3 1833 00045 0129
Gc 976.9 J632e
Johnson* W. D.
Biographical, sketches of
prominent Negro men and
women of ky.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center
PROMINENT NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN
With Introductory Memoir of the Author, and Prefatory Re-
marks Showing the Difference Between American and
. British Slave Holders; Also Opinions of Leading Thinkers
of the Race, j»j*.»»jtj»>>jtjt.jiotjt tj»jtjijt
BY W. D.JOHNSON.
Illustrated with Fifty Portraits.
1 II i
THE 8TANDABD PRINT,
r }-.i: U '«l'jJ<l' <
Introduction, By K. C. 0. Beujuiuiu 6
Hon. W. O. BRADLEY, Governor of Kentucky 11
W. H. Ross 16
Mary E. Britton 18
Prof. G. P. Russkll 20
W. A. Taylor ' 21
C. H. Parrish, A. M.,D. D 22
Rev. Joseph Couktkey, D. D 24
Prof. J. M. Maxwell, A. M 25
; Rev. \V. H. Bowkn 26
J J. J. C. M( Kini.ky 27
o J. A. Ciiii.ks, LL. B 28
J CHAITER XII.
? _Rev. W. H. Dickkrsox 20
£ £ CH AFTER XIII.
»»EjJ. F. Gray 30
A. D. Kellky, M. D 30
Rev. C. C. Vauohan 31
W. T. piSNWiDUiE, I). D. S 32
J. W. jEwtrrr 33
Prof. F. L. Williams, A. B 35
J. C. Jackson 37
Prok. J. S. Hathaway, A. M 39
A. L. Paey 41
Benjamin Eranklin 42
Rev. S. E. Smith, D. D 43
Rev. S. J. W. Si'URoeon 44
H. A. Tandy 46
Peter SiMitsoN 47
• CHAPTER XXVII.
Katie V. Harden 48
CHARLES HauoaRIJ 49
Prok. W. H. Pkkhy, A. M 5q
A. 8. White, LL. B 53
W. H. Bau.ard, Ph. G 55
('. B. Prewttt 56
Rev. M. A. Johnson 68
Ki:v. Robert Mitchell, A. M 5!(
J. W. Hillman : 60
K. E. Underwood, M. D 61
Prof. J. H. Jackson, A. M 63
T. K. Robb 64
li W. Chexault 65
I'rof. T. C. Bukori), A. B 66
K. Belle Jackson 68
CHAPTER XLI I.
Carrie V. Robinson 69
I'ltlsciLLA R. Lacev 70
Mary A. .Smith 70
L \V. Taylor 71
L. (J. P. Todd 72
CHAPTER XLVI I.
•IrriTEK Lewis 73
L. (i. Clark 74
W. A. Gaines 76
Colored A. and M. Association 79
Colored Orphan Industrial Home 86
Woman's Improvement Club 95
Opinions Concerning this Book 98
Some Editorial CoNTiMrvER.su->! 107
Editorials on the Whitpino Post 113
Queen and Crescent Railway 120
Loi'ISVILLE AND NASHVILLE RAILROAD 126
Bullanl, W. H., 55.
Bowen, W. H., 26.
Bradley, W. O., 11.
Britton, M, E., 18.
Buford, T. C, 66.
Chcnault, E. W.,65.
Chile*., J. A., 28.
Clnrk, L. G., 74.
Courtney, Jon., 24.
Dickewon, W. H.,29.
Dinwiddie, W.T., 32.
Knmklin, Beilj., 42.
GaiiiCH, W. A., 7(i.
Gray, .1. V., 30.
Hnjrjianl, ('has., 49.
Harrlin, K. V., 4«.
liatlmwuv, J. S. 39.
Hillman, J. W., 60.
Jacksou, E. B. , 68.
Jackson, J. C, 37.
Jackson, J. H. t 63.
Jewett, J. W., 33.
Johnson, M. A., 58.
Kclley, A. D., 30.
Lacey, P. R., 70.
Lee, Henry, 79.
Lewis, .J ii | lit cr, 73.
Maxwell, J.'M. 25.
Mitchell, Kol)t., 59.
Pnrrish, C. II., 22.
Perry, W. H., 50
Prewitt, ('. B., 50.
Rolih, T. K., 64.
Robineon, C. V., 69.
Rose, W. H., 15.
Russell, G. P., 20.
Simpson, Peter, 47.
Smith, M. A., 70.
Smith, S. E., 43.
Spurgeon, S. J. W. , 44.
Tandy, H. A. 46.
Taylor, L. W., 71.
Taylor, W. A., 21.
Todd, L. G. P., 72.
Underwood, E. E., 61.
Vaughn, 0. C. 31.
White, A. S., 53.
Williams, F. L., 35.
These figures refer to
sketch, near portrait.
Page 51, twentieth line from the top, for "Odd Fellows' Home"
read "Old Folks' Home."
Page 52, third line of the second paragraph, for "misery" read
Page 55, fifteenth line, for "Mattie Seals" read "Sallie Seals."
"And Ethiopia shall stretch forth her hands unto God."
«4&C * \
WHILE it is true that the principal object of the writer in giving
this work to the public is to set forth the achievements of
Kentucky's prominent Negro men and to be distributed at the Tennes-
see Centennial Exposition, it is equally true that a work of this char-
acter should be written so as to be of interest to the Negro race at
large, and for the stimulation of generations to come. Therefore, the
writer finds it necessary to set forth this Preface, not so much to pre-
sent the profes-ional, mechanical and business ingenuity of the Negro
men and women of the State of Kentucky — for the biographical
sketches herein fully present this — but to 6ay something of this part of
the race that has made unparalleled progress since the abolition of
slavery, which is only thirty-three years ago, and to compare it with
the advancement and opportunities of other members of the Negro
family not residing in the United States. It is sometimes thought
that comparisons are odious, but it is only so when there is a misap-
prehension from the cause or from the reason of the comparison. As
the subject of this book is of great importance, and will merit ser-
ious consideration, as the matter relates not only to a race no>v exist-
ing, but will be far-reaching to coming generations, we necessarily
draw a comparison between the results of emancipation in the British
Colonies and that in the United States, ami for the reason that we
never, to our recollection, read anything to draw attention to the dif-
ferences existing, or to the effect which has been produced upon these
two sections of the Negro family, and anyone who reads or investigates
will come to the conclusion that the time lias arrived for this compar-
With these preliminary remarks we will attempt to show that the
British Parliament gave twenty million pounds sterling to the British
slave-hollers to emancipate their slaves, not one penny of which did
any slave receive. That was sixty years ago. Now, what we wish to
2 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
emphasise is, that this enormous sura oi money was paid, we repeat,
to slave-holders who were maddened on account of the emancipation
of their slaves, and withdrew to England after abandoning their
plantations, and invested their money in England without ever think-
ing of their recently emancipated slaves. In short, they turned their
Lacks entirely upon the poor creatures, and the legislators of the
country hcing ex-slave holders, or their agent*, made no provisions
for the education and relief of the people. It was under the auspices
of the Church of England, with the support of the "Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel" in foreign parts, and the "Chris-
tian Knowledge Society," with the "Lady Miko's Trustees Fund,''
that the education was begun and continued until the cx-slavc holders'
madness was softened down before any legislative enactment was
made for the education of the ex-slave. Thank God, the church took
up the matter, assisted by the philanthropic societies of Eugland, and
blazed the way for the educational and religious development of the
ex slave. The British Negroes have advanced, but look at the dis-
tance they had to go; look at the obstacles in their way; look at their
state of isolation. Separated from each other without the means of
inter-communication, and at the mercy of unprincipled agents and
others, they have done well under the circumstances. They owe a
great debt of gratitude to the Church of England and the various
societies for what they did in initiating the work of education.
Now, what we wish to draw particular attention to. is, that the ex-
slave holders, as a body, retired without caring a jot or tittle for the
religious and moral education of the people, but left them entirely to
themselves and to benevolent persons to undertake the work, while they
pocketed the amount, as we have before stated, and the people, for
theru, might have sunk down into the depths of barbarism and ignor-
ance, worse than that of their aucestors in darkest Africa, notwith-
standing their excuse for enslaving the Negroes was to civilize and
Now, let us turn the other side of the picture and see if we can
discover any difference between them. We will speak of the emanci-
pation of the Amcrcian Negro thirty-three years ago, brought about
not by paying money to the slave holder, but by the shedding of an
ocean of blood. We remember reading the speech of an ex-slave
bolder at a great muss meeting immediately after emancipation, at
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 3
New Orleans, iu which speech he said, "we have emancipated the
slaves, let us educate them." These words made an indelible impres-
sion upon our mind and gave rise to a series of reflections, and partic-
ularly looking at the action of the British slave holders thirty years
before the delivery of that speech. Now, see the difference; compare
the actions of the ex-slave holders, and give your candid opinion in
the matter. But the reader may say that that speech was not carried
out. Let us see. While there mty be a criticism on the part of
some of the American ex-slave holders for not doing just what was
expected of them, etill there were some who d'd give a helping hand,
and did put their hands iu their pockets, as many are now doing, to
build schools, colleges and universities, besides liberally educating de-
serving young men and women to engage in the work of education
among their people.
In connection with these, immediately after emancipation, there
were philanthropists and benevolent societies who took up the ques-
tion of the education, moral and religious improvement of the ex-
slaves under various disadvantages, local and otherwise. These are
facts that cannot be denied; that there were men and women who
hazarded their lives and went forth to teach and preach to the eman-
cipated slaves. We need not stop to name these institutions of learn-
ing, because they are as household words, and subserving the purpose
for which the benevolence of Christian philanthropists was designed.
Now, truth is truth, and iu making a comparison for the purpose of
arriving at the true facts in the case, we set aside our National pre-
dilection, and declare emphatically and without fear of contradiction,
that the American ex-slave holders did foster and encourage the edu-
cational training of the ex-slaves, and consequently did not abandon
them. They were not thrust out into the ocean without the means of
steering their course, or without the opportunity of helping them-
selves; they were not left to the tender mercies of their agents and
managers; they were not altogether left upon their own resources, as
were the British ex-slaves, but to the contrary, as already stated, they
were taken up and cared for. This shows a balance in favor of the
Americans, and no one will charge us with unfairness or undue par-
tiality from what proceeds from the comparison. It is commonly as-
serted that the remarkable progress of the American Necro has been
made in the very teeth of hostile and opposing forces; but the British
4 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
ex-slaves had a greater struggle, had more unrelenting oppouents, had
more Be Irish ex-niasters and therefore could not be expected to have
made the advancement in the same period that their American cousins
Their benevolent friends lived id the same country and almost
■within hearing distance, and therefore had the greater facilities to
move onward, to press forward, backed as they were on the spot by so
great munificence and sympathy in the cause of their uplifting and
upbuilding. Whereas, their British cousins had two thousand and
more miles of ocean between them and their ex-masters, and had no
means of communicating with England by reason of ignorance and
■want of facilities. They had not even intercourse personally with the
agents or managers of the plantations where they resided. And those
who received the purchase money betook themselves to England, but
never took a boy or girl to their educational institutions in England
to have them educated and return to their people to help in the work
of education. How different it is when we look at the American
side of the picture. There seemed to be uo reserved, no hypocritical
pretentions, no serpentine approaches in order to get money out of the
benevolent for the education of the Negroes, to be spent for other
purposes, or to be spent upon themselves. Now then, here is the dif-
ference in the comparison most marked: The money is received for
the charitable and benevolent education of the Negro, that money is
expended for that object. Here is a school, there is a college, yonder
a university, here is a normal school, there a theological school. Here
is a Negro president of this college, there is a Negro professor, a Negro
warden. All that constitute the institutions are before us to substan-
tiate that the Americans have the best of the comparison. Is it to l»e
wondered at, then, that there should be exhibited to an admiring
world the magnificent exhibition ot u people in the first rank of all
the professions and in commerce and agriculture, within the short
period of thirty-three years? And no myth, but real fact, to be seen,
observed and read of all!
No man but with an intolerable and prejudiced mind will deny
the truth of the conclusion arrived at by the comparison of the two
periods of emancipation. This comparison is drawn with a desire to
aid in the promulgation of truth and to do an act of simple justice to
a people whom the outside world knows nothing of, and much less ig
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 5
known of the immense amount of charity, benevolence and financial
support giveu by the white people for the susteutation of institutions,
solely lor the education of the Negro citizens of the United States of
America. In this comparison between the two periods we have con-
cealed nothing; we have blurred nothing over, but have stated real
facts which we hope will receive the full appreciation of the people.
By a careful reading of the sketches herein presented, it will be
Feen I hat there are great things in the future for the Negro, and that
the nearer he approaches to a comprehension and appreciation of the
responsibilities of citizenship, to that extent will he enjoy the beuefits
of society and good government. And now wc- submit the book to ao
indulgcut public. We have endeavored to condense a great deal into
as little space as possible, and while the book omits very many things
and sketches of persons we would like to embrace in it, yet we believe
it will serve to a great extent the purpose for which it is intended.
W. D. Johnson.
April 12, 1897.
§N invitation of ray esteemed friend, W. D. Johnson, I submit
this introduction, confident that when the trials, triumphs and
progress of the men whose lives he delineates with such super-excel-
ence are studied, yea, wheu the book is read from title page to finish,
the reader will be forced to the conclusion that it is not only of in-
trinsic value to the present, but will be of benefit to future genera-
It is, therefore, most fitting that one know something of the
author. To every great man a peculiar mission is given, to one as
lawgiver, to another as warrior, to a third as teacher, to a fourth as
organizer and administrator, and these careers in their illimitable
variety constitute history. The mission of W. D. Johnson is that of
Pioneer of Negro Independence, indeed, his zeal for the permanent
establishment of the inalienable rights of the American Negro, "life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness," places him on the first page of
Negro history, to be seen and read, even studied by those who aspire
to become prominent actors in the espouscmeut of laudable causes, for
"Lives of Kreut men nil remind us
We can make our lives sublime,
And departing, leave behind us
Footprints on the sands (if time."
Mr. Johnson was not born on American soil, but in Old Eng-
land in the yenr 1800. His father, an Englishman, is at present a
wholesale druggist at Manchester; his mother is a native of Bengal,
India. The European and Asialic blood blended in Johnson is a
good mixture for this country, which is an aggregate of the nations
of all the earth. But if he is not an American by birth he is an
American in his belief of a government of the people, by the people
and for the people; and as a naturalized American his sympathies
are with those of his brethren of American birth in their struggle to
maintain their independence of opinion and freedom of thought.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 7
Before coming to this country Mr. Johnson traveled extensively
throughout Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. This brought him in
contact with the leading minds and institutions of those countries, and
has given to him an intellectual finish that very few members of his
race can boast. He speaks fluently many of the modern languages.
His experience as a traveler, his knowledge of men and his abundant
linguistic acquirements make him a powerful leader.
In April, 1893, Mr. Johnson was married to Miss Martha Jessie,
•laughter of C. B. and Harriet Prewett, one of the most prosperous
farmers of Scott county, Ky. Mrs. Johnson takes an active part
in the business interests of her husband, and she is his constant com-
panion. Upon his hearthstone the fire of domestic happiness burns
brightly. It is here where peace, love and happiness are enthroned,
Mr. Johnson finds an incentive to his ambition and rest from his
exciting public labors.
Within this brief personal sketch I shall enumerate the services
of Mr. Johnson to his race, alluding first to his career as an editor,
for it is in this capacity that the people know him best.
The Negro press, notwithstanding the disadvantages under which
it has labored, has been decidedly successful, and no man has done
more to bring this about than Editor W. D. Johnson. It the Negro
press means anything, it means not only the setting forth of all phases
of the race's progress and promotion of good, but in this land where
the constitutional rights of the Negroes are written but not enforced;
where his civil prerogatives are recognized but not allowed, the Negro
press must assail vigorously the enemies of our liberty. There must
be no wavering, no faltering, no equivocation, no compromise. The
Negro editor must see to it that the rights of the race are not abridged.
circumscribed or abrogated; he must not be derelict in regard to duty,
but as the spokesman of tie race, the guardian of its best interests,
the Negro editor must speak out regardless of consequences.
Such an editor is W. D. Johnson, of The Standard. He is per-
fectly fearless, a terse and vig' rous writer, uncompromising and
hold. His opinions bring him into many controversies, but he invar-
iably comes out the victor. Among the most memorable debates in
which he has been engaged was one with Mr. II. H. Oral/., editor of
the Gazette, a rabid Democratic newspaper published in Lexington,
Ky. Mr. Johnson's editorials were so very Jorccful and keen that
the citizens of Lexington expected a difficulty. Excerpts of these
editorials are printed ill another' port of tins book to which I respect-
fully refer the public. Certainly whatever else may be said of W.
I). Johnson, he is not cowardly. His ability and fearlessness win
him admiration and make him a power in the maintenance of right.
Under Mr. Johnson's management The Standard has thrived
and has become n force in Kentucky and the South. It is unques-
tionably the most original, and among the first of Negro journals,
standing firmly for the race, lifting it up to a higher aud nobler real-
ization of its possibilities. And in this connection I take pleasure in
calling attention to the fact that The Standard has never suspended a
single issue from the time it made its initial bow before the public.
Mr. Johnson is not only a journalist, but he is well versed in his-
tory and the humanities, aud his books show that his literary and
scholastic ability is broad, dee]) aud varied; they are full of learning
ami written with the intention to refute the oft repeated assertion that
the Negto is incapable of becoming a li'erateur. Among the most
prominent of his works are ''Multum in Parvo," ''Black Cat on the
Rocks.'' His symposium on "Which Are We, Colored, Afro-Amer-
ican or Negro?" is one of the most logical arguments on that perplex-
ing question extant. In this work, ani"ng many forcible truths I
find the followiug which I extract and append:
The word "Negro" is the most sublime word of all words that should be
used in discriminating from another race, and it must be home in mind that
the Negro is a descendant of the black man of Africa, therefore the term "Negro"
is well applied, and should l>c readily taken, even though his skin he bright and
clear, his flaxy hair and hazel eves, which marks the difference from the African
in odor, is nothing more than a Negro. It must be remembered ihut there are
five different races of the human family to he found on this terraqueous
globe, and it cats he truly said that there are so many branches from the five
races that it would be impossible for me at this writing to give an account of
them. However, I will confine myself to the word "Negro."
As I have said before, there are live races as follows: The Indian, or the
American; the Malay, tawny or dark brown; the .Mongolian, or Chinaman; the
African, or Negro, and the Caucasian, or while man. So, you see, the words
"African" and '.Negro" are synonymous, and as we are uwav from Africa we
should confine ourselves to the next best thing— not "colored, not "Afro-Ameri-
enn," not "darkey" or "coon," as wc have often been called, but the word that
in written with that large "N" thus -"Negro."
Many arc probably under tile impression that because their skins are light
complex ioucd they arc not Negroes, but ought to bespoken of as colored men
and Women. This is a grave mistake, ami I sincerely hope that each and every
individual will consider anil look Into die HTa Iter more carefully and see
whether or not a Negro can lie culled a colored man. 1'leasc do not misunder-
stand rue. What I mean lo say is thai a colored mall is not a Negro, neither is
a Negro v colored man or woman, as the ease v be. What ill the variety
of (he human familv inhabiting liorneo, .lava. I'hillipinc Islands, New /calami,
the I'olypoucsian Islands and a part of Madagascar?
wn.i.i am ovoxnki-l m;.\i>i.i:v. \'w n.
I iovi-niur uf Kriihirkv.
WILLIAM IIKNKY KUSS.— I w \:
MISS MAKY i:. BKITTOX.— Page 18.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN.
Suppose the Malays were living in this country, having tawny or dark
brown skins, coarse black hair, large mouths, broad, short noses, project inic
teeth, what would you call them, colored or Negroes?
It is needless to speak of amalgamation— the blending together of (he
Negro and the white races. It is one of the mosi repugnant, unreasonable, irra-
tional, as well as degrading thoughts that ever occurred to the whites during
the time that the Negroes were kept in bondage. It is a well known fact that
the first Guinea ship of Africans that was brought to this country were all
Negroes, and there were no colored persons on hoard.
Had it not been for the |iernicious habit, and of the manner of deception
and wickedness carried on, one against the other, when nations became scattered
and despotic governments were formed, when jealousy, prejudice, hatred and the
•I inocring propensity of man held sway, in his wickedness ami desire to rule
over creation, came the baneful word "colored." For this and many other rea-
sons, I suggest that all persons of African descent use the word "Negro."
Mr. Johnson 1ms attained great eminence in another sphere in
which few Negroes have succeeded. In it he has no superiors and
few equals in America. On arriving in this country he entered the
Phonographic Institute at Cincinnati, 0., the oldest school of short-
hand in America, and 60on became a certificated teacher, and is to-
day the only Negro holding a diploma of theBenn Pitman System of
Phonography from the Phonographic Institute, Cincinnati, 0.
During the great political debate between Col. W. C. P. Breck-
inridge and Hon. W. C. Owens in 1894, Mr. Johnson was employed
as official stenographer bv leading papers of the country. Following
is a testimonial of the success of Mr. Johnson's school, from the W.
H. Ferguson Co., Book makers, Publishers and Importers, Cincin-
"It gives us pleasure lo say that Mr. Johnson is a thorough and practical
instructor and capable of teaching valuable business principles as well as short-
band and typewriting. We have had one of his pupils in our employ for
nearly a year, which is the strongest testimony we could offer."
Mr. Johuson is reserved; and whatever one knows of him must
be gained by association. Indeed, one does not know the best men
except by close contact and study. It has been my pleasure to be
associated with him in journalism and other btisines, and therefore
have had this opportunity of observing his character. A man may
be a renowned statesman, he may be a distinguished general, he
may have commanded armies and countless triumphs; he may be
great as a philosopher, he may be great in many and varied pur-
suits; but if he does not unite goodness with it he falls short. I* is
the helpful man who is indeed true and great, and those who know
\V. D. Johnson will join with me in asserting that he is big-hearted,
generous and faithful in every relation of life. Even those who may
differ with him in public nfl'airs cannot deny his labors in behalf of
his race. Knowing him sis I do, his charity, his unfailing kindness,
helpfulness his intelligence and public usefulness, I heartily com-
mend him to you. With such men as pioneers of the American.
Negro the future of the race is assured.
R. C. O. Eesjamin.
William O'Connell Bradley.
[The preface of this book having anounced that its pages would
he devoted exclusively to biographical sketches of Negro men —
men who have stood forth from the nameless crowd and challenged
the respect and admiration of their fellowmen — it might appear to
those who have not studied men closely, nor watched the course of
the political history of Kentucky, necessary to explain why an excep-
tion should be made in the case of Governor William O. Bradley, and
why a sketch of him should appear herein.
But to those who know his career; his years of untiring labor
in the cause of the party whose success has been inseperably inter-
woven with the well-being of the Negro; to those who have watched
his brilliant leadership, culminating at last in an unprecedented and
t';ir-reaching victory, such explanation would be unnecessary.
No sketch of the Negro race in Kentucky would be complete
without that of their greatest benefactor, counsellor and protector. —
W. D. J.]
William O'Connell Bradley, the present Governor of Kentucky, was bom
March IS, 1847, near Lancaster, Ky.; and shortly thereafter liis parents removed
to Somerset, where he spent his boyhood days and to which he is warmly at-
His father, Hon. Robert M. Bradley, was a most distinguished lawyer anil
was acknowledged to be the ablest land lawyer that ever lived in the Slate. His
mother was Miss Kllen Tot ten, the daughter of a sturdy, intelligent farmer of
< iarrnrd county. About the breaking out of the, civil war the elder Bradley
became seriously involved financially, and the son's education was necessarily
cut short at this period, lie being unable to attend school after having reached
the age of fourteen. Twice lie ran away from lioine and joined the Federal
army, but his father on ImiiIi occasions secured his release and returned him
home. lie was a page in the Kentucky House, session 1861-62, and a member
of the Refugee (Union) Guards in Louisville, where the Legislature was removed
in the latter year.
At an early age he manifested a strong disposition to heroine a lawyer, and
that he read law with no listless mind or idle fancy is evidenced by the fact
that the General Assembly of I860 passed a special act authorizing any two
circuit judges of the State to license him if he, in their opinion, was qualified,
as the statute at that time forehade any person under twenty-one to he licensed
to practice law. He was critically examined by Judges \V. C. Goodloe and
Hon.T. Fox, who found him fully qualified and readily granted him a license
though he was hut seventeen years of age, and was, perhaps, the youngest law-
yer ever admitted to the bar in the State of Kentucky. Since that time he has
l>een actively engaged in practice, and has built up a large legal business and
accumulated an independence. He stands in the front rank of the profession,
being recognized both at home and abroad as one of the ablest and most elo-
quent lawyers in the country. He was selected by President Artliur in 1884, to
prosecute the Star Route thieves, but the Attorney General refusing to allow a
fair and impartial prosecution, he retired from the case.
Col. Urndley is as clever and affable a man as one can find in the journey
of a day, though plain and unassuming. He is an indefatigable, methodical
worker and spares no pains in the projier and complete performance of his
duties He is kind-hearted, sympathetic and very liberal. Here is what one of
his fellow-townsmen says of him: "No man in Kentucky has been kinder to
the |>oor, or more willing to help those who have to labor hard for what they
receive than he has, in proportion to his means, and no deserving person ever
appealed to Hilly Bradley's heart in vain. He came up through poverty him-
self and knows the want and Buffering of the poor. No man was ever more de-
voted to his friends, and no man ever had more friends. He has taken especial
interest in the welfare and good citizenship of the Negro race and has done
everything possible for him to do to aid in their betterment."
Kentucky has produced few orators, if any, superior in brilliancy and at-
tractiveness to Col. Bradley. He is a close, logical and powerful speaker, and
the smoothness and beauty of his eloquence has gained for him the appellation
of "the Hluegniss Silver Tongue" throughout the United States.
Col. Bradley first entered politics in 1869 and has taken an active interest
in every canvass since that time, except when he was confined in a Louisville
hospital by a dangerous spell of illncsss, and has delivered speeches in the
Stales of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, West Virginia, Tennessee, Minnesota and Ken-
tucky, where he has been received with great attention, and has rendered incal-
culable aid to those whose cause he advocated, lie has always been a liberal
contributor to bis party, and has spent a small fortune in this way.
He made his first race for office in 1870, defeating W. I). Hopper, a man of
fine legal attainments and great personal popularity, for county attorney of Gar"
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 13
ml county, by a small majority. Judge (ieorge Penny, ran on the same ticket
.r county judge, and it is still conceded to have been the hottest, fiercest polit-
:il fight ever in that coi nty.
In 1872 he was chosen elector for the Eighth Congressional Pistriet, but
iter on he was nominated for Congress and run against Hon. Milton J. Dur-
ham, who was then in his prime, very popular and a forcible debater. He was
ilef ell ted by 600 votes, greatly reducing the former Democratic majority. In
I S74 lie was again tendered the nomination, but- declined. In 1876 he was
again nominated and again made the race against Purlinni, being again de-
feated by an increased majority, which, however, was due to the large foreign
vote on the line of ihe Cincinnati Southern Railway, then being constructed
lb rough four counties of the Pistriet. His party in that year gave him the
complimentary nomination for United States Senator, although he was ineli-
gible for non-age.
In 1870 he was chosen temporary chairman of the State Convention at
Luiinville and accepted in a ringing speech that captured the entire assembly.
So great was the enthusiasm that he was unanimously nominated for Attorney
(icneral, although he stated that he could not and would not accept the nomi-
nation on account of ill health. He afterwards positively refused to accept.
Hon. A. P. Clarke was nominated in his stead. In 1880 he led the Grant forces
at the State Convention, and was elected Pelegate-at-Large to the Chicago Na-
tional Convention, seconding the nomination of General Grant in one of the
most forcible and eloquent speeches ever delivered in a convention. There he
was chosen by the Kentucky delegation a member of the National Republican
In 1882 he was unanimously nominated for Congress, but declined to make
the race, and in 1884 was again selected Pelegate-at-Large to the National
Convention at Chicago where he won ini|>erishable renown by delivering a
spscch defeating the proposed rule from Indiana and Massachusetts to curtail
Southern representation, at the close of which the immense audience arose and
repeatedly cheered him. In 1887 he was unanimously nominated for Governor,
and made the best race ever made by a Republican in Kentucky. His party
again gave him ihe nomination for United States Senator, but was defeated by
James H. Beck, the Legislature being almost wholly Democratic.
In 18S8 he was unanimously chosen Pelegatc-at- Large to the National
Republican Convention, and was unanimously instructed for Vice-President,
receiving in the convention the largest vote ever given to a Southern Repub-
lican since the war. In 1889 he was tendered by President Harrison the
Coroan Mission, which he declined. After the unfortunate death of \V. C.
(ioodloe he was again elected member of the National Republican Committee.
In 1892 he was again selected Pelcgate-at-Large to the National Convention,
ind again made a member of the National Committee, and afterwards made a
member of the National Executive Committcce, of which he is now a member.
His race for Governor in 1887 best shows the political strength and great
[Kiptllarity of Colonel Bradley. Notwithstanding lite party was poorly organized
14 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
and confronted with a united Democracy, with its idol as its leader; and not-
withstanding the State was flooded with Democratic speakers, and he had hut
little help, he reduced the Democratic plurality of the preceding Gubernatorial
race from 4S.917 to 16,707 — 27,120. The official figures also show that he re-
ceived 11,617 more votes than Wood did as against John Young Brown in 1891.
It was during this memorable race that he made the terrible attack on Demo-
cratic misgovernnient, charging corruption at Frankfort, lie was denounced in
the bitterest terms by the Democratic press and State officials, hut public opinion
growing out of the canvass impelled Governor liuekner to call for an exhibition
of the books with the result of the whole State awakening one morning to find
its Treasury looted for some $350,000 and the State Treasurer ("Honest Dick"
Tate) in foreign lands, thus proving Bradley's charges in a substantial way.
Governor Bradley has taken an active part in every canvass since 1870.
There is scarcely a county in Kentucky in which he has not spoken. It is be-
lieved that there is not a man in any State who has shown such a long and
unbroken record of hard, laborious party service — not one who lias encountered
and surmounted such obstacles, and not one who, during a long period of party
leadership, reaching through twenty-five years, has retained the warm, devoted
friendship of so many men. No man has ever exhibited greater tenacity than
he. Robert Bruce, in his persistent efforts to liberate Scotland from the En-
glish yoke, did not show more unwearied efforts, often amid chilling discour-
agements, than has Governor Bradley in his efforts to Rcpublicanize Kentucky.
He commenced his lifo work with a contemptible minority party, some of
whose leaders openly avowed their earnest hope that the party would not be
too strong; that it would remain about numerous enough to fill the Federal
offices. The party was a tender sapling, with hardly enough shade to cover its
roots, and he has seen it grow into a gnarled and unwedgable oak, covering the
State with protection. Governor Bradley has always been in touch with the
people, whose confidence he has always enjoyed.
It was in his canvass for Governor in 1895, supplemented by his extraordi-
nary, arduous labor in 1896, that qualities as a great leader were most conspicu-
Commencing the campaign of 1805, he took strong grounds for sound
money, for a sound and unequivocal declaratian for the gold standard and
against the free and unlimited coinage of silver at 16 to 1.
He carried the convention, made the race on this as the paramount issue
and won, not only the office of Governor, but the whole ticket. It was a square
light, made from the shoulder, and by reason of it the people obtained an educa-
tion in finance which enabled them to enter the canvass of I89G better informed
than any other section whatever. Governor Bradley, the Republican party of
Kentucky, and the sound money Democrats who refused to obey party dicta-
tion and instructions certainly deserve the credit of holding Thermopylae ill
IM'J.-i, and the glorious results of 1890.
For these great service*— the building up of the Republican parly in Ken-
tucky and of the South, to which he has contributed more than any other man
— Governor Bradley deserves as much credit as any living statesman. His ca-
reer as a National man has just CO icnced, and from such energy, ability, tact
and leadership, the Nation is destined to derive great benefits.
William Henry Ross.
William Henry Ross, the subject of this sketch, was born in Madisonville,
Hopkins county, Ky., nearly thirty years ago. He received his early training
iii the public and private schools of his county, and while there he was loved
by his fellow-students, and won the highest admiration and approval of his
teachers by his zeal and the interest he manifested in his lessons. He knew no
such thing as fail, and his teachers, without a single exception, said he never
missed a lesson.
After finishing the course prescribed by the common schools he entered the
Normal School of his county where he came in contact with many students who
were many years his senior, and there distinguished himself as a brilliant
scholar and orator of uncommon ability. In his early boyhood his father, John
K. Koss, who has been a resident of Hopkins county for more than forty years,
successfully carried on a blacksinithing and general repairing business. It was
(here under the tutorage of his father, he learned the blacksmith trade. Like
his father before him, he is full of race pride. Nothing seems to give him
greater pleasure than when he is doing something for the elevation and advance-
ment of his people.
After completing his education in the Normal School, he concluded that the
time had come for him to begin the duties of life and enter upon the public
arena, there to tight life's great battles. He said: "My first duty I owe to God;
second, to myself, as a man and a citizen; third, to my people; and, fourth, to
my country. When I shall have faithfully performed these duties — which, by
the help of God, I intend to do— when I can see my people making still more
rapid progress in civilization, wealth, intelligence and refinement, so that they
may be all the better able to take their stand among the other great races of
mankind; and having the consciousness of having been partly instrumental in
effecting this advancement, 1 shall be ready, should it please the Master, to hear
the 'Well done, thou good and faithful servant, enter into the joy of thy Lord.'
1 believe I could then pass into the great beyond as peacefully and contentedly
as 'one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him and lies down to pleasant
16 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
Willi these thoughts burning in his young soul, our hero entered upon his
life work. His lirsl work was to teach a public school in Muhlenburg county in
1885-6. He did his work so well that he won the admiration and respect of
ImuIi patrons and pupils. They all loved him and begged him to return. But
his desire to become more intimately identified with all classes of his people
prompted him to abandon the school room, and in 1887 he entered the grocery
business with his father. The linn is known as John Knss & Son. This firm
being the only one in the town that was conducted and owned by Negro men r
was confronted with almost every conceivable opposition. As in the school
room, so it was in business, he knew no such thing as fail. He, therefore, with
his glial business qualities and fidelity to duty, shouldered the responsibilities,
broke down the opposition, obviated the difficulties and now (January, 1897) he
is a prosperous business man, occupying a beautiful two-story brick, 20x70 feet,
on one of the most prominent thoroughfares in the city of Madisonville. He
has a complete and well assorted stock of goods with a very lucrative patronage
among both races.
Our hero does not confine himself altogether to bis business, for, as I have
told yon, he is a great race man, and devotes much of his time to any enterprise
which pertains to raising the moral and intellectual standard of his people to a
In the early part of his business life he saw bow his people were being
fooled and cheated out of their political rights and privileges by being per-
suaded to vote against their own welfare and fur that political party whose
platform is always against the interest of the Negro. Stimulated by this
unjust state of affairs, which, by stratagem, were being forced upon his people,
he at once resolved to obviate these gross abuses. This resulted in Mr. Ross
entering the political world. The development that he made and skill with
which he handled the various political questions demonstrated very clearly
that be was a natural born politician. He entered the political field with that
same determined zeal that characterizes the great make-up of the man — to win.
It was not long till he came into great prominence and is now the political
leader in Hopkins and Webster counties, and is well and favorably known in
political as well as other circles throughout the State.
In this capacity, as in all others, and especially when it is for the good of
his nice, he acts as calmly as a lamb and as fearlessly as a lion. His political
enemy is met by him in the highways and on the stump, and there, with bis
patriotic devotion to his people anil country, and in the voice of his eloquence,
fearlessly advocates the principles of the "Grand Old Party," as lie often puts it,
in all of its glory, however bitter the feeling of his political enemies maybe
• In one occasion, in the city of Madisonville, when it was dangerous for a
Kcgro to publicly advocate the principles of his party, our hero stood at the
pnll>, "like a stone wall," and saw that every Negro voted for his party and for
the good of his country. This so enraged the Democrats, who stood by, that
they attempted to whip or otherwise injure Mr. Koss. Fortunately, nature had
<i. I'. Kt'KSKl.l . I'lijrt- »«.
upiTvisir I.cxiiiL;i<Mi Cilv Sri i
W. \, TAYLOIf,— l»a K c21.
< . If. I'AKKISII.- PaRi- 2.1
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN.
|.ri>viilcd him with an unusual amount of physical im well nx intellectual abilitv
and the manner in which he defended himself and the tights of his people was
as glorious to the Negro voters of Madisonvillc as was the surrender of Lee at
Appomattox to the glory of this Republic Truly can it be said of him, that
where duty calls, or danger lurks, he is never wanting there.
"tireat types, like valuable plants, are slow to Mower and fruit" S<> it is
with Mr. Ross. While he is well and favorably known throughout the State of
Kentucky, yet there arc comparatively few who know the real worth of our
hem, and of the intrinsic value of his wise coun-jl anil ardent labor have been
in advancing and elevating the people in the counties in which he is the ack-
nowledged leader. And we predict in the not very distant future the fruitage
of this patriotic type of humanity will lie known and felt throughout the length
and breadth of this country.
Mr. Ross has been for several years a member of the Republican County
Committee of Hopkins, and was the first of his race to be elected delegate from
Hopkins county to the Congressional and State Conventions, and was Assistant
I'.leetor of the Second Congressional District in the Presidential campaign
of 1896. During this campaign Mr. Ross made many speeches for Protection
and Sound Money in the Congressional District, and as a result not a single
Negro vote was lost. He is also 1'resident of the Republican league of Hop-
Mr. Koss is also very prominent and influential in Masonic and Odd Fellow
circles. For many years he represented his home lodge (Odd Fellows) in the
State (Irand Lodge and B. M. (J.; was three times elected Deputy Grand Master,
and in 1894, nt Hopkinsville, Ky., he was elected (irand Master of Odd Fellows
in Kentucky, which position he still holds.
He also represented his county in the convention which met in Frankfort
when more than 200 Negroes marched to the legislative hall to protest against
that infamous separate coach bill. He gave very liberally of his own means,
and succeeded in raising a great deal of money in his county to light the law in
Mr. Ross is a very young man and has the greater part of bis life before
him. From the above history of this young man's life it is very evident that he
has lost no time in preparing himself for the great ami responsible duties of life,
lb' has a very fine library which is supplied with the very best I ksand period-
icals of this and other countries, anil when he is not engaged in his business he
can always be found in his study, busy with books and pencil, lie i- a tine
conversationalist, a pleasant entertainer and is sought after and loved hv all
who know him. This is another evidence of what a young man can do. Ii has
lieen well and truthfully said that "when the spirit is determined man can do
The writer hopes that the history of this young hem's life, which is a very
true one, mav be a great incentive to the voting of both sexes who mav read it.
Mary E. Brltton.
Wc eacli, as we journey through life, form and make our own character
.ami history. The nature of each depends largely upon ourselves and the com-
pany we keep. Therefore, if we desire manifestations of good and ennobling,
commendable and imperishable deeds, let us in the beginning of our journey,
Jiay, all through it, diligently and opportunely sow the seeds that will germi-
nate and produce such fruit. Miss Mary E. Britton, a sketch of whose life I
now write, recognized and acted in conformity to this rule; hence her life,
thus far, has been beneficiallv spent.
Miss Hritton's parents, Henry and Laura Britton, honest, industrious and
irugal people, were among the tirst and highly respected families and citizens
of Lexington, Fayette county, Ky., in which city she was born.
At an early age she exhibited great fondness for books and study. She
«]>cnt many of her school days in the private schools, taught in Lexington, and
especially among those under the management of the American Missionary
Association. Her parents seeing the rapid advancement of herself and their
other children, and recognizing that the increasing demand by them for higher
educational facilities here was greater than the supply, decided to move the
family to Bcrea, Ky., at which place, in JJcrea College, ample provision for
study was afforded them. Her mother being matron and her sister, Mrs. Julia
Hooks, music teacher in said college, she was now enabled for five consecutive
school years to prosecute successfully her studies. One more year of close
study would have brought her to the zenith of her ambition — graduation.
Hut whilst Hearing it she was suddenly interrupted, on March 17, 1874, by the
death of her father; and on July 0, of the same year, by the death of her
mother. Now thrown upon her own resources she, nothing daunted, began the
struggle of life single-handed, anil in it has succeeded in enrolling her name
among the foremost of (he gifted women of Kentucky and the race.
In three months after the death of her parents she had secured a position as
teacher in the public school of < hilesburg, Ky. In 187ti she secured a position
in the public schools of Lexington, which position, since she has continuously
and creditably filled.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 19
In order to qualify herself the better as a teacher and for usefulness, she
has constantly applied her mind to close study and thereby, since she left col-
lege, has acquired much knowledge. As a thinker and writer, Miss Itrilton is
deep and logical, impressive and instructive; as a speaker, Ruent and forcible.
She is strictly a temperate woman, and of strong, conscientious convictions, with
marked individuality and a firm will, yet kind and tender hearted. She is in-
dustrious, frugal, honest, faithful and charitable. She is unostentatious, and is
often seen and heard of, giving alms and doing good deeds for and among the
poor and needy.
Miss Britton is possessed of good business and literary qualities. In the
minutes of the .meeting of the "American Association of Educators of Colored
Youth", held in Baltimore, Md., 1894, appears an able paper, subject, "History
and Science of Teaching," which was written by her and delivered before said
The religious proclivities of Miss Iiritton are pronounced. Until the vear
1893, she bad been a strict Episcopalian; since then she has been a Seventh Day
Adventist. This sect, by worshipping on the seventh day of the week — the Sal>-
liatb — the day God blessed and sanctified, derived its distinctive name. Ex.
20:8-12, John, 14:15-21.
Much more can be said of her, but in the language of the poet I will close
with this quotation:
There are lonely hearts to cherish,
There are weary souls who perish,
While the days are going by;
If a smile wc can renew,
As our journey we pursue, —
O, the good wc all may do,
While the days are going by.
All the loving links that bind us,
One by one we leave behind us,
While the days are going by:
But the seeds of good we sow,
Both in shade and shine will grow,
And will keep our hearts aglow,
While the days are going by.
Green P. Russell.
The subject of this sketch, Prof. G. P. Russell, was born in Logan county,
Ky., December 25, 1 801. He is the son of Green and Frances Russell, who are
known as good, thrifty and progressive citizens. Though they had six children
they resolved to make good citizens of tlicni all by giving them ns good moral
and intellectual education as could be commanded. Few parents have a right
to be prouder of success than they, for six more dutiful, progressive and high
■landing citizens arc the pride of no parents.
During l'rof. Russell's boyhood Negro schools were few and far between,
and he was denied the privilege now accorded every child in the State, but his
good mother, quick to see his early thirst for knowledge, employed a private
teacher for his early training. With this early advantage and the subsequent
training he received in the public schools of Kussellville, he was ready, in 1879,
to enter Rerea College. And a proud day this was for him. For years it had
b.'cn his ambition to enter college; he hail looked forward to this time as anx-
iously as ever a Grecian youth in entering the Olympian games; and now that
lie enjoyed thai high privilege he set about making the most of it. Immediately
lie took high rank in all his classes, winning by earnest work and genial, gen-
tlemanly ways, the high esteem of the faculty and his fellow students. His
Ktrolig predilection for mathematics and the natural sciences and oratory, gave
him nil easy lead ill these branches, and as an orator he is the peer of any
«.f his rati! in the State.
Bui lilt- six years spent ill Bcrca were liv no means devoid of those obstruc-
tions that beset the pathway of the poor, ambitious young man. He refused
every prnllercd oiler of assistance and resolved to make his own way. By leach-
ing and manual labor be paid his way, ami this schooling of his lias been one of
the greatest aids to his success in every one of his undertakings.
Since he left school his life lias been a busy one, all of his time having been
devoted in teaching and self-improvement. While bis preference leaned to the
ln» i. a pmfessi and his training had largely been with a view to entering
that profession, lie wain realized that he < Id be of greater service to his own
(icoplelei becoming a teacher, and as devotion to duty in the highest law that
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 21
lie knows, he l>ccnme a teacher. In his chosen work he lias l>een successful from
the first. His first teaching was done at Chilcsburg, Ky. There he built up a
school that was second to no Negro school in the Commonwealth.
In 1890 a vacancy occurred in the principalship of the High School of lyex-
ington, Ky., and without any solicitation on the part of Prof. Kussell, he wan
unanimously elected to fill the vacancy. That the confidence of the Hoard of
Education was not misplaced is quite evident, for Prof. Kussell has made the
High School the pride of the city. The fame of the school has gone ahroad
and visitors in Ix?xington are taken to this school as one of the jioints of inter-
est alsmt the city.
In 1894, for meritorious services, he was promoted to the |K>sition of Super-
visor of Schools for the city of Lexington, and in 180"), on recommendation of
Mayor H. T. Duncan, and as a mark of appreciation for the very excellent work
rendered the Negro schools by Prof. Kussell, by an net of the General Council of
I/exington the Negro High School was named Kussell School, in honor of Prof.
Kussell, and the name emhlazoned in bronze upon the front of the building.
He has visited and studied the school system of many of the leading cities
of our country, and he now holds the dual position of Principal of Kussell
School and Supervisor of the Negro schools of Ijexington.
William Alexander Taylor.
One of the most prosperous business men of the race is William Alexander
Taylor, the subject of this sketch. He was born in the city of Lexington. At
an early age he entered the public schools where his peculiar talent attracted
no little attention and placed him in the front rank of his fellow pupils. In
1880 pecuniary circumstances compelled him to seek employment, which he
found as a waiter. At this menial, though useful and honorable occupation, he
labored for five consecutive years; but nature had wrought him in a higher
mould, not designing him for such work, and his ambitious spirit was not sat-
isfied, for he always had a desire to "bo in business" for himself.
In 188(1 he engaged in the business of common carrier, at which he con-
tinued for two years; but, not finding it as profitable as he desired, he embarked
in the tea business through the assistance of Mr. Fred Spotswood. In this Mr.
Taylor was very successful, but, owing to the dissolution of the firm he repre-
sented, his store closed.
In 1894 with the very small capital of $75 he opened a grocery store. Hy
pluck, push, industry and politeness he has become one of Ix-xinglnn's most suc-
cessful grocers. Notwithstanding the small capital with which he began bus-
iness, he has constantly added to his stock until its value in dollars alone must
be represented by four figures. Avery interesting coincidence, in his days of
22 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
prosperity, is that the building he now occupies is the old homestead where as
a barefooted boy he passed his early years.
In 1888 he married Miss K. II. Purocly, a union which has been of much
benefit to Mr. Taylor, for he says that he owes his success to his wife, who in
times when failure seemed imminent has been his liest counselor and adviser.
Besides his merchandise he has also valuable real estate, among which is a
beautiful suburban cottage occupied as his residence. Mr. Taylor is not only
admired by his own race but he has the respect of many white friends of in-
fluence, ft is a source of regret that the Negroes of Kentucky have not pro-
duced a thousand Taylors.
And here is a solution of the so-called Negro problem, when the Negro be-
gins business for himself, and accumulates wealth and intelligence the problem
will then In? solved, business is the watchword, lie is an exemplary citizen, his
strict application to business, the resolution he formed at an early age to be
Komething more than a menial and the successful manner in which he has
carried out that resolution, is highly commendable and he can be recommended
to the young men of the race as an example of what they, too, can accomplish if
they but try. We are what we make ourselves, and not what others make us.
In connection with his business a Hairs he is prominent in lodge circles, being a
member of the L'. 15. F. and at present holds the office of Vice-Chancellor of
the K. of I\
Charles Henry Parrlsh.
From the |>osilion of janitor to the presidency of a University sounds some-
what romantic, but this is the career of Charles Henry 1'arrish, the subject of
this sketch. He was born in Lexington, Fayette county, April 18, 185S). His
parents, Hiram and Harriet Parrish, were industrious and pious, and Charles
Henry says he owes his success to them and especially to his mother, who was a
woman of strong character. Our subject was sent to the public school in Iyex-
ington directly after the emancipation of the slaves. His parents being poor he
wa* compelled to leave school in 1874 and went to work as porter and general
utility man until the year 1880. During all this time his spare moments were
H|>eiit in reading and studying, with a determination to some day make his
oi irk in the world.
Kcv. Win. J. .Simmons, with whom Mr. 1'arrish associated, says of him in
his l>Hik entitled "Men of Mark," that he is one of the most zealous men in the
educational work of the State, a consistent Christian and a successful pastor.
Al the age of twelve Mr. 1'arrish joined the Iiaptisl church. In 1872, after
many Venn of training in the Sunday school he was made Secretary. This
|Misiliou he hrhl fur eight years, at tin- same lime filling the position of teacher.
He was n cleclcil church clerk and clerk of the deacon board. It was while
caching night school thai Mr. Parrish became aware of his own deficiencies and
XEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 23
determined to secure a lilicml education. This would have l>ecn attained much
s inner than it was hut the death of his parents, and a sister and brother to take-
i are of, gave him no time to study or attend school, hut suddenly the Ix>rd
o]«ened a way least sus|ieeted. In 1880 Wm. J. Simmons who had taken great
interest in the struggling young man, and who was then pastor of the First
Haptist church at Louisville, received a call to the Stall ! University, l'arrish'
accompanied him and at once began his course of studies, working a part of the
lime to keep up his hoard. The trustees of the University were so well pleased
with the young man's conduct, his willingness to work and his patience in doing
whatever he was called upon to do, agreed to assist him with part of his ex-
penses. This work required three-fourths of his time, yet he kept up with his
class and lead it, receiving the first honor— a gold medal— in graduating from
the academic course in 18*2. lie enteied the college course, and during the
subsequent years was helped by friends in the North. With their assistance,
coupled with the work of student-teacher, tutor, bookkeeper and several other
things, he worked his way through college, graduating May, 188)!, with the title
of A. li. After graduation theVustces and professors of the University fell
that his wholesome example ami his exemplary life, as well as his deep interest
in the work, was sufficient to have his services in the institution, so he was ap-
pointed Secretary and Treasurer and guardian of the young men.
At the end of the year 1880, be was elected Professor of (ireek. These po-
sitions he ably and satisfactorily tilled. Mr. l'arrish was called to six different
churches while a student at the State University; and he finally accepted n call
to the pastorate of the Calvary Haptist church at Louisville, September 27, KSSfi,
which church he still serves, ami which has more than doubled its membership
since he became ils pastor. Mr. l'arrish has tilled many positions wherein
Christian pietv was especially needed as a qualification. He has been a delegate
to the Republican State Convention, the Negro Educational Convention, the
National Convention of Negroes held in Louisville, and was one of those who.
addressed the Senatorial Committee at Frankfort during the appeal of the com-
mittee at the Negro State Convention for the Normal School, lie was the mes-
senger of the American National Haptist Convention which met in Louisville,
Mr. l'arrish is now the President of Eckstein Norton University, Cane
Springs, Ky., twenty-nine miles from Louisville; President of the Kentucky
State Teachers' Association; President of the Executive Hoard of the General
Association of Negro Baptists of Kentucky; Recording Secretary of the Foreign
Mission Hoard of the National Haptist Conventions. In 18115 the title of D. I).
was conferred upon him by the State University. From janitor to secretary,
from fire-maker to treasurer and professor, from porter in a dry goods store to
the presidency of a university, is an achievement worthy ot record.
The Rev. Joseph Courtney, D. P., tlic subject of this sketch, is the son of
Edmund and Cynthia Ann Courtney. He was born a slave in Shelbyville,
Kentucky, April 17, 1845. The first fourteen years of his life were spent on
the farm of his owner with his parents. On leaving the farm he became ap-
prenticed to blacksmithing for the purpose of being instructed in that craft. In
1864 he enlisted in Buffalo, N. Y., as a Federal soldier, and served in Company
II, Thirty-first Regiment, Colored Infantry. At the close of the war he was
Although his mother was a slave and knew little more than the alphabet,
she taught him that, and thus he was inspired by that faithful mother with
studious habits and a love of books. After returning from the army he attended
school under Prof. W. N. Stewart, at Lmisville, Ky. Being dependent upon
his own exertions for sup|x>rt lie pursued manual labor by day and attended
school at night. Later he continued his studies in Lexington, Covington and
Maysvillc, all in Kentucky, under private instructors. Me has been successful
in attaining scholarship not only in the English branches, but also in theology
and the classics.
Mr. Courtney graduated in the While Seal course and became a mem-
ber of the Society of "The Hall in the Grove" of Chautauqua University, Chau-
tauqua, N. Y., by which institution he was awarded a diploma by the Depart-
ments of Science and Literature. Mis father was a consistent member of the
Baptist Church but was not in the habit of conversing freely with his children
upon religious topics. ■ His mother, » ho was not a church member but a
Christian, wrote him a Idler while he was in the army which made the first
serious religious impression upon his mind.
In 1K<;7 he joined the Jackson Street Methodist Episcopal Church, Louis-
ville, Ky., sucking religion. He professed saving faith in the l.ord Jesus
Christ March 18, 1888. To him it was a fi II I clear demonstration of forgive-
ness of -ins and a gracious acceptance in the Beloved. In II few days after his
conversion lie fully realized his call to the Christian ministry, and after prayer-
JOSKIMI COIin'NKY. I'. I'. I'
J. M MA.WVKI.!.. I'
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W. II. HOWKN.— I'awao.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 25
ful consideration lie said, "Ix-t the will of God and the Church l>c done."
In lK(i7 he married Mrs. Fredonia French, of Louisville, Ky. They lived
in the holy l>ond of wedlock twenty-four years, when she was not, for Ood took
her unto Himself. He joined the Lexington Annual Conference in 1873. lie
has successfully served ninny of the leading appointments in the Conference and
is now Presiding Elder, a second term, lie was Ministerial Delegate to the
General Conferences of 1884 and 18%.
lie has heen, by (ieneral Conference appointment, for several years a inem-
hcrof the Board of Managers of the Freedman's Aid and Southern Education
Society. He was married a second time, June 28, 1892, to Mrs. Jennie I'..
I lolland, of Columbia, S. C, and a graduate of Central Tennessee College, Nash-
ville. The union has been blessed with one child, a son, Joseph Courtney, Jr.
In addition to other merited honors the Degree of Doctor of Divinity has been
conferred upon him by Bethany College, N. C.
John Miller Maxwell.
Prof. John Miller Maxwell, Principal of the Louisville Central High
School, was Ixirn in Fayette county, Ohio, in 1842. He was reared on a farm
and attended the public school of the district during the winter term. He was
an insatiate lover of literature, and read with profit the books of his father's
library, consisting of the Bible, Clark's Commentaries, Watson's Bible Diction-
ary, and some biographies of eminent men, who, struggling against adverse cir-
cumstances, had by energy and perseverance enrolled their names high among
those who have "plucked bright laurels from the pale-faced moon and dragged
up drowned honor by the locks " The lesson taught him by these biographies
was never lost, but was a source of constant inspiration and encouragement in
his own endeavors to make his life worthy of the esteem of bis fellowmcn.
In 1862 he entered the Xenia, Ohio, High School, and completing the
course in 1865, began to teach; first in the district schools, and afterwards
was for two years principal of the city schools of Zanesville, Ohio. In 1871 he
was appointed Principal of the Xenia High Sohool where he served acceptably
for two years. In 1873 he was appointed a Special Agent of the Pension
< Xlice and located in Wahington, I). C. Here he matriculated in the Law
Department of Howard University, but, resigning bis position in the Pension
Office to accept the principalship of the Central School of Louisville, he lacked
a few months of completing the course at the University. In 187o he became
Principal of the Central School of Louisville, which position he now holds.
For over twenty years Professor Maxwell has been the honored head of the
Central High School and the beloved instructor of hosts of young men and
women whose future he has shaped. The excellency of the Negro public schools
nl Louisville is due, in no small degree, to his wise direction ami fostering care.
When it is recalled that the High School graduates constitute the great propor-
tion of the teachers employed in the Negro schools of the city it can be readily
diM.vrned how elective his influence has been in the educational allairs of the
city. Add to this his valnalile service as nn originator of the State Teachers'
Association, afterward its ['resident; consider the active interest he has
always shown in the educational allairs of th« State, and it will -he recognized
that he may I*- fitly called the Nestor of the teachers of Kentucky.
Professor Maxwell has heen exccetlingly fortunate in his domestic relations.
In 1869 he wan married t.. Miss o. M. Fletcher, of Beverly, Ohio, and their
union has been binned with an interesting and lovely family of boys ami girls,
Mime of wh have entered successfully the chosen profession of their father.
Knjoying the confidence of all that know him, admired and respected by the
great army of sliulents he has trained, he is, as of old, still a tireless and suc-
cessful laborer iii the great field of education. In recognition of his standing in
the literary world a few years ago the State University of Kentucky conferred
upon him the degree of A. M., an honor as modestly worn as it was worthily-
NOTE— The foregoing sketch was prepared by a former pupil of Professor
Maxwell and his strongest words of praise but faintly express the high esteem
in which the teacher in this instance is held by the pupil.
William Henry Bowen.
William Henry Itowen, the subject of this sketch first beheld the beauties of
this world in Montgomery county, Kentucky, July 4, 18118- memorable as the
birthday of a nation. His worthy purciitsarc Travy and Kizzie Bowen. He
has one sister his senior and three sisters and one brother his junior. He was
reared -on a farm, and attended the common schools until he was sixteen years
old. He was baptized into the Church of Christ at Mt. Sterling, in his native
county, by Elder W. H Brown, in 1880. In the fall of 1889 he entered the
Bilile School, at New Castle, Ky., where he spent three years.
Mr Itowen was consecrated to the Christian ministry in 1892, and in the
same year was elected Stale Sunday School Evangelist by the Sunday School
Convention held at Richmond, Ky. In 1893 he entered the Christian Bible
School in the city of Louisville, in which he spent three years during which
lime he preached for the church at Lawrenceliurg. This congregation, under
Khler ISowen's untiring energy, was greatly Imilt up financially and numer-
ically. In addition to this Work, ill 1893, llC accepted a call to the church at
Midway, which is one of the oldest Christian Churches in the Stale. Here
he* has signally shown bis ability lo take care of the Hock. In I89G he became
■me of the editorial contributors to The Kvangclist, a paper published at Paris
in the interest ufthe brotherhood with which he is identified.
<io tlctoU-r 22, 1890, he was married at Midway to Miss Lizzie Kanstinna
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 27
siinins, a graduate of Oberlin College, and who is now teaching in llic public
schools of Midway. Mr. Bower is a young man, logical and eloquent in the
pulpit and is making an enviable reputation. Hu has taught two years in the
jitlblic schools of Kentucky, and, like Joseph of old, showing himself every-
where master of the situation. At present he is President of the State Sunday
School Convention, and of the Christian Brotherhood, and Vice President of
tin' State Missionary Convention. He is a prominent man in the Masonic fra-
ternity. He has given considerable attention to business, especially real estate
interests which have actively engaged him, and he has accumulated much of
I Itis world's goods. His zeal for his race is very intense and he gives all eco-
nomic questions pertaining to their betterment intelligent consideration. Mr.
liowcn, in addition to his other gifts, has still his youth, and his successful
future depends only upon his energy.
John Jordan Crittenden McKlnley.
J. J. C. McKinley was born at Knsscllville, Logan county, Kentucky,
March 1, 1852. His mother, Millia Bibb, moved hi Louisville, Ky., when lie
was about six months old. At six years of age he entered the school then taught
hy Kev. Henry Adams; later he entered the school tnughl by Mr. Win. Gibson,
Sr. In 1870 he entered Keren College, at Keren, Ky. He was forced to leave
licrea College on account of the stringency of his finances, as his mother lost in
the Fretdnien's Knnk what money she had amassed by years of economy and
care. In the fall of 1874 he accepted the princi|ialship of a school nt Danville,
Ky., nnd in 1875 he accepted n position ns teacher in the public schools of Ixjnis-
ville, where he hns taught ever since.
He has been interested in every movement for the betterment of the nice in
Kentucky. His first speech was for better common schools in the State. He
made his debut in journalism in 1875 ns Louisville correspondent to the Ameri-
can Citizen, published at Lexington, Ky., under the noin do plume of "Video."
In 1878 he was correspondent for the Western Review, which was published at
Cincinnati, 0., as "Mack." The Chicago Conservator secured his services in
IS79, and as "Mack" his name became a household word in the West. In 1KS0
he became one of the associate editors of the Bulletin, published in Louisville,
until it sold out. In 1885, through the persuasion of E. K. Cooper, he wrote for
the World under the noin de plume of "Heft." When Mr. Cooper retired from
the World as editor, Mr. McKinlev retired from journalism.
He i< the most prominent Odd Fellow in Kentucky. He was initiated into
the order in 1875, and has been the Grand Secretary of the State for seventeen
years. He assisted in having the Stale appropriate money to secure a building
for incorrigible youths instead of sending them to the Stale prison, lie is the
author of the first historical sketch of the Grand I'nited Order of Odd fellows
J. Alexander Chiles.
The name of J. Alexander Chiles, LL. B., will always lake high rank among
the prominent men of Kentucky. He is one of many illustrious Negroes who
has risen up to adorn the legal profession and reflect honor not only on the race
of which he is a member, but also to the county in which he resides. Mr.
Chiles was born June 8, 1860, in Richmond, Va. He has a twin brother, John
K. Chiles, who was born on the same date. His father, Richard Chiles, an
honest, industrious and frugal man, is now dead. His mother, Martha Chiles,
a loving, devoted and faithful woman, now resides in Richmond, Va.
Soon after the Civil War the Freedman's School was opened in the city of
Richmond, to which young Chiles was sent, but his parents being poor and having
eight children to provide for he, with his two brothers were compelled to leave
hcIiik)1 and go to work to help provide for the home. He first began working at
the tobacco factory, then later received a position as porter in a store, and finally
hotel work as porter and bell boy. Every spare moment from work the young
man utilized by a close reading and study.
So well did he prepare himself that in the autumn of 1882 he entered Lin-
coln University, Chester county, Pennsylvania. There he was aided in the
prosecution of his studies by working as a dining room waiter for his board. He
wa9 also assisted by the generous and considerate faculty. This, together with
the help received from his faithful and devoted twin brother, and with what he
earned during the summer enabled him to graduate June 7,1887. In October,
of the same year, he entered the Law Department of the University of Michigan,
from which he graduated in June, 188!). While at the law school he was
greatly assisted in hearing the expenses incident to his board and tuition by his
brother, John R. Chiles, and other relatives, for which he has ever been
grateful. It is said of him that while at college he was kindly of disposition,
anil a diligent pupil, and was frequently cited as an example of good conduct
and industry. In the fall of 1880 Mr. Chiles began the practice of his profession
ai Kichmond, Va., where he at once rose to distinction.
Through the inducement of his friend, Dr. John K. Hunter, he pulled up
"Ktakcft" at Kichmond and cast his lot in the city of Lexington, Ky., in the fall of
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 29
IS'.IO. Since then he has devoted himself exclusively to the practice of hi*
chosen profession. Asa lawyer Mr. Chiles has been a decided success and
enjoys a lucrative practice. The interests of his clients never suffer for want of
intention. "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" is the motto
lie has adopted in all his business transactions. He is a devout Christian, and,
though he takes no active part in political affairs, he never hesitates to express
himself when the political rights of his race are at stake. He believes that the
a flairs of the country should be managed by impartial men ami not left to the
dishonest ward politicians.
July 23, 1891, Mr. Chiles was married to Miss Fannie J. Baines, of Phila-
delphia, Pa., who has been a faithful and devoted wife and helper. Mr. Chiles
is one of the men to whom the Negro can point with pride, not merely as an
able and successful lawyer, but for the undeviating and high-minded consistency
ul' his life and the purity of the motives on which be acts. As to his religious
proclivities he is a strong Seventh Hay Adventist, ami is always found adhering
to its full principles. He and his wife are frequently found helping the poor
William H. Dlckerson.
After the smoke from the artillery of the late civil war had cleared away,
1 lie subject of this sketch was given to the world in Tazewell county, Va., by his
parents, Hartley .1. and Sarah F. Dickcrson, for the glory of God and to assist in
the moral, intellectual and religious development of the Negro race. His father
died when William was nine years old, leaving him to battle with life for his
mother ami five younger brothel's. He was reared on a farm where he attended
the common schools until he was seventeen years old, when he began to teach in
the public schools, where he taught five years.
He was baptized into the Christian church by Elder Alexander Dickerson
Sept. 17, 1882; was set apart to the ministry of the gospel of Christ in 188!!; en-
tered the BibleCollegu at New Castle, Ky., in March, 1830, where he completed
a course of studies, three years after receiving a diploma.
He was the pastor of the Christian church at Millerslmrg, Ky., lor nearly
three years and had marked success. In 1892 he was elected Secretary of the
( iencral Convention of the Christian Church, which mcl at Nashville, Twin.
In 18!M at the General Convention of the Christian church, which met in Louis-
ville, Ky., he was elected (iencral Kvangelist, but declined the position in order
in pursue a course of study, lie served the church at May-slick, Ky., with suc-
cessful results in all of its departments.
At the Slate Convention of the Christian church held at Hustonville, Ky.,
July, 1895, he was unanimously elected State Kvangelist of Kentucky, which
position he filled one year with dignity, credit and great service t i t lie church.
Sept. 1, 1893, he accepted a call to serve the Christian church at Nicholas-
30 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
villo, Ky. This is the must modern structure owned by the Christian church
in the Slate of Kentucky, and cost over $6,000.
Mr. Dickerson has luld successful religious meetings in Virginia, Kentucky,
Arkansas, Ohio and West Virginia. He is a studious young man and still
lives a single life. The Christian church, with which he is identified,
greatly values him and his work. He is Secretary of the Kentucky Christian
Convention, having satisfactorily lilleil that important office for three years.
He has been favorably considered, from a pastoral standpoint, by some of the
most prominent Christian churches in Kentucky.
James Franklin Ciray.
James F. (iray, son of Frank Gray, a prosperous citizen of Louisville, Ky.,
was born April 2, 1860, at Versailles, Woodford county, Kentucky. He at-
tended Berea College from the fall of '71 to the spring of '76, and began teach-
ing in his seventeenth year at Kussellville, Ky., remaining there for thirteen
consecutive years, nine of which he was Principal of the female depaitment of
the city school.
He is a prominent member of several fraternal organizations, and was State
Grand Master of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows for the years of '88
and '89. In 1889 he was appointed United States Gauger by President Harri-
son; being the first Negro appointed to that position in the Second (Kentucky)
Collection District In 1893 Mr. Gray toured and lectured in Kentucky, Ten-
nessee, Missouri, Indiana and Illinois. In 1894 he was elected Principal of the
Mayfield, Ky., public school. He was recalled in 1896 to his former position as
Principal of the female department of the Kussellville city school, which posi-
tion he now holds. He is also at the head of the Summer Normal, a school
specially designed for the training of teachers. Mr. Gray is prominent in State
politics, and is an active Republican. He is strongly endorsed for the appoint-
ment of postmaster for the Kussellville postoftice.
A. D. Kelly.
The subject of this sketch, Dr. A. D. Kelly, physician and surgeon, was
l>orn in Carthage, Moore county, North Carolina, in the year 1860. He entered
the public school of that place in 1870, where he remained until 1880. Seeing
that the public school bad performed a good part by him, and there was nothing
remaining in the high school, he concluded to go elsewhere to finish his educa-
tion. He at once removed to Greensboro, N. C, where he entered the liennctt
CVillegc. After the first term in college, having insufficient means to continue
the course, he went North to the summer resorts anil worked for the necessary
means to return to Greensboro, and to pay bis tuition the following session. He
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 31
pursued this laudable line of conduct year after year until lie hnd accomplished
his design; and in lS'.l'l he received his diploma from Bennett College.
lint his ambition did not end here, for he decided to study medicine. In
the autumn of 1892 he went to Nashville, Tenn., anil there entered the Meharry
Medical College, which is one of the hading medical schools of this country, and
after a four years' course in that institution he graduated in the class of '!>(i.
lie is an honest and conscientious man, full of genius and seems to lie on
the high road toward fame, for he possesses that quality of earnestness, prompt-
ness and energy which give endurance to every purpose of life. lie is a splen-
did example of the possihilities of the Negro in the Southland. Wc hold up
l>r. Kelly to the rising generation as one of the young men whose- integrity,
llhilily and perseverance has placed him in the front rank of our professional
men. The good and generous qualities of Dr. Kelly beam in his very eounte-
lenancc. There are hut few professional men of the race in Kentucky who are
more loved and honored than he.
Dr. Kelly at this writing is a successful practitioner in the city of Coving-
ton, Ky. He is a man of line parts, and an excellent and conscientious phy-
sician, and deserves all of the honor paid him. He gives all of his attention to
the practice of his profession, believing that it is only by a strict application
to one's calling that he can succeed.
Charles C. Vaughn.
December 27, 1846, more than fifty years ago, the self-made man in the
person of Kev. C. C. Vaughn, of liussellvillo, Ky., was horn in old Virginia of
slave parents. He was liberated by his master in 1852, and learned his alpha-
bet in Hamilton, Ohio. He underwent many hardships to secure an education,
hut he look advantage of every opportunity to improve himself, and finally
reached the goal, coming out with honors.
While in his teens he enlisted in the army to serve three years, or during
the war. lie served in Company F, then transferred to Company A, Thirteenth
1'. S. C Heavy Artillery, and was promoted to Orderly Sergeant.
He passed the examination and taught his first school in Sidney, Ohio, in
I8G6. He established himself as a good teacher from the beginning, and has
been actively engaged in teaching ever since, when not in college. Few men
have made such a record as a teacher and a race leader. He has been Principal
of Kusscllville Male School for nearly a quarter of a century, and is still hold-
ing the responsible position at this writing. (1897) He holds a state certificate
and is master of the situation. He has a plain, simple way of expounding the
word of (Joil, and made a very successful pastor for thirteen years in Allcns-
ville, Ky. He is a line parliamentarian, and was Assistant Moderator of the
General Association of Kentucky for two or three sessions. He is now serving
liis tliinl biennial term ns Right worthy National Grant! Chief of Good Samar-
itans and Daughters of Samaria.
He is a prominent Grand Army man, and served on General Palmer's staff.
He lias much influence as n politician, and the candidate does well to consult
him in a close fight. He is a race man and is competent to accomplish much
guild. He lias the confidence of the best citizens of both races, and is felt in the
community when lie speaks for or against any question.
William T. Dinwiddle.
Tin- subject of this sketch, \V. T. Dinwiddie, D. D. S., was horn in Danville,
Kv., Mav *_', 1S<V>. His mother died when lie was four years of age. From the
age of six until thirteen he attended the public school of his native town and
showed a great fondness for his books and had original ideas.
Leaving school at the age of thirteen, he began to learn the carpenter's
trade with his father, who was a fine mechanic. He continued at the trade un-
til he was seventeen years of age; at this time his father died, thus leaving him
an orphan. At this period in the life of young Dinwiddie the need of a better
education was more apparent, and after making some preparations he entered
Knoxrillc College at Knox ville, Tenn.
After spending two years at this institution of learning, be returned to Dan-
ville, completed bis trade and became an acknowledged master mechanic. Not
onlv was be classed among the first wood workmen of his home, but also in Ix"X-
ington, where be was employed in one of the leading shops. Indeed, most of
the line and artistic work to be seen in the beautiful residences of Lexington
was finished and put up by him.
Having a natural talent for dentistry and a desire to practice that profes-
sion, he entered Mcharry Medical College in the fall of 1893, and took a three
years' course, graduating with high honors in February, 18!Ki. After graduat-
ing be returned to Lexington and opened an office with l)rs. Hunter and Rob-
inmtn, nnd soon built up an extensive practice. After much solicitation from
the President of the Faculty of Mcharry Medical ami Dental College, be ac-
cepted a professorship, nnd look the chair of Prosthetic Dentistry. This posi-
tion be belli with credit for one term, and then resigned to enter the practice of
his profession. He is now located with Drs. Hunter and Robinson. There be
lias a beautiful anil well arranged dental pallor, and is prepared to do any and
all kinds ,,l denial work.
In 1 >r Dinwiddie Uxington can well boast of having a tlentisl second to none
ill the city. With his gentlemanly ways and skill in bis profession, we predict
for biin n bright future and one who will be a credit to the race.
.1. .!. I . M'KIM.I.Y. 1'ai.i- -J7
J. AI.KXANKKi: ( -III I.MS, I.I. I!. IW 28.
\V. II. I'll -KKItSUN. -I'.
John Welden Jewett.
One of the famous products of the Blue Grass is John Welden Jewett, who
was^born near Lexington, March 4, 1870. Like most of his race, and, indeed,
like the majority of any people who have, in any way, distinguished themselves,
Mr. Jewett is self-made. By the grace of God and his own indomitable grit he
is what he is— an honorable, useful and a cultured American citizen. His early
life shows ilnit "honor and fame from no conditions rise," and that the humblest
American boy may make himself what he will. Early in life a burning thirst
to drink from the fountain of knowledge came to young Jewett, and his good
parents, Jordon and Diana, though, by a cruel fate, denied a taste of the spark-
ling waters, encouraged the laudable desire in their son, who was born under
a more auspicious star.
To secure better educational advantages for their aspiring son Mr. and
Mrs. Jewett moved to Covington. Though the schools were free, and his par-
ents willing and anxious for his mental advancement, yet it was not without a
hard struggle that he succeeded in passing, with credit, through the Covington
schools. There were books to buy, and clothing, and, too, both from choice and
necessity, he, while pursuing his studies, contributed his mite to the family
support. To do this, he followed the Scriptural injunction, doing with a might
whatsoever his hands found to do. Working in private families and running
errands after school hours, and studying when, perhaps, tired Nature demanded
sleep, young Jewett stood well in all his classes. As is always the case with
struggling, ambitious boys, his efforts to succeed on his own merit were watched
by many not unkindly eyes, and, when he had finished the course prescribed
for the Covington schools, iie had scores of warm friends he had unconsciously
made during, though arduous struggles.
In 1883, a proud day in his life, he entered Gaines' High School of Cin-
cinnati, and for live years be continued the struggle, graduating with honor in
1888, which was the proudest moment in his life. The chosen salutatorian of a
large class, he distinguished himself both in the composition and delivery of
his oration, a\ld those who heard him predicted an honoiahle and useful career.
While in the High School Mr. Jewett continued to labor with his hands as well
as his brain, defraying his own expenses and assisting in the family support.
His education finished, Mr. Jewett, while not above manual labor, sought a
more exalted sphere of usefulness. Being a man of benevolent and noble im-
pulses he naturally chose the profession in which he could be the most useful
to his own people — that of a teacher.
So, coming to Lexington in ISSIO. he began his chosen vocation in a Fayette
county school, at Cadcntown, where he has since continuously taught. He stood
deservedly high in his examination for a certificate of ability, nnd entered upon
his work with an intelligent enthusiasm which could not fail to bring success.
From the beginning the school grew in numbers, enthusiasm and usefulness
and it is now one of the best rural schools in the South, and has sent out a larger
number of regular graduates in the course of study prescribed for the Common
Schools than any other Negro school; and, at the Midwinter Exposition, 1895,
he was awarded a beautiful silk banner for the superior excellence of the dis-
played work of his pupils.
Mr. Jewett is an honor to the profession, in that he is not content to meas-
ure his knowledge by that of his scholars but has, since his graduation, been an
even harder student than when a pupil himself. And so his mental growth has
been steady and hearty, and he is now splendidly equipped for his work in the
possession of a rich fund of professional and general information. He is thor-
oughly abreast of the times, and all his school room methods are modern and
efleetive. His law is kindness in the conduct of his school, his theory being
that voting people arc reasonable human beings and may be governed accord-
ingly. So highly did the professional achievinents and manly worth of Mr.
Jewett commend him to the Superintendent of Schools, who is the author of
this sketch, that he was chosen to conduct the Teachers' Institute, no mean
honor in a county which has a higher grade of teachers than any other county
in the Commonwealth. He has served as President of the Fayette County
Teachers' Association, and has been active in every measure that would advance
the cause of education among his people.
Notwithstanding his busy professional life, Mr. Jewett has been somewhat
active in the work of benevolent orders and in politics. He has served for
several years as a member of the Republican County Committee, and is always
chosen as a delegate to State Conventions. The Fred Douglass Club at Lex-
ington, during his term as President, became a potent political factor. Under
Postmaster J. It. Howard Mr. Jewett passed the Civil Service examination, ex-
celling twenty-five other applicants. He was appointed to a position in the
posuinlce, but declined, feeling that he could better serve his people in the
school room than as an office-holder. Mr. Jewett Was elected Chancellor
Commander of lilue (irass Lodge, Knights of I'ythias, which position of honor
he now holds.
Mr. Jewett is a writcrof much ability, and occasionally publishes an article
which is at once instructive anil displays a literary finish that makes his readers
wish he would write oftener. lie is also a speaker of lunch forie, and so well
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 35
docs he like intellectual controversy that lie has a cherished ambition to become
n lawyer. A true man, ambitious and cultured, and making friends un every
hand by leading an honorable and pure life, there is every reason to predict
that Mr. Jewett will become a blessing to his people and an honor to his
Frank L. Williams.
Kentucky has no son, who cherishes with greater pride her history, glories
more in her achievements and progress, and fosters with greater solicitude her
honor than Frank L. Williams, A. I!. IWn in the city of Louisville, within a
few squares of where he now lives, he received his elementary education in her
Mrs. Harriet Williams, bis mother, was well and honorably known, in the
northwestern part of Louisville, for her great industry, fidelity to duty, and
faithfulness in meeting obligations. She beliived fully in the majesty of lalor
and Frank, her eldest son, does not remember when he did not assist in the
work around the house. It was therefore natural for him to want to earn
money. Since his twelfth year he has clothed himself and paid his board. Mrs.
Williams died when Frank was in his sixteenth year. She was conscious
of her condition for several hours before the end, and spoke freely of the dispo-
sition that should be made of her children. "As for Frank," she said, "let him
alone; 1 have no fear of his future."
After working in a wholesale hardware house, with the view of leading a
mercantile life, Frank packed his trunk and with a few hundred dollars he had
saved started West in the summer of 18S2. Arriving at the little town of
< orydon, Ind., he was persuaded to take the teachers' examination and became
principal of the Corydon School. At the close of the school year, Mr.
Williams, feeling the need of a better preparation for his work, resigned and in
the following fall was matriculated as a student in Ilerca College.
During the five years of his college life he earned his expenses by leaching
in the Kentucky mountains during the summer and doing work for the college
during term time. In 1889 he graduated with the highest honors from the
classical course of the college. Since his graduation Mr. Williams has been in
the Government service, Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association,
editor and contributor to current literature, teacher and Institute instructor.
In his work as Institute instructor Mr. Williams has made an enviable
record among the teachers of Kentucky. His enthusiasm is contagious and bis
Institutes have been characterized by large attendance of white citizens, as well
as his own race, in the towns in which they have been held, and by great earn-
estness and zeal on the part of the leaders to fit themselves for better service.
Superintendent (Million, of Carroll county, Kentucky, voices the sentiment of
36 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
tlio County Superintendents for whom Mr. Williams has instructed, when he
writes in his own paper:
"Prof. F. L. Williams, of Louisville, who conducted the Colored Institute
here this week, is one of the most capable men we have ever known to have
charge of an Institute. Having a thorough collegiate education, along with a
knowledge of the principles of education and instruction, and being a fluent
and even eloquent speaker, he makes a most efficient instructor."
Mr. Williams has occupied the Chairof Mathematics in the Louisville High
School for four years In this position he has given the greatest possible satis-
faction, and is greatly beloved and respected by his pupils and the patrons of
the school, He has been identified with every progressive movement among
his people in Louisville, and in the State, for the past seven years. He is a
member of the Committee of Management of the Young Men's Christian Asso-
ciation; was for years Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Orphans'
Home; is a member of the Executive Board of the General Association of
Kentucky Baptist*; is Superintendent of Calvary Baptist Sunday School; was,
in 1890, President of the Teachers' Institute of Louisville, and is one of the
Trustees of Camp Nelson Academy, and Secretary of the State Teachers' Associa-
tion. He has been honored with invitations to deliver addresses before the
faculty and students of the best schools in Kentucky.
In 1891 Mr. Williams was married to Miss Fannie B. Miller, of Danville,
Ky., who enjoys the distinction of being the only lady classical graduate of
Berea College, of the race. To them have come three children — Susie Pearl,
Sophia Maurice, Frank Lundsford. Mr. Williams has been described by one
of his friends as cold and calculating; yet to one seeing him in his home, with
a babe on each knee and one on his back, no nature could be more sunny. He
loves his friends dearly and does not hesitate to make any risk in their behalf.
Having a profound faith in the future and recognizing that "diligence in busi-
ness soon brings success," Mr. Williams is a close student. He has in the last
two years studied faithfully the bearings of psychology and physiological
psychology on the teacher's work. This, with a special study of educational
values, a comprehensive study of the entire subject of education, and fifteen
years' experience in teaching, has placed him in the forefront of teachers.
To a man of such natural gifts and powers, of such noble principles and
high ideals of life, with such a position and such an influence among men, with
such happy home surroundings, success can but come, and, in that this success
must needs bring greater powers for ennobling and elevating his fcllowmen, we
can but rejoice in his glorious prospects.
Jordon Carlisle Jackson.
Jordon Carlisle Jackson whs bom in Fayette county, Kentucky, February
28, 1848, and was a slave until emancipated by President Lincoln's Proclama-
tion. Mr. Jackson lias bad no scbool training save tbat of experience and
is in the fullest sense of the term a self-made man. lie has been prominent in
both local and State affairs for years, and has perhaps a larger acquaintance
with promiment men, both white and black, than any other Negro in Kentucky.
He has held many positions of honor and trust and has all along acquitted
himself in such a way as to merit the approval of the nice.
For several years he was the lay Trustee of Kentucky Conference, A. M.
E. Church, of AVilberforce University, and took a prominent part in the dis-
cussions of the Hoard of Trustees relative to the management of the institution.
He was for twelve years the only Negro member of the Hoard of Trustees of
Perea College, and rendered valuable aid by his counsel, so much so that both
President Fairchild and Kev. John G. Fee disliked very much to have him
remain away from the annual meeting. The period for which he was relected
to serve ended during President Frost's second term, and, although strongly
urged by Kev. Fee and others, lie declined the re-election.
It is perhaps in politics that he has gained hisgreatest reputation. Already
prominent as a local leader he so thorough' gained the confidence of the Repub-
lican party as to be honored with positions of profit and trust. Ho held the
positions of Storekeeper and dinger, and .Storekeeper, in the Internal Hevenue
Service for the Seventh District of Kentucky, under Collectors A. M. Swope,
C. II Stoll and T. C McDowell. As an officer Mr. Jackson was always popular
and ranked as one of the best in the service. He has on very many occasions
represented his race in various conventions; being a member and Secretary of
the National Negro Convention, held in Nashville, Tcnn., in 187o; and of the
National Newspaper Convention in Cincinnati the same year, while he was the
publisher of the American Citizen, of Ix-xington.
In the National Negro Convention held in Louisville, when a sharp light
fur leadership between the late Frederick Douglass and John M. L.ingston was
made, Mr. Jackson took an active part in bringing Kentucky in line for Mr.
38 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
Douglass, who ever afterward lield him in high esteem. Mr. Jackson was tem-
|>orar_v Chairman i>f the State Convention held in Lexington in 1802 to organize
the fight against the Separate Coach law, and made a ringing speech that largely
shaped the course of the convention. He was alternate Delegate-at-large with
Col. William Cassius Goodloe to the National Kepuhlican Convention held in
Cincinnati in 1S7IS, and wan elected Delegate-at-large to the National Repub-
lican Convention held in Minneapolis in 1892.
It was during the contest for Delegate to the Minneapolis Convention that
Mr. Jackson showed his political shrewdness and splendid fighting qualities.
He was the last of the four Negroes who entered into the race and was handi-
capped from the start. A prominent white Kepuhlican. also from Lexington,
was a candidate, and, as it wits unusual to select two of the Delegates-at-large
from the same city, the white aspirant regarded the candidacy of Mr. Jackson
as detrimental to his interest and was very much opposed to him. Each Negro
candidate was hacked bv strong influences; one by a powerful church, another
by the old soldier element, and the other was strongly aided by secret societies.
Mr. Jackson's warmest friends felt under the circumstances that he was indulg-
ing in a forlorn hope, yet they felt a degree of confidence in his quiet but deter-
mined manner of campaigning. In a convention of 1,500 delegates he had
only 80 instructed votes, and yet so skillfully did he manage his fight that on
the third ballot he received over 800 votes defeating the other candidates in
what the Lexington Leader says "was the most magnificent political fight we
have ever witnessed." ,
He again showed his political shrewdness in the fight to endorse Governor
Bradley for the Presidency' in the State Convention of 1896. No man in the
convention rendered the Governor more valuable service, and it is said that no
Negro in the State enjoys his confidence more fully. The secret of Mr. Jackson's
success is due to the fact that he is true to his friends, and slow to make prom-
ises, but when once made they are never broken. He would rather go down in
defeat than desert a friend after espousing his cause; all know this and have
confidence in his promises; hence hit) popularity, even among those whom he
Mr. Jackson has fine literary as well as business qualities. He was the
publisher of both the American Citizen and Kentucky Kepuhlican. In the
latter pa|>er he made quite a reputation as a writer under the mini de plume of
"Uncle Epli." In the Lexington Standard he contributed a series of articles
signed "Observer," that created widespread interest. He makes no pretense to
oratory hut in a plain common sense style goes straight to the meat of the
matter under discussion. As a business man he is prompt, energetic and reli-
able, and has been very successful.
In 1871 he was married to Miss E. Bella Mitchell, of Danville, Ky., and
often says it was the best investment he ever made, as he owes much of his
success to her. She has always entered heartily into the spirit of all his plans
Willi »i^- counsel and encouragement, It is said of her that she was opposeil to
his making the race for Delegate-at-large, because it would cost him too much
money and keep him away from home while making the canvass. Itut after ho
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 39
had entered the race, and she learned that a hot three-cornered fight was being
made against him, her pride became aroused, and she not only encouraged him
with words of advice but tendered him the use of her own small bank account,
the accumulation of several years of work in the school room, to he!p him out
rather than see him defeated. When he telegraphed his victory at 3 o'clock in
the morning she was the happiest woman in Kentucky.
Mr. Jackson rendered valuable party service in the campaign for McKinley
in 1896; in fact, it is said that he had more to do with landing Kentucky in
the Republican column than the public generally is aware of. It was he
who induced Rev. 1. H. Welch to become a candidate for Congress in the
Seventh District against Judge Denny with the view to running him off the
track so as to leave a clear field for Colonel Rreckinridge, the sound money
Democratic candidate. Mr. Welch's candidacy had the desired effect. Colonel
Breckinridge received the Republican nomination, and the large Democratic
vote he received saved the State to McKinley. Mr. Jackson has been urged
by his friends, of both races, to become an applicant for office tinder the present
Administration, with flattering offers of endorsement, but he declines to do so.
He says he will always take a lively interest in politics but prefers, as a means
of making a living, a quiet business life rather take the upsand downs of official
In 1892 he entered the undertaking and livery business with William M.
Porter, at 36 North Limestone street, Lexington, and under Mr. Jackson's
careful management the firm has won the confidence of the community and are
doing a thriving business. Mr. Jackson is public-spirited, and, although the
business of the firm has grown to such proportions as to demand his constant
attention, yet he finds time to devote to society work and take an active part in
all public enterprises affecting the race, and carries into it the same energy and
zeal that he puts into his own business affairs. He is very highly esteemed by
all who know him and a bright future is predicted for him.
James Shelton Hathaway.
The subject of this sketch, James S. Hathaway, was born at Mt. Sterling,
Montgomery county, Kentucky, March '29, 1859. His early education was re-
ceived in the schools of that place. At the age of seventeen he went to Berea
College, where he remained until lie graduated from the classical course in the
year 1884 under the Presidency of Rev. E. II Fairchild, receiving the degree of
Bachelor of Arts. The day after his graduation he was elected Tutor of Latin
and Mathematics in his Alma Mater by its Trustees. Three years later he mar-
ried Miss Celia Anderson of Clyde, O., who was then a teacher in the schools of
While connected with the institution his salary was at different times ad-
vanced. He was made a member of '.he Faculty, and the degree of A. M. was
conferred upon him. "While nt Berea he conceived the idea of organizing and
establishing a printing and publishing company. Through great labor and sac-
rifice, he interested many, and the Intelligence Publishing Company was incor-
jwrated, with him as President and headquarters at Lexington. Through his
persistent efforts as President an excellent site for the company's building was
purchased on Broadway, at a cost of three thousand dollars, and paid for; be-
sides, money pledged for a building. The aflairs of the company now began
to require more time than he could spare from his work at college, and he an-
nounced to friends his purpose to resign the Presidency of the company, and did
decline a re-election at the approaching annual meeting. In the meantime he
settled to the satisfaction of the company and to parties contending, the misfor- 1
tune of workmen undermining an adjoining building while excavating for the
company's foundation. Also on a leave of absence from college for the fall of
'92, upon insistence of members, began the publication of The Standard. He
returned to his college work at the expiration of his leave of absence.
In the summer of 1893 he resigned his position, in Berea College to accept
the position of Professor of Agriculture to which he had been elected in the
State Normal School at Frankfort, Ky. The following official testimonial was
Berea, Ky., October 4. 1893.
Prof. J. S. Hathaway, Frankfort, Ky.
Dear Sir and Friend: — I am authoiizcd by the Faculty of Berea College
to express to you their appreciation of you and of your work, as an instructor
in the college. For nine years, or ever since your graduation, you have held a
place, as one of us, a fact which of itself says much for your efficiency. One
seldom holds for so long a time, immediately after graduating, a position in his
Alma Mater. Since becoming a member of the Faculty you nave rendered val-
uable service by your counsel on very many occasions. You have always been
willing to do your full share of work; you have been uniformity courteous to
your associates; you have had a prominent part in several enterprises for the
public good, outside of your school work, thus adding to the reputation of the
As you now withdraw from this particular work, and connect yourself with
another institution, we do not feel that you are far separated from us. The
work which you are now doing is but another Dart of our own, and we have a
deep interest in its prosecution. You carry with you to your new field of labor
our wishes for your personal success and prosperity. We shall wotch your future
career with interest, as we do that of all our alumni; an interest increased by
your long association with us as a fellow worker.
L, V. Doixje, Professor of Greek,
For the Faculty, with added assurances of personal esslecm.
President W. G. Frost later added the following:
To Whom it May Concern:
This certifies that the bearer, J. S. Hathaway, is a graduate of the classical
course of Reran College, and has received the -degree of A. M. in course. For
some years he was tutor in Latin and Mathematics in his Alma Mater, and, as
instructor, rendered satisfactory service. In 1893 he voluntarily resigned his
l«.sitii.n in Keren College to accept a professorship in the State Normal School
of Kentucky, and upon his departure the Facility authorized a committee to ex-
press to him their appreciation of his work in the institution. Mr. Hathaway is
JAMKS l-\ (.KAY. I'ngc :50.
\. I>. KKI.I.Y. I*:i K i-:<0.
Rev. C. C. Vaughn,
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 41
a man of reliable Christian diameter, and a gentleman of good natural abilities,
as well as of most pleasing manners and address. Faithfully yours,
W.M. GoODELI. Frost.
In bis present field of labor, which lias larger opportunities tban tliat at
Iterea, be is applying himself to the industrial development of the raee, and has
instituted an annual conference of farmers for the development of agricultural
industry. This conference is proving a beneficial and attractive meeting. Just
now lie is engaged in raising money for tbc development of t lie Agricultural
I Vpartment, chief of whose needs is a farm whereon scientific agriculture may
lie encouraged and taught.
Andrew T. Paey.
He who moulds the brain moulds the nation. Intellectual power is the
supreme motor in every phase of life, be it political, financial or social. Hence,
it must follow that be who has the supremely eminent privilege of cultivating
this God-like force from its practically embryonic stage to the full develop-
ment of man's estate, is one not merely charged with a responsibility of the
profoundest depth, but also in the dignity of the performance of bis work places
himself upon the same platform of labor as those engaged in the three paramount
professions— preachers, lawyers and doctors. A teacher, then, is a most respon-
sible being, and as responsibility is the great test of man's position on this earth,
he can without tbc slightest qualm of conscience regard his work as being
equally deserving of merit and honor as that of the preacher, who teaches
( hrist; of the lawyer who preaches justice; and of the doctor, who carries into
effect Christ's teachings.
Of this band of workers is Mr. A T. Pasy, a name that has become a
synonym of honorable report in the community where he is liest known. Born
in Lexington October 20, 1872, he was brought up by pious parents, who early
inculcated in him the seeds of Christianity. He soon entered the public schools
and completed the course with great distinction. Then be took the regular
course at the Chandler Normal School, graduating from this well-known institu-
tion in 1898, where he is still remembered for his marked assiduity and rapid
assimtllation of the various subjects treated.
Teaching being Mr. Pney's chosen calling, he quickly secured a situation
and taught in several counties of Kentucky, everywhere proving himself master
of bis profession, and a teacher peculiarly gifted with the faculty of controlling
and imparting knowledge to the young. He is now the Principal of the Patter-
son Street School in Lexington, and by his splendid work has taken a position
in alignment with the most advanced of that city's educators, and as one whose
moral influence is most powerful, necessarily, for it is backed by a character of
unflinching purpose and undaunted courage.
Benjamin Franklin, the subject of this sketch, by his sterling qualities and
strict adherence to business principles, has built up a character and made for
himself a reputation of which any man may well be proud. In addition to his
scholarship, he is a man of trials and difficulties the surmounting of which can
but be an inspiration to rising generations.
Mr. Franklin was born in slavery in the city of Lexington, Ky., May 18,
1849, of a woman of remarkable force of character. He is finely organized and
possesses unusual nerve force, vitality and great muscular strength. His height
is 5 feet, 1 1 inches, and his weight 189 pounds. He was 9 or 10 years old before
he was christened, at which time he selected for himself the name he now bears.
In accordance with the feeling that freedom is a natural right, he enlisted
in the United States Colored Infantry, Regiment 119, Company B, February 11,
1865, when a mere lad, with the resolute determination of acquiring freedom or
dying in the struggle. He was mustered out April 27, 1866. Returning to his
native city a free man he hired to his former master where his mother still
remained. Through nil his vicissitudes in life he always reverenced his mother
and took care of her. She died in his own home July 18, 1888. He worked for
his former master a year or more, and upon leaving there he went on the river
as a deck hand until 1868. That year he went with Mr. Ncwcomb, of Louis-
ville, who was traveling for his health, to Liverpool, Eng., and other foreign
cities and places of interest.
When he returned from England he went again to steamboating and wai
employed as second engineer on the Lady Gray, plying on the Missouri river.
Desirous of seeing his relatives he went home on a visit, and while there Judge
George Robertson, Chief Justice of Kentucky, his former master, having been
afl'ected with a paralytic stroke, took Franklin to Frankfort to wait upon him
in his affliction. Judge Robertson retained the position of Chief Justice of the
Apellate Court until 1871. Mr. Franklin says the most memorable incident in
his life was supporting "old marse" at the inauguration of Governor I^eslie,
when the venerable Chief Justice, in a short and painfully impressive speech,
NEG RO MEN AND WOMEN. 4 3
tendered his resignation, after having administered (lie oatli of office to tin
Between the years of 1871 and 1870, when Mr. Franklin went in business
for himself as a barber, in I.exington, occupying the same stand he now holds,
he worked in Midway, Ky., in a brickyard, in Ix>uisville as a house servant,
and, lastly, as an attendant in the Negro Department of the Eastern Kentucky
Mr. Franklin was married Septcml>er 18, 1879, to Miss Susan J Hritton,
.laughter of Henry and Laura Briilon, deceased, old residents and property-
holders of Ix?xington. His wife being a modiste of more than passing note, as
well as an economical housekee|>er, has been a great help to him in gaining a
competency. He has one of the finest residences, if not the finest, in the city
owned by a Negro. He is highly respected by his neighbors and citizens of
He is n man of considerable means, most of it being in bank stock, and he
knows well how to take care of it. His acquisitiveness is well illustrated in that
he never overlooks any stray article in street or house which can be of use. He
has a perfect curiosity shop of relics, some of which his wife has wrought into
houshold decorations, illustrating this tendency of her husband to make the
most of odds and ends that would I* neglected or left unnoticed by those less
thrifty. The writer, l>eing an inmate of his home, is in a position to say much
more that might be of interest or benefit to others concerning the example he
has set as a beacon light to the race, but lack of space warns her to desist.
S. E. Smith.
Among the most energetic, progressive and loyal men of the race will be
found the subject of this sketch, who first saw the light of day in Barren county,
Kentucky, in 1859. When a mere lad, through the death of his father, he was
t'irown on the world to eke out a living for himself and widowed mother.
Through close application he early in life mastered the common school branches
a id turned his attention to higher studies. In 1881 he entered the State Uni-
versity at Louisville, where he afterward graduated with honors.
When cpiite young he became identified with every movement inaugurated
for the elevation and advancement of his race in Old Kentucky. In 1880 he
was a member of a committee which appeared before the Senate in Frankfort in
behalf of just laws for the Negroes of the State, where he distinguished himself
by delivering an able, scholarly and earnest address in their behalf. He has
mule for himself an enviable reputation as a pulpit orator and a successful
pastor and teacher, and occupies a prominent position among the foremost
Baptist clergymen of the country. He is a Trustee of the State University, and
takes an active part in educational matters, as well as everything else that
pertains U> the elevation and advancement of his people in the Slate, and few
-H KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
men enjoy such social prominence as Dr. .Smith. He is the present pastor of
the Fourth Street Baptist Church of Owensboro, nt which place he has erected
a $30,000 brick house of worship. He hns been most active in the fight against
the Separate Coach law, ami as a member of the State Executive Committee
has had charge of the arrangements and execution of the case.
Dr. Smith enjoys the distinction of having been a delegate to every National
Republican Convention for the past sixteen years, lint few Negroes of the
South have been more active in political matters than he. In 1884 he was a
member of the National Republican Convention at Chicago which nominated
Blaine and Logan. He was a delegate-at-large from Kentucky to the Repub-
lican National Convention at St. I ouis. He seconded the nomination of Henry
Clay Krans for Vice President, lie was appointed a member from the State-at-
largc of the Campaign Advisory Committee.
Governor Bradley commissioned Dr. Smith to represent Kentucky at the
Tennessee Centennial Exposition in 1897. As n worker he has been conscien-
tious and faithful; as a minister, proficient and logical. He is highly esteemed,
not only by the Negroes of the State, but numbers among his friends the best
and most prominent white people of Kentucky. As a leader, a race worker,
and a thinker, he stands without a superior.
Samuel James Wheeler Spurgeon.
This earnest worker in the Master's vineyard was born October 25, 1861, in
Sullivan county, Tennessee. His early education was obtained at a district
school where he learned to read, write and cipher. After the smoke of the
Rebellion had cleared away, and privileges had been accorded to the Negro
equal to those of the white race, especially in education, his parents moved to
Knoxvillc in 1870. There he entered the public school and remained until he
completed the course of study prescribed by the Board of Education. Because
of sickness in the family, and financial cmbarassment, he was unable to continue
in the day school, but, being determined to "secure an education, he attended the
He afterward went to work at the Knoxville Iron Works as water boy at
32 cents per day. Here he won the confidence of his employers and was pro-
moted, demonstrating a go-ahead spirit which, like the stream, never stops but
Hows on and on until it reaches its goal. Such was Iiih ambition. The second
time he was promoted to head roller, where he continued to gain the confidence
of the General Superintendent, and his fellow-workmen. Ashe was an only
child his family looked upon him with great pride, and as is natural for loving
parents they took great interest in him, believing he possessed great possibilities
for good to himself anil his race
Early in life his father impressed the fact upon his tender mine! that he
should improve his time anil aspire to the work of a faithful minister. His
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 45
love for books hihI education grew ll|HJII liini as natural as the fruit on the tree;
therefore, through the assistance of the Board of Education lie entered Knox-
ville College, beginning with the second year of the normal and scientific course,
and working night and morning for Dr. Tvndeman. In 1883 he left, with the
high esteem and regard of the faculty, for work among his people an a teacher.
While in college his mind rambled hack to the time when he wore a checked
linsey frock. He taught his first school at Kiverdale, Tenn., continuing there
for three years. Then he went to New i/ondon, Mo., where he taught a very
successful school. Returning to Tennessee, he taught at Johnson City and n
number of other places.
The Ix>rd had a higher calling for him and that was to preach the gos|>el
of Jesus Christ to the world. This desire burned within him until it finally
became an unconquerable flame. February 22, 18K0, he began to study for
the ministry, and in 1883 he was ordained at Knoxville with the degree of S. L.
He has served the following charges with credit to himself and to his church:
Chatham, Va., Nashville, Tenn., Xenia and Wyoming, O. One of the nicest
buildings the Christian Church has in the State of Ohio was erected under his
pastorate. He has served in many instances as a delegate to some of the largest
and most worthy assemblies. In 1800 he was elected by the State Christian
Missionary Society, of Ohio, to attend the General Convention of the United
States, which assembled in Des Moines, Iowa, that year, being the only Negro
delegate present on this grand occasion.
Mr. Spurgeon has traveled throughout twelve States in the last ten years
in behalf of the race and his church. As an author he has also been quite suc-
cessful. He founded and edited the Christian Worker, and correstmnded for a
number of journals. In 1890 he went at the call of the Christian Church to
Mt. Sterling, where he labored for six years, this being the strongest and largest
church of that denomination in Kentucky; here he won some of his highest
encomiums as a preacher.
He was also elected to the Chair of Sacred Literature in the Christian Bible
College, at New Castle, in 1891. He has served as President of the State
Sunday School work, and is now pastor of the Constitution Street Christian
Church, Lexington; Corresponding Secretary of the Slate Missionary Society;
Chairman of the Board of Directors of the State U. B. Society; Contributing
Editor of The Messenger, a Christian weekly published at Lexington; and
(Jrand Lecturer of the U. B. in Kentucky, Ix>ng may he live for God, the
church, and his race.
Henry A. Tandy.
Among Kentucky's noted Negroes there is one whose reputation is not con-
fined to the narrow borders of its State lines. In the year 1865, when the boom
of cannon had scarcely died away, and the lowering clouds hung black with the
smoke of ceasing battle, a lad whose coming was not heralded came unobserved
among the thrifty sons of Ham in this beautiful Blue Grass region to cast his lot '
for weal or woe. He was of an intelligent, honest countenance that soon won
for him a legion of friends.
It was not long till he found employment in Mullen's studio, and was en-
gaged in the photographer's art for two years. He was not destined to make
his fortune or build his Temple of Fame developing negatives upon plates of
gloss. Nature had bestowed upon him a skillful hand, that should lay great
foundations with geometrical precision, upon whose walls giant structures could
stand for centuries as monuments to his genius. In 1807 he began his career as
a brick mason in the employment of G. D. Wilgus, one of the largest contractors
and builders in Central Kentucky. Being an apt, shrewd workman, it was not
long until his employer promoted him to the responsible position of foreman.
Great responsibilities were thrust upon him but he proved equal to the task and
was recognized as a master mechanic. He continued in this capacity until the
death of his employer in 1892. After which a partnership, under the firm
name of Tandy A Byrd, was formed with Mr. Tandy as business manager, and
Mr. Bvrd, another skillful workman of our race, as foreman. Since that time
this has been the leading firm of contractors and builders in Lexington. In
everv business block, upon cverv thoroughfare, you sec stately buildings and
handsome residences built by this firm.
Mr. Tandy began his career with only a limited education, attending school
al odd times when not engaged in work, lie lias displayed wonderful tact in
business affairs and is truly o successful man. Through his indefatigible efforts
a large force of Negro laborers have found steady employment, and thereby
obtained comfortable homes for their families. He has done much good for
the advancement of the race, and helped to open the avenues of trade and
employment for young men. Mr. Tandy is prominent in both social and relig-
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 47
inns circles. He married Miss Emma Krice, nn estimable lady of this citv, in
June, 1875, and lives in a splendid brick residence on a prominent thoroughfare
in tbe western portion of the city.
In secret fraternities Mr. Tandy is held in high esteem. He is Deputy
Grand Master of the U. B. F. and S. M. T. of the State of Kentucky, nnd a Past
Master Mason. Everybody knows and admires the genial, dignified citizen
whose life is worthy of emulation. Conscientious in all his transactions, his
life appeals to otir young men to be sober, industrious and frugal — the essentials
of a successful life. Opportunity came to him and he seized it. Fortune
smiled upon him and he garnered in her store. Kever faltering in the trusts
bestowed upon him, lie earnestly sought the highest accomplishments in his
workmanship, and today reaps the reward — success. The worthy are always
rewarded, and their labors arc not in vain. Such men as our distinguished
friend and neighbor are the mainsprings in the life of a nation. Modest in all
"his ways, dignified in his manner, Mr. Tandy always makes one feel at home in
his presence. "There is nothing succeeds like success." So may this short
sketch of one of our truly successful men be an incentive to others of our race,
to labor faithfully, knowing that the reward of industry is contentment and hap-
P<tcr Simpson, one of the pioneer Negro school teachers of Kentucky, was
born in Clark county, near Winchester, in 1844. His parents were slaves, but
one thing can be said of them that cannot be said of many others, they lived
together sixty years nnd within a circle of forty miles. When freedom came to
them it found l'eter at the age of nineteen, and without money or education-
At that time the opportunities for acquiring an education were very limited.
The neighboring school was held but two months in a year and at a season when
he was at work, but having a desire to obtain an education, he divided his time
between work and attending school. l'eter was soon able to take his examina-
tion, and he began teaching in 1K74. He taught until the year 1878, meanwhile
steadily pursuing his studies. In this same year he entered Iiercu College. Not
having the necessary means to remain there regularly, he was compelled to work,
teach and study as opportunity offered, until 1882, at which time he left school,
and devoted his entire time to teaching until 1 S'.t.'i. The total number of years
Mr. Simpson spent in instructing the youths of his race was fourteen, and those
years were attended by success.
Many of the school houses in which Mr. Simpson taught were built by his
own exertions, in some instances even with his own hands. Mr. Simpson's phe-
nomenal success as a teacher can be accounted for from the fact that all of his
best was in it, and he taught from a sense of duty and not for the compensation,
which was for months only the small sum of twelve dollars. He seemed to have
been especially adapted to. teaching, and many prominent school principals
throughout the State can look back to their first lesson under Peter Simpson.
He is now a grocer at Winchester, and is the possessor of ample means. He is
a prominent member of the Baptist church, and takes an active part in all pub-
lic matters, especially in the interests of his race, sparing neither encrgv nor
money in their advocacy. He is highly esteemed by both whites a.lJ blacks,
and enjoys the confidence of the community in which he lives.
Katie V. Harden.
Miss Kalic V. Harden, daughter of Alfred and Moleta Harden, prominent
residents and property holders of Lexington, Ky., has taken foremost rank
among the busy workers in benefitting humanity. The subject of this sketch
was born in Lexington, and is the second of eleveu children born to her parents.
She is of a fine physique, possessing an expressive face with fair complexion
and large, tender eyes; of an amiable, open and frank disposition, and has the
strength of her convictions. There is nothing of selfishness in her character,
and she is generous to a fault.
The parents of Miss Katie have not been derelict in their duty of properly-
fitting her for a life of usefulness. The culinary art and art of house decoration,
fancy work, etc., are hers by adaptation and by practice; nor is she wanting in lit-
erary taste and culture. Though not completing a course, she was a student at
IJerea College from 1880 to 1887. She has also traveled considerably and has
learned much therefrom.
A desire to have a hand in the uplifting of her people possessed Miss Katie,
and knowing that if rightly used, no other field offers a wider scope for develop-
ment than the school, she selected teaching as her profession. Her first expe-
rience was a five months' school at Kirksville, Ky. Having joined the vast army
of educators, she enlisted on the pay roll of the Lexington public schools in
1888. Remaining loyal to her post of duty she is accounted a valuable assistant
No other young lady in society is more highly thought of nor entertains
more extensively than Miss Kutie, and she- knows well how to entertain — an ac-
complishment not possessed by all young ladies. 15y the mention of this fact we
would not have the reader form the impression that she is of that type of a
society woman who spends her time and money foolishly. To the contrary, she
\t frugal and industrious, and saves her earnings. She has a horse and vehicle
of her own, and has lately purchased a lot in a desirable locality, upon which
she intends to erect a house at an early date.
Our subject is a woman who keeps posted upon the current topics of the
day, and lia* well formed opinions of her own. She is a total abstainer, and has
served as President of the local \V. C. T. U., and also leader of the Loyal Legion
'or children. Bv virtue of her mother's connection with the society controlling
WILLIAM T DIXWIDDIK, D. I). S.— IW 3i
JOHN W. .IKWI'.TT. Vug?
I. L WILLIAMS*- l , aj ? e.(5«
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 49
the Ladies' Hill— a public building purchased before emancipation, the rentals
of which are to be perpetually appropriated to educational purposes — she is a
member of the Society.
In religious tenets Miss Katie is an Episcopalian, being an active worker in
the church and|a teacher in the Sunday School. She is a regular attendant at
services, devout'in her tendencies and is not drawn away from religious duties
by worldly attractions. At present she occupies the position of Vice-President
of the Orphan Home Hoard, a charitable enterprise lately organized which is
assuming large proportions, ami she is also a member of the Investigating Com-
mittee of the same organization. On the whole, we are proud of the subject of
this sketch, andjtake pleasure in extending to her a re than local recognition.
There was born to Howard and Sarah Haggard, highly respected citizens of
Covington, Ky., n son, who has since borne the name of Charles. His father
Howard Haggard, was n prominent Baptist minister and his mother a consistent
Christian. It is surely somewhat due to this guiding influence that we may
attribute the'manly piety and gentlemanly bearingof their son. The rearing of
Young Haggard was perhaps the same ns that of many others of his race
The poverty oflparenLs necessitated bis doing odd jobs to keep himself from
want while attending school. His ambition, however, was not of so mild a
nature as to permit such obstacles to thwart it, and he completed his education
after years of close application to study.
Mr. Charles Haggard graduated from the William Grant High School of
which Prof. S. H. Singer was principal in 18!)0, being the only one of thirty
pupils originally belonging to the class. This speaks well for the push and
energy of the young man. After leaving school he entered the service of Mr.
Jacob Price, a successful lumber dealer in Covington, as a factotum, which
position he retained for several months, leaving to accept what be thought to
be a belter one, an occupation in which he saw an opportunity to learn a trade
with the Cincinnati Drug and Chemical Company. While thus engaged he
learned much about the business and was satisfied with his progress, but
the pressing necdjof a widowed mother forced him to seek a more immediately
lucrative means of making a livlihood for the family.
He secured a school in Boone county which he taught successfully for five
months. He then served as porter on a Pullman car where he was when ten-
dered his present position in the William Grant High School. He is building
up a reputation as a teacher. His manner is gentle, his explanations lucid,
his method of imparting information to pupils unicpie, and he possesses other
qualifications necessary to become one of the'foremosl men of his profession.
William H. Perry.
„rof. William II. Perry, Principal of the Western School of Louisville,
llie largest Negro public scliool in the world, is unquestionably one of the
orightesi lights in the educational field of America. This is putting it strongly
but advisedly, and such an opinion is amply justified by the high esteem in
which he is held by the foremost educators of the Falls City and the Old Com-
monwealth, and by the respect with which he is regarded in many other States
of this Union. Prof. Perry is a man of great versatility, a profound student, an
upright Christian, and an honorable, dignified, courteous gentleman. Since his
entrance into public life he has been active, and has been elevated to many and
varied positions by his fellow-citizens, proving true to every trust. He has
written a number of very creditable poems, and is one of the young giants of the
race, whose progress has been both rapid and surprising.
Prof. Perry was born at Terre Haute, Ind., March 5, 1860, and comes from
good old Virginia and Kentucky stock, his mother, Mrs. Anna Perry Anderson,
being a Virgianian, and his father, Charles Perry, Esq., a Kenluckiun. After
yoiuig Pern' had finished his education in the public schools of Indiana his
parents moved to Louisville where he matriculated in the High School, then in
charge of I'rof. J. M. Maxwell, and in due time graduated with distinction.
Subsequently he successfully stood the examination for teacher, and being under
age the School Board suspended the rule governing such cases, permitting him
U\ enter the work lie has done so much to dignify and honor.
In 1877 he entered the Western School, and taught from 1878 until 1881 in
the Central High School, having charge of the advanced clnss. In 1881 he was
elevated to the position of Principal of the Eastern School, which place he held
until 18!U, when he was transferred to a like position in the Western School.
J-'or years be had charge of the Eastern and Western Nigh I Schools, anil has the
honor of being the first representative chosen by the Alumni Society to deliver
the alumni address. Me was President of the Louisville Teachers' Association
for several years; President of the State Teachers' Association; first President
of the Alumni Society of the High School; Vice President, and Secretary, of
the Orphans' Home of Ljuisville; and (iranil Secretary of the Grand Chapter
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 51
of Kentucky Royal Arch Masons. At present lie is Organizer and Director <>f
the Alumni Choral Club; Most Eminent Grand Commander of the Knights
Templar of Kentucky, and :i Thirty-third Degree Scottish Rite Mason (Deputy
for the Valley of Kentucky I.
In order to better acquaint himself with the science of government he took
lip the study of law. graduating as valedictorian from the Central Law School,
with the degree of LL.lt. During the Presidency of Dr. J. II. (iamett, the State
University conferred on Mr. Perry the degree of A.M. He has a sound and
solid business education, completing a s|iccuil course in the Commercial College
of Terre Haute; and is a graduate of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific
Circle, Class of 1893. Aiming at thorough anil broad scholarship he has studied
under sonic of the leading educators of the country, making a specialty of
scientific teaching. In this connection be has visited and studied at Martha's
Vineyard, Mass , and Chautauqua, N. Y. I'rof. Perry read an original poem nt
the dedication of the State Normal School at Frankfort. He was chosen orator
by the Templars' Grand Conimandery at Terre Haute in August, 18!l">, ami his
address, "Knighthood Among the 'Colored' Race," was eloquent and scholarly
and widely and favorably commented upon by the press. He takes great interest
in charitable work, and is a member of the Hoard of Directors of the Odd
Fellows' Home at Louisville.
It has been truthfully said that all great men have e,r,?at mothers. The
subject of this sketch owes much of his achievement to bis cultivated and
scholarly mother, Mrs. Anna Perry Anderson. Mrs. Anderson was formerly
a teacher in the public schools of Louisville, and is a woman of varied gifts and
scholarly attainments. She was a hard student and is proud of the advancement
of her distinguished son. Prof. Perry is happily married, his wife having
been Miss Anna Augusta Ridley, of Nashville, Tcnn. She was educated at
Fisk University, studied music under the leading instructors, and at the time of
her marriage was engaged in educational work. She is a singer of note, as n
legion of listeners can attest. She comes of one of the leading families of the
Tennessee capital, and is truly a helpmeet to her husband. Mr. and Mrs. Perry
are the proud and doting parents of a sprightly young American, William II.
Perry, Jr, and the friends of the family prophesy that he will walk in the foot-
steps of his distinguished father.
The home of the Perrys is the center of refinement and culture, and all who
enter there are soon at case. So worthy is the hostess that much of her husband's
popularity is due to her genius for making friends and directing It flairs. Their
marriage at Chicago in 18(13 was a social event and marked attention was ^iven
it by the leading daily papers of Louisville and Chicago, as the following extract
from the Courier Journal will show:
Prof. Perry seems to be as familiar with law, medicine, music, theology,
metaphysics and psychology as he is with the great current questions of the
day. He is also a student of the English classics, and is an orator of much
power an eloquence. Several of his addresses and discourses have attracted
considerable attention. "Our Possibilities," an oration delivered before the
Literary Society of tbcQuinn Chapel A. M. E. Church a great while ugo, singled
him out as a young man of uncommon attainments. This was followed bv
52 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
"Noble Ideals," an address before tin- graduating class of the Academic Depart-
ment of tlie State University, an effort which stamped him as an advanced
thinker. "Duties of the Hour," u discourse delivered before the Sunday School
Convention at Terre Haute was Commented upon extensively and published
in full by the leading papers of Indiana. With a commanding figure and a
voice fully under control, he is an immediate passport to the good will of any
J le has found lime outside of his onerous duties and studies to devote to
literature and journalism, and his contributions to the current literature of the
day mark him as a writer of su|ierb ability anil grace. His graphic sketch and
brilliant pen-pictures of the National Press Convention, when it met in Louis-
ville, were hailed with admiration and delight all over the country, and distin-
guished him as a journalist of remarkable powers. An article from his pen in
the Christian Index, on "The Negro as a Lawyer," haslieen widely and favorably
commented on I'rof. Perry's tendencies have always been toward literature.
It was the dream of his boyhood, and has called forth some of the best and
nohlest energies of his later years.
Kut it is as a poet that he reaches his climax and is hest known in local
literature, lie is not a rhynistcr nor n mere sounder of words, hut a natural
poet of aver}' high order of genius. His productions, while they bear the
impress of scholarship and thought, are free from the savor of pedantry, and
breathe the passion and file of the Sunny South. There is a kind of reserved
force about his poems which impresses the reader that there is something greater
in the man. lie has the happy faculty of adapting himself to occasions. He
seems never to attempt a subject out of his reach, and, once he has chosen one,
handles it in such a manner as to commend it to the masses as well as the edu-
cated and refined. His expressions are the spontaneous outbursts of nature and
inspiration and are never commonplace He bear* out this statement when he
says in the Indianapolis World, in "Triumphs of Right:"
The night is past and hope's inspiring rays
Disjiel the gloom, revealing better days;
We must not let them pass in idle dreaming;
Ix't us awake, all we have lost redeeming!"
And again, when hesa's in "Retrospection:"
Whale'er of loss or gain the years contain,
Accept this truth by wise experience taught,
That every life is with sonic misery fraught;
And we ourselves successful way can hew,
If each will to his highest self prove true
And scorn ignoble ends with proud disdain.
With the foregoing tribute of praise from the greatest newspaper in the
South this record of an educator and a gentleman, that will bear scrutiny and
( pari "On with any, is brought to a close. It may here be added that he
always takes great interest in the work and progress of the Odd Fellows, United
Brothers of Friendship, and other secret societies, to which he belongs. His
articles for the press cover a wide range of subjects, and they stamp him as a
trenchant and brilliant writer. That on "The Negro as a Lawyer," already
referred to, has attracted widespread attention as a manly and eloquent defense
of the Negro bar, and an accurate statement of what the Negro lawyer has
accomplished for his race. I'rof. Perry is yet a young man and, with energy
unabated and talent undiinmed, his best is vet to come.
Albert S. White.
Albert S. White, Use,., one of the most ableNegro lawyers in Kentucky, was
born nLou«V,lle in 868. His earlier education was received in U,e public
schools of his native city He afterward entered the Normal Department of
r ; n M- "T"? "" ? radUa,ed Wi "' distinc « S °»- Having n natural taste
for good literature he read extensively, stored his mind with useful and varied
nformauon, and particularly delighted in the masterpieces of oratory, both
ancient and modern, that have ever been the guide and inspiration of cultured
Fired with an ambition to realize his cherished dreams of usefulness in the
worlds great field of battle, and wishing to perfect himself in the noble pro-
fess.on of „w he sought the advantage of the famous Howard University Law
School „f \\ ash.ngton, D. C. Prior to entrance thereto, he pursued a course in
mathematics and languages under private tutors. He matriculated in 1889 and
graduated >n 189] with honor. He/using several lucrative oilers to locate else-
wbere he returned to Louisville, was admitted to the bar, and entered upon his
career w Inch has been from the first singularly successful. The legal profusion
>s one in winch ennnence is attained only by ability and unremitting toil
furthermore, the Negro lawyer, it has been argued, is doomed to failure
on account of white competitors and the lack of patronage of his own people.
The career of Lawyer White demonstrates that the power to deal with intricate
legal questions, snot the exlusive privilege of any one race, and that success
will crown the efforts of the Negro lawyer who possesses character, training and
energy Mr . White has been sworn in the Court of Appeals and the United
Mates Courts and has handled many important criminal and civil cases The
■ ".crests of his clients never suffer in his bands. He prepares himself with the
"t.nost care, has a pleasing and impressive manner of address, and never fails
to make the strongest possible presentation to a judge and jury. In a recent
criminal case he called particular attention to himself bv his skillful manage-
c^m wr ; ' Ka ' nSl grCat ° <l,iS ' ln "' hiCl ' ^ h " ng "' rt ' e j " rieS an ' 1 s " ve<l lli3
As a journalist -Mr. White has written extensively and acceptably, lie
convs|Mnnle<l fur the Louisville Commercial and Courier Journal, anil while
in Washington was a constant contributor to the leading newspapers published
in the National Capital. In this way he had the good fortune to form the
acquaintance of the great thinkers of this country. He has also l>een an editor
of several papers and proved himself a versatile and effective writer.
lie is an eloquent speaker and his services have been in demand on the
lecture platform and on the stump. He ha-s been heard by delighted audiences
on the following subjects: "The North and South," "Our Friends Living and
Dead," "Bloodless Victories," "Truth Conquers," "Woman Suflrage," "The
Constitution and the Negro," and "The Race Problem Solved." His wide range
of reading, his elegant ami forcible style of expression, and his earnestness, unite
to make him at all times interesting and instructive.
In the Presidential campaign of 189G Mr. White was honored by being
called into the field in the interest of sound money and good government and
lie did yeoman service. His logical and masterly discussion of the tariff and
money questions stani|>ed him as a great orator and a thorough student of
political economy. He was heard not only in his own State, Kentucky, but
also in Indiana, and his s|>eeclies elicited favorable comment both for their
matter and the manner of treatment.
Mr. White's father was with Sherman in his famous March to the Sea, and
in consequence the son is interested in all that concerns the Grand Army of the
Republic. He is a member of the Sons of Veterans, being Captain of the B.
F. l'orter Camp, and a meml>er of the I'nited Brothers of Friendship and Odd
Fellows. He is at present Secretary and Agent of the Consolidated Lodges of
the Orand I'nited Order of Odd Fellows, consisting of twelve incorporated
Ixxlges and 900 members, and he is now serving his third term. He is also
Dean of the Central Law School. As lawyer, orator, journalist, and genuine
lover of his race, Mr. White has manifested such ability and foresight as made
him a credit to his race, a positive factor for good in his city and State, and a
striking example of the proof of the immortal couplet:
"'Honor and fame from no condition rise,
Act well your part, there all the honor lies."
His parents, Albert and Jane White, were poor but respectable people and
gave him good Christian example and what financial aid they could. Believing
that "Providence helps those who help themselves," he has struggled onward
despite discouragements, working in season and out of season, studying day and
night. 1/ongft-llow wrote for his encouragement the beautiful gem:
"The heights bv great men reached and kept
Were not attained by sudden flight,
Rill they, while their companions slept,
Were toiling upward in the nijfllt."
Ltwyer While has been endorsed and supported
for the responsible |msition of I'nited States Minister to Liberia is a fitting illus-
tration of the high esteem in which he is held by those who know him best and
a sure distinction that his life has been fashioned after a loftv ideal. As has
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 55
well been said of him, "By moral worth, intellectual capacity and manhood lie
has risen, and Kentucky is not ashamed to present him ns her favorite son for
this high |iost."
He is a member of the Fifth Street Baptist Church of Louisville, one of the
most prominent in the city. His life is in harmony with his profession of the
Christian religion. He is l.mad and charitable in his views and by his exem-
plary life has won for himself and the profession of law the confidence of all
who know him in a personal or business relation. It has not been the general
belief that one could pursue the practice of Jaw and follow the precepts of the
gentle Nazarenc. Mr. White's excellent record has demonstrated beyond all
doubt that one is not forced to desert the principles of the Chistian faith in
order to be a star in the legal fraternity, and this object lesson has been a whole-
some one for the Louisville public.
Mr. White is happily married and has two charming little daughters.,
His wife, formerly Miss Mattie Seals, a native of Clarksvillc, Tenn, is a grad-
uate of Fisk University. She is the daughter of Kcv. George W. Seals, the well-
known Baptist clergyman of Tennessee, and is a woman of fine ability, who has
proved an invaluable aid to her husband at every part of his interesting career.
Surrounded as he is by helpful domestic influences, ambitious and capable of
doing great good for his people and his country, he will, we feel assured, realize
in the future all the expectations of his many friends.
William Henry Ballard.
Among the picturesque scenes of Franklin county, Kentucky, with its
rugged cliffs overhanging the placid waters of the Kentucky river, was born to
Dowan and Matilda.Ballard, October 31, 1802, a son whom they called William
Henry, one of the most interesting characters in this collection.
His parents l>eing industrious and energetic people, and seeing that a liberal
education was essential to success in life, moved to Louisville in 1870, where
their son could receive better intellectual training. He was placed under the
guidance of a private tutor and remnined under his instruction until the open-
ing of the public schools in 187U. His progress was rapid; he look advantageof
every opportunity to improve himself. After seven years of faithful applica-
tion to his studies he graduated from the Louisville High School.
Not content with the preparation he had received, which was far alsive that
of many youths, Mr. Ballard's desire for higher accomplishments and his spirit
of original investigation, prompted him to matriculate at Roger Williams Uni-
versity, where he'pursued a special course in science and languages, completing
it in 1884. While at Roger Williams University Mr. Ballard began the work
of teaching. He, like many others who were striving to be a credit to their
race and iinccslry.UaughtJiitfhe common school districts of Tennessee and Ken-
K EXTUCKY'S PROMINENT
lucky during the glimmer, and pursued his studios at the University during the
Winter. The next step in the upward progress (if Mr. Ballard was his election
to the principalship of the schools of MnytU-ld, Graves county, Kentucky, where
he served with satisfaction for some time. His success as a teacher is shown by
the great number of ambitious young men and women now employed in the
schools of southwestern Kentucky, nmnv of whom were under his immediate
charge. This also shows that the fourteen years spent in the school room were
characterized by conscientious and painstaking study.
In 1890 he entered Northwestern University at Chicago, 111., for the ptir-
jMise of studying Pharmacy, from which he graduated in ]8!>2, receiving honor-
able mention. Shortly after graduating from Northwestern University Dr.
Ballard was united in matrimony to Miss Hessie Brady, one of the most esti-
mable young women of Nashville, Tenn., a teacher in Meigs' High School, a
woman beloved and respected by all who knew her.
Dr. Ballard located in Lexington, February, 1803, opening the first Phar-
macy owned and controlled by Negroes in the history of the State. The firm
name was Ballard & Nelson. Mr. James E. Nelson, however, remained a mem-
ber of the firm but two years. Since the dissolution of the firm Dr. Ballard has
successfully conducted the business nlonc. He has an interesting family, con-
sisting of a wife nnd three sons, to whom he gives all care and devotion.
He is doing a thriving business and enjoys the respect of all citizens of the
city of Lexington, and is a member of the Drug Association, the only Negro in
the State who has been so honored. He has the confidence of all his acquaint-
ances and has been highly honored by the many fraternal orders to which he
belongs. He is Past Chancellor of the K. of P.; Treasurer of the U. B. F., and
lias the distinction of being a polished, capable and conservative business man.
Dr. \V. H. Ballard exemplifies what a man of strong character ami indomitable
courage may do. He is worthy of emulation.
Clifton Blackburn Prewitt.
Possibly no Negro in the Commonwealth of Kentucky has had a more suc-
cessful career than this gentleman. For straight forwardness, downright honesty,
|>ersonal honor, integrity and business astuteness. Clifton B. Prewitt is a splendid
-example, and his remarkable success as a business man evidences the ability of
the Negro to excel in his peculiar field of labor, whatever it may be. While
it is true that the race needs and must have teachers, lawyers and physicians, it
in equally true that one of its greatest needs is business men, mechanics and
skilled artisans, who by reason of their capability and indomitable self-persever-
ance will oblain respect and recognition in the Commercial world.
Clifton I!. Prewitt, whom we arc proud to record as one of the prominent
business men of the nice, was born in Scott county, Kentucky, July 4, 18'JG. His
parents were slaves, and so was he'until freed by'LineoIn'sll'roclaination. Up
'*.' • !• iw.
JOKIHI.N < \KI.ISI.K JACKSON. I\
1'i.or. .iami.s s. iiatiiaway. i>w
JfKNJAMIN li; AN KLIN. -I'ap- 4-j
S. K. SMITH.— I'src 43.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 57
to the age of 37 Mr. Prewitt recived no scliooling. He lias, however, succeeded
in gaining: a fair knowledge of the "three K's," rending, 'riting and 'rithinetic.
Soon after the Civil War Mr. Prewitt hired himself out, working for two years
for one hundred dollars. The third year he took a farm and worked it on
shares. The fourth year he again hired himself out, for four hundred dollars.
At the end of the last year he concluded to farm for himself, having purchased
n few acres of land during the time he was hired out. He soon began farming on
a large scale, raising wheat and hemp principally.
At the end of eighteen years Mr. Prewitt, having accumulated considerable
money, decided to go into the real estate business Believing that in order to
make money one must spend money, he advertised his money and plunged into
the speculative market generally, measuring arms at every turn with his white
competitors. He bought and sold for prominent speculators both in and out of
the State, while at the same time his personal investments grew lo enormous
proportions, owing at different times more than twenty houses and lots in the
most prominent parts of Georgetown. He now owns six of the finest residences
in that city, three of them being rented out to and occupied by prominent white
Mr. Prewitt is a stockholder in the Georgetown Electric Street Kailway and
in the City Ice Factory. Although he has confined himself strictly lo business
and has taken no active part in politics, he has ever been on the alert whenever
the political interest of his race was at stake. He is an intense race man, very
cautious and careful in business dealings, and is a good object lesson to the i
younger generation how to earn and invest money.
His name is the synonym for honesty and integrity, and he will walk as far
to pay a debt as to collect one. He is highly esteemed by the people of Scott
county, irrespective of color or political affiliation, for they know his word to
I >e as good as his bond. The time-honored maxim, "An honest man is the
noblest work of God," applies as aptly to the Negro nice as to the much-vaunted
Caucasian. He has been a member of the First Baptist Church for fifty-five
years and deacon for thirty years, and is a liberal contributor to the cause of
the Christian religion.
Mr. Prewitt was married fifty-one years ago to Miss Harriet Fauntroy, who
has been a faithful and devoted wife through all that long golden wedding era.
Only two of their fourteen children arc living, one of whom, Martha, the wife
of W. I). Johnson, editor of the Lexington Standard, and the other, Parthenia,
the wife of Charles M. Hunt, a well-known coal dealer in Chicago. Mr. Prewitt
is now in the evening of a well-spent life and it is hoped that his remaining
years will be blessed with that peace which the woild cannot give and which
the world cannot take away.
Hatthew A. Johnson.
The Methodist Episcopnl church has in it no ahler preacher than the gen-
tleman whose name heads this sketch, and the church has recognized his merit
and ability in all the important offices which he has been called to fill.
Matthew S. Johnson was born of slave parents in Shelby county, Kentucky,
Januarv, 1847. His mother being a strict Christian, she brought him up in the
fear and admonition of the Ix>rd. During his earlier life he was not permitted
to enjoy the advantages of training in schools. Nevertheless, he managed to
acquire some knowledge of books, which only increased his appetite for more
and better qualifications for the future life which seemed to offer him special
inducements and advantages. Whenever an opportunity presented itself, he
secured private instruction, and thus acquired quite a respectable standing among
his people. In 1864 he enlisted in the service of his country, and continued
until the close of the late civil war, when he was honorably mustered out of the
He attended school for a short time at Rock Island, III., and subsequently
returned to Kentucky, his native State, where in 1874 he was happily converted.
Believing that he was divinely called to the work of the Christian ministry, he
applied for and received license to exhort and preach. In 1876 he wasadmitted
in the Ix;xington Conference; ordained deacon in 1878, and elder in 1880. His
ap|K>intments were Chaplin, Camp Hranch, Brunerstown, Terre Haute, Ind.,
Concererille, Ind., Indianapolis, Ind., Rockport, Ind., Winchester, Ky., and
Cincinnati, O., in all of which he was a faithful and painstaking pastor.
In 18!)2 he was appointed by Bishop Walden to succeed Rev. K. W. S.
Hammond as Presiding Elder of the Ohio District, the latter having been elected
editor of the church organ. The subsequent career of Rev. Johnson has fully
justified the wisdom of his appointment, the district being today far in advar
of any year of its history. The writer is especially glad to record his confidence
in the ability and loyal devotion of Rev. Johnson to every interest of the great
church committed to his cere. Morn of Methodist parents and trained up in
the Methodist church makes him a Methodist of the Kentucky kind.
lie has a most charming wife, the (laughter of Rev. Marcus McCoomer, one
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 59
of (he pioneers of the Conference, who shares his toils, rejoices in his triumphs,
wins iind holds friendships, and with sweet voice "cheers the wear. - trawler."
The Negro race lias staunch and ardent advocates of its interests in Matthew S.
Johnson and his excellent wife. Rev. Johnson is certainly deserving of all he
has rea|>ed boj.'-, in the church and out of it, for he is a strong, capable and
earnest man and a true friend to progress, and were it not for the fact that his
life is devoted entirely to the ministry, he would he an excellent representative
in the legislative halls of the country. It is such noble lives, full of good and
earnest labor, which inspires others of the nice to strive for higher things.
Rev. Robert Mitchell, A. M. was horn in Fulton county, Kentucky, March
1,1861. His parents were slaves, brought from North Carolina just before the
Civil War, during which they removed from Kentucky to Tennessee, locating
on a farm. Wh«n a child his parents sent him to such schools as the neighbor-
hood then afforded. He professed hope in Christ in 1874 and became a member
of the Baptist Church. Three years after his conversion he began preaching.
His fame spread far and wide as the "boy preacher." He was licensed at 18.
Through the influence of friends he matriculated at Bust University, Holly
.Springs, Miss., entered the middle preparatory class, and remained in said school
Hve years, finishing his junior year in college. By his upright Christian bearing
he won the confidence of teachers and students.
The Seventh Street Baptist Church of Paducah, hearing of this brilliant
young divine, tendered him a call which he accepted in the winter of 1883. He
pastored this church with signal ability for nearly four years, having found it
with twenty-five members and left it with one hundred and seventy-live, and a
neat house of worship. While in that city he was united in wedlock to Miss
Virgie I>each, the amiable daughter of Mr. John Iyeach. He has found Mrs.
Mitchell a helpmeet indeed, and attributes his success, as many another good
man has done, to her wise and timely counsel. While in l'adncuh he decided
to read for the Master's Degree in the Wesleyan University at Blooinington, 111.,
which he pursued with signal success, but upon learning that he could have the
degree conferred by the State University, he did not take the examination.
He was called to the State Street Baptist Church at Bowling Green in May,
1887. He remained pastor of this church nine years. While in Bowling Green
he was elected President of Simmons Memorial College, by the Trustees, which
position he held for seven years. Some of the ablest young men and women in
Southern Kentucky are graduates of his school. He was called to the Main
Street Baptist Church, Lexington, in June, 18%, filling his pulpit and minister-
ing to (he congregation with credit to himself and his race. He has been iden-
tified with every progressive and aggressive movement in which the race has
been interested for the past twelve years.
With about two hundred representative Negro men he appeared hefore the
House and Senate Committees of the I-egislature of Kentucky, protesting again
the injustice of the Separate Coach Hill. He was appointed one of the speake
on that occasion, about which event the Louisville Courier Journal reported:
"•Rev. Robert Mitchell, A. M., President of the Simmons Memorial Collee
at Bowling Green, will next address you,' announced Spokesman Evans. M
Mitchell came forward, lie is tall and muscular, almost bald-headed, and i
perfect Demosthenes. He wacranxious the other day for Uncle Sam to stir up i
war with Chili that he might attest his love of country by deeds of valor on the'
field of battle. He appeared as a Kcntuckian, proud of the name and fame oil
his State. The blacks read the same Bible as the whites, the same text hooks in ■
school and walked the same streets. All were created of one blood and all]
recognized the fatherhood of (iod and the fellowship of man. The whites had]
been kind to the blacks in Kentucky, for which all gratitude was due. They]
had helped them to establish schools, and voted a tax annually to sustain them.
After all the good that had been done in a quarter of a century why discrimi-
liale against them now? Why shut them out from places that only whites,!
accompanied by their servants, and criminals under guard, as the bill specifies,}
can enter? Why gall good citizens, and the Negro, is gaining in good citizen-
ship every day, by legislating unnecessarily against him? Kev. Mitchell con-J
tinned in this strain for some time. He dwelt eloquently upon the chastity of]
the Negro home as it is today, nnd concluded with the statement that they were]
not now before a committee of the General Assembly seeking social rights, but]
Kev. Mitchell has filled many important positions in Kentucky. Atone
time he was a member of the Hoard of Trustees of the State University. He has \
been Asistant Moderator of the General Association of Kentucky Baptists, Presi- I
dent of the State Teacheis' Association, Vice President of the Nitional Baptist |
Educational Convention, Vice President of the National Baptist Conventional
and Commissioner of Kentucky to tlis Atlanta Exposition. He preached before I
the American National Baptist Convention ill Washington, 1). C, in 1803; and'
read an able p.-'per before the National Baptist Educational Convention at '
Montgomery, Ala., in 189-4; also, a paper before the National Baptist Conven-
tion at St. Ixniis, Mo., in 18%. He has now a book in press entitled, "Biblical-
Essays on Important Subjects."
John W. Hlllman.
Mr. John W. Hillman was horn in Trigg county, Kentucky, July 26, If
where lie received a common school education, after which he went to Coving-
ton in 1868 and engaged himself as a hotel waiter. He did not work in that
capacity very long before be was promoted as steward of the hotel, being found
reliable and efficient. Soon after that he was employed by Mrs. Ellison, who
conducted a hotel, but soon resigned to accept a position with Colonel Orr, pro-
prietor of another hotel.
Finding lie COIlhl otherwise accumulate more of this world's goods he quit
the hotel business to become Custodian of the City Building in Covington, which
office he still retains. Since becoming a city official Mr. Hillman has proved
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. i;i
mself in every respect a worthy uml efficient public servant, giving genera]
lisfaclion to the occupants of the City Huilding. He has long been connected
ih several secret organizations, and is now serving his seventeenth year as
■ami Treasurer of the Grand l^xlge of Free and Accc|)te<l Masons of the State
Kentucky. He has on several occasions refused office, hut because of his
nesly, notwithstanding his declination to continue in so exalted u responsi-
bility as Grand Treasurer, he has been repeatedly re-elected.
In short, Mr. Hillinan has proven himself truthful and trustworthy, and
therefore, merits all the good words that may be said of him. During the I'res-
.li-utiiil campaign of 1890 he was very active as a sound money man. The
writer of this sketch feels proud to place such a man as Mr. Hillman in this
uork, a man who has risen to distinction among many eminent Negroes of Ken-
tucky, in his life there is much to inspire every young man, however humble,
who is willing to work and to wait.
Edward Ellsworth Underwood.
Edward Ellsworth Underwood, M. D., claims the attention of progressive
society for his manly qualities, scholarly attainments and phenomenal success.
lie first saw the light of day June 7, 1804, in Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, where his
incuts were highly respected citizens. His father, Rev. J. P. Underwood, a
distinguished minister and pioneer in the A. M. E. Church, was widely known
throughout Ohio, contributing much toward the elevation of his people in that
State. At an early age he entered his youngest son, Edward Ellsworth, in the
public schools of his native town.
Young Underwood finished the course of study prescribed, and desiring a
higher education— before Ohio had mixed s bonis— he succeeded in having the
rules excluding the race suspended sufficiently to effect an entrance to thcMt.
I'h ■asiint High School, on an equal footing with the white pupils, graduating
i herefrom three years later with third honors of his class. He launched out
into life as a teacher and accepted a position as Principal of the Emerson, Ohio
sl 'i which he held for seven and a half years. While engaged in
leaching, at the age of 19 years, his precocity was attested by his obtaining a
license to preach in the A. M. E. Church. He was popularly known and sought
i- the "boy preacher." His eloquence of speech and forceof thought gave early
promise of future brilliant successes. In the field of Christian labor he was just
untiring in his efforts for good as in the school room.
licforc he had finished his school life as a pupil, at the age of 10 vears, he
>- commended by being elected as the Superintendent of the largest Sunday
"' ' I of his native town, which position he held for seven years. In the city
i < leveland he served as Superintendent of St. John's Sunday School for tl
62 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
years. His work in tlie Sunday .School was not entirely local, as lie served foi
live years as Secretary of the Ohio Sunday School Institute.
Dr. Underwood was distinguished in his youth not only as an educator]
and a minister of the gospel, but became prominent in politics. In 1887, by a
Mi. Pleasant constituency of at least 90 percent white, he was elected a member'
of the County Republican Committee. In IS88, over three white competitors,;
he was elected to represent his ward as a member of the Mt. Pleasant Town;
Council, being not only the youngest member of that body, but the first and.
only Negro to enjoy that distinction.
In his native Stale and during the lir.t act in the drama of his life, his.
literary ability was amply displayed in some of the productions of his pen. He-,
was for years on the stafl of the Cleveland Gazette; also wrote editorials for the-
Marlinshurg, W. Va., Pioneer Press and the Odd Fellows Signal. As an author
he is known in the realm of poetry by the lines "To My Sister," "The Future,"'
"Grant," an( i "The Landing of the Afric Fathers," and other poems, in addi-
tion to the domain of prose.
After much labor in the different fields of labor already mentioned, he deter-j
mined upon his chosen life profession of medicine. After three years of hard
study in the Western Keserve Medical College, of Cleveland, lie graduated from "
that institution March 4, 1891, a full-Hedged physician and surgeon. He imme-
diately chose Frankfort, Ky., as his future home, and on his arrival there the
good people of that city gave him a rousing and hearty public welcome at the
Corinthian Baptist Church. Since his location in Frankfort he has built a
handsome residence and office, and acquiied a lucrative practice. His popu-v
larity has grown, not only in the Capital City, but has spread throughout the «
Commonwealth of Kentucky.
In December, 1891, he was elected Secretary of the Anti-Separate Coach..
State Executive Committee, and is at present holding that position. In politics
he is a power in the Republican party of Kentucky. He is President of the
State League of "Colored" Republican Clubs, a member of the Republican City 3
and County Committees of Frankfort and Franklin county. He has - twice
served as a delegate to the Republican State Convention of Kentucky. He had
the honor of being chosen one of the Kentucky Commissioners of the Cotton |
States and International Exposition at Atlanta, and has been appointed by
Governor Bradley as one of the Commissioners to represent Kentucky at the •'
Tennessee Centennial. He is also a prominent member of the United Brothers
of Friendship, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and Free Masons.
Doctor Underwood is highly respected by the medical fraternity, as well as
the citizens of Frankfort, having been made the Assistant City Physician, which
position he now holds, being the only Negro thus honored. He was married
July 3, 1895, to Miss Sara J. Walker, an educated and cultivated woman, teach-
ing in the Frankfort Public Schools. They have one child, a promising and
intelligent-looking hoy. A still brighter future is yet predicted for Dr. E. E.
Underwood, whose sterling worth and restless energy has put the crown of success
ii|K)n his brow.
John II. Jackson.
John H.Jackson, President of the State Normal School of Kentucky, was
horn in Lexington, October 31, 1850. He received his early education in the
public schools of the Blue Grass metropolis, afterwards entering Berca College
from which he graduated with high honors in June, 1874, having the flattering
distinction of being the first Negro to graduate in Kentucky. After graduating
he taught for a number of years in Lexington.
He was elected a Delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention
in 1880, being the first Negro to receive such recognition from his party in this
aristocratic old slave State. In this convention he was one of the historic and
famous "30C" whose fidelity to Grant in that memorable struggle has formed
one of the most dramatic pages in the annals of our country's polical history.
Prof. Jackson removed in 1881 to Kansas to become Principal of Lincoln
High School of Kansas City, Mo., and discharged his duties in a most creditable
manner. He was appointed by the Governor of Kansas, at difiercnt times, as
Clerk of the Jury Commission, and also Clerk of the Police Board of Kansas
< "itv, Kan., serving in both positions with commendable ability. He was made
a member of the Board of Examiners for Kansas City, Kan., no other Negro
having ever been previously so honored in the State. He was prominently
mentioned for the position of State Auditor of Kansas, to succeed Hon. E. P.
McCabe in 1886, but modestly declined to become a candidate.
In 1887 he was called back to Kentucky to accept the position of President
of the State Normal School located at Frankfort, which position he still holds.
When it first became known that an effort would be made to pass a Separate
Coach Law in Kentucky, Prof. Jackson came boldly to the front and was the
first man to raise his voice against the measure at a public meeting in the latter
part of 1891, at the Corinthian Baptist Church in Frankfort. He was a prom-
inent member of the committee which fought against the enactment of this
infamous law. When a delegation of several hundred Negroes— Kcntuckians, as
truly as though white— appeared before the Governor to ask him not to recom-
mend the law in his message to the Legislature, Prof. Jackson acted as Master
of Ceremonies, introducing the speakers.
64 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
When the bill cnnie ii|> in the Legislature of Kentucky I'rof. Jackson was
selected by the Anti-Separate Coach State Convention to go before the Joint
Kailroad Committee nml protest against its passage, which duty he performed
in a masterly address, urging a law based upon conditions rather than upon
color. It might lie well to hen- note that a law embodying the same ideas was
recently passedlby the Legislature of South Carolina to the satisfaction of both
races. To the lasting shame of the while man in Kentucky, who in days of
slavery, as well as freedom, has usually been kind and considerate to the black
man, as compared with other Southern Slates, the Separate Coach Hill became
a law, nml remains U|miii the statute l>ooks of the Stale today.
I'rof. Jackson' served as Chairman of the Committee on Educational Sta-
tistics for the Negro nice at the World's Fair in 1893, and make a report which
was published extensively ami favorable commented upon by the press of the
Vnileil Slates. He was one of the Kentucky Commissioners to the Atlanta
Exposition, and, by invitation, made an address covering the growth of Negro
Education in Kentucky, which attracted much attention. By invitation of the
Senate of Kentucky, in March 1897, he addressed that distinguished branch of
the legislature, and made so favorable an impression as to secure an appropria-
tion of about $4,000 cash, and an additional annual appropriation of $1,400 for
the benefit of the State Normal School.
No man in Kentucky enjoys more fully than I'rof. Jackson the confidence
and esteem of both races. His life has been devoted to education. The progress
of the institution, of which he has been President for the past ten years, is n
tribute more eloquent than any words could possibly be to his worth and work
in this his chosen field. In an eminent degree ho combines all of those qualities
of head and head which go to make up exalted manhood. In him his nice
recogni/es a safe and wise leader. Nor is this all. lie isan embodiment of the
highest type of Christianity and morality, and it can trulhfullly be said of him:
"His life is gentle,
And (he elements so mix in him
That Nature might hold him unto all the world
And say, 'This is a ni'in.'"
Thomas Kenney Robb.
Thomas Kenney Robb was born in Frankfort, Ky., March 10, 18(12. lie
attended the subscription schools of the capital previous to his fourteenth year.
At this age he began work at the saw mill of K. N. Archer ei Co. in the bumble
position of water hoy. In addition to this duty*, he so occupied his spare mo-
ments that he soon bee: • so proficient ill grading, piling ami sorting liimlier
as tn gain the favor of his employers, and in less than five years (1880) was pro-
moted to the naqmnsiblc position of Yard Master at Point Hlimsidc, Ky. Aflcr
three vears of energetic service in this capacity and place, he was called to a
J. \v. si'int ;k(in.— i 'a..-.- n.
IIKNKY A. TANDY. - !*:.-«• -Hi.
I'KTKK SIMI'SON. |>» R i>47
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 65
similar position with tlie Kentucky Lumber Company at Williuinttown, Ky.
Having increased inefficiency and ex|ierience lie was a Rain pr >>i,.,l and
made a regular Lumber Inspector.
In 1883 he left Williamstnwn (o go to Louisville to accept the position <>f
Yard Master and Head Inspector with The Frank Ingram Lumber Company.
In addition to his ..titer duties here, lie did considerable mail work. buying and
shipping lumber to and from different parts of the country. He continued in
the employ nf this company until the p:inic of 1891, when the , puny failed
and Mr. Robb, being a stockholder, lost heavily. Shortly afterward he went
further Smith with a view to retrieving his financial losses, and finally returned
to his old home in the early part of 18!l"i.
In March, I89fi, he was elected by the State Hoard of Sinking Fund Com-
missinners to the position of Lumber Inspector for the Frankfort Penitentiary,
over eleven white competitors, For this place he was warmly endorsed, atid
was selected on the grounds of the moat evident competency and the highest
merit. He has filled the position ably and honorably, reflecting credit upon
himself nn<l his pice. He enjoys the fullest measure of the confidence and
esteem of everyone with whom he has come in contact.
Mr. Robb has always taken an active part in politics, being an mi ipro-
mising Republican, and has served his party faithfully both in convention and
on campaign committees. He is also actively identified with secret societies,
being n Free Mason, and a Grand Director of the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows
of Kentucky. In a large social circle he is deservedly popular. With every
interest that tends to the elevation of his |ieople he is in active sympathy, anil
contributes his every gift for their upbuilding.
Of unusual business qualifications, unswerving in his devotion to every
duty, uncompromising in his advocacy of ever true principle, lending a willing
service to every good work his hands find to do, the life of Thomas K. Robb
stands out in bold relief as an example worthy the emulation of Negro youth
everywhere, who may read the story of his life.
Edward \V. Chenault.
Among the honored sons of Kentucky occupying a conspicuous place is
K. \V. Chenault, who was born at Ml. Sterling, Ky., in IH4-I, when the blighting
sting of slavery rendered it difficult for a Xegro to secure a liberal education;
however, he made the best of his opportunities, and by many deprivations and
sacrifices so developed his mind thai he now enjoys the distinction of being one
of the best thinkers of his rac? hi 180-1 he joined the diked States Cavalry
in which he served with credit, he'.ng li irably discharged with the regiment
at Helena, Ark., since which time ic has resided in Lexington, Ky.
Mr. Chenault married Miss Anna Williams, daughter of Mr. Abraham
Williams, June 22, 1871, having four children to bless his home, three of whom
66 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
are living. lie is an influential member of the A. V. and A. M., a Past G. S.
\V. anil Ci. J. \V. of the Grand Lodge, Past Grand Lecturer and Past Grand
Mlot of the Grand Lodge of United Brothers of Friendship. He has served
three times as President of the Agricultural and Mechanical Fair Association,
the largest and most prominent Negro organization of its kind in the United
States, and to his ahle and careful management it owes much of its popularity
When the wicked inclinations of the Legislators of Kentucky prompted
them to heap indignities upon the Negro by passing the Separate Coach Law,
an unjust piece of legislation, Mr. Chenault was among the first to raise his
voice in denunciation of this contemptible law. He was placed upon several
important committees, ami did valiant service.
Aided by personal popularity, he has made himself a powerful political fac-
tor and is n member of the Republican Committee of Fayette county. He was
elected alternate Delegate from the State-at-largc to the St. Louis Convention
which nominated Hon. William McKinley for President of the United States,
Mr. Chenault having received the largest vote of a number of contestants. His
political influence greatly aided Hon. J. C. Jackson in securing the election as
Delegate from the State-at-large to the Minneapolis Convention.
The latest honors conferred upon Mr. Chenault arc his election to the posts
of State Grand Treasurer of the Graml Lodge of the United Brothers of Friend-
ship ami Grand Treasurer of the National Grand Encampment of the same
Thomas Cicero Buford.
Mr. T. C. Buford was born in Mobile, Ala., about 18-iO. the uncertainty
of the exact year being very annoying to him. He was taken from his parents
when too young to ren ember the date of his birth and brought to Kentucky by
Mr. G. W. Buford. The little boy was thus early deprived of the parental care,
guidance and inspiration. He cannot even recall his mother's face, but be was
reared in the home of Mrs. (i. Y. Buford, in Glasgow, Ky., a good white lady
to whom he became warmly attached.
Manual labor was never a thing upon which he looked with contempt. Ho
alwavs regarded it as a high privilege to earn his bread by the sweat of his
brow. Thus through toil of various kinds he has become both enterprising and
liberal, and is so acknowledged in Lexington, bis adopted city. He was at one
time foreman in the largest tobacco establishment in Glasgow. Learning while
SO employ ed his business ability, he soon established himself in the grocery trade,
in which he was eminently successful. Mr. Buford has no recollection of ever
being taught to read and write, and was somewhat astonished to find that he
bad gradually and almost unconsciously acquired both accomplishments,
In early life he became a Christian and joined the Baptist Church. When
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. G7
he became a prosi>crous man and the church was unable to pay for its property,
he paid for it himself, in order to give the members lime to redeem it in small
payments. After having been in business about six years he became ambitious
for n college education, and, disposing of his stock of goods, matriculated at the
Slate University in 1882. The faculty became very fond of the young man, be-
cause of his earnestness as well as his systematic methods, and unanimously
agreed in giving him control of the boys' dormitory, which position he filled to
the satisfaction of the faculty and trustees of the institution.
While a student at the university he met Miss Sarah K. Nelson, who after-
ward became his wife. They were married in September, 188(5. She is the
daughter of Samuel and Amanda V. Nelson, one of the leading families in the
far-famed Blue Grass region. Miss Nelson was among the first graduates from
the College Department of the State University, while it was under the able
Presidency of Dr. Willi tin J. Simmons. She is a young woman possessing
many splendid qualities, and has a large heart and brain, with natural gifts
that have been handsomely cultivated. Husband and wife are well-mated.
Mr. Buford has been a prominent Odd Fellow for years. lie has actively
engaged in the development of this order ever since he became a member. His
brethren acknowledged his worth by electing him Grand Master of Kentucky
five consecutive years, which position he has filled with dignity and honor to
the fraternity. He has been Secretary of the Floral Hall Department of the
Agricultural and Mechanical Association, of which he is n stockholder, for a
number of years, and his businsss tact has largely contributed to the success of
this famous fair.
He is Principal of the public schools at Newcastle, where he has long been
ably assisted by his estimable wife. No one need apply for the position while
he desires it. Both white and black of this community respect and esteem him.
Mr. Buford is an orator of no mean ability, his language being smooth and
polished. Socially he seeks the companionship of the educated and liberal-
minded. He is generous and forgiving, and when in the wrong is readv to
acknowledge it, hut he never apologizes to any man for his convictions.
There is no young man in Kentucky who demonstrates more fully to the
world the capabilities of the Negro, in whose every progressive movement he
has shared for the past decade. His love of his race is supreme, and he never
fails to press a point when it is for the betterment of his people. Though he
has filled several ollices of trust he has never betrayed one of them. He is
sometimes called the preacher of Odd Fellowship. Mr. Buford furnishes an
example of what the Negro can do by dint of courage and frugality.
Mrs. E. Belle Jackson.
Mrs. K. Belle Jackson, President of the Orphan and Industrial Home, ot
Lexington, was born in Boyle county, Kentucky, December 31,1848. When
old enough her parents, Monroe and Mary E. Mitchell, sent her to a school
which the town officials permitted the free Negroes to conduct. They were
slaves, but hired their time. In a few years they bought their freedom, and
when lielle was eleven years old her mother took her to Xenia, Ohio, intending
to put her in school at Wilberforce, but she was too young to matriculate, as
they did not admit students under fifteen years old: so she placed her in the
Xenia public school, taught by Miss Sarah J. Woodson, afterward by Mr. John
It. Blackburn, where she remained three years; being very apt she soon took
rank with the leading pupils.
She professed religion when twelve years old, and joined the Methodist
Church. She returned to her Kentucky home to spend vacation. Although
verv vonng she was energetic and took an active part in Sunday school and
church work. Rev. John (i. Fee, the venerable founder of Berea College,
met Miss Mitchell while preaching in Danville one Sunday, and was so attracted
by her that he finally induced her parents to allow her to go to Camp Nelson to
teach the contraband women and children who had assembled there. This was
her first experience as a teacher, and was far from pleasant.
The American Missionary Association had already sent a number of white
teachers there from the North who were leaching the little "niggers," but when
a Negro teacher came, one perfectly qualified for the work, they refused to cat
in the dining room while she was eating, with two exceptions, Mrs. Colton and
daughter, who were Christian women. The landlady told Rev. Fee that she
would mil give Miss Mitchell a plate at the table. He said, "Then I will give
her mine!" Rev. Fee reported tlic narrow-minded teachers to the Missionary
Association, right prevailed, and Miss Mitchell had no further trouble. As in
most ca«es when the Negro i> given a chance, she became very popular, afterward
leaching in Frankfort, Luiisvillc, Nicholasville, Richmond, Lexington, and
other places iii Central Kentucky.
Fc.-ling thai she could be more useful if more thoroughly prepared for
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. <;o
school work, she entered Bcrea College in the fall of 1867, and would have K rad-
uated, as was her intention, had not Cupid interfered. While teaching the
first American Missionary school ever taught in Lexington she met her present
husband, -Mr. J. C. Jackson, now the popular Limestone street undertaker. They
were mutually attracted to each other and were soon engaged to marry. Mim
Mitchell was amhitioi s to finish the course, hut Mr. Jackson, who had already
waited three years, urged an early marriage So she left college, and February
23, 1871, they were married.
Mrs. Jackson afterward taught in the schools of i^xington and Fayette
county. For the past ten years she has given her time largely to charitable
work. She seems to he imbued with the missionary spirit, and is constantly
doing all in her power to uplift her race. Five years ago, with a number of
other ladies, she conceived the idea of establishing an Orphan Industrial Home.
The reiMirts submitted and published in this book show how well the work is
Mrs. C. V. Robinson.
Mrs. C. V. Kobinson, wife of Dr. 1*. D. Kobinson, of Lexington, Ky., was
born in Baltimore, Md.; her father and mother, Mr. and Mrs. George M. Kelly,
being at the head of one of the oldest and most respected families of the Monu-
mental City. After receiving her education in the public schools of Baltimore,
and while still quite young, she began teaching school in Kent county, Mary-
land, devoting her spare time to the study of music, for which she manifested a
strong inclination from her earliest childhood.
She was married to Dr. P. D. K.binson, in Baltimore, in July, 1891, and
aftera short visit eastward came to Lexington where, by her quiet and modest
manner, she soon won her way into.thc hearts of the people. Mrs. Kobinson is
a woman ol exceptional refinement and elevation of character, and her gentle,
friendly and affable disposition easily makes her a favorite with all who come
in contact with her, for to know her is to love and admire her. It seems to be
the rule of her life to encourage and assist others, to speak evil of no one, and
be true to all in every relation. Thus does she win and hold friends among
high anil low, rich and poor, haughty and humble.
Mrs. Kobinson is a loyal wife and loving mother. She is devoted to her
son of some four or five summers, to whose care and education she carefully
attends. Many there arc in Lexington, who know the bright, brown-eyed little
boy, Kelly Kobinson, his mother's pride and joy, a child who is frieiidlv and
sweet, though petted by l.ot'i young ami old. She is an ideal housekeeper, hav-
ing domestic tasks and a love of home and all things beautiful, that is charac-
teristic of her nature and permeates her life.
In charitable work she is a ready ami willing worker, making no display
of what she considers only Christian duty. For fouryearsshe has been Secretary
70 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
of the Board of Managers of the Orphan and Industrial Home in Lexington,
iin institution that has attracted the attention and the aid of philanthropists
throughout the length and breadth of the land, and beyond the seas. Her work
for that organization has been of such merit as to call forth encomiums of
praise from her associate members and the public-spirited people of her adopted
city, without regard to color, creed or condition. The race is justly proud of
nucha woman. Long may she live to continue her good works. God will bless
her beautiful life.
Mrs. Priscilla Ross Lacey.
There are numerous women of the race who by their industry and frugality
stand prominently in the front rank, but none deserve more credit for their
Christian activity than Mrs. Priscilla Ross Lacey. She was born in Lexington,
Fayette county, Kentucky. January 19, 1839. Her father, William Ross, was a
slave, but her mother was free. At the age of eleven years Priscilla was hired
out in the family of Mrs. George \V. Norton as a nurse, where she remained
until December, 1857.
While in the service of the Nortons she became acquainted with Benjamin
Taylor, to Whoro&he was united in marriage. They lived happily together until
Mr. Taylor's death in 1869. In February, 1873, she was married to her present
husband, George Lacey. Mrs. Lacev is a woman of considerable native ability,
full of push and energy, and takes an active part in every movement looking
toward the amelioration of the condition of her race.
She is one of the founders of the Orphans' Industrial Home, and has been
its Treasurer since its organization. Her kindness, generosity and many virtues
have given her a strong hold on the citizens of Lexington, who ever delight to
follow and honor her.
firs, nary A. Smith.
Mrs. Smith was born December 27, 1845, in Charleston (then Old Virginia)'
Wot Virginia. She wasilie child of John and Jane Reeler, both of whom are
now deceased. During the year 1850 she moved to Lexington, Ky., which place
lias ever since been her home.
On May 12, 181)4, she married Mr. James Smith. Thirty-three years they
have lived and struggled happily together, sharing and bearing each other's
burdens, and also many a burden of others. Their union has been blessed with
(•even children, six sons and one daughter. Of this number they have lost hut
one, their oldest child, n son. Although horn and married during those agoniz-
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 71
ing, cruel slavery days, yet she did not allow lliem Ui prevent lier from learning
to read, write and cipher.
Mrs. Smith is kind, affable, persevering, industrious and economical; n
faithful and devoted wife and mother; a true and loving friend, a quiet and
peacable neighbor. For twenty years she has been a consistent and worthy
member of St. Mary's Temple No. 3">, of the order of United Brothers of Friend-
ship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten. For ten consecutive years she has been
the presiding ofiicer of said Temple, which office she has creditably filled. In
faith Mrs. Smith is a strict Methodist, a flood Christian and a devoted church
worker. Hut not only this, her life goes OIM to the needy, not merely in words
of comfort, cheer and hope, hut in acts of aiding, relieving and substantial char-
ities. Space will not pL'rinil further comment, therefore I einbodv her senti-
ments, likewise my own, in these words:
In this world of burden bearing,
Help a little, help a little;
For thy weary brother caring,
Help just a little.
In the work around us pressing,
Help a little, help a little;
Let thy labor prove a blessing,
Help just a little.
(), the shoulders we might lighten!
< I, the paths that, we might brighten!
(), the wrongs that we might righten,
Helping just a little.
Lee Wlckliffe Taylor.
Mr. Lee W. Taylor, the subject of this sketch, was born April 30, IS08, in
Lexington, Ky. The fond parents were pr.ui.l of the bay and, struck with his
manliness and precocity, they entered him in the public schools at the tender
age of four and a half years. Here he remained some time, when pinching ne-
cessity drove him to manual labor. His lirst serious employment was driving a
peddler's wagon. This he did lor six years, then he re-entered school, but still
working at whatever he could get to do, before and after scl 1 hours, in order
to pay his way. The way up the hill of knowledge was by no means smooth or
easv, but by indomitable perseverance, anil the cheering and encouraging words
of a loving anil pious mother, he struggled on until he triumphed, and ill 1889
he graduated from the Chandler Normal, with the first honors of his class.
He then began the work of his profession- that of a teacher— anil with the
exception of the time spent in taking a post graduate course at Chandler, he has
been continuously engaged in th» work. His success as an educator has been
marked, one of the best evidences of which is the fact that he has taught almost
K ENTUCK V'S PROM I N ENT
continuously in one locality. As a teacher lie i> kindly though firm in liis dis-
cipline, noil works in season nnilnut of season fur the advancement of his school.
Like the true man that he is, he docs not stop at his school, l>nt extends the
beneficent influence of his teaching and character to the entire community in
which he labor* An omnivorous reader of t lie h.-si bjoks, lie is ever ready, but
not ostentatiously, to give the l>esi infnrmatinn obtainable to those who are
seeking light, and many of lb-ISC who have come under his influence have
thereby been inspired to a higher life, both mentally and morally.
Aside from his teaching capacity, Mr. Taylor is a writer of much ability,
and hut erudite productions have frequently added to the interest of the most
excellent journal for Negroes in Kentucky, The Standard, whose editor, W.
I). Johnson, i> a keen discerner of men and talent, and whose pride is the
development of his rare. A conscientious and enthusiastic liaptist, being n
member of the I'irst church of that denomination in Lexington, which is pre-
sided over by l>r. S. !'. Young, lie carries his religion, which is a happy com-
bination of faith and good works, into his daily affairs, earnestly obseiving the
Golden Hole at all times, and often under trying circumstances
Prompted by the laudable desire to advance the young of his race in relig-
ious and ethical training, he has accepted the superintendency of the large Sun-
day School of his church, and under his wise guidance, it has prospered and
grown in knowledge and goodness. To his own, and to the keen regret of the
Sabbath School, he was compelled to resign became of bis more pressing educa-
Mr. Taylor is an ardent K of I'., and he is, on account of his kindly nature,
peculiarly filled for the noble work of this great and beneficent order. He is a
ready, earnest and able speaker, and he is ever willing to lift his voice in defense
of the right, or in persuading to wisdom and the pleasant paths of peace. lie is
i mm of splendid character, pure in thought and right of action. All his im-
pulses are noble, and if, as it is ever the lot of man to do, he sometimes errs, it
is well known among his friends that "it is of the head and not the heart." His
friends are many, and knowing his fine qualities of head and heart, they arc
drawn to him with hooks of steel, and wish him the success in life he so richly
deserves, and the unalloyed happiness he so highly merits.
(JHAITEK XI, VI.
Louis G. P. Todd.
LniliaC. I'. Todd, son of Robert and Mary Todd, wis horn in llarrndsbtirg,
Kv., June '.', 1M72. In early childhood ho moved with his parents to Prank fort
where he has since resided. He was educated in the Frankfort public schools,
where, after completing the course, he became one of the teachers for four sub-
sequent vears. While leaching he also look a cour-e of study in the State
Normal School, graduating therefrom in 1802. In 181)4 he was elected Princi-
MISS K ATI i: V. HAKDIX.
CII VKLKS IIACOAKD.- l':w I!>.
\V. II. I'KKKY.— I"
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 73
pal of the I'niontown public school, which position he held for three years.
lie has been recently elected Secretary -Trca/urer of the Frankfort Brunch
of the (Join nliia Building and Saving* Association, and is performing its onerous
and responsible duties in an eminently satisfactory manner, lie has the honor
to he President of the State Normal Alumni, and Assistant Secretary of the
State League of Republican Clubs. He was a delegate to the Anti-Separate
Coach Convention, held in Lexington in 1802, and to the Republican State
Convention in 18116.
Mi. Todd is well and favorably known in journalism, where lie wields a
trenchant pen, his writings being at once bold, clear and entertaining. He
ranks high as a public speaker, his lectures and addresses displaying the rare
gifts and graces of the finished orator. No young man in Kentucky tnjoys the
confidence of his race more fully than he. Although young, as we count time
l>v years, he is regarded wherever he is known for his brilliancy of intellect,
ripe scholarship and consummate ability. The future must have much in store
for him. His friends, and the people who have learned to love him, will watch
his career with increasing interest confident that abundant and brilliant success
Jupiter Lewis was bom a slave in Fayette county, Kentucky, in the year
1837. lie is a familiar character in Lexington, where he is known by everyone
as an honest, faithful citizen. He has had little educational advantages, but
possesses a strong mind, full of common sense.
Shortly after becoming a free man, he secured a position as messenger at the
Fayette National bunk in ibis city, and for twenty years was a trusted employe
of the bank, lie was honest in all his dealings during these long years of ser-
vice, and was trusted with thousands of dollars of the funds of the bank, and be
it said to his credit when he resigned, not many years ago, not one cent had ever
been misplaced through any act of his. lie holds a good recommendation from
the officials of the bank, as an efficient, honest, industrious employe.
Mr. Lewis is a devout Christian, and is an officer in St. l'aul A M. E.
church, having been elected a trustee many years ago. His services have been
invaluable to this church. lie is a faithful worker in the church, and donates
liberally to its maintenance, lie is Vice- ('resident of the Colored A. oi M. As
sociation of taxington, Fayette county, and has held that position of honor for
the past ten years,
Mr. Ix'wis is an example of what the Negro can do when he bends his en-
ergies in the right direction. Push and energy are his prominent characteris-
tics, and such honors as have been bestowed upon him are merited by good citi-
zenship. Individuality in each Negro, while combating the struggles of life,
will bring out more prominently what the possibilities of the race are. There-
fore, we find a valuable lesson in the life and character of Jupiter Lewis, which
is worthy of emulation.
Lewis George Clark.
Lewis George Clark, the original of "George Harr s," tlie noted character
in Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe's epoch-making novel, 'Uncle Tom's Cabin,"
was born in Madison county, Kentucky, the property of Samuel Campbell, in
1812. Although born in slavery he is three-fourths white. His mother was
the daughter of Samuel Campbell, a Madison county, Kentucky, slave owner of
Scotch descent. His father was Daniel Clark, a Scotchman, who served in the
Revolutionary war, and who came to Kentucky shortly after |>eace was declared.
He became infatuated with Campbell's pretty yellow girl, and they lived together
as husband and wife, passing the latter years of their life in Islington, in a
house that stood on the corner of Broadway and Main streets. Her name was
K.niline, and she is described as being one of the handsomest mill t '.oes ever born
in Kentucky. Daniel Clark died at Lexington in 1820, his widow surviving
him until 1833, when she died with cholera, which was epidemic throughout
the South that ycir.
When Samuel Ctnip'>ell's only daughter mar.ied Dr. Wanton he presented
George Clark, (who was then six years old) to her as a wedding gift. She made
a house boy of him and he learned how to do all kinds of woman's work, such
as sewing, spinning, weaving, etc. He became an expert in spinning Hax thread
on the "little" wheel, and samples of his work shown the writer attest the su-
periority of the thread he manufactured. When (ieorgc was seventeen years
old Dr. Hlanton failed, and he was sold at sherill's sale. His purchaser was
General Samuel Kennady, of Garrard county, one of the largest and wealthiest
landowners in the State, and he had a reputation of being unusually cruel to his
slaves, of which he owned a large number. lint the good looking yellow boy,
George, having been trained to do housework by his former mistress, was given
similar work to do by his new owner. His young master, Samuel Kennady, Jr.,
was about the age of George, i nil when the old general died, he treated George
with the greatest consideration. Upon the death (if the second Thomas Ken-
nady, (ieorge was given to his daughter, Mrs. William I'.ridges. When liridges
died heavily in debt, all his property, including the slaves, was sold by admin-
istrator, (ieorge was the only piece of property thai was not sold, Mrs. liridges
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN.
begging to retain him. In the final settling up of the estate it was found that
George would have to be disposed of, and he soon discovered that negotiations
were pending between the administrator and Chenoweth and Lawless, a firm of
slave dealers in Iyexington who bought Negroes to send South. George asked
the administrator if he intended to send him South, and he replied, "Yes, I am
going to sell you down South, ami when you get there you will find that your
color" — George is nearly white — "will not save you from doing the same work
as other Negroes."
For several years prior to this time George had been allowed to do odd jobs
for people in the neighborhood, and he had saved his money with the intention
of buying himself, a practice followed by many of the better class of Negroes in
this State. He had also made considerable money in gathering blue grass seed.
He invested part of his money in a good horse, saddle and bridle. He had
about $100 in cash. When he learned that he was to be sold down South, lie
and his brother Milton, who was two years his junior, decided to run away and
seek a home in the North. An elder sister had died in New Orleans, lenving
them a handsome estate, which would have been ample to purchase their free-
dom; but under the law slaves could not inherit properly, and they therefore
saw nothing open to them but flight or the most abject slavery in the cotton
fields of the South. Their Scotch blood boiled in indignation at the thought of
the latter contingency, and in the dead of night they left their old Kentucky
home and rode North. They went to Canada, but had only been there a short
time when Milton determined to come to l>exington to see his sister. He dis-
guised himself, but had not been in the city long until he was recognized and
sent back to the administrator of William Bridges' estate. Before he could be
sold down South he escaped again, and went to Oberlin, Ohio, from which point
he communicated with George, and the latter soon joined him at Oberlin.
(ieorge was taken into the family of Mrs. Frances SafTord (a ncice of Mrs. Stowe),
who lived in Cambridgeporl, Massachusetts. Mrs. SafTord taught George to
read and write. He learned rapidly, and would often entertain crowds of eager
listeners with stories of slave life in Kentucky. He became so noted from tell-
ing these stories that people for miles around came to Mrs. SafTord to see him and
to learn something of the institution of slavery as known in the Southern States.
He attracted so much attention that news reached Kentucky of his doings, and
William Bridges' administrator sent I/ewis I'ostlcwait and Thomas B. Megowan,
of Lexington, after the two Clark brothers. They succeeded in capturing Mil-
ton and returning him to Kentucky; but (ieorge made his escape through some
technicality of the law. and went to Portland, Maine, where he began giving
lectures on the "I.egree" tvpc of slave owners in the South. He lectured
throughout Maine and the New England States. He returned to Mrs. Safford's
in 1844, having gained an almost national reputation as the daring slave lec-
turer, and having stirred the people of the North against human slavery to such
an ext >nt that the abolition of that institution was possible. His reappearance
in Ohio created a great deal of comment anil no little excitement. Hundreds of
friends came to Oberlin and assured him that should his owners from Kentucky
attempt to capture him again they would protect him with their lives. After
70 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
this he made many gpechesin Ohio ami other Northern States.
At the breaking out of the war lie went to Canada. After the war was
over, the late Colonel William Cassius Goodloe and other distinguished Ken-
tuckians persuaded him to come to Kentucky and try and induce the Negroes
of the Slate, who at that time had the Kansas fever, to remain in Kentucky
and not he carried away with the stories of the Kansas boomers. He spoke in
nearly every county of (he State, and by his work he succeeded in preventing
many Negroes from leaving Kentucky. In more recent years he traveled
throughout the country delivering lectures on old times in the .South.
In 18'Jo the venerable worker for his race became enfeebled, and was unable
to do anything for a livelihood. When his condition became known, charitably
disused |>ersoiis all over the North and in Kentucky, sent small contributions
which materially assisted him, but his destitution was not fully relieved until it
became known to Mr. Charles I'mbers, of Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, a phil-
anthropic gentleman and musician of the far antipodes. He succeeded in
getting up a benefit musical performance in Dunedin, for Lewis George Clark,
which netted seventy pounds sterling, or $350. This money, rnised seven thous-
n id miles away, was sent to Mr. Claik in March, lb!»7. It was placed in the
hands of Mayor J. 15 Simrull, of Lexington, who used it in providing for the
need* of this man who had made history.
In disposition Ix'wis George Clark was as gentle as a child; his honesty was
proverbial, and he had the respect, esteem and confidence of all who knew him.
He was intimately acquainted with the Beechers, William Lloyd Garrison,
Wendell Phillips and the other great leaders in the pro-slavery movement. He
outlived all of them, his only living contemporary in 1897 being General Cassius
Marcellus Clay, ot White liall, Madison county, Kentucky.
Wallace Arkansas Gaines.
Wallace A. Gaines was born in the city of Dayton, Ohio, April 15, 1858.
His ai.cesters on his giandmotliei 'i side were Kentuckians, most of whom were
residents of Ilarrodsburg; those on his grandfather's side were Virginians; their
home being in Richmond and vicinity. Mr. Gaines was only an infant when
his father died, and when his mother, three years thereafter, married Mr. J. A.
Overton and moved to Mercer county, Ohio, to take up a farm life, he was left
in the care of his grandparents, Kichard and Ellen Gaines. He was sent by
them to the Negro public schools of Dayton, commencing at the age of six
years, and continuing therein until the age of eleven, at which time he was hired
out to a white family in Dayton —Mr. and Mrs. L. A. Tenney-at the rate of
cighl dollars a month and clothing, his grandparents receiving all the money.
Mr. and Mrs. Tenney however, took a great interest in him, being very kind to
him in u.a IV ways, and aided him largely in his mental training.
He continued in the employment of this family for a considerable time,
but both of his grandparents dying, he went to Lima, Ohio, to live with his
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 77
mother, and while there he entered the mixed schools of that city. But being
naturally disposed to the acquisition of material wealth, and being possessed
of a spirit of independence, he could not rest contented under the conditions
that surrounded him -thai of being supported by liis relatives— and as n conse-
quence, lie left school and obtained employment in the spoke, hub and handle
factory of K. A: .J. K. Ashton, where lie learned the entire trade, sawing, turning
Whatever Mr. Gaines does is marked with exact and painstaking care, not
being satisfied with any crude or cureless work. This seems to be one of his
inherent qualities, for while a child it manifested itself and drew to him the
kind interest of Mr. and Mrs. Tenncv, and made them his lusting friends. And
while at the spoke and huh factory il attracted the attention of the .Superin-
tendent, M. \V. II. Taylor, to such a degree that he proposed a partnership with
Mr. Gaines. This was accepted, and they built a factory and started business at
Sunbiiry, Delaware county, ( >hio, where they gave steady employment to more
than thirty hands, most of whom were Negroes. Of course, money was needed
to carry on such a business, and while Mr. G: iies had sonic money, saved by
thrift and economical habits while in Lima, yet he did not have enough. There
was no trouble about this, however, as Mrs. Tenney, his friend in his infancy,
having confidence in his business tact and enterprise, advanced the necessary
money, which was all repaid from the business. The remarkable thing about
this whole matter is that Mr. Gaines was only a lad of sixteen or seventeen
vears of age while thus engaged. It is indeed a very strong proof of his natural
executive ability. On account of poor health he was compelled to sell out his
business and remove from Sunburv. This was in 1875, and marks the date of his
adoption of Kentucky as his future home. Having two uncles in Covington,
Ky., O. S. Burton and Lovcll Gaines, he went to that city ami made his home
with them. His active nature, however, would not permit him to remain idle,
and he at once engaged in business, where he handled furniture and feathers.
Although not yet a voter, he was a leader in politics among his people,
and so active and influential was he that in 1M8'', he was appointed by Hon.
John Sherman, then Secretary of the Treasury, a United States Storekeeper
under Hon. \V. S. Holder, Collector of the Sixth Kentucky District; and after-
wards under General J. \V. Finnell, the successor of Mr. Holder. Here, again,
Mr. Gaines' accuracy, efficiency and close attention to details became manifest,
add lie was soon known anil rated as one of the best storekeepers in the service.
A change in the Adininisirasion removed Mr. Gaines from the I". S. service.
He then became a hauling contractor, handling all the grain and whisky of the
distilleries olO. I loltcrhc.fl' and List A Block, and in addition to this being the
superintendent or general manager of the latter distillery. As soon, however,
as the Republican party came into power again, Mr. Gaines was restored to the
service, being appointed this time a I'. S. Ganger, in which office he had equally
high rating as when a storekeeper.
If Mr. Gaines has any owe quality above another, it i-. that of untiring
activity. It is manifested in social a flairs no less than in business and political
mailers. As a result of this he ha- attached himself to many secret societies
78 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
and orders. He is a Mason, having taken all the degrees to that of Knight
Templar; he is an Odd Fellow, having attained to the rank of Past Grand Mas-
ter therein, and is also a member of the Patriarchy. But the society in which
he takes greatest interest, is that of the United Brothers of Friendship. This is
due, no doubt, to Mr. Gaines' intetesl in the advancement of his race, this being
distinctly a Negro organization, having for its purpose the unification of the
race. In 1889, at Bowling Green, Ky., he was elected Grand Master of the U.
B. F. and.S. M. T., and has been re-elected each year since. Comment is un-
necessary. Suffice it to say, that under his administration the growth, prosperity
and influence of the order in Kentucky has been unparallelled.
But few men have been more active or better known in the political affairs
of the State of Kentucky than Mr. Gaines. For the past sixteen years he has
been a delegate to every city, county and State convention; for the past twelve
years he has l>ecn a member of the Republican Executive Coiuniittees of both
Kenton county and the city of Covington, and at present n meniber-at-largc of
the State Advisory Committee. In 1892, he was elected a State delegate-at-
large to represent the Republican State League at Buffalo, N. Y. As an evi-
dence ofithe'high esteem in which he is held by those in authority, it maybe
stated that in 1895 he was appointed Commissioner for the State at the Atlanta
exposition; and in 189(5, he was commissioned by the Governor as a Slate repre-
sentative to the Nashville Exposition.
Mr. Gaines' strong forte is that oftjratory. He has a great command of
words, an easy flow of language and a graceful mode of gesture, all combined
making him one'of the most elocpient and effective orators in the State. He
cuine prominently into notice as an orator when in State Convention, June 5,
1895, he seconded the nomination of Hon. W. O. Bradley for Governor. This
speech elicited praise and favorable comment of the highest quality. But it was
in the Presidential campaign of 189fi, where the oratorical powers of Mr. Gaines
were liest used anil most effective. In every part of the State was his voice
heard, and always with good results.
In manner, Mr. Gaines is gentlemanly, sauve and gracious, winning friends
at every turn and holding them by his upright character and his hospitable
nature. But how could this l>e otherwise when there courses through his veins
the gentle blood of old Virginia, heated by the genial warmth of hospitable
Kentucky? But last and best of all, is Mr. Gained' strong fealty to his race. No
temptation is strong enough to turn him from those in whose interest he is con-
stantly at work; and for this he has the everlasting love and confidence of his
own race, and the honor and esteem of his while fellow citizens.
In business matters Mr. Gaines has met with much success, having accumu-
lated, by industry and thrift, considerable means, which he has invested in real
estate in both Ohio and Kentucky. Being yet a young man we predict for him
a life ofigreater usefulness and higher honors than those already attained by
Colored A. & n. Association.
■ftN less than a decade after the proclamation freeing the Negro of
f the South, and long before the freedman had gotten through re-
joicing over the incidents attending that event, the Colored Fair As-
sociation was inaugurated. On August 11, 1869, a mass meeting
was held at Ladies' Hall in the city of Lexington. Henry King, for
his active and earnest work and enthusiasm in the enterprise, was
made Chairman, and Henry Britton, Secertary. The object of the
meeting being stated by the chairman a pprmanent organization was
formed. Henry King was elected President; H. H. Harvey, Vice
President; Jame9 Turner, Treasurer; Henry Scroggins, Secretary;
and a Board of Directors, consisting of five members, James Harvey,
Thomas Slaughter, George Perry, E. G. Smoot and Theodore Clay.
These were the first to be thus honored by this enterprise, and of the
number named above only two survive, at this date, May 1, 1897,
namely, Thedore Clay and H. H. Harvey.
At the meeting iu 1HG9 it was agreed that fifty shares of the
stock should be put on sale at 810 per share, and in a short time
two thirds of the stock was disposed of. Subsequently the amount of
stock was raised to one hundred and eight shares, which were readily
taken by responsible parties. Grounds were secured on the Newtown
pike, a short distance from the city, where the first fair was held from
Octolwr <> to 9, inclusive. Three fairs were held on these grounds
and with such unexpected success that the Association concluded it
would be more profitable to lease grounds and improve them with
such buildings and conveniences as would be better suited and
adapted to the purpose.
Iu 1872 a lease lor n period of fifteen years <vas secured on a
tract of laud about one mile from the city limits, on the Georgetown
pike. About 83,500 was expended on improvements. A semi-circle
«mphitheatre, with a seating capacity ol'2,f)00, a dwelliug bouse and
stables were erected, ami a half mile track made, besides other nec-
essary improvement. For the following fifteen years the fairs were
held on these grounds. The large aud increasing attendance from
year to year, the high class of the exhibits, the very best and finest
stock of the Blue Grass counties l>eing brought there to contend for
the liberal premiums and purses offered, soon convinced the managers
that the recent improvements were inadequate to the demand. The
half mile track proving unsatisfactory was abandoued, the amphi-
theatre was found not to be large enough to accommodate one-third
of the visitors, and a hall in which was exhibited the handiwork of
women was too small.
Something must be done, as the fifteen years' lease had expired,
and it was evident that the Association must have larger and better
grounds to accommodate its increasing patrouHge. Some of the mem-
bers were of the opinion that it would be more prudent to purchase
grounds and improve them to meet the demands of the Association.
Others thought it best to have a committee wait upon the White Fair
Association to ascertain if an agreement could be reached for holding
the Negro Fair on its grounds. Such a committee was finally •ap-
pointed and it succeeded iu making a contract satisfactory to both
The first fair held by Negroes on the White Associat ; on grounds
was iu 18K7 and since then their fairs have been held there. They
are considered the finest and best adapted grounds for fair and racing
purposes in America The proximity of the grounds to the city, with
an electric car line running to the gate that conveys passengers
from any part of the city for 5 cents; a race course pronounced by
all first-class horsemen to be the equal of any; a double-decked
amphitheatre, with a seating capacity of 8,000; a spacious floral
hull, and sufficient stable room to accommodate the stock, gives to the
Colored Fair Association and its thousands of patrons an advantage
and pleasure they did not before enjoy.
A. S. WIIITK IV •">■•;.
This (ill h:i- ma.U-fr.mi ;i | jtrapli lak.-n in IXS!», while
Mr. Whit, »:,- ., ~iikI.mii in II. nranl I'niwrsilv.
W. I!. KALLAKI).— IVc
('. I'. I'RKWKTT.— Page 5(i.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. Hi
Siuce the removal to the present location the fain have grown in
importance and popularity. Miny new attractions Live bjjn aided
and changes made each season, so as. to <1 ) away with the m niotony
and tedium that so often characterize like exhibitions. The o-ficera
in preparing their catalogue always take special care and deep inter-
est in striving to accommodate all classes of women's handiwork, and
very often the Secret iry makes a personal cauvass among them. It
is the prime desire of the Association to create rivalry and thereby
stimulate and encourage industry and artistic talent especially among
To show the unselfishness of the Association liberal premiums are
offered on all articles exhibited in floral hall, without entry fee.
This department of the fair has grown from year to year until it is
now one of the main attractions. The books of the Association are
open to the public, and often the exhibits of the best white people
compete for the prizes. Another indispensible attraction of the fair
is the speed ring. The people demand something more enlivening
and exciting than the ordinaryTmgsmows, and will have it or they
will not attend, as they have a 'ready demonstrated here. This is a
country of great horses and interested horsemen, and the Association
cannot ignore the demands for exhibitions of speed.
The liberality and generosity of the officers have added much to
the Association's popularity and success, and the promptne-s with
which all obligations are met have given it a financial standing in the
community to be envied. Liberal purses and premiums are offered
and promptly paid in cash just as soon as the judges make their de-
cision and the same is reported to the Secretary. Often belated ex-
hibitors arc accommodated with extra rings accompanied with handsome
premiums rather than that they should go away disappointed after
having prepared their stock. As much as 8;"><) or 87o 'is often given
for extra races after the catalogue races have been exhausted. The
amusements are never allowed to lag although they come very dear
The Association has been liberal in the distribution of compli-
mentary badges, liberal in its advertising, liberal in looking afler the
comfort of its guests, and liberal in the pay of its employes. Upon
these principles only can a great fair be successfully conducted. It
takes over 82,001) to run the Lexington Fair exclusive of the pre-
K ENTUCK V'8 PROMINENT
niiums aud purses besides n great measure of work aud worry. The
Directors aud managers, for the amount of time and labor given, are
least requitted. Their work extends throughout the year, board meet-
ings to attend and committee work of all kinds to be done. During
the fair to make an ideal officer one should keep bus)-. There are
always on hand sharpers and schemers that have to be looked after.
You W'll find one class at the gate trying to beat their way in, and
still another at the Secretary's office trying by some means to defraud
that officer out of a premium. Such unscrupulous persons will, in
order to fill a ring, enter a horse to be shown in a class to which he
does not l>clong, or for the same purpose they will enter an animal
that is not on the grounds, and, when that fact is ascertained, will
claim it to be no fault of theirs and demaud a show for their money.
Many other sharp practices are resorted to which at times become
very annoying. So au officer cannot be idle aud do his duty. He
must be ou the alert. J
Since the organ ization~oT the company seven men have been
honored with the Presidency: Henry King, who served for the years
1869, '70, 72, 74, '83, '86 and '87; George Perry, who served one
year, 1871; J. C Jackson. 1873, 75 and 76; Horace P. Gaines,
from 1877 to 1882, inclusive; J. A. Scott, 1884 and '85; E. W.
Chennult, 1893, '94 and '95; Henry Lee, 1888, '89, '90, '91/92,
'96 and 1897.
The honor of Vice President has been bestowed upon fourteen
men, as follows: H. H. Harvey, serving one term; George Perry,
three terms; H. P. Gaines, E. W. Jackson, Henry Lee and J. A.
Scott, two terms each; James Harvey, George Scroggins, A. L.
Harden, M. T. Clay, Isaac Lee, Reubeu Scott, A. W. Redd, one
term each; and Jupiter Lewis, the present incumbent, has been in
office through ten terms.
James Turner was the first to be honored as Treasurer, in 1869,
and served in that capacity until 1874, when he was succeeded by
W. L. Taylor, who faithfully performed the duties of the office until
death removed him in 1893. Henry Lee was then elected and
served until 1896, when he became President, and S. W. Dunn as-
sumed the duties of Treasurer, a position he still holds.
Henry Scroggins was elected Secretary in 1869 and remained in
office until 1875 when he was succeeded by A. L. Harden, who has
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 83
continously served the company as .Secretary to the present time.
The Association is a member of the National Trotting Associa-
tion, a distinction and honor for many years enjoyed by no other
kindred Negro organization. Its membership has given it prestige
and power that it did not enjoy before, and has brought it under the
notice of all prominent horsemen and Associations in this country
and Canada. Its membership entitles it to a voice in making laws
that govern all of the noted Associations throughout the country.
Records m:ide by horses at its meetings are valid, as upon other tracks,
and any horseman who violates the rule can be fined, suspended or
expelled by this Association just as quickly as for the same offense on
any other track. In fact, it is invested with the same power and
righls, and governed by the same rules and laws, that any other Na-
tional Association member is entitled to.
That the Association has done good in the community no one
can deny. It is an incentive to industry and thrift among all classes,
thefarmer, the gardener, the horeeman, the caterer, the seamstress,
the)tailor, the mechanic, the merchant, the artist, etc. It affords to
jiH an opportunity, that would not otherwise exist, for competition in
the exercise of taleut — talent that might have remained unknown. It
brings together relatives and friends long separated in happy reunion
and innocent enjoyment. It is a credit to the race for there we can
see placed upon exhibition the results of skillful labor, both artistic
and mechanical, of our own people; and, again, it is a noble memo-
rial of the worthy dead who sacrificed and contributed so much to the
upbuilding and perpetuation of the Association, without whose names
its history would be incomplete. Among those benefactors, of happy
memory, who have gone to their eternal reward are the following:
Henry King, W. L. Taylor, George Perry, George Downing, Isaac
Lee, H. H. Britton, John Williams, Archie Young, Robert Robinson,
Samuel Bell, Samuel Brier, J. H. Taylor, Henry Slaughter, Moses
Payne, Reuben Scott, James Turner, James Harvey, Alex Williams,
Marshall Skinner, George Scroggins, Henry Scroggins, Robert Logan,
E. J. Smoot and George Bufortl. Miss Mary Grievous, another hon-
ored member who for several years filled the responsible position of
Lady Manager of Eloral Hall, and whose accurate and superior judg-
ment and earnestness of purpose so well fitted her for the place, 1
also folded her arms in the dreamless sleep of eternity.
Financially the Association has been n success. Thousands of
dollars have been paid to the members in dividends, and when the
charter expired in 1896, after twenty-seven years of prosperity, and
the members concluded to disband and 'reorganize under new incor-
porations, the stockholders were paid more than a hundred dollars
per share for their stock which at the organization of the company
only cost diem ten dollars. That undoubtedly is a very creditable
record and one seldom equalled by any like institution. It may be
asked, and naturally, too, why the old company, being a success, was
disbanded and a new one formed? What advantages over the old
could be expected in the formation of a new? There were several
reasons for it. The first was that most of the members in the original
company were old men and dependent willows who were anxious to
get what they had in the company to assist in sustaining them in
their old age and through the depression of the hard times. The
second reason was to try in the new organization to offer inducements
to yonng men to take stock, as young and energetic men were very
much needed to supplant those who had grown old in the work. The
third and, perhaps, principal reason was that the charter of the old
company had expired and it was desirable to form a new company
under an improved plan of incorporation, the charter being defective
in many respects. While it is true that in the new company most of
the old members have retained stock, yet there is an infusion of young
bloixl that is certain in time to be very advantageous.
The last fair, in 1896, was the first held under the new order of
things; and, taking everything into consideration, the great depress-
ion in business throughout the country in particular, it was one of
the greatest meetings of the Association, and so well managed were
it." aHiiirs that a handsome dividend of about 40 percent was declared.
The present officers of the Association are: Henry Lee, President;
Jupiter Lewis, Vice President; S. YV. Dunn, Treasurer; A. L.
Harden, Secretary; M. T. Clay, J. T. Clay, J. C. Jackson, L. C.
Smith, W. H. Campbell, J. W. Ellis and Lewis Williams.JJirectors.
All are capable and worthy gentlemen, who from training anil ex-
perience know how to manage and inn a great fair. Most 'of them
have been connected with the Association since its organization and
all 'it them have been prominent in the work for years.
They nre leaving nothing undone that will tend to make the
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 85
meeting of 1897 even a greater success than any heretofore. The
various committees have been appointed, and the new features sug-
gested and discussed, if adopted, will greatly enhance the pleasures
of the fair. The selection of men to fill the -most important places
during fair week, such as Chief Marshal, stock marshal, ring marshals,
ticket sellers and ticket takers, etc., is another matter which often
gives the hoard much concern to he certain that the best choice has
been made. The Chief Marshal is the most responsible officer. He
supervises generally, cares for the company's property, sees that the
grounds are in proper order for the fair, and each morning before the
fair opens clears the grounds of all idlers. For several years Mr.
T. J. Wilson has filled this important position with credit and satis-
faction. He has again been selected for the place which is a sufficient
guarantee that everthing will be in first-class order for the coming
fair, in September, 1807.
J The printing is another matter of no little moment requiring
taste and judgment in its handling. Thousands of posters,
streamers, dodgers, catalogues, badges, etc., must be planned, pre-
pared and distributed throughout the country, requiring weeks of
labor and watchful care on the part of the Secretary. For several
years the Standard Job Office, in Lexington, has done the company's
printing, which for neatness, taste and artistic workmanship, it would
be hard to excel. That thousands of badges can be printed, strung
and accurately counted and separated into convenient packages, and
delivered without any loss shows a watchfulness and care on the part
of the printer that is commendable; for in previous years the company
suffered from loss of tickets before they reached the officers, which
would not be discovered until after a day's sale when stubs and tickets
were checked off at night
This brief history of the Colored Mechanical and Agricultural
Association is given as a basis upon which a more extended account
may be written at some future time, possibly by a more competent
historian. Many facts, more or less interesting, have been condensed
or roughly related, and more entirely omitted in this limited space.
The Colored Orphan Industrial Home.
,i u ])co]ile can be great through their own achievements. Re-
flected glory is more a token of degeneracy than of distinction.
Leadership determines the character of every movement, and although
the men in the line may be ever so gallant, the victory is known by
those who command. It has been through the operation of this prin-
ciple that the achievements of the Negro since the war have not been
at their full value. In a large majority of cases white men have stood
at the head of their worthiest enteq>rises, and so have given title to
many of their noblest works.
Recognizing this fact, and being moved by an impulse both of
humanity and race, a company of advanced thinkers among the Ne-
groes of Lexington, Ky., conceived the idea of building up in their
midst, purely under Negro auspices and management, a home where
their orphan children might be cared for and trained for usefulness iu
life, and a small number of aged and helpless women might find shel-
ter from pitiless poverty and decrepitude. It has been but a little
over four years since the necessary charter was obtained and the com-
pany organized. There was then not a dollar in sight nor the slightest
offer of aid. Now the Home is established, all paid for and in vigor-
ous and beneficent working operation. There is not a dollar of debt
upon the institution and the treasury of both the Board of Managers
and the Hoard of Trustees is in a good, healthy condition. More than
that, to meet the necessary demand for more room, both donnatory
and !-hop, the Board of Trustees is now causing to be erected a hand-
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 87
some extension that will greatly iucreasc the capacity, convenience
:uk1 comfort of the institution.
All this has been dime under the sole management of the one
organization now dating from the beginning of the work. There has
been no changes in the personcl of the management, and no salary has
been paid to any member of the organization. So much for the ex-
ecutive and administrative ability of the unaided Negro, and so much
to the honor of the good and worthy men and women who have (riven
themselves to the uplifting of the unfortunate. The reports of officers
will be found in this hook, bearing testimony to what the Negroes of
Lexington have accomplished. All of which is an honor to the race
in Kentucky. W. 1). J.
I'RKSIDKNT'S rkpokt for 1894.
In presenting my annual report of the Orphan and Industrial
Home, of Lexington, Ky., I first desire to return our earnest thanks
as a board to the many friends, both white ami colored, who have so
graciously remembered us during the past year. Truly the Lord
careth for these little ones, for He has raised up many friends for
them in their helplessness and destitution. The object of the Home
is to train hoys and girls for usefulness in this life, and immortality
in the life to come. We are succeeding much in our work, and
hope to do more the ensuing year than we have in the past.
Two years ago lust .September we purchased the Home, a beau-
tiful place in the suburbs of the city on the Georgetown pike, con-
sisting of a two and a half acre lot with a substantial brick dwelling
of twelve rooms. We did not have a dollar to start with but through
the mercy of our Heavenly Father and the kind generosity of friends
we have succeeded admirably. It is almost free from debt notwith-
standing we have bought an adjoining lot and have also had consider-
able repairing done upon the house.
We opened the Home November !l, 1894, and since then have
taken care of fourteen children and live aged and infirm women.' Wc
are destitute of the means to care for every needy boy and >:irl in our
community, but we arc not discouraged. (tod will raise up some one
who has been blessed with an abundance of this world's goods, to help
us in this noble work of alleviating sorrow ami suffering and prcpar-
in£ boys and <rirls for useful and honorable lives. The truly generous
man does not wish to leave enough to huihl an imposing monument,
since there is so much sorrow ami suffering to be alleviated. He
enjoys the pleasure of what he gives, by giving it when alive, and
seeiug others benefitted thereby. We hope to give the children n
three-told ediutltioil — namely, moral, industrial and literary — so that
when they reach the years of accountability and responsibility they
may he useful men ami women in the community in which they may
reside, as well as happy in their homes.
We want to give the lw>ys trades, the girls domestic lessons. We
want them to know that honesty and integrity constitute the true
nobility in man; that to toil for an honest livinjr is no disgrace, but
a recommendation; that no man is to he the less respected, the less
entitled to the enjoyment of social privileges, because he drives the
)low, shoves the plane, smites the anvil, or makes the marble start
up beneath the chisel of genius. We want our girls to understand,
yes, more, to be skilled in dressmaking, millinery, laundry, cooking
and housekeeping generally. Then we want to give them normal and
Let us see to it friends that we keep alive within our breasts the
continual needs of this Home, that we may manifest our love and
affection by a constant, steady stream of benevolence, so that in
years to come our children's children may point to it as the grandest
monument of the Negro race in Lexington. We have secured a
most estimable Christian man ami wife as matron and janitor for the
Home nt a salary of $30 a month. The cost of food, clothing and
fuel for a large Home like this must of necessity be large. We as a
race are poor; we have no large endowment fund at the back of our
institution, but must depend upon our individual efforts as a board,
and the kind generosity of friends for its maintenance.
May G<k1 enable you to help us, and may his blessing rest upon
the Home; may it live on throughout all time; may its hijrh ideal
be crowned with all the added lustre and glories of succeeding ages,
as a living reality; and in the "sweet bye and bye," when our entire
hoard shall have been called from labor to reward, may there he a
full accomplishment of its lofty mission.
M. s. .ioiinsi in. |w r,s.
KOHKKT MITCHELL.— I'ngc 59.
J. \V. Ill M.MAX.— I'agi-liO.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 89
president's report for 1895.
"If we could push ajar tlie gates of life
And stand within, and all God's workings sec,
We could interpret all this douht and strife,
And for each mystery could find a key."
•Swiftly, ah, how swiftly, has another year flown into eternity,
and Time in his. revolving changes has brought ns to the close of 1895.
We arc moving on slowly with the work of our Home. We are sorry
that the financial pressure of the times compel lis to work u|K>n a very
economical basis, but we arc not at all discouraged. "The cattle
upon a thousand hills arc His" in whom we trust.
\ We have been enabled this year, through the untiring efforts of
our/noble agent, Cant. It. H. Fitzlmgh, to open two of our industrial
■department.'!, namely, tailoring find dressmaking. Capt. Fitzhugh is
a man of most kindly heart and genial nature. He enjoys the friend-
ship and esteem of all who know him. His hair is silvered with the
frost of time, but as his frank clear eyes indicate, his heart is as
young and his blood as warm with fire and, energy to do the Master's
will, as if he was on the threshold of manhood. Long may he live
a lid continue to enjoy the friendship and the honor he so worthily
The fell destroyer, death, invaded our Home and has taken one
of its inmates, an oltl woman over eighty years of age. She has gone
to that silent shore where there is no more sorrow, no more pain, no
more death. Peace to her ashes.
We have a most excellent matron, Mrs. Charlotte Pogue, a very
motherly woman, imbued with the spirit of Christ.
In behalf of the board I return sincere thanks for all donations
and favors shown us'dnring the year, and beg an interest in your
prayers and contributions for the ensuing year.
president's REPORT FOR 189(i.
Another year has passed, and here we arc sending' this little
book out that you may sec how generous our friends have been, and
how well we have carried on our work in the Home during the year
18!l(i. In this, the third annual report of the Colored Orphan Indus-
trial Home, will be found an accurate statement of the financial con-
dition of the Home, which we trust will prove satisfactory to the
friends who have so nobly and generously assisted in building up this
90 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
institution. The future is bright with promise, and the work before
us is worthy the earnest and intelligent support of all good men and
women, and to its advancement let us pledge our earnest and untiring
efforts, so that we may transmit to our successors an institution pros-
perous and powerful; an institution fully equipped to train the little
ones for future usefulness.
We are now succeeding nicely with our industrial departments.
Our instructor in the tailoring department, J. F. Burton, seems to be
well fitted for the position. He is very hopeful of some of the boys
becoming fine tailors. Our instructor in the Dress Making Depart-
ment, Mrs. Uettie Merchant, is a very patient, persevering woman;
the children all seem to love her and vie with each other in carrying
outAher instructions. Some of them are very apt, and will soon be
^_jil»le to make their own clothing. Eight or ten girls assist the Matron
in cooking, cleaning and also in the laundry; they seem to take a de-
light in helping her to care for the little ones.
All children who are old enough attend the district school daily.
The school house is about fifty yards from the Home. Miss Hath-
away, the teacher, is an earnest Christian woman; also a member of
our board. Upon the whole, we have an efficient corps of instructors.
The Home is now free from debt, owing to the generosity of the
Fiscal Court, which has made us liberal donations for that purpose.
Our work is very much restricted for the want of more room. We
hope, however, with the coming of better times that the way will be
opened for an additional building.
The health of the family has remained good, with the exception'
of one aged woman who died in October, she having lived more than
three score and ten years. We trust that she has entered upon her
I desire to return thanks to Dr. J. E. Hunter, who has given his
services gratuitously for the past three years. God will bless him,
"for as much as ye have done it unto one of these, the least of my
little ones, ye have done it unto me."
I extend heartfelt thanks to our Northern and Eastern friends
who have so generously helped us through our worthy and highly re-
spected General Manager, Captain R. II. Fit/hugh. May our heav-
enly Father bless each of them, and spare him many years to this
noble work. To the Mayor and city officials, to the Fiscal Court, to
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 91
the friends both white and colored who have so generously assisted us,
notwithstanding the hard times, I offer the inost earnest thanks. Our
heavenly Father marketh the fall of the sparrow, and rewards the
earnest, charitable, faithful man.
To my associate officers and hoard: I desire to thank you most
heartily for the expression of your esteem as manifested by electing
me as your President for five consecutive years. Coming to me as
the spontaneous offering of my sisters, I value it (as an expression of
your confidence) as above price. My labors have been arduous and
exacting of my time and judgment, but these have been cheerfully
performed, as I have been by the hope that I might do something in
an humble way to advance and build up a Home that shall be eudur-
ing^and honored among the institutions of our land. I know I have
had your sympathy and hearty co-operation in this work, for our
meetings have been harmonious. That I have been free from errors
anil wise in all things, it would be beyond erring human nature to
hope, but "with charity to all and malice to none," I have made an
earnest effort to so discharge the duties of my high trust, as to meet
your charitable commendation. And now I can only indulge the
hope that whatever of good I have done may be cherished and pre-
served. E. Belle Jackson,
President of Board of Managers.
ARTICLES OE INCORPORATION.
Article 1. Know all people that w-c, the undersigned colored
women, do associate and have organized ourselves into a body corpo-
rate,, under Chapter 5G, of the General Statutes of the State of Ken-
tucky, and to be known as The Colored Orphan Industrial Home, of
Lexington, Ky.; and in by said name, shall sue, be sued, have per-
petual succession, may have a common seal, and alter or change or
abolish the same at pleasure, and shall possess all such other powers
necessary to accomplish its object.
Article 2. The object of said corporation shall be to provide and
maintain a home for colored orphan children and aged infirm colored
women, and to aid, help and assist them, in an}' way; the orphans,
until the boys are fourteen years of age and until the girls are fifteen
years of age; also, to benefit the poor and needy, as the managers
may deem best. To effectuate these objects said corporation shall
have power to acquire, receive and hold property, real, personal and.
mixed; to contract, exchange, to buy, to mortgage, sell and transfer
the same as an individual.
Article 3. The amount of property to he held by said corpora-
tion shall not exceed 850,000. The private property, real, personal
and mixed, of the members of said corporation is and shall be ex-
empted from corporate debts and liabilities.
Article 4. The corporation shall begin business on the fifth day
of September, 1892, and shall exist twenty-five years.
Article 5. The principal office shall be in Lexington, Kentucky.
There shall be an annual meeting of said corporation on the first
Monday of September every year. There shall be a monthly meeting
f the managers on the third Monday of every month. .
Article o'. This corporation shall be composed of women only; fl
nit its trustees shall be men only. Any woman selected and elected
by the managers may become a member. She shall pay at least five
dollars admission fee, and five dollars at le,ast per year, as dues for
the objects intended; and said dues shall be paid as the by-laws 6hall
prescribe. No member shall receive any benefit from said corporation,
except for services rendered to it, or as an inmate of it, or an object
of charity from it.
Article 7. There shall be at least fifteen managers, in whom
the control, direction and management of the corporation shall be
invested, and who shall hold office until their successors are elected
and installed in office. They shall be elected at their annual meeting
and retain control and management as hereinbefore provided. They
shall have full, complete, general and practical control and manage-
ment of the affairs of said corporation; but shall make no contract
or create any debt, nor incur imy liability exceeding S'250, except by
the written consent and authority of the corporation empowered by
them at the annual meeting, or special meeting properly called for
that purpose. All funds and property received for current purposes
shall be under their supervision and control; hut the funds shall
he deposited with the Treasurer of said managers. They shall consist
of President, Vice President, Secretary, Recording Secretary, Treas-
urer ami ten other members selected and elected, one, as can lie fairly
done, from each colored church of this city. The management for
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 93
the first year shall consist of: President, Mrs. E. B. Jackson; Vice
President, Miss E. <). Warfield; .Secretary, Miss Ida W. Bates; Re-
cording Secretary, Mrs. M. B. Hunter; Treasurer, Mrs. Priscilla
Lacey; Mrs. Lizzie P. Wilson, Mrs. M. A. Gillis, Mrs. M. L.
Fletcher. Miss M. E. Britton, Mrs. Maria Hawkins, Mrs. Muriu
Vaughn, Mrs. Lucy Clay, Mrs. Caddie Clay, Mrs. Jane .Saunders.
Article 8. There shall be at least seven trustees. The title,
control anil management of the real estate and permanent fund shall
he invested in them as trustees. The trustees, President, Frank
Buckncr; Vice President, G. M. Moore; Secretary, A. L. Gowens;
Treasurer, A. M. Boswell; John T. Clay, M. T. Clay and J. C.
Jackson, now selected and elected, shall continue in office until they
severally die or resign, or remove out of this State, or arc removed
from/office by a two-thirds vote of the members of the corporation,
for good cause, at a regular meeting, or a special meeting properly
called for that puri>ose. They shall have their President, Secretary
and Treasurer. All funds that are received for permanent invest-
ment shall l>e held by the Treasurer of said trustees. They shall
make no contract nor create any debt, nor incur any liability exceed-
ing 81,000 except by the written consent and authority of the corpo-
ration, empowered nt an annual meeting, or a special meeting prop-
erly called for that purpose.
Article 9. The managers and trustees shall be subjected to the
control and management of the corporation. They shall pay out no
money except on tho written order of their respective Secretary, and
signed by their respective President and Secretary. They shall each
make, keep and preserve a full, regular itemized and accurate ac-
count of their respective proceedings and business, with proper re-
ceipts and vouchers for all moneys and properties received, paid out
and dispersed, and report the same, accompanied by said vouchers
and receipts, at the annual meeting of said corporation, or at a special
meeting properly called for that purpose.
Article 10. The corporation shall specify in their by-laws the
duties of the several officers and its members, and may direct what
officers shall be required to execute bond with proper security for the
faithful performance of their duties. They shall make all necessary
regulations and by-laws for the efficient management of their corpo-
ration to perfect its object. But their acts must not be inconsistent
94 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
with their charter uor the Constitution or laws of the State of Ken-
tucky, nor the laws of the United States.
Article 11. All elections of officers shall be by ballot; and each
member shall be entitled to one vote; and the majority of the votes
cast shall be the voice of said corporation, except as hereinbefore
Article 12. Notice of each special meeting shall be in writing
and said writing shall specify the object of said meeting, and shall be
sent at least three days next preceding said meeting to each member.
^ Article 13. Should the corporation desire at any time to wind
up the business, they shall proceed as they would to amend the
_^eharter; but they shall transfer all property and money then in pos-
session to some one or different institution organized for general
Article 14. This charter can only be altered or amended by a '
two-thirds vote of the members of the corporation at the annual meet-
ing, or a special meeting properly called for that purpose. But no
such alteration or amendment thereto shall be considered and adopted
until written notice, specifying said alteration or amendment, shall
at least five days next preceding the meeting to be held for that
purpose, be sent to each member of the corporation; and the said
projwsed alteration or amendment shall be published in a newspaper
of general circulation in this city three successive days next preceding
In testimony, as incorporators of The Colored Orphan Industrial
Home, of Lexington, Ky., we do hereby subscribe our names, this
fifth day of September, 1892.
E. Belle Jackson, Eliza Washington, Caddie Clay,
Mary L. Fletcheb, Marie Vaughn, I. W. Bates,
Lucy Clay, Kittie L. Byrd, Agnes Ware,
Mary B. Hunter, Lizzie P. Wilson, M. A. Gillis,
Priscilla Lacey, Maria Hawkins, Jane Saunders,
Mary E. Brixton,' E. O. Warfield.
The Woman's Improvement Club.
§NE of the most receut nnd one of the most promising organiza-
tions of Louisville is the Woman's Improvement Club. Its
birth seems accidental, rather than otherwise. It was on the occasion
of Mrs. Ida Wells Barnett's visit to Louisville to give a lecture on
"Lynching in America" that some ladies calling upon her mentioned
the matter of women's clubs. Mrs'. Barnett told something of their
workiugs, and at the request of her visitors met at a later date in the
parlor of Miss Annie Bowman, one of Louisville's most successful
teachers, about twenty-five representative women of Louisville and
organized The Woman's Improvement Club.
Mrs. Fannie B. Williams was chosen President; Mrs. John
Burney, Vice President; Mrs. Julia McKinley, Recording Secretary;
Miss Lillie Kelly, Assistant Recording Secretary; Miss Annie Bow-
man, Treasurer; Miss S. E. Bell, Corresponding Secretary. Ujwn
Mrs. McKinley's resignation Miss G.A.Nugent was elected Secretary.
The business of the Club is mainly in the hands of an Executive
Committee, consisting of Mrs. Fannie B. Williams, ex-officio, Mrs.
M. E. Steward, Mrs. Hattie Minuis, M. S. Brown, Miss Lucy Flint,
Miss S. E. Bell, Miss S. B. Alexander.
The objects of the organization arc elevation of woman, the em
riching and betterment of home, and the incitement of proper pride
and interest in the race. That these objects may be fully realized
the Club has distributed its work into seven different sections, namely:
1. Literature. 2. Current Topics. 3. Music. 4. Home and
Healli. 5. Charity, (i. Art. 7. Race.
At each meeting of the Club, which occurs ou the first and third
Fridays iu each month, from 5 to 7 p. in., in the Library of the
Young Men's Christian Association, a business meeting is held, then
one of the sections, in turn, renders a programme. Frequently the
social side is emphasised by serving light luncheons at the close of
the exercises. Any woman of good moral character, who is willing to
devote her energies to the elevation of woman, home and the race, is
eliglbb to membership. Each member stands pledged to instil race
pride by her good conduct, thus meriting proper recognition. Each
member is expected to use her influence toward purifying society by
demanding of every man the same strict accountability that is de-
manded of women. Each member pledges herself to give hearty
sympathy and support to every woman who is earnestly striving to
retrieve her past.
The Club has only had a short time in which to show its useful-
ness, yet during its brief existence it has rendered effective service.
It was brought to the notice of the Club that the Kindergarten for
Negro children was poorly attended. The Principal of the Kinder-,
garteu, Miss Anna Iugalls, was invited to address the Club on the
work of the Kindergarten. Interest was aroused and the members
pledged themselves to assist in increasing the attendance. Meanwhile
it was planned to hold four public meetings for the purpose of arous-
ing iutcrest among the people of Louisville in the Kiudergarteu.
The first meeting of the series was held at the Congregational
Church, and Miss Anna Ingalls, the Principal of Knox Kindergarten,
addressed the audience upon the "Daily Life of the Kindergarten."
The second meeting was held at Quinn Chapel, Miss Pattie S. Hill,
Superintendent of the Louisville Kindergartens and Training ('lass,
gave an address on the "Educational Value of Kindergarten Train-
Miss Finie Burton, the manual training teacher, gave an
<lre88 on the "Religious Value of Kindergarten Training." The
third meeting was held at the Lampton Street Church. Mrs. White-
sides, a Normal teacher, spoke on the "Kindergarten Child in the
Public School." The fourth and final meeting was held at Cavalry
Baptist Church. Mis. Andrew Cowan, one of Louisville's most
philanthropic women, spoke on "Methods of Organizing Kinder-
gartens." Space will not permit even brief extracts from the fore-
going earnest ami thoughtful addresses. Their spirit was admirable,
|.; I V|)Ki:\Vll()|). I'liurlil.
.1 ii .i \( k-<>\. r
T. K, HOIM5. I'nyr (il.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 97
and the universal agreement is that a higher regard for children and
a greater care for their training has been inspired.
The people have been enlightened and aroused and it is the earnest
hope of the Club that our representative men and women will form
an organization resulting in the opening of one or more Kindergartens
and a traiuiug class for Negro Kindergartncrs. Yet, if no such
results are obtained and the Woman's Club should write finis at the
close of its last minutes, it deserves a place in history; but it is to
be hoped that the good it has already accomplished is only a promise
of the larger and more potent service it will render the people of
Opinion* Concerning This Book.
"I^SjO apology need be offered for the appearance of this book. At
IfX all times "the proper study of maukind is niau." Therefore,
Becking to set before his people some word of his that may be
to them helpful in their reaching up after the nobler things, the
compiler of this book feels sure that in giving to the public the
biographies of some of his fellows, who by virtue of their persistence
have triumphed, he is serving those whom he has ever sought to
serve with his best talents.
It is not in the full glare of the sun that the rarest and fairest
flowers grow. In cool, sequestered spots, where only God may see,
His choicest bloom unfolds. The loveliest orchids and the brightest
butterflies are in the depths of Brazilian forests. So it is in human
life. Greatness is not of necessity known to all men. It exists
wherever there is honesty of purpose, suffering bravely endured, or
duty faithfully done. Each biography is a record of industry and
self denial, courageous and persistent effort, and the fruitage thereof.
One purpose has been that honor may be done to those to whom honor
is due; another, and greater purpose, is to stir up to higher things
the soul and spirit of a race moving from darkness into light; and to
help upward and onward an aspiring people by showing to them the
heights already reached by some of! their number.
Mnuy thanks are due to the friends who have so generously lent
their aid to this work. Out of the many men and women who
hn unassisted in gathering and presenting in proper form the data
herein, to choose any for special thanking would be invidious to the
Others. It is enough to say that without their support this hook had
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 99
not been marie. Whatever honor is in it belongs to those whose lives
it eommemmorates. May the result be the uplifting and strengthen-
ing of those who falter on the way that leads to God.
A few mouths ago, having a desire to know the opinions of the
leading thinkers of the race in regard to the publication of this book,
I addressed a circular letter to a number of persons, especially those
who had riistinguisheri themselves in the various walks of life. The
enquiry and answers are herewith appended:
"Lkxinoton, Ky., March 1, 1897.
"M — . : I am about to publish a book of biographical
sketches of 'Kentucky's Prominent Negro Men and Women,' and,
believing you to be interested in all that pertains to the welfare of
the race, I most respectfully request your opinion in the matter as to
why such a book should be given to the public? Yours truly,"
"W. D. Johnson."
FROM MISS MARY K. BKITTON.
It is with pleasure that I reply to your query as to why, in my
opinion, you should issue such a book as the one you projwse to pub-
lish so opportunely:
First — Races, as well as individuals, are estimated according to
their achievements in re|igion, literature and the arts. Without a
record of their progress along these lines the world would be ignorant
of those characters, both male and female, who have made history.
We are told that this glorious continent was named to honor Amerigo
Vespucci because he printed an account of his voyages, and that
Columbus lost the honor because little was known of him until after
the continent was named.
Second — A great aid to personal effort is honest criticism. A
biographer should be impartial. History is more than a chronicle of
events; it demonstrates the relations which races of men bear toward
each other, their development, their organization and the principle of
^_^Third — .Scientists sometimes claim that the Negro is of inferior
origin and on that account is of inferior destiny. An accurate record
proves anil thwarts any assertion contrary to the divine truth, "God
hutli made of (me blood all nations of men." According to authentic
history the Negro race in America is directly descended from the
ancient Ethiopians, who were civilized, who built cities, and whose
armies invaded Egypt and Nubia many centuries before the Christian
era. The children of Ham clearly led the march-of- civilization, aud
their achievements gave promise of future greatness. It is not at all
improbable, therefore, that Ethiopians, both in Africa aud America,
of the present age, will fulfill that promise.
Fourth — The present as compared to the past shows an intelli-
gent and material advance. Their dwellings, schools, churches and
public institutions testify to their progress. Negro children are being
educated and trained by men and women of. their own race in
letters, in mechanics, and in the arts. It is not necessary to
enumerate the opportunities which they create or improve; it is
' enough to say there is no standing still for them, no falling behind,
their daily watchword being progression.
Iu our desire to acquire knowledge let us avoid the errors of
science aud the sophistries of men. When the would-be wise search
into the hidden mysteries of the Creator, he allows them to be blinded
by their own selfishness. John xii, 40; II Cor. iv, 3, 4. "The
wisdom of this world is foolishness with God, for it is written, He
taketh the wise in their own craftiness." I Cor. iii, 18, 19. We
cannot come into a knowledge of truth independent of spiritual guid-
ance. The inspiration of the Almighty giveth understanding of His
truth, and persons who are thus led can truly say with David: "Thou
through thy commandments hast made me wiser than mine enemies;
for they are ever with me. I have more understanding than all my
teachers; for thy testimonies are my mediation. I understand more
than the ancients; because I keep thy precepts. Through thy pre-
cept* I get understanding; therefore I hate every false way. Thy
word is a light unto my feet, and a light unto my path." Psalms
To those who through civil enactments anticipate a removal of
the prejudice which binds the Negro, let me say that their hopes are
vniu^_>Not until Christ is supreme iu every heart will obstacles to
the full growth of the Negro be removed, and the principle of "the
brotherhood ol man and the fatherhood of God" be firmly established.
To this end let each one give himself, and behold! it is the solution
of every problem. — Mary E. Brittou, Lexington.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 101
FROM ALBERT s. WHITE.
Your book should he placed in the exhibit of our State nt the
Tennessee Centennial Exposition. It would broaden it* field of use-
fulness. I am strongly impressed with the necessity for such n work.
No harm can be done by turning on the searchlight, and letting the
world see who and what we are. So much has been said in criticism
of Kentucky that it behooves us to let detracters and detainers see
that this is no longer the "dark and bloody grouud," and that we
are not quite savage. We live in a Commonwealth famed for beauti-
ful women, brave men, fast horses and fine whiskies. It has given to
the Union one President, three Vice Presidents, four Sp :akers of the
National House of Representatives, and fifteen Cabinet Officers.
When the progress of the race in Kentucky is compared with
that in other States we have no reason to be ashamed. Though labor-
ing under many disadvanges we have produced men and women who
have by intellectual prowess and sterling worth forged their way to
the front, and I am in favor of transmitting a record of their achieve-
ments to posterity. Emerson says, "All history resolves itself into
the biography of a few stout characters," and in the sketches of these
representative individuals will be illustrated the advancement and
exploits of our people.
Your name is a guarantee that the book will be accurate, thor
Ollgh, and fully up to what such a work should be. Your experience
and attainments will enable you to prosecute your undertaking iD
such a manner as will be an honor to you and a credit to your race
and State. I reiterate my faith in your work, and wish you God
epee<l. — Albert S. White, Louisville.
FKO.M J. F. (SRAY.
I take heartily to the scheme, and believe, sir, that the exposi-
tion of the remarkable progress made by the Kentucky Negro, since
his emancipation and enfranchisement, will do much toward the
removal of the baneful prejudice, occasioned by his color and previous
^con/lition of servitude. Reading your book and seeing what, through
trials and tribulations, our leading men and women have accomplished,
our boys and girls will become inspired and in a few years furnish
the State with a greater number of such citizens. I wish you the
success your indefatigable lalwir deserves. — J. E. Gray, Russellvillc.
FROM REV. J. 8. JACKSON.
The plan is a commendable one. There are several reasons why
such a book should he published:
1. It would serve t" contrast the old conditions with the new
and thus show that the Negro is making such progress as to justify
the largest hopes for his future.
2. It would disprove the oft-repeated statement that the Negro's
progress is superficial. If this book will show, as I suppose it will,
that the Negro is successfully entering every avenue, commercial,
iodustrial and professional, that is open to him, it will demonstrate
that in which I have long entertained a firm faith: If given a fair
opportunity, the Negro will be able to compete successfully with his
more favored white brother.
3. It will give encourageiuont to the young men and women of
the race. What men are doing men to be can do, and with the
better opi>ortimities now offered they will be ashamed not to do
better and greater things.
4. Such a lxx>k may serve as the nucleus of a history of the
progress of the Negroes of Kentucky; and if in every Southern State
such a book should be prepared, from these publications could be
compiled a respectable and accurate history of the Negro in the last
thirty years. Such a book would be a valuable addition to the litera-
ture of the race. Let the selections be carefully made and it will
serve a good purpose. — J. S. Jackson, Lexington.
FROM N. R. IIARI'KR.
Your purpose is meritorious and a conception which will at once
attract the intelligent notice of all persons interested in the develop-
ment of tlie race. Your effort will no doubt open a new avenue,
having for its effect the stimulation of the Negro youth of Kentucky
' to higher and holier purposes and in this way a greater good than
you may have ill mind, perhaps at this time, will be accomplished. —
N. K. Harper, Louisville.
I'ltoM UKEKN P. ItfSSKl.!..
I believe your proposed book will be most heartily received by the
reading public as valuable and indispenmhlc history. First, because
there seems to be a demand for such a work written by a Negro. I
say written by a Negro, because the history of any race is best told
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN-. 103
by a member of that race in its own vernacular, and in the light of
its past and present, and social and political environment. A close
register of our doings, as a race, is being kept by another race, and
we, too, must keep a record to rebut, if necessary, with stubborn facta
any historic misrepresentation or discrepancy.
Almost the entire history of the Negro has been written from
data gathered by white men, and they garnered as they were iuterr
estcd, sparingly; consequently we find ourselves today with an
incomplete history. I believe this book will prove a true and rich
source from which the future Negro historian may draw valuable
information which alone is a sufficient and a paramount reason for its
publication. — Green P. Russell, Lexington.
FROM J. J. C. m'kINI-EY.
Your book is just the thing at this time. We know too little of
the men and women who have reflected credit upon the race in Ken-
tucky. I hoj>e you will be able to present to the world such persons
ns have done something for the betterment of the race. You are
aiming in the right direction. — J. J. C. McKinley, Louisville.
FKOM JOHN H. JACKSON.
Your effort should be eucouraged by the public. The idea that
all Negroes are alike will always obtain U> the detriment of higher
race interests until the world is taught differently by just such
means as you propose. To point out to our youth those of our race
in Kentucky who have contributed something, however little, to make
their fellowmeu wiser, happier and better, cannot fail to impress a
very important lesson upon their minds. I trust you will meet with
the encouragement which you so richly deserve. — John H. Jackson,
FROM REV. W. H. DICKERBON.
Permit me to submit three reasons why your proposed hook per-
taining to the progress of the Negro race in Kentucky should be pulv-
lished: 1. Because we need more nice pride, which can be brought
about only by a better knowledge of the prominent men and women
of the race. 2. Because we nerd more first-class Negro literature to
give that knowledge which produces race pride. 3. Because the
book will lie a stimulus for the Negro youth. — W. H. Dickcrson,
104 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
FROM REV. ROBERT MITCHELL.
My opiniou concerning the book you propose to give to the world
is, that to the general reader it will be a monitor, to Kentuckians
a pearl of great price, and to yourself a lasting memorial of the purity
of taste, fervor of fancy, force of demonstration, and ardor of philan-
throphy, which will glow and burn in every perjod. It will indeed
be a guide and inspiration to thousands who may be bewildered and
discouraged, inasmuch as they may thus see what some of the greatest
and best men and women have been, now are, and may yet be.
The work, I know, will be deeply interesting and instructive.
Everyone who reads it carefully must form a high estimate of the
achievements of the Negroes of Kentucky. I look forward with glad-
ness to the moral effect, which it is destined to produce. It seems to
mo to be a work of the proper material, duly shaped and proportioned,
and of sufficient merit to grace the library of any city or citizen of
this great and glorious country. — Robert Mitchell, Lexington.
FROM J. M. MAXWELL.
Your book will do a service to the youth of the race by furnish-
ing examples of what may be accomplished by earnest endeavor in the
face of adverse circumstances.' It ought to serve as a finger-board,
directing the young who read it into the road that leads to success.
Its influence for good will be co-extensive with its circulation, and it
will be worthy of wide distribution. It must be of interest to all who
desire the elevation of the race. — J. M. Maxwell, Louisville.
FROM WILLIAM H. I'F.RRY.
Your enterprise is excellent and meets my hearty approval.
Mark Antony says: "The evil that men do lives after them; the good
is oft interred with their bones." If the Negro in America is ever to
attain that eminence in citizenship to which his birthright entitles him,
there must be a determined eflort on his part to let the good deeds
■and thoughts of the race receive proper recognition and displace the
false conceptions that now obtain in the body politic regarding him.
We must awake from our Kip Van Winkle sleep, shake off all
lethergy, and the indifference that has too long characterized our
efforts, and proclaim a new era in the history of the American Negro.
Imbued with a love for liberty, fully alive to the responsibilities and
Mewing! of the freedom he enjoys, he must demonstrate the upward
I-:. \V. ( lll'.N.M "l.T. -I'nai-fi;
T. C IIIIKOKI*. — Vane fifi.
Mi;< K. I!. JACKSON*.— I'i
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 105
movement of the nice in nil that makes for progress and for right-
Your idea, Mr. Johnson, wisely executed, will result in great
pood to the race as a whole, and will in particular point out the rapid
strides the Negroes of Kentucky are making toward higher and better
citizenship. As Lowell says:
"(iet but the Irutli once uttered, and 'tis like
A star new born, that drops into it's place,
Anil which once circling in its placid round,
Not all the tumult of the earth can shake."
— \Vm. H. Perry, Louisville.
FitOM ltKV. JOSKI'll COURTJJKY.
In my opinion, it goas without argument that such a book as
you have under contemplation, and will no doubt publish, ought to
be put on the market. 1. The Negroes within the bounds of Ken-
tucky ought to have a fair knowledge of their intellectual strength;
such, especially, as your book purposes to impart. 2^ It will be an
effectual avenue through which a better acquaintance can be culti-
vated by the leading people of the State. 3. We have the honor of
being represented at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, held in
the capital of an adjacent and sister State, and such a book ought to
be on sale there, that through its circulation all may become better
acquainted with the Negro race. — Joseph'Courtney, Lexington.
FROM WILLIAM A. TAYI<OK.
The Kentucky Negro should know [more of his brother, of his
work, of his moral, financial and intellectual development and of his
success in general. While, on the other hand, it gives our fellowmen
in various parts of the "Greatest Republic" a slight idea of what the
"Sons of Ham" in the "Dark and Bloody" State are doing. These,
I feel, are in themselves sufficient reasons why your grand book should
lie published. — Win. A. Taylor, Lexingtou.
/ FROM C. ('. VAUGHN.
I Every Negro family should point with pride to the deeds of the
Jjreat men of the race. The walls of every home should be adorned
with portraits of those who have proven that we are not deficient in
noble minds and towering deeds. Our tables should bear books of
history and biography which would make our boys and girls familiar
with the great and noble exploits of the race. My opinion is that
the book pro|>osed by the fluent writer and courageous editor of
The Standard, \V. I). Johnson, would stir the mind and strengthen
the faculties toward a solution of the race problem, especially in
Kentucky. We need- more such hooks. May God bless your effort.
— C. C. Vaughn, Russcllville.
FROM I»K. P. I). ROHINSON.
I heartily endorse your project. Such a book is calculated to do
much good by better acquainting the people of this and other States
with our sterling manhood and womanhood in Kentucky. It should
find a place in every home. Your undertaking is surely worthy of
the support of all race-loving people. — P. I). Robinson, Lexington.
FROM DR. J. E. HUNTER,
A Inwk of this character will fill a long-felt need along that line.
Indeed, it will be a history of the possibilities of man. It will show
what the Negro has done in the way of advancement in the thirty
years of freedom, and his probable future as well. Kentucky is one
Of the most noted States in the South, and this book will give an
account of many of her noble sons and daughters, who by their
acts and advancement in the world are solving the race problem.
Knowiug the author's strong personal character and manhood well, I
would cheerfully recommend his book to the fireside of every home.'
— John E. Hunter, Lexington.
Some Editorial Controversies.
From the Lexington Gazette, July 27, 1895.
f RIMES against women have become bo frequent as to cause great
alarm all over the country. Negroes are the principal offenders,
and down South the whites arc wreaking summary vengeance on the
culprits, without the aid of judges and juries. Several very flagrant
c«ses have occurred recently north of the Ohio river, and white men
have been as much inflamed in that section as in the South, and the
culprit* have l>een dealt with in the very manner that Southern men
deal with Negro rapists. It does seem that Negro men cannot control
their passions, and will give way to them, although knowing that an
awful death awaits them in c«se of discovery. Hence murder is so
often added to outrage. Killing and even burning do not seem to
deter the rapist, but some remedy must be devised if women are not
to become the victims of the foetid Negro.
Women must be taught to protect themselves. They must learn
to shoot guns and pistols and be provided with them. And they must
learn, likewise, not to trust a Negro under any circumstances, for the
poor devils arc so swept away by passion that they lose all control of
themselves and are hurried into crime and the terrible fate that this
is sure to entail upon them. Women cannot exercise too much pru-
donce in this respect, and those who arc responsible for their protec-
tion should see to it that every precaution possible is exercised for
their security. It may gratify a feeling of revenge to savagely pun-
ish the brute after the commission of the crime, but this does not
wipe the horror from his victim or her friends. Examples of swift
and terrible punishment do not deter Negroes from these crimes; and,
although we would not abate one jot iu punishment, we would urge
every precaution. Ann our women, as frontiersmen arm their wives
and daughten* against the lurking savage, aud teach them the dangers
that lurk iu households wherever Negroes are to he found.
Iu slavery Negroes were taught self-restraint and a most profound
respect and even affection for their mistresses and their daughters, and
during the war, while masters and sons were at the frout, repelling
the invader, the loyalty aud good conduct of the Negro slaves were a
marvel to the world. We fail to remember oue instance of violence
by Negroes on even the most unprotected white woman during the
continuance of the war; while now, after thirty years of freedom,
scarcely a day passes without a report reaches us of an outrage worse
than death perpetrated by Negroes upon white women.
Lynchings and burnings and education have failed to repress this!
species of crime; now let people resort to the precautions we have [
suggested, and they will become less frequent, if uot impossible.
Remember we are in an enemy's country, so far as Negroes are con- J
cerned, and the least imprudence, or want of proper precaution, may.
subject them to outrage worse than death. The whipping post would
do much to restore self-control to the Negro, but as matters go on the. ;
Negro is rapidly relapsing into barbarism.
EDITOR joiixhon'h viuokous DEFKNSE.
From the Lexington Standard, August 2, 1895.
The Standard is compelled to direct the attention of an intelli-
gent, sober-minded, and discriminating Christian public to the so-
called editorial, relating to the crimes committed by the Negroes in
the South, by H. H. Gratz, editor of The Gazette, of this city, in his
last issue of July '27, and what he facetiously calls crimes against
women. This mean and contemptible editorial will be found on this
page of this issue, and we suggest that all the Negroes of Kentucky
should read it and ponder over it, more especially those of Lexington,
because this dark-minded editor lives here.
We do not intend to enter into a discussion with the old fellow,
because such discussions would be like "casting pearls before swine,"
but we are amazed that in this age of high civilization, vast educational
advantages, and superb mental and ethical culture, that an old man
who is in his second childhood, or that one assuming the features of
sublime manhood, should, in the face of God's glorious light, give
NEGRO MEN AXD WOMEN. 109
utterance to thought* and ideas that would disgrace a Cougoan or
a Timbuctooan, and that, too, from a man who claims to be such a
Now, it will he clearly seen that Mr. Grate's editorial is a whole-
sale libel on every Negro in the Southland, and needs to be repudiated
by all self-respecting Negroes. Does th: 8 old fellow know that at the
time he was writing that villainous article he was doiug an injustice
to the good Negroes of Kentucky, including those around him in
Lexington:'' Is it possible that a man like Mr. Gratz would so demean
himself as to put in cold type such an untruthful statement? Does
he not know that two-thirds of the crimes committed against the
the unprotected women of the South are'pcrpetratcd, or made up of
lies, by his own race? Is it not a fact that white men of the South
have been caught with blackened faces and ragged clothes, for
the purpose of accomplishing their dirty deeds, and then charged the
Negroes with said crimes?
"It does seem that Negro men cannot control ther passions."
Pari passu, if the white men's passions had been checked during the
days of slavery, and up to the present time, there would have been no
half-breeds, no inulattoes, no quadroons, no octoroons, but on account
of the pernicious habit of white men— with some exceptions— the
Negroes are at a loss to find a nomenclature for each shade. During
the time of slavery, if a white man were fortunate enough to have
slaves, they were his, and of course he could do with them as with
personal property. Hence the country is infested with all the diflcr-
,ent shades of the Negro, and no one knows this better than the man
who wrote the filthy article which calls for this reply. Is this the
kind of example that Mr. Gratz wishes the Negroes of the South to
follow? No! no! It is too baneful an example. The article is a
disgrace to our intelligence, our manhood, our honesty, and our citi-
zenship of the United States, and should and must be resented by the
good, and thinking Negroes of this State.
.--"Women must be taught to protect themselves. They must
tfearn to shoot guns and pistols and be provided with them." Good
Negroes have nothing to fear about that, but the same suggestion
ought to be applied to Negro wonieu to repel white men from robbing
them of their virtue. Mark you, the class of white men who take
advantage of Negro women arc men with keen intelligence, men who
110 KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
are habitually harping on the evil passions of the Negro, and while
we admit that the Negroes do some of the crimes that are reported we
can only attribute the crimes to those Negroes who were born in the
gutter, merely have a father, without having learning, without hav-
ing anyone to teach .them, except to practice the old rapacious habit'
of those who taught it to them.
We are all rapists? We want to denounce it, as unworthy the
man who could write such a malicious lie as that. What we mean
to say is, that if any man says that all Negroes are alike in this
respect, he is an unmitigated liar, and the truth is not in him. In I
making this statement we do so without the least fear of an attack,
feeling fully able to meet all emergencies that are likely to arise.
That we may not be misunderstood, let us say that Mr. Grata, the
Negro hater, in making such a statement, ought to be held respon-
sible for what he writes against us. We hope that the article will
open the eyes of both races, and enable them to see where, in the
majority of cases alleged against Negroes, the educated and intelligent
Negroes are not responsible for these crimes, because Mr. Grata knows,
or ought to know, that his entire race is not responsible for the
lynching of Negroes, who, in many cases, never committed these foul
crimes, and especially the one that brought forth this reply to his
Editor Grata ought to have had more sense than to publish that
article, because all the papers reported that Negro Haggard was
wrongfully lynched, but the old fellow is so opposed to Negroes that
he did not have sufficient sense to conceal his disrespect, or ill-feeling
toward them. Wc have respect for gray hairs, but we positively dis-
claim all respect for this old Methuselah. It would be a thousand
times l>cttcr for him to get on his suppliant knees and offer up a
prayer for the wrongs committed against Negroes during the time
they were kept in bondage, and the injustice that he and his kind
have committed against them. The Emancipation Proclamation
made the Negro u free man and superior to the Negroes of slavery
lavs. In conclusion we will say that an unwarranted attack has been
made U|>on our people, and that the Negroes are fully able to cope
with such men as old Grate.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. ill
COMMENTS OK THE KENTUCKY PKKH8.
From the Lexington Daily Leader.
The Lexington sensation today is the red hot personal response
of W. D. Johnson, editor of The Standard, the leading Negro news-
]>u]>cr of Kentucky, and an article by Editor H. H. Grata, in The
Gazette of last Saturday, calling attention to what he regarded as the
increasing depravity of the Negro race, lamenting the insufficiency of
lynching as a deterrent measure, and advising the white women of
Kentucky to practice marksmanship and arm themselves for all emer-
gencies. Editor Johnson responds today in an article denouncing
Editor Grata in the most vigorous language, intimating that he is
prepared to accept full responsibility for his utterances, if his conteni-
]K>rary resents his personal allusions. Editor Grata says he will not
pay any attention to Editor Johnson.
From the Louisville Times.
There is likely to be trouble in Lexington between the friends of
H. H. Grata, of The Gazette, and W. D. Johnson, of The Standard.
Last week Editor Grata, in an editorial, advised white women to go
armed, prepared to shoot down Negroes who would criminally assault
them, to learn to use revolvers, and to determine that there is but
one preventative for such a crime. Editor Johnson takes Editor
Grata to task, saying that Negro women should go armed to protect
themselves from white men; that Editor Grata knew he was writing
a lie when he wrote that all Negroes were alike in the matter of
assaulting white women.
SPECIALS TO OHIO NEWSPAPERS.
From the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette.
Lexington, Ky., August 2. — Howard II. Grata, the venerable
editor of the Kentucky Gazette, is in trouble with W. D. Johnon,
editor of The Standard, organ of the Negro people of this city.
Grata recently published a bitter editorial against the Negroes for the
prevalence of the crime for which they are so frequently hanged in
the Smith. Two sentences lire especially severe. One is: "Arm our
women, as frontiersmen arm their wives and daughters against the
/ lurking savage, and teach them the dangers that lurk in households
/ wherever Negroes are to be found." The other is the concluding
sentence of his editorial, and it reads: "The whipping post would do
much to restore self-control to the Negro, but as matters go ou the
Negro is rapidly relapsing into barbarism."
In commenting on this Editor Johnson says: "We want to de-
nounce it, as unworthy the man who could write such a malicious lie
as that. What we mean to say is, that if any man says that all
Negroes are alike in this respect, he is an unmitigated liar, and the
truth is not in him. In making this statement we do so without the
least foar of an attack, feeling fully able to meet all emergencies
that are likely to arise. We have quite a respect for gray hairs,
but we positively disclaim all respect for this old Methuselah.
It woidd l>c a thousand times better for him to get on his suppliant
knees and offer up a prayer for the wrongs committed against
the Negroes during the time they were kept in bondage, and the
injustice that he and his kind have committed against them."
Johnson was born in England, his father being an Englishman
and his mother a Hindoo woman. He has rather auburn hair and
cold blue eyes; has been all over the world, and since coining to
Lexington a few years ago, has made his influence signally felt.
From the Cincinnati Times Star.
Lexington, Ky., August 1. — An editorial in the Kentucky Ga-
zette here, in which white women were advised to arm themselves with
pistols as a protection against Negroes, has called forth great indigna-
tion from the race. Today W. D. Johnson, editor of the Negro
paper, denounces the editorial, calling the white editor an unmitigated
liar, and resorting to personal abuse and allusions. Trouble is ex-
pected between the men at any time.
MKS. C V. I!«)|:|.\'S(>X. 1'iij.v Oil.
Mlts. I>. K. LACEY.— Page 70.
Ml:>. M. V. SMITH.— !■«);,. TO.
Editorials on the Whipping Post.
From tin 1 Lexington Gazette.
fllE Gram! Jury lit Washington City has submitted to Judge
Bradley it written re|K>rt favoring tlie whipping post. This is
done at the capita] of the tuition when' the Federal Courts enforce the
law against all offender*, without fear or favor. The judges of these
courts are appointed for life and are not dependent on the prolan us
Vltlgus for their election, hence the rigidity with which the Federal
Courts execute the law. We have urged and begged for the re-estab-
lishment of the lash for minor offences in Kentucky, and twice it
came within one vote of becoming a law, and our State has Buffered
immensely in more ways than one because we had no such law.
The present mode of punishment has no terror for offenders, but
put the lash to their backs and you would hardly ever catch a fellow
committing an offense the second time. It is the great curative of
offenders and lias more terror for the evil-doer than all other punish-
ments combined, even than hanging, always provided the law was
executed with certainty and severity. How is it supposed that the
Southern people controlled millions of Negroes except by the lush?
And it has lasted ill the memory of all Negroes who are old enough
to remember the days of slavery. We know a gentleman who will
not employ a Negro that was not raised in slavery, and prefers to put
up with the poor service of old Negroes rather than the unreliability
of young Negroes who never experienced the discipline that the
oliler Negroes were subjected to from their masters. .Minor offenses
are multiplying at a fearful ratio and unless the lash is resorted to
the vicious classes will get beyond control.
There is au evil to which the Negroes are especially inclined,
and this is a game of gambling called "craps," that is doing more to
demoralize young Negroes thau all else besides. They become des-
perate gamblers, and although their stakes are small/ yet this begets
in them all the vices to which more pretentious gamblers are inclined.
It makes them idle, quarrelsome and often desperate, and when luck
runs ngninst them they resort to desperate means to secure the nec-
essary funds to indulge in their favorite vice. The lash is the true
and only remedy for this species of gambling. All around this city
gangs of Negroes can be seen in secluded places plying the dice, with
which crops is played, and there is no adequate punishment for the
rascals. (Jive them a dose of raw-hide, and craps will cease as a
game of pleasure.
EDITOR JOHNSON AGAIN REPLIES.
From the Lexington Standard.
The Standard makes no apology for resuming its strictures on
the malevolent and irrational assaults upon the defenseless, unoffend-
ing Negroes of the South by the editor of The Gazette, in his editorial
reproduced above, on the whipping post. The question at issue is
simply one of sentiment, and in our simple judgment ought to be cast
into oblivion. But last week we promised to 6ay something concern- '
ing the whipping post "reform" advocated so strongly by The Gazette.
To begin with, we assert that The Gazette is at least a century behind
the times it\ advocating the revival of the barbarous whipping post,
which has been abolished in every State in the Union where it ever
existed, with the exception of Delaware, and perhaps one other.
The modern nud Christian idea of legal punishment is to make
it so far as possible reformatory, rather than vindictive, except in the
case of capital crimes, and public sentiment is becoming more and
more in favor of life imprisonment in place of the death penalty, for
most capital crimes. Some States, Michigan, for instance, have abol-
ished the death penalty entirely. In New York electrocution has
superceded hanging, as being more humane, and asphyxiation by car-
bonic acid gas has been suggested as a 6till milder and not less certain
means of inflicting the death penalty. In Ohio all executions are
conducted within the penitentiary at Columbus, aud only a limited
number of persons are permitted to witness them. The same rule as
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 115
to privacy prevails in New York. In some of the Southern and
Western Slates hanging is done in public, and is made a sort of devil's
picnic by people whose taste for the horrible is gratified by such spec-
tacles. The effect is brutalizing and does not deter from crime.
Public whipping is a relic of barbarism and is prevalent only in
barbarous or semi-civilized countries. It is not known in Germany,
Frauce, Italy, Austria, England or the Scandinavian States, and cer-
tainly should not be tolerated in Christian America, either for whites
or blacks. Heie we come to the chief point against The Gazette
article, aside from what we have said concerning the barbarity of the
whole business. Iu said article special stress is laid on the need of
the lash for defenseless Negroes, using as an argument the fact that it
was used in slavery times to keep the slaves iu subjection, and ignor-
ing the more important fact that slavery i6 abolished, and that the
Negroes are now as free as the whites, subject to the same laws and
entitled to the same legal rights and privileges.
If the editor of The Gazette wishes to see the Negroes improve,
let him suggest a better plan to raise the Negro from the state of
degradation of which he so often complains, concerning the Negroes
only. Hence, we said last week, that if the whipping post were re-
established, as The Gazette urges, let it be for the incorrigible and
depraved of both races, and not for the Negro alone. If necessary
for bad blacks, it is necessary for bad whites; per contra, if not
necessary for white offenders, it is not necessary for black ones. We
deny its necessity for either race, and reiterate what we have said
concerning it. as a long step backward into barbarism, and one not to
be thought of in a Christian land.
We thiuk most of the white editors will approve the stand we
take on this subject. Knowing, as we do, the bitter animus of the
editor of The Gazette toward the Negro, we are not surprised at the
article in question, which we publish entire that our readers may see
for themselves just what unreasoning prejudice can prompt a presum-
ably intelligent man to say iu a public journal. That his brother
editors will endorse his rabid utterances we cannot believe.
The Gazette man vexes his righteous soul greatly concerning
crap playing by the Negroes. So far as its demoralizing effects are
concerned we have no fault to find with what he says. We will go
farther and say that all forms of gambling are demoralizing to both
whites and black?, and should lie suppressed if poss'ble, though we do
not consider the whipping post a proper method of suppression. That!
craps are played only by Negroes is such a glaring niistatement that
no one familiar with Lexington could credit it for a moment. Quite,
as many whites as Negroes indulge in this game, and we add that the
game, iu our judgment, is the meanest in the land, and yet many of
the white people are engaged in it, although possibly the whites are
more secret about it, and p'ay for larger stakes.
It is the beginning of gambling on a small scale, and leads to
gaming in a larger way, and as such should be suppressed, as we said
before, but not by the whipping post. That would be a remedy worse
than the disease. Again, if the whipping post is re-established, will
the editor of The Gazette use his influence in cases where either white
aristocrats or bums are guilty of the misdemeanor, to have them pun-
ished at the whipping post in public? This is a fair question and we
hope it will be answered. The whipping post, it 6eenib, is intended I
for Negroes only. Away with such a one-sided law.
REFORM IN METHODS OK PUNISHMENT.
Flogging has been abolished in the United States Army and
Navy, and in most of modern prisons and penitentiaries. After &\
long ami thorough trial it has been found to do more harm than good'
in most cases. It has brutalized army and navy officers and prison :
officials, and has developed all the worst passions of those subjected to
its degrading and cruel punishment, and as a reformatory measure it
has been a miserable failure. More humane punishments have been
substituted where punishment was necessary, and rewards of various
kinds, for obedience and good behavior, have so far as possible dis-
placed the severities of the old system of terrorism and cruelty. Mil-'
itary and naval discipline has not been relaxed, but made more invit-
ing and less oppressive, to the great improvement of the service.
Soldiers and sailors are now humanely treated, as men should be, and
prove their appreciation by a more cheerful and willing obedience to
the rules of the service.
The same can be said of the prison system reformatory treatment.
Where kindness and firmness are combined they have wrought won-
ders in a comparatively short time. Many prisoners, who would have
become confirmed criminals of the worst class, under the old system,
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 117
have become good citizens after their discharge from prison, uuder
the new order of things in our model penitentiaries and houses of
refuge. This reminds us that we greatly need a house of re'uge in
Lexiugton, similar to those in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Ch cago, and
other cities, though on a smaller scale. A good reformatory, or
educational and industrial school of that kind, would do more for the
repression of crime among the young hoodlums of both races than
a dozen whipping posts Too young to be sent to the workhouse,
they are left to roam at large in vicious idleness, without parental or
Crap playing, cigarette smoking, fighting, petty theft, stone
throwing, malicious destruction of property, etc., are among the habit-
ual occupations of these vicious 6tripliugs, and they 60011 become can-
didates for the workhouse, or penitentiary, and possibly the gallows.
For these we need a reform school or house of refuge, and we wonder
that some of our Legislators have not given this their attention long
ago. It is certainly a strange and inexcusable oversight. Our Mayor
and Council could not do a better thing for Lexington than establish
euch a much-needed institution for the reclamation of these embryo
criminals for whom The Gazette demands the whipping post.
During the days of slaveiy, if a white man owned a few slaves,
and he was kind and good to his Negroes, it was indeed a rare case
to find a slave who was whipped. Why? Because he did his master's
work without fear, aud did not try to ruu away from him, because he
had sense enough to know that he could not find a better task-master
than his present one. Hence, even up to now, some of the Negroes
have a very kind feeling for their former masters But, if such a
master were like the editor of The Gazette, we are sure there would
have been continual whipping, trying to reform his Negroes, when he
would be doii>g more harm to himself than to any one else.
While not claiming to be a religious journal, The Standard will
be found emphatically and always on the side of Christian civilization
and progress, with all that these imply, and is opposed to any and
every backward step toward barbarism and brutality, such as would
lie the revival of the whipping post, advocated so earnestly by the
editor of The Gazette, who, to say the least, is old enough to know
better. "The mild power wins " The conquests of Christianity, tem-
poral and spiritual, have been won by kindness, charity, benevolence
and love, and not by cruelty, force, oppressiou and fraud.
When the church mistakenly persecuted her opponents, or at-
tempted to make converts to Christianity with the sword, she mis- I
erably failed in her endeavors, and, instead of increasing her strength,
lost ground numerically and -morally. When she returned to the true
teachings of the Savior and 6trove to conquer the world by peaceful'
and loving means she gained ground rapidly, and has been gaining
ever since. The rapid march of modern civilization is due not only
to the marvelous mechanical and scientific discoveries of this century,
but to the still more marvelous advance of Christianity aloug all lines:
of human endeavor. Christianity and science are swiftly speeding,
side by side, along the highway of human progress. None cau hinder
their triumphal march toward the millennium. America, of all the ,j
nations on earth, is least likely to look backward save for lessons of
warning, or to evade the suggestions of croakers who cry out against
all changes, even for the better.
AN APPEAL KOR MIXED JURIE8.
Whatever may be the outcome of the trial of Will Shipp, the;1
white man, who killed Sam Brown, the black man, in the latter's own'^j
home, The Standard has this to 6ay concerning the crime of murder,
the fright'ul prevalence of which in Kentucky has given its ancient'
Indian title, "The Dark and Bloody Ground," atcnible significance:''
According to Drvine 'aw, "Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man
shall his blood be shed." Such is also the statuatory law of Kentucky.
The penalty for murder is death, and so it is in all civilized countries.
How has this law been enforced? Echoes from the graves of hundreds,
slain by the cruel hand of the assassin, answer, "How?"
Human life should be considered the most precious thing on
earth, and it is certainly so valued by the Creator, yet how often has
it happened in this State that greater penalties have been inflicted for
]>etty murder, especially where the victim has been a Negro? We
believe, however, thanks to an enlightened and progressive public
sentiment, fostered by a fearless and outspoken press, that the day is
at hand when all laws will be more strictly enforced, even that against
murder. Let us hope, also, that the life of the black man will be
considered equally sacred in the eyes of the law and its executives,
as that of the white man, and the awful crime of murder will here-
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 119
niter be punished as it should be, by the infliction of the death pen-
alty, not for the sake of vengeance but for justice. Thereby the
prevalence of manslaughter may be checked, and human life he pro-
tected from the hand of violence.
Let the accused, he lie black or white have a fair trial by an im-
partial judge, and a jury of his peers, as provided by law. This raises
the question of admitting Negroes on the jury whenever the accused
murderer or his victim is a Negro. By the strict principles of justice
the jury in such cases should be half white men and half Negroes.
What will our white friends say to this? Can they justly deny the
Negro this right in a case like that of the Shipp trial? Let us hear
from our editoml brethren of the daily and weekly press, from the
Lexington Leader to the Blue Grass Blade, inclusive, on the suhject
of empanelling Negroes on the Shipp jury, lu no other way can the
Negroes hope for a truly impartial trial and a just verdict in what
promises to prove to the people of the United .States a most memor-
ahle case in the judicature of Kentucky.
We make these dispassionate observations as an independent
journalist, irrespective of caste or color, because to he silent in a matter
of such great importance would he criminal on our part, though what
we say may have no effect whatever on the trial, or on the minds ot
the twelve men, good and true, who will have the determination
of the quality or quantity of the punishment which they shall award
the prisoner. — W. I). Johnson, Editor Standard. -
, Queen and Crescent Railway.
JNTERESTING physical peculiarities belong to the Cincinnati, New
Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway, better known a* the Queen
and Crescent Route. It derives its unique name from the limited
trains operated between Cincinnati, the Queen City, and New Orleans,
the City of the Crescent.. The line extends from Cincinnati to Chat-
tanooga, and via that city reaches into the entire South through a
wide ramification of connecting lines. The line is 109 miles shorter
than any other route between the two cities.
Cincinnati derived her early growth and importance from South-
ern trade, which came to her by flat boat and steamer; but with the
modern demand for more rapid transport, which arrived with the cm
of steam roads, the project of a railroad was broached as early as 1833.
The scheme was of too great a magnitude to take form in those early
days. During the civil war General Burnside, commanding the De-
partment of East Tennessee, conceived the idea of connecting Cincin-
nati and Knoxvillc by building a railroad through the mountains as
a strategic measure, but abandoned it afterward, though surveys bad
l>ceu made. Rut a fresh impulse was given with the return home of
the citizen-soldiery of the (il)'s. These men, campaigning in the
South, had marked the fertile plains and valleys, bordered by forest-
clad mountains rich in veins of mineral wealth.
The surveys for the construction of a road were begun in lHtiit,
the first contract was let in lHT.'i, and the whole line put under con-
struction soon thereafter. The completion of'the work was celebrated
in .Music Hall, Cincinnati, March 17, 1KM0, at which were seated one
I.. W.TAYI.OH. I'sigc/I.
I,.C I' to:>i>. -!',
.11 ITIT.l; I.KWIS. |»ii K f 73.
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 121
thousand representative men of Cincinnati and her friends, the
cities of the South. The road was built by the city of Cincinnati,
which in 1M81 leased it to the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas
Pacific Railway Company.
A STRATEGIC KEY TO THE SOUTH.
From a military standpoint Chattanooga had been the key which
had controlled the Central South. Just in the same way it is now
the strategic point of Southern commerce, and the Queen and Cres-
cent Route stands peculiarly strong in its position from this fact. A
little more than a hundred miles the shortest line of communication
from the North, it bears a like close relation through this strategic key
to the iron furnaces of Birmingham and the West India fruit steam-
ers of New Orleans on the one hand; the busy commerce of Atlanta
and the fair orange groves of Florida on the other.
The road was originally constructed in the most substantial man-
ner possible; the culvert and bridge masonry solid and massive. The
iron bridges were the admiration of the engineering world; the span
over the channel of the Ohio river being the longest truss span built
up to that date, while the Kentucky river bridge then claimed pre-
eminence as the first cantilever and the highest bridge in the United
States. This early standard of perfection has not only been main-
tained to the present day, but its ideal has reached higher, so that
few roads in the country are equal and none surpass it in the excel-
lence of its roadway or magnificence of its trains. The track, solidly
supported by a deep bed of ballast, is lined and surfaced with perfect
accuracy. All track fixtures are of the most approved modern pattern.
New stout oak ties; a full dee]) bed of stone ballast, broken fine,
and heavy steel rails, are a good foundation, and the section man
efficient; but they are not sufficient provision for the movement of a
modern limited train. From the time it leaves the great train shed
of the terminal station there must be continuous and absolute safe-
guards for its protection at every stage. To this end, the right of
way is studded with a long series of track signs; mile posts tell where
you may be as related to your starting point; the familiar road cross-
ing with spreading r.rms, semaphores, oval shaped electric signals,
signs that tell the engineer of approaching yard limits, or that he will
find a water tank another nvile ahead. Sitnis abound which tell of
yard Units, of curveture of track; emphatic commands of "Stop" or
"Slow," where such are needed, with milder suggestions of approach-
ing stations or road crossings, dot the line between. Frequent signs
mark the passing of county or city corporation lines, and a more pre-
tentious standard is erected to mark the dividing line between States.
The most of these, however, have to do with that wide spreadiug or-
ganization which controls the safe movement of trains.
THK BLOCK SYSTEM OF SIGXALS.
The trains of the Queen and Crescent Route are operated under
a complete system of block signals. No train can enter a block of
track until the wires flash from one end of it to the other to say its
clear. Once in the block, the train is further protected by a service
of electric signals which work automatically, showing an infallible
bulls-eye of red when another train has the right of way. Another
signal, much more modest in appearance but no less useful, is the' 'J
electric gong at the road crossings. Its persistant ringing saves many
an obstinate traveler, who would otherwise test his ability to cross
before the approaching train. Street crossings in the city are pro-
tected by the usual crossing gates and watchman. A more absolute
form of protection is used at railroad crossings with other lines. All
such are protected with an automatic inter-locking device. This de-
vice is controlled from the switch tower by a system of levers, and
indicated by semaphores. It inter-locks the track so that it is abso-
lutely impossible for two trains to reach the crossing at the same time.
It is a fact that the traveler sees but little of all this complicated
6ystem which watches over his personal safety and comfort, but his
eye for the l>eautiful is happily satisfied by its outward signs. Trav-
eling north and south along this great highway, he sees it bordered
by day with white miic posts, warnings, semaphores, switch signals,
trim station buildings, fast disappearing in orderly array down the
vista of clean track behind him. By night the scene is illumined
with a myriad of sleepless lights. The mountain sides are lit up with
mil and whites and greens, and the streams below reflect the glim-
mering colors along the guarded path of commerce.
tiii: famous ni.ric ukash keuiox.
Another unusual feature of this line of railway is the diversity
of natural resource* in the country it penetrates, which can be (level-
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 123
oped with comparative case. The first sixty miles south of the Ohio
the road lends through fertile hills which stop suddenly and from their
summit show a placid picture of gentle undulating blue grass farms
stretching southward. This blue grass basin was once the home of
such men a* Clay, Shelby, Birncy; noted for the brilliant jurists and
statesmen who live within its bounds and bear the names of its old
families. The Blue Grass towns still smack of an atmosphere of chiv-
alry, beauty, social splender and educational movements, as in the
old days of their Virginian founders. Agriculturally, it stands peer-
less as the (piecn of those rolling pasture lands on which have been
produced the horses that have made the Blue Grass known the
South of the Blue Grass stands the great Cumberland plateau,
large ax the State of Massachusetts, and to many people entirely un-
known. It is traversed by the Queen and Crescent Koute from the
Cumberland river at Point Burnside (where the old war fortifications
still mark Bumsides' former base of supplies) to the Tennessee Valley,
south of Harriman. The great plateau has its broken surface 2,000
feet above the sea while from its edges, on either side," one can look
over another country which lays more than 1 ,500 feet below. From
the top of the highest swells the eye can see in any direction a green
expanse of undulating virgin forest. The high altitude gives the
Cumberland plateau a climate of peculiar value. While the winters
are short and mild, the springs and autumns arc long, the summers
free from the oppressive heat of lower levels. The wealth of timber
on the surface of the plateau is even surpassed by the treasure of coal
and iron hidden beneath its hills. The development of this mineral
wealth has brought millions of capital and thousands of men to this
region, vigorous cities have grown up, and at the same time the un-
equalled climate has filled the country with farmers who find it prom-
ises to be the great wheat-raising centre of the middle South. They
are able to put their product in the market at the choicest time of the
season, and the shipping facilities of the Queen and Crescent guar-
antees them <|tiick transit.
qtlKICN AM) CKKNCKNT TRAIN HKKVK.'K.
What has been written in these pages leads to a word concerning
the trains of passenger an 1 freight that traverse the line. It was on
the Queeu and Crescent Route that the pace was first set for fast
special sen-ice to care for the Southern tourist as he cume and went,
and no other line has ever equalled it. "One day from the Ohio to
the Gulf" has beeu the watchword, until now the luxurious New
Orleans Limited make the daily trip in just an even twenty-four hours
from Cincinnati. This fast train has a sister service to Jacksonville,
the gateway to Florida, which also makes a twenty-four hour sched-
ule daily. East freight service is also handled expeditiously, the
perfection of quick freight heing fully exemplified.
The service of through sleeping cars extends from the Atlantic
at Savannah and Jacksonville, to the Gulf at New Orleans, and the
Pacific Coast at Eos Angeles and San Francisco. It touches the
matchless scenery of the North Carolina mountains at Asheville, by
the Southern Railway, and reaches the Texas line at Shrcveport.
Powerful locomotives, compound ten-wheelers, draw the limited
trains; big machines that are perfect in every detail from the electric
headlight to the safety vestibule on the tender. The trains are heated
by steam, lighted by Putsch gas and provided with Pullman vestibules
throughout. The cur interiors are i>erfect, and the eye rests with
pleasure on French plate wiudows, skillfully inlaid woodwork and
LANDMARKS OF THE WAK TIMES.
The line not only passes through a series of varied scenic views,
but abounds in scenes connected with our Civil War. It touches
these old fighting grounds much sooner than one usually anticipates.
The battle of Perry ville, Ky., was fought at the right of the railway
near Danville; the fight at Richmond, Ky., was to the left. Mill
Springs, where Thomas and Garfield won their first spurs and General
Zollicofier was killed, is further South, off the line from Somerset.
The country between this and the Tennessee river is full of bits of
history, hut the battlefields come faster after the road leads through
Emory Gap into the Valley of the Tennessee. Walden's Ridge,
close to the right, is the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau,
over which Roseerans threw his left wing and made his famous diver-
sion which gave him Chattanooga. His army maneuvered all over
the valley through which the line passes.
Seven miles out from Chattanooga the road crosses the Tennessee
river. One catches the first glimpse of the frowning front of Lookout
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 125
Mountain here on the right, while to the left two small islands mark
where Sherman hid the boats in which his army floated down to the
great bend below the bridge, before his assault ou Missionery Ridge.
The Ridge appears to the left. Chickamauga creek is crossed here.
The train stands on the ground over which Sherman's men made their
famous assault. Just ahead is Orchard Knob, where Grant had his
headquarters during the battle. Fort Wood, now demolished, was on
the right; the National Cemetery of the Nation's dead is on the left;
while the background of Old Lookout looms high on one side; and
the Government Towers on Missionary Ridge lift their heads 011 the
other, overlooking one of the decisive battlefields of the war.
THE VICTORIES OK PKACK.
The Government has taken the necessary steps to perpetuate
these historical events by means of the National Military Park, which
includes the most important parts of the field. The original road has
been restored, monuments mark positions of troops, cannon once more
stand where the batteries were located. Thus the story of Hooker's
charge up the mountain and of Thomas' gallant stand on the Chicka-
mauga Field are perpetuated with the equally brave deeds of those
who wore the gray.
The present city of Chattanooga is quite different from the war
town. Here some dozen railroads now centre, with ramifications to
every part of the South, all valuable connections of the Queen and
Crescent Route. Great hotels have been built on the Mountain and
on the Field at Chickamauga, where the tourist to Florida's groves
and lakes, or New Orleans' quaint streets, can stop for a few days to
renew his stock of patriotic impulses. The city itself still cherishes
the many landmarks of the war; but the great industries, fine host-
leries, paved streets ami modern stores have greatly changed its gen-
eral appearance. From Chattanooga direct connection is made with
lines to Nashville and the great Tennessee Centennial and International
Exposition toward which many of the people are now looking.
Louisville and Nashville Railroad.
fHERE is no system of railroads in this country more thoroughly
modern in it* equipment, or more patriotic for the country which
it traverses than the Louisville and Nashville Railway Company,
with headquarters at Louisville. It is essentially of the South, for
the South, and with the South, and has probably done more thau any
other agency — and is doing more at present — for the development of
this garden spot of God's earth. It spares no labor or expense to
proclaim to the world the climatic health, agricultural wealth, and
scenic beauty of this sunny land in its desire that healthy capital and
skillful labor may enter the confines of the South and benefit and be
benefitted in turn by the land's overwhelming possibilities.
Nor will this magnificent company stoop to prevarication in an
attempt to induce travel or immigration. Its information is accurate
anil obtained from the most reliable sources, and it desires only that
the naked truth about the section traversed by it and its branches be
known. This truth is so beautiful, so patent to those who come to
see that they are entranced by the scenic magnificence, the healthful-
ness of climate and the profusion of agriculture and mineral wealth
abounding in the land that but for the enterprise of the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad would have remained a closed book for man} - years
The road and its branches traverse sections of Illinois, Indiana,
Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, Virginia, Mississippi and
Louisiana. Almost every mile of the line breathes of history, and is
rich in scenic beauty, so diversified as to charm the eve and delight
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 127
the imagination. It is impossible in an article of this length to dwell
on the scenic magnificence viewed from the car window on any branch
of this road. In Kentucky the famous Mammoth Cave, the wonder
of the world, is directly on the line, and the beautiful Gulf resort* on
the American Mediterranean are all reached by this road.
A TRAVKLER'h ROM ANTIC STORY.
Listen to what a traveler says of the beauties to be seen along
the Gulf coast "For sunny scenes iu sunny lauds, commend me to
the trip from Mobile to New Orleans over the Tourists' Route, the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad. A trip over the road once re-
mains in the memory like music which has died upon the ear, yet
lives with melody in the vaulted precincts of the soul. The recollec-
tion of it calls up balmy woods of sighing pine trees, where the breezes
which play upon the harp of nature are sweet with balsam and heavy
with the ozone of the salt sea water. Then there are sombre forests
where the long moss trails from live-oak boughs, and touches with
gray fringe the thick bush of the jungle, and the open fingers of pal-
mettos reaching for the sun.
"And out of this, one sweeps into the open lands, where over-
head a tender sky bends down so you can almost touch its blue; and
far away the bright waters of the Gulf rise up and blend with heaven
and laugh through all the intervening distance as the nimble sun-
beams strive to catch the white foam of the bursting billows. It
is a poem and a romance. For long miles nature dreams, or, half
waking, dallies with the sweet embodiment of tropic fancies. Earth
seems iu love with heaven as it lies languorously gazing upward, and
heaven bends down, smiling with sunlight, to kiss the warm, full,
polluting lips of the earth.
"Man loves and longs as he beholds the scene; and, watching
the swell of the full-breasted sea and the fecund passion of the
blossoming land, he finds the warm kisses of the sun tingling upon
his own lips till his heart is like a garden of rosebuds, and his
spirit is filled with the fragrance of orange blossoms. Yes, he loves
and longs. lie loves, he knows not what. He longs for an infinity
of such love, let it bear what fruit it may. For out of the cold North
he has come with the frost upon his heart, and the happy sun has
melted it, and the fountain of a long-forgotten youth sends strong
currents pulsing and bubbling through his veins.
12* KENTUCKY'S PROMINENT
"Gray of bennl he may be, and scant of locks as lie who brought j
the bears to feast upon the children who mocked his baldness; but
nimble faucv weaves the threads of retrospect together into pictures
of long ago, and his old arms reach out into the air to clasp soft waists
that have eluded him when all the world was young. He smiles
at his own fully, and, smiliug still, he mutters to himself: 'Juveutis
nmndi! Ah! ehu! ehu! me niiseratum!'"
THE UKANO OLD COMMONWEALTH.
Kentucky was originally a county of Virginia, but in 1792, it
became a Slate. It contains an area of about 40,000 square miles,
and at the last census was credited with nearly 2,000,000 inhabitants.
The Louisville and Nashville Railway owns and operates about 1,200
miles of railway within the borders of the State. .Skilled geologists,}
have at different times investigated the soil with intelligent care, and -^
all agree that for purposes of agriculture no State in the Union sur- 1
passes Kentucky in the variety and fertility of its soil. All kinds
of food, grains and cereals grow to great perfection. Hemp and
tobacco are produced in large quantities. Fruits, both tree and bush-
l>earing, are plentiful. The grasses, on which the finest horses in the
world are raised, are world-famous; and the cattle, sheep and hogs
command the highest prices.
The display of corn, tobacco and hemp made by Kentucky at the
Columbian Exposition was unsurpassed in quality by any exhibit
made, and received a number of awards on each article. Kentucky
produced in 1K0."} about 69,000,000 bushels of corn from an acreage 1
of less than 2,000,000 acres, placing the State as one of the ten
largest corn producers of the Union. Corn grows well in almost
every county of the State, and a very large proportion of the crop is
consumed at home, being fed to the live stock of various kinds. The
lands yield from fifty to seventy-five bushels to the acre.
The area of the land sown in wheat in 1893 was less than 800,-
000 acres, from which was produced nearly 12,000,000 bushels, only
twelve States producing a larger quantity. Much of the land yields
from thirty to forty bushels per acre, and oftentimes more. Oats and
barley are both raised very extensively and successfully, and all kinds
of grnss, especially blue grass, which is indigenous to the soil, are
grown to perfection. Farmers find profit in shipping South both
L <;. CLARK.— 1'uge 74.
The skelc-li nf LcwwCii-orgi- (lark hum written liy Mr. I >. '!'.
liiixlcrnf Uxingtun, Kv., who linn tiikcn 11
llw|l intermit In llilll.
\V. A. liAINKS. I'iiiii
lll.NUY I.I K -I'nm
NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN. 129
blue grass and clover seed nud timothy hay. Clover is sown mostly
for grazing purposes and as a fertilizer, but is also cut for hay.
THE BRAVE VOLUNTEER 8TATE.
Tennessee w:is the third State' admitted into the Union after the
formation of the general government. It is the thirteenth in popula-
tion. In 1894 it was second in the production of corn in the Southern
States, showing a healthy change in agricultural products from the
old regime when cotton was king. The Louisville and Nashville
Railroad Company operates some 52S miles of railroad within its
lM)undaries, principally in the Central and Western sections. The
main Hue extends through the counties of Sumner, Davidson, Wil-
liamson, Maury and Giles; the Memphis line penetrates Montgomery,
Stewart, Houston, Benton, Henry, Carroll, Gibson, Crockett, Hay-
wood, Faywood and Shelby; while the Nashville, Florence nnd Shef-
field Division bisects Maury and Lawrence counties.
No State in the American Union is more happily endowed by
nature with reference to climate, soil, production, beauty of scenery
and sanitary conditions than Tennessee. It is a State of almost in-
finite variety as to \ia rocks, minerals, soils, productions, climate and
geological and physical features, and contains 42,050 square miles,
including 300 square miles of water. It has more miles of navigable
streams to the square mile than any other State. The Tennessee
river crosses the State twice. The Cumberland river, rising in East-
ern Kentucky, sweeps in a semi-circle through the fairest portion of
the State, giving to it 304 miles of navigable water. The Mississippi
washes its entire Western limit. Many of the tributaries of the
■ principal affluents are navigable. It is estimated that, altogether,
Tennessee has 1,200 miles of navigable water.
FROM THE NORTH TO THE SOCHI.
A week on and over the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, from
Cincinnati to New Orleans and return, intensely interested inc in thai
representative American railway system, and I permitted no available
official, agent or trainman to escape in satisfying the consuming curi-
osity that seized me in reviewing the development of a railroad not
yet fifty years old and originally chartered lor but 185 miles, that
"haw now crown into a svstein of nearly 5,000 miles and practically
KENTUCK Y.'S PROMINENT
ramifies tlie central South from the Missouri and Ohio valleys to the-
Gulf of Mexico.
The L. & N., us it is beet known, was chartered iu 1850 to eon-,
neet the Kentucky and Tennessee towns of Louisville and Nnshville,
nud though it now connects pretty nearly the whole of the South, it I
has never changed the chartered title. I exhumed a funny find in
the archives of the Louisville general office, that it was commenced as
a six-foot guage line and built ten or fifteen miles out that width.
That was forty-seven years ago, when every railroad had its own
guage and believed in a liberal appropriation of the earth en route.
It was operated as a six-footer for some time and probably built its 1
cars crosswise on the trucks. Then it changed to five feet and con-
tinued toward Nashville, all Southern roads before the war having
adopted that guage.
OROWTH OF A OKEAT SYHTEM.
Railroads were not built in a night in the early days of the 1 /. &
N. and it was five years in reaching Lebanon Junction, a distance of j
twenty-nine miles. Then it took a spurt and got into Nashville in
1859, just as the Tennessee capitol was finished and the dual event J
was thunderingly celebrated. The Rebellion checked the growth of
the struggling system, but work was resumed in 18(>3 and the Knox-
ville branch began by way of Lebanon Junction to Livingston and
Jellico. The war over, extensions and absorptions began vehemently;''
again, and in 1871 the Memphis connection was secured from Bowling
It was early apparent that Nashville could not long remain the
Southern terminal and smaller roads were purchased and branches
built until the heart of the South was encompassed. Here let us close
this lmnk and go to the great Tennessee Centennial Exposition, as
much a wonder in art as the Mammoth Cave is iu nature, and both
are reached by this pioneer railway that links the < Md.X'ommonwcalth
with the Volunteer State.
Association, A. ami M. Colored 7!'
Ballard, I'm. <;., \V. II • r > r >
Bowkn.W. II 2<>
Bradley, W. () 11
BlUTTOK, MARYE .' 1H
BUFORD, T. C IK!
ClIEXAULT, E. W <>•">
CuicLES, J. A 2M
Clark, L. <■ 74
( 'oNTKO V Kltsi km, Editi >hi a l. . 1 07
Courtney, Joseph 24
DlCKERHON, W. II 2'.»
Dixwiddie. \V. T : :<2
FltAXKLIN, Benjamin 42
Gaines, \V. A 7<i
Cray, J. I«" 30
1 1 a < ; ( j a i : r < . Charles 40
Harden, Katie V 4*
Hathaway, -I. K :50
IIillman, .). W <io
.Iacksox, K. Belle fi«
.1 ackmin, .1. C, :!7
Jackmin. .1. H. <;•':
.1 i:\vbtt. .1. W ■"■•'!
■luiixwix, M. S :>*
Kelly, A. I) :'>0
Lai'ey, I'hiscilla It 7(i
Lee, Henry 70
Lewis, Ji'imtei: 7-'!
Louisville and Nashville Railroad 120
Maxwell, J. M 25
Mitchell, Robert 59
McKinley, J. J. C 27
Orphan Home, Colored Industriai 86
Paey, A. L 41
Parrish, C. H
Perry, W. H
Prewitt, C. B
Queen and Crescent Railway
Robb, T. K
Robinson, Carrie V
Ross, W. H 15
Russell, G. P 20
Simpson, Peter , 47
Smith, Mary A 70
Smith, S. E 43
Spuroeon, S. J. W 44
Tandy, H. A 46
Taylor, L. W 71
Taylor, W. A 21
Todd, L. G. P : 72
Underwood, E. E 61
Vaughn, C. C 31
White, A. S 53
Williams, F.L 35
Woman's Improvement Club 95
^ MAR 90