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Full text of "Biographical review of Cass, Schuyler and Brown Counties, Illinois: Containing biographical sketches of pioneers and leading citizens"

-LI B RARY 

OF THE 

UN IVE.RSITY 
Of ILLINOIS 



IIDitii Historical Survej 




. * : > 




BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW 







n 





Containing Sio graphical Sketches of pioneers ana Ceabing Citizens. 



"Biography is the only true history." --Emerson. 




BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW PUBLISHING CO. 
1892. 








PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



10 



George Washington 9 

John Adams 14 

Thomas Jefferson 20 

James Madison 26 

James Monroe 32 

John Quincy Adams 38 

Andrew Jackson 47 

Martin Van Buren 52 

William Henry Harrison 56 

John Tyler 60 

James K. Polk 64 

Zachary Taylor 68 



Millard Fillmore ".2 

Franklin Pierce 70 

James Buchanan 80 

Abraham Lincoln 84 

Andrew Johnson ! 3 

Ulysses S. Grant 96 

R. B.Hayes 102 

J. A. Garfield . . . '. 109 

Chester A. Arthur 113 

Grover Cleveland 117 

Benjamin Harrison 120 




CONTENTS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Adams, Wm. T 244 

Agnew, Jas. M 321 

Alexander, W. L 288 

Allard, Cad 271 

Allen,, A. R 366 

Alleu, D. H 382 

Allison, Jos ... 430 

Allphin,G. W 133 

Allphin, Z 134 

Anderson, E. M 610 

Anderson, Frank 820 

Anderson, Robert 580 

Anderson, V 405 

Angler, F. L 258 

Arenz, J. A 236 

Armstrong, Thomas 5(i8 

Aten, C. L 438 

Aten, Robert 391 

Avery, Philander 181 

Ayers, M 144 

B 

Bacon, H. M . 458 

Bader, Wm 291 

Bagby, John. C 150 

Baker, N. W 541 

Baujan, John 496 

Baujan, H. J 508 

Barneycastle, G. W 580 

Barry, L. T 378 

Barton, Thos 406 

Baxter, H. B 387 

Beatty, J. J 568 

Becker, Conrad 538 

Beckwith,E. W 203 

Bell, Ira 589 

Bennett, John. L 238 

Berry, F. E 139 

Berry, O. A*. 233 

Bertholf, Edward 520 

Black, Isaac 549 

Black, J. F 128 

Black. John. H 296 

Black, J. M 174 

Black, R. S .. 616 

Black, W.T 132 

Blackburn, B. M 369 

Bleyer, J. W 523 

Blose, D. A 474 

Bokemeier, Chas 246 

Bolle, E. H 488 

Bollman, W. C 201 

Boone, N. H 471 

Bordenkircher, Geo 143 

Bowe, Mrs. M. F 606 

Boyd, Mark 160 

Boyd, Richard 540 

Brackenridge, W. H 357 



Bradbury, J. T 159 

Brannan, Stephen 521 

Briar, Joseph 272 

Brockman, Wash 131 

Brockschmidt, Christian 503 

Broker, Win A 287 

Brooks, Martin 164 

Brown. Robt 280 

Browning, J.J 898 

Brumback, W. L 504 

Buck, J.J 318 

Buracker, Win 153 

Burnside, Wm. H 361 

Bush, Richard 533 

Byrns, G. A 341 



Cady, F. E 507 

Cady, Henry 209 

Cady, M. E 283 

Calef, S. L 146 

Campbell, G. S 220 

Campbell, Geo. W 515 

Campbell, L. C 313 

Campbell, Pauline 464 

Campbell, Wm 365 

Carles, L. M 166 

Carls, J. 1 1 458 

Carr, David 446 

Carter, Thomas H 259 

Chaltant, T. J 497 

Clark, Abner A 323 

Clark, Elias 522 

Clark, F. A 438 

Clark, J.H 529 

Clark, J. K 187 

Clark, J. T. 316 

Clark, L. W 188 

Clark, T.J 206 

Clark, W. A 316 

Cleek, M. M 403 

Clifford, Michael 176 

Coil, A. S 488 

Coleman, Wm. H 270 

Colt, D. P 389 

Coningham, Grove 289 

Conover, Geo 367 

Cook,S. W 541 

Cosner, Jos. L 350 

Cox, Wm. M 164 

Cramer, Englebert 576 

Crampton, S. C 391 

Craske, Henry 151 

Crawford, Jas 170 

Crum, G. W 219 

Crutn, H. J 443 

Crum, Jas 436 

Crum, Thos. J 312 

Cunningham, A 343 



Cunningham, James 416 

Cuningham, T. E 513 

Curry, F. M 161 

D 

Daniel, J. W 4] 8 

Darnell, Jesse 597 

Davis, F. E 360 

Davis, J. A 307 

Davis, J.H 415 

Davis, W. B 180 

Davis, Wm. J 199 

De Counter, Samuel 311 

Demaree, W. L 381 

Deppe, J. H 396 

De Witt, Jas 262 

De Witt, Jas. L 497 

Dick, Levi 216 

Dirreen, John 345 

Dodds, David 371 

Dodge, J. S 290 

Dorselt, C 420 

Dorsett, W. D 157 

Downing, F. E 584 

Druse, W. H 577 

Ducharclt, Christian 357 

Dunlap, C. M 491 

Dunn, Chas. N 136 

Dunn, R. H 865 

Dupes, Christian 239 

Dyson, Edwin 333 



Edgar, A. C 137 

Edmonston, Enoch 195 

Edwards, J. M 507 

Eif'ert, Geo. H 260 

Elliott, John 333 

Ellis, S. E 304 

Emmerson, Wm. T 588 

Erwin, Geo. W 599 

Erwin, Lewis D 461 

Evans, Hiram 437 



F 



Fields, G. 1 249 

Fischer, Henry Jr 545 

Flinn, J.C 387 

Foote, John 61S 

Foster, H. T 179 

Frank, Ed S 449 

Frankenfield.Theo 473 

Freesen. Wm 594 

Frey, John. Geo 485 

Frisby, Geo. W 525 

Fulks, R. B 512 

Funk, H. C. 612 



CONTENTS. 



G 

Gapeu, Thos 587 

Garni, Henry 442 

Garner, I. R 581 

Garner, W.S 423 

Gaut. W. P 493 

Gen -ish, Cynthia 46(i 

Gerrish, Jacob D 466 

Gibson, Ira N 480 

Gifford, Jog 233 

Glandon, John 454 

Glaze, W. W 245 

Glover, W. S 561 

Goodell, J. H 385 

Green, Nancy 198 

Greenwell, Wm. M 170 

Greer,Geo 802 

Greer.J.L 578 

Greer, M. W 130 

Greve, Henry 417 

Griffith, K. H 478 

Griffith, W. H 558 

Grimwood W. M 516 

Grover, Jas 519 

Grover, H. P 530 

H 

Hackman, E. F 211 

Hackraan, Wm 23> 

Hageman, A. L 567 

Hagener, Ed 495 

Hagener, John H 320 

Hager, Ly man 432 

Hale, Wm . . 505 

Hall, E.G 445 

Hambaugh, J. M 601 

Hammer, F. A 242 

Hansmeyer, H 127 

Harbison, Martha J 352 

Harbison, Moses 470 

Hardiug, Peyton 548 

Harris, Maro 557 

Harshey, Amos. 450 

Hash, Zachariah 490 

Hayes, J. W 579 

Heaton, Henry W 401 

Heaton, John 37!) 

Hedgcock, A. J 193 

Hedgcock, Joshua 344 

Herron, David 143 

Herzberger, Conrad 39!) 

Hierman H. A 537 

Higgius, Jackson 279 

Hiles,Jas B19 

Hill, A 575 

Hill, Chas 451 

Hill, Israel 359 

Hills, John. T 517 

Hind 111:111, Samuel 552 

Hines, H . .; 433 

llimiun. Mrs. M 556 

llin.-s H 433 

Hottman, Geo. H 551 

Hoffman, J. C '. 511 

Hood, S. .1 271 

Horrom, Cyrus 181 

Horton, John. D 324 



Howell, Jacob 524 

Howell, Tlios. S 383 

Hueschen, John 421 

Huff,G. P 479 

Huge, F. W 512 

Hunt, Jos 197 

Huppers, Wm 136 

HUBS', C. J 611 

Huss, John. F 301 



Irwin, C. N 441 



Jackson, Ezra 205 

Jackson, Mary 590 

Jaques, Hiram 256 

Jockisch, Ernest "620 

Jockisch, Wm 346 

Johnson, C. F 294 

Johnston, D. W. C 600 

Jokisch, C. T 145 

Jokisch, C. G 141 

Jokisch, Philip 377 

Jones, C. E 210 

Jones, Thos 353 

Juett, Chas. H- 535 

K 

Kallasch, Adolph 402 

Keil, H. C 241 

Keith, P. K 486 

Kendrick, John. G 612 

Kennedy, Charles 426 

Kerley, King 410 

Kerr, John 196 

Kircher, John 007 

Kirkham, Geo. H 527 

Kloker, L. F 298 

Knight, Thos 252 

Korsmeyer, F. W 153 

Korsmeyer, H. H : 400 

Korte, Henry C 273 

Krohe, August 562 

Krohe, Henry W 283 

Krohe, Fred 259 

Krohe, Henry C 310 

Krohe, Lewis E 395 

Krueger, C. S 467 

Kruse, F. H. D 465 

Kuhl, George 277 

Kuhlmann, Chris 381 



Lambert, Wm J 534 

Lancaster, Reuben 352 

Lane, C. M 484 

Lang, F. C 340 

Larash, W. I 308 

Launer, T. C 595 

Lawler, J. Thomas 480 

Lawrence, Frank 429 

Leach. E. D :!17 

Lee, W. H 392 

Leek, H 477 



Leeper, A. A 330 

Leib, E 571 

Lewis, Azariah 222 

Linn, D. C 570 

Listmann, John , 374 

Little, Robt 574 

Logsdon, Aaron 476 

Logsdon, Andrew c2(i 

Logsdon, Joseph . 531 

Logsdon, Perry 203 

Lovekamp, H. H 554 

Lowry, A. K 175 

Lucas, G. W 407 

Lucas, Newton 155 

Lucas, Wm 384 

Lutterell, Mrs. S. B 348 

Lyons, Daniel 593 



H 

Main, Z. E 318 

Manlove, Wm. B 248 

Marshall, A. L 399 

Martin, Rachel D 414 

Matthew, James D 332 

Mayreis, Conrad 314 

McCabe, Dr. A. A 560 

McCabe, John 159 

McCaskill, W. H 583 

McClintock, J. W 539 

McCormick, A. B 425 

McCoy, G. W 344 

McCreery, W. T 494 

McDannold, J. J 194 

McDannold, T. 1 246 

McFarland, R. N 324 

McKee, Wm 334 

McMaster, R. B 230 

McPhail, Angus 536 

Mead, A. J 200 

Mead, R. H 212 

Meats, Isaac 459 

Merscher, J. W 356 

Merz.John 483 

Meserve, N. P 563 

Meservey, Joseph 297 

Meyer, Fred 551 

Meyer, F. W 204 

Meyer, Henry 535 

Meyer, H. C 329 

Meyer, H. W 274 

Milby,E.T 554 

Miller, Aaron 280 

Miller, Samuel ..". 592 

Mills, R. W 253 

Milner, R 390 

Misenhimer, Isaac. 515 

Mohlmann, W. G 234 

Moore, Alex 481 

Moore. J. B 278 

Moore, 8. A 566 

Morrell, Wm 434 

Morris, J. W 473 

Muhlert, Francis 585 

Mumford, Wm. N 404 

Munroe, Thomas 125 

Murphy, J. P 502 



CONTENTS. 



vii 



N 

Neeley, James '. 484 

Neeley, J. E 544 

Newbold, H. Y 575 

Newman, Robt 453 

Nicholson, J. S 244 

Nieman, C. E 472 

Niestradt, H. C 553 

Noble A. L 342 

Nokes, S. D 261- 

Norbury, C. J.' 237 

O 

Oetgen, Win 142 

Oetgen, H. W 455 

Orr, D. W 588 

Orwig, J. W 572 

Osborn, R. J 370 

Owens, D. W 394 



Parke, Jos 544 

Parke, Overton 349 

Parrott, Thos. P 227 

Parsons, Norman 223 

Pattesou, Jonathan 138 

Patterson, Jas. M 559 

Pence, Joseph 322 

Perry, 1 241 

Perry, Jas 509 

Perry, Win 557 

Persinger, L. G 326 

Petefisb, S. H 372 

Pevehouse, I. N 428 

Phelps, Chas. H 531 

Philippi, P. P 358 

Pilger, C 368 

Pilger, \Tm 506 

Plaster, Jeptha 498 

Price, F. C 240 

Price, Mrs. Wm 140 

Price, Wm. T 305 

Prince, F. R 424 

Pruett, J. S 167 

R 

Ranney, S. T 174 

Ravenscroft, Mary F 411 

Read, Jas. M 468 

Redman, B. F 200 

Redfield, T. M 361 

Reeve, S. A 202 

Reid Duncan, 294 

Reno, W. C 563 

Rice, Chauncey 163 

Rich, Robert 435 

Richardson, Geo. E 574 

Rickard, P. W 189 

Rigg, J. N 287 

Rigg, Peter 309 

Rink, Anton 295 

Ritchea, George 319 

Ritchey, Chas. D 546 

Ritchey, F. T 601 

Ritchey, Jacob 335 

Bitter, Henry D 350 



Robinson, J. F 28! 

Robison, Jas. N 172 

Rogge, H. H 404 

Rohn, Casper 228 

Rohn, J. Henry . . 231 

Rohn, Wm 483 

Rottger, F. W 179 

Rowland, B. L 564 

Rowland, T. J 510 

Runkle, Darius 452 

Ryan, Thos 249 



S 



Sandidge, John 299 

Sands, R. E 604 

Saunders, Mrs. C 555 

Savage, Henry S 355 

Scanland, S. W 261 

Schaad, Andrew 275 

Schaar, Theodore 460 

Schaeffer, C. A 336 

Schewe, Wm 569 

Schisler, Lewis 515 

Schmitt, Geo. J 485 

Schmoldt, H. M 182 

Schroder, Samuel M 292 

Schroeder, H. J 274 

Schultz, H. C 315 

Schultz, John 468 

Schuman, Adam 154 

Scoggan, W. D 172 

Scott, E. J 167 

Scott, Leonidas 139 

Scott, T. W 188 

Scott, T. W 196 

Seaman, J. W 221 

Seasly, Adam P 226 

Seckman, Nancy P 264 

Seeley, E. H. O .. . 184 

Serrot, Leonard 448 

Settles, Gilderoy 444 

Sewall, Wm 456 

Shafer, Mrs. E 169 

Shank, John 147 

Shupe, W. K 331 

Sielschott, A. H 177 

Six, A. D 214 

Bkiles, H. A 518 

Skiles, Oswell 375 

Slack, N. G 565 

Smith, A. M 362 

Smith, D. G 431 

Smith, J. J 495 

Smith, T. L 469 

Snyder, Geo. E 500 

Snyder, J. F 604 

Snyder, J. H 397 

Snyder, J. W 135 

Spencer, J. M 207 

Spring, Ebenezer 

Stark, Henry , 429 

Stephens, Daniel 229 

Stevenson, Wm 373 

Stock, Casper 422 

Stout, A. L 532 

Stout, F. M 350 

Stover, D. Marion 165 



Stribling, 1. M 418 

Stutsman, J. S B25 

Sutherland, H. R 5^7 

Sutton, Nathan 327 



Talkemeyer, Wm 459 

Taylor, Duncan 192 

Taylor, H. W 217 

Taylor, Robt 427 

Teel, Jas. A 185 

Thomas, Peter.'. 447 

Thomas, Wm... 571 

Thompson, A. M 301 

Thompson, J. D 218 

Thron, David 525 

Tinney, C. M 368 

Treadway, E. N 269 

Treadway, W. T 213 

Trone, Geo. W 149 

Tureman, J. H 614 

Tyson, Wm. T 266 

U 

Unland, John 284 

Unland, Dr. W. G 591 

Utter, G. D 257 



Van Deventer, J. F 191 

Van Deventer, L. J 419 

Van Deventer, T. R 285 

Venires. Henry 347 

Vette, Henry 475 

W 

Wagner, George 388 

Wagner, Gregory, Jr 364 

Walker, C. T 300 

Walker, D. N 265 

Walker, John H 538 

Walker, J. S 617 

Ward. Wm. W 393 

Warden, F. A 156 

Watkins, Jas. M 224 

Watts, Thos. W 463 

Way, Win. A 309 

Webb, Allen 542 

Webb, John 586 

Webb, J. W ,. 487 

Weigard, Wm 503 

Wellfare, F. E 162 

Wells, R 149 

Wetzel, John. B 311 

Whetstone, Marcus 462 

Wier, Geo. H 598 

Wight, Jesse 308 

Williams, G. W 247 

Williams, P. S 420 

Williams, R. E 501 

Williams, T. R 207 

Wilson, B. R 613 

Wilson, D. D 276 

Wilson, Geo. W. & F. M 619 

Wilson, Jas. M 613 



viii 



CONTENTS. 



Wilson, Thos 293 

Wilson, Win. B 613 

Winuokl, F 598 

Witte, Henry F 251 

Wood, Wm 489 



Wright, S. G 

Wyatt, W. .M 



492 

408 



Young, Mrs. Almira 543 

Young, J. A 231 



Zaun Henry 550 

Zimmer, Lewis, Sr., 573 

Zimmer, Lewis, Jr 597 

Z'mmerman, Geo. W 440 

Zimmerman, Jacob 389 




GEORGE WASHINGTON. 





EORGE WASHING- 
TON, the " Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, 1789- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ary 22, 1732, in Wash- 
ington Parish, West- 
moreland County, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and March 6, 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of Washington, be3 r ond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
strength. His education was somewhat de- 



fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
were friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the young 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Grcenway Court, in the Shenundoah Valley. 



30 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Three years were passed by young Wash- 
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 1751, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training with a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year the failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
Ge irge accompanied him in a voyage to 
Bai Dadoes. They returned early in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing h.s large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddie Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that year a most 
important as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission with alacrity ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This reply was of such a character 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for'the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back bv a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war," which con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

A Cessation of all Indian hostility on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question ol local 



GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



it 



self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties if possible 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults nnd aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministry had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York: "A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the army, I abhorred the idea 



of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
tied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congrees 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose ot 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 



12 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



he was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love which spring 
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
place April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements ol his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department ; it still 
remained " the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other emblems, under the great and 
expressive motto, " E Plunbus [/num." 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled " strict 
constructionists " and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictly 



within its specific and limited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet, 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties, 
which have existed, under different names 
from that day to this. Washington was re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
passed by the party headed by Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It" created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap, 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con- 
gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the Constitution of 1787, and June 
i of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happy event which " united under the 
general Government " all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen President 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and repose. 



fiEOffOE WASHINGTON. 



His administration for the two terms had 1 
been successful beyond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition the 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from $19,000,000 to over $56,000,- 
ooo per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of liberty within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

CM the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men." 

His remains were deposited in a tamilj 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 




PRESIDENTS Of Tt/B UNITED STATES. 





OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1 80 1, was 
born in the present town 
of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collegiate educa- 
tion, hoping that he would 
become a minister of the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 



seized young Adams, and for a timr he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or the 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the carry 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Weymouth and a lady of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its climax. The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality of 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows : " Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLIHOIS 



JOHN 



prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
away all before him. American independence 
was then and there born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It was pub- j 
lished in American journals, republished j 
in England, and was pronounced by the ; 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 
America." 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the .Janding of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremy Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
defend Ansel 1 Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the King's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quincy defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been only obeying Governmental 
orders ; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected by too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston " Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia ; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
II 2 advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events transpiring 
in her vicinity. The battle of Bunker Hill 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 



came on. Congress had to do something 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for the we 
can't say " army " the fighting men of the 
colonies. The New England delegation 
was almost unanimous in favor .of appoint- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, " that these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. 'Adams 
to draw up (he bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the next day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture by the 
British, who knew of his mission, w-hich 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 



self away from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise a 
stormy and eventful one. During thc- 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediately dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor ! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three years, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled: 
" A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



JOHN ADAMS. 



buildings should be erected at the new 
capital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
intimacy between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finally made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 
Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private lite, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying) 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 



greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing the atrocity of the British 
pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his family. 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives 
that of Adams and Jefferson were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so: 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





:OMASJEFFER- 
son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, iSoi-'g, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a wido\v and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and are said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 



society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In .1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For his 
new home he selected a majestic rise of 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and op- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled : " A 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
before it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only six days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened 
not his lips. John Adams was the main 
champion of the Declaration on the floor 



of Congress. The signing of this document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
the government of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his family, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much property and at the same time 
done so much for his country ! After her 
death he actually fainted away, and re- 
mained so long insensible that it was feared 
he never would recover! Several weeks 



P/tESfDEWTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery -prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well as re- 



garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while. Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January I, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in anything public ! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President... In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was " so weary " of party strife. He 
loved the retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 



THOMAS 



But for four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed joylessly away, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing hotter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency ! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the " incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter ! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicity. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
days, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of the Jeffersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000, 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter Maria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 



stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with any degree of sanity. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
property, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty -seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he would. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lottery, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted ; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1826, at 
12:50 I'. M. 



PRESfDBNTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





AMES MADISON, the 
fourth President of the 
United States, 1809-' 17, 
was born at Port Con- 
way, Prince George 
County, Virginia, March 
16, 1751. His father, 
Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monticello. The closest 
personal and political at- 
tachment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study . At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weatherspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduated in 1771, with a char- 



acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for " toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious liberty. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 






JAMES MADISOK. 



V) 



In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 1780, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

In 1784 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closely in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
ways the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 1787; and in that of 
/irginia, which followed, he sustained the 



new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sully. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, i78o-'97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote : " There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mkid would be so completely at 



3 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
alter the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
he discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
"drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec. 
toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
aggravated by the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1810, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the i8th of June, 1812, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved ; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 1817, Madison yielded the Presi- 



JAMES MADISOX. 



dency to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpelier, where he 
passed the evening of his days surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm io participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him. so that 



his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
regarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty -five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well, 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrity unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 
century. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died July 12, 1849, m tne 
eighty -second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
company with thatof the companion of 
her life. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN1THD STATES. 





AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
States, i8i7-'25, was born 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758. 
He was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
early sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
army. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown and Monmouth. At Germantown 



he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the office of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a' very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
by these views, he introduced a resolution 




r 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



JAAfES MONROR. 



that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost duty 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controversy. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearly 
fifty years this happy union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was very soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deeply as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 



Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jefferson and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyranny a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin de Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing witk 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be 



PRESfDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



tvveen the two nations. The flags of the 
two republics were intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this country that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he very ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for the character of George 
Washington. 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In 1806 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Republican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 

o 

He soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 1812. Immediately after the sack 
of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successfully to repel the in- 
vader. 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolutely necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidency. 



JAMES MONROE. 



The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-slected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous " Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





OHN QUINCY ADAMS, 

the sixth President of the 
United States, i825-'9, 
was born in the rural 
home of his honored 
father, John Adams, in 
Q u i n c y , Massachusetts, 
July 11, 1767. His mother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincy again accom- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 1781, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
1785, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first year he had 






LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



JOHN 



ADAMS. 



no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
help France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed by Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in my mind that he will prove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival 
in London, he met with dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 
receive instructions. While waiting he 
was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 1805 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 1814, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000.000. 

The campaign of 1824 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninety-nine; John 
Quincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice by 
the people, the question went to the House 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of the country, than that of 
John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
wa,s there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful officer that was enough. Bitter must 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and repulsive; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 
tion without admitting that a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which, stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Sonus years after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which we labored to 



bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God will forgive me, for I shall 
never forgive myself." 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy, and pursued his studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterday to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Quincy Adams for 
his services as embassador. as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
part}'. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery party in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the House, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him. 
and his final triumph was complete. 



JOHN %UINCr ADAMS. 



On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare ? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 
try? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
with thy shield, or upon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river unc'er 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi ? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato? 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Caesars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
of Hungary, of the two Catherines of 



Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics ? " 

In this glowing strain Mi-. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 2$th of January. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and or 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-slav- 
ery party against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by seventy-five years, casting a wither- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants^ 



44 



PRESIDENTS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



in a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of high treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2istof February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " This is the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " I am content." These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
-the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he " died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



47 



. 





ANDREW JACKSON, 
the seventh President 
of the United States, 
i829-'37, was born at 
the Waxhaw Settle- 
ment, Union Coun- 
ty, North Carolina, 
March 16, 1767. His parents 
were Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Carrickfergus, who came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 



he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 



4 8 



PRESIDENTS Off TH& UNITED STATES. 



soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But gradually, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold boy, 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a very fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCay. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbury, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twenty, 
a tall young man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantly on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldly, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented by oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abundant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



A.VDREH" 



United States Attorney, which demanded 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostilities. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

" A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat, General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
$600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not enjoy his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and " affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If he subsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



combinations which led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1807, when Burr tiad been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 1813, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner, Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January 8, 1815, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In I8i7-'i8 Jackson conducted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturally be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1832 



AN DREW 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, t6 the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, theretore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 



his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 1837; 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 
1845. 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member oi the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory not attempting to disguise the^le- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state o/ 
society which has nearly passed away. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





MARTIN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
President of the 
United States, 1837- 
"41, was born at Kin- 
derhook, New York, 
December 5, 1782. 



His ancestors were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
( farmer, and a very decided 

Democrat. 

Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that "to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 
better." 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 1815 he was appointed 
Attorney-General, and in 1816 to the Senate 
a second time. In 1818 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1821 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1827, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary of 




-A 







LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF HUNOiS 



MARTIN VAN BUR EN. 



55 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 1831, and during the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in September, 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1832, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken his seat in the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearly every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded all our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of, dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his administration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech by Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 



In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

'In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 
chair. 



PRESIDENTS OP THE. UNITED STATES. 




WILLIAM HENRY HflHRISDN 






ILLIAM HENRY 
HARRISON, the 
ninth President of 
the United States, 
1841, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
in Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father, Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 

George Washington was then President 
af the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 



rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Washington had placed under the 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more ' vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fo/t 
Washington, now Cincinnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded In 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory vas then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 






WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. 



of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1812 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-General 
in the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1813 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, Octobers, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1819 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
Jatter. 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk ofr the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sacrifice. 

In 1836 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider " were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized by a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since' the death of 
Washington, were 'there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henry Harrison. 



6o 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



^g&- 





rOHN TYLER, the tenth 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Charles City County, 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. 
His father, Judge John 
Tyler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
day, filling the offices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 

At the early age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nullifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took his seat in the Legislature. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 






JOHN TrLER. 



In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Clay. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1841. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House ; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
Through Mr. Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 



nexation of Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March i 
1845. 

He was nominated for the Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue any course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 1813 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons -and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
"peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





A .\ [ K 8 K N O X P O LK, 
the eleventh President of 
the United States, 1845- 
'49, was born in Meck- 
lenburg County, North 
Carolina, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
a grand-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 

In 1806 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
ily two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in all the common branches 
of an English education. In 1813 he was 
sent to Murfreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 1815 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury County, and openeu an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequently, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss, 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congress, and was continu- 






LIBRARY 

Of THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINO'S 



JAMES K. POLK. 



ously re-elected until 1839. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Quincy Adams. This 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of the Jackson party 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took tne Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, and was chairman of its most 
important committee that of Ways and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administration passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1841, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. "W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Folk's suc- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundary question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff of 1846 was carried, the 
financial system of the Government was 
reorganized, ' the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20/300 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1849, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private life. 



PKESfDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





ACHARY TAY- 
LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
i849-'5o, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1784. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 



was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 1810, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1812 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the VVabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 1815 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, 1816, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1819, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1821. On different 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large tracts of Western 






LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



ZACHAItr TAYLOR. 



7i 



country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1832, and in 1837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
flad been built under his direction in 1822. 

May 28, 1845, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
" that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from "foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Chnsti, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
p8, and a month later, June 29, 1846, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, Santa Anna directed his entire army 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Buena Vista was fought February 22 and 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphiajune 7, 1848, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate if 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1849 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay ; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





LLARD FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
teenth President 
of the United 
States, i85o-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, C a y u g a 
County, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, 1800. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
in study. At nineteen years 
of age he was induced by 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 



eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
whither he had recently moved. . 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding this ccmmuni- 









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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



MILLARD FILLMORE. 



75 



cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Though 
gratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 Mr. Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1849, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 



contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





'RANKLIN PIERCE, 

the fourteenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father, Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House by a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 ne was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 









LIBRARY 

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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



the advocates of the war, and coldly by its 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking- an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slavery wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 1852, the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they 
continued in session, and in thirty-five bal- 
lotings no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brought forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth 
ballot, he received 282 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimity. Only 
four States Vermont, Massachusetts, Ken- 
tuck}' and Tennessee cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1853, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb dishing. 

At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slavery. The Territory of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were -about to meet and decide whether 
slavery or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, drove away the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handiuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 



lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained by such votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majority of whom were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve : 

"Resolved, That the body of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of our Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to by the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
unparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. It; reply the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog-. 
.nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1857, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his sympathies to the pro-slavery 
party, with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either by 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands of 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurred in 
October, 1869. He was one of the most 
genial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and Want. He was an honored 
communicant of the Episcopal c-hurch. 



PRESIDENTS Of THE UNITED STATES. 





AMES BUCHANAN, the 
fifteenth President of the 
United States, i857-'6i, 
was born in Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, 
April 23, 1791. The 
place where his father's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with very little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight years enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mer- 
cersburg, where James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
with facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall, 



graceful and in vigorous health, fond ol 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but t went)'- six 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 1812, just after Mr. Buchanan had 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisting as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, " We are all Federal- 
ists; we are all Republicans." 

The oppos ; tion of the Federalists to the 
war with England, and the alien and sedi- 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



JAMES BUCHANAN. 



tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Quincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in 1833 
lie was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan denned his position by saying: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti- 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, 1860, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to his borne in Wheatiand. 
He died June i, 1868, aged seventy-seven 
years. 



PKES/DENTS OF THE UN f TED STATES. 



. ffc -sU ffo _4- _ ^fo _!j _-k 




^F 

*i!- 




BRAHAM LIN- 
COLN, the sixteenth 
President of the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
was born February 
12, 1809, in Larue 
(then Hardin) County, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
Hudgensville. H i s parents 
were Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My paterna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, Avho were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 



tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There -I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher bevond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. I have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm- work, which 





i 







LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



I continued till I was twenty-two. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

" Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress; was not a can- 
didate -for re-election. From 184910 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentryville; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 



powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
" bow-hand " on a flatboat ; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 1851 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat " stuck " on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective "stump 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1832) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 



88 



PltFSinR\TS OP THE UXtTED STATES. 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso ; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record .of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots ; but Trumbull 
was ultimately chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself '' on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 he began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, 1860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the " American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1861. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en^ 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-country- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas ; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 



PRBStDBNTS OF THE U VI TED STATES. 



session o[ Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i, 1863. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee's army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, byJohnWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the i$th of April Andrew 



Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration "that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 



UBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



ANDREW JOHNSON. 



9? 





NDREWJOHNSON, 
the seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i865-'9, was 
born at Raleigh, 
North Carolina, De- 
c em b e r 29, 1808. 
Hisfatherdied when 
he was four years old, and in 
his eleventh year he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. He nev- 
er attended school, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
his apprenticeship, when he 
suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

After working two years as a journey- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1826, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as " workingmen's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1828, and mayor in 1830, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker by Inking part in a 



debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, ne was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1841 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was re elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in 1860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Breckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, 1860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in May, 1861, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 



PRESIDENTS OF THF. UNlThP STATES. 



popular violence for his loyalty to the " old 
flag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1862, he was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not only to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In re- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges."' President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 



These States accordingly claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of Presi, 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
sults of the war in regard to slavery; and, sec- 
ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basisof the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albany, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own policy, and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-office act which had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



A NDKE W JOHNSON. 



tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican majority in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





SIMPSON 

GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, i86o.-'77, 
was born April 27, 1 822, 
at Point Pleasant, 
j Clermont County, 
Ohio. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academy at 
West Point, and four years later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantry and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1848 Mr. Grant married Julia.daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in 1860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine years of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to public men and without 



any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the I5th of April, and on the igth 
Grant was drilling a company of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended by the Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watching the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
the navigation both of that stream and oJ 



LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



S. GRANT. 



99 



the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1862, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender " (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty -five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
ooo of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 

8 



to attack. His forces, now numbering 38.- 
ooo, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The next day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides ; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army, Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front ; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
. federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Major-General in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he wenjt to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the country. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the Alleghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
in a succession of battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way ; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia' and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on the 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 



ULTSSBS S. GRANT. 



energy, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the gth of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, " all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1868 "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $15,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. " Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had, General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of "politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of. New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



, 





UTHERFORD BIRCH- 
ARD HAYES, the nine- 
teenth President of 
the United States, 
i877-'8i, was born in 
Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
tober 4, 1822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, "Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 
life. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsbury, Con- 



necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1813, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Hayes was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the to wn. After the close of the war of 1812 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 




s 



U/LV.&-.O &> 

~] L, 




UNIVERSITV Of ILLINOIS 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. 



105 



farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the community. 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
destined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weaker and weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time " if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
placed in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of his character. 
At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which many of 
his schoolmates were involved. He was 



always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1838 young Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 
two years he pursued his studies with great 
diligence. 

In 1845 ne was admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious ot 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealth)' banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1849 ne removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. Noyes. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives oi 



io6 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



our Presidents was more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. 

In 1856 Mr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of the Court cf Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his country. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brevetted Major-General for distinguished 



services in 1864. He was wounded lour 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from che Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
many as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 
notables. 



UBRARV 
UN/VERSITY (/ILLINOIS 



JAMES A. GAKFIELD. 



109 





"AMES A. GARFIELD, 

twentieth President of 
the United States, 1881, 
was born November 19, 
1831, in the wild woods 
o f Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and Eliza (Ballou) 
Garfield, who were of New 
England ancestry. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, tne 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental and 
physical labor. He worked upon the farm, 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pay his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at times 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 



PRESIDENTS OP THE U KITED STATES. 



Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November u, 1858, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his seat in January, 1860. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentucky. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success, President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January u, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army. 
He was with General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabama. Next, he 
was detailed as a member of the general 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosecrans, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1862, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for sixty years 
mainly by two men Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other member. 

June 8, 1880, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Elaine 
and Grant ; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation, General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this country had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 
inaugurated by his predecessor. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 




. ...^ 





CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 



"3 





El 






HESTER ALLEN 
ARTHUR, the twen- 
ty-first Chief Execu- 
tive of this growing 
republic, i88i-'s, was 
born in Franklin 
County, Vermont, 
October 5, 1830, the eldest of a 
family of two sons and five 
daughters. His father, Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution, Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 



>' 



friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar. 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Westen. 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Artnur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
dency, was retained by Jonathan G. Lem- 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



mon, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by William M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable colored 
woman was ejected from a, street car in 
New York City. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediately afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1861, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lawyers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he held the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
iriends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappointed over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a very strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable plurality of the 
popular vote. The 4th of March following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant, and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party ; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against "third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ington. On his retirement from the Presi- 
dency, March, 1885, he engaged in the 
practice of law at New York City, where he 
died November 18, 1886. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



GROVER CLEVELAND. 



117 





ROVER CLEVE- 
LAND, the twenty- 
second President of the 
United States, 1885, 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex County, New 
Jersey, March 18, 
1837. The house in which he 
was born, a small two-story 
wooden building, is still stand- 
ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Hill. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 



Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



was (or a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of $1,000 per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own ! 
livelihood. For the first year (185 3-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that placej 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a lew 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1855, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessary expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 



GROVER CLEVELAND. 



119 



party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
tnd came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the-bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since 1860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, i87o-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500 the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention mel 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the fall of 
1884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




BENJAMIN HAI^ISON 



^-?5 6) -1 





BENJAMIN HAERISON, 
the twenty-third Presi- 
dent of the United States, 
1889, was born at North 
Bend, Hamilton County, 
Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, William Hen- 
ry Harrison (who was the 
ninth President of this 
country), August 20th, 
1833. He is a descendant 
of one of the historical 
families of this country, as 
also of England. The 
head of the family was a 
Major-General Harrison 
who was devoted to the cause of Oliver 
Cromwell. It became the duty of this Har- 
rison to participate in the trial of Charles 1. 
and afterward to sign the death warrant of 
the king, which subsequently cost him his 
life. His enemies succeeding to power, he 
was condemned and executed October 13th, 
1660. His descendants came to America, 
and the first mention made in history of the 
Harrison family as representative in public 
aifairs, is that of Benjamin Harrison, great- 
grandfather of our present President, who 
was a member of the Continental Congress, 
1774-5-6, and one of the original signers of 



the Declaration of Independence, and three 
times Governor of Virginia. His son, Will- 
iam Henry Harrison, made a brilliant mili- 
tary record, was Governor of the Northwest 
Territory, and the ninth President of the 
United States. 

The subject of this sketch at an early age 
became a student at Farmers College, where 
he remained two years, at the end of which 
time he entered Miami University, at Ox- 
ford, Ohio. Upon graduation from said seat 
of learning he entered, as a student, the of- 
fice of Stover & Gwyne, a notable law firm at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he applied himself 
closely to the study of his chosen profession, 
and here laid the foundation for the honora- 
ble and famous career before him. He spent 
two years with the firm in Cincinnati, at the 
expiration of which time he received the 
only inheritance of his life, which was a lot 
left him by an aunt, which he sold for $800. 
This sum he deemed sufficient to justify him 
in marrying the lady of his choice, and to 
whom he was then engaged, a daughter of 
Dr. Scott, then Principal of a female school 
at Oxford, Ohio. 

After marriage he located at Indianapolis, 
Indiana, where he began the practice of law. 
Meeting with slight encouragement he made 
but little the first year, but applied himself 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



BENJAMIN HARRISON. 



123 



closely to his business, and by perseverance, 
honorable dealing and an upright life, suc- 
ceeded in building up an extensive practice and 
took a leading position in the legal profession. 

In 1860 he was nominated for the position 
of Supreme Court Reporter for the State of 
Indiana, and then began his experience as a 
stump speaker. He canvassed the State 
thoroughly and was elected. 

In 1862 his patriotism caused him to 
abandon a civil office and to offer his country 
his services in a military capacity. He or- 
ganized the Seventieth Indiana Infantry and 
was chosen its Colonel. Although his regi- 
ment was composed of raw material, and he 
practically void of military schooling, he at 
once mastered military tactics and drilled his 
men, so that when he with his regiment was 
assigned to Gen. Sherman's command it was 
known as one of the best drilled organ- 
izations of the army. He was especially 
distinguished for bravery at the battles of 
Resacca and Peach Tree Creek. For his 
bravery and efficiency at the last named bat- 
tle he was made a Brigadier-General, Gen- 
eral Hooker speaking of him in the most 
complimentary terms. 

While General Harrison was actively en- 
gaged in the Held the Supreme Court declared 
the office of Supreme Court Reporter vacant, 
and another person was elected to fill the 
position. From the time of leaving Indiana 
with his regiment for the front, until the fall 
of 1864, General Harrison had taken no leave 
of absence. But having been nominated 
that year for the same office that he vacated 
in order to serve his country where he could 
do the greatest good, he got a thirty-day leave 
of absence, and during that time canvassed 
the State and was elected for another term as 
Supreme Court Reporter. He then started 
to rejoin his command, then with General 
Sherman in the South, but was stricken down 



with fever and after a very trying siege, made 
his way to the front, and participated in the 
closing scenes and incidents of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined a re- 
election as Reporter, and applied himself to 
the practice of his profession. He was a 
candidate for Governor of Indiana on the 
Republican ticket in 1876. Although de- 
feated, the brilliant campaign brought him 
to public notice and gave him a National 
reputation as an able and formidable debater 
and he was much sought in the Eastern 
States as a public speaker. He took an act- 
ive part in the Presidential campaign of 
1880, and was elected to the United States 
Senate, where he served six years, and was 
known as one of the strongest debaters, as 
well as one of the ablest men and best law- 
yers. When his term expired in the Senate 
he resumed his law practice at Indianapolis, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest 
law firms in the State of Indiana. 

Sometime prior to the opening of the 
Presidential campaign of 1888, the two great 
political parties (Republican and Democratic) 
drew the line of political battle on the ques- 
tion of tariff, which became the leading issue 
and the rallying watchword during the mem- 
orable campaign. The Republicans appealed 
to the people for their voice as to a tariff to 
protect home industries, while the Democrats 
wanted a tariff for revenue only. The Re- 
publican convention assembled in Chicago in 
June and selected Mr. Harrison as their 
standard bearer on a platform of principles, 
among other important clauses being that of 
protection, which he cordially indorsed in 
accepting the nomination. November 6, 
1888, after a heated canvass, General Harri- 
son was elected, defeating Grover Cleveland, 
who was again the nominee of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was inaugurated and as- 
sumed the duties of his office March 4, 1889. 



UBRARV 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



SCHUYLER AND VROWN COUNTIES. 



125 



fHOMAS MONROE, M. D., Rushville, 
Illinois. There is, in the career of the 
earnest professional or business man, 
toiling on through the busy, work a-day years 
of a long and arduous life, but little to at- 
tract the attention of an idle reader in search 
of a sensational chapter. But for the mind 
fully awake to the real meaning of human 
existence there are immortal lessons in the 
life of the man who, without other means 
than a strong arm, a true heart and determined 
will, conquers adversity, overcomes obstacles, 
and closes the evening of a long life with 
an honorable competence and good name. 
Such a man is the subject of this biography, 
Doctor Thomas Munroe. 

Doctor Munroe was a son of John and Ann 
(Wells) Munroe, and was born at Annapolis, 
Maryland, January 4, 1807. His father and 
mother were both natives of Maryland ; the 
former was born August 6, 1763, and the 
latter January 20, 1771. They were married 
May 14, 1789. The boyhood of Thomas 
Munroe did not differ much from that of 
other boys born of and reared by Christian 
parents, who held progressive and correct 
ideas of the higher duties and privileges of 
American citizenship. He entered school at 
an early age, and, being an apt scholar, made 
rapid headway in his studies and graduated 
from St. John's College with honors, having 
taken the full classical course. 

After finishing at St. John's College, he 
decided to adopt the profession of medicine 
as his life-work. He began reading under 
the direction of Dr. Dennis Claude, and later 
entered the University of Maryland in Balti- 
more, from which he graduated with the de- 
gree of M. D. in 1829. All through his life, 
Dr. Munroe took a just pride in having upon 
his diploma the famous names of Drs. Roger 

B. Taney and Reverdy Johnson, the first as 
10 



Provost, the second a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the University of Mary- 
land. 

After graduating, Dr. Munroe began the 
practice of his profession in Baltimore, but 
after twelve mouths concluded it was bet- 
ter for him to go West. In accordance 
with this wise conclusion, he closed up his 
business in Baltimore, and in 1834 re- 
moved to Illinois and settled in Jacksonville, 
where he remained until 1843, when he came 
to Rushville, and was actively engaged in 
professional labor until the breaking out of 
the civil war, when he offered his services to 
his country, and was commissioned Surgeon 
of the One Hundred and Nineteenth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry. He participated in all 
the marches of the regiment, and was in all 
its campaigns and battles for two years; at 
the end of that period he was obliged to re- 
sign his commission on account of ill health. 
He returned to his home and resumed his 
practice, which he continued, with great ac- 
tivity and success, until a short time previous 
to his death, which occurred April 23, 1891. 

Dr. Munroe was married October 5, 1841, 
to Annis Hininan, who was born at Utica. 
New York, December 10, 1815; her father, 
Benjamin Hinman, was a native of South- 
bury, Connecticut; he was a son of Deacon 
David Hinman, who was a son of Benjamin 
Hinman, who was a son of Benjamin Hinman, 
Sr., who was a son of Sergeant Edward Hin- 
man, the first settler of that name in this 
country. (See genealogy published by R. R. 
Hinman, New York.) Mrs. Munroe's father 
was a soldier in the war of the Revolution, 
and had the title of Major; lie was one of the 
early settlers of Little Falls, New York, and 
purchased a large tract of land there; he 
afterward removed to Utica, New York, and 
died in Pennsylvania in 1821, while making 



126 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



a business trip to the State. He married 
Anna Keyser, who was born at Fort Keyser, 
.New York, a daughter of John Keyser, 
of Montgomery county, New York. Her 
father was taken captive by the Indians 
during the Revolutionary war and was car- 
ried to Canada, where he was held for three 
years; his death occurred at Fort Keyser; 
his wife survived until August 9, 1863; she 
was living in Illinois at that time, her sons 
being among the pioneers of Brown county; 
they emigrated to the State in 1836, and 
were of a party that laid out the town of 
La Grange. 

Children are indeed blessed who have edu- 
cated and Christian parents to guide and 
direct those early impulses which have so 
much to do with the ultimate direction of 
ambition and mentality; and no family of 
children were ever more favored in this than 
the children of this good father and mother. 
The breadth of Dr. Munroe's mind, his great 
wisdom in giving his children splendid edu- 
cations and permitting them to select their 
own vocations, is manifest in the marked 
degree of success which has attended their 
efforts. The eldest son, Thomas, is one of 
the progressive and successful men of Mus- 
kegon, Michigan, being the head of the well- 
known firm of Thomas Munroe & Co., and 
the general superintendent of the Thayer 
Lumber Company, both of Muskegon. In this 
double capacity he has acquired more than 
an ordinary fortune, and, with his marked 
success as a financier, he has won a greater 
meed of victory that of the love and re- 
spect of all who know him. 

The second son, James E. Munroe, resides 
in Chicago, and is engaged in the practice 
of law. He is a lawyer of good ability, fair 
attainments and great industry. As the re- 
sult of twenty years of labor at the bar he has 



acquiesced a large practice and a handsome 
competence. 

The daughter, Mary A., of Rushville, is 
deeply interested in all that pertains to the 
betterment and advancement of mankind. 
She resides at the family home, the compan- 
ion and comfort of her aged and gentle 
mother. Her brothers, Hintnan and Charles 
G., are also residents of Rushville, the former 
being married and residing in a happy home, 
a close neighbor of his mother. Charles G. 
is a member of the family at the old home- 
stead, and is engaged with his brother Hin- 
man in the lumber business, in which thej 
are eminently successful. The youngest son 
is a resident of Muskegon, Michigan, where 
he holds a position of trust under his brother. 
Dr. Munroe was related to such men as 
Jonathan Pickney, Nathan Hammond and 
William Munroe, all of whom occupy honored 
places in the early history of the United 
States from their participation in the notable 
events incident to those times. The fine 
engraved portrait of Dr. Munroe, which faces 
this sketch, was executed specially for this 
history. An examination of the portrait 
will reveal better than word-painting the 
character of the man herein recorded. 

In the death of Dr. Munroe, the city of 
Rushville lost one of the men whose great 
mentality, indefatigable energy and true 
Christian manhood did so much to make the 
city what it is. The following appeared in 
the Schuyler Citizen a short time after Dr. 
Munroe's death, and was written by his emi- 
nent co- laborer, Dr. J. N. Speed: 

" No man in the community performed 
more faithfully the duties of a citizen and a 
Christian, or led a more exemplary life than 
he did; and this could be as truly said of 
him during his army as well as his civil life. 
He was a life-long member of the Methodist 



SCIIOTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



127 



Episcopal Church, and always held one or 
more official positions; and, what is a little re- 
markable. he held the position of Recording 
Steward and Secretary in the Rushville Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church continuously for thir- 
ty-eight years, and then resigned by reason 
only of the infirmities of age. I doubt if in the 
memory of any person a like office has been 
tilled for so long a time continuously by the 
same person, and certainly no more faithfully. 
He was very regular in his attendance on the 
means of grace. Even after the first ad- 
monition of his approaching affliction his seat 
at church, day and night, at prayer- meeting 
and class-meeting, was very seldom occupied 
by any other than himself. As a citizen he 
always took an active interest in the affairs 
of the public, and his influence was always on 
the side of the public welfare. As a phy- 
sician Dr. Munroe was ever studious and 
attentive, and his habit of study continued 
even after his active practice ceased, and in 
all his intercourse with his brother physicians 
he was the embodiment of professional recti- 
tude, and in this respect he had no superiors 
and but few equals. He was looked upon by 
all who knew him as a perfect gentleman. 
He was always kind to the poor, and the re- 
sources of his skill and watchfulness were as 
faithfully extended to the pallet of the lowly 
as to the silken couch of the affluent, thus 
manifesting in his life the saying of the ven- 
erable Beerhaave, that ' the poor were his best 
patrons because God was their paymaster.' " 



HANSMEYER was born in 
Lippe-Detmold, Prussia, Germany, in 
1833. He came of pure German an- 
cestry and of hardy stock. His father, Fred 
Hansmeyer, married Wilhelmina Hoy of the 



same province. In 1849 they took passage 
for America and landed in New Orleans after 
a seven-weeks voyage. Thence the family 
came up the Mississippi, to St. Louis, 
where the mother and one child died of the 
cholera after being there one week. The 
father and four children came on to Chicago, 
where Henry was attacked by the cholera and 
confined to the house for two weeks, later 
he joined his father and the other children at 
Watertown, and it was near there that the 
father died about one year later, being then in 
middle life. 

Henry Hansmeyer is the second of the 
four sons yet living. He came to this coun- 
try in 1849 and lived on a farm in Jefferson 
county, Wisconsin, until 1851, working for 
$10 a month. He came to Beardstown in 
1851 and still worked by the month, for a 
time for $10; he saved his money, became a 
stock dealer and trader and did various things 
until he accumulated enough to purchase 
land. In 1865 he found himself on safe 
ground for business, which he carried on 
successfully and extensively. He was an 
active farmer and stock-raiser until 1880. 
In that year he retired from business and 
moved into Beardstown. He owns a fine 
farm of 306 acres, 250 acres of which is 
under the plow and the rest is pasture, good 
land and all supplied with first-class farm 
buildings. He purchased this farm in 1865 
and also owns some good residence property 
in Beardstown, the opera house building at 
Mount Olive, Illinois, and other residence 
property there. 

He was married in Beardstown, in 1857, to 
Miss Catharina Schmidt. She was born in 
Hesse- Darmstadt. She was the daughter of 
the Rev. George and Kate Schmidt, who 
came to the United States in 1856, settling in 
Beardstown, where 'they died. Mr. Schmidt 



128 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



was for many years pastor of the Lutheran. 
He was a tine minister and an anti-slavery 
advocate, a Republican in politics and a 
leader in his community. Mrs. Hansmeyer 
is a great worker in the Lutheran Church 
and a very tine woman. They have four 
children: Augusta, wife of Henry Oetgen, 
a farmer in Schuyler county; Minna, 
wife of Henry Stock; Katie, wife of John 
Dnvall, First State Bank of Beardstown; 
William, a miller by trade. Mr. Hansmeyer 
is a public-spirited citizen, a Republican in 
politics and a member of the Fourth Street 
Lutheran Church, of which he has been a 
Trustee for sixteen years. 



fOSEPH FRANKLIN BLACK was born 
in Murray county, Tennessee, February 
23, 1828. His father, William Black, 
was born near Milledgeville, Georgia, Jan- 
nary 3, 1796, son of Thomaa Gillespie Black, 
who was born in Markingham county, North 
Carolina, in January, 1772, whose father, 
William Black, a native of Maryland, re- 
moved to North Carolina. William Black 
was captain of a company of militia at the 
time the Revolutionary war broke out, and 
was one of the first who refused to take the 
oath of allegiance to the British government. 
He died soon after the war began. The 
maiden name of his wife was Beard, They 
were members of the Presbyterian church. 

Thomas G. Black was reared and educated 
in his native State. He taught school several 
years. Removing from North Carolina to 
Georgia, he settled near Milledgeville, where 
he bought a tract of land and on it passed the 
residue of his life, dying in 1823. He was 
married February 26, 1795, to Polly Calla- 
lan, who was born April 7, 1773, daughter 



of William and Elizabeth (Shepard) Callahan. 
her father being of Irish and her mother of 
German descent. Mrs. Black went to Ten- 
nessee after the death of her husband, and 
from there to Illinois in 1825. Her death 
occurred in Morgan county, this State, in 
1853. Grandfather and grandmother Black 
were members of the Presbyterian Church. 
They reared ten of their eleven children, viz.: 
William, Susanna, John, Cynthia, James, 
Thomas, Polly, Jefferson, Eleanor and Eliza- 
beth. Rebecca died in infancy. 

Willliam Black, father of the subject of 
our sketch, grew up and received his educa- 
tion in his native State, and went with the 
family to Tennessee directly after the death 
of his father. He was a natural mechanic 
and with his brother John established a 
a furniture factory in Maury county, remain- 
ing in business there till 1834. That year, 
with his wife and six children, he came 
to Illinois, their removal being made via the 
Cumberland, Ohio, Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers. He located four miles north of Win- 
chester, in Scott county, where he bought 
eighty acres of prairie and eighty acres of 
timber laud, paying $2.50 per acre for a part 
of it. He at once built a small frame house, 
containing two rooms, and commenced im- 
proving his land. In 1846 he sold this farm 
for $8 per acre. He then came to Cass 
county and bought 200 acres of land, located 
six miles southeast of Virginia, for which he 
paid $6 an acre. There was a double log 
house on this place, which the family occupied 
one year, at the end of which time they moved 
into the substantial brick house which Mr. 
Black erected, and which still stands. He 
also built a work shop. He, however, gave 
the most of his attention to farming. He 
lived there till after the death of his wife, 
when he went to Virginia and spent his last 



BOHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



129 



days at the borne of his son, John, where he 
died October 3, 1884. December 4, 1823, 
he married Miss Mary S. Vaughn, who was 
born in Tennessee, November 1, 1803, daugh- 
ter of Dixon and Susan Vaughn. She died 
on the home farm, January 29, 1881. Of 
the ten children born to them they reared 
eight, namely: Thomas G., Joseph F., William 
L., Richmond V., Green V., James B., Mary 
J. and John. Both he and his wife were reared 
in the Presbyterian Church, and after coining 
to Illinois they united with the Christian 
Church, of which they remained consistent 
members till the time of their death. 

Joseph Franklin Black, the subject of our 
sketch, was six years old when he moved to 
Illinois with his parents, and remembers dis- 
tinctly many of the incidents connected with 
their removal and frontier life. At that time 
Central Illinois was sparsely settled and it 
was long before the advent of railroads here. 
Naples was the principal market for the sur- 
rounding country. Mr. Black relates that 
at one time his father went to St. Louis to 
mill. Instead of being gone one week, as he 
had eApected, he was gone three weeks, and 
in the mean time the supply of meal gave 
out at home. By pounding corn in a mor- 
tar, the children made meal enough to last 
till their father's return. In 1836 three 
cooking stoves were brought to Jacksonville, 
one of which Mr. Black's father bought, pay- 
ing $75 for it. Such a curiosity was this 
stove that the neighbors for miles around 
came to see it. 

Joseph F. received his education in the 
primitive schools of Illinois. He inherited 
from his father a talent for mechanical work 
and early began to assist him in the shop. 
At the age of twenty he began life on his 
own responsibility, commencing at once as a 
contractor and builder, and before he was 



twenty-one he bought 102 acres of land near 
the village of Philadelphia, for which he paid 
$3.50 an acre. He continued contracting and 
building for a time. Then for three years he 
was engaged in farming. After that he 
moved to Philadelphia and devoted his time 
to the invention of farm machinery. To him 
belongs the distinction of having invented 
and patented the first self-binder ever made. 
He took three different patents on it, and in 
partnership with his brother William got two 
patents on a gang plow. The value of such 
a man to a communi'ty cannot be estimated. 
Indeed, the worth of his inventive genius 
extends beyond his own community and State, 
being felt all over the world. 

In 1867 he resumed farming and continued 
that occupation till 1876. That year he moved 
to Virginia and established himself as a con- 
tractor and builder. Many of the best store 
buildings and residences in thiscity are monu- 
ments to his skill. Nor have his labors been 
confined to Virginia. He has done work in 
Springfield, Jacksonville, Beardstown, and 
various other places. For some years past 
Mr. Black has devoted his time to architecture, 
which he studied in his younger days, pre- 
paring plans and specifications and superin- 
tending the construction of buildings. He 
made the plans for the county jail and super- 
intended its construction; also the two addi- 
tions to the courthouse. 

Mr. Black was married May 17, 1849 to 
Mary F. Wilmott, a native of Illinois and a 
daughter of Charles R. Wilmott. They had 
five children, as follows: Charles W., born 
September 23, 1850, was married November 
24, 1870, to Elsie Buckley, and has five 
children: Mabel, Roy, Mary, Stella and Clyde; 
Mary, born May 28, 1855, married Armstead 
Mains, and has seven children: Maude, Elma, 
William, Reatta, Toura, Louese and Leslie; 



130 



BIOGRAPHICAL .REVIEW Off OAS8, 



Eva, born August 29, 1860, was married 
January 26, 1882, to William G. Payne; 
Robert, born September 22, 1864, was mar- 
ried October 18, 1889, to Maggie Gray and 
has two children, Edna and an infant; and 
Frank born March 23, 1868, married a Miss 
Elliott, and has one child, Edward. Mrs. 
Black died January 26, 1879, and in May, 
1883, Mr. Black wedded Mary (Thompson) 
Skiles. 

Mr. Black is a member of the Christian 
Church, as also was his first wife. His pres- 
ent companion has her membership with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Politically, he 
was formerly a Whig, but since the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he has affiliated 
with it. 




jjARTIN W. GREEK, a life- long res- 
ident of Rushville township, was 
born August 5, 1843, a son of James 
Greer, a native of County Tyrone, Ireland, 
born in the month of May, 1812. Martin 
Greer, the paternal grandfather of our sub- 
ject, was also a native of Ireland, but of 
Scotch ancestry, he was a farmer by occupa- 
tion, and spent his entire life in his own 
country; he married Lucy Crosier, who after 
the death of her husband came to America 
with her children; she died at the residence 
of her son James in 1870, at the age of 
eighty-three years. She was the mother of 
five children, all of whom came to this 
country: George, James, Jane, Richard and 
Robert. James Greer was a youth of eigh- 
teen years when he crossed the sea to' Amer- 
ica; he resided in the State of New York 
until 1836, and then came to Illinois, lo- 
cating in Schuyler county. After is mar- 
riage he bought a farm on which he passed 



the rest of his life; he died in 1875. He 
was married in 1842, to Martha Wilson, 
a native of Nelson county, Kentucky, born 
October 15, 1818. Martha Wilson was the 
daughter of Elijah M. Wilson, who was born 
in Prince William county, Virginia, a son of 
Henry Wilson, also a Virginian by birth ; 
Henry Wilson married Sarah Melton, who 
was a native of Virginia; they removed to 
Kentucky and were among the pioneers of 
the Blue-grass State. Elijah M. Wilson 
married Jane Hawley, a native of Virginia 
and a daughter of Absalom and Martha 
(Field) Hawley. He removed with his wife 
to Illinois, and entered a tract of Government 
land four miles south of Rushville; at the 
end of five years he sold this place for $600, 
and removed to Littleton township, where he 
purchased a farm on which he lived until his 
death. To them were born nine children: 
Martin W., Elijah M., William J., George 
S., Samuel E., Lucy J., Mary E., Maria E. and 
Vietta. Lucy married James Neill; Mary is the 
wife of Fel ix Jackson ; Maria E. m arried Charl es 
E. Lawler. The parents were both devoted 
church members, the father having joined 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in his youth ; 
the mother first united with the Baptist 
Church, but after her marriage was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Martin W. Greer passed his youth on his 

4 

father's farm, assisting in the labors of seed- 
time and harvest, and attending the district 
school a portion of each year. At the age of 
twenty-one years he began to teach school, 
and was engaged in this profession for a pe- 
riod of six terms. Aside from this experi- 
ence he has been interested exclusively in 
agricultural pursuits, in which he has been 
more than ordinarily successful. He intro- 
duced the first Berkshire hogs into the 
county, and has a fine herd of short-horn 



SCHUYLER AND BHOWN COUNTIES. 



131 



cattle; his horses are of excellent pedigree, 
and he takes great pride in elevating the 
standard of all classes of live stock. At the 
time of his marriage Mr. Greer settled ou 
the farm he now owns on section 34, Rush- 
ville township; he has good, substantial farm 
buildings, an orchard, and very attractive 
grounds surrounding his residence; in fact, 
the farm is one of the most desirable in the 
county. 

He was married in April, 1867, to Susan 
H. Krnse, who was born in Rushville town- 
ship, a daughter of Francis H. and Elizabeth 
Kruse, whose history appears on another page 
of this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Greer are 
the parents of five children living: Fred A., 
Luther M., Henry E., Millie M. and Owen 
J. The father is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, but the mother belongs 
to the Christian denomination. Politically, 
Mr. Greer has always, until the past two 
years, been a Democrat, and has been School 
Treasurer of Rushville township for a period 
of sixteen years; he has always been loyal to 
home interests and home industries, and is 
one of the most highly respected men in the 
county. For the past two years Mr. Greer 
has advocated the principles of the People's 
party arid was nominated for Congress on 
that ticket for the Eleventh district by the 
convention held at Bnshnell, June 11, 1892. 



WASHINGTON BROCKMAN is one 

of the leading business men of Mount 
Sterling, where he was born Septem- 
ber 13, 1844. His father, James, was born 
in Kentucky, and was there reared and edu- 
cated. He turned his attention to the study 
of medicine when young. He graduated 
from Lexington Medical College, and in 1836 




or 1837 he came to Illinois, locating in Mount 
Sterling, where he began his practice. It 
was at this time that he had a very narrow 
escape from being drowned by being caught 
in the high water at Meredosia. His prac- 
tice extended into Pike and Morgan counties, 
where he had to go on horseback. He con- 
tinued practicing until 18 , when lie was 
elected Circuit Clerk, which position he held 
until his death. His wife's name was Sophia 
Price, of Scott county, Kentucky, the daugh- 
ter of one of the pioneers of Brown county. 
Dr. Brockman was a Democrat; served as 
school commissioner of Brown county; was a 
member of the Second State Constitutional 
Convention; was one of the charter members 
of Hardin Lodge, No. 44, A. F. and A. M., 
and was buried with Masonic honors. 

"Washington was an infant when his mother 
died, and but eight years when his father 
died. His step-mother was left in limited 
circumstances with four children to care for, 
and consequently at thirteen years of age he 
went to live with an uncle. He remained with 
him about a year, and then went to live with 
another uncle, who owned a flour mill. For 
several years he worked in the mill, in a black- 
smith shop and on a farm, and was also in a 
drug store in Mount Sterling. In September, 
1861, he enlisted in Company K, Tenth Illi- 
nois Cavalry, and went to Missouri. His 
company was one of the four detached from 
the regiment and sent to join General Curtis 
after the Pea Ridge fight. They marched to 
Helena, Arkansas, and then participated in 
the capture of Vicksburg, after which he was 
granted a furlough of twenty days, which was 
extended to twenty days more, and then his 
health being poor he was assigned to duty in 
the drug department. He remained there by 
order of the physicians until the spring of 
1864. when he was ordered to take charge of 



132 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF UAS8, 



a company of the Veteran Reserve Corps. 
He was honorably discharged in December, 
1864, as his term had expired, and he returned 
home and soon secured a position in the post 
office for thirty days, and then was clerk in 
the enrolling department of the Provost Mar- 
shal's office, remaining there until after the 
war, when the office was discontinued. He 
Went to Macomb, Illinois, to secure a job, but 
not being successful he returned and bought 
a book and stationery store. In less than a 
year he sold out, and was employed at various 
kinds of work for a few months, and then 
purchased one-half interest in another book 
and stationery store; later he bought the 
interest of his partner and conducted the 
busines alone. He carries a full line of 
books, stationery, wall paper, sporting goods 
and other goods of like nature. In 1886 he 
opened a buggy repository and farm imple- 
ment business and conducted it successfully 
for six years, but in 1892, owing to poor 
health, he was obliged to sell that branch of 
the business. 

He was married, in 1865, to Estdla J. 
Leeped, of Mount Sterling, daughter of John- 
son and Catherine (Dawson) Leeped. Mr. 
and Mrs. Brockman have four living chil- 
dren: George Leon, Clarence Eugene, Ernest 
Edgar and Percy Washington. Mr. Brock- 
man organized the Isaac McNeil Post, of 
which he is a member, No. 289, G. A. R. 
He is also a member of Unity Lodge, No. 
310, I. O. O. F. He is a charter member of 
the Mount Sterling Lodge, No. A. O. U. 
W. ; and of the Crescent Lodge, I. O. M. A.; 
also a Fellow-craft member of Hardin Lodge, 
No. 44, A. F. and A. M. He and his wife 
are greatly respected by their host of friends. 
He is one of the directors of the Mount Ster- 
ling Building and Loan Association, and is 
vice-president of the Mount Sterling Elec- 



tric Light and Power company, which he 
helped to organize. 

Politically he is a strong Republican, hav- 
ing cast his first ballot in 1864 for " honest 
Old Abe " Lincoln, and from this party he 
has never departed, believing that the prin- 
ciples of said party are just and true. 




ILL1AM T. BLACK, a prominent 
farmer of Woodstock township, was 
born in Dubois county, Indiana, 
March 18, 1821. When he was four years 
old his parents removed to Schuyler county. 
and here he has since resided. He remained 
under the parental roof until he had attained 
his majority, and then he started out in life 
on his own account; he first rented a farm in 
Woodstock township, which he cultivated one 
year, and then removed to Rushville town- 
ship. 

He was united in marriage, October 30, 
1842, to Matilda Matheny, a native of Mor- 
gan county, Ohio, born March 29, 1823. 
Her parents, Andrew and Sarah (Harris) 
Matheny, were natives of New England and 
Virginia respectively; they emigrated to Illi- 
nois in 1835, purchased a farm in Schuyler 
county, and there spent the balance of their 
days. Both the paternal and maternal an- 
cestors were patriots and fought in the war 
of the Revolution. Mrs. Black is one of a 
family of four children. After his marriage, 
Mr. Black rented land for a few years longer, 
and in 1849 bought 120 acres, on which he 
built a small frame house; this was his home 
until 1867, when he sold the place and pur- 
chased 280 acres in Woodstock township. In 
1869 he erected a dwelling, which has since 
been enlarged and remodeled; he has made 
all the improvements on the farm, and has 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



133 



developed it into one of the most desirable in 
the township. He carried on a general farm- 
ing business, and is considered one of the 
leading agriculturists of the county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Black are the parents of six 
children: Austin married Nancy King, and 
they have one son; Athelinda is the wife of 
Richard Kettenring, and the mother of two 
sons; Harriet A. died at the age of forty-two 
years; William H. married Rachel Boiles, 
and they have seven children, five sons and 
twodaughters; Richard married Jane Stevens, 
and they have two sons and a daughter; Frank- 
lin P. married Sarah Kennedy, and they have 
two sons. 

Politically, Mr. Black affiliates with the 
Democratic party; he has filled the office of 
Assessor for three years, and in 1877 he was 
elected Justice of the Peace, and is the present 
incumbent. He is a member of the Farmers' 
Alliance. In his religious faith he is a Bap- 
tist. He has endured all the vicissitudes of 
life on the frontier, and has accumulated his 
property entirely by his own exertions. He 
has always employed the most correct busi- 
ness methods, and has the respect of the en- 
tire community. 



IEORGE W. ALLPHIN, section 15, 
Huntsville township, was born in Ken- 
tucky, September 13, 1830. He is the 
son of Reuben and Susan (Brumbeck) All- 
phin. He was five years old when the family 
came to Illinois. He was reared on the farm 
and helped improve the new land. He at- 
tended such schools as those early days 
afforded, when they had log houses, with 
slabs for seats, and holes on the south side 
for windows. In the spring of 1850 he 
crossed the plains to California, and followed 



mining for four years, and was successful, re- 
turning by way of New Orleans. On his re- 
turn he purchased eighty acres, on which he 
now resides. The land was unimproved and 
covered with timber. He now owns 115 
acres of land, and has the same well im- 
proved. He has also a fine quality of stock. 
He is a Republican in politics, although he 
was a Democrat for thirty .years. He has 
been Justice of the Peace and held many 
minor offices. He has been a successful man, 
having made his money since 1854, when he 
came to Illinois, settling in Huntsville. 

He married, December 10, 1854, Miss At- 
lanta Wilson, daughter of Jamison Wilson. 
She was born in Huntsville township, in 
February, 1835. Mr. and Mrs. Allphin have 
had six children, three living: Anna, wife of 
James Bnrmood; Calvin and Sherman. They 
were members of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church for many years, and when that 
society failed they united with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Mr. Allphin is a mem- 
ber of Huntsville Lodge, No. 365, A. F. & 
A. M., and of Cyclone Lodge, I. O. 0. F. 
He and his wife are highly respected citizens 
of Huntsville. 

Jamison Wilson, the oldest living settler 
in Huntsville township, was born in what is 
now Grant county, Kentucky, November 29, 
1829. His parents, John R. and Rachel 
(Junip) Wilson, were early settlers in this 
part of the State. He resided in Kentucky 
until 1836, and then came to Illinois, locating 
in Cass county, but finally settled in Adams 
county. They had eight children, of whom 
the subject was the oldest. The second child 
was Polly; the others were Nancy, Jane, 
Sarah, Lucy, Dora and Robert. Jamison 
Wilson was reared a farmer, and in 1834 he 
came to Illinois and settled in Huntsville 
township. He entered and purchased land, 



134 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OASS, 



where he resided until quite recently. He 
became the owner of 207 acres of land. He 
continued to reside on a farm until 1886, 
since which he has resided with his daughter, 
Mrs. Allphin. In politics he 'was a Republi- 
can, and a Justice of the Peace for a time. 
He has been a church member all his life, 
having been connected with different denomi- 
nations, as convenient. 

He was married in 1832, to Miss Ellen 
Thornhill. She was born in Kentucky in 
1810, being a daughter of John and Jane 
Thornhill. She died July 23, 1881. They 
had seven children: Ulysses resides in Linn 
county, Kansas; Atlanta, now Mrs. G. W. 
Allphin; Melvina married Solomon Rawson, 
of Jacksonville, Iowa, and died in 1862; 
Mary married John Rawson, and resides in 
Grant county, Kansas; Lucurgus resides in 
Frederick, Illinois; Palenicus resides on the 
old homestead; and Xenophon resides in 
Huntsville township, Illinois. 



JEBULON ALLPHIN resides on section 
twenty-two, Huntsville Township, and 
is not only a prosperous farmer, but a 
specimen of 1835, born in Boone county, 
Kentucky, in July, 1832. His father Reu- 
ben Allphin, was a native of Kentucky in 
1801, and was the son of Zebulon Allphin, 
born in Virginia, but emigrated to Kentucky, 
where he died at the age of ninety-six years. 
He had nine children, of whom two are still 
living: William, Dollie, Jackson, Luke, Shel- 
ton, Ransom, Rebecca, Nancy and Reuben. 
All came to Schuyler county except Dollie 
and Ransom, who removed to Kentucky. 
Father of subject was a small boy when the 
family removed to Kentucky and was reared 
a farmer and overseer on his father's planta- 



tion. He married Susan Brumbeck. She 
was born in Virginia in 1800. In 1835 they 
came to Illinois and settled at Camden. Some 
time after they settled on section ten, Hunts- 
ville township, where he purchased a claim. 
In 1840 he removed to Rushville and re- 
mained five years, when he enlisted in the 
Mexican war. In 1848 he came to Mc- 
Donough county. In 1850 he returned to 
Schuyler county, and after the Civil war went 
to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he pursued 
farming until 1870. He then returned to 
Schuyler county and passed his remaining 
years with his children. His wife died in 
1852. They had eight children: William, 
Zarilda Thornhill, Sarah Hills, Henry, 
James, George W., Zebulon, and Susan 
Brumbeck. The parents were members of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The 
father is buried in Rnshville and the mother 
in Huntsville. Mr. Allphin was a Democrat, 
and held local offices. He was reasonably suc- 
cessful as a farmer, notwithstanding he was an 
uneducated man. 

Zebulon was but three years old when he 
came to Schuyler county and lived with the 
family until he was married. He was edu- 
cated at the district schools. 

He was married in 1852, to Mary L. Cal- 
vin, daughter of Samuel and Phoebe Calvin, 
and a native of Ohio. After marriage Mr. 
Allphin settled where he now resides and 
soon purchased 160 acres of unimproved land/ 
He has since resided on the same, and now 
owns over 240 acres of land. He is a general 
farmer, dealing in live stock. Mr. and Mrs. 
Allphin have eight children: William C. re- 
sides in Carthage, Missouri; James Henry 
resides in Huntsville township; Addie, wife 
of Frank Seward, resides in Huntsville town- 
ship; Cornelia, wife of Harvey Hoover of 
Clark county, Misssouri; George M., at home; 



SOHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



135 



Leonidas, of Huntsville; and Jessie, at home. 
Mr. Allphin is a Democrat in politics. He 
has been Supervisor several times and has 
held minor offices. His wife died February 
25, 1890. She was a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. Mr. Allphin is a 
member of Hnntsville Lodge, No. 465, A. F. 
& A. M. He has made all his property 
himself. 



fOHN W. SNYDER, a well known and 
highly respected citizen of section 20, 
Bnena Vista township, became a resi- 
dent of Schuyler county in 1834. He is a 
native of Virginia, having been born in 
Frederick county of that State, June 4, 1823. 
His father, Jacob Snyder, was a farmer. He 
married Margaret Hughes, and in 1834 
emigrated to Illinois, locating in Buena Vista 
township, where he at first rented land, but 
later purchased a tract, adding to it from time 
to time until he owned about 500 acres. This 
he improved by erecting a good substantial 
residence and commodious barns for his grain 
and. stock, and in time brought the land to a 
high state of cultivation. He died September 
28, 1865, aged sixty-seven years. His wife, 
the mother of our subject, had died on Nov- 
ember 7, 1849, at the early age of fifty-one 
years. She was a woman of intelligence and 
warm impulses, a faithful wife and fond 
mother, and left many friends to mourn her 
loss. They had four children: John W., 
James, now residing near Hamilton, Illinois; 
Joseph, a resident of Littleton township, Illi- 
nois; and George Edward, residing in Buena 
Vista township, same State. The parents 
were consistent members of the Methodist 
Protestant Church, and contributed to its 
support. Politically the father was a Demo- 
crat, but was never an office seeker, or poli- 



tician in the modern sense of the term. 

The subject of our sketch, John W. Snyder, 
was but a mere boy when his parents came to 
Illinois, since which time he has continued a 
resident of Schnyler county. He was reared 
to log-cabin life on a farm, and received his 
education in a log schoolhonse. He lived at 
home until he attained to the age of man- 
hood. He married, June 18, 1848, Miss 
Cynthia Blackley, a daughter of William and 
Jane Blackley. She was born in Tennessee, 
November, 1825. After his marriage our 
subject resided on the farm on which he still 
lives. He commenced with 260 acres of land, 
with no improvements, and now owns 190 
acres, well improved with good house and 
barns for grain and stock and other modern 
improvement?, while his land is well cul- 
tivated, being devoted to mixed farming. 

Mr. and Mrs. Snyder have had nine chil- 
dren, six of whom are living. Sarah Jane 
was born June 21, 1849, and married Harvey 
Cole. She died in Bueua Vista township 
May 3, 1878, leaving three children. Mar- 
garet E. was born December 12, 1850, and 
resides at home. Martha E. was born April 
3, 1853, and died June 18-, 1856. Mary E. 
was born April 3, 1853, and married George 
Warrington, and resides in Buena Vista 
township. Lydia F. was born November 18, 
1859, and resides at home. Louisa A. was 
born December 27, 1862, and married Ross 
Pittman, and now resides in Rushville, of 
Schuyler county, Illinois. Cynthia B. was 
born October 9, 1864, and died December 15, 
1864. Hannah L. was born May 24, 1867, 
and resides at home. Mazie C. was born 
September 25, 1868, and lives with her par- 
ents at home. 

Mr. Snyder affiliates with the Democratic 
party, and has been honored by his constitu- 
ents by an election to the office of Justice of 



136 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 




the Peace, in which capacity he served his 
county ably and well. Like his parents 
before him, he is a Protestant Methodist, 
to the support of which church he contrib- 
utes. 

Commencing life with little means, he has, 
by industry and economy, accumulated a 
competence, and by reason of his honest deal- 
ings and cordial manner he has won the 

o 

friendship and good will of the community. 



fILLIAM H UPPERS, an old and suc- 
cessful business man of Beardstown, 
was born in the Rhine province, Oc- 
tober 1, 1839. His parents lived and died 
in their native province. His father, Gear- 
heard Huppers, was a mechanic and small 
farmer, and had been quite active in local 
matters of his native town. He died at the 
age of eighty-six. His mother, who died at 
the age of eighty-one, before her marriage 
bore the name of Elizabeth Waltham. They 
were members of the German Reformed 
Church. 

Mr. Huppers was well reared, and when 
thirteen years of age, after attending public 
school, was apprenticed to the tailor's trade. 
After completing his time he started out as 
a journeyman workman, going to Belgium, 
where he spent six months, and then pro- 
ceeded to Paris, where he remained for two 
years, and then came to the United States, 
stopping first in New York and then Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and later coining to Beardstown. 
Here he has made all his money, having, 
when he landed in Columbus, less than one 
dollar in his pocket. He now does a large and 
lucrative business as merchant tailor and 
gentlemen's furnisher, at the corner of Main 
and State streets. He arrived in Beardstown 



and established a similar business with Mr. 
Miller, who continued with him until 1881; 
since then Mr. Huppers has carried the busi- 
ness on very successfully alone. He has been 
a leader in many local enterprises. He is 
interested in the Beardstown Electric Light 
and Power Company, is a director of the 
First State Bank, and is a member of the 
Board of Education. His lellow- citizens 
have always known where to find him in 
public matters. 

He was married in Arenzville, to Minnie 
Henkel, of Hesse Darmstadt. She came 
with her mother to this country when she 
was twelve years of age. Mrs. Henkel, a 
much respected member of the church, died 
in Beardstown, aged fifty-three years. Mr. 
and Mrs. Huppers are the parents of two 
children: Lula A., who was educated in 
Beardstown, but completed her course in the 
university at Evanston, Illinois, and is now 
a skilled teacher in vocal arid instrumental 
music; Harry C., twelve years of age, is at 
home. Mr. and Mrs. Huppers are leading 
people in this city, Mrs. Huppers being a 
member of the First Lutheran Church. Mr. 
Huppers is a member of the order of F. & 
A. M., a member of Cass Lodge, No. 23, 
of Clark Chapter No. 29, and is Treasurer in 
both. He is a sound Republican in politics. 



HARLES N. DUNN, a successful 
farmer and stock-raiser of Beardstown, 
was born here, and has always lived on 
this farm. His father was John Dunn, of 
Cornwall, England, born in 1822. He grew 
up in his native country as a farmer boy and 
with his brother Luke came to the United 
States in the '40s, on a sailing vessel from 
Liverpool and landed in New York and came 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



137 



from there to Beardstown. Soon afterward he 
came out to his present location where he 
purchased 160 acres of wild land, which is 
now owned by his son. On this place John 
Dunn began life as a young single man and 
here made farming a success. He was mar- 
ried to Caroline Treadway, who was born in 
Maryland, but had come to Cass county when 
young, as her parents were old settlers. They 
soon accumulated 320 acres of fine land in 
what is known as the Sangamon bottoms and 
here John Dunn died in 1877, aged fifty- 
five years. His wife survived him until 1885, 
when she died, aged seventy-two years. She 
was a noble, good woman and the best of 
neighbors. Mr. Dunn was an honest man 
and both he and his wife were highly esteemed 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Charles Dunn is the youngest of a family 
of eight children, four of whom are yet liv- 
ing, Mary Paschal, now living in Morgan 
county; Sarah Kuhlman, living near Vir- 
ginia, this county; William, a farmer in But- 
ler county, Kansas; and Charles, who has 
never been married. He is a sound Repub- 
lican of good habits and sound principles. 
He has been a very successful farmer and 
stock-raiser and now owns a fine farm of 160 
acres, well improved and with a fine set of 
farm buildings. The place has been his own 
for fifteen years, and is where he was born 
and resides. 



>MAZIAH C. EDGAR was born at Vir- 
ginia, Cass county, Illinois, May 12, 
1845. His father, George Edgar, was 
a native of Franklin county, Kentucky, and 
was there reared and married; he emigrated 
to Illinois at an early day, and was one of 
the honored pioneers of Schuyler county. 
After a few years he removed to Cass county, 



Illinois, and located at Virginia, engaging in 
fanning near that place. In 1849, when the 
gold fever swept this country, he joined the 
train of emigrants journeying to the Pacific 
coast. He remained in the Golden State six- 
teen years, and then returned to Illinois, and 
resumed agricultural pursuits in Cass county; 
his death occurred soon after his return. He 
was united in marriage to Elizabeth Nail, a 
native of Kentucky and a daughter of Gabriel 
and Fanny (Tnttl) Nail. To them were born 
four children: Martha, Robert, Amaziah C., 
the subject of this biography, and Henrietta. 

Mr. Edgar received his education at Vir- 
ginia, and in early life was thrown upon his 
own responsibility; he also assisted in the 
support of the family, and by industry and 
economy managed to save his earnings until 
he could get a start in the world. He resided 
at Virginia until after his marriage, and then 
removed to Macon county, Illinois, and pur- 
chased a farm near Niantic; here he was en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits until 1882, 
when he sold this land and came to Rushville, 
where he lives a retired life. 

He has been twice married: In 1868 he 
was united to Julia (Carr) Cook, a native of 
Cass county, Illinois, and a daughter of David 
Carr; her first husband was John Cook, and 
her death occurred in 1875. Mr. Edgar's 
second marriage was in 1878, to Eliza E. 
Ford, a native of Arkansas and a daughter of 
Elias E. Ford; her father was a Kentuckian 
by birth and one of the pioneers of Macon 
county, Illinois; he removed thence to- Ar- 
kansas in search of health, but soon returned 
and now lives a retired life at Niantic; he 
married Sarah McDonald, a native of Ohio. 
Mrs. Edgar died at Las Vegas, New Mexico, 
April 23, 1892, on the thirty-fourth anniver- 
sary of her birth ; she had gone there in quest 
of health, but the hand of death was laid 



138 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



upon her, and she was called from this life to 
the reality of the future. She was the mother 
of two children: Effie May and Ballinger. 
Mr. Edgar had one child by his first marriage, 
named Nevada. Politically he has always 
been a Democrat, and a stanch supporter of 
the principles of the party. He represented 
Niantie on the County Board of Supervisors 
for six years, and as a member of the County 
Central Committee. He was president of the 
Macon County Fair Association four years. 
He is a member of Rushville Lodge, No. 9, 
A. F. and A. M. In all the walks of life his 
action has been characterized by that integrity 
and honor which insures the respect and con- 
fidence of the entire community. 



fONATHAN PATTESON was born in 
State of Virginia, June 1, 1797. His 
father was Charles Patteson, also a na- 
tive of Virginia, who removed from that 
State to Green county, Kentucky about the 
year 1800, and was thus one of the pioneers 
of that locality. He bought a tract of timber 
land, and erected thereon a log cabin, in which 
were domiciled the family. They were in a 
wilderness and were compelled to live off the 
products of their little place and the game 
that was found in abundance in the woods. 
Mr. Patteson was an owner of slaves, and they 
cultivated flax and cotton, and used to card, 
spin and weave all the cloth for the entire 
family. They were compelled to be self-sup- 
porting, and knew little of the outside world 
because railroads were unheard of, newspapers 
rarely seen, and even steamboats had but just 
been heard of. He continued to reside in 
Green county until his death. His wife, 
the mother of our subject, was Regina De- 
Graphenreidt, a native of North Carolina, 



who died when our subject was but four years 
of age. 

Our subject, Jonathan Patteson, is the only 
survivor of a family of six children. He was 
reared on the farm in Kentucky and was there 
married. At quite an early age he went to 
live with a merchant in Columbia, Adair 
county, and there he remained, clerking in a 
store, until he was married. He then went 
to that part of Adair county now included in 
Russell county, and took charge of a paper 
mill. Soon after his location there, Russell 
county was organized, and the first court was 
held in his house. He lived there until 1837, 
at which time he came to Illinois. While in 
Kentucky he lived on a small stream, six miles 
from the Cumberland river. This little stream 
was known as Greasy creek. He built a flat 
boat, and himself and family, accompanied by 
Thomas J. Garrett, floated down to the Cum- 
berland river and there took a steamer and 
continued on down to the Ohio, thence down 
to the Misssissippi, thence up the Mississippi 
and Illinois rivers, stopping at Erie (now 
Frederick), Schuyler county. This country 
was then an utter wilderness, tilled with wild 
animals and with a few scattering pioneers, 
almost as wild as the animals. He bought a 
tract of 160 acres, two miles east of town, 
covered with heavy timber, upon which two 
log cabins had been erected and a few acres 
cleared by the former owner. He paid $2,- 
000 for the entire tract, which was then con- 
sidered a very high price. Here he lived 
and labored until 1871, when he came to 
Rushville and has since lived there retired 
from active business. He is the oldest man 
now living in Schuyler county. Generally 
his health has been good, but of late years he 
has suffered with rheumatism, though his 
mind and memory are yet well preserved. 
During his long life he has witnessed the in- 



SCHU7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



139 



trod action of railroads and steamboats, tele- 
graph lines, and when he came to Illinois, as 
he passed through Louisville, he traded for 
two stoves, the first ever brought to Schnyler 
county. They were rough, primitive affairs, 
which would now sell for about three dollars, 
but for which he paid the sum of seventy 
dollars.- In 1822 he was married to Miss 
Matilda Caldwell, a native of Columbia, Ken- 
tucky, and a daughter of William aud Eliza 
(Pyles) Caldwell. To himself and wife have 
been born seven children: Eliza M., Charles 
JR., William C., Harriet J., Laura, Matilda 
and Louisa Caroline. Of these children all 
are living except the daughter, Laura, who 
died in 1872. 



EONIDAS SCOTT, one of the promi- 
nent citizens of Rushville, Schnyler 
county, Illinois, is a native of this county, 
born September 7, 1855 (for family history, 
see sketch of Mrs. T. W. Scott). He was 
united in marriage March 25, 1874, to Me- 
linda B. Demaree, a native of Mercer county, 
Kentucky, born August 9, 1855. Her par- 
ents, Hold man and Martha J. Demaree, were 
also natives of Mercer county, Kentucky. 
They emigrated to Schuyler county in 1857, 
and bought land on which they lived until 
death; they had born to them eight children, 
six of whom are living. Mrs. Scott's grand- 
parents were Virginians by birth, and were 
among the pioneers of Kentucky. 

Mr. and Mrs. Scott have two children: 
Laura B. was born March 18, 1876, and 
Catherine, born August 16, 1888. Mr. Scott 
passed an uneventful youth, being reared to 
the occupation of a farmer; after his marriage 
he remained on the home farm until 1887, 
when he purchased his present residence in 
Rushville. He rents his farm, which consists 



of 200 acres, and devotes his time to the 
breeding of fine horses. Netty Thorn is a 
very line animal belonging to his stables, and 
he has sent out some of the most promising 
horses that are on the turf to-day. 

Our worthy subject is a member of the 
Knights of Pythias, and takes an active in- 
terest in the order. His wife belongs to the 
Christian Church. They are giving their 
children a good education, and are thus pro- 
viding them with a legacy of which no man 
can defraud them. 



S REDE RICK E. BERRY, one of the 
managers of the National Union store 
at Rushville, was born in Schuyler 
county, Illinois, December 23, 1841, a son of 
Daniel and Msry A. (Crow) Berry, natives of 
Washington county, Pennsylvania. Samuel 
Berry, the paternal grandfather, was also a 
resident of Washington county, Pennsylvania. 
Daniel Berry was reared to the occupation of 
a farmer; he emigrated to Schuyler county, 
Illinois, in an early day, and settled in Rush- 
ville township, where he purchased eighty 
acrea of land, partially improved; here he 
lived until his death in 1871; his widow still 
resides on the home farm. They had a family 
of nine children, all of \vhom grew to mature 
years: William C. died in Rushville, leaving 
a family; Daniel died in California; George 
G. died at Tombstone, Arizona; Sarah is the 
wife of Morris Hobart; Elizabeth married 
C. L. Easley; Mary A. is the wife of W. R. 
Milby; Frederick E. is the subject of this 
sketch; Martha M. is the wife of A. V. 
Quinn; John S. died in New York city; 
Frederick E. was brought up amid rural 
scenes, and attended the common schools. 
When the great Civil war arose between the 



140 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



North and South, he was not slow to espouse 
the cause of the Union, and May 10, 1861, he 
enlisted in the service of the State Govern- 
ment; and May 24, 1861, enlisted for three 
years in Company G, Sixteenth Illinois Vol- 
unteer Infantry, and spent the summer and 
fall of 1861 in Missouri; in January, 1862, 
he went to Cairo and afterward joined Pope's 
army in the siege of New Madrid; he partici- 
pated in the capture of Island No. 10, the 
siege of Corinth, and was afterward stationed 
at Big Spring, Mississippi; next at Tuscum- 
bia, Alabama, and took part in the retreat of 
Negley's and Palmer's brigades; next they 
were at Decatnr and Nashville, Tennessee, 
remaining at the latter place during the two 
months of the siege; he was at Stone river, 
at Nashville, and during the siege of Chatta- 
nooga was at Kelly's Ferry. January 1, 1864, 
he was transferred to the Sixtieth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, and took part in the 
battles of Tunnel Hill and Buzzard Roost 
Gap; he was transferred March 1st to the 
Sixteenth Regiment, which he joined in the 
beginning of the war, and served until May 
2d, when he began the Atlanta campaign; he 
went as far as Burnt Hickory, and there was 
ordered back, and June 13th, at Chattanooga, 
was discharged. He returned to his home, 
and resumed the more peaceful pursuit of 
agriculture. 

Mr. Berry was married January 3, 1867, 
to Miss Maggie Milby, a daughter of Ben- 
jamin and Mary Milby, a native of Delaware, 
born January 30, 1845. He then took charge 
of his father's farm, which he managed until 
the fall of 1891. In October of that year the 
branch store of the National Union Company 
was organized; he was made manager at Rush- 
ville; this company does a general mercantile 
business, carries a well selected stock, and is 
worthy of the generous patronage received. 



Mr. Berry owns the old homestead left by 
his father, which consists of 178 acres. 

Mr. and Mrs. Berry have had born to them 
a family of live children: Katie is the wife 
of Miles Van Horn; Anna, Elizabeth, Grace 
and Fred E. In politics Mr. Berry is inde- 
pendent, although he formerly affiliated with 
the Republican party. He has been Tax Col- 
lector and served as a member of the School 
Board. He belongs to the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and has been Commanderof Colonel 
Harney Post, No. 131; he is also a member 
of the A. (). U. "W., and is Secretary of the 
County Alliance. He has also been interested 
in public movements, and has been a loyal 
supporter of home industries. He is a man 
of superior business qualifications, and 
through strictly honorable methods he has 
accumulated considerable property. 



RS. WILLIAM PRICE, a resident 
of Rushville, Illinois, has the honor 
of being one of the earliest settlers 
of Schuyler county, Illinois, her parents re- 
moving there in 1826. She was born in 
Crawford county, Indiana, October 8, 1816, 
a daughter of Wiliarn and Cassie (Frakes) 
McKee, whose history appears on another 
page of this volume. She recalls many in- 
cidents of life on the frontier, and has not 
forgotten the privations and hardships en- 
dured by those who were courageous enough 
to undertake to subdue the wild land and con- 
vert it into fertile farms. She was married 
at the age of sixteen years, to William Price, 
a native of Tennessee, born October 8, 1809, 
a son of Samuel and Beersheba (Atehily) 
Price; his father removed from Tennessee to 
Illinois, and was a pioneer of Schuyler county; 
he afterward removed to Arkansas, and lived 




SCHUYLSR AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



141 



there until after the death of his wife, when 
he returned to Illinois; he spent his last years 
at the home of Mrs. Price in Rushville. 
William Price was reared in his native State, 
and there learned the trade of a blacksmith; 
he remained in Tennessee until 1830, when 
he emigrated to Schuyler county, Illinois, 
where he resided until his death. At the time 
of his marriage lie settled on the land now oc- 
cupied by Mrs. Mary Price, which was the 
gift of her father; he followed his trade, and 
at the same time superintended the cultiva- 
tion of his farm; he made many excellent 
improvements, erecting good buildings, and 
bringing the land to a high state of produc- 
tiveness. His death occurred March 21, 
1887. 

Mrs. Price has four children living; John 
married Margaret Owen; George married 
ErnmaMeador; Agnes is the wife of Oscar 
B. Hite; James F. married Nannie Boden- 
heimer. 

In his political views Mr. Price adhered to 
the principles of the Republican party. He 
was a man of great integrity of character, and 
enjoyed the respect of all who knew him. 



CHARLES GOTTHELF JOKISCH, an 

old settler and farmer of Cass county, 
now deceased, was born in Saxony, Ger- 
many, February 27, 1819. He was one of 
nine children. His grandfather, believing 
that opportunities for young men were better 
in the United States than in Germany, urged 
his two sons and their families to emigrate 
to this country. This they did early in the 
thirties, and began in Cass county on Govern- 
ment land, and here the father of Gotthelf 
died in what is now Bluff Springs precinct, 
at about the age of fifty. He had accumulated 



a tine property and left an estate valued at 
twenty-rive thousand dollars. His aged father 
also died here. (For fuller history of family 
see biography of William Jockisch.) 

Charles Gotthelf grew up an industrious 
boy, and was ever afterward identified with 
the best interests of the county, but unfortu- 
nately died before he was very old. In spite 
of his early death lie left an estate that was 
very valuable. His death occurred in March; 
1874, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. By 
industry and economy he first was able to buy 
a small farm, and from time to time increased 
it until he owned a property of 350 acres, most 
of it in a high state of cultivation. He was 
a quiet, good man, gave his en tire time to his 
business, never engaged in politics, except to 
vote the Republican ticket. 

He was married here to Elinore Carls, of 
Hanover, Germany, November 1, 1846. Her 
mother had died in Germany, arid she carne 
to this country with her father and other 
members of the family in 1843, and has since 
lived in the borders of Cass county. (For 
family history, bee biography of Louis M. 
Carls.) Mrs. Jokisch is the youngest of the 
family now living. She has two brothers, 
George and Henry, both of this county. She 
is a well preserved lady and very intelligent. 
She and her husband were life-long members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

She is the mother of ten children: Theophi- 
lus, Otto, George and Matilda (Loomis) are 
deceased; those living are: Maurice W., a far- 
mer living in Virginia; Mary E., a noble 
character, living at home; Philip J., a very 
successful farmer of this township; Amelia 
Hackman, a native of this county; Edward 
F., a successful farmer in Virginia; Harry J., 
now running the homestead, is a well edu- 
cated farmer. He attended the high school 
of Virginia, and also the Wesleyan University 



142 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OA88, 



at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and the Illinois State 
Normal School. He taught recently in the 
schools of Beardstown. He is industrious 
and knows how to put his education to good 
use. He clings to the same political faith as 
did his father, and bids fair to do that parent 
honor. 




fILLIAM OETGEN, one of the old 
settlers and successful farmers living 
inCass county, was born in Hanover, 
Germany, May 31, 1817. He came of pure 
German ancestry. His father, G. Henry, 
was a native of the same place in Germany, 
born in 1787 and died December 26, 1820. 
He was a blacksmith, as were all his brothers 
and his father before. They were all mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church. The name of 
his mother was Helen L. Veslage, a native of 
Hanover, who survived her first husband, and 
in 1823 married Dr. J. C. A. Seeger, who 
came to the United States in 1831, and in 
1832 was joined by his wife and oar subject. 
The family settled in Philadelphia, Pennsy- 
lvania, in September, 1832, where Mr. Oetgen 
learned the shoemaker's trade. Mr. Oeto-en 

r") 

made a quick passage of twenty-eight days 
and landed in New York City. In 1834 his 
parents came to Beardstown, and were joined 
a year later by our subject. They both died 
here, but left no children: hence Mr. Oetgen 
is the only one of his family now living that 
came from Germany. Mr. Oetgen landed in 
this county July 25, 1835. He began here a 
poor boy and worked for years for $8 a month; 
later he received as much as $12.50 a month, 
and in 1843 fanned one year as a renter, and 
in 1844 purchased his first land not far from 
Beardstown city. This consisted of 290 
acres, which he improved, and in 1859 he pur- 



chased 126 acres on section 20, township 18, 
range 11, where he now lives. He later 
added 120 acres, and then seventy acres more, 
and again eighty acres, all of which is valu- 
able and some of which is worth more than 
$100 an acre. He has been one of the lead- 
ing men of the county, and has had all the 
experiences of a pioneer. Being a smart and 
intelligent man he has a tine memory, and 
can tell in a very interesting manner of the 
condition of things in the past history of the 
county. He has been a good citizen. 

He was married, in Cass county, to Cathe- 
rine Middlebusher, born in Hanover, near 
Osnabruck, December 23, 1826, and came to 
the United States in 1835, and to Cass county 
with her parents, Adam and Petro N". (Ket- 
wick) Middlebusher, who died here of cholera 
two weeks after landing in Beardstown. 
They were members of the Lutheran Church, 
and while only in this country a short time 
theycame in a day when their names should 
be associated with the other pioneers. Mrs. 
Oetgen was yet very young when her parents 
died, and was partly reared by the mother 
and step-father of Mr. Oetgen. She is yet 
living. She was married, April 7, 1843, to 
Mr. Oetgen, and has proved herself a good, 
true wife. They are the parents of eight 
children, of whom Mary and Hannah died 
young. John recently died in Beardstown, 
leaving a wife and two bright children. He 
had been educated at Poughkeepsie, New 
York, and was book-keeper for Henry Keil. 
At the time of his death he was a promising 
young man and a worthy member of the 
family. The living are: Helen Fricke, of 
Lafayette county, Missouri; Henry William, 
who married Augusta Hansmier, a farmer in 
Schuyler county; and George C., who married 
Henrietta Reichert, and also on the old home- 
stead; Martha, wife of Louis Leonhard, work- 



SGHUYLER AND SHOWN COUNTIES. 



143 



ing Mr. Oetgen farm in this township; and 
Edward L., on the home farm. The latter 
was appointed in 1890 as a census enumerator 
in this county. The children are all smart 
and self-sustaining, and are all active Repub- 
licans. 



HERRON, a prominent farmer 
of Bainbridge township, was born in 
county Down, Ireland, in June, 1829, 
a son of Robert Herron, who was born in 
the same county; the paternal grandfather, 
Eobert Herron, was a native of Ireland, of 
Scotch ancestry. The father of our subject 
learned the trade of linen weaver at a time 
when this work was done on hand looms, and 
followed this occupation through life. He 
married Mary Cleland, a daughter of Thomas 
and Jane (Bell) Cleland, natives of Ireland, 
of Scotch lineage. After the death of her 
husband, Mrs. Herron emigrated to America, 
in 1850, and spent the last years of her life 
in Schuyler county, Illinois. She was the 
mother of eight children: Sarah, Robert, 
Thomas, Jane, David, John, William and 
Hugh. David Herron passed his youth in 
his native country, and there received his 
education. In 1850 he determined to try his 
fortunes in the New World, and accordingly, 
the 27th day of March, sailed from Belfast 
on the vessel Annie, and landed at the port 
of New York after a voyage of forty-nine 
days. He went directly to Ohio, via the 
Hudson river and Erie canal to Buffalo, 
and thence by lake to Cleveland; from that 
city he went by team to Mahoning county. 
He began to learn the tanner's trade, but on 
account of ill health abandoned the plan; he 
then went to work in the iron furnaces and 
continued there for two years, after which he 



engaged in farming; he was employed by the 
month until 1858, when he came to Schuyler 
county, Illinois, and purchased 160 acres of 
land; about eighty acres of this tract were 
cleared, and a log cabin had been built, which 
was their first Illinois home. Mr. Herron 
has added to his first purchase of land until 
he now owns 240 acres, more than half of 
which is under a high state of cultivation; 
he has erected a good set of frame buildings, 
and has developed the place into one of the 
most desirable in the township. 

He was united in marriage, in 1857, to Mary 
Hull, who was born in Mahoning county, 
Ohio, a daughter of Logan and Annie (Ross) 
Hull, of the same county; Mrs. Herron's 
paternal grandfather, Benjamin Ross, was a 
native of New Jersey, and one of the earliest 
settlers of Mahoning county; he was a man 
of much energy and enterprise, and erected 
the first mill operated by water power in 
Mahoning county. Mr. and Mrs. Herron 
are the parents of six children: Jane, Thomas, 
Blanche, Lula, Mary A. and Robert L., who 
died in 1865. They are consistent members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Poli- 
tically Mr. Herron affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party. 



EORGE BORDENKIRCHER, Chair- 
man of the County Board of Supervisors, 
was born on a farm in Ohio, May 1, 
1842. His father was named Wendal, and 
was born in Germany; and his father, David, 
was born in Germany, and there married and 
came to America about 1833 and settled in 
Coshocton county, Ohio. He bought a large 
tract of land there, and lived there until his 
death. Wendal was eighteen years old when 
he came to America, and he resided with his 



144 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



parents until his marriage, when his father 
gave him land in Coschocton county, and he 
lived there until 1851, when he moved to In- 
diana and lived there until 1856, and then 
came to Illinois and settled in Mount Ster- 
ling township, and bought a tract of unim- 
proved land with a set of log buildings Their 
first home was a log hut. He quickly im- 
proved his land, erected frame buildings and 
lived there until 1878, when he removed into 
the city of Mount Sterling, and now lives 
retired. His wife's name was Mary Stous, 
born in Germany, and came an orphan girl 
to America. When she died in Mount Ster- 
ling she left four children. 

George attended school both in Ohio and 
Indiana. He remained on the farm with his 
father until his enlistment, August 8, 1863, 
in Company D, One Hundred and Nineteenth 
Illinois Volunteers, and remained with the 
regiment until the close of the war, being in 
all the various marches, campaigns and bat- 
tles of his regiment. He worked his 
father's farm in 1867, then bought eighty 
acres of land in section 14, Mount Sterling 
township, which is included in his present 
farm. He has in all 180 acres of land. 

He was married, April 10, 1866, to Floren- 
tine Meyer, born in Alsace, Germany, April 
29, 1846. Her lather came to America 
in 1851 and settled in Ohio, and his wife and 
seven children followed him two years later. 
He followed his trade of tailor for four years 
in Cincinnati, and then moved to Mount 
Sterling and continued the business. Mr. 
and Mrs. B. have six children living: Emily, 
Edward, Anna, Albert, Celestine and Freddie. 
Our subject with his family is a member of 
the St. Joseph Catholic Church. He is a 
Democrat in politics, and is now serving his 
third term as Supervisor and second term as 
chairman of the board, and is president of 



the Brown County Agricultural Society. 
He is also a member of the Western Catholic 
Union, and his wife is a member of the 
Sacred Heart Society. 




jORTIMER AYERS, M. D., a lead- 
ing member of the medical fraternity 
in Schuyler county, Illinois, has been 
a resident of Rushville since October 1, 1873. 
He was born at Springfield, Illinois, June 
35, 1848, a son of Grover and Jane (Stock- 
dale) Ayers. The father was a native of 
New York state, born near Penn Yan, May 
21, 1818, and emigrated to Wapakoneta, 
Ohio, with his family at an earl}' day. There 
he was married, and in 1844 he emigrated to 
Illinois, and settled at Springfield ; here he 
embarked in a general mercantile trade, which 
he carried on nntil 1862, when he retired 
from active life; he removed to Vermont, 
Fulton county, in 1876, and there passed the 
remainder of his days; his death occurred in 
1880; his wife survives him, and is a resident 
of Vermont, Illinois. He was very prosperous 
in business and accumulated a competency. 
In his religious faith he was a Baptist. The 
family consisted of five children: Bryon W., 
died in Springfield, Illinois; Ada is the wife 
of George W. Whitney; Sylvanus resides in 
La Fayette, Indiana; the fourth born is the 
subject of this sketch; Grover died at Spring- 
field, at the age of twenty years. 

Dr. Ayers passed his boyhood days at 
Springfield, and attended the public schools 
until he was fifteen years of age. He then 
entered the United States Navy as midship- 
and served in this capacity for three 



man, 



years; the greater portion of this time was 
spent at Annapolis, Maryland, although he 
made several cruises. In 1866 he returned 



SOHUYLEB AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



145 



to Springfield, and began the study of medi- 
cine, soon afterward going to St. Louis, 
where he continued the pursuit of the science 
under the direction of Prof. T. G. Comstock. 
He entered the Homeopathic Medical College 
of Missouri at St. Louis, and was graduated 
in the spring of 1868. He then located at 
Pana, Illinois, where he engaged in practice. 
He had not yet attained his majority, being 
only twenty years of age, and he soon decided 
to enter the navy; when he reached New 
York, however, he went on board a merchant 
vessel as surgeon, sailed to South America, 
and was absent three years. Returning to 
the United States at the end of that period, 
he located at Rusliville, Illinois. He has 
taken several special courses in medicine, the 
last of which was at the Royal Ophthalmic 
Hospital, London, England; he has been a 
close and careful student of all topics per- 
taining to the science and practice of medi- 
cine, and has made his mark as a skillful 
physician. He is the only member of the 
Homoepathic school in Rusliville. 

Dr. Avers was united in marriage, July 
15, 1874, to Miss Dora Hill, a daughter of 
Major William Hill, and a native of Little- 
ton township, Schuyler county. Two chil- 
dren have been Itorn to them, Ethel and 
Olive. In his religious faith the Doctor is a 
Presbyterian. He is a member of the 
Masonic order, belonging to the blue lodge, 
chapter and commandery ; he has held the 
office of Commander of Rusliville Com- 
mandery, No. 56, K. T. 

Major William Hill was born in Lan- 
cashire, England, June 27, 1825. At the 
age of twenty-one years he emigrated to 
America, and became one of the pioneers of 
Schuyler county in 1846. He was a cabinet- 
maker by trade, and followed this vocation 
for ten years. He married Rachel Knowles, 



a daughter of Joseph Knowles, who came to 
the United States with his family aboard the 
same vessel with the Major. After abandon- 
ing his trade he was interested in a flouring 
mill, but when the Civil war broke out he was 
one of the first to respond to the call for 
troops; he raised a company, which was 
mustered into the service as part of the En- 
gineer's Regiment of the West; he was 
elected Captain, served through the entire 
conflict, and was mustered out with the rank 
of Lieutenant Colonel by brevet; he had 
arisen in regular order to the rank of Major. 
After the war he became a member of the 
firm of J. & J. Knowles & Co., and was con- 
nected with this firm until his death, which 
occurred March 25, 1877. His wife died 
April 12, 1877. They had a family of five 
Children, four of whom lived to mature years: 
Maria, wife of C. M. Cowan, of York, Ne- 
braska; Mary A. is Deputy County Clerk of 
York county, Nebraska; Dora is the wife of 
Dr. M. Ayers; Laura was the wife of the late 
Luther Jackson, of Rushville. 

Major Hill was a staunch Republican, and 
took a prominent part in local affairs. He 
was a man of plain and unpretentious manner, 
true to his convictions, and worthy of the 
esteem in which he was held. 



[ARL TRAUGOTT JOKISCH, a good 
farmer and stock-raiser of sections 
twenty-eight and twenty nine, township 
eighteen, range eleven west, was born in Ger- 
many near Bautzen, January 4, 1822. He 
is the fifth of his father's children and 
the oldest one now living. He was thirteen 
years of age when his parents left Germany 
for the United States in the fall of 1834, com- 
ing on a sailing vessel and landing in New 



146 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



Orleans, January 1, 1835. They came up 
the Mississippi and Illinois rivers to Beards- 
town, landing February 2, 1835, and have as 
a family since been identified with the history 
of the county. The mother died in the latter 
part of January, 1835, at St. Louis, while the 
family were on the way. She was only forty 
two years of age. She was always a member 
of the German Lutheran Church, as was her 
husband who survived her. 

Traugott has always been a farmer in the 
county to which he came so many years ago. 
He was raised by an uncle, C. G. Jokisch, 
now deceased, the father having died in 1851. 
The father had obtained new lands in this 
county and here spent the remaining years 
of his life. (See William Jokisch, this 
book.) 

The farm of our subject has a beautiful lo- 
cation near Bluff Springs, in the Illinois river 
valley, where he owns a tine and well im- 
proved farm of 235 acres, with substantial 
farm buildings. 

He was married, in this county to Mary 
Ellen Carls, born in Hanover in 1834. She 
came with her parents to the United States 
and Cass county in 1845 and has since lived 
here, being a true helpmate to a good hus- 
band. She is an honest, good woman. She 
was the daughter of John Frederick and 
Elizabeth Carls, natives of Hanover, who 
came with their family to this country, but 
misfortune overtook them. Early after land- 
ing the father was killed by an accident while 
building a house for his family in Beards- 
town. A piece of timber fell on him and 
caused his death. He was then in the prime 
of life, being then about thirty-eight. He 
was a very skillful cabinet-maker, a good 
citizen and devoted Christian for many years. 
His wife survived him for four years and 
then died, in Beardstown, in 1849, of the 



cholera, which was epidemic at that time. 
She was a Christian woman. 

Mrs. Jokisch has one sister and two 
brothers. The sister, a widow, is Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Kuhl, living in Pekin, Illinois; Henry 
is a farmer in Montana; and John F. is a 
farmer in Cass county, Illinois. They are 
both married. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jokisch and family are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Church, and are very 
good, moral, upright people. Mr. Jokisch is 
a Republican in politics. Mr. and Mrs. 
Jokisch are the parents of twelve children, 
four of whom are deceased: John W. died an 
infant; Edward, married, left a wife and one 
child; Philipena died at the age of thirty-six, 
leaving two children; Ida died in Montana 
when twenty years of age. The living ones 
are: Louis, a teacher for more than twenty 
years in Central Illinois, and is single; Emme, 
wife of Charles Wilson, farmer and fruit- 
grower of Virginia; Elizabeth, wife of Adam 
Hegeman, farmer in this county; Albert W., 
living near the homestead, farming; George 
F., living in the east end of the county on a 
farm; Richard, at home, helping on the farm; 
Cora and Tillie are also at home. 




L. CALEF, one of the old, representa- 
tive families of Cass county, lives on 
a fine farm on section nine, township 
eighteen, range eleven, where he owns 320 
acres, all well improved except a few acres, 
and all lying in the familiar and famous 
Sangamon bottom. On this tine land he has 
erected two sets of tine buildings. He came 
to the county in the fall of 1844, when he 
was a man of small means, but in a year's 
time he was able to purchase his first land of 
eighty acres and began to farm on his own 



SG SUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



147 



account. Soon after this he bought another 
eighty, and some years later invested in 160 
acres more, making 320 acres in all. He has 
as fine land as there is in the county, and it 
is all paid for. He has a comfortable bank 
account in addition, and is considered one of 
the well-to-do men of the county. He gave 
up active farming some fifteen years ago, 
and since that time has been taking life easy, 
having rented his farm to William Coleman 
(see biography). Mr. Calef came to this 
county and State from New Hampshire, 
where he was born, near Plainfield, Sullivan 
county, June 25, 1820. He came of New 
England parents, born in New Hampshire, 
of English ancestry. His father, Nathaniel 
Calef, was a native of Salisbury, New Hamp- 
shire, son of Benjamin Calef, who was born 
in New Hampshire, and lived and died in 
Salisbury, New Hampshire, being a farmer 
all his life. He was an old man when he 
died, and had always been a prominent mem- 
ber of society. He married a New Hamp- 
shire lady who li ed and died there when 
quite old. Nathaniel Calef was married 
twice. He was married for the first time to 
Miss Elizabeth Hall, who died on the farm 
where they had settled after marriage. She 
left several children, of whom John Hall Ca- 
lef is still living. He is on the old Calef 
farm in New Hampshire, and is an old man, 
aged eighty-six. His second wife, mother 
of subject, was Sarah Pettengill, she having 
been first married and borne a family to a 
Mr. Little, who died, and she married Na- 
thaniel Calef, to whom she proved a good 
and faithful wife. She bore him our subject 
and a daughter, Lucinda, who became Mrs. 
Harrington, and died in New Hampshire, as 
did her mother, both old people. Nathaniel 
Calef, the oldest half-brother of the subject 
of this sketch, was a soldier in the war of 1812. 



Our subject was married in Cass county 
to Lucy A. Main. She was born, reared and 
educated in Geanga county, Ohio, in 1829, 
and came to Illinois when young, settling on 
a farm in Cass county with her parents, Lod- 
rick and Ann Eliza (Beard) Main. They 
were early settlers and improved their farm, 
and died when old people. They were na- 
tives of Connecticut and went to Ohio when 
young, marrying in Geuaga county, from 
which they came to Cass county, Illinois. 

Mr. and Mrs. Calef have no children, 
but have raised and helped several young 
people. They are very well known people 
and have made a host of friends for them- 
selves during their lives in this county. 
Mrs. Calef is a Methodist, and her husband is 
a Republican in politics. 



fOHN SHANK, a successful farmer, hor- 
ticulturist and florist, and a prominent 
citizen of Mount Sterling, Illinois, was 
born in Frauklin, Johnson county, Indiana, 
July 11, 1843. His paternal grandparents 
were John and Catherine (Dosing) Shank, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania and of 
German descent, while the latter was of 
French ancestry. The former was an early 
settler of Ohio, when that State was the fron- 
tier of civilization, his last days having been 
passed at his home in Preble county, near 
Eaton, that State. His son, William Shank, 
the father of the subject of this sketch, was 
born in Montgomery county, Virginia, in 
May, 1821, and was twelve years of age at 
the time of his father's death. After this 
event his mother removed with her family to 
Indiana, and located in Johnson county, near 
Morgan sville. Here William Shank grew to 
manhood, and, in 1842, married Julia E. Me- 



148 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



Cord, a native of Tennessee. Her parents 
were John and Mary (Brown) McCord, both 
of Scotch-Irish descent, who emigrated in an 
early day from Virginia to Tennessee, whence, 
about the year 1836, they removed to In- 
diana. They resided in that State nearly 
twenty years, when finally, in 1855, they re- 
moved to Illinois. Here the father pur- 
chased land in Moultrie county, near the vil- 
lage of Bethany, on which he and his wife 
settled, and where his death occurred in 
1865, lamented by all who knew him. Will- 
iam Shank and his young wife preceded her 
parents to Illinois by eleven years, having 
removed thence in 1844, two years after their 
marriage. They settled in Pea Ridge town- 
ship, Brown county, where William bought 
a tract of land, a portion of which was heav- 
ily timbered. Here they resided for many 
years, the wife, mother of the subject of this 
sketch, dying in 1889, universally beloved 
and mourned. 

John Shank, whose name heads this biog- 
raphy, was thus about a year old when his 
parents removed to the Prairie State> which 
was then new and sparsely settled. Here, in 
the freedom of a wild expanse, he grew to 
manhood, physically strong and athletic, 
and mentally acute and active, receiving 
the educational advantages afforded by his 
surroundings and circumstances. 

On the breaking out of the great Civil war, 
with all the enthusiasm of youth and patriot- 
ism, he rallied to the defense of his country's 
flag, enlisting in Company B, Fiftieth Vol- 
unteer Infantry, on August 20, 1861, and 
serving until the close of the war. The most 
important engagements in which he partici- 
pated were the siege of Corinth, Shiloh, Co- 
rinth and Resaca. In January, 1864, he 
re-enlisted or veteranized, and was given a 
furlough of thirty days. After the battle of 



Resaca, at Rome, Georgia, he was placed on 
detached duty in the Commissary Depart- 
ment of General Sherman's army, where he 
continued until cessation of hostilities. He 
was honorably discharged with his regiment 
at Springfield, Illinois, on July 14, 1865. 

He then, like thousands of others, resumed 
his former peaceful occupations, engaging, 
during the first year of his return, in farm- 
ing. Later, he embarked in mercantile pur- 
suits at Clayton, Illinois, remaining there for 
about three years, when he sold his business 
and acted as traveling salesman for about 
eight years, making Clayton his home. Dur- 
ing the latter period, he bought a part of his 
father's land in Pea Ridge township, and, 
discontinuing traveling, he engaged in gen- 
eral farming, making a specialty of horti- 
culture. In 1874 he engaged in the nursery 
business and raising of small fruits, in which 
he continued successfully for some time. 
Finally, in 1884, he removed to Mount Ster- 
ling, the county seat, his present home, where 
lie continued the nursery and fruit business, 
to which he later added that of floriculture. 
His natural adaptability and careful attention 
to business have resulted in well-merited suc- 
cess, while his liberal methods and uniform 
courtesy have secured for him a constantly 
increasing patronage, until he now realizes a 
comfortable income from these various indus- 
tries. 

Mr. Shank was married in 1867, to Miss 
Sue Mead, an estimable lady and a native of 
Morgan county, Ohio. She was a daughter 
of Zaccheus and Margaret (Logue) Mead, the 
former a native of New York, where he was 
reared and married. He and his wife were 
prominent and esteemed pioneers of Morgan 
county, Ohio, where they resided many years, 
the father finally expiring there, regretted by 
his family and many friends. The mother 



SOHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



149 



still survives, and makes her home with her 
daughter, Mrs. Shank. 

Mr. and Mrs. Shank have four children: 
Jesse E., Samuel M., Nora A. and Joe H. 

Politically, Mr. Shank affiliates with the 
Republican party. Religiously, he is a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church, while his 
wife belongs to the Methodist Episcopal de- 
nomination. Both are esteemed residents of 
Mount Sterling, to the social and financial 
status of which they have given material aid 
by their energy, public spirit and sterling 
worth. 



(EORGE W. TRONE, one of the most 
practical and progressive farmers of 
Schuyler county, has resided here since 
he was a youth of fifteen years. He was born 
in Carroll county, Maryland, April 4, 1849, 
a son of Adam Trone, a native of York 
county, Pennsylvania. The father was a 
miller by trade, and followed that vocation 
in Pennsylvania and Maryland; he settled in 
Carroll county before his marriage, and re- 
sided there until 1858, when he removed to 
Illinois and settled at Astoria. Fulton county; 
there he operated a mill until 1863, when he 
invested in land in Rushville township; the 
remainder of his life was devoted to agricult- 
ure. He was united in marriage to Rebecca 
Erb, a native of Carroll county, and a daugh- 
ter of John Erb. The paternal ancestors of 
our subject were of German extraction, while 
those on the mother's side were of Irish ori- 
gin. Mrs. Trone still resides on the farm in 
Rushville township. George W. received his 
education in the common schools of his native 
county, and at Astoria and in Rushville town- 
ship. When but a boy he began to assist his 
father in the mill, but he preferred farming, 
and did not follow the trade any length of 



time. After the family removed to Rushville 
township he was occupied on the farm until 
he attained his majority. 

In 1871 he bought a tract of land in Bain- 
bridge township, one-half of which he sold 
afterward. In 1880 he purchased the farm 
he now occupies; it consists of 150 acres of 
land in Rnshville township, and the most of 
it is in a high state of cultivation. In 1883 
he sold fifty-three acres. Mr. Trone devotes 
his entire time to farming and stock-raising; 
he breeds high-class registered stock, and fre- 
quently exhibits at the county and State fairs, 
and as frequently carries off the prizes. 

He was married in 1874 to Sarah R. Boise, 
a native of Rushville township and a daugh- 
ter of Matthew Boise; they have three chil- 
dren: Libbie E., George Carl and Earl R. 
The mother is a worthy member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Politically, 
Mr. Trone affiliates with the Democratic 
party. 

,ENSSELAER WELLS was born in Lo- 
rain county, Ohio, February 22, 1823. 
He was the son of Charles and Elizabeth 
(Durand) Wells. The latter was a native of 
Connecticut, came to Illinois when subject 
was eleven years old, and settled in Littleton 
township, this county, and died at Rushville, 
aged sixty-five years. His wife was born in 
the same county as her son, and she died on 
the old farm, aged thirty-five. 

Subject remained at home until his mar- 
riage, when he bought his present farm and 
put up a log cabin, where they lived for sev- 
eral years, until he built the frame house in 
which they lived until 1871. He then built 
their present fine residence, which cost 
$3,500. He has now about 500 acres of land, 
where he carries on mixed farming, and he 



150 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA8S, 



has made this farm one of the finest in the 
county. 

He was married in 1844, to Rebecca Rose, 
born in Morgan county, Illinois, daughter of 
Randolph and Rebecca (Bazier) Rose, the 
latter of Kentucky. Mrs. .Rose died in 
this county. Mr. and Mrs. Rose were among 
the earliest settlers, and Mrs. Wells was one 
of eight children, five yet living. Mr. 
Wells is one of seven children, two yet 
living. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wells have had seven chil- 
dren: George, married and has three chil- 
dren, Randolph, married and has two chil- 
dren; William, at home; David, married 
and has two children; Charles, married and 
has one child; Mary A., single and at home. 
They have all been well educated. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wells are members of the Christian 
Church, and Mr. Wells is a Democrat, voting 
first in 1844. He takes no active part in 
politics. 

He traces his grandfather Durand back to 
his residence in France, of which country he 
was a native, first settling in Ohio, where he 
died when a very old man. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wells are very good people, 
and are highly respected by all who have the 
pleasure of knowing them. 



JOHN C. BAGBY, attorney at 
law, was born in Glasgow, Barren coun- 
ty, Kentucky, January 24, 1819. His 
father was Rev. Sylvanus M. Bagby, a native 
of Louisa county, Virginia, born September 
29, 1787. His grandfather was Richard 
Bagby, a native of the same county, and his 
great grandfather was John Bagby, a native 
of Scotland, who went from there to Wales, 
where he married and lived a number of years, 



and then came to America in colonial times, 
accompanied by his family, and settled in 
Virginia. He settled in Louisa county, 
where he became a prominent planter and 
slave owner. Richard Bagby, the son of 
John Bagby, and grandfather of our subject, 
was also a planter and passed his entire life 
in Louisa county. His wife was Miss Sarah 
Kimbrongh, a native of the Old Dominion 
and of Welsh descent. The father of our 
subject, Sylvanus M. Bagby, was left an or- 
phan at an early age and was cared tor by 
an uncle, John Bagby, of Rocbkridge county, 
Virginia. He learned the carpenter trade, 
and in 1808 removed to Kentucky, and was 
one of the early settlers of Glasgow. While 
there, in June, 1813, he married Miss Fran- 
ces S. Courts, a native of Caroline county, 
Virginia, born May 17, 1793, her father, 
John Courts, being a native of England, and 
an early emigrant to Virginia. His wife 
was Frances Winn, a native of Culpeper, 
Virginia. 

Sylvanus M. Bagby was converted in early 
youth and joined the Baptist Church. He 
became a preacher of that demonination, but 
did not give up his trade as a carpenter, which 
he followed during the week, preaching, on 
Sundays. He remained a member of the 
Baptist Church until 1828, when he accepted 
the religious doctrines of Alexander Camp- 
bell, whom he assisted in organizing a Chris- 
tian Church in Barren county, and was from 
that time forward a minister of that denom- 
ination. He resided in Glasgow until 1842, 
when, with his wife and eight daughters, he 
journeyed overland to Illinois, stopping at 
Rushville, where he engaged in the mercan- 
tile business. Later he purchased a farm, a 
portion of which is now included in the city, 
upon which is located the railroad depot. He 
died in 1848, having lived a useful, pious and 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



151 



honorable life. His wife passed away in 1858. 
She reared ten children as follows: Albert K., 
who still resides in Glasgow; Martha A. Hall; 
Frances H. Montgomery; Clara Ramsey; 
Sarah C. ; Elizabeth Lusk; Mary M. Doyle; 
Emily C., Zorelda VanHosen, and our sub- 
ject, John C. 

In the school of Barren county our sub- 
ject, John C. Bagby, was educated, supple- 
menting the same by an attendance at Bacon 
College, which at that time was located in 
Georgetown, but later was removed to Har- 
rodsburg. He continued at this college until 
his graduation as a civil engineer, in 1840, 
when he returned to Glasgow, and taught 
school tive years, devoting his spare moments 
to the study of law with Judge Christopher 
Tompkins of that town. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1846 and in April of that year 
came to Rnshville and began the practice. 
In 1847 he formed a partnersiiip with William 
A. Minsliall, which partnership continued until 
1848, when Mr. Minshall was elected Circuit 
Judge. Mr. Bagby, with the exception of 
the time spent in Congress, continued the 
practice of law until he was elected Circuit 
Judge in 1885. He cast his first presidential 
vote for William Henry Harrison, and was a 
prominent Whig and Free Soiler until 1856, 
when he was one of seven to organize the 
Republican party in this county. He con- 
tinued a Republican until 1872, when he 
branched off and voted for Horace Greeley, 
since which event he has affiliated with the 
Democratic party. He has filled various 
offices of trust, and in 1874 was elected a 
member of Congress. He served as Circuit 
Judge six years, entering upon his duties in 
1885. He has been a member of Rushville 
Lodge, No. 9, A. F. & A. M., for forty-six 
years, and was Master of the lodge eleven 
terms. He was one of the organizers of Sta- 



pleton Chapter, .No. 9, R. A. M., and has 
been a member of the order of the Sons of 
Temperance. On October 1, 1850, he mar- 
ried Miss Mary A. Scripps, a native of Cape 
Girardeau county, Missouri, and daughter of 
George H. and Mary (Hyler) Scripps. They 
have been blessed with nine children: Mary 
Frances; John S. ; Virginia Ellen, who died 
at the age of eleven years; Albert; Morris; 
George Henry, who died aged twenty-seven 
years; William Ray, who died in infancy; 
Catherine B. ; Arthur F. and Edwin H. 



,ENRY CRASKE, a member of the State 
Board of Equalization, a resident of 
Rnshville, and one of its most promin- 
ent citizens, was born in Bury St. Edmunds, 
Suffolk county, England, September 26, 1845. 
His father, -James Craske, was born in the 
same place, January 4, 1798, and his grand- 
father was also a native of England, where he 
passed his entire life. James Craske was 
the only one of his children to come to 
America. He was reared and educated in his 
native land and lived there until 1862, when 
he came to this country and located at Little 
Falls, New York, where he still lives, at the 
unusual age of ninety-four years. His wife's 
maiden name was Eliza Clark, a native of 
Barton Mills, England, and died in Bury 
St. Edmunds, of the same country, in 1849. 
Her children were named Marianne, Sarah, 
James, Caroline, Elizabeth and Henry, all of 
whom were reared to maturity. 

The original of this sketch and the young- 
est of the family was educated in the public- 
schools of Bury St. Edmunds, and when fif- 
teen years of age joined his older brother and 
sisters in America, He located in York 
State, where he continued to reside. On Sep- 



152 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF C1AS8, 



tetnber 5, 1862, he enlisted in Company A, 
One Hundred and Fifty-second New York 
Volunteer Infantry, and served with dis- 
tinction until the close of the war. He 
was in the Second Army Corps, of the 
second division, and at different times was 
connected with the First, Second and Third 
Brigades. At the battle of the Wilderness, 

o 

May 6, 1863, he was wounded in the head by 
a minie ball while charging the enemy's 
lines, a portion of his skull being torn away. 
On the following day he fell into the hands 
of the enemy and lay on the field without 
medical attendance for fourteen days. The 
provisions of the rebels ran short and they 
sent word to the Federal commander that he 
might supply his wounded with food and 
medicine. Consequently a forage train was 
sent upon the field when Mr. Craske man- 
aged to crawl aboard and in that way escape to 
the Union lines. He remained in the hos- 
pital until the last of June, when he joined 
his regiment and remained with it in all its 
campaigns, marches and battles until he was 
honorably discharged, July 14, 1865. 

Upon the termination of his military 
career he returned to York State and on 
December 23, 1865, was united in marriage 
to Miss Ellen Maria Jones, a native of Little 
Falls and a daughter of Elijah and Jane 
Jones, born respectively in England and 
New York. On the 23d of April, 1866, he 
came West, and located in Springfield, Illi- 
nois, and there followed his trade, that of a 
dyer, until March 28, 1868, when he re- 
moved to Rushville and resumed his trade, 
continuing until 1870, when he went to 
Decatur and lived a year and a half and 
then returned to Rushville and engaged in 
the grocery business and in buying and ship- 
ing produce to St. Louis, Chicago, New 
York and Boston, continuing the same fora 



number of years. Mr. and Mrs. Craske have 
seven interesting children: Geneva A., Caro- 
line Elizabeth, Mamie, Frances C., Harry 
Barton, Lillian M. and John A. Logan. 
Fraternally Mr. Craske is a member of .Rush- 
ville Lodge, No. 9, A. F. & A. M.; Rushville 
Chapter, No. 184, R. A. M.; and Rushville 
Commandery No. 56, K. T. He is also a 
member of the A. O. U. W. and of Security 
Lodge, No. 31, I. O. M. A.; and also of Col- 
onel Harney Post, No. 131, G. A. R. 

Mr. Craske has taken considerable inter- 
est in politics and in that difficult and doubt- 
ful field has distinguished himself- He was 
elected a member of the State Board of 
Equalization in 1888, and in 1885 was the 
originator of the scheme in the Thirty-fourth 
District which elected a Republican Represent- 
ative to the State Legislature, thus breaking 
the dead lock which had tied up the General 
Assembly for months and ended in the election 
of John A. Logan for United States Senator. 
The following letter explains itself, and shows 
how the part taken by Mr. Craske con- 
tributed to Republican success: 

LELAND HOTEL, Springfield, 111. 

May 20, 1885. 
HENRY CRASKE, 

My Dear Sir: The election is over and 
the victory is ours. To the Thirty- fourth 
Representative District we are indebted for 
the vote that gave us the majority in the 
Legislature, and to you, my dear sir, there is 
much due for the organization and success. 
You were the first man who suggested to me 
the possibility of carrying the district. I 
wrote you then, saying the plan was a good 
one. Of course, great credit is due to all our 
friends who aided in carrying out the pro- 
gramme from whom I would not wish to de- 
tract anything; but to you I give the credit 
as the originator of the plan which was a 



SGIIUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



153 



success, and to you I now return my grateful 
acknowledgments. Your friend, 

JOHN A. LOGAN. 

It should he said by way of explanation, 
that in the Thirty-fourth General Assembly 
the two houses were a tie on joint ballot and 
in consequence there was a dead lock in the 
Senatorial contest which continued under 
great excitement for months. On the 12th 
of April, a Democratic member of the Thirty- 
fourth Senatorial District died, and a special 
election was called for May 6th to fill his 
seal. In that district the Democrats had a 
majority of 2,000, and therefore felt certain 
of electing their nominee. Mr. Craske wrote 
a letter suggesting a still hunt and the plans 
to be pursued to secure success. His plan 
was submitted to General Logan and by him 
to the Republican caucus, and were adopted 
and acted upon. The result fully met their 
anticipations, the Republican nominee was 
elected, the Democrats were out-generaled 
and astonished, and even the people in dis- 
tant States were filled with surprise. The 
movement was so adroit that General Logan 
pronounced it the most daring piece of 
political strategy, so successfully executed, 
since the days of Alexander the Great. 



ILLIAM BURACKER was born on 
a farm in township 17, range 9, 
Cass county, Illinois, September 14, 




1846. 



His parents, Philip A., and Jane (Holzman) 
Buracker, were born, reared and married in 
Page county, Virginia, and in 1844 came to 
Illinois, making the journey with a team. 
They .located on the farm on which their son 
William was born, and there resided six 
years. They then moved to a farm in range 



10, of the same township, where they passed 
the rest of their lives. The father died May 
28, 1891, at the age of sixty-eight years. 
The mother passed away in 1873. They 
reared three children, William, Alfred and 
George. Alfred is deceased. 

William Buracker was reared and educated, 
and has passed his life thus far, in his native 
county. He was brought up on the farm, 
and has since been engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. When he attained his majority he 
commenced farming for himself on his 
father's land, and in 1870 his father gave 
him the farm he has since occupied, which is 
located in section 27, township 17, range 10. 
In connection with his agricultural pursuits 
he is also engaged in stock raising. 

In 1868 Mr. Buracker was united in mar- 
riage with Helen C. Heslep, a native of Cass 
county, and a daughter of Thomas and Cath- 
erine Heslep. Mr. and Mrs. Buracker have 
two children, Philip T. and Katie. 

Politically, Mr. Buracker has always affili- 
ated with the Democratic party, and is a most 
efficient member of the same. He was 
elected a member of the Board of County 
Commissioners in 1885, and was re-elected 
in 1888. In this capacity he has always 
worked for the good of the entire county, 
ever taking a bold stand in favor of the right. 



SRED W. KORSMEYER, one of the 
most successful men of this locality, 
lives on section 30, township 17, range 
12. He is a German, being born in Hanover, 
January 15, 1838. His parents were J. H. 
and Mary (Lovecamp) Korsmeyer, who were 
born in the same place, and descended from 
the best German blood. When our subject 
was thirteen years of age they came to the 



154 



BIOGRAPHICAL RBI VIEW OP OASS, 



United States in the fall of 1851. They took 
the usual passage of their fellow country- 
men, from Bremer to New Orleans, and from 
there up the Mississippi and Illinois rivers 
to Beard stown. They located very near the 
present home of our subject, and here they 
lived and died, the father about sixty, and 
the mother seventy. They had always been 
members of the German Lutheran Church 
and are remembered as good, honest German 
settlers of that early day. Our subject and 
a brother, Herman, are the only living mem- 
bers of the family. 

Mr. Korsmeyer began farming on his own 
account about the time of his majority. His 
first was a purchase of 140 acres, and he in- 
creased it from time to time until he now 
owns 600 acres, the most of which is under 
the plow. He has made many improvements 
on the farm he has owned for the past thirty 
years. He has very fine land, lying in the 
bottoms of the Illinois river, and adjoining 
the Meredosia lake. 

Mr. Korsmeyer was married in Cass county, 
to Miss Minnie Miller, who came from her 
birthplace, in Hanover, Germany, when 
young. Her parents settled in Beard stown, 
where her father died some years ago, at the 
home of his daughter, as did also his wife. 
They had lived to good old age and had been 
valued 1 members of the Lutheran Church. 
Mrs. Korsmeyer is the youngest of three chil- 
dren. .Her two brothers are Fred, a Morgan 
county far,mer, and Henry, who lives in 
Springfield. Mr. and Mrs. Korsmeyer have 
seven living children: Henry and Herman 
assist in running the farm; Emma, William 
C., Christian, and Theodore and Charles, the 
twins, live at home. The children are all natur- 
ally bright, and the parents intend to educate 
them thoroughly. The family is Lutheran in 
religion, and Mr. Korsmeyer is very prominent 



in the politics of his township, being a Dem- 
ocrat, and has held almost all of the local 
offices. He is now a candidate for County 
Commissioner, and so popular is he that this 
means a certain election. They are among 
the most prominent people in the township. 



,DAM SCHUMAN, one of the enterpris- 
ing and successful young farmers of 
section 13, range 12, owning a farm 
of 120 acres which he has occupied 
since the death of his father, John A. 
Schuman, in October, 1886, has been the 
proprietor of the farm where he was born, 
reared and educated. The date of his birth is 
February 13, 1851. Since he came into pos- 
session of the farm, he has greatly improved 
it and made it very successful, having it well 
stocked and employing good farm hands. 
Although only a young man, he is ambitious 
and is bound to succeed. 

Adam is the only son of John Adam and 
Katie (Loab) Schuman, both natives of Ger- 
many, of good ancestry. They were born, 
reared and educated in Germany, and while 
yet young came in the early forties to Amer- 
ica, sailing from Hesse Darmstadt, arriving 
after several weeks' voyage in New Orleans, 
coming from there to St. Louis, Missouri. 
Here he stopped for a short time and unfor- 
tunately was taken sick and was taken to the 
hospital. As soon as he was able to leave he 
came to Beardstown, with the help of an old 
friend, Valentine Thron. After his arrival 
in Beardstown, he worked for six months for 
Mr. Thron to repay him for his kindness; 
later John A. Schuman was engaged as a 
butcher for a time, but later purchased land 
on section 13, township 17, range 12, at 
which place he spent the remainder of his life 



SCIIUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



155 



as a farmer, dying at the age of sixty-six. He 
was a good and worthy citizen, straightfor- 
ward and upright in all his dealings with his 
fellow men. He was a prominent member 
and a good worker in the German Methodist 
Church, to which he was a generous support- 
er, being always ready to help everything that 
tended toward the advancement of good prin- 
ciples. The Sunday-school received much 
of his attention. He was a sound Democrat 
in politics. His wife died some years before 
in 1865, when she was forty years of age. She 
was a good, Christian woman, a faithful wife 
and devoted mother, a kind neighbor and a 
worthy member of the Emanuel Methodist 
Episcopal Church, near Arenzville. 

Adam was the only son in the family, but 
there were four daughters, Lizzie, wife of 
George Hauffman, farmer of this township; 
Mary, wife of Joseph Pierce, of Bluff Springs 
precinct; Lydia, wife of William Schute, 
also of Bluff Springs; and Amelia, wife of 
Charles Johnson, a farmer of Beardstown. 

Mr. Schurnan was married, at Arenzville, 
to Miss Lizzie Thron, a native of this county, 
being born, reared and educated here. She 
is the daughter of Valentine and Margaret 
(Bier) Thron, natives of Hesse Darmstadtj 
Germany. They were young, single people 
when they came to the United States, settling 
in Illinois, where they were married, in the 
city of Beardstown, where Mr. Thron en- 
gaged in wagon-making, and was thus en- 
gaged for some years, when he purchased 
land in the early fifties in township 17, range 
12, and there lived for some years. Later he 
removed to Arenzville, and there his wife 
died, in January, 1884. She was then quite 
an old woman and a worthy member of the 
Lutheran Church, to which she had belonged 
all her life. She was a good, kind wife and 
mother, and was highly respected by all her 



neighbors. Mr. Thron now makes his home 
with his daughter, Mrs. Schuman, and passed 
his eighty-second birthday in June, 1892. He 
has been a good, hard-working man all his life 
and a consistent member of the Lutheran 
Church. He is a Democrat in politics. 

Mr. and Mrs. Throu were the parents of 
nine children, six yet living and all are mar- 
ried, being successful in life. Mr. and Mrs. 
Schuman are active workers in the Emanuel 
Lutheran Church, and Mr. Schuman takes 
especial interest in the Sunday-school. He is 
a good and worthy man. 

Mr. Schurnan and his wife are the parents 
of six children: John W., Mary L., Fred G., 
Liddy E., Elmer and Myrtle. 



,EWTON LUCAS, a resident of Pea 
Ridge township, was born in what is 
now Cooperstown township, December 
11, 1838. His father, D. R. Lucas, was one 
of the pioneers of Brown county, born in 
Butler county, Ohio, March 21, 1810. His 
father, John Lucas, was born September 7, 
1760, in Virginia, and was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. He was taken prisoner 
by the Indians and by them taken to Ken- 
tucky and Ohio. He was pleased with the 
country, and after the close of the war located 
in Kentucky, but failed to secure a good title 
to his land and lost it, and then went to that 
part of Ohio now included in Butler county, 
secured a large tract of land in the Miami 
bottom, improved a farm, residing there until 
his death June 15, 1836. His wife's name 
was Jemima Robbins, who was born Novem- 
ber 19, 1768, who died on the home farm, 
November 22, 1831, aged sixty- three years. 
She was the mother of twelve children. Dan- 
iel Robbins Lucas was raised in his native 



156 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF VAS8, 



county, but when a young man went to In- 
diana and commenced the study of medicine. 
In January, 1836, he came to Mt. Sterling. 
Illinois, and commenced to practice his pro- 
fession. He also engaged in teaching and in 
the mercantile and lumber business. About 
1843 he purchased land in Lee township, and 
resided there the greater part of the time un- 
til his death, which occurred January 26, 
1884. His wife's name was Sarah Ann Keith, 
to whom he was married in 1836; she was 
born in Hardin county, Kentucky, December 
14, 1817, and died March 22, 1890. She was 
the mother of twelve children; their names 
are: William, Newton, Martha, Ann (now 
dead), Mary E., George W., Henry C. (now 
dead), John H., Ethan A., Helen A. (now 
dead), Daniel W., Benjamin F., James E. 
Three dead and nine living, seven of whom 
live in the county, one, B. F., lives in Colo- 
rado. I. E. lives in Missouri. Newton re- 
ceived his earlier education in the pioneer 
schools which were held in the log houses 
with furniture of the most primitive kind, 
where the teacher boarded around among the 
scholars; as suon as he was large enough to 
manage a yoke of oxen lie worked upon the 
farm. He caught the Pike's Peak fever in 
the spring of 1860, went across the plains in 
an ox wagon to the Rocky Mountains, returned 
in July of same year. He met with an acci- 
dent December 25, 1860, while cutting a tree 
for firewood; in trying to get out of the way 
of some falling limbs, the tree struck and 
crushed his hip, making a cripple of him for 
life. He was appointed route agent on mail 
route from Clayton, Illinois, to Keoknk, Iowa, 
in 1864, but after some two months' service 
resigned; taught school during the winter of 
1862-'63 at what is now Fargo, in this county; 
taught at Ashland, Adams county, during the 
winter of 1869-'70; remained with his par- 



ents until he was married in 1865; then 
farmed and operated a saw mill until the 
spring of 1871, when he moved to Scotland 
county, Missouri, and operated a saw mill for 
three years; then moved to Memphis, Mis- 
souri, and went into the hay business with his 
brother for two years; moved back to Brown 
county, Illinois, engaged in fanning and 
running a sawmill; operated a sawmill on 
Sangamon river bottom during the winter of 
1880-'81; moved to Mt. Sterling in the 
spring of 1882, and operated a steam thresher, 
lived there until December, 1883; then 
bought the farm he now lives upon; owns 
220 acres; farm is well improved and has good 
buildings; the house he built himself. 

In politics he is a Republican; cast his first 
ballot for Abraham Lincoln for president, 
and Richard Yates for governor; has always 
been a Republican; and was a delegate to the 
Republican State Convention, May 4, 1892. 

August 29, 1865, he married Barbara 
Frank, who was born in Davison county, 
North Carolina, February 21, 1842, daughter 
of William and Sarah (Winkler) Frank. Mr. 
and Mrs. Lucas have three children: Minnie 
S., William D., Ruth R. Minnie is the wife 
of Henry L. Lee and has two children; they 
live in Maxwell City, New Mexico. 



A. WARDEN, senior member of the 
firm of Warden & Son, proprietors of 
the Rushville Republican, was born in 
Clermont county, Ohio, January 2, 1839. 
His father, Moses Warden, was a native of 
Pennsylvania, and in his j'outh was con- 
verted to the Christian religion and became a 
preacher of the gospel; he learned the trade 
of a saddler, and followed this vocation in ad- 
dition to his ministerial labors. When quite 



SOHDTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



157 



a young man he went to Ohio, and there was 
married to Margaret Anderson, a native of 
Brown county, Ohio. Mr. Warden lived in 
Bethel, Clermont county, and there worked 
at his trade and preached in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church; later he purchased a farm 
near Bethel, and engaged in agriculture; 
there he passed the last days of his life. His 
only brother, Richard Warden, settled in the 
same county, and there spent the remainder 
of his life. The mother of our subject died 
in 1851. There was a family of seven chil- 
dren: Anderson, William, Martha L., Salathiel 
L., Margaret L., Sarah E., and Francis A. 

Francis A. was a lad of twelve years when 
his father died, and one year later the mother 
passed away; he was then cared for by his 
older brothers and sisters, and was reared and 
educated in his native county. At the age of 
seventeen years he began clerking in a drug 
store at Felicity, Ohio, and was thus employ- 
ed for two years; at the end of this period he 
became a partner in the business, which was 
continued until 1876. In that year he came 
to Shelby county, Illinois, and engaged in 
mercantile trade, which he conducted eight 
years. Kay Warden, son of Francis A., 
having learned the art of printing, engaged 
in the business at Stewardson and Cowden, 
Shelby county, conducting a paper at each 
place for a year; at the end of twelve months 
he went to Augusta, Hancock county, and 
published the Augusta Eagle for eight years; 
during all this time his father was a partner 
in the business, and in January, 1891, they 
(F. A. Warden and son, S. R. Warden,) came 
to Schuyler county, and established the Rush- 
ville Republican. This is a well edited sheet, 
newsy, and a loyal supporter of Republican 
principles. 

Mr. Warden was married in 1863, to Olive 
B. Leffingwell, a native of Williamsburg, 

12 



Ohio, and daughter of Sidney and Melissa 
Leffingwell. Five children have been born to 
them: S. Ray, F. Ella, Louise, Mary E., and 
Jessie. 

During the late civil war, Mr. Warden 
supported the Government of the Union; he 
cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln, and 
has since affiliated with the Republican party; 
he and his wife are worthy members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He belongs to 
Rushville Lodge, No. 9, A. F. and A. M., to 
the Knights of Honor Lodge, No. 990, and 
to Augusta Camp, M. W. A. 




ILLIAM D. DORSETT was born in 
Randolph county, North Carolina, 
December 28, 1828. His father was 
Azariah Dorsett, a native of the same State, 
who was a cooper by trade, but he also fol- 
lowed farming for a livelihood. In 1835 he 
came in a six-horse wagon with his family, 
consisting of a wife and twelve of his four- 
teen children, to Illinois, camping out over 
night on their entire trip to Scnnyler county. 
They settled in what is now Huntsville town- 
ship, and a little, lafer bought a tract of land 
upon which a few ^cres had been broken and 
a log cabin erected. The cabin was a very 
rough, primitive concern, with a roof of 
boards rived by hand, a,nd a chimney of 
sods. After a little while this was replaced 
by a more pretentious and comfortable struc- 
ture. Here he resided until his death in 
1840. His widow died the following morn- 
ing, and both were buried in the same grave. 
The mother was formerly Mary Beckerdite, 
of North Carolina, who reared to maturity 
fourteen children. 

Our subject, William D. Dorsett, was six 
years old when he was brought to Illinois by 
his parents, and he well remembers the wild 



158 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA8S, 



animals that could be seen almost daily in 
the woods and on the prairie. At that time 
it was easy to find an abundance of wild 
honey, as an experienced bee hunter could 
tell the location of a bee tree by watching the 
flight of the insect. Gristmills were very 
scarce, and often could not be reached at all. 
Tn this extremity the early settlers were com- 
pelled to grate their corn and wheat by hand, 
and Mr. Dorsett recollects having eaten many 
a meal of this homely food. At first the 
people of this vicinity had to go to mill fifty 
miles below Quincy, and were absent several 
days. He was quite young when his parents 
died, and was taken to live with an older 
brother. He bought forty acres of land in 
Birmingham township, at $10 an acre, pay- 
ing for it by installments. When he began 
housekeeping, after his marriage, he had 
neither table nor chairs to commence with, 
and instead thereof had three bee-hives, one 
of which was used as a table and the other 
two for stools. Some kind person presented 
them with a dry-goods box, which was made 
to serve as a cupboard, and a bedstead was 
presented to them by Mrs. Dorsett's father. 
This was considered a great luxury. But 
this little home, though humble and rude, 
was made comfortable and bright by Mrs. 
Dorsett, who took great pride in making it 
cozy and comfortable. Mr. Dorsett went to 
work with a will, was very industrious and 
his wife very economical, and together they 
have come to prosperous circumstances and a 
happy home. He secured early employment 
as a rail-splitter, like Abraham Lincoln, and 
it was not his fault that he did not reach the 
presidency instead of Mr. Lincoln. The first 
money he thus earned was used to buy his 
first table. After a period of seven years he 
was the owner of sixty acres, free from in- 
cumbrance, which he then traded for 100 



acres in Huntsville township, and at the close 
of his career as' a farmer in Illinois he was 
the owner of 400 acres of rich Huntsville 
soil and a section of land in Texas. In 1883 
he rented his farm and came to Rushville, 
and has since lived a retired life. 

On the 15th of November, 1849, he was 
married to Elizabeth Ann Pendleton, who 
was born in Hardin county, Kentucky, Jtily 
11, 1832. Her father was Edwin Pendleton, 
a native Virginian, and her grandfather was 
James Pendleton, also of that State. Her 
father was reared in his native State, and 
went to Kentucky when a young man, and 
was there united in marriage. He learned 
the shoemakers trade, which he followed for 
a few years, and in 1830 came to Illinois. 
He came the entire distance on horseback, 
accompanied by his wife and eldest child. 
Upon his arrival here his entire possessions 
consisted of two horses and 50 cents in 
money. One of the horses died soon after 
crossing the Ohio river. He located in 
Huntsville township, entered land from the 
Government, upon which he built a log 
house and commenced to improve his farm. 
Mrs. Dorsett's mother was a thorough pioneer 
woman and knew how to make cloth from 
flax and cotton. Her daughter, Mrs. Dorsett, 
learned the art, and after her marriage made 
all the clothing for her family. Mr. and 
Mrs. Dorsett have had six children: Martha 
L., Hattie E., Joshua E., Ellis Benson, Har- 
din Wallace and Alvin De W. The parents 
are members of the First Methodist Episco- 
pal Church of Rushville. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Dorsett in their youth 
attended the pioneer schools of this county, 
where they learned "readin', ritin' and rith- 
metic," the three R's, as they were termed. 
The schoolhouse, of course, was a log build- 
ing, and a very rough one at that. The seats 



SCHlfYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



159 



were made of slats, and wooden pins served 
for legs. Holes were bored in the wall, pins 
inserted, and a board laid thereon served as a 
desk upon which the older scholars, with 
quill pens, learned to write. The windows 
consisted of a section taken out of the side 
of the house and the aperture covered with 
greased paper, which served to admit the 
light. 



fOHN T. BRADBURY was born in Har- 
rison county, West Virginia, March 4, 
1840. His father is James Lee Bradbury, 
born in Virginia in 1816. He was reared 
on the farm and when he was twenty- three 
he went to Kentucky and engaged in teach- 
ing for some forty years. He came to 
Illinois in the fall of 1847, bringing his wife 
and two children. They came across the 
country in a lumber wagon and a horse 
team. It took them about thirty days to 
make the trip. Mr. Bradbury soon secured 
a school in Brown county. They soon moved 
into Mt. Sterling, where they lived until 
1858. Mrs. Bradbury died in 1857, in the 
prime of her life, thirty-six, leaving live 
children to mourn her loss, namely: John T. ; 
Nancy, deceased ; James R., carpenter; Mar- 
garet Mallory; William, a farmer on the 
bluffs of the Illinois river. 

John was brought up to be industrious 
and was well educated. At sixteen he began 
to study under Dr. Witty at Mt. Sterling. In 
summer he took charge of the farm, but in 
the winter studied under the instruction of 
the able Dr. Witty. In 1859 he went to 
the Missouri Medical College at St. Louis, 
and graduated in 1861. He opened his first 
office in Ripley, but very soon closed it and 
went to Hiawatha, Kansas, in the spring of 
1861. Here he remained, practicing until 



1863, when he returned home and enlisted 
in the One Hundred and Nineteenth Illinois 
Infantry, Company D. He was in the ser- 
vice three years, but most of the time as hos- 
pital surgeon. He was mustered out at 
Mobile, Alabama. In the spring of 1865 
he returned to Missouri, at Parke, in Sharon 
county, and opened an office, where he prac- 
ticed for about a year, when he returned to 
Versailles, in Brown county. Here he opened 
an office and drug store. In 1872 he sold 
out and came to Cooperstown, where he has 
resided since. He has had a large practice 
these many years and has felt the need of 
rest at times. He has been Postmaster dur- 
ing the Harrison administration. 

He was married in 1861, in Mt. Sterling, to 
Viola Hatcher, daughter of E. and Maria 
N. (Brisbin) Hatcher, the former from North 
Carolina, the latter from Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania. She was born in Madison, 
Indiana. The family carne to Illinois in 
1856. 

Mr. and Mrs Bradbury have had seven 
children, only three of whom are now living: 
Samuel E. married to Ellen Logsden, two 
children; James Mitehel married Kate Hur- 
lett; George Anderson, a youth of fifteen. 
They have all been educated. Dr. Bradbury 
is an Odd Fellow and a stanch Republican. 
He and his wife are very estimable people and 
are highly respected by all. 



fOHN McCABE, well-known in business 
circles in Schuyler county, Illinois, was 
born in Coshocton county, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 11, 1828. His father, John McCabe, 
Sr., was a native of Pennsylvania, but was 
taken to Ohio when quite young by his par- 
ents; there he learned the blacksmith's trade, 



ICO 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



which lie followed until 1844. In that year 
he emigrated to Indiana and settled in Ma- 
rion county; here he resumed his occupation, 
remaining for three years. In 1847 he came 
to Illinois, and settled in the 'town of Wood- 
land; he afterward entered a tract of land on 
which he erected a log house; he followed 
his trade until 1862, when he enlisted in the 
war. He died in 1863, while in the service. 
His wife died in Rushville, Illinois. They 
reared a family of eight children. Our sub- 
ject resided with his parents until he had at- 
tained his majority, when he started out in 
life for himself; he had worked in a brick- 
yard-three or four seasons, and at the age of 
twenty-two years he embarked in this busi- 
ness on his own account. His first yard was 
at Littleton, where he conducted a business 
for two years; thence he removed to Macomb, 
where he continued until 1863. In Jnne 
of that year he enlisted in Company A, 
Eighty-fourth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
and served until the close of the war. The 
most important battles in which he partici- 
pated were Stone River and Chickamauga; 
in the latter he was wounded, and so dis- 
abled from active duty in the field; when he 
had sufficiently recovered he was made hos- 
pital steward, and served the remainder of 
the war in that capacity. He was mustered 
out in August. 1865, after which he returned 
to Macomb. There he remained until the 
spring of 1866, when he came to Rushville 
and engaged in the manufacture of brick. 
In 1879 he added machinery for the manu- 
facture of tile, and his products find a ready 
sale at the yard. 

Mr. McCabe was married in 1851, to 
Mary Clark, a native of Indiana and a 
daughter of Henry and Margaret Clark. 
Four children have been born to them: 
James is engaged in business with his father; 



Arthur is a resident of Versailles, where he 
is engaged in the practice of medicine; How- 
ard C. lives in Rushville; Cora married Allen 
Walker, and also resides in Rushville; two 
children died ininfancy. Theparentsarecon- 
sistent members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; the father joined in May, 1842, and 
the mother ten years later. For thirty years 
Mr. McCabe has been Steward of his church. 
He is a zealous advocate of temperance, and 
an ardent supporter of the Prohibition party. 
He is a member of the Tile Manufacturers' 
Association, and has been treasurer of this 
body for a number of years. He belongs to 
Colonel Homey Post, No. 156, G. A. R., and 
is actively interested in its welfare. He is 
a man of energy and entertains progressive 
views upon questions of public interest, sup- 
porting those movements which tend to aid 
and elevate the masses. 




ARK B O Y D, a pioneer farmer of 
Rushville township, now retired from 
active labor, was born in county 
Armagh, Ireland, February 6, 1823, a son 
of William Boyd, a native of the same county. 
The paternal ancestors were natives of Scot- 
land. William Boyd was reared to the life 
of a farmer, and when he had arrived at man's 
estate he emigrated to America; this was 
previous to the war of 1812, and he remained 
three years; at the end of that period he re- 
turned to Ireland, was married, and resided 
there until 1838. In that year he sailed 
with his wife and three children for the port 
of New York, the voyage consuming three 
weeks. He engaged in teaming in New 
York city, and resided there until 1868, 
when he bought a farm of 120 acres, on 
which he lived until his death, February 10, 



8CHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



161 



1868. He married Maria Boyd, who died 
in Rushville, in 1868; she was the mother of 
three children: Esther J., Mark and Samuel. 
Mark Boyd was a child of five years when he 
crossed the deep blue sea with his parents. 
He received his education in New York, the 
school which he attended being located on 
Seventeenth street, near Eighth avenue. 

In 1841 he began to learn the trade of a 
baker, and followed this calling until 1860, 
when he went to Orange county, New York; 
he was employed on a farm until 1867, when 
he came to Sehuyler county, Illinois. His 
first investment here was in a farm of eighty 
acres, and to this he has made additions until 
he now owns nearly 200 acres, in Oakland and 
Rushville townships. There he made his 
home until 1892; in February of this year 
he removed to Rushville, where he is living 
in the quiet enjoyment of the reward his 
years of industry and toil have won. 

Mr. Boyd was married in New York city, 
September 11, 1845, to Sarah Fourgeson, 
the daughter of Daniel Fourgeson. Her 
paternal grandfather, John Fourgeson, was 
a native of Scotland, and removed to 
county Derry after his marriage, where he 
purchased a farm and passed the remainder 
ot his life. He married Ann Kennedy, also 
a native of Scotland. Daniel Fourgeson, 
their son, spent his entire life on the farm 
where he was born; he married Mary Fulton, 
a descendant of Scotch ancestors, but a na- 
tive of county Derry, Ireland, Mrs. Boyd 
and her sister Elizabeth, wife of Duncan 
Taylor, were the only members of their fam- 
ily who came to America. Mrs. Boyd sailed 
from Liverpool in 1850, and after twenty- 
one days on the water reached the port of 
New York. Our subject and wife are the 
parents of three children: Maria J., Eliza- 
beth and Sarah. Maria married James Bill 



and is the mother of three children; Eobert 
W., Henry and Charles; Elizabeth is the wife 
of George Manlove, and has a faiuily of three 
children, Bessie, Annie and Mark; Sarah 
married Elijah "Wilson, and has a family of 
six children, Nellie, Annie, Maud, Henry, 
Walter and Jennie. 

Mr. and Mrs. Boyd were reared in the 
Presbyterian Church, and have always ad- 
hered to that faith. They are people of 
much force and stability of character, and 
have reared a family who are an honor to 
them and a credit to the community in which 
they live. 



fRANCIS M. CURRY, a highly respected 
citizen of Mount Sterling, was born in 
Scott county, Kentucky, April 9, 1825, 
a son of John K. Curry, who was born 
October 19, 1803. The paternal grandfather, 
Alexander Curry, the honored founder of 
Mount Sterling, Illinois, was born October 
14, 1770, in the State of Maryland, the 
son of Archibald Curry, a native of Scotland, 
who emigrated to America in colonial times 
and settled in Maryland, where he passed the 
remainder of his life. Alexander Curry was 
a pioneer of Scott county, Kentucky; he pur- 
chased a tract of land on the Lexington pike, 
on which he lived until 1830, when he came 
to Illinois; he was accompanied by his wife 
and children, and made a settlement in Brown 
county, which was then a part of Sehuyler 
county. As soon as the land came into mar- 
ket he entered 2,000 acres, including the pre- 
sent site of Mount Sterling; he erected a 
double log house on the lot now occupied by 
the Christian Church, which was used at the 
same time as a dwelling, a justice's room and 
a meeting-house. He did not keep a hotel 
but entertained travelers free of charge. He 



162 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF UASS, 



was the first Justice of the Peace and the first 
Postmaster of Mount Sterling. In 1833 he 
laid out the town, and June 21 of that year 
occurred the first sale of lots. His son, 
Robert, had the first store in 'the place, the 
goods being brought by teams from St. Louis. 
He continued a resident of the place until his 
death in 1842. The maiden name of his wife 
was Elizabeth Nutter, a native of Delaware, 
born August 20, 1776. They reared a fam- 
ily of nine children: Daniel, Robert N., 
John R., Olivia, Sarah, Nancy, Leah, Mary 
and Harriet. 

John K. Curry was reared and married in 
Kentucky, and came from the Blue Grass 
State with his parents. He located on land 
his father gave him near Mount Sterling, and 
engaged in farming. He died November 17, 
1882. He married Belle Brockman, a na- 
tive of Scott county, Kentucky, born May 
15, 1804; she died December 17, 1875. 
They reared a family of five children: Fran- 
cis M., James R., Elizabeth, Alexander A. 
and Mary B. Francis M. was a child of five 
years when he came to Illinois with his pa- 
rents. He received his education in the pio- 
neer schools which were taught in the primi- 
tive log structures, often without a floor, and 
furnished with puncheon seats and puncheon 
desks; the building was erected without 
nails, and light was admitted by an opening 
in the wall, which was made by taking out a 
part of the log; in cold weather this hole 
was covered by a piece of greased paper. At 
the age of fourteen years Mr. Curry began 
clerking, receiving $12.50 a month the first 
year, and boarding himself. After a few 
years he engaged in business on his own ac- 
count, which he conducted successfully a 
number of years. 

He was married September 21, 1853, to 
Mary Clements, a native of Bourbon county, 



Kentucky, born March 26, 1829. Her father, 
William H. Clement, was born in Kentucky, 
and died in that State in 1834; he married 
Maria Givens, a daughter of John and Ruth 
Givens, Mr. and Mrs. Curry are the parents 
of five children: Lizzie B., Ida M., Mattie 
G., Frank C. and Charles A.; the oldest son, 
William, died at the age of three and a half 
years. The father and mother are members 
of the Presbyterian Church. Politically our 
subject has been identified with the Demo- 
cratic party, but he is a Prohibitionist both 
in principle and practice. He is a man of 
many excellent traits and has the respect and 
confidence of the entire community. 



f REDBRICK E. WELLFARE, foreman of 
the copper shops of the Quincy Railroad 
at Beardstown for the past nine years, 
was born in Candage, Erie county, New 
York, June 23, 1858. He was but one year 
old when his parents moved to Illinois. He 
is the son of John Wellfare. who was born 
in England, of English parentage, and was 
yet a small child when his parents brought 
him to the United States and settled in New 
York. Here he grew up in the town of Can- 
dage and acquired a complete knowledge of 
the coppersmith's trade, also tin, sheet-iron 
and pipe fitting; and, having become skilled 
in these departments of mechanical work, he 
came in 1859 with his family to Illinois. 
Here he was connected for about two years 
with a prominent manufacturer of copper 
pipe, sheet copper and brass goods, and his 
skill secured him the foremanship of the 
shops. Finally he was offered a partnership, 
but refused it and went to Aurora to take 
charge of the copper shops of the main line 
or Chicago division of the Quincy Railroad. 



SCEUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



163 



He was afterward connected with this large 
corporation for about thirty years, but owing 
to failing health he had to withdraw and 
entered into the hardware business, in 1883, 
in Aurora; but, not receiving the proper re- 
lief for his malady (catarrh of the head), he 
went to Kansas, and after two years, not 
being able to stand the heated winds, he went 
iu 1886 to Los Angeles, California, and 
there opened and has since carried on a first- 
class restaurant. He is now about sixty 
years of age. He was married in Youngs- 
town, New York, to Harriet Myers. She 
was born and reared in the Empire State, and 
was of German parentage. She is yet living 
and is about three years her husband's junior. 
They are members of the Presbyterian Church, 
and Mr. Wellfare is a sound Republican in 
politics. 

Our subject is the eldest of three sons and 
three daughters yet living. He began when 
about twelve years of age with his father in 
the Quincy shops. Here he has remained 
with the exception of about three years. One 
year he was with his father in his hardware 
store at Aurora, and later was one year with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
with headquarters at Dubuque, Iowa, and the 
last year with the Kansas City, St. Joseph & 
Council Bluffs Railroad, with headquarters 
at St. Joseph, Missouri. Since then he has 
been in the employ of the Quincy Railroad, 
for the last eleven years at Beardstown. He 
is a practical and thorough workman in his 
department. He also does the tin and sheet- 
iron work for the St. Louis division, and the 
steam-pipe fitting for it also. 

He was married in Aurora, to Miss Almira 
Warner, of New York, born in 1862. She 
was brought to Cook county in 1867, and 
reared near the city of Chicago. She is the 
daughter of John P. and Julia (Havens) 



Warner, both now living near Aurora. Mr. 
Warner is a stock-breeder, and he and family 
live on a farm one mile southeast of Aurora. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wellfare are good, hard- 
working young people. Mr. Wellfare is a 
member of the Ark Lodge, -No. 116, I. O. 
O. F., of Beardstown. He is a sound Re- 
publican. Mr. and Mrs. Wellfare are the 
parents of two bright little children, Lydia, 
aged seven, and Dare, aged four. 



HAUNCEY RICE, a well known and 
reliable druggist, and dealer in all kinds 
of goods generally carried by those in 
this business, was born in St. Lawrence 
county, New York, February 21, 1830. He 
was yet young when his parents moved to 
Ohio in 1842, and to Illinois in 1846. They 
were natives of New York. His father was 
.born in Herkimer county, and came of New 
England stock, his parents being natives of 
Connecticut, and the family carne of Welsh 
ancestry. Andrus Rice, father of our sub- 
ject, married a Miss Mary Parks, of Ver- 
mont. 

Chauncev is the eldest of the four surviv- 
ing children. Mr. Rice has been in the drug 
business, and in the building he now occu- 
pies ever since 1859. He was in the same 
business in Rnshville, Illinois, from 1850 to 
1856, and hence is one of the oldest druggists 
in the State. He has seen the State strug- 
gle through many changes in the last fifty 
years. Nearly all the railroads have been 
built since then. He has taken an active 
part in the building up of the city himself, 
and has lent a helping hand to all enter- 
prises, and has attended closely to business, 
and has made money. He was a director 
and stockholder in the old CassCountyBank, 



164 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



and a stockholder in the first State bank 
since it started. He is also a member and 
stockholder of the Beardstown Building and 
Loan Association. 

He was first married in Hancock county, 
Illinois, to Miss Emily J. Denney, of Bond 
county, Illinois, but reared and married in 
Hancock county. She died in Nebraska, 
when in the prime of life, leaving three 
children: James, a commercial traveler in 
Iowa; Mary J., wife of Henry J. Nead; 
Chauncey A., now with a theatrical troupe 
in the West. Mr. Rice was married for the 
second time, to Elizabeth J. Knight, of 
Beardstown, but born in England. She died 
here April 4, 1892, aged about fifty years. 
Mr. Rice and wife have always been identi- 
fied as members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He is a member of the order of 
[. O. O. F., and Knights of Honor. 



^ARTIN BROOKS, editor of the 
Mount Sterling Examiner, was born 
in Jacksonville, in 1836. His father, 
Samuel S., came from Connecticut, of Scotch 
ancestry. 

Martin commenced very young to learn 
the trade of printer, and was employed in 
different places until 1863, when he came to 
Mount Sterling, and with his brother Sam- 
uel bought the office and good will of the 
Mount Sterling Union, a weekly paper, and 
changed the name to the Mount Sterling 
Record. He was elected Circuit Clerk in 
1864, and served eight years, and then bought 
an interest in the Mount Sterling Message, 
and two years later sold out, and was clerk- 
ing in the courthouse for a time. In 1879 
he bought the furniture and lease of the 
Lambert House, and kept hotel two years, 





was 



and then resumed clerking in the courthouse. 
In 1883, he was elected Police Magistrate, 
and served two terms. In the meantime, 
with George S. Campbell he bought the 
Mount Sterling Examiner, and has been its 
editor ever since. 

He was married in 1867, to Sophia S. 
Price, of Brown county, who died in 1869. 
In 1872 he was married to Nannie Kendrick. 

He has two daughters by his second mar- 
riage: Mabel Claire and Bernice A. He 
belongs to Hardin Lodge, No. 44, A. F. & 
A. M., is a Democrat, and he and his wife 
belong to the Christian Church. 



LLLIAM M. COX, M. D., one of the 

leading members of the medical pro- 
fession in Brown county, Illinois, 
born five miles from Jacksonville, Mor- 
gan county, Illinois. His father, Charles 
Cox, was a native of Virginia, and removed 
from that State to Kentucky, where he mar- 
ried; he afterward removed to Indiana, and 
thence to Morgan county, Illinois, where he 
was one of the early settlers; he located there 
previous to the "winter of the deep snow" 
(1830-'31), and experienced all the hardships 
and privations of that year. His brother, 
Hon. Jerry Cox, settled there at the same 
time. He entered a tract of Government 
land, on which he erected a log cabin. For 
several years after his settlement there w.ild 
game was plentiful, and the merchandise was 
brought from St. Louis by teams. The first 
railroad in the State was the one from Jack- 
sonville to Naples, and the cars were first 
drawn by horses. Mr. Cox improved his 
farm, built good frame buildings, and re- 
sided there several years. He removed to 
Adams county and bought a farm, on which 



SCHUYLER AND VROWN COUNTIES. 



165 



he made his home one year; at the end of 
that time he sold and moved to Hancock 
county, where he purchased a large tract of 
land opposite Keokuk; there he was exten- 
sively engaged in general farming, raising 
and feeding large numbers of live-stock, and 
carrying on a profitable business. He mar- 
ried Rachel N. Craig, who was born in Ken- 
tucky and died at her home in Hancock 
county; his death also occurred at the home 
farm. They had a family of seven children, 
six of whom grew to mature years. William 
M., their son, received his education in the 
public schools, and at the age of nineteen 
years turned his attention to the study of 
medicine; his first work was done under the 
direction of Dr. McGongin, of Keokuk, and 
he afterward entered the medical department 
of the Iowa State University, from which he 
was graduated in 1860; ten years later he 
received a diploma from the College of Phy- 
sicians, New York, and in 1878 he was grad- 
ua'ed from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Keoknk, Iowa. He began the 
practice of his profession at Bloornfield, Iowa, 
in 1860, and upon the breaking out of the 
Civil war he entered the United States ser- 
vice as First Surgeon of the Third Iowa Cav- 
alry; after three months he was stricken with 
typhoid fever and was compelled to resign 
his position. In 1862 he settled in Liberty, 
Adams county, and remained there until 
1877, when he came to Mount Sterling, 
where he has since been in active practice. 
He has been an indefatigable worker, a close 
student, and has kept fully abreast of the 
times upon all subjects pertaining to the 
great science. 

The fire of May, 1892, destroyed his 
library, which was one of the most extensive 
and valuable to be found in Illinois outside 
the city of Chicago. 



Dr. Cox was united in marriage to Eftie 
M. Morris, who was bom in Payson, 
Adams county, Illinois, a daughter of Israel 
and Emily H. Morris. Of this union one 
child has been born, Eleanor M. The mother 
and daughter are members of the Presbyte- 
rian Church. Politically, the Doctor affiliates 
with the Democratic party. He is a member 
of Hardin Lodge, No. 44, A. F. & A. M.; of 
the Chapter, R. A. M., and of Delta 
Commandery, No. 48, K. T. He belongs to 
the Adams County and American Medical 
Societies, and is highly esteemed in profes- 
sional, business and social circles for his many 
excellent traits, his ability as a physician, and 
his unswerving devotion to his country's in- 
terests. 




MARION STOVER is the present 
superintendent of schools in Schuyler 
county, Illinois. He was born in 
Bainbridge township, this county, October 27, 
1848, a son of Samuel Stover, a native of 
Page county, Virginia, born in November, 
1813; he was a son of Samuel Stover, whose 
father was also named Samuel Stover. The 
parental great grandfather, who lived in Shen- 
andoah county, Virginia, married Barbara 
Lionbarger. The paternal grandfather emi- 
grated to Ohio in 1816, and was a pioneer of 
Licking county; he purchased a tract of land 
on which was a log house and other scant im- 
provements; there were no market towns, and 
cattle and other live-stock had to be driven to 
Baltimore and other eastern markets; the 
wife carded and spun and wove the cloth with 
which her children were clothed; the maiden 
name of the paternal grandmother was 
Susanna Brumback, a native of Virginia, who 
died in Licking county, Ohio. She reared a 
family of thirteen children; the father of our 



166 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW Off GABS, 



subject was a child of three years when his 
parents removed to Ohio; there he was reared, 
receiving his education in the subscription 
schools that were taught in the primitive log 
cabin. Re remained with his parents until 
he attained his majority, and then started out 
in life for himself. He first rented land and 
carried on farming in this way for three 
years; at the end of that time he turned his 
attention to the carpenter's trade, which he 
followed until 1845, when he came to Illinois; 
he made the journey overland, accompanied 
by his wife and one child. He settled in 
what is now Bainbridge township, on land 
which he had purchased previous to coming 
here, the quarter section costing $150. Then 
there were no railroads, and grain had to be 
delivered at river towns. Mr. Stover went to 
work diligently to improve his farm, erecting 
substantial buildings, and placing the land 
under good cultivation; he lived on this place 
until 1888, when he rented it and removed to 
Rushville, where he has since lived a retired 
life. He was married to the mother of our 
subject in 1842; her maiden name was Maria 
Campbell, a native of Richland county, Ohio, 
and a daughter of Peter L. Campbell; he was 
born in 1799, and was but one year old when 
his parents removed to Ohio, and there he was 
reared and married to Agnes Jones; in 1844 he 
emigrated to Illinois, and settled in Schuyler 
county, where he became a prominent citizen; 
he and his wife are both deceased. Mrs. 
Stover has also passed from this life; seven of 
her children survive her: Milton L., Oscar 
A., D. Marion, Horace T., Rollin M., Robert 
C. and Zelm E. 

D. Marion Stover spent his early days 
upon the farm, and attended the rural 
schools during the winter season. Although 
his opportunities were very limited he was 
diligent and used his time to the best advan- 



tage. At the age of twenty-one years he be- 
gan teaching, and has since become well- 
known among the educators of the county. 
In 1886 he was elected to the office of county 
superintendent of schools, in which he has 
served continuously since that time. Familiar 
with all the needs of the child, he is very ef- 
ficient in this capacity, and has brought the 
schools to a high grade of excellence. Politi- 
cally he is a Democrat. He is a member of 
Rushville Lodge, No. 9, A. F. & A. M. 



JiOUIS W. CARLES, a well-to-do and 
flrW successful farmer and stock-raiser, living 
^? on section 30, township 18, range 11, 
was born in this township in 1847, and was 
here reared and educated. He is the son of 
George H. Carles, born in Germany in 1818. 
He was of pure Germany ancestry. His 
wife's name was Elizabeth Crims, and she died 
at the age of sixty-one. She and her people 
were members of the Lutheran Church. The 
father and his children, in September, 1844, 
started for the United States, landed in New 
Orleans, and on the largest steamer then 
running on the Mississippi they came to 
Beardstown. They arrived January 10, 1845, 
having been three months on the way. Soon 
after landing Mr. Carles and one son pur- 
chased land in the county, and before long the 
family became large land owners. Here Mr. 
Carles, Sr., spent the last years of his life, and 
died when eighty-six years. He had always 
been identified with the Lutheran Church as 
had his parents before him. George H. 
Carles, Jr., has, since he came to this county 
been a resident near BlnfF Spring station. 
He is yet smart and active, and runs the 
homestead, having many friends in the county, 
among the early settlers. He was married in 



SCHU7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



167 



1842, in Hanover, to L. O. Nora Deydrick. 
She was born and reared in Germany. Mrs. 
George Carles is yet living, and is quite 
feeble. She is a Lutheran, as is her husband. 
Mr. Carles is a Democrat. 

Louis is the only surviving member of 
quite a large family. Mr. Carles has been a 
resident of this county all his life. He has 
a line farm of 160 acres, well supplied with 
good farm buildings. He still attends to 
overlooking everything himself. He is a 
well informed man of good judgment, and is 
a prominent citizen. 

He was married, in this county, to Caroline 
Musch, daughter of John and Albidena 
(Leppe) Musch. Her father came from Ger- 
many, and now resides in Virginia, Caes 
county; and her mother was born on the ves- 
sel from which she was named on the passage 
from Germany to A.rnerica. She died in this 
county when past middle age. Mr. Mnsch 
has married a third wife, who is still living. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carles of this notice are 
energetic young people and faithful members 
of the Lutheran Church. They are the par- 
ents of eleven children, two of whom died 
young: George H., Jr.; Gustav A., Robert 
G., William M., Herman H., Louis W., Jr., 
Julius O., J. Albert and Paul B. The whole 
family is an honor to the county in which they 
live. , 

JUGENE J. SCOTT, one of the leading 
farmers and stockmen of Schuyler 
county, Illinois, was born at George- 
town, Scott county, Kentucky, June 3, 1845. 
He passed a quiet, uneventful youth, remain- 
ing under the parental roof until his marriage. 
He was first united to Miss Ida V. Watson, 
March 15, 1877. She was born in Collins- 
ville, Illinois, February 7, 1847, and died in 



Schuyler county, Illinois, January 1, 1881; 
her father was a physician, who died when 
she was yet a child. By this marriage one 
child was born, Eugene W., the date of his 
birth being February 6, 1879, and the place 
Rushville township. Mr. Scott was married 
a second time, April 10, 1888, when he was 
united to Miss Nora L. Finch, who was born 
in Greenfield, Greene county, Illinois, July 
6, 1855, a daughter of Thomas and Eliza 
Finch. Mr. and Mrs. Scott are the parents 
of one child, Thomas F., born May 28, 1889. 

Mr. Scott lived on a farm four years after 
his marriage, and then rented the land and 
removed to Rushville; here he owns a pleas- 
ant residence, and is very comfortably sit- 
uated. He makes a specialty of the breeding 
of fine horses and cattle, his favorite stock 
being Hambletonian horses and red-polled 
cattle; he has some of the finest animals in 
the State, in which he takes a just pride. 

In politics he is allied with the Democratic 
party. He is a member of the school board, 
and in this capacity has done his utmost to 
further educational advancement. In all the 
walks of life his actions have been character- 
ized by the highest integrity, and he is well 
worthy of the confidence reposed in him by 
his fellow-men. 



fACOB S. PRUETT, who for many years 
has been prominently identified with the 
agricultural interests of Schuyler county, 
was born at St. Mary's, Hancock county, Illi- 
nois, December 3, 1834, a son of Constant 
Pruett. His father was a native of Roane 
county, Tennessee, and his grandfather was 
a farmer of that State, and spent his entire 
life within its borders. Constant Pruett was 
reared and married in Tennessee, and emi- 
grated to Illinois in 1829, accompanied by 



168 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW 0V CASS, 



his wife aud one child; they journeyed on 
horse-hack to Kentucky, arid then secured a 
cart in which they completed the trip. They 
first settled in Cass county, but at the end of 
a year removed to Hancock county, where 
Mr. Pruett entered a tract of Government 
land; on this he built a log house in which 
Jacob S., the subject of this sketch, was born. 
In 1835 he sold the place and moved to Mc- 
Donough county, entering eighty acres of 
land on what is now section 33, Bethel town- 
fihip; he built a log cabin on tlie east side of 
the tract, and a few years later erected one 
on the west side, in which he lived until his 
death in March, 1890, aged eighty-nine years. 
He married Susan Schoopman, of Koane 
county, Tennessee; her father, Jacob Schoop- 
man, started to Illinois in an early day; he 
fell ill on the way and died before reaching 
his destination; his widow came to this county, 
and died in Bethel township. Jacob S. is 
one of a family of nine children; he was an 
infant when his parents moved to McDon- 
ongh county; he attended the pioneer schools 
which were taught in the primitive log house, 
with the yet more primitive furnishing of 
puncheon seats and desks of the same pattern; 
the children were dressed in cloth of their 
mother's own weaving; there were no rail- 
roads, and wheat was hauled to market sixty 
miles distant, and sold at twenty-five cents a 
bushel. Our subject remained with his par- 
ents until he was twenty year^ of age. He 
then began life for himself. Having no capi- 
tal he rented land in Bethel township for two 
years, and at the end of two years purchased 
forty acres of his father's original entry, and 
later he purchased the adjoining land across 
the county line on section 4, Brooklyn township. 
In 1861, at the first call for troops, he 
enlisted in the Sixteenth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, and reported at Springfield; thence 



he went to Quincy, but the quota was filled 
before his arrival; therefore he returned to 
his home, and in February, 1862, he again 
enlisted, entering Company I, Sixty-second 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, for a term of three 
years or during the war; the regiment was 
organized at Anna, Illinois, and mustered in 
at Cairo; thence he went to Padncah, Ken- 
tucky, and then to Columbus, and then to 
Kenton, Tennessee, where Companies I and 
K were detailed to guard a railroad trestle; 
while on duty here he was taken ill, and was 
honorably discharged; he returned home and 
resumed agricultural pursuits. 

In March, 1864, he started with four com- 
panions overland to Montana; at the end of 
one hundred and five days he arrived at Idaho 
Gulch, and there was engaged in cutting hay 
for three months, at $50 per month; then he 
and his brother and Solomon Pestel, engaged 
in the live-stock trade. In the spring of 
1866 he disposed of his interest, and began 
teaming between Virginia City and Salt Lake. 
In the fall of the same year he returned to 
his home, and again took up agricultural 
pursuits. He was very successful, made in- 
vestments in land as his means increased, 
until he is now the owner of 360 acres; this 
is cultivated by his sons. He resided on the 
farm until 1882, when he removed to Rush- 
ville. 

Mr. Pruett was first married March' 4, 
1855, to Jane Stoneking, who was born in 
Pennsylvania, August 29, 1833, a daughter 
of Joseph and Rebecca Stoneking, and died 
August 1, 1881. Mr. Pruett was married a 
second time, February 1, 1883, when he was 
united in marriage to Mrs. Mary J. (Mooney) 
Bales, a native of Henderson county, Ken- 
tucky, and a daughter of Henry L. and Octa- 
via (Kelley) Mooney, and widow of George 
Bales. Mr. Pruett has five children born of 



SCIIUTLBB AND SHOWN COUNTIES. 



169 




hisfirst marriage: Nicholas, Susan, Eliza A., 
Harriet and Mary; one child has been born of 
the second union, named Charles. Mrs. Pruett 
had by her first union six children : Effie E., Ad- 
die E., Edward Clarence, Zelma A., Cora V. 
and Kate. Politically oursubject affiliates with 
the Democratic party, having cast his first 
presidential vote for Buchanan. He was 
elected Sheriff of the county in 1882, and 
served in this capacity four years. He was a 
zealous, capable officer and enjoyed the entire 
confidence of his constituency. Mrs. .Pruett 
is a consisten t member of the Christian 
Church. 



S. EMELINE SHAFER, of Lee 
township, was born in Kingston, 
Lnzerne county, Pennsylvania, De- 
cember 9, 1808. Her father was Peter 
Shafer and her mother was Elizabeth Shoals, 
both of Pennsylvania. Grandfather Shoals 
and his wife both came from Germany and 
both were sold for their passage, as was the 
custom in those days, that their time for one 
year should be sold to pay their passage. Be- 
ing sold to the same man in Philadelphia 
they became acquainted, and when they left 
this place they were married and walked the 
whole distance from Philadelphia to the 
Wyoming valley along the banks of the Sus- 
quehanna river. Here they soon became ten- 
ant farmers, and by industry and economy 
they became owners of a good farm there. 
Mrs. Shafer had grown up in the same neigh- 
borhood with her husband, and though mar- 
riage did not change her name, she was not 
related to him. Of course their means were 
very small, but their neighbors were iu the 
same condition. After nine years they moved 
to Ohio by team. This was a pleasant trip of 
two weeks in 1834. They lived four years in 



Union county, four more in Madison county, 
and then traded their nice farm of 100 acres 
with good buildings and orchard for 160 
acres of timber, two miles west of Mt. Ster- 
ling village, getting $200 in cash. They 
again took up the line of march, bringing 
with them their four children. They moved 
into an old log stable near their land, which 
they made tenable for a short time. Mr. 
Shafer was tired of his trade when he found 
that much of the fine timber had been cut, 
and upon making inquiry he found that the 
man who had taken much out of this timber 
had used it to fence eighty acres near what is 
now Fargo. They settled this by trading 
an eighty of Mr. Shafer's for the improved 
eighty that had been fenced with his timber. 
This was the place where Mrs. Shafer now 
lives, on which there was a comfortable, but 
rough house 16 x 16, with a fireplace and stick - 
and-mud chimney. They have lived here 
ever since. Here Mr. Shafer died in 1864, 
aged sixty nine years. They had buried three 
small children in Ohio and had eight living 
at his death, although all had gone from home 
but three. Charles Shafer and his brother 
Hiram D. were soldiers in the One Hundred 
and Seventeenth Illinois Volunteers Infantry 
from Brown county; Charles returned to die 
at his brother's at Mound Station at the age 
of twenty eight years. Hiram was in active 
service as a musician for over three years; 
Francis was in the ranks from February, 1864, 
to September of the same year. Of the eleven 
children born to Mrs. Shafer, seven are still 
living. Benjamin and Francis are at home 
conducting the farm for their venerable old 
mother. She has 170 acres in this farm. 
She has three motherless grandchildren with 
her, Maude, Cora and William. Perrv Shafer, 
the eldest son, is a farmer in Kingman county, 
Kansas; Denison is a farmer in Smith 



170 



BIOORAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



county, Kansas; Wealthy Ann is the wife of 
Thomas Crahb, a farmer in Smith county, 
Kansas; Emeline, wife of Jordan Madison, a 
farmer in Leaven worth, Kansas; and Caroline, 
wife of James Wilson, a farmer in Kingman 
county, Kansas. 

This grand old lady is now nearly eighty- 
four years of age and is still as vigorous as 
most women at fifty years. She thinks noth- 
ing of walking three or five miles and attends 
church regularly in the village. She has a 
lively recollection of much of her experience 
in pioneer life. She tells how they shelled 
the corn by driving the horses over it on the 
barn floor and drew it sixteen miles to the 
river market and then sold it for ten cents a 
bushel. She tells her children that a person 
can live entirely on corn meal, because she 
has tried it. All of her experiences, with 
many of her rough ones, are told with a zest 
which shows the stuff that this old heroine 
was made of, and it is refreshing to hear her 
speak of it as a rich romance in which she 
took part. 



fAMES CKAWFORD, of township 17, 
range 10, Virginia, is a native of Ireland 
born in 1833. His parents were William 
and Margaret (Patterson) Crawford, both na- 
tives of Ireland who came to America after 
marriage, about 1843. They located near 
what is now Virginia, where they spent their 
lives. Both parents are interested in the 
Virginia cemetery. They had four children, 
two of whom are now living. 

James grew to manhood on his father's 
farm. He has always worked hard and has 
accumulated property valued at thousands of 
dollars, all the result of his own industry and 
economy. He owns 540 acres of land sur- 
rounding the town of Virginia, for which he 



has refused $100 per acre. He gives his 
whole attention to stock-raising and feeding. 
He and his son are now feeding about 500 
head of three to four year old steers. He is 
raising about 300 acres of corn this year 
(1892). The voters of the family are Demo- 
crats, and the family are among the represent- 
ative citizens of Virginia. They have been 
raised in the Presbyterian faith. This is not 
a long-lived family, the members generally 
dying young. 

He was married in Jacksonville, in 1868, 
to Miss Jane Elliott, of Virginia, born in 
1841. They have five children: Fannie, 
Willie, James, Maggie and Floy; two died 
in infancy, Henry C. and Thomas Elliott. 
Willie is now of age and is supporting him- 
self by farming a portion of the homestead, 
feeding 125 head of cattle. 

Mr. Crawford is an outspoken man, who 
speaks exactly what he thinks, and these 
qualities indicate the honesty of his nature, 
as he scorns to gain the favor of men by flat- 
tery. He has given his children a good edu- 
cation. He is a man of almost unlimited 
means, yet he spends his days in toil, feeling 
that his work is not yet accomplished, though 
he feels the weight of advancing years. He 
is a man of sterling honesty and the county 
is indebted to such men as he for much of 
its prosperity. He has resided for forty-five 
years on his farm. 



ILLIAM M. GREENWELL, an in- 
telligent and progressive citizen of 
Cooperstown, Brown county, Illinois, 
and a prosperous farmer, was born in Meade 
county, Kentucky, June 27, 1842. 

His parents were George and Amanda 
(Rentfro) Greenwell, -both natives of Ken- 
tucky, the former born in 1816, the latter in 




SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



171 



1813. The father's grandparents came from 
Germany. His paternal grandfather was a 
well-to-do-farmer in Kentucky, who died in 
middle life, leaving a widow and seven chil- 
dren, four sons and three daughters. George, 
the father of the subject of this sketch, had 
charge of the homestead farm for many years, 
and was married there. In the spring of 
1846, he and his family removed to Brown 
county, Illinois; his brother William had 
preceded him in 1840, and had erected a 
gristmill on Crooked creek. This was for 
many years the only water-power mill nearer 
than Quincy, and did a large custom business, 
and could have been sold at one time for 
$10,000. George and his family made their 
home with this brother for about six weeks, 
when, having sold their homestead in Ken- 
tucky, the father and brothers bought eighty 
acres near Mount Sterling, on which therewere 
good improvements, paying for the farm $800. 
They added to their original purchase from 
time to time, until they had 280 acres, which 
continued to be their permanent home, and 
on which the father still resides. Here the 
father lost his first wife, mother of the sub- 
ject of this notice, who died in 1882. aged 
seventy years. They were the parents of ten 
children, five now living. They lost an infant 
son, and a daughter, Sarah J., at the age of 
twelve years. Mary E., unmarried lives at 
home; William M., of this sketch; Horace 
D., a successful farmer of Cooperstown town- 
ship; Henry H. served six months in the 
army, in Kansas, where he was accidentally 
drowned, in 1862; Harriet A. married John 
G. Dennis, and died in 1872, aged twenty- 
two years, leaving one daughter, who lives 
with her grandfather; Amy I., wife of N. B. 
Cox, a prosperous farmer of Cooperstown 
township; Benjamin S. was a schoolteacher 
of high reputation, a self-educated man, and 



very enthusiastic in his work, whose .early 
death was, no doubt, due to overwork; he 
went to California for his health, and taught 
while there; he came back home and died, at 
the age of twenty-eight; George F., the 
youngest, is at home, an invalid. 

William M., whose name heads this sketch, 
was but a child when he accompanied his 
father to Brown county, Illinois, where his 
youth was spent. At the age of nineteen 
years, he volunteered his services to the 
Union, and enlisted in October, 1861, in the 
Tenth Illinois Cavalry, for three years. He 
served four years and three months, and was 
with his regiment most of the time. He 
entered the service as a private and came out 
as an Orderly. 

Within two years after his return to civil 
life he was married, and after marriage set- 
tled on forty acres of land in Ripley town- 
ship, which property he had bought while 
in the army, paying for it $1,350. Four 
years later, he sold this land for $2,150, and 
bought sixty-seven acres in Cooperstown 
township, on which he farmed for eight 
years. He then again sold out, disposing 
of his farm of 107 acres for $3,000, and 
buying his present place of 160 acres. Since 
then he has bought an additional eighty acres 
a mile and a half away, making, altogether, 
240 acres which he now owns, all of which 
he is farming. 

He was married on December 26, 1866, 
to Mary Ann Bates, an estimable lady and a 
native of Brown county, Illinois, where she 
was born in 1845. Her parents are William 
H. and Mary A. (Price) Bates, well-to-do and 
esteemed residents of Brown county. They 
have had eight children, seven now living: a 
son died in infancy; James, aged twenty- 
five, married Julia Six, and has one son; Os- 
car, aged twenty-one is at home, as are also 



172 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GA8S, 



all the rest, William, aged nineteen; Lilly 
Pearl, sixteen; Amanda, twelve; Lettie, 
eight; and Laura, aged six. 

Although a Republican in politics, he has 
been once elected as census enumerator, and 
once as Assessor of a strongly Democratic 
township. In the discharge of his official 
duties, as in his private life, he has displayed 
superior ability and unimpeachable integrity. 
He is a member of the G. A. R., and belongs 
to Isaac McNeil Post at Ripley. He and 
his wife and two sons have been for a number 
of years earnest and useful members of the 
Christian Church, of which he is an Elder. 

Aside from his highly respectable family 
relations, his father having been for many 
years a prominent resident of the State, he 
has gained for himself, by continued indus- 
try, upright dealing and uniform courtesy, 
both financial prosperity and the universal 
esteem of his fellow men. 




fILLIAMS D. SCOGGAN was born 
Lee township, Brown county, 
Illinois, December 28, 1843. His 
father was Isham Scoggan, born 1807, in 
Shelby county, Kentucky. He was the son 
of William Dotson Scoggan, who settled in 
Kentucky at a very early day, living to be a 
very old man, rearing seven children. Isham 
was the eldest son and on coming to this 
county he bought 320 acres of land and in 
1839 brought his wife and two children. They 
made this journey by team. Some eight or ten 
years later his brothers and one sister came, 
and with them the aged father and mother. 
The mother of our subject was his father's sec- 
ond wife and was named Eliza Jane Arnold. 
Her parents were Kentucky farmers who lived 



and died there, leaving a family of nine chil- 
dren. The father of Mr. Scoggan died Septem- 
ber 8, 1861, in his fifty-seventh year, leaving 
700 acres of land and other property. The 
mother, in her seventy-eighth year, is still liv- 
ing, but is in feeble health. 

William received a common school educa- 
tion and was reared to a farm life. He is 
now engaged in stock-farming, raising great 
numbers of cattle and horses. He has from 
150 to 200 head of stock. His land is very 
fertile and he is able to rasise upon it corn, 
wheat, oats and hay and, as it is rolling and 
has natural drainage, he has not been obliged 
to do much tilling. 

He was first married in Kansas, in 1875, 
but he lost his wife and one child within two 
years. He was at that time a farmer of La- 
bette county, and remained there nine years. 
He owned 320 acres, which he sold and then 
returned to Illinois to the old homestead. 
His present wife was Susie Long, a native of 
Morgan county, Illinois, and daughter of An- 
drew and Lizzie (Buckton) Long. He was 
married September 30, 1891. Mrs. Scoggan 
is a Methodist, his mother a Missionary Bap- 
tist, his niece a Campbellite, and he himself 
represents the outside world, supporting them 
all. He' is an ardent Republican. 



fAMES N. ROBISON of Lee township, 
was born in Huntingdon county, Penn- 
sylvania, November 22, 1823. His 
father, Henry Robison, was born in the same 
county, April 22, 1798, and his father was 
born in Scotland, but spent his last years in 
Huntingdon county, dying when his son 
Henry was six years old. Henry after his 
father's death was obliged to earn his own 
living and remained on a farm in the same 



8GHUYLBH AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



173 



county until 1824, and then with his wife and 
infant son emigrated to Ohio and lived near 
Cadiz for two years, then returned to West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania, there en- 
gaged in farming and dealing in stock. He 
bought stock in Ohio and drove the 
across the mountains to Philadelphia. He 
made considerable money, which he expended 
on a stage line, but failed in that enterprise. 
In 1837 he came to Illinois with his wife and 
four children by team to Pittsburg, then by 
way of the steamer, Rion, to Phillips Ferry, 
landing in Pike county. In August of that 
year he rented some land and exercised his 
natural good judgment in stock and farming 
and in six years' time was able to purchase 
land. He first bought eighty acres, which he 
soon sold and then bought 160 acres near 
Pittsfield, Pike county. He occupied that 
farm a number of years, then sold it and 
moved to Adams county, lived there a few 
years, then bought three miles west of Perry, 
pike county, and there remained until his 
death in 1870. The maiden name of his 
wife was Margaret Taylor, who was bo.rn }n 
Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, daughter 
of Robert and Mary (McElroy) Taylor. She 
died at her home, August 1, 1867. 

James was in his fourteenth year when his 
parents came to Illinois. At that time this 
section of country was but little improved, 
and deer, wolves a^nd wild-cats were plentiful. 
There was no railroads for years and the river 
towns were the only markets. He resided 
with his, father until twenty-one and then 
with a, horse which his father gave him he 
started, out for himself. He went to school 
during the winter and worked for his board. 
In the following spring he rented land and 
farmed for three years and then bought 160 
acres in Lee township. It was military land 
arid he soon lost that on account of a faulty 

18 



title, but he then bought another farm, of 120 
acres. He has been a resident of Lee town- 
ship since 1847, with the exception of one 
year in Adams county. He now has 700 
acres in Lee township, 480 in Buckhorn town- 
ship, 225 acres in Pike county and 370 in 
Johnson county, Kansas. 

He was married December 1, 1847, to 
Mary E. Caughenon. She was born in Hunt- 
ingdon county, Pennsylvania, January 14, 
1829. Her father, Henry, was born in Lan- 
caster county, Pennsylvania, and his father, 
John, as far as known was born in Penn- 
sylvania of German ancestry. He came to 
Illinois in 1887, settled in Pike county, then 
moved to Pea Ridge in JBrown county, bought 
a farm and lived there until his death. The 
maiden name of his wife was Dorathea Law- 
rence of Lancaster county. She died in L'ike 
county. The father of Mrs. Robison was 
reared and married in Pennsylvania and re- 
sided there until 1836, and with his wife and 
four children came to Illinois. He lived in 
Pike county for two years and followed his 
trade of miller and then built a mill on Mc- 
Grees creek and operated it for ten years. He 
then traded the mill for a farm, three miles 
west of Mt. Sterling, remained four years, 
then traded the farm for a stock of goods, 
engaged in the mercantile business in Clayton, 
Adams county, and remained there until his 
death in 1859. The first name of his wife 
was Agnes, daughter of William and Nancy 
(Tayler), likely natives of Ireland and Penn- 
sylvania. The grandfather was of Scotch 
ancestry. Mrs. Robison's mother died in 
Clayton in 1889. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robison have eight living 
children : Henry, Mary, William, Robert, 
Enos M., Fred, Belle and Walter. The first 
child, Margaret, the wife of Rev. J. O. Jen- 
nings, died in California, January 29, 1891. 



174 



BIOORAPUICAL REVIEW OP CASS, 



Three others died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. 
Robison are members of the Presbyterian 
Church, and he has served as Trustee of the 
church and his wife has taught in the Sunday- 
school. He has been a Republican since the 
formation of the party. 



fAMES M. BLACK, dealer in hard coal 
and wood, was born in Indiana county, 
Pennsylvania, October 12, 1835. He 
was the son of John W. Black of the same 
county, who was one of thirteen children. 
All grew to maturity, and the sons were me- 
chanics by trade. John W. Black was a 
blacksmith by trade. After he came West he 
was foreman of the Boyles Scales Company 
of St. Louis, Missouri, for some years, and, 
later came to Beardstown and established 
himself with Mr. T. A. Fisher, another old 
blacksmith. He was later with Messrs. Milner 
and Hill. He did business as a smith and a 
manufacturer of wagons and buggies. He 
went to Pike's Peak in the early sixties and 
was a miner there for some time. He se- 
cured his claim, but later came back to Van- 
dalia and died there, about fifty years of age. 
He was married in his native county, to Mar- 
get A. Shankle, of early English ancestry. 
She was born in Indianacounty, Pennsylvania, 
where her parents lived and died. She died 
when in St. Louis, after the birth of five chil- 
dren, when she was in the prime of life. 

James M. Black came to this town, Beards- 
town, in 1851. From here he went to Iowa, 
and after residing there for six years came 
to Beardstown in 1861 and engaged in team- 
ing until 1870, when he established his coal 
business. 

He was married in Polk county, Iowa, June 
11,1857, to Miss Mary Shepherd. She was born 



in Kentucky and came with her parents, Ben- 
jamin and Minerva Shepherd of Kentucky, to 
Polk county, Iowa, and for some years fol- 
lowing the marriage of their daughter. Mr. 
Shepherd died in Peoria county. Mrs. Shep- 
herd still lives there, about ninety years of 
age. Mrs. Black died at her home in Beards- 
town, in 1878. She had three children, 
namely: Francis Ellen, born January 21, 
1862, died May 6, 1864; Edward Franklin, 
born March 1, 1865, married Grace Putnam, 
and now live? in Virginia, where he is agent 
for the Quincy & Missouri Railroad; and 
Harry L., born October 6, 1870, who is still at 
home and assists his father. Mr. Black is a 
Republican and is chairman in one of the 
local district Republican central committees. 
He is a member of the Methodist Church. 
He is a working member of the A. O. U. W., 
and has managed their financial affairs for 
six years. He has been the representative to 
the Grand Lodge. 



TEPHEN T. RANNEY, a well known 
member of commercial circles in Mount 
Sterling, was born in Elkhorn township, 
Brown county, Illinois, January 1, 1847, a 
son of Solomon Ranney. The paternal grand- 
father, Stephen Ranney, was a native of the 
State of New York, and his father emigrated 
from Wales in colonial times, and settled in 
New York State. Stephen Ranney was a 
lawyer by profession, and had a large and 
profitable practice. He was married to Olive 
Jaques, a native of New York State, who 
lived to the advanced age of ninety years. 
Solomon Ranney removed from New York to 
Ohio in an early day, and in 1842 came to 
Illinois; he spent a few years in Case county, 
returned to Ohio, and again came to this 
State; he located the second time in Brown 



SGHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



175 



county, and as his means were limited he did 
not invest in land; he is now a resident of 
Pike county, Illinois. His wife's maiden 
name was Melinda Reeves, a native of Vir- 
ginia, who died in 1849. 

After the death of his mother, Stephen T. 
Kanney was taken in charge by his paternal 
grandmother, and was reared by her in Elk- 
horn township. In his youth he divided his 
time between the work on the farm and at- 
tending the common school. 

There were no events of great importance 
connected with his career until 1864. In 
November of that year he enlisted in Com- 
pany G, Fiftieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
and served until the close of the war. He 
was honorably discharged at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, July 13, 1865, after which he returned 
to his home. He was variously employed for 
several years, but finally purchased land in 
Elkhorn township, which he cultivated until 
his removal in 1882, to Mount Sterling, 
where he has since made his home. 

Mr. Ranney was married in 1877, March 
3, to Melinda C. Perry, who. was born No- 
vember 12, 1847, in Brown county, Illinois. 
Of late years he has been one of the most 
prominent real-estate dealers in the place, 
having laid out an addition and built more 
residences in the past ten years than any one 
other individua.1; he erected th Ranney 
Block, one of the handsomest business struc- 
tures in Mount Sterling, and has been one of 
the mpst enterprising and energetic support- 
ers of the county's interests. 

Politically he is identified with the Demo- 
cratic party. He served as Justice of the 
Peace in Elkhorn township, has represented 
the Second Ward on the Board of Aldermen, 
and in 1882 was elected Sheriff of the county; 
four years later he was elected Treasurer of 
the county, and in 1890 he was made Justice 



of the Peace. He has been a director of the 
Building and Loan Association since its or- 
ganization, and in all the walks of life has 
shown himself a stanch, reliable man, worthy 
of the confidence reposed in him by the com- 
munity in which he lives. 



,ON. ALEXANDER K. LOWRY was 
born in Armstrong county, Pennsylva- 
nia, November 7, 1829, a son of Joseph 
Lowry, a native of Franklin county, Penn- 
sylvania. The paternal grandfather, Adam 
Lowry, was a native of Ireland, but was the 
descendant of Scotch ancestors; he emigrated 
to America, accompanied by his family about 
the year 1780, and settled near Chambers- 
burg, Franklin county, Pennsylvania; he died 
at the age of ninety-five years in Armstrong 
county, Pennsylvania. His son Joseph 
learned the blacksmith's trade, but engaged 
in agricultural pursuits in Armstrong county, 
where he had settled previous to his marriage; 
he bought a tract of timber land, cut out the 
trees to make a spot for the erection of his 
cabin, and also built a shop where he followed 
his trade in connection with his farming; he 
there spent the remainder of his days, his 
death occurring in 1853. He married Eliza- 
beth Kerr, a native of Armstrong county, 
Pennsylvania, and a daughter of William 
Kerr, who was born in the north of Ireland, 
of Scotch ancestry; he settled in Pennsylva- 
nia after landing in America, and he and 
his wife there spent the remainder of their 
days. 

Alexander K. Lowry was reared and edu- 
cated in the county of his birth; he taught 
school one term in Indiana county, Penn- 
sylvania, and in 1848 and 1849 was en- 
gaged in clerking in a country store. From 



176 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



1850 to 1853 he was bookkeeper for the 
owners of the furnaces in Bedford county, 
and from 1853 to 1855 he was clerking. 
Before the end of the latter year he emi- 
grated to Iowa, going via the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers to Keokuk, and thence 
by team to Poweshiek county, being one of 
the first settlers in Grinnell. At that time 
there was not a mile of railway in the State 
of Iowa; the central and western portions 
of the State were very sparsely settled, and 
the Missouri river bounded the frontier. 
Mr. Lowry began business by opening a 
hotel, and soon after was appointed Post- 
master upon the establishment of an office 
at that point. He remained at Grinnell 
about a year and a half, and then went to 
Pennsylvania, the home of his youth. It 
was not long, however, before, he emi- 
grated to Dakota county, Nebraska, where 
he purchased a claim of Government land 
and on which he remained six months. 
Returning to Grinnell at the end of that 
time he embarked in mercantile trade, and 
also began the study of law. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1858, and soon after 
came to Macomb, Illinois, where he engaged 
in practice until 1861; in this year he re- 
moved to Mount Sterling, and devoted him- 
self to legal work until 1864, when he made 
a trip to California, going via the Isthmus. 
Arriving in the Golden State he opened a 
hotel, which he kept for three years at Marys- 
ville, and then came back to Illinois, the 
return trip being made via the Nicaragua 
route. 

Mr. Lowry has been twice married; in 
1855 he was united to Sarah McCartney, a 
native of Indiana county, Pennsylvania, who 
died in 1870. Mr. Lowry's second marriage 
occurred in 1872, when he was united to 
Martha J. Means, who was born one mile 



from Mount Sterling, Brown county, Illinois; 
she died in February, 1888. Two children 
were born of the first marriage, Clara B. and 
Hattie; the latter is the wife of James L. 
Gray, and has one child, Mary Vivian. 

In politics Mr. Lowry affiliated with the 
Democratic party until 1869, but since that 
time he has supported the principles of the 
Republican party. He was elected County 
Superintendent of Schools in 1861, was 
County Treasurer in 1863, and in 1886 was 
elected a member of the State Legislature. 
In these various offices he discharged his du- 
ties with marked ability, reflecting great 
credit upon himself as well as his constituency. 
At the present time he is a member of the 
School Board, filling the office of president. 



,EV. MICHAEL CLIFFORD has been 
pastor of St. Mary's Church, Mount 
Sterling, Illinois, for more than twenty 
years, and during this time has been a faith- 
ful servant to his Master, and has won the 
esteem and Admiration of the people with 
whom he has labored. He was born in county 
Limerick, Ireland, and his ancestors for many 
generations were natives of the same county. 
He received his early education in the Latin 
school at Charley ville, county Cork, and later 
became a student at All Hallow's College, 
Dublin, from which institution he was grad- 
uated in 1862. In July of the same year he 
crossed the sea to America, and came directly 
from the seaboard to Illinois. 

His first charge was at Bunker Hill, Ma- 
conpin county; thence he was sent to Sanga- 
mon county, and removed from this point to 
Morgan county, where he remained until 
1872, when he came to Mount Sterling and 
took charge of St. Mary's congregation. 



8OHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



177 



This is the first Koinan Catholic Church of 
Mount Sterling, having been founded more 
than fifty years ago; the present structure is 
a handsome brick edifice, with a seating 
capacity of 500, and the membership num- 
bers 185 families. The parochial school 
under the care of the church is in charge of 
the Dominican Sisters, and has an attendance 
of eighty-five. Since Father Clifford has 
been pastor of St. Mary's, improvements 
have been made to the extent of over $10,000; 
a residence for the priest and one for the Do- 
minican Sisters are included in the work 
accomplished by him. He has been devoted 
to the interests of his people, and in him 
they find that wise counsel and loving ad- 
monition which has been a safe guide on the 
pathway of life. 




H. SIELSCHOTT, Beardstown, Illi- 
nois. The United States, the grand- 
est government that shelters a people, 
possesses alone of all the governments of the 
world, the privilege which makes it possible 
for each individual to force his way through 
the ranks of the many and become one of the 
few. Emerson says " it is purpose that differ- 
ences men," and the man who, by birth or its 
equivalent, enjoys the possibilities of a high 
and noble purpose, under such a government, 
and who through energy, tact, and strict 
integrity overcomes the obstacles that engulf 
smaller men, who levels the impossibilities 
of other men to his own convenience and 
makes them his opportunities, is that man of 
purpose, and is by the law of natural selection 
a leader. It is to such men that society and 
progression owes its highest attainments; and 
it is of one of those whose straightforward 
career has made his name worthy the pages 
of history, that this sketch is written. 



. A. H. Sielschott was born in the busy prov- 
ince of Hanover, Germany, in 1835. He is 
a son of Frederick and Amelia Sielschott, who 
were also natives of Hanover. His parents 
were of that sturdy conservative element that 
has enriched the great Empire of Germany 
and advanced it to the front rank in the 
world's history of great soldiers and states- 
men, and placed it in close touch with the 
advance of civilization and the fellowship of 
men. They were farmers owning their land, 
and as is characteristic of that eminently 
worthy husbandry, were given entirely to the 
cultivation of their land, leaving travel to 
those who were less inspired with the habits 
of their forefathers. They were never out- 
side the borders of their loved fatherland, but 
lived 'out their allotted time, happy, and con- 
tented, with the pleasures and prosperity their 
home life and patriotism afforded them. 
They each attained the good age of three 
score years and ten. 

The boyhodd bf A. H. Sielschott was prac- 
tically the same' as that of other boys whose 
parents were devoted to labor and frugality. 
At the age customary in his native land, Mr. 
Sielschott entered the public schools and 
acquired a classical education in his native 
tongue. After leaving school and being of a 
decidedly progressive temperament and en- 
dowed with a full share of native pluck, he 
decided to leave his home and try for his 
fortune in the broader fields of America. In 
the early part of 1854 he left Bremen on the 
steamer Hansa, ticketed for New York. Ar- 
riving there he soon pushed boldly westward 
and reached Beardstowu in the fall of that 
year. Here he decided to remain, and here 
with but a five-dollar gold piece in his pocket 
he began the life that has been so full of good 
for himself and also for the community. Mr. 
Sielschott did not waste any time looking for 



178 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS '8, 



an easy job, but with determination and 
energy took hold of the first honest work that 
presented itself. He was familiar with farm 
work and naturally bent his energies in that 
direction. He engaged to work on a farm, 
and went at it with a will. While working 
and while resting he kept his brain busy 
evolving plans for the future, and speculating 
honestly, and with a method well worked out, 
he advanced step by step in popularity and 
position until he had acquired not only a com- 
fortable income but the higher victory, name- 
ly, the confidence and respect of all who knew 
him. In 1876 he was elected by a large 
majority to the office of Sheriff, and so satis- 
factorily did he discharge the duties of his 
office that he was repeatedly re-elected until 
he had held the office for an unbroken period 
of ten years. After ten years in office Mr. 
Sielschott had reason to hope for a rest from 
public service, but he was almost immediately 
elected to the office of County Treasurer, and 
held that important office until 1890, a period 
of four years. In 1889 the First State Bank 
of Beardstown was organized and Mr. Siels- 
chott was elected its president, an office which 
he has continued to hold ever since. Under 
his wise direction the bank has prospered, 
and is to-day one of the richest banking or- 
ganizations in the State. Its principles are 
sound, and it enjoys a financial solidity far 
beyond any possible event or turn in values. 
Mr. Sielschott's record in the government 
affairs in the city and county is a most unus- 
ual and remarkable one. In addition to the 
fourteen years in which he discharged the 
important duties of Sheriff and Treasurer of 
the county, he has served five terms as Mayor 
of the city of Beardstown. A single term in 
any office, no matter how important, seldom 
determinesaman's fitness for high commenda- 
tion. It is the repeated voice of the people 



in recalling a man to public office in making 
him his own successor year after year that 
establishes beyond question that man's ability 
and worthiness. 

Mr. Sielschott has also served many times 
as delegate to County and Congressional con- 
ventions. He is a Democrat, believing the 
principles of that great party to be in closer 
touch with the needs of the people, and in 
greater harmony with the progress of the age 
than all the planks, principles and platforms 
of all other political parties combined. In a 
word he believes Democratic doctrine ever- 
lastingly right, and all opposition thereto 
everlastingly wrong. He has always sup- 
ported these principles fully and faithfully, 
and has done more than one man's share to 
establish purity in office and the great truth 
that public office is a public trust. 

In business life Mr. Sielschott has been a 
promoter of many important. enterprises, one 
of the most important of which was the con- 
struction of the tine bridge that spans the 
Illinois river at Beardstown. He is, also, 
identified with many other worthy and pros- 
perous enterprises. 

In March, 1862, Mr. Sielschott was married 
to Miss Ellen Piper, of Beardstown, a native 
of Hanover, Germany, who at the age of 
seven accompanied her parents to the United 
States and settled in Beardstown. They were 
worthy and consistent members of the Lu- 
theran Church. They died after having at- 
tained the good old age of four-score years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sielschott have three chil- 
dren: A. F. Sielschott, of the firm of Spring 
& Sielschott, of Beardstown ; Alice A. and Mar- 
tha M. are still members of the family home. 
Both of the young ladies have received a splen- 
did education, and both are prominent in 
social matters. The family worship at the 
Congregational Church. 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



179 



Socially Mr. Sielschott is a leading mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity. Personally 
he is kind, courteous and affable. In a word, 
he possesses just such a personality as the 
intelligent reader would expect to find in 
conjunction with such an admirable record. 



^ENRYTRUE FOSTER, the well-known 
first settler of Beardstown yet living, 
was born on February 3, Ibi6, in Lin- 
coln county, Maine. He grew up and ac- 
quired a practical education at Warren and 
Newcastle, and when seventeen years of age 
went to Bangor, Maine, and spent three years 
in the clothing store of Thomas Furber, the 
first store of that kind in the city. When 
twenty years of age he came with his father 
to Illinois, where they had landed interests. 
After landing at Meredosia, on the Illinois 
river, he came to Beardstown, where Mr. Fos- 
ter has since resided. He has engaged in a 
variety of occupations, having been a farmer, 
merchant, manufacturer, grain buyer, packer, 
and dealer in grain. He was an active busi- 
ness man and was very successful in his 
many business ventures. He is generous td 
a fault, and never paused to consider his per- 
sonal gain or loss if an enterprise was started 
that was likely to prove a benefit to the city. 
It was through his personal efforts that the 
railroads were run to Beardstown. In 1861 
he was appointed Postmaster of the place 
and held the office for seven years, and in 1868 
was placed at the head of the municipality of 
Beardstown. He infused new life into the 
place by promoting the welfare of the city. 
He introduced new enterprises, and it is doubt- 
ful if there is another citizen of the city who 
has devoted so much time and energy to the 
development of that place as Mr. Foster. He 



has been a prominent Republican in politics 
since the organization of the party. He has 
been an active worker in that party in local 
matters. President Lincoln and he were per- 
sonal friends, and he was a member of the 
State Central Committee during the second 
campaign of Mr. Lincoln. He is a member 
of the Congregational Church of which he is a 
Deacon and of which he was for years a Trus - 
tee. Mr. Foster was one of those who voted 
for William H. Harrison in 1836 and 1840. 
Mr. Foster was married in Beardstown, 1839, 
to Mary De Haven, of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. She was born, reared and educated 
in that city and came west when a young 
woman. She died at her home January 11, 
1888, at the age of seventy-seven. She ever 
proved herself a true and noble wife and 
mother, and her death was deeply felt by those 
she left behind her. She left two sons: Ed- 
win C., who married Isabel Dale and who 
now resides in Waterloo, Iowa; and Robert 
Harry, who married Emma Logan and they 
live in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They are 
both prosperous young men. 



8REDERICK W. ROTTGEB.oue of the 
most successful and enterprising busi- 
ness men of Mount Sterling, was born 
near Mendon, Prussia, August 8, 1844. His 
father, William Rottger, was born in the 
same country, and there was reared and mar- 
ried. In 1845 he determined to try his for- 
tunes in the New World, and left his family 
behind until he should seek out a home for 
them in the strange, new land. He located 
in Morgan county, Illinois, where he died 
about a year later. His wife was left in very 
humble circumstances, with four little chil- 
dren. In 1850 she brought her family to 



180 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



America, sailing from Bremen and landing 
in New Orleans; thence they came via the 
.Mississippi and Illinois rivers to Naples, and 
completed the journey to Jacksonville by 
rail. Frederick "W. was bound out to E. S. 
Hendrickson, a farmer then residing in Mor- 
gan county, with whom he remained until he 
had attained his majority. His early life was 
spent on the farm, but he managed to learn 
the art of telegraphy, and came to Mount 
Sterling to accept a position with the Wabash 
Railway Company as station agent. For 
more than a quarter of a century he has had 
charge of the company's business at this 
point, and by his years of faithful service has 
gained the entire confidence of the officials of 
the corporation. After he had been in Mount 
Sterling a short time he began contracting 
for railroad ties, and has carried on this busi- 
ness continuously since that time. In 1874 
he purchased an interest in the lumber busi- 
ness of C. M. Dunlap, and in 1882 bought 
the entire concern, since which time he has 
conducted the trade alone. In 1878 he added 
the grain business to his own interests, and 
has done a large amount of buying and 
shipping. He also has immense agricultural 
interests, and owns 800 acres of fine farming 
land in Pea Ridge township. 

Mr. Rottger was married October 18, 1865, 
to Eugenia Peters, a native of Steubenville, 
Ohio, and a daughter of Stebbens and Alicia 
(Tracy) Peters; of this union five children 
have been born: Eugenia, Nina, Myrtle, 
Frederick W. and Winnifred. Mrs. Rottger 
is a consistent member of the Presbyterian 
Church. Our worthy subject belongs to the 
Masonic order, being a member of Hardin 
Lodge, No. 44, A. F. & A. M., Delta Com- 
mandry, No. 48, K. T., and the Quincy Con- 
sistory. Politically he is identified with the 
Democratic party, and has represented the 




people of his township in many of the local 
offices; he was the first Mayor of Mount 
Sterling, and has been a member of the 
County Board of Supervisors. He is also the 
choice of his party to represent Brown county 
in the State Legislature. He is a man of 
unquestioned integrity, true to his friends, 
and strong in the purposes he considers just 
and right. 



ILL1AM B. DAVIS, proprietor of 
the Democrat Message, was born in 
La Fayette county, Missouri, July 10, 
1865. His father, Henry K. Davis, was 
born in Wheeling, West Virginia, and his 
father, Samuel H. Davis, was a printer, and 
at one time published a paper in Wheeling, 
and later in Peoria, 111. He spent his last 
days there. His son was also a printer, and 
followed his trade many years. He issued 
the first daily paper ever published in Peoria, 
and the first ever published in Champaign 
county, and during the war published the 
Lexington Union at Lexington, Missouri. 
It was a strong Union paper, and there his 
life was fraught with much danger. Later 
he established the Daily Advertiser at Kan- 
sas City, and it is now known as the Kansas 
City Times. Among the other places where 
he published papers were Paris, Texas, and 
Warrensburg, Missouri. 

In December, 1874, he came to Mount 
Sterling and bought the Mount Sterling 
Democrat and continued its publication un- 
til his death, April 6, 1886. His wife's 
name was Mary Davis, of Cumberland, Mary- 
land, a daughter of John Davis. She now 
resides at Mount Sterling, where she has 
reared six children. 

William was ten years old when he came 
to Mount Sterling, and at the age of eighteen 



8CHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



181 



he began to learn the trade of printing in 
the office of the .Democrat. In 1886 he 
bought the office and good will of the Mes- 
sage and consolidated it with the Democrat 
under the name of the Democrat Message. 
His mother still retains a half interest in the 
paper. 

He married, in 1888, Laura G. Givens, of 
Mount Sterling, Illinois, daughter of John 
and Maria Putman Givens. They have one 
child, Catherine Maria. Mrs. Davis belongs 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church, Mr 
Davis is a Democrat in politics, and belongs 
to the Cincinnatis, No. 287, K. P. 



IYRUS HORROM dates his birth in 
Dearborn county, Indiana, September 
4, 1820. His father, Benjamin Hor- 
rom, was born in New York state, and when 
a young man moved to Ohio. A few years 
later he continued his way westward, and 
took up his abode in Dearborn county, In- 
diana, where he lived till December, 1828- 
At that time he started with his wife and 
nine children for Illinois, making the re- 
moval with ox teams, and landing in Cass 
county the following March. Here he en- 
tered a tract of Government land in town- 
ship 18, range 10, and erected a log house- 
The maiden name of his wife was Sarah Aus- 
tin, she being a native of the same locality in 
which her husband was born. They reared 
nine children, and on the home farm the 
parents died. 

Cyrus Horrom was eight years of age at 
the time the family moved to Illinois. At 
the time Central Illinois was sparsely set- 
tled, and in the northern part of the State 
the only inhabitants were Indians. Game of 
all kinds was plenty throughout the State, 



and the people dressed in homespun. Little 
of the land in Cass county had been entered, 
most of it belonging to the Government. 
The means of transportation being limited, 
farm produce necessarily brought a low 
price. Corn was ten cents per bushel, good 
steers sold at half a cent per pound, and pork 
brought seventy-five cents per hundred 
pounds. 

Mr. Horrom lived with his parents till he 
reached his majority. He then went to 
Marshall county and worked on a farm three 
months. Returning to Cass county, he 
rented land of his father, and in 1845 settled 
on the farm he now owns and occupies. This 
farm is located on section 17, contains 145 
acres, and is well improved with good 
buildings, etc. 

Mr. Horrom was married in 1845, to Mary 
J. Briar, a native of Pennsylvania, and a 
daughter of James and Mary (Davis) Briar. 
Joseph Briar, a sketch of whom appears 
elsewhere in this volume, is a brother of 
hers. Mr. and Mrs. Horrom have seven 
children living, viz: John H., Matilda J., 
Mary E., William H., Martha Ellen, Preston 
W., and Cora Alice. Charles, Addie, Mil- 
lard and George A. are deceased. 



|HILANDER AYERY, one of the large 
land owners of Schuyler county, resides 
on section 26, Camden township. 
He first came to the county in 1832, 
being a native of Franklin county, Ohio, 
born June 13, 1823. His parents, David 
and Margaret (Adams) Avery, were natives of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio. The grandfather of 
the subject was born in Ireland, but came- to 
the United States when a boy and for some 
time was a sailor. He then farmed and fol- 



182 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GAS 8, 



lowed the carpenter trade. Some time after 
his children were settled he emigrated to 
Illinois, settled in Schuyler county, where he 
died at the age of eighty-five. His wife also 
died in Schuyler county. They had ten chil- 
dren: Stephen, Chancey, Pelatin, Nancy, 
Maria, Daniel, William, Polly, Betsy and 
Sarah. The father of the subject was born in 
New York State, July 1, 1797, and when a 
boy removed with the family to Ohio, where 
he worked at the trade of carpenter. He 
was married in 1821, in Ohio, to Mar- 
garet Adams, who was born in Franklin 
county, Ohio. In 1832 he came to Colwell, 
Illinois, and resided for eight years in Rush- 
ville, then settled in Woodford county, where 
he entered some land. He next spent three 
years in Missouri and on his return went to 
Cainden township, where he owned eighty 
acres. He died in 1851, aged fifty-five 
years. His wife died two months later, aged 
fifty-four. They had nine children, Matilda, 
deceased; Rebecca, deceased; Nancy, de- 
ceased; Sarah Carter, deceased; Elizabeth J., 
deceased; Charles resides at Industry, Illi- 
nois, and Zavin, deceased. 

Philander is the second of the family. He 
came with the family to Illinois and has re- 
mained a farmer ever since. After his mar- 
riage he removed to Knoxville, where he re- 
sided until 1851 and then returned to Schuy- 
ler county and purchased eighty acres of land 
in Camden township and has since been a 
resident of the place. He now owns 700 
acres of land and deals largely in live stock. 
He has always been a good, hard-working 
man, and is known well and favorably all over 
the county. He is a Democrat in politics 
and has always been an ontspoken man. He 
is uneducated in schools, but has been edu- 
cated in the great school of experience. 

He was married in 1842 to Mrs. Meeks, 



nee Bryant. She was born in Stokes county, 
North Carolina, and married there, coming to 
Illinois with her husband, Mr. Meeks. She 
had three children by him: Miria, Columbus 
and Helen. She bore her second husband 
two children: Mary Ann, who was drowned 
in a stream near home when fifteen, and 
James, who resides in Camden township. 
Mrs. Avery died, November 16, 1891. 

Mr. Avery is a member of Camden Lodge, 
No. 648, A. F. & A. M. He is worth a good 
deal of property, which he has made himself. 

James Avery was born in Knox county, 
Illinois, July 30, 1844. He has always lived 
with his father, although he owns 120 acres 
of land himself. He is a Democrat and has 
been Highway Commissioner and member of 
the School Board. He is a member of Cam- 
den Lodge, No. 648, A. F. & A. M. He 
has worked as a carpenter. 

He was married in 1868, to Martha Dixon, 
daughter of Lawone and Hannah Dixon. She 
was born in Brown county, in 1848. They 
have one son, La Fayette, born July 3, 1870. 



>ENRY M. SCHMOLDT, Beardstown, 
Illinois. It is the constitutional privi- 
lege of every American to aspire to the 
highest honors within the gift of the people; 
and when such aspiration is supplemented by 
progressive and well balanced mentality, 
backed with integrity, tact and energy, it fol- 
lows as a law of natural selection that such a 
man is a leader among his fellow men. It 
matters not whether hi? father be a prince of 
fortune, or an humble mechanic; the law of 
selection, made natural by the inspired prin- 
ciples of our constitution, remains the same; 
for under the beneficent and noble doctrine 
of a true republican government, mon- 



SOHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



183 



archial succession is relegated to the repel- 
lent past, and all men are born equal equal 
in the right of law and privilege, the only 
aristocrat being the man possessing a wealth 
of brains. Such a man may have an academic 
sheepskin learnedly inscribed as an early 
voucher to his mentality and title to distinc- 
tion. When snch is happily the case the man 
simply rises the more rapidly, simply obtains 
an earlier hold upon the confidence and re- 
spect of his fellow men. The history such a 
man makes becomes his own property, BO to 
speak, and not alone an embellishment of the 
future. His progress has outstripped time, 
and he lives to read, in accredited form and in 
the suffrage of approval of his fellow men, 
the story of his life. How eminently fitting 
to a good life is such an honor, and how few 
men enjoy it! It is one of those few, a man 
who, though still in the morning of his life, 
has made a record worthy the pages of his- 
tory that this sketch is written. 

Henry M. Schmoldt was born in Cass 
county, Illinois, September 19, 1858. He is 
the eldest son of Robert G. and Johanna 
(Blohn) Schmoldt, both natives of Hanover, 
Germany. Robert G. Schmoldt was the 
eighth son of Herman Schmoldt, a wealthy 
land owner in Hanover. The father of Henry 
M. Schmolt spent a portion of his early life 
upon the ocean. In 1852 he was married, by 
the American consul at Hamburg, to Miss 
Johanna Blohn, of Hanover, after which he 
emigrated to the United States, locating in 
New York city. In July of the following 
year he removed to Beardstown, where with 
his good wife he enjoys the fruits of a well- 
earned competence and good name. 

In 1890, at the retirement of his father 
from business, Henry M. Schmoldt, in com- 
pany with his brothers, Adolph E. and Rob- 
ert W., assumed full control of the exten- 



sive business built up by their father, a busi- 
ness which with the advent of younger blood 
at the helm has made additional strides in the 
favor of the public. The boyhood of Henry 
M. Schmoldt was full of active usefulness 
and hard work. At the usual age he entered 
the public school at Beardstown, and to this, 
the education there obtained, was added a 
commercial course of study in a business col- 
lege in St. Louis, Missouri, after which he 
took a course at Asbury (now Depauw) Uni- 
versity, Greencastle, Indiana. 

In 1876, he returned to Beardstown and 
associated himself with his father in the 
manufacture of cooperage supplies, and has 
continued in the business ever since, the firm 
now being Schmoldt Bros. & Company. This 
firm also deals extensively in lumber and 
house-furnishing supplies. 

Mr. Schmoldt, of whom this sketch is 
written, is one of the younger war horses in 
the Republican party, and has widened his 
strength and wisdom in office by having been 
repeatedly elected to the office of Mayor of 
Beardstown, besides having served as Alder- 
man for several years. He is a hard worker, 
scrupulous and exact in his dealings with 
men, and a staunch advocate of the principles 
of the great party, in whom and through 
whom he sees the great truths which his 
party believes have made America what it is. 
He is, however, more of a statesman than a 
politician; for politicians are not generally 
given to great scruples in matters of con- 
science in politics, and Mr. Schmoldt is; but 
it is the honest, straightforward man that wins 
a lasting meed of victory in politics as well 
as in social and business life; and such is the 
record of Mr. Schmoldt. In the local coun- 
sels of the Republican party he is an able 
and welcome adviser. 

On May 12, 1880, Mr. Schmoldt was mar- 



184 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 




ried to Miss Lena Earhardt, of Beardstown, 
daughter of the late Dr. Fred Earhardt, an 
old and leading physician of Cass county. 
They have one child, a daughter, whom they 
have named Jennie. 

Socially, Mr. Schmoldt is a prominent 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and also 
of the Odd Fellows. Personally he is kind, 
courteous and affable. 



H. OWEN SEELEY is on of the old- 
est settlers of Schuyler county and re- 
sides in Rushville. He was born at 
Thetford, Orange county, Vermont, Decem- 
ber 15, 1811. His father, Luke Seeley, was 
born in the same town October 15, 1792. 
The grandfather, Sheldon Seeley, was a na- 
tive of New England and it is supposed was 
born in Vermont, at least he was one of the 
pioneers of Thetford where he followed agri- 
cultural pursuits. At a very early day he 
went to Ohio, prospecting, but was taken 
sick while there and died near Sandusky. 
His wife was Deborah Bowker, a native of 
New England, who died at Thetford at the 
age of about ninety years. 

Luke Seeley was reared and married in his 
native State. Upon reaching manhood he en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits, which he con- 
tinued in Vermont until 1818, when he re- 
moved to Franklin county, New York, and 
there lived on a farm for about one year. He 
then moved to Malone, New York, and en- 
gaged in merchandising, conducting at the 
same time a cabinet shop and employing a 
foreman to carry it on. In 1828 he came to 
Illinois to look at his piece of land in the mil- 
itary tract, but then went back to New York 
in September, 1830, and returned to Illinois 
with his family. He started on the 12th of 



September, and journeyed with a two-horse 
team to Buffalo, thence by lake to Cleveland, 
thence by team to Columbus, Ohio, where he 
remained until the 27th of October, and then 
with a company of fourteen families made the 
overerland journey by team to Schuyler 
county, and after forty days on the road ar- 
rived at Eushville. He located on land just 
north of Rushville, but one year later moved 
to the village and started the first nursery in 
Schuyler county, which he conducted success- 
fully until his death October 15, 1856. His 
wife, and the mother of our subject, was for- 
merly Miss Electa Owen, a native of Milton, 
Vermont, and the daughter of Elijah Owen. 
She died in Rushville, May 10, 1834. Both 
parents were substantial citizens, good neigh- 
bors, and enjoyed the high esteem of all who 
knew them. 

Our subject, E. H. Owen Seeley, was edu- 
cated at Malone Academy. One of the 
friends of the family, Dr. Waterhonse, had 
lost his only son and he expressed his desire 
to have our subject go to Burlington, Ver- 
mont, and study medicine, and to this the 
father assented. It was considered necessary 
that he should have a Latin education and ac- 
cordingly he secured a Latin grammar, Cic- 
ero's Orations, Ainsworth's Latin and Eng- 
lish Dictionary, the Iliad of Homer and the 
Bucolics of Virgil in two volumes; but at 
this juncture, on the eve of his departure, and 
after his father had procured him a suit of 
sheep's-gray clothing, his mother objected to 
his going, and instead thereof he entered a 
shop to learn the cabinet trade, but he still 
had his books that he had purchased, and in 
1830, when he came West, he traded his books 
for a rifle, as it was evident that he would 
have much more use for that instrument of 
death in the wilds of Illinois than for his 
classic, Latin works. Soon after his arrival 



SCHU7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



185 



here, he bought the lot on the corner east of 
the court house, and in 1831 began under- 
taking. The first person he buried was the 
fourth body consigned to the cemetery at this 
place. When the cholera swept the town in 
1834, taking off thirty persons or more, him- 
self and one other person conducted all the bur- 
ials. For many years he was the only fur- 
niture dealer and undertaker in the city. He 
continued an active business until 1878, but 
since then has been mainly retired. 

On the 26th of September, 1839, he mar- 
ried Catherine A. Haskell, a native of Troy, 
New York, whose father was Joseph Haskell 
of New Hampshire. Joseph Haskell was 
left an orphan at an early age, and upon ar- 
riving at adult years, went to York State, 
where he followed blacksmithing. In 1831, 
accompanied by his wife and family, he came 
by team to Wheeling, West Virginia, and 
then by the Ohio, Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers to Beardstown. He did not settle on the 
1 and he had previously bought in Schuyler 
county, but established himself in Rushville, 
then a little hamlet. He bought the land 
now occupied by the courthouse and erected 
thereon a frame dwelling, in which the mother 
of Mrs. Seeley taught the first school in the 
village. Mr. Haskell followed the trade of a 
mason and resided here until his death, 
October 2, 1864. The maiden name of his 
wife was Clarissa Pier. She was born in 
Poultney, Yermont, March 5, 1792, and died 
August 10, 1879 in Rushville. 

Mr. Seeley has always been a Democrat, 
and in 1847 and 1848 was Assessor and 
Treasurer of this county. He visited every 
house in the county and made his returns in 
ninety days. From 1857 to 1861 he served 
as Postmaster. To himself and wife were born 
six children: Charles, Albert, Frank, Dora 
William L. and Ella. Dora died at the age 



of five years. Mrs. Seeley joined theMethodist 
Church at the age of ten years and has been 
a consistent member ever since. She has in 
her possession the matms'cript of a history of 
Rushville written by her mother several 
years ago. 



AMES A. TEEL, a pioneer of Schuyler 
county, and one the most successful 
farmers and stock-raisers of the State of 
Illinois, was born in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, July 19, 1830. His father, 
Henry P. Teel, was born in New Jersey; 
and it is thought that the grandfather, John 
Teel, also was a native of New Jersey. The 
great-grandfather, Captain John Teel, com- 
manded a company in the war of the Revo- 
lution; he spent his last years in Beaver 
county, Pennsylvania, and was buried with 
military honors; his widow came to Illinois 
and spent her last days here. John Teel 
served five years in the regular army, and 
participated in the struggle of 1812; he 
emigrated from Pennsylvania and spent the 
last years of his life in Guernsey county; he 
married Huldah Haines, a native of the Key- 
stone State; she also died in Guernsey county. 
Henry P. Teel was a millwright by trade, and 
followed this vocation in Pennsylvania until 
1833, when he came to Illinois, accompanied 
by his wife and two children ; the trip was 
made via the Ohio, Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers to Erie, and thence by team to Rush- 
ville; here he lived two years, and then re- 
moved to the Territory of Iowa, locating at 
Fort Madison, where he lived one year; he 
then came back to Schuyler county, and re- 
sumed work at his trade. He saved his 
money, and in 1845 he purchased a tract of 
school land on section 16, Rushville town- 
ship; in connection with his trade he super- 



186 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF . CASS, 



intended the cultivation of this land, and 
resided on the farm until his death, which 
occurred March 21, 1878. He married Mar- 
tha Ann Mathews, who was -born in New 
Castle, Delaware, November 11, 1811; her 
father, James Mathews was born on the sea 
when his parents were emigrating to America; 
Thomas Mathews, the great-grandfather of 
our subject, was born in Ireland, of Scotch 
ancestry; after emigrating to America he set- 
tled in Delaware, but later removed to Penn- 
sylvania, locating in Washington county; he 
afterward came to Ohio, where he spent the 
remainder of his days; he married Margaret 
Steward, a native of Ireland. James Math- 
ewe, the maternal grandfather, was a paper- 
maker by trade, learning the business at New 
Castle, Delaware; after his marriage he re- 
moved to Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
and thence to Kansas, where he spent the 
last days of his life in Cherokee county; he 
was a thirty-third degree Mason, and his 
funeral was conducted by that body. Henry 
P. Teel and wife reared a family of seven 
children: James A. the subject of this notice, 
H uldah A., John T., William, Alice, Henry 
and Case. The parents are members of the 
Presbyterian Church; Mr. Teel affiliates with 
the Democratic party. 

James A. Teel was four years of age when 
his parents came to Schuyler county to reside; 
settlers were few, and wild game abounded. 
At Fort Madison also the Indians were nu- 
merous, Black Hawk and Keokuk being 
prominent chiefs, well remembered by Mr. 
Teel. He attended the pioneer schools of 
Schuyler county, which were taught in log 
school houses, furnished in primitive style; 
the seats were made of slabs with wooden 
pins for legs, and the desks for the older 
scholars were constructed after the same pat- 
tern; the pens were made by the teacher 



from goose-quills. Cooking was done by a 
tire-place, and the children were clothed in 
home-spun of the mother's own weaving. 
James A. resided with his parents until he 
was nineteen, and then, in 1849, he emigrated 
to California, joining the great throng that 
pressed to the gold fields of that State; he 
was one of a company of sixty who made the 
journey overland with ox teams, walking the 
entire distance. He arrived at Biddle's Bar 
out of funds; he soon found employment in 
the mines, and worked two days and a half at 
$9 per day; he then began mining on his own 
account, and remained there until 1851, when 
he returned to his home via the Nicaragua 
route and New York. In 1853 he made 
another trip across the plains, spent a few 
months in the golden State, and returned by 
way of the Isthmus. He engaged in farm- 
ing in Rushville township, and soon turned 
his attention to the breeding of fine cattle. 
In 1856 he located on a farm which he still 
owns on section 2, Rushville township; this 
tract consists of 570 acres, and is improved 
with good substantial buildings; Mr. Teel 
lived there until March, 1891, when he re- 
moved to the farm where he now resides, one 
mile north of the courthouse; he owns nearly 
1,200 acres of land, all in Rushville and 
Buena Vista townships. 

He was married July 29, 1856, to Miss 
Elizabeth Smith, a native of Rushville town- 
ship, born December 24, 1834, a daughter of 
Jonathan and Nancy (Skiles) Smith (see 
sketch of William Wood). Mr. and Mrs. 
Teel have four children living: Herschel V., 
Neosho May, Marshall E. and Walter H.: 
the oldest child, Everett L., was born July 
14, 1866; he was graduated from the law 
department of the State University, Madison, 
Wisconsin, in the class of 1890, and his 
death occurred in October, of the same year. 



SVIIUYLER AbD BROWfi COUN1IBS. 



137 



In early days Mr. Teel belonged to the 
Whig party, but for many years past has 
affiliated with the Democratic party. He has 
served as collector of Rushville township, 
and has been a member of the county Board 
of Supervisors. He is a stock-holder in the 
Schuyler County Agricultural Society, and 
has made an exhibit at the second fair held 
in the county, receiving two silver spoons as 
premiums; his herd of short-horns has been 
seen at many county fairs in Illinois since 
that time, and has been awarded sweep-stakes 
and other prizes on different occasions. Mr. 
Teel is a stock-holder in the Schuyler Hotel 
Company, and also in the Bank of Schuyler 
County. He is a man of superior business 
qualifications, and his judgment in all mat- 
ters pertaining to agriculture is highly es 
teemed throughout the county and State. 



?OHN K. CLARK, a well-to-do and promi- 
nent farmer, living on sections 31 and 32, 
Township 18, Range 11, Cass county, 
Illinois, where he owns a fine farm, well im- 
proved and well supplied with farm buildings, 
of about 400 acres, lying in the Sangamon 
valley, near Bluff Springs, was born in this 
county, in jWhat is now Monroe precinct, in 
1828. He is the oldest man in Cass county 
that was born here. The family later came 
to what is now Bluff Springs precinct in 
1846, and here the parents afterward lived. 
Prior to coming to Bluff Springs they had 
lived for a time in Morgan county, Illinois, 
and also in Schnyler county, later in Henry 
county, Iowa, and there the father, Thomas, 
struck the first stake of what is now Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa. Some time after this his 
attention was called to a beautiful spring 
located about three miles east of Mount 



Pleasant, and during his four years' sojourn in 
Henry county, Iowa, when it was all new 
ground, unbroken, he remained there. Later 
he sold and returned to Illinois, and in 1840 
located in Cass county, where he became a 
prominent citizen and spent his remaining 
days there, dying in the vicinity of Bluff 
Springs, in 1852. He was sixty-seven years 
of age at his death. He was a good, well- 
known citizen of this county. He was born 
in Kentucky, and was the son of Thomas 
Clark, Sr., who was born in London, England, 
and came to America when a young man, set- 
tling in Kentucky, in Barren county, and 
there lived for some years as a prominent 
pioneer. He was married, and while yet in 
middle life was attacked by the Indians and 
murdered, and his house burned down. The 
mother died a natural death in Kentucky 
when quite an old woman. Thomas Clark, 
Jr., had followed his brother, William M., to 
Illinois, the latter coming here in the early 
'20s and settling in Morgan county. He is 
now dead. Thomas Clark was married in Ken- 
tucky to a lady of that State, Julia Ann King, 
of Scotch-Irish stock. She labored with her 
husband in building a home in those early 
days in Illinois. She died some fourteen 
years after her husband, and was about seventy- 
six years old. She was a Methodist. 

John is the eldest son of four yet living 
children. His sister, Mrs. Mary Loosley, is 
the eldest, being a widow and now lives with 
him. Another brother, Owen W., was a 
teacher for many years in the public schools 
and taught penmanship in twenty-seven 
States, and also in the Dominion of Canada. 
He is single, as is our subject. Another sis- 
ter is Martha, wife of Judge D. N. Walker, 
of Virginia. Two brothers and three sisters, 
now dead. Kev. William Clark, the older, 
was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 



188 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW Off CAS8, 



Conference, and preached the gospel for forty 
years. Thomas was a well-to-do farmer, and 
owned a fine farm near Blnff Springs, where 
his widow, two sons and a daughter, still re- 
side. Cynthia, the oldest daughter, was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and lived a consistent Christian life, and died 
at the age of seventy-two. Rebecca and Jane 
were also members of the Methodist Church. 
They died younger. 

John Clark is one of the prominent men 
of the county and takes an active part in local 
matters. He is a Democrat, a live, good fel- 
low who enjoys life as it comes. He started 
Bluff Springs, built the first house and store, 
old the first merchandise, and was Post- 
master of the place. This was about 1872. 
His brother Owen was also Postmaster for 
some time, and both brothers were teachers. 



fHOMAS W. SCOTT, M. D., Rushville, 
Illinois, is a son of Thomas W. and 
Catherine (Fitzgerald) Scott, whose his- 
tory is fully given in another biographical 
sketch in this work. He was born in Scott 
county, Kentucky, April 18, 1848, and was 
but a child when his parents came to Illinois. 
Here he grew to manhood; he attended the 
common schools, and also enjoyed the oppor- 
tunities afforded in the academy at Mon- 
mouth, Illinois. He assisted his father in 
the farm work, and thus gained an intelligent 
comprehension of agriculture as a science. 

In 1881 he began the study of medicine 
at Mount Vernon, Missouri, under the pre- 
ceptorship of Dr. G. L. Knapp; he subse- 
quently attended lectures at the Missouri 
Medical College, St. Louis, and was graduated 
with the degree of M. D. in March, 1884. 
He immediately located at Mt. Vernon, Mis- 



souri, and the following year removed to 
Rushville. He is a close student of his pro- 
fession and the science of medicine, and is 
fully abreast of the times upon all subjects 
pertaining thereto. The July (1892) session 
of the Board of County Supervisors appointed 
him County Physician. 

In addition to his professional duties the 
Doctor finds time for horticultural pursuits, 
and is very successful; he also raises poultry, 
breeding the best grades. He owns a farm 
east of Rushville, which is cultivated under 
his supervision. 

Politically he is identified with the Demo- 
cratic party, although he gives little atten- 
tion to politics beyond exercising his right of 
suffrage. He is an honored member of the 
Knights of Pythias. He is a man of great 
energy and enterprise, and in all the walks 
of life has earned the success and merited 
the prosperity that has attended him. 



Hfi 



UKE W. CLARK, M. D., has been a 
close student of his profession for many 
years, and long ago won an enviable 
reputation as a skillful practitioner. He was 
born in Pike county, Ohio, September 6, 
1841. His father, Ebenezer Clark, was a 
native of the State of New York, and was 
there reared and married, his wife's maiden 
name being Julia A. Wilcox, also of the Em- 
pire State. His early life was spent amid 
rural scenes, in closest touch with Nature, 
who is always a wise and gentle teacher. He 
attended the common schools, and in his 
youth began the study of botany and medi- 
cine; there was not a tree or plant in the 
State of Illinois with which he was not as 
familiar as with the members of his own 
household. He emigrated to Ohio, and there 



SC SUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



189 



was engaged in agricultural pursuits; he was 
still devoted to the study of medicine, and 
after the family came to Illinois and located 
at Rushville, in 1845, he began the practice 
of his profession, which he continued to the 
time of his death. While for many years he 
enjoyed a wide and paying practice, he did 
not accumulate wealth; he was kind to the 
poor and did much for charity; in his death 
the poor lost one of their stanchest friends. 
In politics he was an ardent supporter of 
Republican principles; in his religious faith 
he was also possessed of the courage of his 
convictions, denying any future state; he did 
not approve of secret societies. His wife 
died in February, 1892; they had born to 
them nine children, all of whom lived to 
years of maturity: Marcus, a physician, died 
at Vermont, Illinois, in 1892; Franklin is a 
farmer in McDonough county; Y' c t r is a 
farmer in Adair county, Missouri; Luke "W. 
is the subject of this sketch; Albert R. is 
practicing medicine at Vermont, Illinois; 
Mary married Dr. B. F. Taylor, and died at 
Vermont, Illinois; Lucy is the wife of Jacob 
Trout, of Rushville; Cornelia is the wife 
of C. P, Neill; Emaline manned William 

Barber. 

Dr. Luke W. Clark received his literary 
education in the common schools of Rush- 
ville, and at the age of sixteen years began 
the study of medicine under the preceptor- 
ship of his father, with whose botanical rem- 
edies he became familiar. After finishing 
his medical education he came to Rushville 
and engaged in practice with his father. He 
is now one of the oldest physicians in Schuy- 
ler county, and has a large and lucrative 
practice. 

Dr. Clark was married, in 1872, to Miss 
Frances Schenk, a daughter of John Schenk, 
and a native of Fulton county, Illinois. 

14 



Four sons have blessed this union: Wheeler' 
Myron, Earl and Homer. 

The Doctor is a member of the State Medi- 
cal Eclectic Society; in all his professional 
relations he has preserved that integrity and 
honor which graced the name of his father. 
He has been a close student of the science of 
medicine, and employs a set of remedies 
which have come to be known as "Clark's 
Family Medicines," and are now manu- 
factured for the trade. In politics he affili- 
ates with the Republican party. 



ETER W. RICKARD, an intelligent 
and progressive farmer of Cass county, 
Illinois, residing in township 19, range 
9, was born in Windham county, Connecti- 
cut, August 26, 1823. 

His parents were Peter and Mary (Healy) 
Rickard, both natives of Massachusetts, the 
mother's birth having taken place in Dudley, 
of that State. The father died one month 
previous to the birth of the snbject of this 
sketch. Grandfather Rickard was a brave 
and eificient soldier in the Revolutionary war, 
and died in the service. The Rickard family 
is of French ancestry and took a prominent 
part in early Colonial times. Our subject's 
mother was a daughter of Stephen and Rhoda 
(Marcy) Healy, also natives of Massachusetts, 
both of whom were related to old and re- 
spected families of that State. They died in 
the Bay State between the ages of seventy 
and eighty years. Both her father and grand- 
father were distinguished soldiers in the Revo- 
lutionary war, although the fame of her grand- 
father, Major Nathan Healy, rather outshone 
that of her father, the elder gentleman receiv- 
ing a liberal pension from the Government 
for his able services in that memorable 



190 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



struggle. The Healys were originally from 
England, and, as far as known, were success- 
ful farmers. On the maternal side, Mr. Rick- 
aroVs mother was an own cousin of William 
L. Marcy, at one time Governor of New York. 
Their revered parents had eight children, of 
whom our present subject is the sole survivor; 
some of these were tradesmen and successful 
merchants. The mother died in Windham 
county, Connecticut, aged about sixty-nine 
years, universally lamented for her kindly 
ways and Christian character. 

The subject of this sketch lived with his 
mother until he was eight years of age, when 
he went to live with a brother-in-law, with 
whom he remained until he was fourteen. 
He, then, found employment by the day or 
month, and at the same time diligently prose- 
cuted his studies in the free school, which he 
continued to attend until he attained the age 
of twenty-one. 

He then started for the West, Illinois be- 
ing the objective point, then on the extreme 
frontier. In these days of rapid transit, it is 
interesting to note, by way of contrast, the 
time consumed by the journey. He went by 
cars and boat to New York city, and thence, 
via the Erie canal and Cumberland stage 
route, to Philadelphia and Wheeling, which 
took four weeks' time. He then.ee proceed- 
ed by the rivers to Beardstown, Illinois 
being twenty days en route, arriving at the 
latter place in the fall of 1844. He taught 
a subscription school for several terms, after 
which he taught a free school, continuing 
thus for many years, teaching in the winter 
and farming during the summer. He first 
purchased 120 acres in his present township, 
on which he settled soon after marriage. He 
afterward kept a general store for a year in 
Chandlerville, when, in 1857, he sold his 
first farm and bought 240 acres, on which he 



now. resides. He lived on the old farm while 
the present one was being prepared for occu- 
pancy. Besides this valuable and extensive 
property, he owns a fine tract of forty acres, 
in this vicinity, all of which is devoted to 
mixed farming, in which he is very success- 
ful, being numbered among the most pros- 
perous farmers of the county. 

Mr. Rickard was first married June 22, 
1846, to Miss Elizabeth Pease, an intelligent 
lady, and a native of Ohio. Her parents 
were Aborn Pease and wife, natives of Con- 
necticut, prominent and early settlers of Illi- 
nois, who died at an advanced age. By this 
marriage, Mr. Rickard has one son, Henry A., 
who was born February 12, 1848; he married 
Julia Hardin, and has two children. Mr. 
Rickard's union was destined to be of short 
duration, his wife dying on the old farm, in 
the twenty-seventh year of her age. 

November 5, 1854, Mr. Rickard was again 
married, his second wife being Miss Mary 
Harbison, an estimable lady, a native of this 
county and a sister of Moses Harbison, a 
prominent resident of this locality. (See 
sketch in this book.) By this marriage there 
was one child, now deceased. This union 
was also suddenly dissolved by the hand of 
death, before whose power all must bow. 
This gentle and beloved lady expired October 
6, 1856, leaving many friends to mourn her 
untimely taking away. 

April 21, 1856, Mr. Rickard was married 
to Miss Mary C. Taylor, well and favorably 
known in this community, where she was 
born March 21, 1840. Her parents, Henry 
B. and Mary P. (Hawthorn) Taylor, are hon- 
ored pioneers of Illinois. Mrs. Rickard was 
a pupil of her husband when he taught 
school here in the early day. She is well 
informed and intellectual, being well adapted 
to be a companion to a person of her 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



191 



husband's superior ability and training. 

By this marriage there have been nine 
children, live now living; all born on this 
farm. Those surviving are: Charles E., born 
July 28, 1860; John T., born June 29, 1862; 
Francis M., born October 8, 1867; Mary, 
born March 4, 1871; James A., born Decem- 
ber 25, 1879. 

Mr. Rickard was formerly an old-line 
Whig, and cast his first vote for William H. 
Harrison, at a time when there was no tick- 
ets, each person writing the name of the can- 
didate of his choice. He has taken an active 
interest in the politics of his township, and 
has held the position of superintendent and 
other local offices, discharging his duties in 
his several capacities with ability and integ- 
rity. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rickard and all the family 
are earnest and useful members of the Con- 
gregational Church, of which Mr. Rickard is 
a Deacon and Trustee. The entire family are 
prominent in temperance work and all mat- 
ters tending to the material and moral ad- 
vancement ot the community. 

Although caring less for pedigree than our 
English cousins across the water, yet we 
tacitly admit that tendencies and early train- 
ing have much to do with shaping a man's 
career through life. While Mr. Rickard has 
worked out his own prosperity and salvation, 
yet he has, no doubt, often drawn inspiration 
from the contemplation of the virtues of his 
illustrious ancestors, whose example he has 
insensibly been led to emulate. 



fOSEPH FENTON VAN DEVENTER 
was born in Highland county, Ohio, 
June 25, 1826, a son of Jacob Van De- 
venter, who was born in Loudoun county, 



Virginia, a descendant of the colonial settlers 
who came from Holland in the early history 
of this country. The father of our subject 
was reared and married in Virginia, but re- 
moved to Ohio, where he was a pioneer of 
Highland county; there he bought a tract of 
timber-land, erected a log cabin, and made 
it his home until the fall of 1832, when he 
sold and came to Illinois; he was accompanied 
by his wife and children, and his brother and 
family. The trip was made overland, and 
after a journey covering three weeks he ar- 
rived in Schuyler county, which portion is 
now included in Brown county; he made a 
claim to a tract of Government land, bought 
a log cabin, and lived there until his death in 
1833. He was twice married, the second 
wife being the mother of Joseph F. Her 
maiden name was Jane Rogers, and she was 
born near Paris, Kentucky, a daughter of 
Thomas Rogers; she kept the family together 
until her death in 1843. Joseph F. was a 
child of six years when his parents emigrated 
to the frontier: most of the land was owned 
at that time by the Government, the country 
was thinly settled, and the river towns were 
the only market-places. He attended the 
pioneer schools until he was old enough to as- 
sist on the farm; the mother had rented land 
which the sons cultivated. In 1850 Joseph 
and his brothers, Thomas and Henson, and a 
Mr. Adams and his son, crossed the plains to 
California; they started with ox teams March 
27, and arrived at Weavertown, August 27. 
They engaged in mining thirty-five miles 
east of Sacramento until the following spring, 
and then went to Humboldt, and from that 
point across the mountains to Weaverton; 
there they resumed mining and continued the 
industry until June, 1852, when they 
started to Sacramento. They turned their 
attention to feeding cattle now, and fol- 



192 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



lowed the business until 1853, when they re- 
turned to Illinois, coming by the Isthmus to 
New York, and thence overland to their 
prairie home. Mr. Van Deventer and his 
brothers, Thomas, Barnett and Henson, com- 
bined their interests in farming and stock- 
raising, and bought land at different times, 
until they owned at one 1 time 3,500 acres; 
Barrett and Henson are now deceased. 

Our subject was married in 1868 to Lnti- 
tia Givens, who was born at Mt. Sterling, 
Brown county, Illinois, a daughter of John 
A. and Mary F. (Curry) Givens, pioneers of 
Brown county. Mr. and Mrs. Van Deventer 
have two children living, Homer G. and 
Lloyd T. They are both members of the 
Presbyterian church. He was formerly a 
supporter of the principles of the Whig party, 
but has been a Republican since the organi- 
zation of that body. He is a man of honor 
and unquestioned integrity, and has the re- 
spect of his fellow-men. 



DUNCAN TAYLOR, a well-known citi- 
zen of Rushville township, is a citizen 
of the Republic by adoption, his native 
laud being Scotland; he was born in Perth- 
shire, in March, 1819, a son of Collin and 
Mary (Watt) Taylor, natives of the same 
shire. The parents spent their lives in their 
own country; they reared a family of eight 
children, named as follows: Jane, Thomas and 
John, twins, James, Margaret, Duncan, the 
subject of this biographical sketch, Ann and 
Catherine. Duncan Taylor and his brother 
James were the only members of the family 
who emigrated to America; James entered the 
service in the Florida war, and was never 
heard of after leaving Boston. Our subject 
was reared and educated in Scotland, and re- 



sided in that country until he was eighteen 
years of age. He then went to London, Eng- 
land, and there followed the baker's trade un- 
til 1843. In that year he emigrated to the 
United States, embarking on board a sailing 
vessel at Liverpool, which landed in New 
York after a voyage of thirty days. He 
worked at his trade in New York city until 
1848, and then started toward the setting 
sun. The city of Chicago at that time had a 
population of a few thousand people, but 
there was not a railroad entering the place, 
and stages ran to St. Louis and other im- 
portant points. Mr. Taylor engaged in work 
at his trade in Chicago, and remained there 
a year, coming at the end of that time to 
Rushville. 

At the breaking out of the civil war he 
abandoned his private interests, and in 
August, 1861, he enlisted in Company G, 
Twenty-eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
and was with his regiment fn all the marches 
and campaigns; the most important battles in 
which he took part were Fort Henry, Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Jackson, Miss, and the 
sieges of Corinth and Vicksburg. He was 
honorably discharged August 26, 1864, the 
term of his enlistment having expired. 

He returned to his home and resumed his 
former vocation, which he pursued a number 
of years; he was successful in his business 
operations, and at different times invested in 
and, until he now owns three farms in Wood- 
stock township. 

Mr. Taylor was married in 1843 to Eliza- 
beth Fourgeson, a native of Ireland, and a 
daughter of Daniel and Mary (Fulton) Four- 
geson. Four children were born of this 
union, two of whom are living, Robert and 
William, twins; Sarah and Mary are botli de- 
ceased. Robert married Ann Beck, and has 
four children ; William married Adele Van- 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



193 



davenor; Sarah was the wife of Richard Law- 
ler, and Mary married Charles Reed; she 
left two children. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor are 
worthy and consistent members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. In politics Mr. Taylor is 
an ardent supporter of Republican principles. 
He is a member of Colonel Harvey Post, No. 
131, G. A. R. He is a man of superior busi- 
ness ability, is honorable in all his dealings, 
and worthy of the confidence his fellow-men 
repose in him. 



jNDREW J. HEDGCOCK, a prosper- 
ous farmer and esteemed citizen of 
Schuyler county, Illinois, was born in 
Davidson county, North Carolina, November 
25, 1831, and is a son of John and Temper- 
ance (Bodenhainer) Hedgcock. Three gen- 
erations of the family were born in the old 
North State: the subject of this sketch, his 
father, John, and his grandfather, Elisha. 
The originator of the family in that State 
was Elisha's father, John, who removed to 
North Carolina from within sixteen miles of 
Baltimore, Maryland. This was about six 
years before the Revolutionary war. Will- 
iam, an older brother of John's, was a sol- 
dier in that war; and it is more than proba- 
ble that John also fought with the Colonies 
for independence. Elisha, son of John, 
spent his whole life in North Carolina. He 
had four sons, all dead but one. His son, 
John, a farmer, removed to Illinois in 1834, 
with his wife and three children. The long 
trip was made overland with a one-horse wag- 
on, and consumed about eight weeks. He 
at first settled near Rushville, but afterward 
removed to Birmingham township, where 
he bought seventy-nine acres of wild land. 
On this he built a log cabin, 16 x 18 feet, 



in which his family lived for sixteen or 
eighteen years. He then erected a nice 
frame house, where he resided until his 
death, at the age of seventy-five years. He 
was well and favorably known in his com- 
munity, and was sincerely mourned by many 
friends. In politics, he was originally a 
Whig, but joined the Republican party on 
its organization. He was a devout church 
member, and interested in all good works. 
His worthy wife died on the same farm, 
aged fifty-five years. 

Andrew is one of the eight children, seven 
of whom are yet living, nearly all in this 
county. He remained on the old farm un- 
til he was twenty-two years old working 
With his father at the cooper trade, and at- 
tending the subscription school. He mar- 
ried early in life, and rented a farm for two 
years, but at the end of that time he bought 
eighty acres that were but little improved, 
on which he built a log house. Here they 
lived for four years and then he replaced the 
old house by a neat frame one. He has 520 
acres now, and it is divided into several as 
good farms as are in the county, all having 
fine farm houses and buildings upon them. 
Mr. Hedgcock has always been a strong Re- 
publican in politics, and voted for John C. 
Fremont. He and his wife are prominent 
members of the Congregational Church, he 
having joined in 1857. 

He was married April 17, 1855, to Miss 
Martha P. Hall, of Iredell county, North 
Carolina. She is the daughter of Robert S. 
and Annie (King) Hall. Her parents were 
married in 1819 and came to Illinois in the 
spring of 1835, for the purpose of freeing 
their slaves, of whom they had some eleven 
or twelve by inheritance, which they suc- 
ceeded in doing after several years of trouble 
and expense. They had ten children. Mr. 



194 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GAS8, 



Hall was a good man, and always acted up to 
his convictions of right and wrong. He 
lived in Indiana for some time and then re- 
turned to Illinois, and died here at the age of 
seventy-two. The whole family were very 
prominent wherever they lived; 

Mr. and Mrs. Hedgcock had eight chil- 
dren, seven of whom are still living: Robert 
S., born February 28, 1856, married Laura 
Balton, and they have three children; Mary 
J., born September 10, 1857, married Albert 
S. Glass, and they have one child; John F., 
born November 3, 1861, married Anna E. 
Wade, and they have four children. He is 
Township Treasurer, to which office he. was 
elected in 1886.' He is a farmer, and resides 
on his own farm. The fourth child, Bessie 
E., born June 14, 1864, married George 
Dorsett, and they have one child; Matilda 
A., born September 25, 1866, and Anna E., 
born May 16, 1875, are both at home. Lil- 
lie E., born November 8, 1870, married 
William E. Dorsett, September 10, 1891. 

All but two of the children have been at 
Plymouth High school, of which three are 
graduates. Most of the family are active in 
church work, and the occupation of them all 
is farming and stock raising. This is a 
family of whom the county may well be 
prond. 



. JOHN J . McDANNOLD, a promi- 
nent citizen of Brown county, is the sub- 
ject of the following biography, and is 
cheerfully accorded a space in this history. 
He was born on the homestead in Pea Ridge 
township, Brown county, Illinois, August 29, 
1851. His father, Thomas I. McDannold, was 
born near Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, a son of 
John McDannold, a native of Virginia. The 



great-great-grandfather of our subject, Alex- 
ander McDannold, was born near Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and emigrated to America in colo- 
nial days; he settled near Culpeper Court 
House, Yirginia, and spent the remainder of 
his life in that State. John McDannold re- 
moved from Virginia to Kentucky and was 
an early settler of that State; he improved a 
farm on which he lived .the remainder of his 
days. Thomas I. McDannold grew to man- 
hood in his native State, and came to Illinois. 
After his marriage he purchased a tract of 
wild land in Pea Ridge township; there he 
built a small frame house, and began the task 
of reducing his land to cultivation. As his 
means increased he made other investments 
in land, and now owns 500 acres. He was 
united in marriage to Mary E. Means, a na- 
tive of Kentucky and a daughter of Major 
John and Patsey (Parker) Means. They 
reared a family of four children: John J., 
Thomas R., George R. and Clara. John J. 
received his early education in the district 
schools, and this training was supplemented 
by a course at the Quincy high school, one 
term at Farwell's English and Classical 
school, and two years at Dr. Corbin's private 
school. 

Supplying himself with the necessary 
books, he returned to the home farm, and be- 
gan the study of law. In 1873 he entered 
the law department of the Iowa State Uuiver- 
sity at Iowa City, and was graduated 
from that institution in 1874; December 
25th of that year he opened an office in Mt. 
Sterling, and has since devoted himself to 
legal work. 

He was united in marriage, in 1876, to 
Miss Cora Harris, who was born in Macomb, 
Illinois, a daughter of Dr. Ralph and Mary 
Harris. Two children were born to Judge 
and Mrs. McDannold, Malcolm and Helen. 



8OHDTLBR AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



195 



Judge McDannold lias filled various offices 
of trust and honor; he has served as a mem- 
ber of the School Board, has served in the 
City Council, has been Mayor of the city, 
Master in Chancery for seven years, and 
County Judge for six years; the last named 
position he resigned in 1892. He was made 
the nominee of the Democratic party for 
Congress at the convention held at Jersey- 
ville, in May, 1892, being the first man in 
Brown county to receive this distinction. 
He is a member of Hard in Lodge, No. 44, 
A. F. & A. M., of the chapter, and of Delta 
Commandry, No. 48, K. T. In his profes- 
sion he has been very successful, and has at- 
tained a prominent position among the mem- 
bers of the bar of Illinois. 



INOCH EDMONSTON, a member of 
the county Board of Supervisors, rep- 
resenting Bainbridge township, is one 
of the prominent citizens of Sclmyler county, 
and is entitled to recognition in its annals. 
He was born in Carroll county, Missouri, 
March 2, 1856, a son of Enoch Edmonston, 
Sr.; the father was born in Buncombe 
county, North Carolina, July 20, 1801, a son 
of Baeiel Edmonston, who removed from 
Maryland, his native State, to North Carolina, 
and thence to the Territory of Indiana, in 
1808; he was a pioneer of Dubois county, 
and there spent the last years of his life. He 
was married to Hannah Rose, who was born 
in North Carolina and died in Indiana. 
Enoch Edtnonston, their son, was reared in 
Indiana and was married there. In 1829 he 
emigrated to Illinois with his brother, spent 
the summer in Schuylef county, and in the 
autumn returned to Indiana. In 1834 he 
again came to the State, accompanied by his 



family; he made the trip overland with two 
teams, camping on the way, and located on a 
tract of land that was afterward found to be 
patent land; he then removed to section 
31, where he resided a short time, soon mak- 
ing a claim to a tract of Government land on 
section 29; he erected a house on this place, 
made some improvements, and lived there 
until he purchased land on section 32. As 
he prospered he added to his landed estate, 
and at one time owned about 1,000 acres. 
In 1855 he rented his farms, and went to 
Carroll county, Missouri, where he purchased 
land and resided for two or three years; at 
the end of that time he returned to Schuyler 
county, where he was living at the time of 
his death, August 2, 1872. He was twice 
married; the first wife was Susan Allen, a 
native of Buncombe county, North Carolina, 
and a daughter of Daniel and Celia (Hyde) 
Allen; she died in 1854; the second marriage 
was to Sarah (Barbee) Newsom. Mr. Ed- 
monston was prominently identified with the 
best interests of the county; for six years he 
was Sheriff of the county, and was Treasurer 
for two years, discharging his duties with 
marked ability and fidelity. 

Enoch Edmonston, Jr., was two years old 
when his parents returned from Missouri to 
Illinois. He received his education in the 
common schools, and had the advantage of a 
term at a business college in Quincy. For a 
period of three years he was engaged in busi- 
ness at Quincy, and with the exception of 
that time he has given his attention exclu- 
sively to agricultural pursuits; he now occu- 
pies the old homestead. He was married in 
March, 1885, to Nancy Ater, a native of 
Cass county, Illinois, and a daughter of John 
J. and Mary Ater, natives of Morgan county, 
Illinois, and pioneers of Cass county. Mr. 
and Mrs. Edmonston are the parents of four 



106 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GA88, 



children: Belle, Roy, Floss and Fay. Inde- 
pendent in thought and action, Mr. Edmon- 
ston has never been associated with any 
political party, but cast his first vote with 
the Labor party, and now gives his support 
to the organization known as the People's 
party. He is a member of Woodstock 
Grange, No. 443, P. of H. 



fOHJM KERR, Rushville. -America has 
drawn her population from every conti- 
nent and all the islands of the sea. Ireland 
has contributed her quota, sending many of 
her sturdy sons, who have aided in the de- 
velopment and growth of the New World, 
and pushed their way to the frontier, that the 
path might be made for the onward march 
of civilization. John Kerr, proprietor of the 
Schuylerville coal mine and one of the prom- 
inent agriculturists of Schuyler county, Illi- 
nois, is a native of County Fermanagh, Ire- 
land, born near Five-mile Town, July 15, 
1840. His father was also a native of the 
Emerald Isle, but the grandfather was born 
in Scotland, although he spent his last days 
in County Fermanagh. The father was a 
weaver by trade, and operated a hand loom 
with great skill; later in life he became the 
proprietor of a shop, and employed several 
men; the last years of his life, however, were 
devoted to farming, the land being leased; he 
married Rebecca Wier, a native of Scotland, 
and to them were born eight children. 

John Kerr and his brother Alexander emi- 
grated to America in 1864, the latter settling 
at Newark, New Jersey; they were the only 
members of the family who came to this 
country. Our subject was reared and edu- 
cated in his native land, and followed agri- 
cultural pursuits. He did not bring his 



family with him to the United States, as it 
was to them an untried land, and he wished 
to be able to return if the prospects were not 
fair. He was first located at Whitestone on 
the Hudson, his wife and children joining 
him there the following year. Later on he 
went to Newark, New Jersey, and was em- 
ployed in the woolen mills until 1872. In 
that year he removed to Illinois, and pur- 
chased eighty acres of land, ten miles north 
of Rushville; here he lived a year, and then 
sold out, buying ten acres near Rushville. 
Two years later he had the good fortune to 
open a coal bank, and since that time he has 
been busily engaged in operating the same; 
he ships to northern Illinois and Wisconsin, 
and carries on a profitable trade. He has in- 
vested in lands at different times, and now 
owns one hundred and ninety and a half 
acres, lying three quarters of a mile from the 
courthouse. x 

Mr. Kerr was united in marriage in 1862, 
to Miss Eleanor Bell, a native of County Fer- 
managh, Ireland, and a daughter of Robert 
and Ann Bell. Eight children have been 
born to them: Joseph, Catherine, Robert, 
Annie, Fred, William, Burtand May. 

Politically, Mr. Kerr adheres to the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party, and is a 
thoroughly loyal citizen of his adopted 
country. 



HOMAS W. SCOTT, deceased, was 
born in Montgomery county, Maryland, 
December 2, 1808. His father, Amos 
Scott, was a native of the same county, born 
in 1777, of Scotch-Irish ancestors, who were 
among the early settlers of this country. He 
was reared to agricultural pursuits, and re- 
sided in Maryland until 1814, when he re- 
moved to Kentucky. The journey was made 



SCHUYLER AND SHOWN COUNTIES. 



197 



with teams to the Ohio river, and thence 
down that stream on flatboats. Mr. Scott 
located near Georgetown, Scott county, and 
was engaged in planting until 1832, when he 
came to Schuyler county, Illinois, and settled 
on land in Buena Vista township, which his 
son Thomas W. had purchased; there he and 
his wife spent the remainder of their days; 
her maiden name was Nancy "West, and she 
was born in Montgomery county, Maryland; 
she was the mother of two sons and five 
daughters. Thomas W. was a child of six 
years when the family removed to Kentucky, 
and there in the Blue-Grass State he was 
reared and educated. In 1829 he came to 
Illinois, making the trip on horseback, and 
located at Eushville, which was but a hamlet; 
the surrounding country was thinly settled, 
and much of the land was yet owned by the 
Government. He embarked in the mercan- 
tile trade at Rushville, opening the first store 
of the kind in that place; he carried on a 
business there until 1835, and then returned 
to Scott county, Kentucky. He bought the 
Blue Springs farm, five miles west of George- 
town, and cultivated this land with slave 
labor; he lived there until 1851, when he 
sold out and returned to Rushville, Illinois. 
He was engaged in conducting a general loan 
and brokerage business until his death, which 
occurred January 22, 1885. 

Mr. Scott was twice married; his first wife 
was Adeline Johnson; she was born in Scott 
county, Kentucky, and died there in 1834; 
the issue of this marriage was one son, R. J., 
now living at Brookfield, Missouri, a phy- 
sician. The second marriage was December 
20, 1840, when he was united to Catherine 
Fitzgerald. She was born one mile from Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, October 30, 1822, a daugh- 
ter of Jesse Fitzgerald, a native of Coif ax 
county, Virginia. The paternal grandfather, 



William Fitzgerald, was also a Virginian by 
birth, but removed to Kentucky, being one of 
the earliest white settlers there. On account 
of the hostility of the Indians, he with sev- 
eral others lived for some time in the fort at 
Boone Station. Later he purchased land in 
Fayette county, and resided there until his 
death. Jesse Fitzgerald was a young child 
when his parents moved to Kentucky. He 
was reared to the occupation of a farmer, and 
owned land one mile from Lexington which 
was cultivated by slaves. He married 
Lucretia Shellars, a native of Maryland and a 
daughter of William Shellars. 

Mrs. Scott has nine children living: Jo- 
sephine, Eugene J., Mary F., Thomas W., 
Catherine, Leonidas, Winfield, Mentor and 
Florida. The parents were both consistent 
members of the Christian Church. Mr. Scott 
cast his first vote for General Jackson, and 
was all his life an ardent supporter of the 
principles of Democracy. He was a man of 
much force and integrity of character, and 
his name is honored among the pioneers of 
Schuyler county. 



fOSEPH HUNT, farmer, of section 2, 
township 17, range 10, post office Vir- 
ginia, was born in Kentucky, September 
19, 1824. His parents moved to Sullivan 
county, Indiana, when he was one year old. 
Here he grew to manhood, coming to Illinois 
when he was twenty-five and stopping two 
years in Sangamon county. From there he 
went to Cass county, thirty-eight years ago. 
His parents were John R. and Hannah (Davis) 
Hunt. Both were natives of Kentucky, and 
the grandfather was also a Kentuckian, who 
ived to be ninety years old. Both parents 
died in Sullivan county, Indiana. They had 



198 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



eleven childreu, of which large family Joseph 
was the eldest. Eight of the children are 
still living. John "Wesley died in JSashville 
during the war, being a soldier; Dora was 
killed accidently with a scythe, and George 
died in mature years, leaving a family. Levi, 
James, Sarah A., Mary, Elizabeth, Martha 
and Macia all live in Sullivan county, Indiana. 

Joseph enlisted in August, 1862, in Com- 
pany D, One Hundred and Fourteenth 
Illinois Infantry, and was assigned to 
duty with the army of the Cumberland. He 
participated in the siege of Vicksburg 
under General Grant. From there he went 
to the battle of Jackson, returned to Memphis, 
and was in that fight; next engaged in the 
fight at Champion Hills, and from there went 
to the Black .River, where he built a bridge 
under tire from the enemy. He was under 
General Thomas at this time. He guarded a 
pontoon bridge for about six months, and 
while there heard of the surrender of Lee and 
Johnson. He was discharged in August, 
1865, having served three years. Joseph was 
home but once during his service, and that 
was on a sick furlough. He had the erysipe- 
las while in service and it injured his eyes so 
much that he was nearly blind, and a furlough 
was necessary. He has never recovered from 
the effect of it. He receives a small pension, 
on account of heart disease. 

He was married on the farm where he now 
lives, to Durinda B. Freeman, February 12, 
1854. They have had two children: James 
Henry, the eldest, is married and resides in 
Leadville, Colorado. He has been keeping 
hotel until recently. He is now employed at 
the Government Fish Hatchery. He has one 
child, Bernice. Ida married John T. Drink- 
water, and lives near by. They have two 
sons, Ralph and Joe. Mr. Drinkwater is a 
breeder of road and draft horses. 



Mr. Hunt is a staunch Republican, al- 
though the rest of the family were Democrats. 
He and his wife are members of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church and are worthy 
people and are highly respected by their hosts 
of friends. Mr. Hunt does not belong to any 
social orders. 




RS. .NANCY GREEN was born in 
Ohio, November 30, 1824, and lived 
there until two or three years of age, 
and then came to Kentucky with her parents. 
They were James and Lovey (Tolle) Tolle, 
both born in Virginia, who had gone to Ohio 
in an early day. In 1836 they concluded to 
move West and sold every thing except some 
household goods, and with a two-horse 
wagon came overland and first settled in 
Schuyler county for two months. They 
then came to Brown county and entered 
eighty acres of land and bought 160 more 
of that partly improved, and hewed out 
a log hut in which they lived until about 
1850. They then sold out again and went 
to Grundy county, Missouri, where Mr. 
Tolle bought an improved farm of 160 acres 
and there lived until his death, but he had 
sold the farm before this. He was living at 
the home of his daughter Sarah when he died, 
aged about seventy-four years. The mother 
of our subject died at the same place, aged 
about sixty-five years. There were ten chil- 
dren, four of whom are yet living. The 
father was a wheelwright and chair-maker. 
The grandparents on the mother's side were 
Reuben and - Tolle, and the paternal 
grandparents were William and Diana Tolle. 
The marriage of our subject took place 
January 28, 1843, to Mr. Hiram Green, 
who was born in Culpeper county, Virginia, 
December 25, 1817. He was the son of 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



199 



John and Sarali (Newby) Green, who lived 
in Virginia all their lives and died about 

o 

middle age. The husband of our subject 
came to Illinois about 1838, with some of 
his relatives, and worked by the month for 
some time, but was a cooper at the time of his 
marriage. He bought a farm of 160 acres in 
the county of Brown from a man who had im- 
proved it; but Mr. Green built a log house 
and there they lived for about six years, and 
then he bought another eighty acres and 
built a better house. There the family lived 
until 1873, when he sold it and bought his 
present farm of 240 acres on which are all 
improvements. He died August 2, 1877. 
He was a Democrat in his politics but did 
not bother much about them. 

Our subject and her husband started with 
nothing and at the time of his death had ac- 
quired as fine a farm as there is in the 
county. They were faithful members of the 
Union Baptist Church for years, and he was 
an active member, assisting in the building 
of it and was lamented by all at the time of 
his death. 

Mrs. Greene, the estimable lady whose 
sketch we are presenting, is' well known in 
the township where she and her husband 
have shown to the world a life of married 
felicity. She has been the beloved mother 
of fourteen children and is not only esteemed 
above all others by her immediate family but 
by the neighborhood. We close this short 
notice with the names of her family. Mary 
Jane is at home; Sarah is married and has 
two children; Lovey M. is married and died 
leaving four children; Ann G. is married and 
has seven childre; Juliet is married and has 
five children; William F. is married and has 
six children ; Celinda E. is married and has five 
children; Angeline is married and has four 
children; George W. is married and has 



three children ; Purlina is married and has 
two children; Olive; Almira is married but 
has no family.. 

Mrs. Greene looks after the farm herself 
and rents to her son George, who carries on a 
very successful mixed farming. 




ILLIAM J. DA VIS, of Lee township, 
was born in Adams county, Illinois, 
in 1845. His father, Washington, 
was born in Virginia about 1822, and his 
father, Edward, was a Virginia farmer who 
emigrated to Illinois in 1837, where he 
died at an advanced age, in Adams county. 
They came by land the most of the way. 
The mother of William J. was Nancy Chip- 
man of North Carolina, a daughter of David 
Chipman, who came to Illinois in 1835. She 
survived her husband. 

William Davis had a good common-school 
education, was reared to farm life, and this 
has been his vocation except a little agency as 
a salesman in fruit trees. He remained at home 
until twenty-six years of age, when he married 
Maggie, daughter of George and Hannah 
(Ferguson) Colgate. She was born in Pike 
county, of which her parents were early set- 
tlers. Her mother died about 1877. Her 
father is living, at the age of seventy-five. 

Mr. and Mrs. Davis settled on a small farm 
near Clayton in 1874. Three years later they 
sold there and moved to their present home 
in Brown county, buying sixty acres for $2,- 
250. He rents part, and farms about 120 
acres a year. They have been greatly blessed, 
and have not lost any of their ten children. 
They are, Charles E., Adelbert, Walter, Har- 
riet, Jackson, Julia, George, Belle, Mary and 
Nellie. This family is all comely, bright 
and dutiful; and are being carefully educated 



200 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OP CASS, 



Mr. Davis is a Missionary Baptist, he is also 
a Democrat, but is not strongly partizan. 
While he has been very busy raising stock 
and engaged in general farming he has had 
time to become a successful bee-keeper in 
the last six years. He is School Director and 
a very active member in his church. His 
family is highly thought of in the commun- 
ity as is he himself. 



[ENJAMIN F. REBMAN, a farmer and 
dairyman, was born in Schuyler county, 
Illinois, at Pleasant View, January 12, 
1848. He was the seventh child in a family 
of nine born to John and Margaret (Huffman) 
Rebman, the former of whom was born at 
Strasburg, Germany, and the latter near the 
same place. They emigrated to America 
in 1830 and were married in New York city 
in 1832. They lived in New York State 
about four years, when they removod to St. 
Louis, and after remaining there two years 
removed to Beardstown, Illinois, where they 
lived four years more. At the end of that 
time they moved to Schuyler county and 
here they both died, Mrs. Rebman in 1877 
and her husband four years later. Mr. Reb- 
man was a mechanic by trade. 

Benjamin Rebman, after the slight school- 
ing he was able to obtain in the country 
schools, at the age of eighteen, engaged in 
farming, working by the month for farmers 
until he had accumulated enough to begin 
business for himself. He has been engaged 
in the dairy business for some years and has 
supplied the city of Beardstown with vast 
quantities of milk. This taken in connection 
with his extensive farming yield him a nice 
income. He was engaged in the manufacture 
of brick, but sold out recently. 



He was married in this county January 1, 
1879, to Mrs. Louisa Curry, daughter of An- 
thony Messeren, one of the pioneers of 
Schuyler county. He was a very successful 
farmer, being a representative of an agricul- 
tural family for generations back. He went 
from Germany, his birthplace, to the West 
Indies, when he was six years of age. The 
uncle who was taking him to America died 
on the voyage and the child was adopted by a 
West Indian planter. Here he grew toman- 
hood, and came to Illinois in 1832 and en- 
tered a large tract of land in Schuyler county, 
where he lived until the time of his death in 
1859. His wife survived him for twenty- 
two years. They had five children, two of 
whom died in infancy. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rebman have had three 
children: Anthony, deceased; Gale and Her- 
man Blane. His religious views are those of 
a free- thinker; is Republican in politics. 



NDREW J. MEAD is located at Hunts- 
ville and is the oldest physician in 
Schuyler county, as he has been lo- 
cated at this place since March, 1840. He 
was born in Henry county, Kentucky, April 
4, 1815, being a son of William and Mary 
(Scott) Mead. 

He grew to manhood in his native State, 
passing his boyhood on the farm. At the 
age of thirteen he commenced to clerk in a 
store and continued there four years. He 
then lived with Dr. Gosle, with whom he 
studied medicine until he was twenty-one 
arid then practiced with him one year. He 
then went to Indiana, whence he came to 
Illinois and located at Huntsville. He had 
been on a visit to Missouri, and on his return 
stopped in Huntsville, where he met some 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



201 



old Kentucky friends who induced him to 
locate in this place. He has had a large 
practice and is well and favorably known. 

He married in December, 1843, Mary J. 
Briscoe, born near Perryville, Kentucky, 
June 2, 1825, daughter of George H. and 
Eliza K. (Ewing) Briscoe. She died December 
4,1891. They had four children: Alice, died, 
aged six years; Richard Homer, see sketch; 
"William 13., a physician in Kansas, graduate 
of Rush Medical College; and Clara, wife of 
Charles Everson, of Huntsville. Both sons 
studied medicine with their father and both 
graduated before they were twenty-one years 
of age. The Doctor is a Democrat in poli- 
tics and has always been an active worker 
in the party. He never accepted any office,- 
as his profession occupied all his time. He 
is a man who is liberal in his religious views. 
oNTo one is more highly respected and ad- 
mired than this same pioneer doctor of 
Huntsville. 



JILL1AM C. BOLLMAN, Postmaster 
at Browning, is a native of Pike 
county, Illinois, born March 13, 1839. 
His parents were John and Rebecca (Hedgen) 
Bollman. Both were natives of Ohio and 
came to Illinois in 1837, locating in Pike 
county, where the father died in 1850, and 
the mother died in Quincy, of the cholera, 
when it was raging there. There were seven 
children by this marriage, and two by the 
former one. The brothers and sisters of 
William were: Michael, deceased; our subject 
was the next child; Samuel, still living in 
Pike county, married; John, deceased; Or- 
ville, deceased; Sarah Massey of Fulton 
county, Illinois; Mary O., married; Aaron 
Finton resides near Pittsfield, Illinois, The 
other two are dead. 




William grew to manhood in Pike county, 
and married there Miss Amanda Preston, of 
Ohio. Her parents were John and Hannah 
Preston. The father died when Mrs. Boll- 
man was a child, but the mother died in 
Browning with her daughter, Mrs. Bollman. 

Mr. Bollman farmed for many years in Pike 
county, and then removed to Browning, 
Schuyler county, where he lived until 1861 
when he enlisted in Company H, Third Illi- 
nois Cavalry, as a private, and became 
Quarter Master Sergeant of his regiment. 
He served four years and two months, and 
participated in the battles of Pea Ridge; was 
with Sherman when he made the attack on 
Haines' Bluff, at Vicksburg; was at the cap- 
ture of Arkansas Post, and from thence to Hol- 
low Springs, Mississippi ; did scouting duty in 
Mississippi, and afterward had a serious en- 
gagement at Gravelly Springs, Tennessee, 
and he was also engaged in many other skir- 
mishes and battles of less importance. After 
the surrender of the rebel armies, the regi- 
ment was sent across the plains to award the 
Indians, and remained there until Octo- 
ber, 1865. They were mustered out at Min- 
neapolis, October 10, 1865. Mr. Bollman 
returned to Browning, and engaged in farm- 
ing, and remained in that business until 1887, 
when he engaged in mercantile business. He 
was appointed Postmaster in 1890, and still 
holds that position. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bollman have had nine chil- 
dren, but only one of that number is 
living, Frank, now twenty- three years of age, 
is married and resides in Beardstown, Illi- 
nois. The Bollman family are of German 
and Irish origin. Mr. Bollman is a Repub- 
lican, though he entered the army as a Demo- 
crat, but changed his views while in the 
service, and has faithfully voted with the Re- 
publican party ever since. He is a member 



202 



SIOGRAPUICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



of the G. A. E., also of the I. O. O. F.' 
Browning Lodge, No. 309. He is a P. G., 
and has represented his lodge for two years 
at the Grand Lodge of the State. Mr. and 
Mrs. Bollman are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

Mr. Bollman was not the only member of 
his family who served iu the late war; a 
brother, Samuel, served three years in the 
Ninety-ninth Illinois Infantry. Both escaped 
injury, except to general health. 



[IMON A. REEVE, who has long been 
closely connected with the agricultural 
interests of Schuyler county, is a native 
of the State of Illinois, born at Springfield, 
December 28, 1828. His father, John Reeve, 
was a native of New York, and the pa- 
ternal grandfather was born in the same 
State; the latter is supposed to have visited 
Illinois at an early day, as he purchased land 
in Fulton county. John Reeve was still a 
youth when he acccompanied his parents to 
Kentucky, and there he was married to Bet- 
sey Ross, a Kentuckian by birth; from the 
Brue Grass State he removed to Indiana, and 
thence to Illinois, being one of the pioneers 
of Springfield ; he resided there some years 
before it became the capital city of the com- 
monwealth. In 1829 he came to Schuyler 
county, and settled in Bainbridge township 
on land his father had given him; the tract 
was heavily timbered, and there were no im- 
provements. Mr. Reeve erected a lug house, 
and began the task of placing the laud under 
cultivation. He resided there until after the 
death of his wife, which occurred in 1843, 
when he returned to Indiana; in a few years 
he came back to Illinois and located in Peoria 
county, where he spent the last days of his 



life. His death occurred in his seventy-fifth 
year. Simon A. Reeve was but an infant 
when his parents removed to Schuyler county; 
here he was reared amid the privations and 
hardships incident to life on the frontier; the 
country was thinly settled, Indians still 
roamed the prairie, and wild game was abund- 
ant. The mother spun and the sister wove 
all the cloth with which the children were 
dressed. Our subject attended the pioneer 
schools taught in the primitive log house, 
and in early youth began to earn his own liv- 
ing; for some time he received as compensa- 
tion only his board and clothing; later he had 
$8 or $9 per month, which he considered ex- 
cellent wages. He afterward learned the 
cooper's trade, which he followed a number of 
years, and at this vocation earned the money 
with which he bought the first land he owned. 
An incident worthy of note as illustrating the 
value of neighbors as compared with that of 
land, is furnished in the act of the father of 
the subject of this sketch: When he settled 
on 160 acres of land in Schuyler county, his 
neighbors were few and far between, and in 
order to secure a near neighbor, Mr. Reeve sold 
fifty of his 160 acres to a gentleman for 
$25, upon the condition that he would reside 
upon it. Mr. Reeve has been very success- 
ful as a farmer, and has accumulated consid- 
erable amount of property; to his oldest son 
he has given 107 acres, to another 91 acres, 
and now occupies a farm of 120 acres, which 
is well improved. 

Mr. Reeve was married, in 1854, to Miss 
Jane Orr, a native of county Tyrone, Ireland, 
and a daughter of Joseph and Mary (Burn- 
side) Orr. Two sons have been born of this 
union, William H. and Pulaski; the former 
married Harriet E. Ackley, who was born in 
Adams county, Illinois, a daughter of Latham 
and Pauline (Spangler) Ackley; their three 



SOHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



203 



children died in infancy: Pulaski married 
Mary I. Ward, and they have one child liv- 
ing, named Bertha. Mr. and Mrs. Reeve are 
consistent members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. In his political opinions Mr. 
Reeve adheres to the principles of the Demo- 
cratic party. 




WALKER BECKWITH was one of 
the early settlers of Bain bridge town- 
ship, Schnyler county, Illinois, and is 
entitled to recognition as a member of that 
worthy band of men and women who pene- 
trated the wilderness of the frontier, and 
made the way for the onward march of prog- 
ress. He was born at Stephentown, Rens- 
selaer county, New York, August 17, 1798, 
and is a son of Elisha Beckwith, a native of 
New England, and grandson of Elisha Beck- 
with, Senior; the latter was a sailor and fol- 
lowed the sea for many years, visiting the 
principal ports of the world; he spent his 
last years in Chenango county, New York. 
The father of our subject was reared to agri- 
cultural pursuits; from Stephentown he re- 
moved to Chenango county, New York, 
where he was one of the early settlers; he 
bought a tract of timber land there, and 
erected a log house; he cleared a farm, made 
many valuable improvementss, and spent his 
last years in that home. He married Mary 
Walker, a daughter of James Walker; she 
survived him many years, coming to Illinois 
after his death; she died in Hancock county. 
E. Walker Beckwith grew to manhood 
among the primitive surroundings of Chen- 
ango county, New York; there were no rail- 
roads, and Albany was the principal market 
town; the mother spun and wove the cloth 
with which her children were clothed. Here 
he remained until he was about twenty-six 



years of age, and then pushed his way to Ohio; 
after a year spent in that State he went to 
Indiana, and while a resident of the Hoosier 
State was engaged in various occupations; he 
once made a trip on a flat-boat, loaded with 
produce, to New Orleans. He lived in Indi- 
ana seven years, and then came to Illinois, lo- 
cating in Schnyler county; as before stated,' 
he was one of the early settlers in Bainbridge 
township, and with the exception of four years 
spent in Hancock county, Illinois, this has 
been his home for the past forty years. 

He married Mary Waugh, a native of Ken- 
tucky and a daughter of Thomas and Sally 
Waugh. She died in 1886. Of this union 
five children were born: James, Charles, Nor- 
man, Stephen and Emily J. Stephen resides 
on the home farm, and has the management 
of the same; he married Elizabeth Kline, 
May 8, 1884, and they are the parents of 
three children; Olie T., Fidelia and Min- 
nie E. 

Mr. Beckwith is a consistent member of 
the Baptist Church, as was also his wife. He 
is a man of honor and integrity, and has the 
respect of the entire community. 



,ON. PERRY LOGSDON, a citizen of 
Schuyler county, is a man whose name 
is honored where it is known. He was 
born in Madison county, Kentucky, July 8, 
1842, a son of Joseph and Lucy (Parker) 
Logsdon (see sketch of Joseph Logsdon). 
Until the age of eighteen years he passed an 
uneventful life amid the scenes of his child- 
hood, but this quiet was then rudely dis- 
turbed by the breaking out of the Civil war 
between the North and South. In 1861 he 
enlisted in Company H, Fiftieth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, and served his country 
faithfully until the cessation of hostilities, 



204 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OASS, 



July 13, 1865, being the date of his die- 
charge. He participated in every engagement 
of his company, and when the war was ended 
he returned to his home, with, the rank of 
First Lieutenant. 

Mr. Logsdon was married September 5, 
1867, to Miss Lizzie Byers, who was born in 
Schuyler county, Illinois, March 12, 1850, a 
daughter of William and Eleanor (Stntsman) 
Byers (see sketch of John S. Stutsman). Mr. 
Byers was born in the Blue-grass State, and 
removed to this county in 1847, where he 
spent his last days; the date of his birth is 
May 22, 1826, and his death occurred Feb- 
ruary 24, 1862; his wife was born August 
23, 1828, in the State of Indiana. The 
paternal grandparents of Mrs. Logsdon were 
John and Elizabeth Byers; he died in 1827, 
and she survived until 1857. After his mar- 
riage, Mr. Logsdon settled on land which is 
a portion of his present farm; the dwelling 
was a log house which was raised the day 
General William Henry Harrison was in- 
augurated President of the United States; 
there he lived six years, and then removed to 
his present home. He first bought 106 acres 
of choice land, to which he added 120 acres 
later on; to this he added two eighty-acre 
tracts, and is now the owner of one of the 
most desirable farms in the county; a portion 
of this land is rented, and the rest is devoted 
to general farming. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Logsdon have been born 
seven children, four of whom are deceased: 
Luella was born on the home farm, August 
5, 1869; Julia was born July 31, 1873; 
Charles F. was born January 6, 1880. Mr. 
Logsdon has for many years been identified 
with the political movements of his county; 
he has been Assessor, was Supervisor two 
years, and has been School Director; in 
1884 he was elected a member of the State 



Legislature, and in 1888 was re-elected by a 
large majority. He is a Republican, but 
carried a Democratic district. While a mem- 
ber of the Legislature he was on several 
committees of importance, among which 
were these on Penal and Reformatory Insti- 
tutions, Canals and Rivers, Insurance, Drain- 
age, and Farm Drainage. He discharged his 
duties with marked ability, and such was the 
dignity and courtesy of his bearing as to com- 
mand the respect of his allies as well as oppo- 
nents. Throughout all his career, Mr. 
Logsdon has borne himself with a deep sense 
of honor which has insured a name above re- 
proach, a credit to his ancestry and a legacy 
of great worth to his posterity. In the terri- 
ble conflict of this nation he was a brave, 
courageous soldier; in the private walks of 
life he has been as much the hero. He is a 
prominent member of the G.A. R. at Rush- 
ville, and takes an active interest in this 
organization. 



f WILLIAM MEYER, a prosperous 
farmer and stock-raiser of section 17, 
range 11, was born in Westphalia' 
Prussia, Germany, in 1838. In 1849, he 
came to America with his parents (see bio- 
graphy of Fred Meyer) and has been living 
in this country ever since. Here he grew 
to manhood, obtaining a little knowledge of 
English and English books. While he is not 
a well educated man he has good judgment 
and is very intelligent He is the eldest of 
his father's family, of whom all are married 
and live in the United States. Mr. Meyer 
owns a well improved farm of 160 acres, all 
under the plow with first-class farm buildings, 
all erected by himself. Beside this fine farm 
he owns seventy acres of good grass land and 



SGHUTLER AND SHOWN COUNTIES. 



205 



eighty acres of timber land. These lands 
are all earned by his own hard work. He 
follows general farming and stock-raising and 
breeds cattle from a first-class stock. 

He was married the first time to Caroline 
Telkemeyer, born in Cass county, in 1845, 
where she was reared and educated. She 
came of German parents who came to the 
United States and settled in Cass county 
where they lived and died, the mother when 
young and the father, William, when about 
sixty-five. They were earnest members of 
the German Lutheran Church. Mrs. Meyer 
died at her home in this county in 1879, on 
Easter Sunday of that year. She was thirty- 
three years of age, a true, good wife and 
mother, anda devout member of the Lutheran 
Church. She was the mother of three chil- 
dren: Mary at home with her father; Minnie 
and Emma, also at home. They are intelli- 
gent young women. Mr. Meyer was married 
the second time in Schuyler county, to Lizzie 
Gise, of Hesse Darmstadt, born in 1849. She 
came to the United States when a young 
woman with her father, John, the mother 
having died in Germany. They settled in 
Cass county. Later, Mr. Gise went tq Ore- 
gon and died there when an old man,. He 
and his family were Lutherans. Mr. and 
Mrs. Meyer have one child, Lucy. . They are 
members of the Lutheran Churph, and are 
true, good people. Mr. Meyer is a Republi- 
can in politics. 



IZRA JACKSON is a Hoosier by birth, 
born in Scott county, February 26, 
1823. His father, Samuel Jackson, 
was a native of North Carolina, and his 
grandfather, Solomon Jackson, was probably 
a native of the same State. The grandfather 
was a powerful man and lived to the great 

15 



age of ninety-eight years. He enlisted three 
different times in the Colonial army during 
the Revolutionary war, the first two enlist- 
ments being as substitute. He served dur- 
ing nearly the entire war, and was very 
j'oung when he first enlisted. He was a 
shoemaker by occupation, but also taught 
school, and remained in North Carolina until 
the formation of the Territory of Indiana, 
when he came there, too, and settled in what 
is now Scott county. He was thus one 
of the earliest settlers and pioneers of Indi- 
ana. He bought land and lived there until 
his death. For many years he drew a pen- 
sion from the Government for his services 
and patriotism during the Revolutionary war. 
He visited Sphnyler county several times, but 
finally died in Jefferson county, Indiana. 

Samuel Jackson, the father of our subject, 
was quite a young man when he went to Indi- 
ana. He married and lived there until 1829, 
and then, accompanied hyhiswifeandfivechil- 
dreu, all drawn by two yoke of oxen, hitched 
to an old-fashioned wagon, came to Illinois 
in search of a home. There was scarcely an 
inhabitant on the broad prairie then, and not 
a lajd-out road in Schuyler county. He 
located in what is now Bainbridge township, 
moving into a vacant log cabin, which the 
family occupied for two years, buying in the 
meantime a tract of land upon which was a 
rude log cabin and five or six acres of cleared 
land, the remainder of the farm being heavy 
timber. There wag little value then in stand- 
ing timber, no matter how large and fine, and 
accordingly the great trees were cut down, 
rolled together, and destroyed by the torch. 
This was necessary in order to clear the land 
for cultivation. Upon this farm he resided 
until his death in 1839. He was an indus- 
trious, exemplary citizen, and an honor to 
the great and historic name of Jackson. Th e 



206 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA88, 



maiden name of his wife, the mother of our 
subject, was Esther Close, who was born 
within two miles of Albany, New York. Her 
father was a native of England, who came to 
America at the age of thirteen. He mar- 
ried a Connecticut lady, and came to Scott 
county, Indiana, in a very early day, being 
one of its pioneers. 

Our subject, Ezra Jackson, is one of seven 
children born to his parents, viz.: Zadok, Ezra, 
Calvin, Elizabeth, Jesse, Solomon and Mary 
J. When Ezra was five years of age, he 
was brought to Schuyler county, where Tie grew 
to manhood. He was reared on the farm, 
and remained there until the age of twenty 
years, when he commenced to learn the trade 
of a cooper, after following which a few 
years, he conducted a hotel for one year in 
Frederick. In 1865 he bought property at 
the corner of Liberty and Lafayette etreets, 
Rushville, where he kept hotel for twenty 
years. He then removed the building stand- 
ing there and erected the brick stpre build- 
ing now occupying the site of the hoteL 
For some time he has been retired from 
active business. He was married, in 1846, to 
Emily JBrunk, who was born in Morgan 
county, Illinois, June 8, 182Q, the daughter 
of Jesse and Eliza (Day) Brunk, natives of 
Kentucky, and pioneers of Morgan county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson's living children are; 
Owen, Felix, Mary Ellen, Effigene, Martha 
and Frederick. Mr. Jackson is a Democrat in 
politics. 



fHOMAS J. CLARK was born in Hunts- 
ville township, Schuyler county, Sep- 
tember 16, 1853. His father, Harrison, 
was born in Logan county, Kentucky, Febru- 
ary 15, 1811, and he was the son of Abner 
Clark. . The father of our subject was reared 



and married in his native township and re- 
sided there until 1833, when he emigrated to 
Illinois. He was accompanied by his wife 
and child, and his brother-in-law, Mr. Wilgus, 
and family. They owned a wagon together, 
and each one had his own horse, and in this 
way made an overland journey to Illinois and 
located in Schuyler county. When he landed 
here his entire wealth consisted in his inter- 
est in the wagon, his horse and $150. He 
lived at Mount Sterling one year, then en- 
tered a tract of Government land in what is 
now Huntsville township, Schuyler county. 
He wanted a quarter section of land, but that 
would have cost more money than he had, 
consequently he entered eighty acres, and as 
soon as he obtained the money he entered the 
remainder of the quarter. As every other 
settler, he first built a log cabin on the place 
and commenced to improve his farm. For 
several years there were no railroads, and he 
hauled his wheat to Quincy, forty miles away. 
He commenced very soon to deal in stock, 
and was very successful both as a stock-dealer 
and farmer. He continued to purchase land 
until he had about 500 acres. Here he con- 
tinued until his death in 1883. His wife 
was named Lydia Coffman, of Hardin county, 
Kentucky, born August 3, 1815. Her par- 
ents came from Germany, and were early 
settlers of Kentucky. She died in 1860. 

Thomas was educated in Schuyler county, 
and two years at Lincoln University. In 1875 
he went to Sedgwick county, Kansas, pur- 
chased a farm twelves from Wichita and there 
engaged in farming for two years, when he 
went into Wichita and engaged in the grain 
business. He remained there two years and 
then went to McPherson, where he engaged 
in the same business, there built an elevator 
and shipped the first car load of grain ever 
shipped from that station. After two years 



SOHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



207 



he returned to Illinois and purchased the farm 
where he now resides in Pea Ridge township. 
It contains 240 acres, and is one of the finest 
in the county. 

He was married in 1874, to Virginia, 
daughter of John S. Anderson. She was born 
in Huntsville township. Mr. and Mrs. Clark 
have seven children: Helen, Arthur R., Ches- 
ter L., John H., Paul, Mary A. and Stanley. 

Mr. Clark joined the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church when sixteen years of age, and 
is an Elder in the church and has officiated 
both as Superintendent and teacher in the 
Sunday-school. Politically he is a stanch 
Republican, and is a member of the County 
Central Committee. In 1890 he was special 
agent of the Government to make note of the 
recorded indebtedness of the Twelfth Con- 
gressional District. He has served several 
terms as Secretary of the Mount Sterling 
Mutual Insurance Company, which office he 
now holds. Mr. Clark is well read, keeps. 
posted on all general questions, is also a for- 
cible writer, and is one of the prominent men 
of the township. 



[HOMAS R. WILLIAMS, Superintend- 
ent of the Cass County Poor Farm, was 
born in Bertie cqunty, North Carolina, 
June 1, 1850. He is the son of Williamson 
A. and Margaret (Thomas) Williams, natives 
of Bertie county, North Carolina. The 
family is an pld one in the State. The pa- 
rents liyed on. a farm until after the birth of 
six children, and in the fall of 1856 removed 
tp Illinois by wagon, and settled in this 
favored section, not far from Bluff Springs. 
They rented for two years, and then purchased 
the farm where they lived, when the mother 
died in May, 1884, three-score-and-ten. She 
was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 



Church. Her husband remained on the farm 
for two years longer, and then went to Beards- 
town, and one year later came to Bluff 
Springs, and here spent his last years, dying 
iu October, 1888. He was a good citizen, a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
a stanch Democrat, and a very worthy man. 

Our subject and his brother are the only 
members of the family now living. Mr. 
Williams has lived in this county since he 
was six years of age, and has been a practi- 
cal farmer since he was twenty-two years ot 
age. He took charge of the Poor Farm in 
1887, after his brother had managed it for 
eight years. It is located at Bluff Springs, 
and consists of more than 1QQ acres of fine 
land. It is well managed by Mr. Williams. 

The average poor in attendance all the 
time is, about twelve, and there is but one 
feeble-minded person among them. 

Our subject was married in this county to 
Sophia Reichert, born in Beardstown, in 
1857, reared and educated in Cass county, 
and a daughter of Conrad and Sophia Rei- 
chert, of Gerrnany. The mother died in the 
prime of life, in Cass county. Mr. Reichert 
was married the second time to Mrs. Withroe, 
and they live in Beardstown, now quite old. 

Mr. and Mrs. Williams have three chil- 
dren: Charles F., John F. and Howard, all 
at home. The family belongs to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Williams is 
a Democrat. The county has the right man 
in the right place. 



fOSEPH M. SPENCER, an intelligent 
and progressive citizen of Ashland, Illi- 
nois, and an honored veteran of the late 
war, was born in Gibson county, Indiana, 
October 24, 1842. 



208 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW Of . CASS, 



His parents were Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Hayhurst) Spencer, both of whom were na- 
tives of Morgantown, Virginia, the father of 
Welsh and the mother of German ancestry. 
They were married in Miami county, Ohio, 
removing thence to Indiana, from where 
they came to Morgan county, Illinois, in 
1849. The parents and younger children 
later removed to Kansas, where the father 
died in 1870, leaving his family and many 
friends to mourn his loss. He was a man of 
superior intelligence and generous impulses, 
and was very popular among his associates, 
who keenly felt his loss. His devoted wife, 
whose greatest interest was the welfare of 
her husband and family, returned to Illinois 
after her husband's death, finally expiring in 
Morgan county, Illinois, in 1879, deeply 
lamented by all who knew her and who ap- 
preciated her many excellent qualities of 
mind and heart. 

This worthy couple were the parents of 
seven children, four of whom are now living: 
Job H., the eldest, died in Arkansas, in 
April, 1890, leaving two children, his wife 
having previously died; John D. served three 
years in the Forty- second Indiana Infantry, 
is now married and is a prosperous farmer of 
Gibson county, Indiana; William S. resides 
in Buena Vista, Colorado: he is a widower 
and has a family; Rebecca, wife of William 
A. Baldwin, lives in Loami, Sangamon 
county, Illinois; Amos and Simeon died in 
youth. 

The subject of this sketch accompanied 
his parents to Illinois when he was seven 
years of age, and his boyhood and early man- 
hood was spent in this State, in the quiet 
pursuits of farm and home life. These 
peaceful, happy days were disturbed by the 
Civil war, and young Joseph enlisted at 
Springfield, on September 15, 1861, in Com- 



pany K, Thirty-third Illinois Infantry. He 
was in the Department of Missouri, and was 
taken prisoner by the notorious Jeff Thomp- 
son, at the battle of Blackwell Station, in 
October, 1861, and was paroled on the same 
day. Jeff said " they could either take the 
oath of allegiance, receive a parole, or be 
shot;" that he had "no use for prisoners." 
It was at this battle that Mr. Spencer saved 
the life of General Lippincott, a service 
which the General appreciated until the day 
of his death, and the heroic act afterward 
brought many courtesies to the subject of 
this sketch. He was offered a commission as 
Second Lieutenant, but declined it as a re- 
ward for doing his duty. We pause, to ex- 
claim, In what other country could such an 
incident have occurred? Truly, America 
rears kings, not ordinary men ! 

Mr. Spencer was seven months under pa- 
role, when he returned to the right of his 
command, at Village Creek, Arkansas, and 
took part in the fight at Cotton Plant, 
which occurred the following day. Here, he 
captured Colonel Harris' horse, sword and 
two revolvers. This was the Colonel who 
commanded the Texas Legion in that engage- 
ment. Mr. Spencer was next engaged in 
battle at Port Gibson, May 1, 1863; he had 
been in several unimportant battles during 
the interim, but this was the next general 
engagement. He was at Champion Hills 
and Black River Bridge; after which came 
the siege of Vicksburg, where he dug in the 
ditches and was under fire for forty-seven 
days. Here, he received a sunstroke, and 
was sent to St. Louis on a hospital boat. It 
was then that he realized fully the saying 
that misfortunes never come singly, for, 
while en route, he fell down a hatchway, 
striking on his head and causing deaf ness in his 
left ear, from which he has never recovered. 



SCHU7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



209 



He rejoined his regiment at New Orleans, 
in February, 1864, they being on their way 
home on veteran furlough. Mr. Spencer re- 
enlisted as a musician, and accompanied the 
boys home. Afterward, he returned to New 
Orleans, where he did garrison duty until the 
Mobile campaign, when the regiment was 
badly decimated by a railroad wreck, which 
killed and wounded many men. Mr. Spen- 
cer was assigned to the Sixteenth Army 
Corps, under General A. J. Smith, and par- 
ticipated in the fight at Spanish Fort. He 
then went to Montgomery, Alabama, and 
thence to Selma, of the same State, whence 
be and the command moved forward to 
Meridian, Mississippi. From there they 
went to Vicksburg, and, later, to Yazoo, 
where Mr. Spencer was mustered out of ser- 
vice, November 24, 1865, after a continuous 
service of more than four years. 

His duty done, his thoughts naturally 
turned to procuring a means of livelihood. 
It was then that he turned his attention to 
learning the business of painting and deco- 
rating, which he has followed most of the 
time ever since, In 1866, he went to Kan- 
sas, where he remained until 1874, at which 
time he removed to Iowa. While in Mis- 
souri, in the winter of 1862, he met with a 
very painful accident^ in which he lost one 
finger and had another severely injured, 
which, although not incapacitating him from 
work, has, at times, seriously interfered with 
his dexterity. In 1880, he finally returned 
to Ashland, Illinois, to which place he is at- 
tached by all the associations of his child- 
hood. Here he and his family have since 
resided, in a substantial and comfortable 
home surrounded by neat and attractive 
grounds, the whole place breathing the air of 
thrift and content. Besides this, Mr. Spencer 
is also the owner of other valuable property. 



He was married, August 7, 1870, to Miss 
Mary E. Gafd, an estimable lady, who is a 
native of Morgan county, Illinois, of which 
place her parents, Ephraim and Paulina 
Gard, were worthy pioneers. Her eldest 
brother, John S., died in the United States 
service, while waiting for his discharge, after 
the close of the war. Mrs. Spencer was the 
second of six children, only three of whom 
now survive: William, Mary and Lydia. 

Mr. and Mrs. Spencer have three daugh- 
ters, Ella, Anna and Lulu, all of whom are at 
home, the second being a teacher in the 
public schools. They are all highly intel- 
lectual and have been liberally educated. 
Mrs. Spencer and the two older daughters 
rae useful members of the Christian Church. 

Mr. Spencer is a straight Republican in 
politics, and takes an active interest in all 
public affairs. 

He is a prominent member of John L. 
Douglas Post, No. 592, in which he served 
for two terms as Quartermaster, and one 
term as Officer of the Day. He is an An- 
cient Odd Fellow, to which order he has 
belonged for a number of years. 

Any one who has read thus far in the life 
of this noble, upright man, will not be at a 
loss to make deductions in keeping with his 
exemplary character. Unaided, he has at- 
tained to prominence and acquired a com- 
fortable income for himself and family, 
while his numerous generous qualities ap- 
peal successfully to the hearts of his country- 



men. 



,ENRY CADY, of Huntsville, came to 
this county in 1840. His grandfather, 
Reuben Cady, has been written up in 
the biography of M. E. Cady. His father 
was Horace Cady, and he married also a 



210 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



Miss Cady, but no relation. Mr. Horace 
Cady was a farmer, and emigrated to New 
York State, settling near Rochester. Here 
they stayed until 1840, when they came to 
Illinois, settled in Camden, and the father 
purchased 120 acres of land. He later re- 
sided tor four years near Farmington, Fulton 
county, then returned to Schuyler county and 
passed the remaining years of his life on the 
farm on which he first settled. He died 
January, 1851. His wife died .November, 
1870. They had ten children, namely: Heze- 
kiah, died in Sacramento, California; Dane- 
ford, now in Gamden township; Elizabeth, 
now Mrs. I. G. Cady, of Camden township; 
Lucia married Perry Anderson, and is now 
dead; Henry; Reuben died in Camden town- 
ship; Orin died at Memphis, Tennessee, while 
in the army; Fhilinda married Cyrus Ander- 
son, of Huntsville township; Emeline, now 
Mrs. Richard Mead, of Rushville. This 
large family have commanded the respect and 
esteem of every one wherever any of them 
have gone. 

Henry Cady was born in Otsego county, 
New York, December 3, 1828. He came 
with the family to Illinois, and learned the 
blacksmith's trade in 1849. He started a 
shop in 1854 and continued it for six years. 
He then settled where he now resides and 
purchased land, but still continued his trade 
until 1870, when he discontinued the black- 
smith shop and devoted himself to farming. 
He now owns 320 acres of land, on which he 
has made many valuable improvements. He 
follows stock-raising and has produced some 
very fine cattle. He has been Supervisor 
one term, and Road Commissioner still an- 
other term. 

He was married in 1855, to Emeline Plunk- 
ett, of Camden township. They have had 
eight children: Adelia, now Mrs. Edwin 



Elliott; Amelia, died in childhood; Amanda, 
now Mrs. Greeley Clark; Frank, died at 
eighteen; Everett is at home; Mary is also 
at home, and the youngest child is Stowell 
R. Mr. Cady is a Democrat in politics, and 
the family are members of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Cady is a man who has made 
his property himself, and has been a man of 
good habits all his life. 



E. JONES, prominently connected for 
the last twelve years, as division 
road master between Bushnell, Illinois, 
and St. Louis, Missouri, of the St. Louis di- 
vision of the Qtiincy Railroad, with headquar- 
ters at Eeardstown, was born on a farm near 
Baldwinsville, New York, February 11, 1847- 
He was there reared and educated, becoming 
early acquainted with hard work. At the 
age of sixteen, he enlisted in the Scott's Nine 
Hundred Cavalry, but before he reached the 
front he was overtaken by his father, and 
compelled to return home. In 1863, he en- 
listed in Nine Hundred of New York State 
Militia, and served until July, 1864, when he 
enlisted in Company A, One Hundred and 
Eighty-fifth New York Regiment Volunteer 
Infantry, Colonel Jennings and Captain O. K. 
Howard, commanding, and this regiment was 
assigned to First Division of the Fifth Army 
Corps. He fought as a brave soldier at 
Hatcher's Run, Petersburg, Weldon 'and 
Quaker roads and Five Forks; was in the pur- 
suit of Lee, and was at Lee's surrender at 
Appomattox, where his company lost their 
First Lieutenant, the last man killed of the 
Army of the Potomac, and, later, he partici- 
pated in the grand review at Washington 
District of Columbia. He had many narrow 
escapes from capture and wounds, especially 



SCHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



211 



while serving as a scout for General Chamber- 
lain, and for the period of nine months his 
was one of the fighting regiments of the war. 
He was one of the first to obtain a piece of 
the famous apple tree at Appomattox Court 
House, where Lee held his last consultation 
with his staff and decided to surrender. He 
is honestly proud of his military record, and 
was honorably discharged June 11, 1865. 

His connection with the Chicago, Burling- 
ton &Qnincy Railroad system began in 1867> 
and after a period of two years' service with 
the bridge department, with headquarters at 
Gralesburg, he helped in the construction of 
the large railroad bridges over the Mississippi 
river at Burlington, Quincy and Hannibal, 
Missouri. He was also engaged between 
Hannibal and Moberly, Missouri. Later he 
was assistant track layer for the new road, 
then known as the Hannibal and Naples, now 
part of the "Wabash system. All these years 
he has proven himself a good man, and his 
promotion has been won by his own efforts, 
He helped build what is known as the Louis- 
iana branch of the Q. system, and after the 
completion of that road he became section 
foreman, and later extra gang foreman, which 
is on line of regular promotion, and after nine 
years was promoted to assistant road master 
of the St. Louis division, with headquarters 
at Beardstown. Two years later he became 
roadmaster from Bushnell to St. Louis. He 
now has control of 136 miles of track, with 
two yards, thus putting hini over a large 
number of men. Since May, 1880, he has 
been the Q. road- master, and has* achieved 
a just prominence by his indomitable energy 
and devotion to the interests of the company. 
He is a good citizen, and a leader in all local 
and public matters. 

For several years he has been a working 
member of McLane Post, No. 97, G. A. R., 



of Beardstown, of which he is now Past Com- 
mander. He is also a member of the Beards- 
town Lodge, K. of P.", No. 207, and was a 
charter member and the first Chancelor Com- 
mander, serving for three terms, and is now 
Deputy Grand Master of the district, and has 
taken an active part in all its work, and he is a 
member of the orders of Woodmen and Work- 
men. He is also active in local politics, is 
Chairman of the Republican County Central 
Committee, and has been a member of the 
Board of Education. He belongs to the Road- 
masters' Association of America, is an ex- Vice 
President of it, and is a member of the Execu- 
tive Board. 

He was married in Quincy, Illinois, to 
Almira E. Stedman, of Pike county, formerly 
of Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. She was only 
twelve years old when her parents came to 
Illinois, and she grew up in Pike county. 
Their living children are: Bertha, Anna, Al- 
thea, Ray and Almira Edrie. 



DWARD F. HACKMAN, a farmer of 
section 26, township 17, range 12, was 
born at his father's home, in this county, 
November 28, 1857. He is the second son 
and fifth child. His parents were John Fred- 
erick and Inglehei t (Meyer) Hackman, natives 
of Hanover, Germany, coining of pure Ger- 
man ancestry. They came to America in 
1835, with their respective families. They 
grew up, were married in Cass county, and 
soon afterward settled on a farm in Indian 
Creek precinct, and later, they came to Arenz- 
ville precinct, where they purchased their 
present home. They bought from time to 
time, and made improvements, and now have a 
beautiful home. (For further particulars, with 
regard to ancestry, see biography of Will- 
iam Hackman.) 



212 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OAS8, 



Edward was reared on his father's farm and 
remained there until he was twenty-five years 
old. He has since tilled his own farm. He 
has resided on the farm lie now owns for 
eleven years, and last year, 1890, he bought 
it. It is a fine farm, and he has made many 
improvements upon it. It contains 240 acres. 

He was married here to Amelia Jokish, an 
accomplished young lady, born and reared in 
the county. Since her marriage, she has been 
a devoted wife and mother. (For family his- 
tory, see biography of C. G. Jokisch.) Mr. 
and Mrs. Hackman are the parents of five 
children: Elmer, Orville E., Cora M., Mor- 
ton H., and Earl R. All are bright, smart 
children. Mr. and Mrs. Hackman are mem- 
bers of the Emanuel Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which Mr. Hackman has been 
Steward for five years. He is a Republican 
in politics, and is very prominent in politics. 

Mr. John Frederick and wife have lived 
honored lives in the county, and their sons 
and daughters are a credit to them. The 
father aud sons are all strong Republicans, 
and the former is seventy-five years of age, 
but he is in poor health, and for the past ten 
years has been retired from active business. 
He was one of the first members of the 
Emanuel Methodist Episcopal Church of this 
place. His wife is also a member of the 
same, and is seventy-two years of age. They 
have eight children living: Wilhelmenia, 
widow of Henry Winkle, residing in Beards- 
town, mother of three bright daughters ; Her- 
man; Sophia, wife of M. L. Korse, a hardware 
dealer of Beatrice, Nebraska; Matilda is at 
home keeping house for her parents ; Edward ; 
Sarah, wife of Philip Jokisch; Henry, of the 
firm of Korse & Hackman, hardware dealers 
at Beatrice, Nebraska. 

Herman Hackman is a prominent young 
farmer and stock-raiser, yet single, of section 



30, township 17, range 11. He manages his 
father's old homestead of 319 acres, and has 
run it on his own account for the past ten 
years. He was born on this farm, May 6, 
1850, and was reared and received his first 
education in the county; later he attended a 
commercial school in St. Louis. He has 
always followed the vocation of farming, 
and is a hard-working young man. He, like 
his father and brothers, is a staunch Repub- 
lican in politics, and a Methodist in religion. 



R. RICHARD HOMER MEAD is a 
native of Schuyler county, born in 
Huntsville, January 16, 1847, being a 
son of Andrew J. and Mary (Briscoe) Mead. 
He was educated in Huntsville. When he 
was sixteen years old he enlisted in Company 
K, Eighth Iowa Cavalry, at Camp Roberts, 
Davenport, Iowa. From there they went to 
Nashville, Tennessee, and were on duty in 
the mountains during the winter of 1863-'64. 
In the spring they were on the left wing of 
General McCook's cavalry, with Sherman's 
army on liis advance on Atlanta, participating 
in the engagements of that campaign, besides 
other engagements. There was fighting every 
day for 100 days. They then returned north, 
and were the first forces to oppose Hood's 
crossing the Tennessee river. They retreated 
before Hood's advance to Duck river, where 
they prevented his advance until the battle 
of Franklin, in which they participated, also 
in the battle of Nashville, when they pur- 
sued Hood's army to the Tennessee river. In 
the spring of 1865 they were in Wilson's 
cavalry, and fought two engagements in the 
mountains in Alabama after the war was 
over, not having received notice of the sign- 
ing of the terms of the surrender. They 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



213 



next were sent in pursuit of Jeff. Davis, to 
Macon, Georgia, where he was captured. Mr. 
Mead was then mustered out, August 28, 
1865. He was taken prisoner on McCook's 
raid in the rear of Atlanta, but escaped in a 
few hours. One half of his company died at 
Andersonville prison. After the war he re- 
turned to Illinois and resumed the study of 
medicine, which he had commenced in the 
office of his father. In November, 1865, he 
entered the medical college at Keokuk, Iowa, 
graduating with the class of 1867. He then 
located at Huntsville, and practiced with his 
father until 1872, when he went to Texas and 
spent five years with the I. & G. N. Railroad 
Company. In 1878 and 1879 he attended 
the St. Louis Medical College, and then re- 
sumed practice at Huntsville, and continued 
until 1884. Dr. Mead had thus received a 
good medical education, but his literary edu- 
cation was limited to the schools of Hunts- 
ville; however, he applied to the Civil Service 
Commissioner for examination, and passed in 
the class of Burlington, Iowa, receiving an 
appointment as Pension Clerk at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, August 18, 1884, 
being the fifteenth man from Illinois who 
passed the examination. March 2, 1885, he 
became a permanent member of class 1, and 
in October of the same year he was promoted 
to class 2. April 24, 1886, he was detailed 
to the field as special examiner, and worked 
in Maine, New Hampshire and New York. 
December 28, 1886, he resigned his position, 
but being an honorably discharged soldier he 
can re-enter the service at any date, without 
an examination. He returned to Huntsville, 
where he resumed his practice, and where he 
has remained ever since. He usually spends 
the winter months in the Southern States. 
Dr. Mead has had a large practice, and 
has always attended to his patients re- 



gardless of weather, bad roads or illness. 

He was married October 3, 1889, to Mary, 
daughter of James N. and Martha (Parrish) 
Ward, and they have one child, _ Clara 
Briscoe. 

Dr. Mead has voted the Democratic ticket 
for years, but now supports the People's 
party. He is a member of the Huntsville 
Lodge, No. 465, A. F. & A. M.; Augusta 
Chapter, No. 78, R. A. M., and Almoner 
Commandery, No. 32, K. T., also of Cyclone 
Lodge, No. 635, I. O. O. F., of which he is 
one of the organizers. He attended the Na- 
tional Columbian Medical Association at 
Washington, District of Columbia, in 1884-- 
'85-'86. He is very active in G. A. R. mat- 
ters, is a member of George A. Brown Post, 
No. 417, of the Department of Illinois, and 
always attends the annual National Encamp- 
ment. 




ILLIAM T. TREADWAY came to 
Cass county (then Morgan) with his 
parents in 1829. He was the son of 
Edward and Elizabeth (Anderson) Treadway, 
natives of Maryland, raised near Baltimore. 
They moved from there after marriage, to 
Hamilton county, Ohio, and from there to 
this county. The family is English-Scotch. 
They had eight children, of whom the sub- 
ject was the fourth; only three are living, 
and he is the oldest. They are Edward, 
Owens and Elizabeth. The parents died here 
and are interred in the Monroe cemetery. 

William was born in Hamilton county, 
Ohio, August 22, 1819, hence was ten years 
old when he became a resident of Cass county. 
Sixty-three years of his life have been spent 
in this county, forty-one of them on his 
present farm. He was educated in the sub- 
scription schools, grew to manhood a farmer 



214 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



and followed that occupation all his life. Pie 
is now enjoying the fruit of his early indus- 
try, and is living a retired life. During his 
residence in this county Mr.. Tread way has 
witnessed a wonderful transformation from a 
wilderness to a populous and prosperous 
community. His farm in this precinct was 
partly improved when he bought it, and this 
was his first real estate in the county, though 
he spent about twenty-one years here before 
this purchase. He is a Democrat in politics, 
and has held the various county and precinct 
offices. He owns 290 acres of tillable land, 
has a good house and fair improvements. 
His farming is divided between grain and 
stock-raising. The Treadway family has 
always been noted as a robust race, always 
enjoying long lives, and have been repre- 
sented in America for six generations. 

He was married in this county, in 1850, to 
Mary McHenry, who has borne him nine 
children, all living: Jacob, Margaret, Mary, 
Nancy, James, John, Louisa, Joseph and 
Jefferson. Two daughters and one son are 
unmarried. The others are all married and 
are farmers, except Joseph, who is in the 
agricultural business at Virginia City. Mrs. 
Treadway died in 1879, and her husband is 
still "unmarried. 



,LEXANDER D. SIX, M. D., one of 
the successful surgeons and physicians 
of Versailles, was born in Morgan 
county, now Scott, in 1828. His father, 
David Six, was born in Tennessee, in 1799, 
and his father, John Six, was a native of the 
Shenandoah valley, Virginia, and his grand- 
father, the great-great-grandfather of the Doc- 
tor, was banished from Germany on account 
of his tendency toward mutiny, and settled in 



this country, where he founded the family of 
Six on American soil. The offence for which 
he was exiled from his native land was a 
small one, it being the infringement of the 
game laws with regard to hunting rabbits. 
His grandson, John, took a very active part 
in the Revolutionary war, and though a youth 
was one of the prison guards at Yorktown. 
His wife was Mary Dnvall, of Pennsylvania, 
and they were married in the State where he 
was following his trade of carpenter and 
joiner. After marriage they removed to 
Tennessee, where their seven sons were born. 
This gentleman was a typical frontiersman 
and hunter, and was a pioneer of Tennessee, 
Kentucky and Illinois. The father of our 
subject, David, and his brother, John, were 
the pioneers of that family to Illinois, com- 
ing in the springof 1823, landing near Spring- 
field in June, making the journey with pack 
horses and bringing their families with them, 
David having two children, while his brother 
had but one. In a year or two they came to 
the western part of Morgan county, and their 
parents and brothers followed to Illinois a 
couple of years afterward, making the jour- 
ney with covered wagons. The entire party 
was very poor, having nothing but their out- 
fits and their willing hands, ready to engage 
in whatever offered itself. John Six had a 
family as follows: Abraham Six, died in Scott 
county, aged sixty-seven, leaving three sons 
and two daughters; Daniel, died in the same 
county, about the same age, leaving eight or 
nine children to mourn his death; John, the 
next, and his family are all buried, he dying 
in 1857, aged sixty-seven; Jacob, moved to 
Arkansas and died at an advanced age, leav- 
ing a large family; David, father of subject; 
Isaac, farmer of Scott county, where he died 
about the same age as his other brothers; 
William died at the same age; Mary, wife of 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



215 



James Taylor, of Scott county, a farmer, and 
they had a medium family; Elizabeth, wife of 
William Parker, died in Arkansas, leaving a 
large family; Catherine is still living with 
her daughter, in Missouri, aged ninety years, 
and is in fair health of mind and body; she 
had live children; Nancy, wife of Simon 
Taylor, died when about seventy, leaving 
twelve or thirteen children. These children 
were all fanners, or the wives of farmers, and 
they all crossed the plains to Illinois. The 
father and mother of the subject lived on a 
farm of 140 acres, near Mount Sterling, where 
the father died, aged fifty-nine years, leaving 
eleven living children and one deceased 
daughter of five years. The name of the 
children were: Nancy, wife of a Mr. Green, of 
California, has a large family; Martha, died 
in Missouri, aged forty-eight, leaving the 
nine children she had born to her husband, 
George Scott; Daniel, a farmer of Mount 
Sterling, has a family of two daughters and 
the same number of sons; Abraham, a farmer 
two miles east of Mount Sterling, has seven 
children; Alexander D., subject; Mary, died, 
aged forty-eight, in California, near Los An- 
geles, being the wife of Irving Carter, by 
whom she had six children; Isabella died 
when five years old ; William died near Mount 
Sterling on the homestead, aged fifty-four, 
leaving a wife and two daughters; Eliza- 
beth, now Mrs. William Bowen, of Knox 
county, Missouri, has six daughters; Cynthia, 
widow of W. A. Sieles, lives on her farm in 
Missouri with her seven children; Oliver P. 
and James K. are both bachelors on the home 
farm. This family is among the earliest of 
the settlers, and the Six prairie in Mount 
Sterling is named after them. 

The Doctor was reared to farm life and 
received his primary education in the log 
Bchoolhouses, with the puncheon floors and 



slab seats, without backs. The school that 
he attended, principally, was held in Mount 
Sterling. He left the subscription school 
at eighteen and went for a year to the Mount 
Sterling Academy when he was twenty-two, 
tion school of the neighborhood held in the log 
After this he taught school for four years, 
reading medicine all this time. lie finished 
his medical course in Rush Medical College, 
Chicago, graduating in the class of 1859, 
beginning his practice at Mount Pleasant. 
He went to Colorado in 1860 and two years 
later made an exploring trip through Idaho 
and Montana. He spent two years in Colo- 
rado and four years in Montana, and was one 
of the nineteen who discovered the gold mines 
in the last named State, at Big Hole, not long 
before the discovery of the Bannock mines. 
He was interested in these and other mines 
during the four years he spent in this State, 
but returned home, across the plains, by 
stage, a journey of 2,200 miles, an easier 
journey than the trip out, which was made 
with ox teams. 

The Doctor bought his present farm of 400 
acres about 1873, of J. P. Hambaugh for 
$9,000, with no buildings but the old log- 
cabin. He built his farm house in 1875 and 
his barns in 1880 and 1889, one being 36 by 
40 and the other 36 by 48. His farm is a 
grain and stock one, he raising wheat, corn 
and hay, feeding his stock at home. At 
times he has as many as forty-two head of 
horses, which he raises from colts. He has 
built a warehouse on his own land, at Perry 
Spring Station, where they ship a great deal 
of grain and stock. 

This gentleman was married, in Lee town- 
ship, to Elizabeth Osborn, still living. They 
have three living children, but have buried 
one daughter, Jessie, aged nine years. She 
was a lovely child and her untimely death 



216 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



cast a gloom over the entire household. The 
living children are: Charles, aged twenty - 
four; Fred EL, twenty-two; and Mattie, the 
pet of the household, aged eight. The son 6 
are both regular farmers, and are now con- 
ducting the stock farm. Both have received 
a good business education, and are still single, 
residing at home. The little daughter is a 
sweet child and tills, to some extent, the ach- 
ing void left by her departed sister. 

The Doctor still practices, but only pursued 
his profession exclusively for about two 
years. He was of a great deal of use in the 
mines, where his professional skill was often 
called into play, at one time being blown up 
from a premature discharge of a blast of 
powder; the Doctor was injured, and it was 
some time before he recovered, having nar- 
rowly escaped death. This gentleman is a 
member of no secret society or creed, and 
believes in Democracy, but is hardly within 
party lines. He and his family are highly 
respected. 

EVI DICK, one of the most prominent 
citizens of this section, was born in 
Simpson county, Kentucky, February 
17, 1815, son of Peter and Christina (Shutt) 
Dick. Peter Dick was born in one of the 
Carolinas, and reared to farm life. He came 
to Illinois in the fall of 1829, bringing his 
wife and eight children all the way from 
Simpson county, Kentucky, where he had set- 
tled at a very early day. The journey lasted 
about twenty-two days, and they settled in 
Sangamon county, where they raised one 
crop, and then, in the winter of 1831, re- 
moved to near the present home of our sub- 
ject, buying 160 acres of partly improved 
land, nine or ten acres being broken, and a 
small log house erected on the land. In this 



cabin they lived for two years, until Peter 
rebuilt it, and in the remodeled house this 
esteemed gentleman ended his days, aged 
seventy years. His wife was born in the 
same county as himself, and died on the old 
farm, aged sixty-eight. These two had eight 
children, five yet living. Peter Dick was a 

son of John and Dick, also natives of 

one of the Carolinas, who died in Kentucky, 
when very old. Subject's mother was a 
daughter of Henry and Polly Shutt, natives 
of Germany, who came to Illinois at an early 
day, dying here when very old. The entire 
family, on both sides, pursued farming to a 
great extent. Peter Dick and wife were 
very poor when they came to Illinois, and so 
were unable to provide for their children, 
who were forced to take care of themselves. 

Our subject was no exception to this rule, 
and everything he has was earned by himself. 
He remained on the farm, working with his 
father until his marriage. His education 
was received at the district and subscription 
schools. After his marriage, Mr. Dick set- 
tled in a log cabin, about 18 x 20, in which 
he lived until 1852, when he moved into his 
present fine house. The fine home and farm 
now owned by Mr. Dick presents a great 
contrast to the wild prairie found by his 
father and mother when they came to this 
region in search of fortunes. "Wild deer and 
game of many kinds abounded. Mr. Dick is 
inclined to think, however, that pioneer life 
had its pleasures as well as trials, as he says 
that the people were much more sociable in 
those days than now. 

Mr. Dick was married the first time to 
Emmatiah Leeper, in 1839. This lady was 
born in Kentucky, and was a daughter of 
Robert and Mary Leeper. Mrs Dick 
died on the farm where he now lives, aged 
about thirty-five years; by this wife he 



SCHLTYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



217 



had nine children, three now living, namely: 
Amos, married to Matilda Armstrong, two 
children; Robert L. married Amanda Sutton, 
three children; Martha A. married Alonzo 
Sutton, five children. Mr. Dick was mar- 
ried a second time, to Mary Morgan, born in 
Kentucky, died on the old home farm, aged 
fifty-three. She bore him two children, 
Eliza C. and George L.. the latter now in 
Oregon. The former married N. B. Orr, of 
Delaware county, Iowa, born in 1856, son of 
Thomas and Caroline Orr, and they have 
three children. 

Mr. Dick's fine farm of 300 acres is man- 
aged by his son-in-law, Mr. Orr, who carries 
on a mixed farming, and waving fields of 
grain now occupy the prairie where, half a 
century ago, deer were found in flocks of sev- 
enty-five. 

Mr. Dick, like his father before him, is a 
stanch Democrat, and cast his first vote for 
Martin Van Buren. Mr. Dick and his 
father helped build the first church and 
schoolhouse in the section, and has taken a 
deep interest in church and school matters 
ever since. He arid his family are all church 
attendants and worthy, good people. 



W. TAYLOR, a prominent 
farmer of Brooklyn township, and an 
honored pioneer of the county, was 
born in Trumbull county, Ohio, in February, 
1824, a son of Alexander and Betsey (Scott) 
Taylor, natives of Pennsylvania; the father 
died at the age of fifty-five years, and the 
mother died at the advanced age of eighty 
years, at Burlington, Iowa. The paternal 
grandfather, Matthew Taylor, was born in 
the north of Ireland, of English parents. 
He emigrated to the United States in 1772, 



and settled in Pennsylvania; he died in 
Huntingdon county, at the age of ninety- 
seven years. His wife, whose maiden name 
was Mcllheny, was born in Ireland, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestors; she lived to be ninety-five 
years old. Alexander Taylor came to Ohio 
in 1810, and cleared a farm out of the heart 
of the forest. His wife, Betsey Scott, was a 
daughter of Nehemiah and Mary (Wick) 
Scott; her father was a native of Long 
Island, and was a descendant of Scotch an- 
cestry, and the mother of Washington county, 
Pennsylvania; both died in Trumbull county, 
Ohio. The Taylor family have been promi- 
nent in the affairs of both church and State, 
possessing great intelligence and culture. 

Henry W. Taylor received superior edu- 
cational advantages, and at the age of nine- 
teen years began teaching school ; he followed 
this profession two years, and then took a 
course of law in a private school. After his 
graduation he engaged in practice, but in a 
short time the California gold fever swept 
this country, and lie determined to go to the 
Pacific coast. He made the journey over- 
land with four yoke of oxen, and was on the 
way from the 1st of April until October 22. 
He remained four years, and was engaged in 
mining during that time. 

He was married June 8, 1853, to Miss 
Cornelia Manlove, a native of Rushville, 
Schuyler county, Illinois, and a daughter of 
Jonathan D. and Sophronia (Chadsey) Man- 
love. Mrs. Taylor's father was born in North 
Carolina, came to Illinois in an early day, and 
was married in Schuyler county in 1826. 
(This was the third marriage in the county.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Taylor have three children 
living: Marian H. married T. D. Lewis, and 
has three children; Ida M. is at home; Fan- 
nette married Dr. J. E. Camp, and is the 
mother of three children. 



213 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OP GASS, 



After his marriage Mr. Taylor lived in 
Rushville township, and was engaged in 
operating a lumber-yard and building a plank 
road until 1857, when he sold his entire 
possessions and removed to Brooklyn town- 
ship. He developed a farm of 900 acres out 
of prairie and timber land, made many valu- 
able improvements, and has one of the best 
places in the county. He and his wife are 
members of the Presbyterian Church, of 
which he is an Elder. Politically he affiliates 
with the Republican party; his first vote was 
cast for Zachary Taylor, but at the formation 
of the Republican party he gave his allegi- 
sance to that organization, and cast hip 
snffracre for J. C. Fremont. He was Justice 

O 

of the Peace for sixteen years, was Super- 
visor for two terms, and has served on the 
school board. In connection with his large 
agricultural interests, Mr. Taylor has carried 
on a mercantile business since before the 
war, purchasing his first stock in February, 
1861. He makes a specialty of raising fine, 
blooded stock, and has done much to elevate 
the standard in this section. He is a self- 
made man, and a citizen in whom Schuyler 
county takes just pride. 



fAMES D. THOMPSON, one of the suc- 
cessful farmers of Woodstock township, 
is entitled to the space that has been 
accorded him in this history of Schuyler 
county, and following is a brief outline of 
his career. He is a native of Crawford 
county, Pennsylvania, born March 30, 1823, 
a son of William and Mary (Peterson) 
Thompson. The paternal grandfather, Will- 
iam Thompson, Sr., was born in Ireland, and 
when a boy crossed the seas to try his for- 
tunes in the New World. He was a carpen- 
ter by trade, and followed his vocation all 



his life; he and his wife attained the good 
old age of three-score and ten years. Will- 
iam Thompson, Jr., was a native of the Key- 
stone State, and resided there until 1837, 
when he came to Illinois; he was a mill- 
wright by trade, and worked at that occupa- 
tion several years. Two years after coming 
to this State he purchased land in Brown 
county, on which he settled the 14th day of 
May. In the fall of the same year his death 
occurred, at the age of fifty-four years and 
seven months; he left a wife and six chil- 
dren. The family then rented land for a 
period of eight years, and at the end of that 
time located on the tract purchased by the 
father. The mother died in Brown county, 
at the age of eighty-six years. Her parents, 
James and Elizabeth (Abbott) Peterson, were 
of English and German descent, and died in 
Pennsylvania, at the ages of ninety-one and 
ninety years respectively. James D. Thomp- 
son is one of a family of ten children, five of 
whom are living. He remained under his 
parents' roof until he was married; this 
event occurred April 3, 1856, when he was 
united to Miss Margaret E. Grosclaude, a 
native of France, born April 27, 1830. Her 
parents, James F. and Catharine E. (Jonte) 
Grosclande, emigrated to the United States 
in 1833, and located in Woodstock township, 
Schuyler county, Illinois; he died here Sep- 
tember 30, 1878, at the age of seventy-four 
years, and she September 15, 1878. at seventy- 
two years; they reared a family of eleven 
children. Mrs. Thompson's paternal grand- 
parents died in 1878, the grandfather Sep- 
tember 30, and the grandmother September 
16. Peter J. Jonte, the maternal grand- 
father, was born in February, 1776, and died 
October 2, 1846; his wife, Susan Landon, 
was born March 25, 1774, and died June 7, 
1842. 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



219 



Mr. and Mrs. Thompson are the parents of 
six children: Mary E. is married, and the 
mother of three children; William J. is mar- 
ried, and has six children; Jefferson E. is 
married, and has three children; Emily L. is 
married, and the mother of a family of three; 
Charles W. is married; and Lorena M. is at 
home. 

Mr. Thompson has been prominently con- 
nected with the agricultural interests of the 
county, and owns about 300 acres of choice 
land; he has been School Director for twenty- 
three years, and has held other local offices, 
always discharging his duties with a fidelity 
that won the entire confidence of his con- 
stituency. Politically he affiliates with the 
Democratic party. 



[R. GEORGE W. CRUM, farmer and 
physician, town 17, range 11, section 
35, post office Arenzville, was born on 
the homestead adjoining. (See sketch of 
James Crnm.) Dr. Crum began his educa- 
tion in the district schools. From there he 
went to the Illinois College at Jacksonville 
for one year, and then attended two years at 
the State Normal School at Normal, Illinois. 
He then attended three years the Illinois 
Wesley an College, receiving the degrees of 
B. A. and M. A. from that popular institu- 
tion. From there he went to Adrian, Michi- 
gan, to complete his scientific course. He 
received the degree of B. S. at Adrian, and 
completed a full classical course at the Wes- 
leyan College. He studied medicine under 
private tutors during his vacations, and then 
attended the St. Louis Medical College, re- 
ceiving the degree of M. D. in 1874. His 
close application to study had undermined 
his health, and he felt obliged to retire to the 



farm to recuperate. On completing his pro- 
fessional course he entered upon the duties 
imposed by the office of hospital physician, 
but this was terminated by failing health. 
He intends to resume practice during the 
coming year. 

He was married August 21, 1878, to Mol- 
lie E., daughter of Dr. David Malone, now 
deceased. Mrs. Crum was born in Posey 
county, Indiana. They have two children, 
Cora and Olga, eleven and thirteen years old. 

The Doctor is not an aggressive politician. 
He owns a farm of 160 acres of well- 
improved land, adjoining that of his father. 
Mrs. Crum is a lady of fine literary attain- 
ments, a graduate of the Athenaeum College 
at Jacksonville, Illinois. Her only brother 
is a physician there. Her sisters, Alice, 
Emma and Rosa, all married into representa- 
tive and prominent families. Alice was the 
wife of William Morrison, and died in Iowa; 
Emma became the wife of Robert McCurdy, 
of Princeton, Indiana; and Rosa married 
Elijah Needham, of Virginia, Illinois. She 
is not now living. Mrs. Crum is a member 
of the Christian Church, and her husband is 
a member of the 1. O. O. F. and the A. O. 
U. W. They are very worthy people. 



fAMES H1LES, general farmer and stock 
raiser of Beardstown, was born in Salem 
county, New Jersey, January 4, 1822 
His father, John, was a native of the same 
place, was there engaged as a truck raiser, 
and afterward ran a large farm in Manning- 
ton township, and still later was engaged in 
farming and truck-raising near Bridgeport. 
He died at the age of ninety-six, after lead- 
ing a quiet, peaceable life. His wife's name 
was Sarah Chrispen, also born in Salem 



220 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF C'ASS, 



county. She came of an old Quaker family. 
Her own mother and a sister were speakers 
among Friends for many years. She and 
her husband, however, adhered very closely 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which 
they were working members. She died at 
the age of ninety. 

James grew up in New Jersey, and was 
married March 7, 1844, and about this time 
commenced farming in Marion county, and 
followed it for about nine years; then he 
was a butcher in Woodtown two years. He 
came here in 1856; first he engaged as a 
butcher and farmer at Brighton, Illinois, for 
two years, and then went to Greenfield. While 
at those towns he furnished the meat for the 
workmen on what is now the Quincy railroad, 
while it was building. He followed that 
business there for three years. He was a 
poor man when he reached here, but has since 
acquired a good property. It is now thirty- 
one years since he came to Cass county, en- 
gaging first in farming. He has been very 
successful, because of a progressive nature, 
and because he understood the nature of the 
soil. He soon began the growing of sweet 
potatoes and watermelons, and this has oc- 
cupied most of his time for twenty-five years. 
He raises from 2,000 to 2,500 bushels an- 
nually, and a large number of melons. He 
is very well known, and is respected as a 
hard worker and a good citizen. His place 
consists of fifty-nine acres, where he has 
lived but a few years. 

He was married in Woodtown, New Jersey, 
to Sarah Kidd, who was born and reared in 
Salem county, born in 1818. Her parents, 
Joseph and Jane Kidd, lived and died on the 
old farm in Salem county, New Jersey, 
members of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hiles have had ten children, among 
whom were two sets of twins, who died when 



young. The three living children are: 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Reeves, farmer 
and gardener, near Beardstown; James, a 
farmer in Cass county, and Charles, a farmer 
and trucker, near Beardstown. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hiles are good people: both have been active 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
for more than fifty years. Mr. Hiles has 
never been a chewer or smoker of tobacco, 
has never been intoxicated, nor has he ever 
used a profane word. He has been a life- 
long Democrat. 



EORGE S. CAMPBELL was born in 
Missouri township, Brown county, Illi- 
nois, April 12, 1857. His father, Will- 
iam O. F. Campbell, was born in Logan 
county, Kentucky, in 1815, and his father, 
Owen Campbell, was a native of Orange 
county, North Carolina, while his father, 
John Campbell, came from Ireland to Amer- 
ica in Colonial times, and served in the Revo- 
lutionary war. The grandfather of our subject 
went to Kentucky with his parents when 
quite young. He was married to Mary, the 
daughter of William Clark, a native of North 
Carolina, and a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war. Owen Campbell resided in Logan 
county until his death, during the war of 
1812. He greatly opposed England and was 
killed during a dispute relating to the great 
measures which were then attracting the at- 
tention of everyone. He left a farm of sixty- 
two acres. The father of our subject resided 
in Kentucky until 1835, when he emigrated 
to Illinois, and settled on that part of Schuy- 
ler county now. included in Brown county. 
He had a tract of land in what is now Mis- 
souri township, but at that time they were 
included in Schuyler county. Here he re- 



SGBUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



221 



sided until his death in 1891. His wife, 
whose maiden name was Caroline Stubble- 
field, was born in Kentucky, in 1819, and 
died in 1870. He was a firm member of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, but after 
coming to Illinois he united with the Chris- 
tian Church, and served as an Elder seven 
years; and also preached. He was a great 
bible student, and a Democrat in politics. He 
also served as Justice of the Peace for seven 
years. 

George S. Campbell was educated at the 
Mt. Sterling schools. He lived with his 
father until 1872. At that time he began to 
learn the printer's trade in the office of the 
Gazette of Mt. Sterling, and this has been 
his business ever since. He has worked at 
his trade in different places, and in 1878 
purchased the Examiner, a weekly paper 
devoted to the interests of the people in gen- 
eral, and the Democratic party in particular. 

He was married, in 1886, to Miss Alta M. 
Larkin, born in Brown county, daughter of 
John and Mary Larkin. They have had two 
children, Earl and Elsie. Mr. Campbell is a 
Democrat in politics, and is a member of Jeph. 
tha Lodge, No. 100, 1. O. O. F., and also the 
Encampment of the I. O. O. F., the I. O. M. 
A. and Modern Woodmen. 



fOHN W. SEAMAN, an old represent- 
ative citizen and successful stock raiser, 
was born in Jefferson -county, Virginia ( 
six miles north of Harper's Ferry. Septem- 
ber 21, 1820. His father, Joseph, was also 
a native of Jefferson county, and was en- 
gaged there for years as a boatman on the 
Shenandoah and Potomac rivers, and kept a 
public inn for some time. His parents, who 
lived and died there, were American born, 
but of German ancestry, the father being in 

16 



the Revolutionary war. Joseph J. was a 
soldier in a Virginia regiment, was in 
many engagements, and for some time 
was stationed at Baltimore, Maryland. His 
wife was Nancy Deaver, who was born and 
reared in Jefferson county, and came of 
similar ancestry as her husband. After 
the birth of their children, of whom our 
subject is the youngest, Joseph Seaman 
and wife, in the spring of 1882, came West, 
taking a boat at Wheeling, and came down 
the Ohio, and up the Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers, and landed at Beardstown when it 
was a hamlet of a few houses. There the 
family lived for some years, Mr. Seaman fol- 
lowing the trade of carpenter. He later 
went to Frederick, Schuyler county, and there 
died when sixty years of age. His wife died 
the next day, at about the same age. They 
had many acquaintances among the pio- 
neers of Cass county. 

John ia the only surviving member of the 
family that came from Virginia to Illinois, 
He came herein 1832, found it new and un- 
broken, and has lived to note the many 
changes that have taken place during the past 
thirty years. He reached here about the time 
the Indians left the county, and hence has 
been closely connected with all pioneer his- 
tory. He has seen the county settled, all the 
roads laid out and built, all the school houses 
built, all the railroads and all the other im- 
provements made that have made this the 
garden spot of Cass county. His farm of 
about 500 acres, highly improved and well 
stocked, is located in section 16, township 
18, range 11 west. He can boast of the 
character of his soil, except 100 acres on a 
sand ridge, and sixty-five acres in the bluffs. 
He purchased the place in 1852, and its 
present substantial condition is due to his 
perseverance and industry. 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GAS8, 



He was married in this county, to Mary E. 
Thompson, born in New York, in 1828. She 
came to this county with her parents, George 
B. and Hannah Thompson, late in the '30s. 
Both lived and died in the county, Mr. 
Thompson being a farmer, and at one time a 
merchant in Beardstown. Mr. and Mrs. 
Thompson were quite well known as pioneer 
settlers of this county, the former dying in 
Beardstown, about seventy years of age, and 
the latter in 1850. Mrs. Seaman was one of 
five children. A brother, Seth Thompson, 
now at the soldier's home atQuincy, Illinois, 
and Mrs. Seaman, are the only remaining 
members of the family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Seaman are members of no 
church, but are good, moral people, and are 
beloved by all who knew them. He is not 
an office seeker, but is a decided Democrat in 
politics. 

They are the parents of eleven children, 
four of whom are dead: Frank, Harriet, 
Charles and an infant. Those living are: 
John, a farmer on the old homestead, mar- 
ried Ida Kruse; George, a machinist living 
in Cass county, married Susie Keiket; Fred, 
at home helping on the farm ; Hannah Hea- 
ton, living in Washington, on a farm ; Cora, 
wife of James Heaton, also lives in Wash- 
ington; Anna S. Pearn, near Virginia, Illi- 
nois; and Bertha S. Hale, of Springfield, 
Illinois. 

The entire family are excellent people, and 
excellent representatives of Cass county. 



^ZARIAH LEWIS, a prosperous and 
influential farmer of Cass county, Illi- 
nois, residing in township 18, range 9 
west, was born in Washington county, Ken- 
tucky, March 15, 1813, and is a son of Will- 
iam and Elizabeth (Burns) Lewis. The Lewis 




branch of the family is of Welsh ancestry, 
while that of Burns descended from German 
ancestry. The father of our subject par- 
ticipated in the war of 1812, for which he 
also received a pension and a soldier's war- 
rant, which were contined to his widow. He 
was born in Virginia, and accompanied his 
parents to Kentucky at an early day. He 
continued to reside in the latter State until 
1828, and then, with his wife and seven chil- 
dren, started for Illinois, at that time the ex- 
treme frontier. They made the journey with 
a two-wheeled cart, which was drawn by a 
pair of small oxen, preceded by horses. They 
were four weeks on the journey, and most of 
the family came on foot. They were among 
the very earliest settlers of Illinois, the 
country being then wild and abounding with 
game. On their arrival in Morgan (now Cass) 
county, they had only fifty cents between 
them ; and all who were able went out to work 
by the day and month worked on farms, 
split rails, and did whatever they found to do. 
The honest, hard-working father was finally 
enabled to enter forty acres of Government 
land, in Mason county, where he built a small 
cabin, in which he resided until his death in 
1844, at the age of fifty-five years. His de- 
voted wife survived him many years, dying 
at the age of seventy-eight years, on the 
original forty acres which she had assisted 
in reclaiming from a wilderness. By her 
careful management she had accumulated a 
nice little property. She was the mother of 
eleven children, of whom, as far as known, 
five now survive. 

The subject of this sketch attended a sub- 
scription school for a short time in his youth, 
but owing to his father's limited means and 
the scarcity of schools he had but few educa- 
tional opportunities. He continued to reside 
at home until his marriage, working on farms 



SO SUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



223 



in his vicinity by the day and month. After 
his marriage, he settled on a farm in the 
eastern part of Cass county, which he rented 
and worked on shares by the month, where 
he continued for four or five years. He then 
bought forty acres of fertile farming land, on 
which he built a log cabin, 16 x 16 feet, into 
which he and his family moved. Here he 
continued to live and industriously improved 
his farm, for two years. At the eud of this 
time, he sold out and again rented land, on 
which he lived for about five years. He 
then bought forty more acres of partly im- 
proved land, which he continued to work for 
seven or eight years, when he again sold out 
and bought 110 acres in the immediate 
vicinity. On this latter place, he continued 
to live until 1856, at which time he pur- 
chased his present farm. Here he now has 
120 acres, which he has carefully cultivated 
to mixed farming, besides which he has made 
a specialty of stock-raising, having now some 
very tine specimens of cattle. By unremit- 
ting industry, able management and careful 
economy, he has prospered, and is now vir- 
tually retired from active business, and is en- 
joying in comfort the fruits of his early toil. 
Mr. Lewis first was married in February, 
1832, to Miss Sarah Graham, an intelligent 
lady, who was an orphan, and a native of 
Green county, Kentucky. By this marriage, 
there were seven children, five of whom are 
yet living: the elder, Elizabeth, is married and 
has seven children and ten grandchildren; 
Nancy Jane W. is married and has eleven 
children and sixteen grandchildren; Mary A. 
married, has four children and two grandchil- 
dren ; Caroline, married, has five children and 
one grandchild; Kilbourn, married, has eight 
children. The devoted wife and mother died 
in 1863, aged forty-six years, leaving her fam- 
ily and many friends to mourn her loss. 



October 4, 1864, Mr. Lewis was again 
married, his second wife being Mary E. Clark, 
an estimable lady, who was born in Marietta, 
Ohio, August 28, 1823. Her parents were 
John S. and Mary E. (Pearse) Clark, both 
natives of Ohio. Grandfather Pearse was a 
brave soldier in the Revolutionary war, and 
drew a pension for his services in that 
struggle. Her father was born in Cincin- 
nati, and was an old sailor and river boat- 
man. In 1826 he brought a boat load of 
salt to Illinois, landing at Beardstown. Thence 
he proceeded to Morgan county, where he 
settled on a farm, on which he continued to 
live until three years previous to his death. 
He then sold out and bought property in 
town, where he resided, retired from business 
pursuits, until his death, at the age of seventy- 
three years. He was a very energetic man 
and was popular among his associates, being 
widely known throughout this State. His 
wife died at the same place as her husband, 
aged sixty-five years. She was an intelligent 
woman of kindly impulses, and much beloved 
by those who knew her. They were the pa- 
rents of fourteen children, of whom, as far as 
known, three or four now survive. By the 
second marriage Mr. A. Lewis has one son, 
Charles, born July 4, 1868, who is now married 
and has one child. 

Whatever success has blessed Mr. Lewis' 
efforts is entirely due to his own persistence 
and intelligence, and he richly deserves the 
prosperity which he now enjoys. 



ORMAN PARSONS, now retired and 
living quietly at his home at the corner 
of Fifth and Washington streets, is one 
of the old settlers, having come here in 1854. 
He was born in Hartford, Connecticut, No- 
vember 6, 1811, and was a child only a few 



234 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



years old when his parents, Moses andElsiby 
(Pease) Parsons, with a colony of twenty 
families, during the war of 1812, came over- 
land with teams to Geauga county, Ohio. 
They arrived in June, 1814, and made a set- 
tlement in the heavy timber of that new, un- 
broken country, surrounded by Indians and 
plenty of game. He there lived until the 
country was well improved, when he died 
some years ago at the advanced age of eighty- 
seven years. His wife had died some five 
years before. They were Methodists, and the 
father and seven sons were all Republicans. 

Norman Parsons served with his State 
militia, went through all the promotions from 
First Lieutenant to Colonel of his regiment. 
He was one of the organizers of the G. A. R. 
at Beardstown. 

After his arrival in Beardstown he became 
a member of the firm of Fischer & Parsons, 
wagon manufacturers, who did business for 
two years. A company was then established 
known as Putnam & Parsons, doing a general 
tombstone business. This continued for two 
years, and at this time Mr. Parsons bought a 
stock of goods at Falls City, Nebraska, where 
he lived for one year, and then returned to 
this county, where he secured and began to 
improve 175 acres of land near Beardstown. 
Here he continued until 1861, when he en- 
listed in the Third Illinois Cavalry and was 
soon after made Sergeant of Company C. He 
served three years in the army of the West. 
At Germantown, Tennessee, he veteranized 
and was made First Sergeant of Company F. 
of Third Illinois Cavalry, re-organized, and 
served until the fall of Richmond. He 
returned to St. Louis, Missouri, with his 
regiment in 1865, and later was sent to Fort 
Snelling, Minnesota, to protect the whites 
against the Indians. He was honorably dis- 
charged at St. Paul, Minnesota, June 20, 



1865. He was in all the great battles of his 
division of the army, and had many narrow 
escapes, and at one time was surrounded by 
General Forrest's men and made his escape 
only by his military tactics. He was a man 
of daring and bravery. He returned to 
Beardstown in 1865, made a trip to Nebraska 
on horseback, and spent some time there look- 
ing after his real-estate interests. 

He was appointed Postmaster of this place 
by President Grantin his first term, and held 
it for eighteen years consecutively, and had 
in the meantime served as Justice of the 
Peace. He was one of the organizers of the 
Republican party in Geauga county, Ohio, 
and was vice-president of the first anti-slavery 
society organized in that section. 

He was first married in Ohio, to Amanda F. 
King, who died in 1852, aged thirty-four. 
She left two sons: Melbourne, living in 
Beardstown, and William; both of these gen- 
tlemen made very fine records indeed in the 
war of the rebellion. Mr. Parsons was mar- 
ried a second time to Mrs. Catherine Saun- 
ders. She has three children by a former 
marriage, namely: John, a mercantile book- 
keeper; George, who was a member of Bat- 
tery B, Second Illinois Light Artillery, in the 
late war; and Elva J., a lady of superior 
talent, and a teacher in the high school, and 
is now the wife of Mr. Saunders. 



QUIRE JAMES M. WATKINS, a 
popular Justice of the Peace and one of 
the most prosperous farmers of Cass 
county, Illinois, residing in township 18, 
range 9, was born in Richmond precinct, 
same county, February 5, 1839. 

His parents were Elijah and Lydia A. 
(Montgomery) Watkins, both natives of Ken- 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN OOUNTIE8. 



225 



tucky, the former born in Green county, in 
1797, and the latter a native of Hart county. 
His father's parents were Samuel and Mary 
(McClure) Watkins, the former a native of 
Wales and the latter of Maryland. Samuel 
Watkins came to America when a very young 
man and settled in Maryland, where he was 
married, and whence he removed to Ken- 
tucky. He was a prominent pioneer of the 
latter State, in which he made his home for 
many years, and where he died at the age of 
eighty-five years. His wife also died in that 
State, aged sixty-five or seventy years. They 
were the parents of twelve children, eleven of 
whom survive. Two of these, Lewie and 
Hank, were brave and efficient soldiers in the 
war of 1812. The mother of this subject was 
a daughter of Simpson and Salie (Gum) 
Montgomery. She was one of five children, 
two of whom were half brothers. Her father 
was of Scottish descent, his parents never com- 
ing to America, and her people were mostly 
farmers. Her father was a boatman, and lost 
his life by being struck on the head with a 
gun. 

The father of the subject of this notice re- 
sided at home until he attained the age of 
nineteen. He then worked for a while by the 
day and month in Kentucky until he had ac- 
cumulated some means, and when, about the 
year 1833-'34, he emigrated with his wife to 
Illinois, at that time the frontier of civiliza- 
tion. They came overland with one wagon, 
drawn by oxen, and brought some stock. 
They first located in Wayne county, but 
shortly afterward removed to Menard county, 
where he continued to live until 1838, when 
he sold out and came to Cass county. Here 
he first rented land for five or six years, then 
bought eighty acres, a few of which were 
broken, and the place having an old log 
house on it. This house served as their home 



for about a year, when it was replaced by a 
better one. The father was an exceedingly 
energetic man, and his success in this new 
country was a foregone conclusion. He 
added, from time to time, to his original pur- 
chase, until he possessed 300 acres of choice 
farming land, 160 of which was received from 
the Government. His death occurred on the 
old homestead in 1884, to the great sorrow 
of many friends, who esteemed him for his 
ability, industry and uprightness of character. 
He and his worthy wife were earnest and 
useful members of the Primitive Baptist 
Church, and he helped to build the first 
church in his locality. He displayed his 
usual activity in church and all good work, 
and acted as a Deacon for many years. 

The subject of this sketch was reared to 
farm work and attended subscription school 
during the winters, working on his father's 
farm in the summer. Owing to his busy 
life, his education was limited, and he is es- 
sentially a self-educated and self-made man. 
Extensive reading, supplemented by excellent 
judgment and an active mind, have combined 
to render himself successful in life and a 
leader among men. He lived at home until 
after his marriage, and the following year 
moved to his father-in-law's farm, on which 
he remained until the next year. He then 
bought twenty-five acres, a few of which were 
broken, and built on it a box house, 16 x 18 
feet. He and his family lived in this house 
for twelve or fourteen years, when he erected 
his present substantial and comfortable home. 
He has lived on the same place ever since, 
which now contains 120 acres, devoted to 
mixed farming, and is one of the finest farms 
in the connty. 

He was married June 14, 1859, to Miss 
Nancy Jane Lewis, an estimable lady and a 
daughter of Azariah and Sarah Lewis, a 



226 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OP GA8S, 



sketch of whom appears in this work. She 
was born April 4, 1842. They have eleven 
children, as follows: Sarah E., born March 10, 
1860, married H. Speulda, and they have 
seven children; they live in South Dakota; 
Charles L., born October 16, 1861, married 
Susan McNeil, a native of this county; they 
have three children; Simpson Lee, born 
November 13, 1863, married Ida Taylor, and 
lives in Chandlerville; William B., born De- 
cember 28, 1867, married Belle Miller, and 
they have two children; he lives in this 
neighborhood; Laura, born December 15, 
1865, married James Cooper, and they have 
three children; John R., born March 29, 
1870, married Dora Lucas, and they have 
one child; Azariah, born August 20, 1872. 
Stella M., born December 19, 1874; Miamia 
B., born June 16, 1877; Josephine, born 
August 28, 1880; Casper, born June 25, 
1884. All of Mr. Watkins' children have 
had educational advantages. 

Mr. "Watkins is an old Andrew Johnson 
Democrat, and cast his first vote for Stephen 
A. Douglas. With the exception of his vote 
cast for General Weaver for President, he 
has voted a straight Democratic ticket ever 
since. Acknowledging his ability, his con- 
stituents have sought the advantage of his 
judgment and experience by electing him to 
various local offices. He went from the 
school room to the position of school director, 
in which capacity he has served ever since. 
He has held the responsible position of 
Justice of the Peace for twenty years, dis- 
charging his duties with justice and impar- 
tiality. 

His wife is a faithful member of the Prim- 
itive Baptist Church, and, both by her in- 
influence and means, contributes to its sup- 
port. 



Mr. Watkins' life is a brilliant example of 
what may be accomplished by intelligent and 
persistent effort, which not only insure ma- 
terial prosperity but also crown their vota- 
ries with honor and happiness. 

f 

DAM P. SEASLY, a progressive and 
enterprising young farmer of Oakland 
township, was born in Carroll county, 
Maryland, in 1860. His father, Adam Seasly, 
now a resident of Adams county, Pennsyl- 
vania, is a native of Germany, but emigrated 
to America when a young man; he was 
reared to the life of a farmer, and also mas- 
tered the blacksmith's trade in his own 
country. After arriving in this country he 
went directly to Pennsylvania, and there was 
married to Elizabeth Cook, a daughter of 
Benjamin Cook; she died in early woman- 
hood in Pennsylvania, leaving two sons and 
a daughter: Mary, Adam P-. and George; 
Mary died in infancy, and George lived only 
a few years. At the age of three years Adam 
P. was taken by Henry Riffle, and under his 
care was reared to manhood. 

In the spring of 1869 Mr. Riffle came from 
Pennsylvania to Illinois, and located at Ver- 
mont, Fulton county; he was a plasterer by 
trade, and followed that calling in connec- 
tion with farming. Mr. Riffle had no chil- 
dren of his own, but adopted a son and 
daughter, for whom he carefully provided. 
Adam P. Seasly, the son, was given a good 
education, and was taught the printer's trade. 
Mr. Seasly was married in 1881, to Miss 
Rebecca E. Kost, of Fulton county, Illinois, 
a daughter of John and Catherine Kost, 
natives of Pennsylvania. Mr. Kost is a car- 
penter and farmer, and in 1850 he emigrated 
to Illinois and settled in Fulton county. He 
is now one of the wealthiest resident laud 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



227 



owners in this section, but is retired from 
active business pursuits. Mr. Seasly engaged 
in agricultural pursuits in Fulton county, 
which he continued until 1885, when he re- 
moved to his present farm of eighty acres; 
he rents an additional eighty acres, and is 
carrying on a successful business. To him 
and his wife have been born three children: 
Ross H., Edgar and Ruth. 

Politically our subject affiliates with the 
Democratic party; he has served as School 
Trustee, and has always been a liberal sup- 
porter of home industries and enterprises. 



fHOMAS P. PARROTT, an intelligent 
and public-spirited citizen of Buena 
Vista township, is a pioneer of 1831, 
since which time his interests have been 
identified with those of his favorite county. 
He is a native of Kentucky, having been born 
in Glasgow, that State, on September 3, 1825. 

His father, Josiah Parrott, was a native of 
Maryland, having been born in Talbot county, 
that State, on July 20, 1800. He had no 
school advantages, but acquired an excellent 
business education in Glasgow, Kentucky, to 
which place he early removed. He was pos- 
sessed of unusual financial ability, and had a 
remarkable aptitude for mercantile pursuits. 
In time he became the owner of three stores, 
one at Glasgow, one at Thompsonville, and 
another at Gainesboro, Tennessee. He was 
married in Kentucky, to Nancy G. Bransford, 
a native of Rockingham, Virginia, in which 
place she was born on July 27, 1807. She 
was a daughter of Thomas Bransford, a promi- 
nent citizen of that place. 

In 1830 Mr. Parrott came to Rushville, 
Illinois, which was then a new and sparsely 
settled country, and opened a store at that 



place. He had at that time $60,000 and a 
large stock of goods. After starting his store, 
he returned to Kentucky, and in the spring 
of the following year, 1831, he removed his 
family to Rushville, where he continued in 
business for more than forty years, being the 
oldest merchant of that place. He also 
started several other stores at the same time, 
in different towns, one at Beardstown, and 
another at Princeton, while he had still 
another at Pulaski. All were general stores 
and all carried large stocks of goods. He 
possessed very great energy and excellent 
financial ability, and was eminently success- 
ful in business. He invested largely in land, 
and became the owner of thousands of acres 
of the richest land of Schuyler county. He 
voted with the Whig party, and later with 
the Republican, but never desired to hold 
office. He was a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, being one of the charter members 
of the lodge in Rushville. He was a promi- 
nent nlember of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which he was a liberal supporter. 
He helped to build the first Methodist church 
in RuShville, and contributed toward the 
erection of the present handsome edifice. 

Mr. Parrott's first wife died on July 26, 
1835, leaving four children to the care of her 
husband, and many friends to mourn her loss. 
She was a woman of intelligence and many 
charms of character, a faithful wife and fond 
mother, and was much lamented by all who 
knew her. The children were: Thomas P., 
subject of our sketch; James H., now a real- 
estate man of Omaha, Nebraska; John B., 
who died in Buena Vista, unmarried; and 
Susan, who died unmarried. 

Mr. Parrott was subsequently married 
again, his second wife being Catharine Scripps, 
a native of Missouri. They had twelve chil- 
dren: George, deceased; Maria, who married 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA8S, 



Colonel William McAlister, and died in 
Rushville; Lydia, married; Sarah, who mar- 
ried Albert Clark, and died -in Kearney, Ne- 
braska; Josiah, a traveling salesman; Catha- 
rine, deceased; Charley, a resident of Lincoln, 
Nebraska, and was for many years a banker 
in Omaha; Walter, a wholesale dealer in 
hats, caps and notions, in Chicago; Frank, 
deceased; Marcus, a resident of Omaha; 
Ellen, deceased; and Lewis, a real-estate man 
of Omaha, Nebraska. 

The father died at his home, surrounded 
by his family and friends, on May 29, 1881, 
aged eighty-one years, much lamented as a 
faithful friend and fond husband and father. 

The subject of our sketch was but a mere 
boy when the family came to Rusliville in 
1831. He attended school in Kushville, and 
when young began to assist in the duties 
about his father's store, and when grown, be- 
came a partner. The confinement of indoor 
work, however, did not agree with his health, 
and consequently, during the war he located on 
a farm in JBuena Vista township. He is now 
the owner of 320 acres of highly cultivated 
land. Besides his farming interests, he is 
largely engaged in stock-raising, being a 
breeder of shorthorn and red-polled cattle, 
and of Morgan and Clyde horses, and has 
some of the finest specimens of the various 
breeds to be found in the country. 

On January 25, 1848, he was married to 
Sarah Wright, a daughter of E. M. and Sarah 
Wright. She was born in Syracuse, New 
York. Their happy married life was doomed 
to be of short duration, for, after little more 
than a year, on November 12, 1849, his wife 
died, leaving to his care one child, Sarah G., 
now the wife of Insco Marine, and resides at 
Beatrice, Nebraska. 

On October 10, 1860, our subject was mar- 
ried again, his second wife being Emma 



Window, born in Macomb, Illinois, a daugh- 
ter of Rev. William H. Window. Her fa- 
ther was a Methodist Episcopal minister, 
widely and favorably known in Illinois. 
They had eight children, two sons and six 
daughters: Susan, wife of E. H. Lugg, of 
Warsaw, Illinois; William; Grace; Harry; 
Catharine; Ida; Blanche and Margaret. The 
faithful wife and devoted mother died on 
July 22, 1890, much mourned by her family 
and friends. April 13, 1892, Harry married 
Miss Carrie McConnick, of Buena Vista. 

Our subject affiliates with the Republicans 
in politics, and though averse to office has, 
at the earnest solicitation of his numerous 
friends, served in some local positions of 
trust, to the entire satisfaction of his con- 
stituents. He is, like his father before him, 
a liberal supporter of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, which denomination has found in 
him an earnest and sympathetic friend. 

Of high integrity and morality, of rare 
ability and warm impulses, he enjoys the 
confidence of his fellow citizens, and the es- 
teem of his family and a host of friends. 



(ASPER ROHN, a general farmer in 
sections 32 and 33, range 12, township 
18, Beardstown precinct, has a well 
improved tract which has been his farm for 
twenty-one years. He was born on a part of 
the farm which he now owns, September 23, 
1842. His parents were Henry and Elizabeth 
(Longore) Rohn. They both came to America 
and were married after landing in St. Louis, 
and later came to Beardstown (for further 
history, seehistory of J. Henry Rohn, this 
book). They were very early settlers, having 
come to the county three years after the In- 
dians had left the State. 



8CHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



229 



Mr. Casper Rohn has been a hard-working 
man, has been moderately successful, and has 
made his way in the world by his own efforts. 

He was married first to Mary Jockissh, of 
Cass county, Illinois, and residedin thisconnty 
until her death in 1876, at the age of twenty- 
five years. She was a good, kind wife and 
mother, and left her husband four children: 
Lizzie Eveland, living in Fulton county, Illi- 
nois; Clara, at present in Jacksonville, Illi- 
nois; Philip is at home on the farua, and 
George, who lives at Boody, Illinois. Mr. 
Rohn was married a second time in this 
county, to Delia Dunn, born in Morgan 
county, daughter of an old settler. Her 
father now lives in Missouri, but her mother 
died there some years ago. Mr. and Mrs. 
Rohn are the parents of six children: Lulu, 
Walter, Frank, Charles, Samuel and Ruth. 
They are associated with the people of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Rohn 
is an ardent Republican. Mr. Rohn is an 
honest, peaceable, home loving German citi- 
zen, and he and his worthy wife are greatly 
esteemed by their hosts of friends. 



DANIEL STEPHENS has been closely 
identified with the history of Schuyler 
county, Illinois, since 1836, and it is 
fitting that his name should appear in this 
volume. He was born in Davidson county, 
North Carolina, April 4, 1819, a son of Alex- 
ander Stephens, who died in 1825; the mother 
of our subject, whose maiden name was Mary 
Dealy, was a native of New Jersey; she was 
married a second time in Illinois, spend- 
ing the last of her life in Bainbridge 
township. Daniel Stephens, in early life, 
became inured to the hard labor of a 
farm ; he made the most of his opportunities 



to secure an education, but as there were no 
free schools and his father was in limited cir- 
cumstances, the advantages offered him were 
very few. He lived in North Carolina until 
1836, when he emigrated to the West, and 
settled in Illinois; the entire journey was 
made overland with teams, and the country 
reached was little better than a wilderness. 
Mr. Stephens settled in that portion of Schuy- 
ler county which is now included in Brown 
county, but he had no means to invest in 
land, and so was obliged to work for wages; 
he received $12 a month, and from this small 
snm saved enough to make a beginning. In 
1841 he settled on a tract of patent land that 
is now a part of his farm, and three years 
later he bought eighty acres, for which he 
paid $170; this place was covered with tim- 
ber and brush, and in the heart of the forest 
he erected a cabin that afforded protection 
and shelter; he courageously undertook the 
task of placing the land under cultivation, 
and as he prospered he invested in other 
lands, until he now owns 572 acres, lying in 
Bainbridge and Woodstock townships. 

Mr. Stephens was married January 26, 
1840, to Rebecca Kimbel, a native of Simp- 
son county, Kentucky, and a daughter of 
Samuel and Elizabeth Kimbel. Of this 
union were born seven children: George W., 
William M., David, Samuel, John R., Saman- 
tha Jane and Olive. 

George W. Stephens has been three times 
married, his present wife being Ann Irvin; 
they have seven children: William M. has 
been married twice, Martha J. Eason being 
the second wife; he has eight children; David 
married Martha Landreth, and has a family 
of seven children; Samuel married Cornelia 
Persinger, and has four children ; John mar- 
ried Mary J. Macombs, and has one child; 
Samantha J. is the wife of Richard Black, 



230 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



and has three children; Olive married L. F. 
Nooner, and is the mother of four children. 
Mr. Stephens has thirty-five grandchildren 
and three great-grandchildren. 



lOBERTB. McMASTER was born in 
Highland county, Ohio, February 3, 
1827, a. son of David McMaster, who 
was born in county Down, Ireland. The pa- 
ternal grandfather, John McMaster, was a 
native of Ireland, of Scotch ancestry. He 
emigrated to America in 1807, and settled in 
Rockbridge county, Virginia, where he lived 
until 1818. He removed to Ohio in that 
year, and located in Highland county. He 
bought a tract of heavily timbered land, built 
a log cabin in the midst of the forest, and re- 
sided there until his death. He married Jen- 
nie McKee, of County Down, Ireland; she 
died on the farm in Highland county, the 
mother of four children: James, David, Ar- 
thur and Robert. David McMaster, the 
father of our subject, was a lad of twelve 
years when his parents crossed the sea to 
America. He was- married in Virginia, and 
lived there until 1816, when he removed to 
Kentucky; at the end of one year he went to 
Highland county, Ohio, where he was among 
the pioneers; he bought a tract of timber land, 
erected the characteristic log cabin with a 
mud-and-stick chimney, and began the task of 
clearing a farm. Cincinnati was the nearest 
market-town, sixty miles distant, wild game 
was abundant, and the mother carded, spun 
and wove the cloth with which her children 
were dressed. In 1836 Mr. McMaster sold 
this farm and came to Illinois, accompanied 
by his wife and six children; they made the 
journey in a four-horse wagon, camping on 
the way. He first located in Fulton county, 
and in 1838 came to Schuyler county, and 



rented until he bought land in Rushville 
township, where he resided until his death in 
1866. His wife's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Wardlaw, a native of Rockbridge county, 
Virginia, and a daughter of William and 
Mary Wardlaw, natives of Scotland. They 
reared a family of six children: Mary C , 
William W., John M., Robert B., Jane C. 
and Sarah A. 

A lad of nine years, Robert B. McMaster 
came to Illinois, and well remembers many 
incidents of the journey and the trials and 
privations to which they were subject on the 
frontier. He attended the pioneer schools, 
and received a training which fitted him for 
the ordinary duties of life. He remained 
with his parents until 1850, and in March of 
that year started for the Golden State. He 
took the overland route, and accomplished 
that perilous journey without accident or dis- 
aster. He arrived in California in July, and 
at once engaged in mining; he continued this 
industry until 1852, when he returned to Illi- 
nois. He bought land included in the tract 
he now owns on section twenty-two, Rush- 
ville township, and has been one of the most 
progressive and prosperous farmers of the 
county. He was actively engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits until 1884:, when he purchased 
property in and adjoining Rushville, and 
erected a handsome residence which he now 
occupies. 

Mr. McMaster was married in 1853, to 
Rachel Quinn, and they had a family of three 
children: Curtis died at the age of twenty- 
eight years; Jennie died in infancy; Mary 
married Marshall Finch, and has two sons, 
Robert and Wade T. Mrs. McMaster was 
born in Hardin county, Kentucky, November 
14, 1836, a daughter of Thomas Quinn, a 
native of Virginia. He married Nancy Ken- 
nedy, a native of Hardin county, Kentucky, 



SCHV7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



231 



and a daughter of Peter and Rachel (Colvon) 
Kennedy. In 1837 they moved to Illinois 
with their family of eight children, and 
settled in Schuyler county; the father died 
in 1844, but the mother survived until 1886, 
in her eighty-fifth year. 



? HENRY ROHN, farmer and stock- 
raiser, living on the old homestead in 
3 township 18, range 12, of the precinct 
of Beardstown, was born at the same place, 
September 20, 1837. He is the eldest mem- 
ber of the family. The father, Henry, was a 
native of Hesse-Darmstadt. Henry Rohn, 
Sr., had grown up, but was yet single, when 
he came to the United States with his brother 
John, and after a long, tedious passage, they 
landed in New Orleans, and from there pro- 
ceeded to St. Louis. Here he stopped and 
married the girl who had come with him 
from the same province. Her name was 
Elizabeth Longore, and they soon came to 
Cass county and entered, in the year 1837, 
Government land. They added to it from 
time to time until he owned 1,300 acres, 
made by him and his thrifty wife. He was 
$105 in debt when he landed in Beardstown, 
having to borrow money to come there. He 
continued on this same land, improving it 
until his death in 1891. He was then nearly 
eighty-six years of age. He was a well- 
known pioneer, a successful farmer, a good 
neighbor and husband, and an active member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Chnrch. His 
wife is yet living, aged eighty-one years, 
smart and active, making her home with her 
son William, and is still an active member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

. J. Henry has lived on the farm he now 
owns all his lifetime. It consists of 820 



acres, and of this 500 acres are under the 
plow, with good farm buildings. He has 
owned the old homestead for fifteen years. 

He was married in this county to Malinda 
Wagle, born in Brown county, in 1840. Her 
father was Jephtha "Wagle, of Madison county, 
Kentucky, who was married there and came 
to Brown county as an early settler, and later 
moved on a farm near Arenzville, and there 
lived and died. His wife is yet surviving, at 
the age of eighty years, making her home in 
this county. Her maiden name was Phoabe 
Todd, and she was a relativeof Mrs. Abraham 
Lincoln. Mr. and Mrs. Rohn are the parents 
of four children: Albert and Louis H. are 
both at home helping on the farm, and Carrie 
and Nettie are twins, and both are bright and 
intelligent children. The whole family are 
Methodists, and are good types of German 
citizens. Mr. Rohn is a stanch Republican. 



fOHN A. YOUNG, one of the most 
prominent and prosperous agriculturists 
of Schuyler county, resides on section 
21, Buena Vista township. The following 
space will be devoted to a brief biography of 
which he is the subject. He was born in 
Schuyler county, on the farm which he now 
occupies, June 14, 1832, a son of John 
Young, a native of Ireland; the paternal 
grandparents were John and Margaret Young. 
John Young emigrated to America when a 
young man, and stopped for a time in Phila- 
delphia; thence he continued his journey to 
the West, and after locating in Rushville he 
sent for his parents; they left their native 
land, crossed the sea, and made a home in 
the new world; they now reside in Buena 
Vista township, at a good old age. There 
were born to them three sons and two daugh- 



232 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OAS8, 



ters: John, William K., Alexander, Mar- 
garet and Elizabeth. The father of John A. 
Young was married at Rushville to a daugh- 
ter of Hugh McCreary, a native of Ireland, 
who came to America aboard the same ship 
as her husband, and it was on this voyage 
that they met. He died in early life, the 
date being February 8, 1835; he was a 
farmer, and had entered land in Buena Vista 
township; the wife died June 14, 1883; they 
had two children: James M. died in infancy; 
John A. is the only surviving member of the 
family. During his boyhood days he lived 
with his mother and relatives; from early 
childhood he was self-sustaining, working 
for his board; he attended school until six- 
teen years of age, and then settled with his 
mother on the homestead that had been en- 
tered by the father. In 1852 he went to 
Caliiornia, making the journey overland, 
and remained on the Pacific coast six years; 
he was engaged in mercantile and agricult- 
ural pursuits, and was reasonably successful. 
He returned via the Isthmus and New York 
city; he made a visit to relatives in Philadel- 
phia, and then came to his old home. Here 
he resumed agricultural pursuits, making 
many improvements in the way of erecting 
buildings; his mother resided with him until 
her death. 

The homestead originally consisted of 130 
acres, twenty acres of which Mr. Young sold 
to raise the money to go to California. He 
<' now owns 580 acres in one body, well stocked, 
and in a high state of cultivation. He gives 
especial attention to the breeding of live- 
stock, and has a fine herd of short-horns, and 
some horses of excellent pedigree. 

Mr. Young was united in marriage Oc- 
tober 13, 1869, to Miss Mary L. Clark, a 
daughter of Rev. John Clark; she was born' 
in Schnyler county, Illinois, April 1, 1847, 



and died May 15, 1878; she was the mother 
of four children; Carl C., born August 9, 
1870, is in the employ of the Illinois Steel 
Company; Anna F., born August 3, 1872, is 
a student at De Pauw University, Green- 
castle, Indiana; Sarah E., born August 23, 
1874, and James H., December 10, 1876. 
Mr. Young was married a second time, 
November 24, 1881, to Miss Elizabeth De 
Witt, a daughter of James and Ellen (Little) 
DeWitt; she was born at Littleton, Schuyler 
county, May 22, 1855; five children were 
born of this union: one died in infancy; 
Mary was born September 19, 1882; John 
D., April 5, 1884; D wight M., September 
28, 1885; Ellen L., April 16, 1888. Mrs. 
Young is a consistent member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

In addition to the business interests al- 
ready mentioned, Mr. Young has invest- 
ments in real estate in Duluth and other 
points; he is also a stockholder in the Bank 
of Rushville, and is one of the directors of 
the same. Politically he is identified with 
the Republican party ; he has been Supervisor 
of his township, but his private affairs have 
so taken his time that public office has not 
been sought. He is a man of broad intelli- 
gence, and the strictly honorable methods he 
has employed in his business career has won 
him the entire confidence and respect of the 
community. 



A. BERRY, foreman of the black- 
smith shops of the Rock Island and 
* St. Louis division of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy railroad, located at 
Beardstown, was born in Medina, Ohio, 
February 12, 1852. He came when five 
years of age to Aurora, Illinois, with his par- 
ents. He grew up there and received a com- 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



233 



mon school education and learned his trade. 
His father, Thomas E. Berry, had come from 
England to Medina, Ohio, there learned the 
carpenter's trade and was married to Anna 
Pierce, who was also of English birth. In 
1857, Thomas Berry, wife and four children, 
settled in Aurora, where he still lives, aged 
seventy-three years, and is still hearty 
enough to work at his trade. His wife died 
in 1887. They were both members of the 
Congregational Church. 

Mr. Berry came here from Aurora and 
was for one year foreman of the Chicago 
division of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy railroad. He has been twenty-six 
years with this company and has never lost a 
month's time, nor been suspended. He won 
his promotion by attending strictly to busi- 
ness. 

He was married in Aurora, to Ella Irwin, 
who was born, reared and educated in the 
same place. She was the daughter of Jerry 
Irwin, a prominent and successful tailor of 
Aurora, who died in 1881. His wife still 
lives in Aurora. They were both Roman 
Catholics. Mr. and Mrs. Berry have one 
child, Maude. He is a member of the Masonic 
order. He is a sound Republican, but not an 
office-seeker. 



?OSEPH GIFFORD, a well-to-do and 
highly esteemed farmer of Versailles 
township, Brown county, Illinois, where 
he has lived for twenty years, was born in 
Cambria county, Pennsylvania, in December, 
1833. 

His parents, Joseph and Sarah (Davis) 
Giftbrd, were both natives of the Keystone 
State, where his father was born in 1802. 
His paternal grandfather, also named Joseph, 



was of English parentage, and is thought to 
have been born in England. He was a pros- 
perous farmer in Huntingdon. county, Penn- 
sylvania, and left, at his death, a good estate 
to his family, consisting of five sons and four 
daughters, all of whom became heads of 
families, some attaining a great age. One 
son was more than ninety years of age when 
last heard from, and, if still living, as is quite 
probable, he is nearly a hundred. The father 
of the subject of this sketch moved from 
Pennsylvania directly to Brown county, Illi- 
nois, in 1856, and rented land near the village 
of Cooperstown, where he resided for thirteen 
years, until his death in 1869, at the age of 
sixty-seven years. He left a widow and five 
children, four sons and one daughter: David, 
a successful farmer in Iowa; Joseph, of this 
sketch; John and Isaac, both prosperous 
farmers of Nebraska; and Jemima, who 
married Manuel Whited, and died in Ne- 
braska, aged forty-two years, leaving five 
children. 

The subject of this sketch was reared to 
hard labor, and had but few educational 
advantages. Before he was eleven years old, 
he worked in the Sligo Pig Iron Works, in 
Clarion county, Pennsylvania. When eigh- 
teen years of age, he commenced life for him- 
self, and what little education he possesses 
has been gleaned by the dusty, toilsome way- 
side of life. Fortunately his parents dowered 
him with an unclouded intelligence and a 
robust constitution, and inculcated in him a 
love of truth and integrity, and trained him 
to habits of industry and economy. 

He was married in his twenty-first year, to 
Lucinda Hovis, of Venango county, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 3, 1854, and continued to live 
in the Keystone State until the fall of 1868, 
when they removed to Brown county, Illi- 
nois. They made the journey overland with 



234 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



a team, bringing six children with them . 
They were four weeks en route, and, the 
weather being propitious, their journey was a 
continual pleasure trip and picnic. They 
camped in their tent and covered wagon at 
night, and cooked their meals by the way. 
Arriving in Brown comity, Illinois, they 
located on forty acres of their present farm 
for which they paid $650. There were no 
buildings on the place at the time, and only 
fifteen acres of it were cleared. They had 
brought but little means with them, and went 
in debt $ 450, since when they have purchased 
forty more acres, are out of debt, and have 
most of the farm well improved. 

Prior to coming to Illinois, in September, 
1862, Mr. Gifford went as a volunteer in 
Company E, Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
from Franklin, Pennsylvania. He was on 
duty all of the time from his enlistment un- 
til his discharge at Lynchburg, Virginia, 
June 17, 1865, except when he was sick in 
the hospital with typhoid pneumonia, from 
June 4 to August 16, 1863. He was in some 
forty-six engagements, some of which were 
hotly contested. Among these was the bat- 
tle of Hatcher's Run, which he thinks was 
worse than that of the " Bull Pen." His last 
year of service was spent under the command 
of General Phil. Sheridan. 

Mr. and Mrs. Giiford have had ten chil- 
dren, nine of whom survive: Sarah, married 
George Green, .and died, aged twenty-five 
years, leaving two sons; Ernest, a prosperous 
farmer of Elkhorn township, married Alice 
Lewis, and has two children; Maggie married 
Morgan Grady, a successful fanner of Pike 
county, Illinois; Laura married Frank Sellers, 
a well-to-do farmer of Iowa, and has one 
daughter; Ida married George B. Alexander, 
and has two children; Julia married John 
Orr, a progressive farmer of Cooperstown 



township; Hattie married William Tolle, an 
estimable laboring man of Versailles town- 
ship, and has one son; Mattie and Mollie, 
twin sisters, are intelligent and active young 
ladies, who relieve their mother of much of 
the household work; Joseph W., the youngest 
ayouth of sixteen, is at home, and does much 
of the hard labor on the farm. Mr. Gifford, 
who has toiled hard for many years, is taking 
a needed rest whenever he can do so. 

In politics Mr. Gifford is Democratic, and 
has been honored by his constituents several 
times with public office. Besides minor 
positions of trust, he has served two terms as 
Justice of the Peace, and was re-elected for 
the third term, but declined to qualify, think- 
ing he had done his share of such service. 

Religiously he and his worthy wife are 
earnest and useful members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, to which they have belonged 
many years. 

Mr. Gifford's history would serve as an 
example for many poor, young men, starting 
in life. A careful analysis of his prosperity 
would be found to consist in intelligent and 
persistent effort, supplemented by upright- 
ness of dealing, careful economy and uniform 
courtesy in all the various walks of life. 




ILLIAM G. MOHLMANN, pro- 
prietor of the furniture and under- 
taking establishment at the corner of 
Main and Jefferson streets, was born in the 
city of Beardstown, July 10, 1866. His 
father, William, was born in Prussia and was 
the son of Henry, who was also a Prussian. 
He grew up there and learned the trade of 
cabinet maker. He married a Prussian lady 
of good family, and after most of their chil- 
dren were born, and when their sou William 



8CHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



235 



was thirteen years old, in 1849. came to the 
United States. He finally settled in Beards- 
town and established a business, which was 
managed by Henry Mohlmann until his 
death in 1881, at the age of seventy-eight 
years. It was afterward carried on by Will- 
iam Mohlinann until his death in 1891. He 
was a good business man, a public-spirited 
citizen and one that did much for the city. 
His wife, as well as mother, is still living, 
the latter being about eighty years of age. 
The mother of William G. was named 
Lydia Lohmann, a Prussian. She was yet 
young when she came with her parents 
to the United States, and her mother is still 
living, smart, bright and active. The whole 
family were identified with the Lutheran 
Church. 

William G. Mohlmann is the second of 
seven children. He grew up and obtained a 
practical education, and learned his business 
by growing up in it. He afterward took a 
course in the College of Embalming in Chi- 
cago. The business was established by the 
grandfather, Henry, in 1858. Until 1876 
most of the goods were manufactured by the 
firm. At that time William F. became sole 
proprietor, and in 1891 William G. became 
half owner, and after the death of his father 
the sole proprietor. Theconvenient building 
now in use was recently built by the present 
owner. It was completed in July, 1891. Mr. 
Mohlmann occupies a double store, basement 
and first and second floors, 50 x 80 feet, all 
stocked with goods. 

He was married in Virginia, February 18, 
1892, to Miss Rose Leggett of North Caro- 
lina. Mr. and Mrs. Mohlmann are young so- 
ciety people of Beardstown. Mr. Mohlmann 
is a member of the blue lodge and chapter, A. 
F. & A. M. of Beardstown and Rushville, and 
Commandery No. 56, and Senior Deacon in 




blue lodge and Royal Arch Captain in 
chapter. He is no office-seeker, but is a 
Democrat in politics. He is yet a young 
man, but full of business and is bound to 
succeed. 



1LLIAM HACKMAN, a practical 
German farmer and stock raiser of 
section 30, township 17, range 11, 
is the owner of a good farm where he lives. 
He was born in Hanover, near the city of 
Osnabriick, in 1820, September 13th. He 
was the third son born to John E. and Ma- 
ria (Struve) Hackman, natives of Hanover, 
who came of pure German blood. After his 
marriage he settled down in his native land 
as a farmer, on a small scale, and here all the 
children were born, but later in life Mr. 
Hackman sold out all his interests in his 
native land and set sail from Bremen for the 
United States, with his wife and family. Af- 
ter a voyage of seven weeks and two days, 
they landed at Castle Garden, coming on at 
once to Illinois via Albany, New York, Buf- 
falo, across Lake Erie, landing at Cleveland, 
across the canal, down the Ohio to Cairo, up 
the Mississippi river to St. Louis, and thence 
up the Illinois river to Beardstown, in 
June, 1835. The father purchased 120 
acres in township 12, range 11, but before 
they were settled he sickened and died. He 
had procured the deed, so his family had the 
farm. He was only fifty-eight years of age 
and had been in the country but a few, 
months. The widow mother moved on the 
farm with her children, and they began their 
life as farmers in a new country. Some years 
later she went to live with her only daughter, 
Mary Bushman, of Beardstown, where she 
died when seventy-two years of age. She 



236 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OA88, 



lived to see her children all well married and 
settled in life. Mrs. Hackman joined the 
Methodist Church in this county and died 
in that faith. Her husband was a Lutheran. 

William and a brother Fred are the only 
surviving children, the latter also being a 
farmer at Arenzville. William grew to man- 
hood in this county. He is now the owner of 
two fine farms of 320 acres in all, both having 
a complete set of farm buildings on them, 
built by Mr. Hackman. The land is in a fine 
condition and yields good crops. 

He was married in this county to Eliza- 
beth Meyer, born in Germany, in 1828. She 
was a small child when brought to America 
by her parents. They made their first settle- 
ment on the farm now owned by Mr. Hack- 
man. It was on this farm that Mr. and Mrs. 
Meyer both lived, and died when they were 
thirty years old. They were Lutherans in 
religion. Mrs. Hackman is one of seven 
children, of whom she and a sister, Mrs. Fred 
Hackman, of this county, and a brother, 
Henry, a retired farmer of Oregon, are the 
only surviving members. The next year, 
July, 1835, after they came to America, Mr. 
and Mrs. Meyer died, and Mrs. Hackman 
was reared by a Mrs. Freeman Skinner. She 
has been a true, good wife to a devoted hus- 
band for the past forty-five years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hackman are the parents of 
six children: one, Matilda, died when young; 
one, William E., died when twenty- two; 
and Loulisa, after her marriage to George 
Keoneke, to whom she bore five children. 
The living children are, Louis; Lucinda, wife 
ofTheo. Heierman, afarmer in Morgan county, 
Illinois; and they have one child. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hackraan are regarded as be- 
ing among the good, kind and hospitable 
old settlers of the county. They are upright, 
Christian people, being members of the Eman- 



uel Methodist Episcopal Church, two miles 
from Arenzville. Mr. Hackman and son are 
sound Democrats in politics. 

Mr. Louis Hackman is now the manager 
of his father's old homestead, and he is con- 
ducting it in a way that reflects great credit 
on him. He is a hard-working man, and 
thoroughly understands his business, as the 
fine condition of his fields testify. He was 
married to Amelia Kors of this county, and 
they are the parents of three as bright little 
ones as any one need care to see. Mr. Louis 
Hackman has been County Commissioner for 
the past nine years. 

The whole family are just the kind of peo- 
ple that make Cass county so prosperous, and 
if there were more like this worthy German 
and his son, the prosperity of the State would 
be greatly increased. . 



fUDGE JOHN A. ARENZ, now retired 
from active life and living at his pleas- 
ant home on the corner of Sixth and 
State Streets, was born on the river Ehine, 
near Cologne, in 1810, October 28. He is 
the only member of the family that came to 
this country now living, His parents lived 
near Cologne, Germany, and the father, 
Francis, died there when past ninety years 
of age; he was a prominent and successful 
man and was an officer in the army of his 
country, and received a pension for some 
years before his death. His wife lived to be 
an old lady over seventy-five years old. 

Mr. Arenz came to this country in 1835, 
on a sailing vessel from Bremen. He landed 
in Baltimore city and another brother fol- 
lowed Mr. Arenz to this country, and he 



SCHUXLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



237 



died in this State some twelve years ago, 
leaving a family. Mr. Arenz had been care- 
fully educated in civil engineering and other 
branches ; was one of the corps of men that 
measured the State of Prussia. He was the 
principal of a public school, and was given a 
license to practice as an attorney at law. He 
was admitted to the bar about the time he 
was elected County Judge. Mr. Arenz had 
followed his brother Francis to this country, 
he having come some time before, being the 
first member of the family that left the old 
world for the new. Our subject came to this 
county in 1835, and the State was still un- 
settled in great part. His brother's was the 
only frame house for miles around and wild 
game of every kind abounded. There were 
no railroads and but few wagon roads. 
The people were kind and good hearted. 
Mr. Arenz had come to the State from 
Baltimore, crossing the mountains to Wheel- 
ing, "West Virginia, coming down the Ohio 
river to St. Louis on a boat, It took fourteen 
days to make the trip, the boat often sticking 
on sand bars. After landing in St. Louis he 
came to Cass county, and after some time he 
and his brother Francis laid out the town of 
Aren^ville in the southern part of Cass 
county. There they estsblished a saw mill, 
gristmill and general store, and ran it for 
some time successfully. Later Francis died 
and Mr. Arenz came to Beardstown and has 
since made it his home. Francis died in 
Jacksonville, in 1856, in the prime of life, 
and was considered one of the foremost men 
of the State. He was one of the State Board 
of Agriculture and was a Director of the 
same. He also organized the local board of 
Cass county, which has continued ever since. 
The State Board passed commendable resolu- 
tions on the death of Mr. Francis Arenz, for 

his earnest, hard work. 
17 



Mr. John Arenz became prominent as soon 
as he came to the county and was soon 
elected Justice of the Peace, and has held 
other local offices. He was elected to the 
office of Probate Judge, being the second 
elected in the county. He held the office 
for many years. He was elected first Mayor 
of Beardstown, in 1850, and has filled the 
office twice, subsequently. He has been city 
Alderman and Treasurer, and served for 
many years. He has been an admirer of 
the principles of his party, Eepublican. 
He was a Whig until the' dissolution of that 
party and he then ardently espoused the 
cause of the new party from the time of its 
organization. He has always been regarded 
as a representative man. 

He was married, in Beardstown, to Mary 
Miller, of Kentucky, and she died at her 
home in this city in 1886, aged seventy years. 
She was the daughter of Captain William 
Miller, of Kentucky, a soldier in the Black 
Hawk war, having served as Captain of a com- 
pany from Jacksonville, lllionis, where he was 
a pioneer, but later he came to Beardstown, 
where he died at an advanced age. He was 
a prominent man. Judge Arenz and wife 
had three children; Francis W. died when 
young; Maria L., wife of Philip Kuhl, a 
merchant of this city, who have two children; 
and Anna, wife of Omer S. Spring, of Peoria, 
Illinois, a wholesale grocer and confectioner; 
they have one daughter, Mary L. 



CARLES J. NORBURY, one of the 
old and best known men of Cass county, 
was born in Philadelphia, May 22, 
1812. His father, Joseph B., was a native 
of Northumberland, Pennsylvania, grew up 
and obtained his education in Phila- 



238 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GAS 8, 



delphia, became an attorney, and was so en- 
gaged until his death at sixty years of age. 
He was a well known citizen of that city. 
His mother, Rebecca Frick, was born in 
Northumberland county, coming of German 
parents, and died a consistent member of 
the Dutch Eeformed Church. 

Mr. Norbury, after obtaining his early edu- 
cation, became a clerk in a wholesale house in 
Philadelphia. In the spring of 1836 he came 
to Beardstown via Pittsburg, the Ohio, 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers. He has since 
been a resident of this place. He first began 
as a clerk for William Eassett, who was a 
dealer in flour and dry goods and agent for 
the steamboats on the rivers. After this Mr. 
Norbury was associated with several gentle- 
men, and later entered into business relations 
with George Plahn, which continued until 
1884, when Mr. Norbury retired from active 
business. In these years he had become one 
of the best known men of the county, re- 
spected for his honesty and as one who was 
a friend in need. He never accumulated a 
large fortune, but possesses a modest com- 
petence. 

He was married in Beardstown, in 183,9, to 
Elizabeth Spence of Tennessee, born October 
16, 1822. She was the daughter of Rev, 
Thomas Spence, a prominent Methodist min- 
ister of Tennessee, who came to Illinois in the 
early thirties, having been a pioneer minister 
in the early history of the State. Mr. and 
Mrs. Norbury are working members of the 
Congregational Church. He is not an office 
seeker, but has always been a "Whig and a 
Republican, voting first for William H. 
Harrison and last for his grandson. Having 
always lived a temperate life, notwithstand- 
ing his age, he has a clear eye and sound 
faculties. He and his wife are the parents 
of thirteen children, nine of whom are living. 



Those living are: Rebecca, widow of D. H. 
Flickwin and living in Beardstown; Jennie, 
now wife of Judge S. P. Dale, Canon City, 
Colorado; William remains at home; Paralee, 
the wife of O. K. Ruechler, lives in Jackson- 
ville, Illinois; Arthur also lives at Jackson- 
ville; Elizabeth resides in Denver; Anna, 
wife of William D. Epler, resides in Beards- 
town; Frank is a physician in charge of the 
male annex of the insane asylum at Jackson- 
ville; Mamie is the wife of G. B. Hegardt, 
assistant United States Engineer at Fort 
Stephens, Oregon. He built the Government 
jetties at the mouth of the Columbia river. 



fOHN L. BENNETT, born in McDon- 
ough county, Illinois, December 13, 1832, 
is the son of Isaac Bennett, born in North 
Carolina, May 22, 1808. He married in 
White county, Tennessee, Mary Lynch, April 
8, 1834. She was the daughter of Charles and 
Mary Lynch. The latter was born August 
7, 1814. Her parents, who were farmers, 
reared eight children, the father dying in 
Tennessee, at the age of forty-live, her mother 
in Hancock county, Illinois, aged eighty-four 
years. Grandfather Bennett died in Ken- 
tucky in 1831, and his wife in Hancock 
county at the age of eighty years. She came 
to Illinois in 1834, her son, Isaac, coming 
with her. They first settled in McDonough 
county, coming from Tennessee in ox carts, 
taking about eight weeks to the trip. They 
were in humble circumstances, and lived in 
McDonough county for two years, and then 
went from there to Hancock county, where 
they took up a claim of 160 acres of wild land 
with no improvements. They built a rude 
log cabin, in which they lived and reared 
most of the children. He made a good farm 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES, 



239 



of this, for which he paid and took a deed in 
1838. They had eleven children: John L., 
the second, is a farmer and stock grower of 
Hiar township, McDouough county; Mary 
Jane was the wife of Fhilo McPeigh, who 
died and left two children ; Norelan is a large 
farmer of Hancock county, and has three 
children ; Barbary Ann was the wife of George 
Bradly, and died, leaving four children; 
Rufus, a farmer of Hancock county, Illinois; 
Lorinda, killed by a kick from a horse at the 
age of eleven; Zilpha died at fourteen; Jere- 
miah, a wealthy ranchman and stock-grower 
of Texas; Lucinda, wife of William Duncan, 
died leaving five children; Phoabe is married 
and resides in St. Louis, and has two children. 

John L. Bennett had very limited oppor- 
tunities for obtaining an education: could 
barely read when a young man. He had to 
begin hard work when but a child, plowing 
corn when only eleven years old. He has 
worked very hard all his life until very re- 
cently. He was and is still a very rugged 
and strong man, and could endure anything 
and everything, even the ague which shook 
him while a lad. 

He was married at twenty-one and soon 
left home. His wife was Elizabeth Carder, 
born in Indiana, where she was reared, 
daughter of Cooper B. Carder, of South Caro- 
lina, who came to Illinois in 1839. Her 
mother was a Miss Dudney, of Tennessee. 
Mr. and Mrs. Carder came to Illinois in, 
1839, where the latter died in 1853, leaving 
Elizabeth to care for the home. Mrs. Ben- 
nett's father, nearly eighty years of age, is 
living with her on the farm, of 180 acres. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bennett have had a hard 
struggle to get this farm. They worked 
rented lands for some years and then bought 
their first land in 1864, fifty-five acres of 
timber for $700, paying one-half down. This 



was in Hancock county, and they sold this 
and bought where they now are. They have 
owned as much as 230 acres since. Mr. Ben- 
nett has done general farming all these years, 
and for the past few years lias owned stock 
horses. He stands three fine stallions, two 
of them full blood, imported Clydesdale. He 
keeps from fifteen to twenty head of horses, 
some cattle and many hogs. Turns off as 
high as forty horses. 

They have had twelve children, have buried 
two daughters and three sons; four died in 
infancy and early childhood. Eliza Ann, the 
first born, married Samuel Reeves, and died 
at thirty years of age. Those living are: 
Mary M., wife of William Neff, farmer in 
Hancock county, with two children; Charles 
Edward married Allie Buck, a farmer; John 
M. married Nancy White, resides with his 
parents and is running the home farm; Henry 
is single and has a tonsorial establishment in 
Chicago; Edgar is married to a Miss Swanson 
and resides in Chicago; Otto, in Hancock 
county; Homer, still a child, is at home. Mr. 
Bennett is a straight Democrat. He and his 
wife are highly respected by all who know 
them. 



HRISTIAN DUPES, of the firm of 
Dupes & Blohm, dealers in general 
merchandise and farm implements, was 
born in Monroe precinct, Cass county, where 
he has always lived. He was reared and edu- 
cated in his native county as a farmer. He 
is the son of David Dupes, a native of Penn- 
sylvania, who came to Illinois when a young 
man early in the forties. He was married, 
in 1844, in Schuyler county, to Katie Neat- 
hamer, a native of Pennsylvania, who was 
reared in her native State. She came when 
young to Schuyler county, Illinois, and was 



240 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



married to Mr. Dupes at the early age of 
fourteen. After their marriage Mr. Dupes 
began their married life on a farm, but in 
1845 he moved to Cass county, and they set- 
tled in Monroe precinct, where he afterward 
owned 300 acres in this county and 160 in 
Ottawa county, Kansas. He continued to 
live in Monroe precinct until his death, on 
section 26, township 18, range 11, in 1888. 
He was then seventy-three years of age, and 
had been a successful farmer, a good citizen 
and a stanch Democrat. His wife still survives 
him, living at the old homestead, at the age 
of sixty-two years. She is the mother of six 
sons and three daughters still living, and two 
sons deceased. 

Christian is the eldest child, and has never 
married. He was engaged as a farmer for 
many years, and was very successful, owning 
some very valuable property in the village of 
Bluff Springs. His present business was 
established in October, 1888, under the pres- 
ent firm name, but recently Mr. Dupes sold 
the store to A. W. Blohm, but retains the 
realty. After the first year they increased 
their capital and capacity to double its origi- 
nal size, and are now doing a large and lucra- 
tive business. 

He is independent in politics, and is an 
ambitious young man, still in the prime of 
life, being only a little over forty years of 
age. He is a good citizen and a reliable 
business man. He is the Assistant Post- 
master of the place, L. A. Jones being the 
Postmaster. 



fLAVJUS C. PRICE, one of the oldest 
of the native born settlers of Mount 
Sterling, was born December 12, 1838. 
His father, William D. Price, was born in 
Kentucky, near Leesburg, July 17, 1817. 



Grandfather of subject, William D. Price, 
was born in Virginia, and removed from 
there to Kentucky, being one of the pioneers 
of that state. He spent his last years at 
Lexington. He served in the war of 1812, 
and was taken prisoner by the British. 

Father of subject was reared in Kentucky, 
and came from there to Illinois about 1833, 
and located in that part of Schuyler county 
now included in Brown county. He entered 
a tract of Government land on section 2, 
built a log house, and at once commenced to 
improve a farm. He was a resident there 
till his death, which occurred in 1848. The 
maiden name of mother of our subject was 
Eliza A. Taylor. She was born in Fayette 
county, Kentucky, October 17, 1817, daugh- 
er of John and Elizabeth Taylor. Her par- 
ents came from Kentucky to Morgan county 
in 1832, and thence to Brown county in 
1834. Mother of subject died February 1, 
1871. 

Subject was reared and educated in his 
native township. When his parents settled 
here, and for years afterward, the country was 
but little improved, and deer, turkeys, 
wolves and other game abounded. He at- 
tended the pioneer schools. These were 
taught in a log house, the seats made of 
slabs, one side hewn smooth, and wooden 
pins for legs. There were no desks, but 
holes bored in the wall, pins inserted, and a 
plank laid on them served as a desk for the 
larger pupils. 

He continued to reside with his mother on 
the farm till 1862, when, August 8, he en- 
listed in Company D, One Hundred and 
Nineteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. The 
regiment was organized at Quincy, in Octo- 
ber, and was one of the most active regi- 
ments in the army. He was with the regi- 
ment in all its various marches, campaigns 



SOHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



241 



and battles. The most important battles 
were the siege and capture of Fort de Rus- 
sey, Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Nashville, 
Tennessee, and Forts Spanish and Blakely. 
He was discharged with the regiment and 
returned home, and resumed farming till 
1882, on the lot where he now resides in 
section 1, Mount Sterling. 

He was married May 10, 1861, to Narcis- 
sa Wilson. She was born in Brown county, 
Illinois, daughter of James L. Wilson. She 
died August 9, 1886. He was again mar- 
ried on October 23, 1887, to Miss Nancy 
Sullivan; she was born in Scotland county, 
Missouri. He has one child living by first 
marriage, Julia E., and by second marriage, 
one daughter, Calista. Julia E. married 
Wm. Jones, of Scott county, and has one 
daughter, Ethel. 

Our subject is a Republican in politics. 
He and his wife are both members of the 
Christian Church, as also was his first wife. 



VENRY C. KEIL, a large and very suc- 
cessful dealer in all kinds of hardware, 
stoves and tinware, was born in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Germany, November 7, 1848. 
He grew up, attained his education and 
learned his trade of tinner in his native 
country. His father, Johauas Keil, is yet 
living in Germany at his old home, and is 
seventy years of age. He has been all his 
life a farmer. He had married a Miss Eliza- 
beth Moell, a native of his own province. 
She died at the age of sixty years. She and 
her husband had belonged all their lives to 
the German Lutheran Church. 

Henry Keil is the eldest of four children. 
After coming to this country and locating in 
Beardstown in 1867, he went back by way of 
Hamburg, Germany, in 1873; he returned to 



Beardstown in the spring of 1874, and has 
since lived here. He followed the tinner's trade 
for some time. He began business for him- 
self in 1876, and has from that time on been 
increasing his stock and his trade. He car- 
ries a full line of first-class goods in a fine 
brick store of his own building, which he 
erected on Main street in 1890. He is a live 
man, full of business, and one who works for 
the best interest of his city and county. He 
has been a stockholder in the First National 
bank since it was started, first as a private 
bank in 1877, and later a national bank in 
1887. 

He was married in Beardstown, to Sophia 
Weis. She was born at Hamilton Station, 
Cass county, and was there raised and edu- 
cated. She is the daughter of John and 
Catherine Weis, who both died on their old 
farm in Cass county. They were pioneers in 
Cass county, having come about 1840. Mr. 
and Mrs. Keil are members of the Lutheran 
Church, as were their parents. They have 
three smart children: Alma, Arthur and Ed- 
win, all still at home. 

Mr. Keil is a Republican in politics, has 
been Alderman of the city for several terms, 
and is a fine man in every way. 



ifCHABOD PERRY, one of the early set- 
|l tiers of this county, residing in Mount 
^ Sterling, was born in Clai borne county, 
Tennessee, July 18, 1815. His father, Ed- 
mond Perry, was a native of North Carolina 
and served in the war of 1812, receiving a 
land warrant for 160 acres; but it is not 
known that this was ever located. His 
father came from the same State, and re- 
moved from there to Claiborne, Tennessee, 
where he purchased land and carried on 
fanning until 1831, when he came to Illinois 



24S 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



He spent his last years in Brown county. 
The maiden name of his wife was Rebecca 
Yarberry, also a native of North Carolina. 
She died in Brown county, also. Their son, 
Edinond, was a natural mechanic, but never 
learned a trade, and as he was very fond of 
hunting, he put in a good deal of time in 
that way. He resided in Tennessee until 
1831, when, with his parents and others and 
wife and ten children, he emigrated to Illi- 
nois, and after four weeks overland travel 
landed in Morgan county. He rented a log 
cabin, three quarters of a mile from Jackson- 
ville, and there spent the winter, and in the 
spring of 1832 came to that part of Schuyler 
that has been included in Brown county. 
He settled on a tract of vacant land in what 
is now Cooperstown township, and at once 
built a log cabin in the usual manner of 
the settlers, with rough hewn logs and 
puncheon floor. He lived in that place for 
about a year when he found out that he had 
built his house on the wrong land. He then 
moved to the adjoining quarter and put up a 
log cabin there, and later purchased this 
land, paying therefor $200, mostly in prop- 
erty. It was military land. This included 
the southwest quarter of section thirty, and 
he turned his attention to the improvement of 
the land, and resided in this locality until 
his death. The maiden name of his wife 
was Rachel Bridges, daughter of William 
and Sarah Bridges, who moved from Tennes- 
see to Missouri in 1831, -and spent the rest 
of their days there. 

Ichabod was sixteen years old when he 
came to Illinois with his parents. The 
country was sparsely settled and but little 
improvement has been made anywhere. 
For some years the people lived on the pro- 
duce of their farms and on the wild game 
that abounded in the forests. His mother 



used to card, spin and weave, and dressed her 
children in homespun made by her own 
hands. The father, being a skilled hunter, 
used to kill a great many deer. He dressed 
the skins, and in the winter the boys used to 
wear pants made of that material. Ichabod 
received his early education in the public 
schools of Tennessee. These were taught 
on the subscription plan, each family paying 
according to the number of children sent. 
He made the best of his opportunities, and 
in later years has improved his mind by ex- 
tensive reading. He remained with his par- 
ents until he was twenty one and then began 
life for himself. In 1836 he went to the 
Territory of Iowa. At the time of his mar- 
riage he located on wild land in section 24, 
of Mount Sterling township, which he oc- 
cupied for fifty-three years. He bought 
other tracts of land at various times, and at 
one time was the owner of 800 acres. He 
has assisted each of his children to homes, 
and now lives with his daughter, Mrs. Ward. 
In 1838, he married Martha Bell, born in 
Kentucky, January 1, 1818, daughter of 
Robert and Jennie Bell. She died January 
7, 1892. He has four children living: 
Oliver H., married to Martha McMillian; 
Lewis C,, married first to Columbia Sharon, 
and for his present wife, Julia Dennis; 
Ethan Allen, married Delia Sharon; and 
Mary, married to William Ward. Mr. Ferry 
is an ardent supporter of Republican princi- 
ples. In 1846, etc., when he was a Democrat, 
he was Justice of the Peace two terms. 



f RAN KLIN A. HAMMER, of the firm 
of Beatty & Hammer, dealers in all 
kinds of hardware and farmers' imple- 
ments, was born on the banks of the Shenan- 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



243 



doah river, in Buckingham county, Virginia, 
April 10, 1829. He is the son of John 
Hammer, who, with two other brothers, had 
corne from Germany prior to the Revolution. 
The family was started in this country by 
the grandfather of Mr. Franklin Hammer, 
who settled in Virginia, and lived and died 
there at an advanced old age. His son grew 
to manhood in Virginia, and participated in 
the war of 1812. After that war was over 
he moved to the Shenandoah valley and 
farmed in Rockingham county for some 
years, when he went to Morgan county, Illi- 
nois, and started his life in that State as a 
general mechanic and blacksmith and wagon- 
maker. In 1843, he removed to Beardstown 
and opened up a livery stable and hotel, 
which he ran until 1848, when he sold out 
and bought a farm six miles from Beards- 
town, and lived on it for some years, farm- 
ing and improving it to a great extent. At 
the end of that time he again moved to 
Beardstown, and died at the age of eighty, in 
1868. He was a good man and citizen and 
well known pioneer. He was a Methodist 
in religion, and a Democrat in politics. He 
married in his native county, Miss Elizabeth 
Marica, of Virginia. She died on the farm 
in Cass county, at the age of forty-six. She 
was a member of the Lutheran Church. He 
was married a second time, to Cynthia Dai- 
ton. She died on the farm in Cass county, 
without issue, when quite old. 

Franklin is the only surviving member of 
his father's three children. He came to the 
State of Illinois in 1835, when but a small 
boy, with his parents, settling in Arcadia, 
Morgan county, Illinois; and later, in 1843, 
the family came to Beardstown, and his father 
settled on a farm in Cass county. Onr sub- 
ject returned to Beardstown and was con- 
nected for many years in the livery business, 



buying and selling horses and preparing 
them for fancy roadsters. He was a true ad- 
mirer of the noble, intelligent animal, and 
his judgment in regard to the worth of a 
horse was very good. In the old days he 
could drive four-in-hand as well as a western 
stage driver. He still retains his fondness 
for them, and has all his old power of judg- 
ing them. In 1874, he sold out his livery 
and horse business, except as a breeder of the 
Hambletonian horses, that he continued until 
1877, when he became president of the old 
Cass County Bank. He continued in this 
capacity until 1883, when he resigned in or- 
der to enter into a partnership with Mr. 
Beattyj he buying the stock of Mr. Rearick. 
He had been a stockholder in the Cass county 
bank ever since its organization in 1866. It 
had been previously an insurance business. 
The present firm of Beatty & Hammer is 
noted for the full line df reliable goods they 
carry. They are located on Main street. Mr. 
Hammer has always taken an active part in 
all the affairs of the town. He has made ju- 
dicial investments in various ways, and has 
made considerable money. 

Mr. Hammer was married in Cass county, 
to Miss Margaret A. Lee, of the same county 
of Cass. Her parents, Caleb and Matilda 
(Higgins) Lee, were natives of Maryland, and 
after marriage came, in 1828, to Cass county, 
Illinois, and settled there. He was a farmer, 
and spent the remainder of his life on the 
farm that he purchased upon coming to the 
county. 

Mrs. Hammer is the youngest of four 
children, and all were born in Cass county. 
She and her husband are the parents of two 
children living: John, in business with his 
father; and Nellie, wife of Charles Ireland, 
a conductor on the Ohio & Mississippi rail- 
road. Mr. Hammer is a Democrat in pol- 



244 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



itics, and he and his wife are members of the 
Congregational Church. He has been the 
Treasurer and Assessor of the county 
term. 




one 



flLLlAM T. ADAMS was born in 
Logan county, Kentucky, March 7, 
1831. His father, Benjamin Adams, 
was born in Maryland, and his father was 
also from Maryland. He was also a farmer, 
who left Maryland for Kentucky about 1.815, 
settled in Logan county and resided on his 
farm until his death. His wife's name was 
Sarah Bell, and she also died in Logan county. 
Benjamin Adams was about ten years old 
when his parents moved to Kentucky, and 
there he was reared, married and lived until 
1830, when he came to Illinois and settled in 
what is now Brown county. He was accom- 
panied by his wife and three children. He 
made the entire journey by team, making it 
in three weeks. He rented land a mile north 
of Mount Sterling for one year, and then 
bought timber land in sections 2 and 3 of the 
same township. ' Heat once built a log cabin, 
making a comfortable home, although he had 
to hew the logs and build it himself. He 
lived upon the same farm until his death in 
1873. His wife's name was Perneta Clark, 
born in Logan county, Kentucky, whose father, 
Abner, came from North Carolina, an early 
settler of Logan county, where he lived until 
1835. He then sold out and came to Illinois, 
and bought in what is now Missouri town- 
ship, improved his farm and resided there 
until his death. His wife's name was Nancy 
Gorham, of Kentucky. The mother of our 
subject is still living at the old home, aged 
eighty-six. He was two years old when he 
came with his parents to Illinois. Of course, 
in those days the people were obliged to live 



on game, fish and the product of their land. 
He. as many other pioneer buys, went to school 
in a log hut with seats of slabs. Holes in 
the side of the building served for windows. 
He resided with his father until his marriage, 
when he settled on the farm where he now 
resides. 

He married, September 21, 1854, Ann 
Eliza Buvinger, of Martinsburg, Virginia, 
born November 15, 1853. Her father was 
born in Maryland, and her grandfather in 
Germany. The latter located in Baltimore 
when he came to America, and continued 
there until his death. The father of Mrs. 
Adams was a hatter. He went when a young 
man to Virginia, and there married Margaret 
McCormick, and in 1834 moved to Cham- 
paign county, Ohio, and in 1852 came to 
Illinois. He purchased a home in Mount 
Sterling, and here resided until his death. 
Mr. and Mrs. Adams have four living chil- 
dren: Charles B., who married Sarah Briggs; 
Sarah, married to William Briggs; Thomas, 
married to Julia Harris; and William E. 



S. NICHOLSON, editor of the Beards- 
town Illinoian, was born in Oldham, 
Lancashire, England, in 1832. The 
family left Liverpool on the anniversary of 
the Queen's marriage, and, like so many emi- 
grants, had a slow passage to New Orleans, 
thence up the Mississippi river, settling at 
last, after a journey of eleven weeks with teams, 
at Jacksonville. In 1850 the family settled 
on improved lands near Beardstown. They 
farmed this land. Part of the family moved 
to Home, Peoria county, where the father died, 
aged seventy-three years, four months and 
twenty-eight days. He had been a good, 
quiet citizen. The war of the Rebellion 
changed his politics and he became a decided 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



245 



Republican in his old age. His wife, for- 
merly Miss Mary Needham, died February 9, 
1881. She had been a good, kind wife and 
mother, and both she and her husband 
were consistent members of the Methodist 
Church, having been so connected for thirty- 
live years. 

The subject of our sketch commenced life 
here as an office boy at the office of a paper 
of which he later became the proprietor and 
editor. The history of journalism in Beards- 
town began as early as 1834, when F. Arenz, 
the brother of Judge Arenz, became the editor 
of the Beardstown Chronicle and Illinoian, 
a kind of land advertiser. The next paper 
was started by Judge Emmons in 1845, and 
this was later owned by C. D. Dickinson, 
and he was followed by J. M. Sherman. Soon 
after it became the property of B. C. Drake, 
who ran it under the name of the Central 
Illinoian, When the war broke out the of- 
fice was closed and the editor enlisted. -The 
paper was re-organized by R. S. Mitchell, the 
property becoming owned by a stock company. 
Following the election of 1863 it became the 
property of L. W. Reavis, who continued to 
be the owner until 1866. The next year the 
paper was the property of A. J. M iller and was 
edited by Judge Emmons, and in 1877 Mr. 
Nicholson became the manager and pro- 
prietor. He was his own editor, and except 
for a short interval in 1883, has continued to 
run it successfully as a semi-weekly, under 
the name of the Illinoian. He is a thorough 
and practical newspaper man and the columns 
display his ability. His paper is run in the 
interests of the Republican party, and he has 
taken hold of all matters that tend toward 
reform. He has always been agreat admirer 
of Abraham Lincoln and relates Mr. Lincoln's 
early experiences here with an especial pride 
and enthusiasm. 



He was married in this city, in 1860, to 
Miss J. D. C. Harris, who came from Eng- 
land with her parents when a young woman. 
She died herein 1873, leaving four children, 
of whom but one is still living, Charles B., a 
member of the firm of Merry & Nicholson 
of St. Louis, Missouri. Mr. Nicholson was 
married for the second time, in this city, to 
Miss E. J. Buck. She was born, reared and 
educated in Cass county, and she has been a 
good wife and mother, and is an intelligent 
lady. Her one child is a son named Edgar 
E., a bright lad of twelve years. Mr. and 
Mrs. Nicholson are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He is a Republican in 
every sense. He has frequently been a dele- 
gate to the State and District Conventions 
and once a member of the State Central Com- 
mittee. 



ILLIAM W. GLAZE was born Feb- 
ruary 18, 1825, in Scioto county, 
Ohio. His father, Jacob Glaze, was 
born in the same county, but his father was a 
native of Virginia, although he died in Scioto. 
Mr. Glaze, Sr., was a farmer all his life, and 
died in the county where his entire life was 
spent, in 1844. His wife was a member of 
the Reardin family, a native of the same 
county as her husband, and she lived until 
1891. She left three children living. 

William Glaze moved to Brown county in 
1856, by team, with his family. Here he has 
remained ever since on the land he bought 
when he came to the county. He built a 
house when he brought his family, as the 
old one-story house that was on the place 
when he bought it burned down. Times were 
hard after his arrival in Illinois. The banks 
of the State were in bad repute and money 
was scarce. Mr. Glaze had a great deal of 




246 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA88, 



difficulty in paying his taxes the first year. 
He served as Supervisor two terms. 

He married Miss Elizabeth M. Coleman, a 
native of Scioto county. They have six child- 
dren; May J., Maggie F., Carrie F., Julia H., 
Thomas H. and A. J. Mr. Glaze has been a 
member of the I. O. O. F. for twenty-six 
years and has filled all the important offices 
in the order. He once represented the order 
at the Grand Lodge. Two of his children live 
at home. 



iHARLES BOCKEMEIER, general 
farmer and stock-raiser, was born in 
Prussia, not far from the river Rhine, 
August 16, 1835. His father, Charles, lived 
and died in Prussia, a blacksmith by trade. 
His wife came to the United States six 
months after his death, joining her sons in 
Cass county, dying at the age of eighty-two. 
She and her husband were life-long members 
of the Lutheran Church. Charles was a young 
single man when in 1854 he set out for the 
United States. He took the usual route via 
New Orleans, Mississippi, Ohio and Illinois 
rivers, to Beardstown, and joined his brother 
Casper, who had come here two years before. 
He has been in the county for more than 
thirty years, and what he now owns he has 
made by his own efforts. He has owned his 
present place for fourteen years. It consists 
of 160 acres, some well improved, and some 
very fine pasture land. He is at present 
Commissioner of road district No. 3, of 
Cass county. 

He was first married to Miss Barbara 
Gemming, of Germany, who came to the 
United States when a young woman. At her 
death she left three children: Mrs. Anna 
Flamme, of Pekin, Illinois; Mrs. Lena Her- 
ety, wife of a railroad employe", and Mrs. 



Emma Nortrup, of Scott county, Illinois. 
He was married a second time, near Beards- 
town, to Mrs. Loise Wubker; her maiden 
name was Loise Schewe. She was born in 
Prussia, came here when a young woman, 
was first married in Cass county, to Henry 
Wubker, and by that marriage had seven 
children. Mr. and Mrs. Bockemeier have 
two sons, Charles and William. They attend 
the Lutheran Church, and are highly re- 
spected members of it. Mr. Bockemeier is 
a sound Democrat and an excellent man. 



HOMAS I. McDANNOLD, an exten- 
sive farmer of Pea Ridge township, 
was born in Bath county, Kentucky, 
July 5, 1826. His father, John, was born in 
Montgomery county, Kentucky, in 1797, and 
his father, Reuben, was born in Culpeper 
county, Virginia, in 1750; and his father, 
Alexander, was born near Aberdeen, Scot- 
land, coming to America in colonial times, 
and settled in Culpeper county, Virginia, 
where he spent the rest of his days. Reuben 
emigrated to Kentucky at an early day, 
secured a large tract of land, which he im- 
proved with slave labor, and resided there 
until 1834, then sold out and emigrated to 
Pike county, Missouri, settled near Clarks- 
ville, bought a farm and resided there until 
his death in 1854. John learned the trade 
of tanner and conducted the business in 
Owensville, Kentucky, and in connection 
with it engaged in the mercantile business. 
He resided there itntil his death in 1834. 
He was a Whig in politics, and served several 
years as Sheriff of the county. In 1834 the 
mother of our subject emigrated to Illinois, 
making the journey in a two horse wagon. 
She located at Springfield, where two brothers 
lived. Her father gave her some land, a part 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



247 



of which is now included in the land in 
Springfield and the rest at Buffalo Heart 
Grove. She married a second time, and lived 
near Springfield for a season, and then moved 
to Jacksonville and spent her last days there. 

Thomas was in his eighth year when they 
came to Illinois, and remembers many of the 
incidents of the journey. At that time Van- 
dalia was the capital of the State, and Spring- 
field was only a village of 2,000 inhabitants. 
There was no railroad in Illinois, and St. 
Louis and Beardstown were the nearest mar- 
kets for supplies. He went to school at 
Springfield, and resided there until 1844, and 
then went to his grandfather's in Pike county, 
Missouri. He remained with his grandfather 
one year, and in 1845 came to Mount Ster- 
ling, and in the next year, in company with 
his brother-in-law, General Singleton, pur- 
chased a tract of land in Missouri township, 
which he occupied two years, and in 1848 
purchased the place where he now resides. 
He is well known as a practical and success- 
ful farmer, and has purchased land at different 
times, and now owns some 400 acres. His 
improvements rank with the best in the 
county. 

He was married in March, 1849, to Mary 
Elizabeth Means, born in Lewis county, Ken- 
tucky, January 1, 1828. Her father, Major 
John Means, was born in the same county, 
and his father, John Means, born in Penn- 
sylvania, went from there to Kentucky with 
his family and was one of the pioneers of 
Lewis county. The removal was made with 
pack-horses. He secured a tract of land on 
which he engaged in farming, and on which 
he remained until his death. His wife's 
name was Elizabeth Elton, born near Phila- 
delphia, and she died in Lewis county, at the 
age of ninety-six. The father of Mrs. Mc- 
Dannold learned the trade of a blacksmith, 



which he followed in Lewis county until 
1835, and then with his wife and three chil- 
dren came to Illinois. He settled in that 
part of Schuyler county now included in 
Mount Sterling, and bought a tract of land 
one mile east of the city, and remained there 
until his death in 1863. The name of his 
wife was Martha Parker, born in Culpeper, 
Virginia, and died in Mount Sterling in 
1884. Mr. and Mrs. McDannold have four 
living children: John J., Thomas R., George 
R. and Clara L. They are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. Mr. McDannold was 
formerly a Whig, but has been a stanch Re- 
publican ever since the formation of the 
party. For seventeen years he has been 
director on the County Agricultural Board, 
and for six years has been its vice-president. 



EORGE W. WILLIAMS was born in 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, March 
17, 1826. He was the son of Thomas 
and Margaret (Young) Williams. The former 
was a native of New York, and died in St. 
Louis, Missouri, when George was about four 
years old. Mrs. Williams was born in Penn- 
sylvania, and died in Brown county, at the 
home of her son, aged seventy-eight. 

George W. Williams was bound out to the 
trade of saddler at the age of eight, and re- 
mained there until he was seventeen, working 
for his board and clothes. At the expiration 
of his apprenticeship, he hired out at ten dol- 
lars a month, and worked for six months be- 
fore he went to St. Louis, and worked under 
instructions for two years, and then traveled 
for two years. In 1849 he started a shop in 
St. Charles, Missouri, and continued there 
until the next year, when he started for Mt. 
Sterling. He remained there only one sum- 
mer, and then opened a shop in Versailles. 



248 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



In 1852 he sold out and crossed the plains to 
California with a team of oxen. He engaged 
in mining at Michigan Bar, and followed it 
for several months, when the city was burned. 
He then went to the mines, but that fall 
opened a shop in Red Bluff, and managed it 
until 1858. He then returned by way of 
New Orleans to Versailles, and again opened 
a shop. In a year or two he went on a farm, 
which he had bought previously, of 240 acres, 
partly improved. He built a log cabin 16 by 
18 feet and lived there until 1863, when he 
built a two-story frame house and various 
farm buildings. Mr. Williams retired from 
farm work in the spring of 1891, and bought 
a nice house with twelve acres surrounding it 
in Mt. Sterling, just out of the city limits. 
He has been Assessor and School Director. 
He is a strong Democrat, though he cast his 
first vote for Taylor. 

Mr. Williams was married in Versailles, 
Illinois, October 11, 1858, to Miss Juliet 
Boss, of Kentucky. She was the daughter of 
Richard Ross. Mr. Ross is still living, but 
his wife is dead. Mr. and Mrs. Williams have 
four children yet living, three being dead. 
Those Btill living are: Frank, married and 
having a bag works at the old home; Lydia, 
married; Charley and Edith are at home. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Williams are very esti- 
mable people, and are very influential among 
their large circle of friends. 



ilLLIAM B. MANLOVE was born 
in Schuyler county, December 28, 
1830, near the town of Rushville- 
He is the son of Jonathan and Charity (Bo. 
denhamer) Manlove. The former was a far- 
mer of North Carolina, and came to this 
county in the fall of 1830, traveling over 




laud all the way, and settled near Rushville, 
where he stayed the first winter. The next 
spring he went south and settled near Sugar 
Grove; and in 1834, he sold and moved to 
Birminghan township, and bought a farm 
where our subject still lives, of eighty acres. 
He put up a log house, in which the family 
lived. During the building of this house 
the father died, at the age of twenty- eight, 
leaving a wife and three children, of whom 
William was the eldest. The mother wove 
cloth for a living, and kept the old farm, and 
later married a second time, dying at the 
home of her son, William. William Manlove, 
Sr., was of English descent. The family were 
all farmers as well as can be ascertained. They 
left North Carolina on account of slavery. 

William stayed at home until he was nine- 
teen years old, assisting his mother and at- 
tending school in winter. After he became 
nineteen, he engaged to work for a neighbor 
at 50 cents a day, but worked for him only 
two months, and then went to his first free 
school, the other being a subscription school. 
He worked out by the month for a year, and 
then returned home, and buying out the heirs 
settled there. He had one yoke of oxen at 
that time. 

He was married in 1853, to Miss Abigail 
Swisegood, who was born in North Carolina, 
and came with her parents to Illinois in 1846, 
being the daughter of John and Elizabeth 
Swisegood. She was one of six children, five 
yet living. 

At his marriage he had only a small farm, 
but by dint of hard labor he has increased it 
to 900 acres of as fine land as there is in the 
county. He commenced work, plowing corn 
at 25 cents a day, taking his pay in bread and 
meat, which he carried to his mother who 
hired him out. He never went into debt for 
anything, but by great economy and much 



SCHU7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



249 



self-denial he succeeded in buying some land, 
and afterward stock. He feeds two or three 
cars of cattle and hogs, and has always been 
a man devoted to his home. 

He voted the first time for Fillmore and the 
Kepublican ticket ever since, as his father 
was an old-line Whig. The whole family are 
considered good, honest people, and highly re- 
spected by everybody, making no pretensions. 
He built his present home in 1865, and was 
visited by the soldiers returning from the war. 
All of his land is in this township, and 600 
acres of it is highly cultivated. He had six 
children, five living, namely: Eli, the eldest, 
is deceased; Laura A., John J., Isabell V., 
Tad J. and Em berry J. A grandson, William, 
a son of his oldest son, lives with them. 



(EORGE I. FIELDS was born in Wythe 
county, Virginia, May 16, 1837. His 
father, John D. Fields, was born in Rap- 
pahannock county, Virginia. His grandfather 
was a native of Scotland and came to this 
country at an early date and settled near 
Richmond, Virginia. Here he died at the 
advanced age of 100 years. Mr. John D. 
Fields was a brick mason and a farmer. He 
attended to his trade and had his sons work 
the farm. He lived on his farm until his 
death in October, 1868, when he was ninety- 
six years old. He was a Sergeant in the war 
of 1812, and made a fine record in the naval 
service, especially at Norfolk, Virginia. He 
was honorably discharged. He received his 
land warrant for 160 acres, which he sold. 
His wife's name was Nancy E. Williams, a 
native of Culpeper county, Virginia. She 
died in Wythe county, Virginia, after a 
happy married life of sixty years, Mr. and 



Mrs. John D. Fields had seven children, 
three of whom are still living. 

Mr. George I. Fields is the youngest of 
the family. He left his home in 1867 and 
settled in Versailles, Brown county, Illinois. 
Until that time he had been a farmer, but 
from then until 1884 he was engaged in 
milling. Since then he has engaged in news- 
paper work as editor and publisher of the 
Versailles Enterprise. 

He was married to Ellen P. McWane 
April 16, 1865. She was born in Nelson 
county, Virginia, and is still spared to her 
family. They have had nine children, six of 
whom are still living, namely: Maggie V. 
Nancy E., Emma J., Addie D., Louie and 
Stella May. 

Mr. Fields has been elected Tax Collector 
for the township seven times. He is a Re- 
publican in politics and is the Chaplain of the 
blue lodge, A. F. & A. M. He connected 
himself with the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in 1870, and has been a Class-leader and ex- 
horter most of the time. Mr. and Mrs. Fields 
are worthy members of society and are greatly 
esteemed by their host of warm friends. 



HOMAS RYAN, Supervisor of Buena 
Vista township, resides on section 20, 
Schuyler county, Illinois. He was 
born October 20, 1845, and raised in this 
county. His parents were Charles and Mar- 
garet (Strong) Ryan. His father was born 
in Ohio, but removed with his parents to 
Frederick, Illinois, where he married, and 
settled in Buena Vista township in 1833. 
He was a brickmaker, and burnt the first 
brick ever made in Rushville. He also 
worked at the shoemaker's trade. He finally 
located on land in section 21, where he im- 



250 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF C'ASS, 



proved this farm of 120 acres, besides which 
he owned 320 acres more. He erected 
good substantial buildings on this place and 
otherwise improved and cultivated the land. 
Here he resided until the time of his death, 
which occurred January 9, 1891. His wife, 
mother of our subject, died December 16, 
1879. They had eight children, five sons 
and three daughters: John, deceased; George, 
now residing in Texas (Grapevine); Cathar- 
ine, wife of Thomas Armstrong; Louisa, wife 
of Alexander Young; Charles, deceased; 
Thomas, the subject of our sketch; William; 
and Margaret E., wife of Thomas Stoughel. 

The subject of our sketch was reared on 
the home farm, and received his education at 
the country schools of that district, residing 
at home until he was twenty-three years of 
age. In 1868, he was married to Ellen 
Shields, daughter of Joshua and Julia (Fut- 
ler) Shields. She was born in Ohio, June 16, 
1847. Her parents were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and New York, who came to Illinois 
in 1857, locating in Rushville. Mr. Shields 
served in the late civil war, being a member 
of the One Hundred and Nineteenth Regi- 
ment, and died while in the army. His wife, 
mother of Mrs. Ryan, is still living, in Can- 
ton, Illinois. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ryan have had twelve chil- 
dren, eight of whom are living, the latter be- 
ing Martin, Josie, Homer, Minnie, Herman, 
Clarence, Lula and Lena, the last two being 
twins. 

Mr. Ryan is one of the most successful 
farmers of the county, owning 160 acres of 
highly improved and cultivated land, devoted 
to mixed husbandry. He has a comfortable 
home and large barns for his grain and stock, 
besides other modern improvements. 

Politically, he affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party, and has been honored by his con- 



stituents by being elected to the office of 
Supervisor of his township. 

He is a respected member of the commun- 
ity on account of his many admirable traits of 
character, and has the good will of a large 
circle of acquaintances. 



ENRY D. RITTER was born August 6, 
1819, son of Michael and Barbara E. 
(Schafer) Ritter. The former was born 
in 1795, being of German ancestry. By 
occupation he was a stone mason, and in 
1812 he went to the German and French war 
and served as a soldier for nineteen or twenty 
years, and was an officer at the time of his 
death, at the age of fifty-one years. He was 
the son of Reinhart Ritter, who were natives 
of the same place. They were farmers. Sub- 
ject's mother was born in Germany in 1796, 
and died when about sixty-five. Her parents 
lived to be very old people. 

Henry was one of seven children, two of 
whom are living, and he is the eldest. He 
remained at home until he was twenty-five 
years old and worked as a clerk. He sailed 
in the Mentor for America from Bremen, 
Prussia, and arrived in New York after a 
voyage of six weeks. Here he remained for 
eighteen months, engaged in painting and the 
manufacture of parasols and umbrellas. From 
there he went to Virginia and followed the 
business of painting houses for three years, 
when he married and came to Ohio, settling 
in Fayette county, where he bought a house 
and four acres of land, and there lived until 
1854, when he sold and came to Illinois in 
the fall, settling where he now lives. Here 
he bought 120 acres of land, which he im- 
proved, and in the same winter he added 
eighty acres to the farm. There was a log 



SCHUYLER AJf> BHOWN COUNTIES. 



251 



house on the land in which they lived until 
1861, when he built his present house. He 
later bought 120 acres, and then eighty acres 
more, making in all 400 acres. He rents al- 
most all of his land, and has practically re- 
tired from active business. Mr. Hitter has 
always been a Democrat, and has tilled nearly 
every office in the county. He was School 
Trustee and Assessor for twenty years, Jus- 
tice of the Peace for twelve years, Constable 
and Coroner four years, Sheriff two years, 
Commissioner two years, Supervisor eight 
years, and was chairman of the Board of Su- 
pervisors for a time, and he is considered one 
of the most prominent men in the county. 

He was married April 24, 1848, by Rev. 
William N. Scott, near Petersburg, Hardy 
county, Virginia, to Miss Lucinda E. Hall, 
born in Virginia on the south side of Blue 
Ridge mountains, April 13, 1823. She was 
a daughter of James and Judy (Taylor) Hall. 
James Hall was a native of Virginia, and fol- 
lowed farming. When Mrs. Ritter was three 
years old the family moved to Rockingham 
county, Virginia, where they lived several . 
years and then moved to Hardy county, and 
bought a farm, on which he erected a log 
house, where he lived a year or two, and then 
built a new and better hewn-log house in 
another neighborhood, about a mile from the 
first one. Here he spent the remainder of 
his life, dying at the advanced age of one 
hundred and two years, on his birthday. He 
was the father of eighteen children, seven 
boys by his first wife and eleven children by 
the second one, Judy Taylor. Seven of the 
latter are still living. One of the sons, 
Henry, by the latter marriage, was starved to 
death in one of the prisons of Richmond, 
Virginia, during the war of the Rebellion. 
Mrs. Judy Hall was a native of Virginia, 
and a daughter of George Taylor. She died 



in Hardy county, aged seventy years. Mrs. 
Ritter and her brother went to school in the 
old subscription schools where the parents 
paid according to the number of children 
sent; and Mr. Hall had so many children he 
could not afford to send more than two or 
three at a time. Mrs. Ritter remembers 
her first teacher, a Mr. Nick Hawk, who 
managed to keep school the entire year in 
a log house with benches of slabs, without 
backs. Their slates and pencils were pieces 
of soapstone and slate that they could find 
in the neighborhood of the school. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ritter have had eleven chil- 
dren, nine yet living: Mary E., married Cal- 
vin Hill; Judy V. married Henry C. Hill, 
seven children, six yet living; Justina C. 
married Calvin S. Hill, eight living children; 
Calvin Z. married Viola Weatherby; George 
W. married Sylvina Weatherby, one child; 
Douglas J., at home with his father at work 
on the farm; Elisa Jane, married William H. 
McDaniel, five children; James H. S. mar- 
ried Mattie Shelton, four children ; Franklin 
W. living at home; Martha O. and Martha 
Ann died when small. 

Mr. Ritter is a member of A. F. & A. M. 
Lodge, No. 108, at Versailies, and the Mere- 
dosia Chapter and Council, No. 56, and also 
of I. O. O. F., Irene Lodge, No. 72. of Ver- 
sailles, and Encampment of I. O. O. F. 

He follows general mixed farming and is a 
well educated man, being educated in Ger- 
many. 



,ENKY F. WITTE, a practical farmer 
and stock-raiser, lives on a good farm 
in section 3, township 18, range 11, 
where he owns 120 acres of tine prairie land 
and forty acres of timber. He bought this 



252 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF .CAS8, 



land in 1862 and has since been successful 
as a farmer. He was born in Harford, Men- 
den, Westphalia, Prussia, Germany, on 
August 9, 1824. He is the son of Fred and 
Minnie (Isserman) Witte, natives of Prussia, 
Germany, where they married and began life 
as farmers. There, too, all the family was 
born, and in 1855 the parents, with three 
children, set out for this country, taking 
passage on a sailing vessel, the Berker, from 
Bremen, leaving September 8, 1856, and 
landed in New Orleans after a voyage of nine 
weeks and two days. From there they came 
up to Beardstown on a steamer, landing here 
November 24, 1855. Here the parents lived 
and died, the father when about seventy 
years old and the mother when ten years 
younger. They were members all their lives 
of the Lutheran Church. 

Henry had two brothers and a sister that 
finally came to this country, Henry being 
the only one now living. He was a single 
man when he made the voyage and worked 
for two years in the Park House and brick 
yards in Beardstown. 

In 1856 he was married in Beardstown to 
Minnie Vette, born near the birthplace of 
her husband. Her mother had died in Ger- 
many, and her father, Fred Vette, followed 
his daughter to the United States and spent 
his last years, dying in Cass county when 
nearly eighty years old. He and his wife 
were life-long members of the Lutheran 
Church. Mrs. Witte had come to the United 
States when a young woman, in 1855, on the 
same vessel that brought her future husband. 
They were married about eighteen months 
after landing. They have lived and labored 
to build up a good home. They have reared 
a large and intelligent family of eight chil- 
dren, two deceased, Carrie and Edward, aged 
eight years and one month, respectively. 



Those living are: William H., a farmer in 
Arenzville, married Sophia Roegge of this 
county; Bertha, wife of Ed. Krohe, in 
Hickory precinct; Anna, wife of Frank 
Lebknecher, farmer in this county; Mariah, 
wife of Albert Krohe of Hickory precinct; 
Lizzie, wife of William Roegge, a farmer 
near Arenzville; and Minnie, who is still at 
home and cares for her parents. She is an 
intelligent and accomplished young lady and 
is greatly beloved by her parents. The entire 
family are members of the German Lutheran 
Church, and Mr. Witte is a stanch Re- 
publican. 

When Mr. Witte was a young man he 
traveled extensively in Germany, and was in 
the regular German army from 1845 to 1847, 
but was not in the Revolution of 1848. He 
and his family are highly respected by all 
who know them. 



HOMAS KNIGHT was born in Corn- 
wall county, near Land's End, England, 
August 14, 1836. His father, Thomas 
Knight, was also born in Cornwall, of Cor- 
nish parents, and followed the trade of cooper 
until he came to this country in 1846. He 
first settled in Meredosia and then came into 
Cass county, where the family has since made 
their home. The father had brought a little 
money with him and was able to buy forty 
acres of land. He became a farmer, which 
business was entirely new to him. He was 
very industrious and had good judgment and 
all the family became well off. The father 
died there, after having increased his property 
to 264 acres. His wife survived him some 
years, and died when past four-score years. 
She was remarkable for being a very beautiful 
old lady and a very consistent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 



UBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



253 



Mr. Knight is one of a family of six, of 
which all are still living. He is one of the 
wealthy and influential ruen of Beardstown, 
and is now living at the corner of Eleventh 
and Washington streets, where he recently 
purchased a fine home, and has lived here 
ever since he retired from active life on his 
farm. He has been a successful farmer aud 
stock-raiser in Hickory precinct. He was a 
progressive farmer and kept up with the 
times. His possessions amount to 520 acres, 
most of it under the plow and suppled with 
the finest improvements. As he was only 
ten years of age when he reached Cass County, 
he is one of the oldest settlers of the county. 

Mr. Knight was married in Beardstown, to 
Emma Dunn of Cornwall, England, where 
she was reared. She came to Illinois with 
her brothers when yet a young girl and set- 
tled in Cass county, where she and her brother 
John still reside. Mr. and Mrs. Knight 
have six children. Robert, who married 
Delia Thiveaght, daughter of a farmer of 
Monroe, Illinois; Minnie married Fayette 
Post, a railroad conductor on the Ohio & 
Mississippi, living in Beardstown; Myrtle 
married L. W. Berry, train dispatcher on the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad; Al- 
bert and Eddie are at home, as is also the 
youngest, Clarence Lloyd. Mrs. Knight and 
some of the children are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Knight, 
since he became of age, has become a 
Democrat, and his party elected him to the 
office of County Commissioner. He is a 
strong local worker for his party. 



lICH ARD WATSON MILLS, one of the 

leading attorneys of Cass county, Illi- 
nois, was born in Jacksonville, Morgan 
county, this State, August 3, 1844. 



18 



His father, Chesley Mills, was born near 
Lebanon, Tennessee, son of James Mills, a 
native of the eastern shores of Maryland, 
James Mills was born during Revolutionary 
times, a son of John Mills, who lost his life 
in the Revolutionary war, and in Maryland he 
was reared. When a young man he went to 
Tennessee, married the daughter of Isaac 
Lindsey, located a few miles from the Her- 
mitage, and resided there until 1808. That 
year he removed to the Territory of Missouri 
and located three miles from Hannibal, being 
one of the earliest settlers there. He im- 
proved a large farm and resided on it till the 
time of his death. Isaac Lindsey, his father- 
in-law, was a resident of Eastern Maryland at 
the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. 
He was loyal to the crown, but preferred 
not to fight on either side; so he sought the 
furtherest bqunds of civilization, taking up 
his abode in the wilderness eight miles from 
the Hermitage. At that time the Indians 
were numerous and often there was trouble 
with them. For a long time the settlers all 
lived in block houses. He improved a farm 
in the locality which is still known as Lind- 
sey's Bluff, and resided there till his death. 

Chesley Mills learned the trade of plasterer 
and bricklayer, which he followed till his 
death, in 1844. He married Harriet Cadwell> 
a native of Edwardsville, Madison county, 
Illinois, born on January 10, 1814, daugh- 
ter of Dr. George Cad well. Dr. Cad well was 
born and reared in Vermont, and in 1799 
went to Kentucky with his father-in-law, 
Matthew Lyon. He objected strenuously to 
the institution of slavery, and in 1804 came to 
the Territory of Illinois, becoming one of the 
original settlers of Madison county. He re- 
sided there till 1820, when he went to Mor- 
gan county with his wife and children, mak- 
ing the journey with flatboats via the Missis- 



254 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



sippi and Illinois rivers to Naples. He 
located near Lynnville, being the first physi- 
cian to settle in Morgan county, and continued 
practice there till the time of his death. The 
maiden name of his wife, grandmother of the 
subject of our sketch, was Parmelia Lyon. 
She was born in Vermont. Her father, 
Matthew Lyon, was born in Ireland, of Scotch 
ancestry, and when a young man came to 
America and located in Vermont, where he 
married the daughter of Governor Chitten- 
den, the first governor of Vermont. He took 
part in the Revolutionary war and attained 
the rank of General. After the war, he repre- 
sented Vermont two terms in Congress. He 
was the first victim uuder the Sedition Act, 
the charge being that of speaking disrespect- 
fully of John Adams, the President of the 
United States. He was sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment and fined $1,000; 
served his time in jail and paid his fine. In 
1799, he emigrated to Kentucky and located 
in Lyon county, which is named in honor of 
him. He founded the town of Eddy ville, the 
county seat of Lyon county, and became a 
prominent and wealthy man. He was a slave 
owner and trader, While residing, there he 
was sent as a representative to Congress. He 
removed from Kentucky to the Territory of 
Arkansas, was among the pioneers of Helena, 
and soon after his arrival there was sent as 
delegate to Congress. He died in Arkansas 
about 1825'. 

The mother of our subject now resides in 
Jacksonville. She reared five children: 
Thomas, spent his last years in Dakota; 
Emily, married Thomas W. Jones, of Ritchie, 
Will county, Illinois; Martha, married Henry 
Demarest; George, resides in San Francisco, 
California, and is a member of the Judson 
Manufacturing Company of Oakland. 



Richard W. Mills received his early educa- 
tion in the district schools. He was in his 
seventeenth year when the war broke out, and 
he enlisted in Company B, Tenth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, and went with the com- 
pany to Cairo. He was there rejected on ac- 
count of his age, and returned home. He had 
been at home, however, only a few days when 
he again enlisted, this time in Company F, 
Nineteenth Illinois Volnnteer Infantry, and 
was accepted. He went South with his regi- 
ment and remained with it till after his term 
of service had expired. He participated in the 
battles of Stone River and Mission Ridge, and 
was in the reserve at Chickamauga. After 
his return home he received an academic edu- 
cation at Jacksonville, after which he taught 
school four years. During that time he com- 
menced the study of law with Judge Cyrus 
Epler, and in May, 1870, was admitted to the 
bar. He practiced with Judge Epler till 
1871, and January 6 of that year he came to 
Virginia, where he has since been engaged 
in a successful law practice. 

February 4, 1873, he married Matilda A. 
Tate, a native of Cass county, Illinois, and a 
daughter of Dr. Harvey Tate. She died 
March 26, 1884. His second marriage was 
consummated November 29, 1889, with Nellie 
W. Epler, a native of Cass county, her parents 
being William and Jennie Epler. 

Mr. Mills is a member of Virginia Lodge, 
No. 544, A. F. & A. M.; Clark Chapter, No. 
29, R. A.M.; Hospitaller Commandery, No. 
31, K. T. Politically, he has always affilia- 
ted with and been an ardent and efficient 
worker in the Republican party. He has 
served as Master in Chancery. 

Mrs. Mills' father, William Epler, a resi- 
dent of the city of Virginia, was born in what 
is now Princeton precinct, Cass county, Illi- 
nois, April 15, 1835. His father, John Ep 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



255 



ler, was born in that part of Lancaster now 
included in Dauphin county, Pennsylvania, 
April 15, 1795. His father, the great-grand- 
father of Mrs. Mills, Abram Epler, was born 
in the same locality. His father, great-great- 
grandfather of Mrs. Mills, John Epler, was 
born in Germany, and was reared there to 
young manhood, and in 1734, with his brother 
Peter, came to America. They located near 
Reading, Berks county, Pennsylvania. They 
were Lutherans and established a church of 
that denomination there. Peter's descendants 
removed to Northumberland county; John's 
removed to that part of Lancaster now in- 
cluded in Dauplin county in 1768. He pur- 
chased a tract of land there, which he occupied 
till his death in 1782. A natural bowlder 
marks his resting place, upon which is in- 
scribed a shield, his name and the date of his 
death. The farm which he owned is now in 
possession of his great-great-grandson. He 
reared three sons and one daughter. 

Abram Epler was reared and married ' in 
Pennsylvania, and resided there till 1798. 
Then, with his wife arid three children, he re- 
moved to Kentucky, making the journey 
across the mountains with teams, down the 
Ohio river on flatboats to the Falls of the 
Ohio, landing at the site of the present city of 
Louisville. He remained there two years; 
then crossed the river into Northwest Terri- 
tory, and located in what is now included in 
Clark county, Indiana. There he erected a 
log cabin in the wilderness. In 1807 he 
built a stone house there, which is still stand- 
ing, it being the oldest stone house, in a good 
state of preservation, in the State of Indiana. 
He resided there until 1832, when he came 
to Illinois. He died in Case county in 1837. 
The maiden name of his wife was Anna Old- 
weiler. She was born in Lancaster county> 
Pennsylvania, October 26, 1768, and died at 



the home of her son George, May 3, 1847. 
There were eleven children born to them, all 
of whom reached adult years: Elizabeth Nor- 
ris, John, Nancy Austin, Abram, Catherine, 
Blizard, Jacob, David, Sarah Weir, Isaac, 
George, Mary Short. 

John Epler, grandfather of Mrs. Mills, 
was but three years old when his parents 
moved to Kentucky, and five years old when 
they moved to the Northwest Territory. There 
he was reared and married. He resided in 
Clark county till 1831, when with his wife 
and six children, he came to Illinois; made 
the journey with teams, and after three weeks' 
travel landed in Cass county. He bought a 
tract of land on which he engaged in farm- 
ing and was very successful in his operations. 
From time to time he purchased other lands 
until he became the owner of 1.200 acres in 
Cass and Morgan counties. He spent the 
last years of his life in Virginia and died 
May 25, 1876. The maiden name of his wife 
was Sarah Beggs. She was born in what is 
now Clark county, Indiana, April 28, 1800. 
Her father, Charles Beggs, was born in Rock- 
ingham county, Virginia, October 30, 1775, 
and his father, Thomas Beggs, was born in 
the same county. He took part in the Rev- 
olutionary war and died in the service. 
Charles Beta's was reared and married in Vir- 

DO 

ginia, and resided there till 1798, when he 
moved to Kentucky. In 1799 he removed to 
the Northwest Territory and settled in that 
part now included in Clark county, Indiana. 
He served in the war of 1812, and fought 
with Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe; 
was an old Whig, and personal friend of Gen- 
eral Harrison; served in both the Indiana 
Territorial and State Legislatures; resided in 
Clark county till 1829. In 1829 he came to 
Illinois and was one of the pioneers of Mor- 
gan county. He bought a tract of land and 



M 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



resided on it till his death, October 21, 1869. j 
The maiden name of his wife was Martha 
Trnmbo. She was born in Rockingham 
county. Virginia, March 16, 1778, and died 
May 12, 1811. Four of her children grew to 
maturity: Elizabeth, Sarah, Mary and George. 
The grandmother of Mrs. Mills died January 
11, 1882. Twelve of her children were reared: 
Charles, Abram, Cyrus, Mary A. Barrett, 
Sarah Fairbank, Elizabeth Hall, John M., 
William, David. Myron L., Ellen Prince, and 
Albert G. 

William Epler, father of Mrs. Mills, was 
reared in his native county, and received his 
early education in the pioneer schools here, 
and subsequently attended Illinois College, 
Jacksonville. He has been prominently iden- 
tified with the business interests of Virginia 
many years. The maiden name of Mrs. Ep- 
ler, wife of William Epler, was Jane Abigail 
Woodman. She was born at Paw Paw. Mich- 
igan, March 6, 1838. From a genealogical 
record of the Woodman family, compiled by 
Jabez H. Woodman, we learn that there were 
two brothers. Edward and Archalaus Wood- 
man, natives of Christian Malford, a parish in 
Wiltshire, England, came to America in 1635, 
and settled in Newbury, Massachusetts. There 
descendants are numerous and are scattered 
in various parts of the United States. It 
seems from this that Mrs. Mills is a descend- | 
ant of Edward. The second in line was his 
son Edward, the third in line his son Archa- 
lans, the next in line Archalaus' son Joseph, 
born May 4, 1714. He married Bridget Wil- 
ley in 1762. He died in Wheelock, Vermont, 
November, 1807. His son John, great grand- 
father of Mrs. Mills, married Sarah Foy. He 
died at Lyndon, Vermont, December 6, 1853, 
aged ninety years. His son. David Wood- 
man, grandfather of Mrs. Mills, was born in 
New England, July 27, 1793. He removed 



from New England to New York State, thence 
to Michigan, and from there to Oketo, Kan- 
sas, where his death occurred August 28, 1892, 
aged ninety-nine years and one month. His 
wife, grandmother of Mrs. Mills, was Abigail 
Gray. The mother of Mrs. Mills died in the 
State of Nebraska, October 2, 1863, in the 
twenty-sixth year of her age. Mr. Epler, 
father of Mrs. Mills, now has a piece copied 
from an English history, that was published 
in 1615, that gave an account of the trial and 
burning at the stake at Lewis, in Sussex, 
England, of Richard Woodman, June 22, 
1557, on account of his religious convictions. 
He was tried before the Bishops of Chiches- 
terand Winchester. He was very tenacious 
of his opinions, as are said to be some of the 
Woodmans of the present day. The parents 
of Mrs. Mil's were married at the home of the 
bride's brother-in-law, Colonel John B. Cul- 
ver, at Dnlnth, Minnesota, April 12, 1859. 
At that time Dnlnth was an Indian trading 
post, and they were the first white settlers 
ever married there. Mr. Epler was there in 
the employ of the United States Government 
as a civil engineer. 



^.IRAM JAQDES was born in Schoharie 
connty, New York, August 17, 1814. 
He was the son of Jesse and Maria 
(Boice) Jaques. They both died in New 
York. They had twelve children, but only 
one or two are living. Hiram remained at 
home with his parents until their death, when 
he worked by the month nntil the spring of 
1837, when he came to Illinois by the Ohio, 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers, with one of 
his brothers and two neighbors. They first 
built a mill race, working it by day, month or 
job for two years, and then took an interest 




SCHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



257 



in a saw and grist 1 mill, and later bought it 
all and 200 acres of land. 

Mr. Jaques was married in 1838jjr 1839, 
to Nancy Reeves of Kentucky, where her 
father and mother were early settlers. They 
had very few neighbors, but there was an 
abundance of wild game. Mr. Jaques has 
lived on the farm he first purchased ever 
since his marriage, except two or three years. 
He first built a log house in which they lived 
until the present one was built. 

They have had nine children, four of whom 
are yet living: Louisa, wife of Dr. Scanland 
(see sketch); Alma, married, and has one 
child; he served four years during the late 
war, was wounded three times, and now re- 
sides at Colorado Springs; Nephi Jaques 
served in the Tenth Illinois Cavalry two 
years and has since died, leaving two children ; 
Rachel, who married Mr. Scanland, and 
has three children living; George, married, 
and has two children ;Walace W., married. 

Mr. Jaques has always been an Andrew 
Jackson Democrat, and now votes the People's 
ticket, as he is now a member of that party, 
although he voted for Andrew Jackson. He 
has been engaged in general farming all his 
life, and he and his wife are greatly respected 
by all who know them. 



(EORGE D. UTTER, a prosperous farmer 
and stock-raiser of Frederick, Schuyler 
county, Illinois, was born in that place 
on November 13, 1846, the youngest child of 
John and Charlotte (Brines) Utter. Both of 
his parents were natives of Allegany county, 
New York, where the father was born No- 
vember 11, 1810, and the mother April 11, 
1807. In 1815, when five years of age, his 
father came to Palmyra, Illinois, where his 



youth and earl}' manhood were spent. He 
was there married to Charlotte Brines, De- 
cember 5, 1834, and in 1839 removed with 
his wife and family to Schuyler county, same 
State, settling on the Rushville road, near 
1 'leasant View. There he and his worthy wife 
spent their remaining days, rearing six chil- 
dren, two boys and four girls, of whom two 
boys and one girl now survive. October 15, 
1887, the family were called 'upon to mourn 
the loss of the devoted wife and mother, who 
had unselfishly watched over their interests 
for so many years. On February 14, of the 
following year, the honest, hard-working 
father also departed this life, as if unable to 
endure separation from his beloved com- 
panion. Both of these worthy people enjoyed 
the esteem of their entire community. 

George, whose name heads this biography, 
was the baby of the family, and now weighs 
240 pounds, which shows what Illinois can 
produce under favorable circumstances. He 
was trained to farm life and educated in the 
public schools of his native county, and now 
resides within one mile of his birthplace. 
By industry, economy and careful manage- 
ment, he has accumulated a competence for 
himself and family. He owns an excellent 
farm of 240 acres, which was originally pur- 
chased by his father, and is numbered among 
the successful farmers of Schuyler county. 

March 14, 1867, he was married in Schuy- 
ler county, to Miss Priscilla J. Ward, who 
was born in Bainbridge, that county, April 
10, 1848. Her parents, Apollos and Jane 
(Bramble) Ward, were among the first settlers 
of Schuyler county. Her father was a native 
of Hamilton county, Ohio, where he was born 
July 29, 1805. Her mother was born Feb- 
ruary 23, 1815, and their marriage occurred 
June 23, 1835. Her mother still survives, 
and is universally respected. 



258 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GA88, 



Mr. and Mrs. Utter have seven children: 
Arthur Frank, born January 9, 1868, married 
Clara Bradman February 27, 1889, and lives 
on a farm near by; Albert Marion, born Oc- 
tober 29, 1870; Alice May, born September 
4, 1873; Pnlaski, born November 30, 1876; 
Amy Florence, born January 10, 1880; Mary 
Viola, born October 21, 1883; and Cora 
Minnie, born October 30, 1889. All of these 
are under the parental roof, and form a typi- 
cal happy family. 

Politically, Mr. Utter affiliates with the 
Democratic party. Religiously, he and his 
wife are prominent members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church South. 

Mr. Utter's prosperity is due to his per- 
sistent efforts and honorable dealings in all 
the walks of life. He is one of the repre- 
sentative men of his county, and deservedly 
enjoys the esteem of his fellow men. 



f RAN KLIN L. A NGIER, chief clerk of 
the Locomotive and Car Department of 
the St. Louis Division of the Chicago, 
Burlington and Quincy Railroad, was born in 
Vermont at Waterbury, where he was reared 
until twelve years of age. He was the son 
of Aaron Angier of New Hampshire. His 
father was American of French ancestry. 
Aaron was a Baptist clergyman and married 
in Vermont, Miss Eliza Luther. She came 
of good family of Scotch descent. After 
marrying, Rev. Mr. Angier continued his 
work in the church of his faith until 1850, 
when he moved to New York State, and after 
four years moved to Illinois in 1854. He 
died a few months after his arrival in this 
State, in Bureau county, while yet in active 
work, being then only forty-seven. He was 



a hard-working, logical preacher, fluent talker 
and a worthy citizen. His wife survived him 
until 1863, and then died at the age of fifty- 
four. They had ten children. 

When Franklin Angier was twelve they 
removed to Elbridge, New York, and here he 
was educated until he was sixteen, when the 
family removed to Illinois, where he has 
since resided. Except three years in the 
army, he has been engaged in clerical work. 
He enlisted from Geneva, Illinois, in Sep- 
tember, 1861, in Company B, Fifty-second 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, Captain E. A. 
Bowen and Colonel Wilson in command. 
The latter named official did not retain his 
command very long, but was succeeded by 
Colonel T. W. Sweeny. The regiment was in 
the Fifteenth Army Corps of the Army of 
the Tennessee. They fought their first battles 
at Fort Donelson, Shiloh and siege of Cor- 
inth and battle of Corinth under General 
Rosecrans, and in October, 1863, Mr. Angier 
was discharged, and in May, 1864, re-enlisted 
and joined Company G, One Hundred and 
Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
remaining until expiration of service, Octo- 
ber 28, 1864. They were garrisoned at Cairo, 
Illinois. He served in the capacity of 
First Lieutenant all the time he was in the 
One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regiment. 

After coming to this State Mr. Angier 
lived in Bureau county for a short time, and 
was married there to Adaline Smith, born in 
Rochester, New York, in 1838, but was reared 
in Illinois, where her parents had moved when 
she was young. Her father, Alonzo Smith, 
was a farmer and died in Bureau county in 
1865, when in middle life. His wife is still 
living and resides with her daughter Mrs. 
Angier. She is eighty-four. She has been 
a worthy member of the Baptist Church for 
years. 



SGHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



?59 



Mr. and Mrs. Angler are members of the 
Baptist Church. Mr. Angier is a Republi- 
can in politics, and a Master Mason, being a 
member of Cass Lodge, No. 23, and Clarke 
Chapter, No. 29, of Beardstown. He has been 
Master and is now Secretary of the lodge. 
Is a member of McLane Post, No. 97, Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

They have seven children: Mary, wife of 
C. E. Sperry, a painter of Aurora, Illinois; 
Frank is a clerk under his father and married 
Maude Foster; Florence is at home; Carl and 
Earl (twins), and Charles and Dana are all 
four at home. They all have received the 
advantage of a good education and are refined, 
intelligent young people. 



JRED KROHE was born in Cass county, 
September 30, 1849, and was reared in 
Beardstown, which has been his home. 
He is the son of Fred Krohe, Sr., who was 
born in Saxony, Germany, May 8, 1809, and 
who died November, 1880, in Beardstown. 
He was a young man when with his parents 
he came to the United States. He married 
in Cincinnati, Sophia Hoverkluf, who was 
born in Hanover, Germany, in 1816, and died 
March 20, 1888. She had come with her 
parents to the United States to Cass county, 
both dying there. She had a family of six 
children, of whom three are living. 

Mr. Krohe is a man who has devoted his 
time to his business and the amassing of a 
fortune. He has now retired and is living in 
Beardstown, and is living on the corner of 
Washington and Third streets. He has made 
a fortune and owns some very valuable prop- 
erty, and is owner of the opera-house block 
and some fine property in the county. He 
has lived in this county all his life, except 



three years in Omaha, Nebraska, where he 
has some property interests. 

He was married in Beardstown, to Elizabeth 
Stock of Cass county, a native of the same 
ounty. She was born February, 1846. She 
cwas reared and educated in this county and 
is the daughter of Henry and Elizabeth Stock, 
natives of Prussia. Mr. and Mrs. Stock, were 
wealthy and well-known members of the county, 
and were members of the Lutheran Church. 

Mrs. Krohe died at St. Louis, May 9, 1892; 
she was a good and worthy woman, who had 
always lived in Cass county and was associ- 
ated with its history. Since her death Mr. 
Krbhe has lived in his home at Beardstown. 



HOMAS H. CARTER was born in 
Little York, York county, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 11, 1823. His-father, 
Bushnell Carter, a native of Connecticut, 
came when a young man to Pennsylvania, 
where he married Julia L. Barber, an esti- 
mable lady. He was an educated man, a suc- 
cessful lawyer, and died in early manhood. 
After the death of his mother our subject was 
taken by his father to an uncle in Connecti- 
cut, and there he grew to manhood. When 
twenty years of age he became a school 
teacher, and so continued until 1847, when 
he went to Canfield, Ohio, where he began 
the study of law under Judge Newton. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1852, after grad- 
uating from Ballston, New York. About 
this time, with a young wife, he made his way 
to Beardstown, and engaged in partnership 
in a general law business with a cousin, Car- 
ter Van Vleck, who had come here some years 
before. In later years he was connected in a 
legal way with Henry Philips, of Virginia, Illi- 
nois, but after some years he had sole charge 



260 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GASH, 



of the business himself. He became well- 
known through the State as one of the legal 
lights of the day, and has figured in it promi- 
nently. He has amassed a good farm prop- 
erty in Missouri, which is still in the family. 
He was not a politician, but he had been City 
Attorney of Beardstown, and from 1858 to 
1861 he was Postmaster of the place. He 
was held in high esteem for his upright char- 
acter and good qualities. He was a Demo- 
crat, a Master Mason, a good moral man and 
a great lover of home. 

He was married to Miss Maria L. Peck, 
in Warren, Litchfield county, Connecticut, 
where he was reared. She was born in the 
same place December 13, 1825, and was a 
daughter of Phineas and Phoebe (Taylor) 
Peck, both of Litchfield. Mr. Peck was a 
farmer and purchased the old Peck home- 
stead, which is yet in the family. His death 
occurred July 11, 1870, at the age of seventy- 
seven. He was a strong, active man, and both 
he and his wife were members of the Con- 
gregational Church, as are also their children. 
Mr. and Mrs. Carter had one son, Augustine 
P., now chief clerk of Superintendent John- 
son of the Montana Central Railroad of 
Helena, Montana. He married Miss Frances 
B. Henderson, of Monmouth, a daughter of 
Colonel Henderson, a prominent man of 
Warren county. Mr. and Mrs. Augustine 
Carter and wife have one bright daughter, 
Marcia P., named for her grandmother. 

Mr. Carter died while in Peoria, Illinois, 
for treatment, on March 19, 1886, leaving to 
his many friends a memory most pleasing to 
cherish. 



IEORGE HENRY EIFERT settled in 
Schuyler county, January 13, 1857. 
He was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Ger- 
many, February 11, 1823. He had five broth- 



ers and two sisters; the former all came to 
the United States, where the brother, John, 
died in Schuyler county; George also died 
there, while Ludwig died in this county; 
Valentine went away during the civil war, 
and was never heard from again. 

George was the youngest, but his father 
died when only forty-one years old, so he had 
to work very hard, as there were nine small 
children left. He came to the United States 
and first stopped in Maryland with a Dunkard 
preacher two years, when the minister sent 
him to Ohio. He went to Preble county, 
Ohio, and in 1854 he sent to Germany for 
Margaret Roth. She came to America from 
Hesse- Darmstadt in 1826, June 21, all by 
herself. When she arrived in Ohio she and 
Mr. Eifert were married. In 1855 they came 
to Illinois and rented land in Schuyler county, 
which was but little improved. Here he 
passed his remaining years. Before his 
death he became the owner of 417 acres of 
land and put up tine buildings on the land, 
and he also raised stock. His death oc- 
curred November 17, 1884. His wife is still 
living on the homestead. They had four 
children: George, Charles W. and two who 
died in infancy. Mr. Eifert was a Democrat 
in politics, a Methodist in religion, and was 
an earnest, good man, dying happy and 
satisfied. 

When he was married he borrowed $50, 
and that was all he had. When he came to 
Illinois he was worse off yet, as he then had 
only $20. He purchased a stove and wash- 
tub, and they began housekeeping without a 
chair, table, knife or fork, and slept on the 
floor a whole month before they could afford 
to buy a bedstead, but they worked hard 
and prospered. 

George Eifert is the elder son of George and 
Margaret Eifert. He was born in Preble 



8CHUTLKR AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



261 



county, Ohio, August 6, 1856. The family 
came to Illinois, and he has since resided here, 
where he has followed farming. 

He was married, November 17, 1878, to 
Sarah Hale, daughter of William and Mar- 
garet Hale (see sketch). She was born in 
Schuyler county, Illinois, in 1858. They 
have two children: Carl and Warren. Mr. 
Eifert has part of the old homestead, where 
he follows stock-raising. He is a Democrat 
in politics and a member of the Methodist 
Church South. He and his wife are highly 
respected citizens of their section, and are 
admired by every one who knows them. 



| APTAIN SYLVESTER D. NOKES was 
born in Franklin county, New York, 
February 11, 1835. His father was 
John Nokes, born March 20, 1809, and his 
grandfather was Jacob Nokes, of New Eng- 
land. He was a farmer who died at an ad- 
vanced age in Brown county, Illinois, and his 
wife's name was Mary , who bore him 
seven children. She died in Brown county 
about ten years after her husband, aged 
eighty years. John Nokes came West from 
New York in 1842, and settled in Brown 
county on 160 acres of new land, it being 
part of his present farm. He brought his 
wife and six children with him in a covered 
wagon. He rented for several years and then 
built a hewed-log house. Much of his land 
was prairie of the most productive kind. He 
resided on this farm about twenty years. 

The Captain was a volunteer in the One 
Hundred and Nineteenth Illinois Infantry, 
Company E, enlisting August 9, 1862. He 
went as Second Lieutenant, and was mustered 
out as Captain, to which post he was pro- 
moted in 1864, in the place of Captain Mun- 



ford, resigned. He was absent from his com- 
mand on account of a gunshot wound in the 
thigh received on the Red river. He was all 
through that campaign, was in the two days' 
tight before Nashville, Tennessee, and in the 
charge on Fort Blakely. He has sixty acres 
of orchard land, apples, peaches and grapes. 
He keeps ten to twelve horses, fifteen to 
twenty head of cattle and fattens about fifty 
hogs per year. His orchards return him the 
best interest on his money. He built their 
fine brick farm house in 1881. The school- 
ing of the Captain is limited, but he is well 
informed and a great reader. 

He was married about the age of twenty, 
to Anna J. Dodd, who was nearly sixteen. 
She was the daughter of William and Julia 
Ann Richardson Dodd. Her father was of 
Green county, Illinois, and her mother of 
Bradenburg, Kentucky. 

The living children of Captain and Mrs. 
JS'okesare: Mrs. Carrie Bradney, living in 
Missouri; Mrs. Mary V. Wright, at home; 
Oscar E., living at the Mounds; Birdie May, 
a young lady at home; Irwin Grant; and 
Jessie. 

The Captain has been a Republican, but 
now is an Alliance man. He is justly proud 
of his war record. 



R. SIDNEY W. SCANLAND was 
born in Carroll county, Kentucky, 
October 13, 1834. He was the son of 
Thomas B. and Agnes W. (Searcy) Scanland, 
who were also born in Kentucky. Thomas 
followed the trade of cooper when a young 
man, and was married at the age of twenty- 
six, in Kentucky. In 1840 he came to Illi- 
nois. He settled first in Elkhorn township, 
and lived there two years on his first farm. 



262 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



He built a frame house, but in 1842 he 
bought in section 16 120 acres, and still 
later bought more land, until he had acquired 
nearly 400 acres. He improved his farm, 
built several houses and barns, and died Octo- 
ber 14, 1885, aged seventy-seven years, re- 
spected by all who knew him. He was the 
son of William Scanland, a native of Ken- 
tucky. William had come to Illinois in 1846, 
and settled in Pike county, where he and his 
wife lived and died very old people. They 
spent their last days in Pittsfield, Illinois. 
Our subject's mother was born in Carroll 
county, Kentucky, May 3, 1812, and died in 
Versailles, January 20, 1888, at the home of 
her daughter, Mrs. Susan McCoy. Her par- 
ents died when very old people in Kentucky. 

Sidney was one of six children: four are 
yet living. One brother, George, was taken 
prisoner in the late war, and died five months 
later at Macon, Georgia. Our subject is the 
only professional man in the family now liv- 
ing, but some of his father's brothers were 
prominent physicians. He remained at home 
until eighteen years of age, attending school, 
and after that taught school for some time, 
and during this time was obliged to board 
around among the neighbors, as they did in 
those times. During the years of his teaching 
he was educating himself, and when about 
twenty-six years of age, began to study medi- 
cine. After marriage, in 1860, he settled on 
the old farm where he had always lived, and 
in December, 1863, he enlisted in Company 
K, Tenth Illinois Cavalry, and remained in the 
service until January, 1866. 

Before this time he had attended lectures at 
Rush Medical College. After the war he set- 
tled in Chambersburg, Pike county, and prac- 
ticed for seven years. He then came to this 
county, taught school one winter, then bought 
a little farm in 1875, and has practiced medi- 



cine ever since. He has 100 acres of the old 
homestead and takes life very easy. He has 
taken an active part in everything that has 
taken place in the county, and has contributed 
time and money to advance the interests of the 
People's party. He is a prominent member 
of the G. A. E. in Isaac McNeil Post, also 
a lecturer in the Farmers' Alliance, and Presi- 
dent of an Anti-horse-thief Association. 

He was married to Louisa L. Jaques of 
this county (seesketch of Hiram and Nancy 
Jaques). They have four children: Sidney 
H., George A. and Birdie C. are in Califor- 
nia; and Florence Z. is the wife of Oscar 
McCoy still living at home. 

Dr. Sidney W. Scanland has always been a 
representative man of Elkhorn township; has 
twice been elected Justice of the Peace, and is 
at present acting as Notary Public. 



EV. JAMES DE WITT was born at 
Hope, Warren county, New Jersey, No- 
vember 5, 1817, a son of James and 
Anna (Coates) De Witt; the father was born 
in Sussex county, New Jersey, and about the 
year 1842 emigrated to Michigan; he located 
on a farm in Oakland county, and there passed 
the remainder of his days; he died at the age 
of eighty-six years; the mother was also a na- 
tive of New Jersey, and died in Michigan, 
at the age of seventy years. They reared a 
family of eight children, seven of whom are 
living: one son was a merchant, another a 
tanner, and a third was a millwright, but 
they are now engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
James De Witt, Jr., remained at home with 
his parents until he was thirteen years of 
age, and then began clerking for an older 
brother; at the end of two years he secured a 
position as clerk in a general store, and three 



SCIIUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



years later he went to Pennsylvania, where 
he was employed as a clerk by his brother. 
In the spring of 1838, he left the Keystone 
State, and came by rail, canal and river, to 
St. Louis; the journey was continued by 
water to Warsaw, where he disembarked, and 
from that point he walked to Schuyler county. 
The first summer of his residence here he 
clerked for Dr. Benjamin V. Teel, and then 
returned to New Jersey, where he spent the 
summer of 1839, and in the fall of 1839 he 
came again to this county and secured a po- 
sition with the firm of Wilson & Greer, which 
he held until 1842. 

Mr. De Witt was united in marriage, Jan- 
nary 25, 1842, to Miss Ellen Little, a native 
of Columbia, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania; 
she died in this county at the age of sixty- 
one years; seven children were born of this 
union, six of whom are living: James L. is 
married and has three children ; John M. is 
married and has three children ; George W. ; 
Elizabeth is married and the mother of four 
children; Cyrus L. is married; William A. is 
the youngest. Mrs. De Witt was a daughter 
of James and Rebecca Little, natives of Ire- 
land, who emigrated to the United States in 
1801, and died in Schuyler county, Illinois, 
the father, at the age of seventy, and the 
mother at eighty-four years of age. Mr. 
De Witt was married a second time, October 
3, 1883, to Mrs. Catharine H. (Pittinger) 
Waddell. She was born in Hancock county. 
West Virginia, April 30, 1837, a daughter of 
Nicholas and Elizabeth (Matthewson) Pit- 
tinger, natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania re- 
spectively; the father died at the age of sev- 
enty-two years, and the mother at eighty-five; 
they removed to Illinois in 1838, and settled 
in Fulton county, where they resided two 
years, thence they came to Schuyler county, 
and here passed the last days of their life; 



the Matthewson family is of Irish descent. 
Mrs. De Witt's first marriage was to Will- 
iam Waddell, and of this union was born one 
child, Clementine. Mr. Waddell died in 
Fulton county, Illinois, at the age of thirty- 
three years. 

After his first marriage, Mr. De Witt set- 
tled in Rushville, and clerked for his father- 
in-law until 1844, when he engaged in busi- 
ness for himself, his partner being Mr. 
Greer; he conducted the business with differ- 
ent partners until 1850, when he sold out and 
removed to Littleton township, where he 
and his brother-in-law conducted a general 
store for four years; the firm was then 
changed, Mr. De Witt retaining his interest 
for another period of four years; the old 
firm then resumed business, and in 1862 he 
sold out. He now resides on the farm which 
was given his wife by her father, and devotes 
much of his time to agriculture; he has added 
to the original tract, and built the residence 
they now occupy. 

Mr. DeWitt received his elementary edu- 
cation in the district school, but it was 
through his own efforts that his advanced 
studies were carried on; he was under theo- 
logical instruction only one year, but during 
that time made great attainment. For more 
than fifty years he has been a local minister 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
during that half century he has accomplished 
much work for the Master. He has per- 
formed the marriage ceremony 130 times, 
and has as often been called to administer 
the last sad rites of burial. In the affairs 
of the State, as well as of the church, he has 
taken a prominent part; he has been Post- 
master, Collector, and Deputy Marshal, to 
take the census of one-half of the county, in 
1870; and in 1874-'75, he was a member of 
the State Legislature from Schuyler county, 



264 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



representing the people with great credit to 
himself and to their best and highest inter- 
ests. Politically, he adheres to the princi- 
ples of the Republican party. In all the 
walks of life he has borne himself with that 
dignity and rectitude worthy of his calling, 
and has made a record that will bear the 
scrutiny of ages. 



&ANCY P. SECKMAN was born in 
Harrison county, Kentucky, August 18, 
1814. Her father, James Taylor, and 
her mother, Katie Bishop, were both born in 
Maryland, near Snow Hill. They went to 
Kentucky, when young, were married there, 
and were well-to-do farmers. They moved 
to Illinois in the fall of 1832, when this 
daughter was nineteen years old. They 
brought ten children with them in a prairie 
schooner, being twenty-one days on the route. 
They hired a man to bring them with his 
five-horse team, and they brought three 
horses and saddles of their own. They had 
a most delightful time, a continual picnic of 
twenty-one days, from the time they left the 
old Kentucky home until they arrived at 
grandfather Taylor's in Morgan county. They 
bought 160 acres in what is now Scott county, 
and this they made their permanent home. 
They had two more children in Illinois, 
making twelve in all, and all but two grew 
to adult age, Mrs. Seckman being the eldest. 
The mother died at the age of sixty- five, on 
the farm in Scott county; the father lived 
many years after, but finally passed away at 
the ripe old age of eighty-five years, leaving 
a tine estate to the ten remaining children. 

Mrs. Seckman had very little schooling in 
the every-day school, as they were then 
termed. She was married in her twenty- 



second year to Jonathan W. Seckman, born 
near Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1810. His father 
was William Seckman. and his mother, Su- 
san Wright, both from farmer families of 
Ohio. They came to Illinois after this son 
came. Jonathan came here a poor young 
man, and began working for the low wages 
of those times. He drove teams and bioke 
prairie, and worked and earned and saved, 
until in his thirtieth year he had two horses, 
six oxen, and several head of horned cattle, 
and some hogs. He was married to our sub- 
ject, March 31, 1844, and began domestic 
life on an island in Menard county, on lands 
his father owned. They purchased forty 
acres in 1842, in Cooperstown township, near 
the present home of Mrs. Seckman. He 
traded a good house and his l&st horse for it. 
He worked out by the day and paid for the 
use of a six-horse team, with which he tilled 
the land for the first crop. Their life on the 
island for the three years they were there, 
was a living death from fever and ague, and 
when they left for Brown county they were 
reduced in means, having but $40. They 
bought a log house on an adjoining claim, 
which they moved on their small farm. The 
timber was large and dense on this land, and 
he built his old house on and over several 
large stumps. They moved into this abode, 
January 1, 1842, and in about two years he 
bought eighty acres adjoining. In 1865, they 
built the present commodious frame house 
in which Mrs. Seckman now resides. Here 
he died, August 8, 1885, aged seventy- five, 
leaving his widow with seven living chil- 
dren. They had buried one daughter when 
an infant, and one son, John William, aged 
twenty-eight. He left a wife and son. Mr. 
Seckman owned at hie death 720 acres of 
land, and several lots in Mount Sterling. 
These lands are well-stocked and well- 



SCHUTLSB AND SHOWN COUNTIES. 



265 



improved. He was well and favorably known 
in this section. His life of toil was not only 
successful financially, but he left a good 
record to his devoted wife. His father had 
been a preacher among the United Brethren, 
and he also left a large estate to a large and 
honorable posterity. 

The names of Mrs. Seckman's living chil- 
dren are: James R., a farmer of Nebraska, 
has five children; Kittie J., wife of William 
Shultz, of Nebraska, has twelve children; 
Charles H., farmer on part of the old home- 
stead, has six children; George D., also a 
farmer on the homestead, ten children; Jon- 
athan, farmer in Brown county, eight chil- 
dren ; Joseph L., also on the homestead, seven 
children; Archie, also on the homestead, in 
the house with his mother, four children. 

Mrs. Seckman says that she is a monu- 
ment of God's mercy and love. She has had 
great health and strength during life, has 
worked hard in the house and field, has helped 
make fence, stack grain, and has done every- 
thing in the house from rocking the cradle 
to spinning and weaving. She is now as 
strong and vigorous as ever, and her mind is 
as strong as ever, and in every respect she is 
a remarkable old lady. 



iARIUS N. WALKER, ex-Judge of 
Cass county, Illinois, and a resident of 
Virginia, is a native of the Old Do- 
minion, born in Fauquier county, February 
16, 1834. Of his life and ancestry we re- 
cord the following facts: 

Solomon Walker, junior and senior, father 
and grandfather of the Judge, were also Vir- 
ginians by birth, and the former was a na- 
tive of Fauquier county. The latter suffered 



privations and hardships in the various cam- 
paigns of the Revolutionary war, being in 
the service seven years, and never fully re- 
covered his health afterward. He spent his 
last years in Culpeper county, Virginia. 
The maiden name of Grandmother Walker 
was Frances Taylor. Her father was a na- 
tive of England, and when but a small 
boy was kidnaped by sailors, brought to 
America and bound out until twenty-one 
years of age. He spent his last years in the 
State of Virginia. Solomon Walker, Jr., 
learned the trade of tanner, and followed his 
trade in connection with farming in Fau- 
qnier county, remaining a resident of that 
place until 1855. Then he sold his inter- 
ests there and came to Illinois, locating in 
Virginia precinct, Cass county, on a farm he 
purchased a mile and a half east of the present 
courthouse site. He engaged in agricult- 
ure and remained a resident there till 
after the death of his wife. He spent his 
last years at the home of his son, Judge 
Walker, where he died, in 1889, in the 
eighty -sixth year of his age. His wife, 
Emma Wilkins, was born in Prince William 
county, Virginia, daughter of Thomas Wil- 
kins. She died on the home farm in 1879. 
Nine of her children reached adult years. 

Judge Walker was reared and educated in 
his native State, and when a mere boy he 
commenced to assist his father in the tanyard 
and on the farm. He is a natural mechanic, 
and while a resident of Virginia worked a 
portion of the time at the millwright trade. 
He came to Cass county with his parents in 
1855, and lived at home until he was twenty- 
three years old; was then employed at farm- 
ing and carpenter work. April 15, 1862, he 
started with others for Oregon. They went 
by rail to St. Joseph, at that time the ter- 
minus of the railroad, and thence by boat to 



26G 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



Sonora, ' Missouri. There they equipped 
themselves with ox -teams and provisions, 
and on the 12th of May started on their 
journey across the plains, arriving at the 
present site of Baker City, Oregon, August 
23. He remained at Auburn, near Baker 
City, till February, when he went to Placer- 
ville, Idaho Territory, and engaged in min- 
ing, remaining there until the fall of 1864. 
Then he went to San Francisco, and from 
there went to New York, via Panama; 
thence to Cass county, Illinois. Soon after- 
ward he bought a farm in Virginia precinct, 
which he sold the following fall, came to Vir- 
ginia and engaged in work at the carpenter's 
trade. In the fall of 1868 he purchased a tin 
and stove store, and carried on that business 
until 1873, when he was elected Police 
Magistrate of Virginia, and devoted his at- 
tention to the duties of that office. In 1880 
he visited the Rocky mountains. He went 
as far as Western on the railroad and thence 
by stage to Leadville, Colorado. Five months 
later he returned to Virginia and has since 
resided there. 

Judge Walker was married in the fall of 
1861, to Elizabeth Adams, who was born in 
Morgan county, Illinois, daughter of Will- 
iam and Mildred (Bryant) Adams. She died 
in 1873. In January, 1876, he married 
Martha E. Clark, a native of Schuyler 
county, Illinois, her parents being Thomas 
and Annie Clark. He has two children liv- 
ing by his first marriage: Emma E. and 
John L. 

Politically, the Judge has always affiliated 
with the Democratic party. He served as 
Police Magistrate from 1873 to 1882; has 
also served as Alderman and Mayor. In 
1882 he was elected County Judge, was re- 
elected in 1886, and served two full terms. 
He is a member of Saxon Lodge, No. 68, I. 




O. O. F., and Washington Lodge of Mutual 
Aid. Mrs. Walker is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, while the Judge is a 
Baptist. 



ILLIAM T. TYSON, a widely and 
favorably known citizen of Bain- 
bridge township, Schuyler county, 
Illinois, an honored veteran of the late war, 
and one of the most prosperous farmers of 
the State, is a worthy representative of a 
prominent family of distinguished patriots, 
who sealed their devotion to their country 
long before she became a distinct nation, and 
who, by their united and continued efforts, 
have contributed in no small measure to her 
steady advancement to her present glorious 
position among the countries of the world. 
Zephaniah Tyson, the distinguished grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Virginia in 1771, and was thus by birth 
placed on the arena of the most stirring 
events of that age. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that he should have developed that 
surprising precocity which the time itself 
tended to foster. Born of patriots, breathing 
the air of patriotism, and drinking in those 
noble sentiments which have filled the hearts 
of heroes since the world began, he early put 
by the pastimes of youth, assuming with ease 
and pleasure the responsibilities and cares of 
a man and a soldier. At the age of nineteen 
years he enlisted in the Indian war. and 
served under that able and celebrated patriot, 
General Wayne. Again, in the war of 1812, 
he was still found fighting under the starry 
flag; and later took part in the battle of 
Tippecanoe, under General Harrison. Amidst 
all these warlike engagements, he found time 
to cultivate the friendship, of the little god of 



SCRUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



267 



love, who directed his shafts from behind the 
bright glances of Miss Margaret De Long, an 
amiable and intelligent Virginian, and a de- 
scendant of an old and esteemed family of that 
State. In 1830, he removed to Illinois, which 
was then a new and sparsely settled country, 
where he settled on a farm on the southeast 
quarter of section 3, township 1 north, range 
1 west of the fourth principal meridian, 
where he continued to live until his death in 
1849, at the age of seventy-eight years, uni- 
versally and sincerely lamented. 

George Tj'son, an able son of a great 
father, was born in 1807, on the Muskingum 
river, in Ohio. In those times, the young 
apparently matured much earlier than in our 
present indolent age, for we find this youth 
leaving home and starting in pursuit of his 
fortune long before he was fully grown. He 
went to Cincinnati, where he found work, and 
where he soon afterward purchased a flat-boat, 
with which he commenced trading and traf- 
ficking with the natives on the Ohio river. 
In 1829, he married Miss Lucinda Bellamy, 
a native of Culpeper county, Virginia. Soon 
afterward he sold his flat-boat, and with the 
proceeds purchased a team, with which the 
young couple made the trip overland from a 
point on the Ohio river to Schuyler county, 
Illinois, where they settled on a farm in the 
southeast quarter of section 11, township 1 
north, range 1 west. Fortune smiled on their 
industrious efforts, and in time Mr. Tyson 
accumulated considerable property, having 
480 acres of choice agricultural land, besides 
owning a steam saw and grist mill. In 1866, 
he went West and has never been heard from 
since. The faithful wife and devoted mother 
survived her husband's probable death ten 
years, expiring September 10, 1876, in her 
sixty-seventh year, leaving a bereaved family 
and many friends to mourn her loss. 



William T. Tyson, the subject of this no- 
tice, was born April 2, 1841, in a log house, 
situated forty rods from his present large and 
comfortable residence. His early life was 
spent on the home farm, and he attended the 
country schools of his vicinity, where he re- 
ceived a good common-school education, 
sufficient to enable him to teach several 
schools in his township. At the age of six- 
teen, he accompanied his parents to Moniteau 
county, Missouri, where his father bought a 
farm of 160 acres on the Pacific railroad, 
and ran a woodyard in connection with his 
farm, there being an abundance of excellent 
timber on the land. In the fall of 1858, 
young William accompanied his parents to 
Henry county, Missouri, where his father 
bought 300 acres of excellent prairie land, on 
the west half of the southeast quarter of the 
southwest quarter of section 21, in township 
43, of range 28. Here the family continued 
to reside until the breaking out of the Civil 
war, when the mother and younger children 
returned to the old homestead in Illinois. It 
was then that young William displayed that 
patriotism for which his family was famous, 
by raising the first flag ever hoisted in the 
county after the nomination of Abraham 
Lincoln. He raised a pole fifty feet high, to 
which was attached a flag fourteen by twenty- 
one feet, with a rail resting on the top of the 
pole. He was several times ordered to take it 
down, but as often refused to do so. 

This sentiment of love for his country cul- 
minated in his enlistment in the United 
States service as a private in Company D, 
Cass County Regiment of Cavalry, Missouri 
Home Guards, on June 27, 1861, to serve 
three years, or during the war; and was dis- 
charged at Harrisonville, Missouri, February 
28, 1862, by reason of General Order No. 
25, paragraph three, Headquarters Depart- 



268 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



ment of Missouri, December 14, 1861. He 
participated in several engagements, the most 
important of which were Farkersville and 
Harrisonville, Missouri, July 18 and 19, 
1861. He was selected for Second Lieuten- 
ant of the company, and lacked but a few 
votes of being elected. He was one of the 
soldiers who helped to guard the first wagon 
train of provisions to Lyon's army, after the 
battle ot Wilson's creek, Missouri. Soon 
after his discharge, he started for Illinois, 
and was obliged to cross the entire State of 
Missouri from west to east at a very danger- 
ous time of the war. 

On August 12, 1862, Mr. Tyson re-en- 
listed in the army as a private in Company 
D, 115th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, for 
three years'or during the war. During his 
service he did his full share of marching, 
fighting, scouting, picketing, digging and 
suffering, as well as participating in the for- 
aging and picnicking, of which Uncle Sam's 
boys are generally believed to have had a large 
amount. During this term of service he took 
part in a number of prominent engagements. 
He was in the battle of Franklin and Harpeth 
river, April 10, 1863. He was in Rosecrans' 
campaign from Murfreesboro to Tullahoma, 
Tennessee, from June 23 to 30, 1863. He 
participated in the battle of Chickamauga, 
September 18, 19 and 20, 1863; and was in 
the Dalton raid, under General Palmer, from 
February 21 to 27, 1864. He was also in 
the charge on Tunnel Hill, Georgia, May 7, 
1864, and took part in the battle of Resaca, 
May 15 and 16, 1864. 

He was one of that brave little band of 
forty-two men who formed Company D, 
under Captain Hymer's command, who held 
their own against such fearful odds at Buz- 
zard's Roost gap, Georgia. They were sta- 
tioned at the block house at that point, in 



. I uly, 1864, where on August 15, they were 
attackedjby Wheeler's cavalry; but Company 
D opened such a fire of shot on the attacking 
party that the cavalry were obliged to retire. 
Again, on October 13, Hood's army of 40,- 
000 came to the block house and opened tire 
on the inmates with musketry and artillery, 
133 cannon balls being fired at the fort. This 
little band of Spartans, however, held the at- 
tacking party in check for ten hours, when 
they were finally forced to surrender. In 
this engagement, five were killed, six wounded 
and thirty-seven taken prisoners. The pris- 
oners, among whom was the subject of this 
sketch, were marched to Cahaba, Alabama, 
where they were confined for ten days in 
Castle Morgan, which was named in honor of 
the daring Confederate raider, John Morgan. 
Owing to the crowded condition of the pris- 
on, they were sent to Millen, Georgia, 
where they were when General Sherman sent 
General Kilpatrick's Cavalry, on November 
22, to rescue them if possible. The preced- 
ing evening, however, they were loaded on 
the cars and sent to Savannah, and thence on 
down the coast to Thomasville, Georgia, and 
from there across the country to Anderson- 
ville. In this famous, or rather infamous, 
prison, Mr. Tyson was confined for three 
months: at the end of that time he was sent 
to Vicksburg, where he was paroled, ex- 
changed, and loaded on the Henry Ames, one 
of those magnificent floating palaces for 
which the lower Mississippi was famous in 
ante-bellum days. He was in this way trans- 
ferred to St. Louis, and there paid off, and 
given a thirty days' furlough to go home. At 
the expiration of this time he returned to 
Springfield, Illinois, where he received his 
final pay and discharge, on June 14, 1865. 
As typical of the appreciation in which Mr. 
Tyson was held by his commanders, may be 



SG SUTLER AND BHOWN COUNTIES. 



26 



mentioned the remark of Captain Hjnner, 
who said to him: " 1 know you were one of 
my best soldiers, and were always in the line 
of duty." Mr. Tyson was on detached ser- 
vice in the Signal Corps, at "Wartrace, Ten- 
nessee; and while stationed at Tullahoma, 
that State, was headquarter clerk for General 
Jesse H. Moore. While in Kentucky, Mr. 
Tyson was a guest of the great Kentucky 
statesman, Cassius M. Clay, at that time ab- 
sent in Russia, but whose absence was amply 
compensated for by the cordiality and hos- 
pitality of Mrs. Clay, her daughter and 
daughter-in-law, with whom he had the pleas- 
ure of dining. 

By the spring of 1867, Mr. Tyson had 
saved up $500, with which he purchased 160 
acres of land in section 11, township 1 north, 
range 1 west. This event foreshadowed an- 
other, which transpired in the fall of the same 
year, and which was but the fulfilling of the 
saw, to provide a cage before getting the 
bird. He was married November 10, 1867, 
to Miss Sarah J. Scott, an estimable lady, and 
a resident of Schuyler county, Illinois. Their 
happy married life, however, was destined to 
be of short duration, for on February 22, 
1878, the faithful wife and mother expired 
at home, in the midst of her family and 
friends. She was widely known and greatly 
beloved on account of her practical Christian 
virtues and kind heart. They had four chil- 
dren: Jesse C., Laura, Leora and Stella, the 
latter of whom died in infancy; there are 
now two grandchildren. 

In 1880, Mr. Tyson was appointed Census 
Enumerator forBainbridgetownship,to which 
position he was reappointed on May 20, 1890. 
He is in very comfortable circumstances, and 
owns as fine a farm as there is in the country, 
which is provided with good improvements 
and is moderately and well stocked. 

18 



In politics he has always been a Republi- 
can, and is opposed to oppression in any 
form. 

A duty done is always a source of pleasure 
and pride to the one performing it. This is 
essentially true at all times and at all places, 
but how much more so must it be when the 
performance involves danger and perhaps 
death; when, as in the late war, the cham- 
pions of justice and freedom were baptized 
with fire and with blood. It is then that 
duty assumes her heaven-born spirit, and 
pours into the heart the balm of unspeakable 
joy and that peace which passetk under- 
standing. 



DWARD N. TREADWAY, a farmer 
of Beardstown, was born in Hamilton 
county, Ohio, February 23, 1825. His 
father was Edward Treadway, a native of 
Maryland, of English stock. He grew up as 
a farmer in Maryland, and married Elizabeth 
Anderson, who was reared and educated in 
Hartford county, Maryland. She came of 
Scotch ancestry. He and his wife moved to, 
Hamilton county in 1816, and later came to 
Illinois, into Cass county, and settled in what 
is known as the Monroe precinct. This was in 
182,9. The wife died about two years after 
the family settled in this county, being then 
only in middle life. Her husband spent his 
last days with his children, and died in 1859, 
being then about seventy-five years of age. 
He and his wife were recognized as very early 
pioneers of the county. 

Mr. Treadway has lived in this precinct 
since he was ten years of age, and has become 
known as one of the old settlers. He is a 
farmer on the same land which he went upon 
when he became of age. It is in sections 29 



270 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OASS, 



and 30, and consists of 160 acres, and is known 
as the Sangatnon bottoms. It is all improved 
He also owns 120 acres of timber land which 
is very valuable. 

He was married in this county, to Sarah 
Phelps, of North Carolina, the daughter of 
William and Margaret (Measles) Phelps, who 
were born, reared and married in North Car- 
olina. They came North with their family 
and settled in the precinct of Beardstown. 
Mr. Phelps is yet living, a hale, hearty old 
gentleman, but Mrs. Phelps died some years 
ago. 

Mr. and Mrs. Treadway attend the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church in this city, and are 
worthy, good citizens with a host of friends. 
They are the parents of five living children: 
Martha Predshaw, now living on a farm in 
this county; William, at home assisting his 
father; Hans, living in McDonough county,; 
Anna and Bertha at home. Mr. Treadway is 
a consistent Democrat. 



[ILLIAM H. COLE MAN, general 
farmer and stock-raiser, running the 
large cattle farm of 320 acres, and 
also owner of nearly 600 acres in the precinct 
of Philadelphia, all in Cass county, has lived 
in the county for thirty-two years, has always 
been engaged as a farmer and has always been 
quite successful. He began here as a poor 




man, and worked for 



a month for the 



first four years, and after that began to farm 
on the Calef farm, which he has since run as 
a renter, and out of his savings he has pur- 
chased the large farm of 600 acres which he 
also runs on his own account, in connection 
with his rented farm, making nearly 1,000 
acres that are under his control. He has been 
a hard-working man and has made all he has 
since he came to this county in 1860. 



He was born in Westphalia at Menden, in 
Prussia, Germany, in 1840. He was reared in 
his native country, and after he came to this 
county he attended the public schools through 
the kindness of his benefactor, S. L. Calef, 
whose place he has worked on since 1860. 
He reveres this kind gentleman and his wife 
as he would his parents, and his long resi- 
dence on their farm show what their opinion 
is of his honesty and faithfulness. 

Mr. Coleman is the son of Gotlieb Coleman 
(spelled in the German Kuhlmanu), and the 
latter came to the United States in 1870. 
He made his home with his son, William, un- 
til his death in 1886. He was then eighty-two 
years of age. He was a good old man and a,n 
active member of the Lutheran Church. He 
had married a German lady who lived and 
died in her native country, being only thirty- 
two years of age. Her maiden name was 
Mary Markman. She left six children at her 
death, of which William and a brother Henry, 
now a married farmer in Virginia precinct, 
this county, are all that are now living. Will- 
iam and his brother Henry came to the 
United States when young and single, coming 
in the spring of 1860 from Bremen, Germany, 
to New Orleans in a sailing vessel, Mary 
Margaret, with 636 passengers on board. 
After a thirty-nine days' voyage, they landed 
in New Orleans and came up the Mississippi 
river on a steamer to St. Louis, and from there 
to Beardstown, where they have both ;vince 
lived, and have become good and successful 
farmers and reliable German citizens. 

William was married in this county to 
Nancy McLin, born in Morgan county, where 
she was reared and educated. She has lost 
her parents, the mother dying in Morgan 
county, at the age of forty, the father in Cass 
county, aged sixty years, having always been 
a farmer by occupation. 



SCIIDTLSR AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



271 



Mr. and Mrs. Coleman are the parents of 
five children, yet living; four are deceased; 
those living are: Ellen M., wife of Perry 
Davis, a farmer of Virginia; Charles E., at 
home helping on the farm; Edgar, John and 
Arthur, all at home on the farm. 

Mrs. Coleman is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Coleman is a 
sound Republican. He has been very active in 
local politics, and once run for County Com- 
missioner, running ahead of his ticket several 
hundred votes. He and his wife are good, 
hard-working people and are justly entitled 
to the success they have attained. 



[IDNEY J. HOOD, of the firm of Al- 
lard & Hood, publishers and editors of 
The Evening Star and The Star of the 
West of Beardstown, was born in Spring 
Green, Sauk county, Wisconsin, October 10, 
1864. He was reared and educated at that 
place and acquired aknowledgeof the carpenter 
and mason trades, but later went into the 
newspaper business. His father, Captain 
Thomas R. Hood, came from Pennsylvania to 
Wisconsin when a small child with his par- 
ents, Moses and Sarah Hood, natives of Penn- 
sylvania, but who died in Wisconsin. 
Thomas R. Hood grew up as a farmer and 
carpenter, and when the war broke out heen- 
liste'l in the Sixth Wisconsin Regiment Light 
Artillery as a volunteer and served three and 
one half years, and was honqrably discharged 
as Captain of his company. He had led his 
men through the battles of Corinth, Shiloh 
and other active engagements, and was much 
beloved by the members of his company. He 
had married Eliza A. Seiders, daughter o 
Joseph and Elizabeth (Keifer) Seiders. They 
had come West at a very early day, settling 



in Sauk county on Government land, and the 
same on which Joseph Seiders and wife lived 
and where Mr. Seiders died, a very old man, 
in the spring of 1888. His wife, who is yet 
living, at the age of eighty, is yet very active 
and interested in her surroundings. She and 
her husband were members of the United 
Brethren Church. 

Our subject is the second of three children, 
and since his thirteenth year he has supported 
himself. At the age of seventeen years he 
began work at his native home at Spring 
Green on a paper known as the Weekly 
Home News. He has always regarded these 
early days in Spring Green as the palmy days 
of his life as well as of his newspaper work. 
In 1889 he came to Arenzville, Cass county, 
Illinois, and started the Aremville Argus, and 
at the same time the Chapin Boomerang, and 
ran the papers for about sixteen months, when 
he sold out and came to Beardstown, where he 
has since lived. For some time, also, he was 
a worker on the Laramie (Wyoming) Sen- 
tinel, Bill Nye's old "first love." The first 
issue of the Daily Star took place March 7, 
1892; present firm was started February 24, 
1892. Both the daily and weekly papers are 
very prosperous. Mr. Hood is a very ener- 
getic man, and being a practical printer under- 
stands thoroughly the management of a news- 
paper. 

Mr. Hood is still unmarried. He is an 
ardent Republican. 



AD ALLARD, the present Postmaster of 
Beardstown, and editor and proprietor 
of the Star of the West, was born in 
Virginia, Illinois, August 31, 1854. His 
father was Dr. L. S. Allard, one of the pioneer 
physicians and druggists of Cass county, and 



272 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



was one of the most forcible political writers 
of Central Illinois. He started and conducted 
for many years the Cass County Courier and 
was an active worker in politics. He served 
his country in the war of the Rebellion, enter- 
ing it as a Captain and corning out a Colonel; 
also in the Mexican war as a Lieutenant. He 
is a Republican and is now a resident of Hot 
Springs, Arkansas. His mother was a Miss 
Sarah F. Payne, of Lexington, Kentucky, and 
is yet living. The complete history of Beards- 
town could not be given without a brief men- 
tion of the paper known as the Weekly Star of 
the West, a strong Republican paper, and the 
Evening Star, which is neutral. The ener- 
getic editor and proprietor, whose name heads 
this article, is entitled to the credit of making 
a success of a daily in so small a city and a 
weekly paper which is read by an intelligent 
public throughout a wide territory. The 
daily Star is but one year old, but has already 
won the confidence of the people. The 
Weekly Star has had an existence since 1888, 
and is now one of the leading Republican 
sheets of the West. It has just moved into 
elegant new quarters on Main street, with 
editorial and counting room on the ground 
floor. The editor handles every subject ably 
and without fear or favor; he is a practical 
newspaper man, a strong and forcible writer; 
and his life from the time he was fourteen has 
been spent in newspaper work. He began work 
in his father's office in Virginia, Illinois, 
from whom in 1872 he leased it. Young 
Allard ran this paper for some time and then 
took a partner named Mat. Summers, chang- 
ing the name of the paper to the Virginia 
Gazette. His health failing he went to Ar- 
kansas and took charge of the Fort Smith 
New J?ra, then the property of the United 
States Marshal of Western Arkansas and the 
Indian Territory, which was the oldest and 



first Republican paper of the State. Two 
years after he went to Hot Springs, where 
for six years he ran a paper called the Daily 
News. There he lost his wife and soon after 
closed out his interests and went to Kansas 
thence he returned to Cass county, where he 
has made some grand strides forward, not only 
as a newpsaper man but as a local politician. 
His mode of handling the tariff question has at- 
tracted attention, and at the late State Con- 
vention, at which he was a delegate, he was 
one of the committee selected to draft the 
platform, which was accepted without a 
change or objection. He is the present 
treasurer of the Illinois Republican Press As- 
sociation, and is a leading member of the K.of 
P., Beardstown Lodge, No. 207. It is worthy 
of remark that he is a newspaper man who 
neither drinks, smokes nor chews. 

He was first married to Libbie Peak, who 
died at Hot Springs, Arkansas. He was 
married a second time May 20, 1890, to Miss 
Annie Jockisch, a well known young lady of 
Beardstown, who was reared and educated in 
this city, and is especially skilled in music. 
Her father is William Jockisch, a retired 
farmer and one of the directors of the Fourth 
National Bank. Beardstown society would 
not be complete without them. 



'OSEPH BRIAR, one of the old settlers 
of Hickory precinct, Cass county, Illi- 
nois, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, February 3, 1823, son of James Briar, 
a native of Ireland. His grandparents were 
born in Ireland, of Scotch ancestry, and spent 
their entire lives in their native land. James 
Briar was reared and married in Ireland and 
came to America about 1815. He first lived 
in New York city and afterward in Phila- 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



273 



delphia, Baltimore and Pittsburg. He was a 
contractor on Government works, and while 
in New York city was engaged in building 
lighthouses in New York harbor. Subse- 
quently he was one of the contractors on the 
building of the State prison at Alleghany. In 
the fall of 1836 he came to Illinois. He 
spent the winter at Beardstown, during which 
time he looked around fora location suitable 
for a home, and in the spring entered a tract 
of Government land in the Sangamon river 
bottoms. As there were no improvements 
on his land, he rented an improved farm east 
of Virginia, and a part of the family settled 
on that farm while the rest took up their 
abode on the land he had entered, and at once 
began its improvement. He resided on this 
place until his death, February 22, 1844. 
The maiden name of his wife was Mary 
Davis. She was born in Ireland, and died on 
the home farm. They reared nine children. 

Joseph Briar was thirteen years old when 
he came to Illinois with his parents. There 
were no railroads in this State at that time) 
and their removal was made via the Ohio, 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers, landing at 
Beardstown November 19. Beardstown was 
then a small place, but was the market and 
depot for supplies for many miles around. 
Central Illinois was sparsely settled and 
much of the land still owned by the Govern- 
ment, while in the northern part the surveys 
were yet incomplete. Deer, wild turkeys, 
prairie chickens, and other game abounded. 
He resided with his parents till attaining his 
majority, when he settled on the farm he now 
owns and occupies. This place is located on 
section 4, township 18, range 10, and includes 
122^ acres of the best of Sangamon river 
bottom land. He has erected a nice set of 
frame buildings and enjoys all the comforts 
of a pleasant home. 



In 1847 Mr. Briar married Mary A. Harris, 
a native of England, who came with her 
parents to Cass county when she was a girl. 
She died in 1853, and the following year he 
married Eliza Smith, a native of New York 
State. There are two children living by the 
first marriage: Martha J. and Emily D. Of 
the seven children born by his present wife, 
four are living; Joseph, Harry, Frank and 
Annie. Lillie, Bertie and Effie are deceased. 

Mr. and Mrs. Briar are members of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 



,ENRY C. KORTE, general farmer of 
section 4> township 17, range 11, was 
born in Kurhessen, Germany, January 
2, 1840. He grew up at home, and in 1855 
came to this country with his parents and 
three children. They set sail from Bremen, 
Hanover, on a sailing vessel, landing after an 
eight weeks' voyage on the vessel Oldenburg 
in Baltimore, and from there by railroad to 
Springfield, Illinois, and from there by 
wagon to Beardstown, Cass county. The 
father, Conrad, started a blacksmith shop, 
that being the trade he learned in Germany 
and carried it on for twenty years, dying at 
the age of seventy-six. He was a good worthy 
citizen and a member of the Lutheran Church. 
H6 was a Democrat in politics. His wife 
survived him about ten years and died at the 
age of seventy-two. She was also a Lutheran. 
Her maiden name was Christina Meyer. 
Henry, a sister, Mrs. Sophia Krohe, and a 
half sister, Mrs. Catherine Fischer, are the 
surviving members of the family. 

Mr. Henry Korte began here as a poor 
man and worked as a farm laborer, beginning 
for himself in 1863, having been in the 
county since 1856. He purchased his first 



274 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF C'ASS, 



land in 1889. He lias a fine farm in the' sec- 
tion where he lives. 

He was married in this county to Wilhel- 
inina Krohe, born, reared and educated in 
Cass county, near the farm where she now 
lives. She is the daughter of August and 
Christine (Jokisch) Krohe, natives of Ger- 
many who had come to America when young 
and single, and were married in Cass county, 
where they made their home, the mother dy- 
ing in 1889, aged over seventy. Mr. Krohe 
is still living in this county and is eighty 
years old. He and his family were always 
Lutherans and Mr. Krohe continues in the 
faith of his youth. 

Mrs. Korte is one of seven children, being 
the third, and has been a good and faithful 
wife and mother. She has borne her hus- 
band four children: Albert H., married Mary 
Hessler of this county, and they live on Mr. 
Henry Korte's farm; Arthur G., single and 
a farmer on his own account, living at home; 
Edward, at home assisting his father; and 
Amelia, at home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Korte, with their family, are 
Lutherans, and Mr. Korte and his sons are all 
Democrats. They are worthy good people. 



i^ENRY W. MEYER, a successful farm- 
er and stock raiser of section 7, town- 
ship 18, range 11, was born near Arenz- 
ville, this county, in 1853, December 26. 
He is the younger of the children, Fred and 
Catherine Meyer, the latter now deceased 
and the former yet living (see biography). 
Henry is the only one of the family who was 
born in the county. He was reared and 
educated in his native county. He has a 
farm of 133 acres, all well stocked. He has 
farmed it on his own account for thir- 



teen years. He has spent his entire life 
in this county, as a farmer on his lather's 
homestead. He also has sixty acres in 
another part of the county, of which part 
is under the plow. 

He was married in this county, near where 
he now lives, to Minnie Kloker, of Cass 
county, born March 6, 1858. She was 
reared and educated in her native county, 
where she spent the remainder of her short 
life, dying atherhomeatthe age of thirty-four, 
June 28, 1891. She was a good wife and 
mother, and her loss was deeply felt not only 
by her sorrowing family, but by all who 
knew her. She had been a member of the 
Lutheran Church since early girlhood. She 
was the mother of four children: Irvin E., 
Fred W., Lewis W., Rudolph J.; and they are 
all deceased excepting the youngest. Be- 
sides, the parents have adopted a girl, named 
Nora M. Mr. Meyer has reason to be 
proud of his children and his record here in 
the county, where he has always been a good, 
true citizen, a faithful member of the Lu- 
theran Church and a staunch Republican. 



ENRY J. SCHROEDER, one of the 
old and well known contractors and 
builders of Beardstown, was born in 
the kingdom of Hanover, Germany, in 1833. 
His father, Fred Schroeder, had always been 
a farmer, and he died when about 74 years of 
age, at Beardstown, and his wife died some 
time later, aged seventy-eight. The family 
came to the United States in 1844, and came 
straight to Beardstown upon landing in New 
Orleans. They came by the usual route up 
the Mississippi river to St. Louis, and from 
there up the Illinois river to their destina- 
tion. Henry was a boy of eleven when he 



SGHUYLEB AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



275 



came to this city, and has since made it his 
home. He grew up, learning the trade of 
carpenter, and worked as journeyman for a 
time, and later was with his father-in-law, 
Henry Mohlman, in his substantial planing 
mill for some years. It was the first busi- 
ness of the kind in the city, and the firm was 
successful in doing work for a large territory 
and for all the lumber yards of the city. 
The railroads that came into the city inter- 
fered with the business, and Mr. Schroeder 
sold out his interest and launched into the 
flour-mill business; but a change in the mak- 
ing of flour came about, and to change from 
buhr to roller process required large outlays: 
so Mr. Schroeder traded his mill off for a 
farm and went back to his trade as a carpen- 
ter and a contractor. He has since followed 
his tradeand has built many of the houses 
and public buildings of Beardstown. 
Among some of the buildings that he has 
constructed are the Park house, leading 
hotel of the city, opera house and many oth- 
ers that all bear testimony to the skill of the 
contractor and builder. He has dealt ex- 
tensively in real estate, and has an interest in 
the Mohlmau and Schroeder block, one of the 
best in the city. He also owns one of the 
argest and best two-and-one-half-story brick 
houses in the city. He has been a leading 
worker in local matters and a truly good citi- 
zen. For many years he has been a Demo- 
crat in politics, and his party once made him 
Alderman of the city. He has retired, to a 
certain extent, from active business and now 
enjoys the fruit of his labors. His sons 
succeed him: so there is no necessity for him 
to exert himself in regard to his business 
interests. 

Mr. Schroeder was the first child that his 
parents had. He was followed by four sis- 
ters, but no brothers. The family were 



Lutherans, as are most of the German fami- 
lies, and were noted for their thrift and hon- 
esty. He has only one sister living, Jeanie 
"Walch, of Leavenworth. Kansas. 

He was married in Beardstown, to Miss 
Anna Mohlman, born in one of the .Rhine 
provinces, Germany, in 1841, a daughter of 
Henry Mohlman, and when young she came 
to this country with her parents, and has 
since resided here. She is an intelligent 
woman, a good, kind wife, mother and neigh- 
bor. Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder have seven 
children, namely: Edward, a contractor of 
Beardstown, married to Mrs. Annie Balse- 
mier; Dilla, wife of Charles Heinzes, of 
Beardstown ; Henry G., a trimmer by trade, 
with Mr. Henry Keil, a hardware merchant 
of this city, and married to Miss Mene Wip- 
ker; George, at home, a carpenter; Rhoda, 
Walter and Edith: the last three named are 
all at home. Mr. Schroeder has a married 
daughter, Sarah, wife of Charles Kreke, a 
furniture dealer of this city. She is a child 
by a former marriage to Miss Dora Chris- 
tiana, now deceased. 

Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder are members of 
the Fourth Street Lutheran Church, and are 
liberal supporters of the same, of which Mr. 
Schroeder used to be a Trustee. 



NDREW SCHAAD, who for many 
years has been identified with the agri- 
cultural interests of Cass county, Illi- 
nois, and who is a resident of Hickory pre- 
cinct, was born in Hesse- Darmstadt, January 
4, 1836. 

John Schaad, his father, was a son of John 
Schaad, and both passed their lives and died 
in Germany, the former in 1852. Grand- 
father Schaad was all his life engaged in agri- 



276 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OP CASS, 



cultural pursuits. His son, John, became a 
civil engineer, and was engaged in surveying 
for canals, railroads and turnpikes. His wife, 
nee Katherine Hamel. was born in the same 
locality as her husband, she being the daugh- 
ter of Christian Hamel. She came to Amer- 
ica in 1853, the year following Mr. Schaad's 
death, and spent her last years in Cass county, 
Illinois. She reared four children: Thomas, 
Charles, Andrew and Mary. Thomas and 
Charles both married and reared families, and 
spent their last years in Cass county. Mary 
is the wife of Henry Walter, and lives in 
Arenzville. 

The subject of our sketch attended school 
in Hesse- Darmstadt until 1853, when he 
accompanied other members of the family to 
America. They set sail from Havre de Grace 
September 15, 1853, on the sailing vessel 
Farera, and landed at New Orleans after a 
voyage of forty-five days. There was cholera 
on board the vessel, which rendered the voyage 
an unpleasant one. From New Orleans they 
came north by river to Beardstown. Andrew 
and his brothers rented land and farmed to- 
gether, being successful in their operations. 
Subsequently Andrew and Charles bought a 
tract of land on sections 6 arid 7, township 18, 
range 10, and farmed together a few years. 
The former has been a resident of what is 
now Hickory precinct since 1858, and is now 
the owner of 320 acres of land, 177 acres of 
which are the finest tillable land, located on 
sections 6, 7, and 8, township 18, range 10. 
He has erected a nice set of frame buildings, 
and is comfortably situated to enjoy life. 

In 1866 Mr. Schaad married Miss Miza Tay- 
lor, a native of Scotland, and a daughter of 
Neill Taylor. He and his wife are the parents 
of three children Robert, Kate and Maud. 

Politically Mr. Schaad is a stanch Repub- 
lican. He is a member of the County Cen- 



tral Committee, Highway Committee in Dis- 
trict No. 2, and has served as a member of 
his District School Board for thirteen years. 
Both he and his wife are members of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 



AVID D. WILSON, a popular and suc- 
cessful business man of Virginia, Cass 
county, Illinois, dates his birth in Old- 
ham, Lancashire, England, November 23, 
1841. His father, James Wilson, was born 
in the same shire, his parents having passed 
their lives in England. James Wilson and 
his brother, Thomas, and three sisters, were 
the only members of the family who came to 
America. Thomas settled in Cass county in 
1841, and has since made his home here. 

James Wilson was reared and married in 
Oldham, and was there employed in a cotton 
factory till 1842, in the spring of which year 
he sailed for America, embarking at Liver- 
pool and landing at New Orleans. He came 
up the Mississippi and Illinois rivers into 
Illinois, and located in Cass county. He 
subsequently moved to Jacksonville, and five 
years later to Springfield, his death occurring 
at the latter place in 1850. His wife was, 
before her marriage, Miss Amelia Taylor, and 
she, too, was a native of Lancashire. Her 
death occurred in Cass county a few months 
after their arrival in this county. 

After the death of his father, David D. 
was taken in charge by a family in Sangamon 
county, and with them he lived until be was 
fourteen. From that time he cared for him- 
self. He found employment with his bro- 
ther-in-law till 1860, and at that time com- 
menced to learn the trade of carpenter. His 
employer soon emigrated to Iowa, and in 1861 
young Wilson turned his attention to the trade 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



277 



of printer, at which he worked in the office of 
the Jacksonville Journal. 

In 1862 he enlisted in the One Hundred 
and First Illinois Eegiment Volunteer Infan- 
try, and was in the State service one month. 
When the regiment was mustered in, he was 
rejected on account of a crippled hand. In 
1864 he enlisted in Company B, One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-third Regiment Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, this time being accepted. 
He served till the term of his enlistment ex- 
pired, when he was honorably discharged. 
He then went to Nashville, Tennessee, ex- 
pecting to work at his trade, but was taken 
sick and soon afterward returned to Illinois. 
After his recovery he farmed in Morgan 
county one year. Then he worked at his 
trade in Jacksonville for a time. In 1875 he 
came to Virginia, being employed in the office 
of the Gazette from March till July of that 
year. Next we find him engaged in the 
grocery business, which he still continues, and 
in which he has been eminently successful. 
He began with a small stock of goods, his 
natural business ability secured him a good 
trade, and he is now ranked with the success- 
ful business men of the town. 

Mr. Wilson is a man of family. He was 
married, in 1866, to Martha Taylor, a native 
of Morgan county, Illinois, and their union 
has been blessed by the birth of four children : 
Mamie, Ella G., Herbert S. and Mabel. 

He and his wife are members of the Chris- 
tian Church. Politically he is a Republican, 
favoring prohibition. 



IEORGE KUHL was born in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Germany, in 1807. His 
parents, Christian and Elizabeth (Ganz) 
Kuhl, were very old when they died, the father 



at the age of eighty- three, the mother at the 
age of eighty-five and one-half years. They 
were members of the Lutheran Church. 
When George was yet a young man he em- 
barked for America in the ship Baltimore in 
1833. After a voyage of eight weeks he 
landed in Baltimore and went from there to 
Richmond, Virginia, and followed his trade 
of baker. He soon left that city, however, 
and came to Beardstown, Illinois. He was 
the first of his family to venture across the 
ocean, but was later joined by his parents and 
other brothers and sisters. He is the eldest 
of a large family that comes of good German 
stock. His youngest brother is a Lutheran 
clergyman of Carthage, Illinois, and he and 
George Kuhl are all that are left of the 
family. 

When Mr. Kuhl came to Beardstown in 
1835 he had but twenty-five cents in his 
pocket. The city was then very small, and 
the country was new. He began his business 
career in Beardstown as a baker. He soon 
gained a footing and found a sale for his 
wares, both in the little town and on the 
boats that were on the river. He made 
money and after twelve years established a 
large grocery store. Later he made it a 
general store, and added to it all the time un- 
til he became a large pork packer and grain 
dealer. Those were the times to make money, 
and during the war times he was one of the 
largest dealers on the Illinois river. He had 
two large grain houses that were destroyed 
by tire, and he lost some $4,000 in a paper 
mill. This made no difference to Mr. Kuhl's 
business enterprise. In spite of his losses he 
has made a large amount of money, and he 
now enjoys it in a beautiful home that he 
erected, that cost him some $15,000 when 
completed. It is furnished with every mod- 
ern improvement. He has always had the 



278 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



best interests of the city at heart, and has 
done everything he could toward building it 
up. He lias been a hard worker, and is the 
best kind of a citizen, and one that has a good 
deal of influence with all classes not only in 
the city but all over the county. He has 
been a leader in all tending to improve the 
city. He was one of the originators, and is 
one of the principal supporters of the Ger- 
man Church, and has contributed liberally to 
its support. His party (Republican) has 
rewarded his faithful services by making him 
Alderman of the city. He is a very temper- 
ate man and one that scorns anything mean 
or low. He has now retired from business, 
and is taking a merited rest, but he still takes 
a strong and deep interest in all that occurs 
in the city's history. 

He was married for the first time to Chris- 
tanna Belger, who was born in Saxony and 
came to this country when young in 1836. 
She died at Beardstown when about thirty 
years of age. She left four children, one of 
whom is dead. Mrs. Lizzie Rearick died 
after her marriage. The three living ones are: 
William P., who is in the grocery business, 
married Mary Shepherd; George S., a dry- 
goods merchant, married Julia Buck; Philip, 
a successful dry-goods merchant of Beards- 
town, married Mamie L. Arenz. Mr. Kuhl 
was married for the second time in this city 
to Mary E. Hemininghouse, nee Mashmeier. 
She was a German by birth and came to the 
United States with her parents in 1834. 
Landing in New York city they came by 
water route to Beardstown. Ten days after 
their arrival her father died, and her mother 
died some six months later. Mrs. Mary 
Kuhl was first married iu her native country 
to the Rev. William Hemminghouse. He 
had charge of a German Lutheran mission; 
after some ten years he became a Methodist, 



and was a missionary through the West. He 
died when he was forty years old. He left 
six children, all dead but two daughters: 
Minnie, wife of George Schultheis ; Henrietta, 
wife of Chris Kuhl. By their marriage Mr. 
and Mrs. Kuhl have four children: Louis, a 
clerk for Philip Kuhl in Beardstown, and 
married to Emma McVey, now deceased; 
Henry E., a clerk in Nashville, Illinois, mar- 
ried Allie Means; Mary, a teacher in the High 
School of Springfield, and she is an accom- 
plished lady, and a graduate in English and 
German; Lydia, wife of Rev. M. D. Horn- 
beck, a minister of the Methodist Church. 



fAMES B. MOORE, a soldier in the late 
war, was born in Newark, Delaware, 
November 26, 1819. His father, John, 
was born in the same place, October 9, 1791, 
and his grandfather, Archibald, was a native 
of Jamestown, Virginia. The great-grand- 
father of our subject was born in Ireland, of 
Scotch ancestry, and came to America and 
settled in Virginia, where he spent his last 
years. Archibald moved from Virginia to 
Newark, Delaware, bought land from Joseph 
Eagle, and there spent his last years as a far- 
mer. The farm is still owned by his descend- 
ants. The name of his wife was probably 
McDonald, and as far as known, she spent 
her entire life in Newcastle county. John 
always followed agricultural pursuits, and the 
house where he was born was his home 
throughout his entire life. His wife was Mary 
Webb Temple of Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania, whose father, Samuel, was born in the 
same locality, and whose grandfather, Caleb, 
was also a native of Pennsylvania. He was 
a Magistrate for several years under King 
James. He was an extensive land owner, 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



279 



owning the land, including Chad's Ford and 
Burningham in Chester county, where the 
battle of Brandywine was fought. He spent 
his last years in Chester county, was a Quaker, 
and reared his family in the same faith. The 
grandfather of our subject was an extensive 
farmer and stock-raiser, and spent his last days 
in Chester county. His wife was Elizabeth 
Clements. The mother of James died near 
Newark, Delaware, October 1883, aged 
eighty-three. 

James was reared and educated in Newark, 
attending school quite steadily until twenty 
years of age, when he engaged in farming for 
five years. He then became a merchant for 
one year, bat sold out and turned his atten- 
tion to the study of law in the office of John 
M. Clayton, and in 1848 was admitted to the 
bar, and the same year came to Mt. Sterling. 
He practiced here until his enlistment, July 
15, 1861, in Company G, Third Illinois Cav- 
alry, and served eight months. He was hon- 
orably discharged on account of disability 
incurred in the service. He then accepted 
the position of Provost Marshal of the Ninth 
Illinois District, and served in that capacity 
two and one-half years. On account of fail- 
ing eyesight, he resigned and returned home. 
Although not totally blind, he is so nearly so 
as to incapacitate him for the practice of his 
profession, and he lives retired in his pleasant 
home he has built in Mt. Sterling. 

He married Cordelia Merritt on September 
8, 1851. She was born in Naples, Illinois. 
Her father, Joseph, was born in Sussex 
county, Delaware, July 16, 1803. When he 
was eight years old his parents went to Ohio. 
The removal was made with two horses at- 
tached to a cart. They located in Pickaway 
county, where they lived until 1828, and then 
moved to Illinois, and were among the first 
settlers of Morgan county. Later they bought 



land in Pea Ridge township, lived there 
until 1850, when they came to Mt. Sterling, 
where they continued to reside for the re- 
mainder of their days. Mr. Merritt died in 
1890. His wife died in Mt. Sterling in 1875. 
She was Rebecca Drew and was born in 
Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. Moore have had ten children: 
Joseph, James B., Kate, Will, Eugene, Annie, 
Sladie, Lottie, Jennie and George. Mr. Moore 
has been a member of the Republican party 
since its formation. Mr. and Mrs. Moore 
are among the best people of Pea Ridge and 
are greatly respected by all who know them- 



fACKSON HIGGINS, of Brooklyn, Illi- 
nois, was born in Morgan county, Ohio, 
in 1832. His father, Daniel, was born 
in Green county, Pennsylvania, January 20, 
1807, and his father, Joseph, was born near 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and was engaged 
in farming. He was born in 1777. and died 
in 1840, marrying Polly Henderson, and 
raising a family of twelve children. He was 
drafted into the war of 1812, but sent a sub- 
stitute. Daniel was married February 28, 
1828, in Green county, Pennsylvania, to 
Sarah Brewer. They moved from there to 
Morgan county, Ohio, about 1830. In the 
fall of 1838, they came to Illinois with a small 
horse and wagon, bringing four small children, 
being twenty-six days on the road. There 
were six families in the party. The trip was 
a pleasant one, and the winter following was 
mild. They found the grass very tall, gone 
to seed, all kinds of game, and very recent 
marks of the buffalo remaining. Agues and 
fevers were universal. 

Mr. Higgins is the oldest resident in this 
part of Schuyler county. He took up eighty 



280 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



acres of school lands, and soon obtained a deed, 
which he has held until he came to live with 
his son. He was a tailor by profession, hav- 
ing learned his trade in Waynesburg, Penn- 
sylvania, when a young man, having worked 
at it much of the time. In those early days 
the wives carded, spun and wove wool and 
flax, and Mr. Higgins in his trade, served 
the neighborhood well. His wife died, No- 
vember, 1880, aged seventy-four years, leav- 
ing four living children, ten having been 
born. Mr. Higgins, in his eighty-sixth year, 
is bright and active. 

Jackson has been a farmer all his life. He 
started on forty acres, and has from time to 
time added to it until his farm is now 227 
acres, all fenced and more than one-half under 
the plow. There is some timber and large 
pasturage. 

He was married in 1858, to Sarah, daughter 
of William and Polly, (Fowler) Burnett of 
England, but who have been residents here 
for many years. They have two sons, William 
Harrison, married, residing on the home farm, 
and John R., married, and also on the farm, 
They are all Democrats and Methodists. Mr. 
Higgins has been Justice of the Peace for 
four years and has served the county as Road 
Commissioner. 



MILLER was born in Fayette 
county, Pennsylvania, March 27, 1837. 
He was the son of Warwick and Mary 
(More) Miller of the same place. He was 
the sou of William and Rebecca Miller, both 
of whom died at a good old age. Mr. Will- 
iam's mother was the daughter of Aaron and 
Mary (Hanney) More, who were natives of 
Pennsylvania, where they spent their lives 
and died at a good old age. Warwick was 



one of nine children, seven of whom are still 
living, and his wife is one of six children, 
one of whom alone survives. 

Aaron Miller is one of seven children, all 
living. He remained at home until twenty- 
eight years of age, having spent his time in 
attending school, farming and wagoning. 
After his marriage Mr. Miller lived in Penn- 
sylvania on his father's farm, but in 1869 he 
came to Illinois and bought eighty acres of 
land, later adding to it 360 acres. He has 
been a general mixed farmer and very suc- 
cessful. 

He was married January 6, 1866, to Mar- 
tha Robinson, born in 1836, daughter of 
William and Elizabeth (More) Robinson. 
The Robinson ancestors came from Ireland. 
Elizabeth More was born in Fayette county, 
Pennsylvania, and died there, aged fifty-seven 
years. She was a daughter of Colonel More, 
who was in the war of 1812. The Mores 
were of Scotch descent and first settled in 
Maryland, and all were honest mechanics or 
farmers. Mr. and Mrs. Miller have three 
children, Robert W. and Ruth, living at home, 
and Mary, a teacher of music, all graduates 
of the Plymouth school. Mr. and Mrs. Mil- 
ler are members of the Congregational Church 
of Plymouth. Mr. Miller is a Republican 
and voted for Abraham Lincoln for his firet 
term. 



ON. ROBERT BROWN was born at 
Rushville, Schuyler county, Illinois, 
October 19, 1835, a son of John and 
Jane (Beckett) Brown; the father was a na- 
tive of Fayette county, Kentucky, and emi- 
grated to this State about 1831, settling at 
Rushville; he was a carpenter by occupation, 
and followed t'his calling until his death at 
the age of fifty-eight years; the mother was 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



281 



born in Bourbon county, Kentucky, and died 
in this county at the age of sixty-six years; 
they had born to them a family of ten chil- 
dren, five of whom are living. Robert Brown 
remained at home until he was thirty-one 
years of age, when he was married. At the 
age of twenty-four he was practically at the 
head of a large family, but he early developed 
remarkable business ability, and was quite 
equal to the cares that devolved upon him. 

He was united to Miss Mary M. S. Hoff- 
man, October 31, 1866. She was born in 
Woodstock township, Schuyler county, Illi- 
nois, September 7, 1845, a daughter of Sam- 
uel and Margaret 0. (Narding) Hoffman: 
Samuel Hoffman was a native of Berks 
county, Pennsylvania, and emigrated to Illi- 
nois in 1838 4 and here spent the remainder 
of his life; he was a soldier in the Mexican 
war, and died of a fever contracted in the ser- 
vice, at the age of twenty-eight years; he was 
a sou of Joseph and Mary (Meyers) Hoffman, 
natives of Pennsylvania; Margaret C. Nard- 
ing was born in France, October 26, 1822, 
and emigrated with her parents to America 
in 1823; they first settled at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and in 1839 came -to Illinois and lo- 
cated in Woodstock township, Schuyler 
county. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have had born 
to them five children, four of whom are liv- 
ing: Robert W., born October 26, 1868; 
Lilly J., born April 28, 1870; Herman H., 
born June 14, 1875; Edward 0., born Au- 
gust 24, 1880. 

After his marriage Mr. Brown bought 
eighty acres of land, a portion of the farm he 
now owns; as his means increased he invested 
in land, and now has 400 acres in a body in 
Woodstock township. In 1881 he replaced 
the old log house which had been a home for 
so many years with a modern structure, and 
he has made many valuable improvements 



upon the place; he does a general farming 
business, but makes a specialty of high grades 
of blooded stock. 

Politically, Mr. Brown was identified with 
the Democratic party, but was elected to the 
State Senate by Democrats and Grangers by 
a majority of 1,476; he served four years, 
giving entire satisfaction to his constituency; 
he was a member of several important com- 
mittees, and always showed a wise considera- 
tion of the subject in question. He was a 
member of the School Board for fiteen years, 
and has favored elevating the educational 
standards, and has filled the office of Super- 
visor. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, and belongs to the State Grange. In 
addition to the business interests mentioned, 
Mr. Brown is a stockholder in the Bank of 
Rushville. He is a man of excellent business 
ability, his judgment carrying great weight. 
He has accumulated his property through his 
own unaided efforts, and he is in every way 
worthy of the esteem in which he is held. 



fOHN F. ROBINSON, County Clerk of 
Cass county, is one of the prominent and 
influential men of the county. He is 
eminently a self-made man. Beginning life 
a poor boy, he has worked his way up to his 
present position of wealth and influence, being 
now classed with the leading citizens of his 
county. A review of his life gives the fol- 
lowing facts: 

John F. Robinson was born in Crawford 
county, Ohio, May 31, 1851. His father, 
Andrew D. Robinson, was a native of the 
same State, and a son of James Robinson, 
one of the pioneers of Ohio. Andrew D. 
was quite young when his father died, and 
he was reared by his mother. He married 
in Ohio, and resided there till 1852. That 



282 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



year, leaving his wife with her parents, he 
started for California, making the journey 
with teams across the plains. At that time 
there were no white settlers between the 
Missouri river and California, except the 
Mormons. ^After his arrival in the Golden 
State, he engaged in packing provisions to 
the mines, and subsequently assisted in 
operating the first threshing-machine in that 
State. He remained there till 1856, when 
he returned East via the Isthmus route, and 
located in Linn county, Iowa, on a rented 
farm between Marion and Cedar Rapids. A 
year later he bought a partially improved 
farm in Spring Grove, two miles and a half 
west of Paris, where he lived till 1887. 
Leaving his son James in charge of the farm, 
he then removed to Center Point, where he 
now lives retired. The maiden name of his 
first wife, mother of John F., was Elizabeth 
E. Wachtel. She was born in Ohio, aud her 
death occurred in Iowa, in 1865. The 
maiden name of his second wife was Eva L. 
Putney. He reared five children by his first 
wife, and of those born to his second wife 
three are living. 

The subject of our sketch was an infant 
when his father went to California. In 1854, 
when he was three years old, he was taken 
by his mother and her parents to Iowa, 
making the journey with a horse and buggy. 
Iowa at that time was thinly settled, and 
there were no railroads in the State for two 
years afterward. Young Robinson attended 
the common schools, and advanced his edu- 
cation by attendance at the State University. 
In 1871 he came to Cass county, Illinois, to 
seek his fortune, landing here with no capital 
save a willing hand and a determination to 
succeed in life. He found employment on 
the farm, working by the month in summer, 
and during the winter of 1871-'72 he at- 



tended school in Chandlerville. The follow- 
ing ten years he taught school a part of each 
year. In 1874, he made his first purchase of 
real estate a farm of 120 acres in Rich- 
mond precinct. Since, then he has been an 
extensive and successful dealer in both farm 
and city property. He now owns four farms 
in Cass county, and a half interest in five 
other farms here. He is also interested in 
farm land in Clarke county, Iowa, and has 
city property in Kansas City, Missouri, and 
Eureka Springs, Arkansas. 

In March, 1873, Mr. Robinson married 
Caroline (Houghton) Davis, who died April 
19, 1874, leaving one child, Ada L. In 
August, 1879, he was united in marriage 
with Mary J. Witty, by whom he has two 
children, Lavina E. and Lee E. 

Politically, he has always affiliated with 
the Democratic party. He cast his first vote 
for Horace Greeley. While teaching school 
he devoted a portion of his spare time to the 
study of law. 

In 1882, Mr. Robinson was elected to the 
office of County Clerk of Cass county, for 
the legal term; was re-elected in 1886, and 
again in 1890. 

Fraternally, Mr. Robinson is associated 
with Virginia lodge, No. 544, A. F. & A. M. ; 
Clark Chapter, No. 9, R. A. M.; Hospitaller 
Commandery, No. 32, K. T. ; Ashland Lodge, 
No. 341, 1. O. O. F.; and Virginia Camp, 
M. W. A. 



ENRY W. KROHE was born at Beards- 
town, Illinois, November 27, 1841, and 
died suddenly at his home in that city, 
of heart failure, December 19, 1889. He 
grew up here, and in 1862, when just about 
of age, he started for Calfornia, with an uncle 
and aunt. Going to New York, they took a 



SCHU1LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



283 



steamer to Aspinwall, crossed the Isthmus of 
Panama, and was landed by a Pacific steamer 
at the city of San Francisco, where Mr. Krone 
remained for some time. Later, he went to 
Portland, Oregon, Umatillia, Vancouver Is- 
land, etc., and thence up to British Columbia, 
and back again into California. He was 
amongst the Cherokee Indians, whose lan- 
guage he learned to speak well. He spent 
four years as a miner, and had a varied ex- 
perience, making and losing money. 

In 1866, he returned to Beardstown, and 
shortly afterward he went in partnership 
with his brother-in-law, George Schneider, 
into the saloon business, and together built 
the opera-house block, in 1873; but when it 
was nearly completed it was blown down by 
a terrible storm, July 4, 1873. It was re- 
built by them the same year. About eight 
years ago, Mr. Krohe sold his share of the 
opera-house block to his brother, Fred Krohe, 
who is still the proprietor of the same, with 
his brother-in-law, George Schneider, now of 
Omaha, Nebraska. 

In 1869, he engaged in the manufacture of 
mineral arid soda water, in which business he 
continued until the time of his death. He 
was well known as a hard-working business 
man. He built several nice dwelling houses, 
which became the property of his widow. 

He was married at Jacksonville, Illinois, 
February 11, 1875, to Miss Bertha A. Eber- 
wein, a native of Cass county, born Decem- 
ber 2, 1846, daughter of J. C. H. and Maria 
Eberwein, who were born in Germany, and 
came to the United States when very young. 
Mrs. Eberwein died in 1847, leaving two lit- 
tle girls, Caroline and Bertha, both having 
good homes at the time they were married. 
Mr. Krohe and wife were reared in the 
faith of the Lutheran Church. He was a 
genial and pleasant man, a Democrat in poli- 




tics, but not an office seeker. He leaves no 
children, but a widow, to mourn his early 
death; and Beardstown lost one of its best 
citizens when Mr. Krohe died. 



ERIC E. CADY resides at Camden, 
and is numbered among the respected 
pioneers of Schuyler county. He was 
born in Tolland county, Connecticut, Jan- 
uary 22, 1828, being a son of Isaac F. and 
Sarah (Chapman) Cady, natives of Connec- 
ticut. Isaac F. Cady in early lite learned the 
trade of a carpenter, and, being a natural me- 
chanic, also worked at the blacksmith trade. 
He could make anything in iron or other 
work in his line. 

He first married Clarissa Hunt, who died, 
leaving seven children, five girls and two 
boys. He then married Sarah Chapman, and 
after two children had been born, he with 
his family came to Illinois, in 1835, via canal, 
Lake Erie and canal, to the Ohio river, where 
he purchased a boat, and came to Quincy, 
Illinois, and in the fall of 1835 he settled in 
Camden township, where he entered several 
hundred acres of land, and resided there 
till his death, which occurred in 1847, aged 
seventy-two years, six months and two days. 

By his first marriage there were seven chil- 
dren, namely: Isaac G., H. H. Franklin, An- 
geline, Caroline, Etnaline, Adaline and Mary 
Ann. By his second marriage, he had Fran- 
cis E. and Meric E. The mother of our sub- 
ject, by former marriage to I. A. Jones, had 
five children; Austin, Alonzo, Revilo, Charles 
W., and one died young. All the children 
were born in Connecticut, and the parents 
and fifteen children came to Illinois. The 
mother of our subject died aged eighty-one 
years. 

Meric E. Cady was reared on the farm, and 
being a natural mechanic he worked some- 



284 



BIOGRAPHICAL RB'VIEW OF OASS, 



what in that line. In 1850, he crossed the 
plains to California, where he' worked in the 
mines for one year, and then went on a ranch. 
In 1853, he came home via the Isthmus and 
New Orleans, and took 124 head of cattle 
and thirteen head of horses across the plains 
to California, and remained there till 1855, 
when he returned home via New York. 

He was successful while in California, and 
on his return home he resumed farming, till 
1882, becoming the owner of 268 acres, on 
which he made many improvements. When 
he removed to Camden village, he built a 
store, and with his son engaged in general 
mercantile business, and so continued ten 
years; since then he has lived a retired life. 
He sold his farm in 1891, and purchased an- 
other of 130 acres, in Camden township. 

In March, 1856, he married Eliza A. Mel- 
vin. She was born in Maine, in the town of 
Reidfield, 1835, daughter of John and Eunice 
Melvin, who settled in Schuyler county, in 
1851. Our subject continued farming till 
1882. 

Mr. and Mrs, Cady have three children 
living, and one dead. Everett F. is a farmer 
in Camden township; Charles "W. died at the 
age of nineteen years; Eugenia and Addie. 
In politics, Mr. Cady is a Democrat, and has 
held local offices. 

Mr, and Mrs. Cady are members of the 
Christian Church. Mr. Cady is a Royal 
Arch Mason, being the Master of the Cam- 
den Lodge, No. 648, A. F. & A. M., a posi- 
tion he has held for several terms. 



fOHN UNLA.ND, of Beardstown, a prac- 
tical farmer and stock-raiser, was born 
in Hanover, Germany, July 30, 1833. 
He was young when he came to this country 



with his father, Rev. Casper H. Unland. The 
latter grew up a farmer, was well educated 
and became early in life interested in religion 
and while yet a young man began to exhort 
and preach experimental religion. For this 
he was persecuted by the State church. He 
married Maria Calres in Hanover, and, after 
the birth of eight children, to better their 
condition they set out for the United States. 
They left on a sailing vessel October 20, 

1844, and landed in New Orleans after a 
journey of eleven weeks. They landed in 
Beardstown in the latter part of January, 

1845, which was very remarkable, as the river 
is usually frozen at that time. They settled 
near Bluff Springs, on what is now known as 
the Tom Clark farm. After five years Mr. 
Unland sold, and purchased land five miles 
northwest of Arenzville, where he lived and 
died at the age of eighty-one years, his death 
occuring March 8, 1890. He was prominent 
in Cass county as a fanner and Methodist 
preacher, a good, noble man, a Republican, 
and the only one of his family who came to 
this country. 

John is the second child of a family of 
thirteen, of whom nine are married and all 
have families. He remained at home until 
he became of age and was married in this 
county to Elizabeth Christinaner, born in 
Germany. She came with her parents when 
but three years old to Beardstown. Her 
father, Yost Christinaner, died at the age of 
eighty, and her mother died about the age of 
eighty, also. The name of the latter was 
Gustling. She and her husband were mem- 
bers of the Methodist Church and old settlers 
and good people of Cass county. Mrs. Un- 
land was carefully reared by good parents. 
She is the mother of seven living children: 
George married Nancy Henners and is a far- 
mer in Morgan county; Lucinda, a widow 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



285 



with two children, lives with her father; Mary 
Higginson lives near Philadelphia, Cass 
county; and Nattie, Frank, Henry and Will- 
iam (the twins) live at home. 

Mr. Unland has lived in this county since 
1845 and has been one of its good citizens. 
He lias lived on the farm, except three years, 
and he has put in all the improvements. He 
purchased it in June, 1860, and settled there 
in 1861. He has 200 acres in section 17, 
township 18, range 11, and his good farm 
buildings and fine improvements show that 
he thoroughly understands his business. He 
and his wife are both active members of the 
Methodist Church, of which Mr. Unland has 
been Class-leader since his twentieth year. 
He is a licensed exhorter. He is a sound 
Republican, but no office seeker. 



f HOMAS R. VAN DEVENTER, a pros- 
perous farmer and stock-raiser and es- 
teemed citizen of Brown county, Illi- 
nois, for the past fifty-five years a resident 
of section 15, Versailles township, was born 
in Fayette county, Ohio, in 1819. 

His parents were Jacob and Jane (Rogers) 
Van Deven,ter, the former a native of old 
Virginia, and the latter of Paris, Kentucky. 
His father's parents were Jacob aqd Mary 
(Slater) Van Deventer, the former born in 
Holland in 1743, and the latter a native of 
Glasgow, Scotland. The young Hollander 
was a powder-maker by trade, and came to 
America in early manhood. He was married 
in New Jersey, on the Delaware river, and 
soon after went to Virginia, where he and 
his young wife located on a farm, which was 
situated on the south branch of the Potomac 
river. He engaged in farming, and having 
an excellent water-power in the river, 

20 



also manufactured gun-powder. It was in 
the latter capacity that he rendered signal 
service to the patriots at the time of the 
Revolutionary war, providing them with 
powder with which to blaze their way into 
independence. He served for a short time 
in the regular army in that memorable con- 
flict, and participated in the battles of York- 
town and Valley Forge. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Home. Guards, although he did 
not take part in the engagement in which 
they distinguished themselves for bravery 
and efficiency. This worthy patriot and his 
wife were the parents of eight children, five 
sons and three daughters: William; Isaac; 
Jacob; Peter; Cornelius; Sarah, who mar- 
ried Jacob Judy; Mary, wife of George Tim- 
mons; and Peggy, wife of Daniel Timmons 
brother of George. The mother of this fam- 
ily died, aged eighty years, while the father 
expired four years later. They had met 
with many financial losses, and left only a 
small estate in worldly goods, although a 
rich heritage of honor and good deeds fol- 
lowed and influenced their children through 
life. Some of this family were of small 
stature, like the gentleman whose name heads 
this notice, but the majority of them, both 
men and woman, were large, erect and finely 
formed. Sarah was six feet tall, while Jacob, 
the father of the subject of this sketch, was a 
veritable giant, standing six feet six inches 
in his socks and weighing 240 pounds. 
Although possessing great strength and un- 
daunted courage, he was most peaceable and 
kind. He was twice married. His first 
wife was Magdalene Buffenbarger, a member 
of a wealthy Ohio family. She died early, 
leaving two children a son, Jethero, and a 
daughter, Elizabeth. The former now lives 
in Versailles, Illinois; and the latter resides 
in Indiana. Late in the fall of 1815 the 



286 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



father remarried, his second wife being the 
mother of the subject of this biography. A 
short time afterward, he and his brother, 
with their families, six persons in each 
household, came from Fayette county, Ohio, 
to Schuyler, now Brown county, Illinois. This 
journey of more' than 400 miles was made in 
.three weeks, with two large covered wagons 
and eight horses, foar animals under sad- 
dle. The father of our subject brought some 
means with him, realized from the sale of 
his farm in Ohio. He first settled in Schny- 
ler, now Brown county. 

Eight years earlier Cornelius Van Deven- 
ter visited the Illinois bottom^, where he se- 
cured a claim. Five acres of this he fenced 
and planted to corn and pumpkins, and after 
completing their cultivation returned to his 
family. On his return in the fall, great was 
his surprise to find his crop intact, not an ear 
of corn or a pumpkin being missing. 

The stalwart and much beloved pioneer, 
Jacob Van Deventer, died in 1833, aged 
fifty-three years, leaving a bereaved family 
and many sorrowing friends. His worthy 
wife survived him nine years, dying aged 
about forty-eight years. They were the par- 
ents of six boys and two girls, to- wit: T. R., 
J. F., H. D., and B. B., boys; girls, Caroline 
and Duan; one child, Pembrook Berbeck 
Van Deventer, died when small; the others 
were the subject of this notice, J. F., 
H. D. and B. B. In 1838, she bought 
fifty-three acres of heavily timbered land, 
which had a small enclosure cleared, in the 
center of which was a hewed-log house, for 
which she paid f 600. This forms part of 
the present large farm of the subject of this 
sketch. He and his brothers formerly owned 
this farm of 800 acres in partnership, but 
J. F. Van Deventer, of Mount Sterling, now 
owns another farm of 2,200 acres near by, 



which he is farming on a large scale. Their 
specialty is stock-raising, including horses, 
cattle and hogs. On the land cultivated by 
our subject and his other brother, there is 
now a substantial farm residence, which 
they erected in 1866, besides which there are 
large barns and an excellent granary, which 
they built in 1880, all of which are models of 
their kind. They breed and raise from fifty 
to sixty head of dehorned short horn cattle 
annually, and have fed each year, for some 
thirty-five years, about 250 head, which they 
ship to market, together with many which 
they buy to sell. They now own ninety 
head of horses, and breed and raise ten to 
twelve head a year, most of which are draft 
horses, but some are for the saddle. They 
send to market from 200 to 300 hogs a 
year, beside shipping of their own stock from 
eight to ten car loads annually. Thus will 
be seen what a prominent part they take in 
the development of this country, which re- 
sults in their own prosperity and provides 
work for numerous attendants. 

In politics, Mr. Van Deventer affiliates 
with the Republican party, the principles of 
which he has endorsed for many years. 

Notwithstanding his marvelous achieve- 
ments in life, we have yet to Chronicle the 
most wonderful feat of his existence, namely, 
his abstaining from matrimony. How he 
has escaped the wiles of the fair sex is truly 
phenomenal, unless we revert to his other 
superior accomplishments. However, we 
will not congratulate him yet, remembering 
he will not be free from danger until he has 
left this mundane sphere. 

His early educational opportunities were 
limited, but he inherited a clear and strong in- 
tellect, as well as superior physical strength, 
and, by much reading and reflection, has over 
come these early disadvantages. Besides being 



SO SUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



287 




one of the most successful of men tinacially, lie 
enjoys, by reason of his integrity of char- 
acter and uniform courtesy, the universal 
friendship of his fellow men. 



ULLIAM A. BROKER was born in 
.Lippe-Detmold, Germany, March 19, 
1837. He was a boy of eleven years 
of age when his parents, Samuel and Sophia 
(Haupfer) Broker crossed the Atlantic in 
the spring of 1849, to New Orleans, and 
thence up the Mississippi river to St. Louis. 
This was during the year of the great cholera 
epidemic in that city, and within a few days 
the father and three of the children died, the 
mother and William having it severely, but 
recovering. When they were able to leave, 
the mother and her four small children 
moved to a farm near Watertown, Wisconsin. 
About one year later the mother died of 
cholera inorbns, she being then fifty years of 
age. Mr. and Mrs. Broker had always been 
members of the German Reformed Church. 

Mr. William Broker is the youngest of 
the children yet living. He is now pattern- 
maker for the St. Louis division of the Quincy 
railroad, which is located at Beardstown. He 
has been a resident of the same city since 
1851. He was only fourteen years old when 
he arrived at Beardstown,, and learned the 
trade of a practical carpenter mechanic under 
C. A. Bushman. After learning his trade he 
worked on his own account, and later became 
a carpenter fof the old Rockford company. 
In 1869, when the railroad was bought up 
by the Quincy company, he became their 
pattern-maker in 1879. He has ever since 
been regarded as a good, reliable workman, 
and a true, straightforward man, and his long 



association with the railroad com pan}' is a 
recommendation of him as a citizen. 

He was married in Beardstown to Miss 
Dorothea Kratz, who was born in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Germany, in 1844, and was 
twelve years of age when her parents emi- 
grated to this country. They have seven 
children: Frank, living at home, is a ma- 
chinist; Sophia and Katie are at home, they 
having been well educated in the high school 
of the city; William is learning the ma- 
chinist trade; Minnie, Amelia and Samuel 
are at home. Mr. and Mrs. Broker attend 
the Lutheran Church, Mr. Broker is a Re- 
publican, and a member of the A. 0. U. W. 
He is highly respected by all. 



AMES N. RIGG, of the firm of Rigg & 
Smith, merchants of Camden, one of the 
well-known pioneers of Brown county, 
settled in 1869 at Camden. He was born in 
Anderson county, Kentucky, January 18, 
1826, being a son of Richard and Margaret 
(Utterback) Rigg, natives of Virginia. Each 
removed with their respective families to 
Kentucky, where they were married. In 
1831 they emigrated to Illinois and settled 
in what is now Brown county, but was then 
a part of Schuyler. Mr. Richard Rigg pur- 
chased land near Mount Sterling, and entered 
land, and then became the owner of 400 acres 
of land on which he made many improve- 
ments. His death occurred in 1879, aged 
eighty-four years. His wife died in 1877, 
aged eighty-four years. They were members 
of the Baptist Church, of which Mr. Rigg 
was a Deacon. He had already made money 
when he started farming in Illinois, and 
added to his fortune in this State. He and 
his wife had three sons and four daughters: 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



Elizabeth, married to John B. Anumos, de- 
ceased; Susan A., married to J. P. Singleton, 
of Mount Sterling; Eliza married James A. 
Parker, who died in Brown -county; James 
N.; Peter, a farmer; and John J. died in 
Brown county. By a former marriage Rich- 
ard had two children, William T. and Sarah. 

James was only five years of age when the 
family came to Illinois. He was reared on 
the farm and resided there until he grew to 
manhood, attending school in the log school- 
houses of the section, where the teaching was 
as rude as the furniture. After his marriage 
James purchased a farm in Brown county, 
and continued on it until he came to Camden 
in 1869, when he sold hjs farm of 160 acres 
and with his father-in-law, Willis Watts, en- 
gaged in general merchandising in Camden, 
under the firm name of Watts & Rigg, and 
continued business for ten years. Mr. Rigg 
continued alone some ye^rs, until J881, when 
the cyclone passed through the town; his 
store and dwelling-house were badly injured, 
and his family were badly hurt. He subse- 
quently associated with his son-in-law in 
business, under the firm name of Rigg & 
Donnell. This firm continued two years. 
At the end of that time his present partner 
purchased an interest in the business, and the 
name was changed to Rigg & Smith. 

He was married in 1849, to Emily 1. 
Watts, daughter of Willis Watts. (For fam- 
ily history see history of Dr. B. P. Watts.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Rigg have five children: John 
J., of Keokuk, Iowa; Richard W. is a physi- 
cian of Pulaski, Illinois; Francis M. is in 
the insurance business at Quincy, Illinois; 
Olie married John Donnell, a farmer of 
Iowa; and Gertrude, at home. 

In politics he is a Democrat. He has 
been Supervisor of Camden township, until 
he declined to accept the ofiice, and during 




this time was chairman of the Board of Su- 
pervisors of Schuyler county for four con- 
secutive years. He has held many of the 
offices of the township. He has been Justice 
of the Peace for seven years, and been promi- 
nent in local politics, frequently having been 
a delegate of the county and district conven- 
tions. Mr. Rigg is a member of the Baptist 
Church, and his wife of the Christian Church. 
He has devoted his attention to merchandise, 
and is one of the oldest merchants in the 
county. He and his wife are respected 
throughout the county, where they are well 
known,, and Mr. Rigg is regarded as a reli- 
able, honest business man. 



ILLIAM L. ALEXANDER, ofsec- 
tion 30, Huntsville township, set- 
tled in the county in 1861. He was 
born in Russell county, Virginia, December 
19, 1836. His parents were William and 
Mary (McReynolds) Alexander. The grand- 
father of our subject was John Alexander, 
born in the north of Ireland. He came to the 
United States, where he settled and pursued 
farming. He married and reared a large 
family. His son William was born in 1802 
and was a farmer, marrying in Virginia. In 
1840 he came to Illinois and settled in Adams 
county, North East township, where he became 
the owner of 400 acres of land on which he 
made good improvements. He died in 1887, 
his wife having died a few years previously. 
They were members of the Presbyterian 
Church and the father was a Democrat in poli- 
tics. He waspoorwhen he settled in Illinois, 
owning only a horse and wagon. They had 
thirteen children, all of whom attained their 
majority: Nancy, John, Mary, Rachel, Mar- 
garet, William L., Davis, Daniel, Mitchell, 
Martha, Samuel, Robert Wilson and Rebecca. 



80HUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



William L. was reared on the farm. In 
1862 he enlisted in Company I, Eighty- 
fourth Illinois Infantry, and served until the 
close of the war. He was in the battles of 
Perry ville, Kentucky, Stone river and Chicka- 
inauga, Tennessee, and the Atlanta Campaign. 
He returned with General Thomas and par- 
ticipated in the fight at Franklin and Nash- 
ville. He was mustered out at Camp Har- 
ker, Tennessee. He was a non-commissioned 
officer. At the battle of Kenesaw Mountain 
he received a gunshot wound in the head, for 
which he now receives a pension. 

After the war he returned to Schuyler 
county, where he owned sixty acres of land, 
purchased in 1864. He has since pursued 
farming and now owns 541 acres of land and 
has two good sets of farm buildings. In ad- 
dition to his farming he has raised stock and 
dealt in the same. Since 1889 he has rented 
all his land. 

He was married in 1861 to Eachel J. Berry, 
daughter of Basil and Sarah Derry. She was 
born in Adams county, near Quincy. Mr. 
and Mrs. Alexander have four children: Mar- 
tha A., wife of "William H. Naylor, resides in 
Baxter Springs, Kansas; Edward died, aged 
nineteen; Emma, wife of Edward Straub of 
Galesburg, Illinois; Keely L. is at home. In 
politics Mr. Alexander is a Democrat and 
has been a member of the School Board. His 
wife is an earnest Christian lady, but not a 
member of any sect. Mr. Alexander has made 
his property and is a well-to-do man, richly 
deserving the respect in which he is held by 
all who know him. 



(ROVE CONINGHAM, deceased, was a 
native of New York city, born Decem- 
ber 27, 1816. His father, Grove Con- 
ingham, Senior, was born in Londonderry, 



Ireland, about 1766. He emigrated to New 
York city at an early age and married Betsy 
Baldwin, of Putnam county, New York. 
They had nine children, of whom the subject 
of this sketch was the eighth. The father died 
in December, 1831, in New York city. His 
wife survived him thirty-eight years. 

Our subject received his education in New 
York and -at the age of sixteen came to Schuy- 
ler county, Illinois. In 1843 he returned to 
his native city and lived there for three years, 
then returned to Illinois and settled in Schuy- 
ler county in 1851. He made a trip to Cali- 
fornia in 1851 and remained for two years 
employed in the custom house. This was his 
business and had been from his youth, as he 
had been associated with his father in the 
same for years. In 1853 he returned to his 
old home in Frederick and settled there. 
There he resided until his death in 1891, Feb- 
ruary 21. Mr. Coningham was a business 
man for many years as a member of the firm 
of Farwell & Company, which lasted from 
1855 to 1870. He was a stanch Republican 
in politics and an ardent supporter of the war 
and a friend of the soldiers. For two years 
after the dissolution of the firm of Farwell & 
Company he served as steamboat agent, and 
subsequently as Tax Collector, and held other 
positions of trust and responsibility. In 1866 
he was appointed Postmaster at Frederick, 
which position he held for over twenty years. 
Mr. Coningham was a man of sterling worth 
and integrity. He was of a jovial disposition 
that made him friends wherever he was. He 
was noted for his firm adherence to the right 
whatever the cost might be. He was a 
worthy communicant of the Episcopal 
Church. 

He was married in Frederick, Illinois, to 
Sarah H. Beal, in 1856. She is the daughter 
of Jesse O. and Sarah (Vail) Beal, born in 



290 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



Cosliocton county, Ohio, March 21, 1836. 
Her father came of German ancestry, and her 
mother traces her genealogy back to the Vails 
who came to Plymouth. Of a family of nine 
only three are now living. Her brother Fos- 
ter was a soldier in the Mexican war and is 
buried on Mexican soil. Samuel now resides 
in Frederick, a farmer; Julia resides in De- 
Witt, Iowa, and Mrs. Coningham is the 
third living one of that once large family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Coningham had seven child- 
ren, namely: Charlie, married, and lives in 
St. Louis, a telegraph operator; Grove, un- 
married, located at San Francisco, in the in- 
surance business; Jesse is employed in the 
registry department of the St. Louis post- 
office, a position he has held for eight years; 
Betsy, now Mrs. Moses, resides in Pueblo, 
Colorado; Grant, the yongest, named for the 
noted general, is married, employed in a saw 
mill and resides with his mother. Mrs. Con- 
ingham is a worthy member of the Christian 
Church, and has always been respected and 
liked by her large circle of friends. 



fOHN S. DODGE, one of the most prom- 
inent farmers of Littleton township, 
Schuyler county, Illinois, was born in 
Bloomington, McLean county, this State, 
March 14, 1837. His parents, Solomon and 
Betsey (Springer) Dodge, were both natives 
of Ohio, his father being a carder and tiller 
by trade. His mother's ancestors were 
originally from Cork, Ireland. In 1833, his 
parents came by way of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi rivers to Bloomington, Illinois, where 
our subject was born in his father's hotel, 
which was the first in that town, called the 
Caravansary. His father retired about twenty- 
five years before his death, he being ninety- 



one years of age and his wife seventy-two' 
when they died at the home of their son, the 
subject of our sketch. His godfather, Israel 
Dodge, was from Scotland, and died in Mari- 
etta, Ohio, aged seventy-five years. 

Our subject came to this county in 1846, 
and bought the farm on which he at present 
resides, which he has since much improved 
by the erection of a substantial residence 
and barns, and has the land well cultivated. 
He is one of ten children, five of whom are 
now living, two boys and three girls. He is 
the only farmer, all the others being mer- 
chants and mechanics. 

Mr. Dodge remained at home until he was 
eighteen years of age, attending district 
school and helping his father. He then 
herded cattle for a couple of years, after 
which he worked around at different places 
until he was twenty-one years of age. He 
was, at the end of this time, married to Miss 
Emily Hoyt, on December 24, 1855, anative 
of Detroit, Michigan, where she was born 
November 2, 1836. Their happy married life 
was doomed to be of short duration, for three 
years later his wife died in Wahpeton, Min- 
nesota, aged twenty-two years. She was an 
intelligent woman, with many charms of per- 
son and character, and was much regretted by 
all who knew her. Her people were from 
New York State. 

Mr. Dodge, after about eight years, mar- 
ried Miss Uachel Moore, on January 11, 
1866, who was born in Buena Vista town- 
ship, this county, June 15, 1838. Her par- 
ents, Thomas and Mary Moore, were pioneers 
of this county, and highly respected people. 
They are now both dead, her mother surviving 
her father by several years. She was one of 
twelve children, nine of whom are now living. 

After his marriage Mr. Dodge rented a 
farm in this county, which he cultivated until 



SQHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



291 



the time of the war; when, on February 1, 
1862, he enlisted in Company I, Sixty-second 
Illinois Infantry, under Captain Joseph Mc- 
Lean, and served for three years and four 
months in the army, and was on detached 
duty for two months. He was sick in 1864 
and was in the regimental hospital. In 1865, 
on May 2, he was honorably discharged at 
Smithfield. Mr. Dodge and D. Wheat are 
the only ones left in Springfield township, 
who were members of that company. 

After the war Mr. Dodge bought his pres- 
ent farm, which at that time was unimproved 
and had only a log house on it. It hardly 
resembles the same farm now, for he has 
erected a substantial residence, besides com- 
modious barns for his grain and stock, be- 
sides other modern conveniences for the 
facilitating of agricultural pursuits. He has 
bought eighty more acres of land, making his 
present possessions 240 acres, all of which is 
under a good state of cultivation. Besides 
his farming interests, he is largely interested 
in stock-raising, making a specialty of cattle, 
in which he is very successful. 

Our subject and wife have had eight chil- 
dren, six of whom still survive: Avey E., 
born in this county, was educated at Bush- 
nell College, and studied music atShenandoah, 
Iowa, and is now teaching music; Homer P.is 
at home; he was educated at Bushnell College; 
Fannie T. is at home, and was also educated 
at Bushnell College; Adda A.; Ruby J. and 
True; the last three are living a home with 
their parents. 

Mr. Dodge is at present a Republican, al- 
though he went to war as a Douglas Demo- 
crat; after that international struggle he 
voted with the Republicans. His first vote 
was cast for John C. Fremont. His con- 
stituents have seen fit to honor him with 
public office, and he has served as Assessor 



and Commissioner of Highways, in which 
capacity he has rendered eminent satisfaction 
to all. He is a member of George Brown 
Post, of Brooklyn, also of No. 320, G. A. R., 
and affiliates with the A. F. & A. M., No. 
766, of Littleton, of all which societies he is 
a prominent and esteemed member. 

Of superior ability, high integrity and 
morality, he also adds the gentler virtues of 
sociability and amiability, thus commanding 
the respect and affection of all alike. 




ILLIAM BADER, proprietor of the 
village of that name, was born in 
Preble county, Ohio, in 1826. His 
parents were Jeremiah and Sarah (Thompson) 
Bader. The father was a native of Germany, 
and the mother of Pennsylvania. They had 
eleven children, of whom eight are now liv- 
ing, namely: Mary, now Mrs. Hopkins, re- 
siding in Mason county; Sarah A., now Mrs. 
Gibbs, residing in Hancock county; Rosanna, 
now Mrs. Bleeker, of Pasadena, California; 
Margaretta, now Mrs. Doane; Jeremiah died 
when seventeen; John L., now residing in 
Kansas; Benjamin F., residing at Vermont, 
Illinois; Henry O., residing on a farm near 
Bader. The family moved from Ohio to Broom- 
ing township, Schuyler county, in 1846, and 
the parents both died on a farm near what is 
now known as Baders. 

The early life of our subject was passed on 
the farm, and later he learned engineering 
and operated a saw and grist mill for many 
years. He then went into the lumber busi- 
ness in Ohio, where he conducted a mill before 
he removed to Illinois, he not coming until 
1857. Here he continued his business in the 
lumber mill, and accumulated a large for- 
tune. He and* his wife have been enjoying 



292 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OAS8, 



tsorne of their money by spending a year in 
California, on account of her failing health. 

He was married November 9, 1856, in 
.Randolph county, Indiana, to Miss Mercy A. 
Hunt, a daughter of Eev. William Hunt, of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, a pioneer of 
Randolph county, Indiana, although he was a 
native of Kentucky. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bader have no children of 
their own, but they have reared two as their 
own; the first one died, but the present one 
is still living, and is a young lady of seven- 
teen. Mr. Bader is extensively engaged in 
the grain business, and owns 160 acres of 
land, a warehouse, several residences and two- 
thirds of a brick building in Baders. His wife 
is a member of the Christian Church and he 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity and of 
I. O. O. F. He is a Democrat in politics and 
has served three terms as a member of the 
Board of Supervisors of his county. He has 
been School Treasurer for fifteen or sixteen 
years, and has held various positions of trust 
arid responsibility. 



[AMU EL M. SCHRODER, a rising 
young business man of Oakland town- 
ship, and one of the most progressive 
agriculturists of Schuyler county, was born 
in McDonough county, Illinois, in 1860, on 
the 27th day of April. His father, Nicholas 
Schroder, was a native of Germany, but emi- 
grated to America with his mother when a 
lad of eleven years, in 1837; his father, John 
Schroder, died in the Fatherland about the 
year 1830, leaving a widow and three sons in 
very humble circumstances; the names of the 
sons are Christopher, Carson and Nicholas. 
They sailed from Bremen to New York, land- 
ing after a voyage of six weeks; they came 



direct to Pennsylvania, and from there to 
Schijyler county, and settled on a tract of 
Government land which the brave mother and 
stanch, energetic sons converted into a farm 
of great fertility and value. Nicholas went 
to California, taking the overland route; he 
mined for seven years, meeting with fair suc- 
cess, and then returned to Illinois, purchasing 
a farm of 160 acres in McDonough county. 
He was married in 1858 to Lucinda Phillips, 
a daughter of Samuel and Amy Philips, who 
were settlers in Illinois as early as 1840; they 
had a family of two daughters and a son: 
Amy Ann, wife of John W. Danners; Ada 
L., wife of Robert Robertson; and Samuel 
M., the son, is the subject' of this notice. The 
parents came to Schuyler county in 1864, and 
purchased 220 acres of land in Oakland town- 
ship, on which they lived until 1889, when 
they went to Vermont; here they bought a 
home in which they are now living in quiet 
enjoyment of the reward of their labors. 

Samuel M. Schroder was reared to the life 
of a farmer, and received his education in the 
common schools. His opportunities were 
somewhat limited, but this lack has been 
more than overbalanced by wide reading and 
clear thinking upon all the topics of the day. 
Mr. Schroder was united in marriage, in 
1880, to Miss Sarah E. Smith, a native of 
Fulton county, Illinois, and a daughter of 
John and Rebecca (Barcus) Smith, natives of 
Pennsylvania and Illinois, respectively. Mr. 
and Mrs. Schroder have buried an infant 
daughter, and have three children living: 
Harry W. was born December 22, 1882; 
Cleveland B. was born March 3, 1884; and 
Maud, November 2, 1889. 

Mr. Schroder first settled on eighty acres 
of land, and has since bought the eighty acres 
adjoining it; he also owned 280 acres in 
Schuyler and McDonough counties, which he 



SGHU7LER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



293 



recently sold at a handsome profit, after cul- 
tivating it four years. He does a general farm- 
ing business, making a specialty of corn and 
wheat in the cereal line, and cattle, horses and 
hogs in live-stock. He has represented the 
people of his township in various local offices, 
and has always been a stanch supporter of 
home interests and home industries. He was 
elected vice-president of the J. Wershon Bank 
in June, 1892, and is a stockholder of this 
corporation. He is possessed of excellent 
business qualifications, and has met with 
marked success in all his undertakings. Al- 
ways employing the most honorable methods, 
he has the highest regard and esteem of the 
entire community. 



fHOMAS WILSON, President of the 
Schuyler County Bank, and a leading 
financier and business man of Rush- 
ville, Illinois, was born near Five-Mile Town, 
in county Tyrone, Ireland, in March, 1812. 
Both his grandfather, Thomas, and father, 
Thomas, were natives of the same county. 
They were of well-known and esteemed 
Scotch ancestry, who were sturdy, rugged 
farmers, and passed their entire lives in their 
native land. His father was reared to man- 
hood in his native county, where he married 
Jane Greer, also a native of the Emerald 
Isle. They resided in Ireland until 1843, 
when they commenced the long journey to 
America. Unfortunately the wife and mother 
died in England while en route, leaving six 
children and a bereaved husband. These 
children were: William, Thomas, Joseph, 
George, Jane and Robert, all of whom came 
to America, except George, and located in 
Illinois. The father settled first in Schuyler 
county, Illinois, where he remained four 



years, after which he removed to Hancock 
county, locating near Nauvoo, where he re- 
sided until death. He was an intelligent, 
pious, good man, and was greatly esteemed 
by all who knew him. 

The subject of this sketch was reared and 
educated in Ireland, where he continued to 
live until 1832, when, at the age of twenty 
years, he emigrated to America, sailing from 
Derry in the sail vessel William Ewing. He 
landed in Philadelphia after a tempestuous 
voyage of seven weeks, a stranger in a strange 
land. He found employment in the City of 
Brotherly Love, at the weaving trade, and 
continued to operate a loom until the fall of 
the year of his arrival. He then removed to 
Lancaster county, that State, where he ob- 
tained employment on the farm of his uncle, 
James Little. He continued there until 1834, 
when he removed to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
securing employment on a farm near that 
city. Three years later he went to Illinois, 
going via the Ohio, Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers, to Rushville, Schuyler county. At 
that early period the country was sparsely 
settled, and some of the land was still owned 
by the Government. Rude log houses dotted 
the country. At that time Rushville was an 
insignificant village, with nothing like its 
present pretentious appearance. Mr. Wilson 
immediately engaged in merchandising in a 
small way, buying his goods in St. Louis and 
transporting them by way of the river in 
summer and by wagon in winter. His busi- 
ness gradually increased until he became, in 
time, a prominent merchant of the town. 
Since 1872 he has been interested in bank- 
ing, and upon the organization of the Schuy- 
ler County Bank he was elected its president, 
bringing to this position unusual financial 
ability and extended experience. 



294 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



He was married September 18, 1834, in 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, to Miss Susan Clark, 
an estimable lady, a native of Lancaster 
county, that State, and a daughter of John 
and Eleanor (Greer) Clark. They have three 
children: Anne Jane, wife of James P. Clark; 
John; and Lorinda, wife of John T. Sweeney. 
Eleanor and Sarah Elisa are deceased. 
Eleanor died in December, 1860, after finish- 
ing her education at Monticello in 1857; and 
Sarah died in February, 1883, leaving three 
children; she was the wife of Hiram Graff. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are earnest and 
useful members of the Methodist Church, 
and are prohibitionists in principle. They 
are worthy people, and enjoy the esteem of 
the entire community. 



DUNCAN EEID was born in Forfarshire, 
Scotland, August 12, 1809, son of Will- 
iam and Grace (McKenzie) Reid. His 
parents were natives of Scotland, and passed 
their lives there. Reared and educated in 
his native land, Duncan Keid then learned 
the trade of tailor. On account of ill health, 
however, he sought out-door employment, 
turning his attention to the stone-mason's 
trade. He resided in Scotland till 1855. 

.October 10, 1839, he married Jane Wilkie, 
who was born in Fifeshire, Scotland, Novem- 
ber 19,^.818, daughter of William and En- 
phemia (Gaul) Wilkie. Their union was 
blessed by the birth of six children: Will- 
iam, Jean, Susan, Margaret, Stuart and Dun- 
can. Mrs. Eeid and her two oldest children 
are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, her son being a ruling Elder in the 
church. Miss Susan Reid is a teacher in the 
Kensington school, Chicago. 



In 1855, accompanied by his wife and four 
children, he came to America, setting sail 
from Liverpool in May in the Aurora, and 
landing at New York after a voyage of five 
weeks. He came directly to Illinois and set- 
tled in Cass county. For six years he culti- 
vated rented land, and during that time, by 
his energy and good management, not only 
supported his family but also laid by a snug 
little sum. He then purchased the property 
on which his family now reside, it being at 
that time a tract of wild land, covered with 
timber and brush. Here he built his cabin, 
which served as the family home until further 
prosperity enabled him to erect a comfortable 
frame residence. His death occurred here on 
the 14th of April, 1883. Mr. Reid was a 
self-made man, and one who was held in high 
esteem by all who knew him. 



HARLES F. JOHNSON, practical 
farmer and truck-raiser of Beardstown, 
was born in Salem county, New Jersey, 
April 7, 1863. He lived in his native State 
until thirteen, when his parents came to Cass 
county, settling in Beardstown. The father, 
Chalkley Johnson, followed his trade as a 
carpenter until February, 1884, when be and 
all their children, but one, Charles, went to 
Sedgwick county, Kansas, and settled on a 
farm, where the father and mother both live. 
The latter's maiden name was Luwesia Lip- 
pencott. Both were natives of Salem county, 
New Jersey, where they were reared, mar- 
ried and all their children were born. They 
had four, of whom our subject is the young- 
est, and of whom three are yet living, 
Charles and two sisters, Mrs. Mary McKen- 
nel, of Sedgwick county, Kansas, and Mrs. 
Ella Crater, now living in Beardstown. 



SGHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



295 



Mr. Johnson has a tine farm of 238 acres, 
most of it located in township 18, range 11. 
He has owned it for four years, having man- 
aged it on his own account for two years pre- 
viously. Since he bought it he has made 
considerable improvement in the buildings. 
When he was twenty-one years of age he be- 
gan to raise truck, making a specialty of 
sweet potatoes. He has been a hard worker 
and is very successful in everything he 
undertakes. He has made his large property 
by his own efforts. 

He was married in this county, to Amelia 
Shuman, born in Hagener Station,- Cass 
county, in 1866. She was reared and edu- 
cated here, and is a good wdman. She is 
the daughter of John Shuman, who was a 
native of Germany, coming to America when 
a young man and settling in Cass county, 
where he spent his last days as a farmer, 
dying in 1888, aged sixty-eight. He was a 
good man and a member of the German 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He was a 
Democrat in politics. His wife died in 1867, 
after the birth of five children, of whom Mrs. 
Johnson is the youngest. All the other chil- 
dren are now married. Mrs. Shuman was 
born in Germany, and her maiden name was 
Kate Loeb. She was a good wife and mother, 
and a member of the German Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

Mr. Johnson and wife have three children, 
- -Viola, Gurtre and Nettie. They are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
Mr. Johnson is a Republican in politics. They 
are worthy, good people. 



^NTON RINK, a successful brewer of 
Beardstown, was born on the river 
Rhine, August 9, 1833. He is the 
only member of his family now living in this 



country. His mother died in Germany 
when he was only two years of age. In 1850, 
and after his father's second marriage, he 
left the old country, and after a long and 
weary trip finally settled in Perry county, 
Missouri, where the father died four years 
later. His wife married a second time, 
and continued to live in Perry county until 
her death in 1890. 

Mr. Rink came here from Missouri after 
he had spent ten years on a farm and had 
made some money to put into a business. 
He then was poor, but is now very wealthy, 
and has become so by his own efforts, and has 
been a real benefit to the town in which he 
lives. He arrived in 1864 and purchased 
a part in the brewery run under the name of 
A. Rink & Co. In 1867 he built a large 
brick brewery, with a capacity of 5,000 bar- 
rels per annum. The business has been suc- 
cessful, being represented on the road by 
himself and son in a commercial way. He 
is also a wholesale liquor dealer, running 
other places of business in the city. He is a 
stockholder, a promoter and original director 
of the First State Bank of Beardstown. He 
has been interested in all local matters af- 
fecting the good of the city ever since he 
came here, including the building of a wagon 
bridge across the Illinois river. He has been 
City Treasurer, and is a Democrat in politics. 
Mr. Rink, a sincere man,, has not only been 
ambitious, but is also successful in earning a 
good reputation for ability, honesty, .jndustry 
and executiveness. 

He was married, in 1865, to Margaret 
Schultz, who was born in the same province 
and near her husband in Bavaria, Germany, 
and came, when twelve years of age to Me- 
nard county, Illinois. Her parents lived and 
died in Germany. They were members of 
the Catholic Church. Mr. and Mrs. Rink 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



were the parents of eight children, five of 
whom are living: John and Arail assist their 
father in his business; Jessie is a teacher of 
music and has been well educated; Clara, 
now at home, was educated at Quiucy, Illi- 
nois; and Arthur is in the deaf and dumb in- 
stitute at Jacksonville, he being a deaf mute- 
Mr, and Mrs. Rink and family are members 
of the Catholic Church and take an interest 
in social matters. 



fOHN H. BLACK, a prominent citizen 
of Woodstock township, is a representa- 
tive of one of the earliest families of 
Schuyler county, and is entitled to a space in 
this history. He was born in Woodstock 
township, August 2, 1842. His father, 
James P. Black, was a native of Mecklen burgh 
county, North Carolina, a son of Richard S. 
Black (see sketch of Isaac Black). James P. 
Black removed to Indiana at the age of four- 
teen years, and resided there until 1826. 
Then, with his bride, he carne to Illinois; the 
" wedding journey " was accomplished with 
a yoke of oxen, the bridegroom walking 
most of the distance. He located in Wood- 
stock township, and there entered a tract of 
Government land which he began to improve. 
It was in this year that the county was or- 
ganized; there were few white settlers. In- 
dians were numerous, and the frontier was 
not far removed toward the setting 'sun. 
Mrs. Black's maiden name was Mary Pad- 
gett; she was born in Kentucky, a daughter 
of John and Eleanor Padgett, and died on 
the home farm in 1851. Our subject, John 
H. Black, received his education in the com- 
mon schools of Woodstock township, and at 
the Western Seminary, Rushville. At the 
age of nineteen years he began teaching in 



Woodstock township, and was actively en- 
gaged in educational labors for more than 
twenty years. 

In 1867 he removed to Richfield, Adams 
county, and there purchased a home in 
which he lived for a few years; his next 
change was to Quincy, where he bought city 
property, and thence he removed to Camp 
Point, where he lived five years; at the ex- 
piration of that period he returned to Quincy 
and made his home there until 1878, when 
he sold out and bought the farm he now oc- 
cupies on section 12, Woodstock township. 

Mr. Black was united in marriage in 1862, 
to Telitha Parke, a native of Brown county, 
Illinois, and a* daughter of Oliver H. F. and 
Mary (Logsdon) Parke, natives of Kentucky, 
and pioneers of Brown county, Illinois. Of 
this union five children have been born: 
Mary, Nettie, John R., Lelia and J. Charles. 
The father and mother are members of the 
Church of God. Mr. Black has held various 
offices of trust, and has represented Woodstock 
township on the county Board of Supervisors 
for three terms. For twelve years he was 
Superintendent of Schools in Adams county, 
and did much to elevate the educational 
standard. He is a man of rare force and 
uprightness of character, and has the re- 
spect and confidence of the entire com- 
munity. 




jARQUIS L. CRUM, of township 
17 north, range 10, section 32, was 
born about two and one half miles 
from his present location, January 16, 1851. 
His parents were James and Christina (Ream) 
Crum. The father was born in Indiana, in 
1806. His mother came from Ohio, and 
married in this county, in 1833. The father 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



397 



came to the county in 1832, the mother with 
her parents, who settled in this neighborhood. 
The father was of German descent, and was 
the father of twelve children. His wife died 
May 1, 1878, and the father has since mar- 
ried again, and resides on the old homestead. 
Marquis was educated in the public schools, 
and then attended the State Normal school 
for two years, and the Illinois Wesleyan 
University four years, graduating in the 
scientific course in 1874, receiving the de- 
gree of B. S., and three years later the de- 
gree of M. S. was conferred upon him. 
Being in very poor health at this time, he re- 
sumed farming, and this has proven so benefi- 
cial, under the favorable circumstances sur- 
rounding him, that he has continued to fol- 
low it. 

He was married, March 30, 1875, to Fan- 
nie Stubbleh'eld, of Funk's Grove, McLean 
county, born there September 17, 1853. 
They became acquainted while attending the 
university, which she attended about three 
years. Her family are old settlers in that 
county. Mr. and Mrs. Crum have four chil- 
dren: Edith, the eldest, now sixteen, has 
been attending the Illinois College at Jack- 
sonville, and expects to complete a conree in 
one of the higher institutes of learning; 
Arthur E. and Oral C. are bright boys; and 
Rena F., now three years old, is the pet of 
the family. Mr. Crum owns a farm of 700 
acres, principally devoted to stock. He breeds 
shorthorn cattle, and uses the Percheron- 
Norman horses, his father-in-law being an 
importer of this breed of horses in Bloom - 
ington. He also owns a stock farm of 240 
acres near Kirksville, Missouri, and usually 
buys his stock in Missouri and ships here. 
They are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and Mr. Crum belongs to the 
A. O. U. W. He is a Democrat. He has 



been associated with the Farmers' Alliance, 
and was the State president of it for eighteen 
months. He declined a re-election. He 
was a delegate from Illinois to the national 
convention at Ocala, Florida, and Mr. Crum 
describes this trip as the finest he ever made. 
He has three nice tenement houses on his 
extensive farm where his employees reside. 
He hires four or five men by the year, usually 
married men, and furnishes them with house, 
fuel and garden. 



fOSEPH MESERVEY, of Elkhorn town- 
ship, was born here, June 22, 1841. He 
is the son of Joseph and Eliza Meservey. 
Joseph was the son of Nathaniel, both of 
Vermont. He spent his life there and died 
when nearly ninety years of age. Joseph 
followed the business of shipping horses for 
nine years, and then went into a distillery, 
and then sold out and catne to this State at 
an early date. 

He continued at home until his mar- 
riage, worked with his father, and attended 
the subscription school when able. When 
he married he had a little farm, and after- 
ward he bought more land. Pie now owns 
760 acres, which he earned himself. He 
carries $10,000 life insurance. He runs a 
large quarry by machinery. This is a new 
industry, and will employ fully thirty men, 
and the machinery will require an outlay of 
nearly $8,000. He is a Republican in poli- 
tics, and voted first for Abraham Lincoln. 

He was married, June 15, 1865, to Mel- 
vina Jane Wilson, born in Pike county, Illi- 
nois. (See sketch of George Wilson for 
history of Mrs. Meservey's family). Mr. 
and Mrs. Meservey have nine children: Clara 
M., Warren R., George O., Maggie B., El- 



298 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASH, 



wood, Lorena E., Herbert H., Herman H., 
and Amy A. Warren R. married Cora V. 
Moore, of Brown county, and has two chil- 
dren: Estel V. and Nina. 

The family belong to the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and the daughters are mem- 
bers of the Epworth League. They are a 
family that commands the respect and esteem 
of their host of friends. 



L OUIS F. KLOKER, a practical and 
extensive farmer, occupying his fine 
farm in section 30, township 17, range 
11, was born in Beardstown, May 20, 1836. 
Here he was reared and educated and has 
always been a resident. His father was Louis 
Kloker, Sr., a native of Hanover, Germany, 
belonging to an old German family. He 
had been a wagon maker, the only son of his 
father's family, and after growing up, about 
1832, he came to the United States on a 
sailing vessel. After a voyage of thirteen 
weeks he landed in New Orleans, and came 
on to Beardstown, via the Mississippi river. 
He began work as a mechanic, and died about 
1839. He was known as a hard-working 
young man of good habits, and was a mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church. He left two 
sons, our subject and a brother Henry, who 
died when thirteen years of age. He mar- 
ried Mary Raube, also a native of Hanover, 
who had come to America in the same ves- 
sel with Mr. Kloker. They married soon 
after landing in Beardstown. She is the only 
member of her family in this country. After 
the death of her husband, Mrs. Kloker was 
married again to Fred Wedeking, who had 
come on the same vessel and at the same 
time as Mr. Kloker. After her second mar- 
riage they lived in Beardstown until 1844, 



when they settled on a farm southeast of 
Beardstown, and there Mrs. Wedeking died, 
December 25, 1857, aged forty-two. Mr. 
Wedeking died there also in 1887, aged 
seventy-six. He and his wife were good 
Lutherans, and very honest people. 

After the death of his father, Louis was 
carefully reared by his mother and step- 
father, and since their death he has been 
taking care of himself. Mr. Kloker form- 
erly lived in township 17, range 12. He has 
made the most of his property by his own 
efforts, and now owns 280 acres, which is 
highly, improved, and has upon it good farm 
buildings. He also owns forty acres in tim- 
ber land. 

He was married in this county to Mrs. 
Minnie Yost, nee Soheide. She was born 
in Prussia, in 1833, and came to Cass county, 
Illinois, with her mother. Her father died 
in Germany, in the prime of life. After 
they had come to this country they first set- 
tled in St. Louis, and there Miss Soheide was 
first married. She outlived all her hus- 
bands, and died at the home of her daughter, 
Mrs. Kloker, May 20, 1888. She was born 
February 8, 1794, and hence was ninety-four 
years of age: she was a strong, stout wo- 
man all her life. She and her people were 
Lutherans. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kloker are working mem- 
bers of the St. Peter's Lutheran Church, near 
Arenzville, of which lie has been Trustee for 
some years. For thirty years he has been 
active in school work in the township. In 
politics he is a Republican. They are par- 
ents of six children: Henry, farming on the 
home place; John A., a farmer in this 
county; Edward, also a farmer in this county; 
Lena, wife of William F. Duval, a farmer of 
this county; Herman and Fred are at home 
on the farm. 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



299 



Mrs. Kloker had three children by a for- 
mer marriage with Ernest F. Yost, formerly 
a successful farmer of this county, and a na- 
tive of Germany. They are: Mary, wife of 
Ernest J. Boes, now of Beardstown; Louisa, 
wife of Henry H. Meyer, a family in this 
county; and Minnie, deceased, dying at the 
age of thirty-two, after her marriage with 
Henry W. Meyer. 



fOHN SANDIDGE, one of the most intel- 
ligent and prosperous farmers of Oak- 
land township, Schuyler county, was 
born in the State of Kentucky in 1829. His 
father, Daniel Sandidge, was a native of Vir- 
ginia, born in 1804; there he married Pa- 
melia Tate, born in the same place in 1803. 
The paternal grandfather of our subject, John 
Sandidge was a Virginian by birth ; he married 
a native of Virginia, and in an early day re- 
moved to Kentucky, settling in Lincoln 
county, he became a wealthy planter, owning 
a large number of slaves. They had a family 
of nine sous and four daughters: Daniel, Clay- 
ton, Joshua, James, Larkin, John, Wyatt, 
Madison, Pullum, Emily, Patience, Amanda^ 
and Leanta; all grew to adult age and had 
families excepting Emily, who died in early 
childhood. The father met with death by 
accident, his team running away and throw- 
ing him from the carriage. He was an octo- 
genarian, and his wife died seven years later, 
nearly eighty years old. The eldest son, 
Daniel Sandidge, removed from Kentucky to 
Illinois in 1831, bringing his wife and five 
children; they first located at Canton, and 
removed thence to Industry township, Mc- 
Donough county; here Mr. Sandidge took up 
160 acres of Government land which he im- 
proved for two years, selling it at the end of 



that time; he moved to Eldorado township 
and bought a claim to 160 acres, on which he 
lived until 1840; he again sold, and pur- 
chased another tract of the same number of 
acres, and lived on this until 1850, when he 
sold and bought 160 acres in Oakland town- 
ship, Schuyler county. 

His wife died in Eldorado township, at the 
age of forty-two years, leaving a family of 
ten children. He married a second time, the 
union being to Cynthia Phillips, who bore 
him a daughter and son. He died in 1882, 
aged seventy-eight years; the wife died in 
June, 1891, at the age of eighty-four years. 
The surviving members of this family are 
named as follows: Lucy J., John, Mrs. Jonah 
Lindsey, Harriet, wife of Elisha Goruch, Mrs. 
Nathan Lindsey, Daniel, Charles, Larkin, 
Ellen, wife of Mike McCarty. 

John Sandidge, our worthy subject, was 
reared to the life of a farmer, but in his 
twenty-first year left home and went to Cali- 
fornia; the trip across the plains proved a 
very enjoyable as well as novel one, and he 
spent ten years in the Golden State, engaged 
in mining and raising live-stock. In 1860 
he returned to Illinois via the Isthmus, re- 
mained one month, and then went back to 
California. In 1871 he came home via the 
Union Pacific route, the object of this visit 
being to claim his bride. 

He was married November 19, 1871, to 
Miss Emma Stockton, and they returned to 
California by rail. It proved a pleasant 
trip for her, and Mr. Sandidge sold his inter- 
ests there, and came back to Illinois in 1873. 
He has lived much of his time since 1873 in 
Vermont, Illinois, where he owns a pleasant 
home. He bought a farm of 400 acres re- 
cently, and owns 200 acres in McDonough 
county. Mr. and Mrs. Sandidge have one son 
and a daughter: John F. is nineteen and Ida 



300 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



Leah is fifteen; both are receiving excellent 
educational advantages. The son has a de- 
cided taste for agriculture, and intends mak- 
ing that his life occupation. .Mr. Sandidge 
had the severe misfortune of losing his sight 
in 1882, the cause being brought about by 
his becoming overheated. 

Mrs. Stockton, mother of Mrs. Sandidge, is 
now eighty-five years of age, but is bright 
and vigorous; she is a native of Fayette 
county, Pennsylvania, but came to Illinois in 
1839; she was married to Daniel Stockton in 
1842; he died in January, 1883, aged eighty- 
three years. She well remembers the first 
steamer of the Ohio river, named the Adven- 
ture, and relates many interesting anecdotes 
of early days. 

Mr. Sandidge is a Prohibitionist, but in 
former days was a Democrat, casting his vote 
for Horace Greeley, whom he esteemed one of 
the greatest men and most gifted writers. 
He carries on a general farming business, but 
makes a specialty of raising live-stock, giving 
his preference to short-horn cattle. He plants 
from forty to seventy acres of corn, gathering 
as high as eighty bushels to the acre; he sows 
from thirty to seventy acres of wheat, but one 
of his practices is the rotation of crops, and 
he seeds to clover every third year. He is a 
man of good, sound judgment, and has 
made a marked success of every industry to 
which he has turned his attention. 



(OLUMJBUS T. WALKER, of Virginia 
precinct, is a native of Fauqnier county, 
Virginia, born May 12, 1838. His par- 
ents were Solomon and Emma (Wilkins) 
Walker. Both were natives of Virginia, 
father born in 1804, and the mother four 
years later. They removed to Cass county, 



Illinois, in 1855, and located on a farm near 
Virginia; here they both died, the mother in 
1881, and the father in 1890. They had 
nine children: William W., Darius N., Peter 
L., Columbus T. s Mary F., Churchill A., 
David T., Jennie E. and James T. 

Columbus T. was nineteen years old when 
he came to this county, and has resided here 
ever since. He attended the schools in this 
precinct after arriving in the county. He 
first learned the tanner trade, and also learned 
to be a leather dresser, but did not follow the 
business after leaving Virginia. He has been 
a farmer all his life. He has a farm of 100 
acres, on which he has excellent improve- 
ments. He is a Republican in politics, 
although all his brothers are Democrats. He 
has held all the township offices, and has been 
School Director for fifteen years, also Road 
Commissioner and Judge of Election, etc. He 
is a member of the Presbyterian Church, of 
which he is a Deacon, having held that office 
for twenty years. He is a member of the 
I. O. O. F., and has been since 1859, and now 
is a Past Grand of Saxon Lodge, No. 68. 

He was married in Cass county, February 
8, 1866, to Emma J. Angier, a native of Cass 
county, born October 10, 1846. Her parents 
were Addison G. and Annie E. (Wilson) 
Angier of Ohio. They were among the ear- 
liest settlers in Cass county: mother is still 
living in the county, but father died April?, 
1890. 

Mrs. Walker died March 16, 1889, leaving 
seven children. She was aged forty-two at 
her death. The children are: Ella G., born 
December, 1865, married Edward Tink, and 
died in 1892, leaving two children; Edward 
A., born in December, 1868, married and re- 
sides in Kansas City; Hattie M., born May, 
1871, married Charles Etchison, and resides in 
Virginia precinct; Louie F., born August, 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



301 



1875; Charles H., born April, 1878; George 
R., born April, 1881, and Dollie, born March, 
1884. He married for his second wife, Mrs. 
Leona Walker. She was a native of Cass 
county, and the daughter of George and Per- 
melia (Freeman) Arenat. Mrs. Walker is a 
member of the Christian Church. 

Mr. Walker is a man of representative 
type, a distinction among his fellows at- 
tained by his honest, straightforward busi- 
ness methods and fine social qualities. His 
successes in life justly merit for him the ap- 
probation of business associates and compet- 
itors, and from the same source he receives 
warm sympathy for the late reverses which 
in a degree have temporarily checked his 
usual flourishing condition. 



fOHN F. HUSS, general farmer and 
stock raiser in section 1, township 17, 
range 11, has entire charge of his fath- 
er's homestead of more than 300 acres of fine 
land, under good improvement. The build- 
ings are large and comfortable, and the place 
is well stocked. Mr. Huss has had the place 
under his personal control for nearly three 
years, and has shown himself to be a very 
successful farmer. He was born in this 
county, May 27, 1866. He was reared and 
has always lived on the farm where he was 
born. He received his educatiqn in, the 
country schools. He is the fourth son of 
Christian Huss, who was born in Germany 
of German parentage, and came to the United 
States alone. Mr. Huss, Sr.. emigrated to 
this country in the '50s, settling in Beards- 
town. He purchased two other farms before 
he obtained his present homestead. The lat- 
ter he conducted himself, until the spring of 
1889. He is now about sixty years of age, 



hale and hearty, has made all of his large 
property since he has come to this country. 
He is a member of the Lutheran Church, 
and a stanch Democrat. (For further family 
history, see biography of C. J. Huss.) 

Our subject is one of nine children, seven 
of whom are still living. Mr. Huss, of this 
notice, was married in this county to Miss 
Minnie Buck, born in this county, in 1868, 
daughter of Jasper J. Buck. (See biography 
of Mr. Buck for history.) She has no 
family, is a very smart, intelligent woman, 
and is one of the kind women of the commu- 
nity, and is so known everywhere. She and 
her husband are popular young people, and 
highly respected by all their neighbors. Mr, 
Huss takes quite an interest in local politics, 
and it may be predicted that he will be 
elected by the Democratic party to fill many 
of the offices of the county. 



LFRED, M. THOMPSON, a farmer 
and stock raiser of township 17 north, 
range 11 we.st, section 3,6, Virginia 
post office, was born on the farm where he 
now lives, February 27, 1850. His parents 
were Oswell and Elizabeth (Henderson) 
Thompson. Both, were born near Chillicothe, 
Ohio, the. father in 1806, and the mother, 
September 22, 1813. They came to Illinois 
with their parents in the same year, 1827. 
The father's parents located on the farm 
which Alfred now owns, and the mother's 
people located near Arcadia, Illinois. They 
were married here, in 1829. They had eight 
children: Ada, wife of I. J. Swibling, a well- 
to-do farmer and stock raiser near Ashland, 
Illinois; Mrs. Mary J. Black, the eldest, re- 
sides in Virginia; she has been married twice, 
her first husband being Mace Skiles; W. 



302 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA8S, 



Howard resides in Jacksonville, Illinois, and 
runs a feed and sale stable; he also owns a 
fine tract of land near that of the subject; 
Sarah Ellen married Jacob Epler, who died 
Boon after, and she married Mr. Andrew App; 
her home is now at Seattle, Washington, 
where she married her second husband ; she is 
now in Europe; Alfred; David; Albert and 
Abigail; the two latter deceased, the former in 
childhood, the latter in middle life, leaving a 
family. The youngest of the family is the 
first child mentioned, Ada. 

Alfred was reared and educated in his na- 
tive county, and at the State Normal School, 
which he attended two years. He returned 
home and resumed farming. 

He was married in this county, September 
10, 1872, to Meranda L. Payne, daughter of 
W. B. and Esther (Stevenson) Payne, natives 
of Kentucky, where Mrs. Thompson was born 
June 25, 1854. They have had five children: 
Howard, born in 1876, died in 1883, from 
scarlet fever; David, born in 1878, at home; 
Nellie died at the age of three months; Edith, 
born in 1881, at home; Everett, born in 
North Dakota, and died in infancy. 

In the spring of 1888, Mr. Thompson 
leased his farm and went to Bismarck, North 
Dakota, for the purpose of recuperating his 
health. There he remained seven years, re- 
turning in a greatly improved condition. He 
again took possession of the farm upon 
which he was born, and still operates it with 
hired assistance. He owns a fine farm of 
part timber and part prairie, upon which he 
has made many improvements. He lives in 
the house in which he was born, which is in 
a good condition and is a building that does 
credit to the neighborhood. 

Mr. Thompson is a Democrat in politics, 
and has been School Director and Road Com- 
missioner. Served one year as County As- 



sessor of Burley county, North Dakota, re- 
signing that office when he decided to return 
to Illinois, two years ago. He and his wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in which he takes a deep interest, 
and also in the Sunday-school work, and he 
subscribes liberally to the support of same. 

The Thompson family were among the first 
settlers in the county. Few indeed can go 
back as they, in their residence here. The 
family were of German origin, though long 
since established in America. 

Mr. Thompson owns 800 acres of land in 
Burley, North Dakota, which he rents, has 
320 acres of wheat on it this year (1892), he 
furnishing the seed and receiving one-half of 
the threshed grain. 



EORGE GREEK was born near Five- 
mile town, county Tyrone, Ireland, Au- 
gust 1, 1814. His father was also a 
native of Ireland and was named Robert. 
The grandfather, George Greer, it is thought, 
was born on the same farm, and all were of 
Scotch ancestry. The grandfather was a 
farmer by occupation, and was also a promi- 
nent contractor of public works and improve- 
ments. He passed away in his native county. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Jane Mar- 
tin. was born in county Fermanagh, and was 
also of Scotch stock. Both were members of 
the Methodist Church. The grandfather was 
an eccentric but able man, with independent 
views, and erected a stone church in his own 
yard. 

The father of our subject was also a farmer 
and a successful contractor and spent his en- 
tire life on the farm where he was born. His 
wife was Catherine Lendrum, who was born 
in the same locality, and was the daughter of 



SGHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



303 



John and Elizabeth (Erskine) Lendmm, also 
of the same county and also of Scotch de- 
scent. The Erskines were very prominent 
people, not only in Ireland but in England 
also, where they were connected by ties of 
blood with nobility and royalty, and boasted 
a coat of arms, a tnotto, and an honored 
name. Both the parents of our subject were 
Methodists. The mother came to America 
at the age of forty-six years, and passed her 
last days at her home in Rushville. She 
reared a large family of thirteen children as 
follows: George, John, Elizabeth, Jane, 
Joseph, James, Robert, Eleanor, Erskine, 
Lendrum, Lucinda, Andrew and Alexander. 
All the members of this family were born in 
Ireland, and our subject was the first to cross 
the ocean, sailing from Derry on the 14th of 
April, 1832, in the vessel William Ewing, and 
landing in Philadelphia on the 7th of June. 

When our subject reached Philadelphia he 
was a stranger and in limited circumstances. 
He soon found employment in that city, but 
the cholera broke out with great violence, 
whereupon he went to Lancaster county and 
engaged in farming, and there resided until 
the 13th of February, 1836, when he went by 
stage to Pittsburg, thence down the Ohio by 
the steamer Ben Bolt (her first trip), and up 
the Mississippi and Illinois rivers to Beards- 
town. Soon afterward he located at Rnsh- 
ville, and for some time was engaged in ex- 
ploring the surrounding country. In the fall 
of 1836 he returned to Pennsylvania, and in 
July, 1837, again came to Rushville, where 
he has since resided. For many years he was 
a successful merchant and was associated in 
business with Thomas Wilson, but is now re- 
tired. He has been one of the most substantial 
and upright of Rushville's business men. 

On the 6th of April, 1837, he was united 
in marriage to Miss Ann J. Clark, a native 



of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. Her par- 
ents were John and Eleanor (Greer) 'Clark. 
Mr. and Mrs. Greer have two children living, 
Susanna and Almira D. The former is the 
wife of Henry Brown, and has three living 
children: Olie, Eleanor and Lynn; Alm'ira 
is the wife of Edwin P. McClure, and has 
two children, George H. and Margaret M. 
Mr. and Mrs. Greer are Methodists, and he is 
a straight Republican. 



?ESSE WIGHT, farmer of township 17, 
range 10 west, Little Indian post office, 
was born in Delaware county, New York, 
February 13, 1828. His parents were Har- 
vey and Judith (Jenkins) Wight father borji 
in New Jersey and the mother near Bunker 
Hill, Massachusetts. Both died the same 
week in New York State. Of a family of 
twelve, Jesse was the second youngest. The 
family has been scattered, some to Michigan, 
others to Pennsylvania and one to Illinois. 

Jesse came to Beardstown on May 1, 1846, 
and hired out to work on a farm in this pre- 
cinct, where he continued to work in that 
way for four or five years. He then rented 
land for several years, and abou^ thirty years 
ago purchased his first real estate in Illinois. 
He was raised and educated in New York, 
and left there at twenty-two. Mr. Wight, by 
industry and economy, has accumulated a 
snug property, where he now lives in com- 
parative ease. He owns a fine farm of 107 
acres in a good state of cultivation, and raises 
grain and stock. Mr. Wight has never seen 
any of his father's relations, and hence knows 
but little of his fami^'s genealogy. 

He was married here in 1851, to Margaret 
Taylor, of Montgomery county, Ohio, who 
was born in 1826. Mr. and Mrs. Wight have 



304 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OASS, 



eight children: Abigail, the eldest, married 
Taylor Berry, and lives in Morgan comity; 
"William is a farmer and lives in Nebraska, 
where also lives John I.; Amos Harvey lives 
on his father's farm; Lizzie J. Parker is 
now a widow and resides at home with her 
father; Mollie is still unmarried and lives at 
home. Mr. and Mrs. Wight are members of 
the Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Wight is 
a member of the Republican party. He has 
held various positions of trust in the pre- 
cinct. 

Amos Harvey, the youngest son of the 
above, now managing his father's farm, was 
born in this precinct, February 14, 1859. 
He grew to manhood on the farm and at- 
tended the public schools. He was a farmer one 
year in Dakota and was otherwise employed 
there for one year. He was also one season 
in Nebraska, herding cattle and running a 
threshing machine. 

He was married, January 15, 1891, to 
Ollie Gilpin, born in Morgan county, Illinois, 
June 9, 1871. Her parents were James and 
Becky Gilpin. Her father was a soldier dur- 
ing the late war and is a pensioner. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wight have one child, Nettie May, born 
January 9, 1892. Mrs. Wight died at their 
home August 24, 1892. Mr. Wight is a 
member of the I. 0. O. F., and in politics is 
a Republican. 



| AMUEL E. ELLIS, a citizen of Little- 
ton township, is so closely identified 
with the history of Schuyler county that 
this volume would not be complete were an 
outline of his career omitted from its pages. 
He was born in Oakland township, Schuyler 
county, Illinois, April 30, 1846, a son of 
James and Nancy (Harmon) Ellis. 



James Ellis was a native of Mason county, 
Kentucky, a son of Elijah and Phoebe (Pay- 
ton) Ellis, natives of Virginia; his parents 
emigrated to Kentucky at an early day and 
engaged in agricultural pursuits; later they 
came to Illinois, where they passed the re- 
maider of their days; both lived to be eighty- 
four years of age. Their son, James, was 
reared to the occupation of a farmer, and in 
1844 he came to Illinois and settled on the 
land where Samuel E. was born; he purchased 
a quarter section for $1,200, and undertook 
the task of placing it under cultivation ; there 
were few improvements, and the dwelling was 
a small log-cabin; this furnished them shelter 
four years, when a frame building was erected, 
in which Mr. Ellis lived until he passed from 
this life at the age of seventy-seven years. 
Politically he supported the Republican 
party, and took an active part in local affairs; 
he was Assessor and Collector, and a member 
of the School Board for many years. He was 
one of the leading members of the Christian 
Church, and did the work of a pioneer in the 
cause of Christianity. He and Simon Doyle 
were Trustees of the society. Mr. Ellis was 
twice married:' his first wife, Nancy Harmon, 
bore him seven children, of whom Samuel E. 
is the youngest; she was born in Bracken 
county, Kentucky, and died in Schuyler 
county, Illinois, at the age of thirty-four 
years. Her parents, Samuel and Elizabeth 
Harmon, were natives of Kentucky, and 
passed their lives in the Blue-grass State. 
The Harmon family is of German descent, 
and the Ellis family is of Scotch lineage. 

Samuel E. Ellis had superior educational 
advantages in. his youth, and made the most 
of his opportunities; he attended the district 
school, and was a student at Abingdon Col- 
lege, Knox county, Illinois, after which he 
entered the teacher's profession, which he 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



305 



followed for more than twenty years. He 
was united in marriage to one of his pupils, 
March 12, 1874; her maiden name was Julia 
E. Jones, a native of this county, and a daugh- 
ter of James W. and Harriet E. Jones; her 
parents removed from Ohio to Illinois in 
1854, and settled in Schuyler county at 
Pleasant View; the father died at the age of 
fifty- nine years, but the mother still survives; 
they had born to them a family of ten chil- 
dren, only three of whom are living. The 
father and a son, George W., were soldiers in 
the late war, and died of disease contracted 
while in the service. 

Mr. Ellis enlisted in Company K, One 
Hundred and Thirty-seventh Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry, in 1864, and re-enlisted in 
February, 1865, in Company 1, One Hundred 
and Fifty-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 
Although the period of his service was com- 
paratively short he was in many important 
engagements, and at Memphis lost an ear; he 
receives a small pension, which is totally 
inadequate, in consideration of the injury 
received. 

The family of Mr. and Mrs. Ellis consists 
of eight children: Jessie H., Lulu M., Laura 
G., Emma Z., Fannie L., Anna Belle, Ida M. 
and Carrie B.; Virgil died in infancy. The 
parents are members of the Christian Church, 
and since 1867 Mr. Ellis has been an Elder 
of the same; for twelve years he has been 
superintendent of the Sabbath-school. He 
and Simon Doyle were the principals and 
furnished most of the money to build the 
Christian Church in 1871-'72 He is a 
member of Colonel Horney Post, G. A. R., 
and has been an active worker in the organ- 
ization for years; he belongs to Lodge No. 
24, I. O. O. F. Politically he adheres to the 
principles of the Republican party, and cast 
his first vote for General Grant's first term. 




He was once elected Justice of the Peace, but 
did not serve. 

In 1888 he purchased the farm on which 
he now lives with his family; the tract con- 
tains over 200 acres, and is one of the most 
desirable in the township. Of late years Mr. 
Ellis has abandoned the profession of teach- 
ing, having made an admirable record as an 
educator. He now devotes his time to agri- 
cultural pursuits, and is meeting with gratify- 
ing success. 



|ILLIAM T. PRICE, a progressive 
* arraer ^ Virginia precinct, Cass 
county, Illinois, was born in Mor- 
gan county, same State, November 6, 1840. 
His parents wereAdam and Susan (Ros- 
enberger) Price, both of German descent, 
and natives of Rockingham county, Virginia, 
where they lived to maturity and were mar- 
ried. In 1833 they removed to Morgan 
county, Illinois, where the father entered 
and improved a large tract of Government 
land. In 1852 they moved to Virginia 
precinct, Cass county, where they settled on 
a farm on which they passed the remainder 
of their lives. The greatly esteemed and la- 
mented father passed away February 1, 1875, 
his worthy wife surviving him until Septem- 
ber, 1881. They, with five infant children, 
are interred in Bethlehem cemetery, the 
ground of which was donated by them for a 
public burial place. They were both devout 
Christians, who rendered valuable service for 
many years to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in which the father filled, at differ- 
ent times, all the offices ever conferred on 
lay members. "Uncle Adam," as he was 
familiarly known, was a person of marked 
individuality and strong convictions, whose 



306 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA88, 



sterling integrity and earnest advocacy of all 
principles of justice won for him many 
friends where he was so well known. Of 
their twelve children, seven attained ma- 
turity, six now living (1892). John W., the 
eldest son, is a large landowner in Wilson 
county, Kansas. He married Maria Ganse, 
an estimable lady, and both are prominent 
in church and social circles. William T., 
whose name heads this biography, is the 
next in order of birth; Anna Eliza married 
James V. Rawlings, a prosperous farmer of 
Virginia precinct; Adam C. is a successful 
farmer of Douglas county, Illinois; Mary E. 
married Charles E. Strickler, of Sibley, Iowa; 
Amanda J., unmarried, resides in Virginia; 
and Sarah E., the youngest, married Alfred 
Griffin, of Nokomis, Illinois, and died in 
1885. 

i lie snlvj' ct of this sketch spent his boy- 
hood and early manhood on his father's farm 
and obtained a rudimentary education in the 
public schools. Amid these rural, peaceful 
scenes, he passed his time in the companion- 
ship of parents and friends until he attained 
his majority, when this happy state was 
rudely broken by the discordant notes of 
war. With youthful enthusiasm and patriot- 
ism, he enlisted in Company D, One Hun- 
dred and Fourteenth Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry for three years. He participated, 
with his command in the siege of Vicksburg 
and in many of the numerous battles which 
occurred in and around that almost invulner- 
able stronghold. In the engagement at 
Guntown, Mississippi, his regiment suffered 
severely, many being killed or wounded, 
while the remainder, including the subject 
of this notice, were captured and incarcer- 
ated in the prison at Andersonville, where Mr. 
Price was confined four months. He was 
eventually transferred to Millen, Georgia, 



via Savannah, that State; and, a month later, 
was sent to Florence, South Carolina, arriv- 
ing there November 28, and remaining there 
until February of the following year. He 
was then sent, with other prisoners, to 
Richmond, Virginia, there paroled and sent 
North, and on arriving in St. Louis was 
granted thirty days' furlough. When in 
prison, Mr. Price gladly exchanged a valu- 
able watch for an old, ragged blanket, consid- 
ering it one of the best trades of his life. 
He was in the prison at Andersonville when 
five comrades were hung for stealing from 
their mates, whom they murdered to con- 
ceal their theft. A court, organized from 
among the prisoners, passed sentence on 
them and witnessed the execution. It was 
also while he was in prison that the ''Provi- 
dence" spring burst forth, originating as if 
by magic and yielding to the famishing 
prisoners an abundant supply of cold water 
of clearest crystal. 

On the expiration of his furlough, he re- 
turned to Montgomery, Alabama, and three 
weeks later the war closed and he returned 
to his home, resuming the duties which had 
been interrupted three years before. 

On December 29, 1870, he was married to 
Augusta R., daughter of William and Eliza- 
beth (Clutch) Marshall, pioneers of Cass 
county, James Marshall, her grandfather, 
having located in the county as early as 
1825. Her father was of Scotch descent; 
while her mother was of Welsh ancestry, 
who emigrated to America in Colonial times, 
was in Waynesville, Ohio, and reared a 
Quakeress. Her father entered and im- 
proved the land on which Mr. Price's house 
now stands, while the beautiful, towering, 
maple trees which adorn the place are at- 
tractive memorials of his taste and enterprise, 
being planted half a century ago by his 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



307 



hands. This was his home until death, 
when his widow and three children removed 
to Jacksonville, this State, where Mrs. Price 
was married. Her mother remained there 
until her death in 1874. In 1883, Mr. 
Price was called upon to mourn the death of 
his wife, which occurred on the old home- 
stead. 

tural pursuits. 

ex perience, Mr. Price has followed agricul- 

With the exception of his three years' war 

Politically he affiliates with the Republi- 

can party. Religiously, he is an earnest 

member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 

and contributes liberally to the advancement 

of that and all other worthy objects. 



fAMES A. DAVIS, farmer and stock- 
grower, post office, Virginia, Illinois, 
was born one and one-half miles south 
of Ashland, Cass county, Illinois. Octo- 
ber 29, 1824. His parents, James and 
Elizabeth (Foster) Davis came to Cass county 
in 1822. The father settled on Indian creek, 
where he improved a little farm, which he 
afterward lost by another man " entering him 
out." He was born in Kentucky in 1796, 
coming here from Monroe county, and died, 
March 6, 1856, in this county. Mother was 
born in Cumberland county, Tennessee, in 
1800, and is still living. She resides with 
her son George, who owns the old homestead 
in township 17, range 11. She was the 
mother of fourteen children, eight of whom 
are still living. Mr. and Mrs. Davis, Sr, 
moved from Ashland to the place where the 
mother now lives, when James, Jr., was four 
years old. Here he grew to manhood, was 
taught in the subscription schools of that 
day and was reared a farmer. At twenty 



years of age he learned the house carpenter 
trade which he followed until seven years 
ago. He worked five years in Beardstown, 
afterward returned to his home neighborhood, 
where he worked fifteen years inside five 
miles of his home, and was never out of 
a job. 

He was married in Beardstown in 1S49, to 
Martha A., daughter of Philip Schaeffer, a 
farmer who had come from Montgomery, 
Ohio, in 1832. Her birth was September 
16, 1830. Mr. Davis has witnessed a won- 
derful development in Cass county during 
his sixty-eight years' residence here. His 
first memory of the country is as a vast wilder- 
ness, the settlers few and far between, with 
only occasionally a horse-power mill where 
the farmers had their grists ground by turns, 
often remaining all day to get one sack of 
corn ground. Mr. Davis has seen men reap- 
ing wheat on ground which is now covered 
with heavy timber, the early settlers prefer- 
ring to clear up the timber land, some of 
which has since gone back to its primitive 
state. Mr. and Mrs. Davis have six children : 
Minerva, wife of Richard Way, residing in 
dass county; Valentine, residing in Butler 
county, Nebraska, a farmer: Sarah Ellen, 
who wedded A. C. Robinson, living near 
Virginia, Illinois; James Philo, residing 
three miles south of Virginia; Cyrus Ed- 
ward resides six miles east of the same place, 
and Charles L., a farmer living in Douglas 
county, Illinois. On July 21, 1884/ Mr. 
Davis suffered the loss of his estimable wife, 
to whom he had been married thirty-eight 
years. A glowing tribute to her memory, as 
a lady of great worth, appears in a clipping 
in the local paper, in which appears the ac- 
tion of the I. O. O. F. lodge in the premises, 
of which she and her husband were valued 
members. She was a worthy member of the 



80S 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



Union Baptist Church. Mr. Davis was mar 
ried to his second wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, 
March 16, 1887. Her maiden name was 
Thompson, and she was born in Ohio in 1840, 
They are both members of the Union Bap- 
tist Church, in Virginia, and takes an active 
interest in Sunday-school and church work. 
He is a member of Saxon Lodge, No. 68, 
I. O. O. F., and of Advance Encampment, 
both located at Virginia. He has held vari- 
ous official positions in this town. He voted 
the Democrat ticket until the nomination of 
Tilden, when he voted the Greenback ticket 
for several years, but is now a Prohibitionist 
and has always advocated temperance and 
sobriety, and the legal control of the liquor 
traffic. He joined the Sons of Temperance 
in 1849, and has worked for the cause all his 
life. He uses neither tobacco nor liquor, and 
is one of the representative men of Cass 
county, and his family is one of the first 
established here. 




WILLIAM I. LARASH, editor and 
proprietor of the Rnshville Citizen, 
a weekly newspaper devoted to the 
interests of the people, is a native of Penn- 
sylvania, born at Allentown, Lehigh county, 
October 2, 1851. His father, Isaac Larash, was 
also a native of the Keystone State, and his 
grandfather was descended from the French 
Huguenots; the latter was a planter by -oc 
cupation, and passed his life in Pennsylvania; 
the father learned the tailor's trade, and car- 
ried on that business at Catasauqua, Penn- 
sylvania; thence he removed to Illinois in 
1852, and followed his trade in this State for 
several years. He finally purchased a farm 
in Spring Lake township, Tazewell county, 
and still resides there. He married Esther 



Ann Kildare, a native of Pennsylvania, who 
still survives. They are the parents of nine 
children: John, Elizabeth, Lucinda, William 
1., Mary, Charles, George, I., Addie M. and 
Walter. Our subject was the infant when 
the family began their life upon the frontier. 
He was reared and educated in Pekin, Taze- 
well county, and at the age of fourteen years 
went to learn the printer's trade; he served 
an apprenticeship of two years in the Repub- 
lican office, never losing a half day's time. 
In 1869 he went to Omaha, and there found 
employment in a job and commercial print- 
ing office; this occupied him four or five 
months, and then he made a journey to the 
plains on a buffalo hunt. He was next lo- 
cated in Nebraska, where he followed his trade 
for a time; thence he went to St. Louis, and 
then home. He devoted some time to agri- 
culture, and afterwards returned to his trade; 
he was on the Peoria Review until the paper 
changed hands. Then, with three other prin- 
ters and two editors, one of whom was R. J. 
Burdette, he assisted in the founding of a 
paper which was named the Peoria Evening 
Review; an injunction was served upon them, 
and the name was changed to the Peoria In- 
junction. Mr. Larash was connected with 
with this paper a short time, and then was in 
different cities until 1875, when he came to 
Rushville, and took charge of the Citizen of- 
fice. In 1879 he purchased the entire outfit 
with the good will of the paper, and has 
since managed its publication. He has a job- 
office in connection, and has won a wide pat- 
ronage. 

Mr. Larash was married March 21, 1878, to 
Emilia Ann Horney who was born in Little- 
ton township, Schuyler county, Illinois, July 
16, 1857, a daughter of Lenodias and Jane 
(Crawford) Horney. To them three children 
have been born: Lenodias H., Lizzie H. and 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



309 



Winnie J. Politically, Mr. Larash affiliates 
with the Republican party, and was a delegate 
to the State Convention in 1880. He is a 
member of linshville Lodge, No. 9, A. F. & 
A. M., Rushville Chapter, No. 184, R. A. M., 
and to Rushville Commandery, No. 56, K. T. 
He and his wife are earnest members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, joining that so- 
ciety in 1877, since which time he has been a 
Class-leader. 




^ILLIAM A. WAY, farmer and stock- 
grower, section 6, range 10, township 
17, post office, Virginia, was born 
in Morgan county, Illinois, October 5, 1842 
He was the son of Jesse and Melinda (Guin) 
Way, early settlers in Morgan county. The 
father came to the county in 1832, and has 
been a resident of either Morgan or Cass 
county ever since, and now resides in Vir- 
ginia city. The mother died in Virginia in 
1880, leaving six children: Elizabeth, the 
eldest, married T. H. Williams and died in 
Nebraska; Mary died when twelve years of 
age; Richard is a farmer, residing in Cass 
county, Virginia precinct; Stephen is the 
same, and John died at the age of twenty-six 
years. 

William attended the public schools and 
then learned the carpenter trade, inter- 
mingled with farming. He enlisted August 
11, 1862, in Company I, One Hundred and 
Fifteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and was 
assigned to duty in the army of the Cumber- 
land. A few days after the battle of Chick- 
amanga, while on a scouting expidition, 
composed of details from the different regi- 
ments, he was taken prisoner with several 
others. He was sent to Richmond, via 
Atlanta, and was kept there about six weeks, 



quartered in the Smith building, near Libby 
prison. He was then taken to Danville, 
Virginia, kept there five months, and then 
to Andersonville, where he remained about 
eight months. From there he was sent to 
Charleston, and on from there to Florence. At 
this place he was paroled December 7, 1864, 
after fourteen months and thirteen days im- 
prisonment. To say that he suffered a thou- 
sand deaths during this long confinement is 
no exaggeration. He was attacked with 
scurvy while in Andersonville and suffered 
greatly from that cause. Even to this day 
his limbs are scarred and measurably de- 
formed. After this he was sent to Annapolis, 
Maryland, and then home, remaining there 
three months under treatment. He rejoined 
the regiment at Shield Mill, and remained 
there until the end of the war. He was dis- 
charged June 11, 1865, and returned to Vir- 
ginia, Illinois. 

He was married December 24, 1868, in 
Cass county, to Hattie Davis, daughter of 
Julia Ann and Edward Davis, old settlers of 
Cass connty. Mr. and Mrs. Way have four 
children: Lenora married D. J. Parkison, a 
railroad employe; Walter, Linnie and John 
L. are all under the parental roof. 

Mr. Way's grandfather was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. Mr. Way is independent in 
politics, voting for men rather than for par- 
ties. He is one of the men that a grateful 
country would delight to honor. 



ET E R R I G G, a prominent farmer of 
Missouri township, Brown county, is a 
native of Anderson county, Kentucky, 
having been born there, March 11, 1830. His 
grandfather, also Peter, came from England 



310 



BIOGRAPHICAL MS! VIEW OF .CASS, 



and settled in Virginia when it was yet a 
colony of Great Britain, serving in the Revo- 
lutionary war. He resided on the banks of the 
Potomac river for many years, but finally re- 
moved, at an early period, to Bourbon county, 
Kentucky, and later resided twenty years in 
Anderson county, Kentucky. From there 
he removed to Shelby county. Kentucky, 
where he died. He reared an interesting fam- 
ily of six children, of whom Richard Watson, 
father of our subject, was the second. Richard 
was born in Virginia in 1789, and grew to 
manhood in that State, but was married in 
Anderson county, Kentucky, to Elizabeth 
George, a native of Kentucky. Her father 
came from the Carolinas. This marriage 
ceremony took place in the early part of 1812. 
Mrs. Rigg died, and in the fall of 1830 Mr. 
Rigg married Peggy Utterback. By his first 
marriage he had two children: William T., 
an honored citizen of Missouri township; and 
Sarah, who married Henry Ausmus, bntdied 
April 17, 1852. By the second marriage lie 
had seven children: Elizabeth, wife of John 
B. Ausmus, of Texas; Susan, wife of Joshua 
P. Singleton, of Missouri township; Eliza J. 
married James M. Parker and died August 
13, 1855; James N. (see sketch;) Margaret, 
wife of Abner Cogburu, of Hancock county; 
our subject; and John, who died November 
24, 1852. 

In the fall of 1831 Mr. Rigg moved from 
Kentucky to Illinois, first stopping in Morgan 
county. He then settled in Schuyler county, 
in that part which is now in Brown connty, 
on section 20, Missouri township. Here he 
improved a farm, where he resided until his 
death, October 23, 1869. 

Mr. Peter Rigg was reared on a farm un- 
til manhood and remained at home until his 
marriage in 1852, when he was united to 
Mary E. Clark, daughter of William A. Clark. 



She was born in Logan county, Kentucky, 
March 7, 1833. 

Mr. Rigg continued to reside on the home- 
stead, of which he became owner. He now 
has 190 acres of land and carries on mixed 
farming, to which he has given his entire 
attention. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rigg have had nine children, 
three of whom grew up. They are: William 
C., born December 14, 1863, married Febru- 
ary 4, 1890, to Nettie Miller, and they have 
one daughter, Myrtle, born in 1891; Melissa 
born August 22, 1871, married March 15, 
1892, to Eldred Yowell, resides in Monroe 
county, Missouri; Richard W., born July 8, 
1874. 

Mr. Rigg is a stanch Democrat in politics 
and has served his township as School Treas- 
urer and Commissioner of Highways. 

He is an old regular Baptist in religion. 
He has been a hard-working man all his life 
and richly deserves all the prosperity that he 
now enjoys. 



.ENRY C. KROHE, a practical farmer 
living on a fine farm, a part of the old, 
Jokisch homestead, was born in Beards- 
town March 3, 1848. This farm was secured by 
Henry's grandfather and consists of sixty acres, 
all well improved with good farm buildings. 
Mr. Krohe also owns twenty acres more. He 
has lived on this farm for many years and 
also operates many other lands. He is the 
third son of seven children. He obtained 
his education in the public schools. His 
father, August Krohe, a native of Germany, 
was the son of Godfred and Rosena Krohe, 
and the family all left Germany in 1835 and 
after a trip of some months landed in New 
Orleans, and some weeks later in Beardstown. 



SOHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



311 



They obtained land in the valley of Bluff 
Springs and here the grandparents died when 
past eighty. They were well known people 
and good Lutherans. August Krohe came 
here as a young man with his parents as above 
noted. He became of age here and a farmer, 
and is now living at home, having retired 
from active work. He was married here, to 
Christiana Jokisch, who came to this country 
on the same vessel as her husband. She was 
a worthy wife for more than fifty years and 
died in April, 1889. 

Mr. Henry C. Krohe was married, near his 
present residence, to Christina Menge a na- 
tive of Germany, born in 1852. She was 
only one year old when her parents came to 
Cass county in 1853. Here the father died 
fourteen years ago, but the mother is still 
living. They have always been Lutherans, as 
are Mr. and Mrs. Krohe of this notice. Mr. 
Krohe is a Democrat, but has never been an 
office holder. They have six children: Ber- 
tha C., Lydia 8., Rosa A., Felix J. A., Paul- 
ina W. and Matilda L. 

They are excellent people and are con- 
nected with some of the best famlies of 
Beardstown. 



fOHN B. WETZEL, of section 5, Brown- 
ing township, was born within three 
miles of his present home, July 7, 1843. 
His parents, Christopher and Sarah (Cook) 
Wetzel, came to Fulton county, Illinois, in 
1836, settling on the farm where the father now 
lives. He was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
in 1813, and in the same year his mother was 
born in Augusta county, Virginia. The lat- 
ter died in Fulton county, Illinois, March, 
1889. The Wetzel and Cook families were 
both of German origin. 



Mr. Wetzel received his education in the 
public schools of the district and grew to 
manhood on the farm and has always been a 
farmer. He owns 282 acres of land in sec- 
tions 4 and 5, Browning township. This 
land is highly improved, his residence, 
erected in 1888, being a very handsome build- 
ing of modern architecture. On his south 
farm he also has a good residence, comfort- 
able surroundings, and he takes pride in his 
fine stock, and usually purchases from the 
stock yards in Chicago such cattle as he de- 
sires to feed; he also deals in hogs. He mar- 
kets fruit by the car-load. The entire family 
are members of the United Brethren denom- 
ination and all are active in Sunday-school 
and church work. He has been a Class-leader 
and a Sunday-school superintendent for many 
years. 

He was married in Astoria, in December, 
1866, to Amanda E. Bryan of Virginia, whose 
parents, Thomas and Emeline (Lutz) Bryan, 
removed to Fulton county about 1853. Mr. 
and Mrs. Wetzel have three children, all liv- 
ing; Nettie F., Willard P. and Ina J., the 
first two living on the old Wetzel homestead. 
Ina J. is the wife of William Dean, a farmer, 
The two daughters have enjoyed the advan- 
tages of two years' attendance at the Rush- 
ville Normal School taking this after their 
public-school course, but do not care to 
teach. Mr. Wetzel is a Republican and has 
served as member of the County Central 
Committee. He is active and energetic in 
political work. 



AMUEL DE COUNTER, one of the 
largest land-owners in Woodstock town- 
ship, was born in Brown county, Illi- 
nois, October 4, 1827, a son of Peter Freder- 



312 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW Off CASS, 



ick and Nancy (Scounts) De Counter. They 
were married in 1824, near Boon's Lick, Mis- 
souri. The father was a native of France, 
and emigrated to the United States in 1820; 
five years later he came to Brown county, and 
the following year brought his family here; 
he bought land which he converted into a 
fertile farm, residing upon it until his death 
at the age of eighty-four years; his wife also 
died in the county, at an advanced age; she 
was a Virginian by birth. Two children 
were born to them : a daughter, now deceased, 
and the subject of this sketch. Samuel re- 
mained at home until he was twelve years old, 
and then his father married Mary Manser, 
who died ten years later. 

Samuel engaged in driving a peddling 
wagon until he was twenty-five, and then 
began his career as a farmer. He has been 
twice married; his first union was to Miss 
Catharine Miller, a native of Summit county, 
Ohio; she died in Brown conn ty at the age 
of thirty-one years, leaving three children. 
Frederick is married and the father of five 
children ; Morris L. is married and has seven 
children ; Emma is married and the mother of 
seven children. Mr. De Counter was married 
a second time in 1860, to Mas Harriet Stubbs, 
who was born in Floyd county, May 17, 1826, 
and was the mother of two children. Her 
parents, William and Jane (Gailey) Clark, 
father a native of Kentucky and the mother 
of Pennsylvania, emigrated to Illinois in 
1852, and died in this State at an advanced 
age; they have ten children, two of whom are 
now living. By his second marriage Mr. 
De Counter had one daughter, who died at the 
age of twenty-one years, leaving one boy, 
Clarence Southey. 

Politically, he adheres to the principles of 
the Democratic party, but takes no active in- 
terest in the movements of that body. He 



has been one of the most energetic and en- 
terprising of farmers, and has amassed a 
handsome estate. He has always pursued 
strictly honorable methods, and has an envi- 
able reputation wherever his name is known. 



HOMAS J. CRUM, of Virginia, Illi- 
nois, was born within one mile of his 
present residence, July 9, 1835. He 
is the eldest living son of James and Chris- 
tina (Ream) Crum. (Parental history is 
given in the history of James Crum else- 
where in this book.) 

Thomas was raised to manhood on a farm 
and attended the subscription schools of the 
neighborhood. He has always lived on the 
farm given him by his father upon attaining 
his majority. To this he has added until he 
now has 450 acres in this farm, besides 800 
acres of land in Burleigh county, North Dako- 
ta. He has been a resident here for over fifty 
years and has witnessed wonderful changes 
in the country. He remembers very well 
when there was but very little improved land 
near him. He is a Democrat in politics. 

He was married March, 1857, to Miss 
Sarah A. Henderson, daughter of William 
and Lucinda Henderson, who were among the 
early settlers in this, then Morgan county. 
She was the eldest of twelve children, seven 
of whom are now living. The mother died 
in Morgan county and the father in Henry 
county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crum have had eleven chil- 
dren, nine of whom are still living, namely; 
Charles, married, operating the Dakota farm; 
Theresa M., wife of Edward D. Sommers, 
resides at Colorado Springs, Colorado; Oscar 
M. is in the publishing business at Jackson- 
ville, Illinois; William S., wholesale grocer 



SG SUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



313 



in Joliet, Illinois; Ollie, now Mrs. Strong, 
resides at Winfield, Kansas, husband a farm- 
er; Eben Ross, Mary L., Henry Obed, and 
Thomas Austin are still at home. A pair of 
twins died in infancy. The family are mem- 
bers of the Protestant Methodist church. 
Mr. Crum is an Ancient Odd Fellow, 
lodge having surrendered its charter dur- 
ing the late war. The Crum family is quite 
extensively represented in this county, where 
they are well and favorably known citizens 
who have by their industry accumulated a 
comfortable property. The aged father, now 
in his eighty-sixth year, is one of the solid 
landmarks of early pioneer days in Cass 
county. 



EWIS CASS CAMPBELL, a prominent 
and esteemed resident of Camden village, 
Illinois, was born on a farm in Camden 
township, February 23, 1851. His father, 
John Milton Campbell, was born in Harrison 
county, Kentucky, March 30, 1807, and was 
a son of James and Jane (Campbell) Camp- 
bell, natives of Scott county, Kentucky. 
Both of the grandfathers of John Milton 
Campbell bore the name of Campbell and 
were born in Scotland, but emigrated to 
America and died in the Colonies in the de- 
cade of 1700. John Milton's maternal grand- 
mother was a Cellers. His maternal uncle, 
Lindsey Campbell, married a widow by the 
name of Graham. Her son, Furgerson Gra- 
ham, died in Schuyler county, Illinois, at the 
residence of his son-in-law, Singleton Wright, 
deeply lamented for his many sterling quali- 
ities of character. William Campbell, an 
own cousin of John Milton Campbell, on his 
father's side, married a sister of Furgerson 
Graham. John Milton's father, James 



Campbell, was a skilled mechanic, who passed 
nearly all of his life in Kentucky, and died in 
Pendleton county, that State, aged eighty-six 
years. He was twice married, having by the 
first marriage five children, and one child by 
his second. John Milton was the oldest of 
the family, and his early life was spent on his 
father's farm. He received a fair education, 
and, under the instruction of his father, be- 
came a good mechanic. He afterward taught 
school and worked at his trade. He was mar- 
ried in Kentucky, to Ann Lake, and, in 1832, 
came to Illinois to look over the country. 
Being favorably impressed, he removed to 
the latter State in November, 1835. He en- 
tered and settled on land located on the 
southwest quarter of section eight, in Camden 
township, Schuyler county, where he im- 
proved a farm. His health failing in 1845 
he passed a few years in the South, afterward 
returning to his farm. His first wife died in 
Kentucky, leaving one child, Thomas J. In 
1850, Mr. Campbell was again married, his 
second wife being Miss Mary A. E. Aldrich, 
of Putnam county, Indiana, born June 8, 
1826. She was a daughter of Samuel and 
Elizabeth (Strupp) Aldrich, natives of North 
Carolina, of English and German ancestry, 
respectively. She accompanied her sister to 
Illinois in 1847, and lived in Schuyler 
county. John Campbell died December 20, 
1880, sincerely mourned by all who knew 
him. A Democratic in politics, he took an 
active part in all local affairs of importance. 
He frequently held office, being elected at 
various times to all positions in the gift of 
the county; he served one term as County 
Surveyor, and for many years as Deputy Sur- 
veyor. He was the clerk of his party, and, 
being a fine penman, the records of the county 
are remarkable for their neatness and legibil- 
ity. He was a devout member of the Chris- 



3H 



BIOGRAPUWA^ US VIEW OP CASS, 



tian Ad ventist Church. His worthy wife sur- 
vives him and resides in Camden. She also 
is an earnest and useful member of the 
church to which her husband belonged. This 
estimable couple were the parents of four 
children: Lewis, Stephen, James I. and 
Emma J. 

Lewis was reared a farmer and educated in 
Camden township. After his marriage he 
resided ou the farm of his father-in-law, but 
upon the death of his wife he returned to his 
mother's farm and managed it for some years, 
until 1885, when he married again and 
settled in Camden village and opened a hotel. 
He also engaged in farming and the carpen- 
ter trade, putting up some of the best build- 
ings in the county, outside of Rushville. He 
afterward sold the hotel and devoted his at- 
tention to his trade. He has 240 acres of 
land and some valuable property in Cauaden 
village. Hard as Mr. Campbell has worked, 
it is nothing to the privations that his father 
had to endure. He was the pioneer school 
teacher of the county, and besides pursuing 
that occupation he made maple sugar and 
split rails to get the money with which to 
enter his land and purchase saddle-bags to 
carry his surveying tools in. What farmer 
of to-day has to endure such hardships? 

He was married to Alice Callison in 1875, 
the daughter of John L. and Eliza (Smith) 
Callison. She was born in 1857, and died 
April, 1879. Mr. Campbell was again mar- 
ried in 1885, his second wife being Alice L. 
Irvin, a native of Littleton township and a 
daughter of Osburn and Martha Irvin. They 
have had one child, Paul Irvin, born July 26, 
1891. 

Mr. Campbell is independent in politics, 
being a supporter of the Farmers' Alliance, 
and has tilled the office of Town Clerk. He 
is a member of Camden Lodge, No. 648, A. 



F. & A. M., of which he is Senior Warden. 
He is also correspondent for the Rushville 
Times, editing the Carnden department. He 
was for many years an active member of the 
Patrons of Husbandry. 



,ONKAD MAYKEIS, of Beardstown, 
was born in Hesse-Darmstadt in 1842. 
His parents lived and died in the same 
place. He was given a common German 
schooling and when fifteen years of age came 
to this country and came on at once to 
Beardstown, Illinois, having left a sister, 
Sophia, in New York city, who had been the 
first of the family to cross the ocean. Sophia 
has been employed by the same family for the 
last forty years. Their family is represented 
by two other sisters, Caroline and Mary and 
brother John. Mr. Mayreis came here in 
1857, learned the trade of boot and shoe 
maker and followed it until 1861. He then 
enlisted in Company K, Fourteenth Illinois 
Volunteers, Captain Reynolds in command, 
the regiment being known as the Springfield 
regiment, Colonel Palmer (ex-Governor) in 
command. Mr. Mayreis served with his regi- 
meut as Corporal of his company for two 
years and three months, in the Army of the 
Tennessee, and fought in the battles of Fort 
Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, siege 
of Pittsburg and other minor engagements. 
He escaped unhurt and received honorable 
discharge at Vicksburg, Tennessee, and on 
his return to Beardstown engaged in the boot 
and shoe business from 1864 to 1886 and in 
the meantime superintended work on a farm, 
which he has improved and owns in Cass 
county. He started his present business of 
dealer in wines and liquors, in 1885, at the 
corner of Main and Washington streets and 



SCHUYLER AND BltOWN COUNTIES. 



has since connected with it a well kept cafe. 
He is also agent for the Anheuser-Busch 
Brewing Company of St. Louis at this place. 
He was married in this city to Miss Auna 
Mooman,who was born at Bielefeld, Germany, 
in 1844 and came with her parents when she 
was two years of age to the United States. 
The family settled at Beardstown where Mr. 
and Mrs. Mooman both died, being consist- 
ent members of the Lutheran Church. Mr. 
Mayreis is the father of seven children: 
Frank, a partner in his father's business; 
Edward, who runs the restaurant; Conrad, at 
present running the farm; Minnie, wife of E. 
B/ink; Henry, who is at an institute in St. 
Louis; Louis is at home in the public school; 
and Maria is also at home. Mr. Mayreis is 
a sound Republican in politics and has taken 
an active part in local matters, having an in- 
terest in the advancement of the city and 
county. Mr. and Mrs. Mayreis are leaders 
among their people and their children have 
all received a good education. They are all 
highly respected and admired by their large 
circle of friends. 



fUDGE HERMANN C. SCHULTZ, a 
highly respected citizen of Schuyler 
county, Illinois, is an American by 
adoption, his birth-place being Prussia, Ger- 
many; the date, October 2, 1832. His father, 
Johannes Schultz, was a native of the same 
country, and was engaged in the sugar refin- 
ing business: he married Elizabeth Felech, a 
native ot'Germany, who survived him many 
years; she emigrated to America in 1852, and 
spent the last days of her life in Texas; he 
died in 1846, and she passed away in 1858. 
Hermann Schultz was reared and educated in 
his native land, and at the age of fifteen years 



went to learn the baker's trade; having served 
an apprenticeship of three years, he worked 
as a journeyman in different cities for two 
years; at the end of that time hs sailed from 
Hamburg for America, and after a voyage of 
two months, arrived in Galveston, Texas. He 
was employed with various occupations in 
that State until 1857, and in that year came 
to Schuyler county, Illinois. He rented land 
until 1862, and in August of that year he 
enlisted in the One Hundred and Eighth Illi- 
nois Volunteer Infantry, and served until the 
declaration of peace. He participated in the 
battles of Vicksburg and Arkansas Post, was 
at the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and 
also took part in the engagement at Spanish 
Fort. He was mustered in as a private, but 
was discharged as First Sergeant, in August, 
1865. He then returned to his home and 
resumed his agricultural pursuits, which he 
continued until he was elected to the office of 
Judge of the Probate Court, of Schnvler 
county. 

In 1854, Judge Schultz was united in mar- 
riage to Anna Heidenreich, a native of Saxe- 
Weimar, and a daughter of Adam Heiden- 
reich; the father emigrated to the United 
States with his family, in 1851, and in 1857 
he came to Schuyler county, Illinois, where 
he passed his last days. Judge and Mrs. 
Schultz are the parents of nine children: Her- 
mann H., Charles S., Julius C., Gallic, Laura, 
Emma, Ferdinand, Nellie and Peter. Charles 
S., Laura and Nellie are deceased. The Judge 
and his wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and he is also a member 
of Schuyler Lodge, No. 209, K. of P., and of 
Astoria Lodge, No. 100, A. F. & A. M. 
Politically, he affiliates with the Democratic 
party, and is an ardent supporter of its prin- 
ciples. He has served twenty years as Jus- 
tice of the Peace, and ten years as a member 



316 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW Off CA88, 



of the County Board of Supervisors. He 
was elected to his present office in 1890, and 
has discharged the duties devolving upon 
him with a wisdom and justice that have 
dispelled all doubt as to his ability. He has 
been a liberal contributor to all movements 
tending to advance the county's interests, and 
is numbered among her most loyal citizens. 




ANTHONY CLARK, the 

subject of this brief sketch, was born 
in Logan county, Kentucky, Febru- 
ary 16, 1811. His ancestors were residents 
of North and South Carolina, his father 
having been born in Orange county, North 
Carolina, August, 1770, his early home being 
not far from Guilford Court House, and he 
could hear the cannon during the battle at 
that place. He often referred to that inci- 
dent in later life. After the battle a division 
of the British army encamped near his moth- 
er's house, for several days. His mother was 
unprotected as her husband had died when 
Thomas, the father of subject, was five years 
old. Thomas was reared in North Carolina, 
and, braving the dangers of the wilderness, 
he crossed to Kentucky, settling in Logan 
county, about 1795. Here he married Mary 
Anthony, daughter of Philip Anthony, pio- 
neer of Kentucky. Here Thomas Clark 
lived until the fall of 1839, when he came to 
Illinois, and settled in Missouri township, 
where he died in 1847. 

W. A. Clark was one of a family of thir- 
teen children, being the third. His boyhood 
was passed in Logan county, Kentucky, where 
he attended the schools of seventy years ago, 
which were only provided with benches of 
split logs, heated by a fire-place, and lighted 



by windows of greased paper. This gentle- 
man was- married, April, 1832, to Mehala 
Roberts, daughter of John Roberts. She 
was born in Maryland, but reared in Wash- 
ington county, Virginia. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clark resided in Logan 
county, Kentucky, until 1837, and three 
children were born to them there. They then 
came to Illinois, and rented land for one 
year, then entered eighty acres in Pea Ridge 
township, but five years later settled in Mis- 
souri township, on section 17, and with his 
two sons became the owner of 600 acres of 
fine land in the aforesaid section. Mr. Clark 
was a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
having joined it in 1833. He voted for 
Henry Clay, but afterward became a Demo- 
crat in politics. Mr. Clark was a poor man 
when he came to Illinois, but by his earnest 
endeavors and hard work he managed to 
accumulate a large fortune. 

John Thomas Clark, the son of the above 
mentioned gentleman, is one of the prosper- 
ous farmers of Missouri township, residing 
on section 17. He was born in Pea Ridge 
township, June 12, 1844. The family re- 
moved to Missouri township about 1850, 
settling on section 17, where the father accu- 
mulated a large farm, dying December 16, 
1890, while his wife died June 10, 1875. 
John is one of five children, namely: Mary 
E., wife of Peter Rigg; Sarah J., wife of 
J. M. Parker; Martha, wife of T. B. Ans- 
mus, of Camp Point; William N.; and John, 
who is the youngest of the family. He was 
reared on the home farm until he attained 
his majority, when he became a partner with 
his father. They bought land and carried on 
farming, cultivating about 300 acres of land. 
John now owns 255 acres of land, on which 
he has a tine class of farm buildings. He 
carries on farming and deals in stock. 



8CHU7LBR AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



317 



Mr. Clark was married, October 24, 1870, 
to Amanda Carter, daughter of John B. and 
Elizabeth (Bell) Carter, born in Brown 
county, January 3, 1851. John B. Carter, 
the father of Mrs. Clark, was born in Tennes- 
see, and was a son of Joeeph Carter. They 
came to Illinois in 1830, and first stopped in 
Brown county, but Joseph Carter later re- 
moved to McDonough county, where he 
died. His son John grew to manhood, and 
was married in Brown county, and had one 
child, but it died in infancy. He later married 
Elizabeth Bell, and settled in Lee township, 
Brown county. He then removed to Clayton, 
Adams county, where he enlisted, and was 
mustered into service in the Eighty- fourth 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, Company I, serv- 
ing three years. After the war he resided in 
Brown county, until 1869, when he removed 
to Crawford county, Kansas, where he died 
in 1872. His wife also died, in Kansas, in 
1883. He and his wife had seven children, of 
whom Mrs. Clark was the eldest. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clark have three children: 
Daisy, Arthur A. and Oliver B. Mr. Clark 
is a strong Democrat, and a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. He and his charming 
wife are among the most prominent people of 
their township, and enjoy the respect of all 
who knew them. 



|LIAS D. LEACH, M. D., deceased, for 
many years one of the prominent citi- 

' zens of Rushville and a leading member 
of the medical profession, was born near 
Youngstown, Ohio, March 26, 1823, a son of 
Benjamin and Hannah (Raynor) Leach, pio- 
neers of Mahoning county, Ohio. His father 
died when he was two years old, BO that as 
he advanced in years he was obliged to make 

22 



all the opportunities that he enjoyed; when 
he had received a sufficient education he en- 
gaged in teaching, and soon turned his atten- 
tion to the study of medicine; his leisure 
time was fully occupied in this pursuit, and 
he finally entered the office of Dr. Packard, 
of West Greenville, Pennsylvania. In 1844 
he became a student in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Western Reserve College at 
Cleveland, Ohio. He studied and taught al- 
ternately, securing the means with which to 
carry on his own education, and had the 
gratification of receiving a diploma in 1848. 

Dr. Leach came directly to Illinois, and for 
a short time practiced in Virginia, Cass 
county; thence he removed to Frederick, 
Schuyler county, where he resided until 1853. 
In that year he came to Rushville, and em- 
barked in mercantile trade, as a member of 
the firm of Little, Ray & Co.; this relation- 
ship continued until 1863, when the Doctor 
withdrew, and devoted his entire time to his 
private interests and professional duties until 
1880; he then returned to commercial circles 
and continued in business until 1890, when 
he was obliged to retire on account of ill 
health; he died in September of that year. 

He was three times married, his third wife, 
the mother of his children, being Harriet J. 
Paterson; she was born in Russell county, 
Kentucky, a daughter of Jonathan Paterson, 
whose history will be found on another page 
of this volume. Dr. Leach was united to her 
in marriage December 4, 1856, and to them 
three children were born, two of whom sur- 
vive: Warren and Lawrence W. The former 
married Molly McCreary, and they have two 
children, Mark and Nina. Junius F., the 
oldest child, was born March 21, 1858, and 
died October 9, 1887. Dr. Leach was reared 
to the faith of the Christian Church, to 
which he always adhered. Politically he was 



318 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA38, 



identified with the Democratic party, and 
served his county in the capacity of Treasurer; 
he was a capable official and discharged his 
duties with a fidelity that won him the confi- 
dence of the people regardless of party ties. 
In all the walks of life he was true to the 
trusts resting with him, and in his death the 
county lost a citizen of great worth and high 
merit. 



jtUAR E. MAIN was born on the farm 
he now owns, section 16, township 18, 
range 11 west, Cass county, March 30, 
1849. He was reared and educated in this 
county, and has a fine and well improved 
farm of 167 acres, and forty acres in timber, 
and has a fine home in this county also. His 
grandfather was Joshua, who was born, lived 
and died in Wellington township, Connecti- 
cut. He died at about the age of ninety, 
coming of English parents and was a promi- 
nent farmer in his township. His wife's 
name was Jerusha Lee, who lived and died in 
Connecticut. They were good religious peo- 
ple, and raised a large family. The father of 
our subject, Loderick L. Main, was born near 
Stafford Springs, Connecticut, in 1796, grew 
up to the carpenter'! trac ' e > an< ^ l ater was a 
seaman for a few years. After that he came 
to Ohio, settling near Burton, and there 
married Ann E. Beard, of New York State. 
In 1837 they came to Illinois, and settled on 
a farm now owned by our subject, Zuar Main, 
east of Beardstown. Here Mrs. Main died, 
in the prime of life, in 1838, leaving several 
children: Amos B., Lucy Ann, Curtis, Lewis 
and Myron. Mr. Main married a second 
time, in Cass county, Sarah Calef, born near 
Lebanon, New Hampshire, and came when a 
young woman with her sister to Cass, and 



was married in 1840 to Mr. Loderick Lee 
Main. Her death occurred October 25, 
1873, at the age of sixty-six. Mr. Main, 
(Loderick Lee) died at the same place in 
1883. He was one of the well known set- 
tlers of this countyf and he and his wife were 
strong Methodists. Our subject is one of 
five children. Zuar E. Main (fourth child), 
Ann E., Luther, Mary, Daniel L. (fifth 
child). 

He was married in this county to Ellen Mc- 
Kean, born and reared in the county. Her par- 
ents were John and Nancy (Childress) McKean, 
natives of West Virginia. They were mar- 
ried at Charlestown, West Virginia, and 
started on a wedding tour to the West, early 
in the '30s, settling in Monroe precinct, Cass 
county. On this they lived and died, he at 
the age of sixty-two and she forty-seven. 
They were well-known good people. Mc- 
Kean was a native of Pennsylvania, and was 
reared in Ohio and married in West Virginia. 
He was the father of nine children, of whom 
six are yet living. 

Mrs. Main is a smart, intelligent mother of 
three children; two are deceased, Mintaand 
Lucas A. Miss Minnie, a bright young lady 
and a good girl, is the only child living. Mr. 
and Mrs. Main attend the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and Mr. Main is a sound Repub- 
lican. He is a member of the order of Masons 
and of the A. O. U. W., and is a very good 
citizen. 



fASPER J. BUCK, deceased, was one of 
the good farmers and citizens of Arenz- 
O 
ville. He was the youngest of thirteen 

v O 

children. His father, Jasper Buck, was born 
in Bertie county, North Carolina, in 1792; 
removed to Cass county, Illinois, about 1825 
or '30, where he died in 1846; his mother, 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



319 



Sophia Buck, survived her husband ten years, 
dying in 1856. Of the twelve brothers and 
sisters of the subject of this sketch, four 
only survive at this writing (1892), viz.; 
Sarah, wife of Conrad Reining; John H. ; 
Albert; and Betsy, wife of Richard Davis. 

Jasper J., whose name heads this biog- 
raphy, was married to Miss Mary A. Mor- 
rison, February 27, 1862. They have four 
children: Josephine, born January 5, 1863, 
wife of William J. Kircher; John A., born 
September 4, 1864; Elizabeth M., born 
December 12,1868, wife of John Huss; and 
Edward A., born October 8, 1873. 

In 1864, Mr. Buck enlisted as a soldier, 
but as his two children were young, and his 
wife sickly, he withdrew and employed a 
substitute. 

He was known as a good and true man, 
and was loved and respected by all. He was 
identified with no church organization, 
though he was a professed Christian. He 
was a member of the I. O. O. F. and in poli- 
tics was a Democrat of the Jacksonian type. 

After a long, painful illness, he died Sep- 
tember 25, 1883, leaving a wife and four 
children to mourn his loss. Since his death 
Mrs. Buck has had the management of the 
farm of eighty acres, left her by her husband. 
She has raised her family of four children, 
two of whom are married and doing for 
themselves; two, John and Edward, are at 
home. She is a true Christian woman, and a 
v)sef\il member of the Presbyterian Church. 



IEORGE RITCHEA, deceased, was one 
of the honored pioneers who braved all 
the dangers and privations of the front- 
ier, and labored earnestly and indefatigably to 
to prepare the way for the march of prog- 



ress and the advancing steps of civilization. 
He was a native of Montgomery county, Ohio, 
born near Dayton, February 19, 1814, a son 
of James Ritchea; his father was born in the 
north of Ireland, but emigrated to the 
United States, and was an early settler of 
Montgomery county; there he passed the re- 
mainder of his life. His son, George 
Ritchea, came to Illinois at an early day, and 
located in Schuyler county; the journey was 
made overland, as there were then no rail- 
roads; the products of the farm were 
shipped down the river, and all commerce was 
carried on in the most primitive style. 

Mr- Ritchea engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness, rafting his stock for market down the 
river; later he embarked in the mercantile 
trade at Rushville, being one of the earliest 
merchants in the county. After his mar- 
riage he settled on a farm four miles from 
Rushville, and engaged in agriculture until 
his death, March 5, 1887. He was united 
to I|Ucinda Walker, a native of Hardinsburgh, 
Kentucky, and a daughter of Henry and 
Elizabeth Walker. To them were born live 
children, two of whom now survive: Francis 
P. and Anna Rate; Mary E. died January 
10, 1888, aged forty-three years; George D. 
died in November, 1888, aged thirty-five 
years. Francis P. owns and occupies a farm 
joining the old homestead; Anna Kate, the 
surviving daughter, owns the homestead. 
She received a good education at Abingdon 
College, and also took a course at the Gem 
City Business College. At the age of six- 
teen years she began teaching, and has fol- 
lowed this profession ifi Illinois and Colo- 
rado, meeting with marked success and mak- 
ing an enviable reputation among educators 
of the West. Mr. and Mrs. Ritchea were 
worthy and consistent members of the Chris- 
tian Church. Politically he affiliated with 



320 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CAS8, 



the Republican party, and was a stanch sup- 
porter of its principles. He was a man of 
excellent business ability, and although he 
began the struggle of life single-handed and 
alone, having no capital excepting that with 
which nature had provided him, he amassed 
a considerable amount of property. He em- 
ployed the highest and most correct business 
methods, and had an enviable reputation as a 
man of integrity and honor. 



OHN H. HAGENER, of the firm of 
Hagener & Bros., was born January 7, 
1850, in Beardstown, where he has lived 
all his life. His father, William Hagener, 
was born in the kingdom of Hanover, Ger- 
many, and in 1841 he crossed to St. Louis, 
and upon his arrival he married Eleanora 
Peters, who had come over on the same ves- 
sel from the same province that he had. 
Shortly after their marriage they went to 
Beardstown, and here resided until Mr. Ha- 
gener's death, which event occurred in the 
fifty-eighth year of his life. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hagener were leaders among their class, and 
Mr. Hagener was instrumental in the build- 
ing of the Lutheran Church, and he and his 
wife were among the first members of it. Mr. 
Hagener purchased a piece of land in 1842, 
which has become very valuable since that 
time. He followed his trade of mechanic, 
and later began contracting and building, and 
in 1861 entered into the lumber business. 
He continued the latter business until the 
time of his death. He was a good and influ- 
ential man, and his loss was felt by all who 
knew him. His wife is still living at the age 
of seventy-three, but is very feeble. 

Mr. John Hagener is in a business that 
was established in 1875, and he and his 



brother do a large and thriving business in 
the lumber and house-furnishing supply 
trade, and also a large grain buying and sel- 
ling business. They have a large mill and 
their elevator has a capacity of 50,000 bush- 
els. They are doing a 300,000- bushel-grain 
business. They have warehouses at Concord, 
Arenzville, Browning and Hagener, and 
they keep local agents at the places men- 
tioned. Their milling trade is well repre- 
sented in the two leading brands of flour 
known as Best Patent and Four Leaf. Part 
of their goods are shipped to Europe. Both 
brothers are stockholders and directors in 
the First National Bank of Beardstown, and 
John Hagener is the vice-president, and has 
occupied that position ever since the bank 
was organized, in 1887. The bank is cap- 
italized at $50,000 with a surplus of $20,000, 
and J. H. Harris is the president, and Thomas 
K. Condit occupies the position of cashier. 
Mr. John Hagener is a School Trustee and a 
Director in the Mutual Loan and Savings 
Association. He is a Republican in politics 
and is a hard-working, industrious citizen, 
ready to promote anything tending to the 
improvement and development of his town. 
He married Miss Kate Pappmeier, of 
Beardstown. She was born and reared in 
Beardstown, and her father is in the store of 
Pappmeier & Sons. Mr. and Mrs. Hagener 
are leaders in their society, and are Lutherans 
in religious beliefs. They have five children, 
all of whom are living at home: Nora, Fred 
R., Emma, Lewis and Arthur. 



fRANK ANDERSON, a widely and fa- 
vorably known citizen of Schnyler 
county, is Superintendent of the poor 
farm of that county, in which capacity he has 



8OHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



821 



served since March 1, 1891. He was born in 
Schuyler county, in Huntsville township, on 
May 15, 1836, and has lived in that vicinity 
ever since. His parents were William and 
Prudence (Wallingsford) Anderson, both na- 
tives of Kentucky, who were married in their 
native State, coining to Illinois in 1835, and 
locating in Huntsville township, where they 
cleared and improved a farm of 64:0 acres. 
On his property he built a substantial and 
comfortable residence, besides barns for grain 
and stock, and added many other modern im- 
provements, the land being under a good 
state of cultivation. He died in August, 1887, 
aged eighty-seven years. His wife still sur- 
vives at the age of eighty- five years, sup- 
ported and comforted by her kind and loving 
children. 

The paternal grandparents of our subject, 
Andrew Anderson and wife, were natives of 
Kentucky, who removed to Schuyler county^ 
Illinois," in an early day, locating near Rush- 
ville, where the grandmother died. The 
grandfather died in Camdeu township. They 
had eight children, six sons and two daugh- 
ters: William, father of our subject; John; 
Jeremiah, Riley, Jackson and Ferry, and two 
daughters. 

The parents of our subject had ten chil- 
dren, of whom seven arrived at maturity. 
Cyrus died in Huntsville township, Illinois; 
Andrew, died in Huntsville township; Jane 
married Danforth Cady, and now resides in 
Camdeii township; Vincent resides in Hunts- 
ville township; our subject comes next in 
order; John died in Camden township; and 
Sarah, now Mrs. Samuel McCadann, of Cam- 
deu township. 

Our subject was reared on a farm in Hunts- 
ville township, and on January 1, 1858, was 
married to Harriet Kniss, daughter of Samuel 
and Polly Kniss, and a native of Indiana. 



After his marriage he resided with his wife 
on a part of the homestead, where he pursued 
his trade of blacksmithing, and also conducted 
a farm. He resided here until he took charge 
of the County Poor farm. He owns 171 
acres of well improved land in Huntsville 
township, which is under a good state of cul- 
tivation. The poor farm contains 310 acres 
of land in section 26, of Buena Vista town- 
ship, there now being thirty-one inmates of 
the home. This farm almost pays expenses, 
being well conducted under the able manage- 
ment of the subject of our sketch and his 
estimable wife. 

Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have three chil- 
dren-: Isabel, wife of Henry Powell, of Hunts- 
ville township; Millie and Fred. 

Mr. Anderson affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party, though taking no active interest 
in politics aside from desiring the advance- 
ment and welfare of his native county and 
State. Socially he is a member of Camden 
Lodge, No. 648, A. F. & A. M. 

Sober and intelligent, honest and industri- 
ous, kind and obliging, he has gained the good 
will of his fellow citizens and the affectionate 
regard of a host of friends. 



AMES M. AGNEW, a liberal-minded 
and progressive citizen of Littleton 
township, Schuyler county, Illinois, was 
born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, December 
24, 1825. His parents were George and 
Esther (Sleight) Agnew, both natives of New 
York State and Genesee county. They went 
to Pennsylvania in an early day, where they 
followed farming until 1849, when they re- 
moved to Illinois, then a new country and 
very sparsely settled. They located in Rush- 
ville, where they resided until their death, 



322 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF OASS, 



his father living to be seventy- two years of 
age, and his mother sixty-eight. His grand- 
parents lived in New York State, and lived 
to be very old people, his grandfather being 
Samuel Agnew. 

The subject of our sketch was one of nine 
children, of whom three are living. He 
lived at home until twenty-one years of age, 
when he removed with his parents to Illinois 
in 1849, working by the month until he was 
married. He was married on June 12, 1851, 
to Miss May J. Bunnell, who was born in the 
same place as our subject. Their happy 
married life was, however, of short duration, 
his wife dying in Rushville, aged twenty-five 
years. 

He was married a second time on April 
27, 1853, his second wife being Delilah 
Hodgson, a native of Indiana. They had 
five children, four of whom are now living, 
viz.: Millard F., single; Oral M., married, 
and has one child; James E., married to Miss 
Edgar; Ralph D., now in Kansas. His 
second wife died, aged forty years, leaving to 
him the care of their children. She was 
much regretted by a large circle of friends, 
being a faithful wife and fond mother. 

Mr. Agnew was married some years later 
to Mrs. Louisa Ham, who was born in Indi- 
ana. They have one child, Jessie, now living 
at home. 

After his first marriage Mr. Agnew rented 
land near Rushville, on which he lived for a 
couple of years. He then rented another 
piece, on which he remained for three years, 
when he again moved, remaining four years 
in the last place, when he removed to Little- 
ton township, where he rented land for five 
years, at the end of which time he purchased 
a farm of 160 acres of wild land. This he 
has improved by the erection of buildings, 
and has the land well cultivated. He has a 



comfortable home and other modern im- 
provements. His land is devoted to mixed 
husbandry, in which he is very successful. 

Mr. Agnew has been a Republican ever 
since the organization of that party. His 
first presidential vote was cast for General 
W. H. Harrison. He and family are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to 
the support of which denomination he is 
a liberal contributor. Honest, intelligent, 
moral, liberal and progressive, Mr. Agnew 
enjoys the good will of the community, and 
the esteem of a large number of friends. 



fOSEPH PENCE, of township 17, 7 north, 
range 10 west, section 18, was born in 
Rockingham county, Virginia, March 
10, 1814. His parents were John and Mary 
(Smith) Pence, both being natives of, Vir- 
ginia. They had three sons and five daugh- 
ters; Mr. Pence, of this sketch, is the only 
survivor. One brother died in Davis county, 
Iowa, and two sisters also died in the same 
place. The other three sisters died in Cass 
county, Illinois, and the remaining brother 
in Scott county, Illinois. The parents both 
died in Rockingham county, Virginia, the 
father in June, and the mother in September, 
1834. 

Mr. Joseph Pence was married in Page 
county, Virginia, in 1837, to Sarah A. Sam- 
uels, of the same county, born in 1812. After 
marriage the young couple went to Kentucky 
and remained until 1838, when they removed 
to Morgan county, Illinois. From there they 
went to Cass county, Illinois, where they 
have since resided. Mr. Pence bought 205 
acres of land, which he has greatly im- 
proved. Mrs. Pence died in 1878, and her 
husband still mourns her loss. Mr. Pence 



SOHUTLEH AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



323 



has always been a Democrat and has held the 
various offices in his township, and was a 
member of the I. O. O. F. 

Mrs. Pence bore her husband six children, 
namely: Joseph W., a farmer in Iowa, is a 
widower with nine children; Sarah Ellen, a 
widow who keeps house for her father. The 
other children are dead. The daughter mar- 
ried Thomas D. Chapman, who was born 
near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, January 27, 
1842, and was a soldier in Company I, One 
Hundred and Fifteenth Illinois Infantry, 
serving three years and three months. He 
returned home somewhat broken in health, 
and never entirely recovered, dying August 
5, 1885. He left four children and a widow 
to mourn his loss. The children were: Louie, 
now Mrs. P. H. Caldwell; Charles F., Albert 
B. and Joseph H. are all at home with their 
grandfather, the first named being a member 
of the Sons of Veterans. Mrs. Chapman 
was born on the farm on which she now re- 
sides, and has always lived there. She is a 
member of the Providence Presbyterian 
Church. Her husband was a member of the 
Masonic order. 



iBNER A. CLARK of section 31, Cam- 
den township, is one of the pioneers of 
1835, born in Logan county, Kentucky, 
February 6, 1823. His father, Abner Clark, 
was born in North Carolina. He removed 
to Kentucky when a young man and became 
a farmer. He married Nancy Gorum, of 
Kentucky. In 1835 he came to Illinois and 
settled in what is now Missouri township, 
Brown county. He entered land and resided 
there until January, 1847, when his wife 
died, and in consequence he moved to Schuy- 
ler county and lived with a son until his 



death in August, 1849. He had entered 
considerable land, and at his death still 
owned 240 acres of land. He had been 
a Whig in politics and Presbyterian in 
religion for many years prior to his death. 
He had ten children: Calvin, born May 30, 
1805, died March 14, 1880; Perneta, born 
December 10, 1806; "William, born March 1, 
1809, died March 7, 1855; Harrison, born 
February 15, 1811, died March 18, 1883; 
Inetta, born August 26, 1813. died June 1, 
1838; Terlina, born October 26, 1815, died 
January 15, 1890; Delila, born October 26, 
1815; Catherine, born June 19, 1818, died 
June 7, 1841; Francis A., born September 
11, 1820; and Abner A., born February 6, 
1823. 

Abner was reared dn the farm and attended 
such schools as the newly settled locality 
offered. After the death of his mother he 
resided with a brother until 1847, when he 
settled where he now resides, on 160 acres of 
land. H6 began housekeeping in a log cabin, 
which in time was supplanted by the present 
residence, which is a comfortable frame struct- 
ure. He now owns 440 acres of land. His 
home contains 320 acres, he having added to 
the original 160. He has been a stock- raiser 
as well as a farmer, but now has all his land 
rented. 

He was married, May 27, 1847, to Elizabeth 
J. Sims, daughter of David and Sarah E. 
Sims. She was born in Sangamon county, 
Illinois, February 6, 1832. Mr. and Mrs. 
Clark have had five children, namely: Francis 
M., born in 1849, died February 25, 1853; 
Luticia, born 1851, died March 8, 1853; 
Nancy P., born in 1852, married Daniel M. 
McCaskill of Brown county, two children, 
Carrie and Roy A.; Levi G., born 1857, 
married Lizzie R. Bond April 20, 1880, her 
death occurring November 13, 1882; was 



324 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



married to Amauda Cady, daughter of Henry 
Cady, resides in Schuyler county, three chil- 
dren: Asa A., Alta and Frank F.; Fred D., 
born 1868, resides at home. 

Mr. Clark is a Republican in politics and 
a Baptist in religion, being Moderator of the 
society. He and his wife are respected by 
all who know them. 



lOBERT NELSON McFARLAND, the 
oldest settler of Brown county, is now 
residing in Versailles. He was born in 
Harrison county, Kentucky, April 1, 1818. 
His father, William McFarland was born in 
the same county. There is little known of 
his grandfather except that he spent his last 
years in Harrison, Kentucky. His father 
was reared and married in Ohio, but resided 
in Kentucky until 1819, when his nearest 
neighbor was ten miles distant. He next 
moved to Green county, Ohio, and was one 
of the earliest settlers there. He lived there 
until 1822, when, with his wife and four 
children he made the journey to Illinois, 
cooking and camping by the way. He located 
in Sangamon and died there. At the time 
of their location there, this county was 
sparsely settled. The greater portion was 
owned by the Government. Springfield was 
but a hamlet, the capital of the State then 
being Vandalia. 

His mother continued to live in Sanga- 
mon county until 1824. She accompanied 
her sister and her sister's husband, Cornelius 
Van Deventer, whom she afterward married, 
to what is now Brown county, where she 
resided until her death. 

Mr. McFarland was six years old when he 
came to Brown county, and remembers well 
many of the incidents of its settlement. 



At that time their nearest neighbors, the 
Indians, were more numerous than the white 
people. 

When Mr. Van Deventer came he laid 
claim to a tract of Government land, two 
and one half miles east of the present site of 
Versailles, and there built a log cabin in 
which was taught the first school in Brown 
county, Hannah Burbank being the teacher. 
For some years after they came here there 
were no mills convenient, and during one 
winter the family subsisted almost entirely 
on lye hominy. In time there was a mill, 
operated by horse-power, introduced into the 
county, and Mr. McFarland used to go, in 
common with others, and during the long 
ride would subsist on parched corn, wild game 
and wild honey. There were no railroads, 
no steamers on the Illinois river and no 
markets. 

Of course our subject was reared to agri- 
cultural pursuits. His first farm was a tract 
of 100 acres, which he occupied until 1865, 
when he sold and purchased a farm of 210 
acres, and at the present time he is living re- 
tired in the pleasant village of Versailles. 

He was married December 81, 1839, to 
Margaret W. McFarland, who died in 1879, 
leaving four living children: Lucinda Van 
Deventer; Mary Whitehead; Robert N.. who 
married Ann Augusta Van Deventer; and 
Louis, who is still single. 



fOHN D. HORTON, one of the progres- 
sive and enterprising farmers of Littleton 
township, was born in Schuyler county, 
Illinois, September 21, 1845, a son of Lewis 
and Priscilla (Christman) Horton. His 
father was a native of Luzerne county, 
Pennsylvania, and there grew to be mature 



SCHUYLER AMD BROWN COUNTIES. 



325 



years; he drove a stage until 1842, when he 
made a trip to Illinois, coming via the rivers 
to La Grange; he settled on the farm now 
occupied by our subject, purchasing the 
tract of 160 acres for $350; he erected a log 
house which was a comfortable home until 
1866, when the present structure was built. 
In 1852 he crossed the plains to California, 
returning in 1856 by way of New York city; 
he was accompanied by his son Fred, who 
afterward went to Texas, where he died. 
His life was devoted to the pursuit of agri- 
culture; in politics he was a Democrat until' 
1856 when he cast his suffrage for Lincoln, 
but he was not actively interested in the 
movements of the party. His wife died in 
Schuyler county at the age of eighty-six 
years; before his death she made a trip to 
California, visiting a daughter residing there. 
John D. Horton is one of a family of ten 
children, four of whom are living. He was 
first married September 2, 1869, to Miss 
Mary E. Foster, of Schuyler county, who 
died July 8, 1870. He was again united in 
marriage February 17, 1875, to Miss Eliza- 
beth Nichols. She is also a native of this 
county, born in Littleton township, July 18, 
1856, a daughter of Reuben and Elizabeth 
(Agnew) Nichols. (See sketch of James 
(Agnew.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Horton are the parents of 
four children, all of whom are living: Lewis 
R., born February 24, 1879; Warren, born 
March 22, 1881; Craig C., born May 14, 
1884, and Jessie C., born January 17, 1890. 
Mr. Horton received his education in the 
common school at Rushville and remained 
under the parental roof until his marriage; 
after this event he settled on the homestead, 
and has since that time been engaged in agri- 
culture. Politically he is identified with 
the Republican party; he has represented the 



people of his township ' in various local of- 
fices, discharging his duties with much abili- 
ty and admirable' fidelity. His wife has 
been for many years a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. They are both peo- 
ple of great stability of character and enjoy 
the respect of all who know them. Their 
ancestors for generations have been men and 
women of brave hearts and undaunted cour- 
age, have served in the wars of the country, 
and have been reliable, industrious and pros- 
perous citizens of the Republic which they 
aided iu founding. 



fOHN S. STUTSMAN, an honored 
pioneer of Schuyler county, has been 
closely identified with its history for 
*/ / 

many years, and it is fitting that a sketch of 
his life should appear in these pages. He 
was born in Dubois county, Indiana, April 
10, 1827, a son of Alexander D. and Rhoda 
(Seybold) Stutsman. Alexander D. Stutsman 
was a native of Kentucky, a son of Jacob and 
Mary (Berkey) Stutsman, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania; his father died in Dubois county, In- 
diana, at the age of eighty years; the mother 
died in the same place, aged seventy years. 
The Stutsman family is of German origin, 
the great-grandfather of our subject having 
emigrated from the fatherland to America. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. John S. Stutsman had an- 
cestors that served in the wars of the Revo- 
lution and 1812. Rhoda Seybold, the mother 
of John S. Stutsman, was born in Georgia, 
and was one of a family of seven children ; 
she became the mother of a family of eleven, 
eight of whom are living. The father died 
on the old homestead, now occupied by his 
son, at the age of seventy-eight years. He 
was one of the early pioneers of the State, 



326 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF C ASS, 



emigrating to Schuyler county in 1834, and 
bravely bore the privations of life on the 
frontier that the way might be paved for the 
coming of an advanced civilization. He was 
accompanied by his wife and five children, 
and made the journey with a four-horse 
wagon; he purchased a farm of 148 acres, 
partially improved; for twelve years the 
family lived in a log cabin that had been built 
before their coming; this was in time re- 
placed by one of black-walnut logs, which was 
the home of the parents until death. The 
mother lived to be eighty years old. John S. 
remained under the parental roof until he was 
twenty-three years of age; he attended the 
district school, and although his opportunities 
were meager he laid the foundation of a 
thorough education, and has since come to be 
recognized as an authority on all historical 
subjects. Many were the evenings he read 
to his mother by the light of the nickering 
candle, as she sewed upon clothing, either for 
her own or the neighbor's boys. 

Mr. Stutsman was united in marriage, March 
21, 1850, to Miss Sarah Howell, who was 
born in Monroe county, Indiana, January 24, 
1831.. Her parents, Jonathan and Nancy 
(Grilham) Howell, emigrated to Indiana in 
1822, and thence to Brown county, Illinois, 
in 1838, where they passed the remainder of 
their lives; the father died at the age of 
sixty-nine, and the mother at the age of 
eighty years. They reared a family of ten 
children, live of whom survive. They had 
three sons in the Union army in the late war, 
two of whom died in the service of their 
country. 

Mrs. Howell's parents were natives of 
North Carolina, as were also Mr. Howells. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stutsman have had born to them 
a family of ten children, six of whom are de- 
ceased; those living are named as follows: 



Nancy J. is married and the mother of seven 
children; Mary E. is at home; Robert W. is 
married and has two children; John E. is on 
the old homestead; Mary has taught school 
very successfully for several years. The 
family are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church South, and are actively engaged 
in the good work of this society. 

After his marriage Mr. Stutsman lived near 
his present residence for three years, and 
then purchased the property he still owns; 
he first occupied a log cabin, which he replaced 
in time with a substantial brick structure. 
His first tract consisted of forty acres of wild 
land, to which he added as his means would 
permit,until he now has 195 acres. He does 
a general farming business, and is more 
than ordinarily successful and prosperous. It 
is entirely through his own efforts that he has 
accumulated his property, as he had no capital 
excepting that with which nature had endowed 
him. 

Politically, he affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party, which he has represented in 
various positions of trust and honor. He was 
County Treasurer four years from 1886 to 
1890, has been Supervisor seven years, and 
Township School Treasurer twenty-seven 
years, holding the latter position at present; 
he has for many years been a member of the 
School Board. He is one of the most widely 
known men in the county, and none is held 
in higher esteem. 



IBERTY G. PERSINGER, one of th e 
most prominent farmers of Woodstock 
township, was born in Alleghany county, 
Virginia, June 6, 1831, a son of Allen and 
Paulina (Peters) Persinger. Allen Persinger 
was a native of Virginia, born in Alleghany 



SGHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



327 



county, and resided there until he was twenty- 
three years of age. He then emigrated to 
Illinois, accompanied by his wife and one 
child; the journey was made from Virginia 
in a one-horse wagon, and when he arrived 
his capital amounted to $25 in cash. He 
went to work with a will, and began the task 
of placing a tract of wild land under cultiva- 
tion. He afterward sold this, and entered 
eighty acres on another section; to this he 
added as his means increased, until at one 
time he owned several hundred acres. He 
built a log cabin in which he lived four years> 
and then erected another one of more preten- 
tious size, in which he died at the age of sev- 
enty-four years; his wife passed her last days 
in the same house. Politically, he was closely 
identified with the early history of the county 
and State; he held many local offices, and 
represented his county in the Illinois State 
Legislature. Liberty G. Persinger, who is 
named for the old Revolutionary General, 
Liberty Green, remained with his parents 
until he was twenty-one years of age. He was 
then married to Elizabeth Tharpe, a native of 
Illinois, and a daughter of Jonathan and 
Anna Tharpe, who were born in North Car- 
olina and were early settlers of Schuyler 
county. To Mr. and Mrs. Persinger have 
been born eleven children, ten of whom are 
living; all are married: William L. has five 
children; Paulina has five children; Anna C. 
has three children ; Cornelia J. is the mother 
of three children ; Naomi has two children; 
Louis M. is the father of two children; Allen 
J. has a family of two children; Elmer E. 
and Edward have no children; Estella is the 
mother of one child. 

After his marriage, Mr. Persinger rented 
the land which he now owns; he lived in a 
little log cabin for a year, and then erected 
another in which he resided eight years; he 



then built his present home. He lias 300 
acres under good cultivation, 111 of which 
he inherited from his father's estate. He 
carries on a general farming business, and has 
met with more than ordinary success. The 
land was originally heavily timbered, and 
has required no small amount of energy 
and labor to reduce it to a state of culti- 
vation. 

Mrs. Persinger is a consistent member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Our sub- 
ject takes no active interest in politics further 
than to discharge his duty as a citizen by 
casting his suffrage, which is with the Re- 
publican party. He is a man of superior 
business qualifications and unquestioned 
honor and integrity. 



,ATHAN SUTTON, one of the most 
prominent citizens of his county was 
born in Sussex county, New Jersey, 
January 22, 1819, son of Benjamin and 
Elizabeth (Robe) Sutton, the former of the 
same place as his son, where he kept a store 
for many years, but sold out in 1823 and 
went to Washtenaw county, Michigan, where 
he took up land to the amount of 160 acres 
and improved it. He then sold it to his 
father, also Nathan, who was born in the 
same county and State as his son and grand- 
son. This gentleman died Michigan when 
about seventy-five years of age. His wife, 
subject's grandmother, was Sarah Sutton and 
she died on the farm when about seventy-six. 
The entire family were farmers by occupa- 
tion. Mr. Nathan Sutton, Sr., was a 
teamster in the war of 1812. Benjamin 
Sutton arrived in Illinois July 29, 1833, and 
settled near the present home of subject, 
where he entered and bought land to such an 
extent that he had 2,200 acres at his death, 



338 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



being one of the largest land-owners in 
central Illinois. He died in October, 1837, 
aged about forty-five and his wife, who was 
born in the same place as her husband, died 
on the old farm, aged about forty-seven. 

The Sutton family were of English descent, 
the Robes of German ancestry. Our subject 
was one of nine children, five of whom are 
yet living, and his father was one of six chil- 
dren. His mother's people never came West,_ 
but died in New Jersey, when very old: they 
were farmers. The Sutton family figured 
largely in the politics of Michigan, several 
of them serving as Justices of the Peace 
one was a member of the State Legislature, 
while another served as Mayor of Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. The prominence of Benja- 
min Sutton was not confined to Michigan 
by any means, as he was one of the most 
prominent men of his county, in Illinois. He 
erected the first gristmill in the locality and 
in order that the children of the section 
should have the benefit of the subscription 
schools he paid one half of the teacher's fees 
for five months. This family did not come 
West in the moneyless condition that so many 
were in, as they had nearly $7,000 in cash be- 
sides personal effects which had been brought 
across the country in wagons, the only means 
of transportation in those days. Mr. Sutton, 
Sr., was a Deacon in the Baptist Church 
and for a time Clerk, and a member of the 
order of A. F. & A. M. 

Our subject remained upon the home farm 
until his marriage, when he rented for a year 
and then bought seventy-five acres of wild 
land, on which he built a log house 16 x 18 
feet, in which he and his wife lived until he 
built his present house, in 1856. Mr. Sutton 
kept adding to his farm until he now has 500 
acres of fine land and has given each of his 
children a fine farm. 



A son of Nathan Sutton enlisted in the 
late war, and while in service he was captured 
and sent to Andersonville, where he remained 
five months. His health was so impared by 
confinement that he was obliged to be in the 
St. Louis hospital, but with these exceptions 
he served throughout the entire war. One 
of his brothers was in the same company for 
one year, responding to the last call for men. 

Mr. Sutton was married August 4, 1842, 
to Miss Elizabeth A. Lemar, born in Mason 
county, Kentucky, July 9, 1822, daughter of 
Richard and Elizabeth H. (Merrell) Lemar. 
The former was a native of New Jersey, who 
came from Kentucky, which had been his 
home for some years, to Illinois, in 1840, 
and after marrying a second time settled in 
Petersburg, Illinois, where he bought eighty 
acres of land, five miles from present home of 
subject. His first wife died when her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Sutton, was thirteen months old. 
The family was of French descent. The 
mother of Mrs. Sutton was a daughter of 
Andrew and Elizabeth (Hyde) Merrell and 
and the Hyde family were the legal heirs to 
a large estate in England, but which they 
have never been able to obtain, although they 
have sufficient proof to establish their claim 
to it. Mrs. Sutton one of five children, two 
yet living and also two half sisters are still 
living. Mr. and Mrs. Sutton have had eight 
children, as follows: William Sylvester, born 
April 21, 1844, married Mary E. Severs 
three children: Alonzo, born September 9, 
1846, married Miss Martha Dick (see sketch 
of LeviDick); John H., born August 21, 
1848, married Hannah Ogden, deceased; mar- 
ried second time Mary 1. Garder, two chil- 
dren; David L., born July 28, 1850; Win- 
field S., born August 19, 1852, married 
Levina Samuels by whom he had six children, 
and after her death he married Lucretia Lynn 



SCHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



329 



by whom lie had four children; Clara J., 
born October 14, 1854, married Joshua 
Conyers, and has five living children, one de- 
ceased; Benjamin R., born March 24, 1857, 
married Jennie Morgan, has three children, 
Stella, Ernest and Ella, the oldest one having 
died in infancy and another, also an infant, is 
deceased; and Ella E., born September 8, 
1858, married James Odgen, two children. 

Mr. Button is an ardent Republican, having 
been an old-line Whig, casting his first vote 
for General "William H. Harrison. Mr. and 
Mrs. Sntton, with their family are members 
of the Baptist Church, in which Mr. Sutton 
has been a Deacon for many years. This is 
a brief sketch of one of the most prominent 
families in the county, and we regret that 
space forbids a more extended notice of such 
a well known and influential family. 



C. MEYER, a successful brick 
and tile manufacturer and ice dealer of 
Beardstown, Illinois, was born in West- 
phalia, Prussia, September 20, 1835. His 
parents were Henry C. and E. (Hildabrandt) 
Meyer. His father was an efficient soldier 
for fifteen years under the general command 
of the first Emperor William, when they 
were both young men. His father partici- 
pated in many active engagements, and was 
highly respected by his superior officers. In 
1843, the family emigrated to the United 
States, arriving, after a voyage of fifteen weeks, 
in New Orleans, from which place they were 
nearly as long in reaching Evansville, In- 
diana, by the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 
They settled in Knox county, Indiana, where, 
in 1857, the devoted wife and mother died. 
Some years later, the father came to Beards- 
town to visit his son, who had gone to that 



place some time before. He subsequently 
died at his son's home in 1878, at the age of 
seventy years. He was a man of sterling 
qualities of mind and heart, and enjoyed, 
with his wife, the heartfelt esteem of all 
who knew them. Both parents were 
devout members of the Evangelical church. 

The subject of this sketch came to Beards- 
town in 1857, when a poor, young man, hav- 
ing at that time only $5 in his pocket. He 
commenced, in a primitive manner, to work at 
his present business, moulding brick with his 
hands, which was then the usual way. He 
was thus employed when the Civil war broke 
out, and in 1861 he volunteered his services 
to the Government, but the quota having 
been filled he was not accepted. He pur- 
chased his first land in that year, near Arenz- 
ville. By unremitting industry and careful 
economy, he gradually accumulated means, 
which he invested in the best improvements 
obtainable for the manufacture of brick and 
tile, besides branching out in other direc- 
tions. He now makes about 1,000,000 brick 
and many thousand rods of tile annually, be- 
ing the largest manufacturer in that line in 
his county. He is also extensively engaged 
in the ice business, which he lias successfuly 
conducted for the past twenty years, his ice 
houses now having a capacity of 12,000 tons. 
He hasgradually added tohis first purchase of 
land, until he now owns 1,000 acres of choice 
realty in Cass county; 900 of which are well 
improved and cultivated, and 300 being under 
his own management. 

He was married about 1862, to Miss 
Mollie Boy, who was born and raised near 
Arenzville, of which vicinity her people were 
early and respected pioneers. Both of her 
parents are now dead. Mr. and Mrs. Meyer 
have had eight children, seven of whom sur- 
vive: Louis, who married Tilla Piehler; 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



Elizabeth, wife of A. E. Cameron, a success- 
ful jeweler of Beardstown; Albert, assisting 
his father at home; Lydia, wife of Charles 
Lebkucher, a properous farmer of this county; 
Mollie, Herold and Adalaide, living at home. 

Politically, Mr. Meyer supports the issues 
of the Democratic party, and, while being no 
office seeker, takes an interest in all local and 
public affairs of importance. 

Both he and his worthy wife are useful 
members of the Fourth Evangelical Lutheran 
Church. 

Mr. Meyer has not attained his success 
without earnest and persistent endeavor; 
wholly unaided, he has, by industry and 
economy, acquired his present prosperity; 
while by upright dealings and uniform court- 
esy he has secured the universal esteem of 
his fellow men. 



. ARTHUR A. LEEPER, attorney 
at law, Virginia, Illinois, was born at 
Chandlerville, Cass county, this State, 
August 21, 1855, son of William D. Leeper, 
a native of Edmonson county, Kentucky. 

Rev. Robert Leeper, grandfather of Hon. 
Arthur A. Leeper, is supposed to have 
been a native of Kentucky. He removed 
from that State to Illinois in 1829, and en- 
tered a tract of Government land, a portion 
of which is now included in the village of 
Chandlerville, being one of the first settlers 
there. He at once built a log house, and be- 
gan the improvement of his land. He erected 
the first gristmill ever built in that locality. 
He operated the mill, superintended the im- 
provement of his land, and resided there 
until his death. 

William D. Leeper was twelve years old 
when his parents moved to Illinois. The 



greater portion of the State was at that time 
unsettled, and deer, wild turkeys and other 
game were plentiful in this vicinity. It was 
long before the railroads entered this section 
of the country, and for many years Beards- 
town was the market and depot for supplies 
for miles around. He entered a tract of Gov- 
ernment land that joined his father's farm on 
the east, located on it at the time of his mar- 
riage, and passed his life there, dying in 1866. 
The maiden name of his first wife, mother of 
the subject of our sketch, was Mary Runyan. 
She was born in Kentucky, and died in 1857. 
His second wife, previously Maria Hermeyer, 
was born in Germany. 

In the public schools of Chandlerville, 
Arthur A. received his early education. At 
the age of sixteen he entered Eureka College, 
and graduated with the class of 1874. He 
then entered the law department of Iowa 
University, graduating in 1875. Returning 
to Chandlerville, he opened an office and 
practiced his profession there until the fall 
of 1876, when he came to Virginia, where 
he has since practiced. 

September 18, 1878, he married Eva Howe, 
a native of Ohio, and a daughter of Rufus 
and Eva (Miller) Howe. They have two chil- 
dren: Mabel and Alice. 

Politically, Mr. Leeper is a Democrat. He 
cast his first vote for Samuel J. Tilden. In 
1876, he was elected State's Attorney for 
Cass county, and tilled that position until 
1880. He has served as City Attorney three 
years, and was School Director three years. 
In 1885 he was the nominee of his party for 
member of the House of Representatives. 
This was the time of the memorable contest 
which finally resulted in the election of John 
A. Logan to the United States Senate. The 
Republicans made a still hunt in this cam- 
paign, and Mr. Leeper was defeated. He 



SGHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



331 



was re-nominated, however, in 1888, for 
State Senator, and was elected, serving 
through two sessions. He was one of the 
101 who voted continually for John M. 
Palmer. Among the various committees on 
which he served, we mention the following: 
Special Drainage, Insurance and Judiciary, 
Highways and Bridges, Judicial Department, 
Corporations, Canals and Rivers, Labor and 
Manufactures, Rules, State Charities, License 
and Miscellaneous, and County and Town- 
ship organizations. He faithfully performed 
the duties of his responsible position, his 
efficient work being recognized and highly 
appreciated by his constituents. He was 
re-nominated for Senator in April, 1892. 

Fraternally, he is a member of Virginia 
Lodge, No. 554, A. F. & A. M., and Saxon 
Lodge, No. 68, I. O. G. T. 




ILLIAM K. SHUPE, one of the most 
intelligent and enterprising agricult- 
urists of Woodstock township, is a 
native of the State of Virginia and a son of 
Peter and Sarah (Wright) Shupe; the date of 
his birth is October 9, 1824. The father was 
also born in Virginia and emigrated to this 
county in 1843; later he went to Iowa, and 
died there in his fifty-fourth year; his wife 
was born in Virginia and died in Iowa; they 
had born to them a family of fifteen children, 
six of whom are now living. The family is 
of German lineage, the first ancestors in this 
country emigrating previous to the war of 
the Revolution. William K. remained at 
home until he was twenty years of age, and 
then worked at the cooper's trade several 
years. He was united in marriage October 
19, 1846, to Miss Mary A. Hoffman, a native 
of Ohio and a daughter of Joseph and Mary 



A. (Myers) Hoffman ; her parents removed to 
this county about 1837, and here passed the 
rest of their lives; they reared a family of 
eight children, five of whom are living. Mr. 
and Mrs. Shupe are the parents of six chil- 
dren: Samuel L. is married and has one son; 
Sarah A. is married and the mother of four 
children; George H. is married and has eight 
children; Mary F. is married and the mother 
of four children ; Martha M. is married and 
has five children; William J. married and 
his wife died leaving two children. 

After his marriage Mr. Shupe settled on 
the farm he now occupies; he has 120 acres, 
which he has improved and brought to a high 
state of cultivation. For many years he lived 
in a little log cabin, but in 1862 erected his 
present comfortable dwelling. He carries on 
a general farming business, manages all 
branches with much wisdom, and reaps the 
reward of success. 

Peter Shupe, father of William K., was in 
the war of 1812, and several members of the 
family participated in the late Civil war. 
Formerly Mr. Shupe was identified with the 
Democratic party, but now casts his suffrage 
for the man rather than the party. He has 
been Assessor for a number of years, and has 
held other positions of trust and responsi- 
bility. He has given attention to the matter 
of public education, and has served on the 
school board. He is now practically retired 
from active business pursuits, the care and 
management of the farm being in the hands 
of the younger son. 

The first years our subject spent in this 
section of country were fraught with trials 
and hardships, such only as are possible in a 
new and undeveloped community. The jour- 
ney from the East was made overland; the 
funds of the family being exhausted, they 
stopped and the sons split 1,000 rails 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CA3S, 



to secure money to continue the trip which 
consumed two months. Mr. Shupe is a self- 
made man in every sense of the word: he has 
never received financial aid, and his present 
property has been accumulated entirely 
through his own efforts. It was through the 
influence of Mormon preachers that the father 
was induced to come to the West, and two 
of his sons pushed their way to Salt Lake, 
and pitched their tents on the present site of 
Salt Lake City, July 24, 1847; one of them 
still lives there, and celebrates the twenty- 
fourth day of July. Mr. Shupe is a man 
who is fully posted upon current events, is a 
wide reader, and thoroughly loyal to the in- 
terests of his county and State. 



?AMES D. MATTHEW was born near 
the present site of Columbus, Franklin 
county, Ohio, in 1813, November 24. 
His father, Simon Matthew, was born in 
Fauquier county, Virginia, and his father, 
Nathan Matthew, was, as far as is known, born 
in the same State. The great-grandfather of 
subject, Edward Matthew, was born in Wales 
and came to America, settling in Virginia in 
colonial times. He was a miller by trade, 
and his son was also a miller, and he erected 
a mill in Virginia during the Revolutionary 
war. He resided in Virginia until about 
1817, when he went to Washington county, 
Indiana, and was a resident there until his 
death. His son was reared in Virginia and 
went to Ohio when he was twenty-six years 
of age. He settled in Franklin county and 
was one of the first settlers there. He as- 
sisted in cutting the logs to build the peni- 
tentiary at Columbus. In 1818 he emigrated 
to Indiana, settling in Washington county, 



which was a heavily timbered country at that 
time. He rented a tract of timber land ten 
miles west of Salem, and erected a log house 
in the wilderness. There were no railroads 
in the State at that time, and the nearest 
market was fifty miles away. He lived in 
Indiana until 1832, and during that time 
cleared quite a tract of his land. In 1832 he 
sold that and came to Illinois, settling ten 
miles southeast of Springfield, where he re- 
sided until his death. The maiden name of 
his first wife, the mother of our subject, was 
Ann Dearderff, born near New Castle, of 
German ancestry. She died in Sangamon 
county, after the arrival of the family. 

James came with his parents to Sangamon 
county, Illinois, and was nineteen the day he 
reached there. At that time the capitol of 
the State was Vandalia, Springfield being 
but a hamlet, and the nearest market for farm- 
ers in Sangamon county was St. Louis or 
Beardstown. He resided there until 1838, 
and then came to Cass county. He had 
visited this section and entered forty acres of 
land in 1837, in section 32, township 18, and 
forty more acres in section 19 of the same 
township. In 1838 he built a hewed-log 
cabin and commenced at once to clear the 
land. At that time deer and other kinds of 
wild game supplied the table with meat. 
Wheat sold from thirty to forty cents a bushel, 
and corn for ten cents a bushel. The wife 
dressed the children in homespun of her own 
raising, carding and weaving. He added to 
his farm until it is now about 365 acres, the 
greater part improved. 

He was married March 27, 1834, to Dorcas 
Hamilton, born in Virginia, daughter of 
Pressley and Susana Hamilton. Mr. and 
Mrs. Matthew have had the following chil- 
dren: Simon P.,' Ann, Charles, Jane Ruth, 
Rodney, Nettie, Henry L. and Lincoln. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



SCHUTLEK AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



833 



Mr. Matthew was a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, as is his wife. He 
was a Whig and Republican, and was a good 
and honorable man. He died April 7, 1892, 
at his home. Thus one of the oldest settlers 
and a man respected for his sterling integrity 
has passed away, and the family and large 
circle of friends and acquaintances are left 
mourning. He died a firm believer in the 
Christian religion. His aged wife of fifty- 
six years, standing, still occupies the old home 
where they settled in 1838. They celebrated 
their golden wedding March 27, 1884. They 
were married in Indiana. 



DYSON is the editor and pro- 
prietor of the Rushville Times, a 
weekly paper devoted to the interests 
of the Democratic party. It is ably edited 
and well conducted, and reflects great credit 
upon the management. Mr. Dyson is an 
American citizen by adoption, his native 
land being England; he was born in Lancas- 
tershire, July 28, 1838, a son of James Dy- 
son, a native of the same country; there the 
father was reared and married, his wife's 
maiden name being Hannah Wilson. He 
was employed in the cotton-mills until 1841, 
when accompanied by his wife and four chil- 
dren, he emigrated to America: they sailed 
from Liverpool and landed at the port of 
New Orleans after a stormy voyage of nearly 
three months; they continued their journey 
to Illinois, and located at Rushville, where 
Mr. Dyson died a few months later. A few 
years after her husband's death, Mrs. Dyson 
married Thomas Hampton, and still lives in 
Rushville. Edwin Dyson was a child of 
three years when the family arrived in Schuy- 
ler county, Illinois. Here he was reared and 

23 



educated, and at the age of sixteen years 
began to learn the printer's trade. He was 
first in the office of the Schuyler Democrat, 
and served there nearly three years; he then 
worked in Rushville as a journeyman until 
1864, when he went to St. Louis; he was in 
the office of the Republican of that city for 
four years. At the end of that time he re- 
turned to Schuyler county, and purchased the 
Rushville Times, which he has since edited. 
He has made the Times one of the leading 
papers of the military tract, having a circula- 
tion far above the average of county papers. 
In connection with the publication of the 
paper he runs a job printing office which 
turns out work of a very high class. 

Mr. Dyson was married in 1861, to Mary 
F. Irvin, who was born near Danville, Ken- 
tucky, and of this union three children have 
been born: Jennie L., Orean E. and Howard 
F. Our subject has been prominently iden- 
tified with the political movements of the 
Democratic party in this county aside from 
his editorship of their organ. He has been 
County Treasurer two terms, and wasamem. 
ber of the Board several years, and has served 
as a delegate to the various county, district 
and State conventions. He belongs to Rush- 
ville Lodge, No. 9, A. F. & A. M. 



fOEN ELLIOTT, a retired farmer, living 
at the corner of Jackson and Seventh 
streets in Beardstown, Illinois, was born 
in county Antrim, Ireland, November, 1820. 
He came of Scotch ancestry, of a very old 
family of pure blood, not mixed with Irish by 
marriage. He is the son of William Elliott 
of the same place, a farmer and a keeper of a 
public inn, who lived and died in that county 
at the age of forty years. His grandfather was 



834 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



David Elliott, a farmer of Scotland, who died 
when quite old. William Elliott was married 
to an Antrim lady of Scotch blood, whose name 
was Mary Thompson. She was the daughter 
of Robert and Mattie (Richie) Thompson, who 
were county Antrim farmers, and there Ro- 
bert Thompson spent his last years, but his 
wife came with her son at an early day to 
Virginia, Cass county, Illinois. 

John Elliott came of a large family, grew 
up in his native county, learned the tailor 
trade and afterward with his mother and 
brothers, in 1841, came to America and joined 
other brothers in Connecticut. In 1845 the 
mother and son came on to Cass county. 
Some worked the farm, and others followed 
their trade. The mother made her horn 
with her children until her death, which oc- 
curred in 1877, aged eighty-four. She was a 
noble-hearted woman and had done much to 
help and encourage her children. She was a 
member of the Presbyterian Church, a great 
student of Scotch history and literatim;, a 
tine reader of the Scotch dialect and a writer 
of some local repute. She also composed 
some music, which has been considered very 
tine. She is remembered as a noble, gener- 
ous woman. 

He lived for some years in Beardstown 
working at his trade and with the money he 
made and saved, with his brother, David, he 
bought 160 acres of land near Virginia, later 
sold it and then purchased the 160 acres that 
became his home until his retirement. His 
farm, the scene of his labors, lies near the city 
of Beardstown. The land is highly improved 
and has good buildings, and as he now enjoys 
the comforts of life he can remember that 
they have been obtained by his own efforts. 

He was married the first time in Connecti- 
cut, to Margaret Frey of Ireland, who came 
to the United States in 1841, and after forty- 



eight years of married life left a bereaved 
husband, in 1890. The living children are: 
William W., of San Francisco, California; 
Thomas F., of Jewell county, Kansas; George 
W. of Holliday, Kansas; Robert S. of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Lucy A., wife of John Thompson, 
of Jewell county, Kansas; and David H., now 
running his father's farm. Mr. Elliott was 
married a second time in this county, to Mrs. 
Ann E. Johnson, formerly, Hiles. She was 
born in .New Jersey, December 12, 1823. She 
and her first husband came to Macoupin 
county in 1856, and he died there. 

Mr. and Mrs. Elliott are members of the 
Congregational Church. Mr. Elliott is a Re- 
publican in politics and was a "Whig. 




1LLIAM McKEE, one of the oldest 
and most prominent citizens of 
Schuyler county, was born in Craw- 
ford county, Indiana, January 22, 1813, a son 
of William McKee, who was a native of Ken- 
tucky. The paternal grandfather, James Mc- 
Kee, emigrated to Kentucky during the war 
of the Revolution, and thence removed to In- 
diana, where he passed the remainder of his 
days. William McKee, Sr., was reared in the 
Blue-grass State, and there was married; he 
removed to Indiana when it was yet a Terri- 
tory, and was a pioneer of Crawford county. 
He purchased land and made it his home 
until 1826, when, accompanied by his wife 
and ten children, he removed to Illinois. The 
journey was made by teams, which was not 
devoid of interest. Mr. McKee had visited 
this section the year previous, making the 
trip on horseback; he purchased a land war- 
rant which called for 160 acres; paying there- 
for $100; on his return to Indiana he stopped 
at Springfield and cleared his title at the 



SCEUfLBR AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



335 



Government office. It was, indeed, a courage- 
ous heart that looked at such a future calmly; 
the country was thinly settled, the poles of 
the Indian wigwams still stood in the ground, 
market towns were far distant and provisions 
were high. Mr. McKee erected a double log 
cabin, using wooden pegs instead of nails; the 
door was constructed of puncheons, and was 
furnished with the historic latch-string. 

James Vance built the first horse-mill 
operated with a rawhide band. This was 
built when the subject of this sketch came to 
the county. Calvin Hobart built one in- the 
fall of 1836, then William McKee, father of 
our subject, built a horse-mill in 1828, it 
being the third in that section of the country. 
People came to the mill from as far north as 
Rock Island. 

Mrs. McKee manufactnred cloth from the 
flax and cotton that her husband raised, 
with which to clothe the family. Mrs. Mc- 
Kee's maiden name was Cassie Frakes; she 
was a native of Pennsylvania, and a daughter 
of Henry and Hannah Frakes; her death 
occurred at the house of her daughter, which 
is situated close to the old home farm. 

The subject of this sketch was thirteen 
years and four months old when he came to 
Illinois; on the journey he drove a four- 
horse team with a jerk line. He has a vivid 
recollection of many of the experiences which 
fall only to the lot of the pioneer. He re- 
mained in this State until 1839, and .then 
started on a missionary tour among the In- 
dians in the far West; he crossed the plains 
to Oregon, and spent one year among the 
savages; at the end of twelve months he re- 
turned to Illinois and resumed farming, con- 
tinuing this occupation until 1847; then he 
again crossed the plains to Oregon, and dur- 
ing that year the Indians attacked the mis- 
sion twenty-five miles from Walla Walla and 



murdered Dr. Whitman and others; he 
volunteered to assist in subduing the red- 
skins, and was six months in the service. He 
was in Oregon until 1849, and then went to 
California; he was suffering from ill-health, 
and his funds were limited compared with 
the extremely high price of provisions, ftonr 
selling as high as $2.50 a pound. In 1852 
he returned to his home and located on the 
old homestead which he now occupies. 

Mr. McKee was married in 1853, to Sarah 
C. Wilmot, a native of Steuben county, New 
York. Mrs. McKee was educated in the 
pioneer schools and at the age of twenty be- 
gan to teach. Only one of the directors who 
examined her could read and write; she re- 
ceived for her services the magnificent sum 
of $2.50 a week- Mr. and Mrs. McKee are 
the parents of five daughters: Amanda, wife 
of Henry Hite, died in February, 1882, leav- 
ing an infant son, Archie M., who is being 
reared by his grandparents; Mary C., died 
in infancy; Ida S., wife of Samuel D. Wheel- 
house, died in April, 1880; Bertha, wife of 
Cyrus L. DeWitt; and Meta, who died in 
October, 1889, aged fourteen years. 

Politically Mr. McKee affiliates with the 
Democratic party, although in former times 
he was a Whig. He is a man of wide ex- 
perience, having passed through all the 
phases of life on the frontier. He has always 
been loyal to the interests of Schuyler county, 
and has the entire confidence and respect of 
his fellow-men. 



fACOB RITCHEY, an honored pioneer, 
resides on section 12, Buena Vista town- 
ship, and was born in Dayton, Mont- 
gomery county, Ohio, on December 5, 1821. 
When but two years of age his mother died, 



336 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



and live years later he had the misfortune to 
lose his father. There were six children, 
five sons and one daughter. The oldest, 
John, died in Schuyler county, Illinois; 
George F. died in Rnshville, in the same 
State; Charles is now residing in Rushville; 
William G. died in Schuyler county; Susan 
married Jasper Fatten, and died in Ohio; 
our subject was next in birth to the youngest, 
and on her death-bed his mother gave him to 
her brother, Jacob Sawyer, with whom he re- 
mained five years. He then accompanied his 
brother George to Illinois, living with him 
until he grew to manhood. He attended 
school but little, as his time was engaged in 
hard work on the farm. When twenty years 
of age he was hired by a widow to work her 
farm on shares, which he did for one year. 
Later, his brother George married the widow, 
and our subject rented his brother's former 
farm, which he tilled until 1845, when he 
rented eighty acres of William McKee, which 
he cultivated for himself. While thus en- 
gaged, he met Clara Ann, daughter of the 
owner of this land, and their acquaintance 
ripening into mutual affection, they were 
married in 1849, when his father-in-law pre- 
sented to him the eighty acres he had been 
tilling, and on which he and his wife still 
reside. He has made substantial improve- 
ments on his land, in the way of buildings, 
having a comfortable home and barns for his 
grain and stock, besides other modern appli- 
ances, to facilitate the sowing, harvesting and 
garnering the products of the farm. Besides 
this eighty acres, which is under a good state 
of cultivation, he has purchased 167 acres 
more in Rushville township, which he is also 
farming. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ritcheyhave seven children: 
William Thomas, residing in Rushville town- 
ship; Charles R., residing in Camden town- 



ship; James, residing in Huntsville township; 
Georgia Ann, living at home; Susan C., wife 
of F. E. Moore; living in Cowley county, 
Kansas; Amanda and Mary, living at home. 

Mr. Ritchey is a member of the Republi- 
can party, but takes no active part in politics 
other than desiring the advancement and 
welfare of the community. He is not a mem- 
ber of any civic or religious society, but is lib- 
eral in his views. He is a thoroughly honest 
and industrious man, a good neighbor, kind 
husband and indulgent father, and enjoys 
the esteem of the community and the affection 
of his family and friends. 



H.ARLES A. SCHAEFFER, County 
Superintendent of Schools of Cass 
county, is thoroughly identified with 
the educational interests of this county, and is 
as popular as he is well known. A resume 
of his life is herewith presented. 

Mr. Schaeffer was born in what is now 
Bluff Spring precinct, Cass county, Illinois, 
May 24, 1855. His father, Calvin S. Schaef- 
fer, was born in Monroe precinct, same 
county, son of Phillip Schaeffer, a native of 
Ohio. Phillip Schaeffer's father, John Schaef- 
fer, was, it is supposed, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the family are descended from 
German ancestry. John Schaeffer removed 
to Ohio at an early day and was one of the 
pioneer settlers of that State. He continued 
his way westward in 1818 and took up his 
abode in Cass county, Illinois, where he 
passed his life. He and his worthy com- 
panion reared six sons and six daughters. 
Phillip Schaeffer was reared and married in 
in Ohio, and moved from there to Illinois, 
becoming one of the first settlers of what is 
now Monroe precinct, Cass county. Here 



SCHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



337 



he entered a tract of Government land and 
on it erected a cabin which served as the 
family home for a number of years. Subse- 
quently he built a frame dwelling. At that 
time Beardstown, Jacksonville and Spring- 
field were the principal markets in this part 
of the country. There were no gristmills in 
this vicinity, and on his farm he erected a 
mill that he operated by horse power. People 
came for many miles to get their corn ground 
here. On this place he made his home until 
the time of his death, in 1854. The maiden 
name of his wife was Highly Carver. She 
was born in Ohio, of English descent. Her 
death occurred at the home place in 1880. 
The names of their six children are Wash- 
ington, Valentine W., Calvin S., Cyrus J., 
Martha A. and Elizabeth. Calvin S. was 
reared on the farm and remained with his 
parents until his marriage, soon after which 
he moved to Petersburg and was engaged 
in farming there for a time. He then came 
back to Monroe Precinct and leased a part of 
his father's estate, built a log house, aad 
lived there about ten years. From there he 
moved to his present farm, which includes a 
part of his father-in-law's homestead in Hick- 
ory precinct. His wife was before her mar- 
riage Miss Mary Schafer, she being a daugh- 
ter of Christopher and Rachel (Emerick) 
Shafer. Calvin S. Schaeffer and his wife 
reared six children, viz.: Charles A.; George 
W.; Winters L.; William D.; Eachel A.; 
and Jennie. 

Charles A. Schaeffer received his early 
education in the district schools, afterward 
attending the Virginia High School and the 
State Normal School at Normal, Illinois. 
At the age of twenty-two he commenced 
teaching, and taught and attended school for 
nine years. On the thirty-first anniversary 
of his birth he received the nomination for 



County Superintendent of Schools, and was 
elected at the ensuing election. Four years 
later he was nominated by acclamation, and 
elected by a largely increased majority. In 
November, 1890, he bought an interest in 
the Virginia Enquirer, in company with his 
cousin, William A. S. Schaeffer (since de- 
ceased), and soon afterward bought the re- 
maining interest. He was then sole pro- 
prietor of this paper until September, 1891, 
at which time he sold the entire interest in 
said paper to F. E. Downing. 

Mr. Schaeffer was married, in 1882, to 
Nellie M. Garner, a native of Oregon pre- 
cinct, Cass county, Illinois, a daughter of 
William S. and Nancy M. (Crews) Garner. 
Two children have been born to them: Ledrn 
G. and Edna Belle. 

Mr. Schaeffer's political views are in har- 
mony with Democratic principles. He cast 
his first vote for Samuel J. Tilden. Frater- 
nally, he is associated with Virginia Lodge, 
Nq. 544, A. F. & A. M.; Saxon Lodge, No. 
68, I. O. O. F.; and Virginia Camp, M. 
W. A. 



,111AM BENNETT BAXTER, an intel- 
ligent and progressive farmer and stock- 
raiser of township 17-9, near Ashland, 
Illinois, was born and reared in Jefferson 
county, Indiana. 

His parents were William and Jane (Kerr) 
Baxter, both natives of Ohio, his father hav- 
ing been born in Dayton. His father's 
father was a native of Ireland, who came to 
America and settled in Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he married a German lady, 
named Rebecca Riddle. Mr. Baxter's ma- 
ternal grandfather was Josiah Kerr, a native 
ot Scotland. Thus he is ol Irish, German 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GAS 8, 



and Scotch ancestry, three of the most intel- 
ligent and progressive nationalities on the 
face of the earth, and he wonld be a sad 
renegade were he not likewise constituted. 
His parents had ten sons and two daughters) 
of whom the subject of this sketch was the 
sixth in order of birth. James Riddle, the, 
eldest brother, is an attorney of Bloom field 
Greene county, Indiana; Josiah Kerr is a 
retired physician of Sharpsville, Indiana; 
Daniel Thomas, a mechanic, died in early 
manhood, leaving a wife and two children^ 
all now deceased; Oliver H. P. was one of 
the first white settlers in Pueblo, Colorado, 
where he engaged in mining and speculating 
in cattle, in which occupations he has been 
very successful, having accumulated a fortune 
of great wealth. He is now retired from 
active business, and spends most of his time 
in traveling, has been twice to Europe, and 
last summer was in Alaska. William Alex- 
ander died in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1877; 
the next in order is the subject of this sketch; 
George W. is a resident of Indianapolis, In- 
diana; Hayden Hayes is in the cattle busi- 
ness, near Pueblo, Colorado; Edward Arthur 
is in the livery and undertaking business in 
Sangamon county, Illinois; Leonidas Napo- 
leon is farming the old Indiana homestead; 
Havanna Siloam married Robert Williams, a 
merchant of Madison, Indiana; Irena Hazel- 
tine died in early childhood. In 1854 the 
family -were called upon to mourn the loss of 
the devoted wife and mother, whose life had 
been one of self-abnegation and subservience 
to her family's welfare. The father afterward 
married her sister, and to this union one son, 
Virgil, was born, who died in 1861. The 
father died in August, 1861, and was interred 
by the side of his first wife, near the old 
home in Indiana. He was a prominent man 
in his community and was very popular among 



his associates, always heading every movement 
for the moral and material improvement of 
his locality. The second wife lives on the 
old homestead. She is a lady of much cul- 
ture and refinement, and is universally be- 
loved. 

The subject of this sketch was educated in 
Indiana, and was reared to farm life, and in 
the peaceful pursuits of rural and home life 
spent his earlier days. This happy routine 
was interrupted by civil discord, which rent 
the country, and on July 14, 1861, he en- 
listed at Madison, Indiana, in Company K, 
Twenty-second Indiana Infantry. He par- 
ticipated in the Missouri campaign, the first 
encounter taking place at Glasgow, that State, 
where Major Tanner was killed ; and also took 
part in the fight at Blackwater, where the 
Union forces took 1,300 of the enemy prison- 
ers. Thence he accompanied his regiment, 
under the supervision of General Fremont 
to Springfield, Missouri. General Hunter 
superseding General Fremont, they were re- 
turned to their old quarters, under the imme- 
diate command of General Curtis, with whom 
they marched to Springfield and thence to the 
battle at Pea Ridge, where the right flank 
suffered severely. Thence they went to Cor- 
inth, Mississippi, where they participated in 
the siege of Corinth, after which they returned 
to luka, that State, going from there to Flor- 
ence, Alabama, and back again to Louisville, 
marching 400 miles in August and September, 
1862. After this they went to Perry ville, Ken- 
tucky, where there was an engagement, in 
which Mr. Baxter was shot through the left 
knee, lying on the battlefield all night after 
being wounded. There were thirty-five men 
in his company on going into battle, and on 
emerging there were but eight unharmed, ten 
having been killed, thirteen wounded and four 
taken prisoners. Mr. Baxter was sent to the 



8CHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



839 



hospital at Louisville, where he remained from 
October 8, 1862, to February of the following 
year. He rejoined his regiment at Mur- 
freesboro, Tennessee, and there received his 
commission as First Lieutenant, being pro- 
moted from Duty Sergeant to that rank. In 
the absence of the captain, who had been 
wounded, Mr. Baxter at once assumed com- 
mand of the company. His regiment re- 
mained in Murfreesboro until June, and then 
went on the Tullahoma campaign, following 
the enemy as far as Chattanooga, and par- 
ticipated in the historic battle of Chicka- 
mauga. It then fell back to Chattanooga, 
and engaged for a time in building fortifica- 
tions. It next took part in the sanguinary 
battle- of Missionary Ridge, at which it was 
in Sheridan's division, and fought in the 
center. The following morning it started on 
a forced inarch for Knoxville, to relieve Burn- 
side, who was surrounded by Longstreet. 
During this rapid march, the regiment was 
short of rations and had no tents. It was 
encamped on Strawberry Plains for six weeks, 
while the ground, the greater part of the time, 
was covered with snow. At this place the 
regiment re-enlisted for three years, and then 
returned to Chattanooga, after which the men 
were given a veteran furlough. At the ex- 
piration of their leave of absence, they re- 
joined their command at Chattanooga, whence 
they started with General Sherman on his 
memorable march to the sea, the Twenty- 
second Indiana being in the advance brigade. 
The enemy were met in force at Tunnel Hill 
and Rocky Face Ridge, and next at Resaca, 
Georgia, whence the Union forces proceeded 
to Snake Creek Gap, where Mr. Baxter's di- 
vision was separated from the main army, 
and sent, under General Jefferson C. Davis, 
via Rome, Georgia. Here an engagement 
was fought, at which Mr. Baxter was again 



wounded in the left leg, the same as before. 
He remained about a month in Rome, when 
he secured a leave of absence for forty days, 
finally reporting to the officer's hospital, in 
Cincinnati, where the board of examiners 
ordered his discharge, General Slemmer 
being the chief of the board. On being 
discharged, August 29, 1864, he was granted 
$8.50 a month, that being half of a first 
lieutenant's pension. 

In February, 1865, Mr. Baxter assisted in 
raising a company for the One Hundred and 
Forty-eighth Indiana Regiment, of which 
company he became First Lieutenant and af- 
terward Captain. This regiment was sent to 
Columbia, Tennessee, where it did patrol duty 
until September 6, 1865, when it was mus- 
tered out of service. 

Mr. Baxter then returned to his home in 
Indiana, and was subsequently employed for 
a time in the railroad business in Indianapo- 
lis. December 15, 1866, he reached Jack- 
sonville, Illinois, near which place he taught 
school two years; later, he taught school for 
another two years at Literberry, same State. 
He was afterward engaged in selling goods 
in the latter place, where he acted at various 
times as railroad agent, Postmaster and Jus- 
tice of the Peace, his residence there extend- 
ing over a period of nine years. 

In 1876 he was married, and included the 
Centennial Exposition in his wedding tour, 
visiting in old Virginia and spending a week 
in Washington city. Miss Lydia Ellen Crum 
was the lady of his choice, a daughter of 
Abram A. and Sarah (Buchanan) Crnm, old 
and highly respected residents of the vicinity 
of Literberry, Illinois, where they still reside. 
Mr. and Mrs. Baxter have two sons, Albert, 
born October 9, 1880, and William Abram, 
born September 18, 1887. 



340 



BIOGRAPHIC 'AL REVIEW OF CAS 8, 



In 1881, Mr. Baxter sold ohut is mercan- 
tile interests in Literberry and removed to 
his present farm, five miles west of Ashland, 
where his father-in-law had given him $20,- 
000 worth of land. He owns a farm of 760 
acres on the garden spot of Illinois, and, as 
for that matter, of the world, inasmuch as 
there is no more fertile country on the globe 
than that included in the Prairie State. This 
season (1892), he has 260 acres of corn, 180 
of wheat, and eighty of oats, the balance being 
meadow and pasture land. He has here a 
substantial farm residence, neatly and com- 
fortably arranged; large barns for his grain 
and stock; and many other valuable improve- 
ments. 

Mr. Baxter is a stanch Republican and 
takes an active interest in political matters. 
He has been a candidate for various offices, 
but his party being in the minority he was 
never elected, yet succeeded in helping to 
hold the party organization together. 

He belongs to the G. A. R. and was the 
first commander of John L. Douglas Post, 
.No. 591, at Ashland, having served two terms 
in that capacity. 

Seven of Mr. Baxter s brothers were in the 
army, no two of whom were in the same regi- 
ment, and all returned home, and still sur- 
vive. Dr. Josiah was a Surgeon in the army ; 
and Hayden was taken prisoner, stripped of 
his clothing and other valuables, paroled and 
turned loose, walking all the way home from 
Arkansas Post. Of this family there were 
one Surgeon, two Captains one Lieutenant, 
and three privates in the service. The sub- 
ject of this sketch received three commissions, 
two as First Lieutenant, and one as Captain, 
all from the hands of the famous war Gover- 
nor Oliver P. Morton. Mr. Baxter received 
two wounds at the hands of the rebels, which 
compelled him to spend some eight months in 



the hospital. During the total period of 
three years and eight months he served two 
years in command of his company; and, while 
he was one of the youngest soldiers in it, he 
thinks he did his part. 

Had this family lived in Napoleon's time, 
they would have been greatly honored, inas- 
much as he valued families only in proportion 
to the number of sons contributed to the in- 
satiable monster of war. It is the disadvan- 
tage of republican forms of government, 
that they bestow no special privileges for 
services rendered by their inhabitants other 
than the universal gratitude of millions living 
and unborn, which is supplemented, in the 
breasts of those champions of liberty in the 
late war, by a deep sense of duty done, which 
soothes the wounded spirit and begets a peace 
which passeth understanding. 



fREDERICK C. LANG, a self-made man 
and one of the prominent merchants of 
Virginia, Illinois, belongs to that race 
of people the Germans noted this world 
over for their energy and thrift. By his own 
well-directed efforts he has risen to a position 
of prosperity, and at the same time has won the 
confidence and respect of all with whom he 
has had dealings, being now classed with the 
substantial business men and highly respected 
citizens of Virginia. It is with pleasure 
that we present the following facts in regard 
to his life and ancestry. 

Frederick C. Lang was born on the river 
Tech, village of Omden, in the Kingdom of 
Wiirttemburg, Germany, September 7, 1848. 
His father, Christopher Frederick Lang, was 
born in the same locality. His grandparents, 
as far as known, spent their entire lives in 
Wiirttemburg. Christopher F. Lang was 



SGHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



341 



reared and educated in his native land and 
there served an apprenticeship to the trade of 
a weaver, weaving at that time being chiefly 
done on the hand loom. He followed that 
trade in Germany till 1855, in the early part 
of which year lie set sail from Havre de 
Grace, with his wife and three children, and 
landed in America in March, after a voyage 
of nearly three months. He went direct to 
Indianapolis, where he was employed at va- 
rious kinds of work. Finally he secured a 
position as porter in a wholesale drug store, 
and was thus engaged for a number of years. 
He resided in Indianapolis until his death, in 
1887. The maiden name of his first wife, 
mother of Frederick C., was Mary Liebrich. 
She was also a native of Wiirttemburg. She 
reared three children: Frederick 0., George 
and Mary. 

Mr. Lang, being only six years old when 
he came to America, remembers little of 
any other save his adopted country. He 
was educated in the public schools of Indian- 
apolis, was reared to habits of industry, and at 
the age of fifteen was apprenticed to Jacob 
Yoegtle, a tinsmith, of Indianapolis, and served 
four years. He did "jour" work in Indian- 
apolis one year, after which he went to Jack- 
sonville, Illinois, and was employed in the 
same kind of work six years. He was very 
industrious, saved his money, and in 1874 
came to Virginia and began busines for him- 
self. He first opened a stock of stoves and 
tinware, and in 1885 added hardware. He 
now carries a full line of shelf hardware, 
stoves, tinware, etc. In connection with his 
store he also conducts a repair shop, having 
first-class machinery for doing all kinds of 
job work, tin roofing and the like. 

In 1877 Mr. Lang was united in marriage 
with Mary Tendick, a native of Jacksonville, 
Illinois, and a daughter of Deidrich and Sib- 



ilia Tendick, natives of Germany. They 
have four children: George, Clara, Flora and 
Willie. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lang are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. Politically, he is a 
Republican. 



R. GEORGE A. BYRNS was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, September 30, 1829. 
His father, John, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, and his father, Michael, was born in 
Ireland, of Scotch ancestry. He came to 
America a young man and followed his trade 
of paper maker, and he met his death in 1825, 
by an accident in the mill in which he was 
working. John learned the same trade, fol- 
lowed the trade in Cincinnati for a few years 
and then began clerking on a steamboat run- 
ning on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. In 
a very early day he came to Illinois as a mem- 
ber of a surveying party and assisted in mak- 
ing surveys in the middle of the State. In 
1840 he emigrated thither with his family and 
settled four miles north of Mt. Sterling, 
bought a farm and followed farming until 
1849. He then started with others for Cal- 
ifornia, and after six months' travel with ox 
teams, landed there safely. He engaged 
there in mining for seven years and then re- 
turned to Mt. Sterling and lived retired until 
his death, in 1865. He was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. His wife was Harriet E. 
Hobbs, born in Scott county, Kentucky, 
daughter of Joseph Hobbs. She still lives in 
Mt. Sterling at the advanced age of eighty-six 
years. 

George was in his eleventh year when he 
came to Illinois with his parents. He re- 
ceived his early education in the schoools of 
Cincinnati, advanced by attendance in the 



342 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF GAS 8, 



schools of Brown county, Illinois. At the 
age of eighteen he began teaching, and three 
years later began the study of medicine. In 
the winter of 1851-'52 he attended, lectures 
at Rush Medical College. He then com- 
menced practice at Cooperstown. In 1854 
he returned to Rush Medical College and 
graduated in the class of 1855, then resumed 
practice at Cooperstown until 1862. In No- 
vember of that year he entered the United 
States service as Assistant Surgeon of the One 
Hundred and Nineteenth Illinois Infantry, 
continuing in service until after the close of 
the war, participating in all the marches and 
campaigns of his regiment. He was honor- 
ably discharged and returned home and was 
in active practice at Cooperstown, with the 
exception of two years, 1866 to 1868, when 
he was in Mt. Sterling, until 1891, when he 
came to Mt. Sterling and has practiced here 
since. 

He married in 1854, Cynthia A. Henry, 
born in Cooperstown, Brown county, Illinois. 
She was the daughter of Orris M. Henry, one 
of the pioneers of Brown county, and for 
many years one of the most extensive busi- 
ness men. Dr. and Mrs. Byrns have seven 
living children: John H., Robert A., Elmer, 
Susan, Candace, Kate and Hattie. "William, 
the second son, died at the age of thirty- 
three years. The Doctor is a member of 
Isaac McNeil Post, No. 289, G. A. R., and of 
Hardin Lodge, No. 44, A. F. & A. M. 



iBNER LEGRAND NOBLE has been 
for many years prominently identified 
with the history of Schuyler county, 
and is entitled to the following space in this 
volume. He is a native of Madison county, 
Kentucky, born June 12, 1822, a son of Will- 



iam Noble of Lexington, Kentucky; the fa- 
ther was born, reared and married in the Blue- 
grass State, and there learned the trade of 
house painting, which he pursued many 
years. He resided in Kentucky until 1835, 
and then with his wife and six children re- 
moved to Illinois; they made the journey 
with teams, camping along the way. Mr. 
Noble located in what is now Bainbridge 
township, where he purchased a tract of tim- 
ber land; a tew acres had been cleared and a 
two-story house had been built of hewn logs; 
here he lived several years, and finally sold 
the place and purchased another near by, on 
which he lived until death. He married 
Eleanor Ransom of Virginia, and a daughter 
of Ignatius Ransom, also a Virginian by 
birth. Abner Legrand Noble was a lad of 
twelve years when he came with his parents 
to Illinois, and remembers well many of the 
privations and hardships endured by the fam- 
ily. He received a limited education, and 
in early youth began to assist his father on 
the farm. He has been for years an exten- 
sive reader, and has made up for the deficien- 
cies of his early training. He remained with 
his parents until attaining his majority; he 
then learned the cooper's trade, and opened a 
shop in Rushville, manufacturing and selling 
to the trade for several years; he was com- 
pelled to close out the business on account of 
ill health. 

In 1847, Mr. Noble was elected Constable, 
and for more than thirty-five years attended 
to the collections of this office; during this 
time he served three terms as Deputy Sheriff, 
one term as County Clerk, and one and a 
half terms as a member of the County Board 
of Supervisors. He was a very efficient offi- 
cer, and gave entire satisfaction to the public. 

He was married October 28, 1845, to 
Catherine Serrot, a native of Ohio, and a 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



343 



daughter of Peter and Nancy (Patton) Serrot. 
Of this union four children were born, two 
of whom survive: Phoebe Jackson, Dora and 
Ruth Tetrick; the only son, William H., 
died at the age of eighteen years; Mary J., 
the oldest, married William D. Sperry: her 
death occurred in 1890. Mr. and Mrs. No- 
ble are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In early days Mr. Noble was a 
member of the Whig party, and cast his suf- 
frage for Lincoln ; latterly he has voted with 
the Democratic party. For some time he has 
held the office of Police Magistrate. 



ANDREW CUNNINGHAM, of town- 
ship 17, range 9, section 6, Virginia 
post office, Illinois, was born near Edin- 
borough, Scotland, December 17, 1806. His 
parents were James and Marion (Wright) 
Cunningham, natives of Scotland, where they 
lived and died. His father was a baker and 
miller by occupation and owned and operated 
a flouring mill in the village of Bonnington, 
a suburb of Edinborough. They had eight 
children: Archibald, John, Charles, George f 
Andrew, Margaret, Jeanette and Mary, now 
Mrs. Russell, living at Edinborough. The 
eldest brother died in Scotland. Charles, who 
was British Consul to Russia and died at Gal- 
atz, on the Black sea. John and George died 
in Cass county, Illinois, leaving families. 
Margaret was Mrs. Blair and died in Edin- 
borough. Jeanette became Mrs. Shaen and 
died in England. 

Mr. Cunningham was educated in his own 
country, where he learned the baker trade, and 
sailed for America March 14, 1834. He 
was married in Canada, in 1836, to Ellen 
Allen, who was also born in Scotland, in 1812. 



She died in 1880. In 1835 he came to Cass 
county to look up a location and in the be- 
ginning of 1837 settled on his present farm. 
He entered about 700 acres of land, to 
which he has since added by purchase until 
he owns about 1,000 acres all, adjoining 
his present home. On locating here he 
started a tannery on his farm and followed 
that business until after the war. He has 
since superintended his large estate and taken 
life more easily. He is a literary man, keeps 
himself surrounded with newspapers and 
books and has a valuable library where he 
spends most of his time. Mr. and Mrs. Cun- 
ningham have five children: William went 
into the army in 1862 in the Third Illinois 
Cavalry, Company C, and died at Helena, 
Arkansas, Decmber 12, following; Andrew 
died in infancy; Margaret married Dr. Al- 
fred S. Dodds of Andrew county, Missouri; 
James A. lives with his father and superin- 
tends the farms; Florence married a lawyer, 
A. G. Jones, at Mt. Pulaski, Illinois. She 
attends the college at Lincoln, Illinois, but 
Margaret finished her education in England. 
The boys all had good school education. An- 
drew afterward attended a business college at 
Chicago. Mr. Cunningham is a Unitarian 
in religious belief, a Republican in politics 
and was a Whig before the organization of 
the Republican party. His first presidental 
vote was cast for Clay. He has been a School 
Trustee and Director. Both he and his son 
James are mechanically inclined. He has 
given a portion of his leisure time to sculpt- 
ure, having now on exhibition two very fine 
ideal images of Venus and Hercules, besides 
other articles of animal sculpture. 

James Cunningham settled in Charlestown, 
South Carolina, previous to the breaking out 
of the Revolutionary war. He at first served 
in the militia, under King George, and sub- 



844 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASS, 



seqnently joined with the Colonial forces, 
with which he remained during hostilities. 

Mr. Wright, the father of Marion Wright, 
also served in the war with the mother 
country. 



?OSHUA HEDGCOCK was born in 
Schuyler county, Illinois, February 2, 
1843, onthe place where he now resides, a 
son of John and Temperance Hedgcock. He 
received his education at the public schools, 
remaining at home until August, 1862, when 
he enlisted, at the age of twenty, as a private 
in Company G, Seventy-second .Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers, Captain H. D. French 
commanding the company. His was the first 
Board of Trade regiment made up in Chicago, 
commanded by Colonel F. A. Starring. He 
was in the battles of Champion Hills, Big 
Black, Benton, Mississippi; siege of Vicks- 
burg; Columbia and Spring Hill, Tennessee; 
Nashville, December, 1864, and Spanish Fort, 
Alabama, in April, 1865. He was discharged 
as Second Sergeant at the close of the war, 
with the record of which he is justly proud. 
He returned home in August, 1865, and 
lived with his father until his death, May 20, 
1877, aged seventy-four years, and now occu- 
pies the old Spring Hill home of seventy- 
eight and one- half acres, which his father first 
bought and settled on in this country. He 
has now 230 acres. 

Joshua was married first January 9, 1870, 
to Miss Susan E. Glover, born in Hancock 
county, and died here January 9, 1872, aged 
twenty-six years. She left one son, who sur- 
vived her eight months. Joshua was mar- 
ried for the second time, to Miss Anna M. 
Totten, April 10, 1879, who was born in 
Adams county, September 26, 1854, and by 



this marriage there are six children. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hedgcock attend the Methodist 
Protestant Church. He is a member of Post 
No. 302, G. A. K., at Augusta, Illinois; has 
been Assessor of his township. His first 
vote was cast while home on furlough, for 
Lincoln, and every president he has since 
voted for has been elected, except one. 



EORGE W. McCOY, an extensive 
farmer of Mt. Sterling, Illinois, was 
born in Adams county, Ohio, January 
1, 1831. His father, Samuel McCoy, was 
born in Cecil county, Maryland, in 1796. 
The grandfather of our subject, Alexander 
McCoy, was born in Ireland, of Scotch an- 
cestry. His parents were poor and he com- 
menced very early to earn his own living, 
being brought up to work in a factory. He 
was a lad in his 'teens when he came to 
America and located in Maryland, where his 
parents who had preceded him to America 
were then living. He learned the cooper's 
trade, which he followed for some time. He 
was twice married but lost both of his wives 
before coming to Ohio. After the death of 
his second wife he removed with his children 

\ 

to Ohio and lived in that State some years, 
and then spent his last years in Brown 
county. The father of our subject died in 
1882, in the eighty-fif th year of his age. He 
was about eighteen years old when he went 
to Ohio. He was very industrious, saved 
his earnings and finally purchased land in 
Adams county. He then turned his atten- 
tion to agricultural pursuits but still fol- 
lowed his trade a portion of each year. He 
resided inAdams county until 1839, and then 
sold his farm there and came to Illinois. He 
was accompanied by his wife and three chil- 



SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



345 



dren, and the entire journey was made over- 
land. After about fifteen days' travel they 
landed in Brown county. He purchased a 
tract of land near Versailles, and there de- 
voted his time to farming. He was a resi- 
dent of Brown county until his death, which 
occurred as before stated. 

The maiden name of the mother of our 
subject was Sarah Pilston. She was born in 
in Virginia, a daughter of William and 
Easter Pilston. She died in Ohio in 1834. 

The subject of this writing was in his 
ninth year when he came to Illinois with his 
parents. At that time the country was wild 
and deer, wild turkeys, and other game were 
quite plentiful. Farming was conducted in 
the most primitive manner. All the grass 
was cut with a scythe, and the grain was 
either cut with a reap hook or a cradle and 
trampled out with horses or with a flail. 
There were no fanning-mills, and in order to 
clean the grain one man would take it in a 
seive and hold it high and two others would 
stand by with a sheet with which they fanned 
the air and in that manner separated the 
grain from the chaff. 

Mr. McCoy remained with his father until 
nineteen years of age, then commenced farm- 
ing on rented land. When he attained his 
majority his father gave him $250, and with 
that and his earnings he had enough to pay 
cash on 120 acres of land, which is now in- 
cluded in the farm he now occupies. The 
whole price of the farm was $680, and he 
paid six per cent, interest on the balance. 
He lived in a log cabin and in that humble 
abode himself and wife commenced house- 
keeping. They occupied that dwelling about 
eighteen months and then built a brick 
house. Since that time he has erected a 
commodious frame house and other build- 
ings, planted fruit and shade trees and 



placed the land in a high state of cultivation. 
He has been very successful as a farmer and 
has purchased other land at different times 
and is now the owner of about 500 acres, all 
in Brown county. 

The marriage of Mr. McCoy took place 
January 27, 1853, to Sarah Harper. She 
was born in Ohio, August 29, 1835, and was 
the daughter of Elder James Harper. Mrs. . 
McCoy died November 2, 1868, and Mr. 
McCoy subsequently married Lucinda, a 
sister of his former wife, October 28, 1869. 
She was born in Brown county, Illinois, 
April 17, 1847, and died May 7, 'l890. He 
was married to Laura J. Putman, October 
28, 1891. She was born in Ohio, August 7, 
1841. Her father, William Putman, was 
born in Bourbon county, Kentucky, October 
16, 1797, and was the son of Zachariah and 
Winnifred (Collins) Putman. The parents 
of Mrs. McCoy moved to Ohio and resided 
in Champaign county for some years, com- 
ing from there to Illinois in 1841, at 
which time the father purchased a farm in 
Mt. Sterling township, which he occupied 
until his death, July 24, 1880. Mr. McCoy 
has five children by his first marriage: Elvira, 
Mahala, Mary Jane, Turner and Martha. Of 
his second marriage there are William and 
Arthur. Mr. and Mrs. McCoy are members 
of the Primitive Baptist Church and are 
good pious people. In politics he affiiliates 
with the Democratic party. He has served 
long as Supervisor and has been Chairman of 
the Board. 



fOHN DIRREEN, ex-Sheriff of Cass 
county, was born in Virginia precinct, 
Cass county, Illinois, July 29, 1840. 
He is one of the representative men of his 



346 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF CASH, 



county, and as such merits biographical men- 
tion in this work. Briefly given, a review 
of his life is as follows: 

While tradition says that the Dirreen fam- 
ily originated in France, their ancestry is 
traced back only to the grandfather of John 
Dirreen, who was born in Ireland. Three of 
his children came from the Emerald Isle to 
America, and located as follows: John set- 
tled in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he was a 
customhouse official upwards of forty years, 
at the end of that time retiring on half-pay. 
He died there, aged ninety-three years. 
Michael bought a farm in New York State, 
and still resides on it. Edward Dirreen was 
born iu county Callan, Ireland, and was 
there reared. He came to America when a 
young man and settled in Philadelphia, 
where he married. He subsequently moved 
to St. Louis, and from there came to Cass 
county, Illinois, about 1835, settling in Vir- 
ginia precinct. Here he entered a tract of 
Government land, four miles from the site of 
the present courthouse, and built the log 
cabin in which the subject of our sketch was 
born. At that time the country was thinly 
settled and deer and wild turkey were plenty 
in this region. The whistle of the locomo- 
tive had not sounded here, and Beardstowu 
was the market seat for the surrounding 
country. In 1855 he sold his farm and 
bought another in the same locality, where 
he resided until his death. His widow, whose 
maiden name was Jane Henphey, still re- 
sides on the old homestead. They were the 
parents of seven children: Catherine, Eliza, 
Alice, John, Richard, Edward and Michael. 
Eliza and Eichard are deceased. 

John Dirreen received his education in 
the primitive log schoolhouses of his native 
county. As soon as he was old enough he 
assisted his father on the farm, remaining 



under the parental roof until he was twenty- 
one. He was then employed for three years 
by others, at the end of which time he en- 
gaged in farming on his own account. In 
the fall of 1877, on account of the ill health 
of his wife, he went to Texas, remaining there 
till January, 1878, when he returned to Illi- 
nois. That spring he was made a Deputy 
Sheriff, and has been connected with the 
office of Sheriff continuously since. In 1886 
he was elected Sheriff, and served one term, 
which is the limit prescribed by law. At 
the expiration of his term he was again ap- 
pointed deputy, which position he still holds. 

Mr. Dirreen was married in 1871, to 
Mary Cunningham, a native of Kentucky, 
and a daughter of George and Maria (Lind- 
sey) Cunningham, natives of Scotland and 
Kentucky respectively. Mrs. Dirreen died 
in February, 1878, and in November, 1886, 
he married Alice Burrows. By his first wife 
he has one daughter, Josephine, and by the 
second, a son, Edward. 

Mr. Dirreen is a member of Virginia 
Lodge, A. O. U. W. 



1LLIAM JOCKISCH, a retired 
farmer, of Beardstown, was born in 
Liepsic, Saxony, Germany, in 1829. 
His parents, Carl G. and Eliza (Jacob) Jock- 
isch, were born in Saxony. Mr. Jockisch, 
Sr., was a farmer and distiller for some years 
before he and his family embarked for the 
United States in 1834. They went to New 
Orleans, and then worked their way up the 
Mississippi river to St. Louis, and there the 
mother died at the birth of her tenth child. 
Mr. Jockisch was left with his small children 
to make the rest of the trip alone. He 
stopped in Cass county for some time, and 




SCHUYLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



347 



then was married a second time to Mrs. 
Christina Long, of Germany. Mr. Jockisch 
died in this county, and his wife followed 
him some ten years later. They were at first 
Lutherans, and later Methodists. 

William Jockisch is the youngest but one 
of nine children that grew to maturity. Two 
of his brothers are in the same county. He 
began farming at an early age, and by his 
good management has amassed a small for- 
tune, which he now enjoys in retirement in 
his comfortable and pleasant home on the 
corner of Sixth and Edwards streets. He 
owns 300 acres of good, tillable land, be- 
sides other lands which lie southwest of 
Beardstown. The building of the railroad 
has aided him greatly in making his fortune, 
as much of the land he owned was increased 
by the building of the road. 

He was married to Elizabeth Rohn, of 
Beardstown, Illinois. She was bom in 1839, 
in Beardstown, and lived there till 1855. 
She was the daughter of John and Catharine 
(Stier) Rohn, of Hesse- Darmstadt. They 
came to the northwest, early in life, and were 
married in Beardstown. Mrs. Rohn is still 
living, and is nearly eighty-nine years of 
age. Mr. Rohn was a plasterer by trade, and 
was the proprietor of the ferry at Beardstown 
at the time of his death. He was a Repub- 
lican in politics, and a Lutheran in religion. 

Mrs. Jockisch is the eldest of four children. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jockisch have had seven chil- 
dren, two of whom are dead, Mary A. and 
Rosena A. Those living are: Elizabeth, now 
the wife of J. T. Brines, a farmer in Schuyler 
county; J. Victor, at home, and clerking for 
Phil Kuhl; Anna A., now Mrs. Cad Allard 
(see biography); Rosa, now Mrs. Dr. J. C. 
Henny, of Beardstown, the leading dentist; 
Rudolph, deputy clerk in the post office of 
Beardstown. The children have all been 



well educated. They are all members of the 
Methodist Church, of which Mr. Jockisch 
has been Trustee for four years, and a mem- 
ber of the building committee of the new 
church that has just been erected. 

Mr. Jockisch is one of the promoters and 
a director of the First National Bank of 
Beardstown, as well as one of the heaviest 
stockholders in the same. He was appointed 
Public Administrator in and for the county 
of Cass September 13, 1892. He is a worthy 
citizen of this thriving place, and as he has 
lived in the county since his fourth year, and 
in the town for the last twenty years, he is 
one of the pioneers of the place and is a pio- 
neer of whom Illinois may well be proud. 



>ENRY VENT RES was born in Smith 
county, Tennessee, January 25, 1812. 
His parents, Asa and Nancy (Wake- 
field) Ventres, were of Welsh and English 
ancestry respectively. The former was born 
December 24, 1793, and the latter was boru 
about the same time. Soon after the war of 
1812, in which he was a soldier, he located 
in St. Glair county, Illinois, where he died 
about 1818. 

Henry was the eldest of a family of four 
children, three of whom are still living. He 
learned the brick- making trade in early man- 
hood, and worked at that and brick-laying up 
to the time he came to Illinois, and has 
engaged in it since coming to this State. 
Coining to Illinois at such an early date, the 
family have witnessed a wonderful growth in 
the country. The Black Hawk band was 
located on Rock river, and frequently infested 
the settlers. Mr. Ventres has held the vari- 
ous township offices, and given satisfaction 
in every one. He settled on his present 



348 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF. C ASS, 



farm in 1834, and is one of the oldest settlers 
of the county. There was only an occasional 
log cabin in the county. The land which he 
took up was a military tract, which he pur- 
chased, consisting of 160 acres of land, to 
which he has added forty acres since. 

He was married in Monroe county, Ken- 
tucky, to Miss Elizabeth Jones, January 27, 
1833. In 1883 they celebrated their golden 
wedding, and are looking forward to the cele- 
bration of a diamond one. They have had 
nine children, of whom five are still living, 
namely: William C., a miller and merchant, 
located in Kansas; Ophelia, now Mrs. A. R. 
Marshall, of Gove county, Kansas: her hus- 
band is a farmer and stock-raiser; Sarah, 
now Mrs. T. Shippy, of Plymouth, Illinois: 
her husband is a teacher by profession; Lucy 
A., now Mrs. Beck, of Pueblo, Colorado: her 
husband is a merchant; Walter Maro resides 
on a farm adjoining his father's: he married 
Miss Maggie Diamond. Mr. and Mrs. Ven- 
ters have been consistent members of the 
Christian Church for sixty years. Mr. Ven- 
ters has been a life-long Democrat, but is 
disgusted with both the old parties. He has 
been a man of exemplary habits, not using 
any kind of intoxicants or tobacco in any 
form. Mr. and Mrs. Venters are comfort- 
ably situated, and are enjoying the fruits of 
their early labors. 



}RS. SALLIE (BRYANT) LUT- 
TERELL, of section 9, Browning 
township, was born in Virginia in 
1792. She is the oldest person in Schuyler 
county, and there are very few in the State 
who can boast of being 100 years old. Should 
she live until the 25th of June she will be 
100 years old. She came to Sehuyler county 




in 1830, and has been a resident of the county 
ever since. Her husband, Shelton Lutterell, 
was a soldier in the war of 1812, and fought 
at the battle of Horse Bud and various other 
points. They were married November 13, 
1813, and their married life lasted for sixty- 
nine years, four months and seventeen days, 
when Mr. Lutterell died, in the house where 
his widow still resides. He was born May 
12, 1794. They were among the first settlers 
of Browning township, where Mr. Lutterell 
owned a farm. Mrs. Luttereli's parents were 
natives of Patrick county, Virginia. Mrs. 
Lutterell raised a family of twelve children, 
and she has survived all but three of them, 
Sarah Skiles, Nancy Wright and Oil ie Thorn- 
ton. Mrs. Lutterell has lived with her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Thornton, since the death of her 
husband. Mr. Thornton, the husband of her 
daughter, was born in Jackson county, Ten- 
nessee, September 10, 1819, and he was the 
son of Felix and Celetha (Holly) Thornton. 
They were born and reared to maturity in 
Raleigh, North Carolina, but came to this 
county iu 1829, and located on a farm near 
Mr. Luttereli's. They had five sons and the 

r 

same number of daughters, but only five of 
them are living. Mr. Thornton was married 
in Browning township, June 23, 1844, to 
Miss Ollie Lutterell. They have eight chil- 
dren, but only four are living: William I., 
deceased; Sarah C., wife of John Flemmiug, 
and lives in Browning village; Delilah J., 
deceased; Patsy Ann, wife of David Stead- 
man, and lives in Browning township; Mar- 
tha Ellen married William Thornton, and 
lives in the same place; John A. lives in 
Browning. Two children died in infancy. 
A grandson, Chester R., lives with his grand- 
mother. 

Mrs. Luttereli's father was a John Bryant, 
and was the son of another John Bryant. 



SCHUTLER AND BROWN COUNTIES. 



349 



Her mother was Judy Wentfrey. She is a 
member of the Christian Church, as are Mr. 
and Mrs. Thornton, and she has been one for 
fifty years. Mr. Thornton has been a resi- 
dent of the township for sixty-three years, 
and he has seen many wonderful changes 
take place in the county. He has traveled 
in the States of Kentucky, Iowa, Missouri, 
Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Illinois. 
He has always been a farmer by occupation. 
He is a Democrat in politics, and his sons 
are Democrats in their political views. 



JVERTON PARKE, a substantial farmer 
and influential citizen of Woodstock 
township, Schuyler county, Illinois, was 
born in Brown county, of the same State, 
October 8, 1841. His parents were Perry and 
Mary (Logsdon) Parke. (See sketch of Perry 
and Joseph Logsdon for history of the Logs- 
dons.) They were both natives of Kentucky, 
and came to Illinois at an early day, and still 
reside in "Woodstock township, near the home 
of our subject. 

The subject of our sketch was reared on the 
home farm and attended the country schools 
of his district during the winters. He re* 
maiued at home until he was twenty years of 
age, assisting his father and going to school, 
when, on August 11, 1862, he enlisted in 
Company D, One Hundred and Fifteenth 
Illinois Infantry, serving in the Civil war un- 
til its close, with the exception of a few 
weeks, during which he was in the hospital 
at Louisville, Kentucky. With the excep- 
tion of these few weeks he served with his 
regiment through every skirmish and battle 
until the great conflict was over. After the 
war he returned to his home in Schuyler 
county, where he rented a farm for a year, 

24 



when, in the fall of 1866, he was married to 
Miss Rosanna C. Reddick. She was a native 
of Woodstock township, Schuyler county, 
Illinois, where she was born April 25, 1851, 
her parents being pioneers and prominent 
people of this county, viz. : John J. and Mary 
(Clark) Reddick. (See sketch of John Clark 
for history of Clark family.) John J. Red- 
dick was a son of Jonathan Reddick, and 
came to this county with his parents when 
he was only about one or two years of age. 
His parents came from Kentucky about 1830 
and located in Schuyler county, being among 
the earliest settlers of that county, where they 
resided until their death. They were among 
the most prominent and successful agricult- 
urists of their vicinity, and highly respected 
by all who knew them. It is on their home- 
stead that our subject now resides, which is 
one of the finest farms in the country, well 
improved with substantial house and large 
barns for grain and stock, while the land is 
highly cultivated, and supplied with all the 
modern machinery and appliances for the 
sowing and harvesting of their products. But, 
immediately after his marriage, Mr. Parke 
had no such splendid home, living for several 
years on a part of his father's farm, which he 
rented. He and his wife resided here until 
the death of her parents, since when they 
have lived in the present home, which through 
the energy and enterprise of our subject has 
been greatly improved, and which comprises, 
at the present writing, more than 300 acres 
of the finest agricultural land in the country. 

Mr. and Mrs. Parke have had eleven chil- 
dren, five of whom are now living, viz.: John 
E., Maggie A., Elizabeth, Nettie C. and 
Rosanna C. 

Politically Mr. Parke is a Republican, and 
ever since his first vote for General U. S. 
Grant he has voted the straight Republican 



350 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF .CASS, 



ticket. Pie is a member of the Gr. A. R. 
Post at Rushville, Illinois. He and his 
estimable wife are members of the church, 
for the cause of which they are earnest 
workers, as, indeed, they are in every worthy 
cause. Both are ardently interested in the 
advancement and welfare of their county and 
the country at large, and both enjoy alike the 
respect and esteem of the community in 
which they live. 



FRANCIS MARION STOUT, a large 
land-owner of Mount Sterling, was born 
near Georgetown, Scott county, Ken- 
tucky, January 29, 1823. His ancestors were 
English, his great-grandfather coming from 
England, settling in New Jersey at a very 
early date. His grandfather, Eli Stout, came 
from New Jersey to Kentucky at the begin- 
ning of the present century. He journeyed 
down the Ohio river, exposed to considerable 
danger from the Indians, on the banks of the 
stream. He was a pioneer of Fayette county, 
Kentucky, and died in Owen county, same 
State. Isaac Stout, father of subject, was 
boru in Scott county, Kentucky, where he 
was reared, educated and married. The 
latter event occurred when he led to the 
altar Miss Lydia Baxter, native of the same 
State. He died in Leesburg, Harrison county, 
Kentucky, of cholera, in 1833, his wife hav- 
ing died a few days previous. 

Francis M. Stout was the oldest of four 
children, and was only ten years old when his 
parents died. He was reared by his paternal 
grandfather and grew to manhood in Scott 
county, Kentucky, and in Owen county 
where he attended the subscription schools, 
and high schools, at Owenton, Kentucky. In 
1844 he came to Illinois, landing in Brown 



county in June of that year. Pie first taught 
school a few years and then began the pot- 
tery business, in Ripley, in which he con- 
tinued for over thirty years. He also em- 
barked in mercantile pursuits and continued 
in that busines for about the same length of 
time. He has now re