. On leav- 
ing there he came to Webster county, Iowa, 
in 1869, and located where he now resides 
and began the improvement of a tract of wild 
land. Subsequently he bought eighty acres 
of that place, erected thereon a small house, 
and has since engaged in the cultivation of 
that land. To the original purchase he has 
since added a forty-acre tract, making a good 
farm of one hundred and twenty acres, 1 in 
which he has erected a handsome residence, 
convenient barns and outbuildings. Besides 
this property he has another farm of one 
hundred and twenty acres on the northern 
boundary line of the county, a part of which 
is in 1 tumboldt count)-. 

Air. and Mrs. Williamson have seven 
children living, namely : ( 1 ) Isabella is now 
the widow of Professor Cornelius R. Hill, a 
man of superior education and a well-known 
educator of Minnesota and Iowa, having 
taught in some of the leading colleges of 
those states. For eight years he was at the 
seminary at Red Wing, Minnesota, and at 
the time of his death, which occurred March 
4. 1896, he was president of Jewell Lu- 
theran College at Jewell Junction, Iowa. 
Mrs. 1 lill is nenv a teacher at that place. She 
has two children, Ruth and Carl. ( 2 ) Will- 
iam is a minister of the United Lutheran 
church at Portland. Maine. For several 
years he followed the teacher's profession, 
having been connected with Tobin College 
of Fort Dodge and Jewell Lutheran Col- 
lege. (3) Peter was also 1 for several years 
one of the successful teachers of Iowa, but 
is now a minister of the Presbvterian 

church. (4) Syvert is a wide-awake young 
man of great promise. (5) Susie is married 
and resides at Jewell Junction, Iowa. (6) 
Anna is one of the prominent teachers of 
Webster county, and has for her motto, as 
had Longfellow's youth, — "Excelsior !" ( 7) 
Ina, the youngest of the family, has marked 
talent for music — as have all to a greater 
or less degree — and expects to educate her- 
self in this art and adopt it as her profession. 

Their home, filled as it is with marks of 
culture on every hand, such as music, hooks 
and flowers, is an interesting one. The ef- 
forts of Mrs. Williamson deserve especial 
mention. She has not only reared a large 
family, which alone to the modern woman 
appears a Herculean task, but as a pioneer 
wife she has ever been ready with strong 
and willing hands to see that chores were 
done, grain in stack and hay in the mow. 
The fortitude and heroism of a pioneer's 
wife in the midst 1 'f hardships and privations 
cannot be too fully realized and appreciated. 

In his political views Air. Williamson is 
a stanch Republican, having supported every 
presidential nominee of that party since cast- 
ing his first vote for General Grant in 1868. 
He has never sought official preferment, but 
gives his entire time and attention to his 
farming interests. He has met with well de- 
served success in all his undertakings, and 
is to-day one of the well-to-do and substan- 
tial farmers of hi-, community. 


One of the most venerable and honored 
of the promoters of prosperity in Webster 
county is Daniel Daniels, who, though re- 
tired from active life, and already emerged 
from the f< mr so n'e and one mile post of 





life, is yet hale and hearty, and able to ap- 
preciate the devotion of his children and 
the constancy of friends. A native of 
Meadville, Pennsylvania, he was born De- 
cember 15, 1820, a son of Abram anil 
Christine (Thurston) Daniels, the former 
of whom was born in New York and died 
in Pennsylvania in J 847, while his wife died 
about 1877. 

The Daniels family sought the larger 
possibilities of America long before the 
Revolutionary war, in which struggle for 
independence our subject's grandfather 
Thurston served with courage for seven 
years, while his father-in-law was a soldier 
in the war of 1812. Abram Daniels was a 
very early settler of Pennsylvania, and his 
son, Daniel, used to walk a long distance In 
the little log school bouse with paper win- 
dows and slab seats. He was reared to an 
appreciation of the dignity of farming as 
an occupation, and continued to assist his 
father until grown to manhood.- He then 
for a time worked out on different farms, 
and eventually bought a farm in Bureau 
county, Illinois. March 23, 1849. ne mar- 
ried Mary Ann Bennett, who- was born in 
Ohio, June 2, 1828. her father being a na- 
tive of England and her mother of German 
descent. She had one half sister and two 
half brothers, all of whom are now de- 
ceased. After his marriage .Mr. Daniels 
continued to live on his Illinois farm until 
1854, when, after disposing of his interests, 
he came to Iowa and located on section 10, 
Webster township, Webster county, where 
he purchased a half section of laud, and 
later other property, which has since been 
divided among his children, so that now' 
be owns no land whatever. The children 
who have thus profited by the enterprise 
and generosity of their father are as fol- 
lows: William Henrv, Lucy Ann. Charley, 

Bennett, Alfred, Angeline, Flora, and Em- 
ma. 'Jdie children have all benefited by the 
substantial training of their youth, and all 
are industrious and prosperous members of 
their respective communities. Airs. Daniels 
died June 20. 1807, and is buried at Web- 
ster City, in which town they had lived for 
about a year after retiring from farming. 
At the present time Mr. Daniels makes his 
home witli Erwin Taylor, his son-in-law. 
In his political affiliations Mr. Daniels 
was first identified with the Whig and later 
with the Republican parties, but he has 
never devoted much time to politics. In 
the very early days he served five years as 
supervisor, but of late years has not held 
office. He is one of the interesting per- 
sonalities of the county, and is full of anec- 
dotes regarding the times when the red man 
was a very formidable antagonist to the 
pale- face and considered himself the right- 
ful possessor of the land and all it con- 
tained. He lived in Iowa at the time of 
the Indian massacres at Spirit Lake and 
New I dm, anil knew personally many who 
participated in that fearful struggle for 


Among Webster county's officials there 
is probably none better known than W. R. 
McGuire. the present deputy sheriff. A na- 
tive of Missouri, he was horn in Clay coun- 
ty, March 3. [858, his parents being Noah 
and Sarah J. ( Wallace) McGuire. His pa- 
ternal grandfather John McGuire, was a 
native of Tennessee, and was cue of three 
brothers who removed to Missouri at an 
early day, being among die pioneers who set- 
tled in that state at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. Our subject's maternal 



grandfather was David Oliver Wallace, 
whose nickname was "Bruin." He was a 
brigadier general in the Civil war and died 
in 1899. The father of our subject also 
participated in that struggle, being a mem- 
ber of Company B, Forty-fourth Missouri 
Volunteer Infantry. During his active busi- 
ness life lie followed farming, but is now liv- 
ing retired in Cameron, Missouri. 

\Y. R. McGuire is the oldest in a family 
of eleven children, ten of whom are living, 
namely: W. R. ; Rebecca, wife of Richard 
Ellis, of Missouri; Simon F., a Methodist 
Episcopal minister of that state; Martha, 
wife of George Nettles, of Dayton, Iowa; 
John, foreman of the Chicago Bridge & 
Iron Company, of Chicago; Sadie, a resi- 
dent of Fort Dodge; David and Frank, who 
are in the employ of the Chicago Bridge & 
Iron Company and reside in Chicago; Han- 
nah, wife of Oscar Harmon, of Missouri; 
and Ida, at home with her parents. Edith 
is deceased. 

The subject of this sketch spent his boy- 
hood in his native state. Those were stir- 
ring days when Missouri was the seat of 
conflict between the north and south, and he 
remembers to have seen Ouantrel's raider 
pass the door of his father's home. The 
James boys often visited the locality, and 
Mr. McGuire attended school with the no- 
torious Ford boys, one of whom later killed 
Jesse James. 

On starting out in life for himself Mr. 
McGuire took up the occupation to which 
he had been reared and followed farming in 
Missouri until August. 1S77, when he came 
to Webster county, Iowa, and continued to 
engage in that pursuit in Yell township un- 
til appointed deputy sheriff in 1898. Since 
then he lias devoted his entire time ami at- 
tention to the duties of that office, and has 

proved a most capable and trustworthy of- 

In 1881 Mr. McGuire was united in mar- 
riage witli Miss Laura Kmeriem, of Yell 
township, an adopted daughter of Franklin 
McGuire. By this union have been born two 
children, Lester and Carrie. Fraternally 
Mr. McGuire affiliates with the Modern 
Woodmen of America, and politically has 
been identified witli the Republican party 
since attaining his majority. He lias taken 
quite an active and prominent part in local 
politics, and has been called upofi to fill sev- 
eral township offices, including those of 
school trustee, president of the school board 
and justice of the peace. 


William H. Grabenhorst, who, with his 
father and brother owns and operates a half 
section of land on section 12, Dayton town- 
ship, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, De- 
cember 14, 1859, an d i s a son OI H. C. and 
Margaret Ann (Layer) Grabenhorst, the 
former of whom was born in the province 
of Brunswick, Germany, and emigrated to 
the United States in 1847. The lather lived 
for many years in the vicinity of Baltimore, 
Maryland, where he engaged principally in 
the dairy business. He owned about one 
hundred and ninety cows, and did an annual 
business of nearly forty thousand dollars. 
His life has been one of immense industry 
and well applied enterprise, and he is one 
of the foremost developers of Webster coun- 
ty, where he first bought land in 1859. 

As a boy William H. Grabenhorst prof- 
ited by the training to be found in the public 
schools of Baltimore, and he also studied 
for three years at the Pennsylvania College, 



at Gettysburg. Pennsylvania. His initiation 
into tiie held of independent support was as 
a member of the United States coast sur- 
vey at Washington, with which he was con- 
nected up to the time of his marriage, Sep- 
tember 22. 1881, with Eva Haight, who was 
born in Dutchess county, Xew York, and is 
of American parentage. Mrs. Grabenhorst 
has one brother, Harry, who is a resident of 
Seattle, Washington, and one sister, Mrs. 
Harry Miller of Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. 
Grabenhorst with his wife came to their 
present home near Dayton, Iowa, in March, 
1883. To them have been born eight chil- 
dren : Anna, in 1883; Lillie, in 1885; 
I ... rge, in 1NS7; Will, in 1889; Charley, in 
1891; Eugene, in 1893; 'Nellie, in 1896; 
and Evelyn, in 1901. Mr. Grabenhorst is 
one of the intelligently progressive men of 
his township, and enjoys the esteem of all 
who are privileged to know him. 


An important chapter in the history of 
Webster county is that formed by the life 
record of William X. Meservey. He was 
one of the public spirited citizens to whose 
energy and foresight this locality is in- 
debted for many improvements. His work 
was of such a character as to promote the 
general welfare and along lines of progress 
his efforts were efficient and beneficial. As 
a journalist, he made known to the world 
the possibilities and natural resources of this 
section of the country; through the columns 
of his paper he championed reform and ad- 
vancement, and in judicial offices he stood 
as a just interpreter of the law which par- 
takes the life and liberty and the rights of 
the people. Over his public and private ca- 
reer there falls no shadow , -,f wrong or sus- 

picion of evil. Fearless in conduct, honor- 
able in action, stainless in reputation, his 
wi rk did much toward influencing for good, 
the welfare of Webster county, and his ex- 
ample is indeed worthy of emulation. 

Mr. Meservey was born in Dearborn 
county, Indiana, November 6, 1820, and in 
his early youth he was for a few years a 
student in a graded school of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Upon putting aside his text-books he 
secured employment in a wholesale dry- 
house in that city, where he remained 
until twenty years of age, but thinking to 
devote his life to professional work he then 
entered the law office of Amos Lane, of 
Lawrenceburg, Indiana, and in 1843 ' ie was 
admitted to the bar at Cincinnati. The same 
year he removed to Xew Orleans, Louisiana, 
where he engaged in practice until [845, 
when he returned to the north, locating in 
Clinton, Illinois, which was his place of resi- 
dence until 1854. 

That year witnessed the arrival of Mr. 
Meservey in Webster county. He located 
in Homer, which was then' the count}- seat 
of Hamilton and Webster counties, which 
were then one organization, the division 
having not yet occurred. When this county 
was formed and Fort Dodge was made the 
county seat, he took up his abode in the lat- 
ter place and was an active, public-spirited 
and prominent resident of the place until 
his death. In 1S62 he was appointed to a 
position in the United States treasury de- 
partment with headquarters at Monroe, 
Louisiana, and there remained four years, 
returning to Fort Dodge after the close of 
the war. Subsequently he assumed control 
of the Fort Dodge Messenger and con- 
ducted that paper until June 4. 1S74. when 
he sold his interest. In February, 1877. he 
became the editor-in-chief of the Webster 
County Gazette, and that continued to be 



his business connection until his life's labors 
were ended. He was a fluent orator, an in- 
structive writer and his editorials treated in 
broad and impartial manner the questions 
claiming public attention. He made of his 
paper one of the strongest and most widely 
circulated journals in western Iowa, and 
through its columns he promoted every in- 
terest which he believed would prove of 
value and benefit to his adopted citv. He 
was a man true to his honest convictions, 
and neither fear nor favor could swerve him 
from a course which he believed to be right. 

Mr. Meservey was twice elected judge 
of Webster county, and upon the bench he 
"won golden opinions from all sorts of peo- 
ple." His knowledge of the law was ap- 
plied with equity of the points in litigation, 
and his decisions were always fair and im- 
partial. This was the only civil office he ever 
held, preferring the independence of a pri- 
vate citizen to the cares of official life. Vet 
he was ever willing to second the efforts of 
his friends who aspired to political honors. 
In his early years he endorsed the prin- 
ciples of Democratcy and lent his support 
toward achieving success for the party, but 
when the Civil war was inaugurated and the 
south sought to destroy the Union, setting at 
naught the power of the constitution, he be- 
came identified with the Republican party, 
and was ever afterward unswerving in his- 
allegiance to its principles. 

In Marion, De Witt county, Illinois, on 
the 27th of December, 1847, the Judge was 
united in marriage to Miss Amanda C. Rob- 
bins, a native of Campbell county. Kentucky, 
who removed to Illinois with her parents 
during her childhood. Her father. Judge 
Daniel Robbins, was a prominent citizen of 
the Prairie state. He was a native, how- 
ever, of Baltimore. Maryland, and was of 
English lineage. At the time of his death 

the Judge left a widow and four children 
to mourn his loss, the members of the 
househeld in addition to Mrs. Meservey 
being: Stillman T., who is now serving 
from his district as representative in the 
state legislature: A. F. ; AliceM.. the widow 
of Oliver M. Welch; and William D. In 
his social relations the Judge was a Mason 
and was also identified with the Odd Fel- 
lows fraternity, exemplifying in his life the 
beneficent and helpful spirit of both orders. 
His death occurred September 21. 1N7N, 
and the community thereby lost one of its 
most valued citizens, — a man who had ever 
been found as a friend of movements that 
contributed in large measure to the general 
good. He commanded respect for his fear- 
less advance of what he believed to be right, 
by his straightforward methods in business. 
by his loyalty in citizenship and his faith- 
fulness to his friend-. 


Since 1857 Cyrus Burnett has made his 
home in Webster county, and his name is 
inseparably connected with its agricultural 
interests. His thoroughly American spirit 
and his great energy have enabled him to 
attain a position of influence, and he is to- 
day the owner of eight hundred and forty 
acres of valuable farm land in Iowa and 
residence property in Dayton. 

Air. Burnett was bnrn in Ohio, on the 
Oth of February. 1826. His father, John 
I'.. Burnett, was a native of Xew Jersey and 
of German descent, while his mother, who 
bore the maiden name of Hattie Burgen, 
was born in Pennsylvania of Irish parent- 
age. They were married in the latter state 
and from there removed to Ohio in 1812, 
cuttino- their wav through the wilderness 



for out' hundred miles to Wayne county, 
where they bought one hundred and sixty 
acres of land. On selling that farm in 1857 
they removed to Cedar county, Iowa, and 
there purchased another farm, where the 
father died six years later. The mother 
then made her home for a time with her 
children in Iowa City, and died at that place 
in 1865. Of their fourteen children, twelve 
reached man and womanhood and mar- 
ried, namely: Thomas married Cindrella 
Nixson and lived for some time in Wayne 
county, Ohio, but both died in Cedar coun- 
ty, Iowa. Daniel married Katie Hines and 
also lived in Wayne count}. Ohio, and 
Cedar count}', Iowa, but died in Iowa City. 
William married Bettie Hines and died 
about 1854 in Cedar count} - , where his wife 
and several children still reside. Louisa 
married David Fairfield and removed from 
Wooster, Ohio, to Williams county, that 
state, where he died on Christmas and she on 
the following New Years Day in the latter 
part of the '60s. Wilson married a Miss 
Alexander and both died in Williams coun- 
ty, Ohio. Mary was the wife of George Eck- 
ert, of Wayne county, Ohio, and both are 
now deceased. Sarah married John Large, 
of Wayne count}'. Ohio, and both died in 
Indiana. John, deceased, first married Ann 
Van Est. of Millersburg, Ohio, and came to 
Cedar county, Iowa, where she died, and 
he subsequently married again. Nancy 
married Robert Smith and died in Cedar 
county. Isaac married Eliza Lorah and 
later Eliza Nixson, and died in Cedar 
county. Margaret wedded Stow Smith, of 
Wayne count}-. Ohio, and they now reside 
in Cedar count}-, Iowa. Cyrus completes 
the family. 

Our subject began his education in a 
primitive log school house with slab 
benches, where school was conducted on 

the subscription plan. Me also attended the 
public schools of Wayne county, Ohio, for 
a time, and continued his studies there until 
fifteen years of age. He remained at home 
until his marriage, which was celebrated in 
Wooster, Ohio, March 16, 1850, Miss Mar- 
garet Ann Richey becoming his wife. She 
Was born in Wayne county, January 4, 
1832, a daughter of Gasper T. and Martha 
(Richart) Richey. The father was born in 
Westmoreland count}-, Pennsylvania, and 
was of Irish descent on the paternal side 
and of German extraction on the maternal 
side. Her mother was also a native of that 
state ami was of Scotch lineage. Mrs. Bur- 
nett's paternal grandparents were married 
in Easton, Pennsylvania, and made their 
home in Lycoming county, that state, un- 
til 183 1, when they removed to Ohio, 
where the grandmother died in 1840. She 
bore the maiden name of Margaret Lock- 
ard, and was a lady of culture and refine- 
ment. The grandfather was a soldier of 
the Revolutionary war under General 
Washington, and other ancestors took part 
in the early Indian wars and the war of 
1812. The parents of Mrs. Burnett were 
married in Wooster, Ohio, and in 1854 
came to Webster county, Iowa, where the 
father died in 1882, and the mother in 1892. 
They had a family of eleven children, of 

whom four died in infanc_\ or childh 1. 

Of the seven remaining Mrs. Burnett is the 
oldest; Mary Jane is the wife of J. R. Line, 
of Fort 1 lodge; Priscilla married Levi Em- 
erson and died in Stratford. Iowa; Hen- 
rietta is the wife of A. R. Daughenbaugh, 
of Des Moines; Casper T. married Hattie 
Lyon and died on a farm in Webster coun- 
ty; James F. married Eliza Baker and lives 
in Pilot Mound. Boone county: S. B. mar- 
ried Angeline Mahan and resides in Web- 
ster county. 



Mr. and Mrs. Burnett have four chil- 
dren, three sons and one daughter, namely : 
Edwin Curtis, the oldest, died and was 
buried on his thirty-second birthday, May 
9, 1883. Jennie successfully engaged in 
school teaching at Rocky Ford and La 
Junta, Colorado, for nine years, but has now 
retired and makes her home in Denver. 
Howard, who is a law graduate of Cedar 
Rapids, is now engaged in the oil, coal 
and fuel business at Chadron, Nebraska. 
He married Nettie David in the Black Hills, 
South Dakota, and they have one child, 
Ruth. Williams Lester, who is engaged in 
the shoe business in Dayton, Iowa, wed- 
ded Mary F. Lane and they have two chil- 
dren, Cyrus Lester and Margaret Iris. 

In 1 85 7 Mr. Burnett and his family 
came to Webster county, Iowa, and set- 
tled on a farm five miles southeast of Day- 
ton, but have made their home in the vil- 
lage since 1884, when he retired from ac- 
tive labor to enjoy the fruits of former toil. 
He conquered all the obstacles in the path 
to success and secured for himself and fam- 
ily a handsome competence, being now the 
possessor of some valuable property. He is 
independent in politics, giving his support 
to the men and measures which he believes 
best qualified to advance the interests of his 
community and promote the general wel- 
fare. Wherever known he is held in high 
regard, and as an honored pioneer and 
highly respected citizen he is certainly de- 
serving of honorable mention in the history 
of his adopted county. 


One of the leading citizens and repre- 
sentative farmers of Cooper township is 
Christian Schmoker, who claims Switzer- 

land as his native land, his birth having oc- 
curred in that country, August 26, 1844. 
About 1857 he emigrated to the new world 
with his parents, Christian and Anna (Ber- 
net) Schmoker, also natives of Switzerland. 
The 'family first located in Wisconsin, 
where they made their home until 1868, 
and then came to Webster county, Iowa, 
settling in Cooper township, where the fa- 
ther purchased one hundred and sixty acres 
of wild land, which he transformed into a 
good farm. He followed general farming 
throughout life, and was a sturdy, hard- 
working man. Here he died at the age of 
seventy-eight years, his wife at the age of 
seventy-five. They were the parents of 
eleven children, all of whom are still living, 
namely : Peter, Christian, John, Jacob, 
Carl, Frederick, Gotlieb, Rudolph, Anna, 
Elizabeth and Rosa. The father was a 
member of the German Reformed church, 
and was a Republican in politics. He 
might well be termed a pioneer of Cooper 
township, for on locating here he took up 
new land and materially assisted in the de- 
velopment of his section of the county. 
He reared his family to habits of thrift and 
industry, and many of them are to-day 
among the substantial citizens of Webster 

Mr. Schmoker, whose name introduces 
this sketch, grew to manhood in Wisconsin, 
and attended school there. In 1868 he came 
with the family to this county, and has since 
engaged in general farming, at present own- 
ing a well-improved and valuable place of 
one hundred and sixty acres in Cooper 

Mr. Schmoker has been twice married, 
his first wife being Miss Elizabeth Hass. 
a native of Germany, who died in 1881, 
leaving six children, namely: Willie, now 
deceased ; Ferdinand ; Martin : Louisa ; 



Anna, now deceased; and Rosa. His sec- 
ond wife bore the maiden name of Cath- 
arine Scharf and was born in Illinois. By 
this union five children were born, namely: 
Albert; Phoebe; Cora, who died at the age 
of eighteen months: Hugo, who died at the 
age of five years ; and Winnie. 

In his religious views Mr. Schmoker 
is a Lutheran. By his ballot he supports 
the men and measures of the Republican 
party, and his fellow citizens, recognizing 
his worth and ability, have called upon him 
to till local offices of honor and trust, and 
he has most capably served as school treas- 
urer in Cooper township for the past fifteen 
wars, being the present incumbent. He is 
a self-made man, for his success in life is 
due entirely to his own well-directed and 
energetic efforts. 


For more than forty-two years this gen- 
tleman has made his home in Fort Dodge, 
Iowa, and his name is inseparably con- 
nected with public affairs, for during the 
greater part of this time he has held some 
public position, and is now acceptably filling 
the office of city clerk. Mr. Weller was 
horn in Arlington, Bennington county, 
Vermont, November 15, 1830, and is a son 
of Daniel and Rhoda (Snow) Weller, in 
whose family were five children, four sons 
and one daughter. In 1834 they removed 
to Sandgate, Bennington county, and in the 
schools of that place our subject received 
his elementary education. In 1850 the fam- 
ily removed to East Salem, Washington 
county, Xew York, where the father en- 
gaged in the dye and clothing business. 

While residing at that place Dexter A. 
Weller taught school during the winter 
months, while through the summer seasons 

he worked up< m a farm until the fall of 
1855, when he came to Fort Dodge, Iowa, 
arriving here on the 30th of September. 
Here he engaged in teaching during the fol- 
lowing winter, and- then followed farming 
until November, 1S64, when he was ap- 
pointed deputy treasurer of Webster county, 
and served in that capacity until January 1, 
1866, when he resumed farming, but in 
[867 returned to the treasurer's office as 
deputy, and filled that position until the 1st 
of January, 1878. During the next four 
years he did office work, and in 1883 was 
appointed secretary of the school board, 
which position he still holds. He was 
again made deputy treasurer in 1882, and 
held that office until elected county treas- 
urer in 1886, after which he served in the 
latter capacity two years. He continued to 
work on the books in various offices, how- 
ever, until March, 1892, when he was ap- 
pointed city clerk, and has since filled that 
position in a most creditable and satisfac- 
tory manner. 

Mr. Weller was married September- 4, 
1861, to Miss Elizabeth F. Sargent, a resi- 
dent of Johnsonville, Rensselaer county, 
Xew York. She was born in England. and 
came with her husband to Fort Dodge in 
[862. Mr. and Mrs. Weller have two chil- 
dren : Mary L., born December 2, 1862, is 
at home with her parents : and Minnie E., 
born April 9, 1866, is the wife of C. H. 
I 1 Iby, clerk of the courts at Fort Dodge. 

Socially Mr. Weller is a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen. He 
has made a most trustworthy and capable 
public officer, and has always been found 
true and faithful to every trust reposed in 
him, whether public or private, and he well 
deserves the high regard in which he is uni- 
formly held. 

3 o8 



Among the brave defenders of the 
Union during the dark days of the Civil 
war was Phillip Karcher. a well-known citi- 
zen of Fort Dodge, his home being at 609 
Fourth avenue south. He was born in 
Philadelphia on the 26th nf March, 1832, 
Ms 1 parents being Phillip and Katherine 
(Erb) Karcher, in whose family were seven 
children, five sons and two daughters. The 
father was a native of Germany and a shoe- 
maker by trade. 

Our subject received his early education 
in the schools of his native city, and ac- 
quired a .thorough knowledge of the shoe- 
maker's trade, at which he worked in the 
east until 1859, when he removed to Earl- 
ville, Iowa. The following year he came 
to Fort Dodge, and continued to follow his 
chosen occupation until after the Civil war 
broke out. On the 22d of August, 1862, 
Mr. Karcher enlisted in Company I, Thirty- 
second Iowa Volunteer Infantry, under 
Captain Alexander Dowd and Colonel 
John Scott. His regiment being assigned 
to the Sixteenth Corps. Army of the Ten- 
nessee, he took part with that command in 
the hattles of Fort De Russey, Pleas- 
ant Hill and Yellow Bayou, Louisiana; 
Lake Chicot, Arkansas; Tuples. Missis- 
sippi; Old Tom Creek, Mississippi; Nash- 
ville, Tennessee; and Blakely, Alabama. 
At the close of the war he was mustered 
out and discharged from the service at Clin- 
ton, [owa, August 24, 1865. Returning to 
Fort Dodge, he has since engaged in shoe- 
making and has met with fair success. He 
is now an honored member of Fort Donel- 
son Post, G. A. R., No. 236, and is highly 
respected and esteemed by all who know 

Mr. Karcher was married, August 6, 

1853, tn Miss .Margaret Hefiey, of Phila- 
delphia, a daughter of John M. Hefiey, a 
farmer of Pennsylvania. Seven children 
blessed this union, namely: William H., 
born May 13, 1854, is now engaged in 
mining in Colorado; Phillip, Jr., born De- 
cember S. [856, is a blacksmith of Des 
Moines; Mary I'"... horn September 8, i860, 
is the wife of William Grace, a farmer 
of Palo Alto count}-, Iowa; Catherine, born 
August 28, 1862, is at home; John Morris, 
born July 9, 1866, is a railroad contractor 
in Illinois; George S., born March 18, 1869, 
is in the employ of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road and resides at home ; and James, born 
April 14, 1877, is a fireman on the same 


Angus McBane was one of the honored 
pioneers of Webster county, and for many 
years no man was more actively or hon- 
orably associated with financial interests in 
this part of the state than he. As a real 
estate dealer he became an important fac- 
tor in the development and settlement of 
the count}', and in all possible ways he con- 
tributed to the upbuilding and substantial 
improvement of the city and the surround- 
ing district, so that his name is inseparably 
interwoven with its annals. His career 
was one of enterprising business activity, 
cf loyal citizenship and of fidelity to all the 
relations and duties of private life, and his 
example is one well worth}- of emulation. 

Mr. McBane was born in Columbiana 
count}-, Ohio, March 2j, 1829, a son of 
John and Marjory McBane, who were na- 
tives of Inverness, Scotland, where they 
were reared and married. In 1817 they 
crossed the Atlantic to "the land of the free 




and the home of the brave," taking up their 
abode among the earl) settlers of Colum- 
biana county, where the father entered a 
of land from the government. With 
characteristic Scottish thrift and energy he 
began its development and transformed it 
inti an excellent farm up n which he and 
his wife spent their remaining days. They 
da family 1 E eighl children, of whom 
five were hum in Scotland, while three were 
added to the family circle after the emigra- 
ti< 11 to the new w< add. 

( >n the old family hi in the 
Buckeye state Angus McBane, 1 £ this re- 
view, was born and reared, and in [844, 
when fifteen years of age, he started to 
learn the printer's trade in his brother's 
ce, bul he did not find this pursuit con- 
genial, and en the expiratii n of his service 
he sought 1 ther employment and accepted a 
positii 11 ui a drug -t^re at Wellsville, which 
positii n lie retained alu ut fi it years, when 
he went down the Ohii and Mississippi 
5 on a flatboat to \c\\ Orleans. At 
this time the excitement following the dis- 
er) of gi Id in California was at its 
1 night, and Mr. McBane, who was pos- 
sessed 1 1" a go d constitution and was full 
1 hi pe and energy, determined to try his 
fortune in the Golden state, hoping that 
amid tlie reported wealth of the Pacific 
eoasl he might secure enough of the pre- 
cious metal to render him a wealthy man 
or at least give him a good start in the 
business world. Accordingly he made 
preparations for the western journey. In 
tlie spring of 1850 he joined a party of 
American Argonauts in search of the gold- 
en fleece, hut instead of sailing amid en- 
chanted isles as their Greek predecessors 
had done, they journeyed by ox-teams 
across hundreds of miles of plains or 
through mountain passes, four month- be- 

ing required to make the trip, and on his 
arrival there he spent all but a very small 
sum of money. For two years after his 
arrival Mr. McBane worked in the mines. 
and then engaged in the milling business 
where Nevada City now stands, erecting a 
-;oam sawmill, which he operated until 
1854, wdien he returned to New York, by 
way of the Isthmus of Panama, and from 
the eastern metropolis made his way to 
Ohio. After a short time he made an. ther 
trip down the river to \e\\ Orleans, ami 
next engaged in the commission busi 
v nli his bn ther Alexander in Pittsburg, 
hut after a short time withdrew from the 
hrm, believing that the west would offer 
better business opportunities than the older 
and more thickly settled east. Aco rdingl) 
he made his way to Chicago. Minneapolis 
and then to he- Moines, Iowa, intending 
to engage in the real estate business there, 
hut finding that the best land had already 
been secured in these place-, h 
Fort Dodge, in June, 1855. and remained 
a resident of this city until his death. In 
Uigust of that year he built a banking 
house and at once engaged in the banking 
and real estate business as a member of the 
firm of Wilsons, McBane X Company. 1 le- 
va- subsequently prominently connected 
with various hanking institutions ami at 
one lime wa- president of the Merchants 
National Bank, and was also officiall) n- 
nected with the First National Banl 
its consolidation with the Merchants Na- 
tional, while later he was a member of the 
hanking firm of McBane & Grant. His 
thorough understanding of the business 
made his counsel of importance in financial 
circles, and the success of the institutions 
with which he was associated was due in 
no -mall measure to his efforts. As the 
years passed his prosperity increased, his 



labors making him one of the must affluent 
citizens of the count}-, but success did n< a 
come ti ' him all at once as there were years 
when the county was sparsely settled and 
there was not much business to be done. 

Mr. McBane was actively interested in 
the general progress and welfare, and c i- 
operated whenever possible in the move- 
ments which led to substantial impn ve- 
ment in this part of the state. He was liv- 
ing in Webster county when in 1857 the 
Indians massacred the people at Spirit 
Lake. He took an active part in assisting 
in the protection of the settlers at that 
point, being connected with the expedition 
that went to their relief. Through his real 
estate transactions he induced settlers to 
come to the county and was ever conscien- 
tious in aiding them to secure the kind of 
farms they desired, so that he always en- 
joyed and merited the business confidence 
of the people. 

In 1858 occurred the marriage of Mr. 
McBane and Miss Elizabeth McLaughlin, 
of Hamilton county. Iowa, a native of 
Columbiana county. Ohio, and a daughter 
of James McLaughlin, of Inverness, Scot- 
land, who with his family came to "Webster 
City. Iowa, in 1856, but the following fall 
he died, leaving a wife and three children. 
Unto Mr. and Mrs. McBane were born four 
nd three daughters, namely: Will- 
iam Wilson, who died at Great Falls. Mon- 
tana, August 10. 1900: James Alexander, 
who died at Fort Dodge. November 6, 
1890; John Daniel, who died in October. 
1877: Angus, who is the only living -mi: 
Lizzie, who died on the afternoon of the 
day on which her father passed away; Mar- 
jory; and Blanche, who js the wife of J. C. 

For some time prior to his death Mr. 
McBane was in failing health, and on the 

12th of April, 1888, he departed this life. 
For a > third of a century he lived in Fort 
Dodge, and few men were more widely 
known in Webster county, his business in- 
terests bringing him into contact with a 
large number whose friendship and respect 
he won by an honorable life and a kindly 
manner. He richly merited his prosperity, 
for it was honorably gained and worthily 
used. His career proved the power of in- 
dustry, integrity and perseverance as fac- 
tors in the business world and should serve 
as an inspiration to others who must de- 
pend upon their own resources for advance- 


Timothy Crimins, experienced railroad 
man, scientific farmer and all-around help- 
ful citizen of Elkhorn township, was born 
in Count}- Cork, Ireland, January 15, 1826. 
His parents, Dennis and Julia (McCallif) 
Crimins, were natives respectively of Coun- 
ties Kerry and Cork, Ireland, and were 
married in their native land, where they 
engaged in farming. In the family were 
the following children: John, who died in 
Fort Dodge, Iowa, in 1899, was a soldier 
during the Civil war. and was wounded 
while serving in the Sixty-fifth Illinois In- 
fantry; Johanna died in June, 1871 : Den- 
nis died in Ireland : and Ellen also died in 
her native land. 

Before coming to America, in 1849. a * 
the age of twenty-four years. Mr. Crimins 
studied in the public schools of his native 
land, and gained considerable knowledge of 
farming and general business. He sailed on 
the good ship John Evans, which for five 
weeks plowed its way through stormy seas 
and delaying calms, and finally arrived in 



Boston Harbor. Mr. Crimins engaged in 
railroad work out of Boston, and for twenty 

year? was identified with the Harlem Rail- 
road. After spending some time in Con- 
necticut he was with the Maysville Railroad 
in Kentucky during one summer, and then 
went to work on the levee in Arkansas, 
eventually bringing up at St. Louis, where 
he worked with the Pacific Railroad for 
two years. He then returned to Xew York 
and worked on the canal, later crossing the 
lake from Buffalo to Ohio, and then trav- 
eled to Michigan, where he walked thirty- 
five miles to catch a train to Chicago. He 
then went to Dunleith. Illinois, and worked 
on the Illinois Central Railroad, and was 
employed one summer in Iowa, and for a 
year in Minnesota, afterward working for 
the Union Pacific Railroad Company out of 
Omaha. Nebraska. At a later period he 
came to Des Moines. Iowa, and was with 
nearly all the railroads through central 
Iowa, and finally abandoned the railroad 
business entirely and settled on the river 
claim on section 9, Elkhorn township. Web- 
ster county, which he afterward purchased. 
Tune 24. 1872. Mr. Crimins married 
Mary Trainer, a native of County Louth. 
Ireland, born December 25, 1897, and ,a 
daughter of Patrick and Ellen (White) 
Trainer, also natives of County Louth. The 
parents came to America, where the mother 
died, after which the father returned to Ire- 
land. There were in the family the follow- 
ing- children : Patrick, who married Anna 
Colwell and lives in Fort Dodge: John. 
who is a gold miner in Montana; Simon, 
win' lives in Elkhorn township. Webster 
county. Iowa: Robert, who is engaged in 
railroading in Fort Dodge; Margretta. who 
is the wife of Donald Farrell, of Fort 
Dodge; Susan, who is the wife of Owen 
Halligan. of the vicinity of Fort Dodsre: 

Anna, who was the wife of Anthony Halli- 
gan and died twenty years ago in Elkhorn 
a^et, who is the wife of \Y. 
M. Hachenburg, of Minnesota; and Lizzie, 
who is the wife of Jim B reman, of Minne- 
sota. Seven children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Crimins. namely: Dennis, 
who married Jennie Mclntire; Joe. who died 
in infancy: Patrick, who died at the age of 
three years : Ellen, who is the widow of 
George McMahon ; Edward, who is living 
at home: and Julia, who is also living at 

At the time of taking possession of his 
one hundred and sixty acres of land Mr. 
Crimins had a great deal of laborious work 
ahead of him. for the property was raw 
prairie and had hitherto been unacquainted 
with plow or harrow. He broke the land 
himself, and has since made all manner of 
desirable improvements, including a com- 
fortable house, tine barn, good fences and 
outbuildings, as well as modern machinery 
of every known variety. He is a pn g 
ive farmer and valued citizen, and his ef- 

- have resulted in a benefit to the com- 


This well-known and successful agri- 
culturist of Cooper township, was born in 
Meggesburg. on the 8th of April. 1844. and 
was a lad of eight years when he cr 
the broad Atlantic in company with his par- 
ents. Henry and Dora Pingel. who were 
also natives of the fatherland. The family 
located in Jo Daviess county. Illinois. 
where Henrv Pingel continued to make his 
home throughout the remainder of his life, 
his time and attention being devoted to 
agricultural pursuits. He did not live long, 



however, after coining to this country, and 
died at the age of sixty-one years. His 
wife still survives him and now makes her 
home with their only daughter, Mrs. Cath- 
arine Wenters, in Iowa. In their family 
were only two children, the other being our 

Charles Pingel spent his boyhood and 
youth in Jo Daviess county, Illinois. His 
educational advantages were limited, as he 
began working for his board and clothes 
when a mere buy, and has since been de- 
pendent upon !iis own resources for a liveli- 
bi dd. The first wages he received were five 
dollars per month. While employed as a 
farm hand he managed to save some of his 
salary, and was at length .able to purchase a 
traci of forty acres in Jo Daviess count}-, 
Illinois. He has since 1" ught and s< Id sev- 
eral farms. In 1874 he came to Iowa, and 
after residing in various places he 
located in Webster county in 1880, and pur- 
chased a farm in Cooper township. He is 
n< w the 1 wner of a hue farm of one hun- 
dred and sixty acres, pleasantly located four 
and a half miles east of Fort Dodge, and 
in connection with its operation he also cul- 
tivates rented property to the amount of 
four hundred and forty acres. Of this 
about one hundred and fifty acres are de- 
voted tn corn and a similar amount to small 
grain, while the remainder is in hay and 
pasture. He keeps from fifty to seventy 
bead of cattle and a large number of horses 
and hugs. He has good and substantial 
buildings upon his place, and everything 
about the farm testifies to the thrift and in- 
dustry < if the owner. 

On the 226 of February, 1864, Mr. 
Pingel married Miss Dora Dubler, win 
was born in Germany, October 17, 1844, a 
daughter of John and Mary (Gillhoff) Dub- 
ler. Her father died in that country and 

her mother afterward came to America, 
where she passed away at the age of sev- 
enty-eight years. Of their five children 
three are still living: John, Sophia and 
Dora. The children born to our subject and 
his wife are William, Paulina, John, 
Louisa, Frederick, Otto, Norman, Edward, 
Herman. Christian, George and Frank, all 
living; and Anna, who died at the age of 
eighteen years. The family have a pleas- 
ant home, where hospitality and good cheer 
abound, and they stand high in the com- 
munity where t'hey reside. Mrs. Pingel is 
a member of the Reformed church and is 
a most estimable lady. Our subject is lib- 
eral in his religious views and is a Republi- 
can in politics. 


Rev. John A. Christenson, the beloved 
past r of the Swedish Evangelical Lutheran 
church of Dayton. Iowa, was born in 
Sweden, September 29, 1854, a son of Carl 
and Anna Christina (Carl) Christenson, 
Who were also natives of that country. The 
lather was captain of a vessel sailing out 
of Gutteribefg and was lust in a stnrm at 
ea 1 11 ( tctnber jo, 1SN1, when all on board 
perished. His widow subsequently came 
tn America, in 11X87. with her youngest 
son, and is now living with another sun in 
Princeton, Illinois. In the family were five 
children, namely: Carl, who married 
Anna Carlson and died in Sweden in 1897; 
John A., our subject: Gustave, who is mar- 
ried and living in Princeton, Illinois; Al- 
fred, a resident of Belvidere, that state; 
and Francis, who makes his home in Chi- 
cagi i'. 

Mr. Christenson, of this review, beeran 




his educatii n in the public schools 1 t 
Sweden, and was graduated therefrom in 
1871. Having decided to trj his fortune 
on this side pf the Atlantic, he came to 
America in May. [88 >, and first set foot on 
American soil at Boston. He spent three 
mi nths at Chicago, and then went to Rock- 
ford, Illinois, where he remained for -a .year 
and a half, being employed as an expert 
machinist while carrying on his theological 
studies preparatory 1 •• g the min- 

istry. In 1882 he took charge of a small 
congregatii n at De Kail). Illinois. 

Prior to this Mr. Christenson was mar- 
ried at RockfOrd, April 8, 1881, to Miss 
Lotta Swan, who was born in Stockholm, 
Sweden. December 3, 1857, and died i 1 
tober 4, 1887. her remains being interred 
in Chicago. She ilosl her mother when 
quite yi Ling-, and her father died in 1887. 
Both were life-long residents of Swi 
They had two children, one of whom also 
died in that country. 

About Christmas. 1884, Mr. Christen 1 
si n went to Chicagi to take charge of the 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Mission 
church near Humboldt Park, and remained 
there until November, 1888. There he was 
married October 19, 1888. to Miss Jose- 
phine Nettenstrom, who was born in 
Sweden. January 4. ^863, a daughtei 
J. P. and Anna Lisa Nettenstrom, also na- 
tive- of that country. In 1881 the famih 
emigrated to the United Sta 
in Chicago, where the father worked at his 
trade of blacksmithing with good success 
for many years and is now living a retired 
life, enjoying the fruits of fi rmer toil. < >f 
his nine children the following are still liv- 
ing: Bettie. wife of Otto Elg, of Chicago; 
Josephine, wife of our subject; Joel, who 
married Ellen Peterson and resides in Chi- 
cago, beinsr an architect for the Chicago, 

Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, erecting 
buildings and bridges for that company; 
d, who married Emma Johnson, and 
is a cutter and tailor of Chicago; Richard, 
who is a bookkeeper in the First National 
Bank 1 E Chicago: Ida, wife < t John Saf- 
strom, 1 f that city; and Rimer, who is at- 
tending school in Chicagi 

By his first marriage Mr. Christensi n 
wi 1 si ns : Edwin, b rn in Ri ckfi rd, 
tllinois, April 21, 1882; and David, born 
in DeKalb, Illinois, April 15. [884. There 
were seven children by the second union, 
namely: Ellen, born in Galesburj 
Decern! j< 2 >. [889; Mabel, 1)' rn in Sioux 
City, Ii wa. Uigusl 12, 1891 ; Ab< 
Dayton, October io. [893; .Myrtle, born in 
n, August m. 1895; Wilburt, born in 
'. Septembe r o. 1896 : ( '1< ments, born 
in Da} ti n, 1 Icti her 10. [898 : and I 
dore, born in Dayton, November 1. i 

I )n lca\ ing I 1 SSS, 

Mr. Christensi n went to Galesburg, tllinois, 
to taki 1 f the Second Lutheran 

church 1 f that place, and remained 
until August, 1890. In June 1 f that year 
he went to Jamestown, New York, where he 
examined and ordained a minister of 
the Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Au- 
gustana synod. He then accepted a call 
fri in the church of that denomination at 
City, Iowa, and from there came to 
Dayton in May. 1893, as pastor of the Swed- 
ish Evangelical Lutheran church 
place, and is still filling that position. 
Here he has a nice church and a good par- 
.. and under his able guidance the 
church has steadilj prospered and is now in 
a flourishini n. lie is a bi 

minded, liberal man and excellent scholar, 
having a fine library < f several hundred 
volumes, of which he makes good use. In 
his pi litical views he is a stanch Republican, 



and is a man highly respected and esteemed 
not only by the people of his own congre- 
gation but by all who know him. 


The financial and commercial interests 
of Fort Dodge would be very incomplete 
and unsatisfactory without a personal and 
somewhat extended mention of those whose 
lives are so closely interwoven with the de- 
velopment and business interests of the city 
which has been the home and scene of labor 
of many men who have not only led lives 
that should serve as inspiration to others 
but have also been of important service to 
their city and county through various ave- 
nues of usefulness. Although Mr. Granger 
was not a pioneer of Webster county, there 
is no man who more richly deserves men- 
tion in this volume than he. His business 
interests were so broad and varied that he 
contributed in large measure to the general 
prosperity, and yet not alone along business 
lines were his efforts put forth for the pub- 
lic good, fur from the time he took up his 
abode in Webster county his life record be- 
came an important chapter in its history. 

C. L. Granger was a native of Michi- 
gan, born at Mt. Clemens. February u, 
1850, and was a son of Sylvester and Mary 
(Venue) Granger. When quite young his 
family removed to Crown Point. Indiana, 
and it was here Mr. Granger grew to man- 

1 d and received his early mental training. 

From the first he became interested in the 
implement trade and his whole life was de- 
voted to that line of business. While still 
a young man he became associated with the 
McCormick Company, and it was but a 
lime before they recognized his worth 
and ability. He was first promoted to the 

position of general agent in Illinois and later 
held the same position in Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Xew Jersey and Delaware. In 
1879 ne determined to seek a new field of 
labor and entered the business world as a 
dealer. Landing in Fort Dodge, Iowa, in 
December of that year, he soon embarked 
in the wholesale and retail agricultural im- 
plement business, which he continued up 
to the time of his death. 

At Crown Point, Indiana, October 14, 
1874, Mr. Granger was united in marriage 
with Miss Alice A. Willey, a native of that 
state. Her father, George Willey, was a 
pioneer of Indiana, where he continued to 
make his home throughout life. Both he 
and his wife are now deceased and are sleep- 
ing their last sleep in the Crown Point 
cemetery. , 

As before stated, it was at a very early 
age that Mr. Granger began business for 
himself, and his success in life was due en- 
tirely to his own efforts. He belonged to 
the great army of self-made men that have 
by their industry, perseverance and straight- 
forward business methods made this com- 
mercial world of ours what it is to-day, the 
greatest in the whole world. When but a 
youth he formed a habit of making use of 
all his opportunities, and his success was 
by no means the result of fortunate circum- 
stances. It came to him as a natural result 
of energy, labor and perseverance, directed 
by an evenly-balanced mind and honorable 
business principles. He determined to 
make a success of his life, and the pros- 
perity that came to him was well deserved. 

In addition to his regular business Mr. 
Granger was also associated with other en- 
terprises. He was one of the organizers of 
the Cardiff Gypsum Company, and re- 
mained a stockholder of the same up to the 
time of his death. 



Fraternally Mr. Granger was a Knight 
Templar Mason and a member of the Royal 
Arcanum and Legion of Honor, and politi- 
cally was identified with the Republican 
party. As a public-spirited and progressive 
citizen he took an active and influential 
part in municipal affairs, and for four terms 
most efficiently served as mayor of Fort 
Dodge. It has been said by those who were 
most closely associated with him at that 
time that he was the strong supporter of all 
movements calculated to benefit the city of 
bis adoption, and to-day all acknowledge 
that never were the reins of city govern- 
ment in more capable hands. He was an 
enterprising man and all matters pertaining 
to the public welfare received his hearty 
endorsement. Over his life record there 
falls no shadow of wrong; his public serv- 
ice was most exemplary, and his private life 
was marked by the utmost fidelity to duty. ' 
He died at Passavant Hospital, Chicago, 
where he bad gone for treatment, April 6, 
1900. after having been in poor health for 
some time. His death was a sad blow to his 
wife and friends, of which he had scores, 
ami he is to-day mourned by all who knew 
him. He made for himself a record in busi- 
ness, and by his well-directed efforts ac- 
quired a handsome competence. 


John Fallon, deceased, was for many 
years one of the leading farmers and repre- 
sentative citizens of Douglas township. He 
was born in Ireland on the 19th of April, 
1831, and came to America in 1833. For 
some time he made his home in Clinton 
county. New York, where he owned and 
operated a farm of one hundred and ten 

Before leaving the Empire state Mr. 
Fallon was married, January 8, 1858, to 
Miss Mary Gannon, who was born in New 
York city, April 2, 1840. Her parents, 
Thomas and Alary (Mahon) Gannon, were 
natives of Ireland and came to the new 
world when young. Her father, who was 
a mason by trade, spent his last days in 
Clinton county, New York, where he died 
at the advanced age of eighty-three years. 
His wife was seventy-nine years old at the 
time of her death. Of the nine children 
born to them only two reached years of 
maturity, and Mrs. Fallon is the only one 
of the family now living. Our subject and 
his wife became the parents of fourteen 
children, who are still living, namely: 
William H.. Thomas, Alary, Frank, George, 
Julius, Joseph, Josephine. Hattie, Lena, 
James, John, Anna and Clement. Those 
deceased are Charles, who was the second 
in order of birth and died on the home farm 
in 1893; Bennett John, who died in Chi- 
cago, May 20, 1886; and Kattie, who died 
when quite young. 

In November, 1866, Mr. Fallon came 
to Iowa and took up his residence in Web- 
ster county, first buying one hundred and 
sixty acres of land in Douglas township in 
partnership with his brother Henry. Sub- 
sequently he purchased the farm where his 
last days were spent, and at the time of his 
death owned five hundred and sixty acres 
of rich and arable land under a high state 
of cultivation. He was a hard-working, 
energetic man and met with marked suc- 
cess in his farming operations. He also 
gave considerable attention to the feeding 
of stock and prospered in that undertaking. 
As one of the leading and influential 
citizens of his township Mr. Fallon was 
called upon to till several local offices of 
honor and trust, such as assessor and trus- 


tee. and always took quite an active and 
prominent part in public affairs. In his 
political views he was first a Democrat, but 
was later independent in politics, and in re- 
ligii us faith was a Catholic. After a use- 
ful and well-spent life, he died December 9, 
honored ami respected by all who 
knew him. His family still reside on the 
nld home farm and are people of promi- 
nence in the community where they reside. 
William H. Fallon, the oldest son of 
1 ui' subject, was born in Clinton county, 
New Y< rk, December 7. 1859. and began 
his education in the public schools of that 
itate, continuing his studies in the schools 
of Douglas township after the removal of 
lite family to this county. He is now ad- 
ministrator of his father's estate, and in 
the conduct of the business displays ex- 
ceptional ability and sound judgment. He 
is now successfully engaged in farming 
upon three hundred and twenty acres of 
kind, one hundred of which are devoted 
n. seventy to small grain and the 
remainder to pasture and ha}-. In con- 
n with his brothers he carries on 
the home farm, and makes a specialty of 
the breeding of standard thoroughbred 
hor'ses and owns some very valuable ani- 
mal-, including two thoroughbred stallions 
ami one standbred. Some of his horses 
have fine records. He also keeps seven- 
teen head of cattle and takes great pride in 
his stock. In politics he is independent. 


The- subject of this sketch is one of the 
most prosperous farmers and stock raisers 
of Web-ter county, and is the largest land 
owner in Douglas t< wnship, where he has 

made his home since 1887. He was born 
on the 3d of .May. 1S52. in St. Anthony, 
nenv East Minneapolis. Minnesota, and is a 
son of Louis and Catherine (Wolf) Neu- 
deck, the former born in Wurtemberg, Ger- 
many, December 2$, 1821, the latter in 
Epenberen Westphalia. Germany. Decem- 
ber 7. [826. < )n hi- emigration to America, 
about 1842, the father located in Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, and when a young man 
followed a seafaring life. Later be en- 
gaged in the cattle business to some extent 
in Illinois and in the dry goods business at 
Stillwater, Minnesota, from 1848 to 1850. 
lie was next interested in the lumber busi- 
ness at St. Anthony and subsequently in the 
meat business, being one of the early settlers 
of that place. In [862 he joined Anson 
Mi rthrup's company at the outbreak of the 
Xew Ulm Indian massacre. He served in 
this company until the Indians were sub- 
dyed in 1863, when he crossed the plains 
with provisions, etc., and opened up a cattle 
ranch in Helena, Montana. Returning in 
the spring- of 1864. be soon afterward 
Captain Fisk's expedition, which 
A'as organized for the purpose of transpi 1 . 
tng provisions, etc.. to the gold fields of 
Idaho. When about two hundred miles 
north of Fort Rice the party went into camp 
for dinner and after a two-hours' 
they resumed their journey. While in 
camp one of Mr. Neudeek's oxen strayed 
away. Telling the rest of the party to con- 
tinue their way, he started in search of the 
animal with no thought of danger, as it v as 
thought that not an Indian was near, but 
such was not the case, as he had gone but a 
short distance ere he was killed, on the 2d 
of October, 1864. It seems as if this was a 
signal, for at once, from all quarters In- 
dians appeared. The party at once went 
into camp again and made preparations for 




an attack. For two weeks they held the In- 
dians at bay, hoping for reinforcements, as 
two of their number had gone back to Fort 
Rice after the soldiers which were stationed 
there, but bef< re their arrival twelve of the 
party were killed and many wounded. 

Mrs. Neudeck died April 14. 1881. In 
the family of this worthy couple were five 
children who reached years of maturity, 
namely: .Mrs. Eliza Stetson, of Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota; Louis \\ .. our subject; 
William 11.. also a residenl of Minneap 
Mrs. Carrie Smith, of Los Angeles, Cali- 
fi rnia; and Lucy, who married Lou Four- 
rev and died at the age of twenty-one years. 

Louis W. Neudeck passed his boyh 1 

and youth in Minneapolis and is indebted 
to its public scho Is for his educational ad- 
vantages. On starting out in life for him- 
self he was first employed as a herdsman for 
the cattlemen of Minneapolis. In 1870 he 
went to Duluth. where lie engaged in the 
meat business for a rear, at the end 1 if which 
time he removed to Austin. Minnesota, 
where the following year was spent in the 
same business. In 1872 he engaged in the 
meat business at Red Wing, that state, 
where he continued for about nine years. 
He then returned to Minneapolis, where he 
carried on an extensive meat and cattle 
business on In th the east and west side up 
to the time of his removal to Webster coun- 
ty, Iowa. In connection with this business 
he also conducted a large farm, most of the 
land being' used for grazing purposes. In 
1887 he disposed of his interests in Minne- . 
SOta and purchased eight hundred and 
eighty acres of valuable farm land in Doug- 
las township, this county. This place is 
supplied with good and substantial build- 
ings and everything- about the farm shows 
the careful supervision of its owner, who is 
one of the most up-to-date and progressive 

agriculturists of northwestern Iowa. In ad- 
dition to his farming operations Mr. Neu- 
deck has become known as the most, exten- 
sive breeder of polled Angus cattle in this 

on of the state, and at present has ,,,, 
two hundred head of thoroughbreds upon 
his place. lie ships his cattle to all parts 
of the west and south and also east of the 
Mississippi river. Trior to coming to Iowa 
lie was engaged in the same line of busi- 
ness in Minnesota and has been eminently 
successful in this venture. Me is alsi .1 
breeder of French coach horses. Shropshire 
sheep and Poland China hogs, and keeps 
front forty-five to fifty head of horses. For 
ten years he has owned Illustre, a celebrated 
imported French coach stallion. On ac- 
o unt of his stock most 1 f his land is used 
fir pasturage, but three hundred acres are 
yearl) planted in corn and 1 al - 

Mr. Neudeck was married. Octob 
1878, to Miss Clara < >. Eames, a nati 
Oquawka, Illinois, and a daughter of Cap- 
tain Obediah and Mary (Biglow) Eames. 
Her father, who was horn in 1824, died in 
1881, hut her mother is still living. Cap- 
tain Eames built and ran several steamboats 
o.n the Mississippi river between Stillwater, 
Minnesota, and St. Louis, Missouri, for 
a number of years. He also had large cat- 
tle and landed interests. Mr. and Mrs. 
Neudeck have five children: Vinnie E., 
Louis M., Harry W., Mabel C. and 
Ertel M. 

Mr. Neudeck is a prominent Mason, 
being a member of the Mystic Shrine of 
Des Moines, and his family belongs to the 
[Methodist Episcopal church. His political 
support is given to the men and measures of 
the Democratic party, but he takes no active 
part in public affairs, preferring to give his 
undivided attention to his own business in- 
terests. He to-day enjoys the reward of his 



painstaking and conscientious work. By 
his energy, perseverance and fine business 
ability he lias been enabled to secure an 
ample fortune. Systematic and methodical, 
his sagacity, keen discrimination and sound 
judgment have made him one of the most 
prosperous agriculturists of Iowa. 


Prominent among the citizens of Fort 
Dodge now retired from active business 
cares is Thomas Cahill, who is spending 
his declining years is ease and quiet at his 
pleasant h< me, 902 Third avenue north. 
He was born in Kilkenny. Ireland, in 1830, 
and is a son of Patrick Cahill, who came 
to the United States in 1852, and spent his 
last days at Palo Alto, Iowa. Rev. Michael 
Cahill. a brother of our subject, was or- 
dained a Catholic priest at St. Louis in 
1854, and the following year was appointed 
pastor of a church at Boomington, Illinois. 
He died in Paris in 1857. 

Thomas Cahill passed the days of his 
minority in his native land, and in January. 
185 1, came to the New World. He first 
located in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, later 
spent two years in Ohio, and from there re- 
moved to Elgin, Illnois, in 1854. The fol- 
lowing year he came to Iowa and bought a 
farm near Iowa City, and in 1856 took up 
a claim in Palo Alto county, being there at 
the time of the Indian massacre in that 
county. In the spring of 1857 ne located 
permanently in Fort Dodge. 

Mr. Cahill was married in Chicago, 111 1- 
in July, 1857, to Miss Bridget Hickey, 
a sifter of Judge Hickey, and a native of 
County Kilkenny. Ireland. Of the six- 
children horn of this union Katherine is the 

only one now living. The sons were 
Michael, who died at the age of seven 
months; Thomas Patrick, who died in 1888, 
at the age of twenty-eight years; Michael 
Joseph, who died in infancy; Daniel, who 
died at the age of seven years ; and James, 
who died in childhood. Thomas Patrick 
was educated at Professor Kenyon's Col- 
lege and served as assistant county treas- 
urer for a time, being a very bright and 
promising young man. The wife and 
mother, who was a most estimable lady, 
died October 10, 1901, at the age of sixty- 
nine years. 

On taking up his residence in Fort 
Dodge in 1857, Mr. Cahill embarked in the 
•grocery business with William Halihan on 
Market street next to Laufersweiler's furni- 
ture store, and that partnership continued 
until the fall of 1858, afer which he was 
alone in business on the corner of Walter 
street and First avenue south until 1862. 
During that year he became interested in 
railroad contracting, and for twenty-one 
years engaged in that business, receiving 
large contracts for grading the road beds 
of the Illinois Central; Burlington. Cedar 
Rapids & X. >rthern and the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroads. On account of 
failing health he retired from business 
about 1895, having accumulated enough 
property to enable him to spend his remain- 
ing years in ease and comfort. His real 
estate holdings in Fort Dodge include one 
lot on Third avenue and Ninth street and 
three lots on block 22 First avenue south. 
All of this property has been acquired 
through his own unaided efforts and he de- 
serves great credit for the success he has 
achieved in life. For almost forty years he 
was one of the active and progressive men 
of the city, as well as one of its most re- 
liable ami honorable citizens, and now in 



his declining years is enjoying a well-earned 
rest, free from the cares and responsibilities 
( 1 business life. 


This gentleman is entitled to distinction 
as one of the most progressive and enter- 
prising business men of Dayton. No one 
in the locality is better known, for his en- 
tire life has here been passed, and all his 
interests from boyhood have been closely 
associated with those of Webster county. 
He is now engaged in the hardware and 
agricultural implement business in partner- 
ship with his brother, George A. 

Mr. Gabrielson was born in Dayton, on 
the 30th of March, 1868, and is a son of 
Ji hn Gabrielson, whose sketch appears on 
another page of this volume. Upon the 
hi »nie farm he grew to manhood, giving his 
father the benefit of his labors until nine- 
teen years of age. His early education, ac- 
quired in the common schools, was supple- 
mented by two years' attendance at the 
■\Yestern Normal School at Shenandoah. 
Iowa, where he won the degree of D. D. 
For two year- he taught in district schools 
and for one year in a graded school. He 
then accepted a position with the firm of 
Grange & Mitchell, implement dealers at 
Fi irt Dodge, and at the end of a year bought 
an interest in the hardware business of 
Richardson & Roerbeck at Dayton, but two 
years later sold out to Mr. Richardson, and 
111 connection with his brother, George A., 
opened a new establishment as dealers in 
hardware and implements. This business 
they still carry on, having met with well- 
merited success. Through courtesy to their 
customers and by fair and honorable deal- 
ing, they have gained a liberal share of the 

public patronage, and to-day occupy an en- 
viable position in business circles. 

In 1893 Mr. Gabrielson was united in 
marriage with Miss Hannah Sackrison, of 
Stratford, Iowa, who was born Januarv 1, 
[865, in Illinois. Her parents. Mr. and Mrs. 
John Sackrison, were both natives of Swe- 
den, and came to America in early life, 
their marriage being celebrated in Illinois. 
The mother is deceased, but the father is 
still living and continues to reside in Strat- 
ford. In early life he followed farming, 
but is now retired from active labor. His 
family consisted of six children, namely: 
Otto, who now lives with our subject; 
Mary, wife of John Carlson, of Hamilton 
county, Iowa; Emily, who died at the age 
■ i -even years; Albert, who married Caro- 
line Israelson and resides in Hardin town- 
ship, this county; and Eddie and Gust, who 
live with Albert. Mr. and Mrs. Gabrielson 
have two children: Nellie V., born May 
27. 1895; and John H., born January 16, 
1898. The family have a pleasant home in 
Dayton, where hospitality and good cheer 
reign supreme. Mrs. Gabrielson is a mem- 
ber of the Swedish Methodist Episcopal 
church, and our subject belongs to the 
Knights of Pythias fraternity. Politically 
he is identified with the Democratic partv. 
He is quite popular both in business and 
social circles and highly respected bv all 
who know him. 


One of the leading agriculturists and 
highly respected citizens of Badger town- 
ship is George Larson, whose home is on 
section 8. His success in life has been 
worthily achieved, as in him are embraced 



the characteristics of an unbending integ- 
rity, unabated energy and industry that 
never flag. Coming to this county in 
March. [865, he has witnessed almost its 
entire development, and has materially 
aided in its upbuilding and advancement. 

A native of Norway, Air. Larson was 
born in the "land of the midnight sun." 
September 16, 1833, and there grew to 
manhood upon a farm, being given but lim- 
ited school privileges. In 1855 he took 
passage on a sailing vessel, and after about 
eight weeks on the water landed in Quebec, 
Canada, whence he made his way to Dane 
county, Wisconsin, where he worked on the 
railroad for about six years. 

At the end of that period Mr. Larson 
came to Webster county, Iowa, and pur- 
chased eighty acres of raw- prairie land 
where he now resides and built thereon a 
log house, which was his It -me for seven or 
eight rears. In the meantime he placed 
acre after acre of his land under the plow 
until it was all under cultivation, lie broke 
the land with two yoke of oxen, and has 
made all the improvements upon the place, 
having recently erected a large and pleas- 
ant residence, lie has also built barns and 
other outbuildings, has set out fruit and 
shade trees, and now has a fine grove of 
maple and forest trees planted from the 

Before leaving Norway Mr. Larson 
married Miss Anna Marear. who died in 
Wisconsin, leaving fixe children, namely: 
Mary, Louis, John, Sebert and Albert. He 
was again married in Wehster county, 
[owa, in 1868, his second union being with 
Miss Cecelia Severson, who was also born 
and. reared in Norway, and on coming to 
this country spent eight years in Dane coun- 
ty. Wisconsin, before taking up her resi- 
dence in Webster county, Iowa. By his 

last marriage Mr. Larson had five children, 
two , f whom are still living: Severer:, 
who married Tillie Johnson and has one 
child. Gyhard S. ; and Albert. 

Politically Mr. Larson has always been 
identified with the Republican party since 
casting his first presidential vote for Abra- 
ham Lincoln, but he has newer sought or 
cared for official preferment, desiring rather 
to dewote his entire time and attention to 
his agricultural interests. He is a man of 
good business ability, and as he thoroughly 
understands his chosen occupation he has 
met with remarkable success since coming 
to this country, and is to-day the owner of 
a line farm of four hundred acres under ex- 
cellent cultivation and well improved. 


John Roll. Jr.. who is now successfully 
engaged in the liquor business at 602 First 
avenue south. Fort Dodge. Iowa, was born 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on the 14th of 
December, 1856, and is one of a family of 
ten children, whose parents are John and 
Mary (Schnek) Roll, a sketch of whom 
appears elsewhere in this volume. 

During the infancy of our subject the 
family came to Iowa, and he was principally 
reared and educated in Fort Dodge. After 
leaving school he assisted his father in the 
brewery business until 1886. and later 
worked for the roadmaster of the Minne- 
apolis & St. Louis Railroad for about a 
year. Since then he has engaged in the 
liquor business in Fort Dodge and now 
owns a saloon at 602 First avenue south, 
as previously stated. He also acts as 
wholesale agent for the West Side Brewing 
( '.1 mpany of Chicago. 



Mr. Koll was married October 27, 18S1, 

to Miss Minnie Osmondson, a daughter of 
Christ and Rachel (Raymer) Osmondson, 
who are natives of Norway and are n , 
residents of Fori Dodge. Four children 
blessed this union, namely: Albeit Francis, 
born July 21, 1882, was killed October 29, 
iSS;; Harry Edgar, hum .March [8, 1NN1. 
is at home; Hattie Aileen. born December 
6, 1887, was a graduate from the Roge; 
School of Music of Fort Dodge and then 
attended a school of music in Chicago; and 
Violet Elizabeth, born December jj, [893, 

mpletes the family. The family have a 
nice home at 306 Second avenue north. 
Mr. EG 11 is a wide-awake, energetic ami 

pr< gressive man. and is meeting with g 1 

success. Fraternally he is connected with 
the Improved Order of Red Men, and his 
wife is a member of the Iowa Legion of 
]|i m r. 



William J. Van < )sdoll, deceased, was for 
many years prominently identified with the 
business interests of Fort Dodge, and was 

1 ne 1 t its most honored and highly re- 
spected citizens. A native of Pennsylvania, 
he was horn in Meshoppen, Wyoming 

nnty, December 18, 1829, and was a son 
1 f Philip and Melissa (Churchill) Van 
( >sd< 11, who came to this country from Hol- 
land and settled in Meshoppen, where our 
subject was reared and educated. In early 
life he learned the mason's trade, and at the 
1 twenty years commenced contracting 
and building on his own account. 

Mr. Van Osdoll was thus employed un- 
til after the Civil war broke out, when he 
entered the service of his country, enlist- 
ing 1 n the 1 -t of September. 1862, in Com- 

pany P. Fifty-second Pennsylvania Volun- 
teer Infantry, under Captain Jayne and 
Colonel Dodge. The regiment became a 
1 an of the Army of the Cumberland, I 
assigned to the First Brigade. Third Divis- 
ion. Fourth and Tenth Corps. Mr. Van 
Osdoll was mustered into service Septem- 
ber 16, [862, and with his command was 
sent to North Carolina to operate against 
Wilmington. Beauport ami Port Royal 
lie took part in the engagement on Morris 
Island, July 10, 1863, and at Fort Wagner 
from that date until the Oth of the follow- 
ing September, and was in the assault on 
Charleston in July, [864. Lie remained on 
Morris Island during the summer and 
autumn of ] 8* 14, doing duty as boat in- 
fantry, and in February, [865, Major Hen- 
nessy, with Company 1'., proceeded ag 
the city of Charleston and captured that 
stronghold of treason. On account of fever 
our subject was confined in the hospital at 
Beauport for four weeks, and was detailed 
fi ir special duty in the signal corps \< 
months in the fall of 1864. Lie was at- 
tached to the Army of the Cumberland un- 
til the last year of the war. when he was 
transferred to> Sherman's army. On the 
cessation of hostilities he was honorably 
discharged at Salisbury. North Carolina. 
June 24, 1865. 

When the war was over Mr. Van < >sdi 11 
returned to his old home in Meshoppen, 
Pennsylvania, where he followed his chosen 
calling until the spring of 1868, when he 
came to Fort Dodge, Iowa, and continued 
to ivork at the mason's trade at this place 
throughout the remainder of his life. On 
locating here he built a house for the ac- 
commodation of his family. 

On the 2d of July, 1859, in Meshoppen, 
Pennsylvania, Mr. Van Osdoll married 
,\h-- Olive Robinson, a daughter of John 



and Olive (Howard) Robinson, who were 
natives of that state and residents of Wy- 
oming county, where her father followed 
farming. By this union the following chil- 
dren were born : Lillian, now the wife of 
W. M. Merritt, an insurance adjuster of 
Fort Dodge; Frank, who is a traveling 
salesman for the Stucco Mills and a resi- 
dent of Fort Dodge; and Olive, a stenog- 
rapher for S. R. Dohs, a wholesale fruit 
dealer of Fort Dodge. The son married 
Nettie Beach. 

As a public-spirited citizen Mr. Van 
Osdoll took an active interest in municipal 
affairs, and for four years was an influen- 
tial member of the city council of Fort 
Dodge. Socially he was a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He 
died on the 8th of February, 1898, leaving 
many friends as well as his immediate fam- 
ily to mourn his loss. He was a brave 
soldier and valued citizen, and commanded 
universal respect and esteem. 


Prominent among the successful den- 
tists of Webster county is Dr. S. I. Chin- 
burg, of Dayton, who was born in Henry 
county, Illinois, April 15, i860, of Swedish 
parentage. His father, who was a farmer 
by occupation, entered the service of his 
adopted country during the Civil war, and 
died in Andersonville prison. The mother 
died in Boone county, Iowa. In their fam- 
ily were five children, namely: August; 
Charles J., who married Tilla Burnquist 
and resides in Odebolt, Iowa; Carrie, 
widow of C. M. Blaine and a resident of 
La Crosse, Wisconsin; Mary, wife of Ho- 
bart Crane, of Menominee, Michigan ; and 
Samuel Isaac, of this review. 

Dr. Chinburg received a good common- 
school education, graduating from the third 
ward school of Des Moines. He then took 
a two years' course in dentistry at the 
Pennsylvania University, Philadelphia, and 
since leaving that institution in 1879 has 
successfully engaged in the practice of his 
chosen profession in Iowa, being located at 
Des Moines for' over ten years. He was 
then upon the road for nearly the same 
length of time, finally locating in Dayton 
in 1895. Here he has since made his head- 
quarters, but still does considerable work 
outside of the town. He has a well-equipped 
office, and enjoys a large and lucrative prac- 
tice, his skill and ability being widely recog- 


Patrick Scully, deceased, who for many 
years was prominently identified with the 
business interests of Fort Dodge, Iowa, was 
born in Castletown, Geoghagan, Ireland, in 
1828, and came alone to America at the 
age of fourteen years. He first located in 
Illinois, where he worked in the mines for 
a number of years. While thus employed 
the Civil war broke out, and he manifested 
his love for his adopted country by enlist- 
ing at Belleville, Illinois, July 2j, 1801. as 
a private in Company K, Twenty-second 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was after- 
ward promoted to orderly sergeant. He 
participated in the battles of Missionary 
Ridge, Chickamauga, Chattanooga and 
Perryville and many other engagements 
under General Sherman ; and was a member 
of the corps sent to the relief of General 
Burnside. He was wounded at Knoxville, 
Tennessee. After over three years of 
arduous and faithful service on southern 



battle fields, he was honorably discharged 
August 1. 1X1,4. and returned to his home 
in Illinois with a war record of which he 
could be justly proud. 

In (868 Mr. Scally came to Fort Dodge, 
and after being engaged in the saloon busi- 
ness for a short time, he opened a hotel in 
a building on the square and successfully 
conducted it until 1883. During the fol- 
lowing two years he practically lived re- 
tired and then again embarked in the hotel 
business, which he carried on until failing 
health compelled his retirement in 1891. 

At the church of the Holy Cross, in 
Xew York city, .Air. Scally was married, 
May 10. iN-,,. to Miss Rose Phelan, whose 
parents lived on a farm in Ireland adjoin- 
ing the Scally homestead. For four years 
previous to this Mrs. Scally had resided in 
that city, but after her marriage came to 
Fori Dodge, where they continued to make 
their home until his death, which occurred 
May 12, 1897. Of the four children born 
to himself and wife two survive him: 
Mary, wife of P. M. Dowd, a grocer of 
Fort Dodge; and Thomas, freight agent for 
the Illinois Central Railroad at this place. 
In business affairs Mr. Scally prospered 
and accumulated considerable property, in- 
cluding some farm land in Webster countv. 
a part of which his widow still owns, hav- 
ing a good farm in Don-las township and 
another in Washington township. She 
also owns the building where the firm of 
Dowd & Scally are engaged in the grocery 
business and her pleasant residence at 520 
Third avenue south. At one time Mr. 
Scally was engaged in prospecting for coal, 
and was always a very progressive and en- 
ergetic business man. He was a member of 
( ' rpus Christi church and Fort Donelson 
Post, Xo. 2^, G. A. R., of Fort Dodge, 
and was a man highly respected and 

esteemed by all who knew him. In the care 
of her property Mrs. Scally has displayed 
good business and executive ability, and 
has met with good success. She is 'a most 
estimable woman, and has a large circle of 
friends and acquaintances in Fort Dodge 
who esteem her highly for her genuine 

■» » » 


One of the representative farmers of 
W ebster county, Iowa, who has done much 
toward promoting the advancement and 
welfare of this section of the state, is Rob- 
ert Wilson Blain, who is now living retired 
on a farm of two hundred and forty acres 
in Douglas township. He is of Scotch de- 
scent, his grandfather. Robert Blain. hav- 
ing emigrated from Scotland in 1S02, and 
ed in Westmoreland county. Pennsyl- 
vania. There his life was spent in the pur- 
suits of farming and blacksmithing until 
hi- death, he having attained the age of 
eighty years. His wife. Elizabeth (John- 
son) Plain. al>o lived to an advanced age. 
William Blain. the father of our sub- 
ject, was but one year of age when he came 
to America with his parents. He spent the 
greater part of his life in Westmoreland 
county. Pennsylvania, but when fifty years 
of age he removed to California. There he 
engaged in mining, and passed away in his 
fifty-second year. He married Miss Cath- 
erine Weih. who was a faithful and loving 
companion to him, and who, lived to the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-four. They were the 
parents of nine children, eight of whom 
reached mature years. Our subject, who is 
the eldest of the children, and a sister. Emily 
Graig. who resides in Chicago. Illinois, are 
the only surviving members of the family. 



Robert Wilson Blain, whose name in- 
troduces this review, was born in West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania, November 
[,. 1827. In the public schools of his na- 
tive county he received his early education, 
and there lie also learned the trades of gun- 
smith and machinist. In 1843 ne ' ett ms 
native state for the west, and settled in 
Clayton county, Iowa, where he engaged 
in millwright and carpenter work. He was 
employed largely in bridge building and 
mill work in that portion of the state until 
1858, when lie removed to Webster county. 
Prior to his locating in this county he had 
purchased a valuable tract of .land in Clay 
county, which he had cultivated extensively. 
In i860, however, he sold this property and 
purchased the farm upon which he now re- 
sides, and which comprises a tract of two 
hundred and forty acres of rich land. To 
this property he has made improvements, 
and has all the modern equipments and im- 
plements necessary for the perfect culti- 
vation of the land, and in all the surround- 
ing country there is no farm which yields 
more bountiful harvests than that of Mr. 
Blain. Sixty acres of the land is devoted 
to the raising of corn; forty acres yield 
large crops of the smaller grains, while the 
remainder of the land is sown to hay, and 
also affords pasturage for his live stock. 
'I he farm is perfect in its entirety. A com- 
fortable residence, well-filled barns and out- 
buildings present a neat and thrifty ap- 
pearance which plainly indicates the care 
and Labor which have been bestowed upon 
them. In addition to this property, Mr. 
Blain also owns one hundred and sixty acres 
of land in Humboldt county, Iowa. His 
life's labor has been crowned with success. 
and be now lives retired from active life, 
enjoying the well-earned rest which is his 
after years of unceasing labor. The duties 

of the farm are performed by one of his 

In 1855 was celebrated the marriage of 
Mr. Blain and AI iss Lydia Kendelstive, a 
native of Illinois, wdio has been a most lov- 
ing and helpful companion on the journey 
of life. Eleven children have blessed the 
marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Blain. namely: 
Edward !•"., James \Y.. Rosella A.. Sarah 
C, Carrie C, Charles L., Fannie A.. Kittie 
M.; William 11., Harry and Elmo. Politi- 
cally Mr. Blain is a stalwart Republican, 
and has always been active in local affairs. 
For nine successive years he held the office 
of township trustee, performing his duties 
with a promptness and fidelity that won for 
him the high respect and commendation of 
his fellow citizens. At the present time he 
is content to remain at his own fireside, de- 
clining to accept any public office. His in- 
fluence fi r good has always been felt in the 
community and mam- issues which have re 
suited in the progress and welfare of the 
county have been made successful through 
his untiring efforts. Since the establish- 
ment of the weather bureau in the state he 
has furnished the reports, and has also re- 
ported the crop conditions for Webster 
county. lie attends the Congregational 
church, and during his entire life has up- 
held the principles of justice and honor. 
He and his family have many friends in 
Webster countw and all who know them 
entertain for them the highest respect. 


Among the prominent citizens of Web- 
ster count}-, Iowa, who through a number of 
years has been identified with the farming 
interests of the state, is Isaac Bell, who was 





bum in Clay county, Indiana. February i_\ 
1835, and is a son of [saac and Amy 
(Craig") Bell. His paternal grandfather 
was one of the brave soldiers of the war of 
iSij. and lived tu an extreme old age. llis 
remains were interred in Vigories cemetery, 
this county. The father of our subject was 
bom in Pennsylvania, and the mother in 
Virginia, of good old Revolutionary stuck. 
They were, married in Ohio and there the 
father engaged for some years in farming, 
and then removed to Clay county, Indiana, 
where he took up a government claim upon 
which the family lived for twelve years. 

Isaac Bell, Sr., was one of those hardy, 
adventurous men. who found enjoyment in 
the dangers and privations of pioneer life, 
enduring the trials in order to reap the bene- 
fits, hence, in [844, he sold his interests in 
Indiana and removed to Iowa, taking up a 
government claim again of one hundred 
and sixty acres. This was raw - prairie land, 
near Washington, then a trading post of 
uiie thousand inhabitants, and this land Mr. 
Eell broke with his oxen. Then this claim 
was sold tu tin isl' win" were willing tu pay 
fur land already broken, and Mr. Bell went 
tu Marion county, where he again took up a 
claim, improved it and three years later sold 
it ami moved into Hamilton county. On 
disposing of his property in that county he 
came ti> Webster county in April. [849. 
Here Mr. Bell bought one hundred and 
sixty acres in Yell township and lived upon 
this farm until his death, in February, 1871, 
his burial being in Vigories cemetery, this 
ti >w nship. 

The mother of our subject was removed 
by death, August 26, iSr.4. In 1865 Mr. 
Bell was married a second lime to- Mrs. 
Cynthia Townslay. The children burn b 
him were twelve in number, and all of the 
first marriage. They were as follows: Ja- 

cob, who firsl married Rachel Hardin and 
second Louisa La} tun, resided in Nell I 
ship; Jane, who married first Andrew 
Fautz and second Samuel Dungan, n 
in Harrison county, Iowa; Nancy, who 
married first Nelson Hunter, second James. 
Johnson and third William McDonald, re 
sided in Yell township; Pressley, who mar- 
ried Elmira Howard, resided in Hamilton 
county, where she died in February, [900; 
Elizabeth is the widow of Henry Craig, and 
resides in Richmond, Indiana; Sarah mar- 
ried Alexander Rogers, of Omaha, Ne- 
braska, and both are deceased: Purlonzo, 
who first married Jane Neice and second 
Mrs. Sophia Allen, lived in Stor) county, 
[owa; Isaac, of this biography, is the eighth 
in order of birth; Lucinda, who married 
William Jered, has passed away, as has her 
husband, having lived in Madrid, Iowa, and 
later. in Kansas; and one child died in in- 
fancy. Of the children five are now living. 
Isaac Hell, of this sketch, attended school 
in Boone county, Iowa, later fur a short 
period at Missouri Bend, and a district 
school] in Webster township, this county. 
After leaving school, at the age of nineteen. 
he continued tu assisl his father on the farm 
until he was twenty-one. Those were pio- 
neer days, and at the time of the location of 
the family in Iowa our subject recalls many 
hunting expeditions taken with his father, 
who was a fine sportsman. Then it was u ., 
trouble to keep the larder supplied with wild 
turkej and venison, and young I >aac became 
an expert hunter. 

On August jo, [858, Mr. Bell was 
united in marriage tu Miss Sarah V Stark. 
who w as In mi 111 \ igi 1, Indiana, Xii-im 1 o. 
[835. The Stark family originated in Wales 
and probably tew familie ; 1 an A m a 
greater number of American patriots upon 
its rolls, from the brave Captain Stark, of 



the Revolutionary fame, whom every school 
buy remembers as intimating the only way 
in which "Molly Stark" might be kept from 
being a widow, on down through later wars 
until 1861, when five brave brothers of Mrs. 
Bell testified to their loyalty by entering the 
Union army. Airs. Bell was the daughter 
of Jesse and Sarah ( Bates 1 Stark, both na- 
tives of Kentucky, although married in In- 
diana. Air. and Airs. Stark lived in Indi- 
ana until 1850, moving then to Monroe, 
Green county, Wisconsin, where they lived 
until the spring of [852. Then they moved 
to Boone county. Iowa, settling on land 
which Air. Stark bought at that time. In 
1853 he moved to Yell township, Webster 
county, and lived upon his farm there until 
his death, October 15, 1877, his widow sur- 
viving until February 7, 188 1. 

Thirteen children were born to Air. and 
Airs. Stark, Airs. Bell being the ninth in 
order of birth, and the others as follows: 
Simeon, who died in Missouri, married Lu- 
zetta Herring, whose death occurred in Illi- 
nois, in which state they lived; Abraham 
married Isabella Herring and died at their 
home in [llinois, where his widow resides; 
Malinda married John Kuvkendall and re- 
sides in Santa Rosa, California; William, 
who married Elizabeth Shew, died in Illi- 
nois; Candace, who married George Kuy- 
kendall. 'lied at their home in Santa Rosa. 
California; Jessie, who married Winnia 
Mitchell, resides in Elmwood, Nebraska; 
James resides in Seattle. Washington; 
Ancel, who married Louisa De Fore, re- 
sides at Encline, Boone county, Iowa; Den- 
nis, who married Margaret Alitchell. re- 
sides at Elmwood. Nebraska; Charles 
gave up his life for his country dur- 
ing the Civil war: Christia Ann resides in 
Elmwood. Nebraska, and is the widow of 
John Mitchell, who died while in the Civil 

war; and George, who married Martha 
Armstrong, resides at Tindall, South Da- 

After his marriage our subject moved 
to the fine farm which he now occupies on 
section 1. Yell township, Webster county, 
where his one hundred and fifty-four acres 
are now cultivated by his sons, Air. Bell 
having practically retired from activity. 
This is one of the most valuable farms in 
the township and under his capable man- 
agement has become one of the most pro- 

In political life, like his father, Mr. Bell 
has always adhered to the principles of the 
Democratic part}', and also like his father, 
he has been a leading member of the Chris- 
tian church. Formerly he was connected 
with tire Masonic lodge in Homer, Iowa. 

To Air. and Airs. Bell have been born 
a large and interesting family which has 
few broken links. Many of the children 
have married and the bright faces of happy 
grandchildren now surround our subject 
and his most worthy wife. These children 
were: Albert, born June 21, 1856, married 
first Airs. Ellen Grosehart and second Josie 
Denton; Purlonzo, born May 12, 1858, 
married Alary Swearingen, and they reside 
in Cripple Creek. Colorado; Estelle. born 
February 1. i860, was the wife of Samuel 
Armstrong, of Yell township, and died on 
June 19, 1888; Amy L., born July 6, 1,861, 
married Thomas Ervin and lives in ( >kla- 
homa City, Oklahoma: George S.. born June 
26, 1863, married Lizzie Davis and resides 
in Cripple Creek. Colorado; Alary Alice, 
born November 12,-1867, married Grant 
Paul and resides in Yell township; Charles, 
born November 14, 1869, married Stella 
Baker and lives on the home place : William, 
born November 2, 1872, married Frank- 
Baker and resides in Yell township, on a 



farm; John F., born November -'5, 1875. 
is single and lives at home; and Edith Delia 
and Eathel Rella, twins, were horn June 25. 


New conditions in life gave rise to 
many new enterprises in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, pn minent among which was the mu- 
tual insurance business, and probably 110 
single line of business has been of more 
practical value to mankind than this. The 
very term •'mutual" indicates that many 
share therein and profit by the good results 
that follow this co-operative industry. One 
61 the leading representatives of mutual in- 
surance in northwestern Iowa is C. H. 
Payne, whose long residence in Fort Dodge, 
together with his business activity and ster- 
ling worth, has made him one of the best- 
known and most highly respected citizens 
in this part of the state. He is the present 
secretary of the Farmers Mutual Insurance 
Association of Webster and adjoining 
counties and is a director of the Iowa Tor- 
nado Insurance Company and the Central 
Iowa Mutual Insurance Association, while 
.if several other insurance companies he is 
a representative. 

Mr. Payne was born in Bridgeport, Ad- 
dison county. Vermont, April 25. 1829, a 
son of Roswell and Elmira (Barbour") 
Payne. In 1836 the father removed with 
his family to Galesburg, Illinois, the city 
having but a short time previous been 
founded. He was one of its earliest set- 
tlers and built one of the first houses there 
and devoted his energies to agricultural 
pursuits. Both he and his wife spent their 
remaining days in Galesburg and were laid 
to rest in the cemetery there. After attend- 

ing the common schools C. H. Payne con- 
tinued his education in Knox College, of 
Galesburg, and when a yi »ung man engaged 
in farming in Illinois, following that pur- 
suit until 1868. 

In the spring of that year Mr. Payne 
came to Fort Dodge. Theie was no rail- 
road here at the time and northwestern Iowa 
was still largely unimproved. Mr. Payne 
began merchandising in connection with the 
insurance business, with which he had al- 
ready become somewhat acquainted, having 
written his first insurance application in 
June. [851, nn ire than a half century ago. 
He met with creditable success in his mer- 
cantile enterprise and continued in the busi- 
ness until 187(1. when he sold out.since which 
tune he has given his entire attention to the 
insurance business. In 1884 he was one of 
tlie organizers 1 f the Farmers Mutual In- 
surance Company, which i< now carrying 
insurance to the amount of three ami a half 
million dollars. Success has attended the 
company from the start. The officers are 
L. S. Coffin, president; F. B. Drake, vice-' 
president; C. H. Payne, secretary; and C. 
W. Maher. treasurer, the last named suc- 
ceeding to the office < ai the death of C. C. 

On the 15th of April. 185J. Mr. Payne 
was united in marriage to Miss S. A. Reed, 
of Connecticut, and unto them have been 
h->rn seven children; F. \\.. who is pro- 
prietor of a mill and creamery at Williams, 
Iowa; F. E., a farmer and stock-raiser; 
Otho. who is engaged in the breeding of 
line stock; Rev. C. A., who is pastor of the 
( ngregational church in Berlin. Wiscon- 
sin; George H.. a real estate dealer 1 f 
Payne. Knox county. Xehraska ; Henry 
l:.. who is engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness in Omaha: Walter W.. a merchant of 
Truesdale, h-w a: and Harriet, who is as- 



sisting her lather in business. The family 
attend the Congregational church, of which 
the parents have long been faithful mem- 
bers, while Mr. Payne has served for many 
years as deacon. He is a public-spirited 
citizen, deeply interested in all movements 
calculated to- advance the material, social, 
intellectual or moral interests of the com- 
munity. In his business his enterprise, 
capable management and straightforward 
dealings have brought him creditable pros- 
perity and he is still a very active factor in 
insurance circles, although he has passed 
the Psalnii^t's span of three score years and 
ten. His life, honorable and upright, has 
ever commanded the respect and confidence 
of his fellow men, and among the represen- 
tative citizens of Webster county he well 
deserves prominent mention. 


The firm whose name introduces this re- 
view is composed of two of the most enter- 
prising and energetic business men of north- 
western Iowa, men who have made their 
own way in the world, who owe their ad- 
vancement and prosperity to their own 
efforts. For a number of years they have 
been identified with business interests in 
Port Dodge, where they are now conduct- 
ing a large livery stable, which is well 
patronized. They also have a feed barn 
which is run in connection with the livery. 
'! be senior member of the firm is W. H. II. 
Colby and the brother is Charles Colby. 
while Fred < .. Colby, a son of the former. 
aKo owns an interest in the business. All 
reside in Fort Dodge, and their progressive 
and enterprising spirit makes them valued 

The Colbys were an old Xew England 
family, and Harrison and Jane Colby, the 
parents of W. IT. II. and Charles Colby, 
were natives of Vermont. The family re- 
moved from the Green Mountain state to 
Wisconsin about 1855. The father traded 
his Vermont property for a stock of jewelry 
in Boston and on arriving at Token creek, 
Wise msin, he exchanged the jewelry for a 
hotel property in the Badger state. He next 
brought his family to the west, and in Wis- 
ci msin conducted a hotel and store, his son, 
W. II. II. Colby, managing the latter. For 
five or six years the father remained there 
ami then traded his property for a farm in 
.Massachusetts. After spending four or five 
years in agricultural pursuits he rented a 
hotel in Greenfield, Massachusetts, called 
the Franklin House, conducting the same 
for about three years, when he returned to 
the farm, which had been rented during the 
time he was in the hotel. This was in 1865. 
It was about 1874 when he came to Fort 
Dodge, where he lived in retirement from 
business cares. His death occurred in 1888 
and his wife passed away fourteen months 
later. They were the parents of four chil- 
dren : Delia, who has passed away; Eliza- 
beth, who is the widow of F. Randall, who 
served as a captain in the Civil war and con- 
tracted disease which resulted in his death 
after the close of hostilities ; and W. H. H. 
and Charles. The living sister is a resident 
of Pasadena, California. 

W. FI. H. Colby was born in Barton, 
Vermont, March 18, 1840, and was about 
fifteen years of age when with his mother, 
his sisters and brother he went to Wis- 
consin to join his father. He assisted 
his father largely in his business there, 
managing the store and early developed 
excellent ability. When only nineteen 
\eais 1 f age he was married, on the 




25th of June. [859, to MisS Emily E. 
Spaulding, a daughter of < ieorge A. Spauld- 
iv.g. who was a native of Vermont and an 
early settler of Wisconsin. Her mother 
died in the Badger state and her father 
afterward made his Inane with Mrs. Colby 
until his death. 

After his marriage the subject of this 
review purchased a farm and for a time en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. During the 
war he purchased horses for the government 
service in Wisconsin. He was also en- 
gaged in the cattle industry, and he pur- 
chased a hotel and livery barn at Sun 
Prairie, Wisconsin, being associated in the 
latter enterprise with Jim and Fred Bird. 
A year later, however, he sold his interest 
and went to-Mesmania, where he purchased 
a livery stable, which he conducted for 
eighteen months and then sold. His next 
place of residence was New Lisbon, \\ is- 
consin, where he entered into partnership 
with Mr. Tobler in the livery business, 
which he conducted for three years. He 
then sold his interest to his partner, and in 
1870 became a resident of Iowa, settling at 
Fort Dodge. Prior to this he went to Du- 
buque at the request of his friend. George 
B. Burch, a prominent lumber dealer, who 
was then mayor of the city, but not liking 
the outlook he decided not to take up his 
abode there and came on to Fort Dodge. 
In company with a partner of Mr. Burch he 
started for Sioux City, looking for a favor- 
able location for a lumber yard ,and after 
visiting many points in Iowa they selected 
Fort Dodge. Mr. Colby leased property 
where the Colby Brothers' barn is now lo- 
cated, with the privilege of buying the same 
within two years, and when six months had 
passed he had prospered so greatly that the 
land was bought by Mr. Colby. He was 
also in the lumber business in Fort Dodge 

for three year- after his arrival here, and 
when he sold out he had ten thousand dol- 
lars up n his bo ks, Ei r he was always gen- 
erous 111 giving credit to the need) 
time upon the purchases and thus enabling 
many to build homes who could not have 
done so otherwise. In 1S70 Mr. 1 
built his first livery barn, and after having 
two wooden structures he now has a fine 
pressed brick barn upon the site of the old 
ones. His land has a frontage of one hun- 
dred and seven feet and a depth of one hun- 
dred and forty feet. The firm also owned a 
farm of three hundred acres, which eventu- 
ally they sold. In addition to renting out 
horses and vehicles of every description the 
firm has' engaged to some extent in the 
breeding of tine horses and now- have about 
eighty head. When a young man W. H. H. 
Colby began driving on the track, and dur- 
ing the greater part of the time since has 
acted as his own driver when- his horses 
have been entered for racers, being still as 
gi od a jockey at the age of sixty-one as he 
was when a young man of twenty. He was 
the owner of the famous horse Minnie Max- 
field, which dropped dead on the track at 
Cedar Rapids. He also owned Charles G. 
Hays, with a record of 2:29*4; John A. 
Rolinds. with a record of 2:29^; raised 
Hazel Maid, which also nude a record of 
2:29^4", and he gave six horses in exchange 
for Alda. whose record was 2:14. He was 
offered three thousand dollars for her at 
Terre 'Haute. He owned Rollo, which in 
the second year made a record .if 2 :j,v _> 
and the fourth year 2:iS r 4 . also won erne 
thousand dollars in Omaha and held the 
world's record twice as a two-year-old. 
Finally this horse was sold in Rhode Island 
for fifteen hundred dollars. In every line of 
business in which Mr. Colby has been en- 
gaged he has won success, and his enter- 



prise and determination are splendid quali- 
ties which might serve as a profitable ex- 
ample to many others. 

Unto Mr. and Airs. Colby were born 
two children : Fred and Xellie, the latter 
the wife of Arthur Keyes, of California. 
In his social relations Mr. Colby is a Mason 
and is a charter member of the Knights of 
the Golden Eagle in Fort Dodge. In poli- 
tics he takes a deep interest and votes with 
the Republican party, but has always re- 
fused to become a candidate for office, pre- 
ferring to give his undivided attention to 
bis business, which has rewarded his faith- 
fulness with a handsome competence. 


For over a third of a century this gen- 
tleman has been a resident of Webster 
ci unty, and was early identified with its 
agricultural pursuits. Having met with 
excellent success in business affairs, he is 
now able to spend his remaining days in 
ease and comfort at his pleasant home in 
Dayton, where he has lived for the past 
eleven years. 

Like many of the best citizens of the 
county, Mr. Erickson is a native of Sweden, 
in which country his parents spent their en- 
tire lives. He was born September n, 
1831, ami is ' ne of a family of six chil- 
dren, of whom two died in Sweden. Of 
those living he is the oldest, the others being 
John Olaf and Louisa, both residents of 
Sweden; and August, who now makes his 
home in Dayton township, this county. 

Mr. Erickson was reared and educated 
in In- native land, and in 1856 emigrated to 
America. He took passage at Stockholm 
1 m a sailing' vessel, the Sattell, and after a 

voyage of six weeks' duration landed in 
Xew York. For two years he made his 
home in Chicago while employed as a sailor 
on Lake Michigan. On the 14th of March, 
1S63, he was married at Bishop Hill, Illi- 
nois, to Miss Emma Augusta Xewstrand, 
and they made their home at that place un- 
til coming to Iowa in 1866. Mrs. Erickson 
died while on a visit to Bishop Hill, Oc- 
tober 5, 1884, and was buried there. She 
left five children, namely : Emma, who 
married a Mr. Weistrom, of Denver, Colo- 
tado, and is now deceased; Ida, who is 
teaching in a high school at Butte, Mon- 
tana : Victor, who is married and lives in 
Denison, Texas, where he is employed as 
engineer on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
Railroad; Levina, who is teaching school 
at Whitehead, Montana; and Melvin, who 
is now a student in the medical department 
of the State University at Iowa City. Mr. 
Erickson was again married, October 20, 
1886, his second union being with Mrs. 
Anna Peterson. There are no children by 
the second marriage. 

On coming to Webster county in 1866 
Mr. Erickson purchased eighty acres of wild 
land in Dayton township, which he at once 
began to break and place under cultivation, 
and at the same time erected thereon the 
necessarv farm buildings which to-day are 
still standing. As time passed and he pros- 
pered in his farming operations he added 
i'' his property and now owns a fine farm 
of "ne hundred and twenty acres, though 
fi ir the past eleven years he has lived a re- 
tired life in the village of Dayton. When 
he came to the county it was all wild and 
unimproved with exception of the land 
along tlie edge of the timber, and with its 
development and upbuilding he has since 
been identified. 

In 1875 Mr. Erickson was made a Ma- 



son at Ashland Lodge. No. in, of Fort 
Dodge, and is now connected with Oak 
Lodge. No. 531, A. F. & A. M. He at- 
tends the Swedish Methodist church and is 
a supporter of the Democratic party. He 
has served on the school board and filled 
other township offices in a most creditable 
and acceptable manner. 


Perry Mapes is a well-known farmer re- 
siding on section 36, Newark township, his 
place being conveniently located within four 
miles of the village of Vincent. He was 
born in Cuyahoga county. Ohio, on the 10th 
of September, 1844. there being but one 
farm between the Mapes homestead and the 
farm on which President Garfield was born 
and reared. 

John 1). Mapes. the father 1 if our subject, 
was born in New York state, in 1S07. and 
was a son of Captain Seth Mapes, also a 
native of the Empire state. The family is 
of Welsh origin and was founded on Long 
Island prior t< 1 the Revolutii -nary war. Our 
subject's grandfather held a captain's com- 
mission in the Xew York militia. As early 
as [814 he removed to Cuyahoga county, 

< >hio, becoming one of the pioneers of that 
locality, and there opened up a farm, on 
which he lived for ten years. He then re- 
tni ved to another farm in the same county, 
which place is still owned and occupied by 
members of the family. John D. Mapes 
grew to manhood in Ohio and there mar- 
ried Miss Henrietta Patchen, a native of 
Xew York, who removed to the Buckeye 
state when a young lady. Her father, Noah 
Patchen, was another of the early settlers 

< 1 Cuyahoga county. After his marriage 

Mr. Mapes made his home in that county 
throughout the remainder of his life, with 
the exception of about three years spent in 
Ashtabula county, his time and attention 
being devoted to agricultural pursuits. He 
died October 8, 1885, but his wife, now in 
her ninety-first year, still survives him and 
continues to reside on the old homestead 
with a daughter. Perry is the sixth in or- 
der of birth in their family of eight chil- 
dren, four sons and four daughters, seven 
of whom reached years of maturity, while 
two sons and three daughters are still liv- 

On the old farm in Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, Perry Mapes passed the days of his 
boyhood and youth, receiving his early ed- 
ucation in the local schools. Later he at- 
tended Willoughby Collegiate Institute and 
Baldwin University. When the country be- 
came involved in civil war, he resolved to 
strike a blow in defense of the Union, and 
on the 1 2th of August. 1862, he enlisted 
for three years, or during the war, in Com- 
pany D. One Hundred and Third Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, which was assigned to 
the Army of the Ohio. He aided the de- 
fense of Cincinnati, and the siege of Knox- 
ville. and later, after an illness, was on de- 
tached duty, serving as telegraph messenger 
in the office of Knoxville for about one 
year. Subsequently he rejoined his com- 
mand and was with Sherman's army in the 
campaign from Goldsboro to Raleigh. 
While en route from Knoxville h G 
bon , he attended the second inauguration 
of President Lincoln. March 4. 1865. On 
rejoining his command he did guard duty 
at General Schofield's headquarters. After 
the surrender 1 E I< hnsti n's arm] to Gen- 
eral Sherman. Mr. Mapes was one of twen- 
ty-five men that accompanied several offi- 
cers from Raleigh to, Greensboro, to receive 



the surrender of the army and property, in- 
cluding the rebel officers, guns, ammuni- 
tion and all the accoutrements of war. The 
war having ended, he was honorably dis- 
charged at Raleigh, North Carolina, June 
i_\ 1865, ail( ' was mustered out of service 
at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Returning to his home Mr. Mapes re- 
sumed his studies and later engaged in 
teaching school in Ohio until 1869, when 
he went to Illinois and followed the same 
pr< fession off and on for twenty-five years, 
in Fulton, Peoria, McLean and Iroquois 
counties. Returning to Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, he was there married March 20, 
[873, tn .Miss Diana E. Luse. who was burn 
in the same township where her husband's 
birth occurred. Her father, Jesse H. Luse, 
was a native of Trumbull county, Ohio, 
and became a farmer of Cuyahoga county. 
There Airs. Mapes was reared and educat- 
ed, attending first the common schools and 
later Willoughby Collegiate Institute. She. 
too, engaged in teaching school, both 
before and after her marriage. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mapes began "their married life in 
Peoria county, Illinois, where they taught 
sch< ml together for a time. Later they 
1 enn ived t< 1 a farm near Saybrook, Mc- 
Lean county, Illinois, where they made 
their home for about five years. In 
1883 they located on a farm near Gil- 
man, Iroquois county, Illinois, but Mr. 
Mapes left the land to be operated by ten- 
ants while he engaged in school teaching, 
lint finally devoted his attention to carrying 
on the farm. Selling the place in 1895, he 
came to 'Webster county, Iowa, and pur- 
chased the farm where he now resides, tak- 
ing up his residence thereon the following 
year. He now owns one hundred and 
forty-four acres on section 36, Newark 
township, and section 1, Colfax township. 

and is successfully engaged in its operation 
and in stock raising. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mapes have three chil- 
dren : Florence, who is now a student at 
Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa ; and 
Edwin P. and Erwin K.. who are both at- 
tending Tobin College, Fort Dodge, Iowa. 
The family hold membership in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, of Vincent, of 
which Mr. Mapes is an official member and 
superintendent of the Sunday-school, hav- 
ing been an active worker in the same for 
many years. Politically he has affiliated 
with the Republican party since he cast his 
first presidential vote for General U. S. 
Grant in 1868, but he has never cared for 
the honors or emoluments of public office. 
Although his residence in Webster county 
is of comparatively short duration, he has 
already made many warm friends and is 
held in high regard by all who know him. 


August Grosenbaugh, who is now liv- 
ing a retired life in Dayton, Iowa, is a vet- 
eran o<f the Civil war and bears an honorable 
record for brave service in the cause of free- 
dom and union, and in the paths of peace 
he has. also won an enviable reputation 
through the sterling qualities which go to 
the making of a good citizen. 

His early home was in the beautiful land 
of the Alps, for he was born in Switzerland, 
September 24. 1840. his parents being 
Frederick and Magdalene Grosenbaugh, 
who spent their entire lives in that country. 
In their family were eight children, namely: 
Frederick and Edward, wdio are married 
and continue to reside in Switzerland : Au- 
gust, our subject: John, deceased, who mar- 




ried Ida Girod, a resident of Wooster, Ohio; 
Mrs. Lizzie Droz, also a resident of that 
place: Anuel. who died in this country at 
the age of twenty-five years: Julius, who 
married Anna Roll and resides in Benton 
county, Iowa; Alcid, who was accidentally 
drowned in the Verdigris river near Coffey- 
ville, Kansas, at the age of twenty years: 
and Louis, who died in Ohio at the age of 
twenty-two years. 

Mr. Grosenbaugh acquired his education 
in the schools of his native land, and in i860 
crossed the broad Atlantic, being the first of 
the family to emigrate. After seventeen 
days spent upon the water he landed in New 
York. Locating in Ohio, he worked on a 
farm in that state until his enlistment in the 
Unii n army during the war of the Rebel- 
lion. On the 15th of August. 1S62, he 
joined Company E. One Hundred and 
Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, un- 
der Captain William L. Dixon and Colonel 
B. F. Smith. As a part of the Second Bri- 
gade. Third Division. Sixth Army Corps, 
the regiment was under the command of 
General Sedg'wick. but at different times it 
was also a member of the Eighth and Third 
Corps. The first engagement in which Mr. 
Grosenbaugh participated was at Martins- 
burg, June 14. 1863. when Company I was 
captured by Lee's army. During the battle 
of the Wilderness. May 6, 1864, he was 
wounded by a piece of flying shell, and also 
taken prisoner, hut managed to escape on 
the 9th of June and rejoined his regiment 
?t Petersburg. He t< ok part in the siege of 
that place from the 27th of March until the 
2d of April. 1865. After the surrender of 
Lee to Grant. April 9, 1865. his regiment 
with the Sixth Corps was ordered to 
Raleigh. Xorth Carolina, to meet Sherman, 
but on reaching- Danville received word of 
Tohnston's surrender and proceeded 110 

further. Mr. Grosenbaugh took pan in the 
grand review at Washington, I). C, June 

15. The war having ended, 1: 
then honorably dischargi imbus, 

< >hio, July 1. [865, and return 
carawas county, that state. 

At Mount Eaton. Ohio. Mr. Grosen- 
baugh was married Septembei 2. [865, I 
Miss Susanna Olmstead, who was born in 
Tuscarawas county. February 17. 1842, 
though of Swiss origin, her parents. Daniel 
and Elizabeth (Ricksicker) Olmstead, be- 
ing natives of Switzerland. Her father 
came to America in 1833 ani ' ner mother 
four or five years later. They first located 
in Stark county, < >hio, whence thev removed 
h Tuscarawas county, and there the father 
engaged in fanning throughout life. In 
their family were ten children, namely: 
Mary, wife of Jacob Intermill, of Jewell 
county, Kansas: Elizabeth, wife of Theo- 
dore Nydegger, who lives on the old home- 
stead in Ohio: Susanna, wife of our sub- 
ject; Frederick, a resident of Mt. Pleasanl 
Michigan, who first married Sevilla Mew- 
maw and second Emma Zingry; Sophia. 
wife of Godfrey Feller, of Jewell county, 
Kansas; Margaret, who died at the age of 
twelve years: Caroline, wife of William 
Putnam, of Stark county, Ohio: Daniel, who 
is married and lives near QLudwig 
Michigan: Joseph, who married Louise 
Ruffer and also resides near Ludwig 
and Amelia, who died at the age of five 

Of the eight children born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Grosenbaugh, Eloise. the eldest, mar- 
ried Homer Fultz and is successfully en- 
in the practice of medicine in Perry, 
Iowa, while her husband is an engineer on 
the Chicago & Milwaukee Railroad: John 
J. married Leota Marsh and is engaged in 
the grain business al Nemaha, Iowa, in con- 


uection with \\. Marsh, having buill the energy, is quick of perception, forms his 
first elevatoi al thai place; Lena died al the plans readily and is determined in (heir ex- 
age i i twent) one years; Fred A. is a law ecution, Though he is now known as one 
Nr| "! Fort Dodge; Amanda died al the age of the capitalists of this pari of the state, 
i i two years; Carrie is preparing herself to and is not activel) engaged in business save 
entei the legal profession ; Otille, who was a in the management of his investments, it 
"' iduate oi the I lighland Park ( lollege, I >es was his close application and excellent man- 
Moines, died at the age oi nineteen years; agernenl thai broughl to him the high de 
• nd Minnie also dud al the age O'f nineteen, gree of prosperity which is to day his. No 

1,1 the fall "i [865 Mr. Grosenbaugh re legitimate business can be carried on thai 
moved to Benton county, Iowa, and two does nol prove oi benefil to the community 
yeai latei came to Webster county, where in which ii is located, and the interests of 
In took up a homestead claim oi one nun- Mr. Reynolds have nol only contributed to 
dred mu\ sixty acres, and was successfully his own success but in large measure have 
engaged in agricultural pursuits for man) promoted the commercial activity and con- 
years, and is now living a retired life in sequent prosperity of Fori Dodge. 
Dayton Vs he prospered in business ai Mr. Reynolds is a western man by birth 
fairs in added to his landed possessions and training, and early became imbued with 
from time to nine until he now owns four the progressive spirit which has led to the 
hundred and fiftj seven acres of land in wonderful development of the great district 
Kans, is; ;i quartei ection in Burnside this side of the Mississippi.. His birth oc 
township, this count) ; and a good home in curred near Boonville, Missouri, Decern 
Dayton. Mis political support is given the her 27, [844, and he is a son of S. R. and 
men and measures of the Republican party, V W. (Worley) Reynolds, the former a 
and In 1 ,1 membei oi the Grand \nn\ of native oi Vermont, the latter of Ma sa 
the Republic, while his wife helds member chusetts. In [839 they emigrated west 
ship in the Woman's Relief Corps. The) ward, taking up their abode in Missouri, 
attend the Methi clisl Episcopal church and whence they came to Eowa in [846, aco m 
are people ol the highesl respectability, plishing the entire journe) wjith an ox- 
whosc circle oi friends and acquaintances is team. The) settled in Delaware county, 
extensive. seven miles north of Manchester, where Mr. 
* ' * Reynolds engaged in both farming and 
merchandising. \t that time his nearest 
V S. R. REYNOLDS. neighbor was five miles away and the dis- 
trict was wild and unimproved. He aided 

Honored and respected b) all, there is in removing a band of Indians to a reserva 

iiH man in Fort Dodge who occupies a more tion furthei west; wild game of various 

enviable position in commercial and linan kinds abounded, and there were few evi- 

1i.1l circles than A. S. R. Reynolds, nol dences of the fact thai civilization had 

1 on accounl of the brilliant success he taken rool in this then wild western dis- 

has achieved bu1 also on accounl of the hon- trict. A tract of wild prairie obtained from 

orable, straightforward business policy he the government was transformed into a 

hat ever followed He possesses untiring fine farm 1>\ \h Reynolds and thereon ho 

'I ill. BIOGRAPHK i )RD. 

remained until about fivi At 

ame time he i arried on men hai i 
going to Dubuque, a distance of thirt) 
■\ here he would pun ha e a mall 
of goods, n ing an • 
to In- home distri* i, wl i 
pi ed of them to his neighboi . \l.ont five 
ago he retired 
o maki ■ 

who lives fi nr miles north of the i 
family homestead in Delaware county. He 

bi rn Augusl 4, 181 1, and still 1 
good health, although hi 
failed somewhat. II an ac 

• '1 to his bu 
ind the faithful performanc 

ip, and in his de< lining 
has been an honorable one through many 

His wife, who was born Septi 
1-'. 1. Si 7. dq>arted this lifi 

twelve children, of whom six are living: 

who married I. ' , 
and lives in Dela R, |j., 

i" the 

Erne 1 II. and Elihu II.. 

are living in Buchanan 


pending his boyhood 
tber on the farm and in his 

when, aroi 1 
spirit of patrioti 

ing south, Imt I 

the Indian , t u, 

the frontier to quell the uprising of tl • 
men and protect the front • ,' rom 

their attacl -I,.,,! 

1 taking placi at T; I 
land oi the dee,. '| he troop 1 
tin Indian \ about Eon 

Li ■ ■ hou and tndian 

idred whiti 
ti d until d.-nk and the 
arm) encamped on the field, but th< 

eni bai 
1 thi ■. had left I • ipply train. 

W'lni' mj .Mi. Ri lartici- 

continued in the [ndi; 

1 ity, in October, 
1 1« ■■■< dis< barged and paid off at 1 1 
port, and [( ,,n the \ irgin 


'I he following account the 

n from the 
1 ■ 17, 1901, will 

the relief part;. j n t |„ : 

"In the ummer 1 leneral 

Sully and ' , rdered out 

to 1I1. . an( j 

captlin Indian-. 

1 ed from the east and 
al Sully came up thi 
Fort Piei 
point line that n 

the division of I 

rd and advanced to the hill 
-liinie the divide ■ and 

ing. General Sul 

dajor House, with tl 
and remaii 1 



small command turned the corner of a sharp 
hill and found itself within a few yards of 
the Indian village, which contained many 
thousand men. women and children. To 
attack this force alone meant annihilation, 
and besides, was against orders, and to re- 
treat was equally impossible, as it would 
draw the whole tribe upon them. The only 
thing, then, that could lie dune was to send 
La Tramheau. the half-breed scout, back to 
camp to inform Sully of their situation and 
trust to Sully's ability to reach them before 
dark. Major House's command was at this 
time about twelve miles east of General 
Sully's camp, and the sun was settling low 
toward the west. The Indians knew their 
advantage over the soldiers, and while si m< 
of the young bloods wanted to finish them 
at once, the older men counseled them to 
wait until the darkness, when it would lie 
more complete, as the soldiers knew noth- 
ing of the country and. could not escape 
them. The Indians at this time supposed 
that this four hundred men were all there 
was. The Indians were confident of the 
ultimate outcome, and walked about the 
o immand at a short distance, and even par- 
leyed among themselves as to which should 
have this horse or that, as the fancy hap- 
pened to strike them. They jeered and 
mocked at the soldiers, and held up both 
hands pointing at one of the soldiers to sig- 
nify that they were ten to one. The sol- 
diers agreed that when the chances for res- 
cue before dark were gone they would fight 
and sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
As the sun neared the horizon the Indians 
began to prepare for their bloody work, and 
the soldiers began to shake hands and bid 
their comrades goodbye, as there would be 
no quarter given or taken. At this time 
the second and third battalions of the Iowa 
regiment came up behind the first battalion 

and then everything was confusion in the 
Indian village, the old men. women and 
children began to cut down the tepees and 
break camp. The joy of the rescued bat- 
tallion can better he imagined than told. 
As soon as their comrades reached them 
they immediately began to attack and drove 
the Sioux before them over the hill and 
down into a small draw, when the Ne- 
braska regiment appeared on the hill in 
front of them and they turned with despera- 
tion upon the Iowa cavalry, and for half 
an hour one of the most desperate battles of 
the western frontier ensued. At length 
the Indians discovered a weak point in the 
Mile line. They cut everything loose from 
their horses and escaped into the darkness. 
General Sully captured everything they 
had. clothing, food and camp equipage, be- 
sides one hundred and seventy-five old men, 
women and children." 

Returning to his home in Delaware 
county. Mr. Reynolds was engaged in chop- 
ping cord wood and splitting rails for two 
years. In 1(869 ' ie accepted a position as 
clerk in a general store at Earlville, Dela- 
ware county, where he remained for three 
years, after which he was employed in a 
similar capacity in another store. On the 
24th of February, 1872, he came to Fort 
Dodge, and with the capital he had ac- 
quired through his own exertions he pur- 
chased a grocery store at 523 Central av- 
enue, which he conducted for one year and 
a half. He then erected a building at 521 
Centra] avenue and continued in the same 
nine years, when he moved into the Rey- 
nolds block and for eleven and a half years 
conducted the store in that part, where the 
Commercial National Bank is now located. 
He remained in that line of business for 
twenty-two years, during which time his 
patronage constantly increased as the result 



of his enterprise, capable management and 
earnest desire to please his patrons, coupled 
with business methods that were above re- 
proach. In 1894 he disposed of bis store 
ami lias since given his attention to the 
management of his property interests, fi r 
as the years have gone by he has made \\ ise 
and extensive investments in real estate. In 
188] he built the Reynolds block, at the 
corner of Central avenue and Seventh street 
— a bank, store and office building with a 
Masonic hall on the third floor. The build- 
ing has a frontage of forty-nine feet, with 
E depth of one hundred and forty feet, and is 
three stories in height with basement. It 
was the first building of any importance 
erected east of Sixth street, now Seventh 
street, but now the court house, one of the 
finest in the state, stands opposite the Rey- 
nolds block. He also erected another 
building at the corner of Ninth street and 
First avenue, north, and these stand as 
monuments of his enterprise, — the visible 
proof of his life of business activity. 

On the 6th of February, 1872, Mr. Rey- 
nolds was united in marriage to Miss M. 
F. Wilkenson, a native of Indiana and a 
daughter of George Wilkenson, who was 
an early settler of Fort Dodge, where his 
widow still resides. Mr. and Mrs. Rey- 
it iil> have one son, Lewis M., now a mem- 
ber of the Fort Dodge fire department. He 
has also been connected with the American 
Express Company, also served as clerk in 
the post office for a time. 

Mr. Reynolds has never taken an active 
part in politics aside from voting, his sup- 
port being given to the men and measures 
of the Republican party. He has served 
on the school board for fourteen years, and 
the cause of education has found in him a 
warm friend, ready and willing to institute 
improved methods that will lead to practical 

results in the schoolroom. Socially he is 
o limited with the Masonic fraternity. In 
[870 lie was initiated into the order and is 
a charter member of Earlville Lodge. Such 
in brief is the history of one who ranks 
prominent among the most successful men 
of litis section of the state, and his life 
demonstrates the possibilities of accom- 
plishment in this land where caste or class 
do not hamper ambition and ability. Stead- 
ily he has advanced, and his energy, de- 
termination and straightforward business 
methods have enabled him to meet compe- 
tition and secure a liberal patronage, which 
has brought to him success. 


This well-known citizen of Fort Dodge, 
residing at 1522 Third avenue, south, was 
born in Cleveland, Ohio, on the 4th of Au- 
gust, 1843, his parents being James and 
Mary Ann (Everett) Risk, the former a 
native of Ireland, and the latter of Bucks 
ci unity. Pennsylvania. They had two other 
children : A. C, who is now prospecting 
in the Rocky mountains ; and Mary Eliza- 
beth, who died in Michigan. On leaving 
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1852, the family re- 
moved to Racine, Wisconsin, and resided 
there until 1865, when they went to Wilton, 
Minnesota, but the following year came to 
Iowa, and took up their residence on a farm 
in Deer Creek township, Webster county. 
After following farming for some years the 
father is now living a retired life in Fort 
Dodge, enjoying a well-earned rest. 

David Risk completed his education in 
the schools of Burlington. Wisconsin, then 
engaged in teaching school for two winters 
in that state and one winter in Minnesota 



during the residence of the family in that 
state. After coming to Iowa he f