(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Biographies of individual schools under the Toronto Board of Education: no. 2. - Park School"

.' tc»*M*t 



■ 

B 



*1 



: o 






CO 



BIOGRAPHIES 
OF INDIVIDUAL SCHOOLS 

UNDER 

The Toronto Board of Education 



II 

PARK 
SCHOOL 



ISSUED BY 

THE BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH 

189^ CHURCH STREET. TORONTO 

JANUARY. 1921 




PARK SCHOOL 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction 5 

Park School 

General 7 

Park School Old Boys' Association 11 

Administrative Arrangements 

Principal's Office 13 

Store Room 13 

Other Special Rooms 13 

Coal Storage 13 

School Hygiene 

Sweeping, Dusting and Scrubbing 14 

Heating and Ventilation 14 

Lighting 16 

Play Area 16 

Educational Waste 

Non-Promotion 17 

Over-age 19 

Retardation 20 

Dropping Out 21 

Mentally Defective Children 29 

Summary 31 

Class Room Instruction 32 

The Park School as an Opportunity School 35 

The Park School as an All-The-Year-Round School 41 



APPENDIX 
Extracts from Diary of Park School— 1871-1885 47 



INTRODUCTION 



The original Park School building was erected in 1855 and was 
enlarged in 1875, 1879, 1888, 1889 and 1900. The new Park School 
building was built in 1914. Probably no public school in the City of 
Toronto has a more honorable record of service than this School which is 
to-day upholding the noble traditions of its past. Some of the most 
useful citizens of Toronto and of Canada have received their 
elementary school training within its walls, and the annals of the city 
during the next twenty-five years will no doubt be further enriched 
by the services of men and women who as boys and girls are now attend- 
ing its classes. 

The character of the neighborhood of Park School has changed 
greatly in the past half century. Many parts of it are now extremely 
congested through the building of small dwellings very close to one 
another, the doubling up of families in houses built for one family, and 
the building of houses on lanes and in the rears of lots. The present 
membership of the school indicates that the district which the school 
serves is prevailingly Canadian and British in population, although 
the proportion of foreign-born residents is increasing and is con- 
siderably larger than it was twenty-five years ago. The body of this 
report contains statistical material bearing on racial origins. 

An inspection of the district makes it evident that a considerable 
number of boys and girls attending the school would be classed by 
social workers as "under-privileged." These children come of excellent 
stock and need only a desirable environment to make them extremely 
valuable citizens of the coming Toronto. Every school in Toronto 
should be an "opportunity" school, but there is no centre where such 
a school would return a better dividend than the Park School district. 
The proposal, abandoned after careful inquiry and full discussion, to 
make the old Park School building the home of such a school would, 
as pointed out in the body of this report, have had very undesirable 
consequences to the children attending the existing school. 

A comparatively small expenditure would provide, within the 
limits of the present building and without decreasing its school capacity, 
a good auditorium, an excellent gymnasium and special rooms for the 
teaching of history, geography and also various manual arts not naw 
provided for, and would enable the staff of the school to make it a real 
opportunity school, not only for the children but for the adxdt com- 
munity which it should serve. This would involve an increase in the 
length of the daily school sessions, but not necessarily in the number of 
school hours per child. 

It is th<? conviction of those who wrote this report that the Park 
School should be an all-year-round school, or at least should operate 
forty-eight weeks of the year, for four terms of twelve weeks each. 



Thirty-six weeks might be regarded as a full academic year, but experi- 
ence in other cities goes to show that the vast majority of the children 
would attend for the four terms and would be greatly benefited 
thereby in health and school advancement. The staff for the summer 
term would be made up of volunteers, declared by their physicians to 
be physically fit. Teachers who served for three summer terms, as well 
as the remainder of each year, could be given a year's leave of absence 
with pay or they could be paid for their extra work and be given a 
year's leave of absence without pay. The suggestion is discussed more 
fully later in this report. 

There never was a time in the history of this country, or of the 
civilized world in general, when the public schools could render so 
great a return to society. A virile, adaptable and progressive public 
school policy, keeping pace with the changing needs of society was 
never so essential. The best guarantee of such a policy is an informed 
public, in a position to co-operate effectively with and, where necessary, 
to bring the necessary pressure to bear on Departments and Boards of 
Education. 

In this report, therefore, an attempt has been made to describe in 
clear, non-technical language, a typical Toronto public school in opera- 
tion. The problems of education, however, are not simple and are not 
to be solved without thought — thought on the part of the people at 
large as well as of the elected bodies to whom they have deputed 
authority in educational matters. The school in its various branches is 
the community laboratory and cannot do its best work, cannot avoid the 
deadening effect of routine and custom, without close contact at many 
points with the constituency it serves. 

Chief Inspector Cowley, in his 1918 report, writes: 

"While the major responsibility for the condition of the 
individual school usually rests on the principal and while a capable 
principal, by due attention to his duty, can save his school from 
deterioration and even maintain it on a high level in the face of 
adverse circumstances, the public schools of a city are social institu- 
tions rising to their best only where the sympathy and co-operation 
of the home, the school board and the municipal council arc 
realized." 

The Public and High Schools of Toronto are engaged in educating 
about 70,000 embryo citizens at an annual expenditure of over 
$6,000,000. Is there any citizen of Toronto who can afford not to be 
interested in public education ? 



PARK SCHOOL 



The Bureau was fortunate enough to obtain from Principal 
Richardson a school diary, or "log," which had been kept carefully from 
January 3rd, 1871, to January 31st, 1877. After that date the entries 
are fairly numerous for a few years and finally cease on the 20th of 
May, 1885. The daily attendance was entered each month up to 
January 12th, 1877. Differences of opinion and difficulties bulking 
large at the time now assume a different perspective, from which, 
perhaps, we may all draw a lesson. 

During all of the early years, classes in religious instruction were 
conducted by the Rev. S. J. Boddy, and later by the Rev. Mr. Ballard. 
An interesting entry in the log is the following: "Rev. Mr. Kelly, 
Priest, visited and examined the several divisions of the school in 
reading, grammar and arithmetic." 

As at present, problems of attendance and conduct had to be faced 
by teachers in those days. Such entries as the following carry the 
mind back to old school days : 

"March 10th, 1873 — This morning two boys in the senior divi- 
sion, for misbehaving, were told to go home, and each replied that 
he would not go." (Later suspended). 

"Nov. 5th, 1873— Sent home at 11.20 a.m. for the 

day. Cause — throwing things at other pupils during study. 
Repeatedly warned not to do so. Notified his father." 

"March 28th, 1876 — Sent home until he replaced a 

pane of glass broken by him." 

Sunday School picnics were as disturbing to school attendance in 
those days as at present, as the following entry testifies : 

"Monday, 29th June, 1871 — Several boys were absent to-day 
on account of attending a Sunday School picnic." 

The circus and the delights of summer had the same attractions 
for the boys then as now. The entry for June 21st, 1875, reads as 
follows : "Barnum's show being in the city accounts for the thin attend- 
ance this day." On September 7th, 1875, we find the entry: " 

suspended; leaving school without permission," and on September 23rd 

of the same year, we are told that "Conductor brought 

to school ; found him wandering down at Scarboro. He ran away from 
home but he had a school bag by which he was recognized as a pupil 
of Park School." 

The Principal of the day made the following entry oh Tuesday, 
May 9th, 1871: "Several boys were absent yesterday afternoon on 
account oJ attending a funeral." Other entries of a similar nature 
occur. 



The problem of heating was a lively question in the 70's. The 
material used was wood. One of the first entries is : "January 6th, 1871 : 

Mr. is sawing wood here to-day." A few days afterwards it 

is stated : "Mr. has cut two cords of wood to-day." 

The storing of wood seems to have been the cause of some differences 
of opinion. The "log" records that on Monday, May 15th, 1871 : "Mrs. 

(Caretaker) refused to carry the remaining uncut wood in 

the yard into the woodshed." On Thursday, January 18th, 1872, the 
Principal "sent a note to Mr. Barber, Secretary-Treasurer, asking 

'whether it is Mrs. 's duty as caretaker to supply the wood 

boxes in the school-house with wood or not.' " The record does not 
state whether the principal received any reply to his letter, and we 
are unable to state at this date just how this early labor problem was 
settled. 

The following are typical entries with regard to the wood supply: 

"October 20th, 1871— A man, Mr. , is here to-day— 

p.m. — engaged by the Headmaster, who was authorized to do so, 
to cut one cord of wood, one half of it to be cut into two parts and 
the balance into three." 

"April 7th, 1873 — Notified Mr. Barber by note there was no 
wood cut for this school, and that the man who usually cuts the 
wood stated that he had received orders to cut no more here at 
present." 

"April 8th, 1873 — Received a note at noon to-day from Mr. 
Barber stating that the woodcutter had made a mistake and that 
he was to cut what wood was required." 

"November 13th, 1873 — A load of pine slabs purporting to be 
one-half cord was delivered here to-day." 

The smashing of the thermometer by the Caretaker on December 
14th, 1873, is thought worthy of note, and frequent references to the 
temperature, inside and outside of the school, are made. The following 
are typical entries: 

"October 27th, 1873 — Temperature of Headmaster's room this 
morning at 9 o'clock, 50°." 

"May 25th, 1875 — Weather very warm, thermometer in Head- 
master's room indicating 76° at 1.00 p.m." 

The problem of humidifying school-room air gave trouble then as 
now. On November 13th, 1879, five evaporating pans were sent to the 
school. 

Principals had their own troubles in those days with regard to 
getting things done, as the following chronicle of the pump well illus- 
trates : 

"August 16th, 1871 — Mr. Barber, Secretary-Treasurer, was 
communicated with respecting the school pump." 

"August 28th, 1871 — Mr. , Trustee, was communi- 
cated with respecting the repairing of the school pump." 

"October 10th, 1871— Man sent by Mr. is here to- 
day cleaning the well." 



"November 13th, 1871 — The pump was replaced in the well 
either on Saturday or early on Monday morning." 

"November 27th, 1871 — Mr. , Trustee, was communi- 
cated with respecting the pump." (Apparently something was still 
wrong. ) 

"June 25th, 1872 — Sent a note to Mr. Barber., Secretary, about 

the pump and messenger brought back my note to Mr. , 

Trustee, for him to act on it." 

"June 28th, 1872 — Received a note from the Secretary asking 
when first communication was sent to him about pump." 

"July 2nd, 1872 — Sent a communication to the Secretary in 
answer to his of the 28th ult." 

"August 14th, 1872— The Truant Officer called here this a.m. 

and gave me an answer from to my communication of the 

28th ult. to the Secretary. The answer ran thus: 'If you (the 
headmaster) can render the mineral water better than it is, I shall 
willingly try the experiment." 

"August 27th, 1872 — The old pump has been replaced by a new 
one, but the water of the well is still bad — cannot be used." 

"August 28th, 1872 — Headmaster sent letter by messenger to 
the Secretary complaining of water in the well." 

"September 12th, 1872 — Received fifty pounds of sulphate of 
iron, ordered by the Board." 

"October 10th, 1872 — Headmaster sent a communication to the 
Secretary contradicting opinion held by the Board, and especially 
by Mr. , as to the mineral character of water in the well." 

"June 9th, 1873 — Notified the Secretary that the water of the 
well was unfit for drinking purposes on account of the stench 
arising from it." 

"February 26th, 1874 — The pump was put in working order 
this day." 

The only other mention of the pump or well was on August 23rd, 
1875, as follows : "Well cleaned." 

The diary throws interesting side-lights on changes in provincial 
educational organization. The Public School Inspector is called during 
the early years "Local Superintendent." It is unfortunate that this title 
was replaced by that of "Inspector." 

The diary chronicles the death of Inspector Porter on April 20th, 
1874, and the first visit of his successor, Mr. James L. Hughes, to the 
Park School on May 18th, 1874. It is doubtful whether there are many 
large cities where there have been so few changes in the Chief Inspec- 
torate. Toronto has had only three chief inspectors in over half a 
century. 

In the appendix will be found further typical extracts from the 
school diary. 




10 



Park School Old Boys' Association. 

Seventeen yean ago some of the former pupils of the Park School, 
under the leadership of Alderman Richard Iloneyford, established the 
Park School Old Boys' Association. Former President Honeyford 
states that it is the only public school Old Boys' Association in Toronto 
that has kept up its annual reunions since the inception of the organiza- 
tion, even including war. years. About 500 graduates of the Park 
School, of whom at least fifty gave their lives to the cause, fought in 
the great war. A beautiful bronze tablet has been placed in the main 
corridor of the first floor of the present building by the Association in 
memory of "old boys 1 ' who gave up their lives in the Great War. The 
tablet was cast from the metal of the old school bell, probably the same 
one which, according to the school diary, fell from its position on 
December 18th, 1878. Also as a memorial to the ex-pupils, over $500.00 
of sporting goods were presented to the School by this organization. 

The officers at the time of the annual dinner, January 23rd. 1920, 
were : 

President George H. Howard. 

1st Vice-President .... Walter E. Mainprice (now President). 

2nd Vice-President . . . .James Adams. 

3rd Vice-President .... Fred Brown. 

Treasurer .James Adams. 

Secretary "Struan J. Wheatley. 

Committee Arthur Toy, John Honeyford, Fred 

Hamblin, John C. Hickey, Arthur 
Wilson, Sam Richardson, Herbert 
Metcalf, Oscar Johnson, Harry Lomas, 
Arthur E. Apted. 

These are just a few of the names which bear concrete testimony 
of the services of the Old Park School. 

The first annual banquet of the Association was held on March 9th, 
1906. The first name on the list of the Committee in Charge was Aid. 
Thos. Church, a former teacher of the School and later to be the 
Mayor, of the city. 

Among the Honorary Presidents and Past Presidents of the 
Association are: 

Sir James Lougheed, H. C. Hocken, 

R. J. Fleming, James Ryrie, 

J. B. Reid, Joseph Oliver, 

William Harper, Cecil B. Jenkins, 

John C. Noble, F. A. Bowden, 

H. G. Salisbury, James Greer, 

George A. Learn, Richard Honeyford, 
George II . Howard. 

all old boys of the school (one or two of Sackville Street School, which 
was amalgamated with Park). 

The Old Boys are loyal not only to their School but to the memory 
of its neighborhood. The motto of its 1912 dinner was "Cabbagetown 

11 




12 



Forever." It is greatly to be dsiired that every large public school in< 
the city should have its Old Boys 1 Association, ivhwh should not only 
renew and keep alive old friendships, but take an active interest in the 
fortunes of the school as it continues to educate new generations of 
Toronto citizens. 



ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS 

Principal's Office. 

The Principal's office is between the two front entryways under a 
mezzanine floor. The ceiling is about seven feet high. There is no 
ventilation save by the windows, which on account of their proximity 
to the floor and the small size of the room can rarely be used for ventila- 
tion purposes. There are not even deflectors on the windows. There is 
no connecting small room for private interviews. Repeatedly, during 
visits of the observer, the Principal, the Truant Officer and even the 
police had to talk to children in the corridors. Parents were also 
interviewed by the Truant Officers in the corridors. There can be no 
valid excuse for such unsatisfactory office accommodation in a new 
building like the Park School. 

Store Room. 

The store room is on the third floor at the extreme east end, 
whereas it should be in close proximity to the Principal's office. It is 
true that there are some cupboards in the office, but these are entirely 
inadequate. It is hard to believe that those responsible for deciding on 
the position of the store room could have consulted an experienced 
principal before reaching their decision. A dental room not having 
been provided for in the original plans, a part of the store room is 
being equipped for this purpose. The position of the room in relation 
to the Principal's office is also, of course, entirely unsatisfactory. 

Other Special Rooms. 

The library is on the second floor and is also too widely separated 
from the offices of administration. There are no small rooms for small 
special classes. This is a defect that will be hard to remedy. It is 
difficult to imagine how it was possible to erect such a building without 
adequate provision for a class of work which educators have regarded 
for many years as necessary to the best work of a public school. 

Coal Storage. 

The coal storage space is entirely inadequate. Unless the coal is 
piled over six feet deep there is not room for over fifty tons in the 
regular store room. It has been found necessary to store coal in the 
boys* play room, whence the coal has to be wheeled in a barrow along 
the corridor to a flight of steps going down into the boiler room. The 
ash-hoist is entirely inadequate, being operated by hand, and delivering 
ashes s® slowly to the carts that it takes several hours each week in 

13 



winter to remove the ashes. The ash-hoist is near the fresh air intake 
so that, unless the plenum fan is stopped while ashes are being emptied, 
quantities of ashes are taken into the general air circulation. Results 
are similar when coal is delivered during school sessions, although the 
coal is always dampened. If the furnaces, ash-hoist and coal bin had 
been placed at the back of the school, this menace to the health of the 
children and teachers would have been avoided and more room would 
have been available for coal bins which might have been excavated 
under the playgrounds. 

All of these defects could have been avoided by consulting school 
men and women before plans were drawn. After the plans were drawn, 
and while the building was under construction, several defects might 
still have been remedied if telephone messages and letters from those 
on the ground had been heeded. An educational advisory committee on 
school planning, presided over by the chief inspector, would be of great 
assistance to the business administrator in planning buildings for school 
purposes. The Building Department exists for the schools, not vice 
versa. During recent months principals and inspectors have been freely 
consulted on all matters of school planning. 



SCHOOL HYGIENE 

Sweeping, Dusting and Scrubbing*. 

The sweeping appears to be done regularly. Dusting, however, lias 
been very unsatisfactory. In response to the Bureau's questionnaire 
ten teachers stated that their class-rooms were dusted daily. One gave 
the same answer followed by a mark of interrogation. One stated that 
her room was frequently dusted. Two just used question marks. Such 
expressions as "occasionally," "seldom, if ever," are used by eight 
teachers; two teachers wrote that their rooms were never dusted, five 
teachers made no statement, one was non-committal, and one said she 
didn't know when her room was dusted. 

An inspection of the corridors showed that they were mopped 
rather, than scrubbed and the Bureau was informed that the floors 
are not scrubbed four times a year as required by the regulations. 
The floors were streaky in many places. The floor of the new manual 
training room was observed to be very dark. The reason given was that 
it had been oiled before being thoroughly cleaned. As pointed out 
elsewhere, the floor of the Kindergarten is seldom clean enough to make 
its use for floor exercises possible. 

Heating and Ventilation. 

At all times during visits the class rooms were sufficiently warm. 
There appears to have been some trouble during winter months, due, 
apparently, to deficiency in boiler power. It appears also that the radi- 
ating surface in the north rooms is about the same as that in the south, 
although, other conditions being the same, it should be considerably 



*The Bureau im informed that the caretaker has since been transferred to a 
smaller school. 

14 



greater. The observer was struck with the number of class rooms which 
always had one or more windows up. It would appear that this is neces- 
sary in order to secure fair ventilation, although the Plenum System in 
use is supposed to require closed windows. The existence of dead air 
pockets was evident even from a casual inspection. None of the rooms 
seen had more than one intake and one outlet. Such a system may 
demonstrate that sufficient air is sent in each hour to allow for the 
required changes of air, but it cannot guarantee actual changes of all 
the air in the room. There should be several places for the air to come 
in and several places for it to go out. Again, the outlets are usually 
about the same size as the inlets, and, therefore, incapable under most 
conditions of carrying off the air as fast as it comes in. Either the over- 
plus must find its way out through various interstices, or the resulting 
back pressure will reduce the supply of air coming into the rooms. An 
exhaust fan would certainly go far to remedy this condition. 

The school has a humidifying plant. It is doubtful, however, 
whether its work is continuous or satisfactory. No scientific test was 
made of the humidity of the air, but if the testimony of the nasal and 
throat passages can be believed, on several days the air had not been 
sufficiently humidified. During one visit the visitor was told that the 
humidifier was not in operation. On the same day the fresh air intake 
of the whole ventilation system was closed, so that the school rooms were 
being supplied with the same air over and over again. This is not so 
serious, according to modern theories of ventilation, as was once 
thought — if the air is otherwise good — but is in distinct contravention 
of the principles upon which the ventilation of the Park School is based. 

A large sum of money was spent on the heating and ventilating 
system of the Park School. Part of the possible return from this 
expenditure was irretrievably lost through ill-advised attempts to be 
economical where economy should not be considered. The proper 
balance between the radiating surfaces in the north and south rooms 
can, however, be established. The deficiency in boiler power can be 
largely offset by the use of fuel economizers. The thing most necessary 
to reap the benefit of the expenditure already made is an exhaust fan, or 
a number of small suction fans at convenient points, which will reduce 
the back pressure, permit a greater inflow of new air and consequently 
improve the circulation and diffusion within the class rooms. This is 
particularly necessary, as the foul air exits are relatively too small in 
comparison with the fresh air inlets. If the windows are not to be used 
at all the plenum and exhaust fans will have to be run practically con- 
tinuously. The humidifying plant will have to be kept at the highest 
possible point of efficiency, and on account of the undesirable location of 
the fresh air inlet, all air will have to be thoroughly washed, if it is 
expected to keep the building clean and to protect the linings of the 
children's lungs. In spite of the best that can be done there may 
remain some dead air pockets in the class rooms. These can be stirred up 
by small electric fans in the class room. Unless the mechanical system 
of heating and ventilation now in use in the school can be made efficient 
it is extremely doubtful whether the results in conserving the health 
and vigor of children and teachers will be any better than could be 
secured by window ventilation supplemented by small fans, and if pos- 
sible localized humidifying attachments. 

15 



It is undesirable that basement air should enter into the general cir- 
culation during school hours, but it should be possible to draw off the air 
from all class rooms, rewarm it and send it back into the class rooms 
again before school hours, while they are still unoccupied. This would 
save large quantities of coal and would not detract from the effectiveness 
of the ventilation as the fans could be supplied with fresh air from the 
intakes fifteen minutes before school opens. The necessary arrange- 
ments for this should have formed part of the original installation, but 
they can still be made. The Bureau is informed that in many school 
houses while the buildings are being heated up in the morning it is 
necessary to take in outside air just as when the children are in their 
seats. This is extremely wasteful of coal. 

Lighting. 

The lighting of the south rooms is good ; that of the north rooms in 
some cases is poor. At least one room visited gets little or no direct sun- 
light during the school session, yet it has no more glass than rooms on the 
south side. In fact, with the exception of a few rooms, the ratio of 
window area to floor area is practically the same throughout the build- 
ing. The Provincial regulations give 1:6 as a minimum ratio of 
lighting area to floor area where there is a good exposure. As the actual 
ratios vary from 1:5.8 to 1:6.1 the Provincial regulation is complied 
with, as far as the southern exposure is concerned. 

The artificial lighting is insufficient, as electric lights are installed 
only on the ground floor and in the special rooms on the next floor up. 

Play Area. 

The play area connected with the new school gives 20.3 square feet 
per child in the total membership, and 23.9 square feet per child in 
average attendance. This is entirely inadequate. Organized games 
are quite impossible, and as organized games are the only ones which 
have much value from the standpoint of moral education, the Park 
School, even more than most others, is seriously handicapped in its 
work. The Board of Education has decided to tear down the old 
building none too soon. The project of making it an Opportunity 
School would have robbed Park School itself of needed play space, 
besides being out of the question from an economic point of view. The 
Park School should be in the most real sense an opportunity school — 
as should every public school in the city — and the first stop in making 
it such is to combine the old yard and new yards.* The combined 
yards would give 73 square feet per child in the total membership and 
86 square feet per child in average attendance. If the lots at 
the east and west of the old yard — now covered with undesir- 
able buildings, practically slums — were purchased or expropriated 
by the Board, the per pupil area would be respectively 1)8.2 and 
115.5 square feet. At noon and after school hours this total play 
area — about 150,000 square feet — could be used for football, baseball, 
tennis and other group games without infringing on the space necessary 
for games and apparatus adapted to the needs of small children. 
Ample play space is a crying need of this school and district. 



*Since this was written the old building has been demolished. A modern school 
playground, therefore, is now quite feasible. 

16 



EDUCATIONAL WASTE 

Non- promotion. 

In the Park School about 33% of the children in the grades which 
require a full school year for completion fail of promotion. The 
unanimous testimony is that the chief cause of this waste is avoidable ^y 
non-attendance of pupils. 

The second cause assigned for unnecessary non-promotion is the 
indifference of parents. This operates indirectly through the slight 
importance that many parents attach to attendance, and directly 
through the absence of wholesome home stimulus, due to a negative 
attitude toward the school. Lack of natural ability of some children, 
illness, constant change of residence, and the impossibility of giving 
individual attention to children in large classes are given in the order 
mentioned as other causes of non-promotion. All of these, except 
illness, constant change of residence, and lack of mental ability, are 
removable causes, and even these are largely removable. So-called 
lack of ability is often simply inability to grasp the elements of the 
course of study when presented in an academic way, without oppor- 
tunity to "realize" these elements in practical activities. Such lack of 
ability might entirely disappear with the relegation of the text-book 
to a place of very secondary importance and the vitalizing of school 
processes by more first-hand contacts with real life. 

Similarly, indifference of parents to the school advantages of their 
children is frequently caused by the indifference of their own children 
to school life — an indifference which is often attributed by the parents 
to the school system itself, its curriculum and the methods of presenting 
the subjects taught. Much apparent stupidity is simply nature's 
method of protecting the child. As is well known, excessive mental 
activity on some subject of interest does not hurt people so much as 
mental activity on some uncongenial or unsuitable task. This is 
not a plea for soft pedagogy, but for the formation of good 
mental habits and power of application through school curricula 
and classroom methods which take into account the actual needs of 
children as well as the supposed needs of adult society. The idea that 
character is formed by forced performance of unnecessarily distasteful 
tasks, rather than by making all tasks, as far as possible, purposeful 
from the standpoint of the child is obsolete and fundamentally unsound. 
Otherwise we should make school work as forbidding as possible in order 
to secure the greatest possible moral benefit for the children. 

It can hardly be claimed that the school system has been entirely 
free from blame in this respect, but recent changes in emphasis on the 
elements of education, the recent addition of prevocational opportuni- 
ties in the elementary schools, the widespread movement in favor of the 
social viewpoint in education, and the growth of Home and School 
Leagues give promise of improved relations between the home and the 
school. This will make for more effective co-operation and cannot fail to 
improve attendance and cut down the wastages due to unnecessary 
non-promotion. 

The pupil overturn of the Park School is large, though not 60 

17 



great as in some other districts. The total enrollment for the school 
term ending June 1919, was 1,739, while the total membership at the 
end of the term was 1,259. During 1915, 1916 and 1917, 1,225 children 
entered the Park School, or enough children to fill 29 rooms. Yet the 
school did not increase in size, although only 15 or 20 reached High 
School Entrance each year. In 1918-1919, 571 children entered the 
school. From June 1st, 1919 to June 1st, 1920, 628 children entered 
and 608 left — a net gain of only 20. Previous to the opening of the 
schools in September, 1920, it was estimated that there would be no more 
occupied class rooms (not including those occupied by children from 
other districts) than in September, 1919. The pupil turnover of the 
school is not far short of 50%. This cannot but have a very great effect 
in increasing non-promotion. Anything which would improve housing 
conditions would tend to stabilize local populations and add to the 
efficiency of the schools. 

Out of the 1,259 in membership in June, 607 were not promoted. 
Of these, 95 had not been in their grades the regulation time so that 
the actual non-promotion was 512. The following tables give the 
causes assigned by the teachers for failure to be promoted: 

Poor Health 55 

Poor Preparation 6:j 

Lack of Interest on Part of Parents 29 

Lack of Interest on Part of Children 34 

Irregular Attendance for Other than Reason of 

Sickness 96 

Late Entrance in Term 83 

Coming From Other Schools 17 

Too Large Classes 10 

Feeblemindedness 12 

Mental slowness 94 

(and lack of interest in academic subjects) 

Physical Defects 4 

Less Than Regular Time in Grade 95 

Other Causes 15 

In many cases there were, of course, several causes. Some causes, 
such as large classes, were operative no doubt in reducing the efficiency 
of teachers and pupils in many more cases than those listed. The 
analysis, nevertheless, supplies food for thought. 

The nationality of pupils does not enter into the problem at the Park 
School to the same extent as in many other schools and the result of the 
analysis of promoted and non-promoted children according to racial 
origin is not typical. This is partly due to the fact that the number 
of foreign-born children is comparatively small. Out of 1,267 children 
in membership, as reported to the Bureau : 

697 were born in Canada of Canadian parents. 
380 were born in Great Britain of British parents. 
126 were born in Canada of foreign parentage. 

35 were born elsewhere in the British Empire of foreign parentage. 

29 were of foreign birth and parentage. 

Park School is not, therefore, a school in which the foreign problem is a 

18 



vital one. The table below gives an analysis of promotion in the Park 
School according to birth and racial origin : 



Percentage. 


^3 

. s to 
« * 

c c 

§>£ 


Of Foreign 
Parentage but 
Canadian Birth. 


Of Foreign 
Parentage but 
British Birth. 
(Other then 
Canadian). 


Of Canadian 
Birth and 
Parentage. 


Of British Birth 
and Parentage 
(Other than 
Canadian). 


-i 

o 
H 




55.2 


52.4 


85.7 


51.6 


52.6 


53 






Non-Promoted 


44.8 


47.6 


14.3 


48.4 


47.4 


47 







Overage. 

It was thought at the beginning of the study of the Toronto Schools 
that it might be possible to measure overage by half years. On account 
of the limited information available, and the lack of standardization of 
the amounts of work in the various grades, the Bureau decided to make 
all measurements of overage on the basis of one school year per grade 
with graduation at 14. The table below gives the facts for the Park 
School. 



PERCENTAGES OF CHILDREN IN THE PARK 'SCHOOL 

WHO WERE OVER AGE, OF NORMAL AGE AND 

UNDERAGE, JUNE, 1919 (1,292 CHILDREN). 



Grade 


Underage 


Of Normal Age 


Overage 


Kindergarten 


11% 

5.1% 

4.2% 

6.3% 

8.9% 

9.3% 

18.2% 

28. % 

46.8% 


85.2% 
54.8% 
22.6% 
31.8% 
22.9% 
28.3% 
31.8% 
37.8% 
31.9% 


13.7% 


Junior 1st 


40.1% 


Senior 1st . . 


73.2% 


Junior 2nd . . 


61.9% 


Senior 2nd 


68.2% 


Junior 3rd 


62.4% 


Senior 3rd 


50. % 


Junior 4th 


34.2% 


Senior 4th 


21.3% 






All Grades 


9.4% 


41.2% 


49.4% 






All Grades without Kindergarten 


10.6% 


34.8% 


54.6% 



That these figures are substantially correct, on the basis of the age 
standard mentioned, is shown by the fact that a report filled out for a 
different purpose, but giving age data, shows almost identical results. 
The total number of children was practically identical (1,292 and 1,295 
respectively) and the percentages of underage, normal age and overage 
were respectively 10.8% ; 35.9% and 53.3%. 

19 



Retardation. 

The amount of retardation — slow progress through the schools — 
cannot as yet be accurately measured inasmuch as individual record 
cards have not been a part of the system for the required length of time, 
at least eight years. In a school where few children enter the Junior 
1st later than 6 or 6^2 years of age the amount of retardation varies but 
little from that of overage. As a matter of fact, in the Park School 113 
out of 279 entered the Junior 1st at seven or over. Of these only 24 
were eight or over. If these children advanced normally they would 
always be overage. As a matter of fact, in most schools children 
entering at a comparatively late age actually make more rapid progress 
than others, although usually not sufficiently so to make up the leeway. 
Late entrance should, therefore, lead to a greater number of rapid 
promotions and diminish the total retardation. 

In the absence of a continuous record going back eight or nine 
years, the Principal and teachers of the Park School co-operated with 
the Bureau by filling out a form giving a cross-section of the retarda- 
tion for the grades in which the children then were. The effects of 
such annual retardation would, of course, be cumulative, but the per- 
centage of retarded children would not increase proportionately as 
non-promotion tends to become habitual, or rather, perhaps the causes 
of non-promotion for any particular child in one year are apt to be 
operative in another, so that extreme retardation is limited to a rather 
small and well-defined group. An analysis of the returns from the 
Park School shows that 243 children had taken a longer time to complete 
the grades in which they then were than was necessary under ordinary 
circumstances, allowing one full school year for the completion of the 
work of each grade. This represents 18.6% of children reported on 
as to progress. This is, of course, an underestimate, as three of the 
eight grades are probably only half-year grades for normal children. 
The amount of retardation for the individual grades varied from one- 
half year to three years, but about 80% was one year or under. This is 
a good showing, even taking into consideration that the figures were 
taken toward the close of the term, and indicates a rapid improvement 
as regards retardation. The existing amount of overage could not 
possibly be so great unless the previous rate of non-promotion had been 
much greater than at present. It is interesting to note that 14 of the 
243 retarded children received double promotion during the year. 
That 20 retarded and overage children left school to go to work without 
completing an elementary school course, and that 65 of the retarded 
children out of 243 again failed of promotion, are sad but typical 
facts. A hopeful feature of the situation was that 90 more children 
had made rapid progress than had made slow progress in the grade in 
which they were in June, 1919. This would seem to indicate increas- 
ingly careful supervision. A continuance of the present tendency will 
soon greatly reduce the relative numbers of overage children, who now 
outnumber underage children about 5 to 1. 

The table below gives an analysis of 1,295 children (exclusive of 
kindergarten) in full membership in the Park School June, 1919, as to 
overage and retardation (for the school year 1918-1919 only) : 

20 



Progress for the School Year 
Ending June, 1919 


Underage 


Normal Age 


Overage 


Totals 


Rapid Progress 


26 
85 
28 


123 

265 

79 


196 
357 
136 


345 


Normal Progress 


707 


Slow Progress 


243* 






Totals 


139 


467 


689 


1295 







Dropping Out. 

The number of children who leave school before completing the 
public school course constitutes a menace to the community, whether 
the educational system is primarily responsible, or the home, or general 
economic conditions. 

The estimates of the amount of the dropping out from the Park 
School vary somewhat according to the judgment of individual teachers, 
and their knowledge of the facts. During the school year, 1918-1919, 
however, there seem to have been 79 such cases, as follows : 

Junior 1st 1 

Senior 1st 1 

Junior 2nd 1 

Senior 2nd 5 

Junior 3rd 14 

Senior 3rd 19 

Junior 4th 24 

Senior 4th 14 

Total 79 

It will be noted that 38 children dropped out in the Junior and 
Senior 4th; or a number sufficient to make an additional Senior 4th 
class. The seriousness of this loss is apparent when we consider that 
out of 30 classes in the school only one was a Senior 4th. 

The figures for 1919-1920 are even more disturbing. They are as 
follows : 

Junior 1st 

Senior 1st 1 

Junior 2nd 4 

Senior 2nd 3 

Junior 3rd 21 

Senior 3rd 28 

Junior 4th 24 

Senior 4th 20 

Total 101 



*This number would be much higher if it were possible to apply a half-year 
standard to those grades which are probably equivalent to only one half year of 
school work. 



21 



The 1,295 children classified above were arranged in classes as 
follows : 



Grade 


Number of 
Children 


Number of 
Classes 


Junior 1st 


314 
130 
194 
179 
197 
134 
96 
51 


9 
3 

4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
1 


Senior 1st 


Junior 2nd 


Senior 2nd 


Junior 3rd 

Senior 3rd 


Junior 4th 


Senior 4th 




Totals 


1,295 


30 





This looks as if 314 children enter the school for 51 who finish the 
school course. As a matter of fact, the number of children entering the 
school as beginners during the last six years averaged about 174. This 
would call for about 150 children in the Senior 4th, or three 
classes of 50 each w T here there is now but one. Just as 
there are too few in the final grade, there are too many in 
the initial grade. There probably should not be over 190 or 
200 children in the Senior 1st, the difference representing 
retarded children or children who began the work of the grade too 
young. A more ideal incidence of grade membership would be as 
follows : 



Grade 


Number of 
Children 


Number of 
of Classes 


Junior 1st 


190") 
180 f 
175) 


15 

11 

7 


Senior 1st 


Junior 2nd 


Senior 2nd 


1701 

165 

160 

1551 

150 




Junior 3rd 


Senior 3rd 


Junior 4th 


Senior 4th 






Total 


1,345 


33 









This arrangement would not appreciably increase the enrollment, 
and would provide for a much larger number of children leaving school 
with the rudiments of an elementary education. The additional current 
expenditure required under present methods of school administration 
would be for the provision of three additional regular classes and teach- 
ers. There should, of course, also be special classes, with special teachers, 
under any conditions. These are urgently needed now under the exist- 
ing organization. Granted a stationary population, two additional 
special teachers would soon reduce the number of regular teachers 
required. In the chapter on the shift plan it will be shown how the 
same plant can accommodate a greater number of teachers and classes. 

The closer classification of children according to ability is very 
important from the standpoint of decreasing educational waste. The 

22 



principal of the Park School has been applying the principle with 
success during the past year. When, for example, there are 160 
children to be divided between four teachers of the same grade, they are 
not divided like choosing sides for a scrub baseball game so as to make 
the teams as nearly even as possible, but they are divided according to 
ability so that competition within classes may be possible and the 
efficiency of class instruction may be increased by making classes more 
nearly homogeneous. 

The "clas8-pictures ,, below indicate the distribution of children in 
the Senior 3rd classes in June, 1919. It will readily be seen that the 
children in these classes might have been grouped in classes showing 
less variation in age and progress among their numbers. Such "class- 
pictures" have been used extensively to assist in classification, along 
with other factors such as health, distance from school, home conditions, 
etc. 

Each dot represents a child. A line underneath a dot means that 
the child was not promoted. For example, in Plate 1, one child has 
been three years in the grade but failed of promotion. A square around 
a dot represents a child who has left school before completing the 
public school course. For. example, in Plate 1, three children, who 
were in their 13th year when the school year began, dropped out of 
school to go to work before completing the Senior 3rd. The dots in 
spaces between the heavy vertical lines represent children of normal 
age and those between the heavy horizontal lines represent children 
of normal progress (except of course those not promoted at the end of 
the year). 



L'3 



PLATE 1 



A/o. or 

yr/t/93 

30£A/T SY 
C#/JLD/?£/V 
/AT 5* 

3/?/;. Or/to £ 


/7g£J or C///*./7/?r/Y wrtjc/tr 

B£G/A*Af///<* tVOrf/f Of SjT/V/O/P 3**/* &?*J7£ 


9 


H 


/o 


/*/ 


// 


//£ y* 


*i 


/3 


/3i 


/* 


t*£ 


/$ 


#2 


i Yf/r* 


• 








• 


• 


^» 


• • 

• • 


• 

• • 

• ♦ 












/ YJT/ttf 




•- 


• 


-2. 


♦ • 


• • 


•« 


• 


l-l-l 










'-• 


/•£ xe/?/?s 




• 






• 


• • 
• 




Q 










2yjr/rA>s 






^ 














• 








•^ 


2i yjf/7/ts 




























1 


3YJMJPIS 































24 



PLATE 2 



A/o. or 

CS//JLD '/?£Af 

//v «5>p 
3/?/j. Grsrot 




9 


9i 


/O 


JOi 


// 


* 


„ 


ai 


/3 


#i 


/* 


w£ 


ts 


#i 


5 YJTJN? 








• • 


• £ 


• •• 




• •• 


• 


•_ 










/ V£-/?/? 


m 
































•• 


• • 




f£mms 












• 




- 














Zyjr/r/rs 
















• 














2i yjr/?/ts 






























3yjr/?/*s 










- 





















23 



PLATE 3 



A/c. or 

C/*/JLVX>£/V 
/Af S/E 


//&*& Of C///LJ7/?£'SV ywjr/v 
&£G//V/V//YG fiYO*>/r Of Sf/V/OA? 3*0. G*?AZ?£ 


9 


9i 


/o 


/oi 


// 


//* 


/2 


/-?/ 


/3 


/si 


/r 


t*£ 


t5 


#i 


5 YJT/UP 






• 


• 


• • 


• • 


• •• 
• 


• 







EE3 








/ Y£-/r/? 
/•£ y£/j/?s 






• 


• • 


• • 


• •• 

• •• 


• JL 


• •• 

•a 


• • 






















a 








2y£/t#s 






























2i ys/f/fs 






























JYJT/9AV 





























26 



J 



Below is a regrouping of the children in three apparently more 
homogeneous classes. Of course, to divide the children properly their 
individual record cards would have to be considered carefully and the 
greatest judgment would have to be exercised. The important thing is 
classification by judgment, in the light of the needs of the children, 
and not classification by chance, or on the theory that the three classes 
should be as nearly alike as possible throughout. The three charts 
below are offered, not as a correct grouping of the children, but as an 
illustration of the possible results of the method suggested. 



PLATE 1 



A/o. or 

Y£A#<3 

3/*£-a/t ar 

C#/JLO#£Af 

3/r/r. &>/W£ 


/fafS or C///LJ7A>eAr nw£YY 

S£G//V/V'/*<+ tYO*/f Of Sf/V/O* 3*4. G/?A0£ 


9 


oi 


/o 


'Oi 


// 


//i 


* 


*i 


/3 


/3& 


/# 


t*i 


& 


#i 


2 YJT/?JT 


• 




• 




• • 


• •• 




• •• 
• • 


• •• 












/ Y/r/r/? 


























• 








< 


















2 Yjr/r#& 






• 
























2i YI&/9S 






























Jyjf/rAv 































27 



PLATE 2 



A/o. or 

30/TA/T BY 

//V S/P 

3/FIT &f>#D£ 


/7<?*s or C////./7/?** WHS/* 

££<?//* /V//YG JYOA>/f OS SjTA/ZO/P 3/P0L &?*Z7£ 


9 


9i 


/O 


ioi 


// 


»4 y* 


*H 


/3 


ai 


/* 


/^i 


M 


>3l 


J YJT///P 






























/ V£-/t# 














• •• 
••• 

• •• 

• •• 
•• 


• • • 

• •• 

• •• 

• 


• •• 

• •• 

• •• 
••• 
• 


• • 










/£ y£/f/?s 














• •• 




• 




• 








2 YJT/?#S 
















• 




• 








• 


2i yjf/?/?s 






























3Y&9AV 














• 












• 





28 



PLATE 3 



A/c. or 
3*>/ls/t ar 

CAf/Jt.D#£Af 
//V ^P 

3/pjj. Gvaoi 


/7C£S Or C///4./7A»£'Af HVMJT/* 


9 


9i 


/o 


ioi 


// 


//^ 


/2 


a* 


/j 


/& 


/* 


t*i 


/3 


^i 


3 KA*P 






























/ V£-/r/? 


• 


• • 


• • 

• • 
• • • 


• • • 

• •• 

• • 


• •• 

• •• 

• •• 
• 


• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 
• 


















/■£ ye/7/?s 










• 


• •• 














2y£/t#s 






























2i y/>?rts 






























Jyj&jpts 































Mentally Defective Children. 

Like most other large public schools the Park School is handicapped 
by the presence of mentally defective children in regular classes. This 
involves injustice to normal children, as they are robbed of their just 
share of individual attention by the teacher. It involves injustice to 
the defective child in that the regular school processes mean nothing 
to him, and he is losing his opportunity for learning what he is really 
able to learn, in the only way he can learn, i.e., in small classes 
and through concrete teaching with much hand work. It is unjust to 
the teacher because it lays on her shoulders an impossible task often 
destroying all heart for the work and always diminishing the joy of 
accomplishment, which constitutes the greater part of the salary of the 
average teacher. No one knows how much unnecessarily slow progress 
of normal children is caused by the presence of sub-normal children in 
regular grades. No one knows how much this costs in wasted school 
expenditure, diminished efficiency of children leaving school, and 
delayed entrance into community activities. One thing is certain, that 
the cost of teaching the 32 most serious cases of mental defectiveness 
recently found in the Park School was worse than wasted. Only 

20 



special industrialized classes could meet their needs. Two of these would 
be necessary. The twenty less serious cases might possibly get some- 
thing out of the regular classes, largely at the expense of the other 
children, and of the teacher. But to a large extent the money and time 
spent on their education, under present circumstances, is wasted. The 
slowing down of the regular classes by their presence is another waste. 
If the waste represented by the unsuitability of the instruction now 
given to subnormal children in Park School is $2,500 per annum, the 
waste from the slowing down of normal children is certainly not less. 

An annual expenditure of $5,000 on special teaching would get 
somewhere with the sub-normal children and would exercise a tre- 
mendous influence on the retardation and overage of normal children. 
The initial increased expenditure, under effective administration, would 
soan lead to a decreased total expenditure — other factors of cost 
remaining the same. 

The most serious cases of backward children, all clear cases of 
mental defectiveness, were distributed as follows: 

Kindergarten 1 

Junior 1st 9 

Senior 1st 10 

Junior 2nd 5 

Senior 2nd 2 

Junior 3rd 3 

Senior 3rd 2 

Junior 4th 

Senior 4th 



The twenty milder cases of backwardness were distributed as 
follows : 

Junior 1st 2 

Senior 1st 4 

Junior 2nd 5 

Senior 2nd 3 

Junior 3rd 6 

Senior 3rd 

Junior 4th 

Senior 4th 

Total 20 

The following is a description of eight individual cases, taken from 
the report of the specialists who made the inquiry — Drs. C. K. Clarke 
and E. J. Pratt : 

1 — Neurotic type ; sucks fingers ; sprawls down on floor in school to 
the amusement of the children. 

2 — Juvenile court case. Defective speech. In Junior 1st. 

3 — Very troublesome in class. Has notions of persecution on play- 
ground. Defective palate. Cyanosis of hands. 

30 



4 — A strongly built fellow, abnormally stupid. Seems utterly 
incapable of learning how to read, though he can do simple 
mental arithmetic. Defective palate. 

5 — Mother considered mentally defective — had St. Vitus' Dance. 
Third term in Junior 2nd. Conduct, fair in school. 

6 Juvenile Court twice. Exceedingly dull. Troublesome. Defec- 
tive palate. 

7 — Giggles hysterically; stammers. Defective palate. No progress 
in spite of fairly good attendance. 

8 — Low grade imbecile. Father professional man. Mother defec- 
tive. Up before clinic. An institutional case. 

The problem of the mental defectives in our public schools is not a 
figment of the minds of a group of lop-sided theorists. It is a reality, and 
the quicker the citizens of Toronto awake to a full understanding of the 
facts, the better for the children and the community. 

Summary. 

The seriousness of the problems of educational waste is thoroughly 
understood by the principal and staff of the Park School. Great 
emphasis is laid on the period between 3.30 and 4.00 p.m., when, after 
the regular session of the school, backward children receive individual 
attention. When special teachers are provided this will be no longer 
necessary as it will be possible to give the necessary regular sessions 
while children are fresh and not after a whole regular school day has 
lessened the receptiveness and energy of the children. The treatment of 
dullness, or even stupidity, should not be such as to lay it open to 
interpretation as a punishment. The principal has tried giving an 
hour of special instruction each day between 9.00 and 10.00 a.m. to 
forty children — ten each selected from four similar grades. He has 
frequently taken a class of six from each of several grades. This is 
excellent work and very effective, but is an unreasonable tax on the 
principal and moreover takes him away from other necessary work. 
Through the clinic the principal located the most serious cases of 
mental defect so that teachers would be able to direct their main efforts 
to those capable of responding. The principal and school nurse have 
kept persistently after dilatory parents who refused to have children 
operated on for adenoids and diseased tonsils, which were seriously 
interfering with school work. The principal also made a survey of 
non-attendance in the school, and used this as a basis for a successful 
campaign to bring up the percentage of attendance. 

The Park district is a prevailingly British district. There is no 
valid reason why two or three classes of Senior Fourth children should 
not be graduated each year. However, before this can be done it will 
be necessary to take some very drastic steps such as the following : 

1. The provision of "floating" teachers to give individual help to 

children who need their help in weak subjects. 

2. The starting of special classes for abnormally "slow" or abnorm- 

ally "rapid" children. 

31 



3. The installation of increased equipment for the teaching of 

history, geography, nature study, or elementary science, and 
literature, making it possible to "realize" the teaching of these 
subjects to a greater extent than at present. 

4. Increasing the amount and improving the character of hand 

training in the grades below the Junior Fourth. 

5. Increasing the fineness of grading the children so as to make 

class instruction more nearly individual. 

6. Establishing regular semi-annual promotions in all grades and 

where possible encouraging promotion at any other time in the 
year without the changing of rooms. 

7. The removal of all mental defectives to special rooms. 

CLASS-ROOM INSTRUCTION 

The Bureau representative observed teaching in at least one class of 
each grade in the school. The "esprit de corps" of the teaching staff is 
excellent and the professional ability of the teachers, whose work was 
observed, was of a high order. It is unnecessary here to go into details 
of class-room technique. The district inspection and the constant 
supervision of the principal, as well as the professional training and 
experience of the teachers themselves, explain the almost entire absence 
in the lessons observed of those minor errors in technique which are so 
commonly in evidence in the class-room. The really serious short- 
comings of the instruction in the Park School are not due in any sense 
to the teaching staff, but to the limitations of the course of study, the 
absence of equipment and material necessary to obtain the best results 
and other, conditions over which the schools themselves have no control. 
The Park School is the centre of a community which, of course, differs 
in some respects from any other in the city, and greatly from many. 
Yet there has been no differentiation in the course of study, in the 
emphasis laid on the various elements of the course, or in methods of 
presentation. The school is a typical academic school doing good work 
under its limitations but producing results for. the community falling 
far short of the ideal or even the possible. That the authorities believe 
that the tone of the school should be relieved of its severely academic 
character is shown by the action of the Board in introducing into the 
Senior 4th, Junior 4th and Senior 3rd grades, cooking and sewing 
classes, now in operation, and manual training classes to be in opera- 
tion next September*. But this is only beginning. What is needed 
is not an addition to the course so much as a transformation of the work 
of the class-room as a whole through a change in the emphasis and in 
methods of instruction. The Park School children, like the pupils 
of most public schools on this continent, need less text book and more 
teacher, less theory and more practice, less explanation and more 
purposeful activity, less learning by absorption and more learning by 
doing, no less information by proxy but more information by first- 
hand experience. For example, Geography is a science and is, therefore, 



*These, of course, are now in operation. 

32 



based oji observation and experience. It is impossible for children to 
understand Geography without first-hand acquaintance with a sufficient 
number of actual natural phenomena to enable them to form clearly 
certain basal concepts. It is possible for children to pass highly satis- 
factory written or oral examinations on the subject matter of the text 
books without any real understanding of Geography. Children are 
wonderfully adaptable, wonderfully patient, and may even learn to 
enjoy the twice-removed method of learning Geography, if it be turned 
by a skilful teacher into a game of wits. Ability to talk acceptably on 
a subject does not necessarily mean, however, ability to understand. It 
may only mean a clear impression of what one has read or been told. 

Toronto is situated in a district where the raw materials of geogra- 
phical instruction are abundant. An hour at the Don or Humber. in 
first-hand supervised observation might save many lost hours of 
•'beating the air" in the class-room. A carefully planned afternoon with 
the teacher in the Toronto Exhibition in the Agricultural Buildings, for 
example, might vitalize the instruction in Geography over a whole term. 
The building up of a geographical museum in the Park School, 
through the agency of the children, guided by the teachers would be 
easy, and would greatly facilitate geographical instruction through 
heightened interest alone. Every class might have its own little 
museum, collected each year in large part, any especially valuable 
exhibit being transferred to the central permanent museum. Every 
healthy child is a born collector. Why not use childish instincts to 
further school processes? 

In another chapter the possibility of the special room in Geography 
and Nature Study will be discussed. 

The equipment of ordinary maps in the School is good, there being 
thirty maps of Canada, four of Ontario, seven of the world, and five 
other maps. It is understood that a sufficient number of modern maps 
for use in teaching Physical Geography is to be added to the school 
equipment on the recommendation of the Inspector of Supplies. There 
are only two globes for the entire school. These would be sufficient if 
they were supplemented by 40 small individual globes which could be 
put in the hands of the children. If there were a special room in 
Geography the supplying of equipment would be simpler and probably 
less expensive. 

The teaching of History labors under similar disadvantages. There 
is no collection of illustrative historical material in the school, aside 
from a collection of historical pictures in one volume and a few pictures 
on the walls. While it is possible for the teacher to interest her class 
in History through appeals to the children's natural love for biography 
and lively narrative, many of the important features of History, such 
as changes in industry, constitutional development, alterations in home 
life are practically a closed book to the children through the lack of 
material which would form starting points for their constructive 
imaginations. Toronto is a mine of historical material which could be 
used to illustrate recent history. The very site of the city abounds with 
historical remains or monuments. The Parliament Buildings not only 
give an opportunity to witness political history in the making, but are 
rich in material necessary for instruction in the early history of Ontario. 

33 



There is no valid reason why every large public school in Toronto 
should not have an elementary historical museum for the teaching of 
Canadian and British history. The children themselves could obtain 
for the museum, as gifts or loans, large quantities of illustrative 
material bearing on Canadian history. Photographs, reproductions of 
documents and paintings could readily be obtained to illustrate British 
history.* History is the best vehicle for education in citizenship in the 
public schools. 

In the Park School this necessity of concrete instruction in History 
and Geography has been clearly recognized in that all classes down to 
the Senior First are encouraged to visit the Royal Ontario Museum with 
their teachers, a practice that is becoming general throughout the city. 
The senior classes are also taken to the Parliament Buildings. 

The teaching of both History and Geography could be greatly 
increased in effectiveness and the time required in covering the pre- 
scribed course could be greatly reduced by the judicious use of motion 
picture machines. Films which can be readily co-ordinated with text 
may now be obtained in limited numbers. As the demand increases 
the supply will become more adequate. The Provincial Department will 
undoubtedly extend its activities in this direction until it ensures to 
the schools a supply of educational films as regular and complete as that 
of text books. 

The Report of the Chief Inspector, 1919, contains a discussion of the 
use of lanterns in the schools, of museum facilities and of other auxiliary 
agencies (pages 18-23). This should be read by every public school 
supporter. 

The instruction in Reading and Literature is also somewhat handi- 
capped by insufficiency of material. The increase of supplementary, 
readers in recent years has been very considerable and the school comes 
up to the requirements of the Department in this respect. These 
requirements are, however, a minimum and should not deter the Board 
from supplying a greater number. Schools in the down-town districts 
undoubtedly require a greater amount of supplementary reading than 
schools in residential districts, and the children require more guidance 
dn this reading. The way to learn to read is to read, not to keep 
rereading the same few books. Ten supplementary readers per class in 
primary grades are not too many. At present it is necessary to do 
considerable transference of supplementary readers from class to class. 
The principle is right as it tends to cut down overhead costs ; but if the 
number, of readers were doubled, the length of time each might remain 
in each class-room would be increased, thus cutting down the consump- 
tion of pupils' time in making transfers. 

An accurate record was kept of all class work observed. It had 
been the original intention to incorporate this with the report, as giving 
concrete pictures of actual class-room work, but on account of the cost of 
publication it was decided to confine the report to the above summary. 



*It is to be noted that the school itself is raising over $500 to pay for a 
lantern, 600 slides, 600 stereographs and 24 stereoscopes, with the necessary filing 
cases. 

34 



THE PARK SCHOOL AS AN 
OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL 

A good education suited to his inner needs and his natural capaci- 
ties is the birthright of every Canadian child. Canada is the land of 
opportunity and the public school is its portal. Once entered in a 
public school the child and the child's parents have a right to expect 
a curriculum adapted to the child's needs and capacities; airy, well- 
lighted, well-ventilated and well-heated class-rooms; equipment neces- 
sary for the teaching of all subjects in the best way, and for the 
development of the many-sided nature of the child ; careful study of the 
individual child at every stage in his school life and the determination 
of his school course in the light of such study. 

The Park School, like practically all elementary schools everywhere, 
in spite of kindergartens, domestic art teaching, etc., and the influence 
of those on regular class work, is still a school of the book. Its funda- 
mental processes are based on books. History, Geography, Grammar 
and Arithmetic are learned mainly from books directly, or indirectly 
through the teacher. The child does not really learn the vital connec- 
tion of these subjects with life until after he has left school, and then 
he finds that in many cases much of what he has learned has no 
relation to life, just as he has found that much of it has had no 
relation to his soul needs. The subjects of the school course of study 
are not hermetically sealed compartments; they are simply different 
aspects of life's experiences which can be unified and explained in the 
mind of the child only by continuous contact with the actual processes 
going on in real life. The school, originally in the home and in close 
contact with the activities of the home, has necessarily been abstracted 
from its original environment but quite unnecessarily detached from 
its spirit of reality. The school is a world, but at present largely an 
unreal, artificial world. The school cannot again be taken back into 
the world which has become so bewilderingly complex, but the world 
in selected phases can be taken into the school to give meaning and 
motive to its processes, to give reality to the content of its curricula, 
and to provide a touchstone for testing the worth-whileness and sound- 
ness of its aims. 

The word ''culture" has been so thoroughly misunderstood in the 
past and has been given so narrow a meaning that the use of this term 
in educational discussions has contributed not a little to lack of 
apparent harmony where real harmony existed, and to delaying pro- 
gressive action through verbal warfare. There is no such thing as a 
subject cultural in itself. Its effect on human beings decides its status. 
As human beings are different its effects will be different. If one indi- 
vidual cannot grasp the subject at all, for him the subject is not cultural. 
All subjects are cultural insofar as their subject matters really enter 
into the life of the pupils, minister to their spiritual and intellectual 
needs, develop latent abilities, form their judgments and modify their 
conduct, and insofar as they do not do these things they are non- 
cultural. No subject can be truly cultural unless it springs out of 
human experiences and needs. There is no so-called utilitarian subject 
which is not also strongly cultural. For some types of mind they supply 

35 



the only culture possible. Subjects in the curriculum, based primarily 
on book work, become cultural in exact proportion as the subject 
matter is lifted out of the book and placed down in a living setting. 
Utilitarian subjects become really utilitarian only insofar as their sub- 
ject matter is related to actual life and becomes in this way part of the 
every day working machinery of the mind and body of the child. 
Reality, not resemblance; first-hand contact, not once or twice removed 
second-hand experience, are the first essentials for the effective teaching 
of any subject. Yet, even such subjects as History and Geography, 
the people's humanities, in the Park School, as in 99% of the elementary 
schools on the continent, are still under the baleful dominance of the 
text book. There can be no reasonable doubt that every school as 
large as the Park School should have one special room set apart for 
History, and another for Geography and Nature Study. While some of 
the exercises in these subjects could be taught in the regular class- 
room, every teacher of such subjects should take her classes to the 
special rooms for the greater part of the time allotted. As suggested 
elsewhere, working collections of illustrative material should line the 
walls, motion picture machines should be installed for. the presentation 
of films closely related to the text, and history and geography should 
become studies of things, peoples and processes rather than of books. 
The time spent would be greatly diminished, the usable residuum in the 
minds of the pupils would be greatly increased and the cultural value of 
these subjects would be multiplied many times. 

The school auditorium should be the centre of instruction in litera- 
ture and art supplementing the work of the class-room in drawing, 
composition and reading. This room also should be equipped with a 
motion picture machine and as wide a range of films as is at present 
available. At present the Park School has no auditorium. This is a 
great lack, and limits the efficiency of the school from the standpoint of 
the children, as well as from that of the neighboring community. 

It would be possible through the shift system — in which all the 
special instruction, save in higher manual training and domestic art, 
would be given by regular class teachers — to set aside some of the 
regular class-rooms for special instruction without diminishing the 
capacity of the building from the standpoint of total membership. The 
construction of a swimming pool in the basement, the conversion of the 
kindergarten into an auditorium, the removal of the kindergarten to 
a double class-room elsewhere and the conversion of some regular 
class-rooms or playrooms into special rooms for such subjects as print- 
ing (through which spelling and composition could be effectively 
taught), would make school work more interesting and effective with- 
out lessening the number of pupils it could serve. By the shift plan 
the teachers would accompany their classes, except as above stated, 
thus avoiding serious defects of the so-called platoon system. When 
the children are in the classes of the special teachers the regular 
teachers would be free for individual or small group instruction of 
backward children. 

If the school day were lengthened from 8.00 to 4.00, with different 
lunch hours for various groups of children, the capacity of the school 
could be increased from 25% to 40%. The following paragraphs and 

36 



charts are reproduced from the report of the Akron School Survey of 
1915: 

"The extension of the period during daylight hours when the 
school buildings and playgrounds are open, the provision of rooms 
with certain special equipment, and the equipment of gymnasia, 
can greatly increase the use of school plant without giving the 
individual teacher, any more work, without increasing the number 
of school hours per child, and without departmentalizing the ele- 
mentary schools. As our notions as to the requirements of school 
discipline become modified in the direction of auto-discipline, the 
lessening of class-room nervous strain will become noticeable, and 
both teachers and pupils will be able to work more hours in the 
day and more days in the year with an increase — not a decrease — 
in the joy of life and consequently of efficiency. 

Outlined below is a possible organization of a school consisting 
of three regular class-rooms and one special class-room. It pro- 
vides for six teachers, each working five hours a day, and a school 
plant working eight hours a day (two rooms, seven hours). The 
special class-room might be equipped for art and elementary manual 
training work for all grades, for nature study, history and 
geography for all grades, or for a small gymnasium. For advanced 
manual training and domestic arts the children might go to a 
special centre, such as would be provided by a large specialized 
elementary school. Or, again, Grades VII. and VIII. might be 
omitted from this school and sent to a central school for upper 
grades, such as a Junior High School which takes Grades VII., 
VIII. and IX. In any event, four class-rooms would provide six 
classes with everything essential and more than they receive under 
usual existing conditions." 



37 



A FOUR-ROOM SCHOOL ON A SHIFT PLAN 

(Letters represent classes) 
Hours. Three Regular Class-rooms. One Special Room 



3-9 


A 




3 




C 














9VO 


D 




B 




c 














/O// 


/J 




r 




£ 














//-/2 


/? 




B 




S 














/?-/ 


M 




f 




C 














f-2 


/7 




3 




jO 














2-3 


JJ 




f 




£ 














3 # 


C? 




r 




£ 













o 



6 teachers for 5 hours each = 30 teacher hours. 
6 classes at 5 hours each = 30 class hours. 
4 class-rooms at an average of 7}4 hours each 
hours. 

38 



30 class-room 



"It will be noticed: 

1. That the classes shift somewhat, but that the teachers shift with 

them; 

2. That four of the classes are in a ''home" room four hours out of 

five, and the other two for three hours out of five ; 

3. That five out of the six classes end the day in the room where 

they began; 

4. Each class has at least one hour per day in the special room ; 

5. Two classes begin at eight, have one hour intermission, and get 

through at two o'clock (leaving three hours at least for the 
playground) ; two classes begin at eight, have two hours inter- 
mission and get through at three o'clock ; and two classes begin 
at ten o'clock, have one hour intermission, and get through at 
four o'clock. If classes 5 or 6 were a kindergarten it would 
not need to begin until ten o'clock and the children would 
not need to come back in the afternoon, leaving two rooms for 
the instruction by the kindergarten teachers of special children 
in the lower grades; 

6. By enlarging the supposed building by multiples of four, the 

number of special rooms could be increased so that the curricu- 
lum could be enriched without decreasing the relative number 
of children taken care of. 

This is not offered as an ideal arrangement but is presented 
in a schematic form without details in order, to make the meaning 
clear. All sorts of modifications could be made by changing the 
time of opening half-an-hour, by making the intermission uniformly 
one and a half hours long, etc. The details of such a scheme would 
have to be worked out by the authorities on the ground, in the 
view of all local conditions and modes of living. 

The diagram which follows indicated how 12 classes could be 
taken care of in six regular class-rooms, one special class-room and 
a gymnasium large enough to accommodate three ordinary classes 
with a teacher each and leaving class-rooms vacant for several 
periods in the afternoon for the instruction of exceptional children. 
The letters indicate classes. 



■,9 



AN EIGHT-ROOM SCHOOL ON A 
SHIFT PLAN 

(Letters represent classes) 

Hours. Six Regular Class-rooms One One 

Special Gymna- 
Room siuin 



S9 
9-/0 
JOH 

/*?-/ 

2-3 
3-4 


/ 
J 
J 

/J 
J 




8 
B 

/r 
/f 
/? 

B 
/f 




c 

c 

L 

z 
c 

/r 




D 
D 

£ 




£ 
£ 
£ 
/ 
/ 
G 
/ 
£ 




£ 

G 
G 

£ 

£ 
G 



0A 
0A 
0A 
0A 
0A 
0A 
0A 
0A 



40 



It should be remembered that any such scheme disarranges, 
more or less, home time schedules, creates embarrassment when 
there are several children from one home, increases the expense of 
maintenance of plant and makes sanitation harder. The question 
for the community to settle is whether they are prepared to put 
up with the inconveniences of some seven or eight-hour day "shift" 
plan — which works no violence to the interests of the children — 
for the sake of the financial advantages. The writer believes that 
in the near future an experiment of this nature will be forced by 
circumstances and that it should be undertaken at once before 
actual necessity requires it. It allows for improving instruction 
without any really serious inconveniences to the home and is 
certainly preferable to overcrowding/' 

Even with a school day lasting from 9 to 12 and from 1.30 to 4, a 
greatly increased use would be obtained from the school plant through 
the shift plan. The cost, however, would probably be increased rather 
than decreased. 



THE PARK SCHOOL 
AS AN ALL-THE- YEAR-ROUND SCHOOL 

The long summer vacation during which the schools as a general 
thing are closed up, and the school plant for the most part unused, is 
a survival from an earlier period when cities were smaller and indus- 
trial and social organization was not so complex as at present. There 
is no more justification for the non-use of the school plant during July 
and August than for the non-use of Juvenile Courts, Churches, Health 
Centres, etc. It is urged that children need these months for recupera- 
tion and for visits to the country. How many children actually do 
recuperate in the summer? What proportion actually does get out of 
the city ? It is urged that July and August are too hot for school work. 
Are not school buildings as a whole the coolest and most comfortable 
buildings in the city? Large numbers of children spend a great part 
of their holidays on the streets. Education does not cease when the 
schools close. It continues on the street or wherever the children spend 
their time. Why should not the educational processes, which are con- 
tinuous, be continuously guided by the public schools? The need for 
vacation schools has been widely recognized. It has been found that 
many children actually lose stamina during the summer vacation, that 
they learn many things that they had better not learn, and that 
they lose so much during the vacation that it may take a month's 
review to enable them to go on with the new term's work. If all. 
children could be transported en masse to the country during July and 
August there would be no need for summer sessions and they would 
actually learn more and would make more physical gains than would 
be possible in summer schools. But this cannot be done. The majority 
of the children stay in the city. Their needs continue. The school 
should not desert them. It need not be the same kind of school, but it 
need not be any less educational and valuable. In fact, what has been 
learned about children in vacation schools has had an important effect 
in stimulating improvement in the schools in general. 

41 



It has been urged that teachers cannot stand a forty-eight week 
year, that they are so exhausted by the wear and tear of the thirty-nine 
or forty weeks of the regular school year that they would break down 
under the strain of the longer, year. If such be the case, it constitutes 
a serious criticism of the school as at present constituted, its curriculum 
and its discipline. Wearing out is due to friction. School friction is 
no more necessary than friction elsewhere and can be largely removed 
by observance of the laws of child growth, the study of child needs and 
the universal establishment of a natural discipline in the schools. 
Healthy children are naturally busy. Busy children are naturally 
happy. Happy children learn best and require less regimentation. 
This does not mean that disagreeable tasks do not need to be done. But 
there will be less friction in getting them done if the general atmosphere 
of the school is one of natural activity and hearty co-operation. More- 
over, there is no necessity for all teachers working during the whole 
school year. If the year be divided into four terms of twelve weeks 
each, the teachers may be allowed to teach any three of the periods that 
they prefer. If all-year-round schools are established gradually, as 
they should be, in districts where they are most needed and where the 
parents are most willing, it will be found possible to find teachers who 
will volunteer to serve the extra term with a corresponding increase in 
pay. Only physically fit teachers and those in sympathy with the 
experiment should be selected. Experience elsewhere shows that where 
this has been done the health of teachers has not suffered. Any teacher 
who has taught three extra sessions might be given leave of absence for 
a period of time for recuperation, travel and professional improvement. 
In fact, it would be in the interests of the schools if many teachers would 
occasionally take a year off from teaching to engage in some other 
occupation in order, to keep more closely in touch with the workaday 
world. The sabbatical year, i.e., every seventh year allowed for rest, 
travel, research, etc., is just as desirable in elementary education, 
although the need is not so well recognized, as in the High Schools and 
Universities, and it might be well for the Board to consider its estab- 
lishment entirely apart from the all-year-round school. 

The need of vacation schools in Toronto has been recognized by the 
Board of Education. In the 1913 report of the Chief Inspector, it is 
stated : 

"The attendance at the vacation school in Hester How School 
was 595. 

"This school added very much to the happiness and to the 
development of the children who attended it. There is little of 
formal study or the acquisition of mere knowledge in the work of 
a good vacation school. The vacation school is intended to deepen 
true interests and develop the powers of the children, and at the 
same time to supply the children of densely populated districts in 
large cities with a safe place in which to play and do various kinds 
of work which are quite as interesting to them as play, such as 
music, art and the varied forms of manual training, stories — 
biographical, historical, folk tales and the standard stories of 
mythology — and other similar forms of work and play. 

42 



"In some important senses the school during vacation time is 
of even greater value to the children than during the regular 



The cost of maintaining the Hester How vacation school in 1913 
was, according to the official report, less than $1.00 per pupil. 

The need has also been recognized by the public who have main- 
tained for some years "Daily Vacation Bible Schools," which give most 
of their time to manual training of various sorts and to educational 
games and moral training. This year they were maintained at 27 
centres, with a total enrollment of 4,800, and an average daily attend- 
ance of 2,146. There must be thousands more children needing such 
cannot or does not meet their needs? 

The all-year-round school movement, which originated with the 
vacation school, was first intended to keep children off the street. This 
developed into the catch-up school, in which non-promoted children 
might do review work sufficient to join their former classes in the fall. 
The first development was largely negative in its aim. The soundness of 
the second in actual practice is somewhat open to question. The all-the- 
year-round school, or rather the forty-eight week school, may be so 
organized as not only to retain all the advantages of the vacation 
school and catch-up school, but to greatly strengthen them, while 
increasing the flexibility of the system which should help it meet many 
needs of individual families and children. 

The following extracts from an article by David B. Corson, Super- 
intendent of Schools, Newark, N.J., summarizes some of the chief 
features of Newark's experience with the forty-eight week school. 

The Effect on Energy. 

"The first objective is to reduce the waste in energy incidental 
to the long break of the school year in July and August. It is 
well known to all teachers that much time is used in January, and 
again in June, in preparation for the final term examination, which 
consumes an additional week of each of these months. It is evident 
that the short term removes the necessity for using so much time 
for a grand final review and drill. The theory is that frequent and 
reasonable reviews and drills should be substituted for the very 
formal one hitherto used, and that the educational process should 
be continuous. 

"There is complete agreement among teachers in all-year 
schools that when school opens in the fall there is very much less 
time consumed in the all-year schools in getting to work, because 
of the fact that the pupils have not had a long vacation. The pupils 
who have attended in the summer term have had only a short 
interruption in the habit-forming work of the school. Habits of 
cleanliness, punctuality, industry, restraint, etc., are not broken 
in two weeks as they usually are in two months. The difference in 
the same school between the pupils who attend in the summer time 
and those who stay at home is noticeable when the children return 
in September. 

43 



The Effect on Health. 

"The second objective of the all-year schools is to prove that 
school work in summer is not injurious to health. The health of 
children and teachers in these schools has been uniformly good. 
The Department of Medical Inspection is vigilant and the school 
nurses are watchful and thoroughly efficient. The physicians in 
charge of these schools report that in their opinion 'the general 
health of the pupils has been better than if the children had not 
attended school/ The percentage of attendance on the enrollment 
in the schools is generally higher in the summer than in other 
schools during the year. 

"Inquiry in the home reveals the fact that parents believe the 
children are better off in the large, cool, pleasant class-rooms than 
in the streets or even at home. Pupils concerning whose physical 
fitness there is any doubt are not admitted. In several summers 
there have been very few pupils whom teachers thought might 
better have stayed at home. 

"To answer the question as to the effect on teachers: Referring 
to the oldest school as typical — there were fifty teachers in the 
school when the plan was adopted. Seven have been transferred 
to other schools, five have been promoted to higher positions in 
other schools, two have gone to other cities, sixteen have married, 
and twenty are still in the school. Of these, fifteen have taught 
from three to eight successive summers out of the eight since the 
school was made an all-year school. Of the sixteen teachers who 
resigned to be married, twelve taught from three to six successive 
summers without injury to their health. 

"Attendance of pupils and service of teachers in the summer 
are voluntary. If teachers in a school do not care to teach, there 
are always a number of experienced teachers of given grades from 
other schools who gladly accept the positions. The testimony of 
the teachers almost without exception is that there are no detri- 
mental effects upon their, health. They say that it has not been 
impaired by extra work. Some say they return to school in 
September somewhat lacking in the buoyancy and freshness char- 
acteristic of those who have had two or three months' vacation. 
Others say they prefer to teach in the summer not only because of 
the extra salary but because the long vacation is tiresome and 
they have no regular work to do. Therefore, it seems to be demon- 
strated that the health of the pupils and teachers is not injured by 
the summer work." 

The Gain in Time When the Health of Pupils Permits. 

(Particularly in the case of foreign children entering our schools from 
foreign schools). 

"The all-year plan provides a way by which ambitious children 
may save time in getting an education. By continuous attendance 
for three years a pupil may finish a four-year course. The speed 
of the work ought not to be greater than the pupil's ability to 
assimilate knowledge or more rapid than his mental development. 

44 



If anyone finds the rate too rapid, the plan is flexible enough to 
permit him to omit some terms and still gain time. The school 
continues, although the individual may not attend every term 
consecutively. The opportunity is his, if all personal conditions 
are favorable." 

The experience of Newark shows that the forty-eight week school is 
not only more efficient from the community standpoint than the tradi- 
tional school, in certain sections of a large city, but that it actually 
results in a money saving. 



45 



THE PRINCIPALS OF 
PARK SCHOOL 

1853—1857— 

1857— 1869— WM. ANDERSON. 
1869— 1873— ALEX. McLAREN. 
1873— 1875— R. W. DOAN. 
1875— 1883— M. GILL. 

Oct. 1883 | a. R. PYNE. 
8^1884 J A- MORRISON. 
1884— 1893— R. T. MARTIN. 
1893— 1914— E. BYPIELD. 
1914 S. RICHARDSON. 



40 



EXTRACTS FROM DIARY OF PARK SCHOOL 

1871 
March 21st — The election of representatives in the Local Legislature took place 
to-day. The Hon. M. C. Cameron for East Toronto and Mr. A. 
Crook for West Toronto. 

This day is also celebrated for the marriage of the Princess Louise 
to the Marquis of Lome. 

April 6th — Received this morning a note from the Superintendent* informing me 
that the public schools were to be closed for the usual Easter Holi- 
days, commencing to-day at 4 p.m. and continuing until the 17th 
inst. — and also directing me to tell the caretaker to thoroughly 
scrub and clean the school rooms during the vacation. 
Gave an order on Mr. Barber for cutting three cords of wood. 

April 27th — The Superintendent visited the school this morning and spent the 
whole forenoon in examining the Third Division boys in Arithmetic. 

May 1st The requisites were received to-day and a copy of the annual report 

of the Local Superintendent to each of the teachers. 

May 5th — The inclemency of the weather yesterday caused a small attendance 
at school. 

May 9th — Several boys were absent yesterday afternoon on account of attending 
a funeral. 

May 11th — A statement of the repairs required in and about the school and 
yard was sent to the Secretary to-day forenoon. 

May 12th — The Committee on Sites and Buildings, etc., Messrs. Bain and W. B. 
McMurrich, accompanied by the Secretary, Mr. Barber, visited the 
school this a.m. to see what was required in the way of repairs, etc. 

May 23rd — The City schools will be closed for the usual holiday on the Queen's 
birthday. J. Porter, L.S. 

May 29th — Received this morning 6 programmes — one for each Division — of 
coming combined examination on 12th and 13th prox. 

May 30th — The combined examination will take place at 9 a.m. on Monday, 
June 12th, at Victoria Street School house. Headmasters will send 
to the Local Superintendent's Office, not later than on Wednesday, 
the 7th of June, the names of pupils, male and female, of 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd Divisions, selected by their respective teachers to compete 
at said examination. They will also state whether, should scholar- 
ships be awarded to boys from their 3rd Divisions, the boys will 
accept them or prefer prizes. 

Each pupil from a 2nd or a 3rd Division will bring to the combined 
examination, as a specimen of hand-writing, Luke 10, 271h. 
The name of the pupil and that of the school, and the Number of 
the Division will be written under the specimen. The usual Summer 
Examinations will take place on Thursday, June 29th from 9.30 
a.m. until noon, and from 1.30 p.m. until 4 p.m. The examinations 
will be conducted according to a programme to be posted by 
each teacher. The usual notices to parents and guardians will be 
given orally by teachers, through the pupils, and in writing by 
Principal Teachers to their Local Trustees, and to School Visitors 
who reside near their respective schools. Headmasters will bring 

•The title of "Local Superintendent" later gave way to that of "Public School 
Inspector," and again later, to "Chief Inspector." 

47 



1871 

the names of candidates for semi-annual certificates of Honour, 
together with the evidence in favor of doubtful claims, to the 
office of the Local Superintendent, as soon as possible after the 
close of school on the afternoon of Wednesday, June 28th. The 
schools will be re-opened at 9.00 a.m. on Monday, August 14th. 
James Porter, L.S. 

June 29th — The summer examinations took place to-day. The Kev. Mr. King, 
Dr. Eoss, Trustee, and daughter visited the school in forenoon. In 
the afternoon the school was visited by a large number, about 40, 
of visitors among whom were the Chairman of Board, Dr. H. H. 
Wright, the Rev. Mr. Porter, L.S., and Mr. Jardin, Trustee. 

The following boys received certificates of Honour at the 
above examination: 3rd Division, Jos. Rogers, Jno. Rogers, Tomlin 
Roberts, Wm. Patton; 2nd Division, Henry Ryrie, G. W. Davis, Jas. 
Robt. Chambers, Harry Perkins; 1st Division, John Patton, Jas. 
Poole, Edgar Farley, Thos. Greig, Wm. Greig, Alfred Edwin Regan, 
Clarence Dickson, Herbert Hellam, Fred Davis. 

The following are the names of boys sent to combined examination 
held on June 12th and 13th: 3rd Division, Wm. Ryrie, Sam. 
Herst, Chas. Perry McCaffry; 2nd Division, Henry Ryrie, Neal 
Still, R. Dickson; 1st Division, Jas. Poole, Ed. Farley, John Patton. 
The boys from the 3rd Division were all successful, obtaining 
respectively the 1st, 2nd and 5th scholarships. One of the 2nd 
Division boys, H. Ryrie, obtained a prize and also one of the 1st 
Division, Jas. Poole. 

Sept. 21st — Miss Ross, a teacher, visited the school this forenoon. 

Sept. 28th — Mr. Barber, Secretary, was communicated with in respect of sending 
a man to saw wood for school. 

Oct. 2nd — Received the supplies from Mr. Barber to-day and sent him a com- 
munication in reference to glaziers' work, etc. The weather is 
now fine. 

Oct. 23rd — Some person or persons broke into the school some time between 
Saturday and this morning. The entrance was made by raising one 
of the windows at the south end of the room occupied by Miss 
Robertson, 3rd Division Girls. The damage done is very trifling, 
consisting in carrying away from Miss Robertson's room some 30 
penholders with pens and about 20 or 21 pens and holders from Miss 
Birk's. From Miss Campbell's room was carried off a box of 
pencils — about 100. This is all so far as can be seen. Any unlocked 
drawers were examined, probably for money. The exit was 
evidently made by the door leading into the boys' yard, which had 
been left unbolted. 

Nov. 7th — The Headmaster sent a communication to Mr. Barber, Secretary, 
relative to the parties that committed the larceny a few days ago 
in this building. 

Nov. 17th — A note was sent by Headmaster to Secretary asking for locks to 
gates and wood shed, also hinges for latter. 

Nov. 30th — The City Inspector proposes to deliver his annual school lecture in 
this school house, on Monday, December 4th, at 7.30 p.m. The 
subject will be "Certain contemplated effects of the amended 
school law." J. S. Porter, C.I. 

Dec. 1st — The Rev. Mr. Boddy attended as usual to-day. 

Dec. 4th Received the requisites to-day and also package of three dozen 

candles. The Rev. J. Porter, City Inspector, delivered his annual 
lecture here this evening to a fair audience. His subject was as 
given above (Nov. 30th entry). 

48 



1871 
Dec. 5th — The remaining candles were returned to the Secretary to-day. 

Dec. 15th. — 'Masters C. P. McCaffrey and William Ryrie, Scholarship boys 1871, 
visited the school for a short time this afternoon. 

Dec. 20th — The Ina^ector, Rev. J. Porter, visited the school this a.m. A large 
number (45) of the parents and friends of the pupils came to see 
the exercises in the afternoon. Mr. Coatsworth, local Trustee, was 
present and delivered the Certificates of Honour to those pupils who 
were entitled to them. The following pupils received certificates: 

3rd Division, Wm. Shaver, Tomlin Roberts, Jos. Rogers, O. H. Allen, 
Henry Ryrie; 2nd Division, Alfred Regan, Clarence Dickson, William 
Greig, Fred Davis. 

1872 
Feb. 22nd — John Traviss, the murderer of Johnson, was hanged this morning. 

March 21st — Miss Hamilton left school to-day at the forenoon recess on account 
of illness. Her place is supplied by monitors from the 3rd Division. 

April 10th — The schools were closed yesterday owing to its being the day set 
apart by the Governor-General for a public thanksgiving for the 
recovery of the Prince of Wales. 

April 20th — A communication was sent to Mr. Barber, Secretary, etc., informing 
him about board off woodshed, and also asking to have the fence 
in front of school repaired so as to keep out geese, ducks, etc. 

Sept. 5th — The Inspector visited the school this morning and examined the 
pupils of the First and Second Divisions. It rained last night. 

Oct. 2nd — The Truant Officer visited the school this a.m. for the purpose partly 
of ascertaining the quantity of wood on hand. 

Oct. 4th — Ordered by the Board "That Head Teachers be requested to furnish 
the Inspector, day by day, with a complete list of absentees from 
their several schools, during the present month of October, 
together with, when known, the reason of absence and the age, 
sex, and Division of the pupil. J. Porter, Inspector. 
N.B. — The above will take effect on Monday, 7th inst. 

Oct. 14th — was suspended from Second Division and all parties 

concerned notified of the fact. 

Dec. 2nd — Head Master was to-day instructed by Mr. Barber, Secretary, to enter 
in diary that the amount of new wood delivered this year is 27}4 
cords. There is left of the old wood at date about three cords. 

1873 

Jan. 8th — By special permission of the Inspector, and 

were allowed to attend this school, they being transferred from 
Parliament Street P. School. 

Jan. 10th — Yesterday Mr. Barber was informed by a note from the Head 
Master that the outside door of the Girls' Department had been 
blown from its hinges. 

Jan. 24th — Rev. Mr. Boddy attended to the Religious Instruction class as usual. 

Jan 29th — The City Inspector P. S. visited this Department this a.m. 

Feb. 4th — A statement was received to-day from W. B. Geikie, M.D., that any 

danger of carrying the infection of measles from 

his home was very slight. 

Feb. 11th— Mr. W. C. Wilkinson called this p.m. 

Oct. 20th — Received a note from the Inspector stating that a half holiday had 
been granted on Thursday p.m. next to enable S.S. pupils to attend 
a meeting of children in the Metropolitan Church on Thursday, 
23rd instant. 

49 



1873 
Oct. 27th — Temperature of H.M. room this morning at 9 o'clock 50°. 

Dec. 8th — Notified Mr. Barber that two panes of glass were broken in the 
building and that a pouring jug for ink was required. 

1874 
Feb. 24th — Memorandum received from Mr. Barber, this day: 

"The Public School Board has adopted the following amendment 
to No. 3 of the Regulations for the government of the city Public 
Schools, viz.: That all pupils now attending the city Public Schools 
shall be forthwith personally examined by the Head Master and 
Head Mistress respectively of each school; that any pupils found 
not to have been properly vaccinated be suspended until the Head 
Master or Head Mistress as the case may be, is satisfied that such 
pupil has been properly vaccinated and that no pupil be hereafter 
admitted to any city Public School without having first satisfac- 
torily passed a like personal examination. 

"Each Head Master will please enter on his school diary the fore- 
going amended Regulation and see that the same is entered on the 
Diary of the female department. The Head Mistress will please 
report the result of her examination to the Head Master, who will 
please forward the same with his own report to the same effect 
with as little delay as possible.' ' 

April 20th — On account of the death of the P. S. Inspector, Rev. James Porter, 
the City Public Schools were closed this p.m. Funeral this p.m. 
at 3.00 o'clock. 

May 18th — Mr. James Hughes, the P. S. Inspector, visited each department of 
this school this forenoon. 

May 28th Notified the Secretary, Mr. Barber, that the floor of the water closet 

in the Girls' yard is in need of repair. 

June 29th — Mr. Barber notified the H. Master that the quarter salaries would 
be paid on Friday, July 3rd, at the school. 

1875 
Feb. 23rd — Notified the Inspector of P. Buildings (school) that the stove pipes 
in Miss Wills' room, and also in Miss Killoch's room were insecure. 

March 22nd — The Committee on School Management direct that in future the 
Scripture be read during the reading hour on Friday by the First, 
Second and Third Divisions. 

March 22nd — Striking pupils on the head with a cane or with the hand is an 
improper mode of punishment, and is not only deprecated but for- 
bidden. 

May 18th — This school was closed this p.m. on account of the funeral of the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. 

June 29th — The half yearly public examination of the pupils of this school took 
place this day, beginning at 9.30 a.m. and closing at 4 p.m. The 
attendance of visitors in the afternoon was very large. The fol- 
lowing pupils received Honour certificates: 

FIFTH DIVISION. 

Mollie Stewart, Mary Stocks, Adeline Blair, Wm. Lumsden, 
Thomas Barry, John Spence, Alfred Grumbleby, William Saunders, 
Fred Howard, Maggie Smart, Jane Blair, Caroline Hill, Bathia 
Lumsden, Victoria Loane, Martha Toy, Jessie Allister, Katie 
Stewart, Florence Grinnel. 

FOURTH DIVISION. 

L. Webber, L. Wilson, L. Spence, A. Stewart, L. Hall, A. Brown, A. 
Doig, Walter Toy, Robert Ellis, William Allen, Charles Davis, 

50 



) 



"Request your teachers to endeavor to stop 'please yes' and 
'please no', common habit. Examination 5th July. Prizes same 
day." 

(Extract circular from J. Hughes, Inspector). 

1880 
Sept. 2nd — Jas. Hughes, Esq., I.P.S., visited and promoted to Dufferin School, 
39 pupils; he also promoted from the several divisions in the 
School to higher. 

1881 
Sept. 6th — The city schools were closed on the afternoons of the 7th, 8th and 9th 
on account of the excessive heat. 

Sept. 12th — The pupils of the city schools with their teachers attended the 
Provincial Exhibition. 

1883 
April 11th— E. Galley, Esq., C.B.S.T., A. Medcalfe, S.T., and a large number of 
the parents of the Junior Division visited to witness the children 
going through their calisthenics. 

Oct. 10th — G. B. McMurrich visited and examined 4th Division in reading, 5th 
Division in addition, 6th, 7th and 8th Division addressed. 

Nov. 13th — A. R. Pyne took charge of Park School as H.M. 

Dec. 18th— School bell fell. 

1884 
Jan. 7th — School opened with the following staff: A. R. Pyne, H.M., Mrs. Green, 
Miss Carlyle, Miss Gray, Miss Green promoted to 8th Division. 
Miss Phillips to the 9th, Miss Sheer to Sen. 10th, and Miss Pranfleld 
took charge of Junior 10th. 

Feb. 21s^— Fire drill — 2 minutes, 15 seconds. 

May 21st — Mr. Wilkinson called about garden. 

June 23rd — Received $300 for flowers from Mr. W. C. Wilkinson. Sent receipt 
to office. 

June 23rd — (Mr. Woodland called to get signature* of teachers to agreements 
with the Board. 

1885 
May 20th of the 7th Divisiou is this day suspended for truancy.