.' tc»*M*t ■ B *1 : o CO BIOGRAPHIES OF INDIVIDUAL SCHOOLS UNDER The Toronto Board of Education II PARK SCHOOL ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH 189^ CHURCH STREET. TORONTO JANUARY. 1921 PARK SCHOOL TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 5 Park School General 7 Park School Old Boys' Association 11 Administrative Arrangements Principal's Office 13 Store Room 13 Other Special Rooms 13 Coal Storage 13 School Hygiene Sweeping, Dusting and Scrubbing 14 Heating and Ventilation 14 Lighting 16 Play Area 16 Educational Waste Non-Promotion 17 Over-age 19 Retardation 20 Dropping Out 21 Mentally Defective Children 29 Summary 31 Class Room Instruction 32 The Park School as an Opportunity School 35 The Park School as an All-The-Year-Round School 41 APPENDIX Extracts from Diary of Park School— 1871-1885 47 INTRODUCTION The original Park School building was erected in 1855 and was enlarged in 1875, 1879, 1888, 1889 and 1900. The new Park School building was built in 1914. Probably no public school in the City of Toronto has a more honorable record of service than this School which is to-day upholding the noble traditions of its past. Some of the most useful citizens of Toronto and of Canada have received their elementary school training within its walls, and the annals of the city during the next twenty-five years will no doubt be further enriched by the services of men and women who as boys and girls are now attend- ing its classes. The character of the neighborhood of Park School has changed greatly in the past half century. Many parts of it are now extremely congested through the building of small dwellings very close to one another, the doubling up of families in houses built for one family, and the building of houses on lanes and in the rears of lots. The present membership of the school indicates that the district which the school serves is prevailingly Canadian and British in population, although the proportion of foreign-born residents is increasing and is con- siderably larger than it was twenty-five years ago. The body of this report contains statistical material bearing on racial origins. An inspection of the district makes it evident that a considerable number of boys and girls attending the school would be classed by social workers as "under-privileged." These children come of excellent stock and need only a desirable environment to make them extremely valuable citizens of the coming Toronto. Every school in Toronto should be an "opportunity" school, but there is no centre where such a school would return a better dividend than the Park School district. The proposal, abandoned after careful inquiry and full discussion, to make the old Park School building the home of such a school would, as pointed out in the body of this report, have had very undesirable consequences to the children attending the existing school. A comparatively small expenditure would provide, within the limits of the present building and without decreasing its school capacity, a good auditorium, an excellent gymnasium and special rooms for the teaching of history, geography and also various manual arts not naw provided for, and would enable the staff of the school to make it a real opportunity school, not only for the children but for the adxdt com- munity which it should serve. This would involve an increase in the length of the daily school sessions, but not necessarily in the number of school hours per child. It is th<? conviction of those who wrote this report that the Park School should be an all-year-round school, or at least should operate forty-eight weeks of the year, for four terms of twelve weeks each. Thirty-six weeks might be regarded as a full academic year, but experi- ence in other cities goes to show that the vast majority of the children would attend for the four terms and would be greatly benefited thereby in health and school advancement. The staff for the summer term would be made up of volunteers, declared by their physicians to be physically fit. Teachers who served for three summer terms, as well as the remainder of each year, could be given a year's leave of absence with pay or they could be paid for their extra work and be given a year's leave of absence without pay. The suggestion is discussed more fully later in this report. There never was a time in the history of this country, or of the civilized world in general, when the public schools could render so great a return to society. A virile, adaptable and progressive public school policy, keeping pace with the changing needs of society was never so essential. The best guarantee of such a policy is an informed public, in a position to co-operate effectively with and, where necessary, to bring the necessary pressure to bear on Departments and Boards of Education. In this report, therefore, an attempt has been made to describe in clear, non-technical language, a typical Toronto public school in opera- tion. The problems of education, however, are not simple and are not to be solved without thought — thought on the part of the people at large as well as of the elected bodies to whom they have deputed authority in educational matters. The school in its various branches is the community laboratory and cannot do its best work, cannot avoid the deadening effect of routine and custom, without close contact at many points with the constituency it serves. Chief Inspector Cowley, in his 1918 report, writes: "While the major responsibility for the condition of the individual school usually rests on the principal and while a capable principal, by due attention to his duty, can save his school from deterioration and even maintain it on a high level in the face of adverse circumstances, the public schools of a city are social institu- tions rising to their best only where the sympathy and co-operation of the home, the school board and the municipal council arc realized." The Public and High Schools of Toronto are engaged in educating about 70,000 embryo citizens at an annual expenditure of over $6,000,000. Is there any citizen of Toronto who can afford not to be interested in public education ? PARK SCHOOL The Bureau was fortunate enough to obtain from Principal Richardson a school diary, or "log," which had been kept carefully from January 3rd, 1871, to January 31st, 1877. After that date the entries are fairly numerous for a few years and finally cease on the 20th of May, 1885. The daily attendance was entered each month up to January 12th, 1877. Differences of opinion and difficulties bulking large at the time now assume a different perspective, from which, perhaps, we may all draw a lesson. During all of the early years, classes in religious instruction were conducted by the Rev. S. J. Boddy, and later by the Rev. Mr. Ballard. An interesting entry in the log is the following: "Rev. Mr. Kelly, Priest, visited and examined the several divisions of the school in reading, grammar and arithmetic." As at present, problems of attendance and conduct had to be faced by teachers in those days. Such entries as the following carry the mind back to old school days : "March 10th, 1873 — This morning two boys in the senior divi- sion, for misbehaving, were told to go home, and each replied that he would not go." (Later suspended). "Nov. 5th, 1873— Sent home at 11.20 a.m. for the day. Cause — throwing things at other pupils during study. Repeatedly warned not to do so. Notified his father." "March 28th, 1876 — Sent home until he replaced a pane of glass broken by him." Sunday School picnics were as disturbing to school attendance in those days as at present, as the following entry testifies : "Monday, 29th June, 1871 — Several boys were absent to-day on account of attending a Sunday School picnic." The circus and the delights of summer had the same attractions for the boys then as now. The entry for June 21st, 1875, reads as follows : "Barnum's show being in the city accounts for the thin attend- ance this day." On September 7th, 1875, we find the entry: " suspended; leaving school without permission," and on September 23rd of the same year, we are told that "Conductor brought to school ; found him wandering down at Scarboro. He ran away from home but he had a school bag by which he was recognized as a pupil of Park School." The Principal of the day made the following entry oh Tuesday, May 9th, 1871: "Several boys were absent yesterday afternoon on account oJ attending a funeral." Other entries of a similar nature occur. The problem of heating was a lively question in the 70's. The material used was wood. One of the first entries is : "January 6th, 1871 : Mr. is sawing wood here to-day." A few days afterwards it is stated : "Mr. has cut two cords of wood to-day." The storing of wood seems to have been the cause of some differences of opinion. The "log" records that on Monday, May 15th, 1871 : "Mrs. (Caretaker) refused to carry the remaining uncut wood in the yard into the woodshed." On Thursday, January 18th, 1872, the Principal "sent a note to Mr. Barber, Secretary-Treasurer, asking 'whether it is Mrs. 's duty as caretaker to supply the wood boxes in the school-house with wood or not.' " The record does not state whether the principal received any reply to his letter, and we are unable to state at this date just how this early labor problem was settled. The following are typical entries with regard to the wood supply: "October 20th, 1871— A man, Mr. , is here to-day— p.m. — engaged by the Headmaster, who was authorized to do so, to cut one cord of wood, one half of it to be cut into two parts and the balance into three." "April 7th, 1873 — Notified Mr. Barber by note there was no wood cut for this school, and that the man who usually cuts the wood stated that he had received orders to cut no more here at present." "April 8th, 1873 — Received a note at noon to-day from Mr. Barber stating that the woodcutter had made a mistake and that he was to cut what wood was required." "November 13th, 1873 — A load of pine slabs purporting to be one-half cord was delivered here to-day." The smashing of the thermometer by the Caretaker on December 14th, 1873, is thought worthy of note, and frequent references to the temperature, inside and outside of the school, are made. The following are typical entries: "October 27th, 1873 — Temperature of Headmaster's room this morning at 9 o'clock, 50°." "May 25th, 1875 — Weather very warm, thermometer in Head- master's room indicating 76° at 1.00 p.m." The problem of humidifying school-room air gave trouble then as now. On November 13th, 1879, five evaporating pans were sent to the school. Principals had their own troubles in those days with regard to getting things done, as the following chronicle of the pump well illus- trates : "August 16th, 1871 — Mr. Barber, Secretary-Treasurer, was communicated with respecting the school pump." "August 28th, 1871 — Mr. , Trustee, was communi- cated with respecting the repairing of the school pump." "October 10th, 1871— Man sent by Mr. is here to- day cleaning the well." "November 13th, 1871 — The pump was replaced in the well either on Saturday or early on Monday morning." "November 27th, 1871 — Mr. , Trustee, was communi- cated with respecting the pump." (Apparently something was still wrong. ) "June 25th, 1872 — Sent a note to Mr. Barber., Secretary, about the pump and messenger brought back my note to Mr. , Trustee, for him to act on it." "June 28th, 1872 — Received a note from the Secretary asking when first communication was sent to him about pump." "July 2nd, 1872 — Sent a communication to the Secretary in answer to his of the 28th ult." "August 14th, 1872— The Truant Officer called here this a.m. and gave me an answer from to my communication of the 28th ult. to the Secretary. The answer ran thus: 'If you (the headmaster) can render the mineral water better than it is, I shall willingly try the experiment." "August 27th, 1872 — The old pump has been replaced by a new one, but the water of the well is still bad — cannot be used." "August 28th, 1872 — Headmaster sent letter by messenger to the Secretary complaining of water in the well." "September 12th, 1872 — Received fifty pounds of sulphate of iron, ordered by the Board." "October 10th, 1872 — Headmaster sent a communication to the Secretary contradicting opinion held by the Board, and especially by Mr. , as to the mineral character of water in the well." "June 9th, 1873 — Notified the Secretary that the water of the well was unfit for drinking purposes on account of the stench arising from it." "February 26th, 1874 — The pump was put in working order this day." The only other mention of the pump or well was on August 23rd, 1875, as follows : "Well cleaned." The diary throws interesting side-lights on changes in provincial educational organization. The Public School Inspector is called during the early years "Local Superintendent." It is unfortunate that this title was replaced by that of "Inspector." The diary chronicles the death of Inspector Porter on April 20th, 1874, and the first visit of his successor, Mr. James L. Hughes, to the Park School on May 18th, 1874. It is doubtful whether there are many large cities where there have been so few changes in the Chief Inspec- torate. Toronto has had only three chief inspectors in over half a century. In the appendix will be found further typical extracts from the school diary. 10 Park School Old Boys' Association. Seventeen yean ago some of the former pupils of the Park School, under the leadership of Alderman Richard Iloneyford, established the Park School Old Boys' Association. Former President Honeyford states that it is the only public school Old Boys' Association in Toronto that has kept up its annual reunions since the inception of the organiza- tion, even including war. years. About 500 graduates of the Park School, of whom at least fifty gave their lives to the cause, fought in the great war. A beautiful bronze tablet has been placed in the main corridor of the first floor of the present building by the Association in memory of "old boys 1 ' who gave up their lives in the Great War. The tablet was cast from the metal of the old school bell, probably the same one which, according to the school diary, fell from its position on December 18th, 1878. Also as a memorial to the ex-pupils, over $500.00 of sporting goods were presented to the School by this organization. The officers at the time of the annual dinner, January 23rd. 1920, were : President George H. Howard. 1st Vice-President .... Walter E. Mainprice (now President). 2nd Vice-President . . . .James Adams. 3rd Vice-President .... Fred Brown. Treasurer .James Adams. Secretary "Struan J. Wheatley. Committee Arthur Toy, John Honeyford, Fred Hamblin, John C. Hickey, Arthur Wilson, Sam Richardson, Herbert Metcalf, Oscar Johnson, Harry Lomas, Arthur E. Apted. These are just a few of the names which bear concrete testimony of the services of the Old Park School. The first annual banquet of the Association was held on March 9th, 1906. The first name on the list of the Committee in Charge was Aid. Thos. Church, a former teacher of the School and later to be the Mayor, of the city. Among the Honorary Presidents and Past Presidents of the Association are: Sir James Lougheed, H. C. Hocken, R. J. Fleming, James Ryrie, J. B. Reid, Joseph Oliver, William Harper, Cecil B. Jenkins, John C. Noble, F. A. Bowden, H. G. Salisbury, James Greer, George A. Learn, Richard Honeyford, George II . Howard. all old boys of the school (one or two of Sackville Street School, which was amalgamated with Park). The Old Boys are loyal not only to their School but to the memory of its neighborhood. The motto of its 1912 dinner was "Cabbagetown 11 12 Forever." It is greatly to be dsiired that every large public school in< the city should have its Old Boys 1 Association, ivhwh should not only renew and keep alive old friendships, but take an active interest in the fortunes of the school as it continues to educate new generations of Toronto citizens. ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS Principal's Office. The Principal's office is between the two front entryways under a mezzanine floor. The ceiling is about seven feet high. There is no ventilation save by the windows, which on account of their proximity to the floor and the small size of the room can rarely be used for ventila- tion purposes. There are not even deflectors on the windows. There is no connecting small room for private interviews. Repeatedly, during visits of the observer, the Principal, the Truant Officer and even the police had to talk to children in the corridors. Parents were also interviewed by the Truant Officers in the corridors. There can be no valid excuse for such unsatisfactory office accommodation in a new building like the Park School. Store Room. The store room is on the third floor at the extreme east end, whereas it should be in close proximity to the Principal's office. It is true that there are some cupboards in the office, but these are entirely inadequate. It is hard to believe that those responsible for deciding on the position of the store room could have consulted an experienced principal before reaching their decision. A dental room not having been provided for in the original plans, a part of the store room is being equipped for this purpose. The position of the room in relation to the Principal's office is also, of course, entirely unsatisfactory. Other Special Rooms. The library is on the second floor and is also too widely separated from the offices of administration. There are no small rooms for small special classes. This is a defect that will be hard to remedy. It is difficult to imagine how it was possible to erect such a building without adequate provision for a class of work which educators have regarded for many years as necessary to the best work of a public school. Coal Storage. The coal storage space is entirely inadequate. Unless the coal is piled over six feet deep there is not room for over fifty tons in the regular store room. It has been found necessary to store coal in the boys* play room, whence the coal has to be wheeled in a barrow along the corridor to a flight of steps going down into the boiler room. The ash-hoist is entirely inadequate, being operated by hand, and delivering ashes s® slowly to the carts that it takes several hours each week in 13 winter to remove the ashes. The ash-hoist is near the fresh air intake so that, unless the plenum fan is stopped while ashes are being emptied, quantities of ashes are taken into the general air circulation. Results are similar when coal is delivered during school sessions, although the coal is always dampened. If the furnaces, ash-hoist and coal bin had been placed at the back of the school, this menace to the health of the children and teachers would have been avoided and more room would have been available for coal bins which might have been excavated under the playgrounds. All of these defects could have been avoided by consulting school men and women before plans were drawn. After the plans were drawn, and while the building was under construction, several defects might still have been remedied if telephone messages and letters from those on the ground had been heeded. An educational advisory committee on school planning, presided over by the chief inspector, would be of great assistance to the business administrator in planning buildings for school purposes. The Building Department exists for the schools, not vice versa. During recent months principals and inspectors have been freely consulted on all matters of school planning. SCHOOL HYGIENE Sweeping, Dusting and Scrubbing*. The sweeping appears to be done regularly. Dusting, however, lias been very unsatisfactory. In response to the Bureau's questionnaire ten teachers stated that their class-rooms were dusted daily. One gave the same answer followed by a mark of interrogation. One stated that her room was frequently dusted. Two just used question marks. Such expressions as "occasionally," "seldom, if ever," are used by eight teachers; two teachers wrote that their rooms were never dusted, five teachers made no statement, one was non-committal, and one said she didn't know when her room was dusted. An inspection of the corridors showed that they were mopped rather, than scrubbed and the Bureau was informed that the floors are not scrubbed four times a year as required by the regulations. The floors were streaky in many places. The floor of the new manual training room was observed to be very dark. The reason given was that it had been oiled before being thoroughly cleaned. As pointed out elsewhere, the floor of the Kindergarten is seldom clean enough to make its use for floor exercises possible. Heating and Ventilation. At all times during visits the class rooms were sufficiently warm. There appears to have been some trouble during winter months, due, apparently, to deficiency in boiler power. It appears also that the radi- ating surface in the north rooms is about the same as that in the south, although, other conditions being the same, it should be considerably *The Bureau im informed that the caretaker has since been transferred to a smaller school. 14 greater. The observer was struck with the number of class rooms which always had one or more windows up. It would appear that this is neces- sary in order to secure fair ventilation, although the Plenum System in use is supposed to require closed windows. The existence of dead air pockets was evident even from a casual inspection. None of the rooms seen had more than one intake and one outlet. Such a system may demonstrate that sufficient air is sent in each hour to allow for the required changes of air, but it cannot guarantee actual changes of all the air in the room. There should be several places for the air to come in and several places for it to go out. Again, the outlets are usually about the same size as the inlets, and, therefore, incapable under most conditions of carrying off the air as fast as it comes in. Either the over- plus must find its way out through various interstices, or the resulting back pressure will reduce the supply of air coming into the rooms. An exhaust fan would certainly go far to remedy this condition. The school has a humidifying plant. It is doubtful, however, whether its work is continuous or satisfactory. No scientific test was made of the humidity of the air, but if the testimony of the nasal and throat passages can be believed, on several days the air had not been sufficiently humidified. During one visit the visitor was told that the humidifier was not in operation. On the same day the fresh air intake of the whole ventilation system was closed, so that the school rooms were being supplied with the same air over and over again. This is not so serious, according to modern theories of ventilation, as was once thought — if the air is otherwise good — but is in distinct contravention of the principles upon which the ventilation of the Park School is based. A large sum of money was spent on the heating and ventilating system of the Park School. Part of the possible return from this expenditure was irretrievably lost through ill-advised attempts to be economical where economy should not be considered. The proper balance between the radiating surfaces in the north and south rooms can, however, be established. The deficiency in boiler power can be largely offset by the use of fuel economizers. The thing most necessary to reap the benefit of the expenditure already made is an exhaust fan, or a number of small suction fans at convenient points, which will reduce the back pressure, permit a greater inflow of new air and consequently improve the circulation and diffusion within the class rooms. This is particularly necessary, as the foul air exits are relatively too small in comparison with the fresh air inlets. If the windows are not to be used at all the plenum and exhaust fans will have to be run practically con- tinuously. The humidifying plant will have to be kept at the highest possible point of efficiency, and on account of the undesirable location of the fresh air inlet, all air will have to be thoroughly washed, if it is expected to keep the building clean and to protect the linings of the children's lungs. In spite of the best that can be done there may remain some dead air pockets in the class rooms. These can be stirred up by small electric fans in the class room. Unless the mechanical system of heating and ventilation now in use in the school can be made efficient it is extremely doubtful whether the results in conserving the health and vigor of children and teachers will be any better than could be secured by window ventilation supplemented by small fans, and if pos- sible localized humidifying attachments. 15 It is undesirable that basement air should enter into the general cir- culation during school hours, but it should be possible to draw off the air from all class rooms, rewarm it and send it back into the class rooms again before school hours, while they are still unoccupied. This would save large quantities of coal and would not detract from the effectiveness of the ventilation as the fans could be supplied with fresh air from the intakes fifteen minutes before school opens. The necessary arrange- ments for this should have formed part of the original installation, but they can still be made. The Bureau is informed that in many school houses while the buildings are being heated up in the morning it is necessary to take in outside air just as when the children are in their seats. This is extremely wasteful of coal. Lighting. The lighting of the south rooms is good ; that of the north rooms in some cases is poor. At least one room visited gets little or no direct sun- light during the school session, yet it has no more glass than rooms on the south side. In fact, with the exception of a few rooms, the ratio of window area to floor area is practically the same throughout the build- ing. The Provincial regulations give 1:6 as a minimum ratio of lighting area to floor area where there is a good exposure. As the actual ratios vary from 1:5.8 to 1:6.1 the Provincial regulation is complied with, as far as the southern exposure is concerned. The artificial lighting is insufficient, as electric lights are installed only on the ground floor and in the special rooms on the next floor up. Play Area. The play area connected with the new school gives 20.3 square feet per child in the total membership, and 23.9 square feet per child in average attendance. This is entirely inadequate. Organized games are quite impossible, and as organized games are the only ones which have much value from the standpoint of moral education, the Park School, even more than most others, is seriously handicapped in its work. The Board of Education has decided to tear down the old building none too soon. The project of making it an Opportunity School would have robbed Park School itself of needed play space, besides being out of the question from an economic point of view. The Park School should be in the most real sense an opportunity school — as should every public school in the city — and the first stop in making it such is to combine the old yard and new yards.* The combined yards would give 73 square feet per child in the total membership and 86 square feet per child in average attendance. If the lots at the east and west of the old yard — now covered with undesir- able buildings, practically slums — were purchased or expropriated by the Board, the per pupil area would be respectively 1)8.2 and 115.5 square feet. At noon and after school hours this total play area — about 150,000 square feet — could be used for football, baseball, tennis and other group games without infringing on the space necessary for games and apparatus adapted to the needs of small children. Ample play space is a crying need of this school and district. *Since this was written the old building has been demolished. A modern school playground, therefore, is now quite feasible. 16 EDUCATIONAL WASTE Non- promotion. In the Park School about 33% of the children in the grades which require a full school year for completion fail of promotion. The unanimous testimony is that the chief cause of this waste is avoidable ^y non-attendance of pupils. The second cause assigned for unnecessary non-promotion is the indifference of parents. This operates indirectly through the slight importance that many parents attach to attendance, and directly through the absence of wholesome home stimulus, due to a negative attitude toward the school. Lack of natural ability of some children, illness, constant change of residence, and the impossibility of giving individual attention to children in large classes are given in the order mentioned as other causes of non-promotion. All of these, except illness, constant change of residence, and lack of mental ability, are removable causes, and even these are largely removable. So-called lack of ability is often simply inability to grasp the elements of the course of study when presented in an academic way, without oppor- tunity to "realize" these elements in practical activities. Such lack of ability might entirely disappear with the relegation of the text-book to a place of very secondary importance and the vitalizing of school processes by more first-hand contacts with real life. Similarly, indifference of parents to the school advantages of their children is frequently caused by the indifference of their own children to school life — an indifference which is often attributed by the parents to the school system itself, its curriculum and the methods of presenting the subjects taught. Much apparent stupidity is simply nature's method of protecting the child. As is well known, excessive mental activity on some subject of interest does not hurt people so much as mental activity on some uncongenial or unsuitable task. This is not a plea for soft pedagogy, but for the formation of good mental habits and power of application through school curricula and classroom methods which take into account the actual needs of children as well as the supposed needs of adult society. The idea that character is formed by forced performance of unnecessarily distasteful tasks, rather than by making all tasks, as far as possible, purposeful from the standpoint of the child is obsolete and fundamentally unsound. Otherwise we should make school work as forbidding as possible in order to secure the greatest possible moral benefit for the children. It can hardly be claimed that the school system has been entirely free from blame in this respect, but recent changes in emphasis on the elements of education, the recent addition of prevocational opportuni- ties in the elementary schools, the widespread movement in favor of the social viewpoint in education, and the growth of Home and School Leagues give promise of improved relations between the home and the school. This will make for more effective co-operation and cannot fail to improve attendance and cut down the wastages due to unnecessary non-promotion. The pupil overturn of the Park School is large, though not 60 17 great as in some other districts. The total enrollment for the school term ending June 1919, was 1,739, while the total membership at the end of the term was 1,259. During 1915, 1916 and 1917, 1,225 children entered the Park School, or enough children to fill 29 rooms. Yet the school did not increase in size, although only 15 or 20 reached High School Entrance each year. In 1918-1919, 571 children entered the school. From June 1st, 1919 to June 1st, 1920, 628 children entered and 608 left — a net gain of only 20. Previous to the opening of the schools in September, 1920, it was estimated that there would be no more occupied class rooms (not including those occupied by children from other districts) than in September, 1919. The pupil turnover of the school is not far short of 50%. This cannot but have a very great effect in increasing non-promotion. Anything which would improve housing conditions would tend to stabilize local populations and add to the efficiency of the schools. Out of the 1,259 in membership in June, 607 were not promoted. Of these, 95 had not been in their grades the regulation time so that the actual non-promotion was 512. The following tables give the causes assigned by the teachers for failure to be promoted: Poor Health 55 Poor Preparation 6:j Lack of Interest on Part of Parents 29 Lack of Interest on Part of Children 34 Irregular Attendance for Other than Reason of Sickness 96 Late Entrance in Term 83 Coming From Other Schools 17 Too Large Classes 10 Feeblemindedness 12 Mental slowness 94 (and lack of interest in academic subjects) Physical Defects 4 Less Than Regular Time in Grade 95 Other Causes 15 In many cases there were, of course, several causes. Some causes, such as large classes, were operative no doubt in reducing the efficiency of teachers and pupils in many more cases than those listed. The analysis, nevertheless, supplies food for thought. The nationality of pupils does not enter into the problem at the Park School to the same extent as in many other schools and the result of the analysis of promoted and non-promoted children according to racial origin is not typical. This is partly due to the fact that the number of foreign-born children is comparatively small. Out of 1,267 children in membership, as reported to the Bureau : 697 were born in Canada of Canadian parents. 380 were born in Great Britain of British parents. 126 were born in Canada of foreign parentage. 35 were born elsewhere in the British Empire of foreign parentage. 29 were of foreign birth and parentage. Park School is not, therefore, a school in which the foreign problem is a 18 vital one. The table below gives an analysis of promotion in the Park School according to birth and racial origin : Percentage. ^3 . s to « * c c §>£ Of Foreign Parentage but Canadian Birth. Of Foreign Parentage but British Birth. (Other then Canadian). Of Canadian Birth and Parentage. Of British Birth and Parentage (Other than Canadian). -i o H 55.2 52.4 85.7 51.6 52.6 53 Non-Promoted 44.8 47.6 14.3 48.4 47.4 47 Overage. It was thought at the beginning of the study of the Toronto Schools that it might be possible to measure overage by half years. On account of the limited information available, and the lack of standardization of the amounts of work in the various grades, the Bureau decided to make all measurements of overage on the basis of one school year per grade with graduation at 14. The table below gives the facts for the Park School. PERCENTAGES OF CHILDREN IN THE PARK 'SCHOOL WHO WERE OVER AGE, OF NORMAL AGE AND UNDERAGE, JUNE, 1919 (1,292 CHILDREN). Grade Underage Of Normal Age Overage Kindergarten 11% 5.1% 4.2% 6.3% 8.9% 9.3% 18.2% 28. % 46.8% 85.2% 54.8% 22.6% 31.8% 22.9% 28.3% 31.8% 37.8% 31.9% 13.7% Junior 1st 40.1% Senior 1st . . 73.2% Junior 2nd . . 61.9% Senior 2nd 68.2% Junior 3rd 62.4% Senior 3rd 50. % Junior 4th 34.2% Senior 4th 21.3% All Grades 9.4% 41.2% 49.4% All Grades without Kindergarten 10.6% 34.8% 54.6% That these figures are substantially correct, on the basis of the age standard mentioned, is shown by the fact that a report filled out for a different purpose, but giving age data, shows almost identical results. The total number of children was practically identical (1,292 and 1,295 respectively) and the percentages of underage, normal age and overage were respectively 10.8% ; 35.9% and 53.3%. 19 Retardation. The amount of retardation — slow progress through the schools — cannot as yet be accurately measured inasmuch as individual record cards have not been a part of the system for the required length of time, at least eight years. In a school where few children enter the Junior 1st later than 6 or 6^2 years of age the amount of retardation varies but little from that of overage. As a matter of fact, in the Park School 113 out of 279 entered the Junior 1st at seven or over. Of these only 24 were eight or over. If these children advanced normally they would always be overage. As a matter of fact, in most schools children entering at a comparatively late age actually make more rapid progress than others, although usually not sufficiently so to make up the leeway. Late entrance should, therefore, lead to a greater number of rapid promotions and diminish the total retardation. In the absence of a continuous record going back eight or nine years, the Principal and teachers of the Park School co-operated with the Bureau by filling out a form giving a cross-section of the retarda- tion for the grades in which the children then were. The effects of such annual retardation would, of course, be cumulative, but the per- centage of retarded children would not increase proportionately as non-promotion tends to become habitual, or rather, perhaps the causes of non-promotion for any particular child in one year are apt to be operative in another, so that extreme retardation is limited to a rather small and well-defined group. An analysis of the returns from the Park School shows that 243 children had taken a longer time to complete the grades in which they then were than was necessary under ordinary circumstances, allowing one full school year for the completion of the work of each grade. This represents 18.6% of children reported on as to progress. This is, of course, an underestimate, as three of the eight grades are probably only half-year grades for normal children. The amount of retardation for the individual grades varied from one- half year to three years, but about 80% was one year or under. This is a good showing, even taking into consideration that the figures were taken toward the close of the term, and indicates a rapid improvement as regards retardation. The existing amount of overage could not possibly be so great unless the previous rate of non-promotion had been much greater than at present. It is interesting to note that 14 of the 243 retarded children received double promotion during the year. That 20 retarded and overage children left school to go to work without completing an elementary school course, and that 65 of the retarded children out of 243 again failed of promotion, are sad but typical facts. A hopeful feature of the situation was that 90 more children had made rapid progress than had made slow progress in the grade in which they were in June, 1919. This would seem to indicate increas- ingly careful supervision. A continuance of the present tendency will soon greatly reduce the relative numbers of overage children, who now outnumber underage children about 5 to 1. The table below gives an analysis of 1,295 children (exclusive of kindergarten) in full membership in the Park School June, 1919, as to overage and retardation (for the school year 1918-1919 only) : 20 Progress for the School Year Ending June, 1919 Underage Normal Age Overage Totals Rapid Progress 26 85 28 123 265 79 196 357 136 345 Normal Progress 707 Slow Progress 243* Totals 139 467 689 1295 Dropping Out. The number of children who leave school before completing the public school course constitutes a menace to the community, whether the educational system is primarily responsible, or the home, or general economic conditions. The estimates of the amount of the dropping out from the Park School vary somewhat according to the judgment of individual teachers, and their knowledge of the facts. During the school year, 1918-1919, however, there seem to have been 79 such cases, as follows : Junior 1st 1 Senior 1st 1 Junior 2nd 1 Senior 2nd 5 Junior 3rd 14 Senior 3rd 19 Junior 4th 24 Senior 4th 14 Total 79 It will be noted that 38 children dropped out in the Junior and Senior 4th; or a number sufficient to make an additional Senior 4th class. The seriousness of this loss is apparent when we consider that out of 30 classes in the school only one was a Senior 4th. The figures for 1919-1920 are even more disturbing. They are as follows : Junior 1st Senior 1st 1 Junior 2nd 4 Senior 2nd 3 Junior 3rd 21 Senior 3rd 28 Junior 4th 24 Senior 4th 20 Total 101 *This number would be much higher if it were possible to apply a half-year standard to those grades which are probably equivalent to only one half year of school work. 21 The 1,295 children classified above were arranged in classes as follows : Grade Number of Children Number of Classes Junior 1st 314 130 194 179 197 134 96 51 9 3 4 4 4 3 2 1 Senior 1st Junior 2nd Senior 2nd Junior 3rd Senior 3rd Junior 4th Senior 4th Totals 1,295 30 This looks as if 314 children enter the school for 51 who finish the school course. As a matter of fact, the number of children entering the school as beginners during the last six years averaged about 174. This would call for about 150 children in the Senior 4th, or three classes of 50 each w T here there is now but one. Just as there are too few in the final grade, there are too many in the initial grade. There probably should not be over 190 or 200 children in the Senior 1st, the difference representing retarded children or children who began the work of the grade too young. A more ideal incidence of grade membership would be as follows : Grade Number of Children Number of of Classes Junior 1st 190") 180 f 175) 15 11 7 Senior 1st Junior 2nd Senior 2nd 1701 165 160 1551 150 Junior 3rd Senior 3rd Junior 4th Senior 4th Total 1,345 33 This arrangement would not appreciably increase the enrollment, and would provide for a much larger number of children leaving school with the rudiments of an elementary education. The additional current expenditure required under present methods of school administration would be for the provision of three additional regular classes and teach- ers. There should, of course, also be special classes, with special teachers, under any conditions. These are urgently needed now under the exist- ing organization. Granted a stationary population, two additional special teachers would soon reduce the number of regular teachers required. In the chapter on the shift plan it will be shown how the same plant can accommodate a greater number of teachers and classes. The closer classification of children according to ability is very important from the standpoint of decreasing educational waste. The 22 principal of the Park School has been applying the principle with success during the past year. When, for example, there are 160 children to be divided between four teachers of the same grade, they are not divided like choosing sides for a scrub baseball game so as to make the teams as nearly even as possible, but they are divided according to ability so that competition within classes may be possible and the efficiency of class instruction may be increased by making classes more nearly homogeneous. The "clas8-pictures ,, below indicate the distribution of children in the Senior 3rd classes in June, 1919. It will readily be seen that the children in these classes might have been grouped in classes showing less variation in age and progress among their numbers. Such "class- pictures" have been used extensively to assist in classification, along with other factors such as health, distance from school, home conditions, etc. Each dot represents a child. A line underneath a dot means that the child was not promoted. For example, in Plate 1, one child has been three years in the grade but failed of promotion. A square around a dot represents a child who has left school before completing the public school course. For. example, in Plate 1, three children, who were in their 13th year when the school year began, dropped out of school to go to work before completing the Senior 3rd. The dots in spaces between the heavy vertical lines represent children of normal age and those between the heavy horizontal lines represent children of normal progress (except of course those not promoted at the end of the year). L'3 PLATE 1 A/o. or yr/t/93 30£A/T SY C#/JLD/?£/V /AT 5* 3/?/;. Or/to £ /7g£J or C///*./7/?r/Y wrtjc/tr B£G/A*Af///<* tVOrf/f Of SjT/V/O/P 3**/* &?*J7£ 9 H /o /*/ // //£ y* *i /3 /3i /* t*£ /$ #2 i Yf/r* • • • ^» • • • • • • • • ♦ / YJT/ttf •- • -2. ♦ • • • •« • l-l-l '-• /•£ xe/?/?s • • • • • Q 2yjr/rA>s ^ • •^ 2i yjf/7/ts 1 3YJMJPIS 24 PLATE 2 A/o. or CS//JLD '/?£Af //v «5>p 3/?/j. Grsrot 9 9i /O JOi // * „ ai /3 #i /* w£ ts #i 5 YJTJN? • • • £ • •• • •• • •_ / V£-/?/? m •• • • f£mms • - Zyjr/r/rs • 2i yjr/?/ts 3yjr/?/*s - 23 PLATE 3 A/c. or C/*/JLVX>£/V /Af S/E //&*& Of C///LJ7/?£'SV ywjr/v &£G//V/V//YG fiYO*>/r Of Sf/V/OA? 3*0. G*?AZ?£ 9 9i /o /oi // //* /2 /-?/ /3 /si /r t*£ t5 #i 5 YJT/UP • • • • • • • •• • • EE3 / Y£-/r/? /•£ y£/j/?s • • • • • • •• • •• • JL • •• •a • • a 2y£/t#s 2i ys/f/fs JYJT/9AV 26 J Below is a regrouping of the children in three apparently more homogeneous classes. Of course, to divide the children properly their individual record cards would have to be considered carefully and the greatest judgment would have to be exercised. The important thing is classification by judgment, in the light of the needs of the children, and not classification by chance, or on the theory that the three classes should be as nearly alike as possible throughout. The three charts below are offered, not as a correct grouping of the children, but as an illustration of the possible results of the method suggested. PLATE 1 A/o. or Y£A#<3 3/*£-a/t ar C#/JLO#£Af 3/r/r. &>/W£ /fafS or C///LJ7A>eAr nw£YY S£G//V/V'/*<+ tYO*/f Of Sf/V/O* 3*4. G/?A0£ 9 oi /o 'Oi // //i * *i /3 /3& /# t*i & #i 2 YJT/?JT • • • • • •• • •• • • • •• / Y/r/r/? • < 2 Yjr/r#& • 2i YI&/9S Jyjf/rAv 27 PLATE 2 A/o. or 30/TA/T BY //V S/P 3/FIT &f>#D£ /7<?*s or C////./7/?** WHS/* ££<?//* /V//YG JYOA>/f OS SjTA/ZO/P 3/P0L &?*Z7£ 9 9i /O ioi // »4 y* *H /3 ai /* /^i M >3l J YJT///P / V£-/t# • •• ••• • •• • •• •• • • • • •• • •• • • •• • •• • •• ••• • • • /£ y£/f/?s • •• • • 2 YJT/?#S • • • 2i yjf/?/?s 3Y&9AV • • 28 PLATE 3 A/c. or 3*>/ls/t ar CAf/Jt.D#£Af //V ^P 3/pjj. Gvaoi /7C£S Or C///4./7A»£'Af HVMJT/* 9 9i /o ioi // //^ /2 a* /j /& /* t*i /3 ^i 3 KA*P / V£-/r/? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • •• • •• • •• • • •• • •• • •• • •• • •• • /■£ ye/7/?s • • •• 2y£/t#s 2i y/>?rts Jyj&jpts Mentally Defective Children. Like most other large public schools the Park School is handicapped by the presence of mentally defective children in regular classes. This involves injustice to normal children, as they are robbed of their just share of individual attention by the teacher. It involves injustice to the defective child in that the regular school processes mean nothing to him, and he is losing his opportunity for learning what he is really able to learn, in the only way he can learn, i.e., in small classes and through concrete teaching with much hand work. It is unjust to the teacher because it lays on her shoulders an impossible task often destroying all heart for the work and always diminishing the joy of accomplishment, which constitutes the greater part of the salary of the average teacher. No one knows how much unnecessarily slow progress of normal children is caused by the presence of sub-normal children in regular grades. No one knows how much this costs in wasted school expenditure, diminished efficiency of children leaving school, and delayed entrance into community activities. One thing is certain, that the cost of teaching the 32 most serious cases of mental defectiveness recently found in the Park School was worse than wasted. Only 20 special industrialized classes could meet their needs. Two of these would be necessary. The twenty less serious cases might possibly get some- thing out of the regular classes, largely at the expense of the other children, and of the teacher. But to a large extent the money and time spent on their education, under present circumstances, is wasted. The slowing down of the regular classes by their presence is another waste. If the waste represented by the unsuitability of the instruction now given to subnormal children in Park School is $2,500 per annum, the waste from the slowing down of normal children is certainly not less. An annual expenditure of $5,000 on special teaching would get somewhere with the sub-normal children and would exercise a tre- mendous influence on the retardation and overage of normal children. The initial increased expenditure, under effective administration, would soan lead to a decreased total expenditure — other factors of cost remaining the same. The most serious cases of backward children, all clear cases of mental defectiveness, were distributed as follows: Kindergarten 1 Junior 1st 9 Senior 1st 10 Junior 2nd 5 Senior 2nd 2 Junior 3rd 3 Senior 3rd 2 Junior 4th Senior 4th The twenty milder cases of backwardness were distributed as follows : Junior 1st 2 Senior 1st 4 Junior 2nd 5 Senior 2nd 3 Junior 3rd 6 Senior 3rd Junior 4th Senior 4th Total 20 The following is a description of eight individual cases, taken from the report of the specialists who made the inquiry — Drs. C. K. Clarke and E. J. Pratt : 1 — Neurotic type ; sucks fingers ; sprawls down on floor in school to the amusement of the children. 2 — Juvenile court case. Defective speech. In Junior 1st. 3 — Very troublesome in class. Has notions of persecution on play- ground. Defective palate. Cyanosis of hands. 30 4 — A strongly built fellow, abnormally stupid. Seems utterly incapable of learning how to read, though he can do simple mental arithmetic. Defective palate. 5 — Mother considered mentally defective — had St. Vitus' Dance. Third term in Junior 2nd. Conduct, fair in school. 6 Juvenile Court twice. Exceedingly dull. Troublesome. Defec- tive palate. 7 — Giggles hysterically; stammers. Defective palate. No progress in spite of fairly good attendance. 8 — Low grade imbecile. Father professional man. Mother defec- tive. Up before clinic. An institutional case. The problem of the mental defectives in our public schools is not a figment of the minds of a group of lop-sided theorists. It is a reality, and the quicker the citizens of Toronto awake to a full understanding of the facts, the better for the children and the community. Summary. The seriousness of the problems of educational waste is thoroughly understood by the principal and staff of the Park School. Great emphasis is laid on the period between 3.30 and 4.00 p.m., when, after the regular session of the school, backward children receive individual attention. When special teachers are provided this will be no longer necessary as it will be possible to give the necessary regular sessions while children are fresh and not after a whole regular school day has lessened the receptiveness and energy of the children. The treatment of dullness, or even stupidity, should not be such as to lay it open to interpretation as a punishment. The principal has tried giving an hour of special instruction each day between 9.00 and 10.00 a.m. to forty children — ten each selected from four similar grades. He has frequently taken a class of six from each of several grades. This is excellent work and very effective, but is an unreasonable tax on the principal and moreover takes him away from other necessary work. Through the clinic the principal located the most serious cases of mental defect so that teachers would be able to direct their main efforts to those capable of responding. The principal and school nurse have kept persistently after dilatory parents who refused to have children operated on for adenoids and diseased tonsils, which were seriously interfering with school work. The principal also made a survey of non-attendance in the school, and used this as a basis for a successful campaign to bring up the percentage of attendance. The Park district is a prevailingly British district. There is no valid reason why two or three classes of Senior Fourth children should not be graduated each year. However, before this can be done it will be necessary to take some very drastic steps such as the following : 1. The provision of "floating" teachers to give individual help to children who need their help in weak subjects. 2. The starting of special classes for abnormally "slow" or abnorm- ally "rapid" children. 31 3. The installation of increased equipment for the teaching of history, geography, nature study, or elementary science, and literature, making it possible to "realize" the teaching of these subjects to a greater extent than at present. 4. Increasing the amount and improving the character of hand training in the grades below the Junior Fourth. 5. Increasing the fineness of grading the children so as to make class instruction more nearly individual. 6. Establishing regular semi-annual promotions in all grades and where possible encouraging promotion at any other time in the year without the changing of rooms. 7. The removal of all mental defectives to special rooms. CLASS-ROOM INSTRUCTION The Bureau representative observed teaching in at least one class of each grade in the school. The "esprit de corps" of the teaching staff is excellent and the professional ability of the teachers, whose work was observed, was of a high order. It is unnecessary here to go into details of class-room technique. The district inspection and the constant supervision of the principal, as well as the professional training and experience of the teachers themselves, explain the almost entire absence in the lessons observed of those minor errors in technique which are so commonly in evidence in the class-room. The really serious short- comings of the instruction in the Park School are not due in any sense to the teaching staff, but to the limitations of the course of study, the absence of equipment and material necessary to obtain the best results and other, conditions over which the schools themselves have no control. The Park School is the centre of a community which, of course, differs in some respects from any other in the city, and greatly from many. Yet there has been no differentiation in the course of study, in the emphasis laid on the various elements of the course, or in methods of presentation. The school is a typical academic school doing good work under its limitations but producing results for. the community falling far short of the ideal or even the possible. That the authorities believe that the tone of the school should be relieved of its severely academic character is shown by the action of the Board in introducing into the Senior 4th, Junior 4th and Senior 3rd grades, cooking and sewing classes, now in operation, and manual training classes to be in opera- tion next September*. But this is only beginning. What is needed is not an addition to the course so much as a transformation of the work of the class-room as a whole through a change in the emphasis and in methods of instruction. The Park School children, like the pupils of most public schools on this continent, need less text book and more teacher, less theory and more practice, less explanation and more purposeful activity, less learning by absorption and more learning by doing, no less information by proxy but more information by first- hand experience. For example, Geography is a science and is, therefore, *These, of course, are now in operation. 32 based oji observation and experience. It is impossible for children to understand Geography without first-hand acquaintance with a sufficient number of actual natural phenomena to enable them to form clearly certain basal concepts. It is possible for children to pass highly satis- factory written or oral examinations on the subject matter of the text books without any real understanding of Geography. Children are wonderfully adaptable, wonderfully patient, and may even learn to enjoy the twice-removed method of learning Geography, if it be turned by a skilful teacher into a game of wits. Ability to talk acceptably on a subject does not necessarily mean, however, ability to understand. It may only mean a clear impression of what one has read or been told. Toronto is situated in a district where the raw materials of geogra- phical instruction are abundant. An hour at the Don or Humber. in first-hand supervised observation might save many lost hours of •'beating the air" in the class-room. A carefully planned afternoon with the teacher in the Toronto Exhibition in the Agricultural Buildings, for example, might vitalize the instruction in Geography over a whole term. The building up of a geographical museum in the Park School, through the agency of the children, guided by the teachers would be easy, and would greatly facilitate geographical instruction through heightened interest alone. Every class might have its own little museum, collected each year in large part, any especially valuable exhibit being transferred to the central permanent museum. Every healthy child is a born collector. Why not use childish instincts to further school processes? In another chapter the possibility of the special room in Geography and Nature Study will be discussed. The equipment of ordinary maps in the School is good, there being thirty maps of Canada, four of Ontario, seven of the world, and five other maps. It is understood that a sufficient number of modern maps for use in teaching Physical Geography is to be added to the school equipment on the recommendation of the Inspector of Supplies. There are only two globes for the entire school. These would be sufficient if they were supplemented by 40 small individual globes which could be put in the hands of the children. If there were a special room in Geography the supplying of equipment would be simpler and probably less expensive. The teaching of History labors under similar disadvantages. There is no collection of illustrative historical material in the school, aside from a collection of historical pictures in one volume and a few pictures on the walls. While it is possible for the teacher to interest her class in History through appeals to the children's natural love for biography and lively narrative, many of the important features of History, such as changes in industry, constitutional development, alterations in home life are practically a closed book to the children through the lack of material which would form starting points for their constructive imaginations. Toronto is a mine of historical material which could be used to illustrate recent history. The very site of the city abounds with historical remains or monuments. The Parliament Buildings not only give an opportunity to witness political history in the making, but are rich in material necessary for instruction in the early history of Ontario. 33 There is no valid reason why every large public school in Toronto should not have an elementary historical museum for the teaching of Canadian and British history. The children themselves could obtain for the museum, as gifts or loans, large quantities of illustrative material bearing on Canadian history. Photographs, reproductions of documents and paintings could readily be obtained to illustrate British history.* History is the best vehicle for education in citizenship in the public schools. In the Park School this necessity of concrete instruction in History and Geography has been clearly recognized in that all classes down to the Senior First are encouraged to visit the Royal Ontario Museum with their teachers, a practice that is becoming general throughout the city. The senior classes are also taken to the Parliament Buildings. The teaching of both History and Geography could be greatly increased in effectiveness and the time required in covering the pre- scribed course could be greatly reduced by the judicious use of motion picture machines. Films which can be readily co-ordinated with text may now be obtained in limited numbers. As the demand increases the supply will become more adequate. The Provincial Department will undoubtedly extend its activities in this direction until it ensures to the schools a supply of educational films as regular and complete as that of text books. The Report of the Chief Inspector, 1919, contains a discussion of the use of lanterns in the schools, of museum facilities and of other auxiliary agencies (pages 18-23). This should be read by every public school supporter. The instruction in Reading and Literature is also somewhat handi- capped by insufficiency of material. The increase of supplementary, readers in recent years has been very considerable and the school comes up to the requirements of the Department in this respect. These requirements are, however, a minimum and should not deter the Board from supplying a greater number. Schools in the down-town districts undoubtedly require a greater amount of supplementary reading than schools in residential districts, and the children require more guidance dn this reading. The way to learn to read is to read, not to keep rereading the same few books. Ten supplementary readers per class in primary grades are not too many. At present it is necessary to do considerable transference of supplementary readers from class to class. The principle is right as it tends to cut down overhead costs ; but if the number, of readers were doubled, the length of time each might remain in each class-room would be increased, thus cutting down the consump- tion of pupils' time in making transfers. An accurate record was kept of all class work observed. It had been the original intention to incorporate this with the report, as giving concrete pictures of actual class-room work, but on account of the cost of publication it was decided to confine the report to the above summary. *It is to be noted that the school itself is raising over $500 to pay for a lantern, 600 slides, 600 stereographs and 24 stereoscopes, with the necessary filing cases. 34 THE PARK SCHOOL AS AN OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL A good education suited to his inner needs and his natural capaci- ties is the birthright of every Canadian child. Canada is the land of opportunity and the public school is its portal. Once entered in a public school the child and the child's parents have a right to expect a curriculum adapted to the child's needs and capacities; airy, well- lighted, well-ventilated and well-heated class-rooms; equipment neces- sary for the teaching of all subjects in the best way, and for the development of the many-sided nature of the child ; careful study of the individual child at every stage in his school life and the determination of his school course in the light of such study. The Park School, like practically all elementary schools everywhere, in spite of kindergartens, domestic art teaching, etc., and the influence of those on regular class work, is still a school of the book. Its funda- mental processes are based on books. History, Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic are learned mainly from books directly, or indirectly through the teacher. The child does not really learn the vital connec- tion of these subjects with life until after he has left school, and then he finds that in many cases much of what he has learned has no relation to life, just as he has found that much of it has had no relation to his soul needs. The subjects of the school course of study are not hermetically sealed compartments; they are simply different aspects of life's experiences which can be unified and explained in the mind of the child only by continuous contact with the actual processes going on in real life. The school, originally in the home and in close contact with the activities of the home, has necessarily been abstracted from its original environment but quite unnecessarily detached from its spirit of reality. The school is a world, but at present largely an unreal, artificial world. The school cannot again be taken back into the world which has become so bewilderingly complex, but the world in selected phases can be taken into the school to give meaning and motive to its processes, to give reality to the content of its curricula, and to provide a touchstone for testing the worth-whileness and sound- ness of its aims. The word ''culture" has been so thoroughly misunderstood in the past and has been given so narrow a meaning that the use of this term in educational discussions has contributed not a little to lack of apparent harmony where real harmony existed, and to delaying pro- gressive action through verbal warfare. There is no such thing as a subject cultural in itself. Its effect on human beings decides its status. As human beings are different its effects will be different. If one indi- vidual cannot grasp the subject at all, for him the subject is not cultural. All subjects are cultural insofar as their subject matters really enter into the life of the pupils, minister to their spiritual and intellectual needs, develop latent abilities, form their judgments and modify their conduct, and insofar as they do not do these things they are non- cultural. No subject can be truly cultural unless it springs out of human experiences and needs. There is no so-called utilitarian subject which is not also strongly cultural. For some types of mind they supply 35 the only culture possible. Subjects in the curriculum, based primarily on book work, become cultural in exact proportion as the subject matter is lifted out of the book and placed down in a living setting. Utilitarian subjects become really utilitarian only insofar as their sub- ject matter is related to actual life and becomes in this way part of the every day working machinery of the mind and body of the child. Reality, not resemblance; first-hand contact, not once or twice removed second-hand experience, are the first essentials for the effective teaching of any subject. Yet, even such subjects as History and Geography, the people's humanities, in the Park School, as in 99% of the elementary schools on the continent, are still under the baleful dominance of the text book. There can be no reasonable doubt that every school as large as the Park School should have one special room set apart for History, and another for Geography and Nature Study. While some of the exercises in these subjects could be taught in the regular class- room, every teacher of such subjects should take her classes to the special rooms for the greater part of the time allotted. As suggested elsewhere, working collections of illustrative material should line the walls, motion picture machines should be installed for. the presentation of films closely related to the text, and history and geography should become studies of things, peoples and processes rather than of books. The time spent would be greatly diminished, the usable residuum in the minds of the pupils would be greatly increased and the cultural value of these subjects would be multiplied many times. The school auditorium should be the centre of instruction in litera- ture and art supplementing the work of the class-room in drawing, composition and reading. This room also should be equipped with a motion picture machine and as wide a range of films as is at present available. At present the Park School has no auditorium. This is a great lack, and limits the efficiency of the school from the standpoint of the children, as well as from that of the neighboring community. It would be possible through the shift system — in which all the special instruction, save in higher manual training and domestic art, would be given by regular class teachers — to set aside some of the regular class-rooms for special instruction without diminishing the capacity of the building from the standpoint of total membership. The construction of a swimming pool in the basement, the conversion of the kindergarten into an auditorium, the removal of the kindergarten to a double class-room elsewhere and the conversion of some regular class-rooms or playrooms into special rooms for such subjects as print- ing (through which spelling and composition could be effectively taught), would make school work more interesting and effective with- out lessening the number of pupils it could serve. By the shift plan the teachers would accompany their classes, except as above stated, thus avoiding serious defects of the so-called platoon system. When the children are in the classes of the special teachers the regular teachers would be free for individual or small group instruction of backward children. If the school day were lengthened from 8.00 to 4.00, with different lunch hours for various groups of children, the capacity of the school could be increased from 25% to 40%. The following paragraphs and 36 charts are reproduced from the report of the Akron School Survey of 1915: "The extension of the period during daylight hours when the school buildings and playgrounds are open, the provision of rooms with certain special equipment, and the equipment of gymnasia, can greatly increase the use of school plant without giving the individual teacher, any more work, without increasing the number of school hours per child, and without departmentalizing the ele- mentary schools. As our notions as to the requirements of school discipline become modified in the direction of auto-discipline, the lessening of class-room nervous strain will become noticeable, and both teachers and pupils will be able to work more hours in the day and more days in the year with an increase — not a decrease — in the joy of life and consequently of efficiency. Outlined below is a possible organization of a school consisting of three regular class-rooms and one special class-room. It pro- vides for six teachers, each working five hours a day, and a school plant working eight hours a day (two rooms, seven hours). The special class-room might be equipped for art and elementary manual training work for all grades, for nature study, history and geography for all grades, or for a small gymnasium. For advanced manual training and domestic arts the children might go to a special centre, such as would be provided by a large specialized elementary school. Or, again, Grades VII. and VIII. might be omitted from this school and sent to a central school for upper grades, such as a Junior High School which takes Grades VII., VIII. and IX. In any event, four class-rooms would provide six classes with everything essential and more than they receive under usual existing conditions." 37 A FOUR-ROOM SCHOOL ON A SHIFT PLAN (Letters represent classes) Hours. Three Regular Class-rooms. One Special Room 3-9 A 3 C 9VO D B c /O// /J r £ //-/2 /? B S /?-/ M f C f-2 /7 3 jO 2-3 JJ f £ 3 # C? r £ o 6 teachers for 5 hours each = 30 teacher hours. 6 classes at 5 hours each = 30 class hours. 4 class-rooms at an average of 7}4 hours each hours. 38 30 class-room "It will be noticed: 1. That the classes shift somewhat, but that the teachers shift with them; 2. That four of the classes are in a ''home" room four hours out of five, and the other two for three hours out of five ; 3. That five out of the six classes end the day in the room where they began; 4. Each class has at least one hour per day in the special room ; 5. Two classes begin at eight, have one hour intermission, and get through at two o'clock (leaving three hours at least for the playground) ; two classes begin at eight, have two hours inter- mission and get through at three o'clock ; and two classes begin at ten o'clock, have one hour intermission, and get through at four o'clock. If classes 5 or 6 were a kindergarten it would not need to begin until ten o'clock and the children would not need to come back in the afternoon, leaving two rooms for the instruction by the kindergarten teachers of special children in the lower grades; 6. By enlarging the supposed building by multiples of four, the number of special rooms could be increased so that the curricu- lum could be enriched without decreasing the relative number of children taken care of. This is not offered as an ideal arrangement but is presented in a schematic form without details in order, to make the meaning clear. All sorts of modifications could be made by changing the time of opening half-an-hour, by making the intermission uniformly one and a half hours long, etc. The details of such a scheme would have to be worked out by the authorities on the ground, in the view of all local conditions and modes of living. The diagram which follows indicated how 12 classes could be taken care of in six regular class-rooms, one special class-room and a gymnasium large enough to accommodate three ordinary classes with a teacher each and leaving class-rooms vacant for several periods in the afternoon for the instruction of exceptional children. The letters indicate classes. ■,9 AN EIGHT-ROOM SCHOOL ON A SHIFT PLAN (Letters represent classes) Hours. Six Regular Class-rooms One One Special Gymna- Room siuin S9 9-/0 JOH /*?-/ 2-3 3-4 / J J /J J 8 B /r /f /? B /f c c L z c /r D D £ £ £ £ / / G / £ £ G G £ £ G 0A 0A 0A 0A 0A 0A 0A 0A 40 It should be remembered that any such scheme disarranges, more or less, home time schedules, creates embarrassment when there are several children from one home, increases the expense of maintenance of plant and makes sanitation harder. The question for the community to settle is whether they are prepared to put up with the inconveniences of some seven or eight-hour day "shift" plan — which works no violence to the interests of the children — for the sake of the financial advantages. The writer believes that in the near future an experiment of this nature will be forced by circumstances and that it should be undertaken at once before actual necessity requires it. It allows for improving instruction without any really serious inconveniences to the home and is certainly preferable to overcrowding/' Even with a school day lasting from 9 to 12 and from 1.30 to 4, a greatly increased use would be obtained from the school plant through the shift plan. The cost, however, would probably be increased rather than decreased. THE PARK SCHOOL AS AN ALL-THE- YEAR-ROUND SCHOOL The long summer vacation during which the schools as a general thing are closed up, and the school plant for the most part unused, is a survival from an earlier period when cities were smaller and indus- trial and social organization was not so complex as at present. There is no more justification for the non-use of the school plant during July and August than for the non-use of Juvenile Courts, Churches, Health Centres, etc. It is urged that children need these months for recupera- tion and for visits to the country. How many children actually do recuperate in the summer? What proportion actually does get out of the city ? It is urged that July and August are too hot for school work. Are not school buildings as a whole the coolest and most comfortable buildings in the city? Large numbers of children spend a great part of their holidays on the streets. Education does not cease when the schools close. It continues on the street or wherever the children spend their time. Why should not the educational processes, which are con- tinuous, be continuously guided by the public schools? The need for vacation schools has been widely recognized. It has been found that many children actually lose stamina during the summer vacation, that they learn many things that they had better not learn, and that they lose so much during the vacation that it may take a month's review to enable them to go on with the new term's work. If all. children could be transported en masse to the country during July and August there would be no need for summer sessions and they would actually learn more and would make more physical gains than would be possible in summer schools. But this cannot be done. The majority of the children stay in the city. Their needs continue. The school should not desert them. It need not be the same kind of school, but it need not be any less educational and valuable. In fact, what has been learned about children in vacation schools has had an important effect in stimulating improvement in the schools in general. 41 It has been urged that teachers cannot stand a forty-eight week year, that they are so exhausted by the wear and tear of the thirty-nine or forty weeks of the regular school year that they would break down under the strain of the longer, year. If such be the case, it constitutes a serious criticism of the school as at present constituted, its curriculum and its discipline. Wearing out is due to friction. School friction is no more necessary than friction elsewhere and can be largely removed by observance of the laws of child growth, the study of child needs and the universal establishment of a natural discipline in the schools. Healthy children are naturally busy. Busy children are naturally happy. Happy children learn best and require less regimentation. This does not mean that disagreeable tasks do not need to be done. But there will be less friction in getting them done if the general atmosphere of the school is one of natural activity and hearty co-operation. More- over, there is no necessity for all teachers working during the whole school year. If the year be divided into four terms of twelve weeks each, the teachers may be allowed to teach any three of the periods that they prefer. If all-year-round schools are established gradually, as they should be, in districts where they are most needed and where the parents are most willing, it will be found possible to find teachers who will volunteer to serve the extra term with a corresponding increase in pay. Only physically fit teachers and those in sympathy with the experiment should be selected. Experience elsewhere shows that where this has been done the health of teachers has not suffered. Any teacher who has taught three extra sessions might be given leave of absence for a period of time for recuperation, travel and professional improvement. In fact, it would be in the interests of the schools if many teachers would occasionally take a year off from teaching to engage in some other occupation in order, to keep more closely in touch with the workaday world. The sabbatical year, i.e., every seventh year allowed for rest, travel, research, etc., is just as desirable in elementary education, although the need is not so well recognized, as in the High Schools and Universities, and it might be well for the Board to consider its estab- lishment entirely apart from the all-year-round school. The need of vacation schools in Toronto has been recognized by the Board of Education. In the 1913 report of the Chief Inspector, it is stated : "The attendance at the vacation school in Hester How School was 595. "This school added very much to the happiness and to the development of the children who attended it. There is little of formal study or the acquisition of mere knowledge in the work of a good vacation school. The vacation school is intended to deepen true interests and develop the powers of the children, and at the same time to supply the children of densely populated districts in large cities with a safe place in which to play and do various kinds of work which are quite as interesting to them as play, such as music, art and the varied forms of manual training, stories — biographical, historical, folk tales and the standard stories of mythology — and other similar forms of work and play. 42 "In some important senses the school during vacation time is of even greater value to the children than during the regular The cost of maintaining the Hester How vacation school in 1913 was, according to the official report, less than $1.00 per pupil. The need has also been recognized by the public who have main- tained for some years "Daily Vacation Bible Schools," which give most of their time to manual training of various sorts and to educational games and moral training. This year they were maintained at 27 centres, with a total enrollment of 4,800, and an average daily attend- ance of 2,146. There must be thousands more children needing such cannot or does not meet their needs? The all-year-round school movement, which originated with the vacation school, was first intended to keep children off the street. This developed into the catch-up school, in which non-promoted children might do review work sufficient to join their former classes in the fall. The first development was largely negative in its aim. The soundness of the second in actual practice is somewhat open to question. The all-the- year-round school, or rather the forty-eight week school, may be so organized as not only to retain all the advantages of the vacation school and catch-up school, but to greatly strengthen them, while increasing the flexibility of the system which should help it meet many needs of individual families and children. The following extracts from an article by David B. Corson, Super- intendent of Schools, Newark, N.J., summarizes some of the chief features of Newark's experience with the forty-eight week school. The Effect on Energy. "The first objective is to reduce the waste in energy incidental to the long break of the school year in July and August. It is well known to all teachers that much time is used in January, and again in June, in preparation for the final term examination, which consumes an additional week of each of these months. It is evident that the short term removes the necessity for using so much time for a grand final review and drill. The theory is that frequent and reasonable reviews and drills should be substituted for the very formal one hitherto used, and that the educational process should be continuous. "There is complete agreement among teachers in all-year schools that when school opens in the fall there is very much less time consumed in the all-year schools in getting to work, because of the fact that the pupils have not had a long vacation. The pupils who have attended in the summer term have had only a short interruption in the habit-forming work of the school. Habits of cleanliness, punctuality, industry, restraint, etc., are not broken in two weeks as they usually are in two months. The difference in the same school between the pupils who attend in the summer time and those who stay at home is noticeable when the children return in September. 43 The Effect on Health. "The second objective of the all-year schools is to prove that school work in summer is not injurious to health. The health of children and teachers in these schools has been uniformly good. The Department of Medical Inspection is vigilant and the school nurses are watchful and thoroughly efficient. The physicians in charge of these schools report that in their opinion 'the general health of the pupils has been better than if the children had not attended school/ The percentage of attendance on the enrollment in the schools is generally higher in the summer than in other schools during the year. "Inquiry in the home reveals the fact that parents believe the children are better off in the large, cool, pleasant class-rooms than in the streets or even at home. Pupils concerning whose physical fitness there is any doubt are not admitted. In several summers there have been very few pupils whom teachers thought might better have stayed at home. "To answer the question as to the effect on teachers: Referring to the oldest school as typical — there were fifty teachers in the school when the plan was adopted. Seven have been transferred to other schools, five have been promoted to higher positions in other schools, two have gone to other cities, sixteen have married, and twenty are still in the school. Of these, fifteen have taught from three to eight successive summers out of the eight since the school was made an all-year school. Of the sixteen teachers who resigned to be married, twelve taught from three to six successive summers without injury to their health. "Attendance of pupils and service of teachers in the summer are voluntary. If teachers in a school do not care to teach, there are always a number of experienced teachers of given grades from other schools who gladly accept the positions. The testimony of the teachers almost without exception is that there are no detri- mental effects upon their, health. They say that it has not been impaired by extra work. Some say they return to school in September somewhat lacking in the buoyancy and freshness char- acteristic of those who have had two or three months' vacation. Others say they prefer to teach in the summer not only because of the extra salary but because the long vacation is tiresome and they have no regular work to do. Therefore, it seems to be demon- strated that the health of the pupils and teachers is not injured by the summer work." The Gain in Time When the Health of Pupils Permits. (Particularly in the case of foreign children entering our schools from foreign schools). "The all-year plan provides a way by which ambitious children may save time in getting an education. By continuous attendance for three years a pupil may finish a four-year course. The speed of the work ought not to be greater than the pupil's ability to assimilate knowledge or more rapid than his mental development. 44 If anyone finds the rate too rapid, the plan is flexible enough to permit him to omit some terms and still gain time. The school continues, although the individual may not attend every term consecutively. The opportunity is his, if all personal conditions are favorable." The experience of Newark shows that the forty-eight week school is not only more efficient from the community standpoint than the tradi- tional school, in certain sections of a large city, but that it actually results in a money saving. 45 THE PRINCIPALS OF PARK SCHOOL 1853—1857— 1857— 1869— WM. ANDERSON. 1869— 1873— ALEX. McLAREN. 1873— 1875— R. W. DOAN. 1875— 1883— M. GILL. Oct. 1883 | a. R. PYNE. 8^1884 J A- MORRISON. 1884— 1893— R. T. MARTIN. 1893— 1914— E. BYPIELD. 1914 S. RICHARDSON. 40 EXTRACTS FROM DIARY OF PARK SCHOOL 1871 March 21st — The election of representatives in the Local Legislature took place to-day. The Hon. M. C. Cameron for East Toronto and Mr. A. Crook for West Toronto. This day is also celebrated for the marriage of the Princess Louise to the Marquis of Lome. April 6th — Received this morning a note from the Superintendent* informing me that the public schools were to be closed for the usual Easter Holi- days, commencing to-day at 4 p.m. and continuing until the 17th inst. — and also directing me to tell the caretaker to thoroughly scrub and clean the school rooms during the vacation. Gave an order on Mr. Barber for cutting three cords of wood. April 27th — The Superintendent visited the school this morning and spent the whole forenoon in examining the Third Division boys in Arithmetic. May 1st The requisites were received to-day and a copy of the annual report of the Local Superintendent to each of the teachers. May 5th — The inclemency of the weather yesterday caused a small attendance at school. May 9th — Several boys were absent yesterday afternoon on account of attending a funeral. May 11th — A statement of the repairs required in and about the school and yard was sent to the Secretary to-day forenoon. May 12th — The Committee on Sites and Buildings, etc., Messrs. Bain and W. B. McMurrich, accompanied by the Secretary, Mr. Barber, visited the school this a.m. to see what was required in the way of repairs, etc. May 23rd — The City schools will be closed for the usual holiday on the Queen's birthday. J. Porter, L.S. May 29th — Received this morning 6 programmes — one for each Division — of coming combined examination on 12th and 13th prox. May 30th — The combined examination will take place at 9 a.m. on Monday, June 12th, at Victoria Street School house. Headmasters will send to the Local Superintendent's Office, not later than on Wednesday, the 7th of June, the names of pupils, male and female, of 1st, 2nd and 3rd Divisions, selected by their respective teachers to compete at said examination. They will also state whether, should scholar- ships be awarded to boys from their 3rd Divisions, the boys will accept them or prefer prizes. Each pupil from a 2nd or a 3rd Division will bring to the combined examination, as a specimen of hand-writing, Luke 10, 271h. The name of the pupil and that of the school, and the Number of the Division will be written under the specimen. The usual Summer Examinations will take place on Thursday, June 29th from 9.30 a.m. until noon, and from 1.30 p.m. until 4 p.m. The examinations will be conducted according to a programme to be posted by each teacher. The usual notices to parents and guardians will be given orally by teachers, through the pupils, and in writing by Principal Teachers to their Local Trustees, and to School Visitors who reside near their respective schools. Headmasters will bring •The title of "Local Superintendent" later gave way to that of "Public School Inspector," and again later, to "Chief Inspector." 47 1871 the names of candidates for semi-annual certificates of Honour, together with the evidence in favor of doubtful claims, to the office of the Local Superintendent, as soon as possible after the close of school on the afternoon of Wednesday, June 28th. The schools will be re-opened at 9.00 a.m. on Monday, August 14th. James Porter, L.S. June 29th — The summer examinations took place to-day. The Kev. Mr. King, Dr. Eoss, Trustee, and daughter visited the school in forenoon. In the afternoon the school was visited by a large number, about 40, of visitors among whom were the Chairman of Board, Dr. H. H. Wright, the Rev. Mr. Porter, L.S., and Mr. Jardin, Trustee. The following boys received certificates of Honour at the above examination: 3rd Division, Jos. Rogers, Jno. Rogers, Tomlin Roberts, Wm. Patton; 2nd Division, Henry Ryrie, G. W. Davis, Jas. Robt. Chambers, Harry Perkins; 1st Division, John Patton, Jas. Poole, Edgar Farley, Thos. Greig, Wm. Greig, Alfred Edwin Regan, Clarence Dickson, Herbert Hellam, Fred Davis. The following are the names of boys sent to combined examination held on June 12th and 13th: 3rd Division, Wm. Ryrie, Sam. Herst, Chas. Perry McCaffry; 2nd Division, Henry Ryrie, Neal Still, R. Dickson; 1st Division, Jas. Poole, Ed. Farley, John Patton. The boys from the 3rd Division were all successful, obtaining respectively the 1st, 2nd and 5th scholarships. One of the 2nd Division boys, H. Ryrie, obtained a prize and also one of the 1st Division, Jas. Poole. Sept. 21st — Miss Ross, a teacher, visited the school this forenoon. Sept. 28th — Mr. Barber, Secretary, was communicated with in respect of sending a man to saw wood for school. Oct. 2nd — Received the supplies from Mr. Barber to-day and sent him a com- munication in reference to glaziers' work, etc. The weather is now fine. Oct. 23rd — Some person or persons broke into the school some time between Saturday and this morning. The entrance was made by raising one of the windows at the south end of the room occupied by Miss Robertson, 3rd Division Girls. The damage done is very trifling, consisting in carrying away from Miss Robertson's room some 30 penholders with pens and about 20 or 21 pens and holders from Miss Birk's. From Miss Campbell's room was carried off a box of pencils — about 100. This is all so far as can be seen. Any unlocked drawers were examined, probably for money. The exit was evidently made by the door leading into the boys' yard, which had been left unbolted. Nov. 7th — The Headmaster sent a communication to Mr. Barber, Secretary, relative to the parties that committed the larceny a few days ago in this building. Nov. 17th — A note was sent by Headmaster to Secretary asking for locks to gates and wood shed, also hinges for latter. Nov. 30th — The City Inspector proposes to deliver his annual school lecture in this school house, on Monday, December 4th, at 7.30 p.m. The subject will be "Certain contemplated effects of the amended school law." J. S. Porter, C.I. Dec. 1st — The Rev. Mr. Boddy attended as usual to-day. Dec. 4th Received the requisites to-day and also package of three dozen candles. The Rev. J. Porter, City Inspector, delivered his annual lecture here this evening to a fair audience. His subject was as given above (Nov. 30th entry). 48 1871 Dec. 5th — The remaining candles were returned to the Secretary to-day. Dec. 15th. — 'Masters C. P. McCaffrey and William Ryrie, Scholarship boys 1871, visited the school for a short time this afternoon. Dec. 20th — The Ina^ector, Rev. J. Porter, visited the school this a.m. A large number (45) of the parents and friends of the pupils came to see the exercises in the afternoon. Mr. Coatsworth, local Trustee, was present and delivered the Certificates of Honour to those pupils who were entitled to them. The following pupils received certificates: 3rd Division, Wm. Shaver, Tomlin Roberts, Jos. Rogers, O. H. Allen, Henry Ryrie; 2nd Division, Alfred Regan, Clarence Dickson, William Greig, Fred Davis. 1872 Feb. 22nd — John Traviss, the murderer of Johnson, was hanged this morning. March 21st — Miss Hamilton left school to-day at the forenoon recess on account of illness. Her place is supplied by monitors from the 3rd Division. April 10th — The schools were closed yesterday owing to its being the day set apart by the Governor-General for a public thanksgiving for the recovery of the Prince of Wales. April 20th — A communication was sent to Mr. Barber, Secretary, etc., informing him about board off woodshed, and also asking to have the fence in front of school repaired so as to keep out geese, ducks, etc. Sept. 5th — The Inspector visited the school this morning and examined the pupils of the First and Second Divisions. It rained last night. Oct. 2nd — The Truant Officer visited the school this a.m. for the purpose partly of ascertaining the quantity of wood on hand. Oct. 4th — Ordered by the Board "That Head Teachers be requested to furnish the Inspector, day by day, with a complete list of absentees from their several schools, during the present month of October, together with, when known, the reason of absence and the age, sex, and Division of the pupil. J. Porter, Inspector. N.B. — The above will take effect on Monday, 7th inst. Oct. 14th — was suspended from Second Division and all parties concerned notified of the fact. Dec. 2nd — Head Master was to-day instructed by Mr. Barber, Secretary, to enter in diary that the amount of new wood delivered this year is 27}4 cords. There is left of the old wood at date about three cords. 1873 Jan. 8th — By special permission of the Inspector, and were allowed to attend this school, they being transferred from Parliament Street P. School. Jan. 10th — Yesterday Mr. Barber was informed by a note from the Head Master that the outside door of the Girls' Department had been blown from its hinges. Jan. 24th — Rev. Mr. Boddy attended to the Religious Instruction class as usual. Jan 29th — The City Inspector P. S. visited this Department this a.m. Feb. 4th — A statement was received to-day from W. B. Geikie, M.D., that any danger of carrying the infection of measles from his home was very slight. Feb. 11th— Mr. W. C. Wilkinson called this p.m. Oct. 20th — Received a note from the Inspector stating that a half holiday had been granted on Thursday p.m. next to enable S.S. pupils to attend a meeting of children in the Metropolitan Church on Thursday, 23rd instant. 49 1873 Oct. 27th — Temperature of H.M. room this morning at 9 o'clock 50°. Dec. 8th — Notified Mr. Barber that two panes of glass were broken in the building and that a pouring jug for ink was required. 1874 Feb. 24th — Memorandum received from Mr. Barber, this day: "The Public School Board has adopted the following amendment to No. 3 of the Regulations for the government of the city Public Schools, viz.: That all pupils now attending the city Public Schools shall be forthwith personally examined by the Head Master and Head Mistress respectively of each school; that any pupils found not to have been properly vaccinated be suspended until the Head Master or Head Mistress as the case may be, is satisfied that such pupil has been properly vaccinated and that no pupil be hereafter admitted to any city Public School without having first satisfac- torily passed a like personal examination. "Each Head Master will please enter on his school diary the fore- going amended Regulation and see that the same is entered on the Diary of the female department. The Head Mistress will please report the result of her examination to the Head Master, who will please forward the same with his own report to the same effect with as little delay as possible.' ' April 20th — On account of the death of the P. S. Inspector, Rev. James Porter, the City Public Schools were closed this p.m. Funeral this p.m. at 3.00 o'clock. May 18th — Mr. James Hughes, the P. S. Inspector, visited each department of this school this forenoon. May 28th Notified the Secretary, Mr. Barber, that the floor of the water closet in the Girls' yard is in need of repair. June 29th — Mr. Barber notified the H. Master that the quarter salaries would be paid on Friday, July 3rd, at the school. 1875 Feb. 23rd — Notified the Inspector of P. Buildings (school) that the stove pipes in Miss Wills' room, and also in Miss Killoch's room were insecure. March 22nd — The Committee on School Management direct that in future the Scripture be read during the reading hour on Friday by the First, Second and Third Divisions. March 22nd — Striking pupils on the head with a cane or with the hand is an improper mode of punishment, and is not only deprecated but for- bidden. May 18th — This school was closed this p.m. on account of the funeral of the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. June 29th — The half yearly public examination of the pupils of this school took place this day, beginning at 9.30 a.m. and closing at 4 p.m. The attendance of visitors in the afternoon was very large. The fol- lowing pupils received Honour certificates: FIFTH DIVISION. Mollie Stewart, Mary Stocks, Adeline Blair, Wm. Lumsden, Thomas Barry, John Spence, Alfred Grumbleby, William Saunders, Fred Howard, Maggie Smart, Jane Blair, Caroline Hill, Bathia Lumsden, Victoria Loane, Martha Toy, Jessie Allister, Katie Stewart, Florence Grinnel. FOURTH DIVISION. L. Webber, L. Wilson, L. Spence, A. Stewart, L. Hall, A. Brown, A. Doig, Walter Toy, Robert Ellis, William Allen, Charles Davis, 50 ) "Request your teachers to endeavor to stop 'please yes' and 'please no', common habit. Examination 5th July. Prizes same day." (Extract circular from J. Hughes, Inspector). 1880 Sept. 2nd — Jas. Hughes, Esq., I.P.S., visited and promoted to Dufferin School, 39 pupils; he also promoted from the several divisions in the School to higher. 1881 Sept. 6th — The city schools were closed on the afternoons of the 7th, 8th and 9th on account of the excessive heat. Sept. 12th — The pupils of the city schools with their teachers attended the Provincial Exhibition. 1883 April 11th— E. Galley, Esq., C.B.S.T., A. Medcalfe, S.T., and a large number of the parents of the Junior Division visited to witness the children going through their calisthenics. Oct. 10th — G. B. McMurrich visited and examined 4th Division in reading, 5th Division in addition, 6th, 7th and 8th Division addressed. Nov. 13th — A. R. Pyne took charge of Park School as H.M. Dec. 18th— School bell fell. 1884 Jan. 7th — School opened with the following staff: A. R. Pyne, H.M., Mrs. Green, Miss Carlyle, Miss Gray, Miss Green promoted to 8th Division. Miss Phillips to the 9th, Miss Sheer to Sen. 10th, and Miss Pranfleld took charge of Junior 10th. Feb. 21s^— Fire drill — 2 minutes, 15 seconds. May 21st — Mr. Wilkinson called about garden. June 23rd — Received $300 for flowers from Mr. W. C. Wilkinson. Sent receipt to office. June 23rd — (Mr. Woodland called to get signature* of teachers to agreements with the Board. 1885 May 20th of the 7th Divisiou is this day suspended for truancy.