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Full text of "Biographical Sketches of Dekkan Poets: Being Memoirs of the Lives of Several ..."

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

OP 

BEINO 

MEMOIRS OF THE I^IFES 

OF SEVERAL 

BOTH ANCIEXT AND MODERN^ 
WHO BATE FLOURISHED 

DIFFERENT PROVINCES 

or TKB 

INDIAN PENINSULA, 

COMPILED trom Authentic documents. 

BY 

CAVELtT VENKATA RAMASWAMIE. 

ianslator akd pundit iir i 

ND ANTIQDARIAN DEFARTHsM 

CALCUTTA :— X82ft 



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To The Right Hon'ble- 
hoxd William C. Beutiack, 

a. C. B. & G. C. H. 

Governor Generalj &q. fitc. Hg/ 
My Lgrd^ 

In, dedicating the following pages to your 
3Lordship^ I. am actuated by seutiments^ that 
I have not the power tft express, jfor, having 
my Lord> been a witness to those Public and 
Private virtues, which included in. their ex 
tensive range, the encouragement of Hindu 
liiterature, during your Lordships Govern- 
m«nt of'Madtras ; T, ais well' as- the rest of 
my countrymen, am impressed. with grateful 
feelings, that will endure as long as the term 
of my life. The materials to compile the 
Biographical Sketches,, now committed to. 
your Lordship's protection and patronage^ 
were collected; during my arduous oflicial 
duties in different Provinces, under my lata 
lamented master Colonel Colin Mackenzie* 
Smreyor General of India, whose literary 
]^oxa in the Indian field, were first encoii- 



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taged under your Lordship's enlightened 
Government; andldeemit, my Lord, the 
happiest circumstanoe ofmylife,thatbyheing 
allowed to dedicate my humble "Work to 
your Lordship, I have an opportunity of 
publicly subscribing myself^ with the utmost 
deference and respect 

My Lori>, 

Vour Lord8hip*^s 
Most obedient humble Servant* 
CAVEU.T VENKATA RAMA8WAMJB. 



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Contentfft 



ff»nk»achar7, «... 

Elejffaia UpadI ja, .. 
Adbid niiatt, .... 

Siiikaol, .... 

BhRiUgi Dikshal, .... 
Nagogi BiiKti .... 

SemaoBt Bliatt. .... 

SakaljR Mala 

AkshoblVf a OuJubat, .. 
TallaTa, .... 

Cajapati-FtaUpa ) 

Rudra. .... > 

Xhira Swam! 

Salivabana, .... 

BUasLara Achaii, . . . . 

Varahamibira, .... 

Gaaika oaoda^ .... 

Kadamba, .... 

PuriKbeltaina 

KaljanaMala, .... 

Varadacbarja, .... 

Vidjaranya or ) 

Madhavabhatt, .. } 

Vidyaaat, ,,,, 

V«danlachaii, • . . . 

tiaksmenarta^a Napa,., 

Venkalacbari, •• :■ 

Appajadiksbit, .... 

Aj»dilcshit, .. . 

RamaDUJaehari, . . . . 

SarnadhaTa, .... 

Tatachari, .... 

Poliah, .... 

Paddiblial, .... 

Iiakshmana fc«Ti, .... 

Keladi Basavappa Naik 

Vragappadadanatnb, ,. 

Jajcanaib Fandi', .... 

Naouayn Bhait, .,., 

Teminajia Satli, .... 

TikkaDft Somayagi, .. 

Bbadu Maoti, .... 

TiiUBMiat •>.< 



3 Snfano. ., 


. ** 


17 Tinnala Ramalinga. 


. 9» 


35 Ayala B1>R9kata, ., 


. 10» 


27 AppaKavi. 


.. 101 


S9 Allasani Pcdd^na, .. 




30 Adharvananhiirja, .. 


. 106 


3« Anrthra. Kalidas, .. 


.. 107 


34 Abliaonkau, 


.. 108 


3* Annajadiri, 


. . — 


— GovindakaTJ, 




ng Ramabbadra, 


." 109 


Vtukala Pali Raja, 





— Bala Svaawati, .. 


'.'. HO 


37 Cliatkara, 


.. lU 


— Bada BanalabhaU, .. 





33 Uanrten^, 


;". 113 


39 BappanaKuri, .. 


.. 113 


— BasavaKavi, 


.. 114 


40 BhTravaKavi. 


.. 114 


— Bhima Kavi, 


.. 114 


— GuDgadhara 


.. IIT 


An Ghanfaya Kavi, 


.. 118 


^ Jasannaib, 


.. 119 


46 Lakslmiana Kavi, . 




50 LingaKavJ, 


v. 120 


63 Lakshmana Kavi 11. 


j 181 


B6 seooQd 


59 LinjaRaja, 


.. 123 


63 Loka Bbaadbava, . 




64 Lingaya. 


.." 123 


66 M^nchaimHatya, .. 


.. — 


67 Mollj, 




68 Madhava Roya 


.. 124 


72 Maltasa, 




75 MuttdD Ruigft Clio 
77 kaiiadb. 


J 125 


— MalUya, 


.. 126 


78 Pataraja, 


.. 127 


82 Srioath, 


.. 129 


83 ChiuaVirana, 


.. 130 


84 Chakrappa. 


.. 134 


85 MahBDaopI, 


.. 136 


91 Krislua Sajuln, . 


*.. — 



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Ti CONTENTS. 




Asnslrar, . 


... 138 


Oranolia, '. 


.. =5 




.. 138 


Naroadeo, 


. 146 


Kapllar, 


,. 140 




. UZ 


TerBvalavor, 





Tukkoba, 


... i48 


AdhikaDan, . 


'.'.'. 141 


Manapparto, 


.. 149 


Uppaga, 


... 142 




... — ' 


Wurega, 
Vallj. 




SridhaiaSwami, , 




\\\ 


Choka Mela. 


.. 1B9 


Saiakara, 




6ora Cumbar. 




Guana Samhandar, , 


'.'.'. 144 


Tor Subbanrow, 


.. 151 


Appar, 


,., 


llciaanda pant, • 


... 168 


Sundarar, 




Damagi punt. 




Manikyanaaar, 


.'.'.* 145 


Cavellj Veokata Boriah, 15« 



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PREFACE. 



According to Aristotle all pbeti^ consists 
in imitation, and if we allow the remarks of 
Hermogenes to be true, that whatever is de* 
Mghtful to the senses produces the beautifal, 
We could not pitch on a spot of the world 
inore abundant in ttatut-al objects to excite 
J)oetic effusions, than the Peninsula of India^ 
where the fece of nature is furnished with 
features that strike the imagination with 
scenes, the most sublime, imposing, sind de* 
lightful, so as to raise all human powers of 
fancy to an elevation that exalts them to the 
very sublime, and beautiful : there have con- 
sequently been several very eminent bards, 
who have flourished at different periods ia 
India. According to Hindu accounts, the an- 
cient legislator Manu, Bhugu, and other 
sages have ordained " Sapta Anga" or seven 
appendages requisite in the courts of all le- 
gal Monarchs ; namely, Doctors, Poets, Pi» 



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nil 

negyrists. Singers, Jesters, Moralists, and 
Historians ; the first, to investigate the laws, 
the second, to write the genealogy, martial 
deeds and other acticms, and qualities of 
Sovereigns, to promulgate the same to differ- 
ent quarters of the world; the third, to 
chant and laud; the fourth to amuse the 
king hy their jokes, and filth, to utter 
wise maxims and saws ; sixth, to furnish 
precedents ; and seventh, to record transac- 
tions, and expound the histories of celebrated 
dynasties. The above seven officers will 
cause a Sovereign to rule his country with 
jxKtice and renown. 

The Hindus affirm, that poetry is innate 
end not to be acquired, and according to 
their astrologers, mankind obtain this art by 
ft fortunate influence of the planets Jupiter 
and Venus. 

The ancient kings of the north of India 
were very great patrons of poetry, althongh 
in that remote age poems were constructed 



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with much lesa care and art than succeeding 
years ; but the numerous poets that latterly 
crowded the couirts of various mouarchs, haye 
oansed these . uffusioos to be less esteetued> 
notwithstanding their merits, by patrons 
who expected panegyrics as a matter of 
course. Many centuries ago tlie princes of the 
lunar race^ such as Purura and others; fol- 
lowed this maxim, and were imitated by their 
successors who kept up their dignity and 
&mej tiS the original solar and lunar races 
became extinct in the person of Nanda, 
whose downfall is exhibited in a dramatic 
work called Mudra-Rakshasa*, or seal and 
signet of Rakshasa, a minister of Chandra 
Giq)ta ; the effusions of poets may from this 
date be said to be dedicated to mercenary 
purposes and not to those exalted themes 
that distingished them in days more ancient. 
According to records Vekramaditya, who 

* Sea its Trauslation by Dr. Wilson, 



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was the lord of an sera, employed at Ms court 
nine poets, who were styled " Nava Ratna'*^ 
or nine gems. This monarch likewise found- 
ed colleges for students, and encouraged 
literary men in order to perpetuate his fame. 
Although many poems must have been writ- 
ten to illustrate his actions, yet few have been 
handed down to posterity, except the Vek- 
rama Charitra ; but a number of g^rants that 
have been discovered by antiquarians, tes- 
tify the king's liberality to bards, who were 
no doubt celebrated for their talents at one 
time, although their works are now lost 

Bhoja Raja, sovereign of Dharapore, had 
for his chief poet the noted Kalidas, to- 
gether with other excellent bards, who wrote 
Works that are still made use of in schools 
and colleges. This monarch was a great pa- 
tron ofliterature, and many learned men Sock- 
ed to his court from different provinces, 
attracted by his patronage and munificence. 



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au 

It Itas been asserted tiiat Bhoja Baja used 

to pay one lac of money for every syllable of 

a verse that was written on him, and this 

T^erse is cited aa a proof: 

"liaksham Laksham Punor Laksham 

Janudagdha Kaviswar. 

Pay one lac, another lack, and one lac 
more to Janudagdha the poet " 

The sum of one lac for every syllable is 
such an instance of liberality, as can no 
tvhere be found recorded in history, and is 
too extravagant to deserve credit ; but the 
learned haye explained the matter by assert- 
ing that the lacs that were given by Bhoja 
Raja, to the poets, were lacs of shells^ as a 
considerable partof the revenue of his king- 
dom was paid in she/Is. It is also averred 
that any one on beholding the countenanco 
of the above-named monarch, immediately 
obtained the gift of poetry; the true meaning 
of which probably is, that the king was so 
great an encourager of learning that hispa- 



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xil 

tronage brought to light the merits of various 
authors^ who would otherwise have remain- 
ed neglected. 

The three most celebrated poets at Bho- 
ja's court were Kalidas, Dandi, and Bhava 
Bhuti^ and there existed great rivalry be- 
tween them; (it is said, that one day the 
goddess Saraswati, to whom Kalidas had 
several times performed sacrifices, became 
manifest in the form of a beautiful young 
woman, and paraded the high street, play- 
jng with a ball before the three poets, who 
were sitting together. Dandi said, "this ball 
appears of three distinct hues ; when struck 
by. her rosy band it appears red, when pa- 
rallel with her eyes it is blue and brown, 
when struck down to the ground." Bhava 
Bhuti said "she beats it so because it resem- 
bles her breast, the the blue lily in her ears 
falls at her feet, dreading a like fate, as it 
resembles her eyes." Kalidas said, "that be- 



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ing aware of the intention of the ball to kisa 
her lips, she frequently beats it down." 

The goddess at this moment vanished 
from their presence, and created a shop at 
another end of the street, where she sat 
down in the shape of a betel leaf seller ; the 
three above named poets went to the shop ; 
the goddess gave some lime to Bhava Bhuti, 
an areca nut to Dandi, and betel leaf to Ka- 
lidas ; when Dandi asked of her the reason of 
this partiality, the goddess replied, that the 
merits of the poets were not equals she then 
took them to the back part of the shop and 
shewed them three heaps, which were em- 
blems of their merits. Kalidas's was the 
largest, Dandi's was the second, and Bhava 
Bhuti's the smallest ; it is said, that after thin 
event the three poets became firm friendj 
without entertaining any rivalry or envy to- 
wards each other. The successors of Bliu- 
ja Raja were warlike princes, and patroniz- 



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ed Tarious kinds of poetry according to their 
taste. 

The arts and sciences were introduced 
mto Dekkan from the north of India at a 
very early period, and Sanscrit poetry, con- 
sequently flourished in various provinces, 
and in course of time, poetry in the vernacu- 
lar tongues was cultivated, in different dis* 
tricts of the Telugu and Kamata countrieSji 
imd subsequently in Dravida, Haharatta, Gu- 
zerat, and other provinces, the numerous 
poems in this dialect gave occasion to a 
Sanscrit, verse which says, " the poero^s in tho 
langu^e of the gods, are like the wild cows 
(very rare,) and only to be found in forests 
and mountains, while those in the vernacular 
dialects are like hogs to he found at every 
door." Several works in the learned Ian- 
ugagehave been brought to lightby the labors 
of learned Europeans, such as Sir William 
Jones, Mr. Colebroke, Drs. Taylor and Wil- 



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XV 

son. Before the birth of Sankarachari there 
were many works published by the hetero. 
doxical sects of Jainas, Bhaudas, Charrakas 
and others. Except the Amera Cosha, and 
other dictionaries, their works are not held 
in estimation by the Hindus, as the Jainas 
are the avowed devisers of the Vedes. AL 
though the Sanscrit is a dead language, it 
was made use of by various poets at the 
Court of Kings, and to write down publio 
records, and in deeds of gift, or grants of 
htnd to bramins. In the Telugu province 
Trinetra Palava caused the Sanscrit lan- 
Ugage to flourish, when, he had established the 
bramins in his extensive dominions, and this 
example was afterwards followed by the 
{uinces of the Kakati race, whose metropolis 
was Onmgole, they recorded grants and 
o4:her deeds of gifts in the Sanscrit language. 
Gauapati Deva Roya and his son Pratapa 
Rudra^made veiy numerous grants, in which 



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XVI 

their genealogy is frequently introduced. 

Harihara Roya, who was the founder of 
the city of Vedyanagar, and its first sovereign 
cleared ail the dense woods about the banks 
of the TungaBhadra, and Kristna rivers, de- 
vided the land into districts, and built viliar 
ges, towns, and colleges for students, and 
other public institutions ; in all public re- 
cords and instruments, the above named 
sovereign never used the vernacular tongue 
in the various deeds of gifts he made, which 
were inscribed on stone and copper in the 
Deva Nagre character. 

Under the Mysore princes tiie Sanscrit 
language was well cultivated, and several 
excellent poems were written under the, 
successive sovereigns of that dynasty. 

The Andhra or Telugu language is adia- 
lect of the Sanscrit, and is very ancient, for 
a grammar of it was written by Brihaspati. 
Kanva, who lived in the reign of Dushyanti^ 



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Ving of Pl-atisthana puru or Prayaga like- 
wise compiled a copious grammar of thi« 
language^ which is said to bare been taugbt 
by Skaada, son of Seva, according to Sanba- 
dri Khonda, a patt of the Skanda Purai* 

Raja Rjynarendra son of Vishu Vardbn, 
was a prime patron of the Telugu language. 
About the A. S. 2(*28, a bramin named An- 
naparya alias Nannya Bbat wrote a Teluga 
.grammar^ and he was encouraged by tfas 
'above named monarch to translate the Bha< 
-rat into Telugu : ^bree books were written 
by him, and fifteen completed by Tekkana 
Somayagi a bramin of Pature. Since thia 
4ime the Telugu language was particularly 
"Cultivated, and numerous dratfias and epic 
poems were written by noted poets, Krish- 
na Deva Roya was also a great patron of 
this dialeet, be retained at his court eight 
celebrated bards, whom he collectively styled 
Asia diggajas, which being interpretated, 
means the ei^t elephants, alluding to the 
eight elephants, which according to Hindu 



xviii 

•Biytliolc^y support the ear&. The namsa 
'of five of these poets were Allasanl Pedda- 
•na, Mukku Temmann, Tennala Ramalinga» 
Dhurjati Pingala-Sur£uxa, Bhattu-Murti» 
Ayala Kaja and Rama Bhadra. These poets 
^ere the authors of numerous works of all 
-descriptions of poetry, from lyric odes to 
-epic poems. The fiHih mentioned individual 
-ivas an inhabitant of the village called Bhat- 
itxk PaQa : he became tutor to several inferior 
Jmrds, who afterwards dispersed themselves 
ito attend the courts of petty paligara and of 
iioera of districts, such as Kalyanadul-ga Ro- 
ijaditrg, Qutti> Gurarm Konda, KandanoIe» 
.&c. and became panegyrists, they were less 
esteemed for their poetic powers, than the 
great masters who proceded them, but they 
,were styled Bhatta-Rajas, and their origin 
is fully laid down in a paper, communicated 
by the late Colonel Mackenzie, and published 
■JQ the Assiatic Annual Register for the year 
J804. 

The Nayogi bramins, who held ofiicial ap- 
pointmeutsj as ministers, ambassadors, and 



YtHage accountants liberally patronized poets 
and many indiridauls of talents -were maia- 
tained by tbem. 

Although, the BXaratta language was spolo- 
en many £^es ago and. i& a dialect of tho 
Sanscrit, it was never brought to- a standard 
till the time of Gnaneswan N&madeo, and 
SopanadeOj who compiled dictionaries and 
Vocabularies of tbat^ tongue, but still no 
granunar was in existence until a long time, 
afterwards a bramin named. Anuntadeva 
Bhatt undertook the task* and composed a 
philological treatise, which is frequently re- 
, ferred to ; the work is entitled Sarva Sastr»' 
Upayogi,andpossesses. considerable merit. 
The Maratta princes and chiefs were princu 
paUy of a warlike character, and no great 
encouragers^ of l&arniagj or poetiy, there 
were consequently very few poets produced 
in that country, and their talents were prin- 
cipally confined, to the praises of deities and 
fiimilar subjects. 

The materials to compile the present bio* 
graphical sketches w«re collected by me, 

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while I followed man ofin:i&l capacity flirongh 
different . provinces of the Peninsula, my 
late lamented master CoL Colin Mackenzie; 
surveyor General of India ; tte unliappy de- 
mise of that meritorious officer Ifas for eyf^ 
destroyed the .prospect which I had been led 
-sanguinely to hqpe would-be realized^ but I 
•cannot retrace in my memory the various 
■scenes wp passed through, during our ardu- 
ous labours, without feeling those sensations, 
which it is impossible for me to express an(l 
which will never pass away from my mind. 
The meaner in which I have executed the 
task I bad undertaken, I lean an enlightened 
pubhc to judge, well knowing they willnot ex- 
pect well-turned periods, or elegance of dic- 
tion from the pen ofa native. Some typOgra- 
jibical errors Will be found in the woilc, which 
my harrassed state of mind has prevented me 
correcting, and I implore the indulgence of 
the Public towards a native^who has endea* 
vored to merit approbation. 

THE AUTHOR. 

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OF 

DEKKAH POETS. 



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OP 

DEKKAN POETS. 



SANKARACHARI. 

J[ HE followiDg Account of the Life, and Acti- 
ons of this great Legislator, is priocipally taken 
frum a book written in the Sancrit dialect called 
'' Saokara Vejaya" or the Tour of Sankarachari. 
All the wonderful, and supernatural perfor- 
mances related in the work abovenamed, areas 
implicitly beleived by orthodos Hindus, as are 
the miracles of Mose?, and of Christ, mentioned ki 
the Old and New Testaments, by the generality of 
Chiistians — It would therefore he presumptuous, 
and perhaps impious in me to modify, or alter 
oue particle of tbe materials from which I com- 
pile this biography, of a prophet, and aage, who 
flourished in an age, so remote, as to claim anti- 
quity prior to the Cliristian Era. 1 have given 



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the records as I received them, and find them, 
acknowledged by Ae mogt learaed men who 
have written on Hindu Theology, and leave it to 
the candor of the English reader, to whom this 
work is ptlnci^ally addressed, to use their own 
judgment in giving credit to the miraculous ad- 
ventures of the Hindu sage in question. 

Sa'nkahachabi, — A celebrated Hindu poet, 
lawgiver, and prophet, was born, accbrdiog to 
some authors, at Sfingiri Meru,'a village iii the 
subdivision called Hunganad, he was the'sbn of 
a Nambur Bramin. 

There is great discordance of opinion amongst 
Hindu writers respecting the' time of his birth. 
The Kiidali Bramins, who' profess to follow, and 
teach his system- of religion, declare his appear- 
ance to have been about two thousand years 
ago. In a Manuscript history of the Kings of 
IConga T)hs, in the valuable collection of the late 
Colonel Mackenzie, he is said to be con- 
temporary with Trivikramad^va Chakravatri, 
Sovereign of Kiindinipurain the Dekkan, and 
to have been born at Sringeri, a place now in- 



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Haded in the Mysore Territory, and sitoated oii 
the skirtff of the Western Ghauts, -where lie 
founded a College that still exists, and assumes 
pontifical authority over all the SmartvaBraminS 
in the Peninsula. Other accounts have placed 
him in a far later age, and some are -even uhwil-* 
ling to give him a "higher antiquity than 6ne 
thousand years from the present date. 

As from traditions and authentic records how- 
ever, we are informed that Govendayeti Guru, or 
Bpiritual guide of Sankarachari, was the father 
of Vikrama,— we are pretty sm-e that he must 
have beeQContemporary with the Monarch above 
named : these same records also assert Santa- 
jachari to have been borii in thfe 95th year of 
Vik, Sak. in the cycle year Viliunby, in the 
Kerela Des, on the banks of the river Chami,' 
and that he was of the family of the Porachor- 
loo Bramius. 

Sankarachari was invested with the sacerdo- 
tal thread at eight years of age by his father,- 
and applied himself diligently to the study of 



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6 

the Tedes, and made great progress in philbao* 
phy and divinity ; while his precocity of inttil- 
lect astonished bis countrymen, and was far be-^ 
yood any stndent of the time. When he was 
twelve years old his father died, but Sankara^ 
chari still continned cultivating the ScienoeSf 
and every branch of learning ; and his mind 
took such a retigioas tnrn, that even at this ear-i 
ly age he wished to forego the world and become 
a Synassy. - The supplications and cofflmands of 
his parent prevented him putting his design 
into execution, but she could not prevail od him 
to marry, notwithstanding she used all her endea- 
vours to bring about that event, for Sankarachari 
was resolved to continue single, that he might 
give bis whole attention to religion, study, and 
devotional exercises. 

One day, when he was returning witt his mo- 
ther, from a visit to a relation in a distant village, 
thef 'came to a river, which they had forded on 
their journey thither, but which was now consider'- 
ably swelled by the rains that bad fallen, a very 
common case in that country — They stood at 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



the banks for some time, till the torrent had in a 
great measure subsided, when they attempted to 
Cross i(, but found theniselves neck-deep in water 
in avery short time — at this juncture Sankarachari 
ealled aloud to his mother, and said, that unless 
she gave Him permisson to become a Synassi, 
they must both inevitably perish, but that if she 
would consent, he would by his prayers save both 
their lives. The perilous situation in which they 
were placed, induced the mother of Sankarachari 
to give her approbation to her sons request, and 
it is said, the prophet in consequence swam over 
the river, witbhiamotheronhis back. When they 
gained the dry groundj he prostrated himself be- 
fore his mother, whom he aiterwardscircumambu- 
■ lated according to prescribed rules, and then pro- 
ceeded to Karnata, where he remained until he 
completed his knowledge in various sciences. 

After some time, Sankarachari went to KanchI, 
"where he confuted numerous priests of the Budha 
religion, who wer* put to death in oil-mills, by 
Himasitala Maharajah their king, as had been 
agreed to by the parties previous to the contro- 



db,GoogIe 



9 

yersy. Ttiese transafctioos are recorded; byinscrip^ 
tioQs engraved instone, in the temple of SmasaneS'^ 
. wftr at Seva Kancbi, and at Tenicovalure, on the 
opposite aide of the Vegatati riv©r,*not far from the. 
1»efore-iBe&tioned place. He aflerwardis cousecratf. 
«dan imageof the Goddess K&makshi on a'copper 
pedestal, tod ehgraved mysterious sylkbles in thfr 
diBcrent arches and rooais, according to the rules, 
laid' down in the Adharvna " Vede, and composect 
eoght Sanscrit verses in praise of the goddess,, 
ichieh are entitled " Kamakshi Astaka." He also 
established a lin ff urn at Kaachi, and dedicated it; 
to Yalta Am res war, since which ttme, the place ia-, 
called Siva Kanchi — Sankarachari went thence 
to Ternpati, where hewaa again engaged iii reli- 
gious controversy, and overcame the most learned 
pundits in disputation, and erected ii crystal 
lingum, as the image of Venkateswar. and deno- 
minated it Chundra-maleswar, or the crescent 
crownedGod: thetemple was, in a conspicuous 
position ona,hUl, where thedoctrine of there being 
no distiBCtion , between Seva and Veshnu> wa^ 



d=,GoogIe 



taught He directed bis disciples, to ooUeetoovfai* 
bations, from every pilgrim ^at was preaeat, at 
tiie processioD oftHeelfariot^oreM-ofVeDkateB- 
war, and that food should be supplied to indigettt 
visitors and votaries. The above-mwitioae4 Saga. 
oomposed twent^seVeA TfirsesiDfacmorof Chaa- 
dramaleswM- and Vei^ateswar and entitled thtn 
^Naluihatraniahi*' aodhe left directioBi.-T-d)attfa« 
Unffttm should be wozshipped oiw aioi^ wittt 

Belva leaves, 

' From this |dace Sankarachtri proceedod t», 
Benares, by the route of tfa« Vindfaya HiUvJUt 
order that he might be acquainted wjtfa Dk Iflam*. 
ougof the peofde of theportk. He tfcero h^iud- 
watch oi the reputation of MawdftHfl Mi9rft> an au- 
thor of several worics on logic, and had agr^ de- 
sire to visit and form an intimacy nith him— ok. 
this design he set out for bis boase, but nhea ai* 
rived Hiere, his entrance was .obstructed by eight: 
parrots, that were endued with human speech and 
iotciligence — Wbile struck with afttouishmentj; 
and waiting ijt suspence at the door of MaadauaCsr 
house, he observed a cocoanut tree not &r froa 
bin, and bong informed that some people in the 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



aesivd thfi a4 of piuQitiiigthefrMitpf the cocqan^jt 
tcfie40'ibe:»H5r§pPVflr of ipc4fttfitioq> ^thoiit 
bei^. oblige to^litnb the ti'^e—Sankarachari ii^ 
ciQiBequejice leads .4 jo.ani^y to Valatot^i^pur^ ii^ 
Cashmere, nih^e h^ mw a toddy^man extracting 
jaiee'fh)Di a palm tree by Bi^ripl^ strikiug ttie steia 
vitbhia hand. After 6<^u)1im6;^fliiUtara p^snac]* 
«31i1mio instmct him qi the muntra, pcpmy^s; 
by which he effected this miraculous pei/onDaucQ/ 
ttjd4t lb saidj, that Sankaiac^ari in time initiaied 
iSie toddy-iqan in a very wood^ifiil and profitable 
art, i^ich was ttte tmnsmutatioii of metala tnta 
^AAyhf merely pouring ob it the jtdce of a cert^ 
plahf; nhtle pronounciiig certain iqysteridUB 'and 
nu^^ical sj^ables.— It is saidy titat the toddy-maii 
on beobmibgaa adept'in the turt laat-meotioi)^, 
lost itts fonner one, but by ipcaas of ttiie d^W axt he 
acquir«:d ma'au&etnred a gieat qaantity of gold, 
e^^ruckeoitts; bearing the impresnonofhisomi 
figure'.-A short time aflter this, &uikarachari retam- 
(^ to the house of MQtklanaMisra,be&re-mett-' 
tioiied> situated at Gk>da, on the bank of theNar- 
jaada river ; when there he cKinbe^ tlw^ocoaaHt 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



if 

tree tKat has already teen noticeiii and liy thi 
meahs of its brantih^s jutnpedinto it safbtiii m tKe 
honae, where he found llf^claiia Misra> harahgne^ 
ingalargemultitad'e. Who were seated'to bear bis 
doctiihes, aiicl lisitemag id his disootrt-ses with a^ 
iDiratioi). SaakdrachariVas sooir ehgt^a^n corfi 
troversj- with the ihaster of the house oh some ab- 
sfrase poitat in philosophy; and comptetfiiy vao^ 
qiiisbed him in every argument' thiat Was contest*' 
feit "the wife of Maiidana Misra perceiving 
ibat her husb^id was batied and overcome, im!* 
ihediatety stepped forward alid' clianenged San- 
Kafacbari to dfspute on toe inysterioua scfenco of 
Sexuahiiitercoarse. tt should be observed that 
the art of tove among Hindiia is iiultiratej 
by the learned as a science the ibost iiitricate and 
Sublime; that can engage the niikd of mail, and 
jcnany Shdsters have been written on t^kis sobject-by 
sages of antiquity, whose texta have been exphtin- 
ed by Diimerous commentators— Sankaraichari had 
no knowledge of this science, as he was abachetor, 
and bad never been' e'ngaged in a love affair 
with any female, since Lis bittb — he therefore, 
declined the coiitest for the present with the wift 
C3 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



of MandenaMiara, agreeiag^ coma to her lathe 
course of six niontha, and ^nteqd iritti her on any 
point she wished to prc^toee. 

Sankarachari after this made ajouraey to a 
tatyf vbose kiDg of the name of Araaraga, was juat 
dead, and the body placed on a pile of sandal- 
vooc^ in order to be burnt Saakarachn, It is 
^id, beang in posseaaion of an art, hy whjch hQ 
Coold transmigrato his aoul into other bodies, 
was detertniaed to avail himself of the oppor. 
tanitj that now offered, and giving special direc. 
tions to hia own disciples, who- were oollected 
Toand him, and whom he entrusted with the 
a^oiet to take special care of his own corpse, he 
by proiiooDeing tome cabalistic and mysterious 
^yUatdes caused his own soul to auimate the dead 
hftf^y of the king ; be tiien sprung up, and quitting 
the pilc^ proceeded to his palace, where all the 
.coortiera and attendants of the late king were in 
admiration, at the supposed resuscitation of their 
master. 

Sankarachari enjoyed all the rights of a bus. 
baiwl with, the c^ueen, widow of the late king : 
aAer a time however, she began to suspect th^ 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



13 

tliis was not her real husband, l>nt that some 
adept in tbe art had animated b^ husband's 
corpse: she consequently gave directions that 
every dead body in her dominion should be 
immediately bomt^ and her ministers and guards 
forthwith proceeded to pat her orders into exe- 
ontion. — The disciples iy£ Sankarachari were not 
able to conceal the corpse of their master, from the 
scmtiny of the queen's servants, and the body 
was immediately placed on a pile of feggots to 
be burnt The pupils of Sankarachari on this 
immediately run to the palace exclaiming aloud 
these words, "thou art the true spirit" — Sankara- 
chari suspecting the case, immediately re-animat- 
ed his own body, which was on the pil6 that had 
already been set fire to : finding that now the 
6ames were reaching him, he repeated eight 
verses in honor of Lakshmi — Kanisimha, or 
Vishnu, by virtue of which the fire became im- 
potent, and he was enabled to quit the pile un- 
hurt in the least degree. He then quitted the 
place with all possible expedition, and went ac- 
companied by his disciples to the house of Man- 
dana Misra, whose wife immediately entered in- 



D,q,l,i.:dbvG00gIe 



14 

lo controversy with him, on tlie subject whicfe 
he had previoosiy declined, or rather procasti- 
nated. Experience, however, had' by this time 
well qualified Sankara to give a ready answer 
to all her questions, and he, without hesitation^ 
pointed out all the topical positions, according 
to their revolutions, of passion, and lust The 
wife of Mandaua was defeated and abashed, and! 
made obeisance to her conqueror and master^ 
Sankarachari. whose slaves she and her husbanJ 
became, in consequence of her defeat, as had 
been before stipulated. The Hindu sage ge- 
nerously gave them their liberty, and' shortly af- 
terwards proceeded to Cashmere, where he met 
with the toddy-man before mentioned, who waa 
anxious to recover the art he had lost to Sanka- 
rachari, and made obeisance to him. Sankara^ 
charia however paid no heed to him, but went 
strait to Valabhipore, where he prayed to the 
goddess to come and reside in that part of the 
peninsula in which he was born. It is said, tlat 
the goddess assented to his request, and inti- 
mated to him, that in whatever spot she became 
manifest to him, she would rest jSankarachari 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



15 

■was mach gratified at the condescension of tEw 
goddess, and immediately proceeded towards- 
Bedaore, which is a province iii the Camatic. 
Wlien he arrived at the hermitage of tiie Rteshi, 
called Sringi, on the banks of the river, Tnngai 
Bhadra, the goddess Sarada became mani- 
fest,, and intimated to him, that she intended" to 
reside fliere, and commanded him tobnilda tem- 
ple in her honor, which Sankarachari' according- 
ly did ; he also raised several edifices in varioos 
divisions, where worship was paid to the above- 
named deity. After this, he made a tour round 
the Indian peninsula, and erected fanes in honor 
of the goddess in numerous places, giving them' 
distinct denominations. He returned to Srin- 
geri and composed a poetical work to celebrate 
the incomparable charms and accomplishments 
of the wife of king Amaraga. He also com- 
piled a commentary on tlie theological works of 
Vyasa and intitled it " Sarera — BLashya," m 
ivliich was recorded his extermination of the 
beretical sects of Jainas, Bowdhas, Charwakas 
Kafabkas, Sec. his eminence in philosophy ob- 
lained for him the title of " Shanmato-dharaka'" 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



«r coDjfiniier of true tenets. Saukarachari made 
mother tonr to the northern countries, and eata- 
blished the God Pasupateswar in the Nepaid 
Conntrj> thence he went to Kamarupa, in Amud, 
where he planted an image of the goddess Ka- 
naksbl^and leaving this place, proceeded to Rivit* 
laya, a moontaia in which place he erected aiut- . 
^iniR,and called it Revalayeswar; afler this he went 
to Badaruikedar, on the declivity of what is called, 
the Snowy Mountain: in this place he completed 
his dieological works, and delivering them to his 
disciples, directed that they should he published. 
The last accounts we have of this Hindu legisla- 
ture, inform us, that he went to the country of Va- 
Tans, or Greeks,and that he never returned. As no 
authentic narration of his death has been given,ma- 
ny pious Hindus believe that he is still in exist- 
ence. His pupils Padmapadachari and Hastamalk- 
achari returned to Sringeri, where they published 
the works of their master, still e&tant : these pious - 
men spent the remainder of their lives in abstract, 
devotions, and died at the above-named place. 
Their descendants have exercised supreme juris- 
diction in ecclesiastical matters till this very day- 



D,q,l,i.:db,.G00gIC 



If 

ttBSWARA UPADHVA^ 

^LBSWASA Upamta floorished ib the seventh 
fcfentury of die Saltvakana rcrd, aiid was a na^ 
tWe of the town of iSleswai-, irfiich is situated to 
tt« *eistwwd of Srisaile. JFVom his InfaQcy he ' 
made divioity his particular study, and in a short 
time, attttiaed to sQch high degree o^Jifoficiency 
{m learning, that he be'came the preceptor of nd- 
meroiu pupils, and if^ styled by way of emineuce-, 
EUswara tlpadhya. This surname, however, 
which conferred ft dignity on his native village^ 
has tiirbwn the veil of oblivion over his re>.| 
iwme> which hds been lost to prosterily, who 
oftly ire6ogniz6 hiol by the titld before-mentioned. 
- This philoioplief and }M)^t made taiany com- 
MehUries 8h tlie bsxt of Gobtama, called " Smri- 
tiDuriMina** or the "Mirror of Memory," and af- 
ter he had completed his fortieth year, he visited 
Bajas of different provinces, and at their several 
caartg, confuted every other sett that taught 
doctrines , contrary to orthodoxy. This poet 
wrote a geographical treatise, and in the topo- 
gfapby of the Telugu country, divided it into 
l> 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



18 

handreds tttuts, or such .as Vigenad, ValEuia4 
&e. the records of tbesfe divisions ai% preserved in 
the archives of Kondavede, and in the proviaces 
west of the KristQa river, such as Orungole, Ve- 
mdavada, Heswar — they are written in the pro- 
vincial dialect, and are still in the possession of 
village accountants and other authorities. 

Although the Telugu country has undergooff ' 
several- revolutions, and been under different 
dynasties^ yet the sub-divisions made by Eles- 
wora Upadhya, with tbeir various appellationfl, 
have been retained. The lands whidi were 
granted, by different kings and nobles, as a re- 
ward for the labors and valuable works of oui 
poet;, he made over to Bramins whose descend, 
ants have preserved tbeir title deeds to this 
very day. 

. Eleswara Upadhya taught Sanscrit versifica- , 
tion and . prosody to the Princesses of Raghu- 
pati Peta, Narayana^Ga^, and other places, on 
whjich account he was much respected by those . 
distinguished Personages, and received rich re- 
wards from -them. This Poet also established a 
private College, where five hundred pupils were 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



19 

instructed in all the branches of scientific and 
elegant literature, especially the Sanscrit Ian* 
guage;and it is said, that, even the female mem- 
bers of this Poet's family, spoke that dialect as 
fluently as their vernacular tongne, from 
constant^- hearing discourses in it ; for 
Eleswara wodM allow no other but thelearued 
ktngaage to be spoken eren in colloquiaf con- 
versation, having a sovereign contempt for every 
other, conceiving the same to be prohibited hj- 
the I]iudn law. 

It is said, that when Eteswara Upadhya foun^ 
some of his scholars duH' m leamnig their 
lessons, fbr want of a retentive memory, he searclK 
cd in ancient books, and discovered in a very old 
volume, that treated on the occult' sciences, a 
recipe to remedythis evil^ which was oil extractetf, 
fVom the red seeds of the Joiispati plant, and 
mixed with other ingredients and"then used 
in culinary purposes. — When the scholat-s of 
Eleswara made trial* of this excelhnt medicine, 
which was eaten with their daily fiaod; it is 
reported that their heads becEune clear, so that 
E2 



j:,GoogIe 



they fea^dily performed every twk set- them, and 
piad« great progres* in tlie^ leanmig. 

£leswara took very great pains in instructing 
his pupils, and tiie &meof his ancomouB meri^ 
spread around through different provinces, and 
at last reached the ean of Khan Khan> aa^ pf t^ 
generals in the army of the renovn^ EatgfCtor 
AkhjfT, and %greatSancntscholar,^ho was very 
desirous to see this celebrated p^ilqsopher tin^ . 
^et, and on that account made a long journey, 
to Upadhaya, accompanied by a imqp,eroHSi;etinue.. 
When this Chief came to the presence of Eleswa* 
ra^ be made prostration, but the other in ahaught 
ty tone exclaimed — " Mlech^Kshaya-Astu,'* 
(let BarbajiiWis be destroyed)^ The General 
unhesitatingly fepUed, '^ Ast°-:P^uchami-Tat 
purusha," (may meii b? slain by Ihem) Eteswara 
Upadhya then rejoined, " Mlecha-mCTiti Sese 
ha^" (let Barbarians destroy each other). Kbaq 
iOian could make no r^ply ta (his retwt, but 
repeat^ this short sentence, l^ahasrapat, o^ 
God of 1^ thousand beads, thousand eyes, 
aod thousand rays) The poet -on this said " Cbala* 
^ ^hkita Ohiuna Tava Syne phar^ti" — wfaicl\ 



Drained bvGoogIc 



31 

vwda bear the folioifing several interpretation:'* 
."when yonr army marches, the god of a thousand 
h^ads (namely, Sesh^ the serpent, that supports 
;Earth) trembles, tiie god of a thoueand eyes , 
-(Indra) is moved, and the god of a thousand rays 
(Surya or the Sun) is dispersed. The Moslem 
;generalKhan Khan was highly delighted with 
this compliment, and conferred on the poet 
Eleswara many valuable presents, and the title 
■of "EleswaratlpadhyaSeromani" orthe principal 
gem of the sages of Eleswara, and then returned 
. to the Emperor's Court. 

After this Eleswara Cpadhya employed his 
pen in writing a dramatical work, entitled 
" Geresa Natuka," which celebrates in beautifiil 
versification, the nuptials of the god of Sresaile. 

. This poet had no male issue, , but only 
daughters, one of whom named Nachi, became 
unfortunately a widow, when she had just arrived 
at the age of puberty, and she resolved to put 
an end to her life, being inconsolable at his loss, 
and of the consequent deprivation of all hopes of 
having children, and enjoying domestic hap- 
piness j but her father dissuaded her from her 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



purpose^ remiadin^ her that suicide ■met % 
beiuous crime in the eyes of the Almighty. Nashi^ 
became at length reconciled to life, and was re- 
solved to devote the remainder of her years tO' 
philosophy and study : she had heard from her 
father, that by swallowing a large quantity of 
Jotishpati oil, a person will either obtain a quick 
genius, or die in the space of five hoars ; she had 
the fortitude to make the trial, and took a strong- 
dose of the before-mentioned oil. In a short 
time, however, she felt a buring pain through 
her whole frame so acutely, that she could not 
bear it, and in a state almost frantic, jumped 
down a well, that was at the back of their house, 
and remained immersed in water for two hours^ 
in the mean time the poet missing his daughter, 
whom he loved excessively, left off teaching his 
disciples, and went in search of her to the back 
ofthe house, and calling out her name Nachi, 
the damsel answered him from the bot< 
torn of the well, and apprized her father of what 
she had done. He (li:ected her to remain for 
five hours in the well, and tlien to come out, whic" 
she did, and found herself entirely rid of her 

D,„i,i=dbvGoogIc 



DnroiD^f paiDS. It is said, that by the virtue of 
t^s ei), the daughter of Eleswara attained to suck 
'Wonderful capacity, that she shortly became a 
proficient in all the arts and sciences, and able 
to discourse on the most abstruse point in natu- 
ral philosophy. She likewise became a poetess, - 
and wrote an.- epic poem, which she entitled Na. 
chi Naitaktt, in which she recorded in elegant 
Shaascrit yerse, all the events of her own life 
fi-om her birlii till her widowhood. She af. 
terwards obtained theconsentqf her father to go- 
on a pilgnmage to all the holy places in the pe- 
ninsula, and it is said, that in the course of her 
tour, she overcame in controversy many learned 
pundits at varioas places, confuting every one,, 
who came in opposition to her. After receiving 
rewards form U»e kings of Delhi and , of Joya- 
poie, she returned home, much admired for her 
talents and ready wit. 

EleswEtra Upadby had another daughter, in: 
whom be was more unfortunate, for it appears, that 
through some treachery she bad been married to 
a person of an inferior cast, by whom she bad. 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



94 

When the poet diacovered the real rank of tts 
son-in-law, he revealed the whole circumstance 
to his daughter, who through shame put an end 
to hei own life, and that of her children, by set. 
ting fire to the house in which they dwelt, and 
perishing altogether in the flames. 

Eleswara, near the close of his life wrotb 
a code of laws, entitled '" Eleswara Vijaya," 
in wliich the distinctiona of all the tribes 
an.d relationships was minutely examined. This 
work has been quoted by various anthors, 
but. TiotwithstauiUng its celebrity, the original is 
unfortnnately lost, as now not a single copy can 
be found, although much search has been made 
for it This poet died as much respected for his 
unimpeachable character, as the number of his 
pupils, and his prodigious learning. 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



ANAM BHATT. 

This poet was a braiuin, and bran, according 
to tradition, in the village called Garikapad» 
Which was formerty in the dominions of Nizam 
Ally Khan, but is now under the ooutrol of the 
Raja ofChintapilli. He flourished in the fifteenth 
Century of Salivahana, during the reign of the 
Chalukya Kings. For twelve successive years 
he, studied logic^ in the scboots of Kundinipura, 
or Kondavede, during which time he made 
great progress in his learning, and in time wrote 
a commentary) or a treatise on logic, called 
* Tarka Sangraha: — the exposition in question 
fjonsistrd of about two thousand verses, which 
were sent round for examination, and perusal to 
atl the celebrated logicians in the Tulngu coun- 
try. This work obtained universal approbation, 
and after it had been carefully revised, he era- 
ployed various copyists to transcribe it, for the 
purpose of being distributed to different quarters. 

Anam Bhatt established a school for logic in 
his native town, where bis scholars went through 
a regular course of instruction, and were made 



j:,GoogIe 



ae 

proficients in th6 sdence above-Darned, Ids own 
conmientaries was the book principally used in 
this academy. When he was fifty-five years of 
age, Anam Bbatt, together with several of faia 
disciples visited the mountain of Srisaile, where 
a celebrated idol of Seva was established; on his 
return be employed his time entirety in his stu'-, 
dies, except a few hours m the morning and 
evening, which he aUoted to devotion and religi- 
ons exercises/ 

TUs poet did not visit the Court of any kind, 
nor seek rewards from any men of note, beii^- 
content to maintain himself and femily on his 
patrimony, which was ample and quite adequate 
to all bis wants. He lived happy> and contend- 
«dj ttnd had ouny children, who all survived liim. 



3ia,i,i=dbvGoogIe 



SITIKANT. 

This poet was a Smartvabramin, abd iababi- 
tant of Gandikota, which is the chief town of a 
distriet of the same name, which hasbeeo ceded 
to the British Goveroineiit by Nizam Ally Khan 
-^Sitikant flourished in the fifteenth century 
of the SalirahaDa sera, and. was born '•a the towa 
first mentioned. 

He tost his father daring his infaacy, and be« 
ing without friends, was consequently very di<i' 
tressed, and so neglected, that ho contracted idle 
habits, and was without any education whateverj 
nntii he was nearly grown up ; he at last reflect- 
ed that he should be despised for his ignorance-, 
and made a journey to Benares of Kasi, where 
after passing through the rudiments of the Sao- 
crlt language, he studied logic very sedulously 
and' after a corsiderable time wrote a treatise on 
that science; the work was named " Turka 
Bbasha Tikka" by him, but his. disciples and 
other people called it « Siti Kanthjyara," as it 
was written by Siti Kanta> the book contains six 
tUovjsand verses, and in it every branch of logic 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



is separately treated of. H« bad many disciples, 
to whose instruction he conflned the whole of 
his time, as he never entered in the matdmonial 
state. He died at Benares on the bants of tbe- 
river Ganges. After his death, his works wera 
mach sought after by the pandits of Hindoos*- 
tan, as the 9tyle of them was plaia and perspi- 
CQons, and the versification very soft aad har- 
monious. 



DiqiiiicdbvGoogle 



39 

BHATTOGI DIKSHAT. 

The above was a bramin, and native of the 
K^haratta country ; be was tlie officiating^ minis- 
ter of a temple, which office descended to him in 
hereditary succession. He adopted the title of 
his ancestors, and applied very diligently to the 
study of the sciences. There was not at that time 
amy profound scholar in his native country, from 
whom he could obtain instruction, so after read' 
ing several poems, by which he acquired a know- 
ledge of the Sanscrit langnage, he proceeded to 
Benares and studied philosophy. Bbatogi Dik- 
shat was possessed of an ancommon fine genius, 
and composed an elaborate treatise on grammar, 
which he called " Sedhanta Kowmudi," consist- 
ing of abont twelve thousand verses. This work 
was very much approved of by the learned pun- 
dits of Benares, by whose advice it was publish- 
ed and disseminated throughout Hindustan, and 
became much in vogue ; at the latter part of his 
life, this poet gave up his time to philosophy 
and contemplation, and died at Kasi, in the fifty-, 
sixth year of his age. 



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30 

NAGOGI BHATT. 
This poet was also a Maharatta bramia, and 
boro io the fifteenth century of Salivahana. At 
an early age he studied the Vedas, and when 
arrived at maturity engaged himself aa officiating 
priest to people of the first class; by this em- 
ploymentj however, be gained a very scanty sub- 
sistence, and his poverty made bim despised- H'e 
consequently felt disgusted, and giving up his 
vocation, entered as a student, the coll^;« at Va- 
ki, which is esteemed a very holy place by the 
Hindus, aa it is situated at the source of the river 
Krishna. At this place he studied all the fine 
arts and sciences, especially poetry. When be 
was forty-five years of age, he visited Benares, 
where he principalty confined bis attention to- 
Grammar and diligently perused the book writ- 
ten by his countryman Bhattogt Dekshat, and 
made an ample commentary on it: he wrote 
also a work which he called Manorama, which 
was an exposition on the text before-named, it 
contained about seven hundred verses, and was 
much used by the Students at JHythaH. 



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si 

After he ^miB fiftjr-five years old, he studied 
the Mimtra Sastra, or fonnula of various prayers 
to Gods and Goddesses, and about this time he 
wrote a commentaTy on the Sapta Sapti, or Chundi 
Pat, which is a chapter of the Marcandaya 
Purana. He died at Benares in the sixty-second 
year of his age, and it is supposed that severe 
disappointments in a great measure hastened his 
dissolution. The foregoing account of Nagogi 
Bhatt is taken from traditional records, preserved 
in the college of Nadya. 



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SOMANAT BHAtT. * 

Was a Teliaga bramia, and inhabitant ofTeha. 
ha Lanka, in the districts of Rajamahendiy. Th6 
pundits of that place say, that he was born there 
in the twelfth centarj of Salivahaaa, and was 
long^ in indigent circumstances, having iuherlted 
from hjy ancestors only a small portion of land^ 
which had been given them by a former nder of 
that country. 

When he was grown up, he had not the 
means of defraying the expences of a wedding, 
and being desirous to marry, forthwith proceeded 
to a kinsman and implored him to get him married. 
By the exertions of this relation, and some other 
bramins, who revered the memory ofhis forefathers 
Saraanat Bhatt, was recommended to the notice 
of a great man, who compassionated his cas^ 
furnished the means of paying the charges of the 
nuptials, and got him ' espoused to a damsel of 
respectability. W hen the ceremony was conclud- 
ed, the bridegroom went according to custom, 
and prostrated himself before his mother-in-law, 
but she being a mercenary woman, despised our 
poet, and averted her face when he approached* 



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83 

Stdng with indignation, and sorrow Samanat 
Bhatt proceeded to Benares, where he diligently 
fbrthe space of twenty yeara studied Philosophy, 
Theology, and the liberal arts. When he was 
a perfect master in all these branches of sciences, 
he returned to his native couotry, and on his way 
visited, severally, the Rajahs of Tekale, M&n- 
dassa, and Chikati ; and exhibited his learning 
and talents before them : from each of tbeso 
Princes he obtained magnificent presents, a Pa- 
lankeen, ^id large sums of money. He purchased 
gold bangles ornamented with flowers in fret 
work and presented them to his mother<in-law, ' 
and the araricioos woman became so delighted 
with the wealth, and learning of oar Poet, that she 
heaped blessings on him incessantly. After this 
Samanat established a school of philosophy, and 
enjoyed a considerable degree of reputation. Ho 
wrote a second commentary on the Memansa 
philosophy, and this work is entitled, " Somana- 
thyam.*' This treatise is much used by students, 
and procured for our Poet a considerable degree 
of reputation. Somanatbad several children and 
P. 



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died at the age of sixty in his natire town. His 
descendants are still- living — The work written 
by this Poet is in much esteem with the natives 
of the Delckan. 



SAKALYA MALA. 
"Hiis Sanscrit Poet was a native of Virnpak- 
sam near-Anagondi, be floarished in the tfair* 
teenth century of SalivabaDa^ and was employed 
ai the Court of Hanchara Roya, as an expoun- 
der of Law texts. — He composed a work called 
" Gajendra-Vejaya" which is a detail of a victory 
obtained by an Elephant through the interpositi- 
on of the God Vishnu — The book is written 
partly in prose and partly in verse — Sakalya. 
Mala enjoyed a considerable degree of reputa- 
tion ; but as his attention was principally confined 
to his official duties —very little is known of the 
events of bis life, except that he died in his na- 
tive country. 



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AKSHOBHYA DEKSHUT. 

Was a Mardhava bramia and inhabitant of 
Sravaoore. He studied philosopbj from a very- 
early age, and ia said to have beea a pro&ctent 
in the Kamatic, and Maharata languages. The 
whole of his time was occupied in literary pur- 
suits. He wrote severd works on tlie tenets of 
the Mardhava sect, but his couipositioas are very 
acftrce aod hard to be now procured. He was 
an able controvertist, and def'^nded his own 
system of Theology, with considerable talent. 
He is reported to have died in Lis native village 
Sravanore^ 



YALLAYA. 

YaUaya was a native of the town of Vijayatu 
agram, and lived in the year of Saiivahaua. 
1390, while Vinxpaksha Roya- v.a=i king oi Ana- 
gonoi, this i idividual was au a.^pt i^ j ::<:rology 
and Astvoac-^y, lo v.hicu Sciences i.3 i,3galar:y 
applied from iiia very Iiiia..-.yv Ra c-tute seve- 
ral treatises Oil Aairono.jy, ai-.i aiv.6iig them a 
coiamcii'..-!iy on ttie solar sjat^m called Surya, 

F I 



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96 

Sedhanta. Tbia woric is in great repute throii|;Ii- 
ont the Indian Peninsula, and from it alt cal- 
culations are made in framing Almanacks. Yal- 
laya did not cultivate any other branch of the 
Sciences except Astrology and Astronomy. He 
died at Vijayanagrom, 

GAJAPATI PRATAPA RUDHA 

Was a celebrated sovereign of the Kalinga 
Country, who reigned in the fourteenth century 
of Salivahana, be introduced a thorough refOT- 
u\atioa io the administration of justice through- 
out his dominions, and established a. regular 
code of laws, which tev,i yf^ entitled '* Saras- 
vati^Yilas." This Royal Author likewise conv- 
posed a treatise on sexu^d intercourse. 



KSHIRA SWAML 

This poet was a bramin and flourished during . 
the reign of Pratapa Rudra. He wrote a Sans- 
crit Dictionary which he entitled " Kshira Swa- 
mi Nig^uinti,'' consisting of about two thousand 
verses in addition to which he wrote a commenta- 
ry on the ** Anura cosha." Kahira Swami ia 



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ay 

aaid to have Attained to a good old age vttKout 
being afflicted with any siekuess owing princi< 
pally to Ills regular and temperate mode of life. 



SAUVAHANA. 
Wa9 the lordof an sera stiU m nse thrdngh* 
ought the Dekkan. He wrote a work entitled', 
Salivabana Sapta Sati, on Rhetoric^ which like 
the **Durga Snpta Supti," consists of exactly 
seven hundred verse». 



BHAS-KARACHABI. 
Was a bramin astronomer and inhabitant of 
Beder, a town in the Nizam's dominions. He 
studied arithmetic, astronomy and astrology^ 
from his infancy, with such diligence and profit, 
that he was at last enabled to compose treatises 
OD those sciences. His work on arithmetic was 
called " Bija Ganita.'* He had no male issue, 
but only a daughter named Lilavati, who was 
herself childless. Bhaskara, in consequence 
was resolved to perpetnate bis daughter's name, 
by dedicating to her a book, which is one of 
the seven sorts of offsprings, mentioned in Hindu 



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texts, his work on arithmetic, he inscribed to his 
daughter in A. S. 1036, imd the book was called 
Litavatu After this be composed a treatise of 
astrology, which was published in A. S. 1050, 
and entitled Sidhanta-Siromani, and shortly 
afterwards Bbas-Karachari died at Beder in the 
sixty-fifth year of his age. 



VARAHA-MIIHRA, 

"Was a bramin astronomer, who linsd in A S. 
1050, he possessed a vigorous intellect, and his 
judgment has been much admired both by his 
contemporaries and by posterity. Although his 
knowledge of the Sanscrit language was not pro- 
fojand, yet few men had such deep insight into alt 
the branches of physics and natural philosophy as: 
Varaha-Mihira. 

He wrote an elaborate work which h© 
called " Varaha Mehira Sanhita," in which was 
compriseda dissertation on the solar system, and 
the phenomenaof nature— he likewise compiled a 
treatise on astrology and entitled it Bhrihat ja- 
taka." 



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39 

GANIEA NANDA, 

Was an arithmateciaD who 6oQrisbed at the com* 
meDcement of the fourteenth ceota ry of the s re Of 
Salivahana. During his in&Dcyfae was well in- 
structed ia the Sanscrit tongue, and in his youth 
composed an astrological work entitled " Ganita 
Ananda : it was at first, circulated amongst his im, 
mediate friends and relation, but in course of 
time it was transcribed and dissimioated among 
the learned. 



KADAMBA. 

' This illustrious individual was the prime-minis 
ter to Gazapati Pretapa Rudra, he was a native cf 
Kolinga and was A man of great power and influ- 
ence. He was an excellent Astronomer and 
shewed a predeliction for that Science from his 
very infancy. He composed a work which he 
called " Jotisha Amava," or the Ocean of As- 
foonomy and in the preface to that book it is 
related that he was bom in the year 1^84 of the 
Salevafaa nra. — This work is in mach repute and 
very useful to Hindu Almanack compilers. 



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40 

PURUSHOTTAMA 

This was a sovereign oftheKaHoga country 
fvhose capital was Katack. He was by cast an 
Orissa KhaUi^ and studied Sanscrit from bis in- 
^ncj. Being desisrous of compiling some work 
for th e use of private Sanscrit scbools, he at the 
request of several celebrated Pundits; wrote a 
Dectionary iotitled "Purushottama Neghantu," 
which was published in the eleventh century of 
Salivabana and tfais> king died shortly afterwards. 



KALYANA MALA. 

This was a bramin and native of the Ealinga 
country, he flourished during the reign of Anan- 
ga Bhima, king of Kalinga, who built the tem- 
ple of Jagunath in the year 1119 of the Sili- 
vabahan sera, which ia proved by inscription, be 
composed a work on sexual intercourse, and 
called it Ananga Ranga, after bis royal master. 



VARADA CHARYA, 

Was a dramatic poet of the Vystnava sect and . 
an inhabitant of Kanchi, he lived about the time- 
of Krishna Roya Maharajah King of Vydyamu 



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e&r or ADagondi, and was descended from a pure 

tribe of learned Vystnavas, and related to Tata- 
cfeari, chief guru of the Panagonda kings. Varada 
Cliarya studied Sanscrit poetry from his very in- 
fancy, and as he was possessed of a quick genius 
and retentive memory, the works of all the best 
poets were very familiar to him — His imaginati- 
on and invention were so fertile, that he could 
compose a hundred verses in one hour, and a 
single day was sufficient time for him to.complete 
a regular poem. He wrote a poem called " Va- 
santa Teleka," descriptive of the great festival 
of Ranganath and the procession of his car. 
In this work the author has given great proofs of 
his powers of invention and talent at florid dic- 
tion, and introduced in it some very sublime sen- 
timents and reflections, blended with descriptions 
of the numerous concourse of people, of different 
nations and tribes, their complexions ; the fashions, 
of their dresses ; appearance and languages ; the 
dalliance and quarrels of lovers; the tricks of 
juglers ; antics of buffoons, and postures of dan- 
cers ; the fights of rams and cocks ; dramatic ex. 
G 



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43 

tibitionsj triumphal arches and decorations; Ubi 
processTon of the chariot; the acclematioDs of the 
multitude j the beauty of the women ; the strew- 
ing and scatteriag of flowers, and various other 
subjects. This elegBnt poem was dedicated to 
the God Ranganath, and a copy of it circula- 
ted to every Vishnu temple ill the Peninsula. 
It was so much admired that several Rajahs made 
the autlior very valuable presents, which made 
him rich ard independent the remainder of his 
life, towards the close of which, Varada Charya 
andeviatingly employed his poetic powers in 
works in praise of the God Vishnu. — This re- 
iiowned bard died at Kanchi in the fifty-fourth 
year of his age. 



VIDYARANVA, or MADHVABHATT. 

Was a native of a village called Pampa, which 
is situated on the bank of the Tunga Bhadra 
river, he was born in the I3th century of Sili- 
^-ahana, and flourished during the reigns of Ha- 
rihara-Roya and Bukaroya, Kings of Vedyana- 
gar. Madhvabhatt was in very distressed cir- 
cumstancesfrom his birth, till he was forty years 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



43 

of age ; he had a niimeroiis progeny, for whose 
support he was oecessitated even to bi'g alms. 
"While in thjs condition, it is said, that a stranger 
who was a prophet, and who had come to wor" 
ship the God Verapaksheswer, one day visited 
faim, and taught him certain formula of prayer' 
through which, wealth and honors could bQ 
attained. Madhavabhatt being duly initiated' 
devoted his whole attention for a considerable 
time to the abstracted devotion of the image of a 
goddess, and it is said, that the divinity being gra-, 
tified with his prayers, became manifest in a human 
form, resembling his wife, and conferred on him the 
gift of wisdom, and pre-eminent knowledge, and 
changed his name to Vidyaranya, which.being in- 
tegrated means a forest of knowledge. This poet 
wrote a very elaboi"ate and luminous, commentary 
on the Vedes, and entitled it Vedabliashaya. Hb 
assumed the habit of a Sanyasi and renounced all 
secular concerns, and his time was entirely taken 
np by intense devotion. It is said, that he had 
another interview with the Goddess, who revealed 
various event-, and discovered to him some hidden 
G 8 



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44 

treasure, which Vidyamya bestowed oa a stepherd 
of the name of Haribara, who aflerwards became 
founder of Vidyanagar, and sovereign of the city' 
When he was about sixty years of age, he com- 
posed fifteen kinds of theological works, and called 
them Paachadasi, which be taught to numerous 
scholars, hci also wrote a commentary on the text 
of Parasara, and called it " Parasara Madhaviam." 
This work was compiled for the use of Bokaroya. 
For that monarch, Vidyaranya, also wrote a work 
entitled Vidyaranya KJalagnana, which was n 
prophecy of the revolutions of the kingdom^ q,nd the 
deeds of the various sovereigns which ruled over 
it, till the subjugation of the country, by the Ma-r, 
^omedans. 

Harihara having been much obligated ta 
Vidyaranya, a,nd admiring histalentsand worthy 
chosehiu] as his prime<minister, and intrusted all the 
a,flfairs of state to him. His leasure hours Vidya- 
ranya devoted to the instruction of several stu- 
dents. By the good management of this minister^ 
Harihara enjoyed great prosperity, and had his 
dominions extended on all sides. Vidyaranya., 
after some time, made a tour round several holy 



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45 

places, and at last returned to Parapa, with seve- 
ral individu^d9, whom he had confuted incontro- 
versy, and who become converts to his opinioug. 

' When he found himself incapable, through 
age of composing any other works, he took 
great pains in correcting, and revising the lite- 
rary productions, he had already published, 
and after having a great number of copies tran- 
scribed, he had some buried in the bowels of the 
earth in different places, some secreted in exca^ 
vations of rocks, and the remainder, distributed m 
mutts or colleges and holy places, reservirig a 
few copies for the use of his scholars. The tea 
last years of his life, he entirely devoted to devo- 
tions and religious contemplations on the divini- 
ty ; he died at Pampa, at the age of ninety. 

Some of this author's worlds were dug out of a 
pit, by the emissaries employed by the late Col; 
Mackenzie, to collect literary materials in ths 
ceded districts, in the year I8I1. The characters 
in which these works werewritton, are mixed and 
obsolete, and but few individuals can now be fjund 
able to read them : the late Col. Mackenzie, how- 



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48 

ever, by employing the most learned natives, ha« 
been able to get the greater part of these ma. 
nuscripts translated. 

VIDAYANAT. 

This poet was a bramin, and a native of Eka- 
aelanagur, or Orongole ; he flourished in the 
13th century of Salivahana, during the reign of 
Pratapa Rudra. Vidyanat, from his infancy, stu- 
died the Yedes, bqt a short time after he was 
invested with the sacerdotal thread, he unfortu- 
nately had a lawsuit with his cousin, by which 
he lost his small patrimony, and fell into very 
great distress. At the age of sixteen he began 
to read the Ramayana and other Sanscrit poems^ 
in which are comprised the actions of ancient 
kings and heroes, and afterwards diligently ap. 
piied to the study of the Sciences. When he 
was forty years of age, he composed some ver^ 
ses on cosmogony, which were very sublime and 
harmonious, and mucli admired by his contempo- 
raries : by this publication he raised a small sum 
of money for his maintenance. Vidaynat had a 
daughter, and as he could not realize suflScient 



U.,:,,l,;.d:,G00gIC 



47 

money by his lesser compositions, to defray the 
expenses of her wedding, he felt very unhappy, 
and knew not what to do, he however recol- 
lected an observation made by an ancient poet^ 
that a person should not court the favor of the 
lower orders of Society, but should seek tl>e 
patronage of kings and exalted personages, for 
the proverb says, "that a poet, a damsel, and a 
creeping plant, cannot thrive without a protector." 
Vidayanat accordingly wrote an epic poem, and 
called it Pratapha Rudreyam, in celebration of 
the heroic actions of the King Prataparudra,. 
this elaborate poem is one of the most finished 
pieces of florid composition in the Sanscrit lan- 
guage. It abounds with metaphors, similes, and 
tropes of all kinds, with fine descriptions of the 
victories of the monarch over foreign potentates, 
interspersed with various episodes, in which love 
scenes are beautifully protrayed. While this 
work was composing, one day this poet was sit- 
ting at court, near the minister of the king. 
The poet Sivia enterered the royal presence, 
awl being a native of Eleswara agrahara, which 



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48 

were suffering under some grievances, he repeat* 
ed (he following Sanscrit verse : — 

Navalakgka Vkitnardharadhe hadht 
The chief of nine lacks of bow-holdcri 
Pridktoim Sasati Vera Rudra Bhupe 
I'hc heroic Rudra ruling trhite the earth 
Abhavat Parama Agrahara Peda 
Excessive burdens ojipreBsed the Agrahara (towna of 
br«min) 

It is said, tiiat tbe king Vera Rudra immedi- 
ately ordered the lands of the bramins to be 
restored to them free of rents. At this moment, 
Vjdyaoat added the following verse :— 



Kucha Kiiinbheehu Kurunga Lockat 

'f he vaied breasta^f the aatclope eyed diimBela. 

Which eutirely converted the meaning of the 
former verses, for the word agrahara has a dou- 
ble signification, viz. lands of bramins, or 
conspicuous necklaces, the poetry composed by 
the aggrieved hramin, was a reproach to tbe king, 
but with the a'tditionmade by Vidyanat, it be- 
came a great compliment, as will be seen when 
the verses are taken together, and keeping in 



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49 

uind the double meaning ofthe word *' Agraha- 
ra." 

NaTalakiha DhRnurdhftradhfl nadha 

Predhwim Sasali Ver& Kadra Bhape 

Abliavat Pwama Agrohara Fida 

Kucba Kumbhfltbu Karaoga lochatianaia 

The chief of aioe lacks ofboir-liotderi 

Tbe heroic Rudra while ruling the earth 

EjLCMsiva burdeaa of necklticei oppressed 

The TBied bieasts ofthe Ante loped -eyed daiaiels- 
Pratapa Rudra was much pleased with the 
quick genius ofthe poet, and jnade him mt^ni- 
ficent presents, much to the gratification and 
admiration of the whole court. The king encou- 
raged Vidayanat to proceed on with the epic 
poem, and promised him a suitable reward when 
it should be finished. While oar poet waa 
writing this book, Pratapa Rudra was taken 
prisoner by the Emperor of Dehli, with whom he 
was at war. The king was in captivity three 
years, after which he returned to his kingdom, 
and being disgusted with the world, he resigned 
all secular affairs, and made over his dominions to 
his brother Anainadeo, to whom he recommend- 



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TO 

ed the poet Vidayanat. Pratapa Radra being 
much pleased with the productioD of the above- 
named poet, delivered to him his ring, with 
authority to draw what mooey he pleased, fix»m 
the bankers of Orongole, by which means 
Vidaynat obt^ned sufficient, for the expences of 
his daughter's marriage) and his own comfort and 
livelihood. The King Anamadeo directed seve- 
ra! copies of this author's epic poem to be tran- 
scribed and distributed through different pro- 
vinces, and held in very high estimation, Vi- 
dayanat, whom he made principal of a college^ 
which he founded and endowed, and which could 
boast of numerous students, who were maintain* 
ed on the foundation. This poet died in the 
fifty-fifth year of his age, during the reign of 
Anamadeo. 

VEDANTACHARI. 

Tliiswas abraminofthe Vystnava Sect, and tt 
native of Kanchi. He lived about the time of Vi- 
dyaronga. After he had been invested with the 
Sacerdotal thread, he diligently perused poetical 
works, especially those in which the actions of 



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51 

the kings of the solar and lunar races are re- 
corded. He likewise studied grammar and lo^ 
gic. Whenthispeetatfaanedto theage offorty, 
he visited the courts of the Karnatic, audDravida 
princes, where, it is said, he confuted various pun- 
dits in religious controversy. He gave out that 
be was bora of the spiriit ofVenkata fewar; for 
the purpose of reforming- the ercors that had 
erejJt into the- Vistpava religion, for the litesper-. 
fbnued by the Tangul brahmins, weje entirely 
e<H-mpted by the interference of the satanees, or 
fourth class. He established a. pure system of " 
rituals, and wrote precepts to be observed by 
kings, andpeopleof all classes, which were much. 
approved offer their justice and liberality. Ve-, 
dantachari after ^ia, resigned all secular con-, 
cerus, and' retired to a hut, at some distance fronir 
Kanchi, where he subsisted on alms, given by se* 
ven bramins, which was quite sufficient for hint 
Qnd bis: wife, and a disciple, who constantly resid- 
ed with them. Vedantaohari's mode of life fre-_ 
qnently excited the compassion of individuals^ 
who admired bis talents, and as he had made it % 
B3 



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rale never to receive money from any one, b«t 
only such articles of food, as were necessary for 
his daily subsistence ; they often secreted pieces 
of gold or silver coin among the rice they g^ve 
him. Whenever Vedantachari discovered the 
mon-y, he used unvariably to throw it away, as 
did his wife, if the poet had failed to discover the 
stratagem exercised towards him by the charita< 
ble, for she was a virtuous woman, and obeyed 
her husband's commands in every respect. Ve- 
daa!acliari hi this state of seclusion, composed a 
theological work, and called it Vedanta Bhashya ; 
be also wrote a drama, called Sankalpa Surya-- 
doya, which is much admired, and used by all the 
indents, in the colleges in the south of India: 
This poet, it is said, wrote one hundred and three 
books, on various subjects, most of which are en- 
tirely lost. The latter years of Vedantachari 
•were employed in religious contemplation, and 
becoming infirm through age, be resolved to as, 
-sume the habit of a Synassi, and renounce the 
world, he obtained his wife's consent, s^d put 
this resolution into eseculion : having first deb- 
vered her to her aged father aud brother. Vi, 



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53 

dantacliari died in the seventieth year of his age, 
at Kanchi, and his disciple Varadachari, minister- 
ed to him tilt the hour of his death. This faith- 
ful and affectionate pupil wrote a book, entitled 
Vedantavijaya, in which all the good qualities 
ofhis preceptor were set down ; in it is stated, 
amongst various other praiseworthy traits, that 
Vedaotachai-i never courted the favors of princes, 
nor rec.ived any presents from them, but that he 
subsisted in early life by the produce of his owq 
labors, and latterly on eleemosynary aid. la 
this boot were also set down the various texta 
respecting religious rites, that were expounded 
by the above-named guru. 

LAKSHMENARRAYA NAPPA 

Was a native of Magodi, and son of Venta- 
tappa, he was. by cast a Neyogi bramin, and 
dwelt in the Karnata country for a considerable 
time 3 he flourished in the 18th century, and 
was contemporary with the Mysore prince, Nan- 
daraj^ Wadyar, at whose court he had an 
official situation. This poet made himself mas- 
ter of the Kariiata language, i^nd afterwards^ 



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64 

studied Sanscrit in the school of Magodi. Ho 
was possessed of a fine geaias, and as he had 
perused nearly all the best poems extant, he 
composed some very nice hymns and songs on 
different Gods. These effusions were generally 
admired, and coming to the notice of Nandarar 
jab, that prince sent for the poet, and after pre- 
senting him with robes, jewels, and other valu- 
able presents, appointed him . to the post of 
Sastri of the Court. At the command of this 
king, Lakshananarraya Nappa composed an epio 
poem, entitled Nanda Rajab Yaso, Bhusbana, 
which being interpreted, means the omamenta 
fame of Nanda Raja, this was a very elaborate- 
work, for every verse of it bears a double signi, 
fication, one way alluding to the king's domestic 
concerns, and in another sense to that monarch's 
public transactions. This work consists of five 
cantos, the whole of which was completed ia 
the course of one year, and dedicated to his 
Sovereign. For this performance Lakshmenar- 
raya received from the king the grant of a tract 
(rf land in the district of Magodi, besides the 
"salary he regularly enjoyed. After this, he de. 



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S5 

Voted his leisure houra to write dramas, -on sub- 
jects selected from the Mahabarat. When he 
was thirty years of age, he proceeded to the an- 
nual festival of Nanjunda, and wrote n poem on 
it, which he called Nagunda Natat, in which a 
very fine description is given of the procession 
of the God in his car, and all the ceremonies of 
the feast, from the beginning to the end. It is 
said, thatLakshmenarraya finished this poem in 
five days. He wrote other poems, severally 
called " Uttara Gograhana Nataka," which is a 
relation of the seizure of the cattle of Verat 
Raya, by Duryodhan's army. " Saradasombha^ 
ram" respecting the birth of that prince. 
" Rhamba Nataka," the dance of celestial 
nymphs in the Court of Indra, this work con- 
sisted of one hundred verses. "IravataVe- 
jaya," the victories of the Elephant of Indra, 
and many other works. This poet acquired 
large sums of money by his compositions, part 
of which he applied in digging a large square 
tank, with flights of stone steps to it, and had 
cocoanut trees planted round it. Lakshananar- 
laya had a fioe library of books, principally in 



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se 

the Sanscrit dialect, and a few in the Canada 
language. He had many scholars, whom he in- 
structed in the rules of prosody and the students 
of Kalyanadrug, Royadrug, Gutti, Ratnagiri, 
Madyagiri, and Nanganagod hearing the fame 
of his abilities, came under his tuition, and it is 
said, that in a short time they became proficient 
from the able lessons he gave them, and were 
soon enabled to compose books themselves. The 
poet in question wrote on various subjects till 
the last hour of his life, and his works are nu« 
merously dispersed in the southern and western 
quarter of the peninsula. Lakshmenaraya died 
in the sixty first year of his age, at Magodi, and 
bequeathed his library to Ms son Surappa. 



VENKATACHARI. 

This poet was a Vistnava braniin, and native 
of Arasanifaia-Agrahara, which is situated be- 
tween the rivers Baha and Payaswini, in the pro- 
vince of Tundira Mandalam, otherwise called 
Kaochi'Mandalam : this bard was of illustrious 
descent, for his father Raghunaddichet was a 
priest of high rank and reputation, and author of 



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B7 

of several religious works in gr^ai estimaUoa 
among his Countrymen. Venkatacfaari was court 
puadit to Pralayakavet-i, one of the Rajah's tribu- 
tary to the throne of Vijayanagur ; from thi» 
jtrince he obtained grants of land, be made am- 
ple commentaries on various difficult texts, and 
among them Sunklapa Surya Doya. Venkatechari 
obtained the name of Venkatadbweri, from the 
many sacrifices he performed : he was well versed 
in history, philosophy, and logic, and like his 
father Raghtinadicbet, he amused himself in the 
composition of elegant Sanscrit poetry, he was 
the author of Viswaguna Dursana, a work high* 
ly celebrated throughout the Southern Penin- 
sola. It is composed partly in prose and partly 
in verse, and much ingenuity ia shewn in the 
management of the polemic arguments contained 
in tbe dialogues of two Gundbarvas, one of 
■vvhoia is a panegyrist, and the other a calum- 
niator on every subject, this gives our poet an 
opportunity to display his knowledge in Indian 
theology, history, geography, and logic. The 
poetry is rich and sublime, aad the language of 



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68 

the proise copious and elegantly combined, form, 
kig-on tlie whole, a deliglitfiil mental treat ti tlie 
natives of the s^uth, wlio peruse the n'ork for 
tlstrurtioQ and amusement. 

There are but fevr copies of the Viaw-agnna 
Darsfina, to be met with in the north o( India 
at present, biit the merits of the work will un- 
doubtedly speedily cause it to be multiplied, the 
Encouragement moreover now given by the libe- 
ral public to Oriental liierature, and theatl\an- 
Ug:es resulting from the printing establishments, 
lately introduced in this country, uill, no doubt, 
shortly tause this excellent wotk to be brotight 
iato genei al notice, to the edification of the native 
population. Some of the descendants cf Ven. 
katacbari are stiiMiving, but none ofthem have 
inherited the genius and laleuts of their fore- 
fathers, whose works have added ranch to the 
beauty of the Sanscrit language, and will, In 
aji probability, be as perpetual as that dialect. 



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APPAYADiKSHIT 

Was a Dravida braniin, anHan inbabUant of 
Adepolain agrahara, which is situated forty miles 
South East of Kauchi. He was the son of Na- 
raiti Dfkshit, aad flbarished ia the sixteenth 
century of' Salivabana. It was the commoaopi* 
nionofhis cooteiiiporaries, that he was bora 
from the-spirit of Siva, fjr the leaFoiag- he ex- 
tibite I ia Divinity and Theology, they thouglit 
too surpassing' tibe^ alloted to mere humaaity. 
At the a^a of t*velve years, be had- peiiectly 
sludied the Vedes, and was besides a master of 
several abslruse Sciences. Appayadiksfait was par* 
ticulariy devoted' to the worship of Siva, and ob« 
tai'nedt!ie name of Siva Bliakta, ordiscipbiofSiv^ 
He raanisd three wives, by whcwn he had el^^ ea ' 
Sot)». D&tbre hQ was striolcen in years, he ob- 
tained, the fivorof Viak^a Pati UoyajDO, King 
of Cliandragiri, f jf he confijtedall that monarch',s 
puadits, ia.openc:)urt, ontopicsof religijn, . and 
on various paints in philosophy, especially in 
shewiug tlie perfect parity between the God4 
aiva. sal Yishu^. Tbg above said Kinj mtid* 
13 



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60 

hitn a grant of a tract of land, retit-free, forbia 
own maintenance, and <hat ofbis pupils, wbom he 
instructedin pbilosopbjand the sciences. Appay- 
adiksbit was tbe autbor of the following works, 
for tbe use of those who follow the faith of Siva ; 

1. Siwarchana Cfaundrilca, Moon of tbe adora- 
ble Siva, in thirty Chapters. 
■ 3. Siva, TatwaViveka, Knowledge of the sect 
of Siva in twenty Chapters. 

3. Siva mani Depika, Splendor of the 
Ban-gem of Siva. 

4- Attnarpan, a work in one hundred stanza* 
on the Siva faith. 

- The first three of tbe works, above mentioned* 
Appaydekshit wrote after having performed n«- 
merous sacrifices. It is said, that just before be 
composed hia last work Atmarpan, he partook- 
inwardly of the seeds of a plant, called Dhaftur, 
which is reported to have the extraordinary qua- 
lity of clearingthe intellect, and fitting the mind for 
religious contemplation, by the use of this medi- 
cine, it is given out, that AppayadeVshit became 
inspired and dictated extemporarily to four ama- 
nuenses, the poem in question, which is very 



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61 

IDucli admired througboat the Dekkaa and the 
Soutlieru provinces. Appayadil(sl)it in comae 
of time, visited the kings of Trechinopoli, Tan- 
jare, and Madura, who aeveraHy by their pre- 
senti and favors, gave the poet very great en- 
couragement on aconut of his talents and virtueSj 
BO, that being a strict observer and zealous advo- 
cate for all tlie forms of rituals he performed 
through the bounty of his patrons, nnmerons sa- 
crifices on tlie banks of the Kaveri. Wherever 
he went, he chaunted forth the praises of Siva, 
and made proselytes to that faith from the Vish- 
nu religion. Tatachari, who had been vanqnish. 
ed and baffled by Appayadekshit, at the Coort 
of Venkatapati, in a religious dispute, cherished 
(I mortal hatred against his opponent, and was 
determined to destroy him by any means; to 
effect this purpose, he engaged a gang of ruffians, 
to way lay and" murder our poet, as he was 
passing through a forest. The villains set upon 
Appayadekshit, but just at that moment, it is 
jsaid, that a valiant hero suddenly appeared, and 
driving off the assassins, rescued Appayadekshit, 
from the dangler he was in of losing his life, fbis 



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62 

cireamstance having come to tlie kmwled^^e of 
the R^ijih Venksibpati, he ma:L>the poet valu- 
able presents f .r his steady faith iu the God 
Siva. A;ipayaJekiIiit at t!ie a^e of sixty years, 
wa3 prepa:iug ta go to Benares, but . whea 
the learne.I b"amins of ChiJaaibaram was ap. - 
prizej oftiiii resolatiju, they entreated him to 
come to that place, as accordiag even to hia 
c:>nfession, ChiJambaiaai was a more sanctified 
place than Kasi, and the reservoir of Siva Gunga, 
iiure h)ly tliaa the river Ganges. In coiifjr- 
luity t> tha wishes of these b.a:nia3, Appay- 
al^ksliit was iii.IuceJ t^ alter his resolution, 
and he f irthwitli proceeded to Chidunbaram, 
where he re:naiaed engaged in religijus exer- 
cises for tlie spice qf thirty years. At hia 
death, lie wa-t in possession of five crystal 
H/i^ums, two of which he presented to the bra- 
inins, a:id one to his nephew, to be established 
at Madura, another ha gwe to his relations, and 
the 6uh he himself estabbalisd at Chidjmbaram, 
shortly after, which he departed his life. Ap- 
pHya'lekshit was the author of eighty .four booksi 
QU Theologj'^ Rhetoric aad iTiilosophy, among hi* 



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63 

works, tlie *' Kavolayanandam, ((be dtliglit of 
the Lotus) and tUe Prabodhacliandiodiiia," 
(Rising Moonof Genius) are verj'mucliadnilied, 
and cimtioue to be universally read by llie 
learned, but the others are unfoitunately lost. 

AYADIKSHIT. 

This poet was the nephew of Appayadiksliit, 
he possessed a general knowledge of Ilie 
sciences, and his skill in poetry was consider 
able. He was raised on account of his talents 
to the dignity of prime minister to Terumal^ 
naik Rajah of ftladura, the affairs of whose 
kingdom he managed so, as to cause it to pros. 
per. After tlie death of his father, Ayadikslrit 
wrote a work, which he called Nelakantha 
VejayaiD, to commemorate the victories in reli- 
gious controversies df bis father in various pro- 
vinces. In this poem an e^kcelknt descripdnn is 
given of the different countries. This work is 
in the dramatic style. . 



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RAMANUJACHAUl. 

\Vas born in the I Itb century of SalivaTiariSj 
daring the reign of Batta Vaidlianaj king oC 
Dora Samudra, he was born at SiiParubutune, 
a place situated twenty-four miles, Vvest of 
Madras, oft the road to Kanchi or Conjiverain. 
At eiglit years of age, he was invested with tha 
sacerdotal thread, and began to read the Vedes ~ 
and study the sciences. He made a toiir of through' 
different countries, and visited Melakota, when 
he prevailed on the bramins by his exhortations 
and example to attend to the worship of tlie 
deity. Thence be proceeded to Dora Sainudia,' 
through Tonnure, and he gained the good will' 
of the sovereign of the country, by exercising' 
an evil spirit, and casting it out of his daughter, 
for this act he was magnificently rewarded by 
flie king, whom he converted to the Vystnava 
religion. Atler this, the poet visited different' 
boly pUces in the Peninsula, instraciing at all 
times the Vystnava bramins in a pure form of" 
rituals. He took Yamunachari as his disciple, 
and made a tour through Terupati, Jagarnath, 
- Kasi, and Joyapore, and established firmly the 



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Vystnava religion in those places and fonQded 
«everal mutts. The king of Joypore, was very 
much pleased with his discourses on tne VystnavA 
religion, and excited by zeal, destroyed several 
Jaioas in oil mills. He established a Vystnava 
mutt in this place, and aflterwards at Badart 
Narayana, where he paid his homage to that 
deity, and finally returned to the Peninsula, 
where he composed a commentary, entitled Sri 
Ramanija Bhashya, on the Sustra of Vyasa, 
comprising one hundred expositions of the phllo- 
Bophy of Vyasa, he composed also several other 
works such as Chandamarute respecting the Vya. 
nava Sect, and a commentary on the Bhagavat 
Gita, after this, he displayed extraordinary skill 
in framing a pure code of rituals for the Vyst- 
navas. At. the age of fifty he entirely renounced 
all secnlar concerns, and became a Synassi, de^ 
voting the whole of his time to the contemplation 
of the divinity, and reading books of philosophy 
and theology. Raraanujachari died at Sripuit 
mutture, his native town. Many individuals 
of the Vystnava faith believed him to have 
K 



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been an incaroatiou of Sesba the SeF{>ent, oft 
which Vishnu recltoes, and fheyraised a metellic 
ima^e as a representation bf 'Ram«iajac^ari, 
and deaomioated him one of the tweWechie^ 
AJwers. 



SARNADHAHA. 

This was ii'celd!>rated Historiaa'andPoet, hb 
flourished inthe «leTeDti) century «f the Sktliva- 
baoa sera, dufing'the rmga of Anunga BUma. 
He was the son of Damora, and his graiidfa- 
thdr's taame wes'Rhagavadeo, -Who was the-cbi^ 
pundit at the court of Rajah Humrera,- this poet 
composed a work, called Humvera Vijaya, in 
which ihe^nealogy and aotioas of the kings of 
Hamvera are noted down, he also wrote a vo- 
lume on misCetianeous subjects, and 'named it 
Sarnadhara Padhati. Saraadba lired toa good 
old i:.ge,but no authenticaccounts of the time oe 
manner of his d^ath has been banded down to 
posterity. . 



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TATACHART: 
■ Tatudiari was apoet of the Vystnava seet, lie 
was a native of Kanchi, and so celebrated on 
account of his Tirtnes and telenits, that (accord^ 
ing to teidkion) he was believed' to have been 
bora fifom the spirit of the god, Viahnu: h« 
. fioarished in the sixteenth oentuiy of Salirahana, 
«nd obtained the surname of Eanyadanum, on 
aceonntof the numerooa marriage ceremonies 
which was performed" at the expense of his be- 
nevolence. Tatachari wrote a work on.philoso- 
|thy> which be namedSatveka, Brahma Vidya Vi- 
las, or knowledge of the mild -influence of the su- 
preme being. This poet ww boosehold priest 
to the Chaodrigire, Rajahs, and^nsed to visit 
them by tpavelUng post fsoin. Kancbi : wiiile he> 
was absent fcooLhome, bis chaste and aflectiou-. 
ftte wife w-as kt Ibe h»bit3.of standing at the gate- 
oX their dwelJiugj waiting the :arrival.Qf ber hns-^ 
band.' Qq^ uofortijnate day, whfsnshe. was at^ 
her usuiaL. station* some: wicked unteelia^ 
wretches asaerabjei^ round ber, and invented a- 
t^e^ tbatb^rbu^baodbad q^et v^it^ ^oiqq acci«, 
K8 



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dent, and whb tilted ; the aBTectionate woman od 
tearing this false iatelligence, fell down in a 
ewooD, and expired. At the usual hopr, Tata- 
chari arrived, and beholding the &te of hts wife, 
immediately died of grie^so this amiable coa> 
pie in oae daj met an antimety fate. Tatachari 
was much regretted by all classes of the inhabU 
touts, for, exclusive of his pre<emineat erudition, 
be was a most affable aud benevolent individual 
bestowing large sums of money on the indigentt 
ei^^i&Uy for naarriage ceremonies 



POTIAR 
This poet was a bramin, and a native of 
'Eakambari, which is an Agrahar, situated oft 
the banks of tibe Godaveri, and which was grant- 
ed to certain bramhis, by Mukanti ; the place 
was in the district of Rajamahendri, in the 
Telugq coontry. Potiah was the son of Singiah, 
and had three brothers, whose names are 
Singiah, Komaraswami, aod Anamiah. Ho 
studied the Telugu language in his infancy, and 
as at the age of eighteen, he was a perfect 
master of the dialect j he learnt Sanscrit and 



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. read througli several poems, such as Mag'hE^ 
Bohoja, CbaiDpu, aDd many others. Indue time, 
he obtaioed a' complete knowledge of Sans- 
cnt, and in the year of Salivahaoa, 1388, 
be composed a volominous work, which he 
entitled " Prasuoga Ratna Vali/' which be* 
ing interpreted means," a necklace of the gems- 
of discourse." The subjects were taken from 
different ancient texts, which he embodied and 
treated after his own manner. This work •com« 
prised eighty three books, which were placed 
in the following order. 1. On Elocution. 2. 
Praise of different Gods. 3. On the ten Incar- 
nation. 4. On tlie holy city Kasi. 5. Dialogue 
between Uma and Maheswar. 6. Domestic 
Matters. 7. On the four Ages. 8. On the 
Vipras or hermits. ■ 9. On language. 10. 
On Prosody. II. On Friendship. i2. On for- 
tune. 13. On the Well disposed. 14. On the 
wicked. 15. On people of evil propensities. 
16. On useful animals, 17. On Ethics. 18. 
On rejected phrases. 19. Rules for moral 
conduct. 20.OnLovc. 21.0n Mendicity. 22. 
Oh Envy. 33. On Luxury. 34. On the 



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differeot modes of genuflexion and prostralioi^ 
35. On the means of aeqaiitng riches. 36. How« 
to obtaio good sons. 27. Descripticm of an ig- 
noraat and profligate son. 38. On wealth. 39; 
On indigence. 30. On alms, deeds^. 31. Oq 
Justice. 32. On Gratitude. S3. On the choice- 
of places. 34. On the chc^ce of time and pen 
sons. 35. On the treatment of guests and hos- 
pitality 36. Description af inspire! mriiaiaca- 
37. On future regards and punishments. 3S' 
Oa Infidelity. 39. On Covetousness. 40. On. 
morality. 41. On twenty diffetent prime qualii 
ties. 43. On resignation from Secular afiairsv 
43. On resaming donations. 41. On the three 
praise-worthy actions of a kingi 45. On History- 
and other texts. 46. On Eighteen books of th« 
Mahabarnt 47. On the fifty-six Dasums. 48; 
On the Seventy two influences. 49. On the. 
Sixty-fouF Sciences. 50. On the five attriboteft 
of Sovereigns. 61. On the duties of a King's 
prime-minister. 53. Ont^e usea of theareca 
nut. 54. Oa Vegetables. 65. On troth. 56^ 
On the qualities and propensities, of females. 67^ 
On Chastify. 5& Oa the coucrenjatioQ gf 



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Widows. 59. On Benevolence. 60. On Hy« 
pocrisy. 61. On Salutations at the courts of 
monarclis. 62. On Manuel Labor. 63. On 
the anatomy of the female body. 64. On the 
Limbs of women and their ornaments. 65. On 
the breasts of females. 66. On the Passions of 
Women. 67. On Sexual intercourse, 68. On 
the performance of ablution after menses. 69. 
On Adultery. 70. On Polite conversation. 71. 
On Oasts. 73. Description of the Morning 
and Evening. 73. Description of the rising 
Moon. 74. On the defects of the Moon. 75. 
On the valor and fame of different celebrated 
Kings. 76. On Polished versification. 77. 
Description of the Six Seasons. 78. On verses 
of Occult Signification. 79. On verses of plain 
and evident interpretation. 80 Description of 
the Sixteen degrees of the light of the moon. 

81. On the Classifications of the iemale Sex. 

82. On the duties of a Writer. 

Potiah dedicated this laborious work to the 
God Iswar, after this, the poet established a 
school, where the Sanscrit and vemacular dia* 
lects were taught to numerous students. His 



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leisare hours thiA poet devoted to reading aitd 
the cotnpositioB of didactic pieces, which being 
circulated' among the literati of the Telugn 
country, were very highly extolled for their 
harmony and moral tendency. Potiah derived 
but little increase of fortune from his works, 
althoogh they were much esteemed at the Courts 
of different Kings and Princes. He died at the 
ege of sixty-five, leaving behind him several 
children to perpetuate his name. 



PADDI BHAT. 

This poet was by cast a bramin, of the Konf- 
charla. family, and native of a village called 
Paritna, in the Ellore district, he flourished in 
ttie thirteenth century of Salivahana, during tho 
Hefgn of Sarvagna Sing^ama Naidu. This 
poet's life famishes a striking example to shew, 
that the powers of the mind may lie dorinant for 
many years, until by some fortuitous concur- 
rence of circumstances their energies are brought 
into action, for in the earlier part of his Hfe, 
Paddi Bhat was so dull at his Tearning, that la 
was-unfversafly ^bought to be a mere Uocithead, 



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and his memory was so bad, that he forp^ot in tlift 
evenings every syllable of what be had learnt in 
the morning. This state of stnpidity in our poet 
continued, till he was thirty years of age, at 
which time (it is related of him that) he was OBft 
day sitting in bis bouse, pouring over a Sanscrit 
book, and could not con bis lesson for the life 
of bini, notwithstanding all his endeavours; bis 
sister-in-law, who was close to him pounding 
rice, burst out into a loud laugh at his A^in la* 
bour, and looking archly at bira, exclaimed in 
the Sanscrit dialect " Musalah Kesalayate," my 
pestle will bud," by which she implied, that tlte' 
pestle she held in her band, would blossom be* 
fore her brother-in-law wo\ild be able to learn San- 
crit. Stung to the quick at the reproach and. 
mockery of a woman, Paddi Bbat hastened out 
of the house, and made the best of bis way to 
a man in tbe neighbourhood, who was esteemed 
as a prophet, and to whom the poet^s elder bro- 
ther, by name MalUnath ministered : be took ap 
bis abode with this holy man for some time, and 
it so happened^ that one day MalltnaQi went 
L 



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borne, and left his brother with the prophet be- 
feremeDtioned, who it is said, was taken snddeii- 
Ij ill, and found the pains of death comiug on 
Irim. He anxiouslj called ont for Mallinatb, 
who being absent, his brother Paddi Bhat ao- 
siwered the sage, and came to his presence. 
The prophet vomited into fats bands, and it is 
said, that Paddi Bhat by eating this vomit, be- 
came immediately inspired with a prophetic spi- 
rit, and possessed of scientific knowledge of 
every kind. Mallinath returned, and fiodiog bis 
master dead, and that his brother had received 
from the deceased sage, the gift of prophecy and 
Imowledge, was quite inconsolable and uttered inv- 
precations on his brother, because he bad fore- 
stalled him, and obtained a pronnse from him, 
that he would not compose any original work in 
bis owB name, but that he might write as many 
commentaries as he pleased. After this, Paddi 
Bhat wrote several commentaries, and five poems, 
entitled " Pancha Kavya, and Nishidham " a 
poetical history of Nala, and numerous com- 
Bftents on several difficult texts. He then mad» 
& tour to several holy places, and went to the 



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Coart of Sarvagna Siogamaned, where he exv 
hibited his poetical powers, andnas dismissed 
from the Court of that monarch after receiving 
valuable presents. — Paddi Bhat constantly era- 
ployed his pen in tnakiug commentaries on diSi- 
cult works, but as no mention is laade in any of 
his books o£ the number ofexpositions be wrote> 
BO judgment can'now be formed of the extent of 
them: those that have survived the destruction of 
time, are much esteemed by the Irarned. This 
poet died in. the sixty-second year o/his age* 
His elder brother Mallinath composed a work 
entitled Mallinatheya, which consisted of one 
thousand verses that bear a double interpre- 
tation, and was much admired in' all the Telugu 
provinces, the death of this, poet took place dur* 
tng the life time of his brother. 



LAKSHMANA KAVI. 

This poet was a Smarta Bramio of the Va- 

ranasi tribe, and a native of Bandar Sircar, he was 

the son of Veukatesa Kavi and lived in the fif, 

teeuth ceutury of Salivahana. In early life ha 

hi 



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76 

stndi^ the Teltigu and Sanscrit lau^dge, «ii'd 
spent iifleen years in the penisal of ancient 
books, written on various subjects, especially 
beautiful poetic compositiooa. Laksfamanakept 
company with the public dancers, and accurately 
observed their various postures and motions, aa 
described in the work called Miavata, but find- 
ing himself despised by respectable' people," on 
arcouDt of his associating with common singers 
and dancers, he determined to relinquish their 
society, as such was derogatory to his character, 
and avail himself of his knowledge in poetry tq 
compose some work deserving the regard of the 
leaiaed. By the advice of several pundits he 
resolved to complete the Bhoja Champu, comi 
monly called Champu Ramayana, only five books 
of which had been written during the life tim© ■ 
of Bhoja Rajai in consequence of the death of 
Kalidas ; and no one since bad been able to finish 
the Poem. Lakshmana undertook to com- 
plete the task, and produced the sixth book of 
that celebrated work, called Yuda Kanda, con- 
sisting of about two thousand verses. This effort 
procured for our poet great renown, and obtained 



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77 

ferliim 'the title of Bhoja Ghampu Laksliiua;ia 
— Sarud Raja conferred on him marks, of dis- 
tinction and presents, and his book was studied 
in different Colleges. Lakshmana died at Ma- 
sulipatam, when fifty five years of age. 

.. KELA.DI BASAVAPPA NAICK, 

Was a ruler of Keladi in the Bednore country, 
he lived in the sixteenth century of the Sali- 
yahana aera. There is a work in existence called 
Seva Tatva Ratna Kara, or the ocean of pre- 
eminence of Seva, of which he is the ostensible 
author, but it is well known that the work was 
composed by the pundits of his Court— it treats 
on several Arls and Sciences, and seems to have 
Veen executed with much labor, 

URAGAPPA DANDANATH. 

This Sanscrit poet was a Military Officer of 
high rank, it is said a Commander of the For- 
ces of Harihara Roya, founder of Vedyanagar 
and its first Sovereign, he was born at Anagon- 
di, and flourished in the twelfth century of Sa- 
Uvahaoa. Uragappa Dandanath was well versed 



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78 

JD the Sanscrit Grammar, and contposed^a Dioi 
tioDaiy which he naiued Nanardha Ratnamala. — 
This book was used in different Colleges in the 
peninsula. 



JAGANATH PUNDIT. 
This poet was a native of a towo named Mun- 
ganda which is situated in the Telugo country, 
he was the son of Ramachandra Upadhya, a bra- 
min ofthe Veginad tribe — and was contempo- 
rary with Akbar Slia— Jaganath did not learn 
a word of the Sanscrit language till he was past 
twelve years of age, when he went to the house 
of his brother-in-law and studied poetry : by 
indefatigable exertions, he acquired a competent 
knowledge ofthe learned languages, and became 
a poet of no small talent. He visited the Court 
of the Karnatic Rajah, but not meeting with the 
countenance that he expected, or thathis abilities 
merited, he wrote some verses expftssive ofthe. 
neglect he suGTered, that the same might excite 
attention towards his endeavours, but notwith- 
standing this stratagem, his labors continued 
unheeded, and he in disgust forthwith proceeded 



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79 

to the Coart of a Maharatta Sovereign, but as 
he was clad io mean attire, no notice was takeri 
of him even there, until raising his voice, he re- 
peatedthe followiag lines : — 

The Kokil Bingmg 'midita flock ofcrowi. 
His melody in tuneful trarblings Bhows, 
And nhila Ihepow'r.or barmony display*. 
The verdant groves re-echo forth bislBja; 
Ihe Foreitera enchanted by bis song-, 
lodigaant drive away (he sable tbroog,- 
That no vile croaker of the kawing raae. 
Should near the vocal strauger hold a place. 

These lines Jaganatli Pundit intended as a 
satire on the inferior talents of the poets at the 
court of the Maharatta Icing — and though the 
censure conveyed in this extempotaneous effusion 
was sufficiently galling, yet the sovereign con- 
ferred large presents and suitable apparel on our 
poet. Jaganath Pundit after this proceeded 
to Jayapore, where be staid many years : in this 
place he vanquished several pundits in public 
disputations on various subjects, and he establish, 
ed a School wherein he instructed numerous 
pupils in the Puranas. While residing at 
Jayapore, he anderstood that the Emperor oi" 



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80 

Dellii entertained many pundits at his cotirfj 
and as Jaganath among his other acquire- 
ments, possessed a perfec* and critical knowledge 
of the Persian language, he was determined to 
pay tliis monarch a visit, he proceeded to Delhi, 
nnd on his arrival there, composed some excel- 
lent verses in Persiati and Sanscrit, in which he 
described the beauty of the King's steeds, as 
W>ey paraded in front of the gate of the palace. 
When Jaganath came to the royal presence he 
repeated some verses both in Persian and San- 
scrit, in which he censured the worldly pursuits 
both of the Hindus and of Yavanas. It is said, 
that at the court of the Emperor, Jaganath con- 
fiitedall the pundits who were opposed io hira, 
and the fame of his talents spread abroad. He 
was of a very comely person, and it is reported, 
that the daughter of the Emperor, who admired 
his talents, and had frequently seen him through 
the Venetians of her apartments, became violent- 
ly enamoured of hira. The strength of her love 
was so great, that she at last revealed her passion 
to her Mother, and requested her to marry her 
to Jaganath. The name of this illustrious lady 



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8/ 

was Lavaiigi, she had just arrived at the age 
of puberty and wa^ a very beautiful and accom- 
plished princess. 

Jaganatb pundit was also smitten with the 
oharms of the Emperor's daughter, and wrot* 
verses in praise of her beauty. Although the 
princess' mother was very averse ta the inatch> 
yet finding, that her daughter's existence de- 
pended on the fulfilment of that event, she on a 
favourable opportunity disclosed the whole af- 
fair to the Emperor her husband, this mona'ch. 
was much grieved at learning this intelligence, 
but at last, gave his consent and the couple 
were married with alt due forms> Pundit, Roya 
had no issue by the princess and he proceeded 
to Benares where the bramins excommunicated 
him, but he gave a pair of metal images to the 
Vystoavas of the Yadana Mountain wljo esta- 
blished them on a high-place, and called them 
Chella Pella Roya. According to tradition. 
Pundit Roya and his wife sought a voluntary 
death in the river gauges. After his death, his 
disciples published his works in poetry, aod 



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■fcti ^ccooTit of his town "Which they call, Pundit 
Roya Sataka. — It must he observed, that the 
foregoing account of this poet 19 taken from 
traditionary accounts handed down by his disci- 
ples and does not deserve implicit credit. — The 
marriage of this poet with the daughter of the 
TEraperior of Delhi is a mere fiction or the cir- 
-cnmstance would have been authenticated ia. 
'Some books of History. 



nannaya bhatt. 

This poet flourished in a very remote period> 
■and was contemporary with Rajah Rajnarindra, 
king of the Rajamahendry j from his very infan- 
cy his mind was turned towards religious duties, 
■and he made very rapid progress in his studies 
of the sciences, he was very learned in the 
Vedes, and performed numerous sacrifices. He 
Wrote a grammar of the Telngu language, and ■ 
entitled it Andhra Sabda Chintamani and Laksh- 
anasara, in thecomposition of this work profound^ 
learning and extensive reading is evinced, and 
J^annaya Bhatt was well qualified to compile a 
work on philology, as he had carefully studied 



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sat 

Ibe tre^ttises written by Brihaspati and Yyasa*. 
This poet also translated two volumes of the. 
Mahabharat iato Telugu, in conjunction with. 
Karainbhat, a bramin of the Indra sect, but 
■while employed in translatiog the third volume,- 
Naonaya unfortunately died> and as no other 
poet would undertake tp complete the tra«slati-, 
on, a disciple.- of Nannaya Bahtt ■ named Bala-, 
saraswati who was a fellow^ student with Saran- 
gadhara the son of Raja R!ijnaraindr.a, com-, 
pleted the work' af^er intense labor and appli- . 
cation. Nanny aBhatt it is said,, mtjt with a 
primature death, and although he was a cele- . 
brated poet, and his works held in very great 
estimation throughout the peninsula, yet authen- . 
tic traditions furnish, but very scanty materials ^ 
to compile his biography. 



TIMJUyiA, SATTI. 

This poet was the son of Chimmania.Sattiv 
and grandson to Etikala Gurvappa and was 
a native of Rajamahendry, he composed a 
work called Kanakapurana, it. was. written m- 



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84 

the Telugn langoage, and the subject of it waa 
tiie rape committed on a virgin of the Vysia cast 
by the prince Vishnu Vardhana In the poem a 
pathetic discriptioQ is given of the lamentations 
ofthe unfortunate damsel, who had her chastity 
corrupted and who being inconsolable at the 
loss of her virginity immolated herself on a 
flaming pile — it is said, that one hundred fatoi- 
Hes who were related to this maiden sacrificed 
themselves with her. This tragical eveat hap- 
pend at Penugonda nearRajamahendry. After 
the death of the above-mamed Virgin a temple 
was erected in honor of her, where an idol was 
established called Kanakaparaiwarames, which 
is still in existence, and people of the Bannian 
cast pay adoration and homage to it, 



TEKKANA SOMA VAGI. 

This was a famous Historian and Poet, and a 
native of a village, called Petture in the Nellore 
district, he flourished in the twelfth century of 
Salivahana. When he was very young, he 
studied Sanscrit and Telugu under Kavi Rak- 
phasa^ and in a short time made very rapid pro- 



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83 

gress in those languages. At Ibe desire of Ma- 
nia Sidhaiajee, he undertook to translate tiio 
Mahabarut into Telugu, and completed fifteen 
volumes in a comparatively short space of 
time, he was possessed of a quick genius and a 
ready talent at versification, in addition to a 
critic&l knowledge of the Sanscrit language. 
For this performance, he obtained the grant of 
an extensive tract of land from the king, the 
greater part of the produce of which he expend. 
ed in sacrilices, these religious acts procured fo^ 
him the appellation of Tekkana Somayogi— this- 
poet died universally lamented. 



BHATTU MURTf. 

This poet was born in a village called Bhattit • 
Palla in the district of Pulmendala, in the ceded 
distrii^f s he was adistinguished orator,and possess. 
ed a critical knowledge of the Sanscrit and Tehiga 
dialects. As the poetsofhis time weregreattypa* 
tronized by the Sovereigns of various provinces, 
Bhattu JIurti chiefly confined his labours to 
versification in the vernacular tongue, ai>d the 
Jiarmony of his numbers were so. much admired 



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that he obtained a great many scholars, -whoi% 
^e made proHcients in prosody. He, ia courao: 
of time proceeded to the Court of Eristaa 
Roya, who admiring; his talents retained him as. 
one of his eight celebrated barda ; during the 
Ufe-timo of this monarcb, he composed an epio 
poem, entitled Narasa Bhupalayam, or the his- 
tory of Narasa Bhupal, which was a work of 
great labor, and much, admired by his contem- 
poraries, and by posterity. After the death of- 
Kristna Royaloo, he wrote another epic poem, 
(ailed VasQO Charitra, the subject of which is 
the loves and nuptials of king Vasoo, and the 
beantiful nymph Girikernica, the work was de- 
dicated to king Terumala and the invocation of 
the poem conunences in the followipg manner :— 1_ 

" The earth-born Seta viewed witb grace rephtq 
Her beauteous form refleoted neat her feet 
By brillknt gema. that each with rarioul shads 
And plaitiopow'r a graceful maid portray'd 
Bbe, Bftma'e cansort aod betrothed wife 
Conceiv'd a new creation sprung to life 
Touch'd bj the dust of her lord's potent foot 
7iH hs lemoy'd the godden' auxioas dQubl; 



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When in the naptiat rites, and bo'l; banj 

He graap'd lier jeweb in bia beaT'nlj band 

May Seta'a tnubaad bleisingi e'er bestow 

On Teramala RoyaB royal brow 

M''ith moon-like faee from nhicli each science glcaiiK 

With rub; lip* replete with Sacoh'rine stream a 

Tromnhichthe boon of latent wiihea flows 

And which rich fruits effsctnally bestows 

With nectar-vitsed 1>reasts as pure as trulli 

Abundant sourca of wealth and blooming youth 

With arms lilte tendrils that ia shadowy bow'rs 

Isdeck'd in beauty of unfading flon'rs 

Bti was produced when Rama efforts tried 

In Janaka's lacteous ocean wide 

He Heri'a self while fierotly bending low, 

Bentthe tough string to Itwar's mountuiu bow. 

May that bright goddess cboicent blessings biiog 

To Temmala Roya peerless king. 

The ISister arts that yield haimonioui ssand 
]i music and in Poeay are fonnct 
The dulcet conponent cf tunas and verw 
Each with her charms th' enraptur'd soul immers* 
And whirl'd in circUng eddies ronud and clear 
Like Sarasati's fragrant breasts appear 
May he who can ifit lawful love the testa 
Grasp with his palau those loscious budding breast* 



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And in love'i deiport roark them as bis oir& 
B; BO ig^Doble puncture plainly shona 
May that Divinity hi* pon'ri teleot 
And Terumaia migbiy king protect. 

The alphabet that like a roaary seems 
By her lute's melody soon raeltia streams 
And all around reflect lair Vaiji's face 
As Gad SiipTeme perrading time and spaco 
May she the gift of EltHjoeBce confer 
On Terumala king nithout compeer 

Arria nhen nitb Jealous rage possessed 
To ber great consort this reproach addressed 
Well'. Weill TbouTaithles-to ray marriage bed 
Mandakini, tbou keepest on thy head. 
WhiUt 1 alasl am dnindl'd half avrny 
ihe God prostrating then tegaii to pray 
T* appease her ire by humbly bending low 
But Giinga naxing nrath did clamarous grow 
Tills Sumbhu tied hia hair, this pretext i»g« 
The Goddcsn silenced and restiaiued her sago 
May that great Being in a bounteous shon'r 
On Terumala all bis mercies pour 

On eitlier side w itK fragrant braded hair. 
Like dusky clouds that flnat in ambient air 
With ornamental symbols on each sida 
Of fDll'blonu ahiiuDg in their beauties prido 



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With (lamiDg eyei tkat dart their iplen dors clear, 
And giake-riog pendants that adorn each ear. 
With necklaces whose light illumea each land. 
And graceful Camalas in either hand. 
With robes of direra hues and powder rara 
Of Rutti's lord, adrugbejond compare 
Thus deck'd the mountain born half of her lord 
Does in each essence to her mate accord. 
May she bestow on Ternmala R07, 
Victorious battle and triumphant joy. 

While he with mighty tnsks resistless itroolc. 
The moantain huge Ragatasara shook 
Then graceful Gowri with aaeonscions start, 
Embrac'd 8ri Kuntha to her throbbing heart) 
While Gunga gashing o'er great Biva's brow 
In falling stteama is daah'd on earth beloW ; 
The moontain-bom is pleased with feata nov don* 
By her own elephantine faced son. 
To that prescient Ood, whose nam« I taka 
With holy awe obeisance I make 

The following lines are taken from the second 
book of the same poem, and are supposed to be 
spoken by Manjuvani, when she was deputed by 
her mistress Grikanika to Vasoo Rajah. 



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90 

Oh ruler of the world, they preaeitce bright 
Fills each eipftitding heart nith trae deligU 
And joy ; u when propitious fortane poori 
-Vaneoauted trcunres down ing^dea thaw'ra 
*-Or when the moon In plenitnde arraj'cl 
Shoots h«r bright spleaclari through the midniglit bIh 
-Friend of Ihe world ! Oh pow'rful deity ! 
The efiiilgeoce of thy penetrating eye 
^iipeli the darknets and the gloom prdfound 
Whose mblemantlecoTeri us around 
Tfay gTMefiil prescDoe this anspiciout d«j 
Oh kingefkitigs, exiles each, care away ! 
■Wflh every keea desire and wish poisessed 
Fili'd to sUietj weitand oonfened, 
Oh ittv'reign of At earth ! thy heav'nty tread 
Appronching doth with potent bleasingB sL ed ■ 
Ob mortals immortality and grace, 
And makes oor wisdom match th' ethereal no* 
Pre-eminent in good thy »irtuB ponra 
Like fruitful ttutum its prolific stores : 
Whilst we our homage p»y we gain these thrifU 
The mral goddess sheds her choicest gifta 
fouberant to me and to my friends ; with joy 
In plenty we our happy hours employ. 
Who can the gratefur voice sufficient rais* 
KeCciTe the boon and give eternal praise? 



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St 

The foregoing poem of the Vasoo Charitra> 
was much admired by the contemporaries of 
Bhatta niurti, and became a model for aftec 
]ioeta> who composed Id the Telugu Janguage — • 
Bhatta -Mortis was highly rewarded byTerumala,. 
Boya. for thia and other works that he composed ; 
at the command of that mouarchf.so thiat he pass? 
edhis days in peace and happiness until his 
death, which happened at \a$ residence in the 
nxtietb year of his agfr,-. 



TtMMANA. 

This poet was by cast a Niyogi bramin of the 
Mukka tribe and a native of a village called 
Grannavarum, he flourished daring the reign of 
Krishna Roya^.lcing of Vijayanagar. He com- 
posed a work called *' Parijata paharana," ia . 
which it is given out that Krishna Roya had pro- - 
cured the parlijata flower from the garden of ' 
Indra for his consorjt Satya Bhama,' the poem^ 
consists of three books written in a florid style, 
and- the images and similes are very bold and 
liking. 



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93 

SURANA. 

This was also a Niyogi bramio of the Pea* 
g^Ia family, he flourished during the reign o£ 
Krishna Royaloo, sovereign of Vejayanagar; 
He was well versed in Telugu grammar, and a 
perfect master of that language. In course of 
time he proceeded to the Court of Krishna Deva*- 
who retained Lim iq his service — Surana com*. 
posed a work which he entitled Raghava-Pait- 
dayao), which is an abrid'gement of the Ramayana. 
and the Mahabarat, the whole being comprised: 
in six hooks — he ended his days at bis usual; 
residence. 

TENNALA RAMALINGA. 
This yfas a celebrated poet at the Court of" 
Krishna Royuloo, kjngof Vejayanagar,being one 
of his eight celebrated poets, he was born in the. 
village of Tinnala in A. S. 1384, and was of the. 
fanuly of IswarPragada, his horoscope exhibits. 
. him as born under a very propitious star: in his 
infancy he studied the Telugu dialect, and by 
the association of the Bhatarajas, or bards of 
Bhatta Palla he became a perfect master of th&t 

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9a 

fenguage, ancTa professor of rhetoric j lie likewise 
possessed a tolerable knowledge' of Sanscrit.-^ 
Having heard" much of the patronage afforded 
by Krishna Royaloo, Ramlinga went to Anagondi 
in hopes of receiving the countenance- of the 
ling. As he had no friends to forward his 
views, our poet was obliged to ingratiate him- 
self into the good graces of Ihe iafeiior ser- 
vants of the house-hold : he composed some 
verses on one of the female attendants of the 
queen named Bommedalli, which was a great 
panegyric on her, and at the same time he la- 
vished abuses on any one who should mak© 
unfavorable comments on his versification. 
The merit of Ramlinga at length reached 
the ears ofthe king, who appointed him one 
of his Court poets. Tennala Ramlinga com- 
posed a poem called Pandaranga-Mahatina 
-^Ramlinga was of a humorous character, 
and loved to play jokes on people, in or- 
der to raise a laugh against them — the gura 
* of Tatachari was a very religious man, and 
was in the habits of visiting a cow-steill every 
W.orning as soon as he waked^ and walked thei;« 



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94 

blicd-folded in order to view the dung of the 
cow as the first object, thinking as many hindus 
.do that to look on the ordure of a cow the first 
thing in the morning, wa^ a very meritorious.. 
act^the guru consequenUy used to. grope his 
Way every morning to the stall ajbove named,. 
with his eyois ehiit and laying hold of the cow*^ 
.tail used to wait til] she evacuated, when he 
opened his eyes to behold the dwig — Ono: 
morning Ramlinga played the Allowing wag- 
gish trick, he got up early and removing tfae- 
cow from the stall, stood in its place, stark, 
naked. — The guru as customary presently canie 
ftnd instead of the cow's tail laid his hand on 
the naked Ramlinga, when the. guru opened. 
his eyes he was transported with fury, and run- 
ning to 'the king, laid his complaint again;;! 
Ramlinga. — The king being wrotl^ ordered that 
the poet should be forthwith beheaded, and the 
executioners carried him to a plain md buried- 
him in the earth as far as the neck, leaving only 
his head above ground, agreeably to the sen- 
tence passed on him ; they left him in this codt 
dition, intending to return in the course of ajk 



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iour and decapitate him. — It so happened, that 
B hump-backed washerman was passing that 
"way, and asked Ramlinga how he came to bo 
BO situated, "my good friend," replied the poet, 
" I was born a hnnch-back like yourself and 
having long soflered the derision and scorn of 
ill-mannered individuals, I applied to a sage 
who had great knowledge of the occult sciences, 
and begged ofliim to relieve nie from my mis- 
fortune, he informed me that if I should be bu- 
ried up to my neck in this identical spot, that 
I should be entirely cured of my deformity, in 
pursuance of his direction, I got' some of my 
friends to bury me here, and I really believe 
that I am cured already, I will thank you to re- 
move the earth and see whether it be so or not." 
The washerman did as the poet requested, and 
was quite astonished to find Ramlinga a strait 
well made man, for he was a credulous fellow, 
and believed that the poet had been a hunch-back, 
and cured by being buried in that spot — " As 
one good action deserves another" said the wash- 
erman to the poet, *' I will thank you to bury me 
in this place, that I may be cured of my a:fflic- 

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9« 

lion in the same way as you." Rainlinga wifK 
a very grave face .buried the poor washerman 
np to the neck, and ^after an hour's time went to 
the kiDg, and toW him that by the personal 
interposition of a God he had been restored to 
life ; the executioners in the mean time had be- 
faeaded the washerman, and were making their 
report to the king, that they bad killed the poet 
according to the royal commands — The whole 
Court were consequently astonidied to see Bara- 
Knga, and as the king really believed that the 
poet had been killed and restored to life, by 
some God; he promised to forgive himthefirst 
bundred crimes that he should commit in future. 
Ana Vema Reddi had in his possession two 
beautiful horses of the finest mettle, they were 
of the Candahar breed, their entire bodies were 
of a sable color, except the ears which was grey. 
Krishna Deva had great desire to obtain one of 
these steeds, and sent an embassy to Ana Vema 
Reddi, to ask him for one of them, but the latter 
monarch replied, that if the former woald send 
a poet, who could excel any that he had at his 
Court, he would give birathe horses— when this 

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'answer came, aW tl^e poets under the* patront^ 
of the Krishna Deva refused to go except 
Ramalinga, who forthwith proceeded to the Court 
of Ana Veraa Reddi : when there, be completed 
every task set him, and in turn wrote a part of a 
stanza, and desired the poets of the Court of Ana 
Vema Reddi, to complete it. Ramlinga then 
took his departure^ and in the couFse of six 
months retarned, but the pundit and poets had 
not been able to finish the stanzas, he therefore, 
wrote the concluding verses which so pleased 
Ana Vema Reddi, that that king embraced him 
and gave him one of the excellent Candahar 
horses before-mentioned, and dismissed him with 
inany presents. When Ramalinga returned to the 
Court of Krishna Deva, he was received with 
great marks of attention, and enjoyed the king's 
favor in a very high degree ; but being of a very 
humorous and eccentric turn, he once more for- 
feited the good opinion of his royal master by 
playing on him the following trick:— He told 
Krishna Deva, that he had procured for Lim a ve- 
ry beautiful damsel, and asked him when he would 
O 



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•wisb to visit her — the ting being rather of aliix- 
urious and lascivious disposition, appointed aa 
«arly day. Rainlinga then decorated a bed fit to 
receive the i-oyal visitor, bnt instead of a beauti- 
ful woman, piaced in it a long stoae pillar, which 
lie covered over with a rich brocade quilt: 'at 
the hour fixed on,'the king-came, his lust having 
been very much excited by the descriplion given 
'by Raiulinga of the feinale, who was to receive 
him -in her arms, when the king lifted up the bed 
clothes, he was very mfich astonished to find a 
etone, where he expected to find a charming vir* 
gin, and his anger being raised to an ungoverna- 
ble pitch, he ordered the executioner immediately 
to behead Ramlinga, the poet bowever concealed 
himself, and when the king's wmth was abated, 
he was taken once more into fevor. Some time 
after tlii^, the daughter of the* king had com. 
posed a poem called " Mariclii Pameaj'a," or 
the nuptials of Marithi — and proposed to read 
the same to Krishna Deva, before the whole 
Court ; but as she was aware of the satirical 
character of Ramlinga, she stipulated with her 
fdtheij that he should no* be allowed to be jire- 

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sent The king consequently forbade Ramlinga- 
to comt into Court: on the day however, 
that the princess publicly read her poem — 
Bamlinga disguised himself as a female attendant^ 
and concealing his face, stood close to the king's 
daughter — who begaji reading with an audible 
voice— the poem was really very well written, 
and contained nioral reflections and beautifut 
descriptions of the scenery and dresses of fe- 
males and various^other. subjects, among which 
was the description of a pregnant woman; just 
at this moment Ramlinga made some waggish 
remark and gesture, which set the whole Court 
m a roar of laughter, and so abashed and con- 
founded the princess, that she could read no 
more, and abruptly left ber fother. — Krishna 
Deva was very vexed., at this conduct of the 
poet and sentenced him on pain of death imme-- 
diately to leave- his dominions — Ramlinga ac< 
Qorfingly went to tlie Court of tlie king of Ka-. 
Hnga and 'excited him- to wage war with Krishna: 
Roya ; several battles were fought by the ariincs 
9£ the two sovereigns, but the latter gtineu the, 
02. , 



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100 

Tictoty, and took possession of his enemy^a 
territories — when the war was over, Krishnai 
Roya forgave Ramlingahis treacherous conduct, 
and received him again into favor, which, he ea- 
joyed till the day of his death. 



AYALA BHASKARA, 

Was a native of the Teliuga country, ah(i 
lived in the fourleenth century of Salivahana^ 
In his infancy, he learnt the rudiments of the 
Telugu language, and as. he grew op, studied) 
grammar aod versification: when arrived at inaa. 
hood, he was deteruiined to give his comitrymeoi 
some worli, that should be useful, as well as 
amusing, and consequently translated the Rettai 
Matara into Telugu verse, the work consists of 
two books, and comprises a variety of subjects^ 
such as the cycles and periods, the revoluti- 
ons of the seasons, rain, wind, thunder, ligbtniag 
and the other phenomena of nature ; the climates 
and various productions of the earth, popula- 
tion, inuadations, and droughts, and various other 
subjects. According to tradition, this poet lived 
to a good old age, biif bo authentic account of 



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tbe manner of his death lias been handed dowa 
to posterity. 



APPAKAVf. 

This was a Telugu poet, and a native of the 
TelugucDuntiy. He wrote a work on prosody, 
called " Appakavi Chandesu," or " Andrs 
Prayaoga Ratnakara," which was reckoned an 
excellent treatise on the prosody of the Telugo 
dialect, after this he wrote another work, edied 
"BridnaSambhavam," which is the account of the 
birth and parentage of Brinda, the chaste wife of 
a giant: thesectofMadhava worship this goddess 
by planting a sprig of the T alasi shrub in a 
clod of mould. The stoiy is taken from the 
Bhagvat, and is in great repute among the Hin- 
dus of that province — the manner of the death 
of this poet is unknown, nor have the names of 
any other of his works been preserved. 



ALLASAM PEDDANA. 

This poetVas bom about the year 1430 of 
Salivahana, and 0onrished during the reigns of 
Nrisimha Roya and Krishna Deva: a village 

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104 

9eShd D^ranala, wltichis situated iathe dHstricfc 
calle:! DapaJ, iii the ceded'provinces, claiiiis the- 
honor of being his birth place. Allasani Peddaa% 
in his iafancy studied the Sanscrit and Telugu 
languages, in. due time, obtained a critical know-, 
ledge of those tongues, and was able to coair 
pose rersesiQ either of theai: bisabUities procur*- 
td him the situation of Court poet to Nrisiraha 
Roya, on wliicu monarch be wrote several pane- 
gyrics. After the death of the above-named- 
King, his son and successor Krishna Aoya,:; 
patronized our poqt, and appointed him. aa onoi 
of his "Asta Diggajas," or eight celebratett 
Court pundits, in allusion to the eight elephanta. 
whi ;h support tiie earth, according to the my- 
thology of the Hindus. 

Allasani Peddana was a votary of Rania> ao(t 
his poems in the Telugu language are much 
esteemed for their harmony. He composed aa 
elaborate work, entitled " Swarachisha Manu. 
Charitrn," in four bjoks. llie following are tha 
contents of the poem in question : — A. religious 
bi'amin, by name Pravarakhya, andaa inhabitant 
ofMayapurefet an ardent desire to visit Uteauot^ 



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^it of the Himalajra mountain, and as It was itt- 
^ossible to proceed there by Itumaa means, hd 
"was anxious by some supernatural process to 
efiect his wish, he in consequence stopt every 
Rscetic and traveller, that he saw journeying 
thither, that he might obtaia from them the se- 
tret, by wbich they Were able to surmount all 
difficulties, and attain the top of the mountain — • 
he was in the habits of inviting these people to 
fais house^ and courteously to entertain them in 
hopes to obtain from them the secret One day^ 
a devotee came to his dwelling, and as his man* 
ner was more than usually complaisant, the 
bramin strenuously beseeched him to furnish 
him with the means of proceeding to the top of 
the Himalaya mountain, the devotee yielded to 
his request, and furnished him with the juice of 
a plant, wbich he rubbed on his feet, and desired 
him to fly away, repeating the name of the 
goddess. Pravarakhya at once flew away to the 
top of Himalaya mountain, without thinking to 
ask, bow he should return again to his dwelling: 
when the juice on his feet was dried up, Prava* 
rakhyalost the power of flying, imd wandered' 

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W4 

ttbout tliei^eligbtful gardens 6d the iop ot i\i6 
mountain, while be was thus strolling about, the 
soaod of soft music saluted his ears^ ^d pro- 
ceeding towards it, be saw a beautiful female 
Gundharva, he went up to her and besought her 
to direct him ia the right road. As the bramiB 
was of a very comely person, and the female 
Gundharva had never before beheld a man, she 
£^lt in love with him, but was resolved to behave 
with reserve, so that he might not discover her 
real i^cntiments — she therefore reprimanded him 
for entering her bower without permission, and 
iold him to find out the road as well as he could 
himself. Pravarakliya discouraged at the harsh 
ione, in which the female Gundharva spoke, made 
a precipitate retreat and making his way to a 
neighbouring grove, performed intense devotions 
to the god of fire, who, it is said, appeared to him 
■oder the semblance of a bramin and conveyed 
him to hisowQ dwelling house, in the mean time 
the female Gundharva was inconsolable at his 
loss, and had no idea that her behaviour to the 
bramin would have ended in this manner, she 
expressed ber <grief by the most extravagant 



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105 

"bctioBS by dashing her head on the ground and 
lulling on the floor, and various other deeds 
that shewed the poignancy of her afBtction. A 
male Gundharva disguised himself like the bra- 
tnio and coming to the female Gundharva pass- 
ed hiiaseJf off for P'ravarathya and enjoyed 
ber : she discovered the trick when too late, but 
was determined to be revenged. The fenialo 
Cundharva became pregnant, and was in due 
time delivered, and the child waxed great aod 
became Swarachisha-mana the sovereign of 
Jambudweep. In tlie introduction to this work 
the poet takes an opportunity of expatiating 
on the valour of Krishna Uoya, and describing 
bis victories over his enemies, especially the 
Mahomedaas. 

Allasani Peddaoa composed another work 
called Ramastava Rajeyam, consistipg princi- 
pally of the praises of Rama. In the fitly.fifth 
year of his age, he wrote a philosophical work 
entitled Adwaita Sedhantam, this work was 
written in the Telogu language. When Allasa- 
ni Peddaua was sixty years old be experieiiced 



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^ severe misfortane ia the lots of hk ttt)y4 
FatroD Krishna Dera Maha Rajah — the poet 
wrote a very pathetic elegy OQ the occQsion, and 
lamented tlje loss of the Ung hk straios the 
Qiore touching as they tvere really felt The 
sorrow that AUasani Peddaaa expressed was 
UDfeigned on his part as the tnoni&cence of his 
Jloyal Master, on many occasioBS created in oar 
poet sentiments -of the most fervent gratitude. 
Allasani did not long outlive his Royal Patronj^ 
for he xjied a few months after ICrishna DeTa,t 
at his otrn resideiice at Poranala. "nte beif 
^nd successor of Krishna Deva, Rama Roynloo 
^ewed great kindness to our poet, vho enjoyw 
ed great reputation. His vorlcs are iJisseQiinated 
in every province where the Telugu language i^ 
spoken and uttdersjtood, and few poet^ have eiF. 
isted who gained tnore populaiity during his life 
time and was esteemed by posterity than Al^ 
sani Peddana. 

ADttARVANACHARYA. 

This Was a very ancient poet, he was trarh 
ia ^rec thousand and od4 years of the Kaleyug— • 

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ie waa A perfect master of tbe Sanacrit aiiij 
Telngq langufig^ii and composed ait abridgement 
of the Bharata history : no complete copy of 
the work caa now be procured, but several de- 
fftched parts of it are qtioted by several authora^ 
SBcient and modem. 



ANDHRA KAUDAS. 

A Teluga poet and an inhabitant of a tract tit 
of couDtiy bordering.on the Krishna rirer. Front 
lu's in&JQcy he studied- Telogu and Sanscrit and 
in doe time becaraQ a poet of conaiderabte mnrii. 
Ao^ra Kalidas fravelledtJirough various coun- 
fa-Ie» and translated the Sankara Vt^aya into 
1*61 Qga — this work ia Miti ia existence and very 
extranv^ t^olftted in tiie tel^u conntry.-^ 
As there was a poit of the name of Kalidas at- 
tiie Court of Bhoja Biya, tliis poet added the 
word Andbrft to hi$ name and called hiraselT 
Audhra Kalidas, ^ a distinctive appellatioo. 



ABBANA KAVI, 

Vfa» Ixim ia the f ^'"g'^ country, liis reading 
. . . 1? » 



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los 

was veryextensive, for he had perused the wwfesi 
of a great many authors who had written, in, thft 
Sanscrit of vernacular language, he became hinoii 
selfapoetof talents far beyond mediocrity, hft 
translated into Teiugu the story of Pururavaot 
of the Purans which treats of the birth of Pani- 
ravaChatravatri, sovereign of ladia of the lunar 
race, and ofhis reign arid marriage, thesesubjecta 
are comprised in tliree chapters. 

ANNAYACHARI. 

This poet was born in the Telugn country, he 
was well versed in all the histories contained in 
the Purans:- he composed a work in two- boo\s 
ealted *' Pit^naha Charitra," the subject of 
which is t(&en>from the Purans ^oid contains tha 
hbtory of Brahma the creator. 

GOVINDA KAVI. 

Was a native of the southern provinces, htj 
flourished during the time of the Tanjore Teiuga 
Rajas, he was educated in the school established 
by those soTereigns. He was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with Telngu Grammar. Ue composed 



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109 

aworlt entttleJIndumati Parniayara or the matv 
liage of ladumati, the daughter of a Sourastra 
Kio^, this poem is comprised in one book. He 
wrote several descriptions of diirtrent temples of 
Dravidades, and died at Madbyarjuma. 



RAMABHADRA. 

This poet was a native of the Ceded districts 
and flourished in the reigo of Kristna Royaloo, 
King of Anagoondi, he was renowned for his 
learning and composed a poem on the adven- 
tures of the incarnate God Rnma, in three books 
called Raroabhudaym, tlie whole poem is much 
admired, but the part in which Rama laments the 
loss of his wife Seta, is particularly affecting and 
written with very great judgment and pathos, 
Bamabhadra dedicated this work to Sreram. 



VENKATAPATI RAJA. 
Was by cast a Kshatreya and a native of 
Anagondi. He was a perfect master of tb6 
Telugu dialect, and had read the productions 
of all the best poets who had written in that 
language. V^&kalapati in ashorttime became a 



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|K>et of cousiderable merit himself, and his vei'- 
siiicfutioD was reniarkublefor its natural flow and 
Eaiooifaoess. He particularly excelled in descrip* 
ti JDS his talent at which has been eqaalled^but by 
few Telu^a poets. OuriDg the' early part of hid. 
life Venkatapati was in the military service, but 
bis turn of mind iaduced him to resign the professi* 
on of arms, and devote his whole time to litera- 
ture. He studied grammar under the first gram- 
marian of tiieage. — The abilities of VenkatapatJ^ 
Baja brought him the notice of the King, vha 
invited bim to his court, and retained him as one* 
f>f his poets. Soon afler this Venkata compos- 
ed an epic poem, which be entitled Chandraga* 
da Charitra, in which all the actions of Chan-: 
EJragndaKiQg of the Nesbidha country is describ* 
ed, jhis work Venkatapati dedicated to Kristo^ 

Roy a. 

BALA SARASWATt. 
This poeti was a branjim, and born in Raja- 
maheadri, the capital of the Andhra Province. 
lie was tutor to Nannya Bha^, and a school-fel- 
low of Sarangadhara, sma. of Raja Nftrea^ 
•Ira. He was tought philosophy by a celebnUeil 



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m 

professor after whose death Bala Saraswati He. 
gan to exhibit his geaias. He made a coiQ'^ 
aentaiy on the book on grammar, called " An-, 
dhra Sabd% C%eatamam which was composed by 
Nannaya. Bhatt aod this exposition was known to 
the learned by the appellation of Bala Saraswati. 
This poet wrote several other ^orks, but th^y 
|l4ve not been preeerred. 



BHASEARA. 
A Telaga poet and resident by Kondavede 
he translated the Ramayan into Telugu and de- 
dicated it to Sahinioiara the superintendent of 
the royal stud of Ana Vema Reddi, for this he 
received some reward but not of very great va- 
lue, Bhaskar^ flourished in the thirteenth centu- 
ty of the Salivahana era, and died in his nativ^ 
^oui(ti;y. 



BADA BANALA BHATT. 

Was a native of Kondavede, he. reoeiv^ an 

t^eeltent ^ucatros, and became a poet heforo. 

(e was w^l grown up, and composed severali 

WQSiDdhmeoas pieces.— It n said that one day a% 



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fce went: to a tank to -peribno the tisual aWufioOS. 
«nd daily -religious riteg, 4is gold ring dropj>ed 
from his finger into the water, he became vexed 
■aad uttered aalaiprecation that the water sliouM 
beflriedupentirely.and it is reported that in th» 
coarse of four hddrs the tank became perfectly 
'dry, and Bada Bauala Bhatt picking up his ring 
returned home. 

The writings of the above poet became very- 
popular and was distributed in various quarters 
which procured for him the support aud counte- 
naace of a great many petly sovereigns and rul- 
ers who esteemed him for his talents. He died 
at his own residence. • 



BANDENA. 
A celebrated poet and inhabitant of the. 
Ceded districts, he was much respected by some 
powerful Palygars, by whose-orders he translat- 
ed the "Raja Niti" tr morality of Kings from 
Sanscrit into Telugu— the treatise comprises 
various subjects among which are : Fortifica-, 
tion, the way to defend a town, oa the mode of 
government, codes of lawa, examination of coun- 



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113 

titlors, coUeclion of revenue and on mililary 
stores, the whole is contained in three hooks. This 
book was referred to by the petty Paltpars on 
all necessary occasions to guide them in the ad- 
miiiistratioii of aSUirs. Bandena obtained soma 
considerable grants of land for his literary labours 
and lived a peaceable and easy life till the day 
of iiii death, which took place at his n^ve town. 



BAPPANA KAVL 

This poet was an inhabitant of the Telaga 
country, and flourished during the time of Koa- 
davede Reddiwar, he was well versed in Telugn 
grammar, and a perfect master of that language, 
he composed a work which he denominated 
"Andrhaprayoga RatnaKara," ocean of Telugu 
phrases and inscribed it to his father, this book 
was made use of in all t!ie schools in Telaga 
country. Bappana Kavi h-td an accademy of 
his own, and numerous pupils were instructed 
by him, which occupation rmployed his time till 
the day of hia last sicknes and death. 



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BHYRAVA KAVI. 

* This poet was contemporary with the foregOi. 
iog, and was like hira a great grammarian of the 
TelugTi di^ct : he wrote a work on prosody, -en- 
titled Kavi Gajan Kusa Chandasu, whi(ih by 
degrees came in good repute ; BhyravaKavi did 
not seek any public employment, hvA spent his 
time ill' retirement, and died^nuch respected Xor 
•.his excellent private character 



lEASAVA KAVI. 

" TTiis "poet -was a disciple of Sri Rama, aind 
tras an inhabitant dT the country, near tiba 
Kristna Rivfer ; by coinstantly reading the Ra- 
mayana "he imbibed a taste for poetry. He 
translated the Ramrtyana from Sanscrit, in'to 
Teluga which work was held in high estimation. 



BHIMA KAVI. 

The account that has been handed dCwn by 
traditionary records of this poet, assign to him 
virtues that 'elevate him io a rank, equal to a 
demi-god : he was born at Lemula Vada, in the 
province of Veligandi"""'*, his mother was a 

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wiabw, and Bhiaia Kavi • is said- to liave beea 
produced by tbe operation, ot the spirit of Siva*. 
His. mother bavmg made several, vows. The 
mother of Bhima, bad-raade- vows to propitiate 
the deity, that her son niig'ht become a wise and 
enlightened man, and it is said, that be acquired: 
perfect knowledge of languages with very little 
application, aad his father- the God. Siva, Lad 
pronounced a blessing, that whatever he ex, 
pressed by word of mouth, should come to pass. 
By the> works, hi lefit behind him, it appears, that 
Bhiina Kavi had travelled into different foreign 
countries,, s^uch as Karnata, Maharatta, &c. h^ 
visited the king of Sajanagar, (named Rayakaling- 
agangu).* town in the province of Kajiuga, buta.s 
that monarch treated him with great disrespect^ 
and received him in- a haughty and scornful 
manner, BhimaKavi pronounced acr.rse, where- 
by the aforesaid king- lost all his wealth, and 
suffered, very severe misfortunes.; the king, qf 
Sajaniigar,. however- shortly repented of the 
treatment lie had shewn to. Bhima Kavi, and 
^pptoaching him. humbly besought his fyrgive- 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIc 



lis 

ness. The poet pardoaed him and biUisscd liiloi 
ia the following verse: — 

Thy coantleai tro|>pa marsWI'd in bn^ftit WJtaff^ 
ShM make each hostile iqa&dcoD fl; unay, 
And flash'dniLh ipoila sliall victor; procUimki 
And o'er ettch region spread tti j glorious nanA: 
While fertile Sajanagar'a Rplendid throne^ 
Shall void of danger e'er remain th; iiwn. 
By this blessing of the pcet, the king Rr>y4 
Kalinga Gungu repossessed the throne, and coa«. 
quered all his eaemies. 

Bhima Kavi wrote a treatise on prosody, ea^ 
titled " Bhimana Chandasu," and a work na as- 
trology, named Bhimana Jotisha, comprising a. 
number of subjects, especially the twenty-seven 
lunar mansions and rules, by which nativities 
may be cast : besides the above Bhima Kavi pub- 
lished a collection of poetical effusions on vari- 
ous subjects, many of which are lost, but few 
are still in existence, and in the possession oi 
the bards and panegyrists in the Telugu coun- 
try, a few more are to be found in the librariea 
of some men of note- All the wonders performed 
by Bhima Kavi, however are in the months of 
all the women and children in most of the Telith 



:»„i,i=dbvGoOgIe 



ga provinces, for his name is very popular, an:$ 
all the wonders he performed as handed doivn 
by tradition, universally credited as real fact^. 
Bhinaa Kavi died, lamented by all classes as few 
«Ottld exceed him in justice and charity. 



GUNGA DHARA. 
This individual was a nati\'e of the Orissft 
.country, but Tvrote poems in the Telugn lau< 
gua^. He came to the Telugu country at a 
very early age, and was educated at a respec;ni. 
ble private school, he was a great trave'ler, and 
aa he had heard much of the patronage of Bal- 
iana Roya, he paid his court to Uiat moiiirch, 
who countenanced him, and by his liberality, 
madehimto be. ineasy circumstances: his poems 
were many, but th>iy chiefly relate to the Liogst- 
Tunt sect^ as his ro}'al master had become a 
convert to the Siva faith. Gnoga Dhara died 
BQUch l^nented, for he was of a strict m>ji-al cha- 
racter, and much esteemed both by the king and 
|>eopI©. 



j:,GoogIe 



Its 

GHANTAYA KAVT. 

Tis name was giveii to this poet, after a- do- 
mi gorldes^, by his parents. He' was born iti 
the Telugu country. Whe» he had finished hia 
education, he selected a story from the Kasi1can^ 
da> entitled "Surabhandeswara," and translated 
itinto Telugnrtbe fblfowing is the subject of the 
poem. The God Isvrar becomes enamoured' of' 
a beautiful toddy-woman during the absence of 
her husband, ajid' she admits- him intc tiie 
house. — Tte husband returns, while they were 
reclining on the bed, and finding the door 
shut, beats against it violently, ^e god 
finding no way that he couM escape undis- 
covered in a human shape, entered a toddy 
jar, and became a lingum, the wife then opene^l 
the door, and the husband entering looked into 
the toddy pot, and saw the Hngmn, he thenknew, 
ihatbis wife had been cohabiting with the God 
Iswar, and far from being displeased at this cir>- 
cumstance he was vexed, that she had not 
admitted him before that he might have seen the 
god. The toddy man placed the abovenaraed 
iinguBt in a consecrated spot and deaominated it 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



119 

Ektra Bhandeswar. The whole story is com* 
prised io five books. Ghaataya Kavidid not com. 
pose any original work, but confined bis talents 
to making translations from the Sanscrit, but the 
harmony of his verses was much admired by 
poets as welt as people in general. This bard 
enjoyed the protection of several Rajahs, until 
liis deatti which took place at his usual residence. 



JAGANNATH. 
Was a native of the northern provinces, and 
Tras descended from a pure tribe: at an early 
age, he studied Telugu grammar, and in course 
of time, composed a work on the conduct of so- 
vereigns, which treatise procured for him the 
patronage of the Telugu Rajahs. His reading 
in Sanscrit works was very extensive, and he 
translated from that l^iguage into the vernacu- 
lar, the ** Raja Niti — or the duties of monarchs 
a poem in four books. 



LAKSHMANA KAVI. 

This poet was a native of tbe Telugu country, 
after he left school, he read over many Telugu 



D,„i,i=dbvGoogIe 



Hi 

%"oots on grammar, and by practice lleC&itte ■»&- 
^qtiainted with all tbe Teluga nouns. He coatw 
piled a compendioas vocabalary in four book^ 
called Andhra-nama Sangraha, "(Tbicb was a 
treatise on the diflerent pronunciations of the 
Telugj tingue; this is a Wort of great utility, 
as it gives the meanings of various Telugrt 
words, beiji^ a complete digest of syaooimeSi 
When this treatise was finished, he composed 
another woik, called "SubliashitaRatnakara," or 
flie ocean of polite phrases, which is intended as 
a sequel to the former work> The princes of 
Telugu highly encouraged Lakshmana Kavi, and' 
by their liberality, he was enabled to live io com- 
parative affluence; he ended his days in his m* 
tive country. 

LINGA KAVI. 

A Telugu poet and historian. "V(TiiIe study- 
ing at school, he read over many histories of an-- 
cient kings, particularly the sixteen monarchs of 
the solar race, he made a Telugu version of the 
history of Sananda, from the Purans, in which 
was included that sovereigns birth, marriage, the 



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121 

^ee(3s of forresters, tbe oonduci of Icings, the 
'encrease of wild beasts, tbe sports of the field, 
pleasures of pastime in elegant gardens, the king's 
return to bis capital, bis administration, and va- 
rious other sul^ects : tbe whole is written in three 
cbapters. This poet was much respected by 
inen of note ia his native country, and obtained 
rich rewards from them, be died at bis own re^ 
sidence. 

lAKSHMANA KAVI THE SECOND. 

A Telugu grammarian and poet, and resideut 
of Kondavede ; during his infancy be obtained 
en excellent education, and composed a Telugu 
grammar, called Prabandha Rajeyam — this was 
the chief work composed by this poet, and was 
reckoned a very useful treatise, and it obtained 
jbr the author the appellation of Lakshamana 
Kavi, or the grammatical poet, which cognomen 
after ages have adopted. This poet earned his 
subsistence merely by tbe labours of his pe% and 
died much respected. 



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ITNGA RAJA. 

A gramniarian and poet of the Telagn cottfta 
try, he was educated ia bis JDfnUcy in the Teluga 
languages, and soon became ti 'proficient ; he held 
acme post in ^he royal house-hold at Andhra, and 
obtained the surname of R^'a, on account of the 
respect paid to him by t*rioces. Me was a con- 
stant worsliippei- of the God Nrisimha of Malya- 
dri, and during Vis leisure hours composed ft 
Telugu grammar, and dedicated it to the above- 
named deity ; Uiis work in aftet ages has been de- 
nominated Malyadri-Nrisinota-Chandasu: LiBga 
Rajab, according to authentic acconnta died itt 
thepritbe of life. 



lOKABANDHAVA. 

A native of tlie Telugu country, his name 
Whicb means a friend of the world, he obtained, 
because hebad simplified the history of Haris- 
cbundra, so lias to make it intelligible to com- 
tnon capacities : he lived to a good old age, bat 
did not compose any other work. 



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WNGAYA. 

This poet was an inhabitant of the Telugi» 
eouatry. He was during his iofancy well eda- 
9ated in the 8an3crii and Telugu languages. 
}Ie translated from Sanscrit into Telugu a trea* 
tise pa the science of palmistry, a work, which 
became yery popular with the learned, and witt 
Xarious princesi 



MANjCHANA MATAYA- 
Was a poetand historian of the Telugu conn., 
'try, he was well educated, and' composed man/' 
historical works, the most celebrated of which i^ 
the history ckfKeyuraBahu, a king of the Sow- 
rastru country, and his warlike deeds and actions. 
lifancUaiia Matya was raised, to the dignity of' 
privy conncillor at the court of the Prince ojf 
Kondavide of the Reddiwiu* family, aod composed 
the above work during his leisure hours.. 



MOLLL 

This poetess was the daughter of a potter, and 
ftourished during tb& reign of Krishna Detra. 



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124 

Maharayaloo. Her parents bad her well educat- 
ed, and Iier genius expanded with Iier age. She 
had so fertile an invention, that according ta 
tradition she composed the story of Ramayana, 
while her hair was drying after bathing: thia 
work was widely disseminated after publication, 
and much admired by the learned, and used ai, 
public schools and other seminaries. 



MADHAVAROYA. 
This poet was by cast a Velamawar, he wa» 
B native of Adoni, and minister to the Prince of 
that capital, he was a very learned man, and 
such hours as he could spare from his public 
avocations, he devoted to reading and the com* 
position of Telugu verse, he wrote a work call- 
ed Cbandrika Parinaya. 



MALLANA. 
Was the Son of Bommana Pataraja. Ho 
was in his Infancy educated by his father, who 
taught him grammar and other brauches of learn- 
ing. While yet a yonth, he composed the Ruk- 
mangada Charitra an epk poem in four books^ 



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125 



to commemorate the marriage of king Rulmaa* 
gada with the princess- Sandhyavali. — Accordinf 
to tradition, this poet composed several other 
works, but none of them are now in existence^ 



MUDDU RUNGA CHOKANADH. 

This poet was by cast a Gentoo, he was bom 
at Trichanapuly, and of iliustrious descent, for 
his father was Vijaya^Ranga Chakanadh, a petty 
sovereign of the Tanjore country, under the 
dominion of the Vijayanagar government. — 
Muddu Runga Chakanadh retained at his court 
various learned men, and poets, to whom he 
gave very great encouragement, as well as to 
singers and musicians ; he was a votary of the 
Sriramgam diety, and made a translation of the le- 
gendary account of Ranganadh, which comprises 
various subjects- aa follows : — Treatise oo 
Tarious- articles, account of excavations of dif- 
ferent weights andmeasures on gold mines, on 
the precious metals — on mathematics and men- 
suration. — All these subjects are related in a 
plain and perspicuous manner, so as to come 
vrithiu the comprehension of the commonest 



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1« 

mderataadiag—'ftiid this work has much condu-v 
ced to the Q(ti6cation of succeeding: generation) 
(L3 it forms o»e of their principal class books, Thia. 
author died while ia charge oTthe administratiF> 
oa ofpublic affairs^. 



MALLAYA. 
Was an tnhalHtant of Koodavede, and tbe so« 
of Madayor, he was abramia of the LingAdhare- ' 
sect, most of the bramins were converted to th* 
Lingavant sect, b.y Bissala Roya, king of Kala*. 
yani : these bramins wear a stone Ungum. round 
ibeir necks, and make oblations to it» and wor* 
ship it afler performing ablutions. Malaya k« 
ceived a good education in his inf^ajjcy, and 
while yet in his youth, wrote the Raja SekharEl 
Charitra, or a poetical liistory of Raja Sekhara^ 
■p, king of former ages. When this work waa 
finished, the poet dedicated it to Nandala Appaya, 
son in law to Saluva Tirama, a king who lived. 
1u the fifteenth century of Salivahana, after tha 
reign of Kristna Deva Mabaroyaloo, king of 
Anagondi. Malaya received rich rewards B'on 
this patron in lands and other presents. 



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127 

l»OTARAnT. 

T'his poet was of the Bommana family, awi 
flourished ia the thirteenth century of Salivaha- 
Ba. During his infancy, he composed a great 
many liymns and anthems in honor of the god 
6ri Ram, and it is said, that he was inspired by 
tiiat deity to translate the Bhagavat into Telugu 
and commanded to dedicate the work to him, 
Wad the god promised to aid him in the under- 
taking. Thus encouraged by the divinity, Pota- 
Tfiju translated twelve volumes of the Bhagavat^ 
It is said, that when he was employed on the 
tenth Tolume, entitled Dasamamaskanda he had 
<!ommenced the description of the beautiful 
Tirgin Rukmini, and came to the following, 
words which he wrote down : — " Pandr Bala. 
Kamre," which bears a double interpretation 
in one sense, meaning that the virgin Rukmini 
had attained twelve years of age, and in ano- 
Iher signification implying, that she was bum- 
ed— having written these words, it is said, 
the poet went to a neighbouring pool to 
bathe, and his infant daughter, who was crawl- 
ing on the floor, immediately fell into a fire* 



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"J38 

learfb. The God Srimm on this iDstantaDeotU- 
}y ijesceuded, ftnd snatching up the paper, corn* 
pleted the verse, which the poet had left unfiiushed 
by addtng these words, *' Nelata Kevanatnbeu 
Miadi Uude/' or the virgin attained to full ma- 
turity — and it is said, that immediately the 
child came out of the fire-hearth, without beiu^ 
scorched or bamt in the least degree — when Pa- 
taraj returned home, he heard what bad happen* 
ed, and seeing the stanza that he had left uafi- 
nished, quite completed, he praised Sri Ram, 
through whose interposition this miracle had 
been effected. Although Potaraj was in dis- 
tressed circumstances, and wanting even the ne- 
cessariesof life, be never debasedbimself by any 
mercenary dedications of his effusions to any 
mortal, and despised his brother-in-law Sriuatby 
because he paid his court to the Prince of the 
Rediwar family by whom he was retained. This 
poet lived to a good old age, butno authentic 
accounts of his death has reached posterity. 



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139 

SRINATH. 

X ))ratQiii, Lyric poet and historiao^ and bro^ 
ther-in-Iaw to tbe individujd, whose biography, 
forms the preceding article. He possessed a 
quick genius, aad was instructed by Potaraj> 
Srinath composed a history called " Marutft- 
rat Charitru," the substance of which is taken 
from the Kastkhanda. This poet was employed 
by Ana Vema Reddi, king of Konda-vede, as 
bis chief court poet, and he was highly esteemed 
by that monarch. This poet had a very florid 
diction, especially in the description of females. 
He travelled through various countries to exa- 
mine the qualities, virtues, vices, and pro- 
pensities of women. When he was on his 
tour, he came near tiie town of Nellore about 
sun-set, and seeing a young boy driving soma 
cows, he asked him how far it was to the town ; 
" look at the sun, at me, and th« cows," said tho 
boy, and you wiD guess without my telling you. 
By this Siinath perctived that the town was 
close by, for the boy meant him to understand, 
that as it was sun-set, the cows returning home. 



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130 

BncI be bat a yooBg child tiie town could not^ 
iu- opr. 'V^ilst he was traveUJo^ on, a womaft 
«eke(l our poet what his name was, he replied 
£riiiatb> which word signifies, the lord or hus- 
band oifwoiiiankiud. '* Who then is j^onr mo- 
.ther's jiusband?" asked the woniea. It is said, 
.4Iiat -Srinath was so abashed, tbat he would not 
"enter the town of Nellore, but proceeded tp ■ 
«ome other coHutiy. Srinath during fais hfe de- 
jdicated a great many works to kings and men of 
jnqte, which drew down the reproaches of hi^ 
brother-in-law, who accused him of servility, and 
Aordidoess in same vtry severe satires, that he 
^nned ibr the purpose ; this circumstance caus- 
led a coohiess between the t,wQ poetsj which end- 
ed at last in enmity and hatred. Srinath enjoyed 
a cousideiable deal of reputation, and died in the 
£%■ fifth year of his agej his brother-in-law 
outlived him some years. 



CHINA yiRANA. 

This poet was of' the Pellala-mari family and 
a native qf Tennala, he lived near the time of 
Ana Vema Reddi the sovereign of Kondavede. 



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131 

^ bad ten eMer brother namtid Pada Virasa^ whor 
bjrdiiigeot applicfttioD to* his studies soon be-< 
came a poet of Fespectable talents y while Chinat 
Virana od the other hand' spent lria> time io idICK 
nessand dissipation, and for atloog time exhibit* 
ed no si^ns of j^nius; Both the; brothers, wera 
ia the habits of attemiii^ the> court of tha reigo^ 
mg' prince, wiio held Pftda Viraaa. ia high, esti? 
mation, on account of bismiscetlaneoua produe- 
tions in verse. This kii^ commanded the' last 
mentioned poet, to compose at 'work oaasi^ 
Ject, never yet hwidled by any bard- of the coun- 
try ; Pada Virana without considering on tha 
. dffficnltie^ ha ^oold have to e&couater agreed 
to do aa in a very short period. When, he rer 
tiu'ned home, lie mentioned this aS^ir to his mfe^ 
aad desired' ber to apprize his, brother of the cij> 
ownstance, as he v^is absent from tbfl Ixonse JM^ 
at this mcMient. Whent China ViranA relHrned 
to his dwelling, his sister-in-IaTC agreeably to her 
busbands di-reotions^ acc^aiftted bint with the 
lierdicamait in. which bis brother was placed. 
Ohina Vti^oa desired her i|ot be uosasy that he 



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ESC 

■ CHAKRAPAff. 

Tbis |>oet wEta a brauHa of the- Patfa (km3y;f. 
and a native of Tettu, near Mannar Polure- in 
the Nellore district ; he- was in indfgent: citcank 
stancs and a strict worshipper of Siriram> by th« 
fevor of which god (according tO' tradition^ h« 
^ acquired a quick genius, and not hy hia own 
exertions. Chakrapah flourished about one hun* 
dred and fifty years ago, and was contemporarji 
with Bangarn Yachama Nadii zemindar of Kalac , 
Kasti. When thii) poet was sixteen years of ag^ 
he began to compose verses ; he was very apt ant) 
ready in rhyming, and used often to verstfy whafc 
was spoken to bim in colloqual discourse. "Fbtt 
fhme of tliis poefs talents reached the ears of 
YachamaNadu, who became very anxious to se« 
him on that aiconnt, and sent for him', bat ihei 
poetdeotiaed going as his family, would want 
the necessarise of life should he be abs^it. Tha 
Wife of Cbaltrapa was far advanced in pregnatw 
cy, and as he expected her to lie in, and oovH 
not procure a milch buffalo, and other necessa- 
ries, for the occasion he proceeded to Kalahastt 
in order to rmse funds ; while on his journey he 



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136 

tihance^ to meet Yocliatna NaHu, who was i*.; 
turuing ia a palankeen from a hunting excursion. 
3ie put several questions to the poet, which he 
answered in beautiful verse> which so pleased 
ihe aforesaid R^ah, that he invited bim to hi? 
court, aed desired him to write one hundred 
-jBtan7.as, Id praise to the God Sriram, Chaltrapa 
executed this task with great credit to liimsel^ 
and so much to the satisfaction of Vachama Nadu, 
fhat he offered the poet ajoy reward that be 
should desire. Chakrapa asked for eighty seers 
of oholam grain ; but the Kajab was more 
jnunificent than be promised to be^ for he pre. 
{lented the poet with a tract of Und that^ielded 
y^rly the quantity of produce he named, besides 
conferring on him very valuable presents, and 
furnishing him with a guard for bis safe conduct 
home to his native village. Chakrapa did not 
write any work on any useful jsubject, all hi* 
effusions being confined to poems in pi-aise of 
the God Sriram ; this poet never flattered any 
individual of note to forward aay mercenary 
views : he died when he was sixty years of age, 
in by no means affluent circumstancei. 



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136 

MOHANA.NGI. 

This poetess was a princess, aod tlie daaglitet 
of Kristna Rojaloo, slie received aa excdlent 
education in her infancy, and was well versed in 
rhetoric and poetry, while in the bloom of youth 
she married Ramoroyaloo ; after which she still 
Continued her studies, and employed much oif 
her time iii reading, celebrated Telegu works, 
composed by the poets at her fathers court : by. 
constant application she attained to considerable 
proficiency in the art of versification, and wrote 
a poem entitled Mariclii Parinaya, the subject 
of which is taken from the IVIahabarat. In this 
poem a very elegant discription is given of the 
iWtarichi damsels. The work consists of five 
books. This princess had no issue, and became 
unfortunately a widow, in the prime of life, and 
(according to tradition) was immolated on the 
funeral pile of her husband. 



KRISTNA ROYULTJ. 

Was a king of Vidyanagar or Anagondi, and 
father to the princess just mentioned, he was en- 
stalled to the throne at the death of his father 



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Nrisimlia Koya, and became renowned, both for 
liiatooquestsand encouragement of literature. He 
vas instructed in the art of GovenmeDt by Ap? 
J>agior Timmarasa, who was tutor to Mm dor* 
img hie -minority. H« was likewise a great con- 
iqueror, and invaded the Telugu and oilier coun- 
tries, which he subdued by his armies. This 
taonarch was very partial to Telingu poetry, 
Allasani Pedctana dedicated to this sovereign, 
his poem named Swarochisha Manu Charitra: 
on this work Kristaa- Royal u made a commea- 
iary, which he called Amukta Mala, or necklace 
of pearls : in this eflTusioD was comprised rules 
on public admiaistratioQ of affairs, aad the dutiei 
of a sovereign. After this the king ttaastated 
the Rasa Manjari, a treatise on amatory subjects ; 
the Maclalasa Cbaritra, a history of a celebrat- 
ed king : the Sakala Katha Sara Sangraham, 
an abridgement of several popular tales. This 
prince was a great encourager of learning, and 
« munificent patron ; he died in the fortieth year 
ttf his age, in the year of Salivahuua 1446. 



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AGASTYAR. 

This was a celebrated Tamul poet. The 
learned Hindus in the Sooth of India are in doubt 
■whether he is to be identified with the celebrat- 
ed Agastya Mahamimi, or is some other persom 
sprung from the Sudra cast. He wrote a Tamol 
grammar, the first on that language that was 
ever written, and called k Agastya. — Vyakam- 
natn, which consists of five modes of Yalakanum, 
vrz. Yalutta, Ghollu, Parulu, Appn, and Atap- 
kani, he also composed several other works. On 
Hindu mythology, philosophy, medicine, alcbemyv 
and on religious rites, and formula of prayers. 
The remote age in which Agastyar lived has 
caused the materials to compile his biography to 
be very scanty, «nless we give more heed, than 
due to the legendery accounts handed down res- 
pecting him. 



AVAYAR. 

This poetess was the daughter of a bramin nam- 
ed Bhagavan, by a woman named Adi, of a low 
tribe ; according to some legends she and her 
brother and sisters^ (naoiply, three males and four 

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139 

j&males), were the issues, of Brahma and' Seras- 
wati, when they were making a tour through 
different countries, and left by those deites at 
the doors of various individuals^ who brought 
them up, and in whose tribes or cast they were 
admitted. Avayar excelled all her brothers and 
sisters in leami'ng, although she was brought up 
by a Panakar (or servile cast) songster. She 
was contemporary with Kamban the author of the 
Tamul Romayana, and she employed her elegant 
pen on various subjects, such as astronomy, 
medicme, and geography ; her works of the latter 
description are rbuch admired. The followiug is 
a fragment of one of them :^ 

" Tt« whole expiaae of thii iV<^^'*P>'e'><I'iig,eartb,. 
'* Afajr be oompareil to alu-ga tract of land ; 
"ThttdiTarsaosntriet^iittlia world, oachmark'd- 
" B; its ona bouadarie*, resemble fields. 
" Great Too-dei-val-a nadu is a peering 
" Sugar-cane ia.oae ortheie fair field*^ 
" FtB chraf towns arftthe crude juice of this cane^' 
" Fair Kancbipnnnii if a lucioua caka 
T a 

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140 

" Of noreGned ngar, got hj batliiig ;: 
" While a cooerctioD of refined Rtigar, 
" Doei preteat Ut' iaieriora of bright Eaochi, 
" Wbcreibo Great God, who tiMnnti the boll, reiidea.* 
Avayar remained a virgiB all her life and died"^ 

much admired for hei talents in poetry, and arts 

and sciences. 



KAPIT.AR. 

This was one erf' the brothers of the hefore- 
Mtentioned poetess. Teruvallor is mentioned as 
his birth place, which was in the Chola comitry^ 
he was brought up by a bramtn, and was edu- 
cated in the TantuI lai^uage, which be very soon 
became master of. He composed a work, called 
Aghavar, which is a relation in verse of all the 
events of his own life, and that of his brothers 
and sisters, mentioniag the places of their births 
and so forth. 



TERITVALLUVOR. 

This poet was another brother of Avayar, 
being like them exposed as soon as bom, but 
brought up by the pariars of Mailapur. When 

U.r,,l,;.-M:,C00<iIC 



ke arrived to 6ie age of maturity, he proceeded^ 
Madura during the reign of Vamdasektara, aad 
•vercatne forty nine learned professors, at the 
court of that king ia disputation. He was ad- 
mitted to th6 Tamul college, notwithstanding his 
tow birth. He composed a work entitled Teru- 
valluvar Koral, which consists of a series of 
stanzas of a didactic character, on the different 
grsides and eofidititma of human life ; this work 
13 in great repute alt over the South of India^ 
and is reckoned one of the best composition^ 
extant in the high Tamil, and a translation of it 
into English w as made, by the late Mr. F.Eliis* 
This poet was called Teruvallnvor, a^ be waa 
reared up by Valluvar. 



ADHIKANAN. 
This was also another brother of Avayar, he 
was so fortunate as to be brought up by a prince, 
and was consequently admitted into the kingly 
tribe, he wrote numerous poems on various sub- 
jects. 



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UPPAGA. 

This poetess and the two followiog^ were sis-^ 
ters to Avayar. She was born at Utakadu m th« 
Arcot district, and was broaght pp by a waahep- 
woman. She wrote a work ob moitdity entitled 
NUiPatat 



MUREGA. . 
Was born at Kaveripatam, ia the C%(^acoiia.> 
try, she was reared up by a toddy-womaa, and! 
wrote a few poems on miscellaneous sul^ects. ^ 

VALLY- 

Was boru on the hill country, and was adopt*' 
ed, [ and brought up by people of the Karawap 
tribe. She wrote numeroas poems. 



SATKARA. 
The only ag;ounts handed down of this poet 
rests oolegendarytraditions and a docum^t, ao 
cordiag to which he was the chief poet of forty- 
eight iu the congregation of Sanghatar; hewa^ 
aresidentof Madura, and took his place among 
a concourse of poets, on a seat which had been 



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14S 

gmnted by tlie God Sundareswar in ftft reign ot 
Cfeampakamar^ called also yaiiisacbudamaiu-pan>- 
dayan. One day ChampakaiDar asked all the 
poets, whetber the perfume on his wife's hair was 
(he effect of art ot its own natural smell. The 
king suspended to a pillar one thousand mads 
wrapped in a cloth, and promised to give the 
money to whomsoever shonld answer the ques- 
tion. An indigent biamin named Dhamaga ad- 
dressed a mental prayer to Sundareswar, and 
was inspii-ed by the deity, to declare that the 
odour of the queen's hair was natural, and received 
the money as a rew£u-d. Satakara made some 
remarks when Sundareswar appeared to bim aa 
an aged bramin, and sapported Dhalmaja, bu^ 
Satakara continuing the dispute, Iswar manifested 
himself and displayed his third eye, the poet was 
at first so struck with fear, that he started from 
his seat, but becoming more bold put certain 
polemic questions to Iswar, who grew enraged^ 
and uttered an imprecation, that the poet 
should be overcom e in dispntation by a person of 
mean extraction. After this Yada Kadar Was 
conversing with Satakar for a long time, the out. 

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tu 

ea^ ^oet Teravalluvor laid his T>oot called tlift 
Koral, on the bench which immediately vanislKd 



<JRANA SAMMANiDHAit. 

This was a Tamul bramin poet, he was bort 
at Chiyali near Chidambaram, and well educated 
daring his infancy : he was a very prudent per^ 
son, and composed a wort called Tevaran, which 
mentions the different controversies be had with 
Ae Jains, and the tenets of that heretical sect 
No authentic account of the death of this poet 
^us'been handed down. 



APPAR 
This was a Jain Poet, who had a religious dii- 
putation with Guanasaroandhar by whom it is 
said he was vaoquished, and consequently be. 
came a convert to the Hindu faith. He eowpos* 
«;d several poems, in the Tamul language, whicii 
sre now not in existence. 

SANDARAR. 
Abramii»,poetofTeruiiarNeUore, who wa^ 



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educated at Chidambaram, and composeiia posij 
called Tevaram. 



MANl KYAVASAR. 
' A bramiu, Tamul poet of the Dravida country 
and a native of Chidambaram. After leaving 
school lie became very religions, and composed 
many poems OL the deity of Cbilambaram. Ho 
collected all his effusions together in one volumo 
and called it Cliida:ubaram Cora, he was mack 
respected and esteemed by bis disciples, and by all 
classes of inhabitants, aad died ia a good old age. 



GNANOBA. 

This poet was a reli tjious man and dwelt In 
Alandi, the ancient Alakapuri, a tawn situated 
on the bants of the river Indrani, he had two 
brothers, one named Sophanadeo, and the other 
Changadeo, and a sister named Mooktaboye, they 
were natives of Berhampore on the batilca of th# 
Tapi river. Gnanoba entered a religious order 
at the age of twelve years, and after com- 
pleting his education, be compOfied a book on 
V 

ft 

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14A 

f>liilosopIiy entitldd Graneswari m 4be Maharata 
language. Bis younger brother Changadeo^o- 
ceeded to visit him, and sent bim word to ad- . 
vance from ^andito meet him^butGnaaoba told 
the other to come himself, he did so, and saw hia 
brother setting on a wall, and according to tra- 
dition he walked away with it. After the meet- 
ing of tiie two brothers Ghangadeo caused a 
male buffalo to chant the vede. After a few days 
fChangadeo returned to his country. Gnaooba 
spent his whole life in contemplations on the di. 
vility, and died in the sixteenthyear of his age 
at Alaudi. A temple has been raised to his me- 
mory, and a festival is yearly celebrated in honor 
•f bim in Uie month of Ju)y. 



NAMADEO. 

Hiis poet was a tailor, he was bom in a village 
called Gopalpore, which is situated near Pandra- 
pore, and was contemporary with Shahogiy. In 
the eigth year of his age Namadeo became a 
disciple of Kristna, and gave iDdications that he 
would become a great sage and philosopher : he 
abstained from rice, and milk was the only nou- 

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T4T 

rishmeat he toot. R is given oat that Be peiS- 
ibnned several mirades^ and constantly spent his 
time in tiie praises of the god of Pandrapore* 
He composed one hundred verses in the Mahar- 
rata Ifugaage, consisting of applauses of the 
<leity. Namadeo died ia the fortieth, year of bi» 



BAMADOS SWAMf; 

Was born in a village called Parali near S&* 
iwm, he was a disciple of Gnanoba, and lived in 
the reign of Shahagi Rajah, he held some occu- 
pation under the Maharata goTemmeut, but he 
subsequently resigned' it on account of some re- 
ligions scruples^ and spent his time in reading 
books, ia which the miracles of the god Ganesa, 
is set dowDt by which he learned the merits of 
^e faith oC Namadeo, and in order to mock him. 
aerved separate dishes for him, when Namadeo 
came to the residence Ramadoss, he only found 
a single leaf distinct from the line of.bramins, and 
told the latter to spread two leaves more as he 
expected his parents from heaven. Hie other paid 

Y 2. 



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148 

DO heed to >hat be said, but «heii Namade* 
pressed him very niach^ RaniAdos placed two more 
leavea, when the parents of NaDmdeoiniGDediate" 
\y appeared in the f Jrm of Vlshna, *ml s«t dowflk 
to the repast, to the surprise of Ramndoa, who 
eoald not produce his parents when challenged 
by the other to do so ; be was abashed and sui^ 
the praises of Namadeo, who together with hi» 
immortal parents departed : Ramadoes died in the 
eightieth year of bis age. 

TUKKOBA. 
A Maharata, poet of Pandrapore, he wa» well 
Tersed in the Maharata liangnage, and it k said* 
ihat at his twentieth year the God Vital appear- 
ed to hiro in a dream, and bestowed on him the 
gift of poetry. He eomjwsed on« thousaad Ma. 
harata veises, in praise of the Deity which he 
called Abhanga ; and twenty years of bis )if« 
were spent in altering praises to the Pandrapore 
God. It is said, that in the fortieth year of his. 
age, he was translated to heaven. 



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14» 

MQNAPARTO. 

A Maharata, Wabmip and Inhabitant of Satet 
iBh, he lived 200 years ago, and in bis iufancy 
was educated in the Maharata language. Ho 
afterwwda elitered the service of the Satara 
Rajah as a writer to the Royal Cavalry, anddon- 
tinued in this occapation (ill his fortieth year, 
y^hen he became a disciple of the God Vital, and 
«CFiiip08ed one hundred Araya verfcs, in the Ma- 
harata language, eontainiog the praise of Vish* 
SB. He died in the fiftieth year of his age, at 
Pandrapore. 



YAKANADH SWAML 
A Maharata brahmiitj and inhabitant of Paitan 
on the bank of the Godavery river. This poet 
Bved about the time of Shahogi Rajah ; in his in- 
feney he learned the Maharata language, and 
jaade many verses id honor of the Divinity. la 
the sixteenth year of his age, he died at Satarahi 



SRIDHARA SWAMI. 

Was also a Maharata bramin, and an inha* 
bttant of Caradades near Colapore, he was con- 



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I5ft 

tAmporary with the foregoing- poet Sridharfti 
Swami becanw a Sanyaa m his fortieth year, 
and resigned aM secuiar concerns. He compos* 
ed a commentary on thfrBhagavat Gitu in verse* 
He expired in the fiftieth year of his age, at 
Foitao. 



GHOKA MEIA. 
This poet was a Maharatta oatcasi^ and an ixt^ 
habitant of the Pandrnpore country. He waa 
contemporary with Sivaji, and became a votary 
of the Pandrapore God. He composed many 
abhangas, containing the praise of the Grod, and 
died at Pandrapore. 



GORA. CUMBHAR. 

This poet was an inhabitant of Samantvadi, a. 
village in the district of Tulajapore, and vms a 
common gardener by professsioo. It is said, that 
1^ intense devotion to the goddess, he obtained 
the gift of wisdom, and became a votary of the 
Pandrapore god. He composed msfiy M»harat> 
ta verses, elacidating and praising the miracles 
of the diety He died at the early age of G£~ 



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151 

teen tliat Paodrapore, having acquired the c)i(U 
Faeter of a very religious man. 



TOR SUBHANROW. 
Was a Maharata bramia^ and an inhabitant 
of Aranif which ia situated eighty seven miles' 
west of Madras, he flourished during the time of 
Suttulla KhawB, Nawaub of Arcot, and was era- 
ployed at the court of Aran! Raja. Subhanrow 
received a good education in his infancy, and led 
a religious life. When twenty fire years of age 
he made use of the Jotishpatl oil, to acquire a 
quick genius, and it gave him a voracious appe- 
tite. He obtained two villages from his emptoy- 
era, by the produce of which he satisfied the 
cravings of his hunger. He was sent as a vakeel 
Tanisha to Hyderabad, and by his good manage- 
ment effected the object of his mission; he, more- 
over, by exhibiting proofs of valor to the sove- 
reign, obtained valuable presents, with which he 
returned home. It is said, he was a votary of 
Hanuman, and composed one hundred verses on 
the marriage of Rama and Sita ; he lived to a 
good old age, and died at Arani. The above 

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biography Is eompeled from docmnents m tlie 
{)ossessioa of the Masumdars of the Araai Rajab. 



HEM AND A PANT. 

Tliis poet was a Maharata bramin, and an ia- 
babitant of Dowlatbad according to tradition^ 
He was employed in the service of Rama Rajahj 
as a dewan for some time, and afterwards on ac- 
count of some accident be went to Lanka, an<l 
received some kind of rare grain, for curing th* 
lung of that place, from the effects of the evil 
eye. This poet introduced tbe mode character 
into the Maharata coantry, he died in the sixti- 
eth year of his age, at his own residence. 

DAMAGI PANT. 

This poet was a native of Mangalavada, a vil- 
lage in the district of Pandarapura: he flourished 
in the fifteenth century of Salivahana, and' was 
contemporary with the celebrated Sevaji. Da- 
magi had finished his education when ho was 
sixteen years old, at which time he obtained some 
employment at the court of Hyderabad. When 
he was thirty years of age, he was appointed as 

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1S8 

*6be(tftr of the Sffangalavada Pargimnab/ and 
■continued in this sitoation till he was fifty : dui*- 
ing his administration, he lavished a great deal 
of government prdpefty m benevolent purposes. 
Which intelKgeoce coAing to the Nawaub's ears, 
he dfisjjaftched a ccMHpiahy of tfoopers to bring 
DsBnagi Pant to his presence. When the poet 
T^ JK^kied Hydembad, it is 8nd, thattb« god Vi&obat 
ID a hi6n«li shape came to the Nawanb and pat(i 
hitn-tiiewholestiin d^ScientfOn acooant-(^ Daman 
gfs liberality, and to(^ a T«^pt for the scim^ 
Andanoitler for ihere-app<^ntmentof thepoef t& 
^ post he held, l^e god placed these documeottf 
m a book which DamE^i coA^antly read. Tha 
^et saw tiieso papers, aiid iiaraediately returned 
to Pandrapore, and wrote to his master ten- 
dering in hia resigfiifttion ^ the Nawaab was pleaS" 
«d to accept of it, and appointed DaiK^s ion to 
Succeed him. I)amagi after tMa composed a Sa^ 
sona, or poem, containing IDO verses^ in which 
dll the circumistances mentioned above, was fullf 
detailed. He spent about ten years in reUgioiM 



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i>f5o«r in b letter to £ir Alexander JobBstonpt 
nakts,.lMiiorabb! meoHoa of tfae subject of 
,this bio^rapliy, as trill be seen from: tfaa 
foUowii^ extracts of the Jettef in qoestioiii 
■" The eoaneetiojB them formed witU fto© p^raoBt 
B na^ve, and a bramin (the Ituikeuted V. G. Bot 
riab, then aliooct a ;outh of the quicker geinutt 
end diaposittOD, fosseamMg tbateoatitiatwy turik 
jof inilld. that soon reconciled sdl sects aad al} 
tribes, to tiw eovrse of enquiry fo^vred in hit> 
.surveys) was tJie first stept (^ my introdttctiw 
into the portal of Indian knowledge ideffoid oT 
«nj knowledge ctf the tai^tiE^s myself,' I owe- 
to d»e happy, g^nso^tbls iixlvvtdual the encou- 
ngeMent, and the m^ans. of obtaining what { ha4 
«Bo \ong sought. On the recketion of jSerin^a^ 
|>ataiB, not one of our people eoutd trvislate froia 
,the Catiarese alone ; at present we ha«e traoslatii 
oits oiadei not only from the mod^n efaaractcvs,, 
!bnt the noce obscar«, I had almost said obacdete 
eharacters (^ the Sassanums (or ioscnptions^ ia 
.tCanarese and Tamal; besides what have^beeft 
made from the Sanscr^ of which in my first 



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years ui India, I could «oarcei^ obtain bdj in&K 
mation. From t^e-Mcnneat the talfvits of the 
JUmeoted BotiUiJi v«re Applied, a new aveaue ti> 
HiudoD Jmowledge was opeDarl ; and though f 
vasdeprivedofhiga at linearly ago, his exata* 
pie aad iastrtKlioiis were sn happily folloved 
up hy bb bpetiu^ea and disciples, ^at an iesbw 
Hiahneat wss gradually foraied, by which tba 
whole of our provinces ntig;ht be aoalized, on tba 
oethod tlids fortukoady began, and sucoessftilly 
followed." BcK-iah >vras depnted by bis master 
ie ooHect MfonnattxNi lue&l for (be oifioe, and 
the sft^acity and ditigeoce, he displayed to col- 
lect naterials, and in making researches obtain* 
rd the unqualiSed approbatioB of bis en^W»yer, 
«ad the result of his laboors was'siicb as materfr* 
ally to promote tim interest of (be Hoiu>Fabte 
Cdinpjuiy- The serrice was very arduous foe 
Bofiab had io traverse dreary woods, and lofty 
mountains about Scisale, While on this survey, 
Colond Maebenzie was appointed 'Eagia.ntr t« 
the expedition against Manilla, and Boriah was 
nbiiged to retam to bis borne ; while on the way 
fcom Hjakrabad to Madras, he kcftt a «oicect 

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joamat, tncl wrote 8<»nc poens in Sanserit an^ 
Telugu, be likewise cottected a great many lite*, 
rary materids to elucidate Um history of Indian 
While at Ellore, be disph^edbis skill in mecha» 
itism, and knowledge in the arts and sciences', 
and obtained the adtniratitmiof bis toiintsfolk% 
'who highly esteemed him on acoonnt of his sweet 
tenper and HDiiopeacbable' character. When, 
his employer retmned to the Penins^ai from tha 
expedition, Boriah accompanied him- to the sota 
vey, they bad been formerly empk>yed up<Hr. 

In the year 1798 Boriah accompanied his ma» 
ter in the can^Miign against Tippo Sultan, toad 
kept a poetical jonmal of the route, till he reachi, 
ed Gadewa, a petty zemindiwry in the >Szam'a 
dominions. It happened once tJiat Ins «npIoyk 
er's official papers w«-epldndered by marauders 
of that aemiadaFry, and Boriah was depatedta 
recover it ; in endeavonring to do this, be was coii> 
fined in prison, and denied food by the zemindar^ 
and very harshly treated at first, but owing to his 
conciliatory behaviour, and ^ome affecting poe- 
try that he composed, he was able to soften t&« 
obdurate heart of that chieftain, so Ait he not 



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ISO 

»nly regained his master's property, but received 
besides some presents on his own account ; after 
this he Joined Colonel Mackenzie, whom be ac- 
companied to Seringapatam ; he was present at 
the storming and capture of that fortress, and de- 
scribed all the incidents attending it in animated 
versification : the planting of the British colours 
on the ramparts, was excellently described. Bo> 
riah was well rewarded by his master for this 
performance. Colonel Mackenzie was shortly 
after the fall of Tippo Sultan, appointed as su- 
perintendent of tiie Mysore survey ; and Boriah 
attended his master to Chittledroog, by the routs 
of Bangalore, Nijagall, and Sira. He was emi- 
nently useful in making arrangements to procure 
useful information connected with the service, so 
as to promote considerably the interest of the 
Hon'ble Company, and procure for his employer 
an extensive body of literary materials to elu- 
cidate the history of the southern Peninsula. 
When the Maharata duef Doondea was captur- 
ed at Harihar, by the detachment under Sir Ar- 
thur Wellesly in 1800. Boriah wrote a poem 
OB ihsA occasion; alter thisi the poet compoised 



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1^ 

% piece of a hondred sfazas oij a prophet, trliicfi 
^)rought that holy man's nailie into increased ce- 
lebrity. Aa-jther work Was also Writtea by Bo- 
tiah, intitled " Sreranga tSiya Charittf," contain- 
ing the genealogy of the Srirafl,:^patam sovereign^ 
from the foundation of tJmattore, giving a de- 
«cripHon of the ancient ruins of the former city, 
where the Yadava princes rided, and became poW" 
*!rful. When the army brole up from before Se- 
tingitpatam, he marched about with detachments 
tiiro'jdiflferent parts of the ceded districts and 
Mysore dominions, and was highly noticed hy 
C^ueral Campbell, Colonel Munro, and other 
officers of distinction, as well as by the Mysore 
dewan. By the directions of bis master, Boriait 
Acquired perfect knowledge of mathematics, geo- 
ineti-y, astronomy, geography, and other sciences, 
both according to the European and Hindu me^ 
thods, and his memory was so tenacious, that 
he soon acquired a proficiency in diffisrent liative 
languages. He could draw very neatly, and con- 
structed maps that were excessiv'ely admired by 
bis master. 
' He discovered various ancient coins, and mad^ 



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161 

fac-similes of ioscriptions in different obsolete 
characters. When he decyphered the Hala Ka- 
nada characters, inscribed on a Tablet found at 
Dodare, which is now deposited in the museum 
of the Asiaiic Society, his master was highly gra- 
tified, and put his name on it. 

Colonel Mackenzie having been ordered by the 
government of Fort St. George, to return to Ma- 
dras on public business. Boriah accompanied 
him in 1801, aod was employed two years at that 
presidency, in translating books, and valuable 
manuscripts and documents ; in the twenty sixth 
year of his age, Boriah was unfortunately attack- 
ed by apoplexy, which terminated in his pre- 
mature death in 1803. His master ordered a- 
monument to be erected to his memory, with a 
suitable tnscriptioa on the sea-shore, which is 
still standing. At the age of twelve years he faad 
married the younger sister of Venl^atachellntn, 
zemindar of Kasemicota district, and left issue an 
only daughter ; and died universally regretted, 
on account of his public and private virtues. 



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163 

The Jofispati Plant, is called Swarnalafa, 
in Scaoiscrit Dictionaries, and flourishes in the 
monsoon, its fruit is red, and of a small size, 
grows in bunches, and when ripe bursts, and 
rather better to the taste; this shrub never 
blossoms, but during the rainy seasoHj and may 
be found in maay parts of the Peninsula, and 
thrives excellently in the Mysore country. There 
is a treatise called Jotiskpati Kalpa, in which 
is given the method to extract the oil from the 
seeds, which is either to lay them on the blade 
of a sword and expose them to the rays of the 
sun in the months of April and May ; or by the 
action of heat in a retort; this oil ig said to be 
fit for culinary purposes, and to possess the ex- 
cellent quality of clearing the head and brighten, 
ing the genius. At the courts and colleges of 
Mysore, Tanjore, Kanchi, Benares, Stc. a great 
many pundits make use of this oil, to remove 
dullness from their pupils. 



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164 



ERRATA. 

Page 20 Itn* SI Before the word Sbftsrapat i«Hert 111* 
vordi Sabasra Slr8ha--Purasli4 SabM- 
rakha. 

S3 — 2 For Nashi nad Nacbt. 

39—9 ForVakir. Vahi. 

— tasl liae For Mytlali r. MylbiH. 

32—2 For Tehaua r. Thana. 

. 34 — 6 For Virapakaam r. Virnpakaham. 

— - 36 — 20 For Neghanti r. Neshant. 

— — 55 ^ 14 Fur priDce r. Roddess. 

__ 67 — 7 For among them r. wrote. 

64 — 9 For Melakola r. Melokota. 

- ' 66 — 10 For Damora r. DainadBra> 

76 — 7 Bharata r, Btiarata. 

.^.^ 84 14 For K^DnkapBriwaroiDei r. Eanaka-Pa- 

. Ibid.— 19 For Peture r. Palnre. 

86 — 14 For Gerckernicar. Gerekanioa. 

lOl — 11 For Brinda r. Bridna 

101 — 20 For about the yew 1430 r. in (h« 16th 

«eiilnrj. 



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