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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the 

United States for the Southern District of 

New York. 









Preface 7 

Martyn Paine, 13 

John "W. Draper, 33 

John H. Griscom, 43 

Fordyce Barker, fil 

C. E. Brown Scquard, 73 

James Anderson, 89 

F.Campbell Stewart, 101 

A. K. Gardner, 119 

Isaac E. Taylor, 133 

Isaac Wood, 159 

Edward Delafield, 177 

John Charles Beales, 195 

William A. Hammond, 209 

Horace Green,* 217 

• Deceased. 



As the author of this series, which is re- 
printed from the Philadelphia Medical a^nd Sur- 
gical Reporter, has been the subject of severe 
remarks from some of the members of the profes- 
sion, who seemed to have experienced much satis- 
faction in launchinf; out invectives against cotem- 
poraneous biography, he feels called upon to make 
a brief statement of facts by way of justifiable 

In the first place, the most cotemporaneous of 
all biographies is autobiography; and yet the 
lives of IIatdon, Leigh IIuxt, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, RoMiLLY, General Scott, and numerous 
others, written in the middle voice, have met 
with a cordial reception and form the basis of 
delicious reading, for they are the result of per- 
sonal observation •, and, though some of them may 
have been posthumous, their very freshness is 
due to the force of the present tense. Secondly, 



why should the medical profession be the only 
one whose energetic and self-sacrificing labors 
are to be unrecorded till death closes the scene, 
and many adventures, disinterested efforts and 
latent theories, are either lost in oblivion, or so 
deformed by an enemy's prejudice, as not to be 
recognized by the friends of the deceased? 

At the present moment, those who fought 
nobly during the "rebellion" are the texts for 
elaborate, interesting, and very properly laudable 
encomiums 5 and only a few weeks since, a large, 
illustrated, and elegantly printed volume, con- 
taining biographies of the living officers of Rhode 
Island, was published. What military man risks 
life so continuously as the physician, whose exist- 
ence may be summ^ up as the essence of anxiety, 
exposure, and fatigue ! 

Again: biographies of living self-made men 
have but recently appeared; and I would ask 
what profession, with all its ramifications, requires 
as much of the self-made material of the brain, 
no matter what the advantages may be, as that of 
a doctor of medicine ; three-fourths of whose con- 
scientious treatment demands the experience of 
numberless diseases affecting different constitu- 

The cyclopaedias are full of cotemporaneous 
biographies of men in every sphere of life, who 
have made their mark ; and it is not saying too 
much to assert, that, even as all first class clergy- 


men are good men, so the leadinf^ first class pliy- 
Bicians are r^reat men ; for they deal with the mys- 
teries of science, and are forced to discriminate 
more closely between the symptoms and the dis- 
ease, than is the lawyer obliged to sift the truo 
from the false. 

Lives of the prominent living puldishers of 
New York are now being printed, and contain 
much that will contribute to the history of Ameri- 
can literature. If this be the case, why should 
not practitioners be honorably mentioned, when 
not a week passes but some new discovery is com- 
municated free of charge to the profession at 
large, while those of the former class, depend for 
existence upon the thoughts of others? Sketches 
of some of our best living artists have recently 
appeared ; and it should be so. But if they are 
praised who portray on- canvass the outlines of 
cesthetic form, how much greater are the claims 
of those, who, through the agency of Divine Pro- 
vidence, rescue from deformity and keep alive 
for active deeds of lasting worth, the sage philoso- 
pher or devoted parent? In cautious England, 
the lives of distinguished living medical men, are 
now being issued in a neatly printed series; and 
when it is fully comprehended, that the medical 
fraternity of the United States have done more 
for their profession, in proportion to their exist- 
ence as a nation, than any portion of the civilized 
world, most certainly does it seem expedient that 


some of their works should be permanently re« 
corded, and that too, while they live. 

Another great advantage to be derived from 
cotemporaneous biography, is the facility it af- 
fords the subject to correct any erroneous state- 
ment. If the aphorism that " dead men tell no 
tales" be correct, it is also true that "dead men 
cannot contradict;" and no matter what the pen^ 
alty may be, I would rather praise a living man 
than traduce a dead one. Good men entertain 
very little sympathy for the carion crows of litera- 

Fault has been found with my mentioning 
the exact height and weight of each physician ; 
yet a leading journal but recently published the 
height and weight of each living U. S. Senator, 
with the circumference of his head and the breadth 
of his chest, for the same reason that it was dono 
in this case — to record the average — that coming 
generations might draw some inference as to the 
development of the human species. 

The opinions of each physician as to the effect 
of tobacco, etc., have been ridiculed by those whose 
state realized millions annually from the sale of 
the Virginia weed 5 yet when the fact is appreci- 
ated, that '87 diseases are directly or indirectly 
caused by the use of tobacco, the subject itself 
and the opinion of every medical man, will neces- 
sarily be regarded as of lasting importance. By 
conversing with those around one, and obtain 


ing direct information from the original source, 
a narrative has the advantage of recording -what 
has been seen, not what has "been heard. 

Another very important fact, not generally un- 
derstood by those who take cowardly refuge in 
anonymous attacks, is, that criticism forms one 
of the chief ingredients of cotcmporaneous biog- 
raphy; and, that while critisizers have been find- 
ing fiiult with my extolling useful members of 
Bociety, they, themselves, have unconsciously 
been writing a portion of biography, with but one 
difference, that of substituting concealed abuse for 
public praise. 

These remarks would not have been made, had 
my style or the manner of treating the subjects 
been merely censured. But on different occa- 
sions, those gentlemen of the profession, who 
have kindly lent me their aid in furnishing im- 
portant facts and dates, which no one but them- 
selves could with accuracy have given, have been 
treated with contumely and held up to ridicule. 
Feeling in sincerity that I alone am responsible, 
I would invite all future remarks to be centred 
upon myself. 

Lest a malicious slander, to the effect that I 
have been paid by the gentlemen whose lives I 
have written, for what has been termed adverti- 
sing them in my "business directory," gain 
ground, I now once for all deny the charge in 
toto, and challenge the perpetrator of this libel 


to stand forth, j^ivinfr his name and provinf* his 
statement. Happily for those desirous of doinj^ 
kind works, this wholesale criticism, without re- 
gard to truth or refinement, is daily mectinf^ with 
rcl)ukc. Ere long the position of an editor or the 
privileges of the secreted reviewer, will he defin- 
itely fixed, and the community of letters be pro- 
tected from the malice of ungenerous men of nar- 
row minds. 

Samuel "W. Francis. 

Newport, B. L, Feb. lOlh, 1867. 

MAETYN PAINE, M. D., LL.D., etc. 




"Lie thought as a sage, but ho felt as a man." 

James Bcattie. 

Dr. Paixe, one of the oldest practitioners in 
this city, was born in Williamstown, Vermont, 
July 8th, 1794, and, thouf:;h 73 years of a^e, con- 
tinues to lecture with his accustomed zeal, and 
follows out in his daily reading, the recent in- 
vestigations of foreign philosophers. His father, 
named Elijah Paine, married Miss Sarah Por- 
ter, by whom he was blest with four sons — Elijah, 
Charles, George, and Martyn ; and four daughters, 
Sarah 1st, Sarah 2d, Caroline, and Sophia. 

Young Martyn was at first instructed by pri- 
vate tutors, who took up their abode with his 
family, and strove to instil into his mind habits 
of observation as well as principles of study. 
Among these we find Francis Brown, subse- 
quently President of Dartmouth College, and 



Asa Rand, also a graduate of that institution, 
both men of keen insight into the rudiments of 
learning, and of a wide appreciation of the sim- 
plicity of youthful intellects. They strove to 
impress facts upon the mind, rather than force 
the scholar to commit to memory pendantic 
words. It was with them the great aim to lay a 
deep foundation of durable substance, rather than 
erect in the shortest time a superficial super- 
structure of what might truly be called, in this 
Frenchy age, a gingerbread edifice of fantastic 

Young Paine completed his rudimental course 
at Atkinson, N. H., under the guidance of Mr. 
YosE, and at once entered Harvard University, 
whence he was graduated in 1813. Experienc- 
ing a desire to enter upon the study of medicine, 
he became a pupil of Dr. John Warren, in 
whose office he remained for two years, when, 
his preceptor dying, he finished his preparatory 
course under his son, Dr. John C. AYarren, both 
father and son being residents of Boston, Mass. 
Having been engaged in no other business what- 
ever previous to his choice of medicine as a course 
in life, he entered the Medical Department of 
Harvard University, and was formally graduated 
M. D., at the end of the full period, in 1816. His 
Thesis on ''Inflammation," was treated with a 
con amore spirit; for Dr. Paine, during the best 
part of his life, was wont to maintain that most 


diseases are of an inflammatory character, and 
require antiphlogistic treatment. 

In 1847, he visited Europe, and travelled ex- 
tensively through England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land; France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and 
other places of interest. Dr. Paine made one im- 
portant discovery during his sojourn abroad. 
It was that in each place he visited, the food of 
the inhabitants was regulated by experience, 
without regard to chemical analysis; and, as 
was the case before Liebig's day, "upon the 
soundest physiological principles." He main- 
tains that, throughout the world, the man of 
science may alleviate suffering and relieve dis- 
ease, but not improve on the general diet of the 
native, for the experience of generations has led 
them to the best selections. 

From 1816 to 1822, he practised in Montreal, 
Canada East, and then removed to New York, 
where he has since resided as a practitioner. In 
1825, he married Miss Mary Ann Weeks, daugh- 
ter of Ezra AVeeks, of New York, and became 
the father of three children, Elizabeth, Robert 
Troup, and Elijah. Ilis eldest son, Robert, 
was a young man of great promise, studious 
habits, and vivid imagination; and his early 
death, when just on the verge of manhood, 
cast a shadow over the horizon of his kind fa- 
ther's nether world that will never be removed. 
While it saddened his life, it brought out the 


brilliant traits that emanate from benign resigna- 

Being a Protestant Episcopalian, Dr. Paine 
has taken a deep interest in the efforts of the 
Church, and fully endorses the words of unhappy 
Byron, that "all save the heart of man's Di- 
vine." On asking him once his opinion of the 
theories of Bishop Colenso, he replied, "Rank 
atheism must follow in his footsteps." 

Without limiting himself to any favorite 
branch of disease, the Doctor has more particu- 
larly confined himself to a special method of 
treatment, namely, bloodletting. With him 
the lancet and tartarized antimony have been 
found most efficacious. The following case will 
give an excellent idea of the Doctor's course in prac- 
tice. When prostrated by acute pneumonia, he 
had himself bled nearly two pounds, and took five 
grains of blue pill, also two drachms of castor 
oil. Ten hours after this, the "symptoms hav- 
ing recurred," the Doctor was bled to the extent 
of about twenty-four ounces, took half a grain of 
ipecacuanha, every four hours, and two grains of 
the compound powder. Alterative doses of tar- 
tarized antimony were administered every two or 
three hours, but not carried to the extent of 

About twelve hours after the last bloodletting, 
on a return of the symptoms, Dr. Paine decided 
to be bled again, in a local manner, and caused 


twelve lars^e leeches to be applied to his chest, 
and the bleeding to be kept up several hours. 
The alteratives were continued, and one five- 
grain blue pill taken. The next morning, the 
symptoms increasing, Dr. James C. Bliss was 
requested to bleed the Doctor again, but declined, 
not deeming it necessary, as he had already lost 
much blood. Dr. Paine still urged bloodletting, 
as he desired to carry out on himself what he 
had maintained in his lectures for so many years. 
He was accordingly bled about twenty ounces 
more, and on the ninth day after this last bleed- 
ing was found sawing wood in his garden. No 
other medicine had been taken, and no blister 
was required. The Doctor also claimed that his 
digestion, which had been formerly impaired, 
was greatly improved. This case has been pub- 
lished in Dr. Paine' s Institutes, page 870, but it 
is so characteristic of his entire course in life, 
that with but little change it has been trans- 
cribed.* On another occasion. Dr. Paine bled a 
patient in a moribund state twenty ounces, and 
he recovered "steadily and rapidly." 

As a proof of the Doctor's firm belief in this 
method of depletion, I have in his own hand- 

* Cases of a similar nature may be seen in Copeland's Medi- 
cal Dictionary, vol. 2, page 796, and 12th No. of tbe New York 
Medical and Physical Journal. My late father, John W. Fean- 
cis, M. D., etc., lost, during an attack of laryngitis, 132 ounces 
ot blood, and recovered. 


writing the following sentence, "After having 
been in practice fifty years, I place it upon re- 
cord, that I have never failed of abstracting 
blood in pneumonia, pleuritis, puerperal fever, 
and, with rare exceptions, in erysipelas, and that 
I have never lost a patient affected with either 
of the last three diseases, and one only with 
pneumonia, a child of three years, and this, in 
my judgment, from insufficient bloodletting." 

Once while conversing with him, he said to 
me, in speaking of a mutual acquaintance, "Yes, 
sir; that young man has been very near death's 
door many times, but the lancet has saved him. 
He is just twenty-one years old, and I have bled 
him twenty one times, but you see he is not dead 
yet ! Depend upon it, sir ; the present system of 
iron, brandy, and stimulants will be abandoned 
after a little more experience." 

After passing my examination with Dr. Paine 
for my degree I waited upon another Profes- 
sor, to undergo the same anxious question- 
ing, and as his plan of treatment was so dif- 
ferent from the Doctor's, I could not help re- 
marking to him, "How singular life is. Doctor; 
I have just come from Dr. Paine, where I an- 
swered in each case that he put to me, 'the 
treatment is bloodletting, sir ;' and now I am to 
tell you, sir, that under no circumstances what- 
ever is the lancet to be used. This is very per- 
plexing to a student." 


On another occasion, I met Dr. Paine at the 
Redwood Lil^rary, Newport, R. I. The conversa- 
tion turned to the war, and the rapid progress of 
the rebellion, with the difficulty of putting it 
down. "Sir," said he, with an eloquent sparkle 
in his eyes, "expectant treatment will not do in 
this case. The disease is of a highly inflamma- 
tory character; and the only remedy — copious, 
frequent, and heroic hloodlettinr/. Iron may be 
administered as a purgative, but bloodletting 
alone can save the body politic. Depend upon 
it, Doctor, they cannot contradict me in this 
case;" and laughing heartily, he walked off. 

On asking him if he would be a Doctor again, 
I received the following reply, " I think that 
there is no pursuit more useful, intellectual, 
moral, of greater religious tendency, or more 
conducive to happiness, than medicine, while it 
is the most recondite and responsible." 

In regard to the use of tol)acco. Dr. Paine 
docs not approve of it. He never smoked, and is 
opposed to the practice. And to those who have 
not heard his lecture on "Tobacco, and its Inju- 
rious Effects as a Luxury," the treat cannot be 
fully described. King James of old would have 
knighted the Doctor, could he have heard his 
vituperative discourse, the earnestness of his 
manner, and the strength of his language. His 
arguments are forcible, his statistics correct, 
and he almost persuades one to abstain. 

As an instance of tlic simplicity of his cfcnius, 
and his deep and cherished love of nature, tho 
following anecdote cannot fail to be of interest to 
those who know the Doctor well and the gentle- 
ness of his disposition. 

While visiting his friend, Dr. J. W. Draper, 
at whose charming country-place, in the suburbs 
of Hastings, he was a guest. Dr. Paixe under- 
took to work in the garden, weeding flower-beds 
and trimming branches. One day he took off his 
coat, and hung it on the vine above his head, 
and went on with his work ; but when he returned 
for his coat, he found that two little sparrows 
had selected one of the side-pockets as a future 
residence, and had already deposited some lit- 
tle sticks, threads, and pieces of straw, being 
busily engaged in planning their future home. 
The Doctor was delighted. He looked on the 
feathered fillibusters with pleasurable interest; 
left his coat for their abiding-place; returned 
to the house and procured another, and during 
his stay, watched their progress. He has this 
coat now in his possession, with the very nest. 

Dr. Paine's height is 5 feet, 6J inches, and 
weight 140 pounds; and his general health is 
good, saving occasional indigestion, which is 
much benefited by judicious exercise and a plain 

In the year 1838, it was deemed advisable to 
create a Medical College in connection with the 


University of New York City, and Dr. Patnb 
was duly elected to fill the chair of the Theory 
and Practice of Medicine ; but owing to certain 
delays incident to all important movements, the 
step was abandoned, and it was not until 1841, 
when Dr. Paine himself, in company with Drs. 
Valentine Mott, Joun AY. Draper, Granville 
S. Pattison, Gunning S. Bedford, and John 
Revere founded the University Medical College, 
which at once supplanted the former medical 
department which had been associated with it. 
Dr. Paine was selected Professor of the Insti- 
tutes of Medicine and Materia Medica, which 
position he held till 1850, when he became the 
*' incumbent" of the chair of Therapeutics and 
Materia Medica, which official capacity he has 
occupied up to the present time.* 

Not many years since the University of Ver- 
mont (the Doctor's native State) conferred on 
him the degree of LL.D.; and other domestic 

* This College was burned to the ground during the confla- 
gration of the Academy of Music, May, 1SG6, which resulted in 
the entire loss of Dr. Mott's most valuable Anatomical Museum, 
■which he bequeathed to the public at large, and the private 
museums of Drs. Van Buren, A. C. Post, and some most inter- 
esting collections of Drs. Draper, besides destroying Dr. Paixe'3 
Herbarium, minerals, and rare paintings of botanical speci- 
mens. The Faculty planned a new college at once; held tem- 
porary meetings and clinics at the New York Hospital, and are 
now making speedy arrangements to erect a new building on a 
better site, or what is much better, may incorporate a collese 
in connection with the New York Ilospital. 


societies have elected him an honorary and cor« 
responding member. Among these we find him 
a member of the Royal Verein fiir Heilkunde in 
Prussia, the Gesellschaft fiir Natur, and Heil- 
kunde zu Dresden, Medical Society of Lcipsic 
and Sweden, IMontrcal IS'atural History Society, 
etc. etc. etc. The Doctor is also connected with 
many literary and historical societies in this coun- 
try, and is a Fellow of the N"ew York Academy of 

With regard to his favorite theories and origi- 
nal discoveries, Dr. Paine' s must ever stand high 
on the subject of the reflex action of the nervous 
system, and almost any physiological or me- 
chanical fact based upon this theory. Though 
many have sought to share the credit of these 
most interesting views, and the morbific causes 
of diseases the result of this action. Dr. Paine' s 
claims to priority are permanently recorded in 
print, and may be read with benefit.* 

Up to the year 1854, a stringent law was in 
force against any dissection of the human body 
in the State of New York. A person caught in 
the act was liable to hard labor in the State's 
Prison. Besides, the sympathies of the poorer 
classes were often exercised at the mere thought 
of such a deed, and one or two occasions were 

* See Institutes of Medicine, by Marttn Paine, M. D., LL.D., 
etc. Article— Rights of Authors. Tage 912. Fifth Edition. 1859. 


the source of riot, bloodshed, and threatening ot 
the life of any medical man. The "Doctor's 
I\Iob" was brought about by the exhibition of 
only one limb and much talk. 

Many applications had been made to the Legis- 
lature, but with no success. Prejudice seemed 

About this time, Dr. Paine was earnestly re- 
quested by his colleague professors of the Uni- 
versity Medical College to appeal, in person, to 
the Legislature, and bring about a repeal of the 
law that kept down scientific investigation. The 
following official correspondence, being historical 
in a medical point of view, is eminently worthy 
of permanent record, besides explaining many 
facts not generally known. 

''Jiins itJi, 1S')3. 
"Dr. Martyx Paine — 

" Dear Doctor: At the faculty meeting, yester- 
day, a resolution was passed unanimously, re- 
questing you, if you can do so conveniently, to 
go to Albany and endeavor to effect the passage 
of the Anatomical bill. It was the opinion of the 
faculty, that if you would make the attempt, you 
would certainly succeed, etc. 
Yours truly, 

John W. Draper, President. ''"' 

To this application Dr. Paine sent an unquali- 
fied refusal, stating, among other reasons, the 
*' apparently insuperable prejudices against dis- 
sections of the human body." In the fall, the 


Doctor received another official letter, of which 
the following is a copy: 

"University Medical Department,! 
November 3cZ, 1853. j 

"Jliy Dear Sir: The faculty, at their last meet- 
in':!;, resolved that it is expedient for them to 
endeavor to have practical anatomy legalized at 
the ensuing session of the Legislature ; and they, 
moreover, directed me to address to you an urgent 
letter, with a view of inducing you to reconsider 
your intention of not going to the Legislature 
this winter ; for they feel that you would, with 
certainty, succeed in carrying this important 
measure, if you will consent to undertake the 
mission. May I, therefore, hope that you will 
gratify your colleagues in this particular, and 
have the pleasure of giving them information to 
that effect? 

• Yours, truly, 

John W. Draper, President.'''' 

This second and strong appeal produced the 
desired effect; and though Dr. Paine saw great 
personal sacrifices of time and labor under many 
painful circumstances, and in direct opposition to 
the popular feeling, he consented, and forthwith 
entered with zeal upon his new diplomatic mis- 
fiion. The bill met with little delay in the 
Senate, but was most violently opposed in* the 
House of Assembly, and its ultimate success was 
ghiefly due to the personal explanation made by 
Dr. Paine during private interviews with those 
m power, which he kept up with abiding hope 


till nearly every member of the Legislature be- 
came familiar with the nature of the subject. 
During this period it became the topic of discus- 
sion in the House of Assembly ; and as its pas- 
sage as a law required the votes of two-thirds of 
all those elected to the Legislature, it continued 
to occupy public attention for three months be- 
fore Dr. Paine ventured to put the bill to the 
final test. The requisite number of votes could 
only be secured by making it a special order for 
a future day. 

But the end of labor had not yet come. Four 
opposing members promised Dr. Paine to with- 
draw their negatives, should it be necessary for 
the passage of the bill. The Clerk of the House 
agreed to continue calling the absentees so long 
as any one might answer to his name, and great 
interest was exhiljited on both sides. A bright 
prospect seemed to shed its rays, but at the time 
of final voting, a fierce opposition arose and con- 
tinuous argument was kept up, with a view to 
consume the time allotted to this matter. This, 
however, was brought to a close, and the "bone 
bill," as it was maliciously designated, was put 
to the vote. At the first roll-call there were ab- 
sent four affirmative votes; but when the ab- 
sentees were called, two of these responded. A 
third call brought to light a third affirmative 
man. And now suspense was painful; for 1)y 
the temporary absence of this last affirmative the 


bill might be lost, and the winter's labor bccoma 
as nought. The "faithful clerk" pronounced the 
names of the absentees once more, when three 
affirmatives came forward according to promise, 
and this all-important bill, for the benefit of 
medical science, became a law by the assistance 
of two additional and extra votes — 67 yeas to 43 
nays. In the Senate, the final vote was 23 yeas 
to 3 nays. The principal causes of this formi- 
dable opposition were local prejudices and a lobby 
influence which rejects any advancement for tho 
amelioration of mankind until a very Midas lends 
his golden touch. Even at this time, the Board 
of Cpuncilmen of the city of New York pre- 
sented a printed protest, in which they urged 
" tha Representatives in the Legislature to oppose^ 
hy every means, iJie jMssaje of any bill legalizing 
dissection of dead bodies y Irish and German 
emigrant societies, probably influenced by pre- 
sentiment, forwarded strenuous remonstrances, 
and printed deunciations of the bill were cir- 
culated throughout the city of Albany, signed 
by individuals of certain power. Yet when the 
bill became a law, it met with entire acquies- 

On asking Dr. Paine which one he considered 
the most valuable of all the medical plants, his 
reply was as follows: "Were it not that we 
possess in arsenic a good remedy for intermitting 
fevers, and ?Jso in other things, I should regard 


cinchona as the most useful of medicinal plants; 
but ^vil:h the advantages of the foregoing substi- 
tutes, jalap would take the first rank, and 1 
have a very high opinion of the plant which 
yields the castor oil." On requesting the Doc- 
tor's opinion regarding intoxicating drinks, I 
received the following comprehensive reply : 
"Alcoholic liquors are so much in favor with 
the world, that there can be no doubt that it 
would be the greatest of all temporal blessings, 
both to the sick and to the well, were they ex- 
punged from existence." 

List of T7orks by Dr. Paine. 

1. Letters on the Cholera Asphyxia, as it 
appeared in New York in 1832. 8vo. Pp. 160. 
First published by Dr. John C. Warren, of 
Boston, Mass., in periodical journals; subse- 
quently in New York, by Collins & IIannay. 

2. Experiments to ascertain whether the quan- 
tity of blood circulating in the brain may be re- 
duced by bloodletting. In Medico- Chirurgical 
lleview] London, April, 1834. 

3. JMcdicai and Physiological Commentaries. 
2 vols., Svo. Pp. 1531. Published by Collins, 
Keese & Co. New York: 1840: And Vol. 3, in 
1844, Avhich last consists of a collection of essays 
which had been published at intervals, among 
which may be found an interesting one on the 


Philosophy of Vitality and the Modus Operandi 
of llcmedics. 

4. Institutes of Medicines. 8vo. First edition 
1847, and eighth edition 1865. Pp.1145. Pu]> 
lished by IlARrER & Brothers, New York. 

5. On the Soul and Instinct, physiologically 
distinguished from Materialism. 12mo. Pp. 173. 

6. Organic Life as distinguished from the 
Chemical and Physical Doctrine. Pp. 53. Se- 
cond and enlarged edition. Published by E. H. 
Fletcher. New York. 1849. 

7. Memoir of Robert Troup Paine. 1000 
copies, illustrated. Quarto. Pp. 524; and one 
copy folio for Harvard College Library. Pri- 
vately printed by John F. Trow. New York. 

8. On Theoretical Geology, sustaining the natu- 
ral construction of the Mosaic Records of Crea- 
tion and the Flood, in opposition to the prevail- 
ing geological. 8vo. Pp. 121. 1856. This first 
appeared in the Protestant Episcopal Quarterly 
Review, April, 1856, New York, *and embraces a 
philosophical interpretation of the Mosaic narra- 
tive of creation. 

9. Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 12mo. 
Pp. 411. Third edition. 1859. Published by 
S. S. & Wm. Wood, New York. It originally ap- 
peared in 1842, under the title of a Therapeutical 
Arrangement of the Materia Medica, and waa 
published at that time by J. & II. Langley, 


10. Reviews and essays in medical and other 
periodicals, among which were seventeen articles, 
showing the great superiority of medical educa- 
tion in the United States over that in Great 
Britain, founded upon parliamentary documents, 
which appeared editorially in the New York Med- 
ical Press, from January 29th to June 4th, 1859. 

JOHN ^Y. DEAFER, M. D., LL.D., etc. 


JOHN W. DRAPER, M.D., LL.D., etc. 

"Spent them not in toys, in lusts, or wine, 
But search of deep philosophy." — Abraham Cowley. 

Dr. Draper was born in St. Helens, near Liver- 
pool, England, May 5th, 1811, and was the son of 
John Christopher and Sarah Draper. As soon as 
his physical frame warranted a close application 
to study, his father, who was a clergyman, of the 
Weslyan Methodist order, availed himself of the 
privilege accorded his profession, and sent his son 
to a public school at Wood-IIouse Grove, where 
he became instructed in the primary branches of 
an English education, and subsequently made 
rapid progress in the more intricate paths of 
mathematics while under the guidance of private 
tutors, who also awakened zeal in the investiga- 
tion of chemistry and physiology. A later course 
was faithfully followed out in the University of 
London, and the doctor's formal education was 
finally completed at the University of Pennsylva- 
nia, whence he was graduated M. D., 1836, hav- 
ing visited his family in America three years be- 



foro. Much of Dr. Draper's rudiraental chem- 
istry was instilled into his mind when a student 
in the office of Dr. Turner, a man qualified, in 
many respects, to teach. 

Previous to the study of medicine, he had en- 
tered into no business engagements whatever, and 
as an additional proof of his fitness for this re- 
sponsible profession, on asking him if he would 
be a doctor again, he replied "yes; it is an 
honorable profession." Dr. Draper's thesis was 
on "Glandular Action," and met with so favorable 
a reading by the faculty, that it was at once report- 
ed for printing, and aided not a little in bringing 
his original mind and careful study before the 

Almost immediately after receiving his diploma 
Dr. Draper was called to fill the chair of Profes- 
sor of Chemistry, Physiology and Natural Philos- 
ophy, at Hampden Sidney College, Virginia, 
where he remained till 1839. From that time to 
the present, a period of over a quarter of a centu- 
ry, he has continued to lecture to the student and 
write works of merit. Among his first contribu- 
tions may be found those published in the ^^ Ameri- 
can Journal of Medical Sciences.''^ 

In company with Drs. Marttn Paine, Valen- 
tine MoTT, Gunning S. Bedford, Granville 
Sharp Pattison and John W. Revere, he inau- 
gurated the New York University Medical Col- 
lege, of which they were the founders j and in 

1841 was elected Professor of Chemistry, Physiol- 
ogy Leing associated with that chair in 1850. 

Though Dr. Draper practiced in Virginia dur- 
ing the early part of his experience as a physician, 
and subsequently in New York ; with him private 
investigations-, the development of some scientific 
hypothesis, and a certain and never-failing desire 
to expose the fallacy of popular mistakes, have so 
occupied his time and with better results, that he 
has not been able to devote his energies to the 
practical treatment of disease. To condense a 
criticism it might be truly said of him that he 
has spent more time and patience in the discovery 
of preventing disease, by hygienic laws, the result 
of experiment, than many flourishing and prac- 
ticing physicians, during a life-time of cases, who 
are too apt to wear a rut in their minds and go on 
in the usual way, while he takes nothing for 
granted that cannot be proved. During these 
hours the doctor has unfolded mysterious truths 
of startling import. It is through his agency that 
we feel that the heart is not the principle or only 
source of circulation, but that capillary attrac- 
tion and muscular exertion are entitled to pro- 
found attention. So, also, during his chemical 
experiments he did much for the photograph 5 and 
not a few improvements in the present sensitive 
action, as well as other original processes, are due 
to his genius. To him are we indebted for the 
practical application of the action of light in re- 


gard to the da!:r;ucrrcotypc process of taking por- 
traits. But that which is peculiarly novel in 
enunciation and striking as to its originality, is the 
doctor's theory of what might be called panto-pho- 
tography. Some four years since I attended a 
lecture of Professor Draper's, which he delivered 
before the students and faculty of the University 
Medical College, and in it he clearly stated that 
it was his belief that no action at any time under 
any circumstances, or in any place, goes unre- 
corded. In other words, that a man striking a 
person in a room or in a court-yard, is perma- 
nently photographed on the stone or surrounding 
sides, whatever they may be. Of course, the next 
deed is photographed over this by the action of 
the air and light. But if the tombs of the Phara- 
ohs could be opened. Dr. Draper stated that he 
believed, by a proper series of actions, the funeral 
procession, of over four thousand years ago could 
be brouglit to view. This idea alone is grand ; and 
though merely what Terence might call a liomun- 
culiis, it calls up pleasant feelings for me to assert 
that I, for one, believe in this, and that in a few 
years it will be employed as a means of detection. 
Dr. Draper was married to Miss Astoria C. 
P. Gardner, in England, and has had six chil- 
dren. His two sons, John C. and Henry Draper, 
are fast following in the footsteps of their illus- 
trious father. The Smithsonian Institute recently 
pu1)lished a work, by Dr. Henry Draper, on the 


Telescope and Silver Lenses, he having taken the 
largest photograph of the moon on record. This 
honor is only one of many, both of his sons being 
professors of chemistry, physiology, and natural 
philosophy in different institutions. 

Though fifty-six years of age, and having 
passed much of his time in the laboratory. Dr. 
Draper's health is unimpaired, and an observance 
of hygienic laws will enable him to live till many 
of his original and wonderful prognostications 
are realized, and the community convinced. Ilia 
last vi*it to Europe was paid in the year 1860, 
when he found much that was interesting, and 
freshened his mind by the absence of that haste 
which is peculiarly idiopathic in an American 

On asking the Doctor why he did not smoke, I 
received the laconic answer, "It is a dirty prac- 
tice." This is not all his opinion, for some re- 
marks in his physiology will show that he deems 
the use of tobacco as a luxury exceedingly in- 
jurious, and, to a certain extent, an acquired and 
morbid taste. Nor does he stand alone in this 
view, for, at the present time, the French savans 
are treating the subject with the profoundest 
attention, and, by a statistical reasoning, show 
•that it is not merely a "slow poison," but, in not 
a few cases, speedily affects the mind, eyesight, 
and digestive organs, besides deranging, to an 
alarming extent, the nervous system. 


There arc those who have maintained, in their 
severe criticisms on the Doctor's writings, that he 
is in many respects devoid of religion, and that 
an atheistical atmosphere pervades hisvrorks. In 
the face of all this slander I wrote to the Profes- 
sor, informing him, that as I was about to prepare 
his biography, I desired to know what his re- 
ligious faith was, and. received in reply, over his 
own signature, th.e comprehensive statement that 
it was "Protestant Episcopal." Gratifying, in- 
deed, is it to be able thus to record in print that 
one more illustrious man is a follower of t]^c true 

Professor Draper has paid more attention to 
physiology and chemistry than any other branch 
of science, though much of his time has also been 
employed in the study of botany, natural history, 
and the higher order of optics. 

Ilis height is 5 feet 5 inches, and weight 158 
lbs.; his countenance ruddy, hair and eyes dark, 
and appearance that of enduring stoutness. 

As a lecturer he is concise without being am- 
biguous ; distinct in enunciation, calm and unim- 
passioned in utterance. lie will explain the 
phenomena of lightning, or manufacture prussic 
acid, in the same measured tone with which he 
lectures on milk ; and having told his story so. 
that all can comprehend, leaves enthusiasm to 
his hearers. 

His self-possession is remarkable. I remember 


on one occasion, that a lump of phosphorus slip- 
ped down his sleeve while lecturing to his class. 
We all knew that the burn would be rapid and 
serious. But simply saying, "Gentlemen, phos- 
phorus ignites spontaneously, and cannot be ex- 
tinguished with facility; you will therefore ex- 
cuse me," he quietly left the room, removed 
his coat; took cut the piece that had not yet 
taken fire, returned, and resumed his lecture 
with a precision that can only be equalled by the 
exactness of a fine organ that has been suddenly 
stopped, and, when set in motion, takes up the 
melody where it had left off. 

Dr. Draper is a member of many literary and 
scientific societies at home and abroad ; and was 
recently elected an honorary member of the New 
York Historical Society. He is also a Fellow of 
the New York Academy of Medicine, and Presi- 
dent of the University Medical College, New 

Ills icorls are asfoUoics: 

1. Text-book on Chemistry. 

2. Text-book on Natural Philosophy. 

3. Treatise on the Forms that produce the 
the Organization of Plants. 

4. Treatise on Physiology. 

5. History of the Intellectual Development of 

6. Thoughts on the Civil Policy of America. 


7. ^lany Memoirs in American Periodicals. 

8. '' " En-lish " 

9. " " French " 

10. " " German " 

11. " '' Swiss " 

12. " " Italian " 

13. Ilis "Contributions" to the London and 
Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine would mako 
1 Tol. 8vo. of 1000 pages. 

There are few descriptions in the Avorld more 
subtle, minute, or poetically beautiful, than his 
"Theory and Explanation of the Philosophy of 




*'l(l facere laus est quod decet, non quod licet." — Seneca. 

Doctor Griscom "was born at No. 234 William 
street, New York, August loth, 1809, and was 
the sou of John Griscoit, whose name is so inti- 
mately connected with much that is of interest in 
the city of New York. His mother was IMiss 
Abigail IIoskixs, of Burlington, New Jersey, 
and died when he was but six years of age. Dr. 
Griscom has had five sisters, all of whom are dead, 
and two brothers, one older and the other younger, 
both of whom are now living. He was princi- 
pally instructed in his father's own school, and 
subsequently completed his classical education 
under the supervision of Daniel H. Barnes, of 
New York; having attended his uncle's school at 
Haddington, New Jersey, during his father's visit 
to Europe, which lasted one year. The New York 
High-School was established by his father, associ- 
ated with D. H. Barnes. After securing a prom- 
inent position as pupil, young Griscom became a 
teacher in this institution, which was conducted 

, (45) 


on the monitorial system, and was formally grad- 
uated in 1827. 

He at once entered the office of Dr. John D. 
GoDMAX, Professor of Anatomy in Rutgers Medi- 
cal College, at the time his father -was an incum- 
bent of the Chair of Chemistry. Remaining with 
Dr. GoDMAN till he retired from his professional 
capacity, on account of ill-health, he next entered 
the office of Dr. Valentine Mott, then Professor 
of Surgery in that College. After he had at- 
tended two full courses of lectures, the Rutgers 
Medical College was virtually cancelled, by a law 
passed by the Legislature, to the effect that no 
diploma should be granted unless the Faculty con- 
formed to certain political statutory regulations. 
This was the ostensible reason. But that which 
caused the law to be passed, was the fear of the 
Trustees and Faculty of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of the popularity of their new 
rival, as they could not quietly witness a decrease 
in their students and income, while the mental 
power and able experience of the young college 
bid fair to stand preeminent, and render unne- 
cessary this double knowledge. Young Griscom 
next attended two full courses at the University 
of Pennsylvania, and was graduated in 1832; at 
the same time holding the position of Junior and 
Senior walker at the New York Hospital, where, 
after receiving his diploma, he was appointed 
Resident Physician for six months. During hia 


eighteen months' experience in this Hospital 
under Drs. David IIosack, Thomas Cock, Ste- 
riiEN Brown, F. U. Johnston, Joseph M. Smith, 
and others, he remarked to me, that he felt 
convinced he liad learned more than could have 
been acquired in twenty j'ears of general prac- 

His Thesis, on the '-^ Apocynum Caiinahinum/^ 
a remedy at that time very little known, with a 
beautiful water-colored drawing, and the record 
of many cases in which it had relieved dropsy by 
acting as a diuretic and hydrogogue cathartic, 
was ordered to be printed by the Faculty, and 
was subsequently quoted as authority in Wood 
& B ache's Dispensatory. 

In 1833, he was appointed Assistant Physician 
of the New York Dispensary, being selected in 
preference to some thirteen candidates who had 
applied several months before he expressed a de- 
sire to be elected, and was chosen Physician of 
the Dispensary in May, 1834. About this time, 
he was called to fill the chair of Chemistry in 
Columbia College, "Washington, with the promise 
of a good practice. But though he staid there, 
assisted by Dr. Thomas Sewall, for two weeks, 
lie resolved to remain in Xew York, and declined 
the honor. 

In April, 1834, we find him delivering a course 
of popular lectures on Natural Philosophy and 
chemistry, before two separate classes of males 


and femfvlc^, in the Parthenon Museum, Broad- 
way, New York; and which lie repented the fol- 
lowing year, in consequence of their favorable 

After waiting; patiently for sudden cases for 
the period of three years, the doctor purchased 
the "good-will" of a physician in the Seventh 
Ward, who was about to retire; and from that 
time his circnmstances promised remunerative 
comfort and brought him into immediate contact 
with a respectable family practice. 

In 1835, Dr. Griscom married the fifth daugh- 
ter of Remcraxt Peale, who is so well known by 
his brush, and who was the companion and por- 
trait-painter of Washington. One daughter had 
married Prof. Godmax, and another became the 
wife of Charles 0. Barker, M. D., of Lynn, 
Mass. The Doctor has been blessed with eight 
children — three sons, two of whom are twins, and 
two daughters, are now living. 

In 183G, he was elected Professor of Chemistry 
in the College of Pharmacy, New York, and re- 
signed in 1838. 

In 1842, the Comm.on Council of New York ap- 
pointed him City Inspector, a position which 
placed him at iho head of the Health Department, 
being elected at the same time Physician to tlie 
Eastern Dispensary. Dr. Griscom Avas permit- 
ted to hold the former ofEce but one year, 
being removed by that wretched principle, still 


active in this metropolis, of replacing men of 
science by any one who entertains the same 
political views as* those cherished by the City 
(step) Fathers. 

His report issued on his retirement, was re- 
garded as elaborately suggestive, and full of 
sound reasoning, and may be read at the present 
day with much interest, as he was the last medi- 
cal incumbent allowed by the wire-pullers to hold 
this all-important post. Would that a Juvenal 
were alive to expose the swindling ; lay bare to 
view the neglect of duty, and portray, with his 
accustomed satire, the shameful records of the last 
twenty years. Dr. Griscom originated that ex- 
cellent ordinance preventing the removal of the 
dead from the city, without a permit from the 
City Inspector, as may be seen by reference to the 
statute book of that day. Compare his rigid en- 
forcement of this law, with the recent exposure of 
that same office, just before the new Board of 
Health took charge of the sanitary welfare of Go- 
tham. What can be said strong enough to con- 
vey an idea of one, in authority, issuing blank 
permits, signed^ so that sextons kept them in their 
drawers, without any physician's certificate to 
justify such actions., IIow many, who came to 
their death by violence, have been rapidly hurried 
to a secret grave and thus the ends of justice been 
eluded, a merciful Providence only knows. Even 
when passed by the Common Council this bill 


was vetoed hy the IMayor; but by Dr. Griscom's 
energy it became a law over his liead, and thereby 
rendered complete the statistics of mortality. 
During his experience in this public capacity, he 
made many propositions for hygienic improve- 
ments, and appealed frequently to the corporation, 
the people, and the governor. On one occasion, 
he presented to Hon. James Harper, Mayor, who 
fully endorsed it, a complete synopsis of the sani- 
tary principles that should govern public bodies; 
but, in a few weeks, it was returned by the Board 
of Aldermen, per committee, with the following 
remarks: " Tour committee do not profess to he 
judges of the subject^ or in other icords, they do 
not think it proper at this time, to go into such a 
measurey Not baffled by this reception, Dr. 
Griscom delivered it as a public address to an ap- 
preciative audience, in the Repository of the 
"American Institute," and it was immediately 
printed,* a large edition being issued with the fol- 
lowing title, " The Sanitary condition of the Labor- 
ing Population of New York, with suggestions for 
its improvement." From that time to the present 
a continued warfare has been in existence between 

*This meeting took place Dec. SOth, 1844. Immediately after 
the lecture a proposition was made to have it published, in 
pamphlet form; and we find among the subscribers such names 
as Jajies Harper, Hugh Maxwell, Andrjsw Boardman, Gen. 
James Tallmadqe, Wm. B.Crosby, Peter Cooper, Horatio Allen, 
Dr. Mower, U. S. A., Jas. I. Mapes, Judge Wm. T. McCou.v, 
Jordan L. Mott, Wm. Suotwell, Josiah Eicn, Waqee Hull, etc. 


philanthropists and sanitarians, and political 
speculators ; and it is likely that, though matters 
may mend to a certain extent, the all-powerful 
dollar will find many advocates, while the pre- 
vention of disease and the welfare of the poor will 
ever want a few friends amonp; a lobby rule. For 
many years Dr. Griscom launched his annual 
pamphlet, portraying troubles and unfolding tho 
remedy; but though some were convinced, and 
not a few seconded his views, hired voters, and 
mone}' cd influence postponed the cure. 

Dr. Griscom was appointed President of the 
Third National Quarantine Convention in 1859, 
and was also Chairman of the committee on pub- 
lic health and legal medicine of the New York 
Academy of Medicine, and an energetic member 
of the New York Sanitary Association. After 
tAventy-three years of untiring zeal, it afforded 
him great pleasure to see the passage of the pre- 
Bent Health Law by the Legislature, which placed 
the Sanitary supervision of the city and its sur- 
rounding territory, in the hands of medical men. 

Dr. Griscom was appointed Physician to the 
New York Hospital, by the Governors of said In- 
stitution, a vacancy occurring on the death of Dr. 
Jonx B. Beck, June, 1843, and has continued to 
hold this position to the present time. 

In January, 1848, he was selected by the Com- 
missioners of Emigration of the State of New 
York, Superintendent of the large hospitals, 


Bubject to their special supervision.* Among the 
members of the Board, at that time, we find the 
names of Gulian C. Verplanck, James Bookman, 
Jacob Harvey, Rob't B. Minturn, David C. 
Golden, Andrew Carrigan, F. B. Stryker, Gre- 
gory Dillon, Leopold Bierwirtu, and Wm. V. 
Brady. During the three years Dr. Griscom held 
this office, some 700,000 landed at the port of New 
York; and the greater portion coming from Ire- 
land, which was at that time desolated by famine, 
his time was chiefly passed in visiting those 
afilicted by typhus fever. Thousands from France 
and Germany mingling with those from Great 
Britain, in badly ventilated ships, and under the 
care of brutal captains, who saw not to the clean- 
liness of their ships, produced a general average 
of 70 per ct. sick, who were at once received ou 
Ward's Island, or left at quarantine. There 
^' among the largest hospitals in the civilized 
world," Dr. Griscom had the supervision of 20,000 

* "Onthe26thof January, the Commissioners appointed John 
n. Griscom, M. D., to the oflSice of General Agent, made vacant 
by the death of Mr. Taylor. Dr. Griscom immediately entered 
upon the duties of his office. lie is well known in this commu- 
nity as a physician of acquirements and ability, and his long 
connection with the hospitals and other institutions of public 
benevolence, appeared, in the judgment of the Commissioners, 
to give him peculiar qualifications for many of the duties of 
their chief executive officer, especially in the inspection and 
care of the extensive Sanitary establishments under their 
charge." Extract from the Annual Report of the Commissionera 
to the State Legislature, for 18-43. 


cases of ship fever in its worst form, and there are 
on record 7,000 names which came under his im- 
mediate personal inspection, besides those at the 
New York Hospital. By means of a powerful 
constitution and careful diet, he withstood the 
insidious poison for three years, but finally 
yielded to a most formidable attack of typhus 
fever, which prostrated him for nearly three 
months, and for about three weeks of that time he 
was entirely unconscious. But by the efficient care 
of his hospital colleagues, Drs. John A. Swett, and 
Joseph M. Smith, a devoted family, and an over- 
ruling Providence, he recovered, and at once visited 
Europe in the "Arctic," where he was speedily 
restored to health and strength. The result of 
his brief tour abroad was published in a South 
Carolina newspaper, edited by a son of Dr. God- 
man, and was entitled " The Surgeon's Log." On 
his return, through the instigation of Hon. Ham- 
ilton Fish, U. S. Senator from Xew York, the 
doctor prepared a memorial exposing the hard- 
ships of emigrants while on shipboard, and 
pointing out the necessary measures of prevention 
and relief. This sowed the seed of many im- 
provements in the law. But there is much still 
to be corrected. In 1854, he was elected Vice- 
President of the New York Academy of Medicine, 
and delivered the annual oration. In 1865, lie 
was afflicted with a double carbuncle, of a formi- 
dable nature, situated at the nape of the neck, 


Trliich was twice operated upon hj Dr. Gurbon 
Buck. Purinii; the first operation Dr. Griscom 
caused himself to be placed under the influence of 
nitrous oxide, and the second time took ether. 
His experience was that laughing gas, if admin- 
istered as readily,"'^ is far more agreeable. This 
was soon followed by a severe nasal and laryngeal 
catarrh, on account of which he made another 
trip to Europe, and published the result of hia 
observations in the Philadelphia Medical axd 
Sx'RGiCAL Reporter. 

On asking him if he would be a doctor again, 
he replied: "With my present experience, I 
would-, pursuing a somewhat different course 
from my early days, with much greater assurance 
of success in both a professional and pecuniary 

Dr. Griscom invented and patented a method 
of ventilating houses which met with a very 
happy success. His height is 6 feet J inch. On 
wi'iting to ask him his exact religious views, I 
received the following reply, "I was born and 
educated in the faith of the Society of Friends, 
whose tenets are regarded by me as most in 
accordance with Scripture teachings, as the 
most liberal in sentiment, and most truly demo- 
cratic in practice of all sects." 

* This has been accomplished by Prof. Vanderweyde, of Qirar<3 
College, whose apparatus is very excellent. 


On one occasion, I asked Dr. Griscom, his 
opinion of smoking. "Sir," said he, "I smoked 
when a student, but abandoned it before gradua- 
tion without a moment's hesitation; and never had 
a desire for it since. I regard the use of tobacco 
as often injurious, especially to the mental facul- 
ties, and doubt its ever being of any use." 

For fifteen years he has been a member of the 
Prison Association, and was for ten years chair- 
man of its executive committee. It has for its 
object an annual inspection of all the prisons 
in the State, and much that is connected with 
sanitary regulations. Not a few of the amended 
laws of the State, in reference to the physical wel- 
fare of prisoners, are due to his zeal. 

As a writer he is full, bold, statistical and, at 
times facetious. He is successful in making his 
hearers understand that which he has compre- 

Ills Published Works are as Follows: 


No. Years. Pages. 

1, 1833. Inaugural Thesis on Apocynum 

Cannabinura, 19 

2, 1836. Curious Monstrosity, a mother 

with two nipples to each mamma. 

3, 1839. Animal Mechanism and Physi- 

ology designed for the use of 
families and schools. Harper 
& Brothers, 357 


No. Years. Pagos 

4, 1839. Abstraction of tho Uterus after 

delivery, by Septimus Hunter, 6 

5, 1840. Essay on Spinal Irritation, Medi- 

cal Journal, 52 

6, 1840. Coroners and their duties, 2 

7, 1841. Treatment of Curvature of the 

Spine, Medical Journal, 11 

8, 1842. Communication to the City Gov- 

ernment, with a draft of an Or- 
dinance for regulating the emp- 
tying of sinks, privies and cess- 
pools, 7 

9, 1843. Annual Keport of City Inspector, 58 

10, 1843. Curiosity in Obstetric Physiology; 

Extra Uterine Foitation. 

11, 1843. On Reorganization of Health 

Police, 9 

12, 1844. Sanitary Condition of the Labor- 

ing Population of New York, 
with suggestions for its improve- 
ment, 58 

13, 1845. On the Medical Organization of 

Bellevue Hospital; four inter- 
esting articles in New York 
Evening Post, 

14, 1846. Letter to AVm. A.Walker, County 

Superintendent of Common 
Schools, on the Ventilation of 
School-houses, 9 


No. Years. Pages, 

15, 1849. Uses and Abuses of Air. J. S. Red- 

field, 1 vol., 250 

16, 1850. Message of Mayor AYoodbull to 

Board of Aldermen, on deodori- 
zing and preventing decay of 
oifal, accompaning a communi- 
cation from Prof. Hare, 4 

17, 1850. On Deficient Palate and its rem- 

edy, 4 

18, 1853. Hospital Hygiene, illustrated, 12 

19, 1853. Public Parks and Public Health, 


20, 1854. Anniversary Discourse before 

Academy of Medicine, 58 

22, 1856. Letters on New York Hospital and 

Treatment of Eheumatism, Med- 
ical AND Surgical Reporter. 

21, 1857. Improvement of the Public Health 

and Establishment of a Sanita- 
ry Police, 18 

23, 1858. A History Chronological and Cir- 

cumstantial of the Visitations of 
the Yellow Fever in New York, 36 

24, 1858. Report of Committee of Board of 

Supervisors, and Resolutions on 
Health Bill, 6 

25, 1858. Report on Solidified Milk before 

Academy of Medicine, 6 

No. Yuars. Pa<;c8. 

2G, 1859. Memorial of John GriscoMjLL.D., 

Carter & Brothers, 427 

27, 1850. Ileport of Sanitary Association of 

New York, 12 

28, 1850. Ileview of Pickford's, Simon's and 

lieid's Works, 14 

20, 1850. Report of Committee of Academy 
of Medicine in favor of the 
Health Bill. 

30, 1860. First Lessons in Physiology, with 

Brief llules of Health for the 
use of Schools. 11. Lockwood, 152 

31, 1800. Report of Committee of the As- 

sembly, on the Bill concerning 
the Public Health of New York, 
' Kings and Richmond counties, 30 

32, 1861. Report of Sub-Committee of 

Union Defence Committee on 
Relief of Families of Soldiers, 14 
S3, 1861. Sanitary Legislation, Past and 

Future, 37 

34, 1862. Causes and Prevention of Dis- 

eases in the Army, 18 

35, 1863. Case of Diarrhoea Adiposa, 12 

36, 1863. Report on Ridgewood Disinfecting 

Powder, 8 

37, 1863. Review of Report of Commission- 

ers for Improving the Sanitary 
Condition of Barracks and Hos- 
pitals, 10 


No. Years. Pages. 

38, 1804. Physiological and Dietetic Rela- 

tions of Phosphorus, 20 

39, 18G4. Reply to a Letter of the Citizens 

Association on the Sanitary Con- 
dition of New York, 2 

40, 18G5. Report of a Visit to the State In- 

ebriate Asylum, 4 

41, 18C5. Review of Report of Committee of 

Hygiene and City Inspector. 

42, 1866. Paris Correspondence, MedicaIj 

AND Surgical Reporter. 

43, 18G6. Malignant Influences of the Ute- 

rus, read before the New York 
Academy of Medicine, 2 

44, 1866. The Where, the AYhen, the Why 

and the How, of the First Ap- 
pearance, and Greatest Preva- 
lence of Cholera in Cities, 21 

45, 18GG. Report on Ventilation, Academy 

of Medicine, 8 



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" That life is long which answers life's great end." — Young. 

Dr. Barker was born in Wilton, Maine, May 
2d, 1819, and was the son of John Barker, M. D., 
for many years one of the most distinguished 
practising physicians in that State, who died in 
New York, February, 1858. Having paid atten- 
tion to the classical requirements of a liberal 
education, he fitted himself and entered Bowdoin 
College, Maine, the beloved Alma Mater of Na- 
thaniel IIaavtiiorxe, and Ex-President Pierce, 
whence he was graduated Bachelor of Arts, in 
1837. Experiencing no particular taste for mer- 
cantile pursuits, he became more and more enam- 
ored of his father's noble profession, and soon 
arrived at a definite determination to follow in 
the footsteps of his. illustrious sire. He accord- 
ingly entered the ofiices of Drs. Bowditch and 
Perry, and studied medicine under them, gradu- 
ating in 1841, from the Medical School of Maine, 
having also attended two full courses at the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical College, at Boston. About 



this time, Dr. Barker likewise pursued a course 
of study under the special f^iiidiincc of Dr. Sted- 
MAX, and visitcd*\vith liim, repeatedly, the Chel- 
sea Hospital, Maine. 

Ilis mother having died of consumption, and, 
when twenty years of age, he having repeatedly 
been the subject of hasmoptysis, his attention was 
especially led to a consideration of this particular 
disease, and accordingly he selected it for his 
inaugural dissertation, and wrote his Thesis on 
''Phthisis Pulmonalis," which exhibited much 
discrimination, and gave promise of an earnest 
disciple of Hippocrates. 

Immediately after taking his degree. Dr. Bar- 
ker took passage for Europe, and conscientiously 
visited the hospitals of London and Edinburgh ; 
passing two years at Paris, where he became a 
daily visitor of the wards of the different institu- 
tions dedicated to the cure of the sick. So fascinat- 
ed did he become with some of the principles of the 
French schools that, with the interval of but few 
years. Dr. Barker has visited Europe nearly 
every summer. By this means, he has been ena- 
bled to compare American with foreign practice, 
investigate new theories, take warning by the 
errors of too scientific a body of men, who not in- 
frequently publish their diagnosis, and impa- 
tiently await the death of their patients, that they 
may exhibit to the public view a verification of 
their capabilities of endoscopy. Not a few of 


the most important remedies lately introduced 
into this country are due to the exertions of Dr. 
Barker, who, perceiving at once their beneficial 
agencies, unfolded their simplicity of action and 
the vast amount of benefit to be derived from 
new and improved methods of treatment. Not a 
little of his great popularity is due to the fact 
that there is not a physician in the city, with his 
extensive practice, who more continuously and un- 
deviatingly keeps up with the times. When he 
writes anything for the public, or delivers an 
address before any medical association, his matter 
is interesting, his deductions to the point, and his 
statements lucid. A firm believer in the moral 
obligations of the Hippocratic oath, he is tena- 
cious of professional secrets, and is as strict in 
withholding from idle curiosity the mysteries of 
the doctor's confessional as he is unsparing to- 
ward those who betray their trust and degenerate 
into the mere followers of a hypocritic oath. 
Uprightly etiquetical in all his bearings, he toler- 
ates no undue familiarity, though ever ready to 
respond to the calls of necessity, and alleviate the 
embarrassments of brother physicians. 

Though not, strictly speaking, a "specialist," 
Dr. Barker is naturally engaged in obstetric 
and uterine practice, having delivered, in the 
course of his eventful life, nearly four thousand 
women. During this vast experience, it has been 

his lot to encounter serious cases of a complicated 


But one characteristic, most essentially his 

own, is worthy of mention, and would be of great 
Lencfit, were it more generally the property of 
others. Dr. Barker rarely, I had almost said 
never^ gives up a patient. He carries out in his 
private practice, with energy and determination, 
the text that, ''while there is life, there is hope." 
In not a few instances, when called in at the 
eleventh hour, after attending and consulting 
physicians had "given up the patient," by he- 
roic stimulation, a sudden and effective change 
of treatment, the careful watching of each 
symptom, and a rapid following up of pow- 
erful remedies, he has brought back, with the 
aid of a merciful Providence, the moribund to 
health, and rendered the comatose female a happy 

When one reflects on the uncertainty of a true 
diagnosis, which sometimes kills the patient by 
false treatment, would it not be rational for every 
conscientious practitioner to abandon, once and 
forever, that dangerous sluggishness of the mind 
that causes the attending physician to give up his 
patients twenty-four, yes, eighty hours before 
thej'- die 5 and sometimes, much to their disgrace, 
forty-eight hours previous to their recovery? A 
very interesting article could be written on the 
return to hea,lth of those who had been given up, 

with a caustic peroration on the death of man;y 
from a disregard of their instinctive wishes after 
the ukase has gone forth that there is "no hope." 
We hear of persons who have come back to life 
and health, stating that they could neither speak 
nor move; but with agony of mind, they have 
witnessed the preparations for their funeral. My 
own father saw his coffin brought in, when he 
was very low with yellow fever ! 

As a case in point, the following will explain 
itself. Some few years since, I made the ac- 
quaintance of one of our most prominent public 
benefactors, who had come to seek medical aid 
for his wife, who, though quite ill, in accordance 
with her expressed wishes, was placed in the 

charge of a homoeopathic (?) During her 

husband's absence, she grew rapidly worse. He 
was telegraphed for, and arrived in a special train, 
only to find her going out of the world in an un- 
conscious state. The "what is it?" who was 
treating her, had given her up y and, as the case 
was abandoned, the gentleman called on me, and 
asked, as a special favor, that I would visit his . 
wife professionally. I told him that I was not 
practising at the time, having but recently recov- 
ered from two severe attacks of diphtheria, etc., 
but Avould call and see if there was enough vi- 
tality in her to justify the pursuit of active mea- 
sures ; having first ascertained that he would dis- 
miss charlatanism, and confine himself to a regular 


practitioner. lie consented, and I went. The 
lady was certainly dangerously ill, being; entirely 
unconscious, and presenting symptoms of an 
alarming character; but there was that about 
her pulse, features, etc., that gave promise of a 
response. I informed the gentleman of the fact, 
and told him I would call on Dr. Barker, and 
had no doubt he would come, as there was now 
no attending physician. The victim of amentia 
who had treated her during her past illness, had 
stated that much of her trouble proceeded from 
an enlarged and diseased ovary, which, he told 
her husband, he could distinctly feel. 

On Dr. Barker's going with me, he examined 
the patient carefully, and found that her trouble 
originated from urcemia, brought about by an ag- 
gravated and prolonged retention of urine; and 
on examination, we found, to our entire satisfac- 
tion, that this " enlarged ovary" was nothing but 
a distended bladder, that had swollen nearly to 
bursting, and in consequence, the lady's blood 
had become diseased by the absorption of the 
poison. Introducing a flexible catheter, Dr. Bar- 
ker drew off an immense amount of thickened 
fluid, and at once perceived the immediate relief 
of the patient. He then treated her for uraemia, 
and in some thirty hours, she revived so as to re- 
cognize and converse with her beloved husband. 
Her condition rapidly improved, the water being 
regularly drawn off. Had she been seen sooner, 


I have not a doubt but that she would have 
been saved. But this fearful condition had gono 
on too long, and though these symptoms disap- 
peared, peritonitis set in, and she died, the victim 
of ignorance, and the melancholy effect of a popu- 
lar delusion. 

This is not an uncommon occurrence, and 
when it is known that the majority of homoeo- 
pathic jugglers, when they do bring about cures, 
either fall back on the vis medicatrix naturoe, or 
write ^^ allojjatJnc" prescriptions, is it surprising 
that the members of our profession despise them, 
or that the ignorant are imposed upon?^ 

Is it possible that the doctors of the Board of 
Health in New York, even if out-voted, do not 
publish a formal statement that they in nowise 
endorse the present acceptance of the members of 
the "Do-nothing Club?'' and whose chief success 
is due to the fact that the majority of mild affec- 
tions would get well without any treatment. 

Dr. Barker's height is 5 feet 11 J inches, and 

* My father came home one day, quite excited with righteous 
indigcatlon. "Sir," said he, '•' while I was waiting for some 
medicine which was being put up, the apothecary showed me a 
prescription, his hand concealing the doctors name, and asked 
me what I thought of it. I told him it was a most powerful 
dose of a drastic cathartic. At this, he removed his hand, 
and to my astonishment, I beheld the name of one of the lead- 
ing homoeopathic physicians in New York," and then he 
launched out inyectives which it is not necessary here to re- 

"weiiiilit some 155 lbs., and, with the exception of 
his voice, wliich is to a certain extent aphonic, 
tlic result of laryngeal trouble, his general health 
is good. 

On asking him his opinion of the use of tobacco, 
he replied: "I smoke, and am not aAvare of any 
injurious effect from it." 

Ills religious fiiith is that of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

Dr. Barker first practiced in Nor\Yich, Con- 
necticut, for seven years, and in 1845 was 
elected Professor of Midwifery in the Medical 
School of Maine, but resigned after giving one 
course of lectures, on account of its obliging him 
to give up an excellent practice. In 1850 he was 
appointed Professor of Obstetrics in the New 
York Medical College, and removed to this city. 
In 1855 he was elected physician to Bellevuo 
Hospital; and in 1860 appointed Professor of 
Obstetrics, and the Diseases of Women and 
Children, in the Dellevue Hospital ISIedical Col- 

Dr. Barker married Miss Eliza Lee Dwigrt, 
of Springfield, Mass., in 1843, and has been blest 
with one son, a young man of fine abilities. 

In 1857 he was elected one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents of the New York Academy of Medicine, 
and in 1859 President of the New York State 
Medical Society. At the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association in New York, in 1864, 


he was elected Chairman of the Section of Practi- 
cal Medicine and Obstetrics. 

As a lecturer Dr. Barker is interesting, and 
only prevented being eloquent by the peculiar 
whisper which interferes with an easy flow 
of words. His matter is based on judgment and 
experience. Memory also aids him in the selec- 
tion of past cases ; and a general facility in ex- 
planation enables him to unfold what might bo 
complex, and renders important that which other- 
wise would be passed over as unnecessary by tho 
casual observer. 

C. E. BROWN-SEQUARD, M.D., etc. 


C. E. BROWN-SEQUAED, M.D.,F.E.S.,eto. 

" He led me on to mightiest deeds 
Above the nerve of mortal arm." — Milton. 

TnouGn of foreign birth, and the resident of 
many capitals, Dr. Brown-Sequard, having set- 
tled in New York with the specific purpose of 
practising in this metropolis, is not only wel- 
comed by the lovers of science, but may, with the 
Btrictest propriety, be included in the present 

The treatment of the nervous system, when 
diseased, requires more acute observation and 
profound analogical reasoning than any other 
branch of physical derangement. Hence, though 
cures may be rare, when accomplished, they bring 
credit in proportion to their scarcity. 

His father, Edward Brown, was born in Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania; married M'lle C. P. 
Sequard, a native of the Isle of Mauritius, of 
French extraction, and lost his life while endeav- 
oring to carry provisions to that place, during a 
Bevere visitation of famine. The vessel proved 



unscawortby, and though a captain of much ex- 
perience, his hibor was in vain ; but a good name 
followed in his wake. 

The subject of the present sketch was born 8th 
of April, 1817, at Port Louis, Mauritius, a Brit- 
ish colony in the Indian Ocean, where he received 
the first principles of his extensive education at a 
private school. When quite young, he took charge 
of two Circulating Libraries and Heading Hooms 
for some two years. 

He began the study of medicine in Paris, France, 
in 1838, under the careful guidance of Martin" 
Macron, P. Berard, Cruveilhier, Trousseau, 
Orfila, and others, all men of wide experience, 
much thought, and the representatives of an 
important medical epoch. Not a few of his valu- 
able discoveries were made while a resident of 
France. The peculiar facilities afforded men of 
science, together with the excellent libraries, 
which contain a faithful record of the past, ena- 
ble one of determined zeal to go over the labors of 
former years, and form new theories for future 

In 1339, we find him teaching natural history, 
chemistry, and natural phllosphy ; and in 1845, 
he commenced to lecture on physiology, and has 
ever since kept up the deepest interest in all of 
these branches of science. That which peculi- 
arly rendered his didactic philosophy interesting, 
was the number of practical experiments brought 


immediately to bear on a given subject. His 
vivisections were conclusive as to success. 

In November, 1838, he received the diploma of 
''Bachelor of Letters,'' and that of "Bachelor of 
Sciences," the following year, from the Faculty 
of Letters of Paris, and the Faculty of Sciences 
of Paris, respectively; both of them forming a 
part of the University of France. 

On the 3d of January, 1846, he was formally 
graduated Doctor of Medicine from the Faculty 
of Medicine of Paris, which is a part of the Uni- 
versity of Franco. His Inaugural Dissertation 
was a printed thesis on the "Vital Properties and 
Functions of the Spinal Cord," 4to., pp. 26. One 
cannot read this production without being led on 
by a fascinating course of writing, especially his 

Dr. Brown-S^quard has practised successfully 
in the principal centres of medical science, in 
each place leaving traces of his original mind and 
wise suggestions wherever he has gone. He 
carried out his professional career in Paris, 
France, for many years, at various intervals, from 
1847 to 1850, also in 1855, and from 1857 to 1859, 
likewise in 1865. In 1854, he resided at Port 
Louis, Mauritius, and not only practised, but ac- 
f[uired much that sowed the seed of future theo- 
ries. In London, England, he attended the sick, 
and particularly prescribed for those nervously 
affected, from March, 1860, to September, 1863; 


and at Cambridge and Boston, Mass., 18G4, lec- 
tured, and treated those who applied for his ser- 
vices. Since April, 1866, he has taken up his 
abode in New York city, and it is to be hoped that, 
after his long and varied experience, he will re- 
main with a community capable of appreciating 
his valuable suggestions, and will also collect in 
an uniform shape all his writings; that a complete 
Bet may be obtained by those enamored of what 
is wise, sensible, and full of important results. 
Though many of his works are in English, the 
majority are to be found in the French language; 
but, ere long, one after another will find their 
way, through the medium of a faithful transla- 
tor, to American minds. 

In March, 1853, at Boston, Mass., Dr. Brown- 
Seql'ard married Miss Ellen Fletcher, a niece 
of Daniel Webster's first wife, and has now one 
son living, who is ten years old. 

Being desirous of obtaining from the Doctor 
his exact views as to the efiect of smoking, I ad- 
dressed him a note, and received in answer the 
following reply : "I never smoke, and have seen 
the most evident proofs of the injurious effects of 
tobacco on the nervous system." This, though 
brief, is comprehensive, and may, with not a few, 
carry with it the force of a verdict. Though some 
of the deepest philosophers of European make 
pipe out their thoughts on abstruse subjects, yet 
I do not but believe that clearer premises would 


be a consequence of their abandoning the practice; 
though of a truth, it must be confessed that few 
men of mind could remain in their studies for as 
long a period, and reflect over their own cogita- 
tions with the same cautiousness of approach as 
those who calmly puff at axioms and wreathe meta- 
phors out of clouds of smoke. It has generally been 
my experience, that those who do not use tobacco 
are obliged to work or walk while thinking, for 
it is a necessary item in personal economy, that 
the body must in some measure be employed, in 
order that the intellect may rove at will. 

On asking the Doctor if he did not have any 
special or favorite branch of practice, he replied: 
" I am chiefly consulted for nervous affections, both 
functional and organic, but I am not a specialist; 
and have studied, and continue to study every 
branch of medicine." When one sees the vast 
strides made each year in physiology, therapeu- 
tics, chemistry, and microscopic anatomy, tho 
careful keeping up with the times may be more 
fully appreciated. In a literary point of view, 
one can scarcely read the table of contents. Soon 
medical science will divide human study. 

Dr. Brown-Seqtjard's general health has been 
very good, being exempt from many of the affec- 
tions that flesh is heir to. But a desire to inves- 
tigate the contents of his own stomach, under 
different circumstances, by means of which he 
«ould examine the gastric juice, or partially 


dii^ested food, has brou<^ht on a rare afTectlon, 
"vvliich is sometimes seen in man, namely, a per- 
pistcnt merycism, or rnraination, ^Yhcn one is 
forced to chew a second time what has been swal- 
lowed. This has existed since 1844, in conse- 
quence of his having often performed on himself 
experiments, consisting in swallowing sponges, 
to which were attached threads; by drawing 
upon which the sponges were withdrawn from 
the stomach, containing gastric juice and liquid 
or liquified food, which he wished to study. 

This sacrifice on the altar of science should be 
honorably recorded, as a disinterested efibrt by a 
truly philosophical man. 

Though Prof. Browx-Sequard practised exten- 
sively in the above mentioned cities, his visits to 
Europe and this country were not confined to the 
dates before recorded. 

His first visit to Paris, France, was in 1838, 
where he remained till 1842. He returned in 
1843, and stayed there till a short time before the 
^^coup cfetaV of Napoleon in December, 1851, 
when he fled to London, but, aft«r a few weeks, 
returned to Paris, and came to the United States 
for the first time early in 1852. He became a 
member of the Royal College of Physicians of 
London in 1860, and has received many honors 
from various foreign institutions. 

On five dilFerent occasions he has been the 
recipient of prizes from the French Academy of 


Sciences; and so able were his efforts, that the 
Koyal Society of London, under the auspices of 
the Queen, bestowed on him a portion of the 
grant, which was set aside for the promotion of 
his cause. Dr. Brown-Sequard has enunciated 
many interesting theories, and maintained sci- 
entific points, that have recently been more than 
ever endorsed by the members of his noble 
profession. Among these may be particularly 
mentioned his idea, eloquently supported, by both 
mind and facts, that ''the fibrine of the blood is 
an excrcmentitious product, and not subservient 
to nutrition." 

By a series of careful experiments, he suc- 
ceeded in restoring the irritability of the muscles, 
soon after oxygenated and deQbrinated blood 
had been injected, when a dead body had been 
lono- rigid. By repeating this with the same 
blood, it being oxygenated and defibrinated again, 
the irritability of the muscles was maintained for 
hours. Another statement of his is likewise wor- 
thy of mention. It is to the effect that arterial 
blood "is subservient to nutrition, while venous 
blood is required for muscular contraction." 
He also states that the animal heat of man is 
103° F. Moreover, as it has generally been an 
accepted fact that poison tends to lower the tem- 
perature of the body, he suggests with much 
reason, that if an artificial heat be kept up, the 
toxcemic influence will be lessened, and the 


chances of recovery increased inversely, etc. 
This theory — if carried out in clinical practice — 
would tend much to assist in the administration 
of remedial a^^ents. But that which has pecu- 
culiarly attracted his attenton and given rise to 
profound discussion, has special reference to the 
Bpinal cord; which may truly be considered -as 
the greatest discovery of that region, since the 
period when Sir Charles Bell unfolded to view 
the sensitive properties and "motor functions of 
the anterior and posterior roots of the spinal 
cord." To use the words of another:* "Aa 
the result of numerous ingenious experiments, 
Browx-Skquard concludes that the sensitive 
fibres do not communicate directly with the brain, 
but convey impressions to the gray matter of the 
cord, by which they are transmitted onward to 
the brain, and that their decussation or crossino- 
takes place in the cord itself, at or below the 
point at which they enter, not in the cerebrum 
or medulla oblongata. On the other hand, the 
anterior or motor fibres pass on directly to the 
brain, effecting their decussation in the medulla 
oblongata; the gray matter receives the impres- 
sions, conducts them to the brain, or reflects them 
upon the motor nerves, but is itself insensible to 
ordinary stimuli." 

In tlie modern views of nervous disorders the 

* tree Appleton's Cyclopaedia. 


opinions of Prof. Brown-Sequard are looked upon 
with respect, and followed with implicit faith, so 
earnest have been his endeavors, and so conscien- 
tious his experiments as regards the treatment of 
functional and organic aiFections of the nervous* 
system. We find that he maintains that morbid 
manifestations may be due to a reflex influence ; 
that pressure on the carotid for congestion of the 
brain does not diminish the supply of blood to 
the brain, but the benefit derived from it is duo 
chiefly to the pressure on the cervical sympathetic 
nerve, which causes a contraction of the blood- 
vessels of the brain. 

He is entirely opposed to extirpation of the 
testicle as a cure for epilepsy, deeming it not only 
irrational, but barbarous ; recommends applying 
a white-hot iron to the head of patients when in 
the "coma of apoplexy, cerebritis, uraemia, or 
epilepsy," and also as the most effectual cure 
for neuralgia, and when the patient is suffering 
from rheumatic pains. On the same principle he 
strongly advocates ice along the spine. But that 
which seems especially to meet his high approval 
is the subcutaneous injection of morphia, qui- 
nia, etc. He advocates gallic acid in five-grain 
doses, six times a day, when the nervous derange- 
ments are due to congestion of the ovaries or kid- 

* Remarks made, by invitation, before the American Medical 
Association, at the late meeting held in Baltimore, 1866, and 
carefully reported in the " Medical Hecord,'' Vol. 1, No. 10. 


ncys, and docs not particularly admire nitrate of 
Bilver for the treatment of locomotor ataxy, as it is 
often found to do more in the way of discoloring; 
the skin than relieving the difficulty. For palsy 
^e praises the chloride of barium, in from h grain 
to one ^rain three times a day. It has also been 
found very serviceable in tetanus. He regrets 
that errhines are not oftener employed. 

To enumerate the works and articles written 
by Dr. Brown-Sequard would be a difficult task, 
for they are in many languages, printed in differ- 
ent countries, and may be found in magazines, 
medical journals, physical periodicals, cyclopoe- 
dias, and bound up with the lectures of other 
interesting savans. The medical and philosophi- 
cal literature of this generation are greatly in- 
debted to him for his widely diffused knowledge, 
and the many surprising facts made plain to the 
sense. A uniform set of his elaborate productions 
would find a ready sale, and be secured by every 
public library in the civilized world. 

"When it is mentioned that a complete list of 
his works, with a description of his writings, 
forms a pamphlet of twenty-seven pages, com- 
prising the enumeration of two hundred and nine 
distinct treatises, it will be seen that the mere 
mention of their names would take up too much 
room in a periodical that can afford but limited 

To give some idea, liowevcr, of , the diversity of 


the subjects treated by the learned professor, the 
titles of a few will prove interesting and sugges- 
tive. Most of them are written in French: 

No. Subject. 

1. Eech. et Exp6r. sur la Physiol, do la 

MoelleEpin. 1846. 
7. Sur I'Etat de I'lrritab. dans les Muscles 

Paral. 1847. 

13. Hibernation des Tenrecs. 1849. 

14. Rech. sur la Rigidite Cadav. et la Putre- 

faction. 1849. 
17. L'action de Teter Independante du Cer- 

veau. 1849. 
19. Explication d'unPh6nomene de Yislbilite. 

26. Rech. sur le IMode d' Action de la Strych- 
nine. 1849. 
34. Sur la Mort par la Foudre et I'Electro- 

Magnet. 1849. 
64. Apparition de la Rigidite Cadaver, avant 

la Cessation des Battem du Coeur. 1851. 
80. Sur rirritab. des Muscles Paralyses. 

84. Preuve de la Contractilite du Tissu Cellu- 

laire. 1852. 
88. Sur la Nutrition des Muscles pendant leur 

Contraction. 1852. 
100. Sur un Fait Nouveau relatif h, la Physiol. 

de la Moelle Epin. 1852. 


No, Subject 

107. Giu'rison do I'Epilcpsic par la Section 
d"un Nerf. 1853. 

113. Sur la Cause des Mouvcmcnts du Cocur. 

136. De rinfliicncc dc rAsphyxie sur la Clia- 
leur Animale. 185G. 

144. Nouv. Rech. sur lc3 Capsules Surr^nalcs. 

155. Course of Lectures on the Phsiology and 
Patholofry of the Central Nervous Sys- 
tem, delivered at the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons of England, 1858. 276 pages, 
3 plates. Philadelphia. 1860. 

158. Lectures on the Diagnosis and Treatment 
of the Principal Forms of Paralysis of 
the Lower Extremities. 118 pages. 
Philadelphia. 1861. 

162. Lois des Ph^nomenes Dynamiques de 
I'Economie Animale, 1858. 

178. Sur quelques Caracteres non encore Sig- 
nales des Mouvem. R6fl. Normaux. 1858. 

186. Rech. sur I'lrritabilite Musculaire. 1859. 

192. Remarq. sur des Cas d'Ephidrose Paro- 
tidienne. 1859. 

195. Sur un Cas de Greffe Osseuse. 1860. 

199. Note sur les Mouvement Rotatoires. 1860. 

203. Remarq. our la Physiol, du Cervelet a 
propos d'un Memoire de R. Wagner. 


No. Subject. 

205. Remarq. sur 1' Action du ICcrf Vague sur 
le CoGur. 1SG2. 

207. Remarq. sur la riiyslol. du Cervelet ct du 
Nerf Auditlf. 1802. 

209. Rech. sur la Transmiss. des Impress, do 
Tact, de Chatouiilement, de Douleur, do 
Temperat., ct de Contraction (Sena 
Muscul.) dans la Moelle Epin. 1S03. 


8* (80) 


(President of the New York Academy of Medicine.) 

" An honest man, close-buttoned to the chin, 
Broadcloth without, and a warm heart within."— Cbw^vr. 

Dr. Anderson" was born in the city of New 
York in the year 1798. His father and mother, 
David and Gertrude Anderson, soon after his 
birth, moved into the country, and resided on the 
borders of New York and New Jersey. There 
were seven brothers and one sister, John, Ganot, 
James, Datid, Daniel, William, Malvina, and 
Henry. In 1814 his parents returned to the city, 
and he has ever since, with brief intervals, made 
it his residence. During his rural sojourn he 
attended country schools, and in 1815 and 1816 
became a pupil in the excellent grammar school 
of the blind teacher, Joseph Nelson, LL.D., in 
Franklin street, who subsequently became Pro- 



fcssor of Latin and Greek in Kutgers' Collcrro, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey. In 1817 his father 
moved, with the rest of the family, to Illinois, 
while he remained in New York, being at that 
time nineteen years of age, and began to turn his 
attention to his future pursuit, which was that of 
a Doctor of Medicine. He did not follow any col- 
legiate course at this time, nor was he graduated 
from any academical institution ; but, being rather 
delicate in health, passed much of his leisure in 
active out-door exercise, both on land and water. 
This weakness of constitution was the result of 
an alarming attack of summer complaint, when 
he was an infant, which emaciated him to such 
an extent that the convolutions of his intestines 
were visible, and for a time he was given up. 
During the winter of 1813-14, from over-exposure' 
to cold while walking four or five miles through 
mountain passes which were covered with snow, 
he over-fatigued himself, and was prostrated with 
typhus fever, at that time very prevalent. In 
the fall of 1826 he also became dangerously ill 
from bilious fever, which he contracted while 
attending a patient who was ill at Elizabeth 
Town, New Jersey ; where the Doctor was obliged 
to stay over night two or three times a week. 
Chill and fever troubled him after this for some 
two or three years. Though the victim of 
many attacks when young, since that period the 


Doctor's health has been so very excellent that ho 
has not been confined to the house from illness 
twenty consecutive hours, Avith the exception of 
an accident which injured the lumbar region, and 
resulted in spinal meningitis. He was rapidly re- 
lieved by the judicious application of leeches, 
cups, and blisters, being only compelled to remain 
at home five days. 

The Doctor never entered into any other pur- 
suit than that of a physician, and, after following 
out the prescribed course, was formally graduated 
M. D. from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in 1820. His Thesis was on Neuralgia, 
and he pursued his course of medical studies 
under the guidance of Richard S. Kissam, M. D., 
at that time Surgeon to the New York Hospital, 
whose office he entered, and in time became his 
principal assistant in surgical operations. After 
remaining with Dr. Kissam two years, he enter- 
ed the office of David IIosack, M. D., LL. D., 
Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, 
and Physician to the New York Hospital. Soon 
after receiving his diploma Dr. Hosack obtained 
for Dr. Anderson the appointment of Surgeon to 
accompany the West Point cadets, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Worth, while on an excursion 
to Philadelphia, and gave him a letter of intro- 
duction to Dr. Horner, Professor of Anatomy, 
Dr. Anderson went with the company, but did 
not present his "letter," owing to the distance of 


the encampment from llie Doctor'a residence,* 
and the shortness of liis stay. In the fall of 1S20 
he was engaged by Dr. IIosack to take charge of 

♦ As the following: notes exrlnin a fact in the life of the dis- 
tincruishea Dr. IIosack, I take the liberty of ruWishing tbem 
for future reference: 

" New York, August 15th, 1820. 

">l'y Dear Judersmi: I erjclnce a letter for you to Dr. IIOR- 
KKR, the Teacher of Anatomy in the Collepe of Philadelphia. I 
■wish you to see his collecJons, and examine them with groat 
care, for I Fhall probably have you attached to ruy oflBce. I 
have closed my engagement with Dr. Francis. Do find out tha 
ptate of the city, and write to mn, that I may communicate 
your information to the Board of Health. 

" In haste, yours, 

" D. IIosack. 

"Call on Dr. lIonxEB as soon as possible." 

" New York, August 15 th, 1^20. 
"Dear Sir: Doctor Ant»ersox a pupil of mine, and graduate 
of our college, is in Philadelphia, and he is particularly attached 
to anatomy, and has made for me many valuable anatomical 
preparations, and is likely to be eminent in that branch of pro- 
fessional knowledge, in connection with surgery. I beg leave 
to introduce him to your acquaintance, and ask the favor of 
you to give him an opportunity of seeing your valuable collec- 
tions. He is young, and has had no opportunity of seeing col- 
lections on a scale you possess. Your attention to him therefore 
•will be peculiarly grateful to him, and will confer a favor upon 
me. You will find him intelligent, and adroit with his knife and 
syringe, and on these accounts I am sure you will give him an 
opportunity of seeing the details of your anatomical laboratory. 
I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you in New York, and of 
personally acknowledging the favors I have received from you. 
" Tery truly, yours, in baste, 

"D. IIosack. 
<' Dr. IIoRNSR, Professor of Anatomy." 


his office, and privato class of students; and 
examined them daily in anatomy, surgery, dis- 
secting, and making anatomical preparations, 
some of which are still in existence. Eccent 
improvements in the art of injecting the arteries, 
and the many beautiful plates, now open to the 
inspection of all, have rendered the preparation 
of specimens much easier than it was formerly. 

For three years Dr. Anderson continued to in- 
struct this private class of medical students, which 
numbered from twenty-five to forty, at different 
times. He also made a similar arrangement with 
Dr. John Y/. Francis, Professor of Obstetrics, 
and continued with him over three years from the 
time his connection with Dr. Hosack ceased. 
Some of the anatomical preparations made at 
this time, under his special supervision, are now 
to be found in the Geneva College Museum. lie 
likewise maintained the deepest interest in Eut- 
GERs' College anatomical preparations, under 
Professor Godman, and, after his death, with Dr. 
Brush, "when," to use his own words, addressed 
to me on the subject, "the College was shut by 
the continued persecutions of legislative laws." 
After this he confined himself strictly to private 
practice, not even taking rest enough to venture 
abroad ; having resided in the city of New York 
since 1822. 

In 1829 he formed a connection with Dr. 
Brush, not infrequently being left in charge of 


the Doctor's patients during his ahscnee from 
town. On these occasions Dr. Anderson did not 
confine himself to the medical treatment of disease, 
but performed, with gratifying results, operations 
for hernia, popliteal aneurism, removal of tumors, 
and various amputations. 

In the spring of 1822, he married Miss E. C. 
Anthony, of New York, and was blest with four 
children, one of wliom, a son of praiseworthy 
steadiness, is now relieving his father of the over 
cares of a large practice, and assuming the re- 
sponsibilities of the medical profession. 

On asking Dr. Anderson his opinion of the 
prevalence of smoking, he replied as follows: "I 
do not smoke, except at the St. Nicholas Dinner, 
when I take three or four puflPs of the long pipe. 
I could never learn when a boy. It is a dirty 
and fdthy practice ; has no good effect, but evil 
continually. No man who is the subject of dirty 
and filthy habits can be a gentleman. The defi- 
nition of the latter term is very indefinable. No 
BO powerful a drug can be used with impunity, 
any more than arsenic or opium." 

With regard to any favorite branch of practice, 
the Doctor at first paid more attention to surgery, 
though not to the extent of a specialty, pursuing 
what is known as a general practice; treating, 
however, those cases of a surgical character that 
came under his immediate inspection. 

The Doctor's height is 5 feet, 9 inches, and 


his weight, for the last forty years, varying from 
145 to 150 pounds. His appearance is that of a 
thin, healthy man, with a florid complexion and 
clear eye. 

He was brought up in the Protestant Reformed 
Dutch faith, which came over here in company 
with "our good old Holland fathers," and has 
been a member of that church over forty years. 
To use his own words, in reply to my question 
on the subject, "My faith and doctrines are to be 
found in the old Heidelberg Catechism, which is 
a very able exponent of the doctrines of salvation 
as taken from the Bible."' 

The Doctor has not written much, prefering to 
read rather than make books ; but a few emana- 
tions from his brain may be recorded, of which 
we find the following : 

1. Case of Neuralgia. 

2. " " Albuminuria. 

3. " " Delirium Tremens. Published in 
N. Y. Academy of Medicine Bulletin for 1860. 

4. Inaugural Address before the New York 
Academy of Medicine. 

5. Address before the American Medical As- 
sociation, as Chairman of the Committee of Ar- 

On asking him if he would be a Doctor again, 
he replied, "I have no reason to be dissatisfied 

* See Transactions for 1SG4. 



with the profession. I have worked hard, and 
God has prospered me. I hope I have many 
friends, and but few enemies. I feel proud of 
the profession. It is second to no other, and in 
many respects above, in moral influence, owing 
to the peculiar relations to society. As a whole, 
there is a high morale. In a business point of 
view, it is sure of success, under proper direc- 
tions and energy." 

Dr. Anderson has been a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the New York Academy of 
Medicine, one of the Corporators in the Board of 
Trustees ; Vice-President several years ; and has 
been elected President of the New York Acad- 
emy of Medicine three consecutive terms of two 
years each. This last honor speaks well for the 
satisfactory manner in which the Doctor has 
presided. During his administration, the Acad- 
emy has seen some of its most exciting times. 
To briefly mention a few of tlie disturbing ele- 
ments, memory can call up to vivid recollection 
the swill-milk discussioiis, politics versus medi- 
,cine, during the commencement of the rebellion, 
etc. Truly one may say that, in looking over the 
bulletin for the past six years, papers have been 
read, of the most vital interest; experiments of 
an original character explained, and theories 
based on experience unfolded by the profession, 
that constitute an epoch in the progress of that 


Dr. Andersox was one of the Board of Mana- 
gers of the Society for the Relief of WicIoAVS and 
Orphans of Medical Men sixteen to seventeen 
years; Vice-President eight years, and President 
three years. Member of the Council of Hygiene 
and Public Health, of the Citizens' Association, 
since its organization, and a member of the Be- 
neficent Board of the Pteformed Dutch Church, 
Missionary Society, Sabbath School, and Publi- 
cation Board nearly thirty years. 

Dr. Anderson has done much to keep up a 
kindly fellowship among the members of the 
Academy of Medicine. His receptions during 
the winter are composed of the best part of the 
medical profession, and his kind and hospitable 
manner has accomplished much in reconciling 
prejudices. Through his exertions a complete 
list of cabinet photographs of all the Presidents 
of the New York Academy of Medicine have 
been procured, together with a new volume for 
the signatures of recently-elected "Fellows." 

There are those still living who remember the 
alacrity with which "young Anderson" went 
forth, after the manner of "Cruncher," in com- 
pany with some six medical students, to procure 
a body for the use of Prof. Godman, at the time 
Dr. Anderson was his demonstrator. Not a few 
have praised his daring in endeavoring to dig up 
a body in Potter's Field, while others of his party 
called on the keeper and endeavored to arrest his 


attention while they continued tlieir hi}>ors. 
^Icmory also laughs over the roused suspicion 
of the keeper and his son; the sudden accelerated 
ejection of the two callers at mldni^dit; their chase 
"by bull-dogs, and sudden secretion in the company 
of five hundred hogs; as though, like evil spirits, 
they had been cast into the swine ; and the return 
of the disappointed party ! Gratifying is it, in- 
deed, to know that at the present time a few dol- 
lars will procure cadaverous facilities and immu- 
nity from punishment. 


9* (101) 


'• Caelum non animum." 

It being an acknowledged fact in law, that citi- 
zenship depends not only on the residence of a 
party, but his animus also, an international cour- 
tesy prevents any traveller's being forced to adopt 
a foreign parent. He is enabled thereby to live 
in Europe and remain an American. 

Dr. Stewart having passed most of his pro- 
fessional life in New York, where he did much 
for the dignity of his calling, and being obliged 
by ill health and fiscal duties to live abroad, it 
may with justice be considered in accordance with 
ethics to consider him still one of the noble band. 

F. Campbell Stewart was born at Williams- 
burg, formerly the capital of Virginia, August 
10th, 1815. His father, Ferdinand Stewart 
Campbell, was Professor of Mathematics in Wil- 
liam and IMary College for twenty years, and 
was descended from the two noble, Scottish fam- 



ilics of Argyle and Bute, his ancestors having 
emigrated to the West Indies about the year 
1750. Subsequently they settled in AVestraore- 
land county, Virginia. 

Professor Campbbll becoming heir of entail to 
extensive estates in Scotland in 1830, was natu- 
ralized a British subject by special Act of Par- 
liament, and, on succeeding to the property, 
assumed the name and arms* of the "Stewarts 
of Ascog." Dr. Stewart became the possessor 
of these by the law of primogeniture, on the death 
of his father in Philadelphia in 1855. f On the 

* The certificate of Dr. Stewart's coat of arms is as follows : 
" Stewart of Ascog, descended of the Stewarts of Bute. Bears, 
or a fess chequti, azur, and argent, within a border; sable 
charged with eight mascules of the third. Above the shield a 
helmet befitting his degree, mantled gules, doubled argent. 
Next is placed, on a torsa, for his crest, a grayhound, couchant, 
within two branches of bay proper. Motto, " Fide et Opera." 

Extracted upon duly stamped pajyer, conform to law, by rue, Lyon 
Clerk Depute, and Depute Keeper of the Records of the Lyon Court. 
(Signed), Wm. Anderson, Lyon Clerk Depute. 

At Edinburgh, the third day of March, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-six years. 

The " Stewarts of Assog" are registered in Burke's British 
Peerage, under the head of ancient Scottish families. 

t These are to certify, that Ferdinand Campbell Stewart, 
Esquire, M. D., of New York, the eldest son of Ferdinand Stew- 
art Campbell Stewart, is the direct legal representative of the 
"Stewart's of Ascog," as designated by Deed of Entail. Edin- 
burgh, 6th June, 1856. 

{Signed), J. Gibson Craig, one of her Majesties Justices of 
the Peace for the County of Edinburgh. 

{Signed), George Dalziel, one of her Majesties Justices of the 
Peace for the City of Edinburgh. 


mothers side Dr. Stewart is descended from 
Carter Braxtox, one of the signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, whose daughter was 
his grandmother, and married his grandfather, 
Coh Samuel Griffix, of the Revolutionary army, 
and also a representative, from the State of Vir- 
ginia, in the first U. S. Congress; his brother, 
CvRUS Griffix, being at the time President of 
said Congress. Through this branch of the fam- 
ily Dr. Stewart is connected w^ith the Earl of 
Traquair, Lady Curistixa, his daughter having 
married Cyrus Griffin, with whom she came over 
to this country.* It is also worthy of mention 
that Dr. Stewart was the third cousin of the late 
Thomas Campbell — poet — through the family of 
Argyle, and was treated by him with the kindest 
consideration during his stay at London. 

Dr. Stewart was educated at William and 
Mary College, under the guidance of his father, 
an accomplished scholar, and Dabxey Brown, 
Professor of Humanity in that Institution. In 
1829 he visited Scotland with his parents, and 
studied under private tutors. He returned to 
America, and pursued the study of medicine 
in the office of Dr. Thomas Harris, Surgeon- 
General of the United States Navy, and was for- 
mally graduated Doctor of Medicine from the 

* For an account of this most estimable lady, see " Republi- 
can Court," by Rltu3 W. Gbiswold; article, Ladies of the Court 
of Washiugton 


University of Pennsylvania in 1837. His Thesis 
was on '' Cardiac Sounds," and was written with 
care. Dr. Stea^vkt .almost immediately went 
af^ain to Europe, and followed out his professional 
studies at Paris and Edinburgh, from 1837 to 
1843, in which latter place he entered the oflGice 
of Dr. John Thomson, Professor of Surgery in 
the University of Edinburgh, and Surgeon-Gen- 
eral of the British Army at the battle of Waterloo. 
Many in this country admire him through his 
interesting volume on "Inflammation." 

When a resident of Paris Dr. Stewart was re- 
ceived into the family of Civiale, the inventor of 
Lithotripsy, who took much interest in affording 
him every facility in the investigation of those 
diseases whose seat is in the genito-urinary or- 
gans. The friendship formed between these two 
genial students of science has been maintained to 
the present time with increasing sympathy. In 
June, 1838, Dr. Stewart was married at the 
American Embassy at Paris, by the English 
Bishop, LuscoMBE, to Emma, daughter of the late 
Samuel J. Fisher, of Philadelphia, and niece of 
Dr. Robert M. Patterson, so long honorably 
connected with the United States Mint, as its 
able Director. 

Soon after his marriage Dr. Stewart returned 
to his native town, and practised with such suc- 
cess, that, at the age of twenty-three, he not only 
had the largest business in the place, but was 


consulted by other physicians within a radius of 
forty miles. Meeting with so happy a course of 
pleasing results, he decided to visit New York 
and become a resident practitioner there. But 
before doing this he paid another visit to France, 
where he followed out carefully the study of 
some branches of his profession, which he 
found he had too much neglected in his former 
course. He remained in Paris three years, as 
physician to the United States Legation, at the 
time General Cass was Minister; during which 
period he became personally acquainted with the 
eminent and scientific men of that capital 5 among 
whom may be mentioned, Yelfeau, Louis, Roux, 
Amijsat, Leroy, Blaudix, Breschet, Dubois, 
CiviALE, Berard, Bartii, Orfila, Jobert, etc. 

In the spring of 1843 Dr. Stewart came to 
New York, and practised there continuously 
until 1849, when he was selected to fill an impor- 
tant position under the State government, of 
which more will be said in its proper place. 

During his first year in New York he made an 
arrangement with the resident physician of Bel- 
levue Hospital, and was accordingly permitted to 
take charge of certain medical and surgical wards, 
on condition that he should have the privilege of 
explaining the cases, in the form of Clinical Lec- 
tures, to a small class of medical students, who 
were private pupils in his ofiice. This has since 
become a principal source of instruction, and is 


ably carried out by the present visiting Board of 
Physicians and Sur/^cons. 

In 1847-8, when Bellevue Hospital was filled 
with typhus fever cases, of newly-arrived immi- 
grants, and while Dr. Heese was resident phy- 
sician, Dr. Stewart volunteered his services, a 
rare act of self-denial at that time, and continued 
attentive, till, at the end of five months' close 
attention to the welfare of the crowded patients 
within the wards, and under temporary huts, ho 
retired, though long before he had been strongly 
urged to do so by his friends, Drs. Mott, Francis, 
and others. At this time he was accustomed 
to prescribe daily for two hundred dangerously 
ill patients. Contrary to the fears of those who 
loved him. Dr. Stewart escaped the disease, 
though many of the assistants and attendants fell 
sick, and dropped ofi" continually. This noble 
deed of kindness has long been remembered by 
his colleagues, and serves to elevate the name of 
Doctor ; for such acts of devotion inspire the stu- 
dent, while they encourage the sick. 

The condition of the institution not being what 
it should be, this increase of patients magnified 
difficulties, and rendered more palpable the de- 
ficiencies of the present system. The Common 
Council of New York accordingly re-organized 
Bellevue Hospital, and appointed a committee of 
medical men to propose a new and improved 
plan; of which committee Dr. Stewart was a 


member. The plan was adopted, and the city 
authorities appointed a Board of " Visiting Medi- 
cal Officers," consisting of Drs. Willard Parker, 
James R. Wood, Aloxzo Clark, F. C. Stewart, 
and others. Dr. Stewart soon after resigned. 

Although of the Anglican faith Dr. Stewart 
was appointed Physician to several of the Roman 
Catholic charitable institutions of New York, 
which responsible positions he held till other 
duties of a more urgent character called him out 
of the city, when he was obliged to retire, but 
not before complimentary resolutions had been 
passed in testimony of his faithfulness. 

In 1847 the New York Academy of Medicine 
was founded, and, to use the words of another, 
*' it is universally admitted that the great success 
of that favorite Society was principally owing to 
the exertions made by Dr. Stewart in its be- 
half." lie was the Secretary at the preliminary 
meetings held by the profession upon the call of 
the Presidents of the two medical colleges, and the 
President of the New York County Medical So- 
ciety. The committees held all their meetings 
at his office, where the first constitution was 
agreed upon ; and Dr. Stewart continued to act 
as Secretary, being re-elected at the annual meet- 
ings, as long as he remained in New York. In 
the face of these facts it is exceedingly singular 
that in a recent publication, where a list of the 
founders is published, his name is omitted with- 


out comment. lie "wiis three times elected Vice- 
President, and when the Society went into a 
" Committee of the AVhole," was generally selected 
Chairman. On three different occasions he was 
appointed " Anniversary Orator." In 1848-9 he 
was Chairman of the Committee on " Typhus 
Fever," during almost a panic in the city on ac- 
count of this prevailing disease. While holding 
this position he drew up a preliminary report for 
the purpose of allaying the fears of the inhabi- 
tants, which was unanimously endorsed by the 
Academy of Piled icine, signed by many of the 
leading physicians of the metropolis, and ordered 
by the city authorities to be published in all the 

Dr. Stewart did much to promote the assem- 
bling of the National Medical Convention, which 
held its first meeting in New York in 1846, and 
met in Philadelphia in 1847, of which last con- 
vention he was the efficient Secretary, being 
chosen also on a committee to draft a constitu- 
tion, which was adopted, and resulted in the 
organization of the "American Medical Associa- 
tion," most certainly the leading professional 
body in the United States, At the meeting of 
this Association, held in Baltimore in 1848, ho 
was made Chairman of the Committee on Medical 
Education; and, at the next convention, in Boston, 
presented an elaborate and voluminous report, 
embracino; statistics and regulations of the medi- 


cal colleges of the United States, besides furnish- 
ing a detailed account of similar institutions in 
all parts of the world. AVhen this work is per- 
used, and one reflects on the vast amount of cor- 
respondence, at home and abroad, with the army 
and navy surgeons, necessarily the consequence 
of such an undertaking, the profession may truly 
be deemed indebted to Dr. Stewart for his 
zealous endeavors in behalf of his noble calling, 
and the welfare of his brethren. This may be 
found published in the second or third volume of 
the Transactions of the Association. 

In 1849, the office of ''Physician of the Marine 
Hospital" on Staten Island, in connection with 
the quarantine, was inaugurated by the New 
York State Legislature, and Hon. Hamilton 
Fish, then Governor of New York, appointed 
Dr. Stewart to fill the position. As Dr. Stew- 
art did not personally know the Governor, this 
cannot be deemed a political move ; especially as 
his choice was due to the earnest solicitations of 
the most prominent medical men in New York, 
who asserted that, of all others, he was the best 
qualified to act in that all-important capacity — 
on account of his hospital experience. Dr. Stew- 
art accepted the honor conferred on him, and 
set to work immediately to reorganize the excel- 
lent material and machinery of an institution 
which at times embraced from a thousand to 
twelve hundred inmates, with infectious and con- 


tagious diseases, under the auspices of the Com- 
missioners of Emigration, Tvho had confirmed 
his appointment, and defrayed the expenses of 
all the necessary alterations. The whole respon- 
sibilities rested on Dr. Stewart, who continued 
to meet them till his resignation in July, 1851. 

Though the Doctor was enabled to do much 
good to the suffering, and displayed untiring 
energy and executive ability, many of his imme- 
diate friends regretted the step which he had 
taken; for it deprived him of the benefit of a 
great popularity in the city of New York, and an 
increasing practice, which had already brought 
in large returns, and numbered many of the first 
families in the country. On retiring from the 
Quarantine Hospitals, Dr. Stewart, at the ur- 
gent solicitations of his friendly neighbors, re- 
mained on Staten Island until 1855, when hi? 
father died; a sad circumstance which required 
his removing with his family to Europe, where 
he has since resided, occasionally visiting his na- 
tive country. 

During a genial residence on the Isle of Wight 
in England, his health, which had become greatly 
impaired by close attention to the diseased, and 
constant exposure in the Quarantine, became 
so ''shattered" that his family were seriously 
alarmed. Change of air was strongly advocated 
by those who best appreciated his worth. It was 
during one of these prostrations that he was in- 


duced, by the earnest solicitations of his friends, 
to go as Surgeon on board the U. S. Mail Steam- 
ship "Arago," at that time under the command 
of the late Captain D. Lines, one of the most pop- 
ular officers in that capacity. A few trips in this 
vessel brought about a rapid improvement, and 
rendered sleep, at one time difficult to procure, 
not only possible, but of comfortable issue; and 
accordingly, Dr. Stewart made an arrangement 
with the surgeon of the ship to fill his place for 
six months, with a view to the practical restora- 
tion of his health. Ilis proposition was accepted, 
and he crossed and re-crossed the Atlantic eight 
times during the spring and summer of 1860. 
The result was a complete acquisition of renewed 
vigor, and immunity from all his former troubles, 
save an occasional attack of rheumatism, to which 
he had been subject.* 

Plain and simple in his tastes, Dr. Stewart 
has ever been hospitable in manner and strict as 
to etiquette ; being often consulted by his profes- 
sional brethren as to points in ethics ; and was 
pronounced by the late Cadwallader Golden 
'4he best administrative officer with whom he 

* Dr. Stewart's health has had many shocks. He has been 
more or less troubled with rheumatism, and nervous palpita- 
tion of the heart; has been threatened with phthisis ; and had 
one copious hemorrhage from the lungs some twenty years 
eince. He has also had bilious remittent fever, measles, scar- 
latina, pleurisy, and typhoid fever. His height is 5 feet 9-% 
inches, and weight 156 lbs. English. 


had ever come ia contact." Though his success 
in life was due to his personal labors, and promo- 
tion the result of the efforts of his colleagues, 
he has ever abjured politics, deeming them fur 
removed from the business of a medical man! 

On one occasion, however, before he was mar- 
ried or had entered on the paths of a Doctor's ex- 
perience, being desirous of having some import- 
ant business brought before the House of Lords, 
he became Attach6 in London, under Andrew 
Stevenson, who was at that time American Min- 
ister at the Court of St. James. Although diplo- 
matic employments were offered the Doctor by 
the late President Tyler, whose family-physician 
he was for many years. Dr. Stewart gratefully 
refused, and has never pursued any other busi- 
ness than that of a physician. 

Though not actively engaged in his profession 
for several years, his interest has not flagged, nor 
has his zeal in' the progress of science abated. 
He always claims his right of ''M. D." 

His family consists of one son, born in Paris, 
1841, and one daughter, a native of Virginia, in 
1839 — whose "Easter books," for the benefit of 
the young, are neat, instructive, full of moral 
precepts, and a credit to her brain. His receipts 
the first year in New York were $60, the last 
year $6000— equal to $12,000 at the present 
time. When engaged in his professional rounds, 
Dr. Stewart preferred lithotripsy and diseases 


of the genito-uvinary organs, to any other 
branch of practice, but has ever been opposed to 
^'specialties." His religious faith is that of an 
Episcopalian, but he is tolerant to all denomina- 
tions of Christians. 

On writing to ask him his opinion of smoking, 
I received the following reply: "I am an habitual 
smoker of cigars, detest the pipe, and have never 
experienced inconvenience from the use of mild 

Dr. Stewart, when in New York, was contin- 
ually called upon by brother physicians to attend 
their patients during sickness or temporary ab- 
Bence from town; and when at times any one 
would send for him in preference to their "own 
physicians," he was ever wont to refuse, unless 
his visit was made in the form of a consultation. 
This is a very strong point in favor of any man, 
for it emanates from a high order of integrity, 
and is worthy of remembrance. In speaking of 
this very subject, Dr. J. R. Manly, an honest, 
but eccentric and sarcastic physician, made the 
following remark at an evening party given by 
my late father. Dr. John W. Francis, after de- 
livering his address before the New York Acad- 
emy of INIedicine at the old Tabernacle: "I have 
found out why all you money-making doctors 
select Campbell Stewart to look after your pa- 
tients. It is because you know he will not steal 
them from you." 


Thour^h Dr. Stewart lias lived abroad ever 
since the death of his worthy father, as he has 
crossed the Atlantic more than thirty times, (be- 
ing wrecked at the entrance of Halifax in De- 
cember, 1853, in the steamship "Humboldt,") it 
is reasonable to presume that an occasional visit 
will bring him before his many friends and 
grateful patients of olden time. He is at pre- 
sent engaged in the study of southern climates, 
with the view of publishing his observations on 
some future occasion. 

Dr. Stewart is a member of the Hhode Island 
State Medical Society; Medico-Chirurgical So- 
ciety of Louisiana ; Montgomery County Medical 
Society, of Alabama; American Medical Asso- 
ciation; New York Academy of INIedicine; Med- 
ico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh ; Delegate 
for six years from the New York Academy of 
Medicine to the American Medical Association, 
and Delegate from the same to the New York 
State Medical Society. 

His "Works are as follows: 

1. Translation from the French of " Scoutetten 
on Club-Foot." With plates. Philadelphia. 1839. 

2. "Hospitals and Surgeons of Paris." Pp.430. 
New York. 1843. 

3. Report on "Medical Education," to the 
American Medical Association. Published in 
"Transactions." 1849-50. 


4. Anniversary Address to the New York Med' 
ico-Chirurgical Society. New York Journal of 

5. Anniversary Oration before the New York 
Academy of Medicine. Published by the Acad- 

6. Oration [hy written request) before the Mcd- 
ico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh. Published 
in Edinburgh Medical Journal. 1856. 

Reports, cases, translations, etc., in 

7. Transactions of American Medical Associa- 

8. American Journal of Medical Sciences. 

9. Medical Examiner of Philadelphia. 

10. New York Journal of Medicine. 

11. " " Annalist. 

12. " " Medical Times. 

13. Edinburgh Medical Journal. 

14. And Editor of New York Journal of Medi- 
cine. 1844 — i5. 

Dr. Stewart's lectures have been few in num- 
ber, he never having been a Professor in any 
College; but in 1844 he gave a few clinical lec- 
tures at Bellevue Hospital, to a small class of 
private pupils, and likewise a short course on 
Lithotripsy and Diseases of the Genito-Urinary 
Organs, at his office. 



1. Pr. Stew^art invented and presented to the 
Koyal Academy of INIedicine of Paris, in 1843, a 
concealed bistoury, for operating in strangulated 
hernia. It was referred for examination to Pro- 
fessor Blandin, who died before reporting upon 
its merits. 

2. A modification of Lallemand's Porte-Caus- 
tique, for cauterizing the neck of the bladder, so 
as to permit the use of a solid cylinder of nitrate 
of silver. See American Journal of the Medical 

3. An instrument for cauterizing the urethra 
in gonorrhoea, by means of a compressed sponge, 
catheter, and stylet. Made by Tiemann, of New 
Yorkj and extensively used. 




Pun-proTOking thyme.— Wdliam Shenstone. 

The subject of the present sketch, like his 
father, Samuel Jackson Gardner, was an only 
son, but had two sisters, Mary B. and Charlotte. 
His mother was Miss Mary Bellows Kinsley. 
On his father's side the family can trace as far 
back as to within twenty years of the landing of 
the "May Flower;" and on looking over the list 
of passengers we find that a Gardner was on 
board. His grandfather Kinsley was the first 
representative to Congress from Maine, and, at 
one time. Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. 
His grandmother Kinsley was daughter of Bel- 
lows, the first settler of Bellows' Falls, N. H. ; 
while his grandmother Gardner came from the 
Jackson family of Massachusetts, and died at the 
age of ninety-two. 

Dr. Gardner was born at Roxbury, Mass., 
July 31st, 1821. He first attended the grammar 
school in that place, and for three years was a 
11 (121) 


etudent at the Walpolc Academy, N. II. llo 
subsequently passed three years at the Academy, 
Exeter, N. II., pursuing a course of study under 
the direction of the same tutor who had instructed 
Edward Everett, Daniel Webster, Cass, and 
many other noted men. This was during the 
last three years of the presidency of the celebrated 
Benjamin Abbott, LL.D., etc., a man univer- 
sally beloved and respected ; delightfully genial, 
and looked up to by his ambitious pupils. Every 
year this careful training of the first principles of 
moral and physical education, is more appre- 
ciated. He entered Harvard College, the alma 
mater of his father and grandfather Kinsley, 
and was in the class that graduated in 1842. 
During his collegiate course he did not confine 
himself to the immediate plan of study laid 
down by rule, but followed a desultory system of 
reading and general observation, that did much 
towards enlarging his mind and training his fa- 
culties for other pursuits. This brought down 
on him the censure of his professors, who did not 
approve of the sacrifice of the classics and ma- 
thematical paradoxes, on the altar of light litera- 
ture and the study of law — so his father was 
notified, at the end of his junior year, that "he 
was not making sufiicient use of his time to ren- 
der his further stay desirable." The cmbarassed 
state of his father's finances, at this time, rendered 
it advisable to withdraw him from the institu- 


tution, Avliere he had been kept in accordance 
^Yith the expressed desire of his mother, then de- 
ceased. He accordingly left; immediately com- 
menced the study of medicine, and was formally 
graduated from Harvard University Doctor of 
Medicine, in 1844. 

Though deprived of his classical diploma, his 
subsequent advancement in general culture and 
professional ability caused that college, without 
solicitation, to bestow on him the degree of A. M., 
in 1852, "in token of their high appreciation of 
his distinguished attainments." 

Previous to the Doctor's professional studies 
he followed no business whatever, saving a few 
months as teacher in a county school, within 
two winter vacations of eight weeks each. Dur- 
ing his short experience, however, he became so 
fascinated by this course of life that, at one time, 
he strongly entertained the idea of keeping school 
for the instruction of young men, as a means of 
livelihood. This was occasioned likewise by the 
expense incident to the study of medicine, and 
the paucity of his funds. But the career prom- 
ised so little in a financial point of view, and 
opened so small a path to ambition, that he de- 
cided in favor of jEsculapius ; and has since re- 
mained a steady follower of the healing art. 

Dr. Gardner availed himself of an excellent 
preparatory course of practical study, while in 
the offices of several able physicians. lie passed 

1 24 

two years in the Marino Hospital, Chclisea, Mass., 
under Dr. George W. Otis, Jr. ; ei^ii;ht months in 
the Poor House Lunatic Asylum, South Boston, 
with Dr. Charles H. Stedman; and also spent 
some time at the Vermont Medical School, under 
Drs. BiGELOw, Reynolds, Storer, Holmes, J. B. 
S. Jackson, etc. From the first day of his life as 
a medical student, till within four months of his 
graduation, he slept in a hospital, and passed his 
time in putting up prescriptions, compounding 
drugs, dressing wounds, pulling teeth, and at- 
tending the insane, and women in labor ; being, 
at times, placed in charge of very responsible 
positions. For the first two years he followed 
this course without one week's respite. He had 
failed in college, where he had been sent contrary 
to his desire ; but in his medical capacity suc- 
ceeded, for he was doing that which pleased his 
taste, and afibrded him more real pleasure than 
the exercise of any recreation: and even at the 
present time he enters into the science of treat- 
ment with fervor and enthusiasm. 

Dr. Gardner's Thesis was on ''Syphilis" — and 
diseases of that character still continue to interest 

In the fall of 1844 he visited Europe, and re- 
turned in the autumn of 1845, having spent the 
winter and spring in Paris, and the summer in 
Switzerland. During his residence abroad he 
went down the lihine, passed through Holland 


and Belgium, and stayed a short time in London, 
lie derived much benefit from the special kind- 
ness of Dubois, at the Lying-in Hospital of the 
School of Medicine, which accorded many privi- 
leges to native students. They petitioned the gov- 
ernment, and a law was passed for their benefit, 
to the effect that no foreign students should 
receive any privileges superior to those granted 
to French students. This went into effect the 
day before he left Paris. 

It was during Dr. Gardner's sojourn in Europe 
that he wrote that spicy and genial book entitled 
"Old Wine in New Bottles, or the Spare Hours 
of a Student in Paris," which met with a favor- 
able reception, was ably reviewed, and is excel- 
lent for reminiscent reference. In speaking of 
this work, Mr. Duyckinck calls it "a clever 

His style is sharp, to the point, facetious, and 
decided. When he knows a fact he is not afraid 
to say so. His outspoken thoughts have cost him 
friends, but truth is at the bottom of his state- 

Dr. Gardner has practised chiefly in New 
York city ; was six years Attending Physician to 
the City Dispensary; six to the Xorthern Dis- 
pensary, having charge of the class of diseases 
of females and children ; and was also Physician 

* See CyclopiEdia of American Literature, Vol. ii.. 


to the, Lyinir;-in Asylum District many years. 
lie had at one time the sole charge of the Private 
Hospital, Bloomingdale, for three years, attend- 
ing from two to five hundred patients of all 
grades, and afflicted with divers diseases. Out of 
one hundred and fifty-four cases of ship fever, 
which were placed under his special supervision, 
one fall, he lost but two. To use his own words, 
in answer to my question, ''The books said never 
give stimulants in feyer with a cracked tongue 5 I 
commenced on my own authority to stimulate 
freely these patients, starved into disease, and 
hence my success. The practice was soon univer- 
sal — others coincidently adopting the same treat- 
ment." Notwithstanding the prejudice to the 
contrary, it is the experience of many physicians 
that it is far more difficult to introduce a new 
remedy, or difi'erent style of treatment, for an old 
disease, in a hospital, than to try the experiment 
on a private patient. In one instance, consulting 
physicians are notified of the fact. Junior and 
senior walkers have their own notions, and dis- 
cuss "this singular freak" freely. But not a few 
lives have been saved by an independent bold- 
ness of action, based as it is on scientific deduc- 
tions, and a system of exclusive reasoning. 

Dr. Gardner married Miss Axxa Louisa Hid- 
den, of New York, June 27th,- 1850, and has had 
two daughters, now living, and one son, who died 
of hooping cough, when six weeks old. His re- 


lip^ious faith is that- of an Unitarian of the Chan- 
NixG and Dewey type. His height 5 feet 6^ 
inches, and his weight, till within three years 
past, 115 lbs. It is now, however, 140 lbs. His 
health, during a laborious life, with the exception 
of an occasional attack of dyspepsia, has been 
universally excellent. 

On writing to ask the Doctor his opinion of the 
habit of smoking, I received the following reply : 

"I do not smoke. In moderation it produces 
little effect. Immoderately used, it is often for a 
long time imiocuous ; but is pretty sure to be per- 
ceptible in its effects, sooner or later ; not so much 
in causing disease, as interfering with the func- 
tions of organs, producing dyspepsia, palpitation 
of the heart, (daily seen in my examinations for 
life insurance,*) affecting diseased and weakly 
persons of all descriptions." 

His practice has been of a general character, 
but that which has most occupied his attention 
has been obstetrics and the diseases of women 
and children ; though his taste more particularly 
runs in the direction of diseases of the brain, but 
a want of opportunity to act in this capacity has 
deprived him of putting his theories in practice. 

* On the death of the late RicnARD S. Kissam, Dr. Gardner 
was appointed Examining Physician in the Connecticut Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, and during the last year, eince its or- 
ganization, Examiner of the Connecticut General Life Insu- 
rance Company. 


Durinpi; the war, -when the South was so effec- 
tually blockaded that many of the inhabitants of 
the chill and fever districts suffered materially for 
want of the proper remedies, which were syste- 
matically excluded from the rebels, Dr. Gardner 
made bold, during a medical convention in New 
York, to put on record his formal protest against 
what he termed inhuman and uncivilized conduct 
on the part of the authorities; and he made a 
motion to the effect that quinine and other reme- 
dial agents of a similar nature be permitted free 
circulation past our lines. This was voted down, 
with severe remarks, and the motion was lost. 
As no one can doubt the Doctor's patriotism, 
there are some now living who applaud his kind- 
ness of heart, and give credit to so bold a step as 
the unsuccessful attempt to speak out before a 
community sentiments repulsive to the majority 
of those present. 

Dr. Gardner was the original proposer of 
drinking hydrants or fountains in New York, as 
may be seen by his letter to Daniel F. Tieman, 
in the New York Daily Times. He was also the 
first to give chloroform in labor in New York, as 
reported to the Academy of Medicine. 

On asking him if he would be a Doctor again, 
he replied, "Of course, yes; The noblest study of 
mankind is man. The better we know man, the 
better we know God. The better we serve man, 
the fitter we are to serve God. In fact, we can- 


not serve God in any higher way than in serving 
man, providing we do it for the sake of humanity, 
and not for the mere dollar. Aim high, and we 
will approximate something nearer than if we 
aim lower." 

His works are as follows ". 

1. Old AYine in New Bottles, or the Spare 

Hours of a Student in Paris. 

2. Tyler Smith's Lectures. Edited with some 

hundred pages of additional matter. 

3. Diseases of the Sexual Organs of Females, 

by ScANZONi. Translated from the French, 
with one hundred pages of additional and 
original matter. 

4. Essay on Ergot, in the N. Y. Journal of 


5. Essay on Swill Milk, delivered before the 

New York Academy of Medicine. 

6. Keport on the IMeat of New York. N. Y. 

Journal of INIedicine. 

7. Drinking Hydrants proposed in New York. 

Daily "Times." 

8. Report on the Hygienic Character of the 

Sewing Machine, before New York Acad- 
emy of Medicine. 

9. Elaborate Report on Surgical Instruments. 

at the World's Fair, New York. 
10. Report on the First Administration of Chlo- 
roform in Labor in New York. 


11. Contrilmtcd for years an average of many 

ooluinns a week to the Newark Daily Ad- 

12. Also wrote many articles for the New York 


13. Ditto, many articles for the New York Tri- 


14. Ditto, many articles for Life Illustrated. 

15. Ditto, many articles for the New York Sun. 

16. Ditto, many articles for the New World. 

17. Ditto, many articles for the Knickerbocker 


18. Ditto, many articles for Graham's Magazine. 

19. Ditto, many articles for the American Jour- 

nal of Medical Sciences. 

20. Ditto, many articles for the New York 

Journal of Medicine. 

21. Ditto, many articles for the American Medi- 

cal Monthly. 

22. Ditto, many articles for the Annalist, etc. etc. 

23. And was the correspondent of newspapers 

in New Orleans. 

24. Correspondent of papers in Maine. 

25. " *' " " Boston. 

And contributed an occasional squib or criti- 
cism on some recent publications in other 

20. Causes and Curative Treatment of Sterility. 

27. An arrangement has recently been made 
with him by the Publisher of Braithwaite's 


Retrospect, that he become the editor of 
the American edition, and add such origi- 
nal matter as may bear directly on any- 
thing of a medical line that may have had 
its origin in the United States. 

28. Also read before the New York Historical 

Society, papers on the History of Flags* 
that have Waved over New York. 

29. History of the Ships and Ship-builders of 

New York. 

30. In 1861. Eulogy on John W. Francis, 

M. D., LL.D., before the Medical Chirurgi- 
cal College, N.Y. 

31. 1862. Eulogy on Richard S. Kissam, M. D., 
before the New York Academy of Medi- 

Dr. Gardner has invented : 

1. A Guard Crochet. 

2. Modifications of Vectis. 

3. " " " Crochet. 

4. " '• " Craniotomy Forceps. 

5. And various instruments for the Treatment 

of Uterine Diseases. 

* See Yalentine's Manual, 18G3, 

ISAAC E. TAYLOR, M. D., etc. 

12 (133; 



ISAAC E. TAYLOR, M.D., etc., 

(President of Bellevue Hospital Medical College.) 

" Each proselyte would vote his doctor best, 
"With absolute exclusion to the rest" — Dr^den. 

Isaac E. Taylor, M. D., was the son of Wii^ 
LiAM and Mary Taylor, who were born at Cam- 
bridge, England, and came to this country in 
1797, settling in Philadelphia, where his fa- 
ther became very successful in mercantile pur- 
suits at first, but subsequently lost much of 
what had been acccumulated. Their family 
consisted of eight children. Two daughters and 
three sons are now living ; the subject of tho 
present sketch being the youngest. His brother, 
Benjamin 0. Tayloe, D. D., is a clergyman ; 
and his other brother, Dr. Otiixiel IT. Tayloe, 
M. D., is a physician of eminence in Camden, 
K J. 

Dr. Isaac E. Taylor, was born at Philadeb 
phia. Pa., (in a house once occupied by Gen- 
eral AYashington,) 25th April, 1812, during the 
troubles between England and the United States. 
He first attended a boarding-school near Phila- 



delphia, besides beinc:; instructed by a private 
tutor. He entered llutgers College, N, J., at 
fourteen years of age, and was at one time sus- 
pended for playing billiards ; but did not remain 
idle during his " rustication," for he kept up with 
his class ; re-entered the senior year, and was 
graduated in 1830. 

During his suspension at home, he also attend- 
ed a course of medical lectures on anatomy, chem- 
istry, and midwifery; it being the last course 
delivered by the late Dr. P. S. Physick and Dr. 
James, Professor of Obstetrics. 

Being now Bachelor of Arts, he at once studied 
law and two years afterwards medicine, and en- 
tered the office of his brother, Dr. Othxiel H. 
Taylor, at that time practising successfully in 
Philadelphia, and was in due time graduated Doc- 
tor of Medicine from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1834. 

His Thesis was on Hgemoptysis. In 1840, six 
years after receiving his diploma, he visited Paris, 
and entered the office of Prof. Cazeaux, the better 
to learn more about those diseases which have 
continually interested him during his professional 

In 1832, during that direful epidemic, he as- 
sisted in the cholera hospital in Philadelphia, of 
which his brother was Physician-in-Chief."^ 

* At that time there were ten cholera hospitals in the city. 


Immediately after his marriage, in 1835, with 
Miss Eliza Mary, daughter of Stuart Mollan, 
a distinguished merchant of New York, he was 
induced by the earnest solicitations of his father- 
in-law to enter into business, and realize in a 
few years an abundant competency : and accord- 
ingly he became associated with him in connec- 
tion with branch-houses in five of the largest 
southern cities. As there were many clerks, and 
his time was not fully engrossed, he became dis- 
satisfied with his present mode of life, and re- 
turned to his first love, medicine, in 1839. This 
was much against the will of his connections, for 
he had the brightest prospects of making a speedy 
fortune, but his reply was : " I would rather mako 
ten dollars by my profession than thousands in 
business." And he has ever since remained true 
to his determination. His family consists of ono 
son and three daughters. 

During his sojourn in Europe, he travelled ex- 
tensively, attended the hospitals in Paris and 
Dublin, and visited other places of interest. 

In 1839 he commenced to practice in the city of 
New York, and was attached to the City and 
Eastern Dispensaries, and in 1841, on his return 
from Europe, re-associated himself with the City, 
Eastern, Northern, and Demilt Dispensaries, as 
Attending Physician, having charge, in each, of 
the diseases of females. When in 1841, he at- 
tended the City Dispensary, he had private 


classes of four in each, attcndino; those cases; and 
this Avas the first time that clinical instruction 
was given on diseases of females in the United 
States. Dr. Lewis A. Satre was one of thoso 
students ; and on one occasion, while he was in the 
office of Dr. Greene, an important case occurred, 
which rendered it uncertain to those medical men 
present, as to whether a woman had ovarian 
disease, a tumor of some kind, dropsy, or preg- 
nancy, the consulting physicians present not be- 
ing able to come to any definite conclusion. 
"Young Sayre," Dr. Taylor told me, "quietly 
applied his ear to the abdomen, and announced, 
to the surprise of all, that he heard the beating 
of the foetal heart. This settled the question; 
and he has always since acknowledged his grati- 
tude to me for the instruction he had received 
from the clinical advantage afibrded him, through 
which he became acquainted with foetal ausculta- 

In November, 1840, Dr. Taylor read before the 
New York Medical and Surgical Society a paper 
on the Diseases of Females, and Nervous Diseases 
Treated in the City Dispensary. This was among 
the first papers in which mention was made of 
the speculum being used in the United States. 
It was published, at the request of Dr. A. H. Ste- 
vens, in the New York Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery, 1841. While connected with these dis- 
pensaries, during his seven years' experience, his 


associates in the same institutions were Drs. 


Watsox, and others. He also visited the Col- 
ored Orphan Asylum for two years. 

On asking the Doctor his opinion of the use of 
tobacco, he replied, "I occasionally smoke, and 
really enjoy a good cigar. Too much smoking is, 
like over-indulgence in all pleasures, somewhat 
injurious. But a moderate use of it I do not con- 
sider hurtful." The Doctor's health has been 
always excellent. His religious faith is Protes- 
tant, and he attends Rev. Dr. Rice's Presbyterian 

His favorite branch of practice is obstetrics, 
diseases of women and children, and thoracic dis- 
eases ; and he has put on record his belief that 
cholera is not contagious. 

I asked him, one day, if he would be a Doctor 
again, and in answer, was told, "Yes; with all 
my heart I would. I love the profession." His 
height is 5 feet lOj inches, and weight about 175 
pounds. He never competed for any prizes, but 
has studied steadily the progress of science and 
disease, often rising at three in the morning to 
prepare his lectures for the coming term, as at 
that hour he finds his mind clearer and more ca- 
pable of grasping a given subject. Not a little of 
his present skill is due to his attendance on the 
sumuan' school of Drs. Chapman, Hodge, Gibson", 

He also re- 


eeivcd a free ticket from Dr. G. S. Patterson, 
Professor to Jefferson Medical School, and at- 
tended one winter. 

In 1851, Dr. Tavlor was elected by the "Board 
of Ten Governors," Physician to Bellevue Hos- 
pital, his appointment havinc; been previously 
entertained by the Board of Aldermen, before the 
Board of Governors was organized. In April, 
I860, the Commissioners of Public Charities and 
Corrections superseded the Board of Governors, 
being composed of Simeon Draper, PresH, Moses 
H. Grinnell, Isaac Bell, and James B. Nich- 
olson, four gentlemen of integrity and energy, 
who have done much for the benefit of the com- 
munity at large, and the poor in particular. These 
Commissioners brought about great reforms, and 
were the means of causing a complete renovation 
of the former system in Bellevue Hospital. The 
by-laws were revised and remodelled, and a Com- 
mittee of Inspection was appointed, through 
which the Medical Board of Bellevue was repre- 
Bented, and by whom the principal means of 
communication was held with the Commissioners. 
It was composed of Drs. Taylor, A. B. Mott, 
and L. A. Satre; Dr. Taylor being chairman. 
During the first meetings of this committee, im- 
portant changes were effected, for Dr. Taylor 
suggested that the tcarden and clerk should not 
be associated with this committee. Under the 
former medical board, they had been on the ex- 


ecutive committee, and had exercised much con- 
trolling influence. But this was now done away 
with, and the medical men stood on their own 
ground, free agents in a conscientious cause. 
The dead-house was now placed under the sole 
direction of the Committee, being a very import- 
ant change for the members of the Medical Board 
of Bellevue ; but not in any way excluding the 
other schools of medicine, which institutions were 
to be supplied with bodies in proportion to their 
students. And now already the benefit of past 
actions was perceived, for the Warden had no 
longer, as formerly, any control over the bodies 
for post mortem examination and dissection, 
which had once been a formidable obstacle 
against the attending-physicians and surgeons 
obtaining specimens for the purpose of illus- 
trating their lectures in the various colleges. 
About this time it was noised abroad that one of 
the prominent physicians of one of the schools 
had said, " That if he could not have post-mor- 
tem examinations, except at the option of the 
Warden, he would resign." This did much to 
bring about that beneficial change. 

November 25th, 1860, President Simeon Draper 
addressed a note to Dr. Taylor, requesting him 
to meet him officially, as chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Inspection. Dr. Taylor went, and 
during the interview Mr. Draper asked him, 
" whether he thought the Medical Board of Bel* 


Icvuc Hospital would have any objections to as- 
Bumc the duties of medical attendants at Black- 
well's Island, after the completion of the Island 
Hospital, which would be in a short time?'' Dr. 
Taylor replied that he thought they would have 
no objection, but would accept of the medical di- 
rection there; and, moreover, stated that Dr. 
Sanger was then Resident-Physician on the 
Island, and if he deemed a change desirable, he 
would endeavor to effect that object. 

Dr. Taylor then called a meeting of the Com- 
mittee of Inspection at his house, Nov. 26th, 1860. 
The meeting resulted in a call "for a meeting of 
all the members of the Medical Board at the office, 
No. 1 Bond street, on Saturday, Dec. 1st, at 7J 
o'clock. Present, Commissioners Draper, Nichol- 
son, Bell, Doctors Taylor, J. R. Wood, McCrea- 
DY, Smith, Crane, Clark, Meyer, Gouley, Par- 
ker, MoTT, Church, Green, Sayre, and Loomis."* 
The object of this meeting was "to unite the en- 
tire medical department of their government 
under one IMedical organization, excepting only 
Randall's Island and the Lunatic Asylum, and 
embracing, besides Bellevue Hospital, the care of 
the patients of the Penitentiary, Almshouse, 
Workhouse, Island Hospital, and Small-pox Hos- 
pital."! A committee was now appointed to ex- 

* See Minutes of the Commissioners of Public Charities and 
Correction, for 1S60 and 1861, vol. 1, p. 3S4. 
t Idem. 


amine the Hospitals on Blackwell's Island. It 
consisted of Drs. Clark, McCready, Taylor, 
Crane, J. R. Wood, and Meyer, and Dr. Taylor 
was constituted chairman. As Dr. Clark did 
not serve on that occasion, Dr. Green was elected 
in his place.* 

On the occasion of the report to the Medical 
Board, Dec. 18th, 1860, after speaking of the in- 
crease of patients. Dr. Taylor said : 

"As there were great opportunities for advanc- 
ing the cause of medical science, thus attracting 
a large number of students to the city of New 
York, it becomes an important question, whether, 
ere many days elapse, the Bellevue Hospital 
should have — nay, ought to have — connected with 
it, and established, a college for the education of 
young men, independenj^ of a Clinical Hospital, 
thus making it one of the largest schools and hos- 
pitals united together? The question, therefore, 
is now put to the Medical Board, by the Commit- 
tee, for their consideration, with the hope, that 
when the Institutions on the Island, and the Bel- 
levue Hospital, are completely regulated, some 
means may be adopted to found a university or 
college similar to many of the medical institutions 
abroad. There are many reasons lohy a college 
should he established, and every exertion should 
be attempted to accomplish it. It will be mate- 
rially aided by the Commissioners, who will be 

* At a meeting at Mr. Keen's house, a sub-commitee was 
appointed, composed of Drs. Taylor and J. R. Wood, Pr. Taylor 
acting as chairman. See Minutes of Com. of P. C, vol 1, p. 40 \ 
appointment of Dr. Isaac E. Taylor, Visiting-Physician to 
Blackwell's Island Hospital for December, and p. 420 also. 


proud to come up to the M'ork at the proper time 
fur coinplction.-'^ 

"Isaac E. Taylor, Chairman, etc.^'' 

This supr^cstion to csta]>lish a college was re- 
ferred back to the Committee for furthe? action, 
and Dr. Taylor, preferring three more to be 
added, nominated Drs. Stepuen Smith, George 
T. Elliot, and Crane. 

After several m^tings of the Committee, it 
was decided to merely address a letter to the 
Commissioners, embodying their views, and re- 

♦ After Dr. Taylor's Report as Physician on Duty at Black- 
well's Island, and Chairman of Committee of Inspection, he 
made the above remarks to the Medical Board, suggesting the 
establishing of a college in connection with the hospital, which 
report wa? separated, and is in the " Minutes of the Medical 
Board." Dec. 18th. Special meeting of the Medical Board at 
Dr. Taylor's, when the Report of the Sub-Committee (Drs. 
Taylor and Wood) was read by the Chairman (Dr. Taylor), 
and then a Committee of five were appointed. To Drs. Taylor 
and Wood were added Drs. Stephen Siuth, George T. Elliot, 
and Craxe, as nominated by Dr. Taylor. See Minutes of Medi- 
cal Board, Dec. 18; also Minutes of Committee of Inspection, 
Dec. 14, which met at the hospital; also Report to Commis- 
sioners, dated loth December. The report to the Medical Board, 
recommending the college to be established, was a separate 
one, and was also read, December 1-ith, at a meeting of the 
Commissioners, and Committee of Inspection, 7K. ?• M. Pre- 
gent— Messrs. Draper, Grinnell, Bell, Nicholson — Commission- 
ers; and Drs. Taylor, A. B. Mott, and Sayre, Committee of In- 
spection. See Minutes, Dec. 14, After this the report was sent, 
Dec. 15th, to the Commissioners ; and the other report, recom- 
mending the college, read, Dec. 18, at Dr. Taylor's house, Na 
13 West 20th street, N. Y. 


questing their opinion on the subject, and the 
best manner in which to commence their work. 

Three days after this Dr. Taylor called on Mr. 
Draper for his answer, and it was favorable. It 
was simply: "All you have to do is to prepare a 
charter." On the strength of this suggestion Dr. 
Taylor drew up the charter, January 1st, 1861, 
and submitted it to the Commisioners and Com- 
mittee of Inspection, for approval, January 11th, 
1861. Those present on this occasion were 
Messrs. Draper and NicnoLSOx, and Drs. Tay- 
lor, MoTT, and Sayre.* The charter was read, 
and the Trustees named, and subsequently selected 
by ]Mr. Draper, who sent the charter to Senator 
AxDRUS, to be presented in due form to the 

* See Minutes of Committee, January 11, 1861. 

t As it will become a matter of me(li.;al history, it is deemed 
important that a complete list of the names first associated 
with this great enterprise should be incorporated in this series. 
The following extract from the Minutes of the Commissioners, 
for 1861, will prove of interest : 

" An Act to incorporate the Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege of the City of New York, of the State of New York, re- 
presented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows : 

John W. Francis, M. D., Isaac Wood, M. D., Alonzo Clark, 
M. D , Benjamin W. McCready, M. D., Isaac E. Taylor, M. D , 
George T. Elliot, M. D., B. Fordyce Barker, M. D., Alfred L. 
Loomis, M. D., John W. Green, M. D., Theodore G. Thomas, 
M. D., Valentine Mott, M. D., Alexander 11. Stevens, M. D., 
James R. Wood, M. D., Lewis A. Sayre, M. D., John J. Crane, 
M. D., Stephen Smith, M. D., Willard Parker, M. D., Alexander 
B. Mott, M. D., Carl Theo. Meier, M. D., John W. S. Gouley, 


March 20th, ISGl, as Clitirniam of the Com- 
mittee on the College, Dr. I. E. Taylor addressed 
a note to Mr. Draper, requesting that action 
be taken with a view to erect a building at once, 
etc. (page IGl, vol. 2), and was answered the 
same day by Mr. Draper, President, requesting 
him to present, in detail, their wishes on the sub- 

This was answered, April 8th, 18G1, by Dr. I. 
E. Taylor and B. W. McCready, Committee of 
Medical Board, and a definite explanation as to 
their object made. I make the following extract 
in explanation, as pertinent: "It is intended that 
the Bellevue Medical College, though possessing 
a faculty taken from the Medical Board, shall be 
an institution entirely separated in its govern- 
ment from that Board. The faculty of the new 

M. D., William n. Church, M. D., and their associates, are 
hereby constituted a body corporate, by the name of the Belle- 
Tue Hospital Medical College of the City of New York, of the 
State of New York, for the purposes of instruction in the varioufr"^ 
departments of medical science, professed and taught by said 

"2. Simeon Draper, James B. Nicholson, Isaac Bell, Jr^ Moses 
H. Grinnell, John J. Astor, Moses Taylor, William B. Crosby, 
John Ward, Samuel D. Cook, George F. Tallman, Edward 
Minturn, J. P. Geraud Foster, Anthony L. Robertson, E. IT. 
Chapin, John Hughes, Robert T. Haws, Richard M. Blatchford, 
Robert L. Hone, James T. Brady, Watts Sherman, and Matthew 
Morgan, are hereby constituted a Board of twenty-one Trus- 
tees, etc. ***** 

"10. This Act to take eflfect immediately." 


college occupying themselves as a faculty only 
with the instruction of students, leave the present 
relations between the Board of Commissioners 
and the Medical Board altogether unchanged 
(see page 164, vol. 2.) Permission to erect a 
hospital was soon after accorded by the Commis- 
sioners, and the plans submitted by Messrs. 
Post and Gambrill, architects, were adopted. 
About this time Dr. Taylor applied for leave to 
visit Europe, but owing to certain reasons did 
not go. 

The Trustees and faculty met at his house, 
April 25th or 26th, 1861, and it was on this occa- 
sion that Dr. Taylor suggested, that instead of 
erecting a new building, it would be more econ- 
omical for the present, to alter the old Dead 
House, where also the Museum was. This was 
stated by Mr. Draper, and was agreed upon. 
The Committee of the Building, appointed, at 
a meeting of the Medical Board, in April, at Dr. 
Isaac Woods' house, reported that plan. 

From this time matters took a practical turn, 
but nothing of any especial interest occurred till 
May 5th, 1863, when Dr. Taylor suggested estab- 
lishing the OuT-DOOR Department (see page 209, 
vol. 3 & 4, Min. of Commissioners.) This arose 
from the following circumstances. April 21st, 
1863, Mr. Draper sent a communication to the 
!RIedical Board on Specialties, and a regular 


mcctinfi; was held, April 20th,* approving of 
them. Thus, as specialties were objectionable 
to outer schools, and sustained by members of tho 
Medical Board of Bcllevuc Hospital, Dr. Taylor 
proposed an Out-door Department, which would 
meet both ends in view. May 10th, Drs. Flint, 
Jr., and Taylor, suggested that Mr. Draper 
call a special meeting of the Medical Board of 
Bellevue Hospital to reconsider the subject of 
specialties.! This was held. The next meeting 
was at No. 1 Bond street,t and a special meet- 
ing was held at Dr. Isaac Woods', June 10th oi 
11th, and a Committee of two were elected to re- 
port on the subject, as proposed by the Commis- 
sioners, at their office, June 8th. This Com- 
mittee consisted of Drs. Clark and Flint. They 
reported: Dr. Clark preparing the part on Spe- 
cialties of the Hospital (page 227), and Dr. Flint 
that which referred to the Out-door Department. 
This report set aside the specialties of hospitals 
as prepared April 21st, 1863, and passed unani- 
mously. (See pages 203 & 234, idem.) 

President Draper soon after made some excel- 
lent remarks concerning out-door Poor, and their 
wants, II and in talking over the matter with Dr. 

* See pages 203-5-8-9, and 10, Minutes of Commissioners, 
1SG3, Tols. 3 & 4. 
t See page 213, Minutes of Commissioners, vols. 3 & i. 
X See page 222, Minutes of Commissioners, " " 
II See page 254, Minutes of Commissioners, " " 


Taylor, it was decided that the " Out-door De- 
partment" should in future be recognized by the 
name of "Bureau of Medical and Surgical Ke- 
lief," which it now bears. Nothing of importance 
occurred till April 6th, 1865, when active measures 
were adopted concerning this Department.* Also 
November 10th, 1865, the Executive Committee of 
B. H. M. College were very much interested in 
this movement. The taking of immediate steps 
was strongly advocated by Mr. Nicholson, one of 
the Board of Commissioners ; and Isaac Bell, 
President, called a meeting, and requested Dr. 
Taylor, ex-officio, to organize the Bureau. Every- 
thing looked favorably, but it was at length super- 
seded in' its action by other influences. At a 
regular meeting, May 7th, 1866, a report was 
made to Isaac Bell, President, and the Commis- 
sioners, and was adopted.f 

This Bureau was organized June 23d, 1866, 
and soon went into full operation, June 28th, 1866. 
A communication from Dr. Alexander B. Mott, 
Secretary, " Transmitting proceedings^ of meeting 
held June 22d, 1866, for the organization of the 
Bureau for 'Medical and Surgical Out-Door Pte- 
lief,' which was held at the house of Dr. I. E. 
Taylor, 13 West 20th street." * - * ->:- 

* See voL 6, Minutes of Commissioners, P. C. & C, pp. 103, 
112, 115, and 586-7-8. 

t See Pamphlet of Minutes, May 17th, 1866, page 222. Dr. 
Stephen Smith acted as Secretary on this occasion. 

X See Minutes of Commissioners, etc., page 331, June, 18G6. 



Extract from the Minutes : 

"On motion of Dr. Sayre, Dr. Taylor was 
called to the chair. 

"On motion of Dr. Flint, Dr. Mott was ap- 
pointed Secretary. 

" Dr. Wood moved to proceed to the election 
of President and Secretary of the organization. 
Carried. The balloting resulted in favor of Dr. 
I. E. Taylor for President, and Dr. A. B. Mott 
for Secretary. 

" On motion of Dr. Gouley, the votes for Presi- 
dent and Secretary were declared to be unani- 
mous." ^ * ^ ■¥:■ ^ * 

Names of Medical Staff. 


Alonzo Clark, M. D. 
Benjamin W. McCready, M. D. 
Isaac E. Taylor. M. D. 
George T. Elliot, M. D. 
Alfred L. Loomis, M. D. 
John W. Greene, M. D. 
Theodore G. Thomas, M. D. 
Austin Flint, M. D. 


James Tl. Wood, M. D. 
Alexander B. Mott, M. D, 
Lewis A. Sayre. M. D. 
John J. Crane, M. D. 
Stephen Smith, M. D. 
J. W. S. Gouley, M.D. 
Frank II. Hamilton, M. D. 
II. A. Sands, M. D. 

About this time, though the several Institutions 
on Blackwell's Island were under the immediate 
supervision of the Bellevue Hospital Board, it 
was not considered, by the Commissioners, to 
bring about such successful issues as they had an- 
ticipated, in its relations with the Island Hospital, 
Small-Pox and Fever tents. Accordingly it was 
proposed that the matter should be taken under 
consideration, and Dr. Taylor was requested to 
make any suggestions that he might deem condu- 
cive to the condition of the patients, more super- 
vision and aid being required. In one instance no 


case of instruments could be found, while Drs. J. 
E, Wood and Taylor were officially inspecting tlio 
four Hospitals, and on this occasion Dr. Wood 
was obliged to probe a fistula in ano in the 
Almshouse Department, by the aid of a knitting 
needle.* Dr. Taylor accordingly proposed a 
new and independent organization, with the 
additional members of the Board. The following 
explains itself: 

"New York, March 12, 1866. 
" Dr. Isaac E. Taylor : 

" Sir — You are respectfully requested to call 
together the members of the New Medical Board 
of the Island Hospital, at as early a period as pos- 
sible, for the purpose of organization, and to nomi- 
nate the House-Staff for the ensuing season. 

" The newly-chosen members of the Island Hos- 
pital Board have been notified of their election. 
" Yours truly, 

Isaac Bell, President.''^ 

The permanency of Bellevue Hospital College 
would not have continued an established fact, 
had not the out-door Department been suggested, 
for this, in not a few points, reconciled opposing 
elements and opened a field to the interested. At 
present the building is erected and a lease given, 
which offers complete security against outsido 
pressure, and the majority of difficulties are over- 
come, legal and political resistance proving of no 

* See Letter of Dr. I. E. Taylor to Commissioners. Minutes, 
Vol.1, page 422. 


avail, " to the contrary notwithstanding." As the 
jironioter of so useful an enterprise, Dr. Tatloq 
must contemplate its advancement with feelin^^s 
akin to rapture. In speaking of this College and 
its surroundings, Mr. Moses II. Grinnell, one of 
the Commissioners, and a member of the Board of 
Trustees during its commencement at the Academy 
of Music, said ^'that the college was established 
four years ago by the Commissioners of Charities 
at the suggestion of the President, Professor Tay- 
lor. Great good had already been accomplished 
through its instrumentality, * * * *, Hq 
asked the citizens of New York to give the college, 
which he believed to be unequalled by any in the 
country, their cordial support."* 

The New York Medical Journal Association 
held its first meeting at his house, where Dr. Ste- 
phen" Smith and himself first proposed its organi- 

* At the opening of the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 
for the Session 1866-7, Prof, A. B. Mott, M. D., etc., while de- 
livering the Introductory Address, October 10th, 1866, stated 
some interesting facts: 

The College was founded and opened in 1861, and its number 
of medical students increased in the following manner: 



Session, 1861-2, 


« 1862-3, 



« 1863-4, 



«' 1864-5, 



« 1865-6, 



Is there another institution in this country whose growth 
has been as rapid, and its facilities so abundant ? 


zation, (seepap^o 72, Medical Register, N.Y. 18G6.) 
This has grown to he a most useful enterprise, 
and the li])rary is now placed in the Mott Memo- 
rial Building ; a munificent donation to the profes- 
sion and city, by the widow of the late Napoleon 
of surgery, whose instruments and books may be 
judiciously used. 

For three years Dr. Taylor investigated closely 
the practice of Homoeopathy, with the conclusion 
that it was excellent treatment for diseases which 
would get well of themselves, and had produced 
one benefit, to wit ; the lessening of those old- 
fiishioned heroic overdoses, which, in carrying 
off disease also washed away health. Among 
many of his characteristics, those peculiarly promi- 
nent, are punctuality and earnestness, his love 
for his profession, diffidence and marked courtesy 
to those with whom he comes in contact. His 
library contains many valuable works, published 
in France, Germany, and the United States. 

As a lecturer he is full and general, at times 
going into details that at first seemed superfluous, 
but during the lecture bear with additional power 
upon his subject. 

List of Dr. Taylor'' s Medical worlcs: 

1. Report of Cases of Diseases peculiar to Females 
and Nervous Diseases, treated in the New 
York City Dispensary — read before the 
New York Medical and Surgical Society in 


November, 1840, and published at the re- 
quest of Dr. Alexander II. Stevens in 
the New York Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery, Vol. 4, for January, 1841. This 
was among the first papers in which the 
use of the speculum was mentioned. 

2. Edited Dr. Evory Kennedy's Work on Aus- 

cultation, with numerous plates and notes, 
unfolding the views entertained by Stoltz 
and Cazeaux, concerning the Cervix 
Uteri, 1843. 

3. Remarks on the use of "Liquor Ilydriodate 

of Arsenic and Mercury in Cutaneous and 
Uterine Diseases." This was its first intro- 
duction to the notice of the Profession at 
large. Published in the American Jour- 
nal of Medical Sciences, for April, 1843. 

4. On Rheumatism of the Uterus and Ovaries — 

read before the Pathological Society in New 

York, March 12, 1845, and published in 

• the Journal of Medical Sciences, July, 1845. 

5. Report of cases of Aphonia and Syphilitic 

Ulceration of the Larynx, treated by the 
Sponge Probang, with solution of the Ni- 
trate of Silver, read before the New York 
Medical and Surgical Society in April, and 
published in the jNIay number of the New 
York Journal of Collateral Sciences, 1845. 
This paper was the cause of a committee 
being appointed, which consisted of Drs. 


Buck, Swett and F. C. Stewart, who were 
to report as to the propriety of introducinc; 
the Sponge, saturated with a solution of 
Kitrate of Silver, into the Larynx. Dr. 
H. Geeen read his paper on Topical Ap- 
plications, before the same Society, May, 
In speaking to me on this subject, Dr. Taylor 
unhesitatingly asserted that it was his firm 
conviction after much observation and no 
little experience, that in very few cases was 
the physician successful in introducing his 
sponge etc., etc., into the Larynx, it inva- 
riably passing into the oesophagus, which 
is almost always sure to be the result. 
,This is an important fact, and worthy of 
experimental investigation. 

6. Paper on Protrusion of the Eye, resulting 

from Kheumatic Inflammation of the Tu- 
nica Vaginalis Oculi, in New York Medi- 
cal Times, June, 1845. 

7. Protrusion of the Eye, or Exophthalmus, and 

Enlargement of the Thyroid Gland, as a 
sequence of Anaemia. New York Medical 
Times — with a plate — December 1852. 

8. Syphilitic Mucous Tubercles and Secondary 

Syphilitic Aflections of the Os Uteri ; and 
Hereditary Transmissions. New York Jour- 
nal of Medicine, May, 1853, — republished 
in several German Journals, and read be- 


fore the Society of IMcdical Inquiry, April, 
0. Monograph on the Sunburnt Appearance of 
the Skin, as an early diagnostic sign of the 
Supra Renal Capsule Disease. Published 
with illustrations in the New York Journal 
of Medicine, Septcml)cr, 185G. 

10. Remarks on a case of Regurgitation of the 

Stomach, successfully treated by the inha- 
lation of Chloroform. Published in New- 
York Journal of Medicine, Nov. 1856. 

11. Case of Labor with antevcrsion of the Uterus 

in that state. Published in New York 
Medical Times for September, 1856. 

12. Two successful cases of Recto Vaginal Fis- 

tula, cured by a new operation. Published 
in New York Medical Times, 1856. 

13. Observations on the non-shortening of the 

Supra and Infra Vaginal Portion of the Cer- 
vix Uteri to the full term of Gestation. 
Read before the Academy of Medicine, and 
published in the American Medical Times 
for June, 1862. Illustrated with morbid 
specimens and diagrams. 

14. Case of Procidentia Uteri of fifteen years' 

standing, successfully treated by being re- 
placed, showing the error of the so-called 
large Hypertrophies of the Cervix Uteri, 
which is only an eversion of the cervix. 
Read before the County Medical Society, 


New York, and published in the New 
York State Medical Transactions, 1864. 

15. Monograph on "Placenta Prsevia" with a 

resume of the various opinions thereon, 
etc., etc. Ptead before the County Medical 
Society, February, 1865, and published in 
the State Transactions for 1865. There 
are many errors in the paper as it ap- 
pears in the State Transactions, but these 
have been rectified in a new and revised 
edition, published by Dr. Taylor in quarto 
form, and elegantly printed and illustrated 
by excellent drawings. 

16. Monograph on Pecto Vaginal and Eecto La- 

bial Fistula, operated on after a new 
method. Published in the New York 
State Medical Transactions for 1866. 





(President of the Medical Board of Bellevue Hospital. 

" How shall we then wish, that it might be allowed us to live 
over our lives again, in order to fill every minute of them with 
Charitable offices." — Atterhury. 

Dr. Isaac "Wood was the fourth son and sixth 
child of Samuel Wood and Mary Searing, there 
being thirteen children in the family ; of whom 
seven were sons and six daui^hters. With the 
exception of the youngest girl, who died in her 
infancy, all of them stood around the grave of 
their father, who died at the advanced age of 84 ; 
the youngest being at that time between forty 
and fifty years old. Their mother died in her 
ninety-first year. Samuel Wood, father of the 
subject of the present sketch, came to New York 
in 1803, with ten children; and in 1804 opened a 
bookstore at 362 Pearl Street, afterwards moving 
to 357, which number was subsequently changed 
to 261. The store was six stories high in front, 
and seven in the rear, situated nearly opposite to 
what is now the United States Hotel, and was 
14=^ (161) 


considered at that time one of the arcliitoctural 
feats in the city. It was throuo;h his instrumcn- 
talit}'- that juvenile pictorials were larf^elj intro- 
duced, and when one considers the present hi^h 
prices that are paid for the intellectual amuse- 
ment of the young, as compared with the old- 
fashioned two-penny serials, the prof^ress of the 
times may be more fully appreciated. Four of 
the song, Samuel S., IIichard, George Sidney, 
and William, went into their father's business 
and enlarged their publications to those of medi- 
cal works, including the American edition of the 
Medico- Chirurgical Journal, and others of a simi- 
lar character. The brothers associated them- 
selves under the name of S. S. & W. Wood, and 
for many years transacted their business at 389 
Broadway — moving in the last few years to 61 
Walker Street, where medical, scientific, and 
agricultural works are now published and im- 
ported, under the name of William, and his son, 
Wm. II. S. Wood, who print the " Medical Recordy 
Samuel Wood devoted much of his time to the 
consideration of Public and Free Schools, for both 
white and black children. It was through his 
agency that much of that trifling and absurd mat- 
ter was removed from children's books, and a 
moral and useful series of "Juveniles" was in- 
troduced. He was one of the founders of the 
American Bible Society; the New York Institu- 
tion for the Instruction of the Blind ; the House 

\ - 


of Kefuge ; and, with John Pintard and others, 
he founded the first New York Savings Bank. 
Silas "Wood was a successful merchant of the 
firm of Btrxes, AVood, and Trimble, and estab- 
lished with them the second line of packets that 
sailed between New York and Liverpool. Kicu- 
ARD invented an inking-machine, which was very 
popular previous to IIoes' great printing press, 
and obtained a patent both in this country and 

Dr. Isaac Wood was born in Clinton Town, 
Nine Partners, Dutchess county, State of New 
York, the 21st of August, 1793, and was sent to 
various schools, one of which was under the 
direct government of John" Griscom, LL.D., 
Professor of Chemistry in the New York Medical 
Institution, and Principal of the New York High 
School. His classical studies were followed under 
the tuition of the celebFated Scotch clergyman, 
Frederick Macfarlane. 

He did not pursue any extensive course in a 
literary college, but, in April, 1811, entered the 
office of Dr. Valentine Seaman, one of the at- 
tending surgeons of the New York Hospital, and 
studied with zeal and industry, often sitting up 
till 4 and 5, A. M., while busily engaged in the 
investigation of some fascinating disease. This 
same interest in his profession ever marked 
his course. A conscientious student's life was 
not as luxurious and free from labor then as it 


now is. At the present period he is instructed 
by 7'csuUs, but at that time — some fifty years 
ago — it was his special privilege and duty to 
keep the office in order, compound the medi- 
cines, collect his preceptor's bills, distinguish a 
drug at sight, besides paying $200 a year for this 
special indoctrination into the mysteries of a 
medical man's experience. 

Formerly, the greatest difficulty to meet with 
in the pursuit after knowledge was the dissection 
of a subject. For not only was it against law and 
popular opinion to obtain a body, but even after 
one was secured, few can now appreciate the dan- 
gers incurred that it might be kept till thoroughly 
examined. Many risks were run, and strategems 
adopted to accomplish this end, in order to circum- 
vent prejudice, that mental squint of an over- 
balanced intellect. 

In speaking to me of his experience, Dr. Wood 
remarked that he had often been obliged to 
cross rivers, travel for miles; and, Avhen night 
clouded vision, dig up the body of some poor 
creature, when it was so cold that his companion, 
who was on the look out near the fence, had to 
run up and down to prevent freezing. And even 
then, when the body was secured, the grave 
covered up and smoothed over, and the dead man 
placed in the wagon, wrapped in a cloak, and 
Bitting by his side like some pale traveler; his 
friend must leave him, for neighbors were on the 


Bcent, and he had to drive some twelve miles with 
a coroner's jury theoretically by his side, and the 
verdict "guilty" staring him in the face. Should 
the horse fall, or a turnpike arrest his progress, 
or he grow sick, all would be over. On one 
occasion, in this city, he went out with two other 
students, and having obtained the body from 
Potter's Field, tied its hands and feet together, 
and, fastening it (a small subject) round his neck, 
so as to be suspended in front, threw a large 
cloak or Mackintosh over all, and walked down 
Broadway at night, locking arms with his two 
friends, and passing within three yards of the night 
watchman, who looked upon them and their mng- 
ing, as gay and festive youths returning from a 
genial symposium.* 

On two different occasions he was forced to flee 
from the city, having been betrayed by one of his 
hired assistants, a colored man. So eager was he 
to improve every opportunity, that in order to 
avail himself of each dissection, he would not in- 
frequently go from dinner to dinner (twenty-four 
hours) without food; proceeding from the New 
York Hospital, when he was on duty, to the dis- 
secting room or lecture, to save time. Often did 
he scale the hospital gate at four in the winter 
morning, to study with his colleague, Dr. J. 0. 

* Zealous doctors have been known to attend the funeral Df 
Bome emigrant in order to find out what he died of, and where 
he was buried; the better to act quickly when night arrived 


Blips, until sufficient lidit permitted Iiim to at- 
tend and prescribe for the patients; after which 
he went to breakfast, lie was assistant house- 
surgeon one year, and house-surgeon one year, 
from 1815 to 181G. He was licensed to practice 
medicine by the New York State Medical Society, 
in June, 1815. Many of the students and aspi- 
rants at that time considered the examination 
}>efore the "censors" more searching and credi- 
table, and the diploma more honorable, than that 
of the college. Among these may be mentioned, 
l)rs. J. K. RoDGERS, J. C. Cheeseman, McCauley, 
etc. Dr. Isaac Wood was graduated under the 
authority of, and received his diploma of M. D., 
1816, from Queen's, now called llutger's College, 
of New Brunswick, New Jersey — the New York 
Medical Institution not being vested with the au- 
thority to grant diplomas. The professors at that 
time were Drs. Nicholas Romaine, John Watts, 
Jr., Valentine Seaman, Thomas Cock, John 
Griscom, LL.D., Bruce, Bayard, and Edward 
Miller. His Thesis was on Carditis and Peri- 

At this time it was even difficult to obtain per- 
mission to examine a patient after death. On 
one occasion Dr. Wright Post spent an hour in 
endeavoring to persuade a woman, by every ar- 
gument he could call up, to grant him the privi- 
lege of performing a post-mortem on merely tlie 
leg of her husband. Having operated on him 


for popliteal aneurism, and without success, it 
was his earnest wish to ascertain why the de- 
sired effect had not been realized. But so deter- 
mined was her necrative answer, that all he 
could say or do produced nothing hut irritation 
and positive refusal to comply. 

On another occasion, when Dr. Isaac Wood 
was busily engaged in an autopsy at a city dis- 
pensary, the husband of the subject, overcome by 
impatience, though he had accorded permission, 
became so infuriated that he endeavored to beat 
the door down. In consequence of this, the Doc- 
tor and his associates were forced to abandon the 
examination, and hurriedly sew up the partially 
dissected woman 5 for, had he seen her under the 
exposed circumstances, a mob would speedily 
have been formed, and danger invaded that quiet 
department. It is well that a few instances of 
this character are occasionally brought before 
the present generation ; for, without comparison, 
the man of study at this day would not suffi- 
ciently appreciate his comforts, or fully compre- 
hend i:he extra facilities offered every one. 

Formerly it was the instructor's fault if his 
students were not well versed in medical lore. 
Now the young doctor is the only one to blame, 
if, surcharged with an excess of facts and demon- 
strations, he is incapable of assuming the respon- 
sibilities of his profession, and does not compre- 
hend the mysteries of microscopic anatomy. 


Dr. AVood's health, with but few excep- 
tions has been excellent, attributable in a 
f^rcat measure to his early rising when young, 
and an immense amount of out-door exercise. 
But, though free from ordinary ailments, he may 
bo considered the special favorite of Providence, 
in a physical point of view ; for there are few men 
living, save those who have been engaged in 
battle, whose escapes have been as wonderful, or 
their immunity from death so marvellous. In 
speaking one day to me on the subject, he said : 
" I am now seventy-three years old, and my life 
has been miraculously spared over seventy-three 
times. I have met with accidents, fallen out of 
windows, been thrown from carriages, run over, 
and mercifully preserved." 

Dr. Wood's father for some time followed the 
doctrines of the Episcopal Church, but latterly 
became a member of the Society of Friends, in 
which creed the son is now a strong believer — 
and certainly there is much in that simple faith 
vrortliy of emulation •, for the Quaker aims at sim- 
plicity of manners, cleanliness of habits, and 
charity of speech. 

At the time of the prevalence of t^^phus fever 
in Bellevue Hospital and the Penitentiary, many 
fell victims to this direful scourge, and those who 
died in a greater ratio than even the prisoners 
were the attending physicians and keepers of 
these charitable institutions, to an extent equal 


in the proportion of five to one. Three of the 
assistant physicians were prostrated by the fever 
at one time, when Drs. Criswold, Boyd, and 
Tripler might be seen in the same room They, 
however, after a narrow escape, finally recovered. 
Dr. Tripler lived till very recently, having filled 
a responsible position in the Army Medical 
Board 5 and Dr. Boyd took an active interest in the 
Health Department of Brooklyn. At that time Dr. 
Isaac Wood was by appointment attending physi- 
cian ; and a committee, composed of Drs. J. M. 
Smith, Bailey, and Wood, strongly recommend- 
ed the Common Council to remove all the inmates 
from, the prison, and promised, as their belief, 
that if this were done, no new cases would break 
out, as it would afford ample opportunity for 
cleansing the cells and localities. Their wishes 
were gratified, and resulted most favorably. The 
treatment on this occasion admitted of but little 

When the cholera broke out in this city in 
1832, the resident, Dr. Wood, who had foreseen 
its arrival, when raging in Canada, predicted its 
ravages at Bellevue Hospital. In confirmation 
of his apprehension, out of two thousand paupers, 
patients, prisoners, and maniacs, six hundred 
died ! 

Dr. Isaac Wood himself, among the first, fell 
sick of the cholera. Forty bodies laid in the 
doad-house at one time, the undertakers not 


being able to make coffins fiist enough to bury 
them as they died; and in one instance the dead 
and the sick laid in the same bed. On not 
a few occasions, Dr. Wood, while going through 
the wards, was obliged to step over the dead and 
dying, who were lying in rows on the floor, the 
nurses not having time to prepare beds, as the 
patients were taken so suddenly. 

While in Bellevue, Dr. Isaac Wood performed 
nearly all the surgical operations that were requir- 
ed. Dr. Stephen C. Roe, the consulting surgeon, 
occasionally operating himself. It is generally con- 
ceded that Dr. I. Wood was the first to remove 
the ends of the bone in lacerated injury of the 
elbow-joint. His first case succeeded so well that 
the patient could use his arm during ordinary 
labor, not having lost the power of flexion. 

Dr. Wood's height is about 5 feet, 4 inches ; and 
weight about 175 pounds. On asking him his 
opinion of smoking, he replied, "I have not 
smoked for more than thirty years past. I believe 
it detrimental to many persons, and in various 
ways." Ilis writings have been chiefly official 
reports, and contributions to the medical Journals 
of the day. 

Dr. Wood married three times, and has had 
four children. His only daughter married Dr. 
Thomas F. Cock, of this city, and died in 1863. 
Vmt one son, F. Augustus Wood, is still left to 
him, and is engaged in mercantile pursuits. 


Dr. "Wood for many years connected himself 
with the more prominent associations in this city, 
a chronological list of which cannot fail to prove 
of value, as portraying the varied field of his la- 
bors, and the deep interest he took in tha advance- 
ment of science, and the welfare of humanity. 

1. He was elected a member of the Society of 
the New York Hospital, 6th January, 1818. 

2. INIember of the New York County Medical 
Society, 10th January, 1820. 

3. Consulting Accoucheur to the Out-Door 
Lying-in Charity for the Second "Ward, Dr. Gil- 
bert Smith, President, Sept. 18th, 1823. 

4. Member of the Society for the Reformation 
of Juvenile Delinquents, Cadwallader D. Gol- 
den, President, July 18th, 1825. 

5. Appointed by a Committee of Common 
Council, xipril 14th, 1825, in conjunction with 
Drs. Joseph Bailey, Joseph M. Sjiith, and 
Stephen Brown, to visit the Penitentiary, and 
report on the nature of the disease (typhus fever) 
at that time doing sad havoc among the sick, and 
to suggest the necessary treatment and precau- 
tions to be followed out. 

6. Consulting Physician to the Almshouse and 
Penitentiary at Bellevue, Oct. 17th, 1825. 

7. Eesigned from the City Dispensary, 19th 
December, 1825. 

8. Member of the New York Eye Infirmary, 


of which institution Wm. Few, Esq., was Presi- 
dent, and Dr. Delafield the founder. 

9. Fellow of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, Aug. 4th, 1829. 

10. Resident Physician of the Almshouse and 
Penitentiary 5 being elected by the Common Coun- 
cil January 29th, 1826, which position he re- 
signed January 1st, 1833. 

This was caused by his having had the cholera 
in 1832. The attack was so severe, and prostrat- 
ed him to such an extent, that he did not fully re- 
cover liis former tone and powers of physical en- 
durance till about 1837, some five years after. 

11. Life Member of the American Bible Society, 
February 3d, 1842. 

12. Life Member of the New York Institution 
for the Blind, of which charitable foundation he 
was a manager for some twenty-five years, and 
several years its President; at one time 
recording secretary, and at another as consulting 
physician. This close connection with those af- 
flicted with loss of sight, enabled Dr. Wood 
to avail himself of the advantages which create 
experience, and ever since his first occupation of 
this position of trust, he has maintained a useful 
part in ophthalmic surgery. 

13. Not long after this, Dr. Delafield proposed 
to establish a society for the relief of widows and 
orphans of medical men who had died in pursuit 
of their noble profession. Dr. Wood quickly re- 


sponded to the sup^gestion, and soon became an 
active member, filling, on different occasions, the 
position of Treasurer, and subsequently that of 
President. If any one -would desire to learn of 
the benefit produced by this noble enterprise, let 
him peruse the reports, and look carefully over 
the statistical record. Surely few deserve so 
comfortable an old age as she who, " Doomed to 
early cares and trials, soon becomes the deposi- 
tory of her husband's secrets, the participator in 
all his sorrows, and the medium through which all 
by-blows are dealt at him. What other woman 
would submit, without a murmur, to the constant 
trials and hardships of a life devoted to every 
interest but her own-, with a limit to enjoyment, 
a constant guard upon her tongue, all her little 
favorite occupations interrupted, her rest disturb- 
ed, her very bed deserted, night after night?" 
This quotation seems so apposite, that the 
thoughts of a fluent and kind-hearted humanita- 
rian* have been cited by way of suggestiveness. 

14. At the commencement of the foundation of 
the New York Academy of Medicine, Dr. Wood 
entered with zeal into its preliminary organiza- 
tion, and aided Dr. F. Campbell Stewart not a 
little by his hopes of its wide influence and ex- 

* Mysteries of Medical Life ; or Doctors and their Doings. By 
George Allartox, M. R. C. S., and L. A. C. London. 1856. A 
book worthy of universal perusal, from its ethical effect. 



tensive usefulness. In due time he was appointed, 
in conjunction with Drs. Valentine Mott and 
Alexander II. Stevens, to practically Buirixest 
any improvements as to its future scope. The 
suggestions made were adopted, and year by year 
the dignity of the Academy, as a whole, is being 
felt by the community at large. On two separate 
occasions, Dr. Wood was elected President, and 
during his incumbency, sought to carry out the 
prescribed regulations, at the same time endea- 
voring to bring about the harmony of discussion. 
So happy was his plausible manner, that he was 
repeatedly sent as a delegate from the Academy 
of Medicine and County Medical Society to the 
American Medical Association, whose transactions 
are full of matter, and worthy of permanence. 

15. He vvas duly associated with the Historical 
Society, November 7th, 1850, as one of its mem- 
bers. (16) January 29th, 1857, he was elected 
a member of the American Geographical Society 
of New York, and has ever since taken an interest 
in the development of scientific research. 

17. In 1824 he practically connected himself 
with the New York City Dispensary as its attend- 
ing physician, ultimately becoming one of its 
consulting members, and (18) about the same time 
held similar positions in the New York Lying-in- 
Asylum, and Bellevue Hospital, Medical Board; 
(19) of which latter he has been the President 
many years. 


20. June 7tli, 1844, he was nominated and 
elected Inspector of Common Schools, and sought 
in many ways to better the condition of the 
young. The rapid growth of the public schools in 
New York is a source of great pride to the citi- 
zens. The hygienic rules, rigidly enforced, and 
the varied systems are so carefully carried out 
that the minds of the children are not wearied by 
monotony. The introduction of musical exer- 
cises at once appeals to the understanding, and 
rouses the imagination. Any one of the "old 
school" visiting public exhibitions, is amazed at 
the diversity of acquired information, and the 
thoroughness of the course. Questions in men- 
tal arithmetic, involving complex fractions, are 
answered by young girls in less time than it 
would take a well-educated graduate of some of 
our best colleges to work them out on paper. 
Much of this is due to the wise counsels of the 
Inspectors, and their disinterested watchfulness. 
But while all praise is due to their guardianship 
in behalf of the pupils, a word of caution regard- 
ing the teachers and their untiring labors might 
be urged. Are they confined to their duties too 
long, or have they more to undertake than one 
mind can grasp? The question is asked, for 
they die off rapidly ; and though their places are 
eagerly filled by those equally qualified, would it 
not be well to look to it, and see if the ratio of 
mortality could not be lessened? 


21. Dr. Wood was ajipointcd Consulting Sur- 
geon to the New York Oplithalmic Hospital, April 
12th, 1853; and November 12th, 1855, ^yas for- 
mally elected one of the Trustees of the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, by the 
Regents of the University. 

22. During the Rebellion he was an efficient 
member of the Sanitary Association, having fore- 
seen the wide field of usefulness it was to occupy 
in the alleviation of the sick. 

23. For one year he was also the Treasurer of 
the American Medical Association; and (24) on 
various occasions, the presiding officer of the 
Kappa Lambda Society, and likewise, of the 
County Medical Society. These positions of trust 
and honor are indicative of the feelings of the 
profession towards one whose quiet and unosten- 
tatious career has been marked by a sense of 
duty to his-fellow creatures, and who frequently 
sacrificed time, health, and private practice, for 
the benefit of those around him. There are many 
w^ho act thus from instinct — a sort of physical 
conscience; but he who fully appreciates the 
thought that no part of God's world is idle, will 
go about doing good from a peaceful sense of 
Christian obligation, emanating from pure love, 
which is the perfume of the soul. 




(President of the College of Physicians and Surgeons.) 

" But pure the eye of time beholds no name 

So tlest as thine in all the rolls of fame." — Pope. 
*' For that dow'ry I'll assure her of 
Her Widoivhood, but that she survives me, 
In all my lands." — Shakspeare. 

Edward Delafield was the son of Johx De- 
LAFiELD, of London, who came to this country 
many years ago, and married i\Iiss Ann IIal- 
LETT, of New York, by whom he had eleven 
children. Seven were sons — John, Joseph,* 
Henry, AVilliam, Richard,! Kufus K., and Edward ; 
and four were daughters — Ann, Emma, Caroline, 
and Susan P., afterward Mrs. Henry Parish. 

Edward was born in New York city, May 17th, 
1794, and has survived his sisters, and those of 
his brothers. His first experience of school was 

* Major in the United States Army during the war of 1S12 
end President of the Lyceum of Natural History for more than 
80 years. 

t Major General in the United States Army and a graduate 
of West Point. 



in Cedar street, where he pursued his studies in 
company with Mr. Adam Smith, a man much ad- 
dicted to learning, and well versed in rudimcntal 
education. He next entered Union llall Acade- 
my, Jamaica, Long Island, and rapidly improved 
under the excellent supervision of IMr. Lewis E. 
A. EiGENBRODT, a German scholar of distinguished 
abilities, and father of llev. Dr. Eigexbrodt, of 
this city, whose useful life and evangelical teach- 
ings have made a deep impression on the Christian 
community. During his residence at this institu- 
tion, he made satisfactory progress in French, 
mathematics, and the classical studies requisite 
for a fundamental education, and entered Yale 
College, Xew Haven, whence he was graduated 
A. B., in 1812. 

On going forth into the busy world, young De- 
LAFiELD almost immediately selected the medical 
profession as his future course in life. Imbued 
with few mercantile tastes, and never having fol- 
lowed any down-town occupation, his mind con- 
tinued to seek for information. lie accordingly 
entered the office of Dr. Samuel Eorrowe, of 
this city, and followed out, carefully and studi- 
ously, the prescribed course of the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, from which he re- 
ceived his diploma as Doctor of Medicine, in 
1816, and of which most excellent institution he 
las been the President for many years. His 
•esis was on Pulmonary Consumption. During 


his laborious and professional career, he has been 
the witness of many changes in the laboratory ; 
theories and practice of medicine ; additional fa- 
cilities of instruction; clinical advantages; ex- 
emption from trouble in the dissecting-room; 
superior plates for the benefit of anatomical 
students ; and above all, a great improvement in 
the system of teaching. For now prolixity has 
given way to condensed knowledge: variety of 
information is supplanted by thoroughness of ex- 
planation; and the matriculated student is led on 
by concise wisdom to admire science and investi- 
gate disease, rather than, as formerly, be im- 
pressed with the vast amount of learning that 
emanates from his professors. This may be 
deemed trivial ; but any one who has heard a 
lecturer whose mind caused him to think of him- 
self, and not his subject, can appreciate it. Dr. 
Delafield has, moreover, seen many fall from 
the ranks, and their places filled by others; and 
if he would deliver an address on comparative 
lecturing, embodying his views and experience, 
much practical information, and not a few most 
excellent anecdotes would reward the attentive 
audience. Human nature is materially afiected 
by surroundings ; and perhaps the push of the 
present age resolyes every person's brain into a 
compendium of experience. If thoughts are the 
whisperings of the mind, why should not didac- 
tic speech be employed to convey intelligence, not 


confuse it? Much of this difficulty has yet to be 
romoved ; for as lono; as teachers in primary de- 
partments ask a new schohir, "What have you 
studied?" instead of "What do you knoAv?" slug- 
gishness of ideas will follow imperfection of in- 

Soon after receiving the imprimatur from his 
Alma Mater,' he visited Europe, and spent much 
of the year 1817, in tracing the variety of treat- 
ment and diagnostic principles of the London and 
Paris hospitals, where he was enabled to compare 
theory with practice, and the better fit his mind 
for the responsibilities of an American career. 

While abroad, he likewise passed some profita- 
ble time in investigating the local diseases of 
Holland, where at times the foreigner is inter- 
ested in discovering the curious efi'ect of the in- 
troduction of metaphysics combined with the ra- 
tiocination of therapeutics. The Teutonic mind 
does nothing without a reason ; and as frequently 
disease is obscure, the scientific philosopher inva- 
riably deduces arguments often as ingenious as 
they are inefi'cctive as remedial agents. A useful 
sojourn in Scotland also proved of assistance; and 
on returning to this country, Dr. Delafield com- 
menced to practice in the city of New York, 
where he has continued for over forty years, oc- 
casionally paying a temporary visit to some sub- 
urban retreat, to recruit exhausted energies. 

His health, during an active life of exposure 


and fatigue, has been invariably excellent, saving 
an attack of rheumatism while at College, and a 
second one vs^hen about sixty years of age, having 
escaped all other constitutional troubles. 

Dr. Delafield married Miss Elinoe E. Lang- 
don Elwyn, October, 1821, by whom he had six 
children, all of whom are now dead. This es- 
teemed lady was a grand-daughter of Governor 
John Langdon, of New Hampshire, who is known 
in history as President of the first Congress. 

In January, 1839, he married Julia, grand- 
daughter of General William Floyd, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, a 
man of military capabilities, and much force of 

The Doctor's height, when last measured, was 
5 feet, 8 inches; and his weight about 150 pounds. 
On asking him, one day, while sitting in his 
ofi&ce, his opinion of tobacco, he looked up with a 
smile, as though knowing that his reply might be 
severe, if I were addicted to the habit, and 
replied, "I do not smoke, nor do any of my 
brothers. I think it a most pernicious practice ; 
and so of tobacco in any form." This seems to 
be, as far as I have been able to ascertain, the 
general criticism from most of the profession; 
though there are still a few who enjoy a philo- 
sophical puff; thus rendering its use by a doctor 
not as yet eccentric, though perhaps unhealthy. 

Dr. Delafield' s rclidous creed is that of tho 


Protestant Episcopal faith; and his favorite 
branch of practice, leading almost to a specialty, 
obstetrics and ophthalmic surgery, being con- 
nected with the leading lying-in asylums, wo- 
man's hospital, etc., and appointed consulting 
physician to the principal institutions for the 
blind in this city. The Doctor has been exten- 
sively associated with the progress of the healing 
art during the last half century, and has been, 
more or less, a laboring member of most of the 
charitable hospitals in New York. Many of his 
original ideas are so incorporated in the works of 
the day, that it would be difficult to give him all 
the credit justly his due. A suggestive atmosphere 
has pervaded much of his kindly nature. 

I addressed him one day a letter on various 
topics, and incidentally asked if he would be a doc- 
tor again. His reply was characteristically noble : 
" I never would have exchanged my occupation 
for any other, if I could have received from that 
other twice the revenue I obtained from prac- 
ticing medicine." 

As an additional proof that he is consistent in 
this view of life. Dr. Delafield still practices, 
and may be seen on almost any day visiting pa- 
tients, and sitting in his heavy coupe as it wends 
its way through fashionable avenues and stops in 
front of lofty dwellings. 

Though a resident of this metropolis during 
many grievous epidemics, he encountered the foe, 


and administered to the sick ; fully appreciating 
the thought, that man is truly great, not by what 
others have done for him, but what he has done 

Dr. Delafield's opinion on cholera is worthy 
of record embodying as it does, in a brief manner, 
views that are to a great extent favorably held by 
numbers of the profession : 

"I do not think it contagious in the strict 
sense of the word. It certainly is conveyed by 
human beings from one place to another, but it 
seems to require an intermedium for its propaga- 
tion. This intermedium is foul air, which becom- 
ing contaminated by the specific emanation from a 
cholera patient, is then capable of communicating 
the disease to other human beings.''^" 

Dr. Delafield edited, with many copious ad- 
ditions, Traver's workonthe eye, and contributed 
during a large practice, numerous articles on 
ophthalmic surgery, to the medical journals oi 
the day, which if collected in one volume would 
bring before the community a work eminently 
calculated to ameliorate the condition of the blind 

* J. M. Toner, M. D., of Washington, D. C, has recently 
published a Catalogue of Medical works on Cholera, which he 
has collected from time to time. They already number oyer 
112, and he is still adding to them: cheerfully holding all 
open to the medical fraternity — who will no doubt be much 
benefited thereby. 


and unfold suggestions of permanent utility to 
the oculist. 

This interest in the sufferings of those afflicted 
with diseases of the eye displayed itself at an 
early age. For as far back as the year 1818, the 
idea of originating the New York Eye Infirmary 
took its first inception in his mind — and having 
talked the matter over and conversed in a general 
manner with his friend and associate in Hospital 
duties, Dr. John Kearny Eodgers, they deter- 
mined to wait a few years till their foothold in 
the profession was rendered more practical, when 
hy diligent perseverance an end was reached, 
pleasant to contemplate in advanced life, and full 
of the charitable capabilities of the time. This 
most excellent Institution, which owes its foun- 
dation to the energy and perseverance of Dr. 
Delafield, was suggested to his mind while at- 
tending the London Eye Infirmary, which owed its 
origin to the wise forethought and philanthropical 
exertions of ]Mr. Saunders, who had doubtless 
heard of those in Germany. Drs. Delafield and 
RoDGERS, on their return to this country, opened in 
1820, two rooms at Xo. 45 Chatham street. New 
York ; and on different days in the week gratuit- 
ously attended those whose eyes were affected. 
In some seven months they had treated four hun- 
dred and thirty-six patients. This success made 
its way to the medical practitioners and suffering 
•.acndicant. Doctors volunteered their valuable 


assistance, and a uniform sj^stem of days and 
hours had to be enforced so crowded were the 
rooms and so small were the proportionate means. 
At this time encouragement was given by Drs. 
Wright Post and Saml. Borrowe, as consulting 
Surgeons, and March 9th, 1821, a meeting was 
held at the City Hotel in Broadway, between 
Cedar and Thames streets, which resulted in 
placing this scheme on a permanent basis as an 
organization to be supported by the worthy citi- 
zens of New York. On the 21st April 1821, the 
officers and directors were duly elected.* This 
movement led in a few years to the foundation of 
the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infir- 

* As this was the first Board, it -will prove interesting to so- 
eure the names of those who held positions: 

William Few, President. 

Henry I. Wyckoff, First Vice-President. 

John Hone, Second do. 

John Delafield, Jun., Treasurer. 

James I. Jones, Secretary. 
Nathaniel Richards, Isaac Collins, 

Benjamin L. Swan, Cornelius Ileyer, 

William Howard, Henry Rankin, 

Henry Brevoort, Jun., Benjamin Strong, 

Joshua Jones, Samuel Tooker, 

William Howell, Samuel F. Lambert, 

• James Boggs, Edward W. Laight, 
Isaac Pierson, Gideon Lee. 
Jeromus Johnson, 

Consulting \ WuianT Post, M. D, ] Ex-Officio 

Surgeons, ( Samuel Borrowe, M. D. ' *^ 

Edward Delafield, M. D. [ Directors. 
J. Keakny Kodgers, M. D. 


mary l»y Dr. Edward Reynolds in 1824, and the 
or,i!;anization of Will's Hospital, Philadelphia, for 
a similar purpose. Before this, diseases of the 
eye, capaLlc of immediate alleviation, were al- 
lowed to run to blindness, owin;^ to the general 
ignorance of that organ ; but its immense benefit 
soon found favor throughout this continent until 
it would now seem almost proper to represent the 
figure of Justice with eyes of gratitude uplifted 
to benignant Providence. At the present time 
this noble charity, situated in a pleasant part of 
the city, in a splendid mansion, treats some 7,000 
patients annually ; is possessed of valuable pro- 
perty estimated at $180,000, and is presided over 
by some of the leading men of honor in this city. 
How appropriate would it be, if the portraits 
of CiiESELDEN and Sharp, Celsus and Pott, 
PticHTER and Travers, Sauxders and Lawrence 
Wardrop and Beer, with men of that stamp, 
could adorn the walls that those who are about to 
leave with restored vision might look upon the 
features of the pioneers of an important era in 
the lessening of pain and the acquisition of an 
unlimited blessing. Auguste Comte says that each 
of our leading conceptions, each branch of our 
knowledge, passes successively through three dif- 
ferent theoretical conditions, the theological, the 
metaphysical, and the positive or scientific. How 
appropriate is such a thought when applied to the 
restoration of the eye — that " window of the soull" 


For many years Dr. Delafield entertained the 
idea of founding a Society for the relief of the 
widows and orphans of medical men."^ Instances 
of pressing want had so often forced themselves 
before his benevolent mind, that in 1842, after 
having corresponded on the subject, with many 
phj^sicians who endorsed his views, he invited a 
few friends to his own house, and discussed at 
length the merits of the case. Meeting with 
a hearty co-operation from the fraternity, the 
first committee appointed to investigate the idea 
was composed of Drs. Edward Delafield, Thos. 
Cock, J. K. Rodgers, F. U. Johnston, and H. D. 
BuLKLEY. On the 12th of May a circular was 
issued calling on the profession at large to meet 
at the rooms of the Lyceum of Natural History, 
on the 14th of the same month. It was largely 
attended, and called to order by Dr. John 

* "The London Society, after which our own was modeled, was 
founded in 17SS, and now numbers 220 life members and 149 
annual subscribers, with a capital stock invested with the Na- 
tional Debt Commissioners, of more than £50,000, more than 
£44,000 have been distributed among the recipients of its boun- 
ty. Since 1798, 103 widows and 164 children have received 
benefits, of whom there are, at present, 35 widows and 24 chil- 
dren enjoying its benefits." [Extract from a Discourse entitled 
"History of the New York Society for the relief of Widows an. I 
Orphans of Medical Men," by Dr. E, L. Beadle, and read by him 
in accordance with a request of the board of managers at tbe 
Astor House, on the 15th November, 1854, to whom I am in 
debted for many of the facts concerning the organization of 
this noble charity.] 


Stearns. Dr. A'alentine jMott was elected Chaii> 
man, and Dr. 11. D. Bulkley appointed Secre- 
tary. Dr. Delafield then arose and stated tho 
object of the meeting, and the benefits to bo 
derived from this mutual ori^anizatlon. lie next 
presented a report and the constitution, as drawn 
up for approval, both of which were duly ac- 
cepted. The same gentlemen were retained on 
the committee, with the addition of Drs. John 
Eevere, Willard Parker, Isaac Wood, and 
Jared LiNSLEr, who were directed to procure 
signatures and subscriptions. One hundred 
names were obtained by the 5th of October, and 
a meeting was called for the 8th, on which occa- 
sion Dr. James Cameron" acted as Chairman, and 
Dr. Bulkley as Secretary. A formal election of 
officers took place, which resulted as follows : 

Pi-esident, Dr. Edward Delafield. (8 Yeabs.) 
Vice- r residents, Dr. John Revere. 
" " Dr. Francis U. Johnsto::. 

" " Dr. John Stearxs. 

Treasurer, Dr. Isaac Wood. 
Managers : 
Dr. James C. Bliss, Dr. Richard K. noffman, 

" Alfred C. Post, " P. Van Arsdale, 

*' Joel Foster, " J. Kearny Kodgers, 

" A. T. Hunter, " John II. Griscom, 

'< W. W. aiinor, *' Jared Sweeny, 

" Valentine Mott, " Hugh Sweeny, 

« James R. Wood, « A. N. Green, 

« H. D. Bulkley, " Willard Parker, 

*' James McDonald, " George 0. Cammann, 

" James A. Washington, " J. B. McEwen. 


This body held a meeting on the 19th of the 
eame month, and appointed a committee of three 
to "draft a Constitution and code of By-Laws for 
the Society, and take steps to procure a Charter," 
which committee was composed of Drs. Bliss, 
JoHNSTOx, and Wood. The result of their labors 
was accepted November 18th, 1842. Dr. Bulk- 
ley was officially elected Secretary, and Dr. Wm. 
P. BcEL chosen to fill a vacancy in the list of 
Managers. An Act in favor of the Charter was 
passed at Albany the 18th of April, 1843, and 
what a few months before had been but the seeds 
of suggestion now assumed the influential position 
of an "Institution." Though at first restricted 
to the benefit of residents of New York and 
King's county, subsequently Richmond and "West- 
chester counties were embraced in its useful 

In 1850 Dr. James C. Bliss was chosen as its 
head, and in 1853 Dr. Isaac Wood was elected 
President, having held the responsible position 
of Treasurer since its incorporation, on which 
occasion Dr. E. L. Beadle was selected to fill the 
position left vacant by Dr. Wood. 

Subsequently Dr. Bulkley presided over the 
meetings, and Dr. J. W. G. Clements was ap- 
pointed Secretary in his place. The first year 
exhibited the names of 56 members, and the sum 
of $1570. During the first twelve years of the 
Society's existence but 16 members died. The 


eubscription of $150 renders the donor a "bene- 
factor," and entitled to privile^rcs. In the an- 
nual statement for 18GG the receipts were. 

$5,017 00 I ]nnl<in<r 
'204 1() j $5,222 iju, 

Balance in Treasury, 
and the disbursements in the form of annuitiea 
"were $1,350. Six families of deceased members 
are at present aided materially by this Society. 
The principal officers now holding positions arc 
IIexry D. Bulkley, M. D., President; Alfred 
C. Post, M. D., "William Detmold, M.D., and Ed- 
ward L. Beadle, M.D., Vice-Presidents 5 J. W. G. 
Clements, M. D., Treasurer; and S. Coxant Fos- 
ter, M. D., Secretary. The members of the So- 
ciety number 108, of which 78 are for life, and 
30 annual subscribers; the benefactors are 25, 
three of whom are laymen. It is to be hoped 
that ere long a suitable institution, in proportion 
to its wants, will be erected for the benefit of the 
widows and orphans, that a healthy locality may 
be combined with permanence of residence. "With 
this idea widely circulated, there is little doubt 
but that in a short time a building committee 
could raise ample means from $100 subscribers. 

There are many other benefits to be derived 
from such an association of the well-wishers of 
humanity. The combined efforts of the better 
classes of society in behalf of those afflicted by 
distress, render poverty more endurable, and 
warm the sick man's heart. Besides, the more 


we look after the welfare of our noble profession, 
the higher will be the respect of others. Many 
there are who bow in adversity; but very few are 
willing to kneel in prosperity. Deeds of kind- 
ness, however, assist in bringing forth the better 
part of human nature, and render him who was 
once selfish and misanthropical full of noble as- 
pirations, and the proud possessor of an approving 





'Taught by the art divine, the sage physician 
Eludi's the urn ; and chains, or exiles death." — I^ior. 

Dr. Beales, the son of John Beales, of Great 
Britain, who married Sarah Waller, was born 
in the County of Norfolk, England, in the year 
1804. Though the family consisted of sons and 
daughters, he alone survives; his brothers and 
sisters having died some time since. 

He first attended a preliminary course of stu- 
dies at the Collegiate School of St. Albins; and 
made marked progress in the Classics under the 
instructive guidance of private tutors selected 
with a view to excellence. His mind was much 
benefitted by a systematic application of time 
while in Hertfordshire, England. When he be- 
came better able to cope with science and its sub- 
ordinate branches, he was legally apprenticed to 
John Kendrick, an English Surgeon of decided 
ability, who prepared him to enter with zeal and 
profit upon the duties of a student of disease, as 
17* (197) 


an intcrno at St George's Hospital, London. Ilia 
faculties had never been disturbed by the pursuit 
of any other business whatever, as his tastes had 
not run in the direction of mercantile life. 

Soon after this practical sojourn in the midst 
of sickness, he became while in London, by special 
fiivor, the private "dresser" of Sir Benjamin 
Brodie, a man whose name and deeds will ever 
be remembered with honor and looked up to as 
portraying characteristics of a lofty intelligence 
combined with noble traits. About this time ho 
entered the office of Mr. Carpue and became, in 
the course of a few weeks, his Demonstrator in 
anatomy; also availing himself of the lectures 
and explanatory remarks of F. R. Six, professor 
of Anatomy and Physiology in London. 

For six years he attended the lectures delivered 
by Sir E. Homes, Drs. Chambers, Blundellon, 
and Sir Astley Cooper; also being an earnest 
listener to the careful expositions of Surgeons 
Keats and Rose, of the Guards, etc., etc. After 
availing himself of privileges that were very 
great in his day, he was formally graduated doc- 
tor of medicine from the Royal college of sur- 
geons in London, in 1838. At that time no thesis 
was required so the doctor did not write one. 

Dr. Beales visited Mexico not long after com- 
pleting his medical studies, and resided in tho 
city of Mexico for a period of ten years 5 during 
which time he practiced extensively. His experi- 


ence of the peculiar diseases of that country, and 
the various remedies employed by the inhabitants, 
would form a pleasant and instructive basis for a 
book on what might be termed Local Thera- 
peutics. Certainly while perusing the volumes 
of well-educated travellers, one is struck with the 
idea that there is scarcely a single work of truth- 
ful narrative, that does not contain in the trea- 
tises on hygienic habits, cautious reasoning or 
remedial agents, sound views that are based on 
plain philosophy. This conveys to the readers 
mind the thought that where there is a native dis- 
ease, in that same country will be found a native 
herb or metal, whose special province is the cure 
of what might be designated indigenous troubles. 
The best productions in the way of writings on 
medical treatment and disease are those that are 
not merely the statement of one man's criticisms 
be they ever bo grand ; but the collocated opin- 
ions of natives and foreigners, combined with 
the result of years of acute and rational observa- 
tion, become subservient to common sense and 
terminate in aphoristic learning which may truly 
be designated the axiom of life. A country where 
the vanilla bean grows spontaneously, and which 
has produced since its conquest by Cortes, 
$12,000,000,000, would certainly seem to have 
originated comfortable cures and unfolded a store- 
house for the inventive power of man. Besides 
the moral precepts of the inhabitants in olden 


times, when under Aztec sway, were indicative of 
a sense of what was proper, for the drunkard 
was punished with death, whereas at the present 
epoch, money is capable of glossing over almost 
any vice; and if quackery exists under certain 
conditions in Mexico, many are amassing fortunes 
this very day in New York, and a few still re- 
member reading of William Atkins in England, 
who claimed to have raised a woman from the 
dead palsy. 

In August 1830, while residing in Mexico, Dr. 
Beales married Dona Dolores de Soto — a de- 
scendant in direct line from the " Soto" who dis- 
covered the Mississippi — by whom he had four 
children ; one son and three daughters. It will 
be remembered that the successful, and subse- 
quently unfortunate Ferxando de Soto was born 
at Xeres de las Caballeros in Extremadura, 
in 1500, educated at Saragossa, and came of a 
noble family. He was in company with Pizarro 
when the wealthy Inca of Peru was ransomed, 
and soon after returned to Spain with $500,000, 
and received favors from the emperor Charles V., 
but lost much of his money during his infatuated 
pursuit after mines while endeavoring to conquer 
Florida. Disappointed from time to time, he at 
length took the fever on the banks of the Missis- 
sippi river and died June 5th, 1542. He "had 
crossed a large part of the continent in search of 
gold, and found nothing so remarkable as his 


burial place."^ Ills wife, whom he had left in 
Havana till the return of the party, survived the 
news of his death but three days. 

Dr. Beales at length concluded to become a resi- 
dent of the United States, and accordingly came to 
New York city, where he has ever since remained 
as one of its successful and industrious citizens; 
pursuing his professional duties with unabated 
zeal and happy results. Many positions of re- 
sponsibility and high trust have been held by 
him ; and not a few wise suggestions as to practi- 
cal treatment and ethical duties have emanated 
from his mind. A man of leisure is a wordy 
man — but few doctors of the present day, in the 
exercise of a full practice, have time for verbosity ; 
and when they speak, enter at once on a given 
subject, and discuss sententiously the questions 
at issue. 

On asking Dr. Beales his views concern- 
ing the rapidly growing habit of using tobacco 
in some form or other, he replied, "I never 
have smoked. In great moderation I see no ob- 
jection — but am violently opposed to what may 
be considered even less than excess. I doubt 
whether more than two or three cigars daily 
should be allowed."! His health has been good; 

* Bancroft's History. 

f M. SiCHEL, a man ot many years experience, maintains that 
any one, with but few exceptions, who bmokes over 5 drachma 
of tobacco per diem will ere long suffer materially as to im- 


having been very seldom impaired by the invidi- 
ous attacks of disease. Occasionally over work 
has for a season subdued his vigor; but judicious 
repose and careful diet at once adjusted tho 
recuperative powers. His reli^i,dous faith is that 
entertained by the followers of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of England, before invaded l)y 
the present exaggerations of a Ritualistic formula; 
which is too apt to substitute the affections of the 
head for the sentiments of the soul, even though 
the dogmas remain the same ; and ere long may, if 
not counterbalanced by common sense, degenerate 
into extravagances, which my late father, Dr. 
John ^Y. Fraxcis was accustomed to call the 
" gyrations and genuflexions of pantomimic theol- 

Dr. Beales has contributed but little to the 
medical literature of the day, only occasionally 
furnishing an article for a monthly journal, or 
publishing some interesting paper on a special 
branch in medicine; but his views are clear, and 
might, if printed extensively, be made useful. 

paired vision or loss of memory. This, though sage advice, 
would prove too small an allowance to such men as John Gale, 
of Claremarket, England, whose epitaph might truly hare been 
" exit in fumo.^' See " Portraits, Memoirs, Characters and Re- 
markable Persons, from the Revolution in 1G80 to the end of 
the reign of George 2d," by John Caulfield, in 4 vols., Lon- 
don, 1819. — II. R. Young, etc., 56 Paternoster Row. A work 
that contains many curious accounts of the freaks of nature 
and eccentricities of mind, both interesting and rare. 


For many years Dr. Beales was an active ex- 
aminer for the Albion Life Insurance Company, 
a position whose responsible duties, in a fiscal 
point of view, depend materially upon a profound 
acquaintance with auscultation, percussion, and 
familiarity with the uses of the test-tube and mi- 

While perusing the works of the modern 
learned, and following out with care the instruc- 
tive teachings of recent discoveries, it would 
seem well for the philosophical student, at times, 
to review the past, and occasionally read the 
views of those who have gone before, and whose 
best labors in the cause of science have been 
based on theoretical investigations, often origi- 
nal, and not unfrequently of the quaintest con- 
ception. In former periods of medical lore, 
writers seemed to have reasoned all round a 
given subject, as though they deemed it forbid- 
den ground, and were now and then permitted, 
from their experience, to peep in and inform the 
gaping world of their valuable inferences. This 
thought has arisen from looking over the work* 
of KicHARD BouLTON, of Brazcu-Nosc College, 
in Oxford, entitled, "A Treatise concerning the 
Heat of the Blood, and also of the Use of the 

* For this interesting volume I am indebted to Charles II. 
Hart, Esq., Secretary of the American Antiquarian Society, 
Philadelphia, who kindly presented it to me, as a book valua- 
ble to those who are enamored of "old thoughts." 


Lungs. London: Printed for A. & F. Ciiurcuill, 
at the Black Swan in Patcr-Noster Row. 1G08." 
It is dedicated to the Reverend Dr. Fo Meare, 
Principal of Brazen-Nose College, and Vice-Clian- 
cellor of the University of Oxford. When one 
reflects how few were the advantages in those 
days, and how deficient the data to labor upon, 
two extracts will prove pregnant with singular- 
ity, and give evidence of the marked difference 
between past and present physiology, if such a 
word was practically comprehended at that epoch. 
"There is more reason to expect truth and cer- 
tainty in the microcosm than the macrocosm." . . 
"The reason of the heat of the blood explained — 
These oyly salino-sulphureous spirits being vio- 
lently driven through the nerves, meet with the 
arterial blood in the glandules-, and these two 
liquors being forcibly driven one against another, 
the particles of them are intimately mixed to- 
gether; by which means the animal spirits are, 
as if it were, ground and rubbed betwixt the 
fixed and more solid particles of the blood; 
whereby they are minutely dissolved, and being 
put into a swift intestine motion, they endeavor 
powerfully to expand themselves, and to fly away; 
but being held in and reverberated by those 
grosser particles, their motion is by that means 
inverted, and that force which, if they had but 
liberty, would be lost in a further expansion, be- 
ing inverted and driven forcibly upon the other 


particles, they mutually increase and promote 
one another's motion; by which motion the 
blood, when it affects our sensory, causes us to 
perceive heat." Bravo for 1698! But the en- 
thusiastic Doctor does not seem to get very clearly 
at combustion. One more extract of what might 
truly be called complicated perspicuity, is worthy 
of citation. Dr. Boulton's views relative to the 
"use of the lungs with a more immediate respect 
to the soul, appears to be nothing else, but as a 
large capacious vessel, endued with a cavity to 
contain a great quantity of air, so that it per- 
forms the same office in the body as a pair of 
bellows to organs : for, as in organs, the bellows 
supply pipes of different sizes with air, and that, 
being driven through them, produces different 
sounds; so the lungs, dilated and extended by 
the motion of the thorax, and being full of air, 
contract, and accordingly as the phariux and its 
parts are differently modulated, so the air, forcibly 
driven through them, causes different voices." . . . 
"The lungs, in respect of the body, seem in 
some measure to perform the office of another 
heart ; and as the left ventricle of the heart, con- 
tracting, sends out the blood into all the parts of 
the body, by the ramifications of the sanguiferous 
vessels, so the lungs, contracting, force the blood 
contained in the sanguiferous vessels, which are 
distributed through their lobes, into the left ven- 
tricle of the heart ; and the left ventricle being 


by tliat means more vigorously dilated, and more 
plentifully filled with blood, a larger quantity of 
it is forced out into the aorta, and consequently, 
the blood in the branches of the aorta is moro 
copiously pressed by subsequent matter into the 
roots of the vena cava, and so forwards into tho 
right ventricle of the heart ; so, that by the help 
of the lungs, the dilation of the left ventricle of 
the heart is immediately, and the dilation of tho 
right mediately promoted." Compare this with 
the works of Draper and Daltox, Flint and 
Clark, and the mind will then appreciate the 
rapid strides of medical science in the last one 
hundred and fifty years. 

On asking Dr. Beales, one day, whether he 
would become a follower of the same branch of 
science, if he were to live over his eventful life, 
he replied: "With the greatest love for my pro- 
fession, I consider it an arduous one, excessively 
trying to a man who strives to do his duty, and 
who in his heart cares for the result of his treat- 

The Doctor is confined in his practice to no 
specialty, but has endeavored to pursue all the 
ramifications of the healing art, with due respect 
to the "union" of the brotherhood. His height, 
"in his stocking feet," is 5 feet 11 inches, and 
weight from 1G8 to 170 pounds. Though sub- 
jected to many morbific surroundings, and fre- 
quently in the midst of a grievous epidemic, his 


health has been remarkaloly good, and his labors 

Dr. Beales seems fully to appreciate the thought, 
that time is the essence of experience, and that 
the young may strive to please, but the old should 
endeavor to instruct. Accordingly, he is ever 
ready to furnish facilities to the growing physi- 
cian, and meets the worthy aspirant more than 

There is no career, in a business point of view, 
that so fully depends on material contingencies 
as that of a doctor. In his case, we often find, 
that it is not the kind of card that wins ; it is 
which is trumps. For special favors, a successful 
partnership, or some "happy case" will roll in 
money and establish a name. There are, how- 
ever, some who, bent on respectability, and de- 
sirous of advancing in an unobtrusive manner, 
continue the same honest course of life from year 
to year. They are always found in the same 
place ; gradually rise in the estimation of their 
associates, and become the respectable men of the 
profession. Theirs is not spasmodic fame 5 but 
is found to be a species of chronic integrity, 
which is lasting, and may be relied on ; for virtue 
IS the foundation, and ethics the test. 

Of this latter class, Dr. Beales is an admirer. 
Ills course has been gradual ; but unaffected by 
any retrograde, He was the recipient of the 
honor JM K. C. S., London, and was formally and 


ofTicially elected licentiate of the Proto Mcdicato 
of ^Mexico, after passing the ordeal of an instituted 
examination. He became, some time ago, a Fel- 
low of the New York Academy of Medicine, and 
at present holds an honorable position in the St. 
George's Society in this city. While a resident 
at the capital of Mexico, in due time he found him- 
self chief of the Faculty of the State of Mexico; 
and about that period, was duly appointed, 
by the same authority, Professor of Surgery and 
the Diseases of "Women and Children, in the 
Hospital of San Andrea in that city. He like- 
wise received the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the College of Physicians at Madrid, Spain ; 
and from time to time, has enjoyed the respect of 
his patients, and the conlidcnce of the community 
at larire. 


18* (209) 



"Patiently endure that frown of fortune, and by some nota- 
ble exploit win again her favor." — Knolles. 

" Whose deeds some nobler poem shall &doTTi."—Dnjden. 

The subject of the present sketch was born at 
Annapolis, Maryland, August 28th, 1828, and 
was the son of Dr. J. W. Ham.mond, who married 
Miss Sarah Pinkney, a niece of the celebrated 
AYiLLiAM Pinkney, who possessed the rare quali- 
fications of lawyer, ambassador, and senator. 
The family consisted of six, of whom Kev. J. 
Pinkney, Dr. William A., and W. Hobart Ham- 
mond, are now living. 

William A. Hammond attended St. John's 
College, Annapolis, Maryland, and likewise owed 
not a little of his educational career to Philadel- 
phia and Harrisburg, Pa. While at the latter 
place he studied under Dr. E. W. Roberts; and 
as he proceeded at once from the classical to the 
medical line of duty, his mind was neither un- 
settled by a business life, nor allowed to lose 



«z;round by an absence of reflection. Entering; 
the office of Dr. "Wm. II. Van Buren, he attended 
re_ii;ularly the course of lectures at tlie University 
of Xew York, and was formally graduated M. D. 
in 1848. His Thesis was in some measure an 
indication of his future train of thought, being 
"Etiological and Therapeutical Influence of tho 
Imagination." On receiving his diploma, ho 
visited Saco, Maine, and practised there six 

In 1849 Dr. IIammoxd entered the army as 
assistant surgeon, but resigned in 1860, having 
been appointed Professor of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology in the University of IMaryland at Balti- 
more. On the rebellion taking a practical shape, 
and it being desirable that all those able to con- 
tribute their share should exert themselves, he 
entered the army again, May 28th, 1861, and in 
April, 1862, was appointed Surgeon-General of 
the United States Army, being chosen successor to 
the veteran soldier, Surgeon-General FixLEr, who 
combines the excellent attributes of Christian, 
gentleman, and physician. 

This position of responsibility he held till 
August, 1864, when he was removed from ofiBce 
through the instrumentality of some who had be- 
come his enemies. This is not the place to re- 
vive what is past, nor is it the desire of the 
Avriter of this article to go into details. Where 
60 many scoundrels escape punishment, it is not 


surprisinrr that occasionally an innocent man 
may be convicted. Granting even that there 
may have been errors of judgment in the early 
organization of an expense that leaped from some 
$20,000 per annum to nearly $1,000,000 per 
month, a man's character is not to be assailed on 
account of that. Ashes or light dirt may be 
blown away, but too many are apt to icipe them 
off-, hence by this unnecessary force a perma- 
nent mark is made. Thus is it in life; little 
faults of character, often resulting from inexpe- 
rience, become magnified into crimes by public 
reprimand, w^hen a gentle criticism or sage ad- 
vice would effect the same good, with no evil 

Dr. Hammond married Miss Helen Nisbet, of 
Philadelphia, July 4th, 1849, by whom he had 
five children, three of whom are now living. He 
is a man of powerful frame and strongly marked 
countenance, indicative of a calm dignity spread 
over by generous characteristics. His height is 
6 feet 2 inches, and weight 245 pounds. 

On asking him if he would be a Doctor again, 
he replied with emphasis, " I hope to be a physi- 
cian as long as I live. It is the profession of all 
others which affords the greatest fields for study." 

His mind has been engrossed for many years 
in the pursuit of chemistry and philosophical 
deductions based on physiology. Dr. Hammond's 
work on " Sleep, its Causes, and How to Produce 


it with the Least Harm to one who is the Victim 
of "Wakefulness," etc., met with a cordial re- 
ception from the medical fraternity, and gave 
evidence of intelligence that was not only well 
informed as to given results, but was capable of 
deducing practical ends of vital importance. So 
fully was he appreciated as to his knowledge of 
a disordered brain impaired by protracted insom- 
nia, that he was invited by a wealthy citizen of 
New York to accompany a patient abroad, and 
his attentions were generously rewarded. It was 
peculiarly fitting for Dr. Hammond to undertake 
this duty, as his specialty for a long time had 
been "Diseases of the Mind and Nervous Sys- 
tem." But he has not confined himself exclu- 
sively to this branch, for before many months, it 
is hoped, he will make public several theories 
and inventions not only remarkable for original- 
ity, but of great value to the profession. His 
education, studies, and experience have resulted 
in rendering him not only skilful as a surgeon, 
but successful as a practising physician. 

Dr. Hammond's health has been very excellent. 
At one period he was troubled with functional 
disease of the heart, but has altogether recovered, 
and is enabled, by a systematic division of time, 
to accomplish much. This was eminently essen- 
tial, as his best energies have been interested in 
a new and scientific apparatus which is destined, 
if successful, to lessen expense and increase gain. 


In 1856 he visited London, where he learned 
much that was new. Subsequently sojourning 
in Paris, after a profitable stay, he journeyed to 
Heidelberg, Zurich, etc. This foreign experience 
proved so interesting to Dr. Hammond, that in 
1865 — 6, he travelled extensively; visiting Lon- 
don, Paris, Kome, Florence, and neighboring 
places of resort, where the study of disease may 
be combined with beauty of scenery and a free- 
dom from care which few Americans can appre- 
ciate while residing in their own countr3\ In 
fact, acquaintance with the climatology of affec- 
tions and the knowledge of the best locality for 
the alleviation of chronic disorders, have in no 
slight degree contributed to benefit many who 
might otherwise have remained the same, as to 
pain and protracted suffering. 

Dr. Hammond smokes, and decidedly approves 
of it in moderation. He attends the Episcopal 
Church ; and though particular in requiring the 
proper respect due to a doctor of medicine, is 
always ready to accord what he may demand. 

His works are as follows : 

1. Physiological Memoirs. 

2. Treatise on Hygiene. 

3. Lectures on Venereal Diseases. 

4. Wakefulness. 

5. Insanity in its Medico-Legal Relations. 
Opinions relative to the Testamentary Capa- 
city of the late James C. Johnston, of Chowan 

21 G 

county, North Carolina. Published by Baker, 
YooRiiiES & Co., New York. 

6. Many Memoirs on Physiological Subjects. 

7. A novel of marked ability and versatile pow- 
er, showinfT up a man's friends and his enemies. 

8. Dr. Hammond also published an elaborate 
and exceedingly interesting pamphlet in his 
own defence while Surgeon-General of the United 
States Army. 



19 (217 

•*«.» ♦r^ ♦ > ♦ ♦■■I* *T* ^T^ o— ♦■ •♦^r*' ^i'^ "^^^ ^1* "^fir* -^-^ ♦■'♦ ♦r* 
«?♦ -*J» *^ **• •«5* ■^*'* -^r* -"^ «^» -"^ -f ♦ -*•♦ •»«?» -"^^ *V 


" It was his greatest pleasure to spread his healing wings over 
every place, and to make every one sensible of his good will to 
mankiud." — Calamy. 

Dr. Horace Greex was born at Chittenden, 
Rutland County, Vermont, December 24th, 1802; 
and died at Greenmount, Sing Sing, New York, 
November 1866, aged sixty-four. 

He was the son of Zeeb and Sarah Green, and 
had four brothers, Joel, Orange, Almond, and 
Ruel, and four sisters, by name, Sarah, Polly, 
IIhoda, and Laura. On arriving at the age when 
mental development is permissible, he was sent 
to the High School at Brandon, Vermont, and 
subsequently profited by the instructive guidance 
of Samuel 3Valker, who presided over the classi- 
cal school in Rutland. In Nov., 1821, when 19 
years of age, he received from this gentleman a 
certificate of " his qualifications to instruct an 
English school," which testimonial likewise in- 
cluded the statement, that "his urbanity of man- 



ners forbade him to exercise an act of cruelty." ' 
Certain necessities urged his immediate efforts 
to^Yard the great business end of a practical life, 
60 that, much to his regret, he was prevented 
availing himself of the advantages of a collegiate 
education. But this did not prevent a laudable 
recognition of his mental attainments, for in after 
years he received the honorary degree of A. M., 
from Union College, Schenectady; and in 1853, 
•was further honored, by having conferred upon 
him the degree of LL.D., by the University of 
Vermont, at Burlington. 

Dr. Greex having decided to become a medi- 
cal man, entered with zeal upon his apportioned 
duties 5 attended faithfully the lectures of the 
professors of Castleton College, Vermont; and 
was formally graduated M. D., at Middlebury, 
Vermont, in 1824. During his labors as a stu- 
dent, he entered his brother's office, and after 
receiving his diploma became a partner where 
he continued to practice six years. Not feel- 
ing altogether satisfied with his scientific field 
of observation, he visited Philadelphia, and there 
attended two courses of lectures, returning to 
Rutland, where he followed his profession for 
five more years. About 1838 he decided to take 
up his residence in New York city ; but before 
settling down as a permanent practitioner of that 
metropolis, he desired to add to his already ex- 
perienced mind, the statistics of the hospitals 


abroad. So he left America for European parts, 
and visited England extensively, making a very 
profitable sojourn in Scotland. He then travelled 
over to the Continent and spent several months 
in Paris, v^here he made it a conscientious prac- 
tice to visit the principal hospitals daily. 

This sojourn abroad proved of great benefit 
to the doctor's health, and added much to his 
knowledge of disease. It was so fully appre- 
ciated by him, that, in 1851, he made another 
trip, remaining absent from this country some 
three months, during which period he passed his 
time most satisfactorily. While making a care- 
ful investigation of the course of treatment in the 
principal cities of Great Britain and France, and 
spending a short time in Switzerland, much of 
his pleasure while in Europe was due to the cour- 
teous attention which he received from the mem- 
bers of the medical profession. And most cer- 
tainly, no man who has been witness of the per- 
ennial kindness of one doctor toward another, 
when in distress, occasioned by sickness, can fail 
to acknowledge that no "Brother Mason" does 
more for his fellow-man, than an honorable mem- 
ber of our glorious profession. Did the commu- 
nity at large, know of the amount of gratuitous 
work that is accomplished every year by the 
medical men of our country toward those confined 
in hospitals; the many weary hours spent at 
the bedside of afilicted clergymen ; or the numer- 
19- ^ 

ous visits paid- -with cheerful countenances — to 
disabled doctors, dcmandino; for pay ])ut justice 
and gratitude; the name of doctor, would, very 
properly, he deemed the true legion of honor in 
this country ! 

Dr. Green married Miss Mary Sigourxey, 
daughter of Honorable James Butler, Rutland, 
Vermont, 1829, and had one living child. By 
his second wife, Harriet S., daughter of James II. 
Douglass, Esq., of Waterford, New York, he had 
twelve children, four of whom died in infancy and 
childhood. His widow now survives him and 
seeks comfort from a heavenly source. Beautiful 
indeed is religious resignation, associated with a 
patient waiting for a better world. We did not ask 
to be born, and we should not ask to die. Pleasing 
must it be for his surviving family, to remember 
that Dr. Green was early impressed with the 
comforts of faith, and the benefit of religion. As 
early as 1829 he made a public profession of his 
convictions, and joined the Congregational church 
at Rutland, Vermont. On coming to New York, 
he became a professed member of the Presbyterian 
church in Duane Street, over whose flock Dr. 
Potts presided in a pastoral way. When this 
congregation removed to a suitable building in 
University Place, he was formally elected an 
elder by the members, and held this position 
till his death. Dr. Green never smoked, and 
was opposed to tobacco in all its forms, be- 


sides being for a long time a strong advocate of 
the temperance cause. But he also agreed with 
Leigh Hunt, that there may be such a thing as 
intemperate temperance. If any taste occupied 
his mind when not engrossed with the studies of 
his profession, it was nature and the pleasures of 
a rural freedom. Not infrequently during a 
laborious life, he would retire from his responsi- 
bilities, and, wandering amid mountain paths, or 
by running brooks of freshest water, secure addi- 
tional luxuries for his table by the use of rod and 
gun, in the employment of which he excelled as 
an amateur. 

Dr. Green- was particularly interested in the 
diseases of the throat and air passages, and their 
treatment by what is known as topical medication. 
This special interest was the subject of close in- 
vestigation during the last fifteen years of his life. 
In 185G, he published a report on 106 cases of 
pulmonary diseases treated by injection into the 
bronchial tubes, with a solution of nitrate of sil- 
ver, and was consulted by many persons on the 

In 1840 he was duly elected professor in Cas- 
tleton Medical College, and continued to lecture 
to the students till 1843. In 1850 he lent mate- 
rial and efficient aid in founding the New York 
IMedical College, and was appointed President of 
the Faculty and Trustees; holding, also, the 
responsible position of Professor of the Theory 


and Practice of Medicine, and subsequently that 
of Emeritus Professor. In 185-4 he associated 
himself with others, in establishing the "Ameri- 
can Medical Monthly," being intimately connect- 
ed with the editorial department till 1857 ; after 
which period he continued to contribute occasional 
articles till it ceased to exist. Dr. Greex resigned 
his Professorship) in the New York Medical College 
in 1860, at the earnest solicitation of his family, 
as his health seemed to be impaired by continu- 
ous labor. 

As a child, he experienced much suffering from 
BCYcre attacks of headache, which troubled him 
more or less during the better part of his life, 
until the last few years. Neuralgia, at times, was 
the source of much pain ; but at an early period 
he became impressed with the idea that he would 
die of consumption ; and this conviction contribu- 
ted not a little in causing him to study carefuUy 
the diseases of the chest and the best remedial 
agents for affections of that character. Several 
of his sisters and one brother died of phthisis; 
showing that he was justified in his apprehen- 
sions. It was a frequent remark of his, that it 
would be but the traditional fulfilment of an old 
saying, if he died of the disease he was striving 
to cure. 

In the summer of 1860, premonitory symptoms 
of disease — attacks of prolonged wakefulness 
and loss of vigor, he becoming easily fatigued^ 


began to indicate that the mental activity and 
physical labors he had undergone were telling 
on his constitution. For two years he paid little 
attention to it. A friend of the doctor's writ- 
ing to me on the subject, remarked, that "The 
exciting events of the war made a deep impression 
upon his mind, inducing at times great depression, 
although he never doubted the issue of the contest. 
It was a great trial to him to be unable to do as 
his forefathers had done — bear arms in his coun- 
tries defense ; and he had no sons old enough to 
send to the war."* 

In 1863, on returning from Yv^ashington, D. C, 
whither he had gone to break up a cough which 
was troubling him, he experienced a slight attack 
of paralysis of the left side, accompanied with a 
general loss of nervous power. The warning 
roused him to make an effort in his own constitu- 
tional behalf. He had gone to bed in very fair 
health; but on arising in the morning, found it 
very difficult to walk. He took passage for the 
Island of Cuba, where he passed the winters of 
1863-4 and 1864-5. During his sojourn, there 
had been such marked improvement that he found 
himself able to treat many patients who sought 
his aid. But this renewed power did not last 
long. The pleasant surroundings of new objects 

* Dr. Green's father was one of four brothers who fought 
In the battle of Bunker Hill 


of curiosity and interest, combined with a mild 
climcatc, proved but temporarily beneficial; for lio 
gradually fliiled, becoming feebler and more lame 
from time to time, though he never lost all power 
of motion. 

His practice gradually became confined to offico 
patients, and in time his visits there were even 
less frequent, his last being paid only five or six 
weeks previous to his death. IMuch of his pro- 
fessional business was carried on by his brother- 
in-law, Dr. Douglass. Even in his final visit to 
his library, he gave medical advice to a lady who 
had come from Philadelphia to seek his aid. But 
during the last four weeks of his life, he was 
obliged to remain in bed, not from pain, but in- 
capacity of movement; his principal difficulty 
being that of "wearisome days and nights,^' and 
a general prostration of the nervous system, of 
which he died on the eve of Thanksgiving Day, 
conscious to the last, and without a struggle. 

Dr. Green's height was 5 feet 11 inches, and 
his weight, for many years, varied from 145 to 
140 pounds. 

He was a Corresponding Fellow of the London 
Medical Society, and member of the American 
Medical Association, Fellow of the New York 
Academy of Medicine, and member of the Society 
of the "Cincinnati.'' 

Dr. Green's published works are: 

1. Observations on the Influence of Malarious 


Atmosphere in the Prevention and Cure of 
Phthisis Pulmonalis. In New York Journal of 
Med. and Surg., January, 1840. 

2. Effects of Ergota in Parturition, with cases. 
New York Journal of Med. and Surg., January, 

3. Treatise on Diseases of the Air-Passages. 
1846. This work has gone through three edi- 

4. Pathology and Treatment of Croup. 1849. 

5. On the Surgical Treatment of Polypi of the 
the Larynx, and CEdema of the Glottis. 1852. 

6. Treatment of Epilepsy. New York Medi- 
cal Gazette, March, 1853. 

7. Priority in Medication of the Larynx and 
Trachea. American Medical JMonthly, April, 

8. Some Important Observations on Aphonia, 
arising from Organic Lesions. Read before the 
London Medical Society, by the Secretary, at its 
session in April, 1854, and printed in American 
Medical Monthly, August, 1854. 

9. Remarks on Croup and its Treatment. Amer- 
ican Med. Monthly, June, 1854. 

10. On the Employment of Injections into 
the Bronchial Tubes, and into Tubercular Cavi- 
ties of the Lungs. Amer. Med. Monthly, Jan'y, 

11. Report on the Use and Effect of Applica- 
tions of Nitrate of Silver to the Throat, either in 


local or general diseases. Transactions of the 
American Medical Association, 185G. 

12. Lesions of the Epiglottic Cartilage. Amer. 
Med. Monthly, October, 1857. 

13. Selections from the Favorite Prescriptions 
of living American Practitioners. 1858. This 
work was translated into French. 

14. Croup; its Treatment by Cauterization and 
Cathcterism of the Larynx. American Med. 
Monthly, February, 1859. 

15. On the Difficulties and Advantages of Ca- 
theterism of the Air-Passages in Diseases of the 
Chest. Amer. Med. Monthly, February, ISGO. 

16. A Practical Treatise on Pulmonary Tuber- 
culosis. 18G4.