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Portrait and * 

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Containing Portraits and Biographies of many well known 
Citizens of the Past and Present 

Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the Presidents 

of the United States 

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1898 ■ . 

Bancroft Library 




HE greatest of English historians, Macaulay, and one of the most brilliant writers of the 

present century, has said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of the lives of its 

people." In conformity with this idea, the Portrait and Biographicai, Record of this 

county has been prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and taking therefrom dry statistical 

matter that can be appreciated by but few, our corps of writers have gone to the people, the men 

and women who have, by their enterprise and industry, brought the county to a rank second to none 

among those comprising this great and noble state, and from their lips have the story of their life 

^Q struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelligent public. 

01 In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the imitation of coming 

O generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by industry and economy have 

■< accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited advantages for securing an education, have 

become learned men and women, with an influence extending throughout the length and breadth of 

the land. It tells of men who have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and 

whose names have become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to 

\ succeed, and records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 

many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," 

content to have it said of them, as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — ' 'They have 

done what they could. ' ' It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left 

the plow and the anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, 

and at their country's call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the 

Union was restored and peace once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every 

woman is a lesson that should not be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the 
fact that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would 
otherwise be inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work, and every 
opportunity possible given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been writteu, and 
the publishers flatter themselves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. 
In addition to the biographical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For. this 
the publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give 
the information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some 
member of the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of 
the interested one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though 
repeated calls were made at their residences or places of business. 

Chapman Publishing Co. 

December, 1898. 

Portraits and Biographies 









HE Father of our Country was bom in West- 
moreland County, Va., February 22, 1732. 
His parents were Augustine and Marj' (Ball) 
Washington. The family to which he belonged 
has not been satisfactorily traced in England. 
His great-grandfather, John Washington, emi- 
grated to Virginia about 1657, ^^"^ became a 
prosperous planter. He had two sons, Lawrence 
and John. The former married Mildred Warner, 
and had three children, John, Augustine and 
Mildred. Augustine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four children, 
two of whom, Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, the others being 
Betty, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles and 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, 
died in 1743, leaving a large landed property. 
To his eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an 
estate on the Potomac, afterwards known as Mt. 
Vernon, and to George he left the parental resi- 
dence. George received only such education as 
the neighborhood schools afforded, save for a 
short time after he left school, when he received 
private instruction in mathematics. His spelling 
was rather defective. Remarkable stories are 
told of his great physical strength and develop- 
ment at an early age. He was an acknowledged 
leader among his companions, and was early 
noted for that nobleness of character, fairness and 
veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was fourteen years old he had a 
desire to go to sea, and a midshipman's warrant 
was secured for him, but through the opposition 
of his mother the idea was abandoned. Two 

years later he was appointed surveyor to the im- 
mense estate of Lord Fairfax. In this business 
he spent three years in a rough frontier life, 
gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only nineteen 
years of age, he was appointed Adjutant, with the 
rank of Major, in the Virginia militia, then being 
trained for active service against the French and 
Indians. Soon after this he sailed to the West 
Indies with his brother Lawrence, who went there 
to restore his health. They soon returned, and 
in the summer of 1752 Lawrence died, leaving a 
large fortune to an infant daughter, who did not 
long survive him. On her demise the estate of 
Mt. Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia 
was reorganized, and the province divided into 
four military districts, of which the northern was 
assigned to Washington as Adjutant-General. 
Shortly after this a ver>' perilous mission, which 
others had refused, was assigned him and ac- 
cepted. This was to proceed tathe French post 
near Lake Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania. 
The distance to be traversed was about six hun- 
dred miles. Winter was at hand, and the journey 
was to be made without military escort, through 
a territory occupied by Indians. The trip was a 
perilous one, and several times he nearly lost his 
life, but he returned in safety and furnished a full 
and useful report of .his expedition. A regiment 
of three hundred men was raised in Virginia and 
put in command of Col. Joshua Fry, and Maj. 
Washington was commissioned Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel. Active war was then begun against the 
French and Indians, in which Washington took 



a most important part. In the memorable event 
of July 9, 1755, known as "Braddock's defeat," 
Washington was almost the only officer of dis- 
tinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. 

Having been for five years in the military serv- 
ice, and having vainly sought promotion in the 
royal army, he took advantage of the fall of Ft. Du- 
quesne and the expulsion of the French from the 
valley of the Ohio to resign his commission. Soon 
after he entered the I^egislature, where, although 
not a leader, he took an active and important 
part. January 17, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha 
(Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy widow of John 
Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the 
port of Boston, the cry went up throughout the 
provinces, ' ' The cause ot Boston is the cause of 
us all! " It was then, at the suggestion of Vir- 
ginia, that a congress of all the colonies was 
called to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 
1774, to secure their common liberties, peaceably 
if possible. To this congress Col. Washington 
was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
congress re-assembled, when the hostile inten- 
tions of England were plainly apparent. The 
battles of Concord and Lexington had been fought, 
and among the first acts of this congress was the 
election of a commander-in-chief of the Colonial 
forces. This high and responsible office was con- 
ferred upon Washington, who was still a member 
of the congress. He accepted it on June 19, but 
upon the express condition that he receive no sal- 
ary. He would keep an exact account of ex- 
penses, and expect congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch 
to trace the military acts of Washington, to whom 
the fortunes and liberties of the people of this 
country were so long confided. The war was 
conducted by him under every possible disadvan- 
tage; and while his forces often met with reverses, 
yet he overcame every obstacle, and after seven 
years of heroic devotion and matchless skill he 
gained liberty for the greatest nation of earth. 
On December 23, 1783, Washington, in a parting 
address of surpassing beauty, resigned his com- 
mission as Commander-in-Chief of the army to the 

Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mt. Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning 
all connection with public life. 

In February, 1789, Washington was unani- 
mously elected President, and at the expiration 
of his first term he was unanimously re-elected. 
At the end of this term many were anxious that he 
be re-elected, but he absolutely refused a third 
nomination. On March 4, 1797, at the expiration 
of his second term as President, he returned to his 
home, hoping to pass there his few remaining 
years free from the annoyances of public life. 
Later in the year, however, his repose seemed 
likely to be interrupted by war with France. At 
the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the army, but he chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he .superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command, he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these prepara- 
tions his life was suddenly cut off. December 12 
he took a severe cold from a ride in the rain, 
which, settling in his throat, produced inflamma- 
tion, and terminated fatally on the night of the 
14th. On the 1 8th his body was borne with mili- 
tary honors to its final resting-place, and interred 
in the family vault at Mt. Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible 
to speak but in terms of the highest respect and 
admiration. The more we see of the operations 
of our government, and the more deeply we feel 
the difficulty of tmiting all opinions in a common 
interest, the more highly we must estimate the 
force of his talent and character, which have been 
able to challenge the reverence of all parties,- 
and principles, and nations, and to win a fame as 
extended as the limits of the globe, and which we 
cannot but believe will be as lasting as the exist- 
ence of man. 

In per,son, Washington was unusually tall, erect 
and well proportioned, and his muscular strength 
was great. His features were of a beausiful .sym- 
metry. He commanded respect without any ap- 
pearance of haughtiness, and was ever serious 
without being dull. 




(John ADAMS, the second President and the 
I first Vice-President of the United States, was 
(2/ born in Braintree (now Quincy) Mass., and 
about ten miles from Boston, October 19, 1735. 
His great-grandfather, Henry Adams, emigrated 
from England about 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The parents of 
John were John and Susannah (Boylston) 
Adams. His father, who was a farmer of limited 
means, also engaged in the business of shoe- 
making. He gave his eldest son, John, a classical 
education at Harvard College. John graduated 
in 1755, and at once took charge of the school at 
Worcester, Mass. This he found but a "school 
of affliction," from which he endeavored to gain 
relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. 
He had thought seriously of the clerical profes- 
sion, but seems to have been turned from this by 
what he termed " the frightful engines of ecclesi- 
astical councils, of diabolical malice, and Calvin- 
istic good nature, ' ' of the operations of which he 
had been a witness in his native town. He was 
well fitted for the legal profession, possessing a 
clear, sonorous voice, being ready and fluent of 
speech, and having quick perceptive powers. He 
gradually gained a practice, and in 1764 married 
Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, and a 
lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, in 1765, the attempt at parliamentar>' 
taxation turned him from law to politics. He 
took initial steps toward holding a town meeting, 
and the resolutions he offered on the subject be- 
came very popular throughout the province, and 
were adopted word for word by over forty differ- 
ent towns. He moved to Boston in 1768, and 
became one of the most courageous and promi- 
nent advocates of the popular, and was 
chosen a member of the General Court (the lyCg- 
islature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first dele- 

gates from Massachusetts to the first Continent- 
al Congress, which met in 1774. Here he dis- 
tinguished himself by his capacity for business 
and for debate, and advocated the movement for 
independence against the majority of the mem- 
bers. In May, 1776, he moved and carried a res- 
olution in Congress that the Colonies should 
assume the duties of self-government. He was a 
prominent member of the committee of five ap- 
pointed June 1 1 to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, 
but on Adams devolved the task of battling it 
through Congress in a three-days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was passed, while his soul was yet warm 
with the glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter 
to his wife, which, as we read it now, seems to 
have been dictated by the spirit of prophecy. 
"Yesterday," he says, "the greatest question 
was decided that ever was debated in America; 
and greater, perhaps, never was or will be de- 
cided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, 'that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, freehand in- 
dependent states.' The day is passed. The 
Fourth of July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch 
in the history of America. I am apt to believe it 
will be celebrated by succeeding generations as 
the great anniversary festival. It ought to be 
commemorated as the day of deliverance by 
solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. It 
ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, games, 
sports, guns, bells, bonfires aijd illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from 
this time forward forever. You will think me 
transported with enthusiasm, but I am not. I. 
am well aware of the toil and blood and treas- 
ure that it will cost to maintain this declaration 
and support and defend these States; yet, through 
all the gloom, I can see the rays of light and 
glory. I can see that the end is worth more than 
all the means, and that posterity will triumph, 



although you and I may rue, which I hope we 
shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed 
a delegate to France, and to co-operate with Ben- 
jamin Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then 
in Paris, in the endeavor to obtain assistance in 
arms and money from the French government. 
This was a severe trial to his patriotism, as it 
separated him from his home, compelled him to 
cross the ocean in winter, and exposed him to 
great peril of capture by the British cruisers, who 
were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was 
again chosen to go to Paris, and there hold 1 im- 
self in readiness to negotiate a treaty of peace and 
of commerce with Great Britain, as soon as the 
British cabinet might be found willing to listen 
to such proposals. He sailed for France in No- 
vember, and from there he went to Holland, where 
he negotiated important loans and formed im- 
portant commercial treaties. 

Finally, a treaty of peace with England was 
signed, January 21,1 783. The re-action from the 
excitement, toil and anxiety through which Mr. 
Adams had passed threw him into a fever. After 
suffering from a continued fever and becoming 
feeble and emaciated, he was advised to go to 
England to drink the waters of Bath. While in 
England, still drooping and desponding, he re- 
ceived dispatches from his own government urg- 
ing the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health 
was delicate, yet he immediately set out, and 
through storm, on sea, on horseback and foot, he 
made the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. 
Adams envoy to the Court of St. James. Here 
he met face to face the King of England, who 
had so long regarded him as a traitor. As Eng- 
land did not condescend to appoint a minister to 
the United States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he 
was accomplishing but little, he sought permis- 
sion to return to his own country, where he ar- 
rived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, 
John Adams, rendered illustrious by his signal 
services at home and abroad, was chosen Vice- 

President. Again, at the second election of Wash- 
ington as President, Adams was chosen Vice- 
President. In 1796, Washington retired from 
public life, and Mr. Adams was elected President, 
though not without much opposition. Serving 
in this office four years, he was succeeded by Mr. 
Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice-President the 
great French Revolution shook the continent of 
Europe, and it was upon this point that he was 
at issue with the majority of his countrymen, led 
by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Adams felt no sympathy 
with the French people in their struggle, for he 
had no confidence in their power of self-govern- 
ment, and he utterly abhorred the class of atheist 
philosophers who, he claimed, caused it. On the 
other hand, Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence 
originated the alienation between these distin- 
tinguished men, and the two powerful parties were 
thus soon organized, with Adams at the head of 
the one whose sympathies were with England, 
and Jefferson leading the other in sympathy with 

The Fourth of July, 1826, which completed the 
half-century since the signing of the Declaration 
of Independence, arrived, and there were but 
three of the signers of that immortal instrument 
left upon the earth to hail its morning light. 
And, as it is well known, on that day two of 
these finished their earthly pilgrimage, a coinci- 
dence so remarkable as to seem miraculous. For 
a few days before Mr. Adams had been rapidly 
failing, and on the morning of the Fourth he 
found himself too weak to rise from his bed. On 
being requested to name a toast for the cus- 
tomary celebration of the day, he exclaimed 
"Independence forever!" When the day was 
ushered in by the ringing of bells and the firing 
of cannons, he was asked by one of his attend- 
ants if he knew what day it was ? He replied, 
' ' O yes, it is the glorious Fourth of July — God 
bless it — God bless you all!" In the course of 
the day he said, "It is a great and glorious 
day." The last words he uttered were, "Jeffer- 
son survives." But he had, at one o'clock, 
resigned his spirit into the hands of his God. 



"HOMAS JEFFERSON was bom April 2, 
1743, at Shadwell, Albemarle County, Va. 
His parents were Peter and Jane (Ran- 
dolph) Jefferson, the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in London. To them were 
bom six daughters and two sons, of whom Thomas 
was the elder. When fourteen years of age his 
father died. He received a most liberal educa- 
tion, having been kept diligently at school from 
the time he was five years of age. In 1 760 he 
entered William and Mary College. Williams- 
burg was then the seat of the Colonial court, and 
it was the abode of fashion and splendor. Young 
Jefferson, who was then seventeen years old, lived 
somewhat expensively, keeping fine horses, and 
going much into gay society; yet he was ear- 
nestly devoted to his studies, and irreproachable in 
his morals. In the second year of his college 
course, moved by some unexplained impulse, he 
discarded his old companions and pursuits, and 
often devoted fifteen hours a day to hard study. 
He thus attained very high intellectual culture, 
and a like excellence in philosophy and the lan- 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued 
in the practice of his profession he rose rapidly, 
and distinguished himself by his energy and 
acuteness as a lawyer. But the times called for 
greater action . The policy of England had awak- 
ened the spirit of resistance in the American Col- 
onies, and the enlarged views which Jefferson had 
ever entertained soon led him into active politi- 
cal life. In 1 769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia House of Burgesses. In 1772. he mar- 

ried Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beautiful, 
wealthy, and highly accomplished young widow. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important com- 
mittees, and was chairman of the one appointed 
for the drawing up of a declaration of independ- 
ence. This committee consisted of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger 
Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson, 
as chairman, was appointed to draw up the paper. 
Franklin and Adams suggested a few verbal 
changes before it was submitted to Congress. On 
June 28, a few slight changes were made in it by 
Congress, and it was passed and signed July 4, 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry as Governor of Virginia. At one 
time the British officer Tarleton sent a secret 
expedition to Monticello to capture the Governor. 
Scarcely five minutes elapsed after the hurried 
escape of Mr. Jefferson and his family ere his 
mansion was in possession of the British troops. 
His wife's health, never very good, was much 
injured by this excitement, and in the summer 
of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to France. Returning to the United 
States in September, 1 789, he became Secretary 
of State in Wa.shington's cabinet. This position 
he resigned January i, 1794. In 1797, he was 
chosen Vice-President, and four years later was 
elected President over Mr. Adams, with Aaron 



Burr as Vice-President. In 1804 he was re- 
elected with wonderful unanimity, George Clin- 
ton being elected Vice-President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second ad- 
ministration was disturbed by an event which 
threatened the tranquillity and peace of the Union; 
this was the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated 
in the late election to the Vice-Presidency, and 
led on by an unprincipled ambition, this extraor- 
dinary man formed the plan of a military ex- 
pedition into the Spanish territories on our south- 
western frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This was generally supposed 
to have been a mere pretext; and although it has 
not been generally known what his real plans 
were, there is no doubt that they were of a far 
more dangerous character. 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term 
for which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he de- 
termined to retire from political life. For a period 
of nearly forty years he had been continually be- 
fore the public, and all that time had been em- 
ployed in offices of the greatest trust and respon- 
sibility. Having thus devoted the best part of 
his life to the service of his country, he now felt 
desirous of that rest which his declining years re- 
quired, and upon the organization of the new ad- 
ministration, in March, 1809, he bade farewell for- 
ever to public life and retired to Monticello, his 
famous country home, which, next to Mt. Vernon, 
was the most distinguished residence in the land. 

The Fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the Declaration of American Inde- 
pendence, great preparations were made in every 
part of the Union for its celebration as the nation's 
jubilee, and the citizens of Washington, to add to 
the solemnity of the occasion, invited Mr. Jeffer- 
son, as the framer and one of the few surviving 
signers of the Declaration, to participate in their 
festivities. But an illness, which had been of 
several weeks' duration and had been continually 
increasing, compelled him to decline the invita- 

On the 2d of July the disease under which he 
was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was 

perfectly sensible that his last hour was at hand. 
On the next day, which was Mondaj% he asked 
of those around him the day of the month, and 
on being told it was the 3d of July, he ex- 
pressed the earnest wish that he might be per- 
mitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth anniver- 
sary. His prayer was heard — that day whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our 
land burst upon his eyes, and then they were 
closed forever. And what a noble consummation 
of a noble life! To die on that day — the birth- 
day of a nation — the day which his own name 
and his own act had rendered glorious, to die 
amidst the rejoicings and festivities of a whole 
nation, who looked up to him as the author, un- 
der God, of their greatest blessings, was all that 
was wanting to fill up the record of his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the cham- 
pions of freedom; hand in hand, during the dark 
and desperate struggle of the Revolution, they 
had cheered and animated their desponding coun- 
trymen; for half a century they had labored to- 
gether for the good of the country, and now hand 
in hand they departed. In their lives they had 
been united in the same great cause of hberty, 
and in their deaths they were not divided. 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair, originally red, in after life be- 
came white and silvery, his complexion was fair, 
his forehead broad, and his whole countenance 
intelligent and thoughtful. He possessed great 
fortitude of mind as well as personal courage, and 
his command of temper was such that his oldest 
and most intimate friends never recollected to 
have seen him in a passion. His manners, though 
dignified, were simple and unaffected, and his 
hospitality was so unbounded that all found at 
his house a ready welcome. In conversation he 
was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic, and his 
language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writ- 
ings is discernible the care with which he formed 
his style upon the best models of antiquity. 



3 AMES MADISON, "Father of the Consti- 
tution," and fourth Presidentof the United 
States, was born March i6, 1757, and died 
at his home in Virginia June 28, 1836. The 
name of James Madison is inseparably connected 
with most of the important events in that heroic 
period of our country during which the founda- 
tions of this great rep'ibhc were laid. He was 
the last of the founders of the Constitution of the 
United States to be called to his eternal reward. 

The Madison family were among the early emi- 
grants to the New World, landing upon the shores 
of the Chesapeake but fifteen years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of James Madison 
was an opulent planter, residing upon a very fine 
estate called Montpelier, in Orange County, Va. 
It was but twenty-five miles from the home of Jef- 
ferson at Monticello, and the closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustri- 
ous men from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was con- 
ducted mostly at home under a private tutor. At 
the age of eighteen he was sent to Princeton Col- 
lege, in New Jersej'. Here he applied himself to 
study with the most imprudent zeal, allowing him- 
self for months but three hours' sleep out of the 
twenty-four. His health thus became so seriously 
impaired that he never recovered any vigor of 
constitution. He graduated in 1 77 1 , with a feeble 
body, but with a character of utmost purity, and 
a mind highly disciplined and richly stored with 
learning, which embellished and gave efficiency 
to his subsequent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study 
of law and a course of extensive and systematic 
reading. This educational course, the spirit of 
the times in which he lived, and the society with 
which he associated, all combined to inspire him 
with a strong love of liberty, and to train him for 
his life-work as a statesman. 

In the spring of 1776, when twenty-six years of 

age, he was elected a member of the Virginia Con- 
vention to frame the constitution of the State. The 
next year (1777), he was a candidate for the Gen- 
eral Assembly. He refused to treat the whisky-lov- 
ing voters, and consequently lest his election; but 
those who had witnessed the talent, energy and 
pubhc spirit of the modest young man enlisted 
themselves in his behalf, and he was appointed to 
the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison re- 
mained member of the Council, and their apprecia- 
tion of his intellectual, social and moral worth 
contributed not a little to his subsequent eminence. 
In the year 1780 he was elected a member of the 
Continental Congress. Here he met the most il- 
lustrious men in our land, and he was immediately 
assigned to one ot the most conspicuous positions 
among them. For three years he continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential mem- 
bers. In 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no 
national government, and no power to form trea- 
ties which would be binding, or to enforce law. 
There was not any State more prominent than 
Virginia in the declaration that an efficient na- 
tional government must be formed. In January, 
1786, Mr. Madison carried a resolution through 
the General Assembly of Virginia, inviting the 
other States to appoint commissioners to meet in 
convention at Annapolis to discuss this subject. 
Five States only were represented. The conven- 
tion, however, issued another call, drawn up by 
Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the 
place of the Confederate League. The delegates 
met at the time appointed. Every State but 
Rhode Island was represented. George Washing- 



ton was chosen president of the convention, and the 
present Constitution of the United States was then 
and there formed. There was, perhaps, no mind 
and no pen more active in framing this immortal 
document than the mind and the pen of James 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote of eighty-one 
to seventy-nine, was to be presented to the several 
States for acceptance. But grave solicitude was 
felt. Should it be rejected, we should be left but a 
conglomeration of independent States, with but 
little power at home and little respect abroad. Mr. 
Madison was elected by the convention to draw up 
an address to the people of the United States, ex- 
pounding the principles of the Constitution, and 
urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but at length it triumphed over all, 
and went into efifect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became 
the avowed leader of the Republican party. While 
in New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. 
Todd, a young widow of remarkable power of fas- 
cination, whom he married. She was in person 
and character queenly, and probaby no lady has 
thus far occupied so prominent a position in the 
very peculiar society which has constituted our 
republican court as did Mrs. Madison. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of 
war. British orders in council destroyed our com- 
merce, and our flag was exposed to constant insult. 
Mr. Madison was a man of peace. Scholarly in 
his taste, retiring in his disposition, war had no 
charms for him. But the meekest spirit can be 
roused. It makes one's blood boil, even now, to 
think of an American ship brought to upon the 
ocean by the guns of an English cruiser. A 
young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great non- 
chalance he selects any number whom he may 
please to designate as British subjects, orders them 
down the ship's side into his boat, and places them 
on the gundeck of his man-of-war, to fight, by 
compulsion, the battles of England. This right 

of search and impressment no efforts of our Gov- 
ernment could induce the British cabinet to re- 

On the i8th of June, 1812, President Madison 
gave his approval to an act of Congress declaring 
war against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the 
bitter hostility of the Federal party to the war, the 
country in general approved; and Mr. Madison, 
on the 4th of March, 18 13, was re-elected by a 
large majorit}', and entered upon his second term 
of office. This is hot the place to describe the 
various adventures of this war on the land and on 
the water. Our infant navy then laid the found- 
ations of its renown in grappling with the most 
formidable power which ever swept the seas. The 
contest commenced in earnest by the appearance 
of a British fleet, early in February, 18 13, in 
Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole coast 
of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as 
mediator. America accepted; England refused. 
A British force of five thousand men landed on the 
banks of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of 
Bladensburg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was 
thrown into consternation. The cannon of the 
brief conflict at Bladensburg echoed through the 
streets of the metropolis. The whole population 
fled from the city. The President, leaving Mrs. 
Madison in the White House, with her carriage 
drawn up at the door to await his speedy return, 
hurried to meet the ofiicers in a council of war. 
He met our troops utterly routed, and he could not 
go back without danger of being captured. But 
few hours elapsed ere the Presidential Mansion, 
the Capitol, and all the public buildings in Wash- 
ington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and 
on February 13,. 1815, the treaty of peace was 
signed at Ghent. On the 4th of March, 18 17, his 
second term of office expired, and he resigned the 
Presidential chair to his friend, James Monroe. 
He retired to his beautiful home at Montpelier, and 
there passed the remainder of his da3'S. On June 
28, 1836, at the age of eighty-five years, he fell 
asleep in death. Mrs. Madison died July 12, 1849. 



(Tames MONROE, the fifth President of the 
I United States, was born in Westmoreland 
G) County, Va., April 28, 1758. His early life 
was passed at the place of his nativity. His an- 
cestors had for many years resided in the province 
in which he was bom. When he was seventeen 
years old, and in process of completing his educa- 
tion at William and Mary College, the Colonial 
Congress, assembled at Philadelphia to deliberate 
upon the unjust and manifold oppressions of Great 
Britain, declared the separation of the Colonies, 
and promulgated the Declaration of Independence. 
Had he been born ten years before, it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the 
signers of that celebrated instrument. At this 
time he left school and enlisted among the pa- 

He joined the army when everything looked 
hopeless and gloomy. The number of deserters 
increased from day to day. The invading armies 
came pouring in, and the Tories not only favored 
the cause of the mother country, but disheartened 
the new recruits, who were sufficiently terrified 
at the prospect of contending with an enemy 
whom they had been taught to deem invincible. 
To such brave spirits as James Monroe, who went 
right onward undismayed through difficulty and 
danger, the United States owe their political 
emancipation. The young cadet joined the ranks 
and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die in her 
strife for liberty. Firmly, yet sadly, he shared in 
the melancholy retreat from Harlem Heights 
and White Plains, and accompanied the dispirited 
army as it fled before its foes through New Jersey. 
In four months after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the patriots had been beaten in seven 
battles. At the battle of Trenton he led the van- 
guard, and in the act of charging upon the enemy 
he received a wound in the left shoulder. 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was 
promoted to be captain of infantry, and, having re- 
covered from his wounds, he rejoined the army. 
He, however, receded from the line of promotion 
by becoming an officer on the staff of Lord Ster- 
ling. During the campaigns of 1777 and 1778, 
in the actions of Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth, he continued aide-de-camp; but be- 
coming desirous to regain his position in the 
army, he exerted himself to collect a regiment for 
the Virginia line. This scheme failed, owing to 
the exhausted condition of the State. Upon this 
failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued with consid- 
erable ardor the study of common law. He did 
not, however, entirely lay aside the knapsack for 
the green bag, but on the invasion of the enemy 
served as a volunteer during the two years of his 
legal pursuits. 

In 1782 he was elected from King George 
County a member of the Legislature of Virginia, 
and by that body he was elevated to a seat in the 
Executive Council. He was thus honored with 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens at twenty- 
three years of age, and having at this early period 
displayed some of that ability and aptitude for 
legislation which were afterward employed with 
unremitting energy for the public good, he was 
in the succeeding year chosen a member of the 
Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of 
the old Confederacy, he was opposed to the new 
Constitution, thinking, with many others of the 
Republican party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough to the 
individual States. Still he retained the esteem 
of his friends who were its warm supporters, and 
who, notwithstanding his opposition, secured its 
adoption. In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held for 



four years. Every month the line of distinction 
between the two great parties which divided the 
nation, the Federal and the Republican, was 
growing more distinct. The differences which 
now separated them lay in the fact that the Repub- 
lican party was in sympathy with France, and 
also in favor of such a strict construction of the 
Constitution as to give the Central Government as 
little power, and the State Governments as much 
power, as the Constitution would warrant; while 
the Federalists sympathized with England, and 
were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could pos- 
sibly authorize. 

Washington was then President. England had 
espoused the cause of the Bourbons against the 
principles of the French Revolution. All Europe 
was drawn into the conflict. We were feeble and 
far away. Washington issued a proclamation of 
neutrality between these contending powers. 
France had helped us in the struggles for our 
liberties. All the despotisms of Europe were now 
combined to prevent the French from escaping 
from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse than that 
which we had endured. Col. Monroe, more mag- 
nanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a gener- 
ous and noble nature, and Washington, who could 
appreciate such a character, showed his calm, se- 
rene, almost divine, greatness, by appointing that 
very James Monroe who was denouncing the pol- 
icy of the Government, as the minister of that 
Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Conven- 
tion in France with the most enthusiastic dem- 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. 
Monroe was elected Governor ' of Virginia, and 
held the office for three years. He was again 
.sent to France to co-operate with Chancellor Liv- 
ingston in obtaining the vast territory then known 
as the province of Louisiana, which France had 
but shortly before obtained from Spain. Their 
united efforts were successful. For the compara- 
tively small sum of fifteen millions of dollars, the 

entire territory of Orleans and district of Loui- 
siana were added to the United States. This was 
probably the largest transfer of real estate which 
was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to 
obtain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against 
those odious impressments of our seamen. But 
England was unrelenting. He again returned to 
England on the same mission, but could receive 
no redress. He returned to his home and was 
again chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon 
resigned to accept the position of Secretary of 
State under Madison. While in this office war 
with England was declared, the Secretary of War 
resigned, and during these trying times the 
duties of the War Department were also put upon 
him. He was truly the armor- bearer of President 
Madison, and the efficient business man in 
his cabinet. Upon the return of peace he re- 
signed the Department of War, but continued in 
the office of Secretary of State until the expira- 
tion of Mr. Madison's administration. At the 
election held the previous autumn, Mr. Monroe 
himself had been chosen President with but little 
opposition, and upon March 4, 18 17, he was in- 
augurated. Four years later he was elected for 
a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presi- 
dency were the cession of Florida to the United 
States, the Missouri Compromise, and the famous 
" Monroe doctrine." This doctrine was enun- 
ciated by him in 1823, and was as follows: ' ' That 
we should consider any attempt on the part of 
European powers to extend their system to any 
portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our 
peace and safety," and that " we could not view 
any interposition for the purpose of oppressing or 
controlling American governments or provinces 
in any other light than as a manifestation by 
European powers of an unfriendly disposition 
toward the United States. ' ' 

At the end of his second term, Mr. Monroe re- 
tired to his home in Virginia, where he lived un- 
til 1830, when he went to New York to live with 
his son-in-law. In that dty he died, on the 4th 
of July, 1831. 



(TOHN QUINCY ADAMS, the sixth President 

I of the United States, was born in the rural 
C/ home of his honored father, John Adams, in 
Qiiincy, Mass., on the nth of July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted worth, watched over 
his childhood during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but eight years of 
age, he stood with his mother on an eminence, 
listening to the booming of the great battle on 
Bunker's Hill, and gazing out upon the smoke 
and flames billowing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he took a tearful 
adieu of his mother, to sail with his father for Eu- 
rope, through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. 
The bright, animated boy spent a year and a-half 
in Paris, where his father was associated with 
Franklin and Lee as Minister Plenipotentiary. 
His intelligence attracted the notice of these dis- 
tinguished men, and he received from them flat- 
tering marks of attention. 

John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. 
Again John Quincy accompanied his father. At 
Paris he applied himself to study with great dil- 
igence for six months, and then accompanied his 
father to Holland, where he entered first a school 
in Amsterdam, then the University at Leyden. 
About a year from this time, in 1781, when the 
manly boy was but fourteen years of age, he was 
selected by Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Rus- 
sian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of ennobl- 
ing culture he spent fourteen months, and then 
returned to Holland, through Sweden, Denmark, 
Hamburg and Bremen. This long journey he 
took alone in the winter, when in his sixteenth 
year. Again he resumed his studies, under a pri- 
vate tutor, at The Hague. Then, in the spring of 
1782, he accompanied his father to Paris, travel- 
ing leisurely, and forming acquaintances with the 
most distinguished men on the continent, examin- 

ing architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he 
again became associated with the most illustrious 
men of all lands in the contemplation of the 
loftiest temporal themes which can engross the 
human mind. After a short visit to England he 
returned to Paris, and consecrated all his energies 
to study until May, 1785, when he returned to 
America to finish his education. 

Upon leaving Harvard College at the age of 
twenty, he studied law for three years. In June, 
1794, being then but twenty-seven years of age, 
he was appointed by Washington Resident Min- 
ister at the Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in 
July, he reached London in October, where he 
was immediately admitted to the deliberations of 
Messrs. Jay & Pinckney, assisting them in nego- 
tiating a commercial treaty with Great Britain. 
After thus spending a fortnight in London, he 
proceeded to The Hague. 

In July, 1 797, he left; The Hague to go to Por- 
tugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. On his way to 
Portugal, upon arriving in London, he met with 
despatches directing him to the court of Berlin, but 
requesting him to remain in London until he 
should receive his instructions. While waiting 
he was married to an American lady, to whom he 
had been previously engaged — Miss Louisa Cath- 
erine Johnson, a daughter of Joshua Johnson, 
American Consul in London, and a lady en- 
dowed with that beauty and those accomplish- 
ments which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. He 
reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797, 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, hav- 
ing fulfilled all the purposes of his mission, he so- 
licited his recall. 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen 
to the Senate of Massachusetts from Boston, and. 
then was elected Senator of the United States for 
six years, from the 4th of March, 1804. His rep- 
utation, his ability and his experience placed 



him immediately among the most prominent and 
influential members of that body. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the 
Presidential chair, and he immediately nominated 
John Quincy Adams Minister to St. Petersburgh. 
Resigning his professorship in Harvard Col- 
lege, he embarked at Boston in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense 
student. He devoted his attention to the lan- 
guage and history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; 
to the European system of weights, measures and 
coins; to the climate and astronomical observa- 
tions; while he kept up a familiar acquaintance 
with the Greek and Latin classics. In all the 
universities of Europe, a more accomplished 
scholar could scarcely be found. All through 
life the Bible constituted an important part of his 
studies. It was his rule to read five chapters 
every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took 
the Presidential chair, and immediately appointed 
Mr. Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of 
his numerous friends in public and private life in 
Europe, he sailed in June, 1819, for the United 
States. On the i8th of August, he again crossed 
the threshold of his home in Quincy. During the 
eight years of Mr. Monroe's administration, Mr. 
Adams continued Secretary of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's 
second term of office, new candidates began to be 
presented for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. 
Adams brought forward his name. It was an 
exciting campaign, and party spirit was never 
more bitter. Two hundred and sixty electoral 
votes were cast. Andrew Jackson received ninety- 
nine; John Quincy Adams eighty-four; William 
H. Crawford forty-one; and Henry Clay thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, 
the question went to the House of Representa- 
tives. Mr. Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to 
Mr. Adams, and he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous and persistent as- 
sault upon Mr. Adams. There is nothing more 
disgraceful in the past history of our country than 
the abuse which was poured in one uninterrupted 
Stream upon this high-minded, upright and pa- 

triotic man. There never was an administration 
more pure in principles, more conscientiously de- 
voted to the best interests of the country, than 
that of John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscrupulously 
and outrageously assailed. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected 
Vice-President. The slavery question now be- 
gan to assume portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams 
returned to Quincy and to his studies, which he 
pursued with unabated zeal. But he was not 
long permitted to remain in retirement. In No- 
vember, 1830, he was elected Representative in 
Congress. For seventeen years, or until his death, 
he occupied the post as Representative, towering 
above all his peers, ever ready to do brave battle 
for freedom, and winning the title of ' 'the Old 
Man Eloquent." Upon taking his seat in the 
House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never 
was a member more devoted to his duties. He 
was usually the first in his place in the morning, 
and the last to leave his seat in the evening. 
Not a measure could be brought forward and es- 
cape his scrutiny. The battle which Mr. Adams 
fought, almost singly, against the pro-slavery 
party in the Government was sublime in its 
moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, 
he was threatened with indictment by the grand 
jury, with expulsion from the House, with assas- 
sination; but no threats could intimidate him, and 
his final triumph was complete. 

On the 2ist of February, 1848, he rose on the 
floor of Congress with a paper in his hand, to 
address the speaker. Suddenly he fell, again 
stricken by paralysis, and was caught in the arms 
of those around him. For a time he was sense- 
less, as he was conveyed to the sofa in the ro- 
tunda. With reviving consciousness, he opened 
his eyes, looked calmly around and said "This 
is the end of earth;" then after a moment's pause 
he added, " I am content." These were the last 
words of the grand ' ' Old Man Eloquent. ' ' 



61 NDREW JACKSON, the seventh President 
T\ of the United States, was born in Waxhaw 
II settlement, N. C, March 15, 1767, a few 
days after his father's death. His parents were 
poor emigrants from Ireland, and took up their 
abode in Waxhaw settlement, where they lived 
in deepest poverty. 

Andrew, or Andy, as he was universally called, 
grew up a very rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form ungainly, and there 
was but very little in his character made visible 
which was attractive. 

When only thirteen years old he joined the 
volunteers of Carolina against the British invasion. 
In 1 78 1, he and his brother Robert were captured 
and imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British 
officer ordered him to brush his mud-spattered 
boots. "lam a prisoner of war, not your serv- 
ant," was the reply of the dauntless boy. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such 
as working at the saddler's trade, teaching school, 
and clerking in a general store, until 1784, when 
he entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, 
however, gave more attention to the wild amuse- 
ments of the times than to his studies. In 1788, 
he was appointed solicitor for the Western District 
of North Carolina, of which Tennessee was then 
a part. This involved many long journeys amid 
dangers of every kind, but Andrew Jackson never 
knew fear, and the Indians had no desire to re- 
peat a skirmish with "Sharp Knife." 

In 1 79 1, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman 
who supposed herself divorced from her former 
husband. Great was the surprise of both parties, 
two years later, to find that the conditions of the 
divorce had just been definitely settled by the 
first husband. The marriage ceremony was per- 
formed a second time, but the occurrence was 
often used by his enemies to bring Mr. Jackson 
into disfavor. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee 
then containing nearly eighty thousand inhabi- 
tants, the people met in convention at Knoxville 
to frame a constitution. Five were sent from 
each of the eleven counties. Andrew Jackson 
was one of the delegates. The new State was 
entitled to but one member in the National House 
of Representatives. Andrew Jackson was chosen 
that member. Mounting his horse, he rode to 
Philadelphia, where Congress then held its ses- 
sions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party, and Jefferson was his idol. He ad- 
mired Bonaparte, loved France, and hated Eng- 
land. As Mr. Jackson took his seat, Gen. Wash- 
ington, whose second term of office was then 
expiring, delivered his last speech to Congress. 
A committee drew up a complimentary address in 
reply. Andrew Jackson did not approve of the 
address, and was one of the twelve who voted 
against it. He was not willing to say that Gen. 
Washington's administration had been "wise, 
firm and patriotic. ' ' 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned 
home. Soon after he was chosen Judge of the 
Supreme Court of his State, which position he 
held for six years. 

When the War of 18 12 with Great Britain com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there 
was an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jack- 
son, who would do credit to a commission if one 
were conferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. 
Jackson offered his services and those of twenty- 
five hundred volunteers. His offer was accepted, 
and the troops were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make 
an attack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wil- 
kinson was in command, he was ordered to de- 



scend the river with fifteen hundred troops to aid 
Wilkinson. The expedition reached Natchez, 
and after a delay of several weeks there without 
accomplishing anything, the men were ordered 
back to their homes. But the energy Gen. Jack- 
son had displayed, and his entire devotion to the 
comfort of his soldiers, won for him golden opin- 
ions, and he became the most popular man in the 
State. It was in this expedition that his tough- 
ness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip 
Col. Thomas Benton for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking part as second in a duel 
in which a younger brother of Benton's was en- 
gaged, he received two severe pistol wounds. 
While he was lingering upon a bed of suifering, 
news came that the Indians, who had combined 
under Tecumseh from Florida to the Lakes to ex- 
terminate the white settlers, were committing the 
most awful ravages. Decisive action became nec- 
essary. Gen. Jackson, with his fractured bone 
just beginning to heal, his arm in a sling, and 
unable to mount his horse without assistance, 
gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Ala. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong 
fort on one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, 
near the center of Alabama, about fifty miles be- 
low Ft. Strother. With an army of two thousand 
men. Gen. Jackson traversed the pathless wilder- 
ness in a march of eleven days. He reached their 
fort, called Tohopeka or Horse-shoe, on the 27th 
of March, 18 14. The bend of the river enclosed 
nearly one hundred acres of tangled forest and 
wild ravine. Across the narrow neck the Indians 
had constructed a formidable breastwork of logs 
and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, with 
an ample supply of arms, were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly 
desperate. Not an Indian would accept quarter. 
When bleeding and dying, they would fight those 
who endeavored to spare their lives. From ten 
in the morning until dark the battle raged. The 
carnage was awful and revolting. Some threw 
themselves into the river; but the unerring bul- 
lets struck their heads as they swam. Nearly 
every one of the nine hundred warriors was 

killed. A few, probably, in the night swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. 

This closing of the Creek War enabled us to 
concentrate all our militia upon the British, who 
were the allies of the Indians. No man of less 
resolute will than Gen. Jackson could have con- 
ducted this Indian campaign to so successful an 
issue. Immediately he was appointed Major- 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men on a rushing march. Gen. Jackson went to 
Mobile. A British fleet went from Pensacola, 
landed a force upon the beach, anchored near the 
little fort, and from both ship and shore com- 
menced a furious assault. The battle was long 
and doubtful. At length one of the ships was 
blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his 
little army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
and the battle of New Orleans, which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This 
won for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. 
Here his troops, which numbered about four 
thousand men, won a signal victory over the 
British army of about nine thousand. His loss 
was but thirteen, while the loss of the British was 
twenty-six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be 
mentioned in connection with the Presidencj', 
but in 1824 he was defeated by Mr. Adams. 
He was, however, successful in the election of 
1828, and was re-elected for a second term in 
1832. In 1829, just before he assumed the reins 
of government, he met with the most terrible 
affliction of his life in the death of his wife, whom 
he had loved with a devotion which has perhaps 
never been surpassed. From the shock of her 
death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most mem- 
orable in the annals of our country — applauded 
by one party, condemned by the other. No man 
had more bitter enemies or warmer friends. At 
the expiration of his two terms of office he retired 
to the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845. The 
last years of Mr. Jackson's life were those of a de- 
voted Christian man. 



yyiARTIN VAN BUREN, the eighth Presi- 

y dent of the United States, was born at Kin- 
(9 derhook, N. Y., December 5, 1782. He 
died at the same place, July 24, 1862. His body 
rests in the cenieterj- at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft, fifteen feet high, bearing a 
simple inscription about half-way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered or unbounded 
by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van 
Buren of romantic interest. He fought no battles, 
engaged in no wild adventures. Though his life 
was stormy in political and intellectual conflicts, 
and he gained many signal victories, his days 
passed uneventful in those incidents which give 
zest to biography. His ancestors, as his name indi- 
cates, were of Dutch origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Holland to the banks of 
the Hudson. His father was a farmer, residing 
in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, also 
of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing 
unusual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At 
the age of fourteen, he had finished his academic 
studies in his native village, and commenced the 
study of law. As he had not a collegiate educa- 
tion, seven years of study in a law-office were re- 
quired of him before he could be admitted to the 
Bar. Inspired with a loft;y ambition, and con- 
scious of his powers, he pursued his studies with 
indefatigable industrj\ After spending six years 
in an office in his native village, he went to the city 
of New York, and prosecuted his studies for the 
seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty -one years 

of age, commenced the practice of law in his na- 
tive village. The great conflict between the Federal 
and Republican parties was then at its height. 
Mr. Van Buren was from the beginning a politi- 
cian. He had, perhaps, imbibed that spirit while 
listening to the many discussions which had been 
carried on in his father' s hotel. He was in cordial 
sympathy with Jefferson, and earnestly and elo- 
quently espoused the cause of State Rights, though 
at that time the Federal part}' held the supremacy 
both in his town and State. 

His success and increasing reputation led him 
after six years of practice to remove to Hudson, 
the county seat of his county. Here he spent 
seven years, constantly gaining strength by con- 
tending in the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the Bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, a victim of con- 
sumption, leaving her husband and four sons to 
weep over her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. 
Van Buren was an earnest, successful, assiduous 
lawyer. The record of those years is barren in 
items of public interest. In 18 12, when thirty 
years of age, he was chosen to the State Senate, 
and gave his strenuous support to Mr. Madison's 
administration. In 1815, he was appointed At- 
torney-General, and the next year moved to Al- 
bany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 
the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that ' 'universal suffrage' ' which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right 



of governing the State. In true consistency with 
his democratic principles, he contended that, while 
the path leading to the privilege of voting should 
be open to every man without distinction, no one 
should be invested with that sacred prerogative 
unless he were in some degree qualified for it by 
intelligence, virtue, and some property interests in 
the welfare of the State. 

In 182 1 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate, and in the same year he took a 
seat in the convention to revise the Constitution of 
his native State. His course in tills convention 
secured the approval of men of all parties. No 
one could doubt the singleness of his endeavors to 
promote the interests of all classes in the com- 
munity. In the Senate of the United States, he 
rose at once to a conspicuous position as an active 
and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected 
to the Senate. He had been from the beginning 
a determined opposer of the administration, adopt- 
ing the "State Rights' ' view in opposition to what 
was deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governor 
of the State of New York, and accordingly resigned 
his seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the 
United States contributed so much towards eject- 
ing John Q. Adams from the Presidential chair, 
and placing in it Andrew Jackson, as did Martin 
Van Buren. Whether entitled to the reputation 
or not, he certainly was regarded throughout the 
United States as one of the most skillful, sagacious 
and cunning of politicians. It was supposed that 
no one knew so well as he how to touch the secret 
springs of action, how to pull all the wires to 
put his machinery in motion, and how to organize 
a political army which would secretly and stealth- 
ily accomplish the most gigantic results. By these 
powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, Mr. 
Clay, and Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few then thought could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President 
he appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. 
This position he resigned in 1831, and was im- 
mediately appointed Minister to England, where 
he went the same autumn. The Senate, however. 

when it met, refused to ratify the nomination, and 
he returned home, apparently untroubled. Later 
he was nominated Vice-President in the place of 
Calhoun, at the re-election of President Jackson, 
and with smiles for all and frowns for none, he 
took his place at the head of that Senate which had 
refused to confirm his nomination as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal 
of President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated 
favorite; and this, probably, more than any other 
cause secured his elevation to the chair of the 
Chief Executive. On the 20th of May, 1836, Mr. 
Van Buren received the Democratic nomination 
to succeed Gen. Jackson as President of the United 
States. He was elected by a handsome majority, 
to the delight of the retiring President. ' 'Leaving 
New York out of the canvass," says Mr. Parton, 
' 'the election of Mr. Van Buren to the Presidency 
was as much the act of Gen. Jackson as though 
the Constitution had conferred upon him the power 
to appoint a successor. ' ' 

His administration was filled with exciting 
events. The insurrection in Canada, which 
threatened to involve this country in war with 
England, the agitation of the slavery question, 
and finally the great commercial panic which 
spread over the country, all were trials of his wis- 
dom. The financial distress was attributed to 
the management of the Democratic party, and 
brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election, and on the 4th of March, 
1 84 1, he retired from the presidency. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. He had ever been a prudent man, of 
frugal habits, and, living within his income, had 
now fortunately a competence for his declining 
years. From his fine estate at Lindenwald, he 
still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, 
on the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty 
years, he resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of 
leisure, of culture and wealth, enjoying in a 
healthy old age probably far more happiness than 
he had before experienced amid the stormy scenes 
of his active life. 



President of the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., February 9, 1773. His 
father, Benjamin Harrison, was in comparatively 
opulent circumstances, and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his day. He was an inti- 
mate friend of George Washington, was early 
elected a member of the Continental Congress, 
and was con.spiG«ous among the patriots of Vir- 
ginia in resisting the encroachments of the British 
crown. In the celebrated of 1775, Ben- 
jamin Harrison and John Hancock were both 
candidates for the oiBce of Speaker. 

Mr. Harrison was subsequently chosen Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and was twice re-elected. His 
son William Henrj', of course, enjoyed in child- 
hood all the advantages which wealth and intel- 
lectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school educa- 
tion, he entered Hampden Sidney College, where 
he graduated with honor soon after the death of 
his father. He then repaired to Philadelphia to 
study medicine under thein.structionsof Dr. Rush 
and the guardianship of Robert Morris, both of 
whom were, with his father, signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and 
notwithstanding the remon.strances of his friends, 
he abandoned his medical studies and entered the 
army, having obtained a commission as Ensign 
from President Washington. He was then but 
nineteen years old. From that time he passed 
gradually upward in rank until he became aide 
to Gen. Waj'ne, after whose death he resigned 
his commission. He was then appointed Secre- 
tary of the Northwestern Territory. This Terri- 
tory was then entitled to but one member in Con- 

gress, and Harrison was chosen to fill that position , 
In the spring of 1800 the Northwestern Terri- 
tory was divided by Congress into two portions. 
The eastern portion, comprising the region now 
embraced in the State of Ohio, was called ' ' The 
Territory northwest of the Ohio. ' ' The western 
portion, which included what is now called Indi- 
ana, Illinois and Wisconsin, was called "the Indi- 
ana Territory." William Henry Harrison, then 
twenty -seven years of age, was appointed by John 
Adams Governor of the Indiana Territory, and 
immediately after also Governor of Upper Loui- 
siana. He was thus ruler over almost as exten- 
sive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. 
He was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and 
was invested with powers nearly dictatorial over 
the then rapidly increasing white population. The 
ability and fidelity with which he discharged 
these responsible duties may be inferred from the 
fact that he was four times appointed to this 
office — first by John Adams, twice by Thomas 
Jefferson, and afterwards by President Madison. 

When he began his administration there were 
but three white settlements in that almost bound- 
less region, now crowded with cities and resound- 
ing with all the tumult of wealth and trafiic. 
One of these .settlements was on the Ohio, nearly 
opposite Louisville; one at Vincennes, on the 
Wabash; and the third was a French settlement. 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. 
About the year 1806, two extraordinary men, 
twin brothers of the Shawnee tribe, rose among 
them. One of these was called Tecumseh, or 
"the Crouching Pat.ther;" the other OUiwa- 
checa, or ' ' the Prophet. ' ' Tecumseh was not 
only an Indian warrior, but a man of great sagac- 



ity, far-reaching foresight and indomitable perse- 
verance in any enterprise in which he might en- 
gage. His brother, the Prophet, was an orator, 
who could sway the feelings of the untutored In- 
dians as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath 
which they dwelt. With an enthusiasm unsur- 
passed by Peter the Hermit rousing Europe to the 
crusades, he went from tribe to tribe, assuming 
that he was specially sent by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to con- 
ciliate the Indians, but at last war came, and at 
Tippecanoe the Indians were routed with great 
slaughter. October 28, 1812, his army began its 
march. When near the Prophet's town, three 
Indians of rank made their appearance and in- 
quired why Gov. Harrison was approaching them 
in so hostile an attitude. After a short confer- 
ence, arrangements were made for a meeting the 
next day to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted 
with the Indian character to be deceived by such 
protestations. Selecting a favorable spot for his 
night's encampment, he took every precaution 
against surprise. His troops were posted in a 
hollow square and slept upon their arms. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock 
in the morning, had risen, and was sitting 
in conversation with his aides by the embers 
of a waning fire. It was a chill, cloudy morning, 
with a drizzling rain. In the darkness, the In- 
dians had crept as near as possible, and just then, 
with a savage yell, rushed, with all the despera- 
tion which superstition and passion most highly 
inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply pro- 
vided with guns and ammunition by the English, 
and their war-whoop was accompanied by a 
shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as 
the light aided the Indians in their aim, and 
Gen. Harrison's troops stood as immovable as 
the rocks around them until day dawned, when 
they made a simultaneous charge with the bayo- 
net and swept everything before them, completely 
routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British, descending from the 

Canadas, were of themselves a very formidable 
force, but with their savage allies rushing like 
wolves from the forest, burning, plundering, scalp- 
ing, torturing, the wide frontier was plunged into 
a state of consternation which even the most vivid 
imagination can but faintly conceive. Gen. Hull 
had made an ignominious surrender of his forces at 
Detroit. Under these despairing circumstances, 
Gov. Harrison was appointed by President Madi- 
son Commander-in-Chief of the Northwestern 
Army, with orders to retake Detroit and to protect 
the frontiers. It would be difficult to place a man 
in a situation demanding more energy, sagacity 
and courage, but he was found equal to the 
position, and nobly and triumphantly did he meet 
all the responsibilities. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member 
of the National House of Representatives, to rep- 
resent the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved 
an active member, and whenever he spoke it was 
with a force of reason and power of eloquence 
which arrested the attention of all the members. 

In 18 19, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presidential Elec- 
tors of that State, he gave his vote for Henry 
Clay. The same year he was chosen to the Uni- 
ted States Senate. In 1 836 his friends brought 
him forward as a candidate for the Presidency 
against Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the 
close of Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nom- 
inated by his party, and Mr. Harrison was unani- 
mously nominated by the Whigs, with John Tyler 
for the Vice-Presidency. The contest was very 
animated. Gen. Jackson gave all his influence to 
prevent Harrison's election, but his triumph was 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Web- 
ster at its head as Secretary of State, was one of 
the most brilHant with which any President had 
ever been surrounded. Never were the prospects 
of an administration more flattering, or the hopes 
of the country more sanguine. In the midst of 
these bright and joyous prospects, Gen. Harrison 
was seized by a pleurisy-fever, and after a few 
days of violent sickness died, on the 4th of April, 
just one month after his inauguration as President 
of the United States. 



(f OHN TYLER, the tenth President of the 
I United States, and was born in Charles 
(2/ City County, Va., March 29, 1790. He was 
the favored child of affluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of twelve, John entered 
William and Mary College, and graduated with 
much honor when but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted himself with great assi- 
duity to the study of law, partly with his father 
and partly with Edmund Randolph, one of the 
most distinguished lawj'ers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, he commenced the 
practice of law. His success was rapid and as- 
tonishing. It is said that three months had not 
elapsed ere there was scarcely a case on the 
docket of the court in which he was not retained. 
When but twenty-one years of age, he was almost 
unanimously elected to a seat in the State Legis- 
lature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures 
of Jefferson and Madison. For five successive 
years he was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was 
elected a Member of Congress. Here he acted ear- 
nestly and ably with the Democratic party, oppos- 
ing a national bank, internal improvements by 
the General Government, and a protective tariff; 
advocating a strict construction of the Constitu- 
■ tion and the most careful vigilance over State 
rights. His labors in Congress were so arduous 
that before the close of his second term he found 
it necessary to resign and retire to his estate in 
Charles City County to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in 
the State Legislature, where his influence was 
powerful in promoting public works of great 
utility. With a reputation thus constantly in- 
creasing, he was chosen by a very large majority 
of votes Governor of his native State. His ad- 
ministration was a signally successful one, and his 
popularitj' secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of 
the United States. A portion of the Democratic 
party was displeased with Mr. Randolph's way- 
ward course, and brought forward John Tyler as 
his opponent, considering him the only man in 
Virginia of sufficient popularity to succeed 
against the renowned orator of Roanoke. Mr. 
Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon tak- 
ing his seat in the Senate he joined the ranks of 
the opposition. He opposed the tariff, and spoke 
against and voted against the bank as unconsti- 
tutional; he strenuously opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisting all projects of internal im- 
provements by the General Government, and 
avowed his sympathy with Mr. Calhoun's view 
of nullification; he declared that Gen. Jackson, 
by his opposition to the nullifiers, had abandoned 
the principles of the Democratic party. Such 
was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress — a record in 
perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice 
of his profession. There was a split in the Demo- 
cratic party. His friends still regarded him as a 
true Jeffersonian, gave him a dinner, and show- 
ered compliments upon him. He had now at- 
tained the age of forty-six, and his career had been 
very brilliant. In consequence of his devotion to 
public business, his private affairs had fallen into 
some disorder, and it was not without satisfac- 
tion that he resumed the practice of law, and de- 
voted himself to the cultivation of his plantation. 
Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, for 
the better education of his children, and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the southern Whigs he was sent to the 
national convention at Harrisburg in 1839 to nom- 
inate a President. The majority of votes were 
given to Gen Harrison, a genuine Whig, much 
to the disappointment of the South, which wished 



for Henry Clay. To conciliate the southern 
Whigs and to secure their vote, the convention 
then nominated John Tyler for Vice-President. 
It was well known that he was not in sympathy 
with the Whig party in the North; but the Vice- 
President has very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to 
preside over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it 
happened that a Whig President and, in reality, 
a Democratic Vice-President were chosen. 

in 1 84 1, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice- 
President of the United States. In one short 
month from that time. President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler thus found himself, to his own 
surprise and that of the whole nation, an occu- 
pant of the Presidential chair. Hastening from 
Williamsburg to Washington, on the 6th of 
April he was inaugurated to the high and re- 
sponsible office. He was placed in a position of 
exceeding delicacy and difficulty. All his long 
life he had been opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into power. 
He had ever been a consistent, honest man, with 
an unblemished record. Gen. Harrison had se- 
lected a Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, 
and thus surround himself with counselors whose 
views were antagonistic to his own ? or, on the 
other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself and which would oppose 
all those views which the Whigs deemed essen- 
tial to the public welfare ? This was his fearful 
dilemma. He invited the cabinet which Presi- 
dent Harrison had selected to retain their seats, 
and recommended a day of fasting and prayer, 
that God would guide and bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for 
the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United 
States. The President, after ten days' delay, re- 
turned it with his veto. He suggested, however, 
that he would approve of a bill drawn up upon 
such a plan as he proposed. Such a bill was ac- 
cordingly prepared, and privately submitted to 
him. He gave it his approval. It was passed 
without alteration, and he sent it back with his 
veto. Here commenced the open rupture. It is 
said that Mr. Tyler was provoked' to this meas- 

ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who se- 
verely touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the 
President into their arms. The party which 
elected him denounced him bitterly. All the 
members of his cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, 
resigned. The Whigs of Congress, both the 
Senate and the House, held a meeting and issued 
an address to the people of the United States, 
proclaiming that all political alliance between the 
Whigs and President Tyler was at an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs 
and Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong 
party men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary 
to resign, forced out by the pressure of his Whig 
friends. Thus the four years of Mr. Tyler's un- 
fortunate administration passed sadly away. No 
one was satisfied. The land was filled with mur- 
murs and vituperation. Whigs and Democrats 
alike assailed him. More and more, however, he 
brought himself into sympathy with his old 
friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his 
term he gave his whole influence to the support 
of Mr. Polk, the Democratic candidate for his 

On the 4th of March, 1845, President Tyler re- 
tired from the harassments of office, to the regret 
of neither party, and probably to his own unspeak- 
able relief The remainder of his days were 
passed mainly in the retirement of his beautiful 
home — Sherwood Forest, Charles City County, 
Va. His first wife. Miss Letitia Christian, died 
in Washington in 1842; and in June, 1844, 
he was again married, at New York, to Miss Julia 
Gardiner, a young lady of many personal and 
intellectual accomplishments. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the 
State Rights and nullifying doctrines of John C. 
Calhoun had inaugurated, President Tyler re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States, and 
joined the Confederates. He was chosen a mem- 
ber of their Congress, and while engaged in 
active measures to destroy, by force of arms, the 
Government over which he had once presided, he 
was taken sick and soon died. 




















■i nr(-^- 













[Q|^9HBBP7 •* ' 




(Tames K. polk, the eleventh President of 
I the United States, was born in Mecklenburgh 
(2/ County, N. C. , November 2, 1795. His 
parents were Samuel and Jane (Knox) Polk, the 
former a son of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the first pioneers, in 
1735. In 1806, with his wife and children, and 
soon after followed by most of the members of the 
Polk family, Samuel Polk emigrated some two or 
three hundred miles farther west, to the rich val- 
ley of the Duck River. Here, in the midst of the 
wilderness, in a region which was subsequently 
called MaurA' County, they erected their log huts 
and established their homes. In the hard toil of 
a new farm in the wilderness, James K. Polk 
spent the early years of his childhood and youth. 
His father, adding the pursuit of a surve3-or to 
that of a farmer, gradually increased in wealth, 
until he became one of the leading men of the 
region. His mother was a superior woman, of 
strong common sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life James developed a taste for 
reading, and expressed the strongest desire to ob- 
tain a liberal education. His mother's training 
had made him methodical in his habits, had taught 
him punctuality and industry, and had inspired 
him with lofty principles of morality. His health 
was frail, and his father, fearing that he might not 
be able to endure a sedentary life, got a situation 
for him behind the counter, hoping to fit him for 
commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when, 
at his earnest solicitation, his father removed 
him and made arrangements for him to pros- 
ecute his studies. Soon after he sent him to Mur- 
freesboro Academy. With ardor which could 
scarcely be surpassed, he pressed forward in his 

studies, and in less than two and a-half years, in 
the autumn of 18 15, entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in ever>' exercise, never allow- 
ing himself to be absent from a recitation or a 
religious sen'ice. 

Mr. Polk graduated in 18 18, with the highest 
honors, being deemed the best scholar of his class, 
both in mathematics and the classics. He was 
then twenty-three years of age. His health was 
at this time much impaired by the assiduity with 
which he had prosecuted his studies. After a 
short season of relaxation, he went to Nashville, 
and entered the office of Felix Grundy, to study 
law. Here Mr. Polk renewed his acquaintance 
with Andrew Jackson, wha resided on his planta- 
tion, the "Hermitage," but a few miles from 
Nashville. They had probably been slightly ac- 
quainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican 
and James K. adhered to the same political faith. 
He was a popular public speaker, and was con- 
stantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such 
that he was popularly called the Napoleon of the 
stump. He was a man of unblemished morals, 
genial and courteous in his bearing, and with that 
sympathetic nature in the joys and griefs of oth- 
ers which gave him hosts of friends. In 1823, 
he was elected to the Legislature of Tennessee, 
and gave his .strong influence toward the election 
of his friend, Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of 
the United States. 

Injanuar\', 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford County, Tenn. His 
bride was altogether worthy of him — a lady of 
beauty and culture. In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk 
was chosen a member of Congress, and the satis- 
faction he gave his constituents may be inferred 



from the fact, that for fourteen successive years, 
or until 1839, he was continued in that oifice. He 
then voluntarily withdrew, only that he might 
accept the Gubernatorial chair of Tennessee. In 
Congress he was a laborious member, a frequent 
and a popular speaker. He was always in his 
seat, always courteous, and whenever he spoke 
it was always to the point, without any ambitious 
rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House. Strong passions were 
roused and stormy scenes were witnessed, but he 
performed his arduous duties to a very general 
satisfaction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he withdrew on 
the 4th of March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, 
as a candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. 
He was elected by a large majority, and on Octo- 
ber 14, 1839, took the oath of ofifice at Na-shville. 
In 1 841 his term of office expired, and he was 
again the candidate of the Democratic party, but 
was defeated. 

On the 4tli of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was in- 
augurated President of the United States. The 
verdict of the country in favor of the annexation 
of Texas exerted its influence upon Congress, 
and the last act of the administration of President 
Tyler was to affix his signature to a joint resolu- 
tion of Congress, passed on the 3d of March, ap- 
proving of the annexation of Texas to the Union. 
As Mexico still claimed Texas as one of her 
provinces, the Mexican Minister, Almonte, im- 
mediately demanded his passports and left the 
country, declaring the act of the annexation to be 
an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message. President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be 
received into the Union on the same footing with 
the other States. In the mean time. Gen. Taylor 
was sent with an array into Texas to hold the 
country. He was first sent to Nueces, which the 
Mexicans said was the western boundary of Tex- 
as. Then he was sent nearly two hundred miles 
further west, to the Rio Grande, where he erected 
batteries which commanded the Mexican city of 
Matamoras, which was situated on the western 

banks. The anticipated collision soon took place, 
and war was declared against Mexico by President 
Polk. The war was pushed forward by his ad- 
ministration with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, 
whose army was first called one of ' ' observation, ' ' 
then of "occupation," then of "invasion," was 
sent forward to Monterey. The feeble Mexicans 
in every encounter were hopeles.sly slaughtered. 
The day of judgment alone can reveal the misery 
which this war caused. It was by the ingenuity 
of Mr. Polk's administration that the war was 
brought on. 

' ' To the victors belong the spoils. ' ' Mexico 
was prostrate before us. Her capital was in our 
hands. We now consented to peace upon the 
condition that Mexico should surrender to us, in 
addition to Texas, all of New Mexico, and all of 
Upper and Lower California. This new demand 
embraced, exclusive of Texas, eight hundred 
thousand square miles. This was an extent of 
territory equal to nine States of the size of New 
York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen ma- 
jestic States to be added to the Union. There 
were some Americans who thought it all right; 
there were others who thought it all wrong. In 
the prosecution of this war we expended twenty 
thousand lives and more than $100,000,000. Of 
this money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired 
from office, having served one term. The next 
day was Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was 
inaugurated as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to 
the Capitol in the same carriage with Gen. Tay- 
lor, and the same evening, with Mrs. Polk, he 
commenced his return to Tennessee. He was 
then but fifty-four years of age. He had always 
been strictly temperate in all his habits, and his 
health was good. With an ample fortune, a 
choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic 
ties of the dearest nature, it seemed as though 
long years of tranquillity and happiness were be- 
fore him. But the cholera — that fearful scourge 
— was then sweeping up the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, and he contracted the disease, dying on the 
15th of June, 1849, in the fifty-fourth year of his 
age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 




G7ACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth President of 
A the United States, was born on the 24th of 
/^ November, 1784, in Orange County, Va. 
His father, Col. Taj'lor, was a Virginian of 
note, and a distinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary was an infant, 
his father, with his wife and two children, emi- 
grated to Keutuckj', where he settled in the path- 
less wilderness, a few miles from Louisville. In 
this frontier home, away from civilization and all 
its refinements, young Zachary could enjoy but 
few social and educational advantages. When 
six years of age he attended a common school, 
and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of 
character. He was strong, fearless and self-reli- 
ant, and manifested a strong desire to enter the 
army to fight the Indians, who were ravaging the 
frontiers. There is little to be recorded of the 
aneventful years of his childhood on his father's 
large but lonely plantation. 

In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for 
him a commission as Lieutenant in the United 
States army, and he joined the troops which were 
stationed at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. 
Soon after this he married Miss Margaret Smith, 
a young lady from one of the first families of 

Immediately after the declaration of war with 
England, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then 
been promoted to that rank) was put in command 
of Ft. Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles 
above Vincennes. This fort had been built in the 
wilderness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to 
Tippecanoe. It was one of the first points of at- 
tack by the Indians, led by Tecumseh. Its garri- 
son consisted of a broken company of infantry, 
numbering fifty men, many of whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn .of 181 2, the Indians, 
stealthily, and in large numbers, moved upon the 

fort. Their approach was first indicated by the 
murder of two soldiers just outside of the stockade. 
Capt. Taylor made every possible preparation to 
meet the anticipated assault. On the 4th of Sep- 
tember, a band of forty painted and plumed sav- 
ages came to the fort, waving a white flag, and 
informed Capt. Taylor that in the morning their 
chief would come to have a talk with him. It 
was evident that their object was merely to ascer- 
tain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, 
kept them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared; 
the garrison slept upon their arms. One hour 
before midnight the war-whoop burst from a 
thousand lips in the forest around, followed by 
the discharge of musketry and the rush of the 
foe. Every man, sick and well, sprang to his 
post. Every man knew that defeat was not 
merely death, but, in the case of capture, death by 
the most agonizing and prolonged torture. No 
pen can describe, no imagination can conceive, the 
scenes which ensued. The savages succeeded in 
setting fire to one of the block-houses. Until six 
o'clock in the morning this awful conflict con- 
tinued, when the savages, baffled at every point 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. 
Capt. Taylor, for this gallant defense, was pro- 
moted to the rank of Major by brevet. 

Uijtil the close of the war, Maj. Taylor was 
placed in such situations that he saw but little 
more of active service. He was sent far away 
into the depths of the wilderness to Ft. Craw- 
ford, on Fox River, which empties into Green 
Bay. Here there was little to be done but to 
wear away the tedious hours as one best could. 
There were no books, no society, no intellectual 
stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful years 
rolled on. Gradually he rose to the rank of 
Colonel. In the Black Hawk War, which re- 



suited in the capture of that renowned chieftain, 
Col. Taylor took a subordinate, but a brave and 
efficient, part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged 
in the defense of the frontiers, in scenes so re- 
mote, and in employments so obscure, that his 
name was unknown beyond the limits of his own 
immediate acquaintance. In the year 1836, he 
was sent to Florida to compel the Seminole Indi- 
ans to vacate that region, and retire beyond the 
Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty had prom- 
ised they should do. The services rendered here 
secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government, and as a reward he was ele- 
vated to the high rank of Brigadier- General by 
brevet, and soon after, in May, 1838, was ap- 
pointed to the chief command of the United 
States troops in Florida. 

After two years of wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the Peninsula, Gen. Tay- 
lor obtained, at his own request, a change of 
command, and was stationed over the Department 
of the Southwest. This field embraced L,ouisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Establishing 
his headquarters at Ft. Jessup, in Louisiana, he 
removed his family to a plantation which he pur- 
chased near Baton Rouge. Here he remained 
for five years, buried, as it were, from the world, 
but faithfully discharging every duty imposed 
upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the 
land between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the 
latter river being the boundary of Texas, which 
was then claimed by the United States. Soon 
the war with Mexico was brought on, and at Palo 
Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Gen. Taylor won 
brilliant victories over the Mexicans. The rank 
of Major-General by brevet was then conferred 
upon Gen. Taylor, and his name was received 
with enthusiasm almost everywhere in the na- 
tion. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista, in which he won signal victories 
over forces much larger than he commanded. 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena 
Vista spread the wildest enthu.siasm over the 
country. The name of Gen. Taylor was on 
every one's lips. The Whig party decided to 

take advantage of this wonderful popularity in 
bringing forward the unpolished, unlettered, hon- 
est soldier as their candidate for the Presidency. 
Gen. Taylor was astonished at the announce- 
ment, and for a time would not listen to it, de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such 
an office. So little interest had he taken in poli- 
tics, that for forty years he had not cast a vote. 
It was not without chagrin that several distin- 
guished statesmen, who had been long years in 
the public ser\'ice, found their claims set aside in 
behalf of one whose name had never been heard 
of, save in connection with Palo Alto, Resaca de 
la Palma, Monterey and Buena Vi.sta. It is said 
that Daniel Webster, in his haste, remarked, "It 
is a nomination not fit to be made. ' ' 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a 
fine writer. His friends took possession of him, 
and prepared such few communications as it was 
needful should be presented to the public. The 
popularity of the successful warrior swept the 
land. He was triumphantly elected over two 
opposing candidates, — Gen. Cass and Ex-Presi- 
dent Martin Van Buren. Though he selected an 
excellent cabinet, the good old man found himself 
in a very uncongenial position, and was at times 
sorely perplexed and harassed. His mental suf- 
ferings were very severe, and probably tended to 
hasten his death. The pro-slavery party was 
pushing its claims with tireless energy; expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba; California 
was pleading for admission to the Union, while 
slavery .stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. 
Taylor found the political conflicts in Washington 
to be far more trying to the nerves than battles 
with Mexicans or Indians. 

In the midst of all these troubles. Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but 
little over a year, took cold, and after a brief 
sickness of but little over five days, died, on the 
9th of July, 1850. His last words were, "I am 
not afraid to die. I am ready. I have endeav- 
ored to do my duty." He died universally re- 
spected and beloved. An honest, unpretending 
man, he had been steadily growing in the affec- 
tions of the people, and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 




KA ILLARD FILLMORE, thirteenth President 
y of the United States, was born at Summer 
GJ Hill, Cayuga County, N. Y., on the 7th of 
Januar>', 1800. His father was a farmer, and, ownig 
to misfortune, in humble circumstances. Of his 
mother, the daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, of 
Pittsfield, Mass., it has been said that she pos- 
sessed an intellect of a high order, united with 
much personal loveliness, sweetness of disposi- 
tion, graceful manners and exquisite sensibilities. 
She died in 183L, having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished promise, though she 
was not permitted to witness the high dignity 
which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender 
advantages for education in his early years. The 
common schools, which he occasionally attended, 
were very imperfect institutions, and books were 
scarce and expensive. There was nothing then 
in his character to indicate the brilliant career 
upon which he was about to enter. He was a 
plain farmer's boy — intelligent, good-looking, 
kind-hearted. The sacred iuiluences of home 
had taught him to revere the Bible, and had laid 
the foundations of an upright character. When 
fourteen years of age, his father sent him some 
hundred miles from home to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small village, where 
some enterprising man had commenced the col- 
lection of a village library. This proved an in- 
estimable blessing to young Fillmore. His even- 
ings were spent in reading. Soon every leisure 
moment was occupied with books. His thirst for 
knowledge became insatiate, ' and the selections 
which he made were continually more elevating 
and instructive. He read history, biography, 
oratory, and thus gradually there was enkindled 

in his heart a desire to be something more than a 
mere worker with his hands. 

The young clothier had now attained the age 
of nineteen years, and was of fine personal appear- 
ance and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so hap- 
pened that there was a gentleman in the neigh- 
borhood of ample pecuniary means and of benev- 
olence, — ^Judge Walter Wood, — who was struck 
with the prepossessing appearance of j-oung Fill- 
more. He made his acquaintance, and was so 
much impressed with his ability and attainments 
that he advised him to abandon his trade and de- 
vote himself to the study of the law. The young 
man replied that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him, and that his previous edu- 
cation had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood 
had so much confidence in him that he kindly 
offered to take him into his own ofiice, and to 
lend him such money as he needed. Most grate- 
fully the generous offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion 
about a collegiate education. A young man is 
supposed to be liberally educated if he has gradu- 
ated at some college. But many a boy who loi- 
ters through university halls and then enters a 
law office is by no means as well prepared to 
prosecute his legal studies as was Millard Fill- 
more when he graduated at the clothing-mill at 
the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to 
intense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twent3'-three 3'ears of age, he 
was admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. 
He then went to the village of Aurora, and com- 
menced the practice of law. In this secluded, 
quiet region, his practice, of course, was limited, 
and there was no opportunity for a sudden rise in 
fortune or in fame. Here, in 1826, he married a 
lady of great moral worth, and one capable of 



adorning any station she might be called to fill, — 
Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advo- 
cate, gradually attracted attention, and he was 
invited to enter into partnership, under highly ad- 
vantageous circumstances, with an elder member 
of the Bar in Buffalo. Just before removing to 
Bu£falo, in 1829, he took his .seat in the House of 
Assembly of the State of New York, as a Repre- 
sentative from Erie County. Though he had 
never taken a very active part in politics, his vote 
and sympathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, and he found himself 
in a helpless minority in the Legiislature; still the 
testimony comes from all parties that his courtesy, 
ability and integrity won, to a very unusual de- 
gree, the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a 
seat in the United States Congress. He entered 
that troubled arena in the most tumultuous hours 
of our national history, when the great conflict 
respecting the national bank and the removal of 
the deposits was raging. 

His term of two years closed, and he returned 
to his profession, which he pursued with increas- 
ing reputation and success. After a lapse of two 
years he again became a candidate for Congress; 
was re-elected, and took his seat in 1837. His 
past experience as a Representative gave him 
strength and confidence. The first term of service 
in Congress to any man can be but little more 
than an introduction. He was now prepared for 
active duty. All his energies were brought to 
bear upon the public good. Every measure re- 
ceived his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, 
and his popularity filled the State. In the year 
1847, when he had attained the age of forty- 
seven years, he was elected Comptroller of the 
State. His labors at the Bar, in the Legisla- 
ture, in Congress and as Comptroller, had given 
him very considerable fame. The Whigs were 
casting about to find suitable candidates for Presi- 
dent and Vice-President at the approaching elec- 
tion. Far away on the waters of the Rio Grande, 
there was a rough old soldier, who had fought 

one or two successful battles with the Mexicans, 
which had caused his name to be proclaimed in 
trumpet-tones all over the land as a candidate for 
the presidency. But it was necessary to associate 
with him on the same ticket some man of repu- 
tation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
names of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore 
became the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their 
candidates for President and Vice-President. The 
Whig ticket was signally triumphant. On the 
4th of March, 1849, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
President, and Millard Fillmore Vice-President, 
of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the 
Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus be- 
came President. He appointed a very able cabi- 
net, of which the illustrious Daniel Webster was 
Secretary of State; nevertheless, he had serious 
difiiculties to contend with, since the opposition 
had a majority in both Houses. He did all in his 
power to conciliate the South; but the pro-slavery 
party in the South felt the inadequacy of all 
measures of transient conciliation. The popula- 
tion of the free States was so rapidly increasing 
over that of the slave States, that it was inevitable 
that the power of the Government should soon 
pass into the hands of the free States. The fa- 
mous compromise measures were adopted under 
Mr. Fillmore's administration, and the Japan ex- 
pedition was sent out. On the 4th of March, 
1853, he, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Know-Nothing" party, but 
was beaten by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. 
Fillmore lived in retirement. During the terri- 
ble conflict of civil war, he was mostly .silent. It 
was generally supposed that his sympathies were 
rather with those who were endeavoring to over- 
throw our institutions. President Fillmore kept 
aloof from the conflict, without any cordial words 
of cheer to one party or the other. He was thus 
forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe old age, 
and died in Buffalo, N. Y., March 8, 1874. 



r"RANKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth Presi- 
rft dent of the United States, was bom in Hills- 
I ^ borough, N. H., November 23, 1804. His 
father was a Revolutionary soldier, who with his 
own strong arm hewed out a home in the wilder- 
ness. He was a man of inflexible integrity, of 
strong, though uncultivated, mind, and was an un- 
compromising Democrat. The mother of Frank- 
lin Pierce was all that a son could desire — an in- 
telligent, prudent, affectionate, Chri.stian woman. 

Franklin, who was the sixth of eight children, 
was a remarkably bright and handsome boy, 
generous, warm-hearted and brave. He won 
alike the love of old and young. The boys on 
the play-ground loved him. His teachers loved 
him. The neighbors looked upon him with pride 
and affection. He was by instinct a gentleman, 
always speaking kind words, and doing kind 
deeds, with a peculiar, unstudied tact which 
taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar, and in 
body and mind a finely developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, 
he entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me. 
He was one of the most popular young men in 
the college. The purity of his moral character, 
the unvarying courtesy of his demeanor, his rank 
as a scholar, and genial nature, rendered him a 
universal favorite. There was something pe- 
culiarly winning in his address, and it was evi- 
dently not in the slightest degree studied — it was 
the simple outgushing of his own magnanimous 
and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin 
Pierce commenced the study of law in the office 
of Judge Woodbury, one of the most distinguished 

lawyers of the State, and a man of great private 
worth. The eminent social qualities of the young 
lawyer, his father's prominence as a public man, 
and the brilliant political career into which Judge 
Woodbury was entering, all tended to entice Mr. 
Pierce into the fascinating yet perilous path of 
political life. With all the ardor of his nature he 
espoused the cause of Gen. Jackson for the Presi- 
dency. He commenced the practice of law in 
Hillsborough, and was soon elected to represent 
the town in the State Legislature. Here he 
served for four years. The last two years he was 
chosen Speaker of the House by a very large 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was 
elected a member of Congress. In 1837, being 
then but thirty-three years old, he was elected to 
the Senate, taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren 
commenced his administration. He was the 
youngest member in the Senate. In the year 
1834, he married Miss Jane Means Appleton, a 
lady of rare beauty and accomplishments, and one 
admirably fitted to adorn every station with which 
her husband was honored. Of the three sons who • 
were born to them, all now sleep with their par- 
ents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing 
fame and increasing as a lawyer, took up 
his residence in Concord, the capital of New 
Hampshire. President Polk, upon his accession 
to office, appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-General 
of the United States; but the offer was declined 
in consequence of numerous professional engage- 
ments at home, and the precarious state of Mrs. 
Pierce's health. He also, about the same time, 
declined the nomination for Governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called 



Mr. Pierce into the array. Receiving the appoint- 
ment of Brigadier- General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, R I., on the 
27th of May, 1847. He took an important part 
in this war, proving himself a brave and true sol- 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his na- 
tive State, he was received enthusiastically by the 
advocates of the Mexican War, and coldly by his 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, very frequently taking an active part in 
political questions, giving his cordial support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic party. 
The compromise measures met cordially with his 
approval, and he strenuously advocated the en- 
forcement of the infamous Fugitive Slave lyaw, 
which so shocked the religious sensibilities of the 
North. He thus became distinguished as a 
' ' Northern man with Southern principles. ' ' The 
strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the 12th of June, 1852, the Democratic con- 
vention met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they contin- 
ued in session, and in thirty -five ballotings no one 
had obtained a two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus 
far had been thrown for Gen. Pierce. Then the 
Virginia delegation brought forward his name. 
There were fourteen more ballotings, during which 
Gen. Pierce constantly gained strength, until, at 
the forty-ninth ballot, he received two hundred 
and eighty-two votes, and all other candidates 
' eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was the Whig can- 
didate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with great una- 
nimity. Only four States — Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their elec- 
toral votes against him. Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most 
stormy our country had ever experienced. The 
controversy between slavery and freedom was 
then approaching its culminating point. It be- 
came evident that there was to be an irrepressible 
conflict between them, and that this nation 
could not long exist " half slave and half free." 

Pre.sident Pierce, during the whole of his admin- 
istration, did everything he could to conciliate the 
South; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the disso- 
lution of the Union were borne to the North on 
every Southern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when Presi- 
dent Pierce approached the close of his four- 
years term of office. The North had become 
thoroughly alienated from him. The anti-slavery 
sentiment, goaded by great outrages, had been 
rapidly increasing; all the intellectual ability and 
social worth of President Pierce were forgotten in 
deep reprehension of his administrative acts. The 
slaveholders of the South also, unmindful of the 
fidelity with which he had advocated those meas- 
ures of Government which they approved, and 
perhaps feeling that he had rendered himself 
so unpopular as no longer to be able to accepta- 
bly serve them, ungratefully dropped him, and 
nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
turned to his home in Concord. His three chil- 
dren were all dead, his last surviving child hav- 
ing been killed before his eyes in a railroad acci- 
dent; and his wife, one of the most estimable and 
accomplished of ladies, was rapidly sinking in 
consumption. The hour of dreadful gloom soon 
came, and he was left alone in the world without 
wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth which, 
divided our country into two parties, and two 
only, Mr. Pierce remained steadfast in the prin- 
ciples which he had always cherished, and gave 
his sympathies to that pro-slaverj- party with 
which he had ever been allied. He declined to 
do anything, either by voice or pen, to strengthen 
the hand of the National Government. He con- 
tinued to reside in Concord until the time of his 
death, which occurred in October, 1869. He was 
one of the most genial and social of men, an hon- 
ored communicant of the Episcopal Church, and 
one of the kindest of neighbors. Generous to a 
fault, he contributed liberally toward the allevia- 
tion of suffering and want, and many of his 
towns-people were often gladdened by his material 



(Tames BUCHANAN, the fifteenth President 
I of the United States, was born in a small 
(2/ frontier town, at the foot of the eastern ridge 
of the AUeghanies, in Franklin County, Pa. , on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place where the 
humble cabin home stood was called Stony Bat- 
ter. His father was a native of the north of Ire- 
land, who had emigrated in 1783, with little prop- 
erty save his own strong arms. Five years after- 
ward he married Elizabeth Spear, the daughter 
of a respectable farmer, and, with his young bride, 
plunged into the wilderness, staked his claim, 
reared his log hut, opened a clearing with his 
axe, and settled down there to perform his obscure 
part in the drama of life. When James was eight 
years of age, his father removed to the village of 
Mercersburg, where his son was placed at school, 
and commenced a course of study in English, 
Latin and Greek. His progress was rapid, and 
at the age of fourteen he entered Dickinson Col- 
lege, at Carlisle. Here he developed remarkable 
talent, and took his stand among the first scholars 
in the institution. 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the high- 
est honors of his class. He was then eighteen 
years of age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, 
fond of athletic sports, an unerring shot, and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal spirits, 
lie immediately commenced the study of law in 
the city of I<ancaster, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 18 12, when he was but twenty-one years 
of age. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower 
House. During the vacations of Congress, he 

occasionally tried some important case. In 1831 
he retired altogether from the toils of his profes- 
sion, having acquired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presi- 
dency, appointed Mr. Buchanan Minister to Rus- 
sia. The duties of his mission he performed 
with ability, and gave satisfaction to all parties. 
Upon his return, in 1833, he was elected to a seat 
in the United States Senate. He there met as 
his associates Webster, Clay, Wright and Cal- 
houn. He advocated the measures proposed by 
President Jackson, of making reprisals against 
France to enforce the payment of our claims 
against that country, and defended the course of 
the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from ofiice of those who were not the 
supporters of his administration. Upon this 
question he was brought into direct collision with 
Henry Clay. He also, with voice and vote, ad- 
vocated expunging from the journal of the Senate 
the vote of censure against Gen. Jackson for re- 
moving the deposits. Earnestly he opposed the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, 
and urged the prohibition of the circulation of 
anti-slavery documents by the United States 
mails. As to petitions on the subject of slavery, 
he advocated that they should be respectfully re- 
ceived, and that the reply should be returned 
that Congress had no power to legislate upon the 
subject. " Congress," said he, "might as well 
undertake to interfere with slavery under a for- 
eign government as in any of the States where it 
now exists. ' ' 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, 
Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as 
such took his share of the responsibility in the 



conduct of the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed 
that crossing the Nueces by the American 
troops into the disputed territory was not wrong, 
but for the Mexicans to cross the Rio Grande 
into Texas was a declaration of war. No candid 
man can read -with pleasure the account of the 
course our Government pursued in that movement. 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly 
with the party devoted to the perpetuation and 
extension of slavery, and brought all the energies 
of his mind to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. 
He gave his cordial approval to the compromise 
measures of 1850, which included the Fugitive 
Slave Law. Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with the mis- 
sion to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic Con- 
vention nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presi- 
dency. The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever engaged. 
All the friends of slavery were on one side; all 
the advocates of its restriction and final abolition 
on the other. Mr. Fremont, the candidate of the 
enemies of slavery, received one hundred and 
fourteen electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
one hundred and seventy-four, and was elected. 
The popular vote stood 1,340,618 for Fremont, 
1,224,750 for Buchanan. On March 4, 1857, 
the latter was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only 
four years were wanting to fill up his three-score 
years and ten. His own friends, those with 
whom he had been allied in political principles 
and action for years, were seeking the destruc- 
tion of the Government, that they might rear 
upon the ruins of our free institutions a nation 
whose corner-stone should be human slavery. In 
this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly 
bewildered. He could not, with his long-avowed 
principles, consistently oppose the State Rights 
party in their assumptions. As President of the 
United States, bound by his oath faithfully to 
administer the laws, he could not, without per- 
jury of the grossest kind, unite with those en- 
deavoring to overthrow the Republic. He there- 
fore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administra- 

tion nominated Abraham Lincoln as their stand- 
ard-bearer in the next Presidential canvass. 
The pro-slavery party declared that if he were 
elected and the control of the Government were 
thus taken from their hands, they would secede 
from the Union, taking with them as they retired 
the National Capitol at Washington and the 
lion's share of the territory of the United States. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slave- 
holders claiming the right to secede, and Mr. 
Buchanan avowing that Congress had no power 
to prevent it, one of the most pitiable exhibitions 
of governmental imbecility was exhibited that the 
world has ever seen. He declared that Congress 
had no power to enforce its laws in any State 
which had withdrawn, or which was attempting 
to withdraw, from the Union. This was not the 
doctrine of Andrew Jackson, wheUj with his hand 
upon his sword-hilt, he exclaimed: "The Union 
must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i86o, 
nearly three months before the inauguration of 
President Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in 
listless despair. The rebel flag was raised in 
Charleston; Ft. Sumter was besieged; our forts, 
navy-yards and arsenals were seized; our depots 
of military stores were plundered, and our cus- 
tom-houses and post-offices were appropriated by 
the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels and the imbecility of 
our Executive were alike marvelous. The na- 
tion looked on in agony, waiting for the slow 
weeks to glide away and close the administration, 
so terrible in its weakness. At length the long- 
looked-for hour of deliverance came, when Abra- 
ham Lincoln was to receive the scepter. 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends can not recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his 
fame, that in that dreadful conflict which rolled 
its billows of flame and blood over our whole 
land, no word came from his lips to indicate his 
wish that our country's banner should triumph 
over the flag of the Rebellion. He died at his 
Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 



Gl BRAHAM I^INCOLN, the sixteenth Presi- 
r I dent of the United States, was born in Hardin 
/I County, Ky., February 12, 1809. About 
the year 1 780, a man by the name of Abraham 
I/incohi left Virginia with his family and moved 
into the then wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, and while still a young man, 
he was working one day in a field, when an Indian 
stealthily approached and killed him. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five little chil- 
dren, three boys and two girls. Thomas, the 
youngest of the boys, and the father of President 
Abraham lyincoln, was four years of age at his 
father's death. 

When twenty -eight years old, Thomas Lincoln 
built a log cabin, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky 
emigrants, who had also come from Virginia. 
Their second child was Abraham Lincoln, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. The mother of Abraham was 
a noble woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created 
to adorn a palace, but doomed to toil and pine, and 
die in a hovel. " All that I am, or hope to be," 
exclaimed the grateful son, " I owe to my angel- 
mother." When he was eight years of age, his 
father sold his cabin and small farm and moved 
to Indiana, where two years later his mother died. 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly 
family was the usual lot of humanity. There 
were joys and griefs, weddings and funerals. 
Abraham's sister Sarah, to whom he was tenderly 
attached, was married wheft a child of but four- 
teen years of age, and soon died. The family 
was gradually scattered, and Thomas Lincoln 
6old out his squatter's claim in 1830, and emi- 
grated to Macon County, 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years 
of age. With vigorous hands he aided his father 
in rearing another log cabin, and worked quite 
diligently at this until he saw the family com- 
fortably settled, and their small lot of enclosed 
prairie planted with corn, wheu he announced to 

his father his intention to leave home, and to go 
out into the world and seek his fortune. Little 
did he or his friends imagine how brilliant that 
fortune was to be. He saw the value of educa- 
tion and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. Religion he 
revered. His morals were pure, and he was un- 
contaminated by a single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired 
laborer among the farmers. Then he went to 
Springfield, where he was employed in building 
a large flat-boat. In this he took a herd of swine, 
floated them down the Sanga'mon to Illinois, and 
thence by the Mississippi to New Orleans. What- 
ever Abraham Lincoln undertook, he performed 
so faithfully as to give great satisfaction to his 
employers. In this adventure the latter were 
so well pleased, that upon his return they placed 
a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk 
War, he enlisted and was chosen Captain of a 
company. He returned to Sangamon County, 
and, although only twenty -three years of age, was 
a candidate for the Legislature, but was defeated. 
He soon after received from Andrew Jackson the 
appointment of Postmaster of New Salem. His 
only post-oflice was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there, ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and 
soon made this his business. In 1834 he again 
became a candidate for the Legislature and was 
elected. Mr. Stuart, of Springfield, advised him 
to study law. He walked from New Salem to 
Springfield, borrowed of Mr. Stuart a load of 
books, carried them back, and began his legal 
studies. When the Legislature assembled, he 
trudged on foot with his pack on his back one 
hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here 
it was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 
he removed to Springfield and began the practice 
of law. His success with the jury was so great 



that he was soon engaged in almost every noted 
case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincohi and Mr. Douglas on the slavery ques- 
tion. In the organization of the Republican party 
in Illinois, in 1856, he took an active part, and at 
once became one of the leaders in that party. 
Mr. Lincoln's speeches in opposition to Senator 
Douglas in the contest in 1858 for a seat in the 
Senate, form a most notable part of his history. 
The issue was on the slavery question, and he 
took the broad ground of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, that all men are created equal. Mr. 
Lincoln was defeated in this contest, but won a 
far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chi- 
cago on the 1 6th of June, i860. The delegates 
and strangers who crowded the city amounted to 
twenty-five thousand. An immense building 
called ' ' The Wigwam, ' ' was reared to accommo- 
date the convention. There were eleven candi- 
dates for whom votes were thrown. William H. 
Seward, a man whose fame as a statesman had 
long filled the land, was the most prominent. It 
was generally supposed he would be the nomi- 
nee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received the 
nomination on the third ballot. 

Election day came, and Mr. Lincoln received 
one hundred and eighty electoral votes out of two 
hundred and three cast, and was, therefore, con- 
stitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this 
good and merciful man, especially by the slave- 
holders, was greater than upon any other man 
ever elected to this high position. In February, 
1861, Mr. Lincoln started for Washington, stop- 
ping in all the large cities on his way, making 
speeches. The whole journey was fraught with 
much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassi- 
nation were afterward brought to light. A gang 
in Baltimore had arranged upon his arrival to 
"get up a row," and in the confusion to make 
sure of his death with revolvers and hand-gren- 
ades. A detective unravelled the plot. A secret 
and special train was provided to take him from 
Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an unexpected 

hour of the night. The tram started at half-past 
ten, and to prevent any possible communication 
on the part of the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train 
had .started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. 
Lincoln reached Washington in safety and was 
inaugurated, although great anxiety was felt by 
all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to 
other prominent opponents before the convention 
he gave important positions; but during no other 
administration had the duties devolving upon the 
President been so manifold, and the responsibilities 
.so great, as those which fell to his lot. Knowing 
this, and feeling his own weakness and inability 
to meet, and in his own strength to cope with, 
the difficulties, he learned early to seek Divine 
wisdom and guidance in determining his plans, 
and Divine comfort in all his trials, both personal 
and national. Contrary to his own estimate of 
himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the most cour- 
ageous of men. He went directly into the rebel 
capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, with 
no guard but a few .sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had 
been made for his assassination, and he at last 
fell a victim to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, 
with Gen. Grant, was urgently invited to attend 
Ford's Theatre. It was announced that they 
would be present. Gen. Grant, however, left the 
city. President Lincoln, feeling, with his char- 
acteristic kindliness of heart, that it would be a 
disappointment if he should fail them, very re- 
luctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play, an actor by the name of John Wilkes 
Booth entered the box where the President and 
family were seated, and fired a bullet into his 
brain. He died the next morning at seven 

Never before in the history of the world was 
a nation plunged into such deep grief by the death 
of its ruler. Strong men met in the streets and 
wept in speechless anguish. His was a life which 
will fitly become a model. His name as the 
Savior of his country will live with that of Wash- 
ington's, its Father. 



Gl NDREW JOHNSON, seventeenth President 
LI of the United States. The early life of An- 
/ I drew Johnson contains but the record of pov- 
erty , destitution and friendlessness. He was bom 
December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, N. C. His par- 
ents, belonging to the class of "poor whites" 
of the South, were in such circumstances that they 
could not confer even the slightest advantages of 
education upon their child. When Andrew was 
five years of age, his father accidentally lost his 
life, while heroically endeavoring to save a friend 
from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by 
the labor of his mother, who obtained her living 
with her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one 
day, and being unable either to read or write, was 
apprenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gen- 
tleman was in the habit of going to the tailor's 
shop occasionally, and reading to the boys at 
work there. He often read from the .speeches of 
distinguished British statesmen. Andrew, who 
was endowed with a mind of more than ordinary 
ability, became much interested in these .speeches; 
his ambition was roused, and he was iaspired with 
a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, 
and with the assistance of some of his fellow- 
workmen learned his letters. He then called upon 
the gentleman to borrow the book of speeches. 
The owner, pleased with his zeal, not only gave 
him the book, but assisted him in learning to com- 
bine the letters into words. Under such difficul- 
ties he pressed onward laboriously, spending usu- 
ally ten or twelve hours at work in the shop, and 
then robbing himself of rest and recreation to de- 
vote such time as he could to reading. 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 

Greenville, where he married a young lady who 
possessed some education. Under her instructions 
he learned to write and cipher. He became 
prominent in the village debating society, and a 
favorite with the students of Greenville College. 
In 1828, he organized a working man's party, 
which elected him Alderman, and in 1830 elected 
him Mayor, which position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in 
political affairs, identifying himself with the work- 
ing-class, to which he belonged. In 1835, he 
was elected a member of the House of Represent- 
atives of Tennessee. He was then just twenty- 
seven years of age. He became a very active 
member of the Legislature, gave his support to 
the Democratic party, and in 1840 "stumped the 
State," advocating Martin Van Buren's claims to 
the Presidency, in opposition to those of Gen. 
Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1 84 1, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, 
he was elected a Member of Congress, and by suc- 
cessive elections held that important post for ten 
years. In 1 853, he was elected Governor of Tenn- 
essee, and was re-elected in 1855. In all these 
responsible positions, he discharged his duties 
with distinguished ability, and proved himself the 
warm friend of the working classes. In 1857, Mr. 
Johnson was elected United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating, however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would 
probably prove ' 'to be the gateway out of which 
the sable sons of Africa are to pass from bondage 
to freedom, and become merged in a population 
congenial to themselves." In 1850, he also sup- 
ported the compromise measures, the two essen- 



tial features of which were, that the white people 
of the Territories should be permitted to decide 
for themselves whether they would enslave the 
colored people or not, and that the free States of 
the North should return to the South persons who 
attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly 
origin: on the contrary, he often took pride in 
avowing that he owed his distinction to his own 
exertions. ' 'Sir, ' ' said he on the floor of the 
Senate, "I do not forget that I am a mechanic; 
neither do I forget that Adam was a tailor and 
sewed fig-leaves, and that our Savior was the son 
of a carpenter. ' ' 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of i860, 
he was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for 
the Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of 
the Southern Democracy became apparent, he took 
a decided stand in favor of the Union, and held 
that "slavery must be held .subordinate to the 
Union at whatever cost. ' ' He returned to Tenn- 
essee, and repeatedly imperiled his own life to 
protect the Unionists of that State. Tennessee 
having seceded from the Union, President Lincoln, 
on March 4, 1862, appointed him Military Gov- 
ernor of the State, and he established the most 
stringent military rule. His numerous proclama- 
tions attracted wide attention. In 1864, he was 
elected Vice-President of the United States, and 
upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 1865, 
became President. In a speech two days later he 
said, "The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime 
and must be punished; that the Government will 
not always bear with its enemies; that it is strong 
not only to protect, but to punish. * * The 
people must understand that it (treason) is the 
blackest of crimes, and will surely be punished. ' ' 
Yet his whole administration, the history of which 
is so well known, was in utter inconsistency with, 
and in the most violent opposition to, the princi- 
ples laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress, and he 
characterized Congress as a new rebellion, and 
lawlessly defied it in everything possible to the ut- 
most. In the beginning of 1868, on account of 

"High crimes and misdemeanors," the principal 
of which was the removal of Secretary Stanton in 
violation of the Tenure of Office Act, articles of 
impeachment were preferred against him, and the 
trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearl}' three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was 
at length submitted to the court for its action. It 
was certain that as the court voted upon that ar- 
ticle so would it vote upon all . Thirty-four voices 
pronounced the President guilty. As a two-thirds 
vote was necessary to his condemnation, he was 
pronounced acquitted, notwithstanding the great 
majority against him. The change of one vote 
from the not guilty side would have sustained the 

The President, for the remainder of his term, 
was but little regarded. He continued, though 
impotently, his conflict with Congress. His own 
party did not think it expedient to renominate 
him for the Presidency. The Nation rallied with 
enthusiasm, unparalleled since the days of Wash- 
ington, aroinid the name of Gen. Grant. Andrew 
Johnson was forgotten. The bullet of the assassin 
introduced him to the President's chair. Not- 
withstanding this, never was there presented to a 
man a better opportunity to immortalize his name, 
and to win the gratitude of a nation. He failed 
utterly. He retired to his home in Greenville, 
Tenn., taking no very active part in politics until 
1875. On January 26, after an exciting struggle, 
he was chosen by the Legislature of Tennessee 
United States Senator in the Forty-fourth Congess, 
and took his seat in that body, at the special ses- 
sion convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-Presi- 
dent made a visit to his daughter's home, near 
Carter Station, Tenn. When he started on his 
journey, he was apparently in his usual vigorous 
health, but on reaching the residence of his child 
the following day, he was stricken with paralysis, 
which rendered him unconscious. He rallied oc- 
casionally, but finally passed away at 2 a. m., 
July 3 1 , aged sixty-seven years. His funeral was 
held at Greenville, on the 3d of August, with 
every demonstration of respect. 



HIvYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born on the 
29th of April, 1822, of Christian parents, in 
a humble home at Point Pleasant, on the banks 
of the Ohio. Shortly after, his father moved to 
Georgetown, Brown County, Ohio. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses received a common- 
school education. At the age of seventeen, in 
the year 1839, he entered the Military Academy 
at West Point. ;Here he was regarded as a solid, 
sensible young man, of fair ability, and of sturdy, 
honest character. He took respectable rank as a 
scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as Lieutenant of 
Infantry to one of the distant military posts in the 
Missouri Territory. Two years he passed in these 
dreary solitudes, watching the vagabond Indians. 

The war with Mexico came. lyieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His 
first battle was at Palo Alto. There was no 
chance here for the exhibition of either skill or 
heroism, nor at Resaca de la Palma, his second 
battle. At the battle of Monterey, his third en- 
gagement, it is said that he performed a signal 
service of daring and skillful horsemanship. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant 
returned with his regiment to New York, and 
was again .sent to one of the military posts on the 
frontier. The discovery of gold in California 
causing an immense tide of emigration to flow to 
the Pacific shores, Capt. Grant was sent with a 
battalion to Ft. Dallas, in Oregon, for the protec- 
tion of the interests of the immigrants. But life 
was wearisome in those wilds, and he resigned 
his commission and returned to the States. Hav- 
ing married, he entered upon the cultivation of a 
small farm near St. Louis, Mo., but having little 

skill as a farmer, and finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering 
into the leather business, with a younger brother 
at Galena, 111. This was in the year i860. As 
the tidings of the rebels firing on Ft. Sumter 
reached the ears of Capt. Grant in his counting- 
room, he said: "Uncle Sam has educated me 
for the army; though I have served him through 
one war, I do not feel that I have yet repaid the 
debt. I am still ready to discharge my obliga- 
tions. I shall therefore buckle on my .sword and 
see Uncle Sam through this war too. ' ' 

He went into the streets, raised a company of 
volunteers, and led them as their Captain to 
Springfield, the capital of the State, where their 
services were offered to Gov. Yates. The Gov- 
ernor, impressed by the zeal and straightforward 
executive ability of Capt. Grant, gave him a desk 
in his office to assist in the volunteer organiza- 
tion that was being formed in the State In behalf 
of the Government. On the 15th of June, 1861, 
Capt. Grant received a commission as Colonel of 
the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Volunteers. 
His merits as a West Point graduate, who had 
served for fifteen years in the regular army, were 
such that he was soon promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General, and was placed in command at 
Cairo. The rebels raised their banner at Padu- 
cah, near the mouth of the Tennessee River. 
Scarcely had its folds appeared in the breeze ere 
Gen. Grant was there. The rebels fled, their 
banner fell, and the Stars and Stripes were un- 
furled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determina- 
tion and immediately began active duty. This 
was the beginning, and until the surrender of 
Lee at Richmond he was ever pushing the enemy 



with great vigor and effectiveness. At Belmont, 
a few days later, he surprised and routed the 
rebels, then at Ft. Henry won another victory. 
Then came the brilliant fight at Ft. Donelson. 
The nation was electrified by the victory, and the 
brave leader of the boys in blue was immediately 
made a Major-General, and the military district 
of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains. Gen. Grant knew well 
how to secure the results of victory. He imme- 
diately pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then 
came the terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, 
Corinth, and the siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. 
Pemberton made an unconditional surrender of 
the city with over thirty thousand men and one 
hundred and seventy-two cannon. The fall of 
Vicksburg was by far the most severe blow which 
the rebels had thus far encountered, and opened 
up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next Ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown 
from his horse, and received severe injuries, from 
which he was laid up for months. He then 
rushed to the aid of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas 
at Chattanooga, and by a wonderful series of 
strategic and technical measures put the Union 
army in fighting condition. Then followed the 
bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout Moun- 
tain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him 
unbounded praise in the North. On the 4th of 
February, 1864, Congress revived the grade of 
lieutenant-general, and the rank was conferred 
on Gen. Grant. He repaired to Washington to 
receive his credentials and enter upon the duties 
of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge 
of the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed 
National troops for an attack upon Richmond, 
the nominal capital of the rebellion, and endeavor 
there to destroy the rebel armies which would be 
promptly assembled from all quarters for its de- 
fense. The whole continent seemed to tremble 
under the tramp of these majestic armies, rushing 
to the decisive battle-field. Steamers were crowd- 
ed with troops. Railway trains were burdened 

with closely -packed thousands. His plans were 
comprehensive, and involved a series of cam- 
paigns, which "were executed with remarkable 
energy and ability, and were consummated at the 
surrender of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. 
The almost unanimous voice of the nation de- 
clared Gen. Grant to be the most prominent in- 
strument in its salvation. The eminent services 
he had thus rendered the country brought him 
conspicuously forward as the Republican candi- 
date for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated 
for the Presidency, and at the autumn election 
received a majority of the popular vote, and two 
hundred and fourteen out of two hundred and 
ninety-four electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican 
party, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th ot 
June, 1872, placed Gen. Grant in nomination for 
a second term by a unanimous vote. The selec- 
tion was emphatically indorsed by the people five 
months later, two hundred and ninety-two elect- 
oral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term. Gen. 
Grant started upon his famous trip around the 
world. He visited almost every country of the 
civilized world, and was everywhere received 
with such ovations and demonstrations of respect 
and honor, private as well as public and oflScial, 
as were never before bestowed upon any citizen 
of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before 
the Republican National Convention in 1880 for 
a renomination for President. He went to New 
York and embarked in the brokerage business 
under the firm name of Grant & Ward. The 
latter proved a villain, wrecked Grant's fortune, 
and for larceny was sent to the penitentiary. 
The General was attacked with cancer in the 
throat, but suffered in his stoic-like manner, never 
complaining. He was re-instated as General of 
the Armj', and retired by Congress. The cancer 
soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 1885, 
the nation went in mourning over the death 01 
the illustrious General. 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES, the nineteenth 
President of the United States, was born in 
Delaware, Ohio, October 4, 1822, almost 
three months after the death of his father, Ruther- 
ford Hayes. His ancestrj' on both the paternal and 
maternal sides was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, as far back as 
1280, when Hayes and Rutherford were two 
Scottish chieftains, fighting side by sjde with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert Bruce. Both 
families belonged to the nobility, owned extensive 
estates, and had a large following. Misfortune 
overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scotland 
in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, 
married Sarah lyee, and lived from the time of 
his marriage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. 
Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was 
a manufacturer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. 
Rutherford Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather 
of President Hayes, was born in New Haven, in 
August, 1756. He was a farmer, blacksmith and 
tavern-keeper. He emigrated to Vermont at an 
unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, where he 
established a hotel. Here his son, Rutherford 
Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was born. 
He was married, in September, 18 13, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors 
emigrated thither from Connecticut, they having 
been among the wealthiest and best families of 
Norwich. Her ancestry on the male side is 
traced back to 1635, to John Birchard, one of the 
principal founders of Norwich. Both of her grand- 
fathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industri- 
ous, frugal, yet open-hearted man. He was of a 

mechanical turn of mind, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything else that 
he chose to undertake. He was a member of the 
church, active in all the benevolent enterprises 
of the town, and conducted his business on Chris- 
tian principles. After the close of the War of 
i8i2, for reasons inexplicable to his neighbors, he 
resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, or rail- 
ways, was a very serious affair. A tour of in- 
spection was first made, occupying four months. 
Mr. Hayes decided to move to Delaware, where 
the family arrived in 181 7. He died July 22, 
1822, a victim of malarial fever, less than three 
months before the birth of the son of whom we 
write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore bereavement, 
found the support she so much needed in her 
brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from 
Vermont, and in an orphan girl, whom she had 
adopted some time before as an act of charity. 

Rutherford was seven years old before he went 
to school. His education, however, was not neg- 
lected. He probably learned as much from his 
mother and sister as he would have done at 
school. His sports were almost wholly within 
doors, his playmates being his sister and her asso- 
ciates. These circumstances tended, no doubt, to 
foster that gentleness of disposition and that del- 
icate consideration for the feelings of others which 
were marked traits of his character. 

His uncle, Sardis Birchard, took the deepest 
interest in his education; and as the boy's health 
had improved, and he was making good progress 
in his studies, he proposed to send him to college. 
His preparation commenced with a tutor at home; 



but he was afterwards sent for one year to a pro- 
fessor in the Wesleyan University in Middletown, 
Conn. He entered Kenyon College in 1838, at 
the age of sixteen, and was graduated at the head 
of his- class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, 
Esq., in Columbus. Finding his opportunities 
for study in Columbus somewhat limited, he de- 
termined to enter the Law School at Cambridge, 
Mass., where he remained two years. « 

In 1845, after graduating at the Law School, he 
was admitted to the Bar at Marietta, Ohio, and 
shortly afterward went into practice as an at- 
torney-at-law with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fre- 
mont. Here he remained three years, acquiring 
but a limited practice, and apparently unambitious 
of distinction in his profession. 

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his am- 
bition found a new stimulus. For several years, 
however, his progress was slow. Two events 
occurring at this period had a powerful influence 
upon his subsequent life. One of these was his 
marriage with Miss Lucy Ware Webb, daughter 
of Dr. James Webb, of Chillicothe; the other was 
his introduction to the Cincinnati Literary Club, 
a body embracing among its members such men 
as Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, Gen. John 
Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many others 
hardly less distinguished in after life. The mar- 
riage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of 
our Presidents was more universally admired, 
reverenced and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and 
no one did more than she to reflect honor upon 
American womanhood. The LiteraryClub brought 
Mr. Hayes into constant association with young 
men of high character and noble aims, and lured 
him to display the qualities so long hidden by his 
bashfulness and modesty. 

In 1856 he was nominated to the ofiice of Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas, but he declined to 
accept the nomination. Two years later, the of- 
fice of City Solicitor becoming vacant, the City 
Council elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was 
at the zenith of his professional life. His rank at 

the Bar was among the first. But the news of 
the attack on Ft. Sumter found him eager to 
take up arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. 
In October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant- Colo- 
nel, and in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of 
the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but he refused 
to leave his old comrades and go among strangers. 
Subsequently, however, he was made Colonel of 
his old regiment. At the battle of South Moun- 
tain he received a wound, and while faint and 
bleeding di.splayed courage and fortitude that 
won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, 
after his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, 
and placed in command of the celebrated Kanawha 
division, and for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battles of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and 
Cedar Creek, he was promoted Brigadier-General. 
He was also breveted Major-General, "for gallant 
and distinguished services during the campaigns 
of 1864, in West Virginia." In the course of his 
arduous services, four horses were shot from un- 
der him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress 
from the Second Ohio District, which had long 
been Democratic. He was not present during the 
campaign, and after the election was importuned 
to resign his commission in the army; but he fi- 
nally declared, ' ' I shall never come to Washing- 
ton until I can come by way of Richmond." He 
was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen. Hayes was elected Governor of 
Ohio, over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular 
Democrat, and in 1869 was re-elected over George 
H. Pendleton. He was elected Governor for the 
third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard-bearer of the Re- 
publican party in the Presidential contest, and 
after a hard, long contest was chosen President, 
and was inaugurated Monday, March 5, 1877. 
He served his full term, not, however, with satis- 
faction to his party, but his administration was an 
average one. The remaining years of his life 
were passed quietly in his Ohio home, where he 
passed away January 17, 1893. 



(f AMES A. GARFIELD, twentieth President 
I of the United States, was born November 19, 
v2/ 1 83 1, ill the woods of Orange, Cuyahoga 
County, Ohio. His parents were Abram and 
Eliza (Ballon) Garfield, both of New England 
ancestry, and from families well known in the 
early history of that section of our countrj', but 
who had moved to the Western Reserve, in Ohio, 
early in its settlement. 

The house in which James A. was born was 
not unlike the houses of poor Ohio farmers of 
that day. It was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, 
with the spaces-between the logs filled with clay. 
His father was a hard-working farmer, and he 
soon had his fields cleared, an orchard planted, 
and a log barn built. The household comprised 
the father and mother and their four children, 
Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and James. In May, 
1823, the father died from a cold contracted in 
helping to put out a forest fire. At this time 
James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, 
can tell how much James was indebted to his 
brother's toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty 
years succeeding his father's death. He now 
lives in Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Gar- 
field enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the 
most of them. He labored at farm work for 
others, did carpenter work, chopped wood, or did 
anything that would bring in a few dollars to aid 
his widowed mother in her struggles to keep the 
little family together. Nor was Gen. Garfield 
ever ashamed of his origin, and he never forgot 
the friends of his struggling childhood, youth and 
manhood; neither did they ever forget him. 
When in the highest seats of honor, the humblest 
friend of his boyhood was as kindly greeted as 
ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the sym- 
pathy of one who had known all the bitterness of 

want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, 
plain, modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until 
he was about sixteen years old was to be cap- 
tain of a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious 
to go aboard a vessel, but this his mother strongly 
opposed. She finally consented to his going to 
Cleveland, with the understanding, however, that 
he should try to obtain some other kind of em- 
ployment. He walked all the way to Cleveland. 
This was his first visit to the city. After making 
many applications for work, and trying to get 
aboard a lake vessel and not meeting with suc- 
cess, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. 
He remained at this work but a short time, when 
he went home, and attended the seminary at 
Chester for about three years. He then entered 
Hiram and the Eclectic Institute, teaching a few 
terms of school in the mean time, and doing other 
work. This school was started by the Disciples 
of Christ in 1850, of which body he was then a 
member. He became janitor and bell-ringer in 
order to help pay his way. He then became both 
teacher and pupil. Soon " exhausting Hiram," 
and needing a higher education, in the fall of 1854 
he entered Williams College, from which he grad- 
uated in 1856, taking one of the highest honors of 
his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram Col- 
lege as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian, or Disciples, Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous 
member, often preaching in its pulpit and places 
where he happened to be. 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage, Novem- 
ber II, 1858, with Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who 
proved herself worthy as the wife of one whom 
all the world loved. To them were born seven 
children, five of whom are still living, 4onr boys 
and one girl. 



Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 
1856, in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and 
three years later he began to speak at county 
mass-meetings, and became the favorite speaker 
wherever he was. During this year he was 
elected to the Ohio Senate. He also began to 
study law at Cleveland, and in 186 1 was admitted 
to the Bar. The great Rebellion broke out in the 
early part of this year, and Mr. Garfield at once 
resolved to fight as he had talked, and enlisted to 
defend the Old Flag. He received his commission 
as Lieutenant- Colonel of the Forty-second Regi- 
ment of Ohio Infantry August 14, 1861. He 
was immediately put into active service, and be- 
fore he had ever seen a gun fired in action, was 
placed in command of four regiments of infantrj' 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the able 
rebel officer, Humphrey Marshall, of Kentucky. 
This work was bravely and speedily accomplished, 
although against great odds, and President Lin- 
coln commissioned him Brigadier- General, Janu- 
ary 10, 1862; and "as he had been the youngest 
man in the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army." He 
was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, in its 
operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of 
the general court martial for the trial of Gen. 
Fitz-John Porter. He was next ordered to re- 
port to Gen. Rosecrans, and was assigned to the 
" Chief of Staff'." The military history of Gen. 
Garfield closed with his brilliant services at Chick- 
amauga, where he won the rank of Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part, Gen. Garfield 
was elected to Congress in the fall of 1862, from 
the Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of 
Ohio had been represented in Congress for sixty 
years mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. It was not without a strug- 
gle that he resigned his place in the army. At 
the time he entered Congress he was the youngest 
member in that body. There he remained by 
successive re-elections until he was elected Presi- 
dent, in 1880. Of his labors in Congress, Senator 
Hoar says: "Since the year 1864 you cannot 
think of a question which has been debated in 

Congress, or discussed before a tribunal of the 
American people, in regard to which you will not 
find, if you wish instruction, the argument on 
one side stated, in almost every instance better 
than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings 
by Mr. Garfield." 

Upon January 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elect- 
ed to the United States Senate, and on the 8th of 
June, of the same year, was nominated as the 
candidate of his party for President at the great 
Chicago Convention. He was elected in the fol- 
lowing November, and on March 4, 188 1, was 
inaugurated. Probably no administration ever 
opened its existence under brighter auspices than 
that of President Garfield, and every day it grew 
in favor with the people. By the ist of July 
he had completed all the initiatory and prelimi- 
nary work of his administration, and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Will- 
iams College. While on his way and at the 
depot, in company with Secretary Blaine, a man 
stepped behind him, drew a revolver, and fired 
directly at his back. The President tottered and 
fell, and as he did so the assassin fired a second 
shot, the bullet cutting the left coat sleeve of his 
victim, but inflicting no further injury. It has 
been very truthfully said that this was ' ' the shot 
that was heard around the world. ' ' Never before 
in the history of the nation had anything occur- 
red which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment as this awful deed. He was 
smitten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his 
life, at the summit of his power and hope. For 
eighty days, all during the hot months of July 
and August, he lingered and suffered. He, how- 
ever, remained master of himself till the last, and 
by his magnificent bearing taught the country 
and the world one of the noblest of human les- 
sons — how to live grandly in the very clutch of 
death. Great in life, he was surpassingly great 
in death. He passed serenelj^ away September 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of 
the ocean, where he had been taken shortly be- 
fore. The world wept at his death, as it rarely 
ever had done on the death of any other great 
and noble man. 



E HESTER A. ARTHUR, twenty-first Presi- 
dent of the United States, was. born in Frank- 
lin County, Vt., on the 5th day of October, 
1830, and was the eldest of a family of two sons 
and five daughters. His father was the Rev. Dr. 
William Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who emi- 
grated to this country from County Antrim, Ire- 
land, in his eighteenth year, and died in 1875, in 
Newtonville, near Albany, after a long and suc- 
cessful ministry.' 

Young Arthur was educated at Union College, 
Schenectady, where he excelled in all his studies. 
Alter his graduation he taught school in Ver- 
mont for two years, and at the expiration of that 
time came to New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the office of ex -Judge E. D. Culver 
as a student. After being admitted to the Bar, he 
formed a partnership with his intimate friend and 
room-mate, Henry D. Gardiner, with the inten- 
tion of practicing in the West, and for three 
months they roamed about in the Western States 
in search of an eligible site, but in the end re- 
turned to New York, where they hung out their 
shingle, and entered upon a successful career al- 
most from the start. Gen. Arthur soon after mar- 
ried the daughter of L,ieut. Herndon, of the 
United States Navy, who was lost at sea. Con- 
gress voted a gold medal to his widow in recog- 
nition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. 
Arthur's nomination to the Vice-Presidency, leav- 
ing two children. 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celeb- 
rity in his first great case, the famous Lemmon 
suit, brought to recover possession of eight slaves 
who had been declared free by Judge Paine, of 
the Superior Court of New York City. It was in 

1852 that Jonathan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to 
New York with his slaves, intending to ship them 
to Texas, when they were discovered and freed. 
The Judge decided that they could not be held by 
the owner under the Fugitive Slave Law. A howl 
of rage went up from the South, and the Virginia 
Legislature authorized the Attorney-General of 
that State to assist in an appeal. William M. 
Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed to 
represent the people, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Charles O' Conor here espoused 
the cause of the slaveholders, but he, too, was 
beaten by Messrs. Evarts and Arthur, and a long 
step was taken toward the emancipation of the 
black race. 

Another great service was rendered by Gen. 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jen- 
nings, a respectable colored woman, was put off 
a Fourth Avenue car with violence after she had 
paid her fare. Gen. Arthur sued on her behalf, 
and secured a verdict of $500 damages. The next 
day the company issued an order to admit colored 
persons to ride on their cars, and the other car 
companies quickly followed their example. Be- 
fore that the Sixth Avenue Company ran a few 
special cars for colored persons, and the other lines 
refused to let them ride at all. 

Gen. Arthur was a delegate to the convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of 
the Second Brigade of the State of New York, 
and Gov. Morgan, of that State, appointed him 
Engineer-in- Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was 
made Inspector-General, and soon afterward be- 
came Quartermaster-General. In each of these 
offices he rendered great service to the Govern- 



ment during the war. At the end of Gov. Mor- 
gan's term he resumed the practice of law, form- 
ing a partnership with Mr. Ransom, and then 
Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney of New York, 
was added to the firm. The legal practice of this 
well-known firm was very large and lucrative, 
as each of the gentlemen composing it was an able 
lawyer, and possessed a splendid local reputa- 
tion, if not, indeed, one of national extent. 

Mr. Arthur always took a leading part in State 
and city politics. He was appointed Collector of 
the Port of New York by President Grant, No- 
vember 21, 1872, to succeed Thomas Murphy, 
and he held the ofiice until July 20, 1878, when 
he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the 
famous National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880. This was perhaps the 
greatest political convention that ever aasenibled 
on the continent. It was composed of the lead- 
ing politicians of the Republican party, all able 
men, and each stood firm and fought vigorously 
and with signal tenacity for his respective can- 
didate that was before the convention for the 
nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield received the 
nomination for President, and Gen. Arthur for 
Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the his- 
tory of our country. Gen. Hancock, the stand- 
ard-bearer of the Democratic party, was a popular 
man, and his party made a valiant fight for his 

Finally the election came, and the countr>''s 
choice was Garfield and Arthur. They were in- 
augurated March 4, 188 1, as President and Vice- 
President. A few months only had passed ere 
the newly-chosen President was the victim of the 
a.ssassin's bullet. Then came terrible weeks of 
suffering — those moments of anxious suspense, 
when the hearts of all civilized nations were 
throbbing in unison, longing for the recovery of 
the noble, the good President. The remarkable 
patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible 
suffering man has ever been called upon to en- 
dure, was seemingly more than human. It was 

certainly godlike. During all this period of 
deepest anxiety Mr. Arthur's every move was 
watched, and, be it said to his credit, that his every 
action displayed only an earnest desire that the 
suffering Garfield might recover to serve the re- 
mainder of the term he had so auspiciously be- 
gun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested in 
deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President 
Garfield from further suffering, and the world, as 
never before in its history over the death of any 
other man, wept at his bier. Then it became the 
duty of the Vice-President to assume the respon- 
sibilities of the high office, and he took the oath 
in New York, September 20, 1881. The position 
was an embarrassing one to him, made doubly so 
from the fact that all eyes were on him, anxious 
to know what he would do, what policy he would 
pursue, and whom he would select as advisers. 
The duties of the office had been greatly neglected 
during the President's long illness, and many im- 
portant measures were to be immediately decided 
by him; and to still further embarass him he did 
not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many 
on this point. Under these trying circumstances, 
President Arthur took the reins of the Govern- 
ment in his own hands, and, as embarrassing as 
was the condition of affairs, he happily surprised 
the nation, acting so wisely that but few criticised 
his administration. He served the nation well 
and faithfully until the close of his 'administra- 
tion, March 4, 1885, and was a popular candidate 
before his party for a second term. His name 
was ably presented before the convention at Chi- 
cago, and was received with great favor, and 
doubtless but for the personal popularity of one 
of the opposing candidates, he would have been 
selected as the standard-bearer of his party for 
another campaign. He retired to private life, car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American 
people, whom he had served in a manner satisfac- 
tory to them and with credit to himself. One 
year later he was called to his final rest. 



twentj'-second President of the United States, 
was born in 1837, in the obscure town of 
Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., and in a little 
two-and-a-lialf-story white house, which is still 
standing to characteristically mark the humble 
birthplace of one of America's great men, in 
striking contrast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in origin and 
bom in the cradle of wealth. When the subject 
of this sketch was three years of age, his father, 
who was a Presbyterian minister with a large 
family and a small salary, moved, by way of the 
Hudson River and Erie Canal, to Fayetteville, N. 
Y. , in search of an increased income and a larger 
field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles 
from Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour 
was born. 

At the last-mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to .school in the good, old-fashioned 
way, and presumably distinguished himself after 
the manner of all village boys — in doing the 
things he ought not to do. Such is the dis- 
tinguishing trait of all geniuses and independent 
thinkers. When he arrived at the age of four- 
teen years, he had outgrown the capacity of the 
village school, and expressed a most emphatic de- 
sire to be sent to an academy. To this his fa- 
ther decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money ; besides, his father wanted him 
to become self-supporting by the quickest pos- 
sible means, and this at that time in Fayetteville 
seemed to be a position in a country store, where 
his father and the large family on his hands had 

considerable influence. Grover was to be paid 
$50 for his services the first year, and if he proved 
trustworthy he was to receive $100 the second 
year. Here the lad commenced his career as 
salesman, and in two years he had earned so good 
a reputation for trustworthiness that his employ- 
ers desired to retain him for an indefinite length 
of time. 

But instead of remaining with this firm in 
Fayetteville, he went with the family in their re- 
moval to Clinton, where he had an opportunity 
of attending a High School. Here he industri- 
ously pursued his studies until the family re- 
moved with him to a point on Black River known 
as the "Holland Patent," a village of five or six 
hundred people, fifteen miles north of Utica, N. Y. 
At this place his father died, after preaching but 
three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, 
at a small salar}', the position of under-teacher 
in an asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully 
for two years, and although he obtained a good 
reputation in this capacity, he concluded that 
teaching was not his calling in life, and, revers- 
ing the traditional order, he left the city to seek 
his fortune, instead of going to the city. He first 
thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as there was some 
charm in that name for him; but before proceed- 
ing to that place he went to Buffalo to ask advice 
of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted stock- 
breeder of that place. The latter did not speak 
enthusiastically. "What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman; " do you, indeed? Whatever 



put that into your head ? How much money 
have you got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I 
haven't got any." 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him 
a place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at 
$50 a year, while he could look around. One 
day soon afterward he boldly walked into the of- 
fice of Rogers, Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and 
told them what he wanted. A number of young 
men were already engaged in the office, but Gro- 
ver's persistency won, and he was finally per- 
mitted to come as an office boy and have the use 
of the law library, receiving as wages the sum of 
$3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for his 
board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair, and as for his overcoat he 
had none; yet he was, nevertheless, prompt and 
regular. On the first day of his service there, his 
senior employer threw down a copy of Black- 
stone before him, with a bang that made the dust 
fly, saying "That's where they all begin." A 
titter ran around the little circle of clerks and 
.students, as they thought that was enough to 
scare young Grover out of his plans; but in due 
time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleve- 
land exhibited a talent for executiveness rather 
than for chasing principles through all their 
metaphysical possibilities. ' 'Let us quit talking 
and go and do it, ' ' was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland 
was elected was that of Sheriff of Erie County, 
N. Y., in which Buffalo is situated; and in such 
capacity it fell to his duty to inflict capital punish- 
ment upon two criminals. In 1881 he was 
elected Mayor of the City of Buffalo, on the 
Democratic ticket, with especial reference to bring- 
ing about certain reforms in the administration 
of the municipal affairs of that city. In this of- 
fice, as well as in that of Sheriff, his performance 
of duty has generally been considered fair, with 
possibly a few exceptions, which were ferreted 
out and magnified during his Presidential cam- 
paign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an 

iniquitous street-cleaning contract: "This is a 
time for plain speech, and my objection to your 
action shall be plainly stated. I regard it as the 
culmination of a most bare-faced, impudent and 
shameless scheme to betray the interests of the 
people and to worse than squander the people's 
money." The New York Su/t afterward very 
highly commended Mr. Cleveland's administra- 
tion as Mayor of Buffalo, and thereupon recom- 
mended him for Governor of the Empire State. 
To the latter office he was elected in 1882, and 
his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory-. The mistakes he made, 
if any, were made very public throughout the na- 
tion after he was nominated for President of the 
United States. For this high office he was 
nominated July 11, 1884, by the National Demo- 
cratic Convention at Chicago, when other com- 
petitors were Thomas F. Bayard, Roswell P. 
Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, Benjamin F. 
Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he was 
elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Re- 
publican statesman, James G. Blaine. President 
Cleveland resigned his office as Governor of New 
York in January, 1885, in order to prepare for 
his duties as the Chief Executive of the United 
States, in which capacity his term commenced at 
noon on the 4th of March, 1885. 

The silver question precipitated a controversy 
between those who were in favor of the continu- 
ance of silver coinage and those who were op- 
posed, Mr. Cleveland answering for the latter, 
even before his inauguration. 

On June 2, 1886, President Cleveland married 
Frances, daughter of his deceased friend and part- 
ner, Oscar Folsom, of the Buffalo Bar. In the 
campaign of 1888, President Cleveland was re- 
nominated by his party, but the Republican candi- 
date, Gen. Benjamin Harrison, was victorious. 
In the nomination of 1892 these two candidates 
for the highest position in the gift of the people 
were again pitted against each other, and in the 
ensuing election President Cleveland was victori- 
ous by an overwhelming majority. Since the 
close of his second term, he has resided in Prince- 
ton, N. J. 



gENJAMIN HARRISON, the twenty-third 
President, is the descendant of one of the 
historical families of this country. The first 
known head of the family was Maj . -Gen. Harrison, 
one of Oliver Cromwell's trusted followers and 
fighters. In the zenith of Cromwell' s power it be- 
came the duty of this Harrison to participate in 
the trial of Charles I., and afterward to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subsequently 
paid for this with his life, being hung October 13, 
1660. His descendants came to America, and 
the next of the family that appears in history is 
Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, great-grandfa- 
ther of the subject of this sketch, and after whom 
he was named. Benjamin Harrison was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress during the years 
1774, 1775 and 1776, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 

Gen. William Henry Harrison, the son of the 
distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a 
successful career as a soldier during the War of 
1 8 12, and with a clean record as Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory, was elected President of 
the United States in 1840. His career was cut 
short by death within one month after his in- 

President Harrison was bom at North Bend, 

Hamilton County, Ohio, August 20, 1833. His 
life up to the time of his graduation from Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventfiil 
one of a country lad of a family of small means. 
His father was able to give him a good education, 
and nothing more. He became engaged while at 
college to the daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of 
a female school at Oxford. After graduating, he 
determined to enter upon the study of law. He 
went to Cincinnati and there read law for two 
years. At the expiration of that time young Har- 
rison received the only inheritance of his life — his 
aunt, dying, left him a lot valued at $800. He 
regarded this legacy as a fortune, and decided to 
get married at once, take this money and go to 
some Eastern town and begin the practice of law. 
He sold his lot, and, with the money in his pocket, 
he started out with his young wife to fight for a 
place in the world. He decided to go to Indian- 
apolis, which was even at that time a town of 
promise. He met with slight encouragement at 
first, making scarcely anything the first year. 
He worked diHgently, applying himself closely to 
his calling, built up an extensive practice and 
took a leading rank in the legal profession. 

In i860, Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speaker. He can- 



vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by 
a handsome majority. In 1862 he raised the 
Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its 
Colonel. His regiment was composed of the raw- 
est material, but Col. Harrison employed all his 
time at first in mastering military tactics and drill- 
ing his men, and when he came to move toward 
the East with Sherman, his regiment was one of 
the best drilled and organized in the army. At 
Resaca he especially distinguished himself, and 
for his bravery at Peachtree Creek he was made 
a Brigadier-General, Gen. Hooker speaking of 
him in the most complimentarj- terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the 
field, the Supreme Court declared the of&ce of 
Supreme Court Reporter vacant, and another 
person was elected to the position. From the 
time of leaving Indiana with his regiment until 
the fall of 1864 he had taken no leave of absence, 
but having been nominated that year for the same 
office, he got a thirty-day leave of absence, and 
during that time made a brilliant canvass of the 
State, and was elected for another term. He then 
started to rejoin Sherman, but on the way was 
stricken down with scarlet fever, and after a most 
trying attack made his way to the front in time to 
participate in the closing incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined a re-election 
as Reporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 
1876 he was a candidate for Governor. Although 
defeated, the brilliant campaign he made won for 
him a national reputation, and he was much sought 
after, especially in the East, to make speeches. 
In 1880, as usual, he took an active part in the 
campaign, and was elected to the United States 
Senate. Here he served for six years, and was 
known as one of the ablest men, best lawyers and 
strongest debaters in that bod}'. With the ex- 
piration of his senatorial term he returned to the 
practice of his profession, becoming the head of 
one of the strongest firms in the State. 

The political campaign of 1888 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our country. 
The convention which assembled in Chicago in 
June and named Mr. Harrison as the chief stand- 
ard-bearer of the Republican party was great in 
every particular, and on this account, and the at- 

titude it assumed upon the vital questions of the 
day, chief among which was the tariff, awoke a 
deep interest in the campaign throughout the 
nation. Shortly after the nomination, delegations 
began to visit Mr. Harrison at Indianapolis, his 
home. This movement became popular, and from 
all sections of the country societies, clubs and 
delegations journeyed thither to pay their re- 
spects to the distinguished statesman. 

Mr. Harrison .spoke daily all through the sum- 
mer and autumn to these visiting delegations, 
and so varied, masterly, and eloquent were his 
speeches that "they at once placed him in the fore- 
most rank of American orators and statesmen. 
Elected by a handsome majority, he served his 
country faithfully and well, and in 1892 was nom- 
inated for re-election ; but the people demanded a 
change and he was defeated by his predecessor 
in office, Grover Cleveland. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and 
his power as a debater, Gen. Harrison was called 
upon at an early age to take part in the dis- 
cussion of the great questions that then began to 
agitate the country. He was an uncompromising 
anti-slavery man, and was matched against some 
of the most eminent Democratic speakers of his 
State. No man who felt the touch of his blade 
desired to be pitted with him again. With all 
his eloquence as an orator he never spoke for ora- 
torical effect, but his words always went like bul- 
lets to the mark. He is purely American in his 
ideas, and is a splendid type of the American 
statesman. Gifted with quick perception, a logi- 
cal mind and a ready tongue, he is one of the 
most distinguished impromptu speakers in the 
nation. Many of these speeches sparkled with the 
rarest eloquence and contained arguments of great 
weight, and many of his terse statements have 
already become aphorisms. Original in thought, 
precise in logic, terse in statement, yet withal 
faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as the 
sound statesman and brilliant orator of the day. 
By his first wife, Caroline (Scott) Harrison, he 
had a son and daughter. In 1896 he married 
Mrs. Mary (Scott) Dimmick, and they, with their 
daughter, reside in Indianapolis, Ind., where he 
has made his home since early manhood. 

WILLIAM Mckinley. 


pGJiLLIAM McKINLEY, who was inaugu- 
\ A / rated President of the United States in 1 89 7 , 
Y Y was born in Niles, Ohio, January 29, 1843. 
The family of which he is a member originated 
in the west of Scotland, and from there removed 
to the north of Ireland. According to the fam- 
ily tradition, James and WilHam McKinley emi- 
grated to this country from Ireland and founded 
the two branches of the family in the United 
States, one settling in the north, the other in the 
south. At the time of their arrival, James was 
twelve years of age. He settled in York County, 
Pa. , where he quarried and spent his remaining 

David, son of James, and the great-grandfather 
of William McKinley, was born May 16, 1755, 
and three times enlisted in the service of the 
colonies during the Revolutionary War, serving 
seven months after his first enlistment in June, 
1776, spending six months at the front in 1777, 
and again in the following year serving eight 
months. December 19, 1780, he married Sarah 
Gray, who was born May 10, 1760, and died 
October 6, 18 14. For fifteen years he lived in 
Westmoreland County, Pa. , and thence removed 
to Mercer County. One year after the death 
of his first wife he married Eleanor McLean 
and about the same time settled in Colum- 
biana County, Ohio, but afterward made his home 
in Crawford County, where he died August 8, 

James, grandfather of William McKinley, was 
born September 19, 1783, married Mary (or 
"Polly' ' ) Rose, and with his family moved to New 
Lisbon, Ohio, in 1809. Their eldest son, Will- 
iam, Sr. , was born in Mercer County, Pa., 
November 15, 1807, and in 1827 married 
Nancy Allison, a woman of noble and strong 
character and consistent Christian life. For some 
years he was engaged as manager of iron fur- 
naces at difierent places. From Niles he re- 

moved to Poland, because of the educational ad- 
vantages ofiered by Poland Academy. In 1869 
he established his home in Canton, and here he 
died November 24, 1892. His widow lives at 
the family residence in Canton, and with her are 
her daughter, Miss Helen, and two orphan 

Of the family of nine children, William, Jr., who 
was seventh in order of birth, was born during 
the residence of his parents at Niles, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1843. His boyhood years were spent 
in that place and Poland, where he studied in the 
academy. At the age of seventeen he entered 
Allegheny College, but illness caused his return 
to Poland, and on his recovery he did not return 
to college, but taught a country school. At the 
opening of the Civil War, though only eighteen 
years of age, he immediately wanted to enlist. 
As soon as he could overcome the objections of 
his mother, he enlisted, in May of 1861, as a 
private in Company E, Twenty-third Ohio In- 
fantry. The regiment was commanded by Col. 
W. S. Rosecrans, who afterward, as general, led 
his forces on many a bloody battle field, and the 
first major was Rutherford B. Hayes, afterward 
President of the United States. As a gallant 
soldier Mr. McKinley soon won promotion, serving 
for a time as commissary sergeant, later was pro- 
moted to the rank of second lieutenant for gal- 
lantry at Antietam, and then won his way up- 
ward until, at the close of the war, he was pro- 
moted to major by brevet. July 26, 1865, after 
more than four years of hard service, he was 
mustered out with his regiment. 

With Judge Charles E. Glidden, of Mahoning 
County, Mr. McKinley began the study of law, 
which he afterward carried on in the Albany 
(N. Y.) Law School, and in 1867 was admitted 
to the bar. Beginning the practice of his pro- 
fession in Canton, he soon became prominently 
known among the able attorneys of the city. His 



first connection with political afiairs was in 1869, 
when he was elected prosecuting attorney of Stark 
County, and this office he held for two years. 
In 1876 he was nominated for Congressional 
honors and was elected to the Forty-fifth Con- 
gress, afterward by successive re-elections serv- 
ing for fourteen years. In March of 1890 he in- 
troduced the celebrated McKinley tariff bill, 
which was passed and became a law. In the fol- 
lowing year, 1891, he was elected governor of 
Ohio, and two years afterward was re-elected to 
that high office, which he filled in such a manner 
as to command the respect not only of his own 
party — the Republican — but his political op- 
ponents as well. The connection of his name 
with the tariff bill and his prominence in the Re- 
publican party, together with his force and elo- 
quence as a speaker, brought him into national 
fame. In the campaign of 1892, for a period of 
more than three months, he traveled over a 
territory extending from New York to Nebraska, 
making speeches in the interest of the Republi- 
can platform. Those who heard him speak, 
whether friends or opponents of his political 
opinions, cannot but have admired his logical 
reasoning, breadth of intellect, eloquence of speech 
and modesty of demeanor. During the campaign 
of 1894 lie made three hundred and seventy-one 
speeches and visited over three hundred towns, 
within a period of two months, addressing perhaps 
two million people. 

The tarifif issue and all the intricate questions 
of public revenue that are interwoven with it, 
constitute the most complicated problems with 
which a statesman has to deal. To master them 
in every detail requires an intellect of the high- 
est order. That Major McKinley thoroughly un- 
derstands these questions is admitted by all who 
have investigated his official utterances on the 
subject, beginning with the speech on the Wood 
tarifif bill, delivered in the house of representatives 
April 15, 1878, and closing with his speech in 
favor of the tarifif bill of 1 890, which as chairman 
of the ways and means committee he reported to 
the house and which was subsequently passed and 
is known throughout the world as the McKinley 
tariff bill of 1890. He opposed the Wood bill be- 
cause of a conviction that the proposed measure 

would, if enacted, prove a public calamity. For 
the same reason, in 1882, he advocated a friendly 
revision of the tariff by a tariff commission, to be 
authorized by congress and appointed by the 
president. In 1884 he opposed the Morrison 
horizontal bill, which he denounced as ambiguous 
for a great public statute, and in 1888 he led the 
forces in the fight against the Mills tariff bill. 

As governor of Ohio, his policy was conserva- 
tive. He aimed to give to the public institutions 
the benefit of the service of the best man of the 
state, and at all times upheld the legitimate rights 
of the workingmen. Recognizing the fact that 
the problem of taxation needed regulation, in 
his messages of 1892, 1893 and 1894, ^^ urged 
the legislature that a remedy be applied. In 
1892 he recommended legislation for the safety 
and comfort of steam railroad employes, and the 
following year urged the furnishing of automatic 
couplers and air-brakes for all railroad cars used 
in the state. 

When, in 1896, the Republican party, in con- 
vention assembled at St. Louis, selected a man to 
represent their principles in the highest office 
within the gift of the American people, it was not 
a surprise to the public that the choice fell upon 
Major McKinley. The campaign that followed 
was one of the most exciting in the history of 
the country since the period of reconstruction. 
Especial interest centered in the fact that the 
point at issue seemed, not, as in former days, 
free trade or protection, but whether or not the 
government should declare for the free coinage of 
silver. This question divided the voters of the 
country upon somewhat different lines than theold- 
time principles of the Republican and Democratic 
parties and thus made the campaign a memorable 
one. The supporters of the gold standard main- 
tained that silver monometallism would precipi- 
tate a panic and permanently injure the business 
interests of the country, and the people, by a 
large majority, supported these principles. 

January 25, 1871, Major McKinley was united 
in marriage with Miss Ida Saxton, who was born 
in June, 1847, the daughter of James A. Saxton. 
Their two children died in 1874, within a short 
time of each other, one at the age of three years 
and the other in infancy. 




glOGRAPHY alone can justly represent the progress of local history and portray with accuracy 
the relation of men to events. It is the only means of perpetuating the lives and deeds of 
those men to whom the advancement of a city or county and the enlightenment of its people 
are due. The compilers of this work have striven to honor, not only men of present prominence, 
but also, as far as possible, those who in years gone by labored to promote the welfare of their com- 
munity. The following sketches have been prepared from the standpoint of no man's prejudice, 
but with an impartial aim to render justice to progressive and public-spirited citizens and to collect 
personal records that will be of value to generations yet to come. 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind from remotest ages. All will be forgotten 
soon enough, in spite of their best works and the most earnest efforts of their friends to preserve the 
memory of their lives. The means emploj^ed to prevent oblivion and to perpetuate their memory 
have been in. proportion to the amount of intelligence they possessed. The pyramids of Egypt were 
built to perpetuate the names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhumations made by the 
archaeologists of Egypt from buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people to perpetuate the 
memory of their achievements. The erection of the great obelisks was for the same purpose. 
Coming down to a later period, we find the Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and 
monuments, and carving out statues to chronicle their great achievements and carry them down the 
ages. It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling up their great mounds of earth, had but 
this idea — to leave something to show that they had lived. All these works, though many of them 
costly in the extreme, give but a faint idea of the lives and character of those whose memory they 
were intended to perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of the people that then lived. The 
great pyramids and some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity; the mausoleums, 
monuments and statues are crumbling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelligent, undecaying, immutable method of 
perpetuating a full history — immutable in that it is almost unlimited in extent and perpetual in its 
action; and this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are indebted for the introduction of the admirable 
system of local biography. By this system every man, though he has not achieved what the world 
calls greatness, has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all; nothing of the physical man is left. The monument which 
his children or friends may erect to his memory in the cemetery will crumble into dust and pass 
away; but his life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, which otherwise would be 
forgotten, is- perpetuated by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we engrave their portraits; for the same reason 
we collect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we think it necessary, as we speak only 
truth of them, to wait until they are dead, or until those who know them are gone; to do this we 
are ashamed only to publish to the world the history of those whose lives are unworthy of public 





HON. ALVA ADAMS. The opportunities 
which Colorado offers to young men of res- 
olute purpose nowhere find a more illustri- 
ous exemplification than in the life of the present 
governor of the state, a man honored alike in the 
counsels of the commonwealth and in the circle 
of his personal acquaintances and friends. It was 
not due to mere luck that, seventeen years from 
the time when he hauled ties for the railroad, he 
was the incumbent of the office of chief executive, 
the highest po.sition within the gift of the state. 
Not by chance did he rise from poverty to aiflu- 
ence; it was the direct result of his determination 
of character, his purpose of will. Determination 
may be said to be the keynote of his character. 
What he sets out to do he achieves though innu- 
merable obstacles must first be surmounted and 
interposing barriers removed. 

While the most of his life has been spent in 
Colorado, Governor Adams grew to manhood in 
Iowa County, Wis., where he was born May 14, 
1850. His father had come from Kentucky and 
his mother from New York, the former being a 
country merchant and farmer. The boy, though 
never in college, had the opportunity to secure an 
education usual to country boys in Wisconsin. 
The illness of a brother caused the family to seek 
a change of climate, and, hoping his health might 
be benefited by the dry, pure air of Colorado, they 
decided to come to this state. Accordingly, in 
the then well-known "prairie schooner," they 
made the long trip from Wisconsin westward, 
landing in Greeley, Colo., where they stopped 
for a time. At once the son, who was a young 
man of twenty-one, looked about him for employ- 
ment. The only work he couid secure was that 
of hauling ties from the mountains south of Den- 
ver for the building of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad, then in process of construction. He 
spent a few weeks in that way, after which, in 
July, 1 87 1, he went to Colorado Springs as an 
employe of C. W. Sanborn, dealer in lumber and 

While working for Mr. Sanborn, Mr. Adams 
set about building a structure that would answer 
for a lumber office, hardware store and dwelling 
place. By August he had completed a small 
building on South Cascade avenue, which was the 
first building on the present site of Colorado 
Springs, and there the business was carried on. 
In October he bought the stock of goods from his 
employer, paying $4,100 therefor, and, as he did 
not have the cash in hand, he paid in notes bear- 
ing two per cent interest a month. Since then 
he has constantly, and with success, engaged in 
the hardware business. In 1872 he took J. C. 
Wilson into partnership, and while the latter re- 
mained at Colorado Springs, he went to Pueblo, 
establishing a branch store at that place. Later 
the partnership was dissolved, Mr. Wilson retain- 
ing the store at Colorado Springs, and Mr. Adams 
that at Pueblo, to which he afterwards added 
branch stores in the San Juan district. 

The first position held by Mr. Adams was in 
1873, when he was chosen a trustee of South Pu- 
eblo. Three years later he was elected from Rio 
Grande County to the state legislature, where he 
became noted for his strict watch of expenses and 
his opposition to bills requiring special appropria- 
tions. In 1884 he was nominated for governor, 
but was defeated. However, in the election two 
years later he was successful, receiving a major- 
ity of twenty-four hundred, and entering on the 
duties of his office in January, 1887. His admin- 
istration was perhaps as satisfactory as that of 
any governor the state has ever had. As in the 
legislature, so in the chief executive's chair, he 
was distinguished for the economical spirit that 
governed his administration. Every bill demand- 
ing an appropriation was scrutinized closely and 
unless he was thoroughly convinced of its benefits, 
it was promptly vetoed. 

In August, 1887, occurred an outbreak of the 
Utes. At that time they had for their chief Col- 
orow, a stubborn, insolent but cowardly Indian. 
Some of his tribe were gambling with cowboys at 



Meeker one day, but were unfortunate at the 
cards, and staked and lost everything they had. 
Their passion for gambling had been aroused to 
such an extent that they went out and stole two 
horses belonging to white men, and these they 
also staked and lost. Warrants were issued for 
their arrest for horse-stealing, but they resisted 
arrest. Shots were exchanged. At once the 
wildest excitement prevailed. The white set- 
tlers, remembering the bloody slaughters by the 
Indians in other days, at once demanded that the 
governor send the militia, and he in turn request- 
ed the government at Washington to have the 
Indians seut to their reservation. But as in so 
many other cases, the government acted too slow- 
ly. The governor then ordered the troops to 
White River, but after a time, no further trouble 
occurring, he had them withdrawn. 

From the of his first administration Gov- 
ernor Adams carried on business in Pueblo until 
1896, when he was again the successful candi- 
date for governor, being one of the very few men 
(in fact, none beside himself and F. W. Pitkin) 
who have been twice chosen to serve as chief 
executive. His second term has had no weighty 
legislation, no hostilities, to make it memorable 
in history. It is the record of a peaceful admin- 
istration, which, though it may be unnoticed in 
history, has nevertheless left its impress in the in- 
creasing prosperity of the state, the exten.sion of 
its industries and the advancement of its mining, 
agricultural and commercial interests. 

It may be said of Governor Adams that he is a 
safe man. As a leader he has none of that reck- 
lessness sometimes found in men in public places. 
He is as careful of the state's finances as he has 
been of his own. In that respect he resembles 
Governor Pitkin, who as a financier has never 
been surpassed by any governor. Perhaps this 
quality of cautiousness has been objectionable to 
men who were interested in securing bridges over 
rivers or other improvements for the benefit of the 
state; but the man who stands at the head of af- 
fairs owes a duty to the tax-payers and must con- 
scientiously guard the finances of the state. 

Himself a wealthy man. Governor Adams has 
often assisted others who have less fortune in 
fighting the battle of life than has he. By travel, 
both on this continent and abroad, he has gained 
a cosmopolitan knowledge that has atoned largely 
for his lack of early education. In the school of 

experience and observation he has been an apt 
pupil, and who shall say that the graduates of 
this .school have been less successful, as a class, 
than those who boast of college diplomas? In 
summing up the character of Governor Adams, 
Fitz-Mac describes him in these words: "The 
keynote of Alva Adams' character throughout 
has been — purpose. He is not a great man, but 
he is a good man, a clever man, an ambitious and 
cultivated man. He has made the most of the 
excellent talents with which nature endowed him 
and that is why he seems to me the most admira- 
ble man in the state. What he is he has made 
himself, and my heart goes out in unreserved 
sympathy toward the high and honorable and 
forcible character he has established. ' ' 

HON. SAMUEL H. ELBERT, governor of 
the territory of Colorado 1873-74, chief jus- 
tice of the supreme court 1876-82 and 1886- 
88, is one of the most distinguished citizens our 
state has ever had. Under appointment by Pres- 
ident Lincoln as secretary of the territory, he 
came to Colorado in 1862 and his life since that 
time has been a part of the history of the state. As 
the chief executive of the territory , it was his aim to 
promote the welfare of the people; as chief justice 
of the supreme court, he was wise, impartial and 
fearless; as a citizen, he has ever been progressive 
and public-spirited; and as a friend those who 
knew him best have found that beneath his dig- 
nity of manner and apparent reserve beats a kind, 
generous, warm heart, untainted by a shadow of 
dishonor or disloyalty. 

The life which this narrative sketches began 
in Logan County, Ohio, in 1833. The family, 
while not wealthy, was in comfortable circum- 
stances and the son was given every educational 
advantage which the schools of Ohio afforded. 
Dr. Elbert, the father, was an eminent physician 
and surgeon, with honorary degrees from Cincin- 
nati and Philadelphia tuedical colleges. In 1840 the 
family removed to Iowa, but in 1848 young Elbert 
returned to Ohio, where he took the regular col- 
legiate course of Wesley an University, graduating 
in 1854. During the next two years he studied 
law in Dayton, Ohio, and was there admitted to 
the bar. In the spring of 1857 he opened an 
office at Plattsmouth, Neb. His connection with 
public and political affairs began in May, i860, 



when he was a delegate from Nebraska to the 
Republican convention that nominated Abraham 
Lincoln for President, and in the exciting cam- 
paign that followed he was an active participant. 
In i860 he was elected to the state legislature, 
his first public position. 

When Hon. John Evans was appointed gov- 
ernor of Colorado to succeed William Gilpin, Mr. 
Elbert was at the same time appointed territorial 
secretary, and he came to Denverin May, 1862. 
The intimate friendship between himself and the 
chief executive was still further deepened by his 
marriage to the governor's daughter, Miss Jose- 
phine Evans, death, with that of their only 
child, in 1868, was the heaviest bereavement that 
ever befell Mr. Elbert. 

Upon the expiration of his term as secretary, 
in 1866 Mr. Elbert began to practice law in Den- 
ver, in partnership with Hon. J. Q. Charles, and 
the firm of Charles & Elbert carried on a very 
large practice. In 1873 he was appointed gov- 
ernor of the territory by President Grant and at 
once began the forwarding of plans for the develop- 
ment of the state, the enlargement of its resources 
and the prosperity of the people. He was es- 
pecially interested in the subject of irrigation, for 
he realized that Colorado could attain no perma- 
nent prosperity unless this problem was satisfac- 
torily solved. He secured a meeting of delegates 
in Denver from the states and territories west of 
the Missouri River, in the summer of 1873, and 
delivered an address in this convention upon the 
necessity of government aid in the irrigating of 
the vast tracts in the west. 

Bitter political feuds in the .summer of 1874 cul- 
minated in the removal of Governor Elbert from 
office. Later President Grant ascertained the 
real facts of the case and openly acknowledged 
that he had been misled by unscrupulous persons. 
With the dignity that always characterized him. 
Governor Elbert wasted no time in disputes, but 
withdrew from office, and went abroad, visiting 
all the prominent cities of Europe and making a 
careful study of political economy. The people 
had always been his friends and on his return to 
Denver they showed their appreciation of his serv- 
ices and their confidence in his integrity in many 
ways that won his gratitude. When Colorado 
was admitted to the Union as the Centennial state, 
he was called to the recently organized supreme 
bench, and the confidence of the people that he 

would discharge its duties faithfully was not mis- 
placed. In drawing for terms, he secured a ten- 
ure of six years. As chief justice he was noted 
for impartiality and integrity. The high office he 
held was never betrayed by him; he was faithful 
to its smallest duty and to the trust reposed in 
him. When his term expired in 1882, the people 
urged him to become a candidate for re-election, 
but his health had been affected by overwork, and 
he declined. However, when they again urged 
him to become a candidate in 1885, he consented 
to the use of his name and was re-elected, his ju- 
dicial term beginning in January, 1886. After 
two years, in the latter part of 1888, he was com- 
pelled to withdraw from the position, a fact which 
was deplored, not aloneby thepublic,but especial- 
ly by the attorneys, who had the warmest admira- 
tion for his ability and integrity. 

While serving as chief justice his alma mater, 
which had bestowed upon Judge Elbert the de- 
grees of Bachelor and Master of Arts in previous 
years, tendered him the degree of LL.D. Since 
his retirement from the bench he has devoted his 
attention to the management of his property and 
has also traveled considerably. He justly ranks 
among the most prominent men of the state. His 
services have not been solely of a gubernatorial 
and judicial nature, but in many ways, impossi- 
ble to recount, he has been helpful to the increased 
prosperity of the state and has labored to pro- 
mote its highest interests. As president of the 
State Industrial Association, he was an important 
factor in the development of Colorado's agricult- 
ural resources, during the early days of our his- 
tory. By assisting in the solution of the problems 
connected with irrigation, he aided every interest, 
for the advancement of the state has been simul- 
taneous with the introduction of facilities for irri- 
gation. In the annals of the state his name will 
occupy a position of eminence through the gener- 
ations to come. 

superintendent of public instruction of 
Colorado 1873-77, ^^^ president of the Col- 
orado State University at Boulder 1887-92, is one 
of the distinguished citizens of Denver and has 
taken a very active part in the promotion of 
movements for the advancement of the city and 
state. A resume of his lineage and life will 
therefore be of especial interest to the readers of 



this volume. He is a descendant of Thomas 
Hale, an Englishman, who settled in Newbury, 
Mass., in 1635, and several succeeding generations 
of Hales were identified with the history of New 
England. His great-grandfather. Col. John 
Hale, M. D., was a surgeon on the stafi" of his 
brother-in-law, Colonel Prescott, during the 
Revolution, and he and his son, David, then a 
lad of sixteen, were both present at the battle of 
Bunker Hill. 

John Hale, our subject's father, was born at 
Hollis, N. H., in 1800. He was a mechanic and 
being a man of great originality and fertile brain, 
he devoted much time to the invention of useful 
articles. Among his inventions were the essen- 
tial features of the present planing machine, one 
of the earliest power threshing machines, one of 
the first machines for manufacturing barrels, and 
an improvement in the tread horse power. In 
1837 he removed to Rome, Oneida County, N.Y., 
where he engaged in manufacturing his threshers 
and horse powers, but after three years he 
removed his business to North Bloomfield, 
Ontario County, N. Y. , and added to it the manu- 
facture of agricultural implements. In 1849 he 
crossed the plains to California, the trip, which 
was made with his mule team, taking about six 
months. Arriving at his destination he engaged 
in prospecting and mining on Feather River, also 
manufactured mining rockers and became inter- 
ested in a scheme for draining Feather River, but 
this proved a failure. He returned east with 
health much impaired by the hardships of western 
life, and died in April, 1852. Politically he was 
a Whig and in religion a member of the Baptist 

The mother of our subject, whose maiden name 
was Jane Morrison, was born in Peterboro, N. H. , 
in 1801, and died in Rochester, N. Y., in 1865. 
The Morrison family came from Scotland to New 
Hampshire. John, who was born in Aberdeen, 
probably in 1628, was of Protestant faith and on 
account of religious persecution went to the 
north of Ireland, being in the city of Londonderry 
before and during its siege. About 1720 he 
joined his sons in New Hampshire, where he died 
in 1736, aged one hundred and eight years. His 
son, John, was born in Ireland in 1678, married 
Margaret Wallace there, settled in Londonderry, 
N. H., in 1719, being one of the first sixteen 
settlers there, and in 1750-51 became one of the 

first settlers of Peterboro, where he died June 14, 
1776. Capt. Thomas, son of John Morrison, was 
born in Ireland in 17 10, came to America with 
his parents in childhood, and served as captain of 
a company during the early Indian wars. By his 
marriage to Mary Smith he had a son, John, who 
was born in Londonderry, N. H., but spent his 
life principally in Peterboro. His daughter Jane 
(Mrs. John Hale) had six children that attained 
maturity, one, Mary Jane, having died in infancy. 
They are: Charles G., who has been master 
mechanic for forty years with the New York 
Central road at Rochester and Buffalo, N. Y. 
John Albert, a mine operator, residing in Denver 
Benjamin Franklin, a photographer of Rochester 
Horace Morrison, our subject; Ellen Amelia, 
Mrs. Rand, of Bellefontaine, Ohio; and Henry 
William, a miner and mechanic, residing in 
Denver. The combined ages of the brothers and 
sister, at this time (1898) is three hundred and 
ninety-six years. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Hollis, 
N. H., March 6, 1833, and was in his eighth 
year when the family removed to Bloomfield. 
His school advantages were limited to about 
three months' attendance in a public school dur- 
ing the winter. He early began to work in his 
father's foundry, machine and woodwork shops, 
learning every department. Soon after his 
father's death the business was discontinued. 
Meanwhile, having gained a fair common-school 
education, he began to teach in the winter of 
1852, having charge of a three months' country 
school in Mendon, N. Y., where he "boarded 
round" and was given $14 a month. In the 
spring of 1853 he entered Genesee Wesleyan 
Seminary at Lima, N. Y., and in the fall of the 
same year took a school in Victor, Ontario 
County, where he boarded among the pupils and 
was given $18 a month. Returning to Lima in 
the spring of 1854, he entered the sophomore 
class in Genesee College, helping to pay his way 
by working during the summer vacation at 
carpentry and harvesting. In the winter of 
1854-55 he taught at Fisher's Station, Ontario 
County, resuming collegiate work in the spring, 
and teaching in West Bloomfield union school as 
principal the following winter. At the close of 
his junior year he left Genesee to enter Union 
College at Schenectady, N. Y., from which he 
graduated in _i856 with the degree of A. B. 



Later he was again principal at West Bloomfield. 
When he entered the seminary at Lima he had 
only $42, the proceeds of his three months' teach- 
ing. When he graduated from Union he had 
$230 and owed no debts. 

In the spring of 1858 he went to Nashville, 
Tenn., where he was principal of the primary 
department in the public schools that had been 
established the previous year. After one year he 
was made principal of a school of four rooms and 
the next j'ear was given the principalship of the 
Howard school, one of the largest in the city. 
When the Civil war broke out, he being a Union 
man was warned to leave and the house and lot 
and other real estate he had bought were confis- 
cated, but he fini.shed the school year, which 
ended with June, before leaving the city. 

While in Nashville, in 1859, Mr. Hale married 
Miss Martha Eliza Huntington, a teacher in the 
schools there, a native of Barry, Vt., and his 
schoolmateof former years. Her father, Leonard 
Huntington, was a member of an old family of 
New England and was a carriage and wagon 
maker in Bloomfield, N. Y. The morning after 
the close of his school, in June, 1861, Mr. Hale 
started north, going first to Bloomfield, and later 
to Detroit, Mich., where he studied law in C. I. 
Walker's law ofiice and, at the same time, taught 
in an evening school and in a German-English 
school there. Soon after the close of the war he 
recovered his property in Nashville. In 1862 he 
was admitted to the bar in Michigan, but his 
health having become seriously impaired and 
Suffering greatly with bronchitis, he deemed it 
imprudent at that time to begin practice. His 
brother Albert, from Colorado, was just then 
visiting in the east and on his return Horace 
accompanied him, driving from Atchison, Kan., 
to Denver in a buggy, and spending .seven- 
teen days on the trip. He went from Denver to 
Central City, where he arrived in October, 1863, 
and for a short time he was in H. M. Teller's law 
office, but the confinement being injurious, he 
turned his attention to outdoor business, such as 
mining and freighting between Denver and the 

In 1864 he formed one of a cavalry company 
of home guards organized under Capt. Sam 
Browne for the purpose of defense against an 
anticipated attack by Indians. Each man 
furnished his own horse and equipments; the 

territory supplied rations. The company served 
but two weeks. In 1865 he went east for his 
wife and child, whom he had left in Bloomfield 
when starting for Colorado. He crcssed the 
plains on this trip, both ways with a mule team, 
the westward journey covering forty-two days' 
time from St. Joseph, Mo., to Central City. This 
was during Indian troubles, and emigrants had 
to travel in large companies, hence slowly. 

In 1868 he accepted the principalship of the 
Central City public schools, where he remained 
until 1873 and. then resigned to take the office of 
territorial superintendent of public instruction 
to which he had been appointed by Governor 
Elbert to fill a vacancy. In 1874 he was again 
appointed by Governor Elbert, for a full term (two 
years), and was reappointed by Governor Routt. 
When Colorado was admitted to the Union, 
August I, 1876, he was filling this office, and by 
provision of the statute he retained it until Janu- 
ary I, 1877, thus making him the last territorial 
and the first state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion. Returning to Central City, he resumed his 
work as principal, and remained in the position 
for ten years, meanwhile serving as mayor of the 
city in 1882 and 1883, and also as county superin- 
tendent of schools for Gilpin County. In 1878 
he was elected, on the Republican ticket, regent 
of the State University for a term of six years. 
He was therefore at one and the same time 
principal of the schools, county superintendent, 
mayor of the city and state regent. In 1887 he 
resigned as principal in Central City to accept 
the presidency of the Colorado State University 
at Boulder, which was tendered him, unsolicited, 
by the board of regents. This position he ably 
filled for four and one-half years, returning to 
Denver in January, 1892. While president of 
the university the honorary degree of LL. D. was 
conferred upon him by Iowa Wesleyan University. 
Several buildings were added to the univer- 
sity during his incumbency, among them the 
Hale Scientific building, named in his honor 
after his resignation had been tendered. Thus, 
after forty years of almost continuous service in 
educational work, he retired from active duty. 

While superintendent of public instruction, 
Mr. Hale organized the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion, of which he was the first president in 1875, 
and again president in 1883. He is a member ot 
the National Educational Association and has 



been a frequent and valued contributor to educa- 
tional journalsof the country. While in Central 
City he was president of the Mining Exchange, 
and in 1894-95 was president of the Charity Or- 
ganization Society of Denver. In the Knights of 
Honor he is grand chaplain of the grand lodge. 
In former years he was a Republican, but since 
1894 has been independent in his political views. 
During all the j'ears of his connection with the 
history of Colorado he has been interested in its 
growth and active in furthering its development, 
and he has contributed his quota to the advance- 
ment of its influence and resources. 

The only son of our subject is Gen. Irving 
Hale, who was born in North Bloomfield, N. Y., 
August 28, 1861, came with his parents to Colo- 
rado in 1865, and lived in Central City until 
1873, when he came to Denver. He graduated 
from the East Denver high school in 1877, at the 
head of its first graduating class, and then went 
back to Central City, where he remained until 
1880. The next four years were spent at West 
Point Military Academy, where he graduated in 
1884, with the highest honors ever attained there 
by any graduate. In 1887 he married Miss Mary 
King, daughter of Col. W. R. King, of the 
United States engineering corps. They have 
four children, William King, John Huntington, 
Dorothy and Marjory. He resigned from the 
army in 1889. In the war with Spain (1898) he 
was commissioned colonel of the first regiment of 
the Colorado National Guard and with his 
command, volunteered for two years' service in 
the United States army, and left Denver for the 
Philippine Islands May 17, 1898. 

character of a city is the character of its 
citizens. The character of the city of 
Denver may be judged in a measure from the 
names of its leading public men, who have 
become closely identified with its interests by 
long residence and have contributed to the ex- 
tension of its interests. Few of its citizens are 
better known throughout the entire nation than 
Mr. Shafroth, and certainly none has a more en- 
viable reputation for breadth of intellect and up- 
rightness of life. To write of his career is to 
write, in part, a history of Colorado during a 
similar period, for his name has been associated 

with all the leading measures for the benefit of 
the state and the development of its industries. 

The life of Congressman Shafroth began in 
Fayette, Howard County, Mo., June 9, 1854. 
His father, John, who was born in Canton Berne, 
Switzerland, was the son of a hotelkeeper who 
took part in the French wars under Napoleon, 
but died at an early age. Orphaned at twelve 
years, John Shafroth had few advantages in his 
youth. When a young man he came to America 
and in 1839 settled in Booneville, Mo. The 
following year he married Miss Annis Aule, a 
native of Frankfort, Germany, and an orphan 
who came to America with two sisters. After 
his marriage he engaged in the general mercantile 
business until his death, in 1866. Thirty years 
afterward his wife passed away in Fayette, where 
she had lived for fifty-six years, having come 
there at the age of twenty. She was the mother 
of six children, five now living, of whom John F. 
is the j'oungest. 

The education of our subject was begun in the 
public schools, continued in Central College and 
finished in the University of Michigan, where he 
studied from 1872 to 1875, graduating with the 
degree of B. S. He then studied law with 
Samuel C. Major, of Fayette, and was there ad- 
mitted to the bar in August, 1876, after which he 
formed a partnership with his former preceptor 
under the title of Major & Shafroth. Upon the 
election of Mr. Major to the state senate, the 
business of the firm fell upon the junior member. 
In 1879 he came to Colorado, reaching Denver 
on the ist of October, and soon afterward forming 
a partnership with Andrew W. Brazee, ex-judge 
of the supreme court. Two years later this con- 
nection was dissolved, and the firm of Stallcup, 
Luthe & Shafroth formed. Soon afterward Mr. 
lyUthe was elected district attorney and Mr. 
Shafroth became prosecuting attorney. The 
latter, in 1887, was elected city attorney of Den- 
ver upon the Republican ticket, was re-elected 
two 3'ears later, serving until the spring of 1891. 
Meantime the senior member of his firm was ap- 
pointed a judge of the supreme court, and in 
1888 he formed another partnership, becoming a 
member of the firm of Rogers & Shafroth. 

In the fall of 1894 Mr. Shafroth was nominated 
on the Republican ticket as member of congress 
from the first congressional district of Colorado, 
and was elected by a majority of thirteen thou- 



sand and five hundred. At the expiration of his 
terra, in 1896, he was re-elected on the silver 
Republican ticket by a majority of fifty-eight 
thousand. During both terms in congress he has 
been a member of the committees on public lands 
and the irrigation of arid lands. The numerous 
bills introduced by him have been largely in the 
interests of his constituents, and among those 
that passed perhaps the most important was that 
providing for the opening of forestry reserves to 
mining, exploration and the location of mining 
claims. He introduced and was largely instru- 
mental in securing the passage of bills providing 
for water reservoir sites at Colorado Springs, 
Leadville and Sugar Loaf; also for the protecting 
of the forests from fire. 

Always an active Republican, Mr. Shafroth 
favored the readjustment of the currency of the 
nation and the placing of silver upon its proper 
standard. He was one of the party of seven sen- 
ators and five congressmen who issued a paper 
calling for the organization of the silver Repub- 
lican party and a meeting of its supporters in 
Chicago. He believes prosperity will never 
come, in fullest measure, to the great west until 
the present financial policy of the government is 
altered. That he is sustained in this belief by 
his constituents is shown by the largely increased 
majority he received at his last election. 

In matters pertaining to the improvement of 
Denver Mr. Shafroth has always been interested. 
While city attorney he succeeded in securing 
from the supreme court a reversal of the decision 
rendered by the same court in the past, and under 
this new decision abutting property can be as- 
sessed aud taxed for street improvements, a 
measure that has been most helpful to the city. 
He also began a case against all the railroads 
here to compel them to construct a viaduct over 
Nineteenth street. This was defeated before the 
district court, but when taken to the supreme 
court the latter body held that the railroads were 
compelled to construct, at their own cost, a via- 
duct over streets rendered useless to the general 
public by their use for railroad purposes. This 
decision has not yet been made effective, but will 
be in time. 

In Fayette, Mo., October 26, 1881, Mr. Shaf- 
roth married Virginia F. Morrison, who was 
born there, is a graduate of Howard Female Col- 
lege and in religious belief is connected with the 

Baptist Church. Her father, John I,. Morrison, 
a prominent business man of Fayette, at one time 
was sherifi" of Howard County and later warden 
of the state penitentiary. Her grandfather, Al- 
fred Morrison, settled in Fayette about 1S24 and 
became a man of prominence in public affairs. 
He was elected state treasurer and filled the posi- 
tion for four years; also held other ofiices of 
responsibility. Mr. Shafroth has four sous, 
John, Jr., Morrison, George and WiUiam. 

D. D. The life of this distinguished bishop 
began in Belgrade, Kennebec County, Me., 
August 25, 1828. He is a member of an old and 
patriotic family that has been identified with the 
history of America since an early period of its 
settlement. In 1619 two brothers, Edmond and 
Edward, came to this country from Lincolnshire, 
England, the former settling in Maryland and 
the latter in Virginia. However, in 1627 he 
went to Massachusetts and settled at Braintree, 
but later he and his son, Col. John Spalding, 
with others, incorporated the town of Chelms- 
ford. Col. John, who gained his title by service 
in King Philip's war, had a son Joseph, whose 
son, Lieut. John, was an ofiicer in the Revolu- 
tion, while a brother of Lieut. John, Hon. 
Simeon Spalding, was a member of Washington's 
staff and a prominent statesman of Massachu- 
setts. Jesse, son of Lieut. John, was born in 
Chelmsford, where he engaged in farming until 
his death. He was a young man at the time of 
the Revolution and enlisted in the American 

John, son of Jesse and father of Bishop Spald- 
ing, was born in Chelmsford, but removed to 
Maine and improved a tract of land lying on the 
Kennebec River. He was selectman of Belgrade 
and a man of prominence in his locality. His 
death occurred when he was quite advanced in 
years. His first wife, who died in early woman- 
hood, bore the maiden name of Lydia Coombs, 
and was born at Vinalhaven, Me. Her father, 
Sylvanus, who was a shipbuilder and farmer 
there, was the son of a Revolutionary soldier, 
who removed from Massachusetts to Maine and 
entered land around Coombs Neck. He married 
a daughter of James Stinson, also a soldier in the 
Revolution and a member of a Massachusetts 



family. John Spalding had four children bj- his 
first marriage, of whom three are living, John 
Franklin being the eldest. By his second mar- 
riage he had two children, one now living. 

Having fitted himself for college at Camden, 
Kent's Hill (Me.) Wesleyan Seminary and 
North Yarmouth Academy, the subject of this 
sketch entered Bowdoin College in 1849 and 
graduated in 1853 with the degree of A. B., 
later receiving the degrees of A. M. and D. D. 
from his alma mater. Afterward he taught 
school, being principal of East Pittston (Me.) 
Academy for one term, and preceptor of Dennys- 
ville Academy in the winter and spring terms of 
1854. In October of that year he entered the 
General Theological Seminary of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, New York City, from which 
he graduated June 24, 1857. July 8 he was 
ordained deacon of St. Stephen's Church, Port- 
land, Me., and August i was appointed mission- 
ary to St. James Church, Oldtown, Me.; July 14, 
1858, ordained priest by Bishop Burgess in 
Christ Church, Gardiner, Me.; August i, 1859, 
appointed rector of St. George's Church, Lee, 
Mass.; November i, i860, became assistant min- 
ister of Grace Church, Providence, R. I., of 
which Bishop Clark was the rector; November i , 
1861, dissolved his connection with that church 
and April i, 1862, became rector of St. Paul's 
Church in Erie, Pa., where he remained for 
twelve years and of which his son, Rev. Frank 
Spalding, is now the rector. 

In 1865 he commenced the erection of a church 
edifice of stone, built in the early English style 
of architecture, and with a seating capacity of 
eight hundred. This magnificent building cost 
$65,000. During the same year he was elected 
a member of the Board of Missions of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church for Western Pennsylvania 
and was subsequently re-elected every third year 
for the diocese of Pittsburg. In 1866 he organ- 
ized St. John's Church of Erie and the following 
year built a church that cost $5,000. In 1868 he 
was a member of the general convention of the 
Episcopal Church, meeting in New York. The 
next year he organized the Church of the Cross 
and Crown in Erie, and built a church that 
seated three hundred. In October, 1871, he was 
a member of the general convention that met in 
Baltimore, and the next year he built Trinity 
Chapel in Erie. 

September 28, 1873, he was unanimously 
elected and December 3 1 was consecrated bishop 
of Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, as suc- 
cessor to the late Bishop Randall. He reached 
Denver February 27, 1874, and at once entered 
upon the duties of his large diocese. Railroads 
were few and far apart in those days, and the 
bishop was obliged to do much of his visiting on 
horseback or by stage over rough mountain roads. 
The labor was enormous, but his courage was 
equal to the responsibility. Soon the number of 
communicants was greatly increased. New 
churches and chapels were built, parsonages were 
erected and parishes were organized. The work 
grew to such an extent that in 1 88 1 New Mexico 
was separated, and in 1887 Wyoming was formed 
into another diocese. He built the Wolfe School 
for girls and Jarvis Hall, a military academy for 
boys; also Matthews' Hall Theological School, of 
all of which he is the president. He also was in- 
strumental in the erection of St. Luke's Hospital 
and the Home for Consumptives. 

In Erie Bishop Spalding married Lavinia 
Spencer, who was born there and received an ex- 
cellent education. She was a daughter of Judah 

C. Spencer, a native of Connecticut and a de- 
scendant of Revolutionary ancestors. She is a 
lady of sweet disposition and noble character, a 
fitting companion for her husband in all his re- 
sponsible undertakings. They are the parents of 
five children, of whom Frank is a graduate of 
Princeton and rector at Erie, Pa.; William, also a 
graduate of Princeton, is engaged in business in 
Denver; Elizabeth and Sarah were given splendid 
advantages, the latter being a Vassar graduate; 
and John Edward died in Erie. 

Three times Bishop Spalding has gone to Eu- 
rope to attend great meetings of bishops in 
London, and twice, in 1878 and 1888, he also 
visited the continent, but the last time, in 1897, 
his visit was limited to England. Fraternally he 
is a Knight Templar Mason. The degree of 

D. D. was conferred upon him by both Bowdoin 
and Trinity Colleges, the latter of Hartford, 
Conn. He is a fluent writer and has published 
a number of books, among them the ' ' Church 
and Apostolic Ministry" (1886); "The Best 
Mode of Working a Parish " (used in the Syra- 
cuse (N. Y.) Theological Seminary); "Jesus 
Christ, the Proof of Christianity" (18S9), and 
many pamphlets and short articles. In length of 

/ UHC. 



time of service he is next to the oldest bishop 
west of the Mississippi. He is a member of the 
Sons of the Revolution, was its first president, 
and served for two years; is also identified with 
the New York Society of Colonial Wars and the 
Colorado Society, having been a charter member 
of the latter and its president for two years. 

The life of Bishop Spalding has been a busy 
and active one. Nor is there any noticeable 
diminution of liis activity now, although his 
twenty-five years of service in his present po-sition 
certainly entitle him to a lightening of labor, 
should he so desire. By all who know him, 
whether or not they are identified with his de- 
nomination, he is recognized as a man of scholarly 
attainments and great executive ability, and is 
respected and admired for his kindness to the 
poor, his great heart that is open to every de- 
served appeal for assistance, and his noble char- 
acter that has stood the fiery crucible of hardships 
and has come unscathed through every trial. 

entire history as a state, it is doubtful if 
Colorado has given, to assist in framing the 
laws of the nation, any citizen who has attained 
a fame equal to that of Senator Teller. His name 
is indelibly written upon the annals of his state 
and his country. Through his long and brilliant 
career as United States senator he has not only 
retained the friendship of his political supporters, 
but has won the admiration even of those whose 
opinions upon political subjects are diametrically 
opposed to his own. He stands now, near the 
climax of his career, as he has always stood, for 
what he believes to be true and right, for what he 
believes will promote the national welfare. To 
these principles he would remain stanch and true, 
though it cost him defeat for the highest position 
within the gift of the people, for he is a man of 
fearless courage and values integrity more than 
position, honor more than ofiBce. 

A publication of the nature of this should 
justly devote considerable space to the life and 
works of such a man. In this resume it will be 
our effort to give an account of his ancestry, in 
order that the reader may understand the quali- 
ties that have come by inheritance; also a sketch 
of the career that has been so remarkable in 
amount of good accomplished for the people of 

the state and nation. From the presentation of 
his biography may be gleaned lessons worthy 
of emulation by all, and especially by the young 
man, starting out in the world, with every possi- 
bility before him if he but have the courage to do 
and dare. 

The founder of the Teller family in America 
was William, a native of Holland, born in 1620. 
In 1639 he came to New York and settled at Fort 
Orange, where the king of Holland had appointed 
him trustee of a tract of land. In 1664 he moved 
to New York, where his remaining years were 
passed. By his marriage to Mary Douchen he 
had a son, William (2d), whose son, William (3d), 
was the father of William (4th) , and the latter 
had a son, Isaac Teller, M. D., a prominent 
physician of New York, having an office on the 
corner of Chambers street and Broadway. Dur- 
ing the Revolution he volunteered as a surgeon 
in the colonial army and died while in active serv- 
ice. By his marriage to Rebecca Remsen, who 
was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., of Dutch parent- 
age, he had a son, Remsen Teller, who was born 
about 1769 and resided atSchenectady.N.Y. He 
married Catherine McDonald, of Ballston Spa, 
N. Y. , daughter of David McDonald and Sarah 
(DuBois) McDonald, the latter a daughter of 
Col. Louis DuBois, of Ulster County, N. Y., 
who was a colonel in the Revolutionary war. 
Remsen Teller and his wife had a son, John, who 
was born in Schenectady, N. Y., February 15, 
1800, and married Charlotte Moore, who was 
born in Vermont in 1808 and is now living in 
Illinois. John Teller located on a farm in Alle- 
gany County, N. Y., but later he removed to 
Girard, Erie County, Pa., and after ten years 
there, in 1862 he settled in Morrison, Whiteside 
County, 111., where he died in 1879. His wife 
was a daughter of Willard Moore, who was born 
in Vermont, removed thence to Ballston Spa, 
N. Y., from there went to Allegany County about 
182 1, and in 1840 settled in Rochester, the same 

Upon his father's farm in Allegany County the 
subject of this review was born May 23, 1830. 
The years of his boyhood and youth passed un- 
eventfully in farm work and study. His indomit- 
able perseverance was apparent at an early age. 
Knowing his parents would be unable to give him 
the advantages he desired he set himself reso- 
lutely to work to secure them for himself, and by 



teaching school earned the money necessary for 
the prosecution of his academic studies. On the 
completion of the academic course he entered the 
law office of Judge Martin Grover, under whose 
preceptorship he acquired an accurate knowledge 
of the law. He was admitted to the bar January 
5, 1858, at Binghamton, N. Y. Coming as far 
west as Morrison, Whiteside County, 111., he 
engaged in active general practice until his re- 
moval to Colorado. 

During his residence there gold was discovered 
in Pike's Peak and thousands of men crossed the 
plains, joining the army of gold-seekers in the 
mountains of Colorado. Other lines of activity 
sprang into existence with the birth and develop- 
ment of bustling towns from the primitive min- 
ing camps. He was among those whose attention 
was called to the opening offered men of energy 
and determination in this part of the country. 
He determined to come west, and in April, 1861, 
made the long and tedious overland trip to the 
mountains. He opened an office at Central City, 
then the chief center of population and mining 
in the territory. Three years later he was joined 
by his brother, Willard, and the firm of H. M. 
& W. Teller was established. In 1865 he drew 
up the charter for the Colorado Central Railroad 
and presented it to the territorial legislature. As 
he was the originator of the railroad and its most 
enthusiastic promoter, he was selected as the 
president of the company and for five years held 
that position, his excellent management placing 
the concern upon a sound financial basis. During 
the Indian troubles in 1863 he was appointed 
major-genera! of militia by Governor Evans and 
held the office for two years, then resigned. 

Senator Teller was reared in the Democratic 
faith, but when the Republican party was organ- 
ized he found himself in sympathy with its prin- 
ciples and therefore joined its ranks. Soon after 
coming to Colorado he began to participate 
actively in politics, and in 1876, when Colorado 
was admitted to the union, he and Mr. Chaffee 
were elected its first representatives in the United 
States senate. He drew the term of three months, 
and on its expiration was elected for a full term 
of six years, 1877 to 1883. His record in the 
senate is a part of history, and his acceptable 
service in behalf of his constituents has led to 
his re-election at every election since 1876. 
Shortly after he entered the senate he was made a 

member of the committee on privileges and elec- 
tions and was sent to Florida to investigate the 
alleged frauds in the election of 1876. In 1878 
he was made chairman of a special committee to 
investigate alleged election frauds in southern 
states, his report of which was most thorough. 
As chairman of the committee on civil service 
and retrenchment he rendered efficient service. 

In 1882 Senator Teller was chosen secretary of 
the interior in President Arthur'% cabinet and he 
served in that responsible position until the ex- 
piration of the presidential term, March 3, 1885. 
The following da}' he took his seat in the senate, 
having been elected to succeed Hon. Nathaniel 
P. Hill. In 1 89 1 he was re-elected for the term 
ending in March, 1897, and at the latter time was 
again the people's choice for the position. He 
has served as chairman of the committees on 
pensions, patents, mines and mining, and as a 
member of the committees on claims, railroads, 
judiciary, appropriations and public lands. On 
all questions relating to public lands he is con- 
sidered an authorit}'. 

Perhaps in no way is Senator Teller better 
known than for his championship of the free 
coinage of silver. He is a stanch advocate of 
the restoration of bimetallism, believing that the 
act of 1873 demonetizing silver has proved prej- 
udicial to the welfare of the nation, and especi- 
ally injurious to the interests of Colorado. Be- 
lieving that the prosperity of the working people 
can never be subserved until silver is restored to 
its proper standard and the currency issue is 
honestly and fairly settled, he has given much of 
his thought and time in late years to this matter. 
His labors in the interests of free coinage in the 
senate of 1893 are too recent to need especial 
mention. On his return to Colorado at the ex- 
piration of that session, the people, appreciating 
what he had done in their behalf, accorded him a 
most hearty welcome and demonstration. It was 
said at the time that the reception was the most 
brilliant ever given anyone in the state. But, 
grand as it was, the reception given him in 1896, 
after the famous St. Louis national convention, 
eclipsed every previous affair of the kind. In 
the national convention of his party in 1896 he 
had stood firmly for the free coinage of the white 
metal, which he desired to be made a plank in the 
party platform. The majority were against him, 
and, feeling that his party had turned its back 



upon principles it should have supported, he and 
his followers left the convention hall, disappointed 
and sad at heart. Whatever disappointment he 
may have experienced, however, was forgotten 
in the gratitude he felt toward the people whom 
he represented and who, upon his return home, 
showered upon him expressions of heartiest 
appreciation and thanks for his steadfast support 
of their interests. 

In 1886 Alfred University conferred upon Sena- 
tor Teller the degree of LL.D. In fraternal rela- 
tions he is a Mason and has done much for the 
upbuilding of the order in Colorado. He has 
attained the thirty-third degree, Scottish Rite, 
and has been honored by his brethren of the 
Mystic Tie with many important and honorable 
offices. For seven years he was grand master of 
the state and was also the first grand commander 
of the Knights Templar of Colorado. 

At Cuba, N. Y., June 7, 1862, he married 
Harriet M., daughter of Packard Bruce, a farmer 
of Allegany County. They have three children, 
Emma A., John Harrison and Henry Bruce, all 
of whom were born in Central City. 

Of the personal characteristics of Senator Tel- 
ler, one of the most conspicuous is that quality 
which enables him to look ahead, measuring 
forces and their effects upon the future. He is 
peculiarly far-seeing, able to discern influences 
that will bear upon the prosperity of the people 
in da}-s yet to come. As a leader he is safe, 
because he is cool, calm and keen, never allowing 
himself to become excited and nervous, but main- 
taining a steady control over his own mind as 
well as over others. Because of the wonderful 
control he exercises over himself, he has some- 
times been called cold; but he may be compared 
with the ocean beneath which flows the gulf 
stream, the ocean itself on the surface giving 
little indication of the warmth of the current 
below. So it is with him; on the surface he is 
great, awe inspiring and cold, but below flows 
the warm and genial current of kindness, sympa- 
thy and love. 

Perhaps we cannot better conclude this sketch 
than with a quotation from the pen of that versa- 
tile and brilliant writer, Fitz-Mac, which appeared 
in a recent character study of Senator Teller, 
published in the Denver Evening Post. "He has 
this mark of genuine greatness above any man 
whom I know in Colorado, or perhaps any that I 

personally know anywhere in public life, except 
Tom Reed, speaker of the house of representa- 
tives. He is simple. He is natural. He is with- 
out affectations. He is simple because it is natural 
for him to be simple, and simplicity indicates the 
calm mind and clear vision as to the relations of 
things, their real values. 

" It seems to me that the holy spirit of patriot- 
ism has descended upon Teller and enveloped 
him and entered into his soul and sanctified his 
purposes. He stands before the country as the 
tongue of Colorado, but he speaks not for Colo- 
rado alone, not alone for the United States, but 
for the humbler three-fourths of all humanity. 
Soberly, bravely and ably he is fighting human- 
ity's holy cause for us and for all, and it behooves 
us as an intelligent, appreciative and generous 
people to hold up his honored hands steadfastly 
and stand by him with a courage as dauntless, as 
devoted as his own." 

(John W. ILIFF. Among the men who 
I gained fortune in Colorado was one who was 
(2/ known all over the country as the "cattle 
king' ' of this state. When people by thousands 
were coming west during the Pike's Peak excite- 
ment, he decided to join the tide of emigration 
that moved westward. He had the sound com- 
mon sense to bring with him a wagon train of 
provisions, and these he sold in Denver at a 
large profit. With this money he bought a 
small herd of cattle, the nucleus of the immense 
cattle business he afterward conducted. Study- 
ing his chosen occupation with care and giving it 
his entire time, he was naturally rewarded with 
success. With the exception of about a year in the 
banking business with Hon. Amos Steck, in 
Wyoming, he engaged in no business but the 
raising and selling of stock, and as his means in- 
creased he increased his herds. Some cattle- 
men, attaining a fair degree of success, relaxed 
efforts and thus reduced their profits, but he 
seemed to grow more energetic with the passing 
years. He was the head and mainspring of all 
the work, accompanied the men on the round- 
ups and worked side by side with them. His 
possessions extended over such a large tract of 
land that it is said he could travel for a week, 
yet always eat and sleep at one of his own 
ranches. He had twenty thousand acres of 



pasturage, watered by springs and creeks. From 
here he shipped cattle to eastern markets. At 
one time, during the early days, he supplied 
dressed beef to all the military posts along the 
line of the Union Pacific. He also had large 
government contracts and contracts with whole- 
sale butchers. Over the plains from Julesburg 
on the east to Texas on the south ranged his 
cattle, numbering more than fifty thousand head, 
of which he marketed perhaps fifteen thousand 
per annum. He was a man of vast wealth, with 
a princely income; yet his life was unostentatious 
and to the last he retained the simplicity of habits 
that marked his earlier years. 

For the facts given in regard to the origin and 
early history of the AyloiF, or Iliff, family, we 
are indebted to Morant's history of Essex, Eng- 
land. In Austria, where one branch of the fam- 
ily resides, the name was Ayecliffe. From Eng- 
land some of the name emigrated to New Eng- 
gland in a very early day and with the subse- 
quent history of that part of our country later 
generations were intimately identified. From 
there they moved west to Ohio, where our sub- 
ject's father, Thomas Ilifi", cultivated a farm near 
Zanesville. Thomas Iliff" was born in Pennsyl- 
vania April 24, 1803, and died October 10, 1874. 
By his first wife, who was Salome Reed, he had 
ten children, of whom four are deceased. His 
second wife was Harriet Halcomb, who survived 
hira twenty-four years. He was one of the most 
successful and intelligent farmers of Ohio and 
accumulated a fair property. In the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of which he was a member, 
he filled offices of trust. Politically he was a 
Republican and a man of influence in his locality. 
His name was a synonym for everything that 
was substantial and trustworthy and his life was 
worthy of emulation. 

The shrewd judgment of Mr. IliS" is illustrated 
by an incident that happened in his youth. He 
was living near Zanesville, Ohio, on the farm 
where he was born in 1831, and was about to em- 
bark in the world for himself. His father, wish- . 
ing him to remain near the old home, offered to 
invest $7,500 in a farm for him, but he asked him 
to give him $500 and permit him to go west. 
With that small capital he went to Kansas, where 
he remained for three years, until he settled in 

In January, 1864, Mr. Ilifl married Miss Sarah 

E. Smith, a lineal descendant of John Smith, of 
Pocahontas fame, and a native of Delaware, Ohio, 
but for some years a resident of Kansas, where 
she was educated. The only son born of this 
marriage is William S., of Denver. In March, 
1870, Mr. Iliff" married Miss Elizabeths. Eraser, 
of whose family mention is made in the sketch of 
her brother, J. J. Eraser. She was born in 
Canada, but came to Colorado at an early age 
and afterward made her home with an aunt near 
Pueblo. By her marriage to Mr. Iliff three chil- 
dren were born, one of whom died when young. 
In spite of the fact that his journeyings around 
the country brought him into frequent contact 
with Indians, Mr. Iliff never carried weapons, 
but he did not molest the savages and they in 
turn did not molest him. Politically he was a 
Republican, and in religious belief adhered to 
the Methodist faith. He died February 9, 1878, 
and was buried in Riverside cemetery at Denver. 
Afterward his son erected the Iliff School of 
Theology at University Park as a memorial to 
him. His widow is now the wife of Bishop 
Warren, of University Park. 

Gl B. DANIELS. During the '70s there was 
LJ no citizen of Denver who was more in- 
/ I timately associated with its business inter- 
ests or held a position higher in the confidence of 
the people than did Mr. Daniels, and his death, 
which occurred April 8, 1881, was mourned as 
a public loss. His great business ability was 
recognized by all, and was the chief factor in his 
financial success; another, and scarcely less vital 
force in his success, was his boundless energy, 
the enterprise that no obstacle daunted, the in- 
dustry that the, hardest labor could not diminish. 
A member of an old family of New York and 
himself a native of that state, Mr. Daniels was 
reared upon a farm there, but early in life went 
to New York City, where he embarked in busi- 
ness as a ship chandler. About 1865 he came 
west to Council Bluffs, Iowa, but after three 
years settled in Denver, which continued to be 
his home during his remaining years. For a 
time he was interested in the wholesale grocerj' 
business, as a member of the firm of Daniels & 
Brown. Later he assisted in the organization of 
the Colorado National Bank, of which he was 
vice-president until his death. He was inter- 



ested in the real-estate business, and built a 
number of business blocks, among them the 
building occupied by the bank. He was also 
the head of the banking house of Daniels, Brown 
& Co., of Del Norte, knowu as the Bank of Sau 
Juan, which under his management gained a 
reputation as one of the strongest financial in- 
stitutions in the west. 

lyike the majority of the early residents of 
Denver, Mr. Daniels held important interests in 
the cattle business. He was one of the first to 
buy and improve a ranch in the San Luis Val- 
ley and he also owned large tracts in Jefferson 
County. His business affairs received his entire 
attention, to the exclusion of public matters, but 
he did not forget the duty he owed to his coun- 
try and kept himself posted upon the questions 
before the people. In politics he was a Demo- 
crat. His first residence in Denver stood on 
Curtis and Sixteenth streets, where is now the 
Tabor opera house, and afterward he moved to 
Court place and Fourteenth street, where he 

In Council Bluffs, Iowa, Mr. Daniels married 
Hattie Ramsen, who was born in St. Catharines, 
Canada, her father having come there from Scot- 
land, and her mother from England. She died 
in 1879, when thirty-five years of age. Two of 
her children, Olive E. and George Sheedy, died 
in childhood, and the only survivor is A. B., Jr. 

ever point the life and character of Senator 
Chaffee may be viewed, whether as the 
head of large and valuable mining interests, the 
organizer and first president of the First National 
Bank of Denver, or as a man of public affairs, 
devoted to the welfare of his state and intensely 
interested in its progress, it will be readily con- 
ceded that he was a great man. His representa- 
tion of Colorado in the United States senate was 
of such a nature as to reflect credit upon his own 
high order of talents and se'cure for him the 
regard of his constituents. 

Born in Niagara County, N. Y. , April 17, 1825, 
Mr. Chaffee was quite a young man when he came 
west to Adrian, Mich., where he taught school 
and afterwards kept a store. Later he removed 
to St. Joseph, Mo. , where he engaged in bank- 
ing. In 1857 he organized the Elmwood Towu 

Company in Kansas, of which he became secre- 
tary and manager. Soon after the discovery of 
gold in Colorado he decided to come here, and in 
i860 he crossed the plains to Gilpin County, 
where he developed some gold lodes, and, with 
Eben Smith, erected the Smith & Chaffee stamp 
mill. In 1863 he sold the interest in the lode he 
was working, but afterward bought it back and 
consolidated it with other lodes, the whole form- 
ing the famous "Bob-Tail Lode and Tunnel," 
the name of which is said to have been derived 
from the fact that a bob -tailed ox, harnessed to 
a drag, made by stretching a rawhide across a 
forked stick, was used for hauling the first pay- 
dirt to the gulch for sluicing. Mr. Chaffee be- 
came the largest owner of the Bob-Tail Company, 
which owned the best paying mine, largest 
tunnels and one of the most complete mills in the 
state at that time. He became the owner of one 
hundred or more gold and silver lodes, among 
them the Caribou silver mine in Boulder County, 
and he was one of the organizers and principal 
stockholders in the Little Pittsburg Consolidated 
Mining Company. 

The business energies of Mr, Chaffee found a 
new outlet in 1865, when he bought the banking 
interests of Clark & Co., and organized the First 
National Bank of Denver, of which he was presi- 
dent until January, 1880. Politically he was a 
Republican from the organization of that party, 
and he was its leader in Colorado for many years 
before his death. Though from i860 to 1888 
extensively interested in mining, yet the larger 
portion of his time was given to public affairs. 
In 1 86 1 he was elected to represent Gilpin County 
in the first territorial legislature, two years later 
was re-elected and chosen speaker of the house. 
In 1865 the people organized a state government 
under the enabling act of congress and he and 
Hon. John Evans were elected United States 
senators. A bill to admit the state was intro- 
duced and passed bj' the congress and senate in 
1865-66, but President Johnson vetoed it. Again 
introduced in the session of 1867-68, it was again 
vetoed by President Johnson. This veto and the 
subsequent controversy are memorable events in 
the administration of Johnson, nor was Senator 
Chaffee's connection with the matter of insig- 
nificant importance. 

When elected a delegate to congress and be- 
ginning upon his duties in the spring of 1871, 



Senator Chaffee at once presented a new enabling 
act. During his four years of service as delegate 
he labored hard for the passage of the act, but it 
was not until near the expiration of his term that 
he was successful. When the news reached 
Denver there was the wildest enthusiasm, and 
both parties united in praising Mr. Chaffee, for 
both Democrats and Republicans wished the 
territory admitted to the Union, each believing it 
would have a majority of votes. On the admis- 
sion of the state into the Union, Mr. Chaffee was 
unanimously elected to the senate, a well-merited 
recognition of his efforts in the attainment of the 
end long desired. Hon. H. M. Teller was elected 
as junior senator. When they reached Washing- 
ton, Mr. Chaffee drew by lot the long term ex- 
piring March 4, 1879. After his election his 
first effort in behalf of the state was an arrange- 
ment of facts relative to the question of pro rata 
between the Kansas Pacific and the Union Pacific 
roads. These he drew up and presented to the 
senate in a speech that attracted the attention of 
the ablest men of the country and proved the be- 
ginning of the final settlement of the question. 
He introduced a bill authorizing a treaty with the 
Ute Indians for the cession of a part of their 
reservation, thus opening to development the rich 
mining district of San Juan. He introduced a 
bill changing the rules of the house so as to give 
the territories representation in the committee on 
territories, thus establishing a precedent for per- 
mitting delegates to participate in the business of 
other committees. He drafted and secured the 
passage of a bill for enlarging, confirming and 
defining the power of territorial legislature. 
Largely through his labors an excellent mining 
code was passed by congress. Under the new 
state organization he was again elected United 
States senator and drew the short term, expiring 
March 3, 1879, when he refused further election 
on account of ill health. His friends were ex- 
tremely reluctant to accept his refusal of further 
nomination, but when he urged his physical 
inability to discharge the duties of the responsible 
position, Hon. Nathaniel P. Hill was placed in 
nomination and afterward duly elected to the 

Beginning with the convention in Buffalo in 
1844, when J. G. Birnej' was nominated by the 
Liberal party, Senator Chafiee was a delegate to 
every national convention of his party. During 

many years he represented his state as a member 
of the Republican national committee. He did 
much for the advancement of the state, giving 
liberally of his time to promote progressive proj- 
ects and also contributing with the greatest 
generosity to matters for the benefit of the people. 
His talents were of an unusually high order, and 
he is remembered as one of the most eminent 
men that the state has ever had among its citizens. 
At Adrian, Mich., in 1848, Senator Chaffee 
married Miriam, daughter of Warner and Mary 
(Perry) Comstock. Their children were: Horace 
Jerome, Nellie Virginia, Edward Fenton and 
Fannie Josephine, wife of U. S. Grant, Jr. In 
his years Senator Chaffee divided his time 
between Colorado and the home of his daughter 
at Murry weather farm, Westchester County, N.Y. 
He died there March 9, 1886, and lies buried in 
Adrian, by the side of his wife and three of his 

j EWIS E. LEMEN, M. D., president of the 
It Colorado State Medical Societj^ and surgeon 
U for the Union Pacific Railroad, was born in 
Belleville, St. Clair County, 111., April i, 1849. 
The first of his ancestors who settled in America 
was his great- grandfather, James Lemen, a native 
of Scotland, but in early manhood an emigrant to 
Harper's Ferry, Va., and during the Revolution 
a brave defender of the colonial honor. After 
the war closed he was sent west by the govern- 
ment in order to locate lands for soldiers in the 
western territory. He settled in St. Clair County, 
of which he was one of the earliest pioneers. 

Rev. James Lemen, the doctor's grandfather, 
was the first white child born in Illinois in the 
old Indian fort at Kaskaskia. Amid the pioneer 
influences and environments of his day he grew 
to manhood, and, selecting the ministry for his 
profession, he was ordained a preacher in the 
Baptist denomination. For forty-five years he 
was pastor of Bethel Church in St. Clair County, 
and in addition to his ministerial duties he also 
entered and improved land. He passed away 
when eighty -six years of age. 

Born in St. Clair County, Sylvester Lemen, 
father of the doctor, was given better educational 
advantages than had been possible when his 
father was young. He made agriculture his prin- 
cipal vocation and became the owner of a valuable 
farm near Belleville, on which his active years 



were passed. He was also a licensed preacher in 
the Baptist Church. In politics he was a Re- 
publican and strong in his advocacy of the Union 
during the Civil war. His last days were spent 
in Belleville, where he died at fifty-six years. 
His wife, who was born in Illinois and died in 
Denver at the age of sixty-six, was Susan K., 
daughter of Aaron Shook, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania and a pioneer farmer of St. Clair County. 
The family of Sylvester and Susan Lemen con- 
sisted of nine children, of whom seven attained 
mature years and six are living now, the four 
sons all being professional men. H. A., the 
eldest, is a physician in Denver, and E. C. is a 
physician at Upper Alton, 111., while the young- 
est. Rev. T. A., is a minister in the Evangelical 
Church in Oklahoma. 

The early years of Dr. Icemen's life were un- 
eventfully passed on his father's farm. At the 
age of sixteen he entered Shurtleff College in 
Alton, 111., where he carried on his literary 
studies. From there he went to the St. Louis 
Medical College, from which he graduated in 
1871 with the degree of M. D. In 1876 the 
degree of A. M. was conferred upon him by his 
alma mater, Shurtleff College. After graduating 
in medicine he practiced in St. Louis for a year, 
but in 1872, owing to impaired health caused by 
overwork, it became necessary for him to seek a 
change of climate. He had heard much of the 
salubrious air and healthful climate of Colorado 
and accordingly came to this state, where he 
opened an ofiice in Georgetown, Clear Creek 
County, and engaged in practice there until his 
removal to Denver in 1884. Here he was 
appointed surgeon for the Omaha and Grant 
Smelting Works, also in 1887 surgeon to the 
Globe Smelting and Refining Company. During 
most of the time since 1884 he has been surgeon 
for the Union Pacific Railroad, and in 1885 he was 
appointed surgeon with the Denver City Cable 
Railway Company, filling the position at the 
present writing. He is also consulting surgeon 
of the Denver, Texas & Gulf' Railroad; ex-presi- 
dent of the staff, and surgeon of St. Joseph's 
hospital, consulting surgeon of St. Luke's hos- 
pital, and president of the staff of surgeons of the 
Cottage Home. He is professor of clinical 
surgery in the medical department of the Univer- 
sity of Denver, for three years held a similar 
position in the University of Colorado, and for 

one year held the chair of fractures and disloca- 
tions in Gross Medical College. He is ex-presi- 
dent of the American Academy of Railroad 
Surgeons and is now president of the Colorado 
Medical Society. 

In April, 1893, Dr. Lemen was appointed 
health commissioner of Denver by Mayor Van 
Horn. In 1889 he was appointed a commissioner 
of the Colorado Insane Asylum, and was presi- 
dent of the board until 1895. With the various 
medical associations he holds membership, 
national, state, and city and county, of which 
last he was president for some time. His con- 
tributions to medical journals have made his 
name a familiar one to the profession throughout 
the country. He has been especially successful 
in surgery, in which department his skill is 
universally recognized, and his articles upon any 
branch of that subject are always accepted as 
authority. In fraternal relations he is a Knight 
Templar and has taken the thirty-second degree 
in Masonry. In politics he adheres to the prin- 
ciples of that body known as the silver Republi- 
cans. The demands of his profession have been 
such that he has had no time, had he possessed 
the inclination, to enter the political arena. The 
positions he has held have been those that were 
directly connected with his profession or with 
the educational interests of his community. 

May 5, 1875, Dr. Lemen married Miss Lizzie, 
daughter of Hon. Henry T. Mudd, of St. Louis, 
Mo. She died in Georgetown, Colo., in 1876. 
His second marriage, April 12, 1882, united him 
with Elsie, daughter of Hon. William H. James, 
of the Omaha and Grant Smelting Company. 
Three children have been born of their union, 
of whom two are living, Margaret Lemen and 
Lewis James Lemen. 

(T T. ESKRIDGE, M. D., president of the 
I State Board of Lunacy, ex-president of the 
(2/ Colorado State Medical Society, is one of 
Denver's most prominent physicians. In the 
profession he is regarded as an authority on 
nervous and mental diseases and he has written one 
hundred and five articles upon this type of disease 
for medical journals in this country. A number 
of his contributions have been translated into 
other languages and copied in their medical jour- 
nals. He has written for "Practical Therapeu- 



tics" by Foster, "American Textbook of Ap- 
plied Therapeutics" by Wilson, "American Sys- 
tem of Practical Medicine" by Loomis and 
Thompson, and "American System of Medical 
Jurisprudence" by Haynes and Peterson. What- 
ever subject he treats, within the realm of medi- 
cal thought, is dealt with in a vigorous manner, 
so that it is made clear to the mind, and it is 
doubtless due to this vigor and terseness of style 
that his contributions to scientific literature are 
so valuable. 

The Eskridge family was founded in America 
by Judge George Eskridge, a native of Scotland, 
who came to America in 1660 as judge of the 
king's bench in Virginia and continued to preside 
over the court until his death. Among his de- 
scendants are numerous planters, physicians and 
attorneys. His son, who was a planter, par- 
ticipated in the Revolution. The latter' s son, 
John, was born in Virginia and took part in 
the war of 18 12. Removing to Sussex County, 
Del., he carried on farming extensively there un- 
til his death. 

Jeremiah, the son of John, and the father of the 
doctor, was born in Delaware and took part in 
the Seminole war from 1835 to 1838, and was 
wounded. By trade a sea-captain, he owned 
vessels and schooners in Chesapeake bay. Final- 
ly he retired from the sea and settled on a farm 
in Sussex County, where he still resides, quite 
sturdy in spite of Jiis eighty-five years. He is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
His wife, who died in 1865, was in maidenhood 
Mary Marvel and was born in Sussex County, 
member of a prominent family there. Her 
brother, Josiah Marvel, was recently the gov- 
ernor of Delaware and died during his term of 

The subject of this sketch, the sixth among 
twelve children, was born in Sussex County, 
Del. After completing the public school studies 
he entered the classical institute at Laurel, Del., 
where he spent three years. The next three 
were devoted to teaching. He then studied 
medicine under Dr. Fowler, of Laurel, Del., and 
in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, 
from which he graduated in 1875 with the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine. Afterward he practiced 
in Philadelphia until 1884. For a time he 
was assistant- demonstrator of anatomy in Jeffer- 
son Medical College and physician to the Phila- 

delphia Dispensary. In 1876 he was physician 
to the eye and ear department of the Philadelphia 
Dispensary and attending physician to the Cath- 
erine Street Dispensary. From 1875 to 188 1 he 
was quiz-master on physiology and during these 
years gave lectures before the .students of Jeffer- 
son Medical College. In 1879 he was a lecturer 
on physical diagnosis at the Philadelphia School 
of Anatomy and attending physician to St. Mary's 
Hospital. In 1880 he was elected attending 
physician to Jefferson College Hospital; in 1882, 
neurologist of Howard Hospital, and in 1883 post- 
graduate instructor in mental and nervous dis- 
eases in Jefferson Medical College. 

The duty of filling so many positions neces- 
sarily was a great strain upon Dr. Eskridge, 
and his health broke down in the winter of 1883- 
84. In August, 1884, he came west on account 
of tuberculosis of the lungs and located in Colo- 
rado Springs, where he spent four years in 
recuperating his health. In 1888 he removed to 
Denver, where he has his office in the Equitable 
building. In 1889 he was appointed neurologist 
and alienist to the Arapahoe County and St. 
Luke's Hospitals, and the next year began giv- 
ing a course of lectures on the diseases of the 
nervous system; in the University of Colorado. 
In 1892 he was appointed dean of the medical 
faculty of the same institution and professor of 
nervous and mental diseases and medical juris- 
prudence, but in 1859 he' resigned, severing all 
connection with the college. Each year he has 
delivered a course of lectures at Colorado Col- 
lege, in Colorado Springs, on cerebral localiza- 
tion and physiology of the nervous system. In 
1894 Governor Mclntire appointed him commis- 
sioner of the State Insane Asylum, and since 
that time he has been the president of the board, 
to which position he was elected shortly after 
he became a member. 

In Philadelphia, in 1876, Dr. Eskridge mar- 
ried Miss Jane Gay, who was born in Ireland, 
but came to this country in childhood, her father, 
James Gay, becoming a real-estate owner and 
capitalist of Philadelphia. While a resident of 
the Quaker City Dr. Eskridge was president of 
the Philadelphia Northern Medical Society (now 
the Clinical Society of Philadelphia) ; was a mem- 
ber of the board of directors of Philadelphia 
County Medical Society; a member of the Phila- 
delphia Pathological Society; the Philadelphia 



Neurological Society and the American Neu- 
rological Society. Later he was elected a mem- 
ber of the American Climatological Society and 
the American Medical Association, with all of 
which he still retains his connection. He also 
belongs to the New York Medical-Legal Society, 
the Denver and Arapahoe County Medical So- 
ciety and the Colorado State Medical Association 
(president of the last-mentioned) and also presi- 
dent of the El Paso County Medical Society. 
Dr. Eskridge has devoted the best years of his 
life to the noble work of alleviating the sufferings 
of his fellow-men and his scholarly research, 
indefatigable labors and invaluable experience 
make him an authority on subjects relating to 
his profession. His fame is far-reaching, and his 
carefully prepared articles for publication are al- 
ways eagerly sought for and thenceforth quoted. 
Toward the young and aspiring physician he has 
proved a sincere friend and adviser. 

0AVID H. MOFFAT. He who contributes 
to the commercial prosperity of a place; who, 
by his judgment and foresight, assists in the 
development of its resources; in whose hands 
large financial trusts are placed and safely, faith- 
fully guarded; such an one may justly be called a 
public benefactor. To this class belongs Mr. 
Moffat, president of the First National Bank of 
Denver, and long one of Denver's most progress- 
ive and distinguished citizens. It would be im- 
possible to write an accurate historj' of Denver 
and omit mention of his connection with the city, 
which has been his home since i860, and the 
scene of his financial .successes. The supremacj' 
acquired by Denver over other towns of the 
mountain states is due in no small measure to his 
business acumen and sagacity, for he used his in- 
fluence to bring railroads to the city and to intro- 
duce manufacturing enterprises and business proj- 
ects that would be of permanent value to the 

The success attained by Mr. Moffat is especially 
deserving of mention when the fact is considered 
that he left home at the age of twelve years, with 
little money, to begin the battle of life for him- 
self He went from Orange County, N. Y., 
where he was born July 22, 1839, to the city of 
New York, and there, by a strange providence, 
he found employment in the line of business for 

which he was best fitted by nature. He was given 
a place in the New York Exchange Bank as mes- 
senger boy, and this apparent chance determined 
the occupation of his life. He was quick to 
learn, and his increasing knowledge of the bank- 
ing business was recognized by the president, 
Selah Van Duser, who promoted him to a clerk- 
ship in the bank. 

In 1855, having received an offer of employ- 
ment in Des Moines, Iowa, he went to that city and 
there for a time was teller in the banking house 
of A. J. Stevens & Co. While connected with 
that bank he made the acquaintance of B. F. 
Allen, of Des Moines, who, recognizing his finan- 
cial talents, offered him a more lucrative position 
in Omaha. Going to that city, he took charge 
of the Bank of Nebraska, as cashier. At the end 
of four years he closed the bank, paid its indebt- 
edness in full, and divided the surplus among the 
stockholders. He then left at once for Denver, 
making the trip in a wagon drawn by mules and 
loaded with a full supply of provisions. When 
he reached his destination, he found on the banks 
of the Platte River a settlement of a few thousand 
people, the most of whom were prospectors. In 
partnership with C. C. Woolworth, he opened a 
book and stationery store, which was carried on 
for six years. In those days gold dust was the 
medium of exchange. Interest rates were very 
high, and there was a profit in the purchase of 
bullion and its shipment east. 

When Mr. Moffat came to Denver he was 
a slender youth, weighing only one hundred 
pounds, and bearing the appearance of one in 
delicate health. However, he was much stronger 
than his appearance indicated, and as he became 
older he increased in weight, being now a man 
of splendid physique and robust health. Two 
years after he came to Denver he established a 
home of his own, being united in marriage with 
Miss Fannie A. Buckhout, of Saratoga, N. Y., by 
whom he has a daughter, the wife of J. A. 

April 17, 1865, the comptroller of treasury 
authorized the organization of the First National 
Bank of Denver, and it was opened for business 
May 9. The original stockholders and directors 
were: Austin M, and Milton E. Clark, Bela S. 
Buell, Jerome B. Chaffee, Henry J. Rogers, 
George T. Clark, Charles A. Cook and Eben 
Smith; the officers being: J. B. Chaffee, presi- 



dent; H. J. Rogers, vice-president; and George 
T. Clark, cashier. The private banking busi- 
ness of Clark & Co. was merged into the new 
institution, which was located on Blake street, 
then the business center of the city. No especial 
success rewarded the investments of the stockhold- 
ers until 1 867, when Mr. Moffat was elected cashier, 
but after that there was an immediate improvement 
and from that year the bank enjoyed a steady and 
increasing prosperity. It now has a capital of 
$500,000, with a surplus larger than that, and 
deposits amounting to $13,000,000. During the 
panics that engulfed so many banks throughout 
the country it retained its credit unimpaired, 
meeting every demand on time. 

Besides being connected with Mr. Chaffee in 
the bank, Mr. Moffat was, with him, interested 
in real-estate and mining operations. They owned 
the Caribou mine, near Boulder, the Breece iron 
mine, in Leadville, and the Henrietta, also in 
Leadville. They also purchased Senator Tabor's 
stock in the Little Pittsburg Consolidated Mining 
Company, of which Mr. MoflFat became vice-pres- 
ident and from which he derived a large income. 
In addition, they together owned nearly a hundred 
mines in different parts of the state. 

In projects for building railroads Mr. Moffat 
has always borne an active part. In 1869 he co- 
operated with Governor Evans in building the 
Denver Pacific Railroad from Denver to Chey- 
enne, thus securing a connection with the Union 
Pacific. After silver was discovered at Leadville 
he took part in organizing a syndicate that built 
the Denver & South Park Railroad, one hundred 
and fifty miles long, and which at one time yielded 
larger profits then any railroad of its length in 
world. Upon the construction of the Boulder 
Valley Railroad he was chosen treasurer of the 
company and himself built the extension from 
Boulder to the Marshall coal banks, in Boulder 
County. For years he held the responsible posi- 
tion of president of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad Company, of whose stock he was a heavy 
owner, but in 1891 he resigned the position. He 
was largely interested in the building of the 
Florence & Cripple Creek Railroad, connecting 
Cripple Creek with Florence, and one of the most 
profitable lines in the state. 

During the administration of Governor Evans, 
Mr. Moffat held the office of adjutant-general. 
For four years he was territorial treasurer. In 

the organization of the Denver City Water Com- 
pany he took an active part and was for years its 
treasurer. Other local enterprises have received 
his warm support and active assistance. Perhaps 
no trait of his character is more worthy of admi- 
ration then his generosity. In great financial 
crises he has helped many men to brave the storm 
and retain their financial credit, who, without 
his aid, would have succumbed to the tempest. 
The amount of his gifts no one knows, unless it 
be himself, but they must amount to thousands 
annually. Fitz-Mac, in an admirable character 
sketch of Mr. Moffat, says: "His friendship 
takes not so much the smiling as the helping 
turn. I speak not of what he gives away in 
charity, but in a straight business way he has 
helped more men then any other man in the 
state. That would be little to say of him now 
because he is the richest man in the state, but it 
could have been truly said of him long before he 
became the richest man; and actually was widely 
said." Great riches bring great responsibilities, 
but, did all our men of wealth possess the help- 
ful, practical sympathy that has made Mr. Moffat 
a man among men, there would be less of the 
socialistic spirit prevalent in our country, and 
anarchism would be relegated to the dark ages, 
or to unenlightened countries, where it might 
hope to find followers. 

adage, "Truth is stranger than fiction," 
finds exemplification in this, the most 
famous of the men who crossed the plains in 1859 
and became the pioneers in the development of 
the mining resources of Colorado. For years 
newspapers chronicled his successes, reporters 
wrote glowing descriptions of his triumphs in this 
modern El Dorado, and people, both in this country 
and throughout the entire civilized world, were 
attracted by the spectacle of a man who rose by 
such rapid bounds to the pinnacle of fortune and 
under whose leadership, like that of Midas of old, 
every path became a road to fortune. 

The record of the life of such a man has more 
than temporary or local interest, and it will there- 
fore be the biographer' s effort to present it in full, so 
that the reader may understand the circumstances 
and characteristics that contributed to his success. 
Horace A. W. Tabor was born in Orleans County, 



Vt., November 26, 1830, and in early life acquired 
habits of industry and perseverance. His parents 
being poor, he had meagre educational advan- 
tages and was forced to supply by observation and 
experience the knowledge that most boys gain in 
school. In youth he learned the trade of a stone- 
cutter, which he followed in Vermont until 
twenty-five years of age. In 1855 he came west 
as far as Kansas, where he settled upon a farm. 
While he failed to gain financial success there, 
he gained a position of prominence among the 
Free Soil party, and when Kansas became a state 
he was elected a member of the Topeka legisla- 
ture in 1857, but that body was dispersed by 
Federal troops, acting on the orders of the war 

His experience in Kansas offered little induce- 
ment to Mr. Tabor to remain there, and when 
rumors of the discovery of gold in Colorado 
reached him he resolved to join the Argonauts 
westward bound. He spent the winter of 1859- 
60 in Denver, and in the spring started for Cali- 
fornia Gulch (now Leadville) , he and his wife 
making the trip in a "prairie schooner" drawn 
by oxen. After six weeks of travel he reached 
his destination in April, and at once began pros- 
pecting and mining. The mining camp was then 
in the zenith of its prosperity and when the sea- 
son was over he had $5,000, a fair fortune, as it 
seemed to him then. When cold weather rendered 
mining impossible, he opened a grocery store, 
but in the spring resumed mining, and at the end 
ofhis second season he had a total sum of $15,000. 
In 1865 he .sold out his mine and moved to 
the Buckskin Joe district, in Park County, where 
was then a booming camp, but is now a wilder- 
ness. He opened a store there and also served 
as postmaster. When the Printer Boy mine was 
discovered in California Gulch, in 1868, he moved 
back there and opened a .store at Oro City, also 
officiated as postmaster. For a long time his life 
was only ordinarily successful, but in the spring 
of 1879 the tide of fortune changed. 

In Fairplay, Park County, were two shoe- 
makers, August Rische and George T. Hook, 
who, being poor, applied to Mr. Tabor for assist- 
ance in their search for carbonates. Mr. Tabor 
had always been kind and accommodating, as 
many a poor miner knew, and he generously aided 
these two men. They went to the apex of Fryer 
Hill, and began digging late in April. Many 

laughed at their credulity in imagining any hid- 
den wealth there, but they worked patiently, 
undisturbed by ridicule or sneers. Early in May, 
at a depth of twenty-six feet, they struck a vein 
and discovered what has since been famous as the 
Little Pittsburg mine. During the first half of 
July the yield from the mine was $8,000 a week, 
and soon the mine was producing seventy-five to 
one hundred tons of ore daily. The three part- 
ners purchased neighboring claims. In Septem- 
ber Mr. Hook, who had gained a fortune from 
the intermediate sale of ore, sold his interest to 
his associates for $90,000, and soon Mr. Rische 
disposed of his interest to J. B. Chaffee and David 
H. Moffat for $262,500. In November the New 
Discovery, Little Pittsburg, Dives and Winne- 
muc properties were merged into the Little Pitts- 
burg Consolidated Company, with a capital of 
$20,000,000, and the production of the mines 
from the spring of 1878 until April i, 1880, was 
$2,697,534.91 for receipts of ore sold, and $4,246,- 
239.81, actual yield. Afterward Mr. Tabor sold 
his interest to his partners for $1,000,000. 

Meantime the other interests owned by Mr. 
Tabor became important and extensive. He 
bought about one-half of the stock of the First 
National Bank of Denver, purchased the Match- 
less mine at Leadville, and bought a one-fourth 
interest in the mines of Borden, Tabor & Co., 
the receipts from which were $roo,ooo a month. 
In company with Marshall Field, of Chicago, he 
acquired possessions that yielded millions. The 
Matchless, which he bought for $1 17,000, yielded 
him a net income of $2,000 a day, and for a time 
its returns amounted to $100,000 a month. He 
owned the Alaska, Adelphi, Acapulco and Vic- 
tory mines in the San Juan country, and was the 
sole owner of the Red Rogers and the Saxon. He 
bought interests in mines in Arizona, New and 
Old Mexico, and became the wealthiest man in 
the state. No other man in the state has ever 
made money so rapidly. It seems almost as if 
everything he touched turned into gold, and the 
reports of his phenomenal career spread all over 
the world. 

It has been said that no man in the state made 
money so rapidly as Mr. Tabor. With equal 
truth it may be said that no man did more for the 
upbuilding of the state. He did not remove to 
foreign lands, there to dazzle nobles and royalty 
with his wealth, but devoted it to the advance- 



nient of his state. He was especially interested 
in the growth of Denver. February i, 1879, he 
purchased the Broadwell corner, on Sixteenth and 
Larimer streets, for $30,000, and at the same 
time paid $40,000 for a block of ground and a 
residence on Broadway. In the spring of 1880 
he built the Tabor block, of sandstone cut at 
Clough's quarries in Ohio. March 8, 1880, he 
bought the corner of Sixteenth and Curtis streets, 
and at once made preparations for the building 
of an- opera house to equal or surpass the finest 
in the country. A Chicago firm was employed 
to draw the plans, with instructions to visit the 
best theatres in America and Europe and erect a 
building that would be above criticism in every 
respect. How well the contractors succeeded 
all residents of Denver know. September 5, 
1 88 1, the house was formally opened to the pub- 
lic by Emma Abbott's opera company. He pur- 
chased the corner of Arapahoe and Sixteenth 
streets, and offered it to the government as a site 
for a postoffice, which was afterwards erected 
there. Other lots he also bought and improved, 
thus adding to the prosperity of Denver. He 
was also interested in Leadville, of which he was 
the first and second mayor. He built an opera 
house there, aided in securing the water works 
and gas works, and was a factor in the securing 
of the fire department. 

In 1878 Mr. Tabor was elected lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of the state. When Henry M. Teller be- 
came a member of President Arthur's cabinet, 
Mr. Tabor was chosen to fill his unexpired term 
of thirty days as United States senator. He was 
a candidate for election to the office, but his op- 
ponent, Judge Bowen, was elected by a majority 
of one vote. As chairman of the state central 
committee, he conducted the Republican cam- 
paign of 1886 with success. In 1891 he was 
chosen president of the Denver Chamber of Com- 
merce and Board of Trade. His present position 
as postmaster of Denver was tendered him in 
1898. There was a time when his friends hoped 
to see him elected the chief executive of the state, 
and had he been chosen for the position undoubt- 
edly he would have done his utmost to advance 
the welfare of his adopted state. 

Although unfortunate investments, the most 
of them in other states, have deprived Mr. Tabor 
of almost his entire property, it has not robbed 
him of the esteem of the people among'whom he 

has lived for so many years. When the last rem- 
nant of his property was gone, he was not deser- 
ted by his acquaintances. Through the medium 
of Senator Wolcott, he received the appointment 
of postmaster; everyone, no matter of what political 
belief, rejoiced that this honor should be conferred 
upon one who had done so much for the advance- 
ment of the state, and who had, through so many 
years, been an important factor in the develop- 
ment of its resources. 

g RADFORD H. DUBOIS, president of the 
State Sanitary Board, has been ver>' success- 
fully connected with the mining interests of 
Colorado. Coming to Colorado in 1877, he, 
with Gen. John A. Logan, Governor Routt and 
J. V. Holcomb, hired a large carriage for the 
season and, amply provided with provisions, set 
out for the mining regions of the state. In July 
of that year they arrived in Oro. In February 
of the next year Leadville, three miles below 
Oro, was located and named. At the suggestion 
of J. J. DuBois, the only brother of our subject, 
the original name of Stabtown was changed to 
the more pleasing and appropriate appellation 
of Leadville. After some months among the 
mines, in November, 1877, General Logan and 
Mr. DuBois returned to Illinois; but in the 
spring of the next year the latter again went to 
Leadville, where he engaged in mining. With 
three others he located the Maid of Erin, which 
has produced nearly $6,000,000 and paid div- 
idends to the amount of about $3,000,000. 
This mine is still being worked and is one of 
the most famous in the world. After some time, 
by consolidation, the Henrietta and Maid Con- 
solidated Mining Company was incorporated in 
1884. The same gentlemen also discovered and 
located the best portion of the Crystallite, that 
has since become famous, but their interest in 
this they soon sold. In addition to other mining 
interests Mr. DuBois is vice-president of the 
Hill Top Mining Company, which is in active 
operation, and owns the largest lead-producing 
mine in Colorado. 

Tracing the record of the DuBois family, we 
find that Louis DuBois was born in France, but 
on account of religious persecution fled to Hol- 
land, where he married. In 1624 he came to 
America and was one of the original twelve 



patentees of Ulster County, N. Y., where he 
bought a large tract of land at New Paltz. His 
son, Jonathan, had a son, Cornelius, who was a 
captain in the Revolution. Next in line of de- 
scent was Mathelsohn, a large land owner. His 
son, John B. DuBois, our subject's father, was 
born near Kingston, Ulster County, and engaged 
in the mercantile business at Libertyville until 
his retirement, when iifty-two years of age. For 
years he held the office of supervisor. His wife 
was Mary Hand, who was born in Libertyville, 
and died in Denver in 1895. Her father, Abel 
Hand, was born in Connecticut, removed to New 
York and carried on a mill at Libertyville, later 
going to Palatine Bridge, the same state, where 
he died. He was a soldier in the war of 18 12. 
He had only two children, sons, and they reside 
in Colorado, J. J. being proprietor of a ranch six 
miles east of Denver. 

Born in Ulster County in 1853, our subject 
attended the Libertyville school and New Paltz 
Academy, then was a student in the Illinois 
University at Champaign, remaining there until 
the close of the junior year. Later he engaged 
in business in Decatur, 111., where he remained 
until his removal west. In 1885 he became 
interested in ranching, purchasing a tract one- 
half mile from the city limits, and at once pro- 
ceeded to improve its seven hundred and fifty 
acres, which he irrigates from the High Line 
ditch, beside having artesian water in every field. 
General farm products are raised here, also 
standard bred horses, several of which have made 
world's records, and Jersey cattle. 

Politically Mr. DuBois is a Democrat. He 
made his headquarters in Leadville until 1885, 
when he removed to Denv-er. Under the adminis- 
tration of Governor Mclntire he was appointed 
president of the state sanitary board, and when 
Governor Adams became chief executive he was 
again chosen for this responsible position. In 
Denve^he married Mrs. Eva (Speer) Moore, the 
first girl born in Lawrence, Kan., of which her 
father, John Speer, was one of the most promi- 
nent pioneers, also editor of the abolition paper 
that excited the wrath of the slavery supporters. 
In his family there were eight children, the 
eldest of whom, John, a married man, was mur- 
dered August 21, 1863, and the second son, 
Robert, who it is supposed was murdered, was 
buried on the day his older brother was killed. 

The third son, William, is a railroad man in 
Wichita, Kan.; Mary, Mrs. Wood Neff, died in 
Topeka in 1886; Eva was next in order of birth; 
Rosa died when a young lady; Hardin lives in 
Denver; and Joseph was accidentally killed by a 
playmate when seven years of age. Mrs. DuBois 
was educated in the University of Kansas, at 
Lawrence, and when a young woman was married 
to Charles D. Moore, who was born in Bridge- 
ton, N. J., and grew to manhood in Kansas, 
but in 1 88 1 removed to Robinson, Colo., where 
he was manager of the Robinson mine until his 
death in 1886. He left one daughter, Edna. 
The year after her husband's death Mrs. Moore 
came to Denver, where afterward she was married 
to Mr. DuBois. She is a member of the Trinity 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and a ladj' of fine 
mental endowments, whose superior attributes of 
character attract many friends. 

Hon. John Speer, father of Mrs. DuBois, was 
born in Armstrong County, Pa., December 27, 
181 7, of Scotch descent on both sides. One of 
the ancestors, Donald Cargill, was a leader of the 
last struggle against Charles II . , and was beheaded 
in 1 66 1. John Speer emigrated from Ireland in 
1792 and settled in South Carolina, but his anti- 
slavery opinions made the neighborhood un- 
pleasant and he removed to Mercer County, Pa., 
where he purchased a farm now owned by de- 
scendants. His son, Capt. Robert Speer, learned 
nail manufacturing in Pittsburg, and followed 
the trade until steam power took the place of 
hand work. In 1830 he removed to a farm in 
Armstrong County, where he died at ninety-five 
years. His wife, Barbara, was a daughter of 
Adam and Nancy Lowrey, who were born in 
Ireland, of Scotch descent. 

When twelve years old John Speer secured 
a horseback mail route, to help pay for the land 
his father had bought. The route extended from 
Kittanning to Carversville, a distance of seventy- 
five miles through a ragged, rough country, and 
sixteen miles of which was a most dreary wilder- 
ness. He gave the name of Rock Springs to one 
place in the wilderness. After following this 
work for some years he became a printer's ap- 
prentice, at which he served for three years in 
Indiana, Pa., meanwhile continuing his private 
studies of grammar, mathematics and the sciences. 
For four months he was employed on the Kit- 
tanning Gazette. In 1839 he began the publica- 



tion at New Castle, Pa. , of the Mercer and Beaver 
Democrat, a Whig paper, which supported General 
Harrison for president. In 1840 he was employed 
on the Portsmouth Tribune, and also made a 
trip through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio, later 
taking a flatboat trip to New Orleans. In 1842 
he established the Harrison Gazette, a Whig 
weekly, at Corydon, Ind., but soon returned to 
Ohio and assisted in the editing of the Mount 
Vernon Times, after which, in September, 1843, 
he established the Democrat Whig at Medina, 
Ohio. The office was destroyed by fire in 1848, 
but was soon re-established, and he continued to 
publish the paper until 1853, when he declared 
that the Whig party had outlived its usefulness. 
On the passage of the Kansas and Nebraska bill 
he went to Kansas, locating at Lawrence Sep- 
tember 27, 1854, and on the 15th of October 
publishing the first number of the Kansas Pioneer, 
which in January, 1855, was changed to the 
Kansas Tribune. In November of that year the 
paper was moved to Topeka and published there 
by Speer & Ross until 1854, when it was sold to 
the j unior partner. Afterward Mr. Speer engaged 
in dealing in lumber, but in December, 1859, 
bought the Lawrence Republican, which he con- 
ducted until September 4, 1862. January i, 1863, 
he revived the Kansas Tribune at Lawrence, and 
this he conducted until August 21, 1863. On that 
day the plant was destroyed by Quantrell's band, 
who went up to Lawrence intending to kill or cap- 
ture John Speer, its editor. In November the 
paper again started and he continued its editor un- 
til 187 1 , when he retired temporarily. From Octo- 
ber, 1875, to March, 1877, he was again connected 
with the paper as its editor. Since his retirement 
from editorial work he has devoted much of his 
time to literary work, for which his wide travels, 
extensive experience and vigorous style of writ- 
ing admirably qualify him. In 1864 he was a 
delegate to the convention at Baltimore that 
nominated Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson 
for president and vice-president. At one time 
he was state printer of Kansas. He was a mem- 
ber of the house of representatives of the first 
free state legislature, from 1862 to 1866 was 
United States collector for the state of Kansas, 
and in 1864 was elected to the state senate. 

In Corydon, Ind., July 14, 1842, Mr. Speer 
married Elizabeth D., daughter of John and 
Martha (Withers) McMahan, the latter a descend- 

ant of Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, the 
former a relative of the Hardins of Kentucky. 
She was educated in a Catholic school near 
Bardstown, Ky., and was a woman of exemplary 
character, and in religious belief a Methodist. 
The night when the Tribune office was set on 
fire, her son, John M., was shot down in cold 
blood, and a younger son was either murdered 
or burned to death in the office; the house, too, 
was set on fire, but she prevented it from being 
destroyed. She died April 9, 1876. 

RT.-REV. J. P. MACHEBEUF is remem- 
bered by all who knew him as a talented 
bishop, a tireless worker and a genial friend. 
He was born in Rione, France, August 11, 1812, 
and was ordained to the priesthood on Christmas 
of 1836. For three years he was in charge of a 
parish near Clermont, after which, in 1839, he 
came to America. He spent a short time in Cin- 
cinnati, where he made a study of the English 
language and became familiar with its use. Jan- 
uary I, 1840, he was ordered to Sandusky, Ohio, 
wnere he built the first church in the place, it 
being a fine stone edifice, and he also founded an 
academy in the same city. In 1844 he visited 
his old home in France and on his return to the 
United States brought with him ten sisters of the 
Ursuline order, introducing into this country one 
of its finest body of teachers. 

In January, 1 851, Father Machebeuf left San- 
dusky and joined Bishop Laniy at New Orleans, 
from which place they went to San Antonio, and 
thence traversed the entire breadth of the state 
of Texas, accompanied by a guard of soldiers. 
On their arrival at their destination, Santa Fe, 
the people of that place gave them a brilliant 
reception, showing every courtesy to their new 
bishop, Lamy and his vicar-general, Machebeuf. 
The frequent absences of the bishop on mission- 
ary tours left the charge of the diocese almost 
wholly upon his vicar-general, who faithfully 
discharged every duty. Afterward, for six years, 
he was pastor of the Albuquerque parish, and be- 
sides his duties there, he visited all the military 
posts on the frontier of New Mexico. In 1858, 
when there was a partial organization of Arizona, 
Bishop Lamy was made ecclesiastical adminis- 
trator of Arizona, and Father Machebeuf was sent 
to take possession of the missions established by 



the former missionaries at different points. These 
missions had been under the bishop of Sonera, 
Mexico, whom Father Machebeuf was obliged to 
interview. After considerable delay he reached 
the Villa de Alamos, where he met the bishop 
and conferred with him in regard to the matter. 
On his return to Santa Fe he was enabled to re- 
port to Bishop L,amy that his mission had been 
most successful. In 1859 he was again sent to 
Arizona, this time to take charge of all its mis- 
sions. After a short time Bishop Lamy ordered 
him to return to Santa Fe, and on doing so he 
learned that the bishop had been granted by the 
Pope jurisdiction over what is now the state of 
Colorado. He was asked to come to Colorado, 
and, in company with Father J. B. Raverdy, in 
September, i860, left Santa Fe for Denver, where 
they arrived the last of October. In 1866 he 
was made vicar-apostolic, and in 1868 he was 
consecrated a bishop in the Cincinnati Cathedral. 
He remained a resident of Denver until his death, 
August 10, 1889. 

Of the results of the bishop's work in Denver, 
too much cannot be said in praise. Without 
doubt he was a man, not only of great piety and 
deep faith in God, but also of unusual executive 
ability and determination of will. His church, 
on Stout street, in Denver, was the first brick 
house of worship built in the state. In his diocese 
there are eighty or more priests, ninety churches, 
one hundred and twenty or more stations, a large 
number of academies and parochial schools, many 
hospitals, an immense Catholic population; and 
all this largely due to the pioneer work of the 
great-hearted Bishop Machebeuf. 

/gEORGE E. ROSS-LEWIN, cashier of the 
l_ First National Bank of Denver, was born in 
^_J the city of Rochester, N. Y., March 28, 1857, 
and is of Irish parentage, but of Welsh descent. 
The first of the name in the United States was 
his grandfather, Francis Burton Ross-Lewin, who 
settled in Rochester and mad^e that city his home 
until his death. The father, W. H. Ross-Lewin, 
was born in the north of Ireland and accompanied 
his parents to Rochester, where, on attaining 
manhood, he embarked in the mercantile business 
and continued a successful and extensive business 
man until his retirement. In 1889 he removed 
to Chicago, where he has since made his home. 

From an early age the subject of this sketch 
displayed an aptitude for commercial affairs. On 
the completion of the studies of the grammar 
school, at the age of sixteen he entered upon his 
active business career. His first situation was 
that of clerk in a Rochester bank, where he re- 
mained for a number of years, by his fidelity and 
ability winning merited promotion to the position 
of teller. He continued to make his home in 
Rochester until 1 88 1 , when he came west to Colo- 
rado, arriving in Denver June 19. His first 
position here was that of collection clerk in the 
First National Bank. May i, 1886, he was pro- 
moted to the position of assistant cashier, and in 
the discharge of the duties of that oiEce was so 
conspicuously successful that in 1891 he was 
made cashier. 

In addition to his connection with the bank, 
Mr. Ross-Lewin is treasurer of all the companies 
of which Mr. Moffat is the president, as well as a 
number of other concerns, among them being the 
Denver Consolidated Tramway Company, the 
Florence & Cripple Creek Railroad Company, 
Victor Gold Mining Company, Metallic Extrac- 
tion Company and the Anaconda Mining Com- 
pany, the prosperity of all of which he has pro- 
moted by his .sound judgment and acute intellect- 
ual powers. He is vice-president and one of the 
directors of the Bimetallic Bank of Cripple Creek, 
and is also vice-president of the Bank of Victor. 
He is a member of the Denver Club, and in polit- 
ical faith adheres to the policy of the Republican 
party. In Cincinnati, Ohio, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Closterman, whose father, Henry Clos- 
terman, was a manufacturer in that city. They 
have an only child, Elizabeth. 

The state of Colorado owes much of her pros- 
perity to a number of wide-awake business men 
representing various interests, and among these 
the bankers of Denver have done much to pro- 
mote enterprise and give security to investors. It 
requires just the class of men that Mr. Ross-Lewin 
represents to conduct vast enterprises, which by 
their phenomenal success made Colorado famous 
among her sister states and attracted millions of 
eastern capital. It requires tact as well as busi- 
ness ability to successfully manage the aflfairs of 
one concern, and it is rare that one man has been 
equipped by nature to ably conduct a variety ot 
enterprises to the satisfaction of all concerned. 
Mr. Ross-Lewin owes much of his success to 



his early training and to those precepts given 
him by his parents, from whom he also inherits 
the energy of the Celt and the thrift and persever- 
ance of the old Welsh ancestors, which, properly 
applied, lead to success. 

ift eminence attained by Dr. Bancroft in his 
I ^ profession, and his high character as a citi- 
zen, have won for him a place among the most 
influential of the physicians and surgeons residing 
in Denver. The fact that he has been called to 
many positions of trust, professional, military and 
educational, testifies to the recognition of his 
ability by others. During the long period of his 
residence in Denver he has aided in the carrying 
out of progressive enterprises for the benefit of the 
place; his most valuable service probably being 
his articles relating to the climate of Colorado 
written in the early days, by which, directly and 
indirectly, he added more to the permanent pop- 
ulation of Colorado than any citizen of the state. 

The descendant of early settlers of New England, 
Dr. Bancroft was born in Enfield, Conn., May 25, 
1834. His literary education was received in the 
academy at Westfield, Mass., and the Charlotte- 
ville (N. Y.) Seminary, and upon leaving school 
he began the study of medicine. In February, 
1861, he graduated from the medical department 
of the University of Buffalo, N. Y., and in April 
of the same year he opened an office in Blakely, 
Pa. About that time the war broke out, and after 
six months of private practice, in November he 
enlisted as a surgeon in the army, being detailed 
by the surgeon-general of the state to take charge 
of the Church hospital in Harrisburg. In the 
spring of 1862 he was ordered to the Seventy- 
sixth Pennsylvania Infantry, at Hilton Head, 
S. C, and in May became medical attendant of the 
troops on Pinckney Island, Seabrook's and El- 
liott's plantations, in South Carolina. His next 
appointment was to take charge of a small portion 
of the Fourth and Seventh New Hampshire Reg- 
iments, in transit from Hilton Head, S. C. , to New 
York quarantine, which troops were infected with 
yellow fever. Afterward ordered to Philadelphia, 
and assigned to the Third Pennsylvania Heavy 
Artillery, he served as examining surgeon of re- 
cruits until the spring of 1863, when orders came 
for him to fit up a hospital for Confederate pris- 

oners, at Fort Delaware. He attended to that 
matter, then rejoined his regiment, the Third 
Pennsylvania Artillery, at Camp Hamilton, Va., 
in May, 1863. In June he was appointed post 
surgeon at Fortress Monroe by General Dix and 
remained there until the close of the war. While 
there Jefferson Davis, the vanquished Confederate 
president, was brought to the fort, but Dr. Ban- 
croft's nativity as a New England man being ob- 
jected to, another physician was summoned to at- 
tend Mr. Davis. With two other officers. Dr. 
Bancroft was detailed to investigate the past man- 
agement of military hospitals near Fortress Mon- 

On resigning from the United States military 
service, at the close of the war, Dr. Bancroft re- 
turned to Pennsylvania, where he took a course 
of lectures in the University of Pennsylvania. In 
April,, 1866, he came to Denver, where he has 
built up a large practice. For several years he 
was surgeon for the Wells Fargo stage lines, and 
later was surgeon for the Denver Pacific, Kansas 
Pacific and Rio Grande Railroads, being'connec- 
ted with the last-named company as chief surgeon 
from 1871 to 1887. He is to-day chief surgeon of 
the Rio Grande Western, Union Pacific, Denver 
& Gulf, and the Denver, Leadville & Gunnison 
Railways. He was elected president of the Den- 
ver Medical Society in 1876; he became identi- 
fied with the American Medical Association; was 
vice-president of the National Association of 
Railway Surgeons; served as examining surgeon 
for pensions from 1868 to 1885; held the office 
of city physician 1872-77, 1878-79; was the first 
president of the state board of health, holding the 
office for two years, and later was secretary for a 
year. He became identified with the medical 
department of the Denver University, having as- 
sisted in its organization and has been an active 
worker ever since. He was elected to the chair of 
fractures and dislocations and holds that position 
at the present time. 

In 1875 he was made president of the Agricult- 
ural Ditch Company, which position he held until 
1887, and was re-elected in 1897 ^^'^ 1898. Dur- 
ing his service as president of the board of educa- 
tion in East Denver, 1872-76, he was instrumen- 
tal in advancing the interests of the public schools 
and promoting the standard of scholarship. An 
Episcopalian in religion, he was a member of the 
standing committee of that denomination in 1878- 



79, and for years he served on the board of trus- 
tees for Wolfe Hall, Jarvis Hall and St. Luke's 
Hospital. When the Colorado State Historical and 
Natural History Society was organized January 
10, 1879, he was made its president, an office that 
he held till 1897, when he resigned. The result 
of his work, with that of others, in this society is 
shown in the large collection of pre-historic relics 
now in the capitol. When the first Grand Army 
post was established here in 1868, largely through 
his efforts among the soldiers in enlisting their in- 
terest in the work, it was felt that he was the 
one to occupy the highest office in the post; and 
he was made the commander. Soon afterward 
Gen. John A. Logan appointed him provisional 
department commander of Colorado and Wyo- 
ming, he being the first to occupy that position. 
From 1866 to 1876 many articles concerning the 
climate of Colorado, and its effect upon certain 
types of disease, were written by him. 

June 20, 187 1, Dr. Bancroft married Miss Mary 
C. Jarvis, daughter of George A. Jarvis, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., who endowed Jarvis Hall of Denver, 
Colo. This union was blessed with three chil- 
dren, viz. : Mary M. , George J. and Frederick W. 

HON. WILLIAM N. BYERS. It would be 
impossible to write a history of Denver with- 
out making frequent allusion to the subject 
of this article, for he has been intimately identi- 
fied with its most important enterprises since the 
days of its infancy. To his enterprise the city is 
indebted to an extent impossible to estimate. His 
far-seeing sagacity and business acumen have 
overleaped obstacles that seemed to others insur- 
mountable. Especially is his name associated 
with the founding and early history of Denver's 
oldest paper, the Rocky Mountain News. He 
arrived in Denver April 17, 1859, bringing with 
him the first printing press west of Omaha, and 
at once established a weekly newspaper. Success 
smiled upon his efforts and rendered possible the 
establishment of a daily paper, the first issue of 
which appeared August 18, i860. He continued 
the manager and editor of the paper until 1878, 
when he severed his connection with it. In the 
early days of Colorado he did much to attract 
settlers by publishing articles pertaining to this 
state, explaining its resources, the advantages 
it presented for stock-raising and farming, the 

wealth of its mountains in minerals, and the 
salubrity of its climate. Through his pen he did 
probably as much as anyone in Colorado to 
enhance the interests of the state and render 
possible its wonderful development of to-day. 

The organization with which the name of Mr. 
Byers is now most intimately associated is the 
famous festival of mountain and plain, which has 
been held annually since 1895. He was a mem- 
ber of the first board of directors, and since the 
second year has been the president. Much of his 
time is given to preparation for this great cele- 
bration, which attracts thousands to Denver. 
Many of the most striking features of the festival 
are original with him, among them the bal 
champedre (outdoor ball), when five thousand or 
more persons, in masquerade attire, dance under, 
a covered canvas on Broadway. There are four 
grand parades, the one on the first daj' repre- 
senting a pageant of progress in the history of 
the state and five miles in length. On the second 
day occurs the great masked parade, while on the 
third day is the military and social parade, ending 
with a sham battle at City Park, and in the even- 
ing the parade of the slaves of the silver serpent. 

Mr. Byers is descended from a Scotch family 
that, during the religious persecution of the six- 
teenth century, was driven into the borders of 
Ireland, and there took part in the siege of 
Londonderry. They emigrated to Pennsylvania 
when that state was still a wilderness, at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. The great- 
grandfather of our subject, and his three sons, 
took part in the Revolution. The father, Moses 
Watson Byers, was born in Washington County, 
Pa., and at the age of four years, in 1808, accom- 
panied his parents to Ohio. They settled at 
Circleville, Pickaway County, but later he and a 
brother removed to Darby Plains, in Madison 
County, where he improved a place of nearly 
three hundred acres. In 1850 he sold his prop- 
erty there and settled near Muscatine, Iowa, 
where he improved a large tract. His last days 
were spent in Muscatine, where he died in 1866, 
at the age of sixty-two years. In religious belief 
he was a Presbyterian. His wife, Mary A. 
Brandenburg, was a member of a well-known 
German family that became early settlers of 
Montgomery County, in the Miami Valley of 
Ohio; she died in Iowa in 1884. 

Of the family of six children, five attained 



maturity and four are living, William N. being 
the eldest. Mrs. Ann Eliza McDonald resides in 
Washington, Iowa; Mrs. Olivia M. Kessinger 
makes her home in Muscatine; Mrs. Rachel Jane 
Morris resides in Denver. One of the sons, 
James H., was a member of an Iowa regiment 
during the Civil war and was killed in 1863, dur- 
ing the siege of Vicksburg. Our subject was 
born in Madison County, Ohio, February 22, 
1831, and spent his early years upon a farm. In 
1850, with team and wagon, he removed to Iowa, 
and the following year he engaged in government 
surveying in western Iowa, soon becoming deputy 
United States surveyor in Iowa, and later in 
Oregon and Washington. From there, in the 
winter of 1853-54, he went to California, return- 
ing east after a few months. For a short time he 
engaged in railroad surveying, but when the 
Kansas and Nebraska bill opened those territories 
for settlement, he went to Omaha, which then 
had only one house and that a log cabin. As 
county surveyor, he laid out a large part of the 
city. He was the first deputy United States 
surveyor appointed in Nebraska, in which capa- 
city he ran the township and section lines in the 
eastern part of the territory. When the city 
government of Omaha was established, he was 
elected an alderman, and in 1854-55 he was a 
member of the first territorial legislative assembly 
of Nebraska. From Omaha he came to Denver 
early in 1859. Here he established the now 
famous Rocky Moutitain News, which in 1872 
became an incorporated company, with himself as 

The connection of Mr. Byers with Denver's 
history has by no means been limited to journal- 
istic work. He has been interested in the develop- 
ment of mining properties, is now a member of 
the executive committee of the city library, and 
a member of the chamber of the commerce, of 
which he was president in 1893 and 1894. He 
was interested in the Denver Pacific, Denver & 
Rio Grande, South Park, and Denver, Utah & 
Pacific roads, all of which had an important part 
in the developing of Denver's resources. From 
the organization of the Denver Tramway Com- 
pany he has been a director, and since it became 
the Denver Consolidated Tramway Company he 
has also been vice-president and acting president 
of the company, and a member of the executive 
and auditing committees. In Muscatine, Iowa, 

in 1854, be married Miss Elizabeth Minerva 
Sumner, granddaughter of Governor Lucas, an 
early governor of Ohio and afterwards the last 
territorial and first state governor of Iowa. The 
Sumners are an old Virginia family and are con- 
nected with the famous statesman, Charles 
Sumner, of Massachusetts. Two children were 
born to the union of Mr. and Mrs. Byers. Frank, 
the son, owns a horse and cattle ranch at Hot 
Sulphur Springs, Grand County, this state. The 
daughter, Mary Eva, is the wife of William F. 

From the organization of the party Mr. Byers 
has been a stanch Republican. For years, 
through his influence with his pen, he was a 
power in public affairs. For the admission of 
Colorado into the Union he labored unceasingly. 
In June, 1859, he was chairman of the first con- 
vention called to secure a state organization, but 
this convention adjourned without definite action. 
In 1864 he was a member of the convention that 
framed the first state constitution, under which 
the enabling act was passed by both houses of 
congress, but vetoed by Andrew Johnson. In 
1864 President Lincoln appointed him postmaster 
in Denver, which office he held until 1867, resign- 
ing then on account of the pressure of business. 
Again, under the administration of President 
Hayes, he was appointed postmaster April 14, 
1879, and served until 1883. 

The rapid growth of the city between his first 
term as postmaster and his second tenure of the 
oSice brought many problems before the postal 
authorities for solution. During the summer 
months, when the city was crowded with visitors 
from the east, the throngs around the postoffice 
were so great that it was almost impossible to 
gain access to the building. In front of each 
delivery window would form long lines extending 
out into the street, and although the delivery 
clerks worked unceasingly people sometimes were 
obliged to wait an hour for their mail. Such a 
condition of things could not be tolerated in a 
growing and enterprising city. Upon accepting 
the position the second time, Mr. Byers again set 
himself to work to secure improvements. It was 
largely through his influence and untiring efforts 
that the free delivery system in Denver was 
organized and he at once began to plan for its 
establishment. It was the work of many days 
before the system was put into operation. The 



force at first consisted of only six letter carriers 
who were properly equipped and trained. Letter 
boxes were placed on convenient corners through- 
out the city, and soon the people began to reap 
the benefit of the improved system. Before the 
expiration of his term of office about thirty 
carriers were employed. The telegraph had been 
introduced in October, 1863; the street railway 
system had been inaugurated in January, 1872; 
the steam cars had brought Denver into touch 
with other localities June 24, 1870, when the first 
railroad train reached Denver over the Denver 
Pacific road; water and gas works had been 
introduced, fire alarms and telephones, so that 
the free delivery sy.stem was about the last ' ' link' ' 
that was necessary to constitute Denver a metro- 
politan city. It was during Mr. Byers' term of 
office from 1879 to 1883 that Denver made giant 
strides toward becoming a metropolis and the 
queen of all our mountain states and it was dur- 
ing these busy years so fruitful of future greatness 
that Mr. Byers worked faithfully and enthusiasti- 
cally to bring his department to its subsequent 
excellence, thus adding no small share towards 
its growth and development. 

Fraternally Mr. Byers is past master of Denver 
Lodge No. 5, A. F. & A. M., past high priest 
of Denver Chapter No. 2, R. A. M., and for two 
terms grand high priest of the grand chapter of 
Colorado. On the organization of the Knights 
Templar Commandery in Denver, he was elected 
the first candidate for the orders in Colorado and 
later was elected eminent commander and served 
as such several years. In the organization of 
the Pioneer Society he took an active part, and 
served as its first secretary, later was president 
for several years. Some years after the organiza- 
tion in 1859 the records were lost and in 1866 the 
society was re-organized. He is president of 
the Colorado State Historical and Natural History 
Society which has the best collection of cliff 
dwellers' relics in the world. 

From this resum6 of the life of Mr. Byers it 
will be seen that he has borne a very active part 
in the growth of Denver and indeed of the state 
itself. His sympathy and support have always 
been given to measures calculated to promote the 
welfare of the people. In earlier days the influ- 
ence of his pen was given toward the advance- 
ment of the city; later, through other ways, he 
has been no less potent in securing the promotion 

of public-spirited and progressive projects. It is 
doubtful if, in a review of the eminent men of the 
state, there could be found a man who has done 
more than he in the promotion of the state's 
welfare from the early settlement of Colorado to 
the present time. 

HON. FRED DICK, A. M., formerly state 
superintendent of schools of Colorado, now 
principal of the Denver Normal and Pre- 
paratory School, was born in the town of Aurora, 
Erie County, N. Y., May 17, 1852. He is the 
descendant of ancestors who came from Holland 
and settled in Pennsylvania in an early day. His 
father, J. B., who was a native of New York 
and a farmer by occupation, was, under Presi- 
dent Lincoln, appointed assessor of internal reve- 
nue in western New York, his territory embrac- 
ing fourteen counties. He held the position until 
Andrew Johnson became president, when he re- 
signed. Under the administration of General 
Grant he was re-appointed to the same position 
in the internal revenue department, and filled it 
with credit until his death in 1871. 

The mother of Mr. Dick was Ann Eliza Pratt, 
daughter of Luke N.Pratt, a native of Connecticut, 
and member of an old family in that state, her 
father removing to Erie County, N. Y., and be- 
coming a pioneer farmer. She died in that 
county, leaving two sons and two daughters, two 
of whom, our subject and Mrs. A. M. Hawley, 
of Canon City, reside in Colorado. The former, 
who was next to the eldest in the family, was 
educated in Aurora Academy, and taught for two 
years in district schools prior to entering Hamil- 
ton College in 1871. Immediately upon his 
graduation in 1875, with the degree of A. B., he 
was appointed principal of Hamburg Academy, 
and two years later accepted a more favorable 
position as principal of the Gowanda (N. Y.) 
schools. In 1880 he was admitted to the bar 
and for three years practiced law in Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Removing to Colorado in the fall of 1883, Mr. 
Dick accepted the superintendency of the Trini- 
dad schools, where he remained for five years, 
and during two years of this time he served both 
as county and city superintendent. He was the 
first Republican who was elected county superin- 
tendent in Las Animas County. At the state 
election in 1888 he was elected by the Repub- 



lican party to the office of state superintendent of 
schools, which position he filled with credit for 
one term. During his term of office he laid the 
corner stone of the State Normal School at Gree- 

The Denver Normal and Preparatory School, 
of which Mr. Dick is principal, was founded by 
himself, and was the first school of the kind es- 
tablished in the state. It is a most creditable 
educational institution, and has received the 
highest endorsements from educators. Until the 
ist of May, 1898, the school was located in the 
Kittredge building, but at that time it was moved 
to the Normal building, Nos. 1543-45 Glenarm 
street. It has seven complete departments, viz. : 
Normal, for the training of public school teachers; 
Kindergarten, with life diplomas, valid through- 
out the state of Colorado; College preparatory, 
fitting pupils for Yale and Harvard, or any other 
leading educational institution; Grade depart- 
ment, where instruction is given in any of the 
eight grades of the grammar schools; Modern 
language department; Commercial department, 
and department of oratory, physical culture and 
dramatic art. The faculty consists of Mr. Dick, 
R. M. Streeter, Margaret Grabill, Fordyce P. 
Cleaves, Mrs. R. M. Streeter, Nelson Rhoades, 
Jr., Henry Reade, W. J. Whiteman, and Mina 
McCord L,ewis. A special summer term of five 
weeks is held each year. The Denver Commer- 
cial Institute has been incorporated with the 
Normal school, and furnishes instruction in sten- 
ography, bookkeeping, typewriting, Spanish, 
commercial law and arithmetic, and general cor- 

In addition to his work in connection with the 
school, Mr. Dick is treasurer of the Rocky Moun- 
tain School Aid & Supply Company. He was 
the founder of the Rocky Morintain Educator, a 
monthly journal devoted to the interests of teach- 
ers, students, school directors and educational 
institutions of the Rocky Mountain region. Of 
this he is now the editor and manager. The 
journal is high in its standard and interesting 
and comprehensive, and is now nearing its fourth 
volume as a successful paper for educators. Po- 
litically Mr. Dick is a Republican, and has at- 
tended every state convention, with one excep- 
tion, since his residence in Colorado. He and 
his wife are members of the Unity Church. At 
one time he was president of the State Teachers' 

Association of Colorado, and is a member of the 
Colorado School Masters' Club, the National 
Educational Association (of which he has been 
state manager) and the Educational Alliance. 
Fraternally he is identified with the Woodmen 
of the World and the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, being a charter member of the latter 
lodge in Trinidad. 

In Erie County, N. Y., June 29, 1876, Mr. 
Dick married Miss Florence E. Sprague, who 
was born in that county, a daughter of Norman 
B. Sprague. She is a very intellectual woman, 
was a charter member of the Woman's Club of 
Denver, and is now president of the educational 
department of that organization. Their only 
child, Florence E., died in Trinidad when nine 
years of age. 

HON. GEORGE W. BAXTER, one of the 
most prominent representatives of the cattle 
industry in the Rocky Mountain region, is 
the subject of this sketch, who is the owner of 
the Baxter ranch, six and one-half miles in extent, 
and situated on Horse Creek on the line of the 
Union Pacific Railroad, near Cheyenne. Here 
he is engaged in raising full blooded Hereford 
cattle, as fine as any to be found in the west. 
Since 1888 he has been identified with the West- 
ern Union Beef Company (now the Western Live 
Stock and I,and Company), of which he is presi- 
dent and manager, and which is incorporated 
under the laws of Colorado. 

Mr. Baxter was born in Henderson, N. C, 
and is a grandson of William Baxter, a native of 
Ireland,, who came to America and settled in 
Charleston, S. C, at seventeen years of age, but 
later removed to Rutherford, N. C, where he 
became owner of a plantation. He married Miss 
Katherine Lee. Their son, John Baxter, was 
born in Rutherford in 18 19 and became an attor- 
ney. When his son, our subject, was two years 
of age he removed to Knoxville, Tenu., where 
he became a prominent lawyer. He was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of Tennessee 
in 1870, at which time the present constitution 
was adopted. In 1877 he was appointed by 
President Hayes as one of the United States cir- 
cuit judges, his territory being the sixth circuit, 
embracing Tennessee, Ohio, Kentucky and Mich- 
igan. He was filling that office at the time of 
his death, in the spring of 1886, when he was 



sixty-seven years of age. During the war he ad- 
hered to the Union. His was a turbulent career, 
for his talents brought him into prominence 
during the critical period of our nation's history. 

The mother of our subject was Orra Ann Alex- 
ander, who was born in Asheville, N. C, the 
daughter of Mitchell Alexander by his marriage 
to Nancy Foster, both natives of Virginia. Her 
grandfather was a soldier in the Revolution and 
lost a limb in one engagement. The family is of 
Scotch descent. Mrs. Baxter died in 1859. She 
was the mother of four sons and three daughters, 
all of whom are living but two daughters. The 
third of these was George W. , who was born 
January 7, 1855. He was educated in the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee at Knoxville and the Uni- 
versity of the South at Sewanee, Tenn. In May, 
1873, he entered the Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated in June, 1877, 
and was then assigned to the Third United States 
Cavalry as second lieutenant of Company H, with 
which he served in Wyoming, Dakota and Ne- 
braska. In July, 1 88 1, immediately after his 
promotion to first lieutenant, he resigned from 
the service and turned his attention to ranching. 
In 1886 President Cleveland appointed him gov- 
ernor of Wyoming, but becoming involved in a 
controversy with his immediate superior, the 
secretary of the interior, he resigned after filling 
the office three months. In 1889 he was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention that adopted 
the present constitution of Wyoming, and after 
the admission of the state, in 1890, he was the 
Democratic candidate for governor, but the state 
being Republican by a large majority his candi- 
dacy was with no expectation of success. He 
made Cheyenne his home until 1895, when he 
came to Denver, and has since resided in this 

At Knoxville, Tenn., in 1880, Mr. Baxter 
married Miss Margaret McGhee, who was born 
there and received her education in Georgetown 
Academy, Washington, D. C, and in Europe. 
She was a daughter of Charles M. McGhee, who 
was closely identified with railroad interests in 
Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Baxter are the parents 
of five children, Cornelia, Margaret, Katherine, 
Charles McGhee and George. The family attend 
St. Mark's Episcopal Church. Fraternally Mr. 
Baxter is connected with Cheyenne Lodge No. i, 
A. F. & A. M., the Royal Arch Chapter and 

Knight Templar Commandery, also El Jebel 
Temple, N. M. S., of Denver. He is still a 
member of the Association of Graduates of West 

HON. JOHN W. NESMITH. There is no 
concern of its kind which has become more 
prominently known throughout the state 
than the Colorado Iron Works Company, of Den- 
ver, which was established in i860, and incor- 
porated in 1876 and again in 1896. In January, 
1879, Mr. Nesmith accepted the position of super- 
intendent and continued in that capacity until 
1886, when, he and his family having acquired 
the larger portion of the stock, he was made 
president and has since been in active manage- 
ment of the plant. At the time he became con- 
nected with the works, they were small and un- 
important, and it is due almost wholly to his en- 
terprise and judicious management that he has 
now one of the largest mining machinery factories 
in the west. The three hundred and fifty men em- 
ployed at the works assist in the manufacture of 
copper, silver and lead smelting furnaces. The 
company has built most of the important smelters 
from Helena to the City of Mexico; they also build 
mills and manufacture works for the treatment of 
ores of precious metals. In 1881 the shops were 
destroyed by fire, but were rebuilt soon at the same 
place. Thirty-third and Wynkoop streets. 

The Remolino Coffee and Sugar Company was 
established in 1893, with Mr. Nesmith as presi- 
dent, and his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and 
Mrs. F. L. McFarland, as associates in the en- 
terprise. They own a coffee plantation situated 
south of the Gulf of Mexico, on the Coatzacoalcos 
River, on the Isthmus of Tehauntepec, state of 
Vera Cruz, Mexico. In addition to the manage- 
ment of the plantation, they operate, for general 
traffic, a steamboat on the river, the vessel being 
small, but as large as the exigencies of that traffic 
demand. Not only on account of his business in- 
terests there, but also because he is fond of travel, 
Mr. Nesmith has visited almost every point of 
interest in Mexico. Of late years he has taken 
up the study of the Spanish language, in which 
he has gained such proficiency as to construction 
and grammar that he can read and write the lan- 
guage correctly and with facility. 

From Parker's history of Londonderry, N. H., 



page 290, we quote the following regarding the 
pedigree of the Naesmyth, Nasmyth or Nesmith 
family (for in these various ways the name has 
been spelled): 

i: — "James Nesmith emigrated from River 
Bann, Londonderry, Ireland, to America, in 
1718. He was one of the first sixteen settlers of 
Londonderry, N. H., a highly respectable mem- 
ber of the colony and an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church. He married, in Ireland, Elizabeth 
McKeen, and by her had children: Arthur, James, 
John, Thomas and Elizabeth. 

"Arthur (i), who was born in Ireland, settled 
in Maine, and had children: James, John, Benja- 
min and Mary. This James (son of Arthur i) 
served in the Revolution in the compan}- com- 
manded by Capt. George Reid; was at the battle 
of Bunker Hill; afterwards was promoted to cap- 
tain and commanded a company in Canada; and 
also in Rhode Island under General Sullivan. 
He was frank and generous in disposition, digni- 
fied, and was distinguished for intrepedity, ac- 
tivity and muscular strength. 

"James Nesmith (2), son of James (i), was 
also born in Ireland and was also in Captain 
Reid's company as a Revolutionary soldier. He 
lived at Londonderry, and had children: James, 
who, married Martha McClure, and was an elder 
in the church; Jonathan, who married Eleanor 
Dickey and removed to Antrim in 1778 and was 
au elder in the church; Robert, who married 
Jane Anderson; and John, who married Eliza- 
beth, sister of Gen. George Reid, and died at 
Londonderry in 18 15, aged eighty -seven. John 
and Elizabeth left the following-named children: 
James, who married Elizabeth Brewster, of An- 
trim; Arthur, who married May Duncan and 
moved to Ohio; John; and Thomas, born 1731, 
who married Annie Wilson, settled at Windham, 
near Londonderry, and had children. 

"John Nesmith (3) was born November 26, 
1766, at Londonderry, N. H. Lived on the 
homestead. Married February 28, 1797, Susan 
(Sukey) Hildreth, who was born at London- 
derry, June 22, 1777; they left children: John 
Pinkerton, Isabella, Samuel Hildreth, James P., 
Mary, Thomas and Elizabeth. 

"Samuel Hildreth Nesmith (3), born August 
21, 1803, at Londonderry, N. H., married April 
19, 1831, Priscilla Brown at Circleville, Ohio. 
The father died in August, 1876, and the mother 

July 10, 1 85 1. They had children: John Well- 
ington; James Browne, born February 5, 1837; 
and Ellen Mary, born August 20, 1840. 

"John Wellington Nesmith, born January 4, 
1834, nearChillicothe, Ohio, married October 30, 
1856, Miss Elizabeth R. Dickson, of Pittsfield, 111. 
Children: Isabel, born June 13, 1859, at Pitts- 
field, 111.; Eleanor, born July 13, 1869, at Black- 
hawk, Colo. Eleanor Nesmith married February 
26, 1890, Fiulay Le Roy McFarland, of Denver; 
Isabel Nesmith married October 7, 1 891, James 
Porter Evans, of Denver." 

Tracing the more remote lineage of the Nesmith 
family, we find that they were represented 
among the families going from Scotland to the 
Valley of the Bann, Ireland, in 1690. There 
James Nesmith was born in 1 692 and from there 
he emigrated to America in 17 18. As before 
stated, he was one of the sixteen original settlers 
of Londonderry, N. H. He was a signer of the 
memorial to Governor Shute, and was appointed 
elder of the West Parish Church on its organiza- 
tion in 1739. He died in 1767, aged seventy- 
five. His wife, Elizabeth, daughter of James 
and Janet (Cochran) McKeen, was born in Ireland 
and died in New Hampshire in 1763, aged sixty- 

From the autobiography of Sir James Nasmyth 
we learn the following regarding the history and 
traditions of the Nasmyth or Nesmith family. 
He writes: "Sir Bernard Burke, in his 'Peerage 
and Baronetage,' gives a faithful account of the 
ancestors from which I am lineally descended. 
The family of Naesmyth, says Burke, is one of 
remote antiquity in Tweeddale, and has possessed 
large lands there since the thirteenth century. 
They fought in the wars of Bruce and Baliol, 
which ended in the independence of Scotland. 
The following is the family legend of the origin of 
the name of Naesmyth: In the troublous times 
which prevailed in Scotland before the union of the 
crowns, the feuds between the king and the 
barons were almost constant. In the reign of 
James III. the house of Douglas was the most 
prominent and ambitious. The earl not only 
resisted his liege lord, but entered into a combi- 
nation with the king of England, from whom he 
received a pension. He was declared a rebel and 
his estates were confiscated. He determined to 
resist the royal power, and crossed the border 
with his followers. He was met by the Earl of 



Angus, the Maxwells, the Johnstons and the 
Scotts. In one of the engagements which en- 
sued, the Douglas appeared to have gained the 
day, when an ancestor of the Naesmyths, who 
fought under the royal standard, took refuge in 
the smithy of a neighboring village. The smith 
offered him protection, disguised him as a ham- 
merman, with a leather apron in front, and asked 
him to lend a hand at his work. 

"While thus engaged a party of the Douglas 
partisans entered the smithy. They looked with 
suspicion on the disguised hammerman, who, in 
his agitation, struck a false blow with the sledge 
hammer, which broke the shaft in two. Upon 
this one of pursuers rushed at him, calling out, 
'Ye' re nae smyth.' The stalwart hammerman 
turned upon his assailant, and wrenching a dag- 
ger from him, speedily overpowered him. The 
smith himself, armed with the big hammer, ef- 
fectually aided in overpowering and driving out 
the Douglas men. A party of the royal forces 
made their appearance, when Naesmyth rallied 
them, led them against the rebels, and converted 
what had been a temporary defeat into a victory. 
A grant of lands was bestowed upon him for his 
service. His armorial bearings consisted of a 
head dexter with a dagger, between two broken 
hammer shafts, and there they remain to this day. 
The motto was, Non arte sed marte (Not by art 
but by war)." 

The father of our subject, who removed from 
New Hampshire to Ohio about 1830, was a civil 
engineer on the Ohio canal, and later a con- 
tractor. In the fall of 1834 he removed to Pike 
County, 111., settling near Pittsfield, where he 
was a pioneer farmer. About 1850 he moved to 
Barry, 111., and engaged in merchandising, but 
later went to Canton, Mo., where he remained 
until his death at the age of over seventy. His 
first wife, Priscilla, who was born near Chilli- 
cothe, Ohio, was a daughter of White Brown, a 
native of Delaware, settling in Ohio about 1808 
and dying upon a farm there. He owned many 
slaves at one time, but becoining convinced that 
slavery was wrong, he freed them, thus losing 
his fortune. Mrs. Nesmith died when our sub- 
ject was fourteen years of age, leaving besides 
him a j'ounger brother and sister, James B., later 
a civil engineer engaged on the Iron Mountain 
road at Cape Girardeau, Mo.; and Mrs. Ellen 
Burke, now of Kansas. 

When a boy our subject learned the machinist's 
trade in Pittsfield and followed it in St. Louis for a 
time; while there he was asked to come to Colo- 
rado and erect a mill in what is now Gilpin Coun- 
ty, which he did, afterward running the mill for a 
year, but before the year expired the firm failed. 
It was in June, i860, that he arrived in the moun- 
tains, after an ox-train journey of forty-two days, 
from Nebraska City via Fort Kearney to Ne- 
vada Gulch. In February, 1861, he came to 
Denver and entered a small machine shop and 
foundry owned by Langford & Co. In the fall of 
1862 the shop was moved to Blackhawk, Gilpin 
County; in 1864 he was made superintendent of 
the shop and remained with the company until 
1869, when he resigned to enter the milling busi- 
ness. Building a mill in Blackhawk, he had 
charge of it some two years. About 1874 he was 
locomotive engineer on construction of the Colo- 
rado Central Railroad, and when the line was 
completed into Blackhawk he became master 
mechanic. The next year he was made master 
of transportation, with headquarters at Golden. 
About 1876 he was made master mechanic of the 
■ Upper Division of the Kansas Pacific (now a part 
of the Union Pacific), including the lines from 
Denver to Wallace, Denver to Boulder, Kit Car- 
son to Los Animas, and Denver to Cheyenne. In 
1878 he was appointed by Governor Evans super- 
intendent of the South Park Railroad, and con- 
tinued in that position until January, 1879, when, 
the iron works having been moved back to Den- 
ver, he resigned to become superintendent of the 

In Pittsfield, 111., Mr. Nesmith married Eliza- 
beth, sister of Judge Dickson, of Leadville. They 
are the parents of two daughters. The family 
attend the First Congregational Church and take 
an interest in its welfare. Mr. Nesmith is a 
member of the chamber of commerce and board 
of trade. While in Illinois he was made a Ma- 
son, and was past master of Blackhawk Lodge 
No. II, A. F. & A. M., but is now a member of 
Oriental Lodge No. 87, in Denver, also a member 
of the Royal Arch Chapter. He represented Gilpin 
County in the upper house of the territorial legis- 
lature, sessions of 1868 and 1870, during which 
time he was a stalwart supporter of the cause of 
woman's suffrage. 

For many years Mr. Nesmith has been a stu- 
dent of the physical sciences. He is an expert in 



the chemistry and metallurgy of the smelting of 
ores of the precious metals, as gold, silver, cop- 
per, lead, etc., and is a recognized authority on 
blast furnace construction and practice as adapted 
to such minerals. While in Blackhawk and vi- 
cinitj', from 1868 to 1874, he practiced civil and 
mining engineering, in which he has few superi- 
ors to this day. He is a member of the National 
Association of Mining Engineers, also of the Den- 
ver Society of Civil Engineers and the Colorado 
Scientific Society, of Denver. 

Associated with him in the Colorado Iron 
Works, Mr. Nesmith has a half-brother, S. H. , 
who was born to the marriage of Samuel H. 
Nesmith and Caroline Rush, of Barry, 111., and 
by that union there was a daughter born, Julie, 
who married William H. Drescher, and resides 
in Hannibal, Mo. In addition to Mr. Nesmith 
and his brother, the former's daughter, Mrs. Isa- 
bel Evans, is connected with the company, being 
its secretary and treasurer, while John H. Mor- 
com fills the position of superintendent. 

rDQiLUAM W. GRANT, M. D. During 
I A/ ^^^ years that have elapsed since he came 
Y V to Denver, Dr. Grant has built up a large 
practice in this city and has become known as a 
skillful surgeon and a successful physician, who 
is accurate alike in the diagnosis and treatment 
of disease. While his specialties are surgery and 
gynecology, yet in every department of the pro- 
fession his knowledge is exhaustive and his skill 
recognized. He has had the advantage not only 
of study in the institutions of our own land, but 
in those abroad, having spent one year in the 
study of surgery and gynecology in the hospitals 
of Berlin, Vienna and London. 

The record of the Grant family appears in the 
sketch of ex-Governor Grant, the doctor's 
brother. The family consisted of seven children, 
of whom William was the third. He was born 
in Russell County, Ala., near Columbus, Ga. , 
and in boyhood attended a private school there. 
His boyhood life was spent on a southern planta- 
tion, where he was instructed by his father in the 
making of every kind of farm implement and in 
their use in the cultivation of corn, cotton and 
other farm products. He also learned to fell 
trees, split rails and dig ditches, and, in fact, did 
every kind of farm work, and did it well. He 

worked side by side with the colored help, and 
no favors were shown him, although his father 
was a kind and indulgent man. Thus he learned 
to appreciate individual effort and its results. 
School study and farm work were alternated; 
yet before the age of fifteen he and his brother, 
the ex-governor, read Virgil and had commenced 
Sallust. However, they were not "hothouse" 
products, for neither was familiar with the letters 
of the alphabet until seven and eight years of age 

At the age of sixteen our subject entered as a 
private a company of Alabama artillery known 
as Clanton's battery in Gen. James H. Clanton's 
brigade, and served during the last sixteen 
months of the Civil war, being promoted from 
the ranks to the position of sergeant of artillery, 
in charge of the gun. He was present in the en- 
gagements of Mount Hope Church and Colum- 
bus, Ga. Returning home at the close of the 
war he attended school for a year and then began 
the study of medicine. For a time he read under 
private tutelage, then spent a year (1867) in 
Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, and 
the following year entered Bellevue and Long 
Island Medical College, from which he graduated 
in 1868 with the degree of M. D. 

Shortly after his graduation Dr. Grant opened 
an office in Nebraska, near Sioux City, Iowa, 
but in 1872 rejnoved to Davenport, Iowa, where 
he continued for a number of years, and while 
there held the office of president of the Scott 
County Medical Society. He was also president 
of the Iowa and Illinois Central District Medical 
Association. In 1885 the surgeon-general of the 
United States army appointed him post surgeon 
at the Rock Island arsenal, and he held the po- 
sition until 1888, when he resigned on account of 
going to Europe. On his return from abroad, in 
December, 1889, he came to Denver, where he 
has an office in the Mack building. In addition 
to his general practice he is one of the surgeons to 
St. Joseph's hospital and president of the staff, 
and is also surgeon to the Rock Island Railroad 
here. The various professional organizations — 
the American Academy of Railway Surgeons, 
American, State and Denver and Arapahoe 
County Medical Societies — number him among 
their members. All discoveries in therapeutics, 
all improvements in surgery, and, in fact, every 
development made in the profession, receives his 

-€ J^ 



thoughtful attention and study. Himself one of 
the foremost members of the medical fraternity, 
his articles concerning professional work and the 
treatment of disease frequently appear in medical 
journals and are valuable additions to the profes- 
sional literature. 

The residence of Dr. Grant is at No. 930 
Pennsylvania avenue. He was married in 
Franklin, Tenn., to Miss Mary A. Moseley, who 
was born in that state and died in Davenport, 
Iowa, leaving two children, William W. , Jr., 
and James. In Denver he was a second time 
married, his wife being Miss Nanny Green, 
daughter of the late Judge James Green, of Cul- 
peper C. H., Va. 

HON. JOB ADAMS COOPER, governor of 
Colorado, 1889-91, was born near Green- 
ville, Bond County, 111., and is a son of 
Charles and Maria (Hadley) Cooper, members of 
old English families. His father, who was born 
at Maidstone, County Kent, England, forty miles 
south of I^ondon, was a son of Thomas Cooper, a 
paper manufacturer of Kent County, who came 
to the United States late in life and died at Yolo, 
Cal., when eighty-nine years of age. Charles 
was one of a large family of children who eventu- 
ally came to America. He was educated at Maid- 
stone and at the age of fifteen crossed the ocean 
on a sailing vessel, settling in Newark, N. J., 
where he learned the carriage manufacturer's 
trade. At the age of twenty-two he went to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he engaged in the lum- 
ber business. It was there that he married Miss 
Hadley. Removing to Illinois in 1840, he be- 
came a pioneer of Bond County, where he im- 
proved a valuable farm and continued to reside 
Utitil his death, in 1865, at the age of fifty-nine 
years. Fraternally a Mason, he was active in 
the work of his order. He was a firm supporter 
of Democratic tenets. During the war he was 
loyal to the Union and assisted in raising troops 
for the Federal service. His wife died at fift)'- 
nine years of age, and of their seven children, 
five of whom reached maturit}*, only two are 
living, Thomas Cooper, of Morgan County, Colo., 
and Job Adams Cooper. 

The last-named was educated at Knox College, 

Galesburg, 111., from which institution he was 

graduated in 1865, with the degree of A. B. 

Three years later the degree of A. M. was con- 


ferred upon him by his alma mater. While a 
student in Knox College, in May, 1864, he en- 
listed, with many other students, in Company C, 
One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Illinois Infan- 
try, Capt. B. M. Veatch, and served until mustered 
out in the latter part of the same year. He was 
stationed near Memphis when the Confederate 
general, Forest, made his memorable raid. 

In Galesburg, 111., September 17, 1867, Mr. 
Cooper married Miss Jane O. Barnes, daughter 
of Rev. Romulus E. Barnes, one of the early 
Congregational home missionaries of Illinois. 
She, too, is identified with that denomination and 
has done much work of a benevolent nature. She 
was educated in Rockford Seminary in Illinois, 
and is a lady whose culture makes her a valuable 
acquisition in the most select social circles. The 
four children that comprise the family are named 
as follows: Olivia D., wife of Edwin S. Kassler; 
Mary Louise, Mrs. Lucius S. Storrs, of St. Paul, 
Minn.; Charles J., a graduate of Knox College, 
class of 1897, and now engaged in the real-estate 
business in Denver; and Genevieve P., a gradu- 
ate of Ogontz School, near Philadelphia. 

On completing his literary studies at Galesburg, 
Mr. Cooper began to read law with Judge S. P. 
Moore, at Greenville, and in 1867 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, after which he opened an office 
for practice in Greenville. In 1868 he was elected 
circuit clerk and recorder of Bond County, which 
position he continued to fill until he resigned, on 
coming to Denver in 1872. He arrived in this 
city May 14, and was admitted to practice at 
the bar here September i, 1872. Forming a 
partnership with A. C. Phelps, as Phelps & 
Cooper, he gave his attention closely to his law 
practice. Afterward, for about two years, he was 
interested in a fire insurance agency, but retired 
from the insurance business in order to accept a 
position with the German Bank (later the Ger- 
man National Bank of Denver). 

During the early years of his residence in the 
west, he was interested in the stock business, 
buying cattle in Texas and feeding them on 
Colorado ranches. Sometimes he shipped as 
many as two trains full of cattle a day from Brush, 
on the Burlington Railroad. The advent of set- 
tlers, however, caused him to retire from the 

During the years that followed he became 
known as a keen, discriminating financier and 



public-spirited man. His circle of acquaintances 
increased, and his influence waxed constantly 
greater. The esteem in which he was held and 
the prominence which he had attained made the 
choice of his name by the Republicans for the 
gubernatorial chair a most happy selection. He 
was elected by a majority of ten thousand 
(which was considered large at that time) over 
'his Democratic opponent, Thomas M. Patterson, 
of the Rocky Mountain News. He took the 
oath of office January i, 1889, succeeding Gover- 
nor Adams at the expiration of the latter's first 
term. He had never been A partisan politician, 
and, although always a stanch supporter of the 
Republican party, he had not actively identified 
himself with party matters; however, he was well 
known throughout the state as a successful, 
honest, progressive and efficient business man, 
and it was the desire of the party to have such a 
man fill the executive chair. 

On his retirement from the office of governor, 
he accepted the position of president of the 
National Bank of Commerce, and this he filled 
successfully and ably until 1 897 , when he resigned ; 
since then he has devoted his attention to the 
management of his large and valuable property 
interests in this state and to mining at Cripple 
Creek as a member of the Tornado Gold Mining 
Company. In 1868 he erected, on the corner of 
Grant and Colfax, the elegant residence where he 
has since (and especially during his term as 
governor) entertained with a lavish and genial 
hospitality. In 1891 he began the erection ofthe 
substantial block known as the Cooper building, 
which is situated on the corner of Seventeenth 
and Curtis streets, and which, in its interior finish, 
is surpassed by no block in the state. 

During Governor Cooper's term the superstruct- 
ure of the magnificent state capitol approached 
completion. He has been a member of the state 
board of capitol managers for six years, and 
yet holds that position. During his term the state 
also made a notable advance in mining, stock-rais- 
ing and commerce. The commonwealth reached 
the climax of its development and attained a pros- 
perity never before enjoyed, and indeed, dreamed 
of by few. The World's Fair preparations were 
being made while he was at the head of the gov- 
ernment, and he took an active part in arranging 
for a representation of Colorado at the Fair that 
would do justice to the industries ofthe state. 

As an executive official he was conservative in 
judgment, never hasty in his decisions, but firm 
in carrying out any given course of action when 
once decided upon. He possessed a sagacity 
sound, well defined and trustworthy and was a 
man of profound foresight. Having made a 
study of constitutional law, he was well versed in 
the principles of wise statesmanship and public 
policy, and was admirably fitted to stand at the 
head of the greatest state in the mountain regions 
of the west. 

HON. JOHN L. ROUTT. The last territoria 
and the first state governor of Colorado, also 
governor in 1891-93, enjoys the distinction 
of being the only one who has three times filled 
the gubernatorial chair of the state, and but two 
other governors have served more than a single 
term. Coming to Colorado prior to its admission 
as a state, he has from that time been closely 
identified with its history and has contributed to 
its progress. The development of the common- 
wealth has been ever near to his heart, its mining 
and stock-raising industries he has promoted in 
many important ways, while its commercial in- 
terests have been given an impetus through his 
executive ability and tireless energy. 

In view of the close connection of Governor 
Routt with the business and political history of 
the state, considerable mention should be made 
of his life and public career. Whatever success 
he has achieved is the result of his unaided efforts, 
for he started out in the world with but a limited 
education, wholly destitute of money and also 
lacking influential friends. Money, friends and 
prominence have come to him, as the result of 
the honorable and efficient manner in which he 
has conducted business and his genial qualities 
as a man and friend. 

The Routt family came from Wales to America. 
Daniel, a son ofthe founder ofthe family in this 
country, was born in Virginia and became a 
pioneer of Kentucky, settling in the woods three 
miles from Booneville, where he died at the age 
of eighty-five years. John, son of Daniel and 
father of our subject, was born in Clark County, 
Ky. , and engaged in farming in Caldwell Countj^ 
where he died at the age of thirty-four. During 
the war of 18 12 he was a member of Captain 
Long's company. 

The marriage of John Routt united him with 



Martha Haggard, who was born in Clailc County, 
of Welsh descent. Her father, David Hag- 
gard, was born in Virginia and at the age of 
seventeen enlisted in the American army, where 
he served until the close of the Revolution. 
Later he removed to Kentucky and became a 
very early settler of Clark County, where he 
located very soon after the arrival of Daniel 
Boone. In after years he cultivated a farm in 
Trigg County, Ky., from which place he re- 
moved to Illinois and spent his last days with 
relatives in Blooraington, dj-ing there at the age 
of eighty years. About 1835 our subject's mother, 
who had in the meantime married Henry New- 
ton of Kentucky, took her family to Illinois and 
for two years resided in Hancock County, next 
removed to McDonough County, and later 
settled in McLean County, where she died at 
seventy-seven years; Mr. Newton died at the age 
of eighty-five years. Her family consisted of two 
sons and two daughters, of whom two survive: 
John L-, and Mrs. Elizabeth Newton, of McLean 

The life which this narrative sketches began 
in Caldwell County, Ky., April 25, 1826. Early 
orphaned by his father's death, the boy was 
taken to Illinois by his mother and attended the 
public schools there. Although his educational 
advantages were meagre, he supplemented them 
by reading night and morning and at all spare 
moments. At the age of fourteen he began to 
earn his own livelihood. He learned the trades 
of machinist, architect and builder in Blooming- 
ton, where he secured steady employment, and held the position of alderman of Bloomington 
and sheriff of McLean County. The latter 
position he resigned in order to enter the army 
soon after the opening of the war. In 1862 he 
raised Company E, of the Ninety-fourth Illinois 
Infantry, which was mustered in at Bloomington 
with himself as captain. The regiment served 
in Missouri and Arkansas in 1862-63, under 
command of General Herron, and took part in 
several closely contested engagements. In the 
battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. , he narrowly escaped 
death, for three times bullets pas.sed through his 
clothing. In the .spring of 1863 he became 
quartern] ai5ter of an expedition organized near 
Rolla, Mo., to march upon Little Rock. Soon 
afterward the regiment joined General Grant at 
Vicksburg, where they remained until the fall of 

that city. While at Vicksburg General Grant 
gave an order to the commanding general to 
have a large amount of ammunition removed the 
following day from Chickasaw Bayou, eighteen 
miles away, by noon. This was con.sidered im- 
possible, but was accomplished by Quartermaster 
Routt, which so pleased General Grant that he 
wrote John L. Routt's name in his note book. 
Years afterwards General Grant met Mr. Routt 
in Chicago and, remembering the name, a friend- 
ship began that lasted through life. In the fall 
of 1880 General Grant spent four weeks in the 
company of Governor Routt in the mountains of 
Colorado, and these are the most memorable four 
weeks in the governor's recollection. The next 
movement was to Port Hudson, Miss., thence to 
Brownsville, Tex., where Captain Routt was ap- 
pointed to duty as chiefquartermasterofthe army 
of the frontier on the Rio Grande, with the rank 
of colonel. He was ordered to New Orleans 
after the defeat of General Banks in 1864 and 
was then stationed at Baton Rouge in charge of 
the outfitting depot until he was mustered out of 
service September 20, 1865. He was a personal 
friend of President Lincoln, whom he warmly 
admired for his depth of character and breadth of 

Returning to Bloomington, Colonel Routt un- 
expectedly found himself the Republican candi- 
date for county treasurer. He was elected and 
served for two terms, but declined further 
renomination. During his administration an 
elegant courthouse was built and other improve- 
ments were made, in all of which his careful 
handling and wise disbursement of money was 
apparent. At the close of his second term, in 
November, 1869, he went to Washington as chief 
clerk to the second assistant postmaster-general 
under President Grant. During his services in 
that capacity a controversy arose in regard to the 
United States marshal for the southern district 
of Illinois, and he, without his knowledge, was 
appointed by President Grant to that position. 
In 1870 he took the census of his district, com- 
prising seventy-two counties. 

In the fall of 1871 Colonel Routt received a 
telegram from President Grant, offering him the 
appointment of second assistant postmaster-gen- 
eral. He accepted the position, resigning as 
marshal, and the following day started for 
Washington. In this office he had charge of the 



conveyance of the whole United States mail, 
making contracts with railway, steamboat and 
stage lines, to the amount of about $20,000,000 
per annum. While holding the position, a 
vacancy occurred in the governor's chair in the 
territory of Colorado by the resignation of Ed- 
ward M. McCook, and in February, 1875, 
General Grant appointed him governor. When 
he came to Colorado, Denver was a city of less 
than five thousand inhabitants and the entire 
territory was thinly populated. Early in March 
he entered upon his duties, which were of a most 
responsible nature, owing to the fact that the 
Republican party was divided by dissension. 
The constitutional convention framed the con- 
stitution which was adopted July 4, 1876. The 
first state election was held in October of the 
same year. While he was not a candidate, he 
was unanimously nominated by his party and 
was elected for a term of two years, the first 
governor of the new state. 

The inauguration of plans connected with the 
adoption of a state government necessarily in- 
volved many difficulties. The national govern- 
ment withdrew its protection and the state had 
to adopt plans for meeting its bills and maintain- 
ing its credit. The state warrants started off at 
seventy-five per cent and increased'during his term 
until they commanded a premium of one per cent. 
As president of the state land board, the governor 
did much to secure for the state some of the best 
lands under grant of congress, and also organized 
the work of the board. 

On his retirement from the position of chief 
executive. Governor Routt engaged in the cattle 
business and in mining at L,eadville, meantime 
making his home in Denver. The succeeding 
years passed by, unmarked by special events, 
until his nomination, in 1890, for the office he 
had so efficiently filled in former years. He took 
the chair in January, 1891, and served until 1893. 
At the time of his inauguration the lower house 
was in a state of confusion, owing to the two 
speakers being elected by the two factions be- 
tween whom there seemed little hope of producing 
amity. About the same time a United States 
senator was to be elected, a subject that always 
brought contention. In spite of these adverse 
circumstances, the governor succeeded in bring- 
ing order out of chaos and his administration 

proved as successful as those during the early 
days of Colorado's history. 

When ■ the bill providing for the erection of a 
new capitol was passed, Governor Routt was 
made a member of the board of managers and 
served until the spring of 1897, when he resigned. 
The building, in the erection of which he was so 
deeply interested, is an architectural triumph and 
may well be a source of pride and satisfaction to 
the five trustees forming the board of managers. 
It is constructed of granite, quarried in Gunnison 
County, this state. The framework is of steel, 
which makes the structure most substantial. 
The location is also unexceptionable, Capitol 
Hill commanding a fine view of the surrounding 

In 1894 Governor Routt was elected mayor of 
Denver and served for one term. He was a 
delegate to the Republican national convention 
at Cincinnati, when Rutherford B. Hayes was 
nominated for president; also the convention of 
1880 in Chicago, when he was one of three 
hundred and six men comprising the Grant dele- 
gation; the convention of 1884, when Blaine was 
nominated; and that of i888, when General Har- 
rison was made the Republican nominee. In 
1884 he was chairman of the state central com- 
mittee and at one time served as a member of the 
national committee. He came within four votes of 
being chosen United States senator from Colorado. 
Fraternally he is connected with the Loyal Legion 
and the Knight Templar Masons, and he is a 
member of Lincoln Post, G. A. R. He owns a 
commodious and beautiful home in Denver and 
a fine ranch of two thousand acres near Fort Col- 
lins, Colo. 

While in Bloomington Mr. Routt was married 
to Miss Esther A. Woodson, who was born in 
Springfield and died in Washington. The chil- 
dren born of this union are: Minnie, Mrs. Charles 
Hartzell, who died in Denver; Mrs. Birdie M. 
Bryan, of Denver; Frank, who is engaged in 
mining at Cripple Creek; John H., of Denver; 
and Mrs. Emma Butler, also of this city. The 
second marriage of Governor Routt united him 
with Miss EHza Pickrell, of Springfield, 111., and 
they are the parents of a daughter, Lila Elkin 

In the public career of Governor Routt, 
perhaps one of his most striking characteristics 



is his devotion to the interests of the state. Even 
those who were his political opponents never 
denied his patriotic interest in the common- 
wealth. Every trust reposed in him was faith- 
fully discharged, and it was always his endeavor 
to conserve the welfare of the state. He has 
striven to preserve the public lauds transmitted 
to the state by congress in the enabling act, so 
that schools and public improvements may be 
benefited thereby. Himself a miner and stock- 
raiser, he is in thorough sympathy with the men 
who follow these occupations. 

Personally he is a man of sound common sense 
and force of will, in physique strongly built and 
showing powers of endurance. He is a man of 
sympathetic heart, benevolent nature, large in- 
tellect, executive force, and with the tact so 
essential to the success of a public man. 

tory of any city or state is best told in the 
lives of its people. Especially is this the 
case when its citizens are men of enterprise, 
breadth of intellect and sagacity of judgment, 
men whose influence is felt not only by those of 
the same generation, but reaches into the far dis- 
tant future, affecting generations yet to come. 
Some men advance the welfare of their com- 
munities by their business acumen, some assist in 
shaping the destiny of the state and nation; and 
others, in still different lines, promote the high- 
est prosperity of the people. 

The influence of ex-Governor Grant has been 
felt both in commerce and in public affairs. As 
the chief executive of this state, he labored to 
enhance every interest, to increase the importance 
of everj' industry. As a business man he has 
worked not alone to secure personal success, but 
to aid in public-spirited and progressive enter- 
prises whereby other business men may also be 
benefited. Especially in De'nver is his influence 
felt. In 1882, five years after he came to Colo- 
rado, he settled in Denver, the company of which 
he is vice-president, the Omaha and Grant Smelt- 
ing and Refining Company, having removed its 
headquarters here. In addition to his connection 
with this company, he is interested in a number 
of mining companies and is vice-president of the 

Denver National Bank, in the organization of 
which he took an active part. 

The Grant family is of Scotch origin. The 
great-grandfather of Governor Grant, James 
Grant, emigrated from Scotland to North Caro- 
lina, where he was a planter. Prior to coming 
to this' country he and two brothers. Captain 
Patrick and William Grant, had taken part in 
the battle of Colodin. Descendants of James and 
William are in America to-day, so that the family 
name is being perpetuated here. Hon. James 
Grant, a son of the original settler, was a planter 
in North Carolina and one of the most influential 
public men of that state, at the time of his death 
holding the office of comptroller of the state. 

Thomas McDonough Grant, M. D., son of 
Hon. James-Grant, was born in North Carolina, 
and graduated in medicine from the Jefferson 
Medical College of Philadelphia and the Medical 
College of Charleston, S. C, after which he 
began to practice in Alabama on the Chattahoot- 
chie River and also operated a plantation there. 
He died on his homestead at the age of sixty-six 
years. His wife was Mary Jane Benton, daugh- 
ter of James Benton, who was a planter in North 
Carolina and died in early manhood. After her 
father's death she was taken into the home of 
an uncle. Col. Jack Crowell, a prominent man 
and the first member of congress from Alabama, 
also for a time Indian agent for the Seminbles. 
The Crowell family removed to Alabama from 
North Carolina, whither they had come from 
England. The family name was originally Crom- 
well, but there was so much prejudice among the 
people against this name that they dropped the 
"m" after coming to America and afterward 
were known by the present name. The Benton 
family was also of English extraction, closely re- 
lated to both the Grants and Crowells. Dr. 
Grant had four sisters and three brothers. One 
of the brothers is Judge James Grant, of Daven- 
port, Iowa. Another, William A. , died in Mont- 
gomery, Ala. ; and the third, Lieut. Gough Grant, 
was an officer in the United States navy for eight- 
een years, but is now retired. 

After the death of Dr. Grant his wife removed 
to Davenport, where she died at the age of sixty- 
two years. She was the mother of seven chil- 
dren, of whom six are living, namely: Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Ragland, of Denver; Sarah, wife of Charles 
Whitaker, of Davenport, Iowa; Dr. W. W. ; 



James Benton; D. C, of Scott County, Iowa; 
and Whitaker M., an attorney in Oklahoma. 
James Benton Grant was born on a plantation 
near Columbus, in Russell County, Ala., Jan- 
uary 2, 1848. His boyhood was spent on a 
plantation in that county. His father taught 
him to make everj' kind of farm implement and 
its practical use in the cultivation of corn, cotton 
and farm produce. He also learned woodcraft 
and the use of the axe in felling trees and splitting 
rails. Thus he laid the foundation for a strong 
mental and physical development. Though he 
alternated .school work with farming, yet before 
the age of fifteen he had read Virgil and had 
commenced to read Sallust. As he was growing 
toward manhood the dark clouds of war fell upon 
the nation and when he was but seventeen, Jan- 
uary 2, 1865, he enlisted in the Confederate 
army as a member of Waddell's battalion, in 
which he remained until the close of the war 
brought the di,sbandment of the troops, and he 
returned home in April, 1865. 

In December, 1870, Mr. Grant went to Iowa, 
where he had an uncle in Davenport. Soon aft- 
erward he entered the Iowa Agricultural Col- 
lege, where he remained for two years. He 
then spent a year in Cornell, where he took a 
course in civil engineering. In 1874 he went to 
Freiburg, Saxony, Germany, where he studied 
mining and metallurgy for two years, then re- 
turning to the United States via Australia, New 
Zealand and the Sandwich Islands. Reaching 
this country in 1877 he at once located in Colo- 
rado and engaged in mining and assaying, but 
soon, in partnership with his uncle, started the 
Grant smelter atLeadville. In 1882 the concern 
was removed to Denver, where he has since 
made his home. 

During 1882 Mr. Grant was nominated for 
governor on the Democratic ticket and enjoyed the 
distinction of being the first Democratic governor 
the state ever had. He entered upon the duties 
of office in January, 1883, and served until Jan- 
uary, 1885. Besides holding this important of- 
fice he has been prominent in his party in other 
ways. In 1884 he was a delegate to the national 
convention at Chicago, where Grover Cleveland 
was first nominated for president, and at that 
convention was chairman of the Colorado delega- 
tion and chairman of the committee on permanent 

organization. Another important position he has 
held is that of chairman of the state board of 

No biography of Governor Grant would be 
complete that failed to mention his interest in 
educational work. He is a champion of the pub- 
lic school system and one of its most earnest sup- 
porters. Of his time and influence he gives 
freely for the cause of free instruction to the 
youth of our land. In 1891 he was elected a 
member of the board of education in Denver, and 
he has served as its president for six years (since 
1892), filling that responsible position with the 
same accuracy and efficiency he has endeavored 
to fill every position to which he has been called. 
In the moral training work, too, he is deeply in- 
terested, giving it the weight of his influence. 

With a just pride in the record of his ancestors, 
he holds membership in the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, and was honored by the state association by 
being elected its president. His marriage oc- 
curred in Leadville and united him with Miss 
Mary Matteson Goodell, the granddaughter of 
Joel A. Matteson, at one time governor of Illi- 
nois. Two sons, Lester E. and James B. , Jr. , 
have been born of this union. Mrs. Grant is a 
daughter of R. E. Goodell, who formerly en- 
gaged in farming in Illinois, but removed from 
there to Leadville, and now resides in Denver. 

A public office is a public trust. Realizing 
this fact. Governor Grant, while occupying the 
gubernatorial chair, endeavored to discharge his 
duties honestly, faithfully and efficiently. His- 
tory attests that during his administration the 
industries for which the state is famous flourished 
and prospered. Settlers were attracted to the 
state in large numbers, new lines of business were 
opened and new industries inaugurated. Ranches 
were opened up for stock-raising, towns were 
founded, while mining continued, as before, to 
draw thousands of men to the mountains. The 
whole career of Governor Grant has been one of 
progress and will furnish numerous lessons to 
other generations. He rose above and conquered 
many obstacles in his life and his successes have 
been more the result of his indomitable will and 
courage than a chain of lucky circumstances. In 
his social life he was ably seconded by his wife, 
who by her rare tact and intelligence made many 
of the social functions of Denver a success. 



HON. ALBERT W. McINTlRE, governor 
of Colorado 1895-97, is a member of a family 
that has borne au active part in American 
history for many generations. The first of the 
name in this country was a Jacobite who came 
from Ayrshire in the Highlands of Scotland and 
settled in Delaware. He had a son, John, who 
was born in Delaware and was engaged in the 
transportation business between Marj'land and 
Delaware until he was financially ruined by the 
British during the war of 18 12. 

Next in line of descent was Thomas Mclntire, 
who was born near Dover, Del. , but in early man- 
hood removed to Bellefonte, Center County, Pa. , 
and engaged in farming. Prosperity attended his 
efforts and through industry and good business 
judgment he became one of the wealthy men of 
his locality. Unfortunately, in 1837 he endorsed 
the bonds of state officers and was obliged to pay 
the security, which caused his failure. He then 
removed to Cincinnati, where soon afterward he 
died of yellow fever. During the war of 1812 he 
served as a commissioned officer of the American 
army. He married a Miss Phillips, a native 
of Connecticut and member of the Society of 

One of the children of Thomas was J. P. Mc- 
lntire, who was born in Bellefonte, Center County, 
Pa. , and accompanied his father to Cincinnati. 
He was about seventeen when the latter died, and 
upon him then devolved the responsibility of car- 
ing for his mother, five sisters and a brother. 
His first venture was a very successful one. 
From Pittsburg he went up the Monongahela to 
secure lumber for the manufacture of barrels. 
The weather was unpleasant and rains were fre- 
quent. He was obliged to wade and swim through 
creeks, carrying his pack on his back. Finally, 
however, he secured the lumber, cut it out and 
loaded a couple of boats he had hired for the pur- 
pose. When he reached the lock the dam was 
broken, but with the assistance of an Indian he 
succeeded in shooting the boats through the break, 
though he was almost drowned in the attempt. 
When he arrived in Pittsburg he found that the 
price of staves and hoop-poles had risen enor- 
mously and he sold off half his cargo for enough 
to pay for the whole and start him in business. 
He then engaged in the cooper's trade for a few 
years in Pittsburg, after which he became inter- 
ested in the coal mining and shipping business 

near the city. During the war one of his boats 
was chartered by the government and he ran the 
rebel works at Vicksburg in order to take coal to 
the Union fleet below. In 1867 he retired from 
business, and in 1894 he died in Pittsburg. In 
religion he was identified with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

Governor Mclntire's mother was Isabella A. 
Wills, a native of Pittsburg, Pa., and daughter of 
James and Mary (Thompson) Wills, natives of 
Belfast, Ireland. Her father, who came to Amer- 
ica in 1790 and settled in Washington County, 
Pa. , was a prominent attorney of Pittsburg and 
about 1820 was elected state's attorney. During 
his term of office, while on his way home from 
Harrisburg, he died from the effects of a sun- 
stroke. In religious belief he was a Presbyterian. 
His wife was a babe when her- father came to this 
country in 1 790 and located in Washington Couu' 
ty. Mrs. Isabella Mclntire is now in her eigh- 
tieth year and makes her home in St. Louis with 
a daughter. 

The older of the two children of his father's 
second marriage, Governor Mclntire was born in 
Pittsburg, January 15, 1853. He was educated 
in private schools, the Newall Institute and Yale 
College, graduating from the latter in 1873, with 
the degree of A. B. He then entered Yale Law 
School, from which he graduated in 1875, receiv- 
ing the degree of LL. B., and admission to the 
bar of Connecticut. He then returned to Pitts- 
burg, and passing the examination there was ad- 
mitted to the bar. In 1876 he went to Colorado, 
living alternately in Denver and the mountain 
regions until 1880, then turned his attention to 
the cattle business, in the San Luis Valley, being 
the owner of four thousand acres there that he still 
devotes to stock-raising and farming. In 1883 
he was nominated for county judge by both the 
Republicans and Democrats and was of course 
elected, holding the position for three years, when 
he refused renoraination. In the fall of 1886 he 
was candidate for representative from Conejos 
County, but was defeated by William H. Adams, 
a brother of Governor Adams. In the year 1889 
he adjudicated the water rights for the Rio Grande 
River in Colorado. Two years later he was 
appointed judge of the twelfth judicial district 
by Governor Routt. 

Having for years been prominent in the Repub- 
lican party, in 1894 ^^ was made its candidate for 

1 62 


governor, his opponent being his predecessor in 
office, Hon. David H. Waite. He was elected by 
nineteen thousand seven hundred and eight ma- 
jority over the Populist candidate, and began the 
duties of office January 8, 1895. During his ad- 
ministration he introduced a modification of the 
attachment law, providing that attachments could 
no longer be served upon overdue promissory 
notes and overdue book accounts, which was of 
the greatest assistance to debtors. The same 
thing had been attempted, unsuccessfully, by 
every legislature since 188 1. He strongly urged 
upon the legislature the industrial employment of 
convict labor. During his term occurred the Wal- 
senburg lynching, which he settled in a manner 
satisfactory both to the Italian government and 
the secretary of state of the United States. He 
also handled the Leadville strike troubles, which 
occurred during his term. Since his retirement 
he has given his attention to his mining interests 
and private business affairs. 

In New Haven, Conn., in 1873, occurred the 
marriage of Mr. Mclntire to Miss Florence John- 
son, who was born in New York City, the daugh- 
ter of William L,. Johnson, a manufacturer there. 
Three children were born of their marriage: 
Joseph Phillips, who is manager of the ranch in the 
San Lruis Valley; Elizabeth Lord, deceased; and 
Dorothy. Fraternally Governor Mclntire is a 
Knight Templar and member of the Shrine. He 
is connected with the Alpha Delta Phi, the Colo- 
rado Yale Association and the Denver Athletic 
Club. In politics he is a silver Republican. He 
is a man of broad information, especially in the 
direction of scientific subjects. He is also a lin- 
guist, speaking German, Spanish and French and 
reading Latin and Greek. His state papers show 
careful thought and preparation; and his message 
was declared, even by opposition papers, to be 
the peer of any of its kind ever issued in the state. 

RALPH TALBOT, senior member of the law 
firm of Talbot, Denison & Wadley, of 
Denver, and president of the fire and police 
board, was born in Fayette, Howard County, 
Mo., August 17, 1850, and is the son of Dr. 
John A. and Alice (Daly) Talbot, natives of 
Maryland and Lexington, Ky., respectively. 
His paternal grandfather, John Talbot, resided 
on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in Talbot 

County, which was named in honor of his an- 
cestors. The maternal grandfather, Laurence 
Daly, was born in Ireland and at an early age 
settled in Kentucky, where he married. Some 
years later he moved to Missouri and engaged in 
teaching school, having among his pupils such 
men as Gen. John B. Clark, Colonel Switzler, 
and others who became distinguished in national 
history. Dr. Talbot graduated from the Jeffer- 
son Medical College of Philadelphia and after- 
ward practiced his profession in Fayette, Mo., 
where he died in 1858, at the age of fifty-four. 
His wife died at the family residence in Missouri 
in 1 87 1. Of their family of six sons and three 
daughters, all survive with the exception of one 

The fourth son in order of birth, the subject of 
this sketch was prepared for college in Kemper's 
Institute in Missouri. In 1868 he entered 
Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, from 
which he graduated in 1872 with the degree of 
A. B. For two years after completing his ed- 
ucation he taught Latin and modern history in 
St. Paul's school at Concord, N. H., which is 
the largest Episcopal school in America. He 
resigned to study abroad and went to Germany 
in 1874, entering Leipsic University, where he 
spent three years in the study of jurisprudence. 
He was admitted to the bar of Missouri in 1878 
and opened an office in St. Louis, where he re- 
mained two years or more. In 1881 he came to 
Denver, where he has since engaged in profes- 
sional practice. Though always a stanch Dem- 
ocrat, he never sought office, and the first position 
that he held was in 1897, when the governor 
appointed him president of the fire and police 
board of Denver, and as such also became ex- 
officio fire commissioner. 

In Mexico, Mo., Mr. Talbot married Miss 
Fannie (Jewell) Hardin, a descendant of the well- 
known family of Kentucky, who are prominently 
identified with the history of that state. She was 
born in Missouri, the daughter of Dr. Thomas J. 
Hardin, and when she was about seven years of 
age, on account of her father's death, she was 
taken into the home of her uncle, ex-Governor 
Charles H. Hardin, of Missouri. For some 
years she was a student in the William Jewell 
Baptist College, Mr. Jewell having been a relative 
of the Hardin family. The five children of Mr. 
and Mrs. Talbot are: Alice, Ralph, Jr., Charles 



Hardin, Robert and Laurence Daly. Fraternally 
Mr. Talbot is connected with Union Lodge 
No! 7, A. F. & A. M., of Denver, and in 1894 
was grand chancellor of the Knights of Pythias 
of the state. While in Dartmouth he was a 
member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity. He is 
connected with the bar associations of Denver 
and Colorado, and for eight years was one of the 
board of examiners for admission to the bar in 
the city of Denver. 

3 SIDNEY BROWN, president of the J. S. 
Brown & Bro. Mercantile Company, of Den- 
ver. The family of which this gentleman is 
a prominent member was founded in America by 
Henry Brown, who emigrated from England to 
Salisbury, Mass., about 1639. Representing the 
fifth generation in descent from him was 
Brown, born in East Kingston, N. H., in 1750, 
a soldier in the Revolution. He married Mary 
Hobbs, of Poplin, N. H., and afterward removed 
to Strafford, in Orange County, Vt. Their son, 
Reuben, was born in Strafford in 1797, and when 
a young man located in Conneaut, Ashtabula 
County, Ohio, where he engaged in farming. He 
died in 1863. His wife, who was a daughter of 
John and Laura (Bushnell) Hill, was born in 
Starksboro, Vt. , and died in Denver in 1889, 
aged eighty-seven. She was a sister of Gen. 
Charles W. Hill, of Ohio, who during Governor 
Todd's administration was adjutant-general of 
Ohio, and assisted greatly in putting Ohio's 
quota of soldiers in the field during the war of the 
Rebellion, and cousin of Rev. Horace Bushnell, of 
Hartford, Conn., and Judge James Campbell, 
judge of the supreme court of Michigan. 

On the mother's .side Mr. Brown is a lineal de- 
scendant of Gen. Robert Sedgwick, colonist and 
soldier, who was born in England in 1600. The 
Sedgwicks came from among the mountains 
which form the borders of Lancashire, Yorkshire 
and Westmoreland, England, and suffered in the 
border wars of York and Lancaster. Gen. Rob- 
ert Sedgwick, the ancestor of the Sedgwicks of 
New England, became an inhabitant of Charles- 
town, Mass., June 3, 1636, and in 1637 a freeman 
of that town. His residence was in the market 
place, now the square near the site of the Bunker 
Hill Bank. He was captain of the first "Trained 
Band' ' in Charlestown. He was chosen represent- 

ative in 1637 and for several successive years 
served in that capacity, and as selectman of 
Charlestown. From 1641 to 1648 he commanded 
the "Castle." In 1644 he was the first major of 
the Middlesex regiment. In 1645 he was com- 
missioned to take care of the fortifications of the 
town and the harbor. He was elected major- 
general May 26, 1652. In 1654 he visited Eng- 
land and engaged in the service of Cromwell as 
commander of a contemplated expedition against 
the Dutch of New York, but peace was made 
with them and he led the expedition against the 
French forts in Nova Scotia. He captured St. 
Johns, Port Royal and another fort. This vigor- 
ous action was so acceptable to Cromwell that the 
next year he was appointed to service in the 
West Indies. Jamaica had been captured and 
General Sedgwick was sent with a fleet to re-in- 
force General Venable. He arrived at the Bar- 
badoes August 27, 1655, and learned that Gener- 
al Venable had been repulsed. A council was 
formed to govern the island and manage the af- 
fairs. He was made commissioner for the gov- 
ernment and afterwards major-general and gov- 
ernor. Carlyle said he was very brave, zealous 
and pious. He was one of the most distinguished 
men of his time. He was an enterprising mer- 
chant. He built wharves on the shore east of the 
old ferry-built ways and the old tide walls. In 
1643 he joined the younger Winthrop in starting 
the first iron works in America. 

Charlestown has cause to remember the public 
spirit of General Sedgwick. He took a warm 
interest in its welfare and was constantly in its 
service. His regard for education is seen in his 
gifts to the college. He was a representative of 
the liberal Puritans of New England; religion 
was in all his thoughts and yet he openly opposed 
the prevailing intolerance. "He was nursed in 
the London Artillery Garden and was stout and 
active in all feats of war. " While in London he 
joined the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany and after coming to America was active in 
organizing the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company of Boston, Mass., becoming its captain 
in 1640. He died in Jamaica May 24, 1656. 

John Sidney Brown was next to the youngest 
of five children, the others being: Junius F. , a 
member of the J. S. Brown & Bro. Mercantile 
Company; Mrs. Adelia Dayfoot, who died in 
Canada; Mrs. Hannah Gillett; and Charles H., 

1 66 


who died in Denver. J. Sidney Brown was born 
in Ashtabula County, Ohio, June lo, 1833, the 
son of Reuben and Betsey Horton (Hill) Brown. 
He was educated in public schools. In 1858 he 
joined his brother in Atchison, Kan., and they 
engaged in the manufacture of lumber. In 1861 
he began freighting between Atchison and Den- 
ver, and made two trips that year with an ox- 
train, and early in 1862 he came with a mule 
train and founded the present business. The 
freighting business he continued until 1870, when 
it was discontinued. In 1864 one of his mule- 
train was attacked by Indians and destroyed. 

The first location of the firm in Denver was on 
Blake street near Fifteenth, where they remained 
until 1876, and then removed to their present lo- 
cation on Wazee street. In 1893 the firm was 
incorporated under the name of the J. S. Brown 
& Bro. Mercantile Company, of which J. S. 
Brown is president, J. F. Brown vice-president, 
H. K. Brown secretary, F. S. Brown treasurer 
and F. A. Hall general manager. The firm 
erected the first roller flouring mill and grain ele- 
vator in Colorado, on the present site of the Cres- 
cent mill. They were interested in the organiza- 
tion of the Bank of San Juan, at Del Norte, also 
in the founding of the banks at Alamosa and Du- 
rango, and took an active part in the organization 
of the Denver Tramway Company. In 1882 they 
embarked in the stock business in the Platte Val- 
ley, where they are still extensivel}' interested. 
The Brown-Iliff Cattle Company have a large 
ranch near Snyder, Colo. , between South Platte 
River and the Wyoming state line, the range be- 
ing owned principally by the land company of 
which J. F. Brown is president. 

In the building of railroads Mr. Brown is in- 
terested. He was a director in the South Park 
line, assisted in the building of the Denver Pacific 
Railroad, between Denver and Cheyenne, was a 
promoter, director and vice president of the Den- 
ver & New Orleans Railroad, and assisted in other 
enterprises of an important nature. Only one 
man in Denver has been engaged in the same 
line of business continuously for a longer period 
than Mr. Brown. 

Mr. Brown was married to Miss Irene Sopris, in 
Denver, in 1868. She was born in Indiana, a 
daughter of Richard and Elizabeth (Allen) 
Sopris, and died in January, 1881, leaving five chil- 
dren, viz.: Frederick S., treasurer of the J. S. 

Brown & Bro. Mercantile Company; Elizabeth, 
Mrs. A. B. Inglis, of Paterson, N. J.; Edward N., 
who is with J. S. Brown & Bro. ; Katherine and 
William K., the latter a member of the class of 
1900, She£5eld Scientific School, of Yale Univer- 

The present wife of Mr. Brown was Miss Adele 
Overton, who was born in Wisconsin. She grad- 
uated from the University of Wisconsin in 187 1, 
with the degree of B. S., and the .same year came 
to Colorado, where she was assistant principal in 
the Denver high school. She is a member of the 
Daughters of the Revolution and treasurer of the 
Colorado State Society. She is the mother of 
five children now living: John Sidney, Jr., Ben 
Overton, Carroll Teller, Alice and Irene. The 
father of Mrs. Brown, John Overton, was born 
near London, England, May 11, 1822, and died 
at Parker, S. Dak., May 14, 1888. His parents, 
Robert and Maria (Roy) Overton, came to Amer- 
ica and died in Wisconsin. He was their young- 
est child and only son, and was eighteen years 
old when he came to this country. His wife, 
Lucina Otto, was born in New York in 1824, and 
died in Parker, S. Dak., in 1892. She was a 
daughter of John Otto and Maria (Teller) Otto, 
the latter a descendant of Dr. Isaac Teller, a 
Revolutionary soldier. Senator Teller's father, 
John Teller, late of Morrison, 111. , was a brother of 
Maria (Teller) Otto; while Senator Jerome B. Chaf- 
fee was a son of John Otto's sister. The originator 
of the Teller family in America was William Tel- 
ler, born in 1620 in Holland, emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1639, settled in Fort Orange and appointed 
by the king of Holland a trustee for a tract of 
land there, but in 1664 he returned to New York 
City and married Mary Douchen. From them 
descended Dr. Isaac Teller, who lived on the cor- 
ner of Chambers and Broadway, New York, 
and died while serving as a surgeon in the 
Revolution. He married Rebecca Remsen, of 
Brooklyn. Their son, Remsen Teller, who 
was born about 1769, married Catherine Mac- 
Donald, ofBallstonSpa, N. Y., daughter of David 
and Sarah (DuBois) MacDonald, and grand- 
daughter of Col. Louis DuBois, of Ulster, N. Y., 
who was a colonel in the Revolution. Remsen 
and Catherine Teller had a daughter, Maria, 
who married John Otto, a native of Schoharie 
County, N. Y., and a son of Franz Otto, who 
served during the entire period of the Revolution. 



The originator of the Otto family in America 
was Rudolph Otto, born in Baden-Baden, Ger- 
many, in 1715, and settled in Schoharie County, 
N. Y., in 1 74 1. He had two sons, John and Franz, 
or Francis. The latter, born in 1757 and died at 
the age of ninety-six, married Barbara Schultz, 
later moving to Mount Morris, Livingston County, 
N. Y. Among their nine children was John, 
born in 1796. He was a brother of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Chaffee, who was the mother of Jerome B. 
Chaffee, United States senator and one of the most 
prominent mining men of the state of Colorado. 

In fraternal relations Mr. Brown is a Knight 
Templar Mason. He is a member of the Sons of 
the Revolution. Politically he gives his affilia- 
tion to the silver branch of the Republican party. 
As a director he has been actively interested in 
the Colorado Cattle Growers' Association, and 
has done all within his power to promote the in- 
dustry which is so vitally connected with the wel- 
fare of the state. He attends the First Congre- 
gational Church and contributes liberally to its 
support, as, indeed, he does to all enterprises of a 
religious and philanthropic nature. 

U' tendent of public instruction of Arapahoe 
J5 County, is a member of a family that traces 
its lineage back to Saxony and to Scotland. For 
many generations its representatives have been 
identified with the history of the United States. 
From Connecticut Oliver Pickett Knapp removed 
to Westmoreland, Oneida County, N. Y., where 
he died at an advanced age. His son, Ezra Ab- 
bott Knapp, was born near Fairfield, Conn. , and 
removed to Oneida County, N. Y., where he en- 
gaged in farming until his death, in December, 
1841, at the age of forty-three years and eight 
months. When a mere lad he had taken part in 
the battle of Sacket Harbor. He married So- 
phronia Waters, who was born in Connecticut, 
and accompanied her father, Elijah Waters, to 
New York state, where he' followed the carpen- 
ter's trade. 

In the family of Ezra Abbott Knapp there was 
a son, the oldest of the family, Edwin A. Knapp, 
M. D. , who served as surgeon of the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-second New York Infantry, 
during the Civil war, and died in Syracuse, N. Y. 
Another son, Jairus S., who was the third among 

the six children of the family, was born in West- 
moreland, Oneida County, N. Y., May 8, 1825, 
and grew to manhood on the home farm. He 
made farming his life work, and for fifty-four 
years tilled the soil of the old homestead. Mean- 
time he held a number of local offices and took 
part in many enterprises for the benefit of the 
town and county. In 1 89 1 he retired from farm- 
ing and has since resided in Denver. 

In 1849 Jairus S. Knapp married Harriet A. 
Kellogg, who was born in Westmoreland, N. Y., 
January 31, 1825, being a descendant of one of 
the passengers of the historic "Mayflower. ' ' She 
was a daughter of Deacon Warren Kellogg, who 
was born in Hartford, Conn., and became an 
earlj' settler of Oneida County, N. Y., where he 
engaged in farming and carpentering. He died 
in 1869, at the age of ninety. His father was 
Abraham Kellogg. 

The subject of this sketch is the oldest child of 
Jairus S. and Harriet A. Knapp, the other mem- 
bers of the family being Leonard Kellogg, of 
Denver; Harriet Antoinette, who is Mrs. Newell 
DeRoy Lee, of Westmoreland, N. Y. ; Edwin 
Abbott, who has been in Boulder, Colo., since 
November, 1877, and is now the city marshal; 
Helen Maria, of Denver, and Alice Emeline, who 
has been in Honolulu since August, 1891, and is 
now principal of the Kamehameha preparatory 
school for native boys in that city. 

Born in Westmoreland, N. Y. , January 22, 
1850, Warren Ezra Knapp was a student in the 
Whitestone (N. Y.) Seminary, where he pre- 
pared for college. About the same time he began 
to teach school, teaching in his native town and 
at Jamesville, N. Y. In September, 1871, he en- 
tered Cornell University (having won a state 
scholarship), where he remained for two years, 
and then spent one year as principal of the Savan- 
nah Union school in Wayne County, N. Y., after 
which he applied his earnings as teacher to the 
completion of his college course. He re-entered 
Cornell as a member of the class of 1876, having 
among his classmates Jesse Grant and R. B. 
Hayes, Jr. After leaving Cornell he held his 
former position as principal of the Savannah school 
for one year. 

In August, 1876, at Ithaca, N. Y., Professor 
Knapp married Miss Sarah E. Cochrane, who 
was born in Ithaca, the daughter of Robert and 
Eliza J. Cochrane, whose occupation was farming. 

1 68 


After his marriage, for three years Professor 
Knapp was principal of the Union school at West- 
moreland, his native place. In the fall of 1880 
he became principal of the Union graded school 
and academy at Madison, N. Y., which position 
he held for two years. He had entered into a 
contract for a third year, but within a month re- 
signed, in order to accept the position of cashier 
of the banking house of A. K. & E. B. Yount, at 
Fort Collins, Colo. He reached Fort Collins 
July 22, 1882, and entered upon the duties of his 
position, remaining there until he came to Denver, 
in October, 18S3. He was chosen principal of the 
Franklin school, which was then being erected, 
and entered upon his work in January of the fol- 
lowing year. At that time the school was the 
largest and finest building of its kind west of 
Omaha and Kansas City. He remained its prin- 
cipal until January, 1898, when he resigned to 
enter upon his duties as county superintendent 
of Arapahoe County. To this position he was 
nominated on the silver Republican ticket and 
endorsed by the McKinley Republicans, and was 
elected by a large plurality at the election in No- 
vember previous. The county has nearly one 
hundred school districts, with six hundred and 
fifty teachers and thirty-five thousand children of 
school age, being the most populous county in 
the state. 

In 1884 Professor Knapp became identified with 
the State Teachers' Association, also the national 
association, and in 1890 was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Colorado state educational exhibit 
made at St. Paul, Minn., in July, at the meeting 
of the national association. He was present at 
the national meeting of teachers at Madison, 
Wis., in 1884; at San Francisco in 1888, when 
he had charge of the Colorado state headquarters; 
and at St. Paul in 1890, where was the first ex- 
tensive educational exhibit ever made by Colorado 
at a meeting of an educational association. In 
December, 1890, he was elected president of the 
State Teachers' Association, and soon afterward 
was appointed state manager for Colorado for 
the association meeting in Toronto, in July, 189 1, 
the duty of manager being to arrange for the state 
representation and take charge of the delegation. 
During the Toronto meeting he was elected a 
member of the board of directors, National Edu- 
cational Association, to represent Colorado. The 
following year he was again made manager of 

the state delegation, which he took to the Nation- 
al Educational Association at Saratoga, N. Y. 

At the expiration of his term as president of 
the state association, in December, 1891, the for- 
mer treasurer, Hon. J. C. Shattuck, who had 
held the office for fourteen years, resigned, and 
Professor Knapp was elected to the place, which 
he has since filled. At the meeting of the Na- 
tional Educational Association in Asbury Park, 
N. J., in July, 1894, he was again elected to 
represent Colorado on the board of directors. 
He, with the influence of other Colorado del- 
egates, succeeded in securing the convention of 
1895 for Denver, and he was the state director 
for the meeting here. In 1896 he again had 
charge of the Colorado delegation to the National 
Educational Association at Buffalo, N. Y. With 
one exception he has attended all the meetings of 
the National Educational Association since 1888. 

The first connection of Professor Knapp with 
politics was in the fall of 1892, when he was a 
candidate for state superintendent of public in- 
struction before the Republican convention at 
Pueblo. Before the nomination he withdrew from 
the race in favor of his only opponent, geograph- 
ical and political reasons influencing him in this 
decision. However, the convention by acclama- 
tion placed him in nomination as a regent of the 
state university, but, with the whole ticket, was 
defeated, Governor Waite and the entire Populist 
ticket being elected. 

In the Republican state convention of 1894, 
Professor Knapp was again a candidate for state 
superintendent of public instruction, and until 
the convention opened it seemed that he was likely 
to be nominated. However, a new candidate 
appeared. Universal sufi'rage had come into 
Colorado, and a lady appeared as a candidate. 
An exciting condition of aflfairs followed, but, as 
the ballot was about to be taken, he voluntarily 
withdrew from the race and moved the nomina- 
tion of Mrs. Angenette J. Peavy by acclamation, 
which was done, although hundreds of his friends 
protested against his withdrawal. 

The legislature in 1891 organized the state into 
normal institute districts, Arapahoe County being 
the third district . He was the first regular normal 
institute conductor for this county and after this 
organization held the institute in the Franklin 
school. In 1892 he was again appointed conduc- 
tor, and held the institute in the East Side high 



school, being in each case appointed by the Hon. 
A. D. Shepard, county superintendent of schools. 
Since then he has engaged in institute work every 
summer in the various counties of Colorado and 
in Cheyenne, Wyo. Since 1892 he has been a 
member of Washington Camp No. 14, P. O. S. 
of A. , in which he is now president. For sixteen 
years he has been identified with the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. He is a member of 
the Third Congregational Church of Denver, is 
its treasurer and for six years was superintendent 
of the Sunday-school. His daughter, Evelyn, is 
the only survivor of his five children. 

NENRY C. BROWN. The first member of 
the Brown family of whom there is any 
definite knowledge was Samuel, son of 
Nicholas Brown, and a native of Reading, Mass. 
He was a man of considerable force of character 
and, for those early days, was considered wealthy, 
leaving valuable property at his death. After- 
ward his widow took charge of the property, 
which she managed until her death, after a widow- 
hood of fifty years. Elisha, son of Samuel, was 
seven years of age at the time of his father's 
death. In 1744 he moved to Cambridge, and 
later married Elizabeth Davis, of that city. By 
inheritance he was a rich man, and through the 
exercise of good judgment he added to the fort- 
une left him by his father. He and his wife 
were the parents of four children, Hannah, Mary, 
Samuel and Elisha. At different times he 
resided in several Massachusetts towns, and 
finally died in Acton, where his mother had left 
some property. His wife also died there, in 1781. 
The fate of their children is not definitely known, 
excepting Samuel, the progenitor of our subject. 
He was the third child of his parents and was 
probably born in Cambridge, but spent his youth 
principally in Acton, from which place he enlisted 
for service in the Revolution. Among the en- 
gagements in which he participated were the 
battle of Concord, siege of Boston, battles of 
Bunker Hill and Quebec; and at the latter place 
he was wounded and taken prisoner, but later 
was sent home on parole. He ranked as a second 
lieutenant. He was fifty- one years of age when ^ 
in 1800, he removed to St. Clairsville, Ohio, and 
there he died in 1828, and was buried with 
military honors. Twice married, his first wife 

was a daughter of Maj. Daniel Fletcher, of Acton, 
and his second wife was Polly Newkirk. In his 
family, by both marriages, there were twenty- 
one children, but only two of them are living, 
Elizabeth Fletcher Lennon and Henry Cordis 
Brown, both of Denver. 

The subject of this sketch, who was the son of 
Samuel Brown, was born near St. Clairsville, 
Ohio, November 18, 1820. He was educated at 
Franklin Brooks Academy, St. Clairsville. At 
the age of seven years he was orphaned by his 
father's death and soon afterward he began to 
earn his own livelihood. He remained on the 
farm until sixteen years of age and later learned 
the carpenter's and joiner's trade and the ar- 
chitect's business in St. Louis, Mo., where he re- 
mained until the spring of 1852, assisting his 
brother, Isaac H. Brown, an architect and builder. 
From St. Louis he crossed the plains to Califor- 
nia, making the trip with ox-teams, and after a 
journey of many hardships landed in Placerville 
(then called Hangtown on account of the historic 
tree used for hanging) after one hundred and ten 
days on the way. After one day in that town he 
went to Sacramento, thence to San Francisco, and 
from there, a month later, to Portland, Ore., 
where he spent a month. He then went down 
the Columbia River and from there crossed by 
land to the Willamette River, thence to Olympia, 
Wash., where he spent a month. Forming a 
partnership with two men, Messrs. Reader and 
Peabody, he began the construction of a sawmill 
for sawing lumber, and located a mill at the 
mouth of the Whatken River, emptying into 
Bellingham Bay. 

After eight months Mr. Brown sold his interest 
in the mill and returned to San Francisco, where 
he followed the occupation of an architect and 
builder, among the buildings he erected being a 
bank building, then considered the best building 
in the city, and still standing. He spent three 
years in San Francisco, meeting with varying 
success. F'rom there he went to Oroville, Cal. , 
where he spent six months, engaged in the build- 
ing and commission business, and was so success- 
ful that he accumulated $6,000 in that time. Re- 
turning to San Francisco, he sailed in a clipper 
ship, "The Golden Eagle," for Peru, South Am- 
erica. He spent sixty days touring in Lima and 
Calleo, then sailed in the "Golden Age," for 
Hampton Roads, Va. From there he went to 



Baltimore, then to Philadelphia and New York, 
next to Chicago and from there to St. Louis, 
reaching that city after an absence of five j'ears. 
After a short visit there, he took passage up the 
Missouri River to Sioux Citj', Iowa, and from 
there went to Decatur, Neb., where he remained 
for two years. Next he spent a year or more in 
St. Joseph, Mo. 

June 9, i860, Mr. Brown arrived in Denver, 
finding here a frontier town of one thousand 
inhabitants, and with no substantial buildings ex- 
cept the Broadwell Hotel, corner of Larimer and 
Sixteenth streets. The first building he erected 
was a large .structure on Cherry Creek that was 
used by the Methodist Episcopal congregation as 
a church house until the disastrous and memor- 
able flood of May 4, 1864, washed the building 
away. Just two weeks before the flood he had 
moved from the neighborhood of the creek to his 
pre-emption claim, later known as Brown's addi- 
tion, on which subsequently the state capitol was 
built, also many of the most beautiful residences 
in the city, and the famous Brown Palace Hotel, 
the most magnificent hotel between Chicago and 
San Francisco, and erected at a cost of $1 ,600,000. 

HON. HENRY NEIKIRK, a pioneer of Colo- 
rado, ex-state senator, and a prominent 
citizen of Boulder, is a representative, in 
the fourth generation, of a family that was found- 
ed in Pennsylvania by three brothers from Ger- 
many. His grandfather, Henry, the son of one of 
these pioneers, was born in Pennsylvania, but re- 
moved to Maryland, where he continued to engage 
in farm pursuits until his death; during the war of 
1812 he rendered service in the American army. 
His son, Manassas, was born in Washington 
County, Md., and after his marriage removed, in 
1836, to Carroll County, 111., where he improved 
a large tract of government land that still remains 
in the possession of the family. He was born in 
1809 and died in 1 871, at the age of sixty-two 
years. His wife, Mary, daughter of Josiah Pope, 
was born in Maryland, of Irish-German descent, 
and died in Illinois in 1892, when more than 
eighty years of age. They were the parents of 
three sous and four daughters who attained mature 
years, of whom all but one daughter are still liv- 
ing, Henry being the eldest of the sons. 

At Elkhorn Grove, near MiUedgeville, Carroll 

County, 111., the subject of this sketch was born 
November 27, 1839. He was educated in the 
public schools and in Mount Carroll Seminary, 
where he remained for three years. He studied 
law in Mount Carroll under William T. Miller, 
then the most prominent attorney of that section. 
However, after a year of study, he was seized 
with the western fever and in 1861 started for the 
mountain regions, going down the Mississippi to 
Hannibal, from there to St. Joseph, then horse- 
back to Nebraska City, where he outfitted with 
an ox-train. Going up the Platte, he established 
a trading post at Alkali, on the river, two hun- 
dred and thirty miles east of Denver, building the 
first post there. During the summer he carried 
a load of freight to Denver and returned with a 
loadof lumber for building on his ranch. Alkali 
was the greatest place for trading he had ever 
seen, but he was too j'oung to take advantage of 
the opportunity. While there he had many in- 
teresting experiences, such as fall to the lot of a 
pioneer. On the 25th of December he returned 
to Nebraska City, and in the spring of 1862 
again came west, beginning as a prospector 
and miner in Blackhawk, Gilpin County. He 
continued in the vicinity of that place during 
most of the time until 1875. In the meantime, 
as early as 1867, he began to work the Hoosier 
mine in Boulder. In 1875 he located the Mel- 
vina, near Salina, which was one of the finest 
mines of its kind that had been opened up to that 
time; after running it for five years he sold the 
property. In 1886 he with others bought the 
White Crow at Sunshine, and operated it for five 
years. He is interested in the Freiburg at Gold 
Hill, of which he is superintendent; Sunshine and 
Black Swan at Salina; Black Swan Gold Mining 
Company, of which he is superintendent and a 
director; Golden Sheen and Maveric; Colonel 
Zellar's mine at Sunshine; and Gold Farms, com- 
prising one hundred and seventy-three acres near 
Magnolia, the most extensive mining property in 
Boulder County, and operated by the Gold Farms 
Mining Company, of which he is superintendent 
and a director. 

In 1875 Mr. Neikirk brought his family to 
Boulder, where he established his home. In 1881 
he located at his present place, buying thirty-four 
acres, of which he has sold sixteen. He has 
built a substantial brick residence, set out shade 
and ornamental trees, as well as a number of fruit 



trees, and iutroduced a sj'stem of irrigation. In 
the spring of 1898 he platted and placed on the 
market the Neikirk-Stewart addition to Boulder 
City, comprising one hundred and sixty-five lots 
situated to the north and west of the main busi- 
ness portion of the city. For fourteen years he 
was a director and the vice-president of the Na- 
tional State Bank of Boulder, but finally resigned. 
He has been a large land owner, having real es- 
tate in Denver, also owned several ranches, com- 
prising twelve hundred acres in Boulder and 
Weld Counties, and six hundred and forty acres 
north of Longmont, where he built a reservoir of 
one hundred acres, that furnishes excellent irri- 
gation facilities. 

The marriage of Mr. Neikirk took place in 
Jamestown, Boulder County, and united him with 
Miss Emily Virden, who was born in Grant 
County, Wis. Her father, John Virden, was born 
in Kentucky, and became a pioneer farmer of 
Wisconsin, but in 1863 brought his family to 
Colorado, settling in Gilpin County, but later re- 
moved to Jamestown. Born in 18 16, he is now 
eighty-two years of age, and can no longer en- 
gage actively in business pursuits; he is spending 
his last days in the home of Mr. Neikirk, where 
four generations of his family are represeuted. 
His wife was Jane Hunt, born in Kentucky, died 
in Colorado. 

The six children of Mr. and Mrs. Neikirk are 
named as follows: Fannie, wife of Fred Angove, 
of Boulder; Jessie, a graduate of the State Uni- 
versity, in 1897; Lewis, member of the class of 
1898, in the university; Thomas, who ajssists his 
father in mining; Burr, who is a member of the 
high school class of 1900; and Abigail, who is a 
student in the high school. 

In 1878 Mr. Neikirk was urged to accept the 
nomination for the state senate and was elected 
by a majority of four hundred, his opponent be- 
ing the noted Joe Wolf, who had organized 
Greenback clubs throughout the county and had 
worked the district for two years hoping to secure 
the election. Mr. Neikirk served in the second 
and third sessions, 1879-81, was chairman of the 
committees on irrigation and fees and salaries the 
first session, and chairman of the finance com- 
mittee the second session. During the first ses- 
sion he drew the bill that levied the tax of one- 
half mill, the nucleus of the fund that built the 
present state capitol building. He secured ap- 

propriation to pay expense of martial law, declared 
by Governor Pitkin in 1880, during the strike at 
Leadville. He has frequently served the Republi- 
can party as delegate to conventions. During the 
campaign of 1896 he advocated the silver cause, 
and has since served as chairman of the county 
convention of that party. 

HON. MOSES HALLETT. While it was 
the hope of discovering gold in the mines of 
the mountains that induced Judge Hallett 
to come to Colorado at the time of the Pike's 
Peak gold excitement, the competence he has 
gained here was not unearthed from hidden re- 
cesses of the mountains, but has come to him in 
the honorable discharge of his duties as a jurist. 
When Colorado was admitted as a state, during 
the Centennial year of our country's history. 
President Grant appointed him judge of the 
United States district court of Colorado, and this 
honorable position he has since most efiiciently 
filled. He is also dean of the Colorado School 
of Law, which is the law department of the Colo- 
rado University, and holds the chair of American 
constitutional law and federal juri.sprudence. 

Judge Hallett was born in Galena, Jo Daviess 
County, 111., July 16, 1834. His father, who 
was a native of Massachusetts, came west in an 
early day and engaged in pioneer farming in 
Missouri, and later in Jo Daviess County, 111., 
and served during the period of the Black Hawk 
war. When a boy the subject of this sketch at- 
tended the public schools, then continued his 
studies in Rock River Seminary, and subse- 
quently became a student in Beloit (Wis. ) College. 
At the age of twenty, in the fall of 1855, he be- 
gan to study law in the office of E. S. Williams, 
of Chicago, and four years later was admitted to 
the bar, after which he opened an oSice in 
Chicago. In the spring of i860 he came to Colo- 
rado for the purpose of mining, and for a time 
worked in Gilpin and Clear Creek Counties, but 
the employment was uncongenial and unprofit- 
able. He was soon brought to realize that he 
was more fitted for the practice of law than for 
the discovery of mineral wealth, and he decided 
to return to practice. Coming to Denver, he 
formed a law partnership with Hon. Hiram P. 
Bennett. In April, 1866, he was appointed 
chief justice of the territorial supreme court, as 



the result of a joint memorial that was passed by 
the general assembly of the territory of Colorado 
in Feburary, 1866, and presented to President 
Andrew Johnson, asking him to make a citizen 
of Colorado the appointee and recommending Mr. 
Hallett for the position. 

The memorial being approved by the governor 
was forwarded to the president, and the result 
was that April 10 Mr. Hallett was commis- 
sioned chief justice. He was very successful in 
the position, winning recognition for fairness and 
impartiality. He was re-appointed by General 
Grant April 6, 1870, and in April, 1874, serving 
until the territory was made a state. It was not 
his first experience as an office holder, for he had 
previously represented the counties of Arapahoe 
and Douglas in the legislature. In January, 
1877, he was made judge of the United States 
district court by President Grant, with whom he 
was personally acquainted. It has been well said 
of him, "He has aided very largely, not only in 
settling many of the disputes that have come up 
in the territory and state, but he has done a great 
deal towards establishing justice and dignity in 
the Colorado courts, without which no community 
can ever prosper. ' ' 

The memorial alluded to, asking the president 
of the United States to appoint a citizen of the 
territory as chief justice and approved February 
8, 1866, read as follows: 

"To His Excellency, the President of the 
United States: 

"The people of the territory of Colorado, 
through their representatives in the legislative 
assembly, respectfully represent unto the presi- 
dent that many of the questions growing out of 
mining operations and concerning mining titles 
in this territory are novel and peculiar, while 
other questions, concerning the irrigation of lands, 
and growing out of the peculiar situation of the 
people, remote from all other communities, are 
almost unknown to the laws of the eastern states; 
and persons residing in the territory have ac- 
quired a knowledge of these questions, necessary 
to a correct understanding of them, which is not 
possessed by residents of eastern states; and for 
this reason, among others, the people of this 
territory are exceedingly anxious that citizens of 
this territory, who are identified with the people 
and will attend to their public duties, should be 
appointed judges of the territory; therefore, the 

council and house of representatives of Colorado 
territory do most earnestly and respectfully pray 
that your Excellency will appoint Moses Hallett, 
a citizen of this territory, in whom we have con- 
fidence, to be chief justice of this territory." 

In his capacity as judge of the district court 
and in every duty connected with his high 
position. Judge Hallett has shown himself to be 
well informed, impartial and of profound sagacity. 
By the people of Colorado he is held in the high- 
est esteem. Personally, he is amiable, kind- 
hearted, genial and companionable, and when 
relieved from service on the bench the dignity of 
the judge is lost in the aSability of the man. In 
addition to his work as judge he is dean of the 
law school, of which James H. Baker is the 

In February, 1882, Judge Hallett married Miss 
Katharine Felt, daughter of Lucius S. Felt, a 
merchant of Galena, 111. They have one son now 
living, Lucius F. Mrs. Hallett was educated in 
New York City. She is prominently connected 
with St. Luke's Hospital Society and is also an 
active member of the Episcopal Church, which 
the judge attends. He is connected with the 
Masonic fraternity and the University Club. 

General Hall, who, as a citizen of the state, has 
been familiar with the judicial record of Judge 
Hallett, says of him, in his History of Colorado: 
"He is, and from the first has been, noted as an 
industrious and intelligent student of the law, 
penetrating the depths of every proposition sub- 
mitted to him for determination. He never was 
a fluent or eloquent advocate, but always a wise 
and safe counselor, rigidly honest, forceful and 
frequently profound; had he never been elevated 
to the bench, he would still have been an eminent 
lawyer. With a strong judicial mind, he has 
brought to his office the great advantage of a 
thorough training in his profession. Long years 
of experience upon the bench sometimes begets a 
certain disinclination to re-consider expressed 
views, but no judicial officer is less governed by 
pride of opinion than Judge Hallett. He is firm, 
without question, but the position is taken only 
after deliberation. The effect of his own training, 
discipline and kindly disposition is manifest in his 
court; business is dispatched, but there is no 
evidence of haste; dignity in its true sense is al- 
ways apparent, and casts its pleasant influence 
upon all who enter the temple. The respect of 

• t,^:j\U IM', IJli .';m'!\';f7 



bar and the confidence of the entire mass of the 
community are his, while his standing in the 
supreme court of the United States is that of one 
of the purest and best officers in the service. ' ' 

minds of most people, the history of Colorado 
dates from the year 1859, when the news of 
the discovery of gold in Pike's Peak spread 
through the eastern states. Attracted by the re- 
ports of the immense deposits of gold, thousands 
of men came from the east, some to mine and 
some to engage in other industries which the 
rapidly increasing population rendered necessary. 
Among those who made the long and tedious 
journey across the plains was a youth of less than 
nineteen years, who abandoned the study of 
medicine to join a train at Rock Island, 111., 
starting from there March 5, i860, and after 
walking almost the entire distance, arriving in 
Blackhawk, Colo., on the istof June. His after- 
life has been inseparably associated with the 
history of Colorado, of which state he is a distin- 
guished citizen. 

The first of the Orahood family in America 
was Thomas, a native of Glasgow, Scotland, and 
a pioneer of Virginia. His son, Amos, removed 
from the Old Dominion to Union County, Ohio, 
settling near the county-seat and engaging in farm- 
ing. He had a son, William J., who was born 
in Virginia, and worked as a mechanic near 
Columbus for a time, later went to Mount Vernon, 
the same state, thence 'removed to LaSalle County, 
111., later went to Utah, and attheageof seventj'- 
eight, in 1894, passed away in L,os Angeles, Cal. 
His wife, Ann Messenger, was born in Wilming- 
ton, Del., and died in Denver, leaving three 
daughters and a son. 

The latter, who was the eldest of the family, 
forms the subject of this sketch. He was born in 
Columbus, Ohio, June 3, 1841, and received his 
education in Mount Vernon, Ohio, and Earlville, 
111. For two years he clerked in a drug store in 
Rock Island, 111. On coming to Colorado he 
settled in Blackhawk, Gilpin County, where, and 
in Central City, he engaged in the mercantile 
business for ten years. In the office of Hon. 
Alvin Marsh he began the study of law, but after 
one year entered the office of Henry M. & Willard 
Teller, and was admitted to the bar October i , 


1873. Entering upon active practice he soon 
acquired a large clientage and became known as 
a well-informed rising attorney. For some years 
he was in partnership with Senator Teller and is 
now associated with the latter's brother in the 
firm of Teller, Orahood & Morgan, of Denver. 
'Under E. O. Wolcott he served as deputy district 
attorney and upon the latter's resignation in 1878, 
Mr. Orahood succeeded to the position of district 
attorney for the first judicial district, comprising 
Clear Creek, Gilpin, Jefferson, Boulder and 
Grand Counties. On the next election he was 
chosen for a three years' term in the office, but 
in 1881, about the middle of the term, he resigned 
in order to remove to Denver. From 1866 to 
1868 he was county clerk and recorder of 
Gilpin County. 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Orahood became connected with 
the Colorado National Guard, and, in company 
with Frank Hall, he raised the first company of 
militia mustered into service in Colorado, it 
being Company A, known as the Elbert Guard. 
In that company he was made a lieutenant. In 
1864 he was made first lieutenant and regi- 
mental commissary of subsistence of the Third 
Colorado Cavalry, afterward becoming captain of 
Company B, of this regiment, and doing duty 
guarding mails, stages and wagon trains on the 
plains and in Indian warfare. December 27, 
1864, the regiment was mustered out at Camp 
Weld in Denver. His title of colonel was con- 
ferred upon him by his appointment on Governor 
Mclntire's staffi 

The marriage of Colonel Orahood was solem- 
nized in the Presbyterian Church of Blackhawk 
and united him with Miss Mary Esther Hurlbut, 
who was born in Linn County, Mo. She is the 
eldest daughter of Hiram E. Hurlbut, who came 
to Colorado in i860 and engaged in mining in 
Gilpin County for years, but is now a resident of 
Denver. They have five children: William F., 
a graduate of Peekskill Military Academy and of 
the Denver Law School, and now an attorney in 
Central City; Harper, of Denver; George and 
Albert, who are students in school; and Gertrude, 
who is attending Emerson College in Boston. 

In 1863 Colonel Orahood was made a Mason in 
Central City Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A. M. Later 
he was a charter member of Blackhawk Lodge 
No. II, of which he was master for several years. 
In 1876 he was grand master of the grand lodge 



of Colorado. He is a member of Denver Chapter 
No. 29, R. A. M. For years he was commander 
of Central City Commandery No. 2, and is now a 
member of Denver Commandery No. 25. In 
1879-80 he was grand commander of the grand 
commandery of Colorado, and held that position 
at the time of the triennial conclave in Chicago. 
He belongs to El Jebel Temple, N. M. S., Denver 
Consistory, S. R., and is a thirty-third degree 
Mason. It was in a large measure due to his 
efforts that the conclave of 1892 was held in 
Denver; he was the first chairman of the triennial 
committee and afterward first vice-chairman, and 
took an active part in the work that made the 
conclave such a memorable triumph for this city. 
Since 1880 he has attended all the conclaves of 
Knights. He is past commander of the Loyal 
Legion and has been an aide on the department 
staff of the Grand Army of the Republic. For 
years he has been vice-president of the Bar 
Association of Denver, and he is a member of 
the Gilpin County and State Pioneer Associations. 
Politically Colonel Orahood is a silver Repub- 
lican. For eight years he was city treasurer of 
Blackhawk. With other citizens he succeeded in 
having the postofRce established there and in 
1862 was appointed postmaster by President 
Lincoln, holding the office until 1871. For some 
years he was city attorney of Central City, re- 
signing on his removal. The only position he 
has accepted in Denver was that of director of 
school district No. i , in which ofiice he did all 
within his power for the advancement of the 
schools. He took an active interest in the build- 
ing of the Colorado Central from Blackhawk to 
Central City, and later was the attorney for that 
road, now a part of the Union Pacific. His firm 
are now the attorneys for the latter railroad. 
Personally he is a man of many winning traits, 
liberal, large-hearted, enterprising and approach- 
able, and he has won a deserved position of prom- 
inence among the people of the state. 

HON. R. S. LITTLE. In the history of Ara- 
pahoe County considerable mention deserv- 
edly belongs to the founder of the beautiful 
suburban village of Littleton. The Little family 
was founded in America in 1640 by George Little, 
who came from Unicorn street, near London 
bridge, in London, and settled in Newbury, Mass. 

His descendants were among the patriotic men 
who fought for the liberty of our country. Lieut. 
Moses Little, of New Hampshire (born 1742, 
died 1813), served as first lieutenant under Capt. 
Samuel Richards, in Col. John Stark's regiment, 
and he and his son, George (our subject's grand- 
father), took part in the battle of Bunker Hill. 
He marched from New Hampshire with Col. 
Jacob Gates' regiment and joined the Continental 
army in Rhode Island in August, 1778. George 
Little (born 1762, died 1850) was a private in 
Capt. John Duncan's company, commanded by 
Col. Moses Kelly, and with his command started 
for Ticonderoga on receiving the alarm July i , 

1777, marching as far as Washington and Charles- 
town, when he was ordered back. As a member 
of the company of Capt. James Arkens, in a regi- 
ment commanded by Colonel Kelly, he marched 
from New Hampshire to Rhode Island in August, 

1778, and joined the Continental army. 

The subject of this review was born in Grafton, 
N. H., May 12, 1829, a son of John and Betsey 
(Jackman) Little. He was seven years of age 
when he accompanied the family to Nashua, near 
which place his father carried on a hotel until 
his death in 1854. R. S. Little received his edu- 
cation in the Norwich University, graduating 
there in 1850. He was a classmate of Gen. G.M. 
Dodge, U. S. A.; Rear- Admiral George Dewey 
was also a graduate of this school. He proved 
himself especially gifted in mathematics. His 
expenses in college he partly paid by means of 
his musical skill, for he was a skilled violinist. 
He graduated at the age o'f twenty-one. After- 
ward he assisted in the survey of the first railroad 
from Danforth Corners to Milford, N. H., under 
General Stark. In 1851 he started west via 
Ogdensburg, from which place he traveled by 
stage to Watertown and then pursued his way to 
Rome, from there by rail to Buffalo, then took a 
boat for Detroit, and sailed up the lake until 
stopped by a blockade of ice. He finally reached 
Detroit, from which place he traveled by steam- 
cars to Michigan City, making six or eight miles 
an hour over the strap rails. From Michigan 
City he went by boat to Racine, Wis. , thence by 
stage seventy miles into the interior of the state, 
stopping for a time in Janesville. From that city 
to Chicago he ran the levels for the first railroad 
survey on the line now belonging to the Chicago 
& North-western Railroad. The company for 



whom he worked failed, owing him $500. He 
then shouldered his pack and walked to Eagle, 
Wis., where he found employment on the Mil- 
waukee & Mississippi Railroad, making the pre- 
liminary survey from Madison to the Wisconsin 
River, and having charge of the construction of 
the road west of Whitewater. Afterward he sur- 
veyed a line from Milwaukee to Fond du Lac. 

In 1853 Mr. Little located, constructed and 
operated a road from Milwaukee to Columbus, 
Wis., as assistant to E. H. Broadhead. Septem- 
ber 24, 1854, he married Angeline, a daughter of 
John Harwood, of Nashua, N. H., and afterward 
settled in Watertown, where he did much toward 
the development of the city. In 1858 he laid the 
track from Fond du Lac to Oshkosh. In i860 
he came to Colorado, where he engaged in the 
construction of the capital hydraulic ditch from 
the present site of Littleton to Denver. Under 
the claim law he took up one hundred and sixty 
acres, to which he afterward added a homestead 
of one hundred and twenty acres. When the 
railroad lands came into the market he purchased 
a section and engaged in ranching, gardening and 

Mrs. Little had been greatly troubled with 
asthma, and as soon as Mr. Little found this cli- 
mate beneficial for that disease, he sent for her. 
He met her in Chicago in 1862 and brought her 
across the plains with a mule-team, spending 
two months on the way. The air of these high 
altitudes at once relieved her, and she has had no 
recurrence of the trouble, except when visiting 
the east. She lived six months in Littleton before 
she saw a white woman. She has been one of 
the prominent women in all enterprises that would 
tend to benefit the town and its people. Her 
charity is proverbial and her love for humanity 
is beautiful as it is rare. She is the mother of 
Lucius H, Little. 

In 1867 Mr. Little, in company with others, 
erected the Rough and Ready flour mills in Little- 
ton, which were destroyed by fire in 1872, with a 
loss of about $45,000, including the stock on 
hand. The)' at once erected another mill on the 
same site. In 1873 he was elected to the terri- 
torial legislature, receiving three thousand votes 
out of three thousand and one hundred votes cast 
in the county. He was the Republican nominee, 
but was endorsed by the other parties. While a 
member of the house, he introduced a bill provid- 

ing for a general sy.stem of irrigation for Colorado, 
making the land owners under it stockholders and 
assessing the land thus benefited pro rata. How- 
ever, owing to a variety of causes, the bill failed 
to pass. In 1874 the mill again burned down 
with a heavier loss than before; they at once 
erected the present stone mill, which is fireproof 
throughout, with five sets of burrs, and a capacity 
for three hundred sacks per day. The storehouse 
has a capacity of twenty thousand bushels. PVom 
the time of the building of the mill the flour 
steadily grew in reputation, and is now famous 
throughout the entire country as the best brand 
in the market. 

A number of people having already settled 
here, in 1875 Mr. Little platted the village of 
Littleton, which has since become one of the most 
attractive towns in the state, its churches, public 
schools and public improvements of all kinds, 
making it a desirable home for a family. In 1871 
Mr. Little donated the ground on which he built 
St. Paul's Episcopal Church. He has also do- 
nated the sites of the present Presbyterian Church, 
the school house, four lots to build the first store, 
and also lots for other public enterprises. He has 
been the leading spirit in the village since its in- 
ception, and with commendable energy has fur- 
thered every measure for the benefit of the people 
and the advancement of local interests. 

j UMAN M. GIFFIN, M. D. The medical 
It department of the University of Colorado, 
[J2r or, as it is more frequently called, the Colo- 
rado School of Medicine, of which Dr. Gifiin is 
dean, was opened in September, 1883. The 
faculty for 1883-84 consisted of seven members, 
but was increased from year to year until it num- 
bered twenty-two professors, besides lecturers 
and assistants. Soon after the opening of the 
school a hospital was established on the grounds 
and a clinic was maintained. The course of 
study covered three years until 1895, since which 
time there has been a four-year course only. In 
September, 1892, arrangements were made to 
conduct the last two years of the course in Den- 
ver until such time as sufiicient hospital advan- 
tages might be secured in Boulder, and since then 
the plan has been to have the work of the first 
year in the university, the other part of the 
course being pursued in Denver. By a recent 



decision of the supreme court, however, all reg- 
ular instruction must be retained at the univer- 
sity until the constitutional right to continue the 
former arrangement may be obtained. A build- 
ing has recently been erected to give more room 
for the medical school, and every modern equip- 
ment is being furnished that will assist in the 
work of clinic and laboratories. 

The faculty of the School of Medicine consists 
of the following: James H. Baker, LI/. D., 
president; Luman M. GiflBn, M. D., dean and 
professor of anatomy and physical diagnosis; 
Charles Skeele Palmer, Ph. D., professor of chem- 
istry; John Gardiner, B. Sc. , professor of his- 
tology and bacteriology; A. Stewart Lobinginer, 
M. D., professor of surgical pathology; Emley B. 
Queal, M. D., professor of physiology; Horace 
•O. Dodge, M. D., professor of materia medica 
and therapeutics; E. H. Robertson, Ph. M., 
M. D., professor of pathology; John H. Parsons, 
D. D. S., professor of operative and prosthetic 
dental technics; Charles Fisher Andrew, M. D., 
lecturer on hygiene; George O'Brien, M. D., 
demonstrator of anatomy; and Mary Alice Lake, 
M. D., demonstrator of anatomy. 

Dr. Giflfin was born in Heuvelton, St. Law- 
rence County, N. Y., October 30, 1850, the son 
of Horace and Roxalaua (Wright) Giffin, natives 
of Vermont. His father, who was of Irish de- 
scent, was a member of a family that settled on 
the original site of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and 
from there removed to northern New York. He 
came from Vermont to Heuvelton, where he en- 
gaged in the mercantile business until his death 
at thirty-seven j'ears. His wife, who was the 
daughter of a miller, was of English descent, her 
family name being originally Wreut. She was 
twice married, by her first union having two 
sons and a daughter. After her first husband's 
death she became the wife of Israel Rowland, by 
whom she had four children. She died in Colo- 
rado at sixty-five years of age, and all her chil- 
dren are in the west except a daughter of her 
first marriage; 

At the age of nine years our subject accom- 
panied his mother to Morristown, St. Lawrence 
County, where he attended a district school. 
Afterward he was a student in Black River 
Academy at Ludlow, Vt. He took one course 
of lectures in the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Vermont, after which he took two 

courses in Rush Medical College, Chicago, from 
which he graduated in February, 1875, with the 
degree of M. D. He practiced in Rossie, St. 
Lawrence County, until March, 1881, when he 
came to Boulder. Soon after the organization of 
the medical department of the state university he 
became connected with it as professor of anatomy 
and physiology, which chair he held until 1897, 
and was then made professor of anatomy and 
physical diagnosis and dean of the department. 

At one time Dr. GifiBn was president of the 
Boulder County Medical Association. He is a 
member of the State and American Medical As- 
sociations, is examining physician for different 
insurance companies, and local surgeon for the 
Union Pacific, Denver & Gulf and Colorado 
Northwestern Railroads. Fraternally he is con- 
nected with Boulder Lodge No. 45. When the 
United States Pension Examining Board was or- 
ganized in 1894 in Boulder County he was chosen 
secretary of the board and served in that capacity 
for some time. 

In Rossie, N. Y. , in 1875, Dr. Giffin married 
Miss Lillie J. Forester, who was born there and 
died in Colorado in 1887. Two sons were born 
of the union: Horace, who was educated in the 
high school of Boulder and is now with a book 
firm in this city; and Clay, who is a member of 
the high school class of 1902. Dr. Giffin was 
married a second time in Denver, his wife being 
Miss Fannie Lake, who was born in Lake Forest, 
111. Three children were born of this union: 
Ruth, Alice, and Louise, who died at three years 
of age. 

pQlLLIAM P. DANIELS, president and 
I A/ ™^nager of the Big Five, was the founder 
Y V of the town of Frances, where he resides. 
He is of remote Scotch descent, but the first rep- 
resentatives of the family in America came here 
from England. His father, William F. Daniels, 
was born near Hamilton, Canada, and in boyhood 
accompanied the family to Wayne Junction, 
Mich. , but a short time afterward he settled near 
Rockton, Winnebago County, 111., of which, as 
also of Forreston, Ogle County, he was a pioneer. 
In 1856 he moved to Iowa, becoming an early 
settler of Howard, where he followed the mill- 
wright's trade and the milling business. For 
some years after 1865 he carried on a mercantile 
business in Howard County, During the Civil 



war he volunteered in the Union service, but was 
rejected, and so was compelled to remain at 
home, while five of his brothers were accepted for 
service. In 1884 he removed to Louisiana, 
where his death occurred in 1893, when he was 
seventy years of age. His wife, who bore the 
maiden name of Mary G. Preston, was born in 
Penn Yan, N. Y., and is now living in Louisiana. 
Her father, Richard G. Preston, was born in 
Scotland and accompanied his parents to America, 
settling in New York. 

Of the family of nine children five attained ma- 
ture years and four are now living, William P. 
being the oldest of these. He was born near 
Rockton, Winnebago County, 111., June 16, 1851, 
and was a child of five years at the time the 
family removed to Howard County. At the age 
of fifteen he left home and began working on 
what is now the St. Paul (then the McGregor 
Western) Railroad, the first through line to St. 
Paul. In 1872 he began as conductor with the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, with 
which he remained for two years, and then for 
twelve years he was with the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids & Northern Railroad as conductor. In 
1873 he became a member of the Order of Rail- 
way Conductors and five years later was elected 
its grand secretary and treasurer, with head- 
quarters at Cedar Rapids. This position he held 
for seventeen years, having in 1 886 retired from 
the railroad in order to devote his entire attention 
to the secretary and treasurer's office. At the 
time he became secretary there were about six 
hundred members and when he left the order 
had twenty-five thousand members in the United 
States, Canada and Mexico. In 1895 he resigned 
the position and came to Colorado, accepting the 
position as president and general manager of the 
Dew-drop Company, that was organized in 

Since becoming president of the Dew-drop 
Company, Mr. Daniels has been instrumental in 
the organization of four other companies, viz.: 
the Dew-drop Mill Company; the Adit Mining 
Company, the Adit Tunnel Company and the 
Ni Wot Mining Company. The original name 
of the company was the Orphan Boy Extension 
Mining and Milling Company, which in 1896 was 
changed to the Dew-drop Mining Company. 
The Ni Wot Mining Company, with the mines, 
mill and manager's office, is located at Frances, 

a town that he named after his youngest daugh- 
ter. A tunnel has been excavated which will, 
when completed, be six thousand feet in length 
and which extends under Bald Mountain. There 
is also a branch tunnel of twenty-four hundred 
feet, to cut the celebrated Ni Wot lode. The 
company has among its members a large number 
of railroad men, whose long acquaintance with 
Mr. Daniels has given them abundant reason to 
rely in his judgment. 

Politically Mr. Daniels is a Democrat. While 
in Cedar Rapids he served as mayor of the city 
for two terras. He was made a Mason in Lime 
Spring, Iowa, and is now identified with the 
lodge, chapter, commandery, consistory and 
temple at Cedar Rapids, having attained the 
thirty-second degree. In Washburn, Iowa, he 
married Miss Julia C. Close, who was born in 
that state, daughter of Cicero Close, a pioneer of 
Washburn. They have two daughters, Mary C. 
and Frances W. 

Alma, Park County, is the owner of large 
mining interests, the most of which are in 
Park County. Among the mines in which he is 
especially interested may be mentioned the Or- 
phan Boy, two and a-half miles from Alma, 
which was discovered in 1861 and has since been 
successfully operated. By consolidating the 
entire slope of the hill and running a tunnel four- 
teen hundred feet into the mountain, he not only 
proved that such a plan was feasible, but profited 
by it materially himself He is now the presi- 
dent and general manager of the company operat- 
ing the mine. Recently he became connected 
with the newly organized Gold Drift Mining 
Company of Park County, operating near Alma, 
and he is now its president and general manager. 
Among the other mines in which he has been in- 
terested is the Falkland. In addition to his 
mining interests, he is engaged in the ranch busi- 
ness in South Park, in Park County. 

Of Republican belief, Mr. Moynahan has been 
prominent in poHtics. From 1870 to 1873 he was 
commissioner of Park County, being chairman of 
the board for one year. In 1876 he was elected 
to represent his district in the state .senate, and 
the length of his term being detided by lot, he 
drew the short term, being a member of the first 
general assembly, which was in session for more 



than five months. In 1882 he was chosen to rep- 
resent Park and Fremont Counties in the state 
senate and served in the fourth and fifth general 
assemblies, a term of four years. For two years 
he was president pro tem of the senate and during 
this time, by virtue of the state law, when both 
the governor and lieutenant-governor were out of 
the state, he was acting governor, but there be- 
ing no special business to be brought up, he was 
not in active service as the chief executive. 
Many times he has served as mayor of Alma. 
He was elected in 1896, re-elected the following 
year, and in 1898 was nominated and elected 
without any opposition. He assisted in the incor- 
poration of Alma, was a member of its first board 
of trustees, and laid out a part of the town. Since 
the fall of 1884 his family have resided in Denver, 
where he owns a residence at No. 6 Broadway. 
In addition to this, he owns some vacant property 
in the city. 

In Greenfield, Wayne County, Mich., Mr. 
Moynahan was born June 7, 1842, the son of 
James and Catherine (Hart) Moynahan, both 
natives of Ireland. His grandfather, Matthew 
Moynahan, settled in Canada at Maidstone Cross, 
near Windsor, and there engaged in farming 
until his death. James Moynahan located in 
Wayne County, Mich., where he carried on a 
farm and followed the blacksmith's trade. He 
was with the Michigan men in the Toledo war. 
He died at the age of forty-eight. His wife also 
died in Michigan, her age being sixty-two. They 
had three sons and two daughters who attained 
maturity, and one son and two daughters are now 
living, the latter being Mrs. Parks, of I,eadville, 
and Mrs. Clinton, of Michigan. Two sons are 
deceased, Matthew having died in Breckenridge 
and John in Georgetown, Colo. 

After the death of his father, which occurred 
in December, 1858, our subject went to the upper 
peninsula of Michigan, where he worked in 
copper mines. Later he was in the lower pen- 
insula. At the first call for troops during the 
Civil war he volunteered in the Fifth Michigan 
Infantry, but the quota being filled, the regiment 
was not called into service at that time. In 1862 
he entered Company C, Twenty-seventh Michi- 
gan Infantry, and enlisted as a private at Copper 
Harbor, thence- going to Kentucky and joining 
the Ninth Corps under General Burnside, in the 
Department of the Ohio. He took part in the 

siege of Vicksburg and later was at Jackson, go- 
ing from there back to Kentucky, then to East 
Tennessee and taking part in the siege of Knox- 
ville. In the spring of 1864 the corps was re- 
organized at Annapolis, Md., and was incorpo- 
rated with the Army of the Potomac, taking part 
in all the engagements in the Wilderness. At 
Spottsylvania, while acting as second lieutenant, 
May 12, 1864, he was wounded by a minie-ball 
that lodged in the right breast and remained 
there for eleven months before it was removed. 
When he was wounded he was taken to Fred- 
ericksburg and for four days lay on a blanket, 
without medical attention, during which time 
the wound became so swollen that the surgeon 
could not probe for the bullet. He was moved 
to Washington, sent from there to Philadelphia, 
and finally, though the bullet was still in his 
breast and the wound still open, he requested to 
be returned to his regiment, which was done. 
He was commissioned first lieutenant in February, 
1865. While participating in the assault on Fort 
Mahone at Petersburg April 2, 1865, in com- 
mand of his company, before daybreak he was 
shot in the left forearm by a minie-ball, which 
would have entered the left side had it not been 
for his silver watch and a memorandum book in 
his overcoat pocket. Previous to this the fort 
had been taken and with it three pieces of artil- 
lery, and his company, which carried the colors, 
had planted the stars and stripes on the fort, so 
that he was permitted to participate in the vic- 
tory before incapacitated for further service. On 
his way from the field he met General Potter, 
whom he notified of the victory, news that natu- 
rally rejoiced the general's heart. He went to the 
hospital at City Point, where he had his arm 
dressed; the old bullet in his breast, which was 
lodged against the shoulder blade, was operated 
for and removed at that time, April 12, 1865. 
He participated in the grand review at Washing- 
ton and was mustered out as captain of Company 
G, July 26, 1865, at Washington, and a few days 
later was honorably discharged at Detroit. Dur- 
ing the period of service his regiment crossed the 
Rapidan, May 5, 1864, with eleven hundred men 
and forty-three commissioned ofiicers, and after 
the blowing up of mine fort at Petersburg in July, 
three commissioned officers and sixty-three men 
reported for duty. The regiment stands eleventh 
in regard to proportionate loss, according to the 



statistics by Fox, and first in percentage of loss 
of the regiments that entered the service in 1862. 

After his retirement from the army, Captain 
Moynahan studied in Bryant & Stratton's Com- 
mercial College in Detroit. In April, 1866, he 
graduated from the college and shortly afterward 
came to Colorado, where for two years he super- 
intended a mine in Park County, then turned his 
attention to merchandising. In 1874 he started 
a store at Alma, of which place he has since been 
the most prominent business man. His name is 
so well known throughout the state that both in 
1884 and 1886 he was prominently mentioned for 
governor of the state. He is a member of the 
Abe lyincoln Post, G. A. R. , in Denver, of which 
he is past commander. In the Colorado Com- 
mandery of the Loyal Legion he holds member- 

In Greenfield, Mich., our subject married Mary 
Monaghan, who was born in Ireland, a daughter 
of Peter Monaghan, who came to America and 
settled in the upper peninsula of Michigan, there 
engaged in mining. The four children born of 
the union are: Alice, Ambrose Edwin, James W. 
and Clarissa. 

0AVID GRIFFITHS, state inspector of coal 
mines, was appointed to this position by 
Governor Mclntire February 18, 1895, for a 
term of four years. The coal industry in Colo- 
rado is yet in its infancy and only the croppings 
have been mined, the vast wealth in coal that lies 
underneath the surface of the earth having never 
been touched. This statement will give an idea 
of the immense veins that wait to be freed from 
their prison beds within the earth. While the 
output is so very small in comparison with the 
actual amount here, yet it is sufficient to provide 
the entire state with coal for its railroads, manu- 
facturing industries, public buildings and private 
residences, and besides this, large shipments of 
coal and coke are made to other states. The 
manifold duties connected with the development 
of the industry require the entire time of the state 
inspector and an assistant. 

The family of which Mr. Griffiths is a member 
has long been known in Carmarthaenshire, Wales, 
His grandfather, John, who was born there, 
made it his home throughout life, tilling one of 
its farms. William, father of David, was born in 
that shire, but after his marriage to Ann Evans 

he removed to Glamorganshire, where he en- 
gaged in farming until his death, in 1888, at the 
age of sixty-one. His wife passed away in 1878, 
at the age of fifty-one years. She was a daughter 
of Hugh Evans, who was a weaver and manufact- 
urer of woolen goods. 

Of four children, three being daughters and 
still in Glamorgan, the subject of this sketch is 
the eldest. He was born at Glynneath, Vale of 
Neath, Glamorganshire, February i, 1856, and 
in early childhood was a pupil in the British 
schools. Before he was ten years of age he be- 
came a helper in a coal mine near Resolven, and 
while there learned to dig coal, in which work he 
began before he was sixteen, meantime becoming 
fire boss in a mine in the Neath district. In 1882 
he took passage at Liverpool for America, and 
after landing in New York proceeded at once to 
Colorado, where he arrived in May. He en- 
gaged in mining in Erie district until February, 
1883, when he went to Como, Park County, 
Colo., and continued mining. March, 1884, 
found him in Crested Butte, where he was fire 
boss for the Colorado Coal and Iron Company, 
and this company in 1885 sent him to take the 
position of fire boss at the Walsenburg mines. 
In May, 1886, he resigned the position and 
visited his old home in Wales, spending six 
months in renewing associations with the com- 
rades and scenes of his youth. While in Wales 
he married Miss Mary Ann, daughter of Reese 
and Elizabeth Howells. 

On his return to America Mr. Griffiths re- 
sumed his former place as fire boss in the Wal- 
senburg mines, and was later promoted by the 
company to be pit boss at the Robinson mines. 
Resigning in June, 1889, he went to Sopris, Las 
Animas County, where he took tlie position of 
fire boss with the Colorado Fuel and Iron Com- 
pany, but this he resigned in October, 1890, in 
order to accept a position as mine foreman with 
the Trinidad Fuel Company at Chicosa, Colo. 
During his time with them he had entire charge 
of the group of mines, with three openings. In 
1894 he resigned and took full charge of the Oak 
Creek mines at Williamsburg for the United Coal 
Company, being superintendent and mine fore- 
man for the company until he accepted his pres- 
ent position of state inspector. During the 
administration of Governor Waite he was one of 
seven who took the competitive examination for 

J 82 


state inspector, and of the seven four passed the 
minimum, which was sixty per cent; of these he 
received the highest grade, his being ninety-nine 
and a fraction per cent, while the others received 
respectively sixty- six and eight- tenths per cent, 
sixty-two and sixty-one and a fraction. The ap- 
pointee was the one who had sixty-two per cent. 
He was again examined at the regular time in 
1895, this time receiving ninety-nine and a frac- 
tion, while not one of the three other competitors 
received ninety percent, which was the minimum. 
February 18, 1895, he was appointed state in- 
spector for a term of four years. For three years 
he studied in the International Correspondence 
Schools of Scranton and graduated from that in- 
stitution in the mining course, receiving his 
diploma September 11, 1897. In the final ex- 
amination his standing was ninety- eight and 
seven-tenths per cent, which was remarkably 

Since his appointment as state inspector Mr. 
Griffiths and his wife have made their home in 
Denver. They have five children: William, 
Martha A., Elizabeth, Catherine Jane and Blos- 
som. In national politics Mr. Griffiths is a silver 
Republican. He was made a Mason at Crested 
Butte and is still a member of lyodge No. 38 at 
that place. He is also a member of Unity Lodge 
No. 70, I. O. O. F., at Walsenburg. 

I EWIS CHENEY. Few men who have been 
I C citizens of Boulder at any period of its history 
IT? became so well known as Mr. Cheney, and 
still fewer gained a wider personal popularity or 
warmer friendships. For years before his death 
he was president of four banking institutions, for 
which responsible work his superior mental qual- 
ities abundantly qualified him. He accumulated 
an ample fortune through the steady prosecution 
of business enterprises, not by any lucky turn of 
fortune's wheel, or the fortunate issue of specula- 
tive schemes. 

Born in Cattaraugus County, N. Y., April 4, 
1830, Mr. Cheney was reared on a farm. When 
a boy he removed to Stephenson County, 111., 
settling on a farm near Lena. At the age of twenty 
he journeyed over the plains with an ox-team to 
California, where he engaged in mining, freight- 
ing and stock dealing, which yielded him a hand- 
some revenue. In 1854 he returned overland to 
Illinois, and engaged in the mercantile business 

in Lena until 1866, when he sold out and started 
for Montana. On the 20th of May he met his 
brother in Nebraska City and together they 
bought four hundred cattle and freight teams, 
which they loaded, and started up the Platte. At 
Fort Larimer they were informed by officers that 
they would have no trouble in passing over the 
Bozeman route. After they had traveled some 
distance they were attacked by Sioux and Chey- 
ennes at Dry Fork and Wind River. His brother 
was shot and killed, and he narrowly escaped the 
same fate. He spent the winter at the head of 
the Missouri River and sold out in the spring of 
1867, returning to Illinois in July, accompanied 
by his brother's family. 

After selling his property in Lena, Mr. Cheney 
removed to Holden, Mo., and in partnership 
with I. M. Smith, under the firm name of Smith 
& Cheney, opened a bank July i, 1868. In 
187 1 the Bank of Holden was organized, with 
himself as president. In 1874 he assisted in or- 
ganizing the Bates County National Bank, in 
Butler, Mo. , and was made its president. Three 
years later, in 1877, he organized the First 
National Bank of Boulder, of which he was presi- 
dent until his death. He also organized the First 
National Bank of Gunnison and was its president 
during the remaining years of his life. Through 
his business and financial ability and sound judg- 
ment in investments, he became one of the wealth- 
iest men in Boulder. 

In 1855 Mr. Cheney married Margaret Blair, 
who died in 1867. His second marriage took 
place in Holden in 1871, and united him with 
Sarah A. Milner, who was born near Connors- 
ville, Fayette County, Ind. One of her earliest 
recollections is of leading by the hand her great- 
grandfather, Amos Milner, who was a native of 
Kentucky, a soldier in the Revolution, and was 
nearly blind at the time of his death, when little 
less than one hundred years old. His son John 
moved from Ohio to Indiana and died there; the 
latter's son, Amos, was born in Ohio, settled in 
Fayette County, Ind. , and engaged in farming un- 
til his death, which occurred when his daughter 
was ten years of age. His wife, Rosanna, was a 
daughter of John Boyd, a farmer in Indiana; she 
died when her daughter, Sarah A., was eight 
years old. Of her five daughters and three sons 
one daughter and two sons are living. John, an 
attorney, died in Indiana; William I. and Amos 




O. reside in Boulder, the latter being a veteran 
of the Civil war. Three of the sisters died in 
Indiana and one in Missouri. When a girl Mrs. 
Cheney lived with her grandparents, Milner, in 
Indiana, but she was married in Holden, Mo. 
Since fifteen years of age she has been a member 
of the Christian Church. She owns and occupies 
a beautiful residence at No. 1205 Bluif street, 
where, surrounded by every comfort which ample 
means can provide, she may reasonably hope to 
spend her declining days. She is a lady of gentle 
character, kind to the deserving poor, as was her 
husband, and generous to all in need. In her 
family there are three children: Oliver I., who 
is engaged in mining at Somerville; Charles H., 
who is bookkeeper in the First National Bank of 
Boulder; and Lynette, a graduate of the Christian 
College at Columbia, Mo. 

The life of Mr. Cheney closed March 31, 1885. 
He was a member of the Christian Church and 
an active participant in its enterprises. Frater- 
nally he was a Knight Templar Mason. He was 
interested in everything that would promote the 
well-being of the city, and was ever willing to 
sacrifice private interests for the public welfare. 
Although deeply engrossed in his banking enter- 
prises, yet he was interested in every good work, 
ever public-spirited and efficient, and believing 
as he did that there is but one thing that will 
make a state great, an educated Christian citizen- 
ship, all along the pathway of his busy life he 
was the friend of the church, the school and col- 
legiate education. As a progressive citizen, an 
able banker, a consistent Christian and a kind 
friend, he is remembered by all who knew him. 

SEN. BYRON h. CARR. There are among 
the citizens of Colorado many men of un- 
usual breadth of mind and brilliancy of intel- 
lect, men who would be valuable acquisitions to 
the citizenship of any state, and to whose mental 
acumen and excellent business judgment much 
of the progress made by this state during the 
past two decades may be attributed. Such a man 
is the subject of this sketch, who has been hon- 
ored by the people of the state with election to 
the ofiice of attorney-general. Since coming to 
Colorado in 1871 he has held many responsible 
positions, both under the territorial and the state 
government, and the highest interests of the com- 

monwealth have been visibly enhanced by his 
sagacity and practical judgment. 

The Carr family has been represented in 
America since the days of the Pilgrim Fathers. 
The ship carpenter of the "Mayflower," 1620, 
was George Carr, who settled at Plymouth, but 
later removed to Salisbury, Mass., where gen- 
erations of his descendants lived and died. The 
town was situated on an island in the Merrimac 
River, and under the name of Carr's Island, by 
which it was commonly known, was granted to 
George Carr in 1625. Some of the family were 
in the colonial wars, and two, one of whom was 
named James, took part in the enterprise against 
Quebec. Capt. Daniel Carr was born in Salis- 
bury in 1710, and attained the age of one hun- 
dred years. His son. Deacon John Carr, was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., in 1774, and when 
a young man removed to Grafton County, N. H., 
where he engaged in farming. For a long time 
he served as deacon in the Congregational 

Next in line of descent was General Carr's 
father, Capt. John Carr, who was born in Graf- 
ton County, served as captain of a company of 
New Hampshire militia, and for years was a con- 
tractor and builder of bridges and churches. He 
made his home in Haverhill until his death, 
which occurred at sixty-four years. His wife 
was Susan Ryder, a native of New Hampshire, 
and the daughter of Seth Ryder, who was born 
in Newburyport, Mass. The latter, who was 
the son of a sea captain, married Mary Hibbard, 
whose father, Thomas, was an officer in the 
Revolution, having served as clerk of a company 
of militia in 1775-76, sergeant on guard and 
scout duty in 1777, and captain of a company 
from May, 1779, to 1781, being continuously in 
the service from 1775 to 1781. He was of Eng- 
lish descent. Mrs. Susan Carr died in 1889, at 
seventy-five years; she was the mother of seven 
children, four of whom attained maturity, By- 
ron I/, being the youngest child and the only 
son now living. 

In his native town of Haverhill, N. H., and 
in the Newbury (Vt.) Academy General Carr 
received his education. While a student in the 
academy, April 19, 1861, he enlisted in the Sec- 
ond New Hampshire Infantry, serving for three 
months. In 1862 he enlisted in the First New 
Hampshire Cavalry, Company M, and re-enlisted 

1 86 


in 1864, serving until June, 1865, when he was 
discharged as acting sergeant-major of the First 
Cavalry. With the Army of the Potomac he 
took part in the battles of Cedar Mountain , sec- 
ond battle of Bull Run, Chantilly, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness and Shen- 
andoah campaigns, battles of Antietam and Cold 
Harbor; the campaign around Richmond and 
Petersburg, and the battle of Appomattox. At 
Fisher Hill, in September, 1864, he was four 
times wounded and lost his left thumb. At Ap- 
pomattox, the day before Lee surrendered, he 
was wounded in the right arm, which was so se- 
riously injured as to make amputation necessary. 
He remained in the hospital from April 8, 1865, 
to the following July, when he was able to leave. 
At Middleburg, Va., June 17, 1863, he was cap- 
tured by Stuart's cavalry and sent to Libby 
prison, thence to Belle Island, remaining as pris- 
oner until October, when he was exchanged. 
While in prison he suffered all the privations and 
hardships incident to life as a prisoner of war. 

On his return from the war he completed his 
academic course in Vermont, and then, in 1867, 
went to Waukegan, 111., where he was principal 
of the high school. In 1868, by appointment, 
he was made county superintendent of schools, 
to which ofSce he was elected in 1869 for four 
years. While in that position he studied law 
and was admitted to the bar. Resigning his of- 
fice in 187 1 he came to Colorado in April of that 
year and located at Lougmont, where he taught 
for a year and also practiced law. In 1873-74 
he wag attorney of the first judicial district of 
Colorado, including Gilpin, Clear Creek, Boul- 
der, Jefferson and Larimer Counties. In 1875 he 
was chosen a member of the constitutional con- 
vention of Colorado, and in the convention of 
1875-76 he was chairman of the committee on 
military affairs and drew up the military article. 
He also served as a member of the committees 
on education, mines and mining, agriculture, and 
revision and adjustment. The convention was 
composed of thirty-nine men, who stood among 
the brainiest and most influential in the state. 
In the convention March 14, 1876, the constitu- 
tion was adopted, and President Grant issued his 
proclamation admitting the state on the ist of 
August. On the ist of July it was submitted to 
the people for ratification, and by them was 

On the Republican ticket, in 1894, Mr. Carr 
was nominated for the office of attorney-general 
and was elected, taking his seat in January, 
1895. I'he following year he was re-elected on 
a fusion ticket of silver Republicans and Demo- 
crats. In addition to discharging the duties of 
his office, he is interested in farm lands in Boul- 
der County, and in real estate elsewhere. He is 
a member of the Masonic lodge in Longmont, 
and has been past grand master of Colorado; 
Longmont Chapter No. 8, R. A. M., in which he 
is past high priest; Long's Peak Commandery No. 
12, K. T. ,in which he is past eminent com- 
mander and past grand commander of the state, 
holding the latter position at the time of the con- 
clave in Denver in 1892, when he gave the ad- 
dress of welcome; also a member of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. In the Grand Army 
he is quite active. He aided in organizing Mc- 
Pherson Post No. 6 of Longmont, of which he is 
past commander, and in 1884 was department 
commander of Colorado. The most of the na- 
tional conventions of the army he has attended. 
He is a member of the national executive council 
of administration in the Grand Army. 

In Chicago General Carr married Miss Mary 
L. Pease, who was born in Maine, the daughter 
of Eliphalet Pease, who was a native of Maine 
and died in Colorado. They have two children, 
Jerome B., a student in the Denver high school; 
and Susie, wife of Capt. L. P. McGuire, of Den- 
ver, who is private secretary to his father-in-law. 
Mrs. Carr is grand worthy matron of the Order 
of Eastern Star of Colorado. She is a member of 
the Woman's Relief Corps No. 32 at Longmont; 
is past department president of the state corps, 
and in 1895 held office as national inspector. 

i yi F. LEECH. The record of the life of Mr. 
Y Leech for some years past has been the his- 
(3 tory of the Inter Mountain Railway, or, as 
it is now known under the more recent laws of 
incorporation, the Colorado Northwestern Rail- 
way. The road extends from Boulder west and 
north to Ward, passing through Crissman, Sa- 
lina, Copper Rock, Sunset, Sunnyside and Dew- 
drop. The charter, under the laws of Colorado, 
shows a capital stock of $500,000 and bears date 
of 1897. The contract was let August i, 1897, 
and the road was completed to Sunset February 



28, 1898, the first train running on that day. By 
the latter part of May, 1898, the line was ex- 
tended to Ward, twenty-six and one-half miles 
from Boulder. A branch, running from Gold Hill 
Junction to Eldora, will be completed in the fall 
of 1899, and will be eighteen miles in length. 
The undertaking has been one of great responsi- 
bility and represents an immense amount of labor, 
much of which has been accomplished by Mr. 
Leech, who is a director. The officers are: E. C. 
Thompson, of Meadville, Pa., president; Col. C. 
W. Mackey, of Franklin, Pa., vice-president and 
secretary; Thomas R. Mann, of Lockhaven, Pa., 
treasurer; J. T. Blair, of Greenville, Pa., general 
manager; and T. S. Waltemeyer, of Omaha, who 
is a director. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Tionesta, 
Forest County, Pa. , November 24, 1850. His fa- 
ther, D. E., was born in Leechburg, Armstrong 
County, Pa., his grandfather, John, in Mercer 
County, and his great-grandfather, John,Sr., in 
York County. The last-named, who was a far- 
mer, served as government surveyor and civil en- 
gineer in Pennsylvania and received in payment a 
large tract of land in Mercer County, upon which 
he settled and engaged in farm pursuits; he died 
on that place at the age of ninety-nine years. 
His father, who was a lieutenant in the Revolu- 
tionary war, was a member of a family that be- 
longed to the Society of Friends and came from 
England to Philadelphia with William Penn. 

The grandfather of our subject, together with 
his brother David, had the contract to build the 
western end of the Penn.sylvania Canal, which 
they completed from the Allegheny River east 
over the mountains, it being the greatest feat of 
engineering that had been accomplished up to 
that time. They founded the town of Leechburg, 
now on the Pennsylvania Railroad, and with a 
present population of twenty thousand people. 
Both were stockholders in the canal until it was 
sold by the state. The grandfather died when 
visiting in Tennessee, aged seventy-two. 

Our subject's father, who was a farmer in For- 
est County, removed from there to Greenville, 
Mercer County. Prior to that, in 1850, he went 
via the Panama route to California, where he en- 
gaged in mining for two years. On his return 
east he bought a farm in Greenville, where he 
continued until the war. He then enlisted as a 
private in Company I, Second Pennsylvania Cav- 

alry, where he served in the Army of the Potomac 
under General Stoneman until the close of the 
war, a period of four and one-half years of service. 
He was slightly wounded in the battle of City 
Point. For meritorious service he was promoted 
to be first lieutenant. When the war ended he re- 
turned to his farm. In 1873 he removed to Ogal- 
lala, Keith County, Neb., where he remained for 
six years upon a ranch. The year 1879 found 
him in Boulder, Colo. , where he continued to re- 
side until shortly before his death. While on a 
visit to his ranch in Nebraska, he died, at the 
age of sixty-four; the remains where brought to 
Boulder for interment. He was identified with 
the Grand Army of the Republic and was com- 
mander of the post at Ogallala. 

Our subject's mother was Elizabeth Hilands, a 
native of Tionesta, Pa., and now a resident of 
Los Angeles, Cal. She was a daughter of John 
Hilands, a civil engineer, who resided in Tiones- 
ta until his death, when but little less than one 
hundred years of age. In her family there were 
four sons and four daughters, namely: M. F. ; 
Mrs. Charlotte Tanner, of Denver; Mrs. Dora 
Lonergan, of Manitou; Mrs. Carrie Simms, who 
died at Fort Collins in December, 1897; Elmer 
E. , a cattleman at Big Springs, Neb. ; William 
H., a locomotive engineer running on the Atch- 
ison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad into Los An- 
geles, Cal. ; Mrs. Ida M. Stansfield, of West 
Australia; and C. D., of Los Angeles, Cal. 

When our subject was a boy his father entered 
the service of the Union, and he, being the oldest 
of the children, assisted his mother in the man- 
agement of the farm. In 1865, when his father 
returned home, he secured work as a newsboy on 
the Atlantic & Great Western (now the Erie) 
Railroad, and soon after was given employment 
in the McHenry House at Meadville, Pa. Later 
he was fireman on the Atlantic & Great Western 
road, between Meadville and Kent, and during 
his leisure hours he learned telegraphy. This lat- 
ter occupation he followed to some extent. From 
Pennsylvania he went to join his father, who had 
moved to Sparta, White County, Tenn., and he 
secured work as locomotive engineer in the em- 
ploy of the Nashville & Lebanon Railroad, where 
he remained for six months, when he was injured 
in a wreck. Going to Cincinnati, Ohio, he was 
for a time employed in the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company's office. Believing that a change 



ofclimate would benefit his health, in 1871 Mr. 
Leech came west, making the run along the 
Union Pacific from North Platte as extra agent 
and train dispatcher. For a time he engaged in 
railroading in Wyoming, but he suffered with the 
ague there, and concluded to "rough it" among 
the Indians. He went among the Sioux, whose 
language he learned and among whom he spent 
the greater part of three years in the western part 
of Nebraska and Wyoming. When he went to 
Sherman, Wyo. , in the fall of 1871 he was in such 
poor health that the inhabitants, believing he 
would not survive the winter, dug a grave for 
him at once, as it was their custom to prepare 
graves in the fall, in order that it would not be 
necessary to dig in the frozen ground in the win- 
ter. However, the climate and his outdoor exer- 
cise benefited him so much that he soon regained 
his former strength. From the fact that he is a 
very reserved man, the Indians called him "Wah 
see chee yoppa chinclullah," meaning "White 
man talks little," and one might well add, "and 
that little is to the point." 

In 1875, when the war broke out with the 
Sioux, Mr. Leech offered his services to the gov- 
ernment and became a scout with General Crook. 
On account of his familiarity with the Sioux, 
their country and their language, he was a very 
valuable aide, and guided the army in their scouts 
and rencontres. During one of these expeditions 
he was captured three times by three different 
bands of Sioux and each time talked his way to 
freedom. Knowing their language, character and 
habits he succeeded in making them think he was 
the agent of the government, authorized to secure 
the number of beef cattle that was needed to feed 
the families of the Indians on the reservations. It 
was the custom of the government to send a man 
out every ten days to get from the Indians the 
number of cattle needed on the reservations, and 
he succeeded in 'convincing the Indians that he 
was this agent, showing them his sealed orders, 
which were large and official-looking, to prove 
the truth of his assertion; while if they had been 
able to read, the papers would have been his 
death warrant. He participated in the battle of 

After the close of the Sioux war, in the fall of 
1875, Mr. Leech went into the employ of the Uni- 
ted States government, the Union Pacific Rail- 
road and the Wyoming Cattle Growers' Associa- 

tion, to hunt down and exterminate the outlaws, 
train and stage robbers and cattle thieves who 
had a strong foothold in Wyoming and western 
Nebraska during the war, as the government 
could not pay much attention to them during the 
Indian troubles. He was placed at the head of a 
band of men and continued in the service for three 
years, until he had all exterminated. During this 
time he had sixty-one of the outlaws either hung 
or sent to the penitentiary, while others were 
hung by vigilance committees before he got on 
their track. Sometimes, he rode after them days 
and nights in succession and had more than one 
pitched battle. The outlaws were desperate and 
when they found he was after them they threat- 
ened his life and several times they attempted to 
assassinate him at his home in Ogallala, Neb. In 
1878 he moved his family to Boulder, thinking it 
would be a safe place for them. Once, in that 
place, his life was attempted, but he maimed his 
assailant to prevent further harm. As the out- 
laws scattered, it took him all over the country 
and he traveled under assumed names. It was on 
one of these trips that he met, in Salem, Ind., the 
lady whom he afterward married. In 1878 he 
visited Leadville on business, and became inter- 
ested in mining. He remained with the United 
States government until July, 1880, when he 
cleared up the last gang. Dock Middleton's, at 
Keya Pah Hah. In 1884 he was again called in- 
to the service of the Pacific Express Company, to 
hunt the perpetrators of the Minnedoka and Al- 
bion stage robbery in Idaho. In three weeks he 
had them arrested, but it took one year to work 
up the evidence against and convict them. 

From 1878 Mr. Leech engaged in mining oper- 
ations in Leadville until 1880, when he returned 
to Boulder County and became manager of the 
mines and mills at Ward and Gold Hill. Later, 
going to Idaho, he was manager of the Alturas 
and Poor Man mines and was also interested in 
mining. In 1893 he returned to Boulder, for the 
purpose of working up interest in a railroad from 
Boulder to Ward and other mining camps. He 
was familiar with the canons and made the orig- 
inal survey himself; and it is of interest to note 
that the road when completed did not vary fifty 
feet from his survey. After making the prelim- 
inary survey he went east to secure the capital 
needed for building the road, having already cor- 
responded with Mr. Ames, a capitalist of Boston, 



whom he knew personally. On the way east, 
when at Chester, within one hundred miles of 
Boston, the train was wrecked, going through a 
bridge into the river, and fifteen were killed and 
forty wounded. In the Pullman sleeper there 
were eleven passengers and he was the only one 
of the number who escaped death. When he re- 
gained consciousness his head was under the wa- 
ter and his body was caught between a pair of 
trucks, the flanges of the wheels holding and 
crushing his left hip. He lifted his head out of 
the water and was fortunately seen by rescuers, 
who placed a board under his head, to hold it out 
of the water. Five hours passed before he was 
taken out, and it was then found that his left hip 
was crushed, arm broken and his head injured. 
He was sent to the hospital in Springfield, Mass., 
where the physicians held out no hope for his 
recovery; but he slowly regained his strength, 
though in. the hospital for more than one year. 
During his conscious moments he studied the 
plans for the Inter Mountain Railway (for he 
had already given a name to his projected road); 
and doubtless the same thought filled his mind 
even in moments of unconsciousness. One day 
he asked, "Why did the Lord spare my life 
and make me a cjipple," to which his old nurse 
replied, "God has spared you so that the Inter 
Mountain Railway can be built and you be the 
means through the railroad of making thousands 
of homes prosperous and happy." 

A year after he was injured Mr. Leech was 
able to leave the hospital, though still using 
crutches. Meantime Mr. Ames had died, so his 
original plans were necessarily changed. He went 
to New York City, but was taken worse and was 
compelled to remain in a hospital for almost an- 
other year. In spite of discouragements and long 
illness, he did not give up his hopes. In 1897 
he succeeded in interesting a few parties in the 
road, among them T. S. Waltemeyer, of Omaha. 
They incorporated the company and started a sur- 
vey, when E. C. Thompson and other parties 
from Pennsylvania became interested and sent 
out J. T. Blair, the manager of the Pittsburg, 
Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, to examine con- 
ditions and prospects. After going over the sur- 
vey, Mr. Blair made a favorable report, and him- 
self resigned his position and took stock in the 
new enterprise. 

In addition to his connection with the railroad, 

Mr. Leech is vice-president and general manager 
of the Midget Mining and Milling Company, 
which he organized and which is developing the 
Midget group of mines, containing eight claims. 
His ofiice is in the Masonic Temple building, on 
Pearl street, Boulder, and he has a beautiful resi- 
dence on the corner of Sixth and Arapahoe 
streets, surrounded by a fine lawn and a fruit 
orchard. By his marriage to Emma A. Goslen, 
a native of Indiana, he has six children, namely: 
Susie, Ralph, Hoyt, Edith, Winniefred and Doro- 
thy. Mrs. Leech is identified with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, to which he is a liberal contrib- 
utor. Fraternally he is connected with the Knights 
of Pythias and in politics is a Republican. 

Lr occupies a leading position among the edu- 
|>2) cators of Colorado, and the town of Boulder 
considers itself particularly fortunate in haying 
so scholarly and efficient a gentleman as superin- 
tendent of its public schools. In the fall of 1888 
he was honored by being elected county superin- 
tendent of schools and served with marked ability 
in that responsible position until January, 1893, 
having been re-elected in the meantime, in 1890. 
He is identified with the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion, the National Educational Association and 
the Boulder County Teachers' Association. The 
last-mentioned he was very influential in organiz- 
ing and has several times been its president. For 
some time he has delivered lectures on school 
law before the class in pedagogy in the Uni- 
versity of Colorado. 

The professor's paternal grandfather, Abraham 
Casey, was a minister in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, riding on the old "circuit" in southern 
Illinois, preaching "without money and without 
price" on Sundays, and carrying on his farm 
during the rest of the week, in order to make a 
livelihood for himself and family. He was a na- 
tive of Kentucky, was a descendant of one of the 
respected old families of Virginia, and was one 
of the pioneers of Jefferson County, 111., settling 
there in 1818. His son, Rev. La Fayette Casey, 
father of the subject of this article, was born in 
Illinois, and likewise became a Methodist minister. 
He was a member of the conference of southern 
Illinois for many years, and during the Civil war 
was stationed at Alton, 111. He was captain of 



a company in the Black Hawk war and was one 
of the founders of Jefferson County. Having at- 
tained almost the allotted age of man, three-score 
and ten, he was summoned to his reward, his 
death occurring at his home in Centralia, 111. 
His wife, Eleanor (Herrold) Casey, was a native 
of Missouri, her birth having taken place upon a 
farm near Cape Girardeau. She departed this 
life when in her fifty-fourth year. Of her six 
children all but two survive. One son, Robert, 
now of Denver, and interested chiefly in mining 
enterprises, was formerly quite prominent in ed- 
ucational circles, having been a teacher in Illi- 
nois, in Greeley, Colo. , and in Boulder. 
• Prof. W. V. Casey was born in Edwardsville, 
111., February 23, i860, and after graduating 
from the Greenville high school in 1877 began 
his career as a teacher. He taught in southern 
Illinois until 1883, when he came to Colorado, 
and became principal in the Louisville school. 
At the end of two years he succeeded his brother 
Robert as superintendent of the Boulder school, 
and later he was placed in charge of the Pine 
street school. In January, 1893, he finished out 
the school year (for he had just left the- place of 
county superintendent of schools) for Professor 
Harding, principal of the Longmont high school. 
Since that time he has occupied his present posi- 
tion, and under his able management the local 
schools are steadily advancing toward perfection. 
When he was first connected with the schools 
here, there were but two .school buildings, the 
Central and the Pine street, and now, in addi- 
tion to those there are the fine new Mapleton and 
Highland, as well as the high school, which has 
been merged into the preparatory school of the 
university. In his political views the professor 
is a Democrat, though he was elected by the Re- 
publicans to the superintendency of the county 
schools in 1888. He was a member of the Odd 
Fellows' society, being past ofiicer of the same; 
is also a past officer of the encampment; belongs 
to the Woodmen of the World; the Fraternal 
Union, being a charter member of the Boulder 
Lodge; the Imperial Legion; and Boulder Lodge 
No. 45, A. F. & A. M. Of the 
lodge he has twice been master. 

The marriage of Professor Casey and Miss Ida 
Row was solemnized in Denver in 1888. Mrs. 
Casey was born in Centralia, 111., being a daugh- 
ter of S. and Susan (Brown) Row, natives of 

Westmoreland County, Pa., and Tennessee, re- 
spectively. Her father, who is of German de- 
scent, is a veteran of the Civil war and is in the 
employ of the Illinois Central Railroad Company. 
His wife removed to southern Illinois with her 
parents in her girlhood. Mrs. Casey is one of 
six children. She was educated in music in the 
College of Music of the Illinois Female Seminary 
of Jacksonville and in the Chicago Musical Col- 
lege. She is gifted as a musician and is a valued 
member of the Young Ladies' Musical Club of 
Boulder. Professor Ca.sey and wife have two 
children, Eleanor and Robert Lafayette. 

I T. DURBIN, M. D., surgeon to the Den- 
\r\ ^^^ Consolidated Tramway Company and 
LJ one of the successful physicians of Denver, 
is a descendant of an English family, whose first 
representatives in America were two brothers. 
His father, Jesse, who was born in Maryland, 
was the son of William Durbin, a jeweler in Bal- 
timore. He was educated for the Methodist 
Episcopal ministry and for a time he preached, 
both in Maryland and Ohio, but his health broke 
down and he was obliged to seek a change of oc- 
cupation. For a time he engaged in banking in 
Woo.ster, Ohio, and later had a drug store in Can- 
ton. In 187 1, believiiTg tile change would be 
beneficial to his health, he came to Colorado, and, 
settling in Denver, purchased W. S. Cheesman's 
wholesale and retail drug business on Blake 
street, where he remained for nine years. He 
embarked in the surgical and dental business in 
1880 and continued in the same until his death, 
which occurred in 1884, at the age of fifty-six. 
Since then the business, which is incorporated, 
has been carried on by his children, under the 
name of J. Durbin's Surgical and Dental Instru- 
ment Company. Until his death he retained his 
connection with the Northern Ohio Conference. 
He was instrumental in the founding of the Uni- 
versity of Denver and was one of its trustees. 

Rev. Jesse Durbin married Lucy Ann Cain, 
who was born in Winchester, W. Va., a daugh- 
ter of Levi Cain, of that place. She died in 
Denver, February 16, 1898. Her five living 
children reside in Denver. Her oldest son, Will- 
iam R. , who was his father's bookkeeper, died in 
Denver at the age of twent3'-five, leaving one 
son, William R. Durbin, now residing in the state 



of Washington. The others are: Mary E., wife 
of George S. Van Law, who is a member of the 
real-estate firm of Van Law & Gallup, in Denver; 
L'. T., our subject; Jesse B. and Edward A., who 
are managers of the business left by their father; 
and Charles K.,who is superintendent of the 
Denver Consolidated Tramway Company. 

In Wooster, Wayne County, Ohio, Dr. Durbin 
was born May 5, 1858. He was educated in the 
high school of Canton. In 1873 he entered the 
drug business there, giving attention to the study 
of pharmacy, but in 1876 joined his father, with 
whom he continued in business until 1880, the 
business being at that time disposed of. Next 
he engaged in general merchandising as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Durbin Brothers at Gold Park, 
but after eighteen months sold out. He then 
entered the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Denver, from which he graduated two 
years later, in 1884, with the degree of M. D. 
For a few months he was engaged as a physician 
in the county hospital, but soon began in prac- 
tice for himself. From 1884 to 1886 he was dem- 
onstrator of anatomy in the University of Den- 
ver, but resigned in the latter year owing to his 
removal to Central City. Two years were spent 
in that city, during which time he was coroner 
of Gilpin County. From there he removed to 
Villagrove, Saguache County, in the San Luis 
Vallej', where for four years he was a prac- 
ticing physician, county coroner and local sur- 
geon for the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad and 
the Colorado Coal & Iron Companj^ the latter 
concern having two or three hundred men em- 
ployed at Orient, eight miles up the mountain. 
While in Villagrove he became interested in 
the San Luis hot springs and assisted in organiz- 
ing a company under the leadership of Chamber- 
lin Brothers. The San Luis Hot Springs Com- 
pany secured the finest hot springs in that locality 
and bought a section of land, upon which they 
built hotels and residences. The enterprise is 
yet in its incipiency, but without doubt the place 
in time will become a noted health and summer 
resort, for the water possesses curative properties 
and the climate is delightful. 

Returning to Denver in November, 1891, Dr. 

Durbin has since engaged in practice, having his 

office on Fifteenth and Arapahoe streets. He is en- 

■ gaged in general professional practice, and has 

been surgeon to the Denver Tramway (now the 

Denver Consolidated Tramway) Company since 
his return to the city. He was also appointed on 
the hospital staff, but pressure of other duties pre- 
vented his acceptance. He is a member of the 
Denver and Arapahoe County and the State 
Medical Societies, and at one time was president 
of the alumni of the University of Denver. In 
1897 he took a post-graduate course in general 
surgery at the New York Polyclinic. Politically 
he is a Republican, and fraternally belongs to 
Denver Lodge No. 7, A. F. &A. M., the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and the Woodmen of 
the World. In this city, in November, 1886, he 
married Miss Ella Avery, who was born in Bara- 
boo, Wis., and in 1871 came to Denver with her 
father, James B. Avery, a retired capitalist. 
They have two children, Jessie A. and Helen A. 

HARRY S. BADGER, president and superin- 
tendent of the Alauka Mining and Milling 
Company at Salina, Boulder County, was 
born in Boston, Mass., in 1862, the only child of 
Charles W. and Mary M. C. (Fowler) Badger, 
natives -respectively of Montpelier, Vt. , and 
Portland, Me. His father, who was a son of 
Charles Badger, a merchant of Montpelier, early 
gained a thorough knowledge of the mercantile 
business, in which he engaged for some years in 
Bo.ston; but in 1870 he removed to California, 
where for years he operated a mine in Amador 
County. Returning to Boston in 1894 he died 
the same j^ear. His wife makes her home with 
their only child. 

The education of our subject was largely ac- 
quired in Boston, but was completed in the Uni- 
versity of California, from which he graduated in 
1884, with the degree of A. B. Afterward, with 
his father, he became interested in mining and 
the stock business, and for nine years engaged 
in dealing in cattle at San Luis Obispo. In 1897 
he came to Boulder County, Colo., and was em- 
ployed as superintendent of the Gold Extracting 
Mining and Supply Company at Wall street camp. 
His connection with the Alauka Mining and Mill- 
ing Company dates from January, 1898, when he 
organized the company and began remodeling the 
old Williamson mill. The mill has a capacity of 
thirty tons, and the removal of the product is fa- 
cilitated by a siding from the Colorado North- 
western Railroad. The location could not be 



surpassed, this district comprising Gold Hill, 
Sugar Loaf and Sunshine, which are among the 
best mining districts in the state. A practical 
mill man of long experience has charge of the 
mill, and a complete assaying and sampling 
plant, with every facility for the sampling of 
ores, is an important adjunct. The ores are 
purchased on a sliding scale, proportionate to the 
value of the gold and silver they contain. A 
specialty is made of handling low-grade ores, 
averaging from $6 to $20 per ton, thus bringing 
into the market a product from the mines never 
before handled commercially. Politically Mr. 
Badger is a believer in Republican principles, 
but the demands of his business interests are such 
as to preclude his active participation in public 
affairs. However, he is a progressive and pub- 
lic-spirited citizen, and favors all measures for 
the benefit of the people and the advancement of 
the community. 

|5)EIL D. Mckenzie, one of the most prom- 
yi inent mine operators of Boulder County, is 
l/j a representative citizen of Boulder and is 
vice-president and a director of the National 
State Bank here. He has been extensively in- 
terested in raining and agricultural affairs since 
he came to Colorado some thirty-two 3'ears ago, 
and is a member of the Mining Exchange of 
Denver. Politically a strong Populist, he was 
sent as a delegate to the national convention in 
St. Louis in 1896 which nominated Bryan. 

In a family numbering six sons and three 
daughters, Neil D. McKenzie is the seventh in 
order of birth. He has lost one brother and one 
sister, and two of his brothers, Colin and Daniel, 
are in Colorado, being engaged in mining in the 
vicinity of Boulder. The father, Prof. Donald 
McKenzie, was born in the neighborhood of 
Loch Elch, Scotland. With his father he came 
to America when a young man and was reared 
upon a farm in Nova Scotia, which the senior 
McKenzie carried on as long as he lived. The 
younger man received a superior education and 
was engaged in teaching and kindred work dur- 
ing his active years. For a long time he taught 
in the public schools of Cape Breton, in which 
place he lived up to the day of his death. He 
was in his sixty-eighth year when he died, and 
his wife, who survived him many years, reached 

the advanced age of eighty-four. She, too, was 
a native of Scotland, and bore the maiden name 
of Catherine McLeod. She accompanied her 
family to Nova Scotia, and in Cape Breton be- 
came acquainted with the man she later married. 

N. D. McKenzie was born November 29, 1842, 
in Cape Breton, and was educated in the public 
schools of his native island. In 1862 he went to 
New Brunswick and engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness on the St. John's River. Thence he went 
to the Allegheny Mountains in Pennsylvania, 
and for about a year subsequent to the close of 
the Civil war carried on a lumbering trade in 
that state. In 1866 he came west, and for about 
two years was interested in mining near Brecken- 
ridge, in Summit County. He then went to 
Blackhawk, Gilpin County, and there bought 
and sold claims and finally invested considerably 
in mines in Boulder County. He improved and 
placed in a favorable condition a mine at Cari- 
bou, known as the Poor Man's Mine, which he 
operated for twelve or fifteen years alone. • He 
then sold that mine, in which, however, he re- 
tained an interest. He was superintendent of 
the company until 1894, when he withdrew from 
the concern. Among his possessions is a fine 
ranch of four hundred and eighty acres. It is 
situated about two and one-half miles east of 
Boulder, is improved with fences, good buildings 
and facilities for irrigation, and is a valuable and 
model ranch. Since settling permanently in 
Boulder he has served as a member of the school 
board here. He belongs to Silver Queen Lodge 
No. 112, I. O. O. F. A Mason of high stand- 
ing, [ he was identified with Blackhawk Lodge 
No. II, A. F. & A. M. , and is now associated 
with Columbia Lodge No. 14, A. F. & A. M.; 
Boulder Chapter No. 7, R. A. M.; Mount Sinai 
Commandery No. 7, K. T. , and is a member of 
the Denver Consistory and El Jebel Temple, 
Mystic Shrine. 

The pleasant home of Mr. McKenzie is pre- 
sided over by his estimable wife, formerly Miss 
Isabelle M. Backus, a native of Milburn, 111. 
Her parents, Benjamin and Mary (Griswold) 
Backus, who were natives of New York and Con- 
necticut respectively, were early settlers in Illi- 
nois. The eldest child of Mr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Kenzie, Neil Backus, is a member of the Boulder 
high school, class of '99. The four daughters are- 
Maud, Isabelle, Catherine and Pauline. 

■r. ifw.f^<" ' ' 



at-law, of Denver, was born in St. Joseph, 
Mo., in September, 1859, the son of Henry 
Cordis and Jane C. (Thompson) Brown. Among 
both his paternal and maternal ancestors were 
some who served in the colonial wars and the 
Revolution. His grandfather, Samuel Brown, 
who was born in Cambridge, Mass., October 29, 
1749, served throughout the entire period of the 
Revolution, being a lieutenant under Col. William 
Prescott in the battle of Bunker Hill. He also 
participated in the engagement at Concord and 
the siege of Boston and, as a lieutenant under 
Capt. Joseph Hubbard, he took part in Arnold's 
expedition to Quebec. Captured by the British 
near the beginning of the Revolution, he was 
paroled in September, 1776, and conveyed to 
Elizabethtown, N. J. Soon after the close of the 
war he went to Ohio and settled near St. Clairs- 
ville, Belmont County, where he worked at his 
trade of cooper and also engaged in clearing and 
improving a farm. He was a member of a com- 
pany that, in 1893-94, went out against the In- 
dians in the northwestern territory. His death 
occurred in Ohio January 16, 1828, when he was 
seventy-nine years old. 

The maternal grandparents of Mr. Brown were 
Joshua Thompson, born in Maine in 1793, and 
Marcia (Crane) Thompson, born at Guilford, 
Conn., April 16, 1805. The Cranes were a prom- 
inent family in the early days of Massachusetts 
and some of them were soldiers in the colonial 
wars. James Thompson, father of Joshua, was 
born in Londonderry, N. H., and enlisted as a 
private in a New Hampshire regiment under Col. 
John Stark, April 23, 1777, and in time was made 
an officer as a reward of meritorious service. 
After the war he removed to Canandaigua, N. Y., 
where he remained until death. He was a de- 
scendant of Sir Hugh Thompson, who emigrated 
from Dublin to America in 1722, settling in Rhode 
Island; his son, Hugh, was born in 1722, three 
daj's before the ship landed upon American shores. 

The eldest of three children, Mr. Brown has a 
brother, Sherman T. , who graduated from Gross 
Medical College in 1897; and a sister, Carrie M., 
who is the wife of Robert T. Cassell, of Denver. 
James Henry prepared for college in the Denver 
schools and in 1875 entered the Northwestern 
University at Evanston, 111., where he took a 
Latin and scientific course. At the end of the 

sophomore year he left school and began the study 
of law in the office of Hon. G. G. Symes and 
Westbrook S. Decker, of Denver, with whom he 
remained until his admission to the bar in August, 
1879. In 1 88 1 he was admitted to practice be- 
fore the supreme court of the United States, be- 
fore which august tribunal he conducted the suit 
brought by his father against the state of Colorado, 
to recover the capitol site. At that time he was 
only twenty-one years of age. From 1883 to 
1885 he held the office of city attorne}'. He is 
well versed in corporation law, a knowledge that 
has been worth much to him" in his practice. 
During his service as counsel for the Denver Con- 
solidated Tramway Company, he managed its im- 
portant affairs in an admirable manner. 

In the fall of 1890 Mr. Brown was nominated 
for the legislature on the straight Republican ticket. 
A split occurred in the party and an opposing 
candidate was nominated. However, Mr. Brown 
was elected by a fair majority, and took his seat 
in January, 1891, as a member of the Eighth 
General Assembly. He was the leader of the 
combination of Republicans and Democrats, which 
secured the enactment of important legislation and 
removed the speaker, who had been placed in 
power by the "machine" element. The governor 
was at first inclined to sympathize with the other 
side and ordered militia out against the reformers, 
but consented to drop matters on a threat of im- 
peachment. The case went to the supreme court 
at the request of the governor and that body ren- 
dered a decision sustaining the position of Mr. 
Brown and his friends, and deciding that a ma- 
jority of the house could electa new speaker as 
often as it pleased. This is the only instance in 
th2 history of the country where a precedent has 
been established to remove the speaker at will of 
the house. During the session Mr. Brown was 
instrumental in the passage of a bill adopting the 
Australian ballot law, also took an interest in the 
fee and salary bill, registration law, and a bill 
requiring the state treasurer to pay interest on 
'the public funds into the state treasury. He 
served as a member of the judiciary and other im- 
portant legislative committees. This session 
passed a law establishing the court of appeals for 
Colorado, and one making the taxes payable in 
two installments annually. He is general counsel 
for the Barber Asphalt Paving Company for Colo- 
rado, also for the Colorado Paving Company, 



and represents other important legal interests. 
In 189 1 he was a member of the board of directors 
of the Denver chamber of commerce and board 
of trade, and at present is a member of the com- 
mittee on legal advice, in which capacity he has 
served for a number of years. 

In Denver Mr. Brown married Mary A. Clark, 
who was born in Lyons, N. Y. , and graduated 
from the Denver high school. Her father, Hon. 
William Clark, was born and reared in New York 
and served in the senate of that state, coming 
from there in 1879 to Colorado, where he made 
his home until he' was killed by accidentally fall- 
ing from a railroad train in 1884 while returning 
from the east. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have one 
daughter, Dorothy. 

June 14, 1896, the degree of A. M. was con- 
ferred upon Mr. Brown by the University of 
Denver. Fraternally he is connected with the 
Royal Arcanum; also Denver Lodge No. 5, 
A. F. & A. M., Denver Chapter No. 2,R.A. M., 
Colorado Commandery No. i, K. T., the Thirty- 
second Degree Consistory, Scottish Rite, and El 
Jebel Temple, N. M. S., of which he is poten- 
tate. He is a member of the Denver Club and 
of the Denver Athletic Club, upon whose board of 
directors he has served for a number of years, 
during which time the club's building has 
been erected. He was president of the club at 
one time. He is captain of Troop C, First Squad- 
ron Cavalry, N. G. C, also belongs to the Sons 
of the Revolution and the Society of Colonial 
Wars. In the State Bar Association he is an ac- 
tive member. A friend of the silver cause, he 
was a delegate to the national silver conven- 
tion at St. Louis in July, 1897, and served as 
chairman of the Colorado delegation. 

n AMES M. IRWIN, real-estate and insurance 
I agent at Brighton, was born in Pittsburg, 
O Pa., September 5, 1828, a son of Dr. William 
B. and Virlinda (McConnell) Irwin. His father, 
who was a physician, removed from Pittsburg to 
Washington County, Pa., in 1832 and there re- 
mained until the son was about eleven years of 
age, when he settled in New Lisbon, Columbiana 
County, Ohio. Five years later he went to 
Steubenville, Ohio, where the son was employed 
in the finishing department of C. C. Wolcott's 
woolen factory, having previously worked at all 

branches of the business in New Lisbon from 
the age of fourteen. At the age of eighteen he 
began to clerk in a store at Steubenville. The 
first month his salary was $10, the second $25 
and the thiid $40. 

Continuing in the store until March, 1849, Mr. 
Irwin then fell a victim to the gold fever, and with 
fifty-five others formed a joint stock company, 
each member putting in $125. They chartered a 
boat, called the "Germantown," in which they 
went to St. Louis, and there chartered the "Mary 
Blaine, ' ' sailing up the Missouri . Their wagons 
had been made in Steubenville, and in Cincinnati 
they had contracted for sea biscuit and pork. 
Upon leaving the ship they bought sixty-five 
yoke of oxen, which they put, in three or four 
yokes, to their nineteen wagons. They followed 
the old Oregon trail through Kansas and Nebras- 
ka, striking the South Platte twelve miles below 
Fort Kearney. In Kansas the company divided, 
as they could not agree, and with four wagons 
our subject and nine others traveled to Fort 
Kearney, where they found two little log huts 
and seven Irish soldiers. From the fort they 
traveled up the South Platte to the present site 
of Julesburg. Crossing the river, they drove to 
the North Platte, which they followed about half 
way to Fort Laramie. Building a boat of Cot- 
tonwood trees by hewing out of them four canoes 
they lashed these together in order to cross the 
swollen stream. One man attempted to swim a 
horse across and lost his life. Our subject and 
two others were tipped out of the boat and had a 
hard struggle for life. After crossing, they fol- 
lowed the stream to Fort Laramie, where they 
found a more extensive fort then at Kearney, al- 
though there were no soldiers, as the fort belonged 
to the American Fur Company, who had one 
white man there to trade with Indians. They 
traveled across the country to the Sweetwater and 
followed that up to the base of the mountains. 
They went through South Pass, about ten miles 
wide, and a most beautiful place, affording a nat- 
ural pass through the mountains. Although they 
crossed near the center of the park it seemed as 
though the mountains were perpendicular on each 
side. They knew when they had passed the di- 
vide by a large spring, which they called Pacific 
Spring, and the waters of which flowed west. 

Following the slope downward the party crossed 
Green River, where they found Mormpps build- 



ing a boat. The Mormons wanted $10 for each 
wagon they took across the river, but our party, 
who were old river boys, saw that the Mormons 
knew nothing about boat-building, so they en- 
tered into an agreement to assist them with the 
boat if they in turn would help them across the 
river. In that way, after several days, they crossed 
the river without any expense. There, too, they 
saw the half-breed. Old Truckie, who had been 
Fremont's guide in 1842, and from him they en- 
deavored to get information, but all they could 

learn was that they would see "h 1" before 

they got to California. 

The route lay north of Salt Lake City and the 
Mormons before mentioned had come to the river 
to establish a ferry for the purpose of making 
monej- from the emigrants who wanted to cross 
the river. The company traveled along Bear 
River, which flows into Salt Lake. They followed 
the curve of the river on the north side to Bear 
Lake, and then turned almost due north to Fort 
Hall, another trading post of the Amerjcan Fur 
Compan)', where they found a white man and his 
wife, the only whites they had seen, except one 
man at Fort Laramie. Fort Hall was on Snake 
River, which they followed down and then up a 
creek, named by them Rattlesnake Creek, on ac- 
count of the large number of rattlesnakes found 
along its banks. Going south to the Humboldt, 
they followed down that river to the point where 
it sinks out of sight. Here a party of one hun- 
dred tried unsuccessfully to rescue a white woman 
said to be among the Indians. Then followed a 
desert of seventy- two miles, where, on account of 
the lack of water, many of their oxen fell dead in 
their yokes. When they reached Truckee River, 
two miles above Pyramid Lake, they found water 
but no grass, so they drove down to Pyramid 
Lake, where they found an abundance of grass 
for the cattle. After a few days spent in recuper- 
ating they started up the Truckee River. They 
were forced to keep watch all the;. way along the 
Humboldt River, as the Indians were numerous 
and hostile. 

From Pyramid Lake the men went up the 
Truckee River, the west wall of which is the 
divide of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. They 
were obliged to cross the canon twenty-eight 
times before they reached the lake where the 
Donner party had perished the year before from 
hunger and cold. This party had come from 

Missouri, under the command of Captain Donner 
and had undertaken to winter in the canon. A 
rescuing party from California came in time to 
rescue a man, whom they found boiling the arm 
of a woman, who had been the last to perish. 
The rescued man was taken to California, where 
he lived for several years. 

By unyoking their cattle and driving them 
around, our subject and his party reached the top 
of the divide. There they rigged up a windlass, 
by means of which they pulled the wagons up 
the hill, which was too steep for oxen to climb, 
even without a load. After many experiences 
down the southern slope they came to Steep Hol- 
low, at Bear River, where they camped for several 
days and where they dug some gold, the first 
they had found. During their stay at Steep Hol- 
low, another company camping there hung a man 
for stealing. He was hung in the evening and 
the body left on the ground, under a blanket, for 
burial the following morning. To the surprise 
of the people, in the morning the body was gone. 
Some months afterward our subject saw a man in 
California whom he took to be the same man that 
was hung. He asked him and the man acknowl- 
edged it was so. On inquiry as to how he escaped 
he said he had no recollection of his escape, but 
remembered only that a rope was put around his 
neck and when he came to himself he was miles 
away from the place. 

The company to which our subject belonged 
reached their destination, with the loss of three, 
one of whom had been drowned, another turned 
back and the third accidentally shot himself. 
The smaller company of ten prospected on the 
way, at Steep Hollow, Grass Valley and on the 
present site of Nevada Cit}\ They took what 
gold they had with them to Sacramento, in Octo- 
ber, 1849, and there twenty-seven of the original 
fifty-six comprising the party were together for 
one night. Afterward our subject and another 
man went fort5'-five miles east of Sacramento to 
Auburn, where for five months he worked for a 
gentleman from Cleveland, Ohio, receiving $300 
a month and board. At the expiration of the 
five months he had saved $1 ,200. He bought a 
team and began teaming, which he followed for 
twenty months, employing a driver to assist him. 
During a part of the time he worked a claim. It 
was his custom to buy a load in Sacramento and 
haul it to a mining camp, where be would sell it, 



taking gold-dust for his pay. He dealt in almost 
every article of provision except wbiskej', which 
he always refused to handle. 

In January, 1853, our subject left California 
and in company with four members of the origi- 
nal company he journeyed via the Isthmus of 
Panama, carrying his savings in gold-dust. After 
crossing the Isthmus he took passage on the 
steamer, "Ohio," which landed him in New York, 
after a journey of forty-one days. From there he 
went to Steubenville, Ohio, and a short time af- 
terwards embarked in the mercantile business 
with a brother-in-law, at Salineville, that state, 
but five years later closed out the business, and 
our subject bought another store. Selling this 
out in 1858, he went to Newton, Jasper County, 
Iowa, and bought a farm of eighty acres. He 
had never had any experience as a farmer and 
after a year decided he could do better elsewhere. 
Renting the place he secured employment as a 
clerk in Newton, working for one firm there for 
three and one-half years. In the meantime he 
learned the business of buying cattle and hogs. 
After a time he secured employment in the office 
of the recorder and treasurer, where he remained 
for two years. Later he began to buy cattle on 
commission, in which business he was successful, 
and some of the money he made was invested in 
an eighty-acre tract. When the war was at its 
height, in the summer of 1863, he bought cattle 
in Missouri and drove them to Iowa, selling them 
there. In the spring of 1865 he had one hundred 
and twenty -eight head of oxen. He and two 
others yoked up the cattle and loaded twelve 
wagons with flour, which they brought to Denver, 
starting in June. As the season was wet the trip 
was long and hard, and they were three mouths 
on the way. They sold out at $18.50 per hun- 
dred, having paid $3.75. They turned the cattle 
out to pasture and returned to Jasper County, 
he and his partner being in the first coach that 
ever went over the Smoky Hill Route. Indians 
having destroyed the provisions, they went for 
seven days without anything to eat except .such 
game as they killed on the way. At Monument 
Station, now on the Kansas Pacific road, one of 
the party was so frightened that he became in- 
sane, ran away and was never heard of any 

Shortly after reaching home our subject heard 
that the man whom he had put in charge of his 

cattle was not doing right. The temperature was 
twenty-eight degrees below zero and traveling 
was anything but desirable. However, he took a 
coach and started west. For eleven days and 
nights he had no sleep except such as he could 
snatch when sitting up in the coach. He found 
the cattle all right, and, although he had expected 
to be home in six weeks from the time he started, 
he decided to remain and look after his interests. 
In the spring he bought a ranch. Then, with 
two men, he went to Missouri, bought cattle and 
drove them to Jasper County, expecting soon to 
return to Colorado, but the report of Indian 
troubles caused them to continue in Iowa. In 1886 
he came to Denver and two years later bought 
eighty acres near Brighton. The laud was un- 
improved, but he placed it under cultivation. 
For five years or more he has engaged in the real- 
estate business in Brighton. In 1856 he voted 
for J. C. Fremont and has ever since been a 

Before our subject went west for the first time 
he became acquainted with a young lady with 
whom he corresponded for a time, but the letters 
afterward miscarried and another Iowa boy re- 
ceived them. He became familiar with the cir- 
cumstances while in the west, so, on his return , 
an explanation was had and an engagement an- 
nounced. In August, 1854, he married Miss 
Lucy Hart, of Carroll County, Ohio, daughter of 
Cyrus W. and Susan (Ewing) Hart. She was 
born on a farm in that county and received her 
education in the public schools. One child 
blesses their union, a son, Chatham, who was 
born in Salineville, Columbiana County, Ohio, 
received an excellent commercial education and 
now follows farm pursuits. February 2, 1898, 
he married Miss Eliza Dwyer, a teacher in the 
schools of Denver. 

HON. JOHN G. LILLEY. The farm where 
Mr. Lilley now resides was purchased by 
him in February, 1862, and at that time 
consisted of one hundred and sixty acres, but by 
subsequent purchase it was increased to three 
hundred and eighty acres, and now, a portion of 
the property having been sold, the acreage is 
one hundred and fifty. The homestead being 
situated adjacent to Littleton, Mr. Lilley is, 
therefore, identified with the history of this place. 



to the development of which he has been a large 
contributor. In 1868 he was one of the builders 
of the Rough and Ready grist mill, which soon 
acquired a reputation for producing the finest 
flour in the state, and for years the products of 
the mill were shipped as far east as Boston and 
commanded a higher price on 'change than al- 
most any other flour in the country. During the 
time that he was connected with the mill it was 
twice burned to the ground. 

The parents of Mr. Lilley were John and Ann 
(Buck) lyilley, natives of North Gillsboro, Eng- 
land. About 1847 they removed from their farm 
at North Gillsboro to Burkinhead, Cheshire, 
England, where he engaged in the laundry busi- 
ness until his death in 1886. His wife passed 
away in 1883. Both were members of the Church 
of England. Their son, John G.,was bom at 
Gillsboro June 12, 1833, and after the family re- 
moved to Cheshire he served for six years in the 
Burkinhead market. At the age of twenty he 
came to America, and after stopping for a few 
days in Portland, Me., he went to New Bruns- 
wick, where he stopped for ten days, and then 
shipped for Ireland as steward on a vessel. After 
a sojourn of six weeks in Ireland, while the ves- 
sel was anchored in Cork, he returned home, 
and for a year followed the butcher's trade. He 
then crossed the ocean to Boston, and from there 
went to LaCrosse, Wis., and engaged in busi- 
ness as a butcher. He remained there from 1854 
to i860 and then came to Colorado, settling in 
Denver, and for some two years prospecting in 
the mountains. He then bought the farm where 
he has since resided. 

While living in LaCrosse, in 1855, our subject 
returned to England, and on Christmas day of 
that year was there united in marriage to Miss 
Louise Ann Hay, whose father was a civil en- 
gineer. Ten children were born, of their union, 
namely: William H., commissioner of Park 
County, married and the father of two children; 
Anna, deceased; Maggie, wife of Frank Soper, a 
telegraph operator residing in Littleton; Fred; 
Lucy, deceased; Harry, who is engaged in the 
livery business at Littleton, and who married 
Kate Bergen, by whom he has two children; 
Marcia L. , wife of Charles Watlington, of Madi- 
son, Ind. ; Josephine, a graduate of the Universi- 
ty of Colorado, and now teaching in the public 
schools of Littleton; Benjamin E., who married 

Maggie Monahan, and assists his father in the 
management of the home farm; and John G. , 
who is engaged in the dairy business a Cripple 
Creek. The wife and mother died May 7, 1895. 

In politics Mr. LiHey is a silver Republican. 
For some twenty-seven years he has been presi- 
dent of the school board. In 1872 he was elected 
to the legislature, in which he served one term, 
and, being himself actively engaged in the cattle 
business, he took an active part in all cattle 
legislation. In 1879 he was elected count}^ com- 
missioner and served efiiciently for a term of 
three years. He was made captain of a com- 
pany organized in 1864 for protection of life and 
property from the Indians. In 1868 the com- 
pany was called into active service to suppress 
the Utes and Cheyennes, whose raids had proved 
troublesome and disastrous to property, but after 
a futile chase of a week or more the men were 
ordered to return home. 

As a member of the firm of Lilley & Coberley, 
our subject was connected with the building of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad, having a contract to 
deliver ties from the divide to the territory be- 
tween here and Sheridan, and running forty 
wagons, with seven yoke of oxen, to the trail. 
In 1870 the Indians raided a herd of cattle be- 
longing to them at the bend of the Sandy, for 
the loss of which a claim of $32,000 is now be- 
fore the government. 

>) M. D., a successful physician of Gold Hill, 
^ Boulder County, where he has resided since 
1889, was born in Golconda, Pope County, 111., 
October 31, 1861, a son of Edward E. and Nancy 
(Carr) Trovillion, natives respectively of Middle 
Tennessee and Virginia. He is a descendant, in 
the fifth generation, of an Englishman who first 
settled in Massachusetts, but later removed to 
Virginia. The latter had a sou, Edward, who 
was born in the Old Dominion and bore a valiant 
part in the Revolution. A town in Virginia was 
named in his honor. 

James Y., son of Edward, changed the spelling 
of the family name from Trevelian to Trovillion. 
He was born in Virginia and became an early 
settler in Tennessee, where he was a tobacco 
planter. During the Seminole and Florida wars, 
in which he served, he was wounded, and after- 



ward was again wounded in the Black Hawk war. 
His death occurred in 1881, when he was about 
eighty years of age. His son, our subject's father, 
took part in the Mexican war. After his return 
from the front he married and removed to Illinois, 
settling in Pope County, where he bought and 
cleared one hundred and sixty acres of govern- 
ment land. The tract is still owned by the 
family. At the opening of the Civil war he 
assisted in raising Company G, Sixth Illinois 
Cavalry, and was made its first lieutenant, but in 
the fall of 1864 was forced to resign his commis- 
sion, owing to a serious attack of typhoid fever. 
He was brought home, where he was confined to 
his bed from that time until his death, in March, 
1865, at the age of thirt3'-nine. He organized a 
Baptist Church in Pope County and officiated as 
its minister until his death. 

Our subject's mother, who still resides at the 
old homestead, was a granddaughter of a planter 
of Virginia, who went there from the mountains 
of Vermont. His father was one of the Green 
Mountain boys, who bore so brave a part in the 
Revolution. Our subject is the youngest of the 
parental family of five sons and three daughters, 
of whom three sons and one daughter are living. 
Of the family he is the pnly one in the west. At 
the age of seventeen he began to teach school in 
Pope County, 111. , and continued in that occupa- 
tion until 1882, when he became deputy county 
clerk under his brother, Penn V. L,ater he entered 
a medical college and after taking a three-year 
regular course he graduated from Rush Medical 
College in Chicago in 1886 as an M. D. Open- 
ing an ofiice in Rosebud, 111., he engaged in 
practice there until 1889, and meantime served 
as secretary of the United States board of pension 
examiners. Resigning that position, he came to 
Colorado in 1889 and succeeded Dr. G. R. Wells, 
an old college chum in Rush Medical College, as 
physician at Gold Hill, where he has since re- 
mained. His practice is not limited to this town, 
but extends to Salina, Jamestown and in fact 
throughout the entire county. In addition to his 
practice, he is interested in mining and operates 
a number of mines. For a short time he was en- 
gaged in the drug business, but the pressure of 
his large practice obliged him to give up the 
other enterprise. 

In Golcorida, 111., Dr. Trovillion married Miss 
Carrie M. King, who was born in Rosebud. Her 

father, William King, who is a very extensive 
merchant and large real-estate owner in Rosebud, 
was a member of the same company and regiment 
(Company G, Sixth Illinois Cavalry) as our sub- 
ject's father. Mrs. Trovillion was educated in 
the Southern Illinois Normal at Carbondale and 
is a lady of culture. Her two daughters are 
Beatrice and Genevieve. 

Politically the doctor is a Republican. In 1890 
he was elected county coroner, but did not qualify, 
not desiring the position. In 1894 he was a 
candidate for representative and 1897 for county 
clerk, but, belonging to the minority party, was 
not elected. He was made a Mason in Columbia 
Lodge No. 14, A. F. & A. M., to which he now 
belongs. He is also identified with Boulder 
Chapter No. 7, R. A. M., Mount Sinai Com- 
mandery No. 7, K. T.; Home Forum, for which 
he is examiner; Sons of Veterans, having his 
membership at Golconda, 111. ; and the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen at Gold Hill, for 
which he is medical examiner. A number of 
insurance companies have also secured his serv- 
ices as examiner. In religious belief he is a 
Baptist. All matters pertaining to his profession 
receive his thoughtful attention and he keeps 
abreast with every development made in the 
science of medicine. He is vice-president of the 
Boulder County Medical Society and a member 
of the State and American Medical Associations. 

r"RANK DUUN, M. D., police surgeon for 
¥^ Denver and member of the state board of 
I ^ medical examiners, and member of the 
United States board of pension examiners, is one 
of the successful and well-known physicians of 
Denver, where he has his office at No. 1407 Lar- 
imer street. In the general practice of medicine 
he has gained the confidence of his patients and 
has shown himself to be accurate in diagnosis and 
skillful in treatment. In addition to his private 
professional work he fills the office of member of 
the state board of medical examiners, to which he 
was appointed by Governor Adams in April, 
1897; also the office of police surgeon, to which 
he was appointed May i, 1897, by the fire and 
police board. Dr. Miller being the other police 
surgeon for the city. 

In early days the paternal grandfather of our 
subject removed from Virginia to Kentucky, 



where he spent the remainder of his days in the 
cultivation of a plantation. Rev. Robert Dulin, 
the doctor's father, was born in Christian County, 
Ky., in 1815, and during the earlj' days of the 
religious movement that called for a return to 
apostolic methods, he associated himself with 
Alexander Campbell and other men who gave 
their lives to that work. For years he preached 
in the Christian Church, yet for all his self-sacri- 
ficing labors he refused to accept any salary, feel- 
ing himself repaid if he led men and women into 
the light of the Gospel. After selling his farm of 
five hundred acres in Christian County, he lived 
somewhat retired, enjoying the comforts his in- 
dustry had rendered possible. In 1879 he went 
to Sherman, Tex., and there died in 1895, aged 
eighty years. 

The mother of the doctor was Lucy P. Coffey, 
who was born in Cumberland County, Ky., and 
is now living in Sherman, Tex. Her father, Ben- 
jamin Coffey, was a member of a Virginian family 
of planters and a descendant of Revolutionary an- 
cestry. Our subject was born in Hopkinsville, 
Ky., and was one of thirteen children, ten of 
whom attained mature years and eight are now 
living. William was killed at Fort Donelson 
when twenty-one years old. Smith was colonel 
of a Confederate regiment and fell at Jackson, 
Miss. The father had opposed the sons entering 
the army, and for that reason Smith went to 
Texas, where he enlisted as lieutenant and was 
promoted to colonel on the field at Jackson. 
There are four daughters and four sons now liv- 
ing. John L. is a graduate of Jefferson Medical 
College and a practicing physician; Charles S. is 
proprietor of a newspaper in Sherman ; and Robert 
R. has a store in that place. 

After having gained the rudiments of his edu- 
cation in the private schools of Hopkinsville, our 
subject entered Princeton College at Princeton, 
Ky. , where he studied some time. Removing to 
Sherman, at the age of twenty-one he began to 
study medicine under Dr. John L. Scott, and in 
1880 entered the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in St. Louis, from which he graduated in 
1882 with the degree of M. D. Afterward he 
was assistant demonstrator of anatomy in that 
college and the hospital for a year, and then lo- 
cated in Ashley, Washington County, 111., where 
he engaged in practice nearly three years, but in 
the fall of 1885 he removed to Garden City, Kan., 

and from there in July, 1889, came to Denver. 
In 1892-93 he was county physician. In the fall 
of 1893, under the civil service law, he received 
from President Cleveland the appointment of 
member of the United States board of pension ex- 
aminers, of which he is now the treasurer. Active 
in the Democratic party, he has been a member 
of the county committee and a delegate to county 
and state conventions. He is connected with the 
American Medical Society and the Denver and 
Arapahoe County Medical Society. In religious 
belief he is identified with the Central Christian 
Church, of which Dr. Barton O. Aylesworth is 
the pastor. He is physician to the Rocky Moun- 
tain Camp, Woodmen of the World. In the 
Knights of Pythias he is examining physician 
and past officer, also three times in succession its 
representative to the grand lodge and in that body 
a member of the committee on credentials. In 
Caledonia, Mo., he married Miss Fannie May 
Carr, daughter of Dr. Munson Carr, an old set- 
tler of Caledonia. They have one son, Robert 
Carr Dulin. 

lAl b"^"^^ss career of Mr. Calhoun shows 
Y V what may be accomplished b^' pluck' and 
perseverance. When he came to Denver he had 
no friends in the city and his means were limited; 
but with the determination characteristic of him 
he again embarked upon the unknown sea of 
journalism. He established the Rocky Mountain 
Sentinel, a weekly, which for some time he pub- 
lished with indifferent success, but from the time, 
in 1891, when he commenced to advertise in state 
and eastern papers he was unceasingly prospered. 
His legal advertisements began to be special 
features of his paper, and the advertising patron- 
age increased so rapidly that it absorbed from 
three to eight pages of each issue. In order to 
meet this increased patronage and also to make 
his paper one of general interest to people through- 
out the United States, he decided to establish an- 
other publication, and so the Illustrated Weekly 
was born. Phenomenal success attended the new 
enterprise, and subscriptions poured in at times 
at the rate of hundreds daily. Finding that his 
advertisements were profitable, he continued 
them in about one thousand newspapers and 
magazines, and the returns have been such as 
would convince the most skeptical of the profits 



derived from the liberal use of printer's ink. The 
Twin Weeklies of the Rockies, as the papers are 
called, are national illustrated home and family 
papers, with views of the finest scenery in Ameri- 
ca and articles of interest alike to busy mothers, 
school children, farmers and business men. 

The Calhouns are an old southern family. 
Garrett Calhoun, our subject's father, was born 
in South Carolina, and in childhood, accompanied 
by the other members of the family, he removed 
to Ohio, where he died in 1864. His wife, Mary 
E., was born in Middletown Valley, Md., and 
was a daughter of Samuel Fisher, a native of 
Hagerstown, that state, a successful farmer, and 
an own cousin of ex-Governor CuUom, of Illinois. 
He married Debbie Barnhiser, who is still living, 
and is now eighty-five years of age. Her father, 
John Barnhiser, was born in Pennsylvania and 
served under Washington in the Revolution, of 
which he was later a pensioner. He died at 
Quincy, Pa., in June, 1849, aged one hundred 
and six years. Samuel Fisher moved west to 
Illinois, settling first in Knox County, but later 
removing to I,ogan County, and some years later 
to Kansas, where he died at eighty-five years. 
His daughter, Mrs. Calhoun, resides in Lincoln 
and is now sixty-three years of age. She is a 
lady of noble character and culture, one who is 
universally esteemed by her acquaintances. She 
had only two children, and one of these, John F., 
died at twelve years of age. 

Near Urbana, Champaign County, Ohio, the 
subject of this sketch was born November 11, 
1863. He was four years of age when the family 
moved, by wagon, to Illinois, and his childhood 
years were passed in Lincoln, 111. He can 
scarcely remember when he first determined to be 
a printer. He had a great desire to learn the 
trade and at the age of thirteen he secured em- 
ployment on a farm, saving his earnings until he 
had $35, with which he bought a small printing 
press and a couple of styles of type. He put it 
up at home and, unaided, gained an understand- 
ing of its intricacies. Without other aid than his 
own quick intelligence, he learned to set type and 
gained a knowledge of leads, slugs, fonts, ems, 
cases, etc. When he was seventeen he began to 
print a paper in Lincoln, and later he was em- 
ployed on some of America's largest dailies, being 
with the Chicago Thnes in 1883. 

During the boom Mr. Calhoun took up a pre- 

emption claim in Ford County, Kan., his land 
being so far from the railroad that at first he was 
obliged to walk thirty-six miles, to Dodge City, 
for his mail. He proved up the claim, and the 
next year homesteaded a tract in Grant County, 
four miles from Zionville, and one mile from his 
nearest neighbor. He built a sod house, with an 
ox-team turned the first furrows in the soil, and 
planted corn and vegetables with a spade. At 
the same time he started the Zionville Sentinel, 
walking four miles to town in the morning, and 
returning in the evening. He also established 
the Westola Wave in Morton County. When it 
became known that the rainfall was too irregular 
and insufficient to insure crops in the western 
part of the state, the settlers, discouraged and 
disheartened, turned their faces towards their old 
homes in the east. Instead of following their ex- 
ample, he determined to come still further west 
and establish a paper in Denver. 

In 1888 Mr. Calhoun located in Colorado and 
soon afterward he came to Denver, where he at 
once embarked in the journalistic field. His 
present large business has been built up solely 
through advertising, and the two papers he 
founded have grown to such proportions that they 
are the wonder and admiration of all western 
newspaper men. Their success is all the more 
remarkable when it is considered that he began 
with small capital and has had to contend with 
the long continued period of depression and 
accompanying hard times. In addition to his 
newspapers he possesses large real-estate and 
mining interests in the state. He was among the 
very first to become interested in the Cripple 
Creek gold fields in 1891, and still holds valuable 
interests there. He has a comfortable residence, 
recently erected, and presided over by his wife, 
whom he married in Utah, in 1891, and who was 
Miss Annie Orr, a native of Canada, the eldest 
daughter of John Orr, all of whose ancestors re- 
sided in Scotland. 

Mr. Calhoun is a firm believer in the teachings 
of Odd Fellowship, and belongs to Anchor Lodge 
No. 66, Wauneta Rebekah Lodge No. 22, and 
Silver State Encampment No. 34. He is also a 
member of Kremlin Riga No. 6, Imperial Order 
of Muscovites, and is also identified with the 
several branches of the Masonic order, being 
especially interested in the Knights Templar. 
He takes great pride in the fact that he is a member 

CiJii 8f HcNBV J« Chicago 




of Colorado Commandery No. i, K.T. ; he is also a 
member of Temple lyodge No. 84, A. F. & A. M. 
One thing of which he may well be proud is the 
fact that during his eventful life, no matter what 
his hardships or temptations might be, he has 
never drank a glass of any intoxicant, nor has he 
contracted the use of tobacco in any form. He 
is a friend of all measures for the benefit of the 
people, and strives, both through the press and 
by his personal influence, to promote the cause 
of truth and justice. In addition to his other 
connections he is identified with the Printers' 
Union, the Mining Exchange and the Denver 
Chamber of Commerce, and is interested in all 
local associations tending toward the upbuilding 
of the city and state. 

^ yiORITZ EARTH, well known as one of the 
Y old settlers of Colorado and successful busi- 
er ness men of Denver, was born in Dietz 
Nassau, Germany, July 24, 1834. Until four- 
teen years of age he attended the public schools 
and gymnasium, after which he was employed in 
the surveyor- general's office, intending to devote 
himself to mining. However, on changing his 
future plans by a resolve to locate in America, he 
learned the shoemaker's trade. In 1852 he left 
Havre on the sailing vessel "William Nelson," 
and after a voyage of fifty -four days landed in 
December in New Orleans, where he worked at 
his trade for a few months. In May, with the 
other members of the family, he came up the 
Mississippi and located at Mascoutah, St. Clair 
County, 111., but in 1854 removed to Parkville, 
Platte County, Mo., then a populous and flourish- 
ing steamboat landing town on the Missouri. 
There he engaged in business with his brother 
William, of whom mention is made on another 

The tide of emigration was turned toward 
Colorado on account of the discovery of gold in 
Pike's Peak. The two brothers in 1861 started 
westward, with ox-teams, and after a month of 
travel they reached California Gulch, near the 
present site of Leadville, where they engaged at 
their trade. When William returned to St. 
Louis, Moritz went to Canon City, where he 
started a general store, but the prospects were 
poor there at that time, so he sold out and joined 
his brother in the manufacture of boots and shoes 

in St. Louis. During their sojourn in the mount- 
ains they learned the requirements for footgear 
suited to the place, and these they manufactured 
for the Pike's Peak trade. In 1862 they again 
made the overland trip to Colorado, this time 
opening a shoe store in Montgomery. 

In the spring of 1863 Mr. Barth went over the 
Snowy Range to Gold Run, Colo., where he en- 
gaged in business, but in the fall, the gold ex- 
citement in Montana induced him to go to Vir- 
ginia City, where he started in business, and 
after three months there he returned to the States, 
bought a large stock of goods and took them to 
Montana. Selling out in the fall of 1865, he re- 
turned to Denver, where he and his brother car- 
ried on a large shoe business. In 1868 he took 
charge of the branch houses established by the 
firm in Salt Lake City and Corinne, Utah, but 
later returned to Denver. The firm were the 
first shoe manufacturers and also the pioneers in 
the wholesale trade in Denver. After his return 
to Denver in 1870, the two continued together 
for many years, but finally their other interests 
grew so large as to require their undivided atten- 
tion and they sold the shoe business. 

Investing heavily in Denver real estate in early 
days, the property grew in value and in time 
brought Mr. Barth a fortune. He built the old 
Barth block, which was for a time occupied by the 
City National Bank and is located at the corner of 
Sixteenth and Lawrence streets. He has built 
up and improved much of his property in Den- 
ver and also owns ranches in difierent parts of 
the state. In mining, too, he has met with suc- 
cess, being interested in several companies. Up- 
on the organization of the City National Bank he 
became a stockholder and director, and remained 
a director upon the consolidation of the institu- 
tion with the American National Bank. He was 
for some time a director in the Denver Tramway, 
and the Denver Consolidated Tramway Company, 
but finally sold his In other corpora- 
tions he has been a director. He was interested 
in the organization of the Bank of San Juan at 
Del Norte, of which he was a director for years. 
He has contributed to religious enterprises, street 
car lines, and other enterprises for the upbuilding 
of Denver and the welfare of the people. For 
ten years he served as treasurer of the State 
School of Mines at Golden, during which time 
the school added to its collection until it had the 



finest exhibit of minerals in the United States. 
He is a member of the chamber of commerce 
and board of trade and the mining exchange of 
the chamber of commerce. In religious belief 
he is a Presbyterian. Politically he is a Repub- 
lican, but has never desired to hold oflBce, pre- 
ferring to devote his attention to private afEairs. 
For some years he was president of the Denver 
Maennerchor, a musical society of the city. 

?\ of the Denver Homeopathic Medical College 
Cy/ and professor of gynecology, was one of the 
active factors in the organization of this institu- 
tion and has since been one of its mainsprings. 
He is to the college in Denver what his old pre- 
ceptor, Prof. R. Ludlam, is to Hahnemann Medi- 
cal College of Chicago. Not only is he promi- 
nent in college work, but he also justly occupies 
a high place in the ranks of the homeopathic 
medical fraternity throughout the west. In ad- 
dition to his work as an instructor, he carries on 
a private practice, having an office in the Cali- 
fornia building. In October, 1894, he founded 
the Critique, a medical journal devoted to the in- 
terests of homeopathy in the western states, and 
he has since been its editor, through his personal 
efforts increasing the number of subscribers to 
one thousand. Connected with the college there 
is a homeopathic hospital and a school for nurses, 
where young women are instructed in the impor- 
tant duties pertaining to their occupation. 

Dr. Smythe was born in Galena, 111., July 14, 
1839, and is a son of Hon. Henry and Lucinda 
(Scales) Smythe. His father, who was born and 
reared in Great Barrington, Mass., came west in 
young manhood, making the trip via the great 
lakes. He located in Jo Daviess County, 111., 
where he engaged in smelting lead ores. Though 
he started in business without means, he suc- 
ceeded in gaining a competency through his in- 
dustrious efforts. From Jo Daviess he removed 
to Carroll County, 111., where he engaged in 
farming upon a large scale. Prominent in public 
affairs, he was chosen by his .fellow -citizens to 
represent his district in the state legislature, and 
he also held a number of local offices. He was a 
delegate to the state constitutional convention 
and assisted in framing the constitution. Until 
the disintegration of the Whig party he affiliated 

with it, and he became a Republican on the or- 
ganization of that party. He died in Denver, 
aged eighty-four, while visiting his son in this 
city. His wife, who was born near Charleston, 
S. C, died on the old homestead, in Carroll 
County, 111., in 1894, aged eighty-four. They 
were the parents of five sons: Samuel S., Gar- 
land, Franklin D. (a physician), Albert H. and 
John Quincy. 

Concerning the lineage of the Smythe family 
it is known that they are of English extraction. 
From that country they came to Massachusetts 
and settled in Great Barrington. The doctor's 
great-grandfather. Garland Smythe, was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war. 

In the schools of Galena and Chicago the sub- 
ject of this sketch received his education. In 
April, 1861, upon the call for seventy-five thou- 
sand men , he enlisted in a company of dragoons 
in Chicago and served for four months. Septem- 
ber 20, 1861, he again enlisted in the service, be- 
coming a member of Company F, First Illinois 
Light Artillery. He entered as a private, but at 
Springfield was made second lieutenant; became 
first lieutenant September 2, 1862; senior first 
lieutenant in 1863; and captain of Battery A, 
First Illinois Light Artillery, July 10, 1864. He 
participated in the engagements of the Army of 
the Tennessee and was a brave and efficient offi- 
cer, esteemed alike by superiors and subordinates. 
In the battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, he was 
wounded, captured and held as prisoner of war. 
For eight months he was confined in southern 
prisons, being in Macon, Ga., Charleston and 
Columbia, S. C. Twice he attempted to escape 
and once was out for five days, but when hope of 
rejoining the Union army seemed brightest, he 
one night walked into a squad of Confederate 
soldiers. He was finally paroled at Wilmington, 
N. C, March i, 1865, and was mustered out on 
the 2oth of March and honorably discharged from 
the service. 

The following is an extract from the official re- 
port of Maj. Thomas D. Maurice of the campaign 
from May i to September 8, 1864, and forwarded 
to the father of Dr. Smythe while the latter lan- 
guished in a southern prison. The surprise and 
joy of his parents when the final news of his 
parole reached them can be imagined: 

"Lieutenant Smythe, Battery A, First Illi- 
nois Artillery, fought until he was overpowered 



and yielded his four guns only after a sacrifice of 
Lieutenant Raub and thirty men killed, wounded 
and missing. He was captured." 

"First Lieutenant Samuel S. Suiythe, Battery 
F, First Illinois Artillery, commanding Battery 
A, same regiment, in the battle of July 22 before 
Atlanta was captured, while gallantly defending 
his guns in the charge, and killed, while being 
taken to the rear, by a stray bullet from our own 
line advancing to re -capture his battery. A bet- 
ter or braver officer never commanded the Ameri- 
can soldier." (Signed) T. D. Maurice, major 
and chief of artillery, Fifteenth Corps. 

While a prisoner Lieutenant Smythe was one 
of six hundred Union officers who were sent to 
Charleston to prevent its bombardment by the 
Federal gunboats, but all escaped injury. 

After the war our subject went to Chicago, 
where Prof. R. Ludlam became his medical precep- 
tor in the Hahnemann Medical College, and he re- 
mained in that institution until his graduation in 
1868. Afterward he practiced in Chicago for two 
years and then went to Lawrence, Kan. In 1 880 he 
came to Denver, where he has since established a 
large practice. He is a member of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homeopathy and the state and 
city medical associations of homeopath ists. Fra- 
ternally he is a Mason and belongs to the Dixon 
commandery. In politics he is a Republican. 

The marriage of Dr. Smythe took place in 
1870 and united him with MissLydia K. Ranson, 
daughter of Thomas Ranson, of Carroll County, 
111. She died in Denver in 1889, leaving an only 
daughter, Grace E. 

p QlLLlAM M. DAILEY. Prior to 1859 little 

I A/ ^^^ known concerning Colorado, but the 
Y Y discovery of gold led thousands of men, 
during that year, to link their fortunes with this 
then sparsel}' populated territory. Among a party 
of young men who started west from Indiana was 
the subject of this sketch, then twenty-three 
years of age. The journey was a long and tedi- 
ous one, but finally the mountains were reached, 
and he at once began to work a claim in Russell 
Gulch. In the fall of the same year he located 
in Denver and followed the carpenter's trade, 
which he had learned in Ohio. He erected a 
number of buildings, one of which still stands, 
near the Market street bridge over Cherry Creek, 

and which was formerly occupied by Byers & 
Dailey as the office of the Rocky Mountaiii News. 

In the spring of i860 Mr. Dailey took up a 
ranch claim on the Platte River (a tract now sub- 
divided as the Lake Archer division) and there 
engaged in farming until the disastrous flood of 
1864 ruined his place. During the summer of 
1864 he enlisted in Company A, Third Colorado 
Infantry, and took part in the battle of Sand 
Creek. On being mustered out he embarked in 
mining and prospecting, but in the spring of 1867 
began in the live-stock business with ex-Governor 
John Evans, first locating in Pueblo County, but 
later moving to Vance's Park on Bear Creek, and 
from there to the Little Thompson in Larimer 
County, thence to the Black Hills of Wyoming. 
When cattle were at a very high price he sold 
out, thus reaping a large profit. Afterward he 
superintended the developing of mines on Rock 
Creek, Gunnison County. During his last years, 
as a partner of his brother, John L. Dailey, he 
platted Dailey 's addition to the city and engaged 
in the transfer and sale of real estate. 

Prior to coming to Colorado Mr. Dailey's life 
was not an eventful one. He was born near 
Tiffin, Seneca County, Ohio, April 22, 1836, and 
in 1848 accompanied the family to Allen County, 
Ind., where he and his two brothers assisted in 
clearing a farm out of the unbroken forest. He 
received public school and academic advantages, 
and for a time taught in order to gain funds 
needed to extend his educational advantages. 
His youth passed busily, but uneventfully, and 
the first stirring event was the decision to remove 
to Colorado and seek his fortune in a country 
then so little known, but of which so much was 
said. Nor did he ever have cause to regret his 
decision. While assisting in the advancement of 
Denver, at the same time he enhanced his own 
prosperity, and at the time of his death, March 
29, 1890, he left his family in comfortable circum- 
stances. He was a man of genial disposition and 
stirring energy, one whose industry was untiring 
and whose determination conquered every ob- 

In Denver, March 10, 1880, Mr. Dailey mar- 
ried Miss Nellie M. Tilton, who was born in 
Hudson, Mich., thedaughter of Albert and Hattie 
L. (Manley) Tilton, natives respectively of Michi- 
gan and New York. Her paternal grandfather, 
William Tilton, was a farmer in Michigan, and 



her maternal grandfather, Rev. W. E. Manley, a 
Universalist minister, spent many years in New 
York, also resided in Michigan a short time, and 
died in Denver, where his daughter still lives. 
Albert Tilton was a farmer, at Hudson, Mich. , but 
removed from there to Lenawee County, where 
he died in middle life. He left three children, 
Mrs. Dailey, Mrs. Minnie C. Hartford, of Den- 
ver, and Charles M. Tilton, of Berthoud, Colo. 
Mrs. Dailey and her children, William A., Min- 
nie M. and Walter J., reside at No. 329 Broad- 
way, where she built a comfortable home some 
years ago. She is a lady possessing many noble 
attributes of character that win the warm friend- 
ship of all with whom she associates in society. 

pCJlLLIAM EARTH.- By far the largest 

\ A / number of those who emigrate to the 
V V United States land in New York and seek 
employment in the east, where their lives are 
drearily passed in the monotonous toil of factory 
life, uucheered by comforts and unmarked by suc- 
cess. Doubtless not a little of Mr. Barth's pros- 
perity is due to the fact that he landed in New 
Orleans on coming to America and soon found 
himself on the frontier, where great opportunities 
were offered to all who were willing to work for 
them. He was a poor boy, so poor that when he 
arrived in New Orleans he had only a nickel in 
his possession and that he used in buying a loaf 
of bread. Poverty, however, had no terrors for 
him; he was young, strong, hopeful and indus- 
trious, and believed money would come to any 
man who was willing to work. When he settled 
in Denver, a few days after the fire of May, 1863, 
he rented a space between two buildings and, 
roofing it over, began in the shoe business. His 
quarters were so small that he could reach from 
wall to wall, but after a few months, his trade 
warranting a change, he moved to No. 232 
F street (now Fifteenth street) and there he did 
a successful business for many years. From the 
first he had the greatest faith in the future of 
Denver; he believed in it and his optimistic faith 
encouraged others to make investments here. 
When he came to this city there were no trees 
for many miles, and he planted some of the 
first ever set out here, by which he was enabled 
to prove to others that trees could be made to 
grow in this locality. He has been greatly inter- 

ested in building up residence and business prop- 
erty in Denver, having built a number of houses 
and the block that bears his name, and his 
activity has been instrumental in promoting the 
growth and enhancing the commercial importance 
of the place. 

Mr. Barth was born in Dietz Nassau, Ger- 
many, December 8, 1829, the son of George and 
Mina (Grass) Barth. His father, who was a 
shoemaker by trade, served in the Napoleonic 
wars in Belgium in 1812-15; when he was an old 
man our subject sent the money for his passage 
to America and he died in Platte County, Mo. 
The Grass family were from Oranian, of the Neth- 
erlands, whence they fled to the Isle of Wight on 
account of religious persecutions, and from that 
isle they removed to Germany, where they be- 
came very prominent. One member of this 
family was a captain and two were lieutenants in 
the German army and all three were killed in the 
battle of Waterloo. Another representative of 
that name was a general in Napoleon's army. 

When a boy our subject learned the shoe- 
maker's trade. In 1850 he took passage at 
Antwerp and after sixty-eight days landed in 
New Orleans, spending a short time there and 
then going to Belleville, 111. A year later he 
went to Glasgow, Mo. , in search of a brother, 
Charles J., who had come to America two years 
earlier than himself; on inquiry he learned that 
the brother had started for California, but 
perished on the plains. From Glasgow our sub- 
ject went to Platte County, Mo., where he and 
his brother Moritz started a boot and shoe busi- 
ness. The people of this neighborhood were 
strongly southern in sentiment and, at the break- 
ing out of the war, he being a stanch Union 
sympathizer, found residence there was no longer 
congenial. For this reason he determined to 

June 2, 1861, in company with his brother, 
Mr. Barth crossed the Missouri River at Kansas 
City with an ox-team, which was the extent of 
his worldly possessions. After spending some 
time in California Gulch (now Leadville) he re- 
turned to St. Louis, Mo., and engaged in the 
manufacture of nail boots for the Pike's Peak 
trade. Returning to Colorado in 1862, he settled 
in Fairplay and his brother- in Montgomery. 
Later he spent a short time in Breckenridge and 
May, 1863, located in Denver, where he engaged 



in manufacturing miners' footwear. His earnings 
were invested in citj^ property, which as years 
advanced increased in value and brought him 
wealth. He was interested in contributing to 
the Denver Pacific Railroad, the first railroad in 
Denver, and later was active in the building of 
the Denver & South Park Railroad, and the Den- 
ver, Texas & Gulf Railroad, in each of which he 
was a stockholder and director. Soon after the 
organization of the City National Bank he began 
to purchase stock, in time became one of its con- 
trolling stockholders, and was made its president, 
continuing at the head of that institution for ten 
years. Since his retirement from the presidency 
he has given his attention to the oversight of his 
large interests. He is president and was the or- 
ganizer of the D-T Cattle Company, which has 
a large ranch on the Platte River in Morgan 
County; is also interested in the cattle business 
outside of the company, owns large tracts of lands 
in different sections, and is interested in mining. 
With Messrs. Moffat and Hathaway he started 
the Bimetallic Bank in Cripple Creek, of which 
he was president until he sold his interest in the 
concern. He was married in Missouri to Miss 
Charlotte Kaempfer, of Chicago, and has one son, 
Charles J., of Denver. Politically he is a strong 
Republican, served on the board of aldermen in 
1867-68 and held other local offices in early days. 
Fraternally he is a Mason. During the Vienna 
Exposition he went to Europe and spent some 
time travehng in Austria, Germany and Switzer- 

A position among the talented young phy- 
sicians of Denver is held by Dr. Lyman, 
who is professor in the department of fractures 
and dislocations in the University of Denver 
medical school; also visiting surgeon to St. Jo- 
seph's and Arapahoe County Hospitals, consult- 
ing surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital, surgeon for 
the Union Pacific Railroad and for the State 
Home for Dependent Children. He also carries 
on a private practice, and has an office in the 
California building. 

Dr. Lyman traces his ancestry back to the days 
of William the Conqueror, when Sir Radulphus 
Lambert assisted his famous commander in win- 
ning the battle of Hastings. Fifteen generations 
later his descendant, Elizabeth Lambert, became 

the wife of Thomas Lyman during the reign of 
Henry II. The twenty-sixth generation in line 
of descent from the soldier at Hastings is repre- 
sented by Dr. Lyman. The first of the name in 
America was Richard Lyman, Sr. , who crossed 
the ocean in 1631 from Bristol, England, taking 
passage on the ship that bore to this country 
Martha, wife of Gov. John Winthrop, and 
Elliott, the celebrated apostle of the Indians of 
the new world. He landed in Boston Novem- 
ber 4 and at once made settlement in Charles- 
ton, a suburban town. A Puritan himself, he 
was in hearty sympathy with his fellow-pioneers, 
and, like them, he labored for the development of 
New England. In 1635 he accompanied a num- 
ber of Puritans to Connecticut, and the next year 
he was one of the original proprietors of the 
Hartford Colony. The fact that he had two 
servants and large estates indicates that he was a 
man of means. He had two sons, John and 
Richard, Jr., the former born in England in 1623. 

In 1654 John Lyman settled at Northampton, 
Mass., and there he resided until his death in 
1690. During the famous fight with the Indians 
at Deerfield he served as lieutenant of a company. 
By his marriage to Dorcas, daughter of John 
Plumb, he had a large family, of whom the 
fourth son, Lieut. Benjamin Lyman, was born in 
Northampton August 10, 1674, and died in 1723. 
He was an extensive farmer, and being thrifty 
and energetic he became well-to-do. Among his 
ten children was a son, Benjamin, who was born 
in Northampton in 1703 and moved to East- 
hampton, the same county, in 1745, dying there 
in 1762. His son, Lemuel, was born August 17, 
1735, and in 1755 joined an expedition against 
Crown Point, being wounded in the battle of 
Lake George. He was a prominent citizen of 
his community, and his death, in 1810, was 
widely mourned. 

Next in line of descent was Ahira Lyman, born 
in 1770 and died in 1836. During his active life 
he engaged in the mercantile business in East- 
hampton. By his first wife, who was Sallie 
Pomeroy, he had four children : Roland, Lemuel, 
Ahiva and Quartus. His second wife was Lydia 
Baldwin, of Westfield, Mass., and they had two 
children, William and Jabez B. The latter was 
bom April 18, 1819, was orphaned in infancy, 
but, though deprived of parental care, was given 
every advantage for obtaining a splendid educa- 



tion. After graduating from Amherst College he 
'went abroad, where he carried on his studies for 
a number of years. On his return he became an 
instructor of modern languages at Amherst. 
Later he accepted a position as professor of math- 
ematics in Oglethorpe University in Georgia, 
where he remained until he went to Europe to 
study medicine. About 1850 he returned to the 
United States and opened an office in Chicago, 
but soon afterward he removed to Rockford, 111., 
where he engaged in professional practice until 
1879. During his residence in that city he mar- 
ried Miss Lucy DePue, an instructor in Rockford 
Seminary, and the daughter of Ephraim DePue, 
a pioneer wagon manufacturer of Chicago and 
later a railroad contractor there. In 1879 Dr. 
Lyman removed to Salem, Mass. , and there his 
death occurred in May, 1893. He was a schol- 
arly man, keen and quick, and with a depth of 
intelligence that rendered him an authority upon 
important matters. Naturally talented, his study 
abroad added to his native gifts, and the two 
qualities, talent and study, combined to make 
him one of the most successful physicians of his 
day and locality. For a time he was president 
of the Rockford board of education. In his fam- 
ily there were five children: Charles B., Mary, 
Maud, George and Edith. 

In Rockford, 111., Charles B. Lyman was born 
September 20, 1863. He was educated in the 
public schools of Rockford and Salem, and on the 
completion of his literary studies turned his at- 
tention to medicine. In 1882 he matriculated at 
Harvard Medical College, Boston, from which he 
graduated four years later. A few months after 
graduating, in the fall of 1886, he came to Den- 
ver, the inducement to locate here being the offer 
of the position of surgeon for the Union Pacific 
Railroad, which he has since held. He is a 
member of the Denver and Arapahoe County 
Medical Society, Denver Clinical and Pathologi- 
cal Society, State and American Medical Asso- 
ciations, and the National Academy of Railroad 
Surgeons. In 1888 he was chosen professor of 
physiology in the Denver University, medical de- 
partment, and after two years in that position 
was appointed assistant professor in the depart- 
ment of fractures and dislocations, from which 
he was promoted to the head of the department 
in 1893. Since 1894 he has been surgeon to St. 
Joseph's Hospital and Arapahoe County Hos- 

pital. Politically he is a Republican, and fra- 
ternally belongs to Oriental Lodge No. 87, A. F. 
& A. M. He was united in marriage in Kansas 
City with Mrs. Emma Arnold, daughter of 
Thomas Vick Roy, of Denver. 

HOMAS J. THOMPSON, who was elected 
to the office of sheriff of Boulder County in 
the fall of 1897, is a gentleman who enjoys 
the esteem and hearty respect of all with whom 
he has been associated, whether in business, po- 
litical circles or in society. He was nominated 
by the Populists to his present position; was 
elected by a majority of six hundred and four- 
teen votes, and entered upon the duties of his 
office on New Year's day, 1898, succeeding 
W. C. Dyer. In 1889 he was elected county 
commissioner of Boulder County, and served in 
that capacity for three years, being chairman of 
the board during the last year of his term. For 
years he has been verj' active in the interests of 
the People's party, and has been a delegate to 
county and state conventions, and a member of 
the local committee. For about nine years he 
has been engaged in general merchandising in 
the town of Ward, in this county, and ser\'ed as 
an alderman of that place for one term. He has 
been very successful in his business ventures, 
and is rated high among those with whom he 
has commercial dealings. 

The sherifTs father, Henry N. Thompson, is 
a native of Ohio, but settled in Woodbury, Ind., 
at an early day, becoming one of the pioneer 
farmers of Hancock County. He remained in 
that locality until 1869, when he turned his at- 
tention to merchandising in McCordsville, Ind. 
He is still a resident of that place, and is well 
along in years, being now fourscore and four. 
At one time he was a county commissioner, and 
held other local positions of trust and honor. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Mc- 
Laughlin, and whose birth had occurred in Ohio, 
died in Indiana many years ago. She was the 
mother often children, of whom three sons and 
two daughters survive. A brother of our sub- 
ject, J. S., is a resident of Alma, Colo. 

T. J. Thompson was born in Woodbury, Han- 
cock County, Ind., in 1851, being the fifth of his 
parent's family. His education was obtained in 
the public schools of Woodbury and McCords- 



ville. When he was about twenty years of age 
he started out to make his own way in the world, 
and in 187 1 came to Colorado. Since then he 
has been more or less actively interested in min- 
ing, and has been connected with the develop- 
ment of the L,ittle Alice mine and others of equal 
value. For two years he carried on a general 
merchandising business at Gold Hill, and was 
the first merchant in Ward. In his various un- 
dertakings he has met with success in almost 
every instance, and has at all times adhered to 
strictly upright and praiseworthy methods. In 
1892 he was initiated into the Masonic order in 
Columbia Lodge No. 14, A. F. & A. M., of 
Boulder. He also belongs to the Fraternal 
Union at Ward, and the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen at Gold Hill. 

The marriage of Mr. Thompson and Miss Het- 
tie Lamson was solemnized in Boulder April 12, 
1881. She is a daughter of John W. Lamson, 
who removed from her birthplace in Iowa to this 
.state in 1870, locating in Boulder County. The 
two children born to our subject and wife are 
Zelbert and Carl. 

DWIN L. COATES, a successful business 
^ man of Boulder, was appointed postmaster 
^ by President Cleveland March 12, 1896, 
and since then the business of the ofi5ce has in- 
creased fifty per cent, from $10,000 to $15,000 
and more. May i, 1898, a free delivery office 
was established, which greatly facilitates the 
work and promotes the convenience of the peo- 
ple. Among the Democrats of the state, Mr. 
Coates holds a prominent position. He is chair- 
man of the county committee and a member of 
the state central committee, also a member of the 
executive committee of the latter. 

Born in the city of New York, Mr. Coates is 
a son of James S. and Anna (Watson) Coates, 
natives respectively of Ireland and Scotland. 
His father was the oldest son of the family and 
when a young man crossed the ocean to New 
York, where he engaged in the wholesale coal 
business, being for forty years a member of the 
firm of Jeremiah Skidmore & Sons and their suc- 
cessors. He continued with that house until his 
death, which occurred in 1893, at the age of 
sixty-nine. His wife died in Boulder in 1897. 
Their four children are named as follows: Foster, 
at one time editor of the Mail and Express 

of New York City; Arabella, wife of Dr. I. L. 
Bond, of Boulder; Edwin L- ; and Wellington 
W. , of Providence, R. I. The father was well 
versed in veterinary surgery and assisted in the 
organization of the Columbia Veterinary College 
in New York, which was the first started in the 
United States, and in it he served as a director. 
The education of the subject of this sketch was 
obtained in excellent schools. He was a student 
in the grammar schools of New York, the Uni- 
versity of the City of New York, and a boarding 
school in New York. From his father he in- 
herited a love of veterinary surgery, and he took 
a course in the college, at the same time studying 
in the College of Pharmacy and Chemistry. After 
graduating he became a clerk with the United 
States Mortgage Company and then with the 
Marine Bank on Wall street. In 1885, when 
twenty years of age, he came to Boulder, where 
he was made a clerk for the Boulder National 
Bank at its organization, but after three months 
resigned and became deputy county clerk and re- 
corder. At the close of the term he was ap- 
pointed city clerk under a Republican administra- 
tion, and before the expiration of his second 
term he was appointed under-sheriff, continuing 
two terms in that position. Meantime, about 
1887, he started the agricultural implement busi- 
ness, in which he has since engaged. In addi- 
tion to this and his position as postmaster he is 
a notary public and also represents a number of 
the old companies in fire insuraxice. 

(TOHN S. REID, one of the Colorado pioneers 
I of i860, and now a resident of Ward, 
(2/ Boulder County, was born in Ireland No- 
vember 4, 1830, the son of James and Elizabeth 
(Kyle) Reid. His father, who brought the 
family to America, settled in Galena, 111., in 
1845, Slid engaged in farming there until his 
death, at seventy-five years. His wife also 
passed away there. Three of their children are 
living, but our subject is the only one in Colorado. 
The family came to America from Derry to 
Quebec, via the saiHng vessel "Alex Grant" and 
from Quebec journeyed to Chicago by way of 
the great lakes, going by wagon from Chicago to 
Galena. The father bought a farm within one 
and one-half miles of Galena, which he carried 
on as long as he lived. Our .subject learned the 



trades of millwright and cabinet-maker. In 1850 
he went up the Mississippi to St. Paul, which 
then had less than one thousand people, while its 
neighboring city, Minneapolis, w^as at that time 
a part of the Fort Snelling reservation. With 
J. C. Burbank, S. H. AxtellandS. R. Randolph, 
he engaged in lumbering on the Platte River, 
which they named. For some 3'ears he went 
back and forth between St. Paul and Galena, 
following the millwright's trade. He assisted in 
building the Goodfrey mill, the first built on the 
site of St. Anthony's Falls, and the first, except a 
government mill, on the Minneapolis side. 

When the excitement arose in regard to the 
discovery of gold in Pike's Peak, Mr. Reid de- 
termined to go to the mountains. He outfitted 
with a mule team and journeyed by way of 
Omaha and the Platte route. Starting April 16, 
he reached his destination in the latter part of 
May, going from Denver to Central City and 
Blackhawk and after a few weeks proceeding to 
Grass Valley Bar, or Montgomery Hill, below 
Idaho Springs, where he began placer mining. 
In the fall of that year (i860) he went up Fall 
River and engaged in gold and silver mining. 
In 1861 he was at Buckskin Joe. For several 
years he went back and forth between different 
mining camps. In 1867 he began prospecting, 
mining and lumbering at Georgetown, where he 
continued until the spring of 1876 and then came 
to Boulder County, investing in Magnolia district. 
Among the mines that he developed were Poor 
Man's mine, Home Stake, Washington, Caledonia, 
in all of which, and others, he is still interested. 
He was one of the first miners at Iveadville in 
1878 and invested in mines, in which he is still 
interested. He also incorporated the Blind Tom 
Company, which owns twenty acres, including 
within its limits the Blind Tom, Frio and the Poor 
Old Soldier mines. 

Settling in Ward in June, 1888, Mr. Reid 
began operating as manager for the Utica Mining 
Company. He continued in that capacity until 
he met with an unfortunate accident through 
"butting the skip" (as miners term it). His 
scalp and head were horribly wounded, but he 
retained his hold and a man on the level stopped 
the skip, into which he managed to crawl and 
was taken to the top of the shaft. The stunning 
blow did not cause him to lose consciousness and, 
such was the vigor of his constitution, he re- 

covered in a short time. To his perseverance is 
largely due the success of the Utica mine. Dur- 
ing the eight years he was with the company he 
operated it judiciously and advantageously. He 
used his influence in getting the company in- 
terested in the construction of the flume from the 
foot of Mount Audibon to Utica, whence it is 
taken to Camp Talbot; and he superintended 
the construction of the upper flume. He has 
spent some time in developing the Humbolt 
mine, in which he is part owner. 

From the organization of the Republican 
party Mr. Reid has voted its tickets. In 1856 
he was a member of the Republican Club in 
Illinois. He is identified with the Association of 
Colorado Pioneers and can tell many an interest- 
ing story of life in the early days in the mountain 
regions of Colorado. In June, 1862, he married 
Margaret Temple, their wedding being solemnized 
on Fall River, Colo., where her family re- 
sided. She died in April, 1876, at Georgetown, 
this state. 

REUEL BARTLETT, M. D., who has engaged 
in the practice of medicine in Boulder since 
1879, was born in Lamoine, Hancock County, 
Me., April 6, 1851, a son of Hon. Hiram S. and 
Phoebe (Whittaker) Bartlett, natives of the same 
place as himself His paternal grandfather, John 
Bartlett, was a descendant of English ancestors 
and by occupation a farmer. The maternal grand- 
father, Hazen Whittaker, was a native of Maine, 
where he owned a farm, but he devoted his atten- 
tion less to agriculture than to his trade of car- 

Reared upon a farm, Hiram S. Bartlett chose 
agriculture for his occupation and continued in 
that vocation until his death. However, he had 
other important interests, both of a business 
nature and in connection with political affairs. 
Politically a Republican, he served as selectman, 
member of the assembly and state senate, in all 
of which connections he rendered efficient service 
in behalf of the people of his district. At the^ 
time of his death, in 1888, he was seventy-one 
years of age, and his wife was the same age at 
the time of her demise. Their five children still 
survive. One son, David, is an attorney in North 
Dakota; Henry remains on the old homestead; 
Hazen is in California; and the daughter, Mrs. 
Elizabeth (Bartlett) Small, lives in California. 




When nineteen j'ears of age the subject of this 
sketch secured a position as teacher of a school 
in Maine. Two years later, in 1873, he removed 
west to Michigan and taught school in Midland, 
at the same time carrying on the study of medi- 
cine. In 1876 he entered the medical department 
of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, 
from which he graduated in March, 1879, with 
the degree of M. D. He came to Colorado on the 
31st day of the same month and settled in 
Boulder, where he has since engaged in profes- 
sional practice, his location being No. 1425 Pine 
street. At one time he was a director in the 
Boulder Electric Light Company and is still 
interested in it. 

In this city Dr. Bartlett married Miss Mary 
Holbrook, who was born in Belleville, 111., a 
daughter of John Holbrook. She was graduated 
from the Normal School at Lebanon, Ohio, and 
for a time engaged in teaching school. The four 
children of Dr. and Mrs. Bartlett are: Myrl, 
Chenery, Mary and Reuella. For years Dr. 
Bartlett was a member of the school board and 
during much of the time he served as secretary. 
When he came here there was but one school- 
house, and while he was a director the Mapleton, 
Highland and Pine street schools were erected, 
and many improvements introduced. For three 
years he has held the office of county physician 
and for a similar period served as city treasurer. 
He was made a Mason in Midland, Mich., and is 
now connected with Boulder Chapter No. 45, 
A. F. & A. M., Boulder Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., 
and Mount Sinai Commandery No. 7, K. T. His 
wife is identified with the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union and the Presbyterian Church, 
being a leading member of both organizations, 
with which he is also in hearty sympathy. In 
politics he is a silver Republican and profession- 
ally holds membership in the Colorado State 
Medical Society. 

?\ of Boulder. The history of the Catholic 
\zJ church in Boulder County dates back to an 
early period in its history. The first priest to visit 
the county and hold services was Rev. Joseph P. 
Machebeuf, V. G. , who passed through here in 
January, 1861, going north. On the 9th of that 
month he celebrated mass at the Big Thompson 
and after services baptized a child. This was the 

first baptism in the then unorganized western 
district of the territory of Nebraska. During the 
first part of March he made another such visit. 
January 7, 1862, Rev. John B. Raverdy passed 
through the county going north. He celebrated 
the sacrifice of mass at the residence of John De- 
Baker, near the mouth of South Boulder Canon, 
and after the services were over he baptized two 
children. September 7, 1866, Rev. Joseph P. 
Machebeuf, V. G. , held services at Boulder and 
baptized two. These two priests ministered to 
the spiritual wants of Catholics in this region, 
coming here when opportunity offered. In Au- 
gust, 1867, Father John D. Faure came here, and 
from October, 1868, to May, 1869, Father John 
O. Keefe served the people. From February, 
1870, to September, 1872, Father Thomas Mc- 
Grath was with the little band of worshipers; in 
May, 187 1, Father Vincent de Vilas; from Sep- 
tember, 1872, to November, 1873, Father Henry 
Robinson was here. During that year a mission 
was given here by Rev. J. M. Schneider, C. S. S. 
R. , then followed Father Louis B. Lebouc from 
March to September of that year, after which, 
two months or more, Father J. H. Defouri, of 
Kansas, ministered to the Catholics, and from Oc- 
tober, 1873, to 1874, followed Father L- Duroc. 
The two original promoters of the work came fre- 
quently to preach to the people and perform the 
ordinance of baptism. Then Father Hugh A. 
Quigley lived in South Boulder for six months. 
In the spring of 1868, Rev. J. DeBlieck accompan- 
ied Father Machebeuf to South Boulder and for 
several months made regular visits to his fellow 
Belgian countrymen. 

The first resident priest was Father Vincent 
Reitmayr, who came here in August, 1875. From 
here he attended the missions at South Boulder, 
St. Vrain, Fort Collins, Longmont, Erie, Magno- 
lia, Gold Hill, Caribou, etc. Like his predeces- 
sors, he was obliged to hold services in private 
houses, but later preached in the old city hall and 
in Allen hall. In September, 1877, Father A. J. 
Abel took charge of the mission. Through John 
O'Brien he obtained the present site for a church 
and at once began to build. On Christmas day 
of 1877 he celebrated midnight mass at the Sacred 
Heart of Mary Church, South Boulder, from 
which point he rode to Erie and celebrated early 
mass, finally arriving in Boulder, where he cele- 
brated high mass for the first time in the new 



Sacred Heart Church. The four walls of the 
church were completed, a few rough boards laid 
as a floor, while a few overhead kept out the hot 
rays of the sun; though on that day the sun did 
not shine, for the sky was cloudy and the wind 
sharp and blustering. This building yet stands 
and is 24x55 feet in dimensions. 

In March, 188 1, Father J. W. Cummings be- 
came pastor, but in December, 1882, on account 
of illness. Father G. Raber was made his assistant, 
and remained to June, 1883. In October, 1882, 
Father Edmund Ley took charge. Father John 
I. Riordan assisted him during January and Feb- 
ruary, 1884. In April Rev. Lawrence M. Halton 
became pastor, but in July resigned in favor of 
Father Patrick J. Gleeson. Father G. F. Emblen 
followed in June, 1885, and remained two months. 
In August, 1885, Rev. Godfrey Raber took 
charge, and in December, 1887, Rev. Rhaban 
Gutraan, O. S. B., follovi'ed, and was assisted by 
Father M. Wirtner, O. S. B., until February, 

1888. March 23, 1889, Rev. Eusebius Geiger, 
O. S. B., took charge of the congregation, and in 
July was succeeded by Father Gutman, who had 
previously held the pastorate. Very Rev. Placid 
Pilz, O. S. B., took charge August 19, 1889, and 
in July, 1890, he removed the partition in the 
church, enlarging the interior by one-third if its 
former size. In October, 1894, Father Henry 
Hohman, O. S. B., became pastor, followed May 
25, 1896, by Very Rev. Modest Wirtner, O. S. B., 
the present pastor. The building when erected 
was too large for the congregation, while now it 
is not large enough for the large number of 
Boulder Catholics. 

Church history in Boulder County may be 
summed up, in brief, as follows; 187 1, Coal Creek 
visited by Father McGrath; 1875, Canfield visited 
by Father Vincent; 1878, Caribou visited by 
Father Abel; 1879, Loui-sburg (now Louisville) 
visited by Fa^Jier Abel; 1880, Nederland, by 
Father Abel; 1879, Fossil Creek, near Caribou, 
and Salina, by Father Abel; 1885, Langford (also 
called Marshall) by Father Godfrey Raber, also, 
during the same year, Crisman and Gold Hill; 

1889, Ward, by Rev. I. Geiger (however, there had 
been a priest at Ward before, who between 1862- 
66 had built the frame part of the church, but 
the town went down and records of the time and 
the priest were lost) ; 1890, Sunset, Father Hoh- 
man; 1893, Brainerd's (or Talcott) Camp, by 

Father Hohman; 1893, Copper Rock, by Father 
Hohman; 1897, Springdale, by Very Rev. M. 
Wirtner; 1897, Magnolia, by Father Cornelius 
Enders, O. S. B., and 1898, Eldora, by Father 

In 1867 Rev. J. P. Machebeuf, V. G., bought 
one hundred and sixty acres on South Boulder, 
six miles south of Boulder and four miles north- 
west of Louisville. In the fall of 1874 he built a 
church on the land, the Sacred Heart of Mary, 
which was 22x45 in dimensions. The cemetery 
for the Catholics of the county is also at that 
place. The list of priests in charge is the same as 
that for Boulder, until 1888, when Father Elses- 
ser, O. S. B., took charge. In October of that 
year he was followed by Father Hohman, under 
whose care it continued until May 25, 1896, when 
Father Wirtner took this charge, in connection 
with the one at Boulder, having charge until 
February, 1898. From that time Rev. Michael 
Rank, O. S. B., had charge until May 8, when 
he gave it up, since which time the people at- 
tend either at Boulder or Louisville. 

The Catholic Church at Louisville was estab- 
lished by Father Abel, and the church was built by 
Rev. Godfrey Raber, who continued as priest in 
charge until November, 1887, after which Father 
Wirtner had the pastorate until February, 1888, 
and then Rev. C. Elsesser succeeded to the pas- 
torate. In October of the same year Father Hoh- 
man took charge, and in July, 1889, he was fol- 
lowed by Rev. R. Schrembs, O. S. B. Novem- 
ber 4, 1892, Father Wirtner took charge, and 
he was succeeded May 25, 1896, by Father B. 
Staudigel. September 23, 1896, Rev. Macar 
Schmidt became pastor. October 22, 1896, Fa- 
ther Cornelius Enders became pastor and has con- 
tinued to the present time. The original edifice 
was enlarged in 1894 by Father Wirtner and was 
made 24x80, with a sacristy adjoining 24x12. 

St. Benedict's Church at Ward was built in 
1897 by Father Cornelius Enders, who has been 
in charge since. The Longmont Church was es- 
tablished in 1882 and has since been in successful 
operation. The Catholic Church in Boulder has 
the various societies usually to be found in large 
and progressive churches. There is, in con- 
nection with the church, a school with fifty ad- 
vanced pupils and fourteen teachers (Sisters of 
Charity); the school is known as St. Gertrude's 
Academy. The first superior of the priory of the 



Sacred Heart was Rev. R. Gutman, who was fol- 
lowed bj' Rev. P. Pilz, and May 25, 1896, Father 
Wirtner became prior. 

Very Rev. Modest Wirtner, O. S. B., was born 
in Carrolltowu, Cambria County, Pa., March 20, 
1861. His father, John Wirtner, was born in 
lyoretto, the same county, and was a son of John, 
Sr. , a native of Germany and proprietor of a tan- 
nery at Loretto. John, Jr., was a hardware mer- 
chant in CarroUtown, a place named in honor of 
Archbishop Carroll. He continued in business 
there until he retired from active labors. He is now 
living in St. Augustine, the same county. His 
wife, Catherine, was born in Loretto, a daughter 
of Augustine Farenbocher, a farmer who came to 
this country from Germany. His descendants 
have changed the spelling of the family name to 
Farabach. John Wirtner, Jr. , and his wife had 
eleven children and of these nine are still living. 
They are all active in the Catholic Church and 
one daughter is a Sister of Mercy in Pittsburg. 
Two cousins are priests, O. S. B. 

The education of Father Wirtner was carried 
on for a time in St. Benedict's parish school. In 
1873 he entered St. Vincent's College in West- 
moreland County, Pa., and remained a student 
there until his graduation, in the classical course, 
in 1880. At the same time he entered the order 
to which he now belongs, O. S. B., and July 11, 
1 88 1, made a profession of his desire to enter the 
priesthood. He took the degree of philosophy 
and theology at St. Vincent's Seminary and 
was ordained July 8, 1886, at St. Vincent's 
Church by Bishop Phelan of Pittsburg. His 
first pastorate was St. Mary's Church, Elk 
Count}', Pa., where he remained as priest 
until he came to Boulder, assisting here and 
taking charge of the work in Louisville. De- 
cember 23, 1887, ^'^s the date of his arrival in 
Colorado, where he has since make his home. 
On the 1 7th of February of the following year 
he was placed in charge of the church at Breck- 
enridge, Summit County, where he remained un- 
til March, 1890, and then took a charge in Park 
County. After Januarj', 1891, he combined the 
work in Park and Summit Counties and remained 
at the head of both until June 13, 1892, when he 
went to Pueblo. Six months later he came to 
Boulder. In November, 1892, he took charge of 
the work at Louisville, Erie, Ward and mountain 
missions. May 25, 1896, he was made pastor and 

prior of Sacred Heart Church, where he has an 
able assistant in Rev. Cornelius Enders. The 
latter was born in Bavaria, December 7, 1866. 
He received his education principally in St. Vin- 
cent's College, where he took the regular classi- 
cal course. July II, 1887, he entered the order. 
He was ordained to the holy priesthood, Septem- 
ber 23, 1892, in St. Vincent's Church, Bishop 
Phelan of Pittsburg officiating, and was stationed 
at Peru, HI., as an instructor in St. Bede Col- 
lege. His next location was with St. Mary's 
Church in Allegheny City, Pa. In October, 1896, 
he came to Colorado, and has since been con- 
nected with the churches of Boulder County. 

SOL. S. K. HOOPER. The family repre- 
sented by this leading citizen of Denver has 
been identified with American history for 
many generations. The lineage is traced through 
D. M. Hooper (born in Durham, Me., Novem- 
ber 3, 1802, died in New Albany, Ind., Sep- 
tember 23, 1880) and Nehemiah Hooper (born 
in Manchester Township, Essex County, Mass., 
September 3, 1773, died in Durham, Me., May 
10, 1840) to David Hooper (also a native of 
Manchester Township, born June 9, 1745, died 
in Freeport, Me., February 19, 1835). The last- 
named was a descendant of English ancestors who 
settled at Cape Ann about 1700. In 1763 he 
married Rachel Story, a relative of the jurist of 
that name. Some years later, at the opening of 
the Revolution, he enlisted in the American army 
and took part in the battle of Bunker Hill, as 
well as in numerous other memorable engage- 
ments of the war. Upon being honorably dis- 
charged he removed to Freeport, Me., where he 
died at the age of eighty-nine years. 

Col. Jonathan Mitchell, of whom our subject 
is a lineal descendant, was born in Hiiigham, 
Plymouth County, Mass., in 1723, and died at 
North Yarmouth in 182 1. During the Revo- 
lution he was colonel of a regiment in which 
were his three sons. Some time before the old 
French war, probably about 1748, he removed 
from the southern part of Massachusetts to Yar- 
mouth, Me. , where he and other settlers were so 
troubled by Indians that they were obliged to 
take refuge in the blockhouse. The trouble with 
the savages continued during the French war 
that closed in 1759. He died about 182 1, at the 



age of ninety-eight. His son, Bela Mitchell, was 
born at North Yarmouth, Cumberland County, 
Me., in 1752, and died at Martinique, West 
Indies, in 1786. He, with other members of his 
family, served in the Revolution, after which he 
returned to his occupation as a sailor. While in 
command of a vessel in the West India trade he 
fell a victim to yellow fever in 1786. Some 
years before this he married Susannah Sweat in 
Newburyport, Mass., and during their residence 
in Salisbury theii daughter, Susannah, was born, 
in 1783. This child, after her father's death, 
was adopted by her grandfather. Col. Jonathan 
Mitchell, with whom she remained until her 
marriage to Nehemiah Hooper. She died in 
Durham, Me., in i860. Their son, Dummer 
Mitchell Hooper, was born in Durham Novem- 
ber 3, 1802, and died in New Albany, Ind., Sep- 
tember 23, 1880. He married Annabella Brown, 
who was born in Baltimore November 3, 18 13, 
and became his wife November 3, 1832. She is 
still living at the old homestead, where she has 
resided since 1834. 

The father of Mrs. Annabella Hooper was Ed- 
ward Brown, a descendant of Absalom Barney, 
brother of Commodore Barney, who removed 
from Baltimore to Louisville and engaged in 
freighting between that city and Pittsburg. Fi- 
nally, in his old age and with ample means, he 
retired to New Albany, where he died about 
1857, at the age of eighty-four. He and three 
brothers, Nicholas, George and a third whose 
name is not known, took part in the war of 18 12 
and he was in service for a time before that war. 
George was a famous preacher and author, and 
one of the most prominent ministers of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church in Ohio. Edward mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Kemp, and it was her brother, 
Shadracli Kemp, for whom our subject was named. 

In 1850 D. M. Hooper went to California over- 
land, with ox-teams outfitted at St. Joe. His 
wagon box for the trip he built in the form of a 
flat bottom boat, so that it might be used in cross- 
ing streams. The idea was an excellent one. It 
was used as a ferry boat on the Humboldt River 
and reimbursed its owner for the entire expense 
of the trip. From March to August he engaged 
in the steamboat business, building boats for the 
Sacramento River and being located in San 
Francisco. In 1852 he returned to Indiana, 
where he resumed boat building; and during the 

same year he visited Maine for the first time 
since boyhood. The boats that he built were 
used for the steamboat trade, but the outbreak of 
the Civil war rendered the business unprofitable 
and he retired. He was prominent in local affairs, 
also served for several terms as a member of the 
city council and for two terms as mayor of New 
Albany. While in Evansville, Ind., he was 
taken sick and at once returned home, where he 
died soon afterward. He was buried with 
Masonic honors, having been a thirty-third 
degree Mason and a member of that order from 
boyhood. He is said to have been a fluent writer, 
with an easy and graceful diction that made his 
articles interesting. During early years he was 
a Whig, and after the war he became a Repub- 
lican, being the first member of that party ever 
elected mayor of New Albany. 

In the family of D. M. Hooper were seven chil- 
dren. Susan E. resides in New Albany. Rev. 
William Story Hooper was formerly president of 
a college, later was pastor in the Methodist Epis- 
copal denomination, then served as an elder, and 
is now retired. David Edward Hooper, who 
was in the United States navy, was engineer on 
the famous "Queen of the West," that ran down 
the "Vicksburg." After the ship was wrecked 
he made his escape on a bale of cotton. On 
retiring from the navy he became a contractor, 
and is now superintendent of bridges for the 
Louisville Southern Railroad, with headquarters 
at Lawrenceburg, Ky. Shadrach Kemp was 
next in order of birth; and j'ounger than he were 
three daughters, Mrs. Frances Taylor, a widow 
residing in New Albany; Mrs. Maria M. Smith, 
who died in New Albany in 1875; and Eleanor M., 
also of New Albany. 

The subject of this sketch was born in New 
Albany, Ind., May 30, 1841. In boyhood he 
learned the steamboat blacksmith's trade, and in 
the winter seasons, while learning his trade, he 
ran the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers from 1856 to 
1 86 1, part of the time as cabin boy and later as 
third engineer. In 1861, after having been for 
a time on the steamer "John Briggs," he returned 
home, and enlisted for three months' service in 
the Twelfth Indiana Infantrj^, but the quota was 
filled, and the company disbanded. He then en- 
listed in Company E, Twenty-third Indiana 
Infantry, June i, i86i, was mustered in as cor- 
poral of the company July 29, 1861, received 



promotion to quartermaster-sergeant of the regi- 
ment March i, 1863, and was commissioned first 
heutenant and adjutant April 14, 1864. The 
regiment was organized at New Albany July 
27-29, i86i, and left for Paducah, Ky., August 
15; it was attached to the Second Brigade, Third 
Division, Army of Tennessee, February- March, 
1862, Third Brigade, Third Division, to Novem- 
ber, 1862; Third Brigade, Third Division, right 
wing, Thirteenth Corps, Department of the Ten- 
nessee, to January, 1863; First Brigade, Third Div- 
ision, Seventeenth Corps, to September, 1863; 
Third Brigade, Fourth Division, Seventeenth 
Corps, to February, 1864; First Brigade, Fourth 
Division, Seventeenth Corps, to April, 1865. He 
was on duty at Paducah until February, 1862, 
meantime marching to the relief of Grant at Bel- 
mont, Mo., November 2-12, 1861, was at Fort 
Henry, Tenn., January 2-14, 1862, took part in the 
operations against Fort Henry February 2-5, and 
against Fort Donelson February 12-16; accom- 
panied the expedition to Yellow Creek March 14- 
17; took part in the battle of Shiloh April 6-7; the 
advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 17- 
May 30; was on duty at Purdy and Bolivar until 
September, taking part in the action at the former 
place August 30; marched to luka September 1-19; 
took part in the battle of luka September 19-20; the 
battle of Metamora, Hatchie's River, October 5; 
the pursuit to Ripley October 6-12; Grant's Cen- 
tral Mississippi campaign, operations on the Mis- 
sissippi Central Railroad to Oxford and Grenada, 
Miss., November 26, 1862, to January 10, 1863; 
moved to Colliersville, Tenn. ; thence to Memphis, 
Tenn., January 20, 1863, and to Lake Providence, 
La., February 21; moved to Milliken's Bend 
April 17; thence to Rowensburg and Grand Gulf 
April 25-30; was at the battle of Port Gibson 
May i; Bayou Pierrie May 2-3; Bruinsburg May 
6; battle of Raymond May 12; Jackson May 14; 
Champion Hills May 16, where his horse was 
killed under him; Big Black River May 17; siege 
of Vicksburg May i8-July 4; assault on Vicksburg 
May 19-22; surrender of Vicksburg July 4 and on 
duty there until February, 1864, took part in the 
expedition to Monroe, La., August 28-Septeraber 
I, 1863; the expedition to Canton October 12-22; 
the Meridan campaign February 3-March 5, 
1864; Baker's Creek February 5; Meridan Febru- 
ary 14-15; Canton February 26; on veteran's fur- 
lough until April; moved to Bird's Point, Mo., 

thence to Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., from there 
in a short time marched back to Acworth, Ga. , 
via Huntsville, Ala., May 5-June 8; operations 
against Kenesaw Mountain June 9-30; Busby 
Mountain June 15-17; Big Shanty June 1 7 ; assault 
on Kenesaw Mountain June 27, where his horse 
was killed; Nickajack Creek, July 6-8, where 
another horse was killed; Chattahootchie River 
July 8-12; Decatur July 19; Leggett's Bald Hill 
July 20-21; battle of Atlanta July 22; siege of 
Atlanta July 22-September 2; Ezra Chapel July 
28; Utoy Creek August 5-7; was acting major of 
the regiment from August 2, 1864, to April 5, 
1865; took part in the flank movement on Jones- 
boro, August 25-30, 1864; the battle of Jonesboro 
(temporarily in command of regiment) August 
31-September i; Lovejoy Station September 2-6; 
pursued Hood into Alabama October 3-26; Snake 
Creek Gap October 15; marched to the sea Nov- 
ember 15-December 10; was at Oconee River 
November 24-25; Ogeechee River December 7-9; 
siege of Savannah December 10-21; campaign of 
the Carolinas January- April, 1865; Pocolalego, 
S. C, January 14-16; Salkeholdue Swamps 
February 3-5; South Edisto River February 9; 
North Edisto River February 12-13; Congaree 
Creek February 15; Columbia February 16-17; 
Cherow March 2-3; Fayetteville, N. C, March 
1 1 ; battle of Bentonville March 19-2 1 ; occupation 
of Goldsboro, March 23; was mustered out 
April 5, 1865, at Goldsboro, N. C, and honor- 
ably discharged. 

It will thus be seen that the connection of 
Colonel Hooper with the army was one reflecting 
the highest credit upon his valor and patriotism. 
From first to last he was unswerving in his alle- 
giance to the Union, and on many a hard-fought 
battlefield he proved the depth of his devotion to 
his country. On returning home he resumed the 
pursuits of civic life. January i, 1866, he began 
his connection with the railroad, accepting a 
position as clerk in the general ticket ofiice of 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad, 
which he filled until March, 1867. He then be- 
came terminal agent for the Union Pacific when 
the end of its track was at North Platte. During 
the Indian trouble in October, 1867, he was in 
the government service, in charge of the Indian 
supplies, which he distributed. He then returned 
to New Albany and in November became chief 
clerk in the general ticket ofiice of the Louis- 



ville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad, but in 
March of the following year was made general 
passenger and ticket agent of the same road at 
New Albany, retaining the position until Febru- 
ary, 1873. December i, 1873, he was chosen 
general passenger agent for the Fort Wayne, 
Jackson & Saginaw (now a part of the Lake 
Shore) Railroad. 

As general passenger agent for the Hannibal 
and St. Joe road Colonel Hooper established his 
headquarters at Hannibal January i , 1880. Later 
he removed his headquarters to Kansas City, 
where he continued in the same capacity until 
May, 1884. On the 15th of that month he ac- 
cepted the position of general passenger agent 
for the Central of Iowa, with which he remained 
until June i, 1884, and then became general pas- 
senger agent for the Denver & Rio Grande, his 
present position. While connected with the 
Hannibal & St. Joe road he was frequently in 
Colorado and took such a liking to the state that 
he was glad to accept a position in Denver. In 
September, 1881, he was at Toltec Gorge, at the 
time of the funeral of James A. Garfield and it 
was through his effort that the Garfield monu- 
ment was erected at this point. 

At New Albany, Ind., May 17, 1865, Colonel 
Hooper married Miss Nancy Welch, who was 
born in Harrison County, Ind., a daughter of 
Morgan Welch, who was a native of Virginia 
and engaged in steamboat building in connection 
with our subject's father. He married Lucy Sny- 
der, of Kentucky; her mother was a Miss Gail, 
whose father was a member of David Crockett's 
band of Indian fighters. The father of Morgan 
Welch was John Welch, who migrated west and 
engaged in farming in Harrison County, Ind., 
where he died at the age of about ninety years. 
Colonel and Mrs. Hooper have a son and daugh- 
ter: Charles E. , who is now an officer in the 
regular army, and Jean, Mrs. Page, who is a poet 
and author. 

Colonel Hooper is a member of the Grand Army 
of the Republic and in 1897 was colonel on the 
staff of General Clarkson. Twice he has repre- 
sented the Loyal Legion as delegate to national 
conventions, and at this writing he is vice-com- 
mander of the order. He has served for a term 
as vice-president of the Colorado Society, Sons of 
the Revolution. During the administration of 
Governor A. W. Mclntire of Colorado, he was a 

colonel on the latter' s staff. For many years he 
has been identified with the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. He is a member of the Colorado 
board of the Omaha Exposition and was the ori- 
ginator of the festival of the mountain and plain, 
which has grown to be one of the most widely 
known annual celebrations of the west. From 
its inception he has been a leading director in the 
festival and chairman of important committees. 
He has taken an active interest in the work of the 
National Association of General Ticket Agents 
and years ago became recognized as one of the 
foremost workers in advanced lines of passenger 
and ticket business. 

As an administrative officer in the special field 
which he has filled for more than a quarter of a 
century, Colonel Hooper has no superior. He 
is essentially practical in his business methods 
and his rare social qualities, keen discrimination 
and broad acquaintance not only with the passen- 
ger departments, but with men in general, have 
peculiarly fitted him for the responsibilities he has 
so ably filled. His military record, early in life, 
demonstrated that quality of his character which 
was destined to achieve for him success in any 
avenue of life he might have selected. As a rail- 
way officer he has the happy faculty of inspiring 
his associates and assistants with his own zeal 
and it is in a large measure due to this talent that 
he occupies a place in the front rank of the gen- 
eral passenger agents of the United States. 

As intimated above, the ability of Colonel 
Hooper has not been restricted to the railway 
field. His talents have embraced a wider scope 
and it is doubtful whether any citizen of Colorado 
has contributed more, during the past fifteen 
years, toward the material advancement of the 
commonwealth than the subject of this sketch. 
In the broad acceptation of the term, he is a pub- 
lic-spirited citizen. He has been identified with 
every large movement originating in Colorado 
for the growth of the state that has been known 
since his advent in the mountain region. His 
work each year upon the board of the festival of 
the mountain and plain is a monument to his 
energy and keen business sagacity. No man has 
done more than he in presenting to the world the 
advantages of Colorado as a scenic and health- 
giving resort. Fertile in resourses, never failing 
in expedients, popular to a degree rarely known 
by men even in positions of the largest responsi- 



bilit}^ generous, loyal to friends and patriotic to 
country, the impression which he has made in 
Colorado is one which his children can remember 
with pride, a record which in future years will be 
pointed out as worthy of honest emulation. In 
the midst of a busy life, he has been an extensive 
reader of history and poetry and a close student 
of the philosophy of man's progress toward a 
higher ideal in government, religion and all that 
enhances the value of life. He is a fluent writer 
and a conversationalist of the highest order. His 
remarkable memory is stored with numberless 
thrilling incidents and reminiscences, whose pre- 
sentation in book form has many times been 
urged upon him by his friends. It is to men of 
his character that Colorado and the mountain 
empire owe their prestige as the most promising 
field for activity and enterprise on the continent. 

n D. BEST, one of Denver's most extensive 
I wholesale business men, came to this city in 
(2/ 1872 and has since been closely identified 
with the history of the place, having witnessed 
its location as the capitol of the state and its 
growth from a town of seven thousand inhabitants 
to a city which is the metropolis of the central 
west. With one exception he is, in point of 
years of business activity, the oldest wholesale 
grocery and grain dealer in the city. At first, 
upon settling here, he had many obstacles to over- 
come, many hardships to encounter. He began 
in business, on a small scale, on Fifteenth street, 
but about 1874 moved to Holiday street (now 
Market j, where he carried on a commission busi- 
ness for several years. Gradually, however, he 
merged his business into a wholesale grocery 
business, and during the '80s he opened a grain, 
hay, flour and feed store on Nineteenth and Wyn- 
koop streets, which he has since successfully 

The early days of our subject's life were spent 
in Bath, Me., where he was brought into con- 
tact with sea-faring men. Through the influence 
of these associations he was led, at the age of 
fifteen, to ship before the mast, and for many 
years he followed the sea. After his first voyage 
he sailed to Charleston, S. C, where the ship was 
loaded with cotton for Liverpool, and at Liver- 
pool the cotton was replaced by iron for New 
Orleans, also carrying many passengers. On the 

return trip, when in Providence channel, off 
Florida coast, the vessel struck some hidden 
rocks and went down. Over two hundred 
passengers and two of the crew were lost. After 
swimming about one mile, Mr. Best was picked up 
by a boat and that in turn was picked up by a 
brig, which took the men to New York. There 
he shipped on the "John C. Calhoun," which, 
about five days out from New York, was wrecked 
in the Bay of Fuudy, but in this instance all 
hands were saved. They were taken to St. 
John's, and there he again secured employment 
as a sailor, but the master of the sunken ship re- 
fused to permit him to sail, insisting that he 
return home to see his mother. He did this, re- 
maining at home until November, when he ship- 
ped on the ship "Clinton" for Turk's Island, 
near Cuba. While there, the vessel was anchored 
ofi" the coral reefs, but a fierce gale came up and 
parted the chains, driving the ship on the reefs 
and splitting it in two. All hands were rescued 
and all went back home except our subject, who 
was determined to go on to New Orleans. While 
at Turk's Island his hammock was swung be- 
tween two trees for a bed and home for three 
weeks. After a time an English mail steamer 
anchored oS" Turk's Island and as its quarter- 
master had been washed overboard they were 
glad to employ him for the position. He went 
with the ship to the island of St. Thomas and 
from there shipped back to the United States, 
landing in Boston. 

From that city he shipped before the mast on 
the ship "Franconia" and went to New Orleans, 
thence returning to Boston as second mate. 
With the same vessel and in the capacity of mate 
he again crossed the Gulf of Mexico, but on 
reaching New Orleans he heard so much said 
about the great west that he determined to go 
thither. Accordingly he resigned his position 
and took passage on a steamer bound up the 
Mississippi and Illinois Rivers to Peoria, thence 
went by steam cars to Chicago, landing in that 
city during the cholera epidemic. After paying 
the hack fare to the hotel he had fifteen cents 
left. The landlord kindly consented to wait for 
his money, so he remained in the hotel for three 
weeks, and then went on the lakes as sailor be- 
tween Chicago and Buffalo in the grain trade. 
In the autumn he was made second mate, a few 
months later was promoted to be mate, and the 



promotion of his captain in the same summer 
raised him to the command of the vessel. He 
remained on the lakes until 1865, being master 
of the best vessels then used, among them the 
bark "Chicago Board of Trade." He was also 
in the iron ore trade on Lake Superior. 

In Buffalo, in i860, Mr. Best married Martha 
C. Hooper, a former schoolmate of his in Bath, 
Me. Not wishing to be away from his family 
so much, in 1865 he decided to quit the lakes. 
He then entered the ship chandler's business, 
which he carried on until the great fire of 1871. 
Being burned out at that time, with insurance 
only in home companies, he lost everything. He 
and his partner were chosen by the executive 
committee of the relief board as distributors of 
the relief funds, a work which kept him busy 
until the spring of 1872, and he then resumed 
his former business. However, his health had 
been poor for some months and, believing that the 
mountain region would relieve him of asthma, 
from which he suffered, he sold out his Chicago 
business and came to Denver. Here he has since 
built up a profitable and important business in 
grain and groceries. He has never sought 
public office and is inclined to be independent in 
politics, though leaning toward Republican 
principles. He has two daughters, Mrs. Frank 
H. Leonard and Mrs. J. McCuUough Terry, both 
of whom reside in Denver; also two sons, Charles 
F. and John W., both of whom are associated 
with their father in his business. 

•JJEORGEE. BERMONT, senior member of 
__ the firm of Bermont & Zook, of Lafayette, 
J Boulder County, is a wide-awake, progress- 
ive business man, of extended experience and un- 
doubted abihty. He assisted in establishing the 
mercantile business of which he has since been 
the leading spirit, and has succeeded in building 
up a large and lucrative trade in this locality. 

Mr. Bermont is a native of Chambersburg, Pa., 
born November 19, 1866. He is one of six chil- 
dren whose parents are George and Clara (Gil- 
bert) Bermont. The others are : Harry K., a tan- 
ner by trade and a resident of Chambersburg, Pa.; 
John G.. engaged in mining in Creede, Colo.; 
Alice, wife of William McCune, of Pennsylvania; 
Lizzie, Mrs. James Leonard, of Jeannette, Pa.; 
and Maggie, also a resident of Pennsylvania. 

The senior Bermont was a native of Franklin 
County, Pa., born about 1833. When he was old 
enough he commenced learning the trade of a 
brick-mason, and after he had mastered it he con- 
tinued to follow the calling for many years. 
After his family were grown and some of them 
had gone to other homes and states, he settled 
down upon a farm for a few years. Later he 
again worked at his trade for a period, and then 
retired with a comfortable competence. 

The subject of this article received ordinary 
school advantages and when he was sixteen years 
of age he began earning his own living. For a 
year he worked on a Pennsylvania farm, and 
then, with his savings, paid his passage to north- 
western Illinois, where he became the manager 
of a large farm. He kept this position for four 
years, by the end of which period he had a snug 
little sum of money to serve him as capital in fu- 
ture enterprises. Having determined to try his 
luck in Colorado, he landed in the town of Yuma, 
March 14, 1888, and soon bought a homestead 
relinquishment, pre-empted it, and after proving 
up on the place, went to Denver. There he passed 
a couple of weeks and then went home on a five 
weeks' visit to his relatives. 

The attractions and business possibilities of 
Colorado seemed of much greater weight than 
those of his native state, and he soon returned to 
Denver. He obtained a position with the whole- 
sale lumber firm of Bingham & Tage, in their 
order department, but in a short time he gave up 
the place and came to Lafayette, where for a year 
he operated a machine in one of the local mines. 
The Ingersoll Rock Drill Company then engaged 
him to assist in the erection of a plant at Thur- 
ber, Tex., to which point he went, but the firm 
soon desired him to go to Carbon Hill, Ala., to 
work for them there, and he declined, as he did 
not wish to live in the south. Therefore, resign- 
ing his position, he returned to Lafayette, and 
from that time until the spring of 189 1 he was 
employed by the Hathaway Mercantile Company. 

That house having been bought out by the 
Lockwood Trading Company, young Bermont 
was retained by them in his old position until he 
resigned in May, 1892. When the new firm of 
Noble & FauU was organized our subject entered 
their employ and was with them for over a year. 
In the autumn of 1893 he became an employe of 
the Citizens' Coal and Coke Company. In the 




spring of 1895 ^i^ opened an oflBce of his own, be- 
coming agent for several reputable fire and life 
insurance companies, and, at the same time, car- 
ried on a real-estate business. He prospered in 
this undertaking and at the end of fifteen months 
organized the firm of Cannon & Bermont, mer- 
chants. This partnership being dissolved the 
following October, by our subject's purchasing 
the interest of Mr. Cannon, he continued toman- 
age the business alone until the spring of 1897, 
when he took the agency for the McCormick ma- 
chines and extended his territory and trade. It 
soon became necessary that he should have some 
one associated with him to look after a portion 
of the growing business and accordingly the pres- 
ent firm was formed March 16, 1898. They are 
doing splendidly and reaching out for still greater 
things in their various lines. Mr. Bermont votes 
the Republican ticket, but is nothing of a politi- 
cian or office-seeker. 

September 28,1892, Mr. Bermont married Miss 
Catherine Jones, of Youngstown, Ohio. She is 
a daughter of J. W. and Catharine Jones, and is 
a native of Ohio. 

This worthy citizen of Erie, Weld County, 
is known far and wide, and is deservedly 
esteemed in religious, fraternal and civic circles. 
In many of these varied fields of activity he has 
been a pioneer to this region of Colorado, for, 
among others, he established the first church and 
Sunday-school in L,ongmont and in Erie, and 
preached the first sermons delivered in these 
towns. He is a charter member of Erie Lodge 
No. 46, I. O. O. F. , and Garfield Lodge No. 50, 
A. F. & A. M., both of which he assisted in 
organizing. He also was prominent in the found- 
ing of the first Good Templars Lodge in Erie and 
in Longmont. For a quarter of a century he has 
been the chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Odd 
Fellows, and for a number of years he served in 
the same capacity in the Masonic grand lodge. 
Having passed all the chairs in the subordinate 
lodge and encampment, he represented this 
jurisdiction at the sovereign grand lodge in 1874 
as grand representative, and also served as grand 
master of the grand lodge of Colorado, 
I. O. O. F. 

In tracing the history of Rev. R. J. Van Valk- 
enburg, we find that he is a native of Schoharie 

Countj', N. Y., his birth having occurred in the 
village of Schoharie August 16, 1823. When he 
was two years old he removed with his parents to 
Owego, N. Y., and there grew to manhood. His 
educational advantages were limited, as he was 
enabled to attend the district school only in the 
winter season, but he was of a studious disposi- 
tion and determined to prepare himself for a wide 
sphere of action. When he was fourteen he had 
read the Bible through, and having saved his few 
coins carefully, had invested in a new.spaper, 
which he regularly perused. In 1841 he united 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church and was 
soon thereafter licensed to preach. In 1850 he 
became a member of the Wyoming conference, 
and during the following fourteen years he 
labored assiduously in the Master's vineyard in 
Pennsylvania and New York. At that time he 
possessed a fine voice, which talent he likewise 
devoted to the cause, being often styled the 
"sweet singer of Wyoming. ' ' 

March i, 1843, Mr. Van Valkenburg married 
Miss Cordelia Briggs, and now, after fifty-five 
years of happy life together, they are yet spared 
to share each other's joys and sorrows. Their 
golden wedding anniversary celebration was one 
of the great events of Erie of recent years. 
Standing so high in the Odd Fellows' society, in 
particular, the members desired to show their 
appreciation of their brother and his estimable 
wife in a manner that would be pleasantly re- 
membered for years. No one of the six hundred 
guests on that memorable occasion has often en- 
joj'ed himself more thoroughly. Guests there 
were, nor only from Erie and immediate vicinity, 
but from Boulder, Longmont, Lafayette, Greeley, 
Denver, and many other towns and cities of the 
state, all here to do honor to their friend and 
brother and his charming wife. The spacious 
halls of the Odd Fellows were thrown open to the 
public in the afternoon, and soon the rooms were 
thronged with visitors, about one hundred of 
whom arrived on a special train from Denver, 
while many came on other trains and in carriages 
from their homes in more or less distant places. 
A banquet was served and a specially prepared 
program was carried out, to the enjoyment of all. 
One of the pleasant features of the evening was 
the presentation of a golden purse with about 
$200 in gold from the Odd Fellows' lodges of the 
state, a beautiful silver water pitcher from the 



Lafayette Odd Fellows and citizens, and numer- 
ous lovely articles of gold and silver. An unusual 
and beautiful part of the ceremony was the chris- 
tening of the fourth great-grandchild of the 
worthy couple by the honored ancestor, Rev. 
Van Valkenburg. The marriage of Mr. and 
Mrs. Van Valkenburg was blessed with four chil- 
dren, of whom the following survive: Martha J. , 
wife of Edward C. Hughes, of Blackhawk, Gil- 
pin County; Alice B., wife of Joseph R. Powell, 
of Erie; and Mary E., wife of George A. Rice, of 
Denver. Zalen B., the only son, died November 
6, 1896, leaving a wife and six children. Mr. 
and Mrs. Van Valkenburg have living fourteen 
grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. 

On a certain Sunday morning in 1862, when Rev. 
Mr. Van Valkenburg was preaching at Montrose, 
Pa. , a telegram from the governor, Mr. Curtin, was 
handed him. It was a summons to arms, as it 
was believed that the Confederates were about to 
attack Harrisburg. The minister was not slow 
to respond to the patriotic impulse, and, descend- 
ing from the pulpit, he raised a company of one 
hundred and eight men, who elected him as their 
captain. They went to the front, but after the 
battle of Antietam were returned home, being 
held as a reserve force, however. Later they 
were again called out, and the night before the 
battle of Gettysburg were stationed near Carlisle, 
Pa. Soon afterwards our subject volunteered 
and went as chaplain of the pioneer corps, accom- 
panying Sherman on his march through Georgia. 
For two months he was very ill in the hospital 
at Atlanta, and in 1865 he received an honorable 
discharge at Nashville, Tenn. He returned 
home to Owego, but in the following April, on 
account of his continued poor health, he came to 
Colorado. His present house was built by him, 
and was the first one erected in Erie. Here he 
held the first Sunday-school in the place, the 
pupils, to the number of perhaps a dozen, assem- 
bling in his dining-room to study the lesson. 
He continued as superintendent of the same up to 
two years ago. 

Some indication of his general popularity and 
the confidence which the public reposes in him 
may be found in the fact of the numerous trust- 
worthy oflBces which he has been called upon to 
fill. He is now serving his twenty-fourth year 
in the two positions of justice of the peace and 
notary public, and is entering upon his eight- 

eenth year as police magistrate. He has also 
been postmaster, mayor, president of the school 
board, and representative to the state legislature 
from Weld County. He was initiated into Odd 
Fellowship November 20, 1858, in Laceyville (Pa. ) 
Lodge No. 2, and ten years later he identified 
himself with Nevada Lodge No. 6, and still later 
helped to establish Erie Lodge, to which he has 
since belonged, and of which he has twice been 
master. He joined Bald Mountain Encampment 
No. 3 at its formation, and has been actively 
interested in its growth. His long life has been 
filled with kindly deeds toward all with whom 
he has come into contact, and his earnest and sin- 
cere friends are legion. 

pQlLLIAM T. CORNWALL, secretary of 
\ A / the Denver F'ire Clay Company, was born 
YY in Mansfield, Ohio, October 21, 1842, a 
son of Francis and Martha (Carr) Cornwall. 
His father, who was born in Canada, of English 
descent, settled in Ohio, where he met and mar- 
ried Miss Carr, a native of New Jersey. They 
settled in Richland County, and at one time he 
owned the land on which the town of Crestline 
now stands, but disposed of the property before it 
had enhanced in value. 

When our subject was a boy of thirteen his 
father sold out in Richland County and removed 
to Iowa, settling in Union County, and driving 
thither with a team. He became the owner of a 
large tract, which he cultivated into a valuable 
farm and upon which he spent his remaining 
years. He death occurred in 1869. Politically 
he voted the Democratic ticket, and in religion 
was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in which he was an exhorter. Of his ten chil- 
dren, William T. was next to the youngest. 

Shortly after our subject graduated from high 
school the Civil war began, and he at once 
offered his services to the country, responding to 
the first call for volunteers for three months and 
enlisting in Colonel Edwards' regiment. After 
his service of three months he again enlisted, be- 
coming a member of Company B, Eighteenth 
Iowa Infantry, in which he served from August, 
1862, to August, 1865. He entered as a private 
and was serving as a corporal at the time of his 
discharge. Among the battles in which he par- 
ticipated were those at Springfield, Mo., Camden, 



Ark., and Jenkin's Ferry, Ark. At Springfield 
his right hand companion was twice shot down, 
and the same thing happened at Poison Springs, 
but he himself escaped. He was honorably dis- 
charged August 5, 1865. 

After having been mustered out of service at 
Davenport, Iowa, Mr. Cornwall returned to 
Richland County, Ohio, where he attended school 
for a short time. Later he was a student in 
Bryant & Stratton's Business College at Cleve- 
land, from which he graduated in 1866. Return- 
ing to Iowa, in 1869 he was elected county treas- 
urer, on the Republican ticket, and at the expira- 
tion of the term was again elected to the office. 
During that time, in Washington County, he 
married Miss Amy K. Bosworth, of Clay, Wash- 
ington County, and a native of Keokuk, the 
same state. On the expiration of his term of 
office he engaged in raising and dealing in cattle, 
in which he continued until 1879, and then 
removed to Butte City, Mont., and with a 
brother, who was a physician, established a hos- 
pital, from which they cleared $3,000 each, the 
first year. He then sold out, came to Denver and 
in 1880 purchased an interest in his present busi- 
ness. At first he was clerk, bookkeeper, salesman 
and a general all-around man, with but one man 
to assist in packing, but the business has grown 
to such an extent that now twelve men are em- 
ployed in the store and sixty in the factory. The 
office of the company is at Nos. 1742-46 Champa 
street, and the factory at Thirty-first and Blake 
streets, the output being principally assayer's 
materials. In the interests of the firm Mr. Corn- 
wall has traveled extensively in this country and 
also in British Columbia and Mexico. 

While the office was on Larimer street, a very 
serious accident occurred. In the compounding 
of chemicals an explosion resulted that blew an 
arm off his brother-in-law, J. O. Bosworth, re- 
.sulting in his death. At the same time Mr. 
Cornwall was blown through the plate glass 
window, receiving severe injuries, but not losing 
consciousness. In spite of his injuries, he was 
able to direct the firemen in their work of sub- 
duing the fire that resulted from the explosion 
and that entailed a loss of $10,000. 

Two children were born to the union of Mr. 
and Mrs. Cornwall, one of whom died at the age 
of two. The other, Milo, was born in Afton, 
Iowa, in Februarj', 1873, and received his educa- 

tion in the State School of Mines, and the Mich- 
igan State University at Ann Arbor, where he 
graduated in the chemical department. He spent 
one year in European travel and was a young 
man of great promise. He took a delight in all 
sports, was an enthusiastic wheelman and a good 
shot. On the 26th of March, 1898, he went to 
Longmont, to make preparations for the arrival 
of his father and others who were to spend Sun- 
day at Calkins Lake leased some two years before 
by employes of the Denver Fire Clay Company. 
He and John Peterson, who was employed by the 
lessees of the lake to look after their property, 
together rigged up a sailboat and started across 
the lake, but when about half way over a sudden 
gust of wind swept over the water, filling the sail 
and overturning the boat, throwing both men into 
the water. Peterson could not swim, but Corn- 
wall was an excellent swimmer, and he helped 
the other above the water, and lashed him to the 
boat. His efforts to right the boat, however, 
were unsuccessful. Meantime the storm steadily 
increased and the cold became more intense. 
People from the shore watched the unfortunate 
men, but were powerless to help them, and finally 
a gust of wind stronger than the others whirled 
the boat around broadside against the wind, and 
the two men slowly sank beneath the water. 
Two hours after the boat was capsized it struck 
the shore, and the men were pulled out dead. In 
the evening of the same day Mr. Cornwall 
reached the lake, to be met with the terrible news 
of the accident. The body was brought to Den- 
ver, then taken to Chicago for cremation. The 
sympathies of the entire city were with the 
bereaved father and mother, thus suddenly bereft 
of their only child, in whose happiness their own 
lives had been so closely bound. 

61 VERY GALLUP. Of the citizens of Den- 
U ver who have contributed to its advance- 
I I ment and have assisted in making it one of 
the most attractive cities in our country to-day, 
conspicuous mention belongs to Avery Gallup. 
A love for the beautiful, both in nature and art, 
was always one of his prominent characteristics. 
He selected for his home a block on South Broad- 
way, where in 1879 he bought twenty acres of 
land. Two years later he built a residence in 
the midst of a large lawn adorned with velvety 



grass, rare shrubs and the choicest shade trees. 
Nor was his taste for the harmonious and beauti- 
ful apparent only in his own home, but it was 
evidenced throughout the city, in the beautiful 
shade trees in courthouse and school grounds, 
in the parks of the city and the lawns of private 

Love of travel was another of Mr. Gallup 's 
prominent characteristics. Three times he made 
a tour of Europe, and he also traveled extensive- 
ly through the United States, Mexico and the 
borders of Alaska. His powers of close obser- 
vation and graceful narrative made his trips a 
pleasure to his acquaintances, by reason of the 
interesting descriptions of peoples and govern- 
ments that he .sent to friends and the papers. In 
1869, when twenty-two years of age, he made a 
tour of the Orient and Palestine, and when re- 
turning home he stopped in Paris, then the scene 
of great excitement incident to the Franco-Prus- 
sian war. While there the German siege began, 
and he was among the last to leave the capital. 

Mr. Gallup was born in Cleveland, Ohio, to 
Jabesh and Louisa (Avery) Gallup, native of 
New London, Conn. His father, who served in 
the war of 18 12, engaged in the nursery business 
throughout his active life, and on retiring came 
to Denver' where he built two business blocks, 
one of which still bears the family name. He died 
in this city at the age of eighty-four. In 1871 
our subject married Miss Charlotte R. Pierce and 
immediately afterward they came to Denver, 
where he bought a dollar store on Fifteenth 
street and embarked in the fancy goods business. 
On the erection of a block by his father, he re- 
moved his store to that location. Unfortunately 
he had bought when prices were high and a sub- 
sequent decline forced him to make an assign- 
ment. Prior to this he had started a small 
greenhouse, and after the failure he turned his 
attention to the florist's business. Later he 
bought twenty acres on the south side and laid 
them out in blocks, which he sold, being the first 
one to sell lots in this part of the city. For his 
twenty acres he paid $160 per acre. Two years 
later he bought an adjoining tract of twenty 
acres for $400 per acre, all of which he laid out in 
blocks and lots. He platted four additions to the 
city, viz.: South Broadway, Broadway High- 
lands, Bryn Mawr and Lake View. 

About 1887 Mr. Gallup became interested in 

the Orchard Mesa Land Company at Grand 
Junction, of which he was made president, and 
which owned eight hundred acres, three hundred 
planted to fruit trees. After his death the com- 
pany was dissolved. He bought and platted 
seven hundred and twenty acres at Littleton, 
comprising the addition called Windermere, and 
one-half of this he sold in tracts of five and ten 
acres, while the remainder he devoted to his own 
use. The whole tract is under cultivation, and 
seventy-five acres are in orchards. In 1887 he 
and his wife started greenhouses at University 
Park, where they leased fifteen acres. Ten acres 
are planted to nursery products and there are 
twelve greenhouses. At Littleton ten acres are 
planted to a nursery, and irrigation has been 
provided for this tract, as it has also for the land 
in University Park. He also owned one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of farm land ten miles north- 
east of Denver. 

While Mr. Gallup gave his attention largely 
to real-estate matters, his wife carried on the 
greenhouses, the harmonious management and 
excellent business qualifications of both result- 
ing in financial success. For years he was 
a trustee of South Denver, which he and three 
others succeeded in having incorporated, and 
from which the same citizens cleared out the dis- 
reputable rum shops. He also assisted in secur- 
ing water works for the place, having the Holly 
system at Petersburg. Through his efibrts the 
cable street railroad was secured, the people fur- 
nishing $50,000 bonds, and he also put up a 
bonus to secure the electric road. South Denver 
was finally incorporated with the city of Denver, 
in whose municipality its own was merged. In 
1893 he added to his possessions by the purchase 
of forty acres near Petersburg. 

Mr. Gallup continued actively engaged in 
real-estate transactions until his death, January 
4, 1894. He left two sons. Perry C. and Rock- 
well L- The elder son graduated from Mohegan 
Lake Military School, and has since engaged in 
landscape gardening; he superintended the lay- 
ing-out of the forty-acre park around Mineral 
Palace in Pueblo. Politically the family adheres 
to Republican principles. While taking an in- 
terest in public affairs, Mr. Gallup's happiest 
hours were spent in the midst of his family in 
their comfortable home, where his many friends 
were always given a hospitable welcome. He 



was a man of genial manners, with the elegance 
of ph3-sique and the intellectual appearance that 
made him a noticeable figure in any gathering. 

yyjRS. C. R. GALLUP. One of the suc- 
Y cessful business organizations in Denver is 
(9 the Gallup Floral Company, Incorporated, 
of which Mrs. C. R. Gallup is president, Perry 
Gallup secretary, and W. R. Long treasurer. 
The success of this enterprise is due almost 
wholly to the indefatigable efforts of the presi- 
dent, who is a lady of great business capabilities 
and remarkable quickness of insight, qualities 
which are essential to the prosperous manage- 
ment of any project. The original site of the 
greenhouses was Champa and Twenty - first 
streets, where she owned nine lots, but in 1880 she 
began to build greenhouses on South Broadway 
and Alameda avenue and two years later located 
on this spot, the present site of the greenhouses, 
while the uptown office is at Fifteenth and Cleve- 
land place. In all of this work, which of course 
required the expenditure of much time and 
thought, she was ably assisted by her husband, 
whose devotion to the business and interest in its 
success were not less than her own. 

Mrs. Gallup is a descendant of an old Con- 
necticut family that was identified with the early 
history of that state. Her father. Rev. George 
E. Pierce, D. D., the son of Capt. Samuel Pierce, 
was born in Southbury, Conn., graduated from 
Yale College, and for a time was pastor of a Con- 
gregational Church in Connecticut, but later 
went to Ohio, where for twenty years he was 
president of the Western Reserve College. The 
last ten years of his life were spent in retirement 
from active work, and he passed away when 
seventy-eight years of age. His wife, Susan, was 
born in Connecticut, being the daughter of Martin 
Rockwell, who was a large steel manufacturer 
near Winsted. In the family of Dr. and Mrs. 
Pierce there were four sons and one daughter, 
namely: Charles R. Pierce, M. D. , who was a 
surgeon in the Union army and died during the 
war; John, who for eight years was surveyor- 
gei;eral of Colorado and Utah and is still living 
in Denver; George, a surveyor, who died in Den- 
ver; Henry, also a surveyor; and Charlotte R., 
of this sketch. 

In 1866 our subject visited Denver, making 

the trip westward by stage from Atchison. Three 
years later she again made a visit to Colorado, 
this time coming to Denver b}' stage from Chey- 
enne. In 1 87 1 she was married in her native 
county of Summit, Ohio, to Avery Gallup, and 
immediately afterward came to Denver, where 
she has since resided. After engaging in busi- 
ness for a time, her husband started a greenhouse, 
and since his death she has ably managed the 
business. Her attention is given almost wholly 
to the details of her business affairs, and aside 
from her identification with the Woman's Club 
and honorary membership in Clio Club and 
Round Table she is not connected with any so- 
cieties or organizations. She makes shipments 
from her greenhouses through the state and also 
to Wyoming. She continues to manage the 
Gallup estate, carrying out the plans adopted by 
her husband. The connection of herself and hus- 
band with the real-estate interests of Denver has 
been fruitful of most excellent results and they 
may rightly be classed among the pioneers in the 
development of south side property. 

QORBREY J. HOOVER is one of the honored 
I C citizens of Denver, where he has made his 
V^ home for a quarter of a century. He is a 
Colorado pioneer, and both he and his estimable 
wife participated in the severe hardships and pri- 
vations which were the common lot of the settlers 
of the early '60s. During the dark days of the 
war he gave his services to his country, while his 
faithful wife struggled bravelj' to care for the 
little home and family. They were both made of 
sterling metal, that which faces every difficulty 
and overcomes it, and knows no such word as 
"fail." Their history is well worth perusing, 
as it contains much that is worthy of highest 
praise and emulation. 

On the paternal side, Mr. Hoover is of German 
extraction, as his grandfather, Jacob Hoover, was 
a native of that country, his birth having oc- 
curred on the banks of the Rhine. He came to 
America in colonial days, and one of his fellow- 
passengers on the ship was the lady whom he 
afterwards married. They deferred their marriage 
until the young man had fought a few battles for 
the land of his adoption, for he at once entered 
the army, the war of the Revolution being then 
in progress. He was wounded in the knee and 



during the rest of his life he suffered with a stiff 
leg. Settling in Pennsylvania, he engaged in 
the milling business after the war, and finally 
sold out, taking in payment continental money 
and therefore losing a large share of the amount. 
He settled in Greensbury, Pa. , and there became 
quite an extensive property owner. He died in 

Our subject's parents were Frederick and Mary 
A. (Duckett) Hoover. The father, born in 1793, 
in Pennsylvania, served in the war of 1812 and 
took part in the Florida campaign. He removed 
to Ohio, and passed his last years in Butler 

Born in Westmoreland County, Pa., November 
ID, 18 18, C. J. Hoover was a lad of thirteen 
j'ears when the family located in Butler County, 
Ohio, and there he grew to manhood. He mar- 
ried Huldah Rowe, a native of that county, Au- 
gust 25, 1840. Their happy life together ex- 
tended over a period of nearly fifty-six years, 
when the loved wife and mother was summoned 
to the better land. Her death occurred on Christ- 
mas day, 1896. One or two instances of her 
patience, heroism and bravery will be cited in 
this sketch. The young couple had been mar- 
ried but a few years when Mr. Hoover concluded 
that he had better learn a trade, that he might 
have something to fall back upon. The wife 
came to the rescue, supporting the little family, 
which included three children, by raising garden 
products, weaving, sewing, etc., during the years 
of his apprenticeship. He had chosen to be a 
blacksmith, and later found employment as a 
journeyman for several years. 

The first westward move made by Mr. Hoover 
was when he went to Cincinnati, in 1846. There 
he worked in boiler shops some three years, but 
was obliged to give it up on account of an afiiic- 
tion which kept him from the free use of his 
right arm. In 1854 he went to Monroe County, 
Iowa, where he entered eighty acres from the 
government. Here the family resided up to 1856, 
when they removed to Cass County, Neb., to 
another tract of homesteaded land. In 1858 Mr. 
Hoover drove through to Colorado with a mule 
team, accompanying a party of fifteen persons, 
and making the trip in twenty-seven days. His 
wife, a true and brave frontierswoman as ever 
lived, brought the family in the spring of the 
next year. She drove cows which were harnessed 

to wagons and with her were seven of the chil- 
dren. There was not a man in the party, as the 
eldest son, a youth of nineteen, who started with 
them, was pursuaded to turn back and continue 
working for his former employer. About a year 
later, however, he came to Colorado also. 

For several months after he arrived in this 
state Mr. Hoover was employed by the Arapahoe 
Indians, to kill game for them. When his family 
came he was appointed deputy sheriff and located 
at Central City, where he built the first house. 
It was at the mouth of Eureka Gulch, and was 
later occupied by the government authorities for 
a long time. Then followed the army service of 
our subject, of which mention will be made fur- 
ther on. Upon his return he engaged in farming 
in the vicinity of Longmont, about four miles 
west of that place, and there he remained until 
1873, since which year he has lived in Denver. 
He has made many successful investments here 
and owns a ranch of eighty acres in El Paso 
County, also a home at No. 3138 Gallup street. 

In 1846 Mr. Hoover enlisted in Butler County, 
Ohio, in Company H, Second Ohio Infantry, for 
service in the war with Mexico. He was stationed 
with the army at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 
was in the battles of Brownsville and Brazos and 
afterward was on detail duty. In the spring of 
1862 he settled his family in St. Vrain and offered 
his services to the Union, first going back to 
Iowa, where he became a member of Company 
H, Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry. He was in the 
army three years and seventeen days, fighting in 
the ranks, and taking part in the battles of 
Helena, Little Rock, Arkadelphia, Spoonville, 
Camden, Saline River and Mobile. At Fort Span- 
ish he was struck on the head and was unconscious 
for a short time. He was within the enemy's 
lines and had to crawl back very cautiously, hid- 
ing in a hollow tree and creeping stealthily back 
to his own command. The next day, however, 
he was on hand to charge on Fort Blakeley. His 
son, Frederick M.,had enlisted in the Fourth 
Iowa Infantry in 1861, and had been honorably 
discharged after the battle of Pea Ridge, owing 
to the fact that he had been wounded in the en- 
gagement, a ball having passed through his bodj', 
emerging near the spinal column. The plucky 
soldier made a brave fight for life, and when 
partly recovered re-enlisted in the Fifth Illinois 
Cavalry. After a long and gallant service he was 



killed at Fort Spanish, April 9, 1865. He was 
buried there, and though our subject fought in 
the same battle he did not learn of his son's death 
for nearly two weeks. He then had the grav^e 
pointed out to him by a Confederate oiEcer, and 
built a little fence around it. The battle of 
Whistler, which has been called the last one of 
the war, was participated in by Mr. Hoover, his 
colonel at that time being Thomas H. Benton, Jr. 
He belongs to Crocker Post No. 81, G. A. R. 
He receives two small pensions from the govern- 
ment, in view of the fact that he nobly fought for 
his country's honor and life in two wars and gave 
one of his sons to die that the Union might be 

In 1840 Mr. Hoover voted for W. H. Harrison 
and in 1856 for Fremont. He has always been a 
loyal Republican. He was justice of the peace 
for six years and also filled other township offices. 
Since 1865 he has held membership with the 
Christian Church. Of his eleven children eight 
grew to maturity. Margaret Jane married Elisha 
Perkins, now of Evans, Weld County; Mary A. 
first married John Harmon and is now Mrs. Van 
Camp; Harriet I^., of Kansas City, is the wife of 
Peter D. Anderson; Harriet M. is deceased; Re- 
becca, Mrs. Calvin Searl, lives in Page County, 
Iowa; Jacob C. , of El Paso County, married 
Miss Kate Monahan. 

WALTER J. SWAYZE. In 1890 Mr. Swayze 
purchased twenty acres in Prospect Valley, 
six miles from Denver. The land was 
rough and hilly , and the investment was considered 
an unprofitable and unwise one by his friends; 
but time proved the wisdom of his course. He 
"grubbed" out the .sage brush and cleared a spot 
on which he built a house. Working with a will, 
he cleared the land and leveled the hills; and a 
short time later he sold ten acres for almost as 
much as he had paid for the entire tract. Since 
the organization of the Hog Growers and Hog 
Breeders' Association he has been its treasurer. 
He has made a specialty of the breeding and fat- 
tening of hogs for the market, selling from $3,000 
to $4,000 per annum. 

In Niagara Falls, Canada, Mr. Swayze was 
born June 14, 1852, the youngest of ten children 
of Caleb and Lydia (Hopkins) Swayze, and one 
of the seven survivors of the family. The others 

are as follows: Elizabeth A., wife of John Bouk, 
a farmer in Canada; Mary, wife of Aughton 
Holditch, afarmer near Welland, Canada; Lydia, 
wife of Aaron Higgins; a lock tender near Allen- 
burg, Canada; Richard, a farmer near Allenburg; 
and Minerva, who married Frederick Willford, a 
farmer near Welland. 

The father of this family was born in Canada 
in 1803. After his marriage he settled on land 
near Toronto, where he cleared a farm; but after 
a short time he moved to Monck County, where he 
spent some years, and from there went to Welland. 
In that place his death occurred when he was 
eighty-eight years of age. His father, Richard 
Swayze, was born in Canada and grew to man- 
hood on a farm; he made agriculture his life occu- 
pation and followed it until he died, when eighty- 
eight. His father, Isaac, was born in New Jersey 
and when a boy accompanied his parents to Can- 
ada, where he afterward engaged in farming. 
The family is descended from one of four brothers 
who came to America from England in an early 
day and settled in New Jersey. 

In youth our subject was apprenticed to the 
brick-layer's trade, which he followed for three 
years as an apprentice and for one year as a jour- 
neyman. He arrived in Denver April 7, 1880, 
and secured employment at his trade, which he 
followed here for five years. Afterward he en- 
gaged in gardening on Prospect avenue, and then 
turned his attention to the breeding of hogs and 
their fattening for the market. In politics he is 
a Democrat . He is a friend of the public schools 
and for the past five years has served as a mem- 
ber of the school board. 

In Castle Rock, Colo., May 25, 1881, Mr. 
Swayze married Miss Sarah Day, who was born 
in Roanoke, Mo., August 22, 1858. She was 
taken by her parents to Glasgow, Mo., where she 
was reared and educated, graduating from Pritch- 
ett School Institute of that place. In 1879 she 
came to Colorado, where she taught for two years 
and at the expiration of that time was married to 
Mr. Swayze. They became the parents of six 
children, Clarence, Berenice, May, Carrie, Harry 
and Myrtle, all of whom are at home. The wife 
and mother passed away August 12, 1897, at the 
age of thirty-eight years, eleven months and 
twelve days. She was a woman of noble charac- 
ter and lovely disposition, whose many kindly 
deeds and unselfish acts endeared her to her family 



and friends. Mr. Swayze was married a second 
time, his wife being Laura Calkins, a daughter 
of Charles and Mary Ann (Houck) Calkins, na- 
tives of Canada. 

Cjj HARLES M. CAMPBELL, who for a quar- 
I C ter of a century has made his home in Colo- 
\J rado, has been an able member of the 
Boulder County bar for about sixteen years of 
this period. As a citizen he has been very pro- 
gressive and in accord with the spirit of the age, 
ready to do all within his power to further im- 
provements and develop the resources of this 
locality. He has been county attorney, deputy 
district attorney and city attorney, and has been 
the president of the school board and has held 
other public positions of trust and honor. His 
interest in educational matters is unbounded, 
and in 1865 he was superintendent of schools 
here for a term. 

As the name implies, the Campbells are of old 
Scotch stock. The early records of the family 
relate that four brothers came to the United 
States during a religious persecution in the 
North of Ireland and Scotland. One of the 
number settled in New York state, while the 
others located on large Virginia plantations. 
The great-grandfather of our subject, Maj. 
Arthur Campbell, a native of Virginia, was a 
hero of the Revolutionary war, and his son, Col. 
Arthur Lee Campbell (the next in line of descent 
to our subject), was a soldier in the war of 1812. 
The major was a pioneer in Virginia, as was the 
colonel, who, however, had been born in Vir- 
ginia. The latter went from eastern Tennessee 
to the present site of Louisville, Ky., where he 
pre-empted a farm. He was related to many of 
the prominent families of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky, the Lees, Breckenridges, Hardins, etc. 

The parents of C. M. Campbell were Prof. 
Matthew Monroe and Martha J. (McPheeters) 
Campbell, natives of Cumberland Gap, Tenn., 
and Kentucky, respectively. The mother's peo- 
ple were originally from Scotland and were slave 
holders in Kentucky. When Mrs. Campbell 
succeeded to her inheritance, which included 
some slaves, she gave them their freedom at 
once, however, as she did not believe in the 
principle. She was a lady who was universally 
loved and admired, and her death, in 1881, was 
a matter of deep regret to all who knew her. 

Prof. Matthew M. Campbell was a very scholar- 
ly man and stood in the front ranks of educators 
of his day. He graduated in early life from the 
University of Indiana with the degree of Master 
of Arts, and after he had taught for some time in 
the south, became a member of the faculty of 
his alma mater. He was principal of the prepara- 
tory department and adjunct professor of lan- 
guages. Probably no one connected with the in- 
stitution occupied a more important part in its 
success during its first years. He was a pro- 
found thinker and was equaled by few as a 
teacher of classics. Born in 1810, he lived to 
the ripe age of eighty-seven, his death occurring 
inTopeka, Kan. Of his family, which comprised 
five sons and six daughters, six are living. 
Matthew is an attorney in Topeka, Kan. Louise 
is the wife of ex-postmaster A. J. Arnold, of 
Topeka. Jennie is the wife of Prof. Frank P. 
Leavenworth, of the State University of Minne- 
sota. John, of Boston, Mass., is a musician and 
author. James is a druggist in Topeka. 

Charles M. Campbell was born in Blooming- 
ton, Monroe County, Ind., March 10, 1842. He 
graduated from the University of Indiana in 
1859, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, being 
the salutatorian of his class. Three years later 
his alma mater conferred upon him the degree 
of Master of Arts. While he was pursuing his 
collegiate course he studied law to some extent. 
In i860 he went to Missouri, and thence to 
Atchison, Kan., where he taught school. Dur- 
ing the same year his sister died, and the impres- 
sion upon his youthful mind led him to become 
a Christian. The following year he entered the 
Western Theological Seminary at Pittsburg, Pa., 
and three years later he was graduated as a 
Bachelor of Divinity. Ordained to the Presby- 
terian ministry May 20, 1864, he proceeded to 
Colorado, and reached Boulder July 20 the same 
year. He organized a little band of people of 
his denomination, and at first preached to them 
in a grove. Under his influence and leadership 
the first (Presbyterian) church ever erected in 
this county was built, and the old frame structure 
is still standing. Ever since that time Mr. 
Campbell has occasionally occupied the pulpit of 
the old church. He has the honor of being the 
oldest member of the Presbyterian .synod of Colo- 
rado, and has been very active in religious work 
in many departments. From the days when he 




received his mail from Denver but once a week 
to the present time, when Boulder has every 
facility and advantage of eastern towns and 
cities, he has been actively identified with her 
progress. He has always been a straight Repub- 
lican and is a past officer of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. 

August 24, 1869, Mr. Campbell married Miss 
Mary M. A. Chambers, who was born in Iowa, 
and died in this county August 20, 1873. Of 
their three children two are living: Mrs. Mary E. 
Gillard, of this county; and Mrs. Martha J. 
Giggey, of Boulder. The lady who is now the 
wife of our .subject was in her girlhood Miss 
Amanda E. Hall. They were married November 
8, 1874. She was born and reared in Ohio, and 
by her marriage with Mr. Campbell is the mother 
of four children, namely:. Coline M., Charles 
F. H. , Argyle M. and Amanda R. V. 

which this narrative sketches began in Bon- 
ham, Tex., November 7, 1847, and closed in 
Denver, Colo., November i, 1898. The Jordan 
family is of Virginian lineage and is connected 
with man}' other prominent families in the United 
States, among them being the Harrisons, of Vir- 
ginia. Elisha Harrison Jordan, a native of Win- 
chester, Va., was a grandson of Col. Elihu 
Hall, whose wife was Amelia Pinknard 
Ball, a first cousin of Mary Ball, George Wash- 
ington's mother, and he himself was a first cousin 
of Dr. Benjamin Rush, one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

Reared in the Old Dominion, from there Elisha 
H. Jordan removed west to Missouri, and carried 
on a store in St. Charles, later removing to 
St. Louis, and from there going to Shreveport, 
La., where he was proprietor of a mercantile 
store. He continued in that place until his death, 
at eighty years of age. He married Jane Morri- 
.son Boggs, who was born . in Pittsburg, Pa. , 
being the daughter of Julia Wrenshall, whose 
husband was an Irish gentleman and a prominent 
merchant in Pittsburg. Julia Wrenshall was a 
si.ster of Ellen Wrenshall, who was the mother of 
Julia Boggs Dent, the wife of Ulysses S. Grant. 
The father of these sisters was an English clergy- 
man, who came to America and spent his remain- 
ing years in this country. By the marriage of 


Elisha H. Jordan and Jane Morrison Boggs two 
children were born: James Harrison, who was 
born while his mother was visiting in Bonham, 
Tex.; and Mrs. Littleton Lyon, who was lost on 
a steamer that sank in the Mississippi River. 

The boyhood days of the subject of this sketch 
were passed in Shreveport, La. He was edu- 
cated in the Louisiana Military Academy at 
Alexandria, one of the first teachers being Gen. 
William T. Sherman. In 1861 he leftschool and 
entered the Confederate army, in which he 
served from the age of fifteen until nineteen, and 
although a mere boy he was a gallant and fear- 
less soldier. On his return home at the close 
of the war he again entered the military academy, 
from which he graduated. Afterward he was 
employed as agent for a line of railroads and 
steamboats, in which business he continued until 
he came to Denver in 1881. Here he entered the 
employ of the Colorado Milling and Elevator 
Company, with which he remained for four 
j'ears, and later was with the Title and Guaran- 
tee Abstract Company for two years, then follow- 
ing the real-estate business with success. 

Politically a Democrat, Mr. Jordan always 
took a warm interest in public affairs. In recog- 
nition of the work he accomplished for his party, 
he was appointed postmaster of Denver by Presi- 
dent Cleveland December 19, 1893. This re- 
sponsible position he filled with efficiency, win- 
ning the appreciation not only of his own party, 
but of others as well. While still serving as 
postmaster, his death occurred, November i, 
1897, 3'^^ liis wife was then appointed to serve 
out the unexpired term. To him properly be- 
longs the credit of establishing the Slaves of the 
Silver Serpent, which is a society of, though 
apart from, the festival of the mountain and plain, 
and his daughter was the first queen of the order. 

In Shreveport, La., in December, 1870, Mr. 
Jordan married Miss Sallie Menifee Thatcher, 
who was born in that city and is a lady of estim- 
able disposition and noble character. Her father, 
William Thatcher, who was born near Front 
Royal, Va., moved to Louisiana in 1832 and 
spent his remaining years in that state. He was 
a sou of Thomas Thatcher, a planter of Rappa- 
hannock County, Va., and member of an old family 
of that locality. Two .sons and one daughter 
comprise the family of Mrs. Jordan, namely: 
James Harrison, a graduate of the Denver high 



school and now a clerk in the First National 
Bank; Bessie Newman, a graduate of Wolfe Hall 
in June, 1896; and Anthony Pires Jordan. 

n OHN PUGHE, a respected citizen of Boulder, 
I has been engaged in mining enterprises in 
G/ Colorado for nearly thirty years, and is an 
authority on the subject. For many years he 
occupied positions as superintendent or foreman 
for various companies, but for some years has 
operated upon his own account. He belongs to 
Boulder Lodge No. 45, A. F. & A. M.; Boulder 
Chapter No. 7, R. A. M., and Mount Sinai Com- 
mandery No. 7, K.T. He is also a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

The father of our subject, Tudor Pughe, was 
born in Cardiganshire, Wales, and was engaged 
in farming and in mining in the lead and copper 
mines near his home. His father, Griffith Pughe, 
followed agricultural pursuits, as had several 
generations of the family before him. The mother 
of our subject was a Miss Mary Morgan prior to 
her marriage. She, too, was born and reared in 
Wales, and was a daughter of a farmer. She 
was the mother of three children, two of whom 
are still living. The father was again married, 
after the death of his first wife, and had two chil- 
dren by that union. Our subject's brother, 
Charles E., who is an agriculturist in the neigh- 
borhood of Longmont, Colo., came to the United 
States in 1866. 

John Pughe was born in the town of Peny- 
bout, Wales, Augusts, 1850, and in his boyhood 
learned the business of mining lead and copper 
with his father. When in his twentieth year, 
desiring to try his fortune in America, he went to 
Liverpool and crossed the Atlantic in the steamer 
"City of Brussels," landing upon these hospitable 
shores at the end of a voyage of eleven days. In 
July, 1869, he arrived in Colorado, and settled in 
the vicinity of Nevadaville, Gilpin County, where 
he engaged in mining and prospecting. He 
operated more or less successfully in Blackhawk 
and Russell Gulch, then returning to Nevada- 
ville. In 1872 he came to Boulder and later 
mined at Gold Hill, Sunshine and Rowena. He 
was employed as a foreman of the American 
mine at Sunshine, and at the same time held a 
similar position in the Slide mine at Gold Hill, 
for a period of seven years. Then he became 

superintendent of the Mountain Chief mine in the 
Central Mining district. Since 1882 he has been 
personally interested in various mining properties 
in the Mountain Chief group and is now driving 
a tunnel into the side of the mountain. He has 
excavated some eight hundred feet, and has but 
one hundred feet more to go ere he reaches the 
vein of ore he desires. He is the manager of the 
J. U. Marlow mine, belonging to the Green Bay 
Mining Company. Persistent and enterprising, 
he deserves a rich reward for his unceasing labors, 
and has already been more fortunate than the 
average prospector. 

September 8, 1880, Mr. Pughe married Miss 
Mary Ellen Teal,' a sister of George W. Teal, 
whose sketch appears elsewhere in this volume. 
She is a native of Manchester, England, and 
came to this country twenty-eight years ago. 
To our subject and his estimable wife four daugh- 
ters were born, their names being respectively: 
Mabel Alice, Mary Ellen, Verona and Charlotte. 
The family have a pleasant home at No. 1333 
Pine street, the house having been erected by 
Mr. Pughe. In his political affiliations he is a 
stanch Republican. Honorable and strictly con- 
scientious in all his dealings with his fellow-men, 
he possesses their confidence and high regard. 

(I AMES H. HOOD, president, superintendent 
I and manager of the Industrial Mining Com- 
Qj pany, at Superior, Boulder County, was born 
near London, Ky., October 14, 1853, a son of 
Andrew J. and Sallie (Cottgaim) Hood. He 
was the eldest of four children, of whom the 
others are: John W.; Elizabeth, wife of William 
Owens; and Ann E., Mrs. John Brumback. His 
father, who was born in London, Ky., in 1833, 
has followed farm pursuits throughout his entire 
life and is still living in the locality where he was 
born. The grandfather, John Hood, a native of 
Virginia, migrated to Kentucky .shortly after his 
marriage and settled upon a farm, where he 
afterward resided. 

In the common schools of London, Ky., the 
subject of this sketch obtained a fair education. 
At sixteen years of age he began life for himself, 
securing employment in the coal mines at Pine 
Hill, Ky., where he remained for twelve years. 
During the time he worked there he married 
Miss Sarah Rutledge, but she died ten months 



after their marriage. Not long after her death Mr. 
Hood left Pine Hill and went to Mnrphysboro, 
111., where he worked in the mines eight or nine 
months. Afterward, until 1886, he worked in 
numerous mines in Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky 
and Tennessee. 

Coming to Colorado in 1886, Mr. Hood settled 
at Marshall and at once began to work in the 
mines. In 1889, with three others, he opened 
the Hecla mine at Louisville. For three years 
he operated the property alone, after which the 
mine was leased to the Citizens' Coal and Coke 
Company, he selling his interest in the same. 
For some time following he was employed as 
superintendent of the mine for this company. In 
1894 he took charge of the Northwestern Coal 
Mining Company's property at Erie, but after 
eight months with them he became pit boss for 
the United Coal Company at Lafayette. Later 
he prospected and mined at Cripple Creek, but 
being unsuccessful, he returned to Superior and 
in partnership with others opened the Indus- 
trial mine, of which he was the first and is still 
the president and manager. 

Fraternally Mr. Hood is identified with the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Somerset 
Lodge No. Ill, A. F. & A. M., of Somerset, 
Ky. ; Mount Sinai Chapter No. 7, R. A. M., and 
Boulder Commandery No. 7, K. T. He isaman 
of great enterprise and perseverance. During 
his life in many mining camps he has met men of 
every character, and his reputation among them 
all has been that of a man of upright and honor- 
able di.sposition and large business ability. 

HON. MASON W. HOWARD. This well- 
known and highly esteemed citizen of Den- 
ver is one of her most enterprising and pro- 
gressive business men, active in everything that 
tends towards the upbuilding and improvement of 
the place and one who for over twenty years has 
been closely associated with her development. 
Thougli brought up as a Democrat, he is a man 
who forms his own opinions, carefully weighing 
evidence and principles, and, after giving the 
matter his earnest attention, he adopted the Re- 
publican party platform during the dark days of 
the Civil war and has ever since been a firm adher- 
ent of the organization. He was honored by the 
people in being their choice as state senator in the 

fifth and sixth general assemblies, and did active 
work on their behalf while a member of that body. 
He introduced the bill known as the fee bill, reg- 
ulating the fees of public officials; the bill which 
provided for the erection of the state capitol 
building and the one giving to the city of Denver 
its first charter. There was so much opposition 
to the last-named bill that it was actually stolen, 
but the authors of it, having a rough draft of the 
original bill, submitted this instead, and it was 
finally passed, to the lasting benefit of this city. 

The birth of Mason W. Howard occurred in 
Knox County, Ohio, January 8, 1843. He is a son 
of Joseph and Emeline (Baker) Howard, who were 
agriculturists, and who removed with their family 
to the neighborhood of Tipton, Iowa, about 1853. 
There young Howard grew to manhood, receiv- 
ing a district school education, which was sup- 
plemented by a course of practical business train- 
ing in Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College 
in Chicago. Prior to this, however, he had 
taught school in the country for several terms, 
and had industriously kept up his own studies by 
himself. Having mastered the mysteries of 
bookkeeping in college, the young man accepted 
a position as a clerk in the ofiice of the Michigan 
Central Railroad Company in Chicago. Subse- 
quently he took a course in telegraphy in Bryant 
& Stratton's College, and was the first operator of 
the kind that was graduated from that institution. 

The following thirteen years he was an employe 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad in 
the capacity of telegraph operator and station 
agent. He was located at various points along 
the road, each change being a promotion and a 
recognition of his faithful and meritorious work. 
For this long period of thirteen years he was never 
absent from his post of duty for one day. His last 
position with the railroad was at Plattsmouth, 
Neb. , where he was joint agent for the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy and the Burlington & 

In 1877 Mr. Howard came to Colorado, and 
settled in Denver when it was a place of forty thou- 
sand inhabitants. He began to clerk in the ofiice 
of Colonel Dodge of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad, and was in the same building as the one 
his business is now located in. No. 1319 Sixteenth 
street. During six months of his service with this 
now wealthy railroad the corporation was so poor 
that it was a question with him whether or not 



his salary would be paid to him, but one day he 
received a telegram for Colonel Dodge, from Lon- 
don, stating that $10,000,000 had been raised 
for the road, and this sum placed things on a 
very different basis. Mr. Howard continued in 
its service about three years, in the meantime 
being station agent in Canon City, Pueblo and 

In 1878 the Denver Transit and Warehouse 
Company was organized and two years afterwards 
was incorporated under the laws of Colorado. 
The president is Col. D. C. Dodge, already men- 
tioned, and well known as the vice-president and 
general manager of the Rio Grande Western Rail- 
way, and the secretary, treasurer and general 
manager is M. W. Howard, of this sketch. Both 
of these gentlemen have been connected with the 
company as stockholders from its start and are 
possessed of great financial ability and genius, as 
is well known. They deserve great credit for 
their enterprising methods, for they have invested 
large amounts of money in concerns that have 
been of untold benefit to the citizens, at times 
when no one else would risk their fortunes in a 
similar maimer. They established general stor- 
age warehouses as well as United States customs 
and international revenue general bonded ware- 
houses, at Nos. 1401-27 Wynkoop street, about a 
block from the Union depot, and close to the busi- 
ness center of the city. These bonded warehouses 
are of the greatest importance to the merchants and 
shippers of Denver and the surrounding country, 
as goods are imported direct from foreign lands 
and can be removed as a whole or in part, by 
paying the tax here, without the delay of sending 
the amount east. The warehouses are the best- 
constructed ones in the city, as is shown by the 
low rates of insurance. Several hundred dollars 
were spent by the company in 1895 in getting 
the bill for the establishment of an internal reve- 
nue and bonded warehouse in Denver through 
congress. The company gives special attention 
to moving heavy machinery, household furniture 
and goods in car-lots. The business which is 
tran.sacted by them in the course of a year is 
something surprising and is steadily increasing in 

About 1886 Mr. Howard and Colonel Dodge 
purchased a farm for their own, intending to 
raise horses there and also to have a place for 
their teams to rest and recruit from time to time. 

Finding that the plan was a good one, they turned 
the property over to the company, which has 
since invested in additional land, some adjoining 
the first farm, which is but eight miles from Den- 
ver, and still later two thousand acres situated in 
Elbert County, forty miles from the city. The 
company now makes a business of raising fine 
draft horses and cattle, and many of the horses 
used on their great vans and wagons in Denver, 
and justly noted for their beauty and strength, 
have been raised on the farms of the company. 
During the winter the stock is taken to the Bear 
Creek farm, where some eight hundred tons of 
hay for feeding are cut annually. The farm 
last mentioned comprises four hundred and twenty 
acres of land, in the garden spot of the state. 

The first marriage of Mr. Howard took place 
in Wataga, 111., in 1867, the lady of his choice 
being Miss Mary Holyoke, who was born in that 
place. She died in 1879, leaving two sons, 
Joseph M., who was born in Rushville, 111., and 
is now in the employ of the company in which his 
father is an official, and Harry H., who was born 
in Canon City, Colo., and is also with the firm. 
In 1880 Mr. Howard married Julia A. Stoddard, 
of Denver, a native of Joliet, 111., and they have 
one daughter, Edna. Mr. Howard is identified 
with the Royal Arcanum and the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. 

|~RANK BOYD, postmaster at Gold Hill, 
r^ Boulder County, was born in Des Moines, 
I Iowa, in 1863, and is a son of James H. and 
Frances P. (Griffith) Boyd, natives respectively 
of Pennsylvania and Columbus, Ohio. His 
father, who spent some years in Iowa, removed 
from there in 1869 to Chicago, where he engaged 
in the manufacture of coffins. In 1875 he came 
to Colorado and settled in Boulder, where he 
built the first smelter in the town. He continued 
to operate this mill until he retired from business, 
since which time he has resided in Denver. He 
and his wife are the parents of five children, 
namely: Ida, Mrs. Headley, of Denver; Lincoln, 
who is foreman of the Philadelphia smelter in 
Pueblo; Frank; Mrs. Dessa Newman, of Denver; 
and Mrs. LiHie Foster, also of Denver. 

In the public schools of Chicago and Boulder 
the subject of this sketch obtained a fair educa- 
tion. For a time he was employed in his father's 





smelter, after which, in 1880, he went to Lead- 
ville and secured employment in the smelter 
there. Afterward he operated the Cash mine in 
the gold district, continuing to develop it for 
five j'ears. In 1890 he bought out George Kirk- 
bride, one of the oldest merchants in the district, 
and embarked in the general mercantile business, 
which he has since conducted, having in stock a 
full line of dry goods, groceries and hardware. 

The marriage of Mr. Boyd, in Boulder, united 
him with Mary P. Kirkbride, who was born in 
England and came to Boulder in company with 
her father, George Kirkbride. They are the 
parents of two children, Bessie and Donovan. 
Politically a Democrat, Mr. Boyd is active in local 
affairs. He is chairman of the district Demo- 
cratic central committee and a member of the 
county central committee. In 1896 he was ap- 
pointed postmaster under President Cleveland and 
still holds the office. Fraternally he is connected 
with Gold Hill Lodge of Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, and is a charter member of 
Bimetal Lodge No. 44, I. O. O. F., in which he is 
a past officer. 

EAPT. NELSON C. ROE, one of the honored 
veterans of the Civil war, is serving as jus- 
tice of the peace in Greeley, a position he has 
filled for four years with credit to himself and 
satisfaction to the community. He is thoroughly 
impartial in meting out justice, his opinions being 
unbiased by either fear or favor, and his fidelity 
to the trust reposed in him is above ques- 
tion. He is regarded as one of the leading and 
most highly respected citizens of Weld County, 
and it is, therefore, consistent that he be repre- 
sented in a work whose province is the portrayal 
of the lives of the prominent men of this section 
of the state. 

Mr. Roe was born in Cortland County, N. Y. , 
June 19, 1825, a son of Sylvester M. and Mary 
(Chattertort) Roe. ' His uncle, William Roe, was 
the father of E. P. Roe, the well-known novelist. 
The family have for many generations made their 
home in Cortland County, our Subject's grand- 
father, John E. Roe, having settled there when 
his nearest neighbor was seven miles away, and 
there he engaged in farming. Of his children 
Sylvester was the oldest and was educated in the 
common schools. In early life he engaged in 
clerking in New York City, later followed mer- 

cantile pursuits in Freetown, Cortland County, 
and after farming for some time at Virgil, N. Y. , 
he sold his place and engaged in the fruit com- 
mission business. He died at the ripe old age of 
eighty-one years. For many years he was elder 
in the Presbyterian Church', and was greatly in- 
terested in all church work. In his family were 
two sons and four daughters, of whom our subject 
is the oldest. 

Captain Roe pursued his studies in the schools 
of his native county until seventeen years of age, 
when he went to Elmira and engaged in clerkr 
ing for a time. On his return to Cortland 
County he embarked in business on his own ac- 
count, but in 1852 came west, stopping first at 
Chicago, from which place he shipped produce to 
New York. Later he went to San Francisco by 
way of Cape Horn, and in 1855 located in Iowa, 
where he was first engaged in bujdng grain. 
For two years he was also captain of a steamboat 
on the Mississippi River, running from St. Louis 
to St. Paul, and then settled in Lyons, Iowa, 
where he engaged in buying and shipping grain 
until 1862. In i860 he had crossed the plains by 
wagon to Denver, where he spent the summer, 
but was not enough impressed by the country to 

By the urgent request of Governor Kirkwood, of 
Iowa, and his adjutant, General Baker, Captain 
Roe formed a company during the Civil war, 
raising eighty-nine men and marching them into 
camp within two days. Upon his arrival the 
governor commissioned him captain of Company 
K, Twenty-sixth Iowa Infantry. By way of St. 
I,ouis they joined the Federal troops and were 
assigned to the First Brigade, First Division, Fif- 
teenth Army Corps, under command of Generals 
Sherman and Logan. They participated in many 
important engagements, including the battles of 
Arkansas and Chickasaw Bayou, arid the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Captain Roe was in 
command of two hundred men standing guard 
over the man-of-war ' 'Hartford' ' belonging to Ad- 
miral Farragut's fleet. In the Atlanta campaign 
our subject participated in sixteen battles, in- 
cluding those at Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, 
Missionary Ridge, Ringgold and Kenesaw Moun- 
tain. The lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, 
while intrusting all important matters to his 
charge, would never give him an opportunity for 
advancement, and this so discouraged our subject 



that at Atlanta he resigned August 27, 1864, hav- 
ing served two years and fourteen days. His 
colonel would not act on the resignation, and it 
was only through the personal effort of General 
Logan that he received his honorable discharge. 

Returning to Lyons, Iowa, the captain pur- 
chased a hotel, which he conducted under the 
name of the Randall House for two years. In 
1867 he came west, following the Union Pacific 
Railroad until it reached Laramie City, and spent 
the years 1869, 1870 and 1871 at Sherman en- 
gaged in dealing in stock and shipping timber. 
In the spring of 1872 he located at Evans, Colo., 
which at that time was three times as large as 
Greeley, and was clerk of the school board when 
they built the large school house. He was inter- 
ested in business there until 1879. In 1880 he 
removed to Greeley and from that time until 1 894 
engaged in farming, but ill health compelled him 
to retire from active work in the latter year and 
he located in the city. In the fall of that year 
he was elected justice of the peace without a single 
dissenting vote, and is now most capably dis- 
charging the duties of that office. As an ardent 
Republican he has always taken an interest in 
political affairs, attends all of the county and state 
conventions of his party and does all in his power 
to promote its welfare. He is public-spirited and 
progressive, taking an active interest in all mat- 
ters for the good of the community, and is one of 
the leading and influential members of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Greeley. Fraternally he is 
an honored member of U. S. Grant Post No. 13, 
G. A. R. 

On the ist of October, 1846, Captain Roe 
was united in marriage with Miss Katherine L. 
Tupper, a step-daughter of the well-known Brick 
Pomeroy. They have one son, Herbert S., who 
is engaged in mining near Gunnison, and is the 
principal owner and manager of the Cortland 
Gold and Silver Mining Company. 

"■ LISHA MCMILLAN. The life which this 
^ narrative sketches began in York County, 
_ Pa., in 1810, and was brought to a close in 
Arapahoe County, Colo., August 2, 1882. The 
McMillan family was represented among the early 
Quaker settlers of Pennsylvania, where succeed- 
ing generations resided, adhering to the religious 
faith of their ancestors. George McMillan, 

father of our subject, was born and reared in 
Pennsylvania and made farming his life work, 
following that occupation until his death in 1846. 
His wife, who bore the maiden name of Rebecca 
Cutler, died in 1816, when her son, Elisha, was a 
small boy, and subsequently the father married a 
second time. 

After attaining manhood the subject of this 
sketch removed to Ohio, where he began the 
study of medicine, and upon going to Illinois he 
continued his professional studies. However, his 
health was poor and close study soon injured it 
to such an extent that it became absolutely neces- 
sary to seek other employment. He then turned 
his attention to farming, going to Iowa in 1838 
and cultivating a farm near Primrose for years. 
From that time until his death he made agricult- 
ure his life work. He died August 2, 1882, in 
Pilot Grove, Lee County, Iowa. He was not 
blessed with robust health, and never had the 
strength to engage in manual labor, but he super- 
intended his landed properties and left a compe- 
tence to his wife. 

On New Year's day of 1862 Mr. McMillan 
married Caroline P. , daughter of John and Mathil- 
da (Board) Brown, a sister of ex -Senator Hiram 
R. Brown. Her grandfather, Dixon Brown, was 
born in Fauquier County, Va., but prior to the 
nineteenth century removed to Kentucky and fol- 
lowed farm pursuits, though giving some atten- 
tion to the trade of a blacksmith. The maternal 
grandfather, George Board, was born in Balti- 
more, Md., and when a young man removed to 
Kentucky, where he married Sarah Harmon, 
daughter of a wealthy slaveowner. Through his 
energetic efforts he became well-to-do, but unfortu- 
nately went security for some friends and was 
obliged to pay the entire amount of the notes, 
thus losing all of his property. His father-in- 
law offered to start him in business again, but he 
was of an independent nature and refused the 
kind offer. He took his family to Indiana and 
later removed to Illinois, where he entered land 
and spent the remaining years of his life. 

Mrs. McMillan was a daughter of John Brown, 
who was born in Virginia, spent his boyhood 
years in Kentucky and after his marriage to Miss 
Board removed to Indiana, settling in Bedford, 
Lawrence County, where he was employed in a 
bank for twenty-two years. From there he went 
to Lee County, Iowa, and later settled in Mount 



Pleasant, where his death occurred. Further 
reference to his life will be found in the sketch of 
his son, Hiram R. , who was formerly senator 
from Jefferson County. Mrs. McMillan is a most 
estimable lady and as such is esteemed by all by 
whom she is known. She conducts the place 
and attends to the property interests left by her 
husband, whose sound judgment and business 
ability enable her to enjoy every comfort that 
can enhance the pleasure of life. 

in music in the University of Colorado, has 
been a resident in this state for the past 
decade. He comes from an old and honored New 
England family, his ancestors having settled 
there upon their arrival from England in 1664. 
His great-grandfather Farnsworth was a Revolu- 
tionary hero, and all of his forefathers were noted 
for patriotism and sterling Puritan integrity. 
His grandfather, Amos Farnsworth, was a native 
of Massachusetts, from which state he removed to 
Vermont. The parents of Mr. Farnsworth are 
Rev. Wilson and Caroline (Palmer) Farns- 
worth, natives of Thetford, Vt., and Lyme, 
N. H., respectively. The Palmers are also an 
old New England family, tracing their lineage 
through several generations in that section of 
this country, and back to England. Rev. Wil- 
son Farnsworth graduated from Middlebury Col- 
lege of Middlebury, Vt., and later from Andover 
Theological Seminary, after which he was or- 
dained as a minister of the Congregational 
denomination. Since 1854 he has been actively 
engaged in preaching the gospel and organizing 
churches, schools and hospitals in Turkey, Asia 
Minor, his home being in Cesarea, Cappadocia. 
The region under his jurisdiction and general su- 
pervision is about as large as New England, and 
the importance of the grand work to which he has 
heroically devoted the better part of his life, for 
nearly a half-ceptury, cannot be overestimated. He 
and his several assistants are missionaries of 
the American Board of Foreign Missions. 

A few years subsequent to his parents' removal 
to Cesarea, Turkey, the subject of this article was 
born, the date being November 29, 1859. With 
his eight brothers and sisters (five of whom are 
now living) he passed his boyhood days in the 
land of the "Unspeakable Turk." Until he was 

entering upon his fifteenth year he pursued his 
studies under the tutorship of his parents. In 
1873 he entered the preparatory department of 
Robert College, in Constantinople, and at the 
close of the year came to America. He con- 
tinued his education in the high school of New- 
tonville, Mass. , until his health began to suffer, 
when he went to Boston, and for a short time 
engaged in business. Believing that an ocean 
voyage would be beneficial, he shipped before 
the mast on the "William Hale," and went 
around Cape Horn, South America, to Valparaiso, 
Chili, thence to Iquique, Peru, and to Talchona, 
Chili, returning to New York with a cargo of 
saltpetre and wool, and arriving in the metropolis 
after an ■ absence of over eleven months. He 
then drifted to Westboro and Worcester, Mass. , 
and took up the study of music. He suf- 
fered with a sunstroke about this time, but per- 
sisted in his musical training, and ultimately be- 
came a teacher of the piano and organ, and church 

In 1888 Mr. Farnsworth came to Colorado, for 
a change of climate. Settling in Boulder, he 
started classes in music, sight-singing, etc., in 
the university, and was later chosen to act as a 
teacher of music in the public schools. Under the 
stimulus of his enthusiasm, a department of music 
was created in the university, with himself as an in- 
structor. In connection with Professor Baker and 
others the Colorado School of Music was organ- 
ized, and he is not only a member of the board of 
the same but musical director as well. For several 
years he was organist in the Congregational 
Church. To his efforts is due the founding of the 
Boulder Choral Society . This successful organiza- 
tion, under his leadership, has given the Messiah, 
Elijah and the Creation, and has won an enviable 
reputation. He has also had charge of the 
Glee Club and the Ladies' Musical Club. Be- 
sides those already mentioned, the Preparatory 
School Orchestra has given numerous well-re- 
ceived concerts, with him as their leader, and he 
is the conductor of the Friday Musical Club, of 
which his wife is the president. It gives about 
four concerts a year. 

In Worcester, Mass., Mr. Farnsworth mar- 
ried Miss Charlotte Joy Allen, in 1890. She was 
born in that city, and after attending Wellesley 
College for three years, completed her higher 
studies in the University of Colorado, receiving 



therefrom the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Her 
father, Prof Benjamin D. Allen, has won high 
standing in the musical profession, and for 
some time was connected with the faculty of the 
New England Conservatory of Music at Boston, 
Mass. Mr. and Mrs. Farnsworth are members of 
the Congregational Church, the former being a 
trustee and superintendent in the Sunday-school. 
He is a member of the University Scientific Asso- 
ciation and the National Musical Association. At 
the meeting in Boulder of the first-named organ- 
ization, in 1896, he read a paper entitled "In- 
tellectual Element in Music," and this article was 
published in full in the Chicago Musical Review. 

HARMON MERCHANT. Years ago, when 
the west was a vast unsettled territory, and 
railroads were unknown across the plains, 
and Indians and wild animals roamed, un- 
molested, among the mountain fastnesses Mr. 
Merchant cast in his fortunes with the few 
settlers west on the Missouri. He planned to 
start in the fall of 1858, but waited until the 
spring of the following year in order to make the 
trip with a company of ten. The hardships of 
the long journey can be understood only by those 
who took it. The company rode on the north 
side of the Platte, where no wagon had ever 
passed before, and on reaching the head of the 
emigration at John Richow's bridge, now in 
Wyoming, they disbanded, each to engage in 
prospecting for himself. The Frenchman who 
had charge of the toll bridge offered Mr. Mer- 
chant $50 to take care of the business, which he 
did, having charge of the bridge toll, the store 
and postofSce. While there he had some interest- 
ing experiences. At one time, by his coolness, 
he averted bloodshed between his employer and 
a train of emigrants who had loosened the French- 
man's boat and were crossing the river. 

Mr. Merchant was born in Cortland County, 
N. Y., April 30, 1832. His father, Harvey 
Merchant, was born in Schoharie County, N. Y., 
removed thence to Cortland County, and about 
1841 settled in the midst of the beach and maple 
woods near Albion, Calhoun County, but a few 
years afterward went to Eaton Township, the 
same state. Harmon accompanied his father in 
the various removals and assisted in clearing up 
the land in Michigan. When a boy he was a 

pupil in pay schools and later studied in Olivet 
College one winter. In 1855 lie went from Mich- 
igan to Iowa City, Iowa, then the terminus of 
the railroad, thence went to Council Bluffs by 
stage, from there to DeSoto,on the Missouri River. 
There he pre-empted land and began its improve- 
ment, but his father was seriously injured about 
that time, which necessitated his return to Mich- 
igan, and in that way he lost his pre-emption. 
In the spring of 1858 he returned to Douglas 
County, Neb., and remained a year, starting 
further west in April of 1859. Reaching the 
Frenchman's ranch, he remained with him until 
December, when he and J. H. Wheeler bought 
out the weekly stage that ran from Leavenworth 
to the Salt Lake district. While engaged in this 
business, his special work was the care of the 
horses. During the winter of 1 86 1 -62 the Indians 
were very troublesome and the presence of gov- 
ernment troops was necessary much of the time. 
In the spring of 1862 he and his partner crossed 
the plains to Grand Round Valley, Ore., driving 
cattle and horses with them, and on reaching that 
place he took up a ranch and started dn the dairy 
business. He was successful, feeding and milk- 
ing sixty cows, and building up a good business. 
Selling out in the fall of 1864, he went to 
Sonoma County, Cal., where he bought a ranch, 
and engaged in the butter and cheese business 
and as a dealer in cattle. While there he mar- 
ried Miss Margaret C. Crisp, who was born in 
Kentucky and was reared in California. 

In the fall of 1869 Mr. Merchant sold his ranch 
and returned on a visit to Michigan, Mr. Wheeler, 
who had joined him in California, accompanying 
him to the east. The next year they left their 
families in Cleveland and went to Texas, from 
which place they drove twenty-six hundred head 
of cattle to the north, expecting to start a ranch 
in Nebraska. They wintered the stock in Kansas 
near Wichita, where many of the cattle died. 
During the same winter they fed cattle in Law- 
rence for the market. In the spring of 187 1 they 
started a ranch thirty miles from Sidney, Neb., 
where they had a large herd of cattle. They con- 
tinued the partnership until the fall of 1880, 
when they sold the ranch and stock. Four years 
prior to this Mr. Merchant located in Denver for 
his headquarters, and afterward he became in- 
terested in the livery business here, also bought 
property and dealt in real estate. He is now the 




agent for the California and a number of other 
blocks. The first time he ever saw Denver was in 
i860, when the now flourishing city was a small 
and insignificant hamlet. Since coming here he 
has borne a part in public enterprises and in proj- 
ects for the benefit of the people. In politics he 
is a silver Republican. He attends the First Con- 
gregational Church, of which his wife is a 
member. He has two children, a son and 
daughter. Bert H., who was educated in the 
Denver high school and Cornell University, rose 
from the ranks in the regular array and is now 
second lieutenant of the Eighth Regiment of 
infantry, stationed at Fort Russell. The daugh- 
ter, Maude M., is a graduate of the Denver high 

0TTO A. ERDMAN. It is the aim of the 
public-spirited citizen to do all within his 
power to advance the welfare of his city and 
state. Measures that he deems prejudicial to the 
prosperity of his fellow-citizens he firmly op- 
poses, while he is as stanch in his support of 
plans for the highest good of the people. Mr. 
Erdman is a patriotic citizen, devoted to the wel- 
fare of Denver and unswerving in his allegiance 
to whatever will promote its moral, educational 
and religious interests. An attorney by profes- 
sion, he finds time outside of his duties in ofiice 
and court to take an active part in public affairs; 
and as chairman of the Christian citizenship de- 
partment of the Denver Christian Endeavor Union 
he has not only ably represented the Endeavor- 
ers, but has also done much, by earnest speeches 
and personal influence, to create a sentiment 
against pernicious laws and win friends for the 
temperance movement. 

Mr. Erdman is of German parentage. His fa- 
ther, Frederick C. Erdman, came to America at 
the age of eighteen, and being the son of well-to- 
do parents, he brought some means to this coun- 
try with him. In Chicago he met and married 
Miss Wilhelmine M. Sonneman, who had come 
with her parents to the United States at the age 
of fourteen. It is a rather curious fact that his 
name, in English, means "Earth-man," while 
hers is "Sun-man," which made their marriage 
a union of the earth and sun. He invested his 
money in land in Jackson County, Iowa, where 
he and his wife settled and where their eldest 
child, Otto A., was born November 28, 1859. 

From Jackson County he moved to Jones Countj^ 
where he engaged in the mercantile business and 
also served as postmaster under President Grant, 
being the only Democratic postmaster in his part 
of the state. A little later on he moved back to 
Jackson County and engaged in the hotel busi- 
ness in the town of Preston. He is now living 
on the divide about twenty miles from Denver, 
where he carries on farm pursuits. In politics 
he is a Democrat and has always voted the party 
ticket in national elections except once, when, 
being a great admirer of James G. Blaine, he 
cast his ballot for that illustrious statesman for 

When the subject of this sketch was about 
eight years of age the family moved from the 
farm in Van Buren Township to the village of 
Sabula, Iowa, where he was a student in a private 
school about four years. He accompanied his 
parents to Jones County and assisted his father in 
the store and postoflSce. In Preston he attended 
the public school, the principal of which had 
been his preceptor in the private school at Sabula. 
In the same school he also took a normal course, 
completing his studies at seventeen years. He 
then secured a position as teacher of a country 
school in Clinton County, Iowa, but after one 
term there removed with his family to Greene 
County, where he lived on a farm and engaged 
in teaching. For three years he taught in 
Greene and Carroll Counties, meantime devoting 
his leisure to the study of law. April 18,1879, 
he was admitted to the bar, and afterward for one 
year practiced law in Rippey, Greene County, 
Iowa. His constant application to his studies 
impaired his health to such an extent that a 
change of climate and outdoor employment be- 
came necessary. He left Iowa and came to Colo- 
rado, where he secured a position with a mer- 
cantile house in Central City that enabled him to 
be out of doors most of the time. With the ex- 
ception of the summer of 1883, when he engaged 
in prospecting, he remained with the firm five 
years. While in their employ he went to Kim- 
ball, S. Dak., and there, May 20, 1885, he mar- 
ried Miss Clara May Cummings, with whom he 
became acquainted in Rippey, Iowa. She was 
born in Whiteside County, 111., the daughter of 
a Methodist minister who died before her birth. 

September i, 1886, Mr. Erdman came to Den- 
ver and became collector and city salesman for 



N. B. McCrary & Co., this position giving him 
the outdoor exercise so necessary to his health. 
March i, 1890, he embarked in the real-estate 
business, buying and selling city property, and 
would have been very successful in that enter- 
prise had it not been for the panic. He is now 
engaged in the practice of law, of which he is 
very fond and in which he is meeting with suc- 
cess. He is still interested in silver and gold 
mining to some extent. He has invariably de- 
clined to become a candidate for public office, but 
is deeply interested in the issues of the age. His 
first presidential vote was cast for James A. Gar- 
field, and he continued to vote the Republican 
national ticket until 1896, when he supported 
the silver cause. He is an elder in the North 
Presbyterian Church and previous to his connec- 
tion with this church he served in a similar 
capacity in another congregation of the same de- 
nomination. He was made a Mason in i88i,in 
Jefferson, Greene County, Iowa, and now holds 
membership with Union l,odge No. 7, A. F. & 
A. M., in Denver. 

61 NDREW HAGUS is a progressive farmer of 
f 1 section 24, township i south, range 67 west, 
I I Arapahoe County, his postoffice address be- 
ing Brighton. He is one of the pioneers of north- 
ern Colorado, as he settled here in 1859 and ex- 
perienced the many hardships which were the 
common lot of his early associates here. For long 
years he labored unremittingly until success 
crowned his efforts, and now, when approaching 
the decline of life, he is well off in this world's 
goods and enjoys the feeling that he has faithfully 
done his duty toward his family and his fellow- 

A son of Joseph P. and Elizabeth (Leasch) 
Hagus, our subject was born in Prussia, Ger- 
many, near the celebrated old city of Cologne, 
June 27, 1837. He attended the government 
schools there until 1849, when he came to Amer- 
ica with his parents. The family settled at Ga- 
lena, 111., and there the father, who was a tailor 
by trade, plied his accustomed vocation. Young 
Hagus acquired a knowledge of English in the 
Galena public schools, and at the age of fourteen 
he commenced to earn his own living by working 
in a nursery. At first he was paid $4 a month, 
later $6, and finally, for two years he received f 8 

a month. In 1857 he entered the employ of a 
mercantile firm and continued with them for near- 
ly two years. 

In 1859 Mr. Hagus, a Mr. Hazzard, and two 
other men, set out for Colorado, driving their 
own teams all the way. The trip, begun in 
March, took about two months, as they arrived 
at the present .site of Denver in May. The little 
party proceeded to Deadwood and soon were 
busily occupied in mining. In June they re- 
moved to the Gregory mines, and after a few 
months of successful work they sold out and re- 
turned to Denver, with the intention of passing 
the winter there. They did not do so, however, 
but came to Brighton and began raising veg- 
etables and supplies for the miners. They were 
the first in this line of business in this region and 
found ready sale for their products. They 
brought the first mowing machine, rake, etc., ever 
seen in this locality. In the fall of i860 Mr. 
Hagus went to the mines, and, having made the 
discovery of a good one, sold out and began haul- 
ing supplies to the miners in different parts of the 
mountains. In 1863 he pre-empted his present 
farm under the homestead act. The amount of 
land granted to him at that time was a quarter- 
section, but he has since bought additional, and 
now owns two hundred acres, all under fine cul- 
tivation. He was one of the prime movers in the 
building of the Fulton Ditch and is a stockholder 
and the vice-president of the company. He also 
owns stock in the Brighton Mills, and has valu- 
able Denver property in his name. Politicallj' he 
is a loyal Republican, and voted first for Hayes 
in 1876. He has not been an ofiice seeker, as he 
finds his time fully occupied in attending to his 
own business affairs and to his little family. In 
religious belief he is a Catholic, as were his an- 
cestors, and he has been a member of the Brighton 
parish for years. 

In 1864 Mr. Hagus returned to Galena, 111. 
and there was married June 4 to Miss Katie Zieg- 
ler, who, like himself, was a native of Germany. 
They were the parents of five children, namely: 
Emma, who married Fred Milheim; Henry J., 
who assists in the management of the home farm; 
Louise, Mrs. Albert R. Ritter, of Denver; Katie, 
wife of John Barnard, of Steamboat Springs; and 
Fred, who is at home with his father. Henry J. 
is married and has two children, William Louis 
and Lydia Elizabeth. His wife was formerly 



Miss Martha Bruhart. Mrs. Katie Z. Hagus died 
in 1883 and was buried in Riverside Cemetery. 
The present wife of Mr. Hagus, whom he married 
in Denver, July 10, 1885, was then Miss Magda- 
lena Baden, and is a native of Germany. One child 
blesses this union, Andrew Hagus, Jr., born in 
August, 1890. 

pCJlLBUR HILL. While still a young man, 
\A/ in 1872, Mr. Hill came to the then terri- 
Y Y tory of Colorado, bringing with him saw- 
mill engines, together with the other equipments 
and machinery necessary for the manufacture of 
lumber. From boyhood he was interested in 
lumbering, and at an age when most boys are in 
school he was gaining a thorough knowledge of 
the business in its every detail. The expense 
incident to the removal of his machinery to Colo- 
rado was not small, but his faith in the future of 
this country prevented him from hesitating over 
incidental matters. Arriving here, he erected a 
sawmill, with the necessary equipments, at an 
expense of $30,000, and was the first man in the 
state who embarked in the manufacture of lumber 
upon a large scale, his total investment in the 
business amounting to more than $50,000. The 
prosperity that rewarded his efforts proved that 
his judgment had not erred in the selection of his 
field of operations. At the time of his death he 
was the possessor of large holdings and valuable 
property, both here and elsewhere. 

The father of our subject, James Hill, was a 
pioneer lumber manufacturer in Saginaw, Mich., 
and afterward became interested in lumber districts 
in different parts of the United States, including 
Colorado, amassing a large fortune through 
energy and judicious management. Being with 
his father much of the time, our subject in that 
way early gained a thorough knowledge of the 
lumber business in all of its branches. He was 
born and reared in Michigan, and there engaged 
in the lumber business with his father. Having 
acquired large lumber interests in Colorado, he 
came to this state in 1872 and established a lum- 
ber camp at Fort Collins, subsequently starting 
two other camps. Meantime he continued his 
lumber interests in Michigan and other states, 
traveling back and forth between the two states. 
In later "years he became the possessor of much 
valuable property in British Columbia, where he 
also engaged in lumbering. At the time of his 

death, December 18, 1888, he was wealthy, hav- 
ing gained a fortune through his lumber interests, 
principally in Michigan and adjoining states. 

He had rare mental gifts which predominated 
in the commercial sense. He was never intended 
for a man of small affairs, but for the manipulat- 
ing of large interests, as manifested in his whole- 
sale lumber transactions. His judgment in select- 
ing Colorado as a lumber state and securing vast 
pine forests was amply rewarded by the success 
which crowned his efforts. Politically he was a 
Republican and supported that party by voice 
and vote. He was not a member of social clubs 
and secret societies, preferring the companionship 
of his wife and a few choice friends, who often 
accompanied him on excursions to hunt and fish. 
He was very generous and open-hearted and in 
every way a true type of sterling American man- 

In Denver Mr. Hill married Miss Laura N. 
Nichols, daughter of Edward and Sarah (Bid- 
well) Nichols, natives respectively of Connecticut 
and New York, and pioneers of the Greeley 
(Colo.) Colony. On the maternal side Mrs. Hill 
is a lineal descendant of Capt. Benjamin Bidwell, 
who enlisted in a Connecticut regiment during 
the Revolution and served as commander of a 
company from that state. She erected and occu- 
pies a residence on Pennsylvania avenue that is 
one of the most elegant and tasteful in appoint- 
ments of any home in the city. The walls of the 
house are adorned with works of art, some of 
which are the products of her brush and show an 
artistic skill that merits admiration. A devotee 
of art, she has studied both in this country and 
abroad and has had the advantages offered by 
study with the best artists of the age. 

r'RANK X. AICHER came to Colorado in 
JM 1872, and has resided in Denver since May, 
I '^ 1 88 1. His principal occupation has been 
that of dealer in meats and he is now a member 
ot The Standard Meat & Live Stock Company, 
with office at No. 1538 Wazee street. In addi- 
tion to the management of the wholesale meat 
market, they are also engaged in the breeding of 

Mr. Aicher was born at Mahlstetten O. A., 
Spaichingen, in the province of Wurteniberg, 
Germany, and received an excellent education in 



the public schools there. Crossing the ocean at 
the age of eighteen, he settled in Iowa City, 
Iowa, where he followed the butcher's trade until 
his removal to Colorado in 1872. His first home 
in this state was at Georgetown, where he opened 
a meat market and built up a good trade in the 
butchering business. From Georgetown he came 
to Denver in 1881 and five years later, in connec- 
tion with his present partners, formed the com- 
pany with which he is still identified and which 
is incorporated under the laws of the state. 

May 17, 1877, Mr. Aicher was united in mar- 
riage with Miss J. R. A. Kenuecke, at State Cen- 
ter, Iowa. She was born in Brunswick, Ger- 
many, but has .spent the principal part of her life 
in the United States. They are the parents of 
three children, namely: Frank A., Edna M. and 
Addie J. During his residence in Georgetown 
Mr. Aicher was elected an alderman and served 
in that capacity until his removal from the city, 
when he resigned. Since coming to Denver he 
has devoted himself closely to his business duties 
and has not cared to take a part in public affairs. 

(TAMES W. MCGREGOR, M. D., of Brighton, 
I proprietor of a drug store and a practicing 
(2/ physician of this place, was born in Belmont, 
Ont., June 8, 1861, and is a son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Wismer) McGregor. His father, who 
was born and reared on a farm near Aberdeen, 
Scotland, received a good education, studying 
Eatin as well as the common branches in an acad- 
emy. When he was about Seventeen his father, 
Alexander McGregor, brought the family to 
America and settled among the hills of Canada, 
near Eondon, selecting a location that reminded 
him as much as possible of his old Scotch home. 
Members of the family are still living on that 
farm. Thomas McGregor died in 1892 and his 
wife, now sixty-nine years of age, has since his 
death managed the homestead without the aid of 
son or daughter. There were six children in the 
family and four of these are still living. Henry 
G. is a well-to-do farmer in Canada; Louise C, 
who married Edward Moore, resides in Aber- 
deen, S. Dak.; and Violet, who is unmarried, is 
a successful teacher in Canada. 

After having gained the rudiments of his edu- 
cation in common schools, our subject entered 
the high school at St. Thomas, Ont. , at the age of 

fourteen, and two years later began to teach a 
country school, engaging in that occupation for 
three years. He then entered the Hamilton Col- 
legiate Institute, where he did two years' work 
in one year, but his health was impaired by over- 
study, and he left Canada, going to Michigan, 
where he hoped he might gain renewed strength. 
Soon he entered the medical department of the 
University of Michigan, from which he graduated 
in 1884. While he had gained a little in health, 
his father said he would not live a year. Hoping 
another change might be of benefit, he went to 
Hawkeye, Iowa, where he immediately began a 
country practice. 

Seeking another change for the sake of his 
health, in 1890 Dr. McGregor came to Brighton, 
Colo., where he began to practice, and in May of 
the following year he had the largest month's 
practice he has ever had. In Hawkeye, Iowa, 
October 30, 1887, he married Miss Ella B. Ches- 
ley, of Volga, that state, where she was born and 
educated. For a time prior to her marriage she 
engaged in teaching school. Four children 
blessed their union : Archie N. and T. Vernon, 
who were born in Hawkeye; and Ella B. and 
James Duncan, both born in Brighton. 

In May, 1895, Dr. McGregor bought a drug 
store and has since carried on a drug business in 
addition to his practice. In 1884, when in Min- 
neapolis, he took out his naturalization papers 
about the time of an election. He voted for 
Cleveland that year and has since continued to 
support Democratic principles. In 1 897 he served 
as delegate to the county Democratic convention, 
and in May, 1898, he was elected an alderman, 
but resigned the position, not caring to serve. 
He was elected a member of the school board in 
1893 and served continuously until May, 1898. 
Largely through his efforts was due the erection 
of the substantial new schoolhouse, and he also 
labored to promote the efiBciency of the teachers 
and the standard of scholarship. He and his 
wife are both good singers and members of the 
choir of the Presbyterian Church, of which Mrs. 
McGregor is a member. She is also an excellent 

Dr. McGregor is connected with the Masonic 
fraternity, Knights of Pythias, Woodmen of the 
World and Knights of the Maccabees. He was 
made a Mason in Standard Lodge, at Waucoma, 
Iowa, and now holds membership in Brighton 



Lodge No. 78, in which he served as secretary, and 
by special dispensation was elected W. M. from the 
floor, without having filled other positions. He 
served for three years and represented his lodge 
in the grand lodge. In 1885 he became identified 
with the Knights of Pythias at Arlington, of 
which he was a charter member, and after coming 
to Colorado transferred his membership to the 
lodge at Brighton. 

3AC0B GREGORY came to Denver in 1865 
and is therefore one of the early settlers of 
the cit}'. Three months after locating here 
he opened the first business house on Lawrence 
street, it being near Fifteenth, and first in part- 
nership with another gentleman, but later alone 
he continued in that place until 1872. Meantime, 
in 1867, he built a house on Tremont street, the 
doors, sash and blinds for which he manufactured 
by hand; with the exception of Henry C. Brown, 
he was the first to locate on this street. He owns 
ranches in Jeiferson and Arapahoe Counties, 
which he rents to tenants. He is interested in 
mining property in Park County, and managed 
the building of the Agricultural ditch, the first in 
this locality and the first large ditch ever con- 
structed, it being thirty miles in length. 

In Weisbaden, Nassau, Germany, Mr. Greg- 
ory was born in 1839, the son of Anthony and 
Elizabeth (Miller) Gregory, also natives of Nas- 
sau. His father, who was born in 1794, was an 
attorney and real-estate owner, and when a young 
man participated in the battle of Waterloo as an 
officer, receiving a medal for bravery in that en- 
gagement. In 1853 he brought his family to 
America and purchased real estate in Chicago, 
also farming lands near Sycamore, De Kalb 
County, 111. He died of cholera in Chicago in 
1854. His wife, who was born in 1797, and died 
in De Kalb County in 1886, was a daughter of 
Justius Miller, who was proprietor of a brewery 
and hotel in Koenigstown,. Germany, where he 

Our subject was the youngest of twelve chil- 
dren. In 1853 the family went from Amsterdam 
to Liverpool and there took passage on the Amer- 
ican sailing vessel "Star of the Empire," which 
landed in Boston after a voyage of eight weeks. 
He attended the common schools in Chicago, but 
soon became an apprentice to the painter's trade, 

which he followed there until 1858. Later he 
worked at his trade in St. Louis, Memphis and 
New Orleans, then went to Mobile, where he re- 
mained until 1861. The war coming on he went 
back to the north and bought a farm in De Kalb 
County, 111. , where he engaged in farming. Four 
years later, however, he was obliged to seek a 
change of climate, as his health was very poor. 
He sold his place and came to Denver, en 
route to Old Mexico, but was so pleased with the 
climate here that he decided to remain, so Den- 
ver has been his home since June 8, 1865. He 
worked for others for three months, then with 
Henry Rietze, started in business on Lawrence 
street. His subsequent history has been closely 
identified with that of Denver and Colorado, 
where he has many and important interests. 

In the establishment of the chamber of com- 
merce Mr. Gregory was actively interested, as 
he has also been in the inception of other local 
enterprises of importance. At one time he was 
active in the Odd Fellows' lodge, but is now de- 
mitted. In this city he married Elizabeth Fil- 
beck, who was born in Buffalo, N. Y., and grew 
to womanhood in Indianapolis, Ind. She is the 
daughterof John Filbeck, who was born in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, and came to America in young man- 
hood, settling in Buffalo, but afterward removing 
to Indianapolis, where he died. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gregory have a daughter and son: Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Leighton, of Durango, Colo.; and William, 
who is attending the mercantile school here. 

r"REDERICK HELD, a retired farmer of 
r^ Weld County, is one of the hardy pioneers of 
I ^ California and Colorado, and many were the 
experiences which he had in those early days of 
frontier life. He has seen Colorado developed 
from almost a desert to a paradise under the won- 
derful ingenuity and work of man, and has as- 
sisted in the grand result. Formerly he was en- 
gaged in mining operations to a greater or less 
extent, then teamed and transported merchandise 
across the plains, and finally, thirty-five years ago, 
settled down to a quiet agricultural life. His home- 
stead during all of these years has been the one he 
owns and carries on to-day. It is situated on sec- 
tion 30, township I, range 66, near the line which 
divides Weld and Arapahoe Counties, his post- 
office being Brighton, in the last-named county. 



The parents of our subject were Gottlieb and 
Christian Held, natives of Saxony, Germany, and 
farmers by occupation. Frederick Held was born 
on the old home place in Saxony, February 8, 
1824. He was reared on the farm until he was 
fourteen and attended the public schools of the 
district. When he was fourteen years old he 
went to the neighboring city of Leipsic to learn 
the trade of a printer. There he served an ap- 
prenticeship of four years, in the meantime re- 
ceiving nothing but his board in payment for his 
services. As a journeyman he worked in the 
cities of Leipsic, Dresden and Began up to the 
year 1850, when he decided to go to America. 
His father had died when our subject was but 
five years old, and there being still some money 
coming to him from the estate, he knew that the 
amount would serve to give him a start in the 
new land. 

After a voyage of twelve weeks, during which 
the good ship on which Mr. Held was a passen- 
ger battled with terrible storms, he arrived at 
his destination, New Orleans, from Bremen, in 
June, 1850. As he knew nothing of Fnglish, 
the young man's knowledge of printing was 
of no value to him and he accepted a position 
in a large sugar house. He remained there 
for about two years, and diligently strove to 
master the difficulties of the language. Then, 
going to Cincinnati, he worked at his trade for 
three years. In 1855 he went to San Francisco, 
by waj^ of New York and the Nicaragua route. 
The trip took twenty-eight days and when it 
was ended he had but $2 of his little store left. 
He sorted oranges for a shipping firm for a few 
days, and next went to the San Joachim mines, 
where he worked for over a j'ear. His profits in 
that line being small, he then tried farming, tak- 
ing up a claim which he afterwards sold. When 
he had laid aside about $1,500 he returned to 
New York, going across the Isthmus of Panama. 
Returning to his old trade in Cincinnati he resid- 
ed there until i86o, when he, with others, started 
for Pike's Peak. The trip was made in thirty days, 
and after spending a couple of months in Denver 
Mr. Held went to the mines in South Park, and 
later across the divide to Breckenridge, where 
some new discoveries of importance had been 
made. Two years were spent by him in the 
mines there, after which he made two trips to 
St. Joseph, bringing back provisions and supplies. 

In 1863 he bought the land where his home is to- 
day, and on which he has made material improve- 
ments, including irrigating ditches. In the In- 
dian troubles of 1864 he enlisted in Company F, 
Third Colorado Cavalry, and was placed on guard 
duty near Fort Morgan, serving for one hundred 
days. Years ago, when living in Denver, he was 
asisociated with the Odd Fellows' society. Polit- 
ically he is a Republican. In 1876 he went to 
Europe to visit the scenes of his childhood, but 
was glad to return to his Colorado home. 

May 29, 1863, Mr. Held married Mrs. Anna 
Stoltz, widow of Christian Stoltz, and a daughter 
of John Munck. By her first marriage Mrs. Held 
has two children, Christopher, now of Denver, 
and Lena, who is the wife of Benjamin F. Twom- 
bly, and lives near Lupton. The two children 
of our subject and wife are Ennis F. , now mar- 
ried and a resident of South Dakota, and Francis 
Julius, who superintends the homestead here. 
He is married and has two children, Lena and 
Laura. Mr. Held was reared in the Lutheran 
faith, while Mrs. Held is a Catholic in religious 

been a resident of Colorado since 1874, was 
born in Goshen, Ind., to which place his 
father, David, had in early manhood removed 
from his birthplace in Ohio, but afterward went 
still further west and became one of the earliest 
settlers of Marshalltown, Iowa, engaging in the 
mercantile business there until his retirement 
from active labors. He is now eighty-seven and 
his wife seventy-two years of age and they still 
make their home in Marshalltown. Their family 
consists of five sons and one daughter. Two of 
the sons, W. B., now on the Pacific coast, and 
Milton L., a resident of Marshalltown, were 
soldiers in the Union army, the former enlisting 
in the Fifth and the latter in the Twenty-third 
Iowa Infantrj\ The other sons are: Arthur, who 
is editor of the Iowa Times- Republican; and 
D. O., who is in Denver. 

In 1865, when a small boy, our subject made 
two trips from Omaha to Denver, in company 
with his brother, Milton L- , who was freighting 
on the plains. In 1871 he went to California 
and spent a short time near Sacramento, return- 
ing to Denver eighteen months after his depart- 
ure for the coast. Locating in Colorado in 1874, 



he embarked in sheep-raising on a ranch near 
Byers, Arapahoe County, on the Bijou. In 1893 
he established feed yards in St. Marj^'s, Kan., 
which he still owns and from which he feeds 
about fifteen thousand sheep. He owns lands in 
different parts of Arapahoe County, the most of 
which is used for the pasturage of sheep. He 
ships to the eastern markets, and finds his best 
shipping-point is Deertrail, in this county. In his 
business enterprises he has been very successful. 
In addition to property in other places, he is in- 
terested in city real estate, and owns a half cor- 
ner on Seventeenth and Glenarm streets and a 
lot on Welton street, between Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth streets. For some years he was in- 
terested in the mercantile business at Byers, in 
partnership with two other men. 

In 1890 Mr. Parrett came to Denver, where he 
resides on Downing avenue. He has never taken 
an active part in politics, but is always stanch in 
his allegiance to the Republican party. He was 
married in this city to Miss Maud Gildersleeve, 
who was born in Missouri and accompanied her 
parents to Denver when this city was in its in- 
fancy. The three children born of their union 
are Grace, Blanche and Chauncey. 

y honored veteran of the Civil war, resides 
is on a finely improved farm about five miles 
west of Brighton, Arapahoe County. He came 
to Colorado on account of poor health in August, 
1879, having been given by his physicians but a 
short time to live. The higher altitude and out- 
door life, to which he settled down benefited him 
from the first. With characteristic energy he 
began the cultivation of the tract of land now in- 
cluded in his homestead, and developed a good 
farm from what was little better than a wilder- 

In many respects the career of the major has 
been unusual and interesting, and the history of 
it well repays the student of biography and 
human nature. His parents, James Dunlap and 
Sarah Ann (Shipler) Moore, were both natives 
of Pennsylvania. The Moores, who were of 
Scotch-Irish descent, settled in western Pennsyl- 
vania in colonial days. The grandfather of our 
subject, Samuel Moore, was- born in Pennsylva- 
nia January II, 1772. His wife, maiden 

name was Agnes Gault, was likewise a Pennsyl- 
vanian, and a daughter of Adam and Agnes 
(Dunlap) Gault. Adam Gault was of English 
extraction, while his wife was a native of Scot- 
land, and came to this country when a little girl. 
The couple were married in Pennsylvania. 

The birth of J. D. Moore, Jr., took place in 
Mercer, Pa., November 22, 1839. As he grew 
up he mastered his father's trade, that of carpen- 
tering, and worked for a period in a sash and 
door factory in Warren, Ohio. Later he clerked 
in a store at Sandy Lake, receiving about $100 a 
year in salary. The war coming on, he enlisted 
as a private October 6, 186 1, in Company I, 
Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Infantry. That 
winter he spent in camp near Washington, after 
which he was sent to the front with the Army of 
the Potomac. Within a short time he was made 
.sergeant, then quartermaster's sergeant, and ad- 
jutant, after the former official had been shot in 
front of Petersburg in June, 1864. The follow- 
ing December our subject was made captain of 
his old company, I, which subsequentlj^ became 
Company D, and was mustered out as such, at 
Harrisburg, Pa., June 30, 1865, after having 
been in service three years and eight months. 

Altogether the major participated in about 
twenty-seven battles and skirmishes, though he 
was absent from a few that his regiment took 
part in while he was serving in the quarter- 
master's department. April 2, 1865, at the siege 
of Petersburg, he was in command of the bri- 
gade picket line, First Brigade, Third Division, 
Second Corps, and was standing near a pine tree 
watching his men, when a shell passed close to 
his head, and, striking the tree, tore it into a 
thousand fragments. He was stunned and un- 
conscious for some time, but, upon reviving, led 
the charge with his command, though the blood 
kept oozing from the pores of his skin on the left 
side of his head. Among the important battles 
in which he was actively engaged were the fol- 
lowing: Yorktown, April 11, 1862; Fair Oaks, 
May 31 and June i; attack on Richmond, June 
25; Glendale, June 30; Malvern Hill, July i; 
second Bull Run, August 29; Chantilly, Septem- 
ber i; Antietam, in September; Fredericksburg, 
December 13; Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; Get- 
tysburg, July 2; Kelley's Ford, November 3; 
Orange Grove, November 28; Wilderness (three 
days' battle), May, 1864; Spottsylvania, May 



12 (in the fiercest of the fight at the spot called 
the Bloody Angel, where trees of eighteen inches 
were cut down by musket bullets) ; Cold Harbor, 
June i; Petersburg, June 16-22; Deep Bottom, 
July 26-29; Petersburg Mine, July 30; Deep 
Run, August 16; Poplar Grove, October 2; 
Boynton Plank road, October 27 (where some of 
the major's company were captured, but man- 
aged to make their escape) ; Weldon Railroad 
attack, December 1-13; Hatchies' Run, Febru- 
ary 5, 1865; and, finally, he was present at the 
surrender of Appomattox Courthouse, and at the 
grand review in Washington. He was mustered 
out with the rank of captain. In after years he 
organized Company I, Fifteenth Regiment of 
Pennsylvania National Guard. He was made 
its captain, and while in attendance at the Phila- 
delphia Centennial was promoted to the rank of 
major. The following year he and his command 
assisted in quelling the great Pittsburg riots, and 
went into the anthracite coal region, where they 
took seventy-two prisoners, and conveyed them 
to jail in Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Returning to his old home in Mercer County, 
Major Moore carried on a store in the town of the 
same name some ten years. In 1879 he sold out 
and came to this state. His health being very 
poor, he thought best to live in the open air as 
much as possible, and therefore resumed his old 
employment, carpentering. Even at this line he 
found himself too weak to do much, but he hero- 
ically persisted, and in time began to gain in 
strength. Then he accepted a position as book- 
keeper in the City National Bank, Denver, his 
old-time friend, J. R. Hanna, whom he had 
known in the east, having procured the place for 
him. He remained in the employ of the bank 
for five years, and in the meantime had invested 
in a tract of land in Arapahoe County. This 
land, three-quarters of a section, lay in one body, 
and, as it was ten miles distant from water, was 
considered worthless. Not discouraged, how- 
ever, the major made a furrow from the old 
Golden Canal and endeavored to irrigate his 
farm. For six years he kept hard at work, but 
was not making very much of a success of his 
undertaking, until he and Mr. Gallup were ap- 
pointed to make a survey for a ditch. They 
advocated the plan of tapping the creek further 
up, and, a company being organized, with our 
subject as its secretary, the Golden Canal was 

purchased by them. Enlarged and improved at 
an expense of $300,000, it is now known as the 
Farmers' High Line Canal & Reservoir Com- 
pany. Later another company was formed, 
which constructed a lateral ditch, carrying water 
from the first-mentioned canal to the farms of 
this locality. Thus the problem has been solved, 
and the major's farm on section 8, township i 
south, range 67 west, has become one of the most 
valuable homesteads in the county. 

There was quite a pretty romance in the court- 
ship of this hero of the Civil war. In November, 
1864, the regimental headquarters' mess re- 
ceived a turkey, which had been sent for a 
Thanksgiving treat to a New York regiment, 
but as the aforesaid regiment was not accessible, 
the turkey fell into the hands of young Captain 
Moore and his friends. Around the neck of the 
gratefully received bird a strip of paper was 
securely fastened. It bore a request that the 
donor might be notified as to the recipients, and 
how they enjoyed their Thanksgiving dinner. 
The surgeon complied with the generous giver's 
wish, and wrote a little note of thanks, this being 
then signed by the officers. This letter was later 
read at a gathering of friends in the north, and a 
Miss Sill was challenged to answer it. Though 
she at first demurred, she finally selected a name 
from the list and it happened to be that of the 
major, then captain. A correspondence naturally 
followed, and, in time, an exchange of photo- 
graphs. When the young officer had been mus- 
tered out he accepted the invitation of the lady's 
father, Dr. B. S. Sill, and visited the family. 
The couple were married at Bainbridge, N. Y., 
October 17, 1866. Their four children were born 
in Mercer, Pa. Erastus B. married Miss Ermal 
Demerest, and has one son, Harry Blin. They 
live on a farm of eighty acres, a part of the ma- 
jor's original homestead, and presented to the 
young couple by him. Jeanette Sill is the wife 
of Fred P. Watts, a teacher and farmer, and has 
one child, Ruth C. Catherine is the wife of Louis 
A. Stueland, a teacher, and their only child is 
named Stella Bertha (the first name in houor of 
our subject's wife). James D., unmarried, has 
been engaged in teaching for the past six years. 
To each of his children Major Moore has given 
an eighty-acre tract of land. 

Until 1876 the major was a stanch Republican, 
but that year he supported Peter Cooper, and 






since then he has been independent. Though 
reared a Presbyterian, he has long been identi- 
fied with Trinity Memorial Episcopal Church of 
Denver, and has served as senior warden. He 
is a member of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen and of the Loyal Legion. In the 
Grand Army of the Republic he has served as 

March i, 1898, aged almost seventy years, 
was one of the typical pioneers of Colorado. 
Brave and fearless in the days when those qual- 
ities were of prime moment to the few white 
settlers of the valleys and mountains of the 
frontier; ' 'endyring hardness like a good soldier, ' ' 
kind-hearted and generous to those needing a 
helping hand, industrious and diligent in business, 
he is remembered most kindly by his hosts of old 
associates and acquaintances. From comparative 
poverty he rose to a position of wealth and in- 
fluence by the exercise of the rare business talents 
with which he had been endowed, and by the 
persistence and determination to succeed in his 
undertakings which were among his marked 

The Lykins family originated in Scotland, but 
prior to the war of the Revolution three brothers 
of the name came to the United States, one 
locating in Philadelphia and the other two in 
Virginia. The paternal grandfather of our sub- 
ject was a patriot of the Revolution, enlisting 
from Virginia. Jonas Lykins, the father, born 
near Winchester, Va., removed to Indiana in the 
early days of its history, and became an extensive 
land owner on the Wabash River. He lived to 
be eighty-two years old. His wife was Miss Ann 
Johnson in her girlhood. She was born in 
Virginia and removed withher parents to Indiana. 
She died in February, 1892, at the advanced age 
of ninety years. Her father, David Johnson, was 
of Virginian birth, and he, too, fought in the 
colonial army the British, 

David J. Lykins was born near Winchester, 
Ind., July 2, 1828, and was the only one of five 
children born to his parents who survived to 
mature years. He was brought up on the old 
homestead and when still a mere youth embarked 
upon his business career. He first went to 
Illinois, thence drifted to St. Joseph, Mo., then 
an out-post of civilization, and in 1849 crossed 


the plains to California. On the long and peril- 
ous journey he suffered greatly, and once, when 
the party was nearly out of food supplies, he 
traded his horse for seven pounds of flour. Arriv- 
ing at his destination, he engaged in gulch 
mining, and was very successful. He traded in 
stock and tried various methods of making money, 
and, at the end of seven years, had accumulated 
about $10,000. Then returning home by the 
Panama route, he soon settled in Missouri, buying 
a farm of over two hundred acres near St. Joseph. 
He cultivated the place for about three years and 
one hundred and seventy-four acres of the original 
tract is still owned by his widow. 

In 1859 Mr. Lykins joined the western tide 
then making for Pike's Peak, and crossed the 
plains for a second time. He drove some cattle 
this time, mostly thoroughbred Shorthorn stock, 
and at first located on Cherry Creek. A few 
months later he settled in what is now called 
Lykins' Canon, between St. Vrain and the Left 
Hand, in Boulder County. In time the range 
proved too small and he went into the cattle- 
raising business on a larger scale on the Little 
Thompson. He built a home and improved a 
ranch, adding to his landed estates from time to 
time, until he owned twenty-five hundred acres, 
nearly all of which is in one body; in addition to 
this he leased sixteen hundred acres of school 
land. His ranch is watered by the Little 
Thompson and numerous springs. Few, if any, 
men in this part of the state were more successful 
in raising cattle and in general farming and 
kindred enterprises. 

It was against the principles of Mr. Lykins to 
accept public ofiice, otherwise he might have held 
manj' positions of honor. For years he was a 
Democrat, but finally transferred his allegiance to 
the People's party. He was a charter member 
of St. Vrain Lodge No. 23, A. F. & A. M.; be- 
longed to Longmont Chapter No. 8, R. A. M., 
and Commandery No. 12, K.T. He was also iden- 
tified with the Association of Colorado Pioneers. 
In 1864, when the Indians raided the upper St. 
Vrain, pillaging and destroying property of the 
settlers and carrying away all of their cattle and 
horses, a band of white men was formed, who 
choose Mr. Lykins as their captain. They 
followed the Sioux and made it so hot for them 
that they fled from their camp, leaving their 
stolen] property. While his comrades were 



rounding up the stock Captain Lykins and a 
companion made a detour, intercepting the re- 
treating Indians in a small canon of Little 
Thompson Creek. The doughty captain shot 
one of the braves and wounded another, one of 
them a chief. He kept souvenirs of this victory, 
along with many others, in acabinet in hishome. 
At other times he was called upon to defend his 
property and that of his fellow-settlers, and was 
quite noted as an Indian fighter. 

y well known in Longmont and vicinity, 
y enjoys the distinction of being the wealth- 
iest woman in northern Colorado, and is often 
termed the "land and cattle queen" of Colorado. 
Since her husband's death, in the spring of 1898, 
she has had entire charge of his great estates and 
business investments and has proved herself to be 
fully equal to the enormous undertaking, which 
women in other lands would undoubtedly detail 
to lawyers and agents. She is a true American 
in spirit and training and feels deeply that she is 
a steward of the vast riches entrusted to her care, 
and therefore chooses to keep the power in her 
own hands, rather than to place it in that of 
irresponsible persons. 

Mrs. Lykins was the first white girl-baby born 
in Adair County, Iowa. She comes of good old 
New England stock, her grandfather, William 
Oilman, having been bom in Massachusetts, and 
her father, John A. Oilman, having been born 
near the town of Lowell, in the same state. The 
latter settled at Liberty Landing, Mo., at a very 
early day, and later was numbered among the 
pioneers of Adair County, Iowa. There he took 
up a tract of government land, and afterwards, re- 
moving to Fremont County, Iowa, he improved 
another farm. Ooing next to Nebraska City, in 
1856 he was one of the first to locate there and 
for some time carried on a livery and a meat 
market in the town. After a time he engaged in 
farming again, cultivating a homestead about 
two miles from Nebraska City. Having sold this 
place, in 1879 he came to Colorado, but, soon 
going back to the home he had recently left, he 
passed the remainder of his life there, dying at 
the age of seventy-four years. He was a man of 
great information and an entertaining speaker! 
He had traveled much and was an oflBcer in the 

Mexican war. His wife, Sophia, now a resident 
of Boise City, Idaho, was born near Toledo, Ohio. 
Her parents were Frederick and Laura (Brown) 
Richardson. The former died in Boulder County 
when about seventy-five years old. 

The fourth in a family of thirteen children, 
Mrs. Lykins is now one of the six who survive. 
Mrs. Martin resides in Jamestown, Colo. ; John 
lives in La Junta, Colo., and two sisters and a 
brother are in Boise City, Idaho. The early life 
of Mrs. Lykins was mainly passed in Nebraska 
City, and in 1869 she came to this state. In 
October of that year she became the wife of John 
Keen, who had been living on the St. Vrain for 
about five years, and had already amassed a com- 
fortable fortune. He was quite, successful in 
mining enterprises, and, being a miller by trade, 
he bought a farm and mill on the St. Vrain and 
operated them for a year. Selling out, he was 
on the eve of departing to Montana on business 
when death claimed him, in January, 1880. He 
was a native of Germany and came to the United 
States when a young man. The two children 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Keen were Emma J. and 
Mary. The former graduated with the highest 
honors (taking off all prizes tendered for special 
work or merit) from Gross Medical College of 
Denver in 1897, ^^'^ is now at the head of an ex- 
cellent practice in Longmont. The other daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Stevens, lives in Rattle Snake Park, 
Larimer County, Colo. 

The marriage of D. J. Lykins and Mrs. Keen 
was solemnized December 8, 1880, and one child, 
Archie, blessed their union. Mrs. Lykins is a 
member of the Congregational Church and is ex- 
treasurer of the local Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union. She is also connected with the 
Order of the Eastern Star and the Hive of the 
Maccabees. In the distribution of her means 
she is generous, seeking ever to give assistance 
to those less fortunately circumstanced than her- 
self, when she deems them worthy of help. 

©QlLLlAM E. HODGSON purchased eighty 
\KI ^^''^s of land in Boulder County in 1883. 
Y V The place was then unimproved, and with- 
out even a stick of timber, while there was not a 
house between it and Louisville. He at once 
systematically began to improve the land. In 
1885 he purchased one hundred and sixty acres 



adjoining, which makes his farm one of two 
hundred and forty acres. Here, in addition to 
raising cereals, he has engaged extensively and 
successfully in raising stock. 

The birth of Mr. Hodgson occurred in Stark 
County, 111., March 6, 1845, his parents being 
Jonathan and Anna (Lundy) Hodgson. He was 
one of fourteen children , namely : Mary E. , James 
(deceased), Levisa, L,evi, Lydia A., Daniel, Ra- 
chel, Anna J. (deceased), Amanda, William E. , 
Martin, Jonathan, Albert and Mary E. (twins). 
The father was born in Ohio in 1806 and after his 
marriage removed to Illinois in 1830, settling 
upon a farm, where he remained until 1858. He 
then went -still further west and located in 
Kansas, sixty-five miles south of Kansas City. 
At that time he had frequent conversations 
with John Brown, of anti-slavery fame, who 
lived in the same locality. He was a public- 
spirited man and a member of the first board of 
county commissioners of Stark County, 111., in 
the organization of which he took an active part. 
For fourteen years he served as a justice of the 
peace in Stark County and for seven years held 
the same position in Kansas. In 1868 he was 
elected to the Kansas legislature on an indepen- 
dent ticket. During the Civil war he served in 
the Sixth Kansas Cavalry, Colonel Judson com- 
manding, and took part in the battles of Perry 
Grove, Cain Hill, Pea Ridge and other engage- 
ments. He was received into the Methodist 
Church by Peter Cartwright and became a local 
preacher, accomplishing much good through his 
active and earnest preaching. His death occurred 
in 1879. He was a son of Daniel Hodgson, a na- 
tive of North Carolina, who removed to Ohio and 
later to Illinois, engaging in farm pursuits until 
his death. 

When the family removed from Illinois to 
Kansas the subject of this sketch was thirteen 
years of age. The trip, with its many experiences, 
is indelibly impressed upon, his memory. With 
three wagons, some sixty head of cattle and fif- 
teen head of horses, they joined a train of some 
ten more wagons, and spent thirty-six days in 
crossing the country to their destination. From 
the time they started it rained almost incessantly . 
He remained on the home farm until he was 
twenty-four years of age, and then married Miss 
Christian Payton, by whom he had three children: 
Marion, a farmer and stock-raiser of Boulder 

County; Anna P., deceased; and one that died 
unnamed in infancy. 

After his marriage Mr. Hodgson entered as a 
homestead eighty acres of land, which he im- 
proved and cultivated. While living on that place, 
his wife died in 1874. He was again married in the 
spring of 1877, his wife being Mrs. Louisa (Shep- 
herd) Andre, by whom he has one son, William 
Forest. By her former marriage Mrs. Hodgson 
had two children: Mary E., now Mrs. James 
Nichols, and John O. In the spring of 1880 Mr. 
Hodgson came to Colorado and during the spring 
and summer worked on Left Hand Creek. The 
next year he began farming on rented land. In 
1883 he purchased the place where he has since 
made his home. Fraternally he is identified with 
Boulder Lodge No. 9, I. O. O. F., and Louisville 
Lodge No. 137, Pacific Woodmen of the World. 
In political views he is in hearty sympathy with 
the People's party, believing that free silver 
would advance the financial prosperity of our 
country, and especially of the great west. 

GlLEXANDER J. GRAHAM. Every visitor 
LI to Denver hears of the beauties of City Park, 
I I nor are its beauties overestimated even by 
the citizens of Denver who have a natural preju- 
dice in its favor. It comprises three hundred 
and twenty acres, two-thirds of which has been 
improved, situated on the east side of the city 
and commanding a fine view of the surrounding 
country. E.specially in the summer season are 
its beauties manifest to even the most unobserv- 
ant eye. There are long stretches of green- 
spreading lawn; trees whose dense foliage affords 
a grateful shade; a pavilion and two lakes that 
add picturesqueness to the landscape; flower beds 
with every species of garden plants, and six 
greenhouses, in which may be found palms and 
potted plants of every description. On summer 
afternoons it is one of the most popular places in 
the city, frequented by pic-nic parties and by 
families, and as one walks along its winding 
paths they see gay groups in the enjoyment of a 
holiday, children sporting under the trees, tired 
mothers getting a needed rest, and men sitting 
lazily and comfortably on the rustic benches that 
line the walks and driveways. 

The transformation effected in City Park dur- 
ing the'past few years is due almost wholly to the 

258 . 


efforts of the superintendent, Mr. Graham, who 
was appointed to the position by John 1,. Dailej' 
and has accomplished wonders in the place. He 
added the pavilion, built a greenhouse and a mu- 
seum, also the new lake of twenty-three acres. 
He is well versed in floriculture and horticulture, 
and no better man than he could be secured for 
the superintendency. 

He was born on Lake George, in Warren 
County, N. Y., and is the sou of William and 
Agnes (Lauder) Graham, natives of Dumfries- 
shire, Scotland. His maternal grandfather, John 
Lauder, came to America and died on a farm in 
Warren County at ninety-eight years. The pa- 
ternal grandfather was a farmer in Scotland; his 
ancestors for generations had been florists and 
gardeners. On coming to America, William 
Graham settled in Warren County, but later went 
to Flushing, L- L, and engaged in market gar- 
dening. Afterward for eighteen years he was 
superintendent of Pendleton Rogers estate, in 
Hyde Park, N. Y. , where he died at eighty-five 
years. In religion he was a Presbyterian. His 
wife died in Hyde Park at eighty years. Of their 
ten children .seven are living, our subject being 
the youngest. All are in the east except the latter 
and his brother, David, a veteran of the war and 
now on a fruit farm in New Mexico. 

At the age of eight our subject accompanied 
his parents to Flushing, and five years later he 
began to work in a nursery there, going thence 
at the age of eighteen to a place on the Hudson 
that is now owned by Hon. Levi P. Morton. 
There he was foreman of the plant department. 
Next he was superintendent of Grand Park, 
owned by Tammany magnates, at Norwalk, 
Conn., where was the finest collection of plants 
and flowers in the world. He remained at that 
beautiful place for seven j'ears, when the enter- 
prise collapsed. Going to Cleveland, Ohio, he 
was foreman of a park for three years, and then 
started in the nursery business in Elyria, Ohio. 
In 1890 he came to Denver, where he was fore- 
man of Riverside Cemetery, until the spring of 
1893, and then for six months was employed in 
laying out Dunham Park in Swansea, a suburb. 
On the completion of the work he was appointed 
superintendent of City Park. 

In Hyde Park, N. Y., Mr. Graham married 
Ellen, daughter of James Porter, who had charge 
of General Jones' estate at Hyde Park. J [Their 

children are Archibald D., who has charge of the 
animal department in the park; David, who is a 
blacksmith with the Orrock Carriage Company; 
and Flora, wife of Col. William R. Grove, who 
is assistant adjutant- general of the state. Mr. 
Graham was made a Mason in Denver Lodge No. 
5, A. F. & A. M., to which he belongs now. He 
is also a member of the Woodmen of the World, 
the Foresters and the Caledonian Club, and in 
religious belief is a Presbyterian. 

Gl LFRED H. GUTHEIL. In the fall of 1896 
LA the Gutheil Park Investment Company, of 
I I Denver, was organized with a paid-up 
capital of $100,000 and A. H. Gutheil as presi- 
dent and general manager. The company pur- 
chased six hundred acres at the end of the Aurora 
car line, on East Colfax avenue. This they 
platted into tracts of five or ten acres and placed 
on the market. The title to Gutheil Park is the 
most perfect to be found, for it was formerly 
school land and was bought by the company from 
the state. The statutes provide that no taxes 
.shall be paid on the land until after 191 3, so that 
purchasers are exempt from taxation until that 
time. Repeatedly the assessor of Arapahoe 
County has attempted to assess the land, but, 
upon the advice of county attorneys, the board 
of equalization finally declared that the property 
was not subject to taxation until the year named. 

Every purchaser of five acres with water in 
Gutheil Park will, according to contract, have 
his land plowed up and all ditches made to his 
tract. He will also receive, free of charge, first- 
class fruit trees of his own selection, besides shade 
trees for the avenues. In 1897 about thirteen 
miles of shade trees (maple and elm) were planted 
and fifty acres planted to orchards. During the 
first year the company sold over one hundred 
acres, and a number of houses have been built 
there, among these the fine residence occupied 
by Mr. Gutheil. 

Born near Leipsic, Germany, the subject of 
this sketch was a student in the university at 
that place, graduating in 1879. In the spring of 
1880 he came to America, sojourning for a short 
time in Maryland, Columbus, Ohio, Chicago, 
111., Omaha, Neb., and Fort Sidney, also having 
charge of a stock ranch in Wyoming for a while. 
His first visit to Denver was made in 1882 and 



four years later he settled here permanently. He 
entered the real-estate business in 1888 and two 
years later started the Denver Match Factory, 
with himself as vice-president and chief stock- 
holder; but after one year it was bought up by 
the syndicate. While it was a worthy industry, 
yet it was not patronized by the people to the 
extent it deserved. In 1889 he bought and 
platted Gutheil Gardens, which he disposed of 
soon afterward. He was married in Denver to 
Miss Lilla B. Baker, who was born in Manchester, 
N. H. 

I UCIUS H. DENISON, general manager of 
I C the Slide mine at Gold Hill, Boulder County, 
12 is a member of a New England family 
that emigrated to this country from England 
in an early day. His father, Lucius, was born in 
Caledonia County, Vt., a son of Isaac Denison, 
who was born in Vermont, engaged in farming 
there and continued to make the state his home 
until death. One of his brothers took part in the 

From Vermont Lucius Denison went to Boston, 
where he engaged in business as a commission 
merchant, meantime residing in the suburban 
town of Chelsea. In 1861 he removed to Norway, 
Me. , and for twenty consecutive years carried on 
a large general mercantile business. Later he 
turned his attention to the manufacture of wood 
pulp, in which business he continued until his 
death, in 1882, at seventy-nine years. Twice 
married, he had three children by his first mar- 
riage, all of whom are living; while by his second 
wife he had nine children, six of whom survive. 
His second wife, our subject's mother, was 
Adeline Hobart, a native of New Hampshire and 
an aunt of the present vice-president of the United 
States, Garret A. Hobart, her brother being the 
latter's father. She died in 1891, when sixty-five 
years of age. 

One of our subject's brothers, Elias B., of 
Portland, now manager of the Androscoggan Pulp 
Company, was the first purchaser of a patent 
for the manufacture of wood pulp and subse- 
quently patented other improvements in the same 
line. Our subject attended the public schools of 
Norway and graduated from the Liberal Institute 
of that place. In 1876 he entered the Westbrook 
Seminary at Deering, from which he graduated 
the following year. Later he spent one year in 

Tuft's College at Meadford, Mass., after which 
he returned to Norway, Me., and secured work 
in a shoe factory. His next position was in 
an insurance office at- Portland, Me. In 1881 
he settled in Lincoln, Neb., and for fifteen 
months was connected with a wholesale grocery 
house. In 1882 he entered the First National 
Bank of Crete, Neb. , as assistant cashier, and in 
1888 was promoted to be cashier, which position 
he held until 1897. Meantime he served for 
three terms as a member of the council, to which 
he was elected on the Republican ticket. 

Locating at Gold Hill in 1897, ^^r. Denison 
leased the Slide mine, which he has developed 
and operated. At the same time he has 
operated the Allamakee mine, of which he is in 
charge, and the Slide mill, a thirty-stamp mill. 
Fraternally he is connected with the blue lodge 
of Masonry at Crete, Neb. , the Knights of Pythias 
at Crete and the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, of which he is past master. In religion he 
is a member of the Congregational Church. 

In Crete, Neb., Mr. Denison married Miss 
Emma Bader, who was born in Grinnell, Iowa, 
a daughter of William and Catherine (Heim- 
burger) Bader, natives of Germany, and early 
settlers of Grinnell. Her father was engaged as 
a millwright and miller in Grinnell, from which 
place he moved to Nebraska City and there 
resided until his death. Mr. and Mrs. Denison 
are the parents of four children; Lucius Bader, 
Philip Hobart, Bertha Helen and Ruth. 

•gUY Le ROY STEVICK. Among the attor- 

aneys of Denver Mr. Stevick occupies a posi- 
tion of honor and influence, a position that 
has come to him, not through luck or any acci- 
dental combination of circumstances, but as the 
result of constant application and determination 
of will. Since coming to Denver he has estab- 
lished a profitable practice, extending into the 
various courts. He is a clear and logical thinker 
and a forceful writer, and is the author of a law 
work entitled "Unincorporated Associations," 
for which he received a prize in the University of 
Pennsylvania and which was afterward published 
by that institution. 

The son of David B. and Mary E. (Black) 
Stevick, our subject was born in Newburg, 
Cumberland County, Pa., March 22, 1865. The 



first eleven years of his life were passed in 
the town where he was born, but at that time his 
father removed to Carlisle, Pa., and established a 
mercantile business there. In the public schools 
of the latter city he continued his studies. At 
the age of sixteen he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle, and prosecuted the regular course of 
study there, graduating in 1885, with the degree 
of A. B. 

Immediately after completing his classical and 
literary studies, Mr. Stevick began the study of law 
in the office of Hon. A. B. Sharpe, of Carlisle, un- 
der whose preceptorship he gained his first knowl- 
edge of Blackstone. Well grounded in the Eng- 
lish law, he entered the University of Pennsyl- 
vania at Philadelphia, where he completed the 
regular course of lectures, graduating in 1888, 
with the degree of LL. B. About the same time 
his alma mater at Carlisle bestowed upon him the 
degree of A. M. His literary ability had been 
cultivated while in college. While a student in 
Dickinson he was the editor of the Dickinsonian, 
and after entering the university he became the 
university reporter and reported the lectures and 
legal department of that institution. 

Immediately after graduating, Mr. Stevick was 
admitted to the Philadelphia bar. The months 
following this, however, were not devoted to 
practice, but were spent with the Sioux Commis- 
sion in opening up the Sioux reservation in Da- 
kota, a work that brought him into personal con- 
tact with the Indians. He came to Denver in 
1888, reaching the city on Christmas day, and for 
a few months afterward was in the office of R. D. 
Thompson. Soon he formed a law partnership 
with Robert Collier and the two continued to- 
gether for a time, but since the connection was 
dissolved he has been alone. He has the greatest 
faith in Denver, its wonderful opportunities and 
the extent of its resources. Through his instru- 
mentality about twenty-five houses have been 
erected here, and in other ways he has promoted 
the growth of the city. 

Reared in the Democratic faith, Mr. Stevick is 
stanch in his allegiance to its principles and in 
his support of its candidates. In 1896 he was 
nominated for the legislature on the fusion ticket, 
but was defeated. He has served for several 
years as town attorney for Argo, a corporation 
within the city of Denver. In his religious views 
he is independent, but, though not a member of 

any denomination, he gives his support to the 
Presbyterian Church, of which his wife is a mem- 
ber. April 16, 1888, in Carlisle, Pa., he married 
Miss Marion, daughter of Capt. R. H. Pratt, 
who was the founder and superintendent of the 
Carlisle Indian Training School. They have five 
children, Anna Laura, May Ellen, Nana, LeRoy 
Champney and Theron Pratt. 

ROBERT I. WILLIS, the efficient and courte- 
ous superintendent of the Boulder County 
poor farm, has held this responsible position 
since February i, 1898, and has made a good 
record, giving general satisfaction. He has been 
a resident of the Boulder Valley since the Cen- 
tennial year, in which Colorado became one of 
the sisterhood of United States, but several years 
prior to that time he was a property holder here 
and considered his interests identical with those 
of this immediate region. As a public official he is 
the same conscientious, diligent, honorable man 
that he has always been as a private citizen, and 
the esteem and respect which are universally ac- 
corded him are justly his due. 

Mr. Willis comes of a good old Kentucky 
family, his birth having occurred in Todd County, 
July 26, 1847. (For history of his parents and 
family refer to biography of W. A. Willis, 
elsewhere in this volume.) The boyhood of 
our subject passed quietly and uneventfully under 
the roof of his father, O. G. Willis, to whose wise 
example and guiding influence he owed much of 
his success in after life. His education, unfortu- 
nately, was somewhat limited, being simply that 
of the district schools, whose usefulness, meager 
at best, was retarded and checked by the break- 
ing out of the Civil war, and the troublous times 

Soon after reaching his majority Robert I. 
Willis embarked upon his independent life, and 
March 25, 1869, started for the west to carve out 
his fortune. He was accompanied by his brother, 
G. S. Willis, and by a friend, D. B. Scott, all 
ambitious, enterprising young men, eager for a 
ta.ste of frontier life. They proceeded on the 
railwaj'S as far west as the town of Phil Sheridan, 
then the limit of the completed road, and 
from that point they joined a government train 
which took them to Kiowa Station. There the 
young men hired a man to take them to Denver, 



in which now important city they safely arrived 
April 12. Our subject proceeded to Boulder 
Valley and spent about three weeks here, looking 
around with a view to making his permanent 
home here. However, he went on to George- 
town, where he found employment in cutting 
wood. Ere long he began working for the 
Bakersville Mining Company, with whom he re- 
mained several years. 

In 1871 Mr. Willis returned to Boulder County 
for a brief period and homesteaded a tract of eighty 
acres. In 1876 he settled on this ranch, which 
he improved and cultivated for the following dec- 
ade. In 1886 he sold his farm, as his mining 
interests demanded his entire attention. Since 
that time he has paid little heed to agriculture, 
but has devoted his energies chiefly to the develop- 
ment of his mines and to his other business 
affairs. He is the owner of the Greenfield silver 
mine at Montezuma, one of the best-paying mines 
in that section. In his political aflSliations he is 
a Democrat, being an earnest believer in the prin- 
ciples advocated by that party. 

Gl SA F. MIDDAUGH. Among the men who 
LI were attracted to Colorado by the discovery 
I I of gold in Pike's Peak was a youth of twenty 
years, who had been born and reared near Erie, 
Pa., and knew little by actual experience con- 
cerning the hardships of frontier life. He and a 
brother started from St. Joe, Mo., with an ox- 
train, paying $35 each for the privilege of having 
their supplies hauled while they walked. After 
a hard trip of thirty-five days they reached 
Denver. Instead, however, of following the 
usual custom of the pioneers of those days and 
staking a claim in the mountains, he sought 
wealth through other sources. June 13, i860, he 
arrived in Colorado and the following year he 
sunk a shaft and struck amine of coal near where 
the Marshall bank now is. In the winter of 
1861-62 he hauled coal from his mine to Denver, 
being the first man to market coal in this city. 
In August, 1861, he bought a squatter's right to 
a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, on 
which he proved up in 1864. On the northeast 
corner of the land now stands the shops of the 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Company, to 
whom he donated the ground for a building site. 
From this place he also sold out for Fletcher's 

addition and platted Middaugh's addition of 
twenty-seven acres, upon a part of which houses 
have been built. Here, in 1890, he erected a 
commodious and comfortable residence for his 

The Middaughs are of Holland extraction and 
the name in Dutch, means midday. The father 
of our subject, William H., was born near 
Painted Post, N. Y., and removed to Erie, Pa., 
where he followed the wagonmaker's trade, going 
from there in 1853 to New Castle, Lawrence 
County, the same state. In 1859 he settled in 
Denver, of which he was a pioneer and a 
prominent citizen. He was the first sheriff of 
Arapahoe County and the first deputy United 
States marshal under the Kansas laws. He died 
in 1862, at the age of forty-eight. His wife, 
Mary, was a daughter of Col. John Marvin, who 
was born in Massachusetts, took part in the 
famous Boston tea party, was a captain in the 
Revolution, and at its close removed near Cov- 
ington, Tioga County, Pa. Mrs. Middaugh was 
born in Tioga County and died in Denver in 
1884, at the age of seventy-four. All of her 
seven children came to Colorado, and two, Mrs. 
Alfred Sayre and Mrs. Armstrong, died here, 
while a son, James F., died in Nevada. Four 
are living. Charles F. is in Rico, Colo. ; William 
is a hardware merchant in Ouray; Asa F. resides 
in Denver; and Frances is the wife of James W. 
Wier, a real-estate dealer in Denver. 

After completing his schooling in Erie and 
New Castle, in i860 our subject and his brother, 
James F. , came to Denver, where he embarked 
in the stock and coal business and in ranching. 
In 1864-65 he engaged in freighting between 
Denver and Missouri River points. For eight 
years, beginning in 1866, he was a merchant in 
Elizabethtown and Cimarron, N. M., in partner- 
ship with H. M. Porter, and the two also carried 
on a banking business in Cimarron. In 1875 he 
opened a mercantile store at Del Norte, in the 
San Luis Valley, where, in 1882, he opened the 
Bank of Del Norte, one of the oldest financial 
enterprises in that place. He still continues in 
the banking business there, where he also has a 
horse ranch and several farms. Among the 
horses he has raised is Jim Blaine, record 2 :24, 
and others almost as fine. 

Fraternally Mr. Middaugh was made a Mason 
in Cimarron and is now a member of Denver 



Lodge No. 7, A. F. & A. M. He is a member 
of the Pioneers' Association and politically is a 
silver Democrat. While in New Mexico he 
married Miss Amelie Siever, who was born in 
St. Louis. Five children were bom of their 
union: Edna, who died in 1895; Nettie, Hallett, 
Florence and Freeman. 

7\ the Bank of Brighton, came to Colorado in 
Vyj the early part of 1892, shortly after complet- 
ing his business education. He was so well 
pleased with the prospects here that he deter- 
mined to remain. He bought out W. G. Love- 
lace, banker of Brighton, and, associated with 
A. A. Failing, embarked in the banking busi- 
ness, but soon bought out his partner and has 
since been alone. The means for establishing 
himself in business he secured from his mother 
and grandmother's estate, which enabled him to 
start for himself, without borrowing money. At 
the time he began in the banking business he was 
the youngest banker in Arapahoe County and 
one of the youngest in the state, but his sound 
judgment enabled him to establish the bank upon 
a substantial basis. The bank has weathered the 
financial depression of the past few years and is 
now in a more prosperous condition than at any 
time in its history. A report, given at the close 
of the year 1897, showed that the bank deposits 
had increased one hundred per cent during 1897, 
loans increased eighty per cent and cash resources 
over one hundred per cent. The business for 
that year was most satisfactory and far exceeded 
the most sanguine expectations of the officers of 
the bank. Such a report shows that the com- 
munity in which the bank is located and from 
which it draws its patronage, has resources which 
enable it to breast the severest industrial storms 
and still prosper. At the beginning of the panic 
depositors were frightened and two-thirds of the 
deposits were withdrawn, but it was soon seen 
that the bank was upon a sound financial basis, 
confidence was restored, deposits were returned 
and new accounts opened. 

The son of Robert and Harriet (McCord) 
Hurst, the former of whom resides in Fremont 
County, Iowa, the subject of this sketch was 
born in Warren County, Ind., March 19, 1871. 
His father, a native of Virginia, removed to 

Indiana in early manhood and there met and 
married Miss McCord, who was born in Warren 
County and died there, leaving an only child, 
five years of age. The father married again, re- 
moved to Iowa and is now living there upon a 
farm; by his second marriage four children were 
born. Our subject, who was the only child of 
the first marriage, remained with his father until 
he was twenty years of age, meantime attending 
the public and high schools, and spending three 
years in Tabor College, Fremont County, from 
which he graduated in the commercial depart- 
ment in 1 89 1. He came west in the summer of 
1891, intending to visit for a short time in Colo- 
rado, but he was so pleased with the state that 
he returned to Iowa and made arrangements to 
return here permanently. 

October 28, 1896, Mr. Hurst married Miss 
Carrie Whitehead, of Evansville, Ind., with 
whom he became acquainted while she was visit- 
ing in Brighton. Politically he is a Republican, 
upon which ticket he was elected an alderman 
and town treasurer of Brighton. While in Iowa 
he was elected assessor, but did not qualify for 
the office. Reared in the Methodist faith, he 
attended that church for some time, but is now 
identified with the Presbyterian denomination. 

EYRUS McCONNELL, who is engaged in 
business as a carriage, sign and ornamental 
painter, in Denver, was born in Pittsburg, 
Pa., December 10, 1853, and is the son of James 
and Rebecca (Stuart) McConnell, natives of 
Pennsylvania. His maternal grandfather, Robert 
Stuart, was of Scotch descent and engaged in 
farming near Pittsburg. James McConnell was 
employed as a blacksmith in Pittsburg for years, 
but is now living retired. By his marriage to 
Miss Stuart, now deceased, he had twelve chil- 
dren, and of these seven are living, our subject 
being third in order of birth and the only mem- 
ber of the family in Colorado. He was reared 
in Pittsburg and at the age of fifteen was appren- 
ticed to carriage painting, which he learned, as 
well as sign and ornamental painting. After the 
expiration of four years of apprenticeship he be- 
gan to work at his trade in the employ of others, 
and finally entered the carriage manufacturing 
business in partnership with Mr. Miller, but sold 
out on removing to Denver in 1890. 




At No. 1441 Wazee street, where he started in 
business in 189 1, Mr. McConnell has a building 
25x75 feet in dimensions. He did the painting 
for the Studebaker Carriage Company, John 
Deere Plow Company, Pureel Carriage Companj', 
and others, also does the sign writing for many 
of the large business houses of the city. Mr. 
McConnell is one of the most skilled workmen in 
his line in the state, and his work is as artistic as 
it is durable. Politically he is a silver Republi- 
can. He is connected with the Woodmen of the 
World and the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, having been a member of Manchester Lodge 
No. 109 and the encampment in Pittsburg. Be- 
fore coming to Colorado he married Miss Minerva 
Anderson, who was born and reared near Pitts- 
burg. They have four children, James, Mabel, 
Luella and Frank. 

(31 LEXANDER BARRY, one of the prosper- 
LS ous farmers of Larimer County, came to 
/ I Colorado in 1871 and bought from Joe Ma- 
son one hundred and twenty acres on the Cache 
la Poudre, adjoining Fort Collins. At that time 
the land was not much improved. He became 
interested in the Anderson and Ames ditch and 
secured adequate irrigation for his land, thus 
being enabled to raise good crops. After a few 
years he bought two hundred acres at New Wind- 
sor, Weld Count3% under Greeley ditch No. 2. 
On that place he has made a specialty of raising 
potatoes, and there, as on his home place, he 
feeds numbers of sheep. He also owns a ranch 
in Wyoming on the North Platte. On his home 
place he has good improvements, including a neat 
brick residence occupying a fine location. 

Though himself of Irish birth (born near Cole- 
rain, County Londonderry) Mr. Barry is of di- 
rect Scotch descent both on his father's and moth- 
ers side. Both his father and grandfather bore 
the name of Alexander and both were natives of 
Ireland. The former brought his family to Amer- 
ica in 1863, but died in Philadelphia the follow- 
ing year. His wife, Nancy, was the daughter of 
Niel Blair, a farmer in Ireland; she died in Phila- 
delphia in 1870. Of their six children Alexander 
was the eldest; Thomas took part in the Civil war; 
Margaret died when a girl; Rachel and Robert 
live in Philadelphia; and James is the Denver 
manager for the New York Wallpaper Company. 

On the farm, where he was born in 1839, the 

subject of this sketch passed the years of his boy- 
hood. In 1863 he accompanied his parents to 
America, via Londonderry to Quebec, thence to 
New York, and from there to Philadelphia. He 
was employed for five years in the oil regions, 
where he engaged in boring wells under contracts, 
being principally in Venango County. He then 
spent a yearin Philadelphia, after which, in 1871, 
he came to Colorado, and bought his present 
homestead. He is a member of the Larimer Coun- 
ty Sheep Feeders' Association. In politics he fa- 
vors the silver cause and in religion is a Presbyte- 
rian. While still in Ireland, when twenty-two 
years of age, he was made a Mason, in a lodge 
near Colerain, and is now a member of Collins 
Lodge No. 19, A. F. & A. M. 

At Walnut Bend, near Oil City, Pa., Mr. Bar- 
ry married Miss Emma Thompson, a native of 
Pennsylvania. Her father, W. N. Thompson, 
was born near Jamestown , N. Y. , of an old east- 
ern family, and for some years was engaged as 
an oil speculator in Pennsylvania, but is now liv- 
ing retired in Pittsburg. He married Margaret 
Walker, a native of Westmoreland County, Pa. 
Of their six sons and three daughters, all are living 
but one of the sons. Mr. and Mrs. Barry are the 
parents of eight children now living, namely: 
Rachel Ann, wife of Jerome Decker, of North 
Park; Maggie, wife of John Cahill, of" Fort Col- 
lins; May, a graduate of Fort Collins high school; 
Clara, Robert, James, Alice and Ruth, at home. 

pGJiLLIAM A. POWERS. Some years ago 

\ A / Mr. Powers purchased a ranch situated on 
V Y Broadway, one and one-half miles east of 
Littleton, and here he has since made his home, 
devoting his attention to the raising of the various 
farm products which experience proves are 
adapted to the soil. He is a native of Vermont, 
born in Orange County January 15, 1841, he and 
his twin sister being the youngest of eight children 
comprising the family of William B. and Matilda 
(Morse) Powers. Six of the family are now liv- 
ing, namely: Josiah B., who settled in Oshkosh, 
Wis., in 1853, was for fourteen years city clerk 
and is now engaged in the abstract business 
there; David W., who is engaged in mining in 
Ouray and resides in Montrose; James Franklin, 
who for many years has been pastor of the Epis- 
copal Church of Pottsville, Pa.; Charles E., 



who is engaged in the milling business in New 
York state; Julia W. and William A. (twins), the 
former married to James G. Hill, a prominent 
architect of Washington, D. C, and at one time 
United States chief architect. Two daughters 
are deceased, Sarah M. and Mary E. , the latter 
having been the wife of John Frazer, who was 
the first lieutenant of a Federal company during 
the war. 

The father of this family was born in Spring- 
field, Vt., and became an extensive raiser of and 
dealer in beef cattle. Up to fifty-six years his 
life was passed in Vermont and New York, but 
at that age he removed to Oshkosh, Wis. , where 
he devoted his attention to farming until his death, 
in 1869. His father, Asial Powers, was a soldier 
in the war of 18 12. 

When six years of age our subject accompanied 
his parents from Orange to Windsor County, Vt., 
and at the age of fifteen he went with the family 
to Oshkosh, Wis., which he considered his home 
up to his twenty-sixth year. October i, 1864, 
he enlisted in Company E, Forty-fourth Wiscon- 
sin Infantry, in which he served until the close 
of hostilities, being mustered out of service March 
18, 1865. When a boy he worked in the Wis- 
consin pineries for a lumber firm, but not wishing 
to make that state his permanent home, shortly 
after his return from the- war he began to plan to 
come farther west. In November, 1866, he car- 
ried out his cherished plan and came to Colorado, 
settling in Denver; but sickness in the family 
called him home in August, 1867, and from that 
time until 1870 he engaged in farming in Wis- 
consin. In that year he again settled in Colo- 
rado, this time in L,ittleton, where he engaged in 
stock-raising and the dairy business. After some 
three years he became an employe in the Rough 
and Ready mill of Littleton and continued with 
the company for nine years, after which, in 1879, 
he went to Leadville and embarked in the restau- 
rant business with his brother. A short experi- 
ence in that business was sufiicient, however, to 
convince him that he had no fondness for it, and 
in a short time he returned to Littleton, where, 
after two years at general work, he purchased his 
present home. 

In 1895 Mr. Powers was elected a member of 
the school board of Littleton, where he has since 
faithfully served, his term expiring in May, 1898. 
Politically he is a Republican and in religious 

behef identified with the Presbyterian Church. 
Like other veterans of the Civil war he takes an 
interest in Grand Army matters. November 25, 
1863, he married Sallie J. Bartow, whose father 
was a prominent farmer and for some fifteen years 
held a United States mail contract. They are the 
parents of four children, all living. Sylvester, 
who is unmarried, is engaged in mining in Victor, 
Colo. ; Julia W. married Lou Fauth, who is em- 
ployed by the Littleton Creamery Company; they 
have two children, a son and daughter. Inez is 
married and has one child, a son. Frederick W. 
is with his parents. 

GjUGUST H. BEUCK. Elbert County is 
LI divided by the West Bijou Creek into two 
I 1 sections, the eastern portion being especially 
adapted for stock-raising, while the western sec- 
tion is mainly agricultural. Twelve miles from 
Resolis, on the Rock Island Railroad, and six 
miles from the station of Agate, is located the 
ranch owned by Mr. Beuck. In 1876 he bought 
out a pre-emption and proved up one "hundred 
and sixty acres on the East Bijou in Elbert 
County, where he now owns over one thousand 
acres of fine hay lands. He makes a specialty of 
raising Shorthorn Durhams, and on his place has 
shed-room for seven or eight hundred head. He 
was among the first to dehorn cattle, a plan 
which he has followed for some years and finds 
very satisfactory. After serious loss from black 
leg among his cattle, he decided to experiment 
with vaccinating and he tried Pasteur's vaccine, 
which has worked so satisfactorily that all the 
cattle are now treated with it. 

Our subject was born in Kiel, Holstein, the son 
of Henry Beuck, a native of the same province, 
and by occupation a farmer, who came to Amer- * 
ica in 1876, settling in Pottawattamie County, 
Iowa,- and buying a farm, where he continued to 
reside until his death , at sixty-five years. Au- 
gust came to America in 1868, when fifteen years 
of age, and settled in Davenport, Iowa, where 
he learned the butcher's business. In 1870 he 
came to Colorado, and for a time spent his win- 
ters in the mountains working at his trade and 
his summers on the plains. In 1874 he bought 
a few cattle, thus getting his start in the busi- 
ness he has since conducted. 

Politically Mr. Beuck is in sympathy with Re- 



publican tenets. In 1889, upon that ticket, he 
was elected commissioner of Elbert County, and 
took his seat on the board of commissioners in 
January, 1890. He was re-elected two years 
later, without opposition, and served until Jan- 
uary, 1896, his duties as commissioner requiring 
his frequent presence at Kiowa, the county seat. 
He is a member of the Colorado Cattle Growers' 
Association. In Central City, this state, he 
married Miss Jennie Miller, a native of Germany. 
They spend their summers on the ranch, and 
during the winters reside in Denver, in order that 
their sons, Frederick and Henry, may have the 
advantages offered by the excellent schools of 
this city. 

NENLY W. ALLEN, M. D., of Boulder, is 
a pioneer physician of Colorado, and has 
been longer engaged in active practice in 
Boulder County than any other member of his pro- 
fession. In the early days of our local history he 
had many extremely interesting experiences, and 
was foremost in every endeavor to place the 
county and state on a safe and sound basis for 
future prosperity. He brought the first drugs 
and medicines (of any amount) into Boulder 
County, in 1865, started a drug store in Valmont, 
and in 1876 opened a store in Boulder, and thus 
was the proprietor of such an enterprise for almost 
thirty years, as he did not sell out until 1893. 
He also purchased the first printing-press brought 
into the county, and after publishing the Val- 
mont Bulletin for a year, disposed of the outfit to 
parties from Boulder, who began printing the 
Boulder News, still a flourishing journal. For a 
period of twelve years he was the efficient county 
surveyor, and, indeed, was the first to bring sur- 
veying instruments into this region. For many 
years he served ably as county physician and 
for two terms held the office of county coroner. 
Thus, it is plainly seen, even without more 
preliminary, that the worthy doctor has been un- 
usually progressive and w'ide-awake to the de- 
velopment of local industries and resources, and 
always ready to do more than his share in the 
onward march of civilization, which has trans- 
formed the desert and mountain wildernesses 
into beautiful and populous districts. 

The father of Dr. Allen was Rev. A. P. Allen, 
a native of Connecticut. He went to Ohio in 
early manhood, and about 1835 was admitted to 

the Illinois bar. Later he became a minister in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and had pas- 
torates at Janesville, Milwaukee and Fond du 
Lac. In i860 he started across the plains with 
his family (exclusive of the doctor) in covered 
wagons drawn by numerous yokes of cows. 
Arriving in Colorado he located in what is now 
comprised within West Denver, and remained in 
that section until the disastrous flood, when he 
removed to Blackhawk, where he resided for 
two years, thence came to Valmont, Boulder 
County. Here he served as county commissioner 
for three terms; was judge of the probate court 
for two terms and was acting as county commis- 
sioner at the time of his death in 1880, at the age 
of sixty-six years. His wife, whose maiden name 
was Cornelia Hayden, was born in Vermont, and 
died just two weeks prior to the death of her 
husband. Her father, a merchant tailor, went 
to the City of Mexico on a trip years ago; he was 
murdered by a fanatic, in his own shop, during 
the passing of a Catholic procession. Of the 
four children of Rev. A. P. Allen and wife the 
two daughters are: Mrs. Ophelia Eldred, of 
Boulder, and Mrs. Nellie Andrews, of Cheyenne. 
G. S. Allen, now of Los Angeles, Cal., came to 
this state in i860, and by turns was a preacher, a 
miner and a freighter of goods across the plains 
and mountains hereabout. 

The birth of Dr. H. W. Allen occurred near 
Chicago, 111., December 28, 1838. He was a 
fine student, excelling in all of his classes, and 
graduated from the University of Appleton, Wis., 
in i860, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
being the valedictorian. Three years later he 
received the degree of Master of Arts from his 
alma mater. Subsequent to his graduation the 
young man went to Valparaiso, Ind., where for 
two years he taught mathematics and sciences 
in the Valparaiso Male and Female College, now 
called the Northern Indiana Normal School. He 
next entered Rush Medical College, where he 
took a course of lectures, then beginning the 
practice of his chosen profession in Royal ton, 
Wis. In 1864 he came to this state, making a 
part of the journey to Omaha by horse-team, 
and thence proceeding in a large company, on 
account of Indians, from Fort Kearney on, there 
being over one hundred persons in the caravan. 
At first the doctor settled in Blackhawk, but in 
1865 he came to Boulder Valley, and practiced 



in Valmont until the Centennial year, since 
which time he has been a resident of Boulder. 
In 1867 he graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Iowa, then at Keokuk, 
Iowa, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 
He has had a very successful career as a practi- 
tioner, and has long ranked second to none in his 
profession hereabouts. His office is situated at 
the corner of Pearl and Fourteenth streets. From 
the time of the war until the silver question came 
into prominence, he was loyal to the principles 
of the Republican party, but does not agree with 
it on this subject. He was initiated into Ma- 
sonry in 1859 in Wisconsin, and is now affiliated 
with Columbia Lodge No. 14, A. F. & A. M. 
In the Ancient Order of United Workmen he is 
the examining physician. One of the first to 
organize the Boulder County Medical Society, 
he occupies an honored place in its ranks and is 
also connected with the State Medical Society. 

In Fond du Lac, Wis., Dr. Allen married 
Miss Meldred McNeel, in i860. She was born 
in Pottsdam, N. Y., and her brother. Dr. Henry 
McNeel, a state senator in Wisconsin, is one of 
the leading physicians of Fond du Lac. Of 
the children born to our subject and wife, Mellie 
died at six years, Julius at fourteen, and Mason 
was killed by a horse when in his twenty-fifth 
year. Meda E., Mrs. Tavenner, is principal of 
the public school at Walsenburg, Colo. O. J., 
who graduated from Gross Medical College in 
1898 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and 
had the highest average scholarship of any in his 
class, is now practicing in Boulder. Arthur H. 
is a member of the drug firm of Richardson & 
Allen, of Denver. Herbert, also a pharmacist, 
is now prospecting and mining in Walsenburg. 
Charles E. is superintendent for the Victor Coal 
and Coke Company. Daisy, Henly, Fannie and 
Roy are at home. 

(31 LEXANDER MILHEIM, owner of a pretty 
r I homestead on .section 18, township i south, 
I 1 range 66 west, Arapahoe County, is a native 
of Switzerland. His birth took place near Scher • 
er, Canton Berne, February 6, 1848. He was 
left an orphan at an early age as his father died 
when the lad was five years old and the mother 
survived but a twelvemonth. By a previous 
marriage the senior Milheim had two children, 
Jacob and John, both of whom are living in the 

United States, the former in Allegan County, 
Mich. , and the latter in Denver. The two own sis- 
ters of our subject are deceased and his only 
brother, Frederick, is a resident of this section 
and is represented elsewhere in this volume. 

John Milheim, Sr. , left sufficient property to 
rear and educate his little family, and thus Alex- 
ander Milheim was fortunately not dependent 
upon relatives or charity in his boyhood days. 
In 1862 he and his elder brother, Frederick, de- 
termined to seek their fortunes in the land of 
promise, America. The long tiresome voyage 
on the sailing vessel of the period consumed fifty- 
one days, but was safely ended at last. Their 
small capital now nearly gone, the two brave lads 
concluded to begin their real life battle, and going 
into New Jersey, they worked as gardeners for 
the thrifty farmers for a few months. They then 
went to Niagara Falls, where a cousin, John Mil- 
heim, lived, and from there they went to Allegan 
County, Mich., where their home continued to 
be together for several years. They both wished 
to enter the army during the Civil war, but the 
health of our subject was such that he was not 
accepted. He worked in a shingle mill and at 
other employments in Michigan, and finally 
drifted to Iowa, where he ferried across the Mis- 
souri River, and assisted in building the bridge 
at Omaha. In the meantime he homsteaded a 
farm in Nebraska, but never improved it, and 
ultimately sold it. 

Returning on a visit to Michigan, Mr. Milheim 
was married August 31, 1873, to Miss Wila Traf- 
ford. Her parents were Thomas and Eliza 
(Sheldon) Traffbrd, and her birthplace was in 
Galesburg, Kalamazoo County, Mich. Four 
children, two sons and two daughters, were born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Milheim. The two elder ones 
are deceased, Frederick having died when seven 
years old and little Alma when eighteen months. 
Bertha, born in Michigan, and James Otto, born 
on the Colorado homestead of his parents, are 
with their parents. Mr. and Mrs. Milheim are 
both members of the Presbyterian Church of 
Brighton, and are respected and loved by all who 
know them. 

When starting out in their married life, the 
young couple were obliged to begin housekeeping 
in a humble way, but they had brave hearts and 
went forth to meet the future with faith in God and 
themselves. To such loyal trusting souls, ready 




to wait and labor in the meantime with all their 
powers, success usually comes sooner or later. 
In the year that Colorado became one of the 
states of the Union, Mr. Milheim came west, but 
he was not favorably impressed with this countrj', 
the contrast with his own state being so marked. 
Therefore he returned to Michigan, where he 
found that the charms of the mountain and the 
distinctive beauties and advantages of the Cen- 
tennial state had a lasting place in his remem- 
brance. In the autumn of 1877 he again came to 
Colorado and the following June he sent for his 
wife and children. For some time he was em- 
ployed by a Mr. Force of Pittsburg to look after 
his cattle. Then he built a small house on Third 
Creek, and in 1879 he became the manager of 
his brother Frederick's ranch. In 1880 he pur- 
chased a claim, aud this land, since greatly im- 
proved by him, is his homestead, as described 
above. At that time there was but one tree on 
the farm that is now nicely shaded and pleasant 
to look upon. The place is provided with ditches 
for irrigation, aud Mr. Milheim is one of the 
stockholders in the Fulton ditch, which has been 
the salvation of this portion of the county, re- 
claiming it from the desert. Though nothing of 
a politician he votes the Democratic ticket in 
national elections. 

is distinguished for the high rank of her 
bench and bar. Perhaps none of the newer 
states can justly boast of abler jurists or attor- 
neys. Many of them have been men of national 
fame, and among those whose lives have been 
passed on a quieter plane there is scarcely a town 
or city in the state but can boast of one or more 
lawyers capable of crossing swords in forensic 
combat with any of the distinguished legal lights 
of the United States. Among these prominent 
and successful attorneys is Harry E. Churchill, 
of Greeley, who though young in years has 
already won an enviable reputation at the Weld 
County bar. 

He was born in Benton County, Iowa, July 16, 
1861, and is a son of Almond M. and Anna 
(Lovejoy) Churchill, both representatives of good 
old New England families, the Churchills being 
early settlers of Vermont, while the Lovejoy 
family was founded in this country by one of the 

brave little band to come over in the "Mayflower. ' ' 
Almond M. Churchill was born in the Green 
Mountain state and was one of the "forty-niners" 
who went round the cape to California during 
the gold excitement. In 1854 he located near 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where he engaged in agri- 
culture and stock-raising, and became one of the 
largest land owners of that state. He was mar- 
ried in Vermont to Anna Lovejoy and they 
became the parents of eight children. Of those 
living, George R. resides on the old homestead in 
Iowa; Henry C. is engaged in farming in Neb- 
raska; Frank M. is a farmer and stock-raiser of 
Michigan ; and Virginia is the wife of Samuel F. 
Negley, of Wahoo, Neb. 

With the view to entering the legal profession, 
Harry E. Churchill was educated at Cole Insti- 
tute, Cedar Rapids, and Western College, Toledo, 
Iowa, after which he read law at Toledo and was 
admitted to the bar in 1885. After two years 
.spent at Norton, Kau., he came to Greeley, Colo., 
and opened an office. It was not long before his 
ability became recognized and he soon succeeded 
in building up a large and lucrative practice, which 
he still enjoys, having probably tried more cases 
before the courts than any other attorney in the 
city. He has one of the most complete libraries 
in the county, in fact, in this part of the state, 
and is a well-posted man. His time is fully occu- 
pied in practice before the lower courts, United 
States district court, the United States circuit 
court and the supreme court of the state of Colo- 
rado and also of the United States. Although 
he makes a specialty of real-estate law, he is 
noted as exceptionally able in criminal defense, 
having a reputation as a trial lawyer that makes 
his services in demand all over the state. Spe- 
cial mention may be made of the Richard Barry 
and Schneider murder cases, in both of which he 
was successful, and the famous Cochran cattle 
stealing case and the Matthews larceny cases. 
He has met with success financially as well as 
professionally, and is now the owner of a large 
amount of real estate, including farm land and 
his fine residence at the corner of Seventh street 
and Thirteenth avenue, which is one of the best 
homes in Greeley, the culture and artistic taste 
of its occupants being reflected in its appoint- 
ments, while a gracious hospitality adds a charm 
to its material comforts. 

On the 6th of June, 1881, was celebrated the 



marriage of Mr. Churchill and Miss Isabella 
Van Osdall, a daughter of John Van Osdall, of 
Geneseo, 111., and to them have been born three 
children: Flossie Estelle, Harry Van and Isa- 
bella. Mr. Churchill is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias and the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men. He attends the Congregational Church, to 
the support of which he contributes. He has 
always been a pronounced Republican, and since 
boyhood has taken an active and influential part 
in political affairs, particularly since coming to 
Colorado, but has never been an office seeker. 
He has been a delegate to state and national con- 
ventions, and for many years has served as chair- 
man of the Republican central committee. 

nOHN H. LAWRENCE, whose home was in 
I Brighton, was born in Pennsylvania, but was 
G/ only four years of age when his parents, John 
and Sarah E. (Evans) Lawrence, removed to 
Ohio, settling in Wakeman, Huron County. His 
father, a native of England, emigrated to America 
and learned the trade of a shoemaker in Connect- 
icut, with his future wife's father, who carried 
on an extensive business. After his marriage he 
moved to Pennsylvania and later went to Ohio, 
where his remaining years were spent. 

In the town of Wakeman there lived a little 
girl, Martha A. Ransom, daughter of Henry G. 
and Mary (French) Ransom, natives respectively 
of Connecticut and Huron County, Ohio. Her 
father was about two years old when his parents, 
Russell and Lucretia (Gates) Ransom, drove with 
an ox-team through from Connecticut to Ohio 
and settled in the woods of Huron County, of 
which they were pioneers. The maternal grand- 
parents, Burton and Augusta (Dayton) French, 
also drove through from Connecticut in an early 
day. When Henry G. Ransom was still compara- 
tively a young man he passed away, leaving his 
widow and three children in comfortable circum- 
stances. Afterward the widowed mother brought 
her children into town, leaving the farm where 
she had previously resided and removing to 

Living near each other, in the same town , John 
H. Lawrence and Martha A. Ransom were ac- 
quainted from childhood. He had entered Ober- 
lin College some months before the Civil war 
broke out, but at the first call for volunteers for 

three months he left his books and entered the 
service. At the expiration of his time he again 
enlisted and served until the close of the war. 
From the ranks he was promoted to be second, 
and then first lieutenant. Though taking an 
active part in many battles, he was never wounded 
nor taken prisoner, but the exposure injured his 
health to such an extent that he was confined to 
his bed for two years after the war and was not 
expected to live from hour to hour. Just across 
the road lived Miss Ransom with her mother. It 
was but natural that she should take a deep in- 
terest in the welfare of the sick soldier, and the 
attachment then formed was consummated in 
their marriage, December 27, 1868. In the mean 
time the Soldiers' Home had been started at Col- 
umbus, Ohio, and Mr. Lawrence was appointed 
to go there and take charge of the farm. After 
the home was transferred to Dayton, they went 
there and took charge of the farm. 

In the summer of 1870 Mr. Lawrence and his 
wife moved to Nebraska and settled on a farm in 
Platte County, where he pre-empted and also 
bought land, securing seven hundred and sixty 
acres in one body. There he raised cattle and 
hogs. After the grasshoppers had destroyed 
their crops for three successive years, he rented 
his farm and went to the Black Hills, his wife 
going to Fremont, Neb. After two years he sold 
his farm and with his wife came to Colorado, 
settling four miles from Denver, but after a year 
removed near Brighton. A year later he bought 
one hundred and sixty acres, upon which he 
made his home for a few years, and then went to 
Baton Rouge, La. , where he owned a plantation. 
However, the climate not agreeing with the 
family, he sold his place and went to Cheyenne, 
Wyo., and from there returned to Brighton in 
1892. Here he served one term as mayor. For 
many years he was a justice of the peace, and in 
politics voted the Republican ticket. He would 
have made a fine lawyer had his studies been in 
that direction. In religion a Presbyterian, he 
was a prime mover in raising the money for build- 
ing the church in Brighton. He was also instru- 
mental in the erection of the first schoolhouse 
here and served for four years as president of the 
school board. 

Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Lawrence and five of these are now living. 
Martha B. , who lives in Weld County, married 



Benjamin Shearston and has two children, Har- 
vey and Ada. John R. , who attended business 
college in Denver and Salina, Kan., was engaged 
in farming until May, 1898, since which time he 
has been proprietor of a livery stable in Brighton. 
Agnes married Charles Shearston and resides 
near Hudson, Weld County. Olive M. began to 
teach at a very early age and is very successful 
in the profession. Sara E. was born near Brigh- 
ton and resides with her mother in this place. 

HENRY L. LOCKE, one of the enterprising 
young agriculturists of Arapahoe County, 
has instituted numerous valuable improve- 
ments upon his homestead within the past few 
years and is constantly adding to the productive- 
ness of the place by his judicious care and ex- 
penditure. Coming here from Massachusetts he 
necessarily found at once that eastern methods 
and conditions of farming were totally inadequate 
for Colorado, and he industriously set to work to 
cope with the new diflBculties. 

The parents of the above-named young man 
were Calvin S. and Anne (Lincoln) Locke, na- 
tives of Massachusetts. The father, a man of 
good education, has followed the profession of a 
teacher, and under his painstaking instruction 
and guidance the son, Henry L-, received unusual 
advantages. At the age of seventeen years the 
youth was sufficiently advanced in his studies to 
be allowed to enter Cornell University, within 
whose classic halls he passed the following two 
years. Later he took a course in agriculture, 
chemistry and assaying iaLehigh University with 
a view to being better fitted to assume charge of 
some Colorado property which his father had 
purchased and desired him to look after. This 
land was located near Longmont, and was a part 
of the tract on which the Chicago colony settled. 

It was in July, 1880, that Henry L. Locke 
reached his future home in Colorado. In the 
succeeding October he began to improve his farm 
in earnest, and for ten years his dwelling place 
was there, in the vicinity of Longmont. In 1890 
he purchased one hundred and sixty acres of 
land, located about a mile and a-half from 
Brighton, on section 4, township i south, range 66 
west. He commenced the system of irrigating 
ditches, connecting with Burlington ditch, that 
has gradually improved the farm. In 1891, wish- 

ing additional land, he rented some unimproved 
property, and brought this, also, under cultiva- 
tion. It became his by purchase in 1897, and 
here he has his present home. He makes a 
specialty of raising grain for shipment. It is a 
fixed principle with him to attend strictly to his 
own affairs and to keep out of public office. Thus 
he is nothing of a politician, though he never 
neglects to discharge his full duty as a citizen 
and voter, his ballot being used in favor of the 
nominees of the Republican party. He was 
reared in the faith of the Unitarian Church, but 
does not hold membership with any denomina- 
tion. In all his dealings with his fellow-men 
his course is marked by unquestionable and 
straightforward honesty and fairness, and the es- 
teem and respect of all who know him are his in 
no unstinted measure. 

3AC0B CAMPBELL, M. D., of Ward, Boulder 
County, was born in the city of St. Louis, 
January 22, 1863, and is a son of Alexander 
Campbell. His father, though a native of Wheel- 
ing, W. Va., was a resident of St. Louis from his 
youth until 1871, when he moved to Denver; 
three years later he removed to Boulder. He 
then retired from business and returned to St. 
Louis. His wife was Margaret Hayes, who was 
born in Tipperary, Ireland. Three children were 
bom to them, of whom Joseph and Jacob survive. 
One son, John, died in this county at the age of 
twenty-nine years. 

Dr. Campbell received the rudiments of his 
education in Boulder, after which he entered the 
medical department of the University of Colorado, 
from which he graduated May 31, 1887, with the 
degree of M. D. On the ist of June, that year, 
he located in Ward, where he has remained ever 
since. He was the first physician to locate in 
the village, and he has built up a lucrative 
practice, which extends over a radius of some 
eight miles. For several years he had to carry a 
line of drugs and dispense medicine himself, as 
there was no drug store there until within the 
last four years. 

He was married in Altona, Colo., to Miss 
Inez B. Clawson, who was born in Minnesota, 
and is a daughter of Abraham Clawson, now of 
Denver. They have four children: William 
Ralph, Jacob Carl, Ethel June and Ernest Glenn. 



The doctor was interested in the Newmarket 
mine and helped develop it until it was sold. He 
has been a member of the school board, serving 
as secretary and president, and succeeded in 
getting bonds for the present schoolhouse. He 
was elected county coroner two terms, resigning 
the second year of the second term. He is a 
member of the Boulder County Medical Society, 
and examiner for the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen and the Knights of Pythias. He is 
also a member of the order of Rathbone Sisters. 
He is examiner for a number of leading life insur- 
ance companies, such as the New York Life, New 
York Mutual, New York Equitable, United 
States Life, and others. He is a Democrat, and 
is chairman of the committee of Ward precinct 
No. 10, and a member of the county central 

nOHN M. PAULDING is comparatively a 
I recent comer to Colorado, as his residence 
(2/ here dates back but twelve years. He owns 
a good homestead on section 25, township 2 
south, range 68 west, Arapahoe County. This 
property has been in his possession less than a 
decade, but during this period he has placed 
many material improvements upon it, and now 
has one of the best farms in the township. He is 
a successful and progressive farmer, and though 
he found that Colorado methods of agriculture 
are vastly different from those in use farther east, 
he soon adapted himself to the new conditions 
and is doing well. He is a member of the grange, 
and takes the best agricultural journals of the 
day, in order to keep up with modern systems of 

The paternal grandfather of J. M. Paulding 
was John W. Paulding, whose father, John 
Paulding, was the soldier who captured Major 
Andre in the days of the Revolution. Grand- 
father J. W. Paulding was a hatter by trade, and 
plied his calling in Pittsburg, Pa., and in St. 
Louis, whither he removed when our subject's 
father was about three years old. He also built 
a sawmill in Shannon County, Mo., and became 
well off in this world's goods. Judge George 
Paulding, father of J. M., was born in Pittsburg, 
Pa., and received a good business education in 
Belleville, 111., and in St. Louis. When he was 
about seventeen years old he went to Shannon 
County to look after his father's mill, and em- 

barked in farming there. Later he moved into 
Texas County, Mo., where he bought land and 
passed the rest of his life. He was a prominent 
man there, holding the offices of justice of the 
peace, county surveyor, assessor, probate judge 
and judge of the county court. He served in the 
Confederate army during the Civil war. His 
first wife was Julia Turpin, and to them seven 
children were born. After the death of this wife, 
the judge remarried and had several children. 
James F. , of the first family, died a short time 
after entering the army, of fever contracted in 
the service. 

The birth of J. M. Paulding occurred in Shan- 
non County, Mo., March 16, 1845. The schools 
in that county were very poor at that time, and 
the lad did not have very good opportunities for 
gaining an education. He enlisted in the com- 
pany of which his father was a sergeant (Com- 
pany B, Fifth Division, Missouri Volunteers), 
and about six months after was taken sick with 
the measles. He went home, and while there, 
he and his father were captured, but were soon 
released upon parole. After he had returned to 
the paths of peace he resumed his interrupted 
studies. He continued to dwell under the 
parental roof until he was twenty-two years of 
age, when he homesteaded a tract of one hundred 
and sixty acres in Texas Countj', Mo., and began 
its improvement. 

To his new humble home Mr. Paulding 
brought a bride to share his joys and sorrows. 
She was formerly Miss Sarah Roberts, of Texas 
County, Mo., and their marriage was solemnized 
April 3, 1868. A native of Tennessee, she had 
removed to Missouri with her parents, James and 
Elizabeth Roberts, when she was but five years 
old. Six children were born to the couple in 
Missouri. William G. is a good business man 
and prospector; John M. married Maude Bache- 
lor, and lives in De Lamar, Idaho; James F. 
married Rose Cline, and is engaged in running a 
grocery in Denver; Maggie B., a very successful 
teacher, supplemented her excellent education by 
attending Professor Dick's normal school, and 
has taught in her home district for four years, 
giving satisfaction to all. Mary E. and Ella M. 
are both at home, the latter attending school. 
The parents are members of the Christian 

Five years after settling on the Mis,souri farm 




that he had entered from the government, Mr. 
Paulding sold it and bought a better piece of 
eighty acres, and there made his home until 
1886, when he started for Colorado with his 
family. They drove all the way, and in their 
two wagons carried supplies for camping and 
housekeeping. They had intended to go to 
Routt County, Colo., but stopped in Denver, and 
finally did not leave the vicinity. They like the 
country and are succeeding in all their undertak- 
ings, being engaged mostly in gardening. 

HON. JAMES B. ARTHUR, a pioneer of 
'60 in Colorado and now the secretary and 
treasurer of the Consolidated Plaster Com- 
pany of Denver, is one of the most prominent 
and successful citizens of Fort Collins, of which 
city he has served as mayor and in other public 
positions of trust. He was born in County 
Londonderry, Ireland, in March, 1835, of Scotch 
lineage, his grandfather, Arthur, having been a 
native of Scotland and an active member of the 
Presbyterian Church in that country. The 
father, James Arthur, was born in Ireland, where 
he engaged in farming and stock-raising until 
his death, when past fifty years of age. He was 
three times married, and by his union with Mary 
Booth, a native of County Tyrone, and whose 
family were, like his own, freeholders, he had 
five children, three of whom attained years of 
maturity, namely: James B., of this sketch; John, 
who joined our subject in Colorado and was 
accidentally killed on the Cache la Poudre April 
15, 1878, by a runaway team; and Jane, wife of 
William Jessup, who died in what is now 
Hoboken, Pa. There are two daughters living 
of another marriage, Rozetta, of Allegheny City, 
Pa., and Grace, who is married and lives in 

In 1849, when fourteen years of age, Mr. 
Arthur started for America, and, crossing the 
ocean, joined his sister in Pennsylvania. His 
voyage on the sailer "Cathnes-shire," from Bel- 
fast to New York City, was an eventful one, not 
only because it was his first glimpse of the world 
outside of his own parish home, but more 
especially on account of shipwreck. The vessel 
was wrecked on Barren Island, thirty miles from 
New York, and remained stranded on a sand-bar 

until the tide went down. The passengers were 
rescued by a tugboat from New York. 

In Pittsburg the boy found employment in the 
grocery of Matthews & Bros. , where he remained 
for eighteen months. He then secured work as 
cabin boy on a steamer on the Ohio and Miss- 
issippi Rivers, and later was promoted to be a 
clerk. His boat plied the waters of the rivers 
between Pittsburg and New Orleans in winters, 
while the summers were spent on the great lakes. 
He was finally made baggage master and placed 
in charge also of express packages on the boats 
that were run in connection with railroads, on 
the Sandusky, Toledo, Buffalo and Detroit lines. 
Quitting the lake trade in 1858, he came west as 
far as Nebraska City, making the journey via the 
steamer "Morning Star" from St. Louis to St. Joe, 
Mo., and on the steamer "Florence" from St. Joe 
to Nebraska City. He joined his brother John 
in that place and remained there until the Pike's 
Peak excitement drew so many to the mountains 
of the west. Determining to seek his fortune in 
Colorado, in the spring of i860 he came across 
the plains with two yoke of oxen and a wagon, on 
the south side of the Platte, to near Fort Kearney, 
then going on to Denver. He met friends, dis- 
couraged and returning east, but he refused to 
act on their advice and turn back. He had an 
abundance of provisions for a year and was deter- 
mined to see the country for himself. 
■ Landing in Denver June 10, he proceeded 
from there into the Gilpin and Clear Creek dis- 
tricts, and from there went via Bear Canon to 
Boulder. While in the mining region, observa- 
tion taught him that mining was not always a 
success. He decided the best thing for him to do 
would be to cut and make hay and haul to the 
mountains. This he did, locating his claim on 
the Cache la Poudre, where the land was well 
adapted for his purpose. There were then only 
two tents in the valley and about six houses. 
The neighboring village of LaPorte was as large 
as now, but its inhabitants were French and 
Indians. The valleys of the Cache la Poudre and 
Big Thompson were ruled by the Claim Club 
prior to the formation of the regular government. 
This unique organization had a president, vice- 
president, secretary and justice of the peace, and 
all matters of controversy were first submitted to 
the justice and from him taken to the president, 
whose decision was final. 



Below we give a copy of the patent for his land 
which Mr. Arthur still has in his possession. On 
the back is the following endorsement: 

Claim 63 
Book A 
Page 32 
Club Record 

J. B. Arthur 
160 Acres, 
Colona City, N. T. 
July 25, i860. 

William G. Goodwin, 
Fees $1 Recorder. 

The N. T. stands for Nebraska Territory. 
Within the document is the following: 
J. B. Arthur claim 160 acres 
Claim 63 
Book A 
Page 32 
Club Record 
Commencing at a point or stake marked the 
N. E. corner of the claim of I. S. Cole, running 
thence south ^ mile, crossing the Cache la 
Poudre River to a stake, thence east ^ mile 
crossing the Cache la Poudre River to a stake 
marking the southeast corner, thence north Y-z 
mile to a stake, thence west to the place of 

Taken July 17, i860, according to regulations. 
Recorded July 25, i860. 

William G. Goodwin, 

The hay that he cut Mr. Arthur hauled to 
Central City and Blackhawk, ninety miles dis- 
tant, using at first two yoke of oxen, but later 
three and four yoke and several wagons. He had 
none of the. modern improvements to assist in his 
work, and was forced to cut all of his hay with a 
hand scythe. Prices were high, and the expense 
of living was considerable. Bacon was as high as 
forty-five cents per pound, and other things in 
proportion. In 1862 and 1863 he made a private 
ditch from the Cache la Poudre and later enlarged 
the ditch. He also introduced other improve- 
ments, thus increasing the value of the farm, 
which, in 1880 he sold. In 1863 he went to 
Missouri and bought a bunch of cattle, which he 
drove across the plains and embarked in the 
stock business. Later he drove from Oregon and 

Idaho to Wyoming, where the cattle lived on the 
range. In 1883 he closed out the open range 
business and settled in Fort Collins, where he had 
built a residence the previous year and planted 
trees on the place. He still owns large tracts of 
land, having one ranch three miles east, and 
another eight miles southeast of Fort Collins; one 
at Arthur's Bridge on the Cache la Poudre, 
twelve miles east of Fort Collins, and a large 
stock ranch on the Larimer River bottom in 
Larimer County. 

Aside from his stock and farm interests, Mr. 
Arthur has been identified with many important 
business enterprises. He is a director in the 
Poudre Valley Bank, which was changed from a 
private to a state bank; also a director in the 
Empson Packing Company at Longmont. He 
bought and opened the gypsum quarries and beds 
at Red Buttes, Wyo. , also the plaster beds in that 
place. About 1890 the company had mills erected, 
where they manufactured under the name of 
the Rocky Mountain Plaster, Stucco and Manu- 
facturing Company. In 1893, at the World's Fair 
in Chicago, they had an exhibit of the products of 
the quarries in the manufacturers' building, 
Wyoming exhibit, and received the highest 
award for the same, also a diploma and medal for 
other exhibits. In 1896 they added machinery, 
and then began the manufacture of the best grade 
of cement plaster in the world. The capacity of 
the mills is eighty thousand pounds a day. 

October 11, 1892, the Buckhorn Plaster Com- 
pany at Loveland, Denver Gypsum Company 
and Colorado Springs Plaster and Cement Com- 
pany were incorporated under the name of the 
Consolidated Plaster Company, with Mr. Arthur 
as vice-president. Later the number of mills was 
reduced by moving the Denver Gypsum Com- 
pany's mills to the Buckhorn quarries in Larimer 
County. The Colorado Springs business was 
destroyed by fire, and its interest was purchased 
by Mr. Arthur. On the death of the first presi- 
dent, J. C. Helm succeeded to the ofiice, Mr. 
Arthur became secretary and treasurer, and 
A. Wild was made vice-president and manager. 
The capacity of the two Buckhorn mills is now 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand pounds per 
day and a fine quality of hard rock cement is the 
product. Shipments are made to California, 
Oregon, Idaho, Montana and Washington. At 
Red Buttes the company owns two hundred and 



sixty-six acres on section 2 1 , south of the Union 
Pacific Railroad, and furnishing an inexhaustible 
supply of gypsum. 

In Bay City, Mich., Mr. Arthur married Miss 
Mary Kelley, a native of Ireland, whose parents 
were settlers in Buffalo, N. Y. , while her brother 
was captain on the lakes for many years and was 
a resident of Bay City. For about six years Mr. 
Arthur resided in Greeley, where his wife had a 
sister living. There he contracted heavily in 
stock, at times having as many as four thousand 
head on hand. He was appointed by Governor 
Evans a member of the board of commissioners to 
perfect the organization of Larimer County, 
establishing voting precincts and serving until 
after the first election. The county was divided 
into three commissioners' districts, one of which 
elected a commissioner for one year, another for 
two years and the third for three years, .so that 
an entire change would not be necessary at one 
time. At that time was established the precedent, 
which still holds, that the oldest commissioner, 
in point of service, shall be chairman of the 
board the last year of his term. After one year 
he was elected to succeed the one-year man, and 
three years later was re-elected, being the nom- 
inee of his party, the Democratic, endorsed by 
the Republicans, and elected without a dissenting 
vote. About the time his second term ended, he 
removed to Weld County. For two terms he 
was a member of the town council, and from 1893 
to 1895 served as mayor of Fort Collins. Frater- 
nally he was made a Mason in Fort Collins and 
served as master of Lodge No. 19, A. F. & 
A. M., is also identified with Cache la Poudre 
Chapter No. 11, R. A. M. ; DeMolay Command- 
ery No. 13, K. T., which he joined at Greeley, 
but is now a member in Fort Collins and past 
eminent commander of the commandery; and El 
Jebel Temple, N. M. S. He is identified with 
the Episcopal Church, in which he holds the 
office of vestryman. 

p QlLLIAM E. JOHNSON. "There is a tide 
\ A / in the affairs of men" and of localities as 
Y V well "that, taken at the flood, leads on to 
fortune." Such a tide came in the history of the 
Cripple Creek mining region and in the life of Mr. 
Johnson, when, in 1892, he conceived the idea of 
building a railroad there from Florence. The 

idea, once formed, was soon carried out. He in- 
corporated the Florence and Cripple Creek Rail- 
road Company, and, with his associates, built the 
road, running the first train into Cripple Creek 
July 2, 1894. From that time Cripple Creek 
prospered and is now the greatest gold camp 
known, notwithstanding claims to the contrary 
by others. In 1896 he retired from the active 
managementof the road, though still remaining 
a director, and since then he has been interested 
in the working out of a new line running from 
Florence south to Custer County. At the time 
of his location in Florence, in 1889, it was a mere 
cross-road, and it was due in no small measure 
to his enterprise that it has grown to a thriving 
city of four thousand. 

The Johnson family is of English-Scotch de- 
.scent. The grandfather of our subject was the 
proprietor of a sawmill in Wentworth, N. H., 
and engaged in manufacturing lumber there. 
The father, Proctor E. Johnson, who was born 
in New Hampshire, followed the millwright's trade 
in Massachusetts, but in 1857 removed to Iowa 
and located at Iowa Falls, Hardin County, where 
he engaged in bridge building on different rail- 
road lines, finally becoming contractor in the 
construction of bridges in different states. He 
died in Iowa in 1879. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Clarinda Ellery, was a descendant of 
the family to which belonged William Ellery, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. She 
was a daughter of Abraham Ellery, a farmer of 
Hopkinton, Mass., where she was born; she died 
in Colorado in 1897, leaving two sons, Wilbur 
Kossuth and William Ellery, both of Denver. 

Born in Hopkinton, Middlesex County, Mass., 
October 26, 1857, the subject of this sketch was 
only six months of age when his parents removed 
to Iowa Falls, Iowa, and in 1863 they went from 
there to Fostoria, Ohio, returning, however, to 
Iowa Falls in 1866. His education, begun in the 
public schools, was extended by a course of study 
in the Iowa State University at Iowa City. May 
6, 1878, he started from Iowa Falls, in company 
with three other young men, with teams and 
supplies, for Colorado, arriving here on the 4th 
of July. Going direct to Alamosa, he obtained 
employment in an engineering corps as a surveyor 
for a projected road to Pagosa Springs. In 
November he went to Canon City, Fremont 
County, where he resided the most of the time 



until 1886. Meantime he incorporated the Canon 
City Water Company and built the water works. 
In 1886 he took a position with the Colorado Coal 
and Iron Company, the then leading company of 
the state, and had charge of all their business in 
Pitkin and Garfield Counties, opening coalmines 
and building the Aspen and Western Railroad, 
which, though quite difficult of construction, 
was useful only in forming a short line to the 
coal mines. 

In 1885, in company with several other gentle- 
men, Mr. Johnson incorporated and founded the 
Florence Oil and Refining Company, of Florence, 
Fremont County, this being one of the first com- 
panies formed in the state to produce oil on a 
commercial scale. It still continues in business, 
and, with one other company, furnishes all the 
oil used in six states. When Cripple Cteek be- 
gan to attract attention in 1892, Mr. Johnson, as 
before stated, turned his attention to the building 
of a railroad to that point. May 27, 1885, he 
married Miss Emma Adelaide Mulock, who was 
born in New York state. A prominent Mason, 
he is identified with the Knights Templar at 
Canon City and El Jebel Temple, N. M. S., at 

Gl EBERT E. PATTISON. Numbered among 
I 1 the members of the legal fraternity in 
I I Denver are many who rank as the peers of 
the best representatives at the bar of any other 
city, whether it be east or west. In this list of 
able attorneys mention belongs to Mr. Pattison, 
who has his office in the Ernest & Cranmer 
building, and who has for the past fifteen years 
given especial attention to railroad and corpora- 
tion law, being a recognized authority in that 
department of the profession. He possesses a 
mind of great breadth, with the executive force 
and ability necessary to the successful consumma- 
tion of important plans. In addition to his 
private practice he is dean of the faculty of the 
University of Denver law department and has 
been an important factor in enlarging the work 
accomplished by that school. 

At the time of the religious persecutions in 
Scotland the Pattison family left that country and 
settled in Belfast, Ireland. From there, in 1730, 
Adam Pattison came to America, establishing 
his home in Colerain, Mass. He had a son, 
Jonathan Stuart, who was born in Massachusetts 

and in early manhood removed to New York, 
establishing a permanent settlement in Chautau- 
qua County in 1809. Next in line of descent 
was Albert H. Pattison, a native of Chautauqua 
County and, like his forefathers, a farmer by 
occupation. By his marriage to Sophia McDon- 
nell, a son, Albert E., was born in Chautauqua 
County, February 10, 1846. The latter spent 
his boyhood days upon the home farm and re- 
ceived his primary education in the district 
schools. At the age of thirteen he entered the 
Fredonia Academy, where he remained a student 
for three years. Before he was ten years old 
he decided to be a lawyer, and all of his sub- 
sequent study was with that object in view. 
Realizing the need of a broad knowledge, he 
spent one year in study at St. Lawrence Uni- 
versity, in Canton, St. Lawrence County, N. Y., 
and afterward was for four years a student 
in Hamilton College at Clinton, Oneida County, 
N. Y. , from which he graduated in 1868, with 
the degree of A. B. 

In the office of Sherman & Scott, at Forest- 
ville, Chautauqua County, N. Y. , Mr. Pattison 
commenced the study of Blackstone and began to 
gain an idea of the intricacies of the law. Later 
he was in the office of Kiron Carroll, at Rome, 
N. Y. , and was admitted to the bar there in 
April, 1869. He began professional practice as 
a member of the firm of Murray & Pattison, at 
Dunkirk, N. Y., where for five years he con- 
ducted a profitable practice, meantime gaining a 
reputation as one of the rising young lawyers of 
the town. January 25, 1870, at Cleveland, Ohio, 
he married Miss Emma A. Paddock, of that 

Seeking a larger field for professional activity, 
Mr. Pattison removed to Buffalo in June, 1874, 
and there he had a large and lucrative practice 
for eight years, when his wife's ill health led him 
to seek another location. He came to Denver in 
June, 1882, and at once opened a law office, since 
which time he has gained a large clientele and a 
reputation as one of the best attorneys in the 
city. Though reared in the Democratic faith he 
allied himself with the Republican party in 1880 
and has since voted that ticket. He has never 
been a politician nor an office seeker, and the 
only position he ever accepted was that of mem- 
ber of the supreme court commission in 1888, 
but this he resigned a year later. He is a mem- 



ber of St. Mark's Episcopal Church and holds 
office as a vestryman. He and his wife have two 
children: Myron Adams and Lucia Ella, the 
latter a graduate of the University of Denver. 

(lOHN COOKE, who is a well-known con- 
I tractor and builder, has engaged in business 
Q) in Denver since 1879. He has had the con- 
tract for many important public buildings here, 
including among others the Ernest & Cranmer, 
Boston, Cooper and Enterprise buildings, Wood- 
ward block. Hay den, Dickinson & Feldhauser's 
block, the brickwork on the Union depot after the 
fire, Pioneer building, McCarthney and McClin- 
tock blocks, Pettit block, the Hyde Park, Ash- 
land, and Logan Avenue schoolhouses, also 
several additions to schoolhouses and other build- 
ings, the town hall in Elyria, St. Leo's Church, 
the Highlands Congregational Church, Joseph 
Schlitz Brewing Company's building on Seven- 
teenth and Blake streets, the Denver Packing 
Company's building on Blake street, Barth block, 
Denver Paper Mill, Griffith Wheel Works, and 
the majority of the car shops for the city cable 
company, on both the north and east sides; also 
the residences of Lewis E. Lemen, M.D., Colonel 
Dodge and Charles Hallock. For fifteen years 
he has been engaged in the manufacture of brick, 
having a brick yard covering two and one-half 
blocks of McKee's addition to East Denver and 
another yard, covering one and one-half blocks 
in Ashley's addition, adjoining City Park. 

The Cooke family originally resided in Eng- 
land, but removed to Cork, Ireland, where were 
born our subject, his father, William, and grand- 
father, Michael. The last named, who was a con- 
tractor, built lighthouses and barracks for the 
English government, and William was also ex- 
tensively engaged in the same line of work for 
many years. He still resides in Cork and is quite 
hale, notwithstanding his seventy-seven useful 
years. His wife, Ellen, was a daughter of John 
Collins, who was born in Cork, of English and 
Scotch descent, and engaged in farming there. 
She died at forty years. Her four sons and two 
of her four daughters are living, namely: John; 
Michael and Mrs. Ann Sullivan, both of Denver; 
William, a contractor for the British government 
in Cork; Ellen and James, of Denver. 

The model national school in a suburb of Cork, 

which was one of four schools of the kind in Ire- 
land, was the scene of our subject's boyhood 
studies. He graduated from it in 1861 and began to 
learn the stone mason's trade under his father, as- 
sisting on government works during his appren- 
ticeship of five years. Then, going to England, he 
finished his trade on the British government docks 
atCardufi". In 1869 he came to America and set- 
tled in Elmira, N. Y., where he built residences, 
blocks and schoolhouses, some of the finest build- 
ings in the city. He also built the town hall in 
Hornellsville, fifteen stores in Mansfield, Tioga 
County, Pa., and rebuilt the burned district after 
a fire in Corning, N. Y. From the east he came 
to Denver, where he has since been busily en- 
gaged in contracting and building. Among his 
important contracts here was that for the Grant 
smelter smoke stack, three hundred and seventy- 
two feet high, the tallest stack in the United 
States. For work of that character he had been 
trained by his father, whom he had often assisted 
in building lighthouses, and he was therefore pre- 
pared to fill the contract to the letter and do 
successful work. 

Mr. Cooke built a residence for his family at 
No. 2150 Lafayette street. In this city he mar- 
ried Miss Margaret McCarthy, of Corning, N. Y. 
They are the parents of five children: William, 
Mary, John, Jr., Eugene and Ellen. Politically 
Mr. Cooke is a Democrat. He is a director in 
the Brick Contractors and Manufacturers' Associ- 
ation and has held the same position for three 
terms in the Master Builders' Association. 

. RNEST GUEBELLE, who owns a beauti- 
'y ful home at Villa Park, a suburb of Denver, 
^ is an esteemed citizen. He is an example 
worthy to be followed by the youth of the rising 
generation, for few of them, it is to be hoped, 
have greater obstacles in their pathway to over- 
come than he did until late years. He was always 
ambitious, industrious and enterprising, and to 
such men success is sure to come sooner or later, 
as they truly deserve. 

Born in Belfort, France, August 2, 1863, the 
gentleman of whom we write is the second child 
of Charles F. and Emilie (Tobler) Guebelle. 
The others are: Mina, wife of Leon Bailley, of 
New York City; Mathilde, formerly a teacher in 
the public schools of Rochester, N. Y.; Camille, 



employed as a clerk in the BuflFalo (N. Y.) post- 
office; and William, principal of a public school 
in a suburb of New York on the Hudson River. 

The senior Guebelle was born in 1831 in Cer- 
nay, France, and there received a superior educa- 
tion. He learned the business of manufacturing 
ornamental and carved combs (handwork) when 
he was a boy, and followed the trade independ- 
ently for a few years. As every able-bodied man 
in France is required to spend a certain length of 
time in the army, he servedhis time, and by his 
ability and efficiency rose from the ranks to be 
a commissioned officer. During the Crimean war 
he distinguished himself by his bravery and won 
the highest praise from his superiors. He died 
in 1867, while still in the service of his country. 
He was a Catholic by birth, according to the 
usage of the communion, but died strong in the 
Protestant faith. He had acquired considerable 
property, among which were two vineyards of 

Soon after her husband's death Mrs. Emilie 
Guebelle came to the United States with her two 
younger children, the other three remaining with 
relatives in France. Going to Rochester, N. Y., 
the plucky little woman rented a house, which, 
it seems, was the first one erected in the city, as 
the corner-stone bore the date of 1812. A lady 
of finished education, she had little difficulty in 
securing pupils in the best families in the place, 
and soon she was busy from morning until night, 
giving instruction in German and French. Later 
she established a school of her own and em- 
ployed other teachers. Her death occurred in 

When his brave mother sailed from France to 
the unknown land and life she had planned in the 
west, Ernest Guebelle was left with his grand- 
father, Henri Tobler, who for half a century was 
an employe of a woolen-cloth mills in Cernay, 
and for years was superintendent of the plant. 
Four years having rolled away, Mrs. Guebelle 
sent for her children. Ernest was but nine and 
his eldest sister only two years his senior, but to- 
gether they started on the long trip to their loved 
ones across the ocean. They left Antwerp on the 
Star line ship "Fatherland" bound for Philadel- 
phia. On the voyage the ship passed through 
two storms, one of her boilers becoming disabled, 
and thus it was seventeen days ere she reached 
her destination. At Harrisburg, Pa., the chil- 

dren had to change cars, and, as they could not 
speak English, they waited in the depot for thir- 
ty-six hours before a German, making himself 
understood, put them on the right train. On 
reaching Elmira they were obliged to stay over 
night, and a kind-hearted German hotel-keeper, 
seeing the little ones in the depot, took them to 
his hotel and kept them until they were ready to 
depart, then refusing any payment. Recently, 
when on a visit east, Mr. Guebelle endeavored to 
find the good Samaritan hotel man, but was un- 
successful in his effijrts. 

In the public schools of Rochester Ernest 
Guebelle received a good education, completing 
his studies in Benjamin's high school, a private 
institution of learning. There the youth paid his 
way by sweeping and general janitor work. He 
apprenticed himself to the printer's trade in a 
German newspaper office, but stayed there but 
ten or eleven months, then accepting a position 
with the Judson Steam Governor Works. He 
was employed on piece work, and was so active 
and ambitious, that the superintendent once came 
to him and told him not to run his machine so 
rapidly, as it shook the whole building. At this 
time he also had a Sunday newspaper route, and 
averaged $2 per Sunday in this manner. 

Having heard much about Denver and the 
west, Mr. Guebelle decided to come here, and 
arrived in this city July 3, 1879. He went to 
live with an uncle who kept a saloon at the corner 
of Nineteenth and Larimer streets. The lad at- 
tended bar for a month, but the business was not 
at all to his taste, and he was apprenticed to a 
blacksmith. As he had to work six months 
without wages he continued to live at his uncle's, 
and in return for his food and shelter he cleaned 
the saloon every morning early, and attended bar 
at noon. When the six months dragged to an 
end he was given $4 a week, and he then boarded 
himself Later he received $6 a week. Toward 
the close of the second year he secured a place as 
janitor in a Good Templar lodge (doing this in 
addition to his regular work), being paid $10 a 
month for his services. The third year his wages 
were $8 a week, and the following year he worked 
up to $3.50 per day. In 1885 he opened up a 
shop of his own on West Colfax avenue, and 
here ,he has built up a large and remunerative 

In 1893 Mr. Guebelle bought a tract of ten 



acres six miles west of Denver, on the Denver, 
Lakewood & Golden Railroad. There he erected 
a lovely residence, and is making of the place an 
ideal suburban abode. The lad}^ who charm- 
ingly presides over this home was formerly Miss 
Ivilly M. King. She was born in Wisconsin, and 
became the wife of Mr. Guebelle July 23, 1881. 
The two children of their union are: Beatrice, 
now attending the manual training school, and 
Ernestine, who is still in the public schools. In 
political matters Mr. Guebelle is not partisan, 
and in all concerns which bear upon the welfare 
of the people he strives to be well posted, liberal 
and unbiased in judgment. 

r~REDERICK MILHEIM, a respected citi- 
rQ zen of Arapahoe County, is a worthy 
I ' example of what may be accomplished by 
an industrious, ambitious young man, in spite of 
great discouragements and difficulties. The 
years have swiftly passed since the day when he 
landed in Colorado with barely $100 and with 
the great drawback of physical disability, as he 
had recently lost an arm through an accident, it 
having been caught in a machinery-belt and torn 
off. His was not the kind of nature that allows 
itself to be overpowered by trials, though this 
was surely sufficiently serious to justify a person 
in despairing. He bravely nerved himself to 
face the battles of life and everyone who has 
ever known him rejoices in the prosperity which 
he now enjoys as the fruits of his manly struggles 
for a home and competence. His example may 
well be an inspiration to those of the on-coming 

The present home of Mr. Milheim is located 
on section 18, township i south, range 66 west, 
his postoffice being Brighton. From its original 
condition of barrenness and desert-likeness he 
has made the place a garden spot. The land is 
well watered by a fine system of ditches, and 
bountiful harvests reward the owner's care each 
year. From the time the Fulton ditch was 
started Mr. Milheim was one of the most in- 
terested advocates of the plan, and has always 
held stock in the company since. He is a mem- 
ber of the German society Sons of Herman, and 
has filled many of the offices in Koerner Lodge 
No. 4, of Brighton. He also holds membership 
with the Odd Fellows' society, belonging to 

Fidelity Lodge, of Brighton. Politically he is 
independent at present, though he formerly was 
a Democrat and later a Populist. 

The birth of Frederick Milheim occurred near 
Berne, Switzerland, on her father's farm, No- 
vember 17, 1846. His parents, John and 
Mary Milheim, both died when he was quite 
young. At the age of sixteen our subject and 
his younger brother, Alexander, came to the 
United States, and for a few months they found 
employment on farms in New Jersey. Frederick 
Milheim thep proceeded to Niagara Falls and 
thence to Allegan County, Mich., during the 
Civil war. Soon afterwards he entered the 
employ of the United States government as a 
teamster, being regularly enlisted. He served 
in Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama, and once, 
when on the Tennessee River, about sixty-five 
miles above Chattanooga, he and his detach- 
ment of comrades were captured by the Confed- 
erates. He was not kept long imprisoned, 
however, and was finally mustered out of the 
service February 28, 1865, at Chattanooga. 

Returning to Michigan, he joined a company 
of men who were preparing to cross the plains to 
the west. In April they left St. Louis, Mo., 
and at the close of two weeks traveling reached 
Omaha. There Mr. Milheim hired out to a 
party to drive an ox-team across the plains, he 
to receive $35 a month. The journey was not 
only long and trying in ordinary ways common 
to that method of traveling, but was particularly 
dangerous that year, as the Indians along the 
way were on the war-path. As he was working 
at wages, our subject was not spared when there 
was a specially hard or hazardous undertaking on 
hand, but at length the wearisome plains were left 
in the background, and Denver, their goal, came 
within sight, upon the 6th of August. For a 
few months Mr. Milheim was employed in a 
bakery, after which he farmed for a neighboring 
ranchman. He assisted in the construction of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, working as a hewer 
of ties and in tunnels, etc., for a period of two or 
three years, and was later employed by the Union 
Pacific Railroad at Omaha. Going back to 
Allegan County, Mich., he worked in a shingle- 
mill for a few months, and there it was that the 
great misfortune of his life came to him, the loss 
of his arm. Four months he suffered untold 
agonies, but his splended constitution gradually 



recovered from the shock. He was given numer- 
ous opportunities in a business way, but he 
longed to return to Colorado, the state of promise 
and assured future, and again, in 1872, he came 
to its hospitable borders. Emile Riethman em- 
ployed him for the following four years to herd 
cows for his dairy. In various occupations, 
always industrious and making the best use of 
his earnings, the years passed until, in 1879, he 
bought eighty acres of wild land, his present 
homestead. Yet for two or more years he was 
enabled to make but few improvements upon the 
place and was absent, engaged in the cattle busi- 
ness in Wyoming, for the most part. After his 
marriage he settled down here and set about 
making changes on the farm, which enterprises 
resulted most favorably within a few years. He 
has been aided faithfully in all his plans by his 
loyal wife, and frankly owns that he owes much of 
his success to her. 

It was upon November 14, 1883, that Miss 
Emma Hagus, daughter of Andrew Hagus (see 
his sketch elsewhere in this work) became the 
bride of Mr. Milheim. Four children grace their 
union, namely: Fred A., Josephine, Clara and 
Benita. They have a pleasant home and enjoy 
the friendship of a large circle of acquaintances. 

2\ Denver, is a specialist in the treatment of 
Qy nervous and mental diseases and a contribu- 
tor, in these departments, to the medical journals 
both of the east and west. Soon after coming to 
this city he became assistant to Dr. J. T. Eskridge 
in the chair of nervous and mental diseases, med- 
ical department University of Colorado, and in 
addition held the chair of instructor of medical 
chemistry and urinary analysis in the university. 
In 1896 he accepted the position of lecturer of 
nervous and mental diseases in the University of 
Denver, and one year later he was made associate 
professor of this chair, continuing until January, 
1898, when he resigned. Dr. Hopkins was born 
in Catasauqua, Lehigh County, Pa., and is the 
son of William P. Hopkins, known as the ' 'iron 
king of the Lehigh Valley. ' ' The latter was born 
near Neath, Glamorlganshire, Wales, March 24, 
1832, the son of John and Anna (Powell) Hop- 
kins, and when quite young was orphaned by his 
father's death. From eight years of age he had 

been employed in rolling mills. At the age of 
eighteen he went to Staffordshire, and afterward, 
in Workington, he made the first sheet of tin ever 
manufactured out of puddled steel. For this he 
received a watch from his employer, with this in- 
scription: "Presented to William Hopkins for 
meritorious services by James Spence, Working- 
ton, January i, 1859." In i860 he took passage 
on the sailing vessel "Middlesex" and after thir- 
ty-nine days landed in the United States. For 
four years afterward he worked in the sheet-iron 
mills of the Allen Wood Company at Consho- 
hocken, Pa. 

June 29, 1863, Mr. Hopkins enlisted in Com- 
pany F, Forty-third Pennsylvania Militia, and 
with his company was sent to join the Army of 
the Potomac. While away from home two of his 
children died, and for this reason, through the 
kindness of Governor Curtin, he was honorably 
discharged and returned home August 13, 1863. 
Afterward he resumed work with his former em- 
ployers, but in April of the next year he removed 
to Catasauqua, where for twenty-five years he 
was general superintendent of the rolling-mills, 
and during that time manufactured the first plate 
and the first sheet ever rolled in the Lehigh Val- 
ley. In 1882 he built a large rolling-mill at Ful- 
lerton and became its superintendent. He was 
also a large stockholder in the Catasauqua Man- 
ufacturing Company. In February, 1890, he 
resigned in order to organize the Slatington Roll- 
ing Mills, of which he is general manager and the 
principal stockholder. He superintended the 
erection of all the machinery in the mill, which 
has nine furnaces, and furnishes employment for 
one hundred and thirty men. For twenty-one 
years he owned part of the stock in the Union 
Foundry and Machine Company. He invented the 
water shield for the cooling of the front of furnaces, 
but never had the invention patented. 

In Wales, in 1855, William Hopkins married 
Elizabeth Thomas, daughter of Thomas Thomas, 
a tailor in that country. She died in 1888, leav- 
ing five children: John W. ; Louis P., who is en- 
gaged in business with his father; Winifred and 
Elizabeth, at home; and Samuel D., M. D., of 
Denver. The family are identified with the Pres- 
byterian Church and are highly respected by the 
people of Catasauqua. In politics Mr. Hopkins 
is a Republican. 

Under a private tutor the subject of this sketch 




acquired the rudiments of his education. In 1888 
he entered the sophomore class of the University 
of Pennsylvania, but after a year in the classical 
course he entered the medical department of the 
same institution, from which he graduated in 
1893, with the degree of M. D. He had, however, 
studiedsotirelessly in the acquirement of profes- 
sional knowledge, that his health had become se- 
riously impaired, and in selecting a location he 
deemed it necessary to seek a salubrious climate, 
where he might hope to soon regain his former 
strength. Accordingly he came to Denver, where 
he has made his home since June of 1893 and 
where he has become favorably known as a special- 
ist in the treatment of nervous and mental diseases. 
He is neurologist to St. Anthony's Hospital and 
alternate in mental and nervous diseases to the 
county hospital. His office is in the Jackson 
building. He is a member of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation of the University of Pennsylvania, the 
Clinical and Pathological Society, Denver and 
Arapahoe County, and State Medical Societies, 
the Rocky Mountain Inter-State Medical Asso- 
ciation and the American Medical Association. 

30SEPH B. BARCLAY, M. D., who died at 
his home near Longmont, Boulder County, 
September 27, 1896, was one of the honored 
pioneers of this localitj'. When he settled here 
it was his intention to retire from his professional 
life, but his talents were discovered and his serv- 
ices were always in demand up to the last year 
of his career. A loyal, faithful citizen, neighbor 
and friend, he won the deepest regard and ven- 
eration of all who were privileged to know him, 
and always sustained the character of a true 
Christian gentleman. 

The American Barclays are descended from 
one David Barclay, a native of Kirktonhill, Scot- 
land. Born in 1610, he traveled in Germany 
when young, and enlisted in the army of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, of Sweden, where, in numerous 
battles, he won distinction, and was promoted to 
the rank of major. Upon the breaking out of 
the civil wars in his home land he returned and 
bore a conspicuous part in the same, being in- 
trusted with many important commissions and 
military commands. By the energy and prudence 
he displayed he gained a lasting reputation, nor 
were his talents confined to military affairs, for 

almost equally signal were his civic labors. 
Twice he was a member of the parliament, but 
after the Restoration he fell under the displeasure 
of the government for some unexplained reason, 
and for a period was kept a close prisoner in 
Edinburgh Castle. One reason assigned was 
that he had been a trustee under the usurper, 
although he had suffered in the cause of Charles 
I, not only by being thrust from all his posts of 
office, but also by having his estates confiscated 
and retained for several years. At last he was 
liberated without having had any charge laid to 
his doors or reason given him for his commitment 
to prison. His son Robert was the author of ' 'Bar- 
clay's Apology to the Society of Friends," since 
one of their standard works, and when an exten- 
sive grant of land was given the Quakers in New 
Jersey, Mr. Barclay was appointed by Charles I 
to be the first governor of the province of eastern 
New Jersey. 

Dr. Joseph B. Barclay was a grandson of Rev. 
David Barclay, and son of Rev. Charles R. Bar- 
clay, who founded the town of Punxsutawney, 
Pa. The doctor was born in Northampton 
County, Pa., March 19, 1819, and was reared to 
manhood in that and Jefferson Counties, Pa. 
When he was nineteen years of age he entered 
Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, and 
graduated from that institution in 1840. His 
initial practice was in the town where he had 
grown up, but in 1843 he removed to Beverly, 
Ohio, and within a year located in Carmichaels, 
Greene County, Pa., where he remained six 
years. Then for a score of years he was num- 
bered among the leading physicians of Browns- 
ville, Pa. Notwithstanding the fact that he re- 
sided in a community where the majority of the 
inhabitants were not in favor of abolition, he was 
of such sterling, strong convictions, that he 
openly advocated the principle of human liberty 
for the black man as well as for the white man, 
nor did he lose many friends or patrons in spite 
of his views. When the war broke out he 
entered the Union army as first assistant surgeon 
of the Two Hundred and Ninth Pennsylvania 
Infantry, serving until the close of the war, when 
he was granted an honorable discharge. 

For a long time Dr. Barclay had thought seri- 
ously of removing to the great west, and in 1870 
he joined the Union colony as a charter member 
and settled in Weld County, Colo. Later he 



concluded to take up his residence near the 
mountains, and, therefore, located a soldier's 
claim of one hundred and sixty acres in Boulder 
County, and identified himself with the Chicago 
Colony of Longmont. As has been stated, he 
expected to devote himself to a pastoral life, but 
his professional ability was not long "hidden 
under a bushel," and he was busy and useful as 
long as he lived. 

In 1841 Dr. Barclay married Jane E. Cooper, 
who was a native of Indiana County, Pa. , born 
June 5, 1822. With her parents she had removed 
to Bucks County, and later to Jefferson County, 
Pa. Her mother was a niece of Capt. Samuel 
Brady, the noted government scout, and a hero 
of the battle of Bunker Hill. Another uncle, a 
veteran of the war of 1812, was Gen. Hugh 
Brady, of whom General Scott said: "God Al- 
mighty never made a more honest or braver 
man." Eight children were born to Dr. Barclay 
and his most estimable wife, but four are deceased. 
Mary E. is the wife of Maj. William Norcross, 
city treasurer of Greeley, Colo.; Charles is an 
attorney of Philadelphia, Pa.; and James C. is a 
resident of Longmont, Colo. 

Edgar Barclay, who was born October 2, 1857, 
in Brownsville, Pa., and is the seventh child of 
Dr. Barclay, has had charge of his father's busi- 
ness affairs for several years, and since the death 
of his father has been the sole manager of the 
estate. He is a young man of genuine ability 
and executive talent, these qualities having been 
fostered in him by his financial experience in the 
east. He graduated in law in Philadelphia eleven 
years ago, and returned to Colorado, intending 
to practice here. However, he was called back 
to Philadelphia to assist in the organization of a 
commercial enterprise, which consumed his time 
up to 1893. He then came to Colorado and 
relieved his father of the weight of business cares 
which bore heavily upon him in his declining 

UjATHANIEL D. JOHNSON, a successful 
YJ stock-raiser living one and one-half miles 
l/j south of Altona, Bouldei" County, was born 
in Winneshiek County, Iowa, August 7, 1857, 
and was the younger of two children, having a 
sister, Mrs. Mary Woodward, who resides in 
Howard County, Iowa. When he was four weeks 
old his mother died, and the friend, Mrs. Joshua 

P. Johnson, who had attended her in her last ill- 
ness, feeling a tender pity in her heart for the 
orphan boy, took him home with her. There 
she supplied every comfort that her means permit- 
ted. When she and her husband decided to move 
to Colorado they legally adopted the child, then 
two and one-half years of age, and his father's 
name of David Easier was changed to his adopted 
father's name of Johnson. 

In the spring of i860 the family came to Colo- 
rado, where Mr. Johnson engaged in mining. 
After some years he came to this valley, where 
he worked on a farm for some time, and then took 
up a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, 
situated one mile north of Hay Stack Mountain. 
On that place he engaged in farming until his 
death, which occurred in September, 1897. He 
was a native of Clarke County, Ohio, born in 
1818, and was seventy- nine years of age at the 
time of his death. 

In boyhood our subject acquired a common- 
school education. While he was in school, on 
the breaking out of small-pox in the neighbor- 
hood, he was vaccinated, and later, when his arm 
had healed, he took off the scab and went around 
the neighborhood vaccinating the boys who had 
escaped the doctors in their rounds. In that way 
he was given the name of "Doc," which has 
clung to him ever since. At the age of sixteen 
he began at farm work and herding cattle, trading 
horses, etc. When he was nineteen he went to 
the northern part of the state, where he worked 
as a cowboy for two years. Returning to Left 
Hand, he farmed for one year, then went again 
to the northern part of the state with a bunch of 
cattle of his own. There he took care of his cat- 
tle until the fall of 1880 and at the same time 
worked for others. On selling his stock, he re- 
turned to Left Hand. February 14, 1881, he 
married Mrs. Florilla Dagle, the widow of Joseph 
Dagle, and daughter of Joseph and Herrilda 
(Pribble) Hall. 

After his marriage Mr. Johnson took up one 
hundred and sixty acres of land as a homestead 
and pre-empted one hundred and sixty acres, 
where he now resides. He has since followed 
stock-raising and has met with remarkable success 
in his business ventures. He is one of the few 
men who have made a success of the cattle busi- 
ness at all stages of the work, and his efficiency 
in the business has made him prominent among 



the stock-raisers of his community. In addition 
to his cattle interests, he takes an active part in 
public affairs and is particularly interested in 
educational matters. For several years he served 
as a member of the school board. 

(Tames E. HUBBARD has been alderman 
I from the fourth ward of Boulder since 1892, 
O having been elected on the Republican ticket 
it the year mentioned and having been three 
times re-elected. He has done effective service 
on many important committees, and has acted in 
the capacity of chairman of the committees on 
streets and finance, etc. While he has been one 
of the city fathers great improvements have been 
made, adding much to the general attractiveness 
and desirability of Boulder as a place of residence. 
The water-works have been enlarged and made 
more efficient; the electric light plant has been 
built, streets graded and paved, sewers laid, etc. 
For many years Mr. Hubbard has been an ac- 
knowledged leader in local politics, and has been 
an earnest worker for the success of his party. 
He is and has been for a long period the chair- 
man of the committee of his precinct and was 
formerly a member of the state Republican com- 

The Hubbards were early settlers in Maine, 
coming to this country from England. The sub- 
ject of this article has in his possession an old 
Queen Anne flint musket, which was carried by 
his great-grandfather Hubbard in the Revolu- 
tionary war. Grandfather William Hubbard, a 
native of Maine, was a life-long resident of that 
state, a farmer by occupation. He died when 
about fourscore years of age. The parents of 
our subject, James and Hannah (Adams) Hub- 
bard, were natives of Maine and Gilmanton, N. H., 
respectively. The mother was closely related 
to the two presidents of the United States, 
John Adams and John Quincy Adams. She is a 
daughter of Samuel Adanis, who departed this 
life in New Hampshire. She is now eighty-five 
years of age, and is making her home with her 
son, James E. James Hubbard joined the colony 
which went to Grinnell, Iowa, in 1854, and there 
established Grinnell College and the Congrega- 
tional Church. He bought and sold real estate 
there for a few years and in i860 started for Pike's 
Peak, with ox-teams. Arriving in Blackhawk, 

Gilpin County, Colo., he engaged in mining and 
the following year built a log house and made 
other improvements upon a farm three and a-half 
miles from Boulder on the South Boulder River. 
His family joined him August 14, 1862, and he 
continued to cultivate his homestead until a year 
or two before his death, which event occurred in 
1878, when he was in his sixty -sixth year. He 
was a deacon in the Congregational Church here, 
and was one of the chief contributors to the build- 
ing at the time of its erection. Of his five chil- 
dren one is deceased. Elizabeth is the wife of Eli 
Dickerson, a Boulder merchant; Martha is Mrs. 
LeFevre, of Gunnison County; and Sarah is Mrs. 
Robert Lyman, of this place. 

James E. Hubbard, the youngest of his father's 
family, was born in Sanford, Me., September 
22, 1851. With the others he went to Grinnell, 
and in 1862 came to this state with his mother 
and sisters. They journeyed overland by ox- 
teams, via Plattsmouth, Neb., up the South Platte 
and through Fort lyupton, and altogether spent 
eleven weeks on the trip. James E. was a student 
in the first schoolhouse erected in Boulder, 
and prepared himself for college under private 
tutors. In 1870 he entered the freshman class of 
Grinnell College, and when the institution burned 
down two years later he went to Iowa City and 
in 1873 was graduated from the law department 
of the University of Iowa. Returning to this 
state, he embarked in legal practice in George- 
town, but two years sufficed to show him that such 
a confining and taxing calling was seriously ef- 
fecting his health. For a few years he worked 
out of doors on his father's farm, and when fully 
recuperated he came to Boulder. In December, 
1882, he embarked in an enterprise new to the 
town and vicinity. He purchased a whole block 
of land (half of which he has since sold) and 
built greenhouses. He has handled all kinds of 
plants and flowers and nursery stock. He has 
five greenhouses, and over twelve thousand 
square feet of glass. In 1894 he bought five acres 
of land lying immediately east of the university 
grounds, and has here planted strawberries and 
ornamental shrubbery, etc. He takes orders for 
decorating, plants and cut flowers, and does by 
far the largest business in his line in this section. 

The wife of Mr. Hubbard was, before their 
marriage in 1873, Miss Rhoda Duke. She is a 
native of Columbus, Ohio, and was educated iu 



the University of Iowa. Her father, John C. 
Duke, who, years ago, owned a large factory in 
Ottumwa, Iowa, and was the patentee and manu- 
facturer of Duke's Patent Window-screen, is now 
in charge of Mr. Hubbard's nursery business. 
The six children of our subject and wife are: 
James Robert, who graduated from the University 
of Colorado in 1898 with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts; Charles, a member of the class of 190 1, in 
the same institution; Edwin , May, Helen and 

In the Masonic order Mr. Hubbard stands very 
high, being past master of Boulder Lodge No. 
45, A. F. & A. M.; R. A. C. of Boulder Lodge 
No. 7, R. A. M.; and Generalissimo of Mount 
Sinai Commandery No. 7, K. T. He also belongs 
to El Jebel Temple, Mystic Shrine, of Denver, 
and is connected with the Knights of Pythias, be- 
ing a member of Boulder Lodge No. 76, of that 

REV. R. P. ROBINET, who was pastor of 
St. Joseph's Catholic Church at Fort Col- 
lins, St. John's at Longmont and St. Mary's 
at Greeley, was born in the grand duchy of Lux- 
emburg, which in 1814 came into the possession 
of the King of Netherlands, but in 1830 was 
given, in part, to France, and has since contin- 
ued under the dominion of these two countries. 
His father, John, and grandfather, Jerome Robi- 
net, were natives of France, and the latter, who 
served under Napoleon, accompanied that general 
on his march to Moscow, was taken prisoner, 
confined in the bastile there and finally released 
by a large equipment of soldiers that came from 
France to reinforce the army in Russia. The 
Robinets are an old French family, one of whose 
members became an illustrious philosopher. 

John Robinet, who was an agriculturist by oc- 
cupation, owned land lying in France, Belgium 
and Luxemburg. He was a man of means and 
influence and held a high place in the esteem of 
his countrymen. His death occurred on his 
farm in 1894, when he was seventy-two years of 
age. He had married Maria Krier, who was 
born in the village of Eischen, Luxemburg, and 
died at thirty-four years of age. She was a 
daughter of Henry Krier, who owned a brewery 
and an entire side of a street in their village, 
Eischen. The ownership of the brewery de- 
scended to Mrs. Robinet, who left a large fortune 

to her children, Catherine, Eliza, Henry and our 
subject. Of these all remain in Europe except- 
ing the youngest. The father was a second time 
married and had three children, all of whom re- 
side in Eischen. 

In the village where he was born August 19, 
1857, the subject of this sketch obtained the rudi- 
ments of his education. He then entered the 
city schools of Luxemburg, where he studied the 
classics. Later he was under a private tutor in 
Grevenmocher, on the Mosella. He was fortunate 
in being able to secure the services,. as instruct- 
ors, of some of the most brilliant Prussian priests, 
who, having been forced to flee from their own 
country, had sought refuge in Luxemburg. 
Among his instructors was the former chancellor 
of the diocese of Trives, with whom he remained 
for two years. He then went to the city of 
Charleville, France, and for three years carried 
on classical studies there. 

In the early part of 1879 he came to America 
and joined some friends in the Univ-ersity of 
Notre Dame in Indiana, where he completed his 
philosophical studies. From there he went to 
St. Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, where he car- 
ried on the study of theology for three years. 
On the completion of his preparation for the 
priesthood he was ordained by Archbishop Heiss, 
of Milwaukee, June 24, 1884, and was assigned 
to the diocese of Colorado. At the earnest solici- 
tation of Bishop Machebeuf he came to Denver, 
though he had much pressure brought to bear 
upon him to secure his services elsewhere, hav- 
ing received letters from the Archbishops of Ore- 
gon, New Mexico, Peoria, Green Bay and Omaha, 
and being also solicited to remain in Milwaukee. 
Believing it would be best to come to Colorado, 
he accepted the invitation from the bishop of 
Denver, and celebrated the first mass in Colorado 
at St. Elizabeth's Church in Denver, it being 
the feast of precious blood. For thirteen months 
he was occupied as an assistant in Denver, after 
which he was sent to Fort Collins and reorgan- 
ized a Catholic congregation, which had been in 
a chaotic condition. From his private fortune 
he paid off the church debt and placed affairs up- 
on a solid basis. 

However, the priest's efforts were not limited 
to Fort Collins. He organized a church at 
Platteville, also at Brighton, and was the first to 
say mass in these places. He also inaugurated 




movements looking toward the erection of church 
buildings, but when Father Hewlett was assigned 
to the charge he relinquished the work in his 
favor. He organized the congregation and built 
the church house at Castle Rock; organized the 
church in Longmont, built an edifice for which 
he paid personally, also erected a residence and 
librarj' there. The congregation in Greeley was 
brought together through his efiforts. To these 
several congregations he has ministered. Politi- 
cally he is a Democrat. He is a man of splendid 
education and is fluent in the use of the French, 
Latin, English and German languages, and the 
Luxemborgian dialect. 

(Josephs. SEELY is the owner of the lake 
I called by his name and is the proprietor of 
(2) Lakeside, a charming resort for pleasure- 
seekers of Weld County. The lake is an artifi- 
cial one, having been made in 1873, and originally 
served merely as a waste-reservoir for Ditch No. 
2, which irrigates this section of farming country. 
Twenty-four years ago, Mr. Seely wisely look- 
ing forward to the future possibilities of this little 
lake, purchased the property, and within the past 
fifteen years has expended large sums of money 
in the improvement of the grounds, in stocking 
the lake with perch and black bass, and in other 
material ways increasing the beauty and value of 
the place as a resort. In 1895 he built a pavilion 
and he keeps over a dozen boats for the use of 
visitors. The fishing here is very good in sea- 
son, and large parties frequently come here from 
Denver and other cities and towns, near and far. 
Born October 30, 1841, our subject is a son of 
Joseph and Julia (Jackson) Seely, who were na- 
tives of Delaware County, N. Y. , anddpent their 
early married life there. About' two years prior 
to the birth of Joseph S. they removed to Rome, 
Bradford County, Pa., and in that locality they 
spent the rest of their lives upon a farm. Grand- 
father Seely was a native of Connecticut, and 
was an early settler of New York. Grandfather 
Isaac Jackson was a native of England and after 
coming to this country lived upon a farm on the 
banks of Trout Creek, in Delaware County, N. Y. 
The children of Joseph and Julia Seely were eleven 
in number. George went to California in 1849 
and was a county surveyor for a while, but has 
been lost track of in later years. Silas E., now 

of Arkansas, was a wagon manufacturer in Rome, 
Pa., for many years. Mrs. Ada George Harman 
lives on a farm in Vermont. Charles E., who 
was engaged in blacksmithing up to the time of 
the Civil war, then enlisted in the Union army, 
and later was a Nebraska farmer; he is now 
managing a fruit farm near Loveland, Colo. Mary 
R. is the wife of Charles Brown, of Sheshequin, 
Pa. William H. is a carpenter and a resident of 
Oakwood, Mich. Isaac J. remained on the old 
family homestead until recently, when he removed 
to Nichols, N. Y. Warren A. died when eight- 
een years of age, and Julia and Melissa were each 
about nine years old at the time of death. 

Joseph S. Seely was born and reared on the 
parental homestead in Pennsylvania, receiving a 
common-school education. In Januarj^ 1864, he 
became an employe of the railroad construction 
department of the army. He worked on roads 
in Tennessee, Georgia and Virginia for the gov- 
ernment, and was advanced to be the foreman of 
his force of men. When the war had been brought 
to a close he engaged in the milk business in 
Chattanooga for a couple of years. Returning 
then to the north he worked with his brother 
Henry in Michigan as a carpenter for fourteen 
months, after which he went back to the old farm 
and assisted in its cultivation for one season. 

When the colony for Greeley, Colo. , was organ- 
ized he became a member, and was assigned a 
town lot and an eighty-acre farm on section 26, 
township 6, range 66 west. He built a house on 
his farm and continued the improvement of the 
place. He has made agriculture his chief busi- 
ness and has prospered, as he deserves to do. 
By degrees he increased the boundaries of his 
farm until he owned three hundred and ninetj'- 
five acres. Afterwards he sold a quarter section, 
and now retains two hundred and thirty-five 
acres. He also owns a nice residence property 
in Greeley. For the past five years he has been 
engaged in the ice business, putting up his sup- 
plies when the lake freezes, and running a wagon 
to Greeley during the season, to meet the de- 
mands of the trade there. Politically he is a Re- 
publican. He is a charter member of Occidental 
Lodge No. 20, A. F. & A. M., of Greeley, and is 
connected with the Ancient Order of United 

October 30, 1877, Mr. Seely married Esther 
A. Nettleton, of Greeley. Mrs. Seely died in 



June, 1879, leaving an onlj' child, May H., who 
is a graduate of the Greeley high school and a 
normal student, and now attending the Metro- 
politan Business College of Chicago. The present 
wife of Mr. Seely was formerly Mrs. Kate S. 
Williams. They were married in Greeley, in 
January, 1881. 

WILLIAM N. BELL, vice-president and 
factory manager of the Clarkson Cheese 
Company at Louisville, Boulder County, 
was born in Lincolnshire, England, August 10, 
1850, a son of John and Elizabeth (Newton) Bell. 
He was one of ten children, six of whom survive. 
His father, who was a native of Lincolnshire, 
born about 1823, grew to manhood on a farm, 
and in 1873 emigrated to America, settling in 
Iowa, where he bought a farm. However, he 
did not live to cultivate and improve the place, 
for during the first winter after coming to Amer- 
ica he contracted pneumonia, which terminated 
fatally. While in England he filled the office of 
constable for three terms. His father, William, 
was for manj' years foreman of the landed estates 
of an English lord; and his father-in-law, Samuel 
Newton, was a prominent farmer of Lincoln- 

In the public schools our subject obtained a 
fair education. At seventeen years he began 
railroading in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, where he 
worked for three years,and later was similiarly em- 
ployed for three years in Skipton , Yorkshire. He 
joined his parents in their emigration to America 
and on his arrival in Iowa secured work at the Red 
Head mine in Des Moines, where he remained as 
fireman for five years. His next position was 
with Lumsden & Beck, coal operators, whom he 
assisted in sinking two shafts, and afterward 
worked two years in their employ. In 1880 he 
came to Colorado and secured employment in 
the coal mines at Louisville. After six years of 
mining he decided to embark in farm pursuits, 
and accordingly bought one hundred and sixty 
acres situated five and one-half miles east of 
Louisville. During the summer months he 
cultivated the farm, while in the winter months 
he worked at mining. 

In April, 1897, the Clarkson Cheese Company 
was organized with John A. Ross as president, 
William N. Bell vice-president and manager, and 
J. G. Eversman secretary and treasurer. After 

the erection of their brick factory operations were 
begun May 12, 1897, since which time the factory 
has been in constant operation. The enterprise 
has proved a successful one, and the company, 
by the reliability and excellent quality of its 
products, has gained a wide and enviable rep- 

The marriage of Mr. Bell took place at Kay 
Thorp, Lincolnshire, England, in 187 1, his wife 
being Miss Mary Gibson. They became the 
parents of eight children, six of whom are living, 
namely: Fannie, who is the wife of Adam Ginter, 
a farmer of Arapahoe County; William, Alberta, 
Lizzie, Newton and Alta, who are with their 
parents, the sons assisting in the cultivation of 
the ranch. In political views Mr. Bell is a 
Populist, and fraternally he is connected with 
Hiawatha Tribe, Improved Order of Red Men, at 

P QlLLIAM R. MURPHY, whose home is on 
\ A / section 7, township 2 south, range 67 west, 
Y V Arapahoe County, is one of the hardy pio- 
neers of 1859, who laid the foundations of Colo- 
rado's greatness and prosperity. Struggling as 
best he might, with the unforseen trials and dan- 
gers of life in a new and unknown country, he 
ultimately gained a victory over circumstances, 
and long ago became successful and influential 
in his own community. He built his commodious 
and comfortable home in 1875, and, surrounded 
by his little family, has enjoyed life, secure in the 
esteem and love of friends and neighbors. Under 
his constant and untiring care and labor, he has 
made his farm a garden, where it was formerly a 
desert, and has had the pleasure of reaping fine 
harvests from land which, when he took posses- 
sion of it, was a wilderness. 

The parents of the above-named gentleman 
were David and Sarah (Likens) Murphy, who 
were married in Kentucky. The father was a 
native of that state, but the mother was from 
eastern Tennessee and removed to Kentucky 
with her family in girlhood. After their mar- 
riage David Murphy and wife removed to Callo- 
way County, Mo., and there William R. was 
born June 4, 1838. The family lived in vari- 
ous counties in Missouri, Linn, Platte and 
Leavenworth, but were not well suited with the 
country. They arrived in the county last- 
named in 1854, and were thus among the 



first settlers there. Five j^ears later, the father 
sold out his property and started for Colorado, 
in company with his family and a few friends 
and neighbors. They set out on their long jour- 
ney May 10, and did not reach Denver until July 
19, 1859. Proceeding expeditiously as far as the 
head of Smoky Hill River, on the Smoky Hill 
trail, they soon found that they were not provided 
with sufficient water for their cattle in the desert. 
After anxious deliberation it was decided to turn 
back, but when the men began looking for the 
oxen, which had been allowed to wander away in 
search of pasturage, the animals could not be 
found. The only resource of the little party 
was their three horses, which had been picketed. 
With a few things they started back for water, be- 
ing obliged to leave their wagons and loads. Re- 
turning, the father of our subject again went on 
search for the missing cattle, and while gone, 
passed another trail, which, if they had taken, 
would have led them within fifteen miles of water. 
Being unsuccessful in finding the oxen, Mr. 
Murphy conveyed his party to a point known as 
Twenty-second Station, and also took some sup- 
plies from their wagons, which had to be aban- 
doned by the way. The very day that they reached 
the station mentioned, a train passed and Mr. 
Murphy prevailed upon the head of the company 
to take his own party through to Denver. As 
soon as he had arrived in that city he hired a man 
to take five yoke of oxen and go after the wagon 
and goods, his payment to be the sum of $80 for 
the trip. Mr. Murphy accompanied him and the 
night that they found the wagons they camped 
there and to their dismay the next morning their 
oxen had disappeared and were never again re- 
covered. Their only resort then was to await 
another company going across the plains, and to 
get them to trail their wagons after their own. 
This was finally done, and one of Mr. Murphy's 
wagons was given in payment for the service. He 
was thus left in a bad condition, financially, and 
being an old man, he settled down in Denver. 

William R. Murphy, now a young man, left 
home and went to the mines, but he did not like 
the business and soon located on some rented 
land in the valley. Later he entered a tract, 
and then sold the property, finally renting it 
of the owner for five years. When he made a 
fair start, he bought a quarter-section of his 
present homested, and began raising live-stock. 

He married and lived for some years in an humble 
house, which was supplanted by his present 
home, as soon as he was able to build it. For 
many years he has been a director and the treas- 
urer of the Colorado Agricultural Ditch Com- 
pany, and has placed irrigating ditches on his 
farm. A few years after making his first pur- 
chase of land he bought twenty acres more. He 
favors education and good school privileges for 
the young. In politics he is a Republican. 

December 10, 1863, Mr. Murphy married 
Sarah E. Smith, a native of Ohio. She moved 
from the Buckeye state to Missouri and thence to 
Colorado in 1859, with her father. Shewasonly 
twelve years of age when she crossed the plains 
with her father. They were only a small party 
and in constant danger of the Indians. The five 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Murphy are: William 
A. , who married Dilla Ciardo, and is a farmer; 
Alice, wife of Edward Marsh, and living near 
Denver; May, Mrs. Charles C. Moore, also a resi- 
dent of the environs of Denver; Katie, Mrs. 
Eugene O'Connor, of Denver; and Edward R., a 
youth of thirteen years. 

respected and honored citizens of Weld 
County this gentleman ranks high, for he 
is enterprising and systematic in business, ever 
regardful of the rights of others; is active in the 
support of worthy public institutions and im- 
provements, and endeavors to do his full duty 
toward his family and his fellow-men. His first 
vote was cast for Lincoln, since which time he 
has been a zealous Republican. In 1898 he was 
a nominee for the ofiice of county commissioner 
on the Republican ticket, but owing to the pecu- 
liar political situation here at that time was de- 
feated. In the Civil war he was one of the na- 
tion's brave defenders, and, having enlisted in 
Company I, Ninety -seventh Ohio Regiment of 
Volunteers, he went to the front and served in 
the Army of the Tennessee under Sherman. 
With that illustrious commander he started on 
the famed march to the sea, but was taken ill at 
Chattanooga and sent to the hospital at Nash- 
ville. After he had recovered he was transferred 
to the veteran reserve corps and assigned to guard 
duty. He] was finally discharged in Chicago 



August 20, 1864, on account of physical dis- 
ability , after having been in the service two and 
a-half years. The boys who wore the blue have 
a very warm place in his heart, and he has been 
an active member of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public for years. He has been the commander 
of R. B. Hayes Post No. 90, of New Windsor, 
and in 1898 was a delegate to the national en- 
campment in Cincinnati. 

W. W. Kennedy is the third of a family of 
eight children whose parents were Philip and 
Susan (Jones) Kennedy. The father was a well- 
to-do farmer of Coshocton County, Ohio. The 
eldest of his children is Rachel E., wife of A. S. 
Eaton, of Greeley. Ann E., deceased, was the 
wife of William Smith, of Ohio. Thomas F. was 
engaged in the drug business in Clinton, Mo., for 
many years and is now deceased. John A., an 
early settler of Colorado, is now retired. He re- 
sides in Boulder, and is an extensive land-owner. 
Harriet B. is the wife of Prof W. C. Thomas, 
principal of the Longmont public schools. Mary 
is the wife of T. W. McCurdy, a farmer of Mor- 
gan County, Colo. He is the county assessor, 
and at present his family is living near Fort 
Morgan. Emma J. is the wife of L. M. Hanks, 
salesman for George Ady, of Denver, Colo. 

The birth of W. W. Kennedy occurred in 
Coshocton County, Ohio, October 12, 1843. He 
received thorough training in farm work and re- 
mained at home until he was eighteen years of 
age, when his patriotism led to his enlistment in 
the army. At the close of his service he went to 
Muscatine County, Iowa, and there taught school 
and farmed rented land for a number of years. 
In the spring of 1880 he came to this state and 
rented the farm which he now owns, as the fol- 
lowing year he purchased the place. Originally 
comprising three hundred and twenty acres, he 
has disposed of forty acres and has made great 
improvements. There are now one hundred and 
sixty acres under cultivation, and it is the thrift- 
iest place in the neighborhood. In 1893 he 
erected his pretty and comfortable home. He is 
a stockholder in ditch No. 2, and has been presi- 
dent of the school board. He has made one of his 
chief aims the educating of his children, and has 
fitted them to be good and useful citizens in any 
community. A member of the Masonic order, 
he belongs to Windsor I^odge No. 69, A. F. & 
A. M., and is also an Odd Fellow, being con- 

nected with Poudre Valley Lodge No. 88, of 
Windsor, and Columbia Lodge No. 16, Eastern 

March 19, 1866, Mr. Kennedy was married in 
Muscatine, Iowa, to Sarah F. Beard, daughter 
of John and Rebecca (Fisher) Beard. She was 
born in Pennsylvania, of which state her parents 
were also natives, and in early days they settled 
in Iowa. The five children of our subject and 
wife are: Alice A., Mrs. Clarence McNeal, of 
this county; Susie, wife of William Mahood, a 
farmer and stockman of Weld County; Julia M., 
Mrs. John Kern, of Milwaukee, Wis.; John H., 
a graduate of Greeley high school; and Ethel, 
now a student in the Greeley high school. 

I GUIS L. PRINCE, one of the capable farmers 
It of Boulder County and the owner of a farm 
U near Canfield, was born in Cooper County, 
Mo., October 30, 1862, and is a son of Hiram 
and Helen M. (Lindsay) Prince. The sketches 
of his father and two brothers will be found else- 
where in this volume. He was only three years 
of age at the time the family removed to Colorado 
and in this state he passed the days of boyhood 
and youth, meantime acquiring a fair education 
in the common schools. To the knowledge gained 
in schools he has added by self-culture and 
thoughtful reading, which has made him a man 
of splendid general information. 

September 25, 1892, occurred the marriage of 
Mr. Prince and Miss Cora Smith, an estimable 
young lady then living in Ashland, Ore. She 
was, however, a native of Washington Territory, 
where her parents, G. W. and Elizabeth (Lind- 
say) Smith, resided for many years. This union 
has been blessed by the birth of a daughter, 
Clara E., who was born July 31, 1893. 

After his marriage Mr. Prince began farming a 
tract of one hundred and sixty acres which had 
been given him by his father. Here he has since 
remained, giving his attention to the improve- 
ment and cultivation of the place. He is fond 
of travel, and in 1886 made a tour of exploration 
through California and Utah. He was also on a 
tour through the west at the time of his marriage, 
and since then he and his wife, in 1895, returned 
to Ashland on a visit and also traveled through 
other parts of the northwest. In politics he is 
a Republican. 

oAAjcwr ^^.^^.aKo^ . 



haps in the entire state of Colorado there is no 
T lady who has been more prominently before 
the people than Miss Patton (now Mrs. Cowles), 
state superintendent of public instruction andex- 
ofBcio state librarian. To some she is known chief- 
ly by her contributions to the press, which evince a 
high order of literary ability; to others she is 
known chiefly through her prominence in the 
most select society circles of Denver; but to per- 
haps the largest class of people she is known 
through her connection with the educational in- 
terests of the state. Elected in 1896 to the posi- 
tion she now so efficiently fills, it has since been 
her ambition to promote the welfare of the pub- 
lic schools, and she has been earnest in her efforts 
to promote four lines of work: libraries, kinder- 
gartens, manual training in both graded and dis- 
trict schools, and artistic .schoolroom decorations. 
The contributions of Mrs. Cowles to the Chicago 
Tribune SinA other well-known dailies have made 
her name a familiar one to readers of papers in 
other states. She is also the author of ' 'The 
Chalchihuitl" (published in attractive booklet 
form in Denver in 1895), which tells the story of 
the beautiful Indian Princess of the tribe of the 
Yutahenne, the child of Nature, with a heart un- 
tainted by Realism, but abiding in the Ideal. The 
search of the Princess for the Chalchihuitl, the 
magic stone that was to bring her complete hap- 
piness, is vividly depicted, in the author's usual 
vigorous and graceful style. 

For some years Mrs. Cowles was president of 
the alumni association of the State Agricultural 
College. She is a member of the State Teachers' 
Association, the State Board of Land Commission- 
ers, the Board of Trustees of the State Normal 
School, and the State Board of Education, of 
which she is now the president. In the National 
Educational Association and its work she is act- 
ively interested, and was present at the meeting 
of the department of superintendents connected 
with the same, at Chattanooga, Tenn., in Febru- 
ary, 1898, being president and organizer of the 
conference of state superintendents at that con- 
vention. Also active in the work of the State 
Woman's Suffrage Association, she was its auditor 
for some years and represented it as delegate to the 
national convention at Washington, D. C, in 
1898, when her name was upon the program for 
all address on the evening of February 15. 

The Patton family was founded in America in 
1630 by Col. James Patton, who was sent by the 
British governmeiit to Virginia as an officer and 
settled upon a plantation there. The grandfather 
of our subject, Hon. Joseph Patton, was born in 
Fayette County, Pa., removed thence to Craw- 
ford County, became the owner of large landed 
tracts and represented his district in the state legis- 
lature. He married Miss Phebe Espy, a native 
of Pennsylvania, to which state her ancestors had 
come from New Jersey. The Espy family had 
several representatives in the Revolution and 
some of its members are now well-known educators 
in the east. 

Two sons of Joseph Patton, David and Joseph, 
continued the large lumber business he had es- 
tablished on the old Erie and Pittsburg canal, 
but the introduction of the railroad terminated 
the business, the canal being then drained. 
Their next location was at Espyville, Pa., where 
they were manufacturers of and dealers in lum- 
ber. In 1876 David Patton came to Colorado and 
embarked in the cattle business at Fort Collins, 
then a small place, destitute of railroads or im- 
provements. After a few years he became inter- 
ested in a feed business. He was mayor of Fort 
Collins, commissioner of Larimer County and 
held other offices of trust. Since 1895 his home 
has been in Denver. 

In Linesville, Crawford County, Pa., occurred 
the birth of Mary J. Allen, daughter of Moses 
Allen, who owned the largest flour mill in western - 
Penns3'lvania. His father, Stephen, who was an 
officer in the war of 18 12, was a son of Moses 
Allen, who was born in New Jersey and served 
with a regiment from that state in the Revolution 
until he was killed in battle. He was a son of 
Moses Allen, Sr., also a soldier in the Revolu- 
tion, and a pioneer of Crawford County, Pa., 
where his descendants were successful flour 
manufacturers. The Aliens are of English ex- 
traction. The mother of Mary J. Allen was 
Polly (Burwell) Allen, who was born in Penn- 
sylvania, the daughter of Samuel Burwell, who 
emigrated from England to Virginia and thence 
removed to Crawford County, Pa. In England 
they were members of the nobility, but preferred 
to give up their titles and seek a home in Amer- 
ica. One of the family, Maj. Lewis Burwell, set- 
tled in Virginia in 1639. 

The family of David and Mary J. (Allen) Pat- 




ton consisted of eight children, but only four are 
living: Knud, who is in New Mexico; Grace 
Espy; Jessie, a member of the class of '98, 
Woman's Medical College of the Northwestern 
University, Evanston, 111.; Webb Allen, clerk 
in the office of the secretary of state of Colorado; 
and Polly. The subject of this sketch was born 
in Hartstown, Pa., and received an excellent ed- 
ucation in the State Agricultural College at Fort 
Collins, graduating in 1885 with the degree of 
B. S. In 1897 the degree of M. S. was conferred 
upon her by the same institution. In 1885, im- 
mediately after graduating, she became instruc- 
tor of English in the college, in 1890 was given 
the chair of professor of English and sociology 
on its establishment and remained in that depart- 
ment as instructor in ethics, psychology, sociol- 
ogy and civil government, until her election as 
state superintendent. 

In 1 896 she was nominated for the office at the 
state Democratic convention in Pueblo and her 
name was retained on the fusion ticket with the 
silver Republicans. She received the largest plu- 
rality of any Democrat on the ticket. January 
12, 1897, she took the oath of office and has since 
given her attention to the discharge of its duties, 
having, in addition to the regular work, issued 
several pamphlets on subjects pertaining to the 
schools. She is a member of the State Library 
Association. Socially she is prominent in the 
Woman's and Clio Clubs of Denver, and in re- 
ligious belief is a Presbyterian. She was mar- 
ried April 9, 1898, to Warren Hayden Cowles, 
then a lieutenant of the Sixteenth United States 
Infantry, but now a captain in the Fourth United 
States Infantry. 

(lOHN L. DAILEY. Among the large num- 
I ber of business men now in Denver, there 
Q) are comparatively few who have been iden- 
tified with the growth of the city from the earliest 
days of its history, who have witnessed its devel- 
opment from one decade to another and have 
themselves been active factors in its progress. 
Such a citizen is John L- Dailey, a pioneer of '59 
and still an enterprising, successful business man 
of this city. In many important ways he has 
been connected with the welfare of the place and 
his own history has been intimately associated 
with that of Denver and Arapahoe County. 

Mr. Dailey was born in Tiffin, Seneca County, 

Ohio, November 9, 1833. His father, William T., 
was born in Mauchchunk, Pa., and grew to man- 
hood on a farm there, but later removed to Perry 
County, Ohio, where he married Sarah McCor- 
mick, member of a Scotch-Presbyterian family. 
Immediately after his marriage he went to Seneca 
County and cleared a farm from the timber, the 
tract lying in what is now a suburb of Tiffin. In 
1848 he sold that place, and, removing to Allen 
County, Ind. , with the aid of his sons cleared and 
improved a tract of forest land. Late in life he 
retired to the village of Leo and there he died at 
the age of seventy-four. He was a Democrat in 
politics and while in Allen County served as 
county commissioner. His wife died when sev- 
enty-four years of age. Of their ten children, 
four sons and four daughters attained maturity, 
and two sons and three daughters are living. 
Edward T., who came to Colorado in 1863, now 
resides in Larimer County, Colo.; Samuel, who 
was a farmer, died in 1897; William M., who 
came to Colorado soon after his brother, John, in 
1859, engaged in mining and the cattle business, 
and died in Denver in March, 1889. 

When about fifteen years of age our subject ac- 
companied his parents from Ohio to Indiana. Two 
years later he became an apprentice to the print- 
er's trade in Fort Wayne, where later he was 
made foreman of the composing room, remaining 
in the same office until he was twenty-one. In 
1854 he started west, but spent the winter in Des 
Moines, then in the spring went on to Omaha, 
where he worked on Chapman's ChanHcleer. In 
the spring of 1857 he went to Dakota City, Neb., 
where he published the Dakota Herald. In the 
spring of 1858, while in Sioux City, Iowa, at 
work at his trade, he received a request from 
William N. Byers to join him at Omaha in order 
to establish a paper in Denver, which he did as 
soon as he could arrange his affairs. He was 
made foreman of the Rocky Mountain News, the 
first four editions of which he assisted in printing. 
However, soon concluding that other interests 
might prove more profitable, he terminated his en- 
gagement with the paper, and in May, 1859, began 
prospecting in Gilpin County. He was among 
the first to arrive at Gregory's Gulch, and helped 
to cut a road from there to Central City. On the 
ist of August he returned to Denver, where he 
became a member of the firm of Byers & Dailey. 
Later this firm was consolidated with the firm 



of Rounds & Bliss, under the name of the 
News Printing Company, which founded the 
Daily N'ews in July, i860. The firm name 
was again changed in 1863, Byers & Bailey 
having purchased the interest of the other gen- 
tlemen. The great flood of 1864 washed out the 
press and carried away the entire supply of type 
and printing material. A few days afterward 
the firm bought out the opposition paper, known 
as the Denver Commonwealth, but continued to 
publish only the Rocky Mountain News, not a sin- 
gle issue of which was missed on account of the 

Afterward the paper changed from a six- day 
evening paper to a seven-day morning issue. Mr. 
Dailey continued as the general manager until 
November, 1870, when he sold his interest. The 
next year he engaged in the job printing and 
bookbinding business under the firm title of 
Dailey, Baker & Smart, this concern having the 
first steam printing plant in the city and printing 
two papers on contract, in addition to their other 
work . The location of the plant was on Market 
street, near the United States mint. His interest 
in this enterprise Mr. Dailey finally sold to F. J. 
Stanton. He is now engaged in the real-estate 
business, with ofiice at No. 1725 Arapahoe street. 

At the solicitation of friends, in 1873 Mr. 
Dailey consented to run for county treasurer, but 
was defeated by the then incumbent. For a few 
years afterward he was secretary of the Rocky 
Mountain Insurance and Savings Institution, but 
resigned this position in 1877 to take the office of 
county treasurer, having been elected on the Re- 
publican ticket in the fall of 1877, after a spirited 
campaign with his predecessor, James M. Strick- 
ler, as opponent. He served for two years and 
was then re-elected, without opposition, being the 
nominee of both tickets. In 1881 he was again 
elected, this time with but slight opposition. On 
the expiration of his term, in January, 1884, he 
turned his attention to the real-estate business. 
In 1887 he was chief deputy county clerk, and in 
1893 was induced to run for county clerk on an 
independent ticket, but was defeated. Under 
Mayor Van Horn he was appointed a member of 
the board of park commissioners, of which he was 
the first president under the present charter. Dur- 
ing his term he laid out two small new parks, 
Chaffee and James H. Piatt parks, and greatly 
improved City Park. 

In Chicago, in 1866, Mr. Dailey married Miss 
Melissa B. Rounds, who was born in Wisconsin 
and died in Denver in November, 1866. In the 
same city, in 1868, he married Mrs. Helen M. 
Woodbury, who was born in York state, the 
daughter of Rev. W. E. Manley, a minister in 
the Universalist Church, but now deceased. They 
are the parents of four children: Lissie W., Mrs. 
W. P. Peabody, a graduate of Wolfe Hall, and a 
resident of Denver; Annie E., also a graduate of 
Wolfe Hall, and now a student in the Art Insti- 
tute in Chicago; Grace, a graduate of the Denver 
high school and now teaching in Larimer County, 
Colo., and John L. , Jr.,a student in the high 
school. The family occupy the beautiful home- 
stead on Broadway and Fourth avenue, immedi- 
ately south of Cherry Creek, a place that forms a 
part of the original large tract purchased by Mr. 
Dailey, and that has been improved by the pres- 
ent owner with a substantial brick residence, 
neatly kept lawns, driveways lined with trees, 
and a beautiful terrace on the north of the house. 

When the Indians were troublesome during the 
Civil war, Mr. Dailey enlisted, in July, 1864, in 
Company A, Third Colorado Cavalry, of which 
he was first a sergeant and later second lieuten- 
ant. He took part in the battle of Sand Creek, 
November 19, and was mustered out with the 
company in December, 1864. He is a member 
of Lincoln Post, G. A. R. Since the organiza- 
tion of Unity Church he has been a member of the 
board of trustees. Politically he favors protec- 
tion and is a strong silver supporter. For many 
years he was treasurer of the Association of Colo- 
rado Pioneers and a part of the time was direc- 
tor and secretary; from January, 1897, to January, 
1898, he served as president of the organization. 
Fraternally he is connected with Denver Lodge 
No. 5, A. F. & A. M., Denver Chapter No. 2, 
R. A. M., and Colorado Commandery No. i,K. T. 

\ A / LL. D., of Denver, was born in Akron, 
VV Ohio, August 15, 1845, and is of German 
descent. His father, Jonathan B. Buchtel, was 
born in Stuttgart, Wurtemberg, and was one of 
a family of twelve sons and one daughter, of 
whom eight sons became Protestant ministers. 
When about fourteen he came to America, locat- 
ing in Catawissa, Pa., but five years later re- 



moving to Akron, Ohio, where he studied medi- 
cine with Dr. John Weimer. Later he entered 
Cleveland Medical College, from which he grad- 
uated with the degree of M. D. After having 
practiced for a few years in Akron, he removed 
to Elkhart, Ind., in 1849, and four years later 
settled in South Bend, the same state, where he 
practiced until his son returned from the war. 
His last home was in Des Moines, Iowa, where 
he died in 1869. 

The opening of the Civil war found our subject 
young, ardent, enthusiastic, determined to enter 
the service. Three times he ran away from home 
to enlist in the army, but every time he was 
taken out by his father and his patriotic impulses 
were temporarily checked. In the spring of 
1861, through the influence of his father, he was 
persuaded to begin the study of medicine in what 
is now the Northwestern University Medical 
School in Chicago. In June of the same year he 
entered Mercy Hospital as an assistant, and later 
was made the resident physician, which position 
he held for over two years, being the senior phy- 
sician of the three there. By the time he was 
eighteen and one-half years of age he had at- 
tended over six hundred women in confinement. 
He passed his final examination in the spring of 
1864, and received certificates from the presi- 
dent, but could not take his degree until he was 
of age. 

As soon as he completed his course he went to 
Columbus, Ohio, and was, in April, 1864, exam- 
ined by the United States examining board, and 
commissioned acting assistant surgeon of the 
United States Volunteers, with the rank of sec- 
ond lieutenant. Ordered to Louisville, he organ- 
ized the Totten general hospital, and after three 
months was sent to Chattanooga, where he spent 
sixteen weeks in the Bragg general hospital. In 
August, 1864, he was promoted to be surgeon of 
a division, with the rank of major in the Depart- 
ment of Military Railroads, and was ordered to 
join Sherman's array, then at Resaca, near Kene- 
saw Mountain. He was with General Sherman's 
army at the taking of Atlanta. On the evacua- 
tion of the city he left on the last train out and 
returned to Dalton, thence to Nashville, from 
there to Baltimore, and to Savannah, Ga. At 
Newbern, N. C, he was appointed chief surgeon 
of military railroads of the Department of North 
Carolina, with the brevet rank of lieutenant- 

colonel. This position he held at the time of his 
resignation from the army in September, 1865. 

Returning to Chicago he took another course 
in medicine, and graduated in March, 1866, with 
the degree of M. D. He then went to South 
Bend and practiced with his father for a time, re- 
maining in that place until ill health obliged him 
to seek a change of climate. Coming west to 
Denver he engaged in active practice here until 
the fall of 1875. He found, however, that his 
health was better in a higher altitude, and he 
therefore purchased a ranch of twenty-one hun- 
dred acres on the divide in Douglas County, 
where he spent his summers, remaining in Den- 
ver during the winter. In this way he com- 
pletely regained his health, and was enabled to 
return permanently to Denver. He made a tour 
of Europe in 1888, visiting medical schools in all 
prominent cities, and also journeying to points of 
historic interest on the British Isles and on the 

Dr. Buchtel is professor of obstetrics in the 
Gross Medical College, which is the medical de- 
partment of the Rocky Mountain University, and 
he is a member of the board of trustees of the uni- 
versity. Formerly he held the positions of physi- 
cian to St. Joseph's and St. Luke's hospitals. He 
is identified with the State Medical, Denver and 
Arapahoe County and American Medical Asso- 
ciations, and is a charter member of the Western 
Association of Obstetrics. He organized the Gross 
midwifery dispensary, where the senior students 
are given the practical knowledge that makes their 
college course a success. Since the organization 
of the Imperial Legion, a fraternal life insurance 
company, he has been its supreme medical exam- 

The degree of LL. D. was given Dr. Buchtel 
by McKenzie University of Tennessee. Like all 
veterans, he is interested in Grand Army affairs, 
and he has his membership in Lincoln Post. Po- 
litically he is a Democrat. March 22, 1871, at 
South Bend, Ind., he married Miss Helen M. 
Barnum, who was born in New York City, re- 
ceived every educational advantage, and is a 
woman of unusual executive ability and force of 
character. She has been president of the Charity 
Association, and has held other positions of re- 
sponsibility and honor. She has one daughter 
living, Lelia, who is a graduate of Miss Brown's 
school on Fifty-fifth street. New York City. Th? 





other daughter, Pauline, died at the age of two 
years and seven months. 

In addition to his other interests, Dr. Buchtel 
is connected with a number of mining corpora- 
tions. He has also been a factor in the develop- 
ment of Denver real estate. In 1882 he platted 
seven hundred and sixty-five acres, upon which 
he laid out the town of Barnum, named in honor 
of his father-iu-Iaw, the famous P. T. Barnum, 
now deceased. He built a residence in this 
suburb and was made its mayor, holding the 
office for three years, when he moved back to the 
city. The place is still being developed, and the 
street railway has been extended to that point. 
A few years ago Barnum was made a part of the 
city, and is now included in the fifteenth ward 
of Denver. 

(31 LSTON ELUS, A.M., Ph. D., LL.D. Presi- 
T\ dent of The State Agricultural College of 
/ I Colorado since 1892 and for the same period 
a resident of Fort Collins, is a member of an old 
Virginia family, from which state his great-grand- 
father enlisted in the war of the Revolution and 
after its close removed with his family to Ken- 
tucky. His wife was a woman of great worth of 
character and lived to be ninety-nine years old. 
Their son. Rev. John G. Ellis, was born in the 
Old Dominion, but spent his life principally in 
Kentucky, and was well known, not only in that 
state, but also in Ohio and Indiana. Though his 
residence was in a slave state, he strongly op- 
posed slavery. 

Absalom Ellis, father of the subject of this 
sketch, was born in Kenton County, Ky., a de- 
scendant, on his mother's side, of Holland-Dutch 
ancestry, and on his father's side of Scotch pro- 
genitors. He married an own cousin, Mary 
Ellis, whose mother was Miss Susan Arnold, of 
Irish descent; and her father, William G. Ellis, 
a brother of Rev. John G. Ellis, was one of the 
largest land owners and wealthiest men in Kenton 
County. He owned a large number of slaves, 
but rather inclined toward emancipation on prin- 
ciple; and when, one night, all his slaves but one 
superanuated old man took the underground rail- 
road for Ohio, he made no effort whatever to 
capture them. 

After spending some years as a farmer in Ken- 
ton County, Absalom Ellis removed to Coving- 
ton, Ky., in 1863, where he engaged in the man- 

ufacture of all grades of tobacco. About 1888 he 
retired to his farm in Kenton County, and there 
died July 2, 1894, when past seventy years of 
age. He was an active worker in the Christian 
Church and served as deacon in his congregation. 
His widow is living in Covington, Ky., and is 
now (1898) in her sixty-sixth year. 

The only child of his parents, Alston Ellis was 
born on a farm in Kenton County January 26, 
1847. When he was a boy schools were con- 
ducted on the subscription plan, and were far in- 
ferior to the free schools of the present day, but 
he nevertheless secured from them a substantial 
basis for his present knowledge. When fifteen 
years of age he accompanied his parents to Cov- 
ington, where he attended a private school con- 
ducted by S. Mead, a noted teacher of his daj-. 
There he prepared for college, but before enter- 
ing his collegiate course he taught a country 
school near Carrollton, Ky., for five months, re- 
ceiving $8 per month of public money and suffi- 
cient voluntary subscriptions to swell the total to 
$40 per month. At the expiration of the term 
he returned home and worked for some months 
in the factory owned by his father. 

In September, 1864, he entered the sophomore 
class of Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and 
three years later graduated with honor. While 
in college he was known as a splendid Latin and 
Greek scholar and as a ready debater and an ex- 
cellent speaker. During his senior year he de- 
livered four public addresses besides being chosen 
by the students to deliver the oration on Wash- 
ington's birthday. Soon after he graduated he 
was married, July 23, 1867, to Miss Katherine 
Ann Cox, who was born in Westchester, Butler 
County, Ohio, a daughter of Capt. Abram P. 
and Elizabeth (Howery) Cox. Her father, who 
gained his title through meritorious service in 
the Union army during the Civil war, studied 
law in the office of Hon. Lfewis D. Campbell, 
uncle of the late governor of Ohio, and afterward 
became associated with Gen. Ferd. Van Derveer 
in the practice of law at Hamilton. At the time 
of his death, in 1872, he was one of the most 
prominent members of the Butler County bar. 
His widow is now living in Westchester. 

In September, 1867, Mr. Ellis became princi- 
pal of a ward school in Covington, Ky., at a sal- 
ary of $900 per year, which was increased to 
$1,000 before the expiration of the school year. 



In January, 1869, he was chosen principal of a 
school in Newport, Ky., at $1,200 per year, and 
was re-elected at $1,500. In July, 1871, he was 
made superintendent of the schools of Hamilton, 
Ohio, which position he filled with the greatest 
eflSciency for over seven years, resigning in 
March, 1879, to accept a position with Harper 
Brothers, with headquarters in Columbus, Ohio, 
at a salary of $3,000 per year. In February, 
1875, he was appointed a member of the Ohio 
state board of school examiners and was at once 
made clerk of that body, continuing until April, 
1879. In 1887 he was again made a member of 
the board, and in 1891 re-appointed for a term of 
five years. While filling this position, in 1876, 
he wrote a chapter entitled ' ' The Ungraded 
Schools of Ohio " for the History of Education, 
issued as a centennial volume and published by 
authority of the general assembly. In 1872 he 
was made Master of Arts by his alma mater, and 
the same year delivered the diplomas to the grad- 
uates of the Erodelphian and Miami Union liter- 
ary societies of the university. In 1888 he was 
chosen by the same societies to deliver the annual 
address. He received the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy from Wooster University in 1879, and 
the same degree from the Ohio State University 
in 1888. Two years later the Ohio State Uni- 
versity conferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Laws, and the same degree was conferred upon 
him by his alma mater in 1894. In 1880 he was 
made a member of the Victoria Institute, the 
philosophical society of Great Britain, and sub- 
sequently was made a life member of this noted 
institution, of which Queen Victoria is a noted 
patron. In the fall of 1880 he delivered the ora- 
tion at the biennial convention of the Phi Delta 
Theta fraternity at Indianapolis, he having been 
an active member of this fraternity during his 
college course. 

From 1 880 to 1887 Dr. Ellis was superintend- 
ent of the Sandusky (Ohio) schools, and brought 
them to a high state of efficiency. Here he man- 
ifested a warm interest in the work of the teach- 
ers of Erie County and received recognition there- 
for in action taken by the Erie County Teachers' 
Association at Milan, Ohio, October 15, 1887, as 

" In consideration of the valuable services ren- 
dered the Erie County Teachers' Association by 

Dr. Alston Ellis while he was engaged in super- 
intending the schools of Sandusky, be it 

' 'Resolved, That we, the teachers of Erie Coun- 
ty, in assembly here, do tender him a vote of 
thanks for the interest which he manifested in 
behalf of our association. 

"Resolved, That in token of our appreciation 
of his aid in the upbuilding of this association, 
we authorize the special committee, appointed 
this morning, to prepare and forward to him such 
a badge or pin as can be purchased with the do- 
nations made to-day by individual members who 
shall subscribe to the fund for that" 
(Signed) H. A. Myers, ") 

A. A. Bartow, [ Committee. 
Eliza G. Horton, ) 

This action was taken two months after he had 
accepted his former position at the head of the 
Hamilton schools and entered upon the duties of 
the office. In Hamilton his salary was soon in- 
creased from $2,700 to $3,000 per annum. Soon 
after he first went to that city he began to work 
in teachers' institutes, and his services as normal 
instructor have been in demand ever since. For 
some years he devoted the summer months to 
work in Ohio farmers' institutes, under the au- 
thority of the Ohio state board of agriculture. 
When the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical 
College was made, by legislative act, the Ohio 
State University, he became a member of the 
new board of trustees, serving for five years. In 
all teachers' associations of his state he main- 
tained a deep interest. He was a member of the 
State Teachers' Association, also the Central 
Ohio, Northeastern Ohio, Northwestern Ohio 
and Southwestern Ohio Teachers' Associations, 
and was president of the two last named. He 
was president of the superintendents' section of 
the Ohio Teachers' Association in 1875, and 
president of the General Association in 1888. 
For more than twelve years he was clerk of the 
Butler County Board of School Examiners. 

On the departure of Dr. Ellis from Ohio the 
Butler County Teachers' Association passed the 
following resolutions: 

' 'Resolved, That we take leave of Dr. Alston 
Ellis with sincere regret, feeling that his depart- 
ure is a serious loss to our county and state; but 
we congratulate the people of Colorado on hav- 
ing secured the services of so distinguished an 



"Resolved, That the members of the Butler 
County Teachers' Association extend to Dr. 
Ellis their hearty congratulations and their best 
wishes for his success in his distant field of la- 

"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be 
presented to Dr. Ellis, and that they be furnished 
for publication in the county papers and in the 
Ohio Educational Monthly." 

(Signed) B. B. Harlan, \ 

John Morris, [• Committee. 
W. P. Cope, ) 

On the afternoon of the day Dr. Ellis left Ham- 
ilton for the west a number of the prominent citi- 
zens repaired to his office in the courthouse to 
give him "hail and farewell." They left with 
him a beautiful and substantial token of their re- 
gard for him as a citizen and their appreciation 
of his servicses as an educator, in the shape of a 
heavy gold watch of superior workmanship with 
the following inscription within the case: 

' ' Presented to Dr. Alston Ellis by the citizens 
of Hamilton, Ohio, 1892." 

The presentation speech was made by Judge 
P. G. Berry, since deceased, and was an eloquent 
and timely tribute to the worth and professional 
zeal of the man who had given the schools of the 
city thirteen years of devoted service. Hon. 
Thomas Millikin, the Nestor of the Butler Coun- 
ty bar, and others of those present made fitting 
re.iiarks expressive of regret at the near depart- 
ure of their friend and best wishes for his future 
success and happiness. 

In the fall of 1891, when Dr. Ellis was first 
tendered the presidency of the State Agricultural 
College of Colorado, he declined it, but on the 
renewal of negotiations in January, 1892, he ac- 
cepted it for a term of five years, at an annual 
salary of $6,000. The college was opened in 
1879, and at the close of the college" year of 1891 
it had one hundred and six students. Since he 
assumed its management it has had its great suc- 
cess, and at the close of the school year of 1898 
it had three hundred and forty-seven students. 
The course of study has been broadened and the 
standard of attainment materially increased. 
The grounds and buildings are attractive and 
well kept, and the annual revenue, amounting to 
almost $90,000, is received equally from the state 
and the general government. Most of the build- 
ings have been erected since 1891, and the other 

buildings have been remodeled and enlarged. A 
sum not less than $50,000 has been expended 
for scientific and technical apparatus. The li- 
brary, which is open for the entire year, contains 
eleven thousand choice volumes. The total val- 
uation of college property is $275,000. 

The college is one of the land-grant institutions 
established by congressional acts, known better 
as the Morrill Bills of 1862 and 1890, by the pro- 
visions of which the institution is required to pro- 
vide for the liberal and practical education of the 
industrial classes. The courses provided are ag- 
ricultural, mechanical engineering, civil and irri- 
gation engineering, ladies', and commercial. 
The location of the grounds is picturesque. 
They lie in the valley with the beautiful moun- 
tains in the rear, and form a picture to delight 
the eye and satisfy the mind. The grounds have 
been highly improved since Dr. Ellis became 
president, and most of the buildings have been 
erected under his personal supervision. 

At the convention of the Colorado State Teach- 
ers' Association in Colorado Springs, in Decem- 
ber, 1893, Dr. Ellis delivered the annual address. 
In 1895 he was chairman of the college section of 
the same association. He is even more active in 
institute work in Colorado than he was in Ohio, 
giving his services gladly and without remunera- 
tion. He has lectured before associations of 
every kind in the state, and in the last six years 
has probably given more addresses than any 
other one in the entire state. During vacation 
months he travels in the interests of the college, 
lectures in various places and attends to the in- 
terests of the college at home, so that he is kept 
constantly busy. His private library is one of 
the best in the state, and much of his leisure 
time is given to literary and historical research, 
for he continues to be a close student. 

While in Sandusky, Ohio, he was raised to the 
rank of Master Mason in Science I<odge No. 50, 
A. F. & A. M. Later he became a member of 
Erie Commandery No. 23, K. T. He is now 
identified with Collins Lodge No. 19, A. F. & 
A. M., Chapter No. 11, R. A. M., and DeMolay 
Commandery No. 13, K. T. 

June 8, 1893, Dr. Ellis was made a director of 
the Colorado Experiment Station, which position 
he has since held. February 18, 1893, he was 
commissioned colonel and aide-de-camp on the 
stafi"of Governor Waite, commander-in-chief of 



the military forces of Colorado. Again, May 28, 
1895, he was commissioned colonel and aide-de- 
camp by Gov. Albert W. Mclntire. He is a 
prominent member of the American Association of 
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. 
At the annual meeting of the association held at 
Minneapolis in July, 1897, he was made chair- 
man of the college section and vice-president of 
the general association. 

On the evening of July 3, 1895, at Johnson's 
Island, in Sandusky Bay, Ohio, President Ellis 
delivered the annual address before the Ohio 
Teachers' Association. The subject was " Edu- 
cation and Citizenship." At the session of the 
convention held the following morning the chair- 
man of the executive committee introduced the 
following resolution, which was unanimously 

' 'Resolved, By the teachers of Ohio in State As- 
sociation assembled, that we most highly appre- 
ciate the generosity of our former associate and 
friend. President Alston Ellis, and that as an ex- 
pression of our thanks, we hereby elect President 
Ellis a life member of our association." 

At the afternoon session of the association on 
the same day, the committee on resolutions made 
report as follows: 

' 'Resolved, That the thanks of the association 
are due to the old friend of its members, who 
came from such a distance to meet again with .us 
and to stir in us noble sentiments by his eloquent 
address, patriotic in the highest sense of the 

Dr. Ellis has a fine presence and a genial per- 
sonality, from which an air of dignity and re- 
serve force is rarely absent. Not only is he a 
fine scholar and executive officer, but as an in- 
spiring and thought-provoking teacher he has 
but few equals. In class-room work in his 
specialties, logic, economics and civics, he stands 
almost without a rival. Students under his in- 
struction have the best that scholarship, enthu- 
siasm and experience can bring to bear upon the 
studies they are pursuing. 

President Ellis has added to the material wel- 
fare of his adopted state not alone through the 
rapid upbuilding of its great industrial school 
and the wise direction of the practical workings 
of the experiment stations; he has invested 
largely in real estate in Fort Collins and vicinity 
and is to-day one of the heaviest tax-payers in 

Larimer County, Since assuming the presidency 
of the college he has used his means in the erec- 
tion of a number of handsome dwellings, possess- 
ing architectural merit and having modern con- 
veniences, which now ornament some of the 
spacious avenues of Fort Collins and afford eligi- 
ble homes for a number of families. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ellis are closely identified with 
the best social life of Fort Collins and northern 
Colorado. The doors of their elegant home are 
frequently thrown open to the members of the 
social circle to which they belong, on which oc- 
casion geniality and open-hearted, but not osten- 
tatious, hospitality characterize the manners of 
host and hostess. The "President's Reception," 
given annually in commencement week, is one 
of the events in college social life. Faculty par- 
ties, dinners to members of the college governing 
board, receptions and luncheons for students, and 
other functions connected with the life of hospit- 
able entertainers, make the parlors of President 
Ellis' home almost as well known to those con- 
nected with or interested in college work as are 
the interiors of the college buildings themselves. 

President Ellis takes a high moral view of pub- 
lic education in all its phases. As the head of a 
great state school, whose financial support comes 
largely from the pockets of tax-payers represent- 
ing, as they do, almost every shade of religious 
belief, he recognizes that religious instruction, as 
bounded by denominational lines, would be out 
of place in the daily chapel exercises, attendance 
upon which is required of all students; yet these 
exercises, planned as they are by the president 
and prepared in most cases by him, are not with- 
out sound moral, and even religious lessons. 
Private religious belief — even unbelief — of stu- 
dents is respected in all the work of the college, 
but wrongdoing is never suffered to pass unre- 
buked, and the neces.sity of educating the heart 
and directing the conscience, character building, 
is never lost sight of. The religious afiiliations 
of Dr. and Mrs. Ellis are with the Congregational 
Church, of which organization they became mem- 
bers in 1881, in the time of their residence in 
Sandusky, Ohio. 

(lOHN J. ERASER. The Brown-Iliff Cattle 

I Company, of which Mr. Eraser is a member, 

(2/ is among the best-known concerns of the 

kind in Colorado. They own an immense tract 





of land, lying principally in Weld County, and 
embracing the territory extending from the South 
Platte to the Wyoming line. Of the land twenty 
thousand acres lie along the river, thus furnish- 
ing an abundant supply of water for the stock. 
The headquarters of the company are five miles 
west of Merino, and shipments are made from 
Snyder, Colo., to various points in the east, but 
chiefly to Omaha. The entire management of 
the ranch and range is in charge of Mr. Fraser, 
who, though making his home in Denver, neces- 
sarily spends much of his time on the range. 

The father of our subject, Henry Fraser, was 
born in Scotland, but removed to Ontario, Can- 
ada, and engaged in farming near Ottawa, where 
he died when John was five years of age. The wife 
and mother, who bore the maiden name of Sarah 
Wright, was born in Canada and died there when 
John was an infant. They had a large family of 
children, of whom three are living: Samuel, in 
Oakland, Cal.; John J., the youngest of the fam- 
ily; and a sister, who was formerly Mrs. J. W. 
IlifF, but who is now the wife of Bishop Warren. 
One brother. Brock, fought all through the con- 
flict. He enlisted with the Chicago Zouaves and 
later joined other organizations, serving last in 
the heavy artillery. He was accidentally killed 
while engaged in the construction of the Union 
Pacific Railroad west of Cheyenne. 

When quite young our subject left the farm 
near Ottawa, where he was born, and went to 
Henry County, 111., where he grew to manhood 
on a farm. He attended the Henry County dis- 
trict schools and Lake Forest Academy. In the 
spring of 1870 he came to Colorado, where he 
spent a year near Pueblo, and then entered the 
employ of his brother-in-law, Mr. IlifF. In time 
he became financially interested in the business, 
and after the death of Mr. Ilifi" he became a mem- 
ber of the Brown-Iliff" Cattle Company. In the 
winter of 1873-74 a large camp of Indians, prin- 
cipally Sioux, camped around Mr. Fraser' s ranch, 
but to their credit be it said they never stole any- 
thing from the ranch nor made a disturbance of 
any kind. Since 1878 he has resided in Denver, 
where he is a member of the Grace Methodist 
Episcopal Church. In national politics he is a 

In Denver Mr. Fraser married Miss Lois 
Morse, who was born in Berea, a suburb of 
Cleveland, Ohio, and is of English descent, her 

ancestors, eight generations back, having been 
among the Puritans who settled in Dedham, 
Mass., in 1635. They were prominent in public 
aflairs, serving as selectmen and in other ofiices 
of trust, and later having representatives in the 
Colonial and Revolutionary wars. Her grandfa- 
ther, Nathaniel Morse, was born in Massachu- 
setts and removed to Shelby, N. Y., where he 
died. Her father, Charles Morse, a native ot 
Warwick, Mass., was a pioneer of Berea, Ohio, 
where he engaged in the lumber business until 
his death at forty-eight years. He married 
Emma Robards, who was born near Saratoga, 
N. Y., her parents being natives of England. 
She is still living and makes her home in Cleve- 
land. In her family there are three children, 
namely: Lucius D. Morse, M. D., a retired phy- 
sician of Atlanta, Ga.; Mrs. Laura Andrews, of 
Cleveland, a graduate of Baldwin University in 
Ohio; and Lois, Mrs. Fraser, also a graduate of 
Baldwin University, with the degree of B. S. 

EOL. WESLEY BRAINERD, president and 
manager of the Chicago and Colorado Mining 
and Milling Company, owners of Camp Tal- 
cott, at Ward, Boulder County, was born in 
Rome, Oneida County, N. Y. , September 27, 
1832, and is the descendant of a family that 
settled in Haddam, Conn., early in the seven- 
teenth century. His grandfather, Jeremiah Brain- 
erd, who was born and reared in that old town, 
subsequently removed to New York state, be- 
coming a contractor on the Erie Canal. 

Alexander Hamilton Brainerd, a native of 
Haddam, Conn., and father of the subject of this 
article, became a civil engineer and railroad con- 
tractor, and had the contract for a part of the 
Hudson River Railroad, also in 1 848-50 built allthe 
bridges on that road. Among his other contracts 
some were in Canada. For a time he operated 
car manufacturing shops in Niagara, Canada, and 
large iron mills at St. Albans, Vt. After his 
retirement from active business he made his 
home in Rome, N. Y. , where he died in 1879, aged 
seventy-two years. His maternal grandfather. 
Col. Daniel Greene, was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary war and a Mason of the Royal Arch de- 
gree; he diedin York state,as did also his daughter, 
Elizabeth, wife of Jeremiah Brainerd. The mother 
of our subject was Mary Gouge, a descendant of a 



French- Huguenot family that settled at Trenton 
Falls, N. Y.; she died in Rome, that state, when 
thirty-two years of age. 

The only child of Alexander H. and Mary 
Brainerd that attained years of maturity was 
Wesley. He was educated principally in Rome 
Academy. At the age of fifteen he went with his 
father, as assistant in the construction of the 
Hudson River Railroad contract. Continuing 
there until 1850, he then went to Philadelphia, 
Pa., and became an apprentice in the Norris Lo- 
comotive Company's works, where he completed 
the trade of draughtsman and locomotive builder 
in 1854. For four years afterward he continued 
with the company as draughtsman and aided in 
the starting of locomotives in different sections 
of the United States and Canada. Next going 
to Georgia, he accepted a position as master 
mechanic of a railroad, where he remained until, 
seeing that war was inevitable, he returned north 
to Rome, N. Y., and engaged in manufacturing 
and milling. 

At the opening of the war, in 1861, he was the 
captain of a local company known as the Ganse- 
vort Light Guards of Rome, which took its name 
from an old colonel who had been in command of 
Fort Stanwix. He at once raised a company for 
the Fiftieth New York Engineers and was com- 
missioned captain of Company C, which was 
mustered into service at Elmira, and went to the 
front in August, 1861. Among the engagements 
in which he participated were Yorktown, Gaines' 
Mills, White Oak Swamp, Savage Station, Mal- 
vern Hill, second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, 
Harper's Ferry and Fredericksburg. In Decem- 
ber, 1862, he laid the pontoon bridges at the 
Lacy House in front of Fredericksburg, and 
while thus engaged he was wounded in the left 
arm. For meritorious service he was promoted 
and commissioned major. After a short time in 
the hospital he returned to duty and took part, 
in the following months, in the battles of Chan- 
cellorsville, Franklin's Crossing and Gettysburg. 
Receiving a second promotion for bravery, he was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel of the same regiment, 
his commission being signed by President Lincoln. 
The next engagements in which he participated 
were the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
North Anna, Cold Harbor, and the battles before 
and during the siege of Petersburg in 1864. In 
November, 1864, he was promoted and commis- 

sioned colonel of the Fifteenth New York En- 
gineers by Governor Seymour, and continued in 
active command of his regiment until the close of 
the war, with the exception of the time (1864-65) 
when General Grant had his headquarters at City 
Point and Colonel Brainerd had command of the 
defenses of that place. He took part in the final 
assault and fall of Petersburg in April, 1865, and 
shortly afterward participated in the grand review 
at Washington, where he led the Fifteenth as 
their commander. He was mustered out of the 
service in June, 1865. 

Locating in Chicago, Colonel Brainerd em- 
barked in the lumber business under the firm title 
ofSoper, Brainerd & Co., in which enterprise he 
was interested from 1865 to 1876. The firm en- 
gaged in the manufacture and sale of lumber and 
owned a mill, with a capacity of one hundred 
thousand feet a day, covering, with the adjoining 
yards, two blocks on Polk and Beach streets. 
Meantime, in 1873, he also became interested in 
the Brighton Smelting Works, of which he was 
manager, and in this way was aroused his first 
interest in and connection with mining. In 1876 
he assisted in the organization of the Chicago and 
Colorado Mining and Milling Company, of which 
he was made president and manager. During 
the .same year (which was the year of Colorado's 
admission as a state) he came west, for the pur- 
pose of developing the company's mining prop- 
erty in Ward district, Boulder County. 

Camp Talcott (or, as it is often called, Brain- 
erd' s Camp) is one of the large as well as one 
of the most completely developed properties in 
the state. Tunnels and mines have been opened 
on different parts of the property of eight hun- 
dred acres. The entire tract was patented by 
Colonel Brainerd as a stock ranch and was after- 
ward patented by discovering and developing 
mining claims, thus having a double patent on 
much of the land. The Colorado and Northwest- 
ern Railroad between Boulder and Ward passes 
the property, and at a convenient place Brainerd 
Station is located. The plant is undoubtedly the 
most modern in the state and is the first mining 
property to be operated by electricity in this part 
of Colorado. 

In his travels through the mountains, Colonel 
Brainerd came across the natural lakes at the 
foot of Mount Audubon and at once saw the 
natural advantage for the water power. As early 



as 1884 he took the necessary steps to secure the 
water rights of the same, having in mind a way 
by which it could be utilized, as the path of the 
flume necessary to convey the water to Camp Tal- 
cott would come via the Utica mine. He succeed- 
ed in arousing the interest of the Utica Company 
by the aid of John S. Reid, then manager of the 
Utica, who heartily endorsed the project. Fin- 
ally the flume from the South St. Vrain, from the 
foot of the Snowy Range, to a point above Ward 
was constructed, with Mr. Reid as superintend- 
ent of construction of this upper flume. The 
flume is 2x2 J^ feet in dimensions, and takes three 
hundred and fifty thousand feet of lumber; from 
the headwaters to the Pentstock it is taken 
through Ward in a pipe of seventy-five hundred 
feet, and here the Utica uses it. Up to this point 
it was jointly constructed by the Utica Company 
and the Chicago and Colorado Mining and Mill- 
ing Company, while the latter company alone 
constructed it to Camp Talcott from Utica by a 
flume 2x2 feet, one mile long, taking one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand feet of lumber. To manu- 
facture this lumber they put up their own sawmill 
in the mountains. 

From the Pentstock above Camp Talcott, 
Colonel Brainerd calculated the dimensions and 
strength of the pipe necessary to carry it to the 
power house. It was here that his experience 
as machinist and locomotive builder proved most 
helpful, as did also his natural inventive genius, 
for there was no plant in existence of the type 
of his, and he was forced to rely upon his 
own brain and judgment. From the Pentstock 
it is taken down the hill in steel pipe, a distance 
of twenty-seven hundred feet, making .seven hun- 
dred and forty feet perpendicular fall, thus get- 
ting a pressure of three hundred and twenty 
pounds to the square inch. Beginning at the 
top, the first twelve hundred feet is of sixteen 
inch pipe, No. 10 steel; the next seven hun- 
dred and fifty feet, fourteen inch pipe. No. 8 
steel; and the last seven hundred and fifty feet, 
twelve inch, 3-16 steel; all double riveted flange 
joints. The pipe is fitted to the irregularities of 
the hill and anchored in bed rock. It was manu- 
factured in sheets in the east and brought to 
Denver, where it was bent and riveted into nine- 
teen foot lengths, and hauled from Boulder to 
Camp Talcott. In all there were sixty-five tons 
of steel pipe. The pipe is connected with the 

four Leifel wheels, thirty-six inches in diameter, 
developing a maximum of twelve hundred horse 
power and a minimum of three hundred and fifty. 
A substantial stone powerhouse, 40x28, has been 
built and equipped with a one hundred and 
twenty horse-power dynamo of the three phase 
system, with four hundred and forty volts capac- 
ity, with five hundred and forty revolutions a 
minute and energized by one of the wheels which 
has a capacity of one hundred and fifty horse- 
power. There is an air column construction of 
one hundred and twenty pounds' pressure that 
acts as an air cushion. 

The construction of the pipe line and the devices 
for regulating the flow of water are very complete 
and efiiciently accomplish the purpose for which 
they are designed. Power is transmitted to the 
different mines, viz.: three thousand feet to the 
Polar Star, where is a forty horse motor; forty- 
four hundred and forty feet to the Coy mine, 
where are a fifteen horse motor and skips; and to 
the Left Hand mine, fifteen hundred feet up a side 
hill. In each a most complete electric hoist has 
been equipped with the three phase system. An 
ingenious device for dumping buckets, the inven- 
tion of the foreman, is a great labor saver. When 
power is desired, telephone signals are given to 
the operator in the power house, who connects 
the circuit and the turning of the switch en- 
ergizes the motor. 

All of these properties at depths varying from 
seventy-five to one hundred and thirty feet show 
very large veins of iron sulphide, running from 
$10 to $500, with a fair average of about $40 ore. 
The veins range from five to ten feet in width. 
About twenty-five other properties are being 
equipped, having shafts of twenty feet deep. 
Ultimately many of these properties will be 
equipped with electric hoists. The plant in the 
power house was installed by the Mountain Elec- 
tric Company, and when its full capacity is 
utilized, the output from Camp Talcott will be no 
insignificant factor in the traffic offered the rail- 
road from Boulder to Ward. 

Among the other mines that have been de- 
veloped is the Moltke, which is in shape for suc- 
sessful operation at any time. A complete 
telephone system, centering at the power house, 
connects all the mines, and also makes connection 
with the residence of Colonel Brainerd and other 
buildings on the camp. All of the buildings are 



modern and complete, and when it is observed 
that nearly all of the material for construction 
has been hauled from Boulder at a rate of $6 per 
ton, one can well imagine the energy and great 
amount of money it has taken to accomplish this 
gratifying result. All the plans are now com- 
pleted for building a switch from the Colorado 
and Northwestern Railroad to the power house, 
which will take about ten thousand feet of track, 
on account of the height of the road above Camp 

When Colonel Brainerd first came to Ward, 
there was considerable prospecting, but later it 
fell off considerably. He, however, continued 
his prospecting and found that he secured rich ore, 
so he continued the development and discoveries, 
and now has over sixty different claims. He has 
done more to bring Ward mining and mines to 
the front than anyone else, by the expenditure of 
enormous sums in the development of claims. 
The most of his claims were discovered directly 
by himself 

In Chicago, November-iy, 1858, Colonel Brain- 
erd married Miss Amelia M. Gage, who was born 
in DeRuyter, Madison County, N. Y., a daughter 
of Eli A. and Mary (Judson) Gage, natives of 
DeRuyter and New Berlin. Mrs. Brainerd is a 
sister of Lyman J. Gage, present secretary of the 
treasury. Her grandfather, Justus Gage, was a 
pioneer of Madison County ; his father came from 
England and settled in New England. Eli A. 
Gage was a merchant and manufacturer in De- 
Ruyter, subsequently removed to Rome, N. Y., 
whence in 1855 he removed to Chicago and 
embarked in the lumber business. He died in 
Evanston, 111., in 1879. His wife was a daughter 
of Abel Judson, who was a sea-faring man. 
Colonel and Mrs. Brainerd have two children: 
Irving Gage, who is assistant superintendent of 
the mines; and Belle, who is Mrs. Emil Phillip- 
son, of New York City. 

Fraternally Colonel Brainerd is a prominent 
Mason. He is a charter member of the Colorado 
Commandery of the Loyal Legion, of which he 
was commander in 1894-95. For years he was 
active in his support of the Republican party, but 
he is now independent in politics and votes for 
the man he deems best qualified to represent the 
people in office, regardless of political affiliations. 
Personally he is a man of fine physique, in whose 
countenance kindness, amiability and benevolence 

glow. To all public enterprises of a helpful 
nature he is liberal and enterprising. He is 
exceedingly hospitable, and happy is the guest 
who comes beneath his roof 

While the colonel has continued in the stock 
business and raising full-blood cattle on his eight 
hundred acre ranch and farm in Nebraska, yet 
mining has been his principal business, and in it 
he has made his greatest success. Talcott Camp 
is located conveniently on the Left Hand Creek. 
The surrounding scenery is beautiful. Upon the 
side rise the mountains, delighting the eye with 
long glimpses of forests of spruce and pine, while 
the air of busy thrift and industry around the 
camp delight the eye of every practical miner. 

(TOHN T. BOTTOM. Not alone through the 
I high position which he occupies as an attor- 
(2/ ney-at-law, but also by reason of his promi- 
nence in the order of the Knights of Pythias, his 
attractive style as a writer and his eloquence as a 
speaker, Mr. Bottom has become well and favor- 
ably known to the people of Colorado. Upon 
establishing his home in Denver in 1889 he 
opened an office for the practice of the legal pro- 
fession, and in time became the possessor of a 
clientele that brought influence and financial suc- 
cess. Reared in the faith of the Democratic 
party and thoroughly devoted to its principles, 
here as in his former home he has taken an active 
part in promoting party success, in winning vic- 
tory for its men and measures. In 1891 he was 
made secretary of the Democratic central com- 
mittee of Denver, and during the presidential 
campaign of 1892 he was made chairman of the 
county committee. Chosen by his party to act 
as their nominee in the congressional campaign 
of 1894,- he held aloft the party standard in every 
part of the district, which, however, was too 
thoroughly Republican to make hope of election 
possible. When the stirring campaign of 1896 
began, with its new questions and issues, that 
broke the ranks of the old parties, he at once 
took the "stump" in behalf of the silver cause, 
and his eloquent, earnest addresses deepened the 
public sentiment in favor of a new standard of 
money. His opinions on this subject have not 
been formulated thoughtlessly; they are the re- 
sult of study and observation. His travels have 
taken him into sections of the country where once 



were thriving mining towns, now forlorn and de- 
serted; towns that once were astir with life and 
activity, but that were ruined by the act of con- 
gress in 1873 demonetizing silver, thus forcing 
the silver mines to shut down and hundreds of 
miners to be thrown out of employment. Nor is 
the question one of local interest only, for what 
affects the silver mines in the first instance will 
eventually affect the prosperity of the state and 
the welfare of the nation. 

Mr. Bottom was born in St. Marys, W. Va., 
January 26, i860, and was an infant when his 
parents. Dr. Montgomery and Lavinia (Harri- 
son) Bottom, removed to Breckenridge, Mo., 
where his father still practices medicine. His 
primary education was obtained in the public 
school there, and at the age of sixteen he entered 
Central College, at Fayette, Mo., continuing 
there for two years. His education was com- 
pleted in the University of Missouri at Columbia, 
where he graduated from the literary department 
in 1879 and from the law department in 1881. 
On being admitted to the bar he opened an office 
in Breckenridge, earning his first fee four days 
after graduation. The Democrats of Caldwell 
County nominated him in 1882 to represent the 
district in the legislature, but he was obliged to 
decline the nomination, as he was not old enough 
for constitutional requirements. Though not 
permitted to be a candidate he took an active 
part in the campaign, and did all within his 
power to promote party success. In 1884 he was 
nominated for prosecuting attorney, but was de- 
feated by one hundred and thirty-eight votes, the 
remainder of the ticket losing by seven hundred 
and fifty-seven votes. At the time of leaving 
Missouri, in 1889, he was chairman of the county 
Democratic committee, secretary of the Demo- 
cratic congressional committee and chairman of 
the senatorial committee. 

In Quincy, 111., May 15, 1884, Mr. Bottom 
married Miss Lethe M. Boyer, daughter of Noah 
and Ellen (McCuUough) Boyer. They have an 
only child, a daughter, Monta. 

Fraternally Mr. Bottom is identified with the 
Masons as a Knight Templar. He is, however, 
most prominent through his connection with the 
Knights of Pythias. He was first initiated into 
the order in Denver Lodge No. 41, in which he 
filled the offices of vice-chancellor and chancellor- 
commander. In 1893 he exemplified the new 

ritual that had been adopted before representa- 
tives of all the lodges of the state. The next 
year he became a member of the Grand Lodge, 
and in 1895 ^^s made chief tribune of the Grand 
Tribunal, in 1896 was honored by election as 
grand vice-chancellor, and in 1897 received the 
further honor of election as grand chancellor, his 
present office. The membership of the order in 
Colorado is about six thousand, and new mem- 
bers are constantly being added to the ranks. 
The lodges in the different parts of the state are 
frequently visited by the grand chancellor, whose 
entertaining and eloquent speeches do much for 
the advancement of the cause. In a recent num- 
ber of The Pythian appears his address delivered 
at the eleventh anniversary of Myrtle Lodge 
No. 34 Colorado Springs, which is considered 
one of the best ever delivered upon the subject of 
the order, its principles, foundation and teach- 
ings. In it he traces the teachings of the order 
to the commands given to Moses on Mount Sinai. 
"Its corner stone is the solid granite rock of 
friendship. The columns on either side the en- 
trance are charity and benevolence. Our teach- 
ings embrace loyalty to country, devotion to its 
flag, observance of its laws, lov-e of home, love 
of justice, mercy and fidelity one to another." 
Briefly sketching the immortal friendship of 
Damon and Pythias, he described how the read- 
ing of this story inspired Justus H. Rathbone to 
found the order that marches under the banner 
of Pythianism. "Thirty-four years ago Rath- 
bone breathed the breath of life in what is to-day 
America's greatest civic society. It was born in 
the city of Washington. The fame of the order 
was not long in spreading from the capitolon the 
historic Potomac. Like the tinj' waves caused 
by throwing a pebble in the placid pool, its influ- 
ence was felt farther and farther, touching the 
rock-bound coast of Maine and reaching on the 
other side to the city by the Golden Gate. And 
now we have organized a lodge amid the gold- 
bearing icebergs of far-oif Alaska. In every 
state and territory that protects and for protection 
looks to the tri-colored flag of the Union, you 
will find the blue, yellow and red banner of 
Pythianism. The banner of the stars and stripes 
stands for our country. The tri-colored banner 
of the order of Knights of Pythias stands for hu- 
manity, it stands for all that is best in manhood 
and for all that is purest and loveliest in woman- 



hood. I^ong may it wave. The blue is emblem- 
atic of truth and expresses heaven itself. The 
yellow is a symbol of the great orb of day 
and portrays the faithfulness that should charac- 
terize our membership. The red symbolizes love 
and loyalty, and under a banner so expressive of 
lofty sentiments we should keep ourselves loyal 
to truth, faithful to our tenets and guide with 
love our lives to the end." 

0EORGE M. McCLURE, president of the 
l_l McClure-White Mercantile Company of 
Vjj Boulder and the Boulder Electric Light 
Company, is a member of a Vermont family that 
came originally from Scotland. His grandfather, 
Samuel McClure, accompanied his parents from 
Scotland to America, settling in Vermont, where 
he engaged in farm pursuits through the remain- 
der of his life. The father, H. B., was born in 
Middletown Springs, Rutland County, Vt., and 
became a millwright and wagon-maker, which 
trades he followed in his native state. Late in 
life he removed to Spenceport, N. Y. , where he 
died at sixty-eight years of age. In religion he 
was a Baptist. His wife, Susan, daughter of 
Sylvanus Mallory, a soldier in the war of 1812 
and a farmer of Vermont, was born in Connecti- 
cut and died in Spenceport, N. Y. She was a 
descendant of Puritan ancestors, who came to 
this country from England. 

The family of H. B. and Susan McClure con- 
sists of six sons, all living, our subject being the 
only one now in Colorado, the others residing in 
Vermont. One brother, Charles, took part in the 
Civil war as a member of the Tenth Vermont 
Infantry. George M. was educated in the public 
schools of Middletown Springs, his native village. 
At the age of eighteen, in 1863, he went to Poult- 
ney, Rutland County, where he was employed by 
Jay J. Joslin, now of Denver. In the spring of 
1873 he came to Colorado to assist in opening 
Joslin' s dry -goods store, and in the fall of the 
same year he came to Boulder, opening a store 
here for Mr. Joslin, in connection with H. N. 
Bradley, now of Denver. Soon the firm of Brad- 
ley & McClure was established, and they began 
in business in March, 1874, at their present lo- 
cation, though occupying a room much smaller 
than the one now used. 

Selling his interest in the Boulder store in 1887, 

Mr. McClure became one of the proprietors of a 
store in Glenwood Springs, and remained there 
for three years, when he sold to his partner, Mr. 
Napier, and to Mr. McLean. Returning to Boul- 
der in 1890, he bought Mr. Bradley's interest in 
the Bradley-Wise Mercantile Company, and 
changed the title to the McClure- White Mercan- 
tile Company, of which he is president and man- 
ager, Mr. White vice-president, Mr. Davis sec- 
retary and H. B. McClure treasurer. The firm 
occupy three rooms, 75x125 feet in dimensions, 
with basement. 

Mr. McClure is a director in the First National 
Bank. He was one of the original promoters of 
the Boulder National Bank about 1884, and was 
a director from the start until 1887. His estab- 
lishment is the largest in northern Colorado and 
contains a full line of goods of highest grade, for 
the best trade. The success that has come to 
him is due to his energy and determination. In 
1894 he and H. N. Bradley opened a dry-goods 
bu.siness in Denver, on Sixteenth street, continu- 
ing it together until May, 1897, when he sold his 
interest to Mr. Bradley, the present proprietor. 

The marriage of Mr. McClure took place in 
Middletown Springs, Vt., and united him with 
Edilda M. Burnham, daughter of Albert Burn- 
ham, a native of Maine and a blacksmith in 
Middletown Springs, where she was born. Her 
death occurred at Boulder in January, 1885. 
Her three children are: Harry B., who was edu- 
cated in the public schools and Rochester (N. Y.) 
Commercial College; George A. , who was educated 
in the State University and is with the company; 
and Elizabeth M., who is a member of the uni- 
versity class of 1898. 

Politically Mr. McClure is a Republican. Fra- 
ternally he is connected with Boulder Lodge No. 
45, A. F. & A. M., Boulder Chapter No. 7, 
R. A. M., Mount Sinai Commandery No. 7, K.T., 
(of which he is a charter member and the 
present treasurer) , and El Jebel Temple, N. M.S., 
of Denver. 

^\ parish, Denver, was established in 1881 by 
p\ the venerable Bishop Machebeuf. Rev. M. 
J. Carmody said the first mass on the north side, 
and assembled the newly formed congregation 
for divine service in the old hose house on 
Fifteenth street. He was taken ill a few weeks 



afterwards and resigned his charge. Father 
Carmody was succeeded by Rev. J. C. Ahern, 
who changed the place of service to Platte street. 
During his time the present site of St. Patrick's 
was secured, the venerable old Bishop Machebeuf 
donating $1,000 towards the purchase of the five 
lots on which the church and school now stand. 
Rev. J. C. Ahern was succeeded shortly by Rev. 
Jeremiah Ahern. 

From its very beginning St. Patrick's parish 
had a turbulent career. Misunderstandings there 
had been between pastors and people. Debts had 
accumulated, and, to add to the distress, the 
church just nearing completion was blown down 
by a terrific windstorm. It was a total loss on 
the congregation. Father John Quinn, of the 
Cathedral, managed the affairs of the parish for 
some time, however, residing on the north side. 
He was succeeded by Father Patrick Sheridan 
and Father James Conroy, both delicate priests, 
who came to Colorado in search of health. In 
the year 1S83 Rev. Stephen Keegan took charge. 
During his pastorate the church was rebuilt and 
the school opened under the care of the Sisters of 
St. Joseph. During the building of the church 
Father Keegan erected on the site of the present 
parish dwelling a frame church which he affec- 
tionately christened the "Shanty." It .served its 
purpose well until the new church could be re- 
built. In 1885 Father Keegan left Colorado and 
took up his home in California, where a few years 
later he died. 

The successor of Father Keegan was Father 
Carrigan, who found the new church with an 
incumbrance that remained from the building of 
the first church. Directing himself to the raising 
of the debt, within two years he had freed the 
congregation from the entire indebtedness. A 
year before he became pastor a school had been 
started, which he found feebly struggling for ex- 
istence. He remodeled the church, making it 
large enough to accommodate both the congre- 
gation and the school, and at once the latter took 
on new life. There are now two hundred and 
seventy pupils, taught by the Sisters of St. Joseph 
of Carondelet and who, at graduation, are pre- 
pared to enter high school. An academic course 
is being projected and will soon open, in connec- 
tion with the convent, known as Sisters of St. 
Joseph Academy. 

The church is situated on Bell avenue between 

Fairview avenue and Wanless, but other property 
has been bought and in time a church will be 
erected on the corner of Clear Creek and Thirty- 
third avenue west. In the parish there are over 
three hundred and fifty families, to whose 
spiritual interests Father Carrigan ministers. 
His pastorate here has extended over a greater 
number of years than that of any other priest in 
Denver. In connection with the church, he has 
the usual societies, including the Sodality, Sacred 
Heart League, Holy Name and Young Ladies'. 

In 1889 St. Patrick's parish extended over the 
whole of the north side, including a portion of 
East Denver, as far as the Union depot. Rev. 
T. J. Murphy, who was then assistant at St. 
Patrick's, assumed charge of what was known 
as the Highlands. Father Carrigan purchased 
the ground on which the present St. Dominic's 
Church now stands and formed the first parish 
out of St. Patrick's. The Dominican fathers 
now have a flourishing congregation in that 
beautiful portion of the north side. The next 
parish to be formed out of St. Patrick's was the 
Holy Family in the scattered portion of North 
Denver, surrounding the Jesuit college. The 
Holy Family have no church as yet, but the 
congregation hold divine service in the college 

The Italian people having become very numer- 
ous in this portion of the city, he deemed it 
advisable that they should have a church of their 
own where they could hear the word of God and 
receive instruction in their native tongue. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1892, the Italian church was built 
within the limits of St. Patrick's parish. 

Born and reared in Auburn, N. Y. , Father 
Carrigan is thesonof Patrick and Anna (Shields) 
Carrigan, natives of Ireland, who were married 
in England and came to America in 1848. For 
many years the former engaged in business in 
New York. During the war he responded to the 
draft, but was rejected on account of physical 
disability. Of their nine children, four are 
living, Joseph being the sole surviving son. He 
studied in the parochial and public schools of 
Auburn, then for two years was under a private 
tutor, and later took a classical course in St. 
Hyacinthe College, in Quebec, from which he 
graduated in 1878. A few months afterward he 
entered Troy Theological Seminary, where he 
spent four and one-half years in the study of 



theology and philosophy. December 23, 1882, 
he was ordained to the holy prieshood by Bishop 
McNeirney, of Albany, and was assigned to the 
Denver diocese. In January, 1883, he came to 
Colorado and was stationed successively at 
Breckenridge, Summit Park, Eagle and Garfield 
as assistant pastor, utilizing houses, depots and 
other buildings for religious services. In the fall 
of 1883 he was assigned as assistant to Bishop 
Machebeuf, at the Cathedral in Denver, and 
after fifteen months there, was made pastor of St. 
Ann's, now the Church of the Annunciation, 
where he remained for three months. From there 
he came to St. Patrick's parish, which at that 
time included all of the north side and a portion 
of the west side. Since coming here he has en- 
larged the church and school to the present size 
and has built the parsonage. He has remained 
here constantly with the church, with the ex- 
ception of a portion of 1894 and 1895, when 
another priest was assigned to his parish while 
he took a post-graduate work in the Catholic 
University of Washington. Alive to the interests 
of the church, he devotes himself closely to its 
welfare and has been efiFectual in increasing its 
membership and standing among the other 
churches of the city. 

L/ tendent of the public schools of Boulder 
fS County, is an able educator and by years of 
practical experience in teaching is especially 
qualified to occupy the responsible position with 
which the people of his county of Colorado have 
honored him in three successive elections. The 
numerous and varied duties which rest upon a 
man in such an office cannot be laid down by rule 
and precedent to any great extent, but depend 
largely upon the character of the person, his en- 
ergy and interest in the work and his desire to 
make his country a banner one in the common- 
wealth to which it belongs. Fortunately for the 
citizens of Boulder County, Professor Harding is 
devoted heart and soul to the noble work he has 
in charge, and under his judicious administration 
the standard of our local schools has been wonder- 
fully advanced. 

The gentleman of whom this sketch is written 
is a native of Cork, Ireland, born July 26, 1847. 
With his parents, Thomas and Mary (I,ester) 

Harding, of the same isle, he came to the United 
States in 1861, and in the following year removed 
from New York, where they had first settled, to 
Sturgis, Mich. Both parents were of English de- 
scent, the Hardings having taken up their res- 
idence in Ireland during the time of Cromwell. 
Thomas Hardfng was engaged in the manu- 
facture of pumps and machinery and was interest- 
ed in the shipping trade while in Ireland. He 
has been connected with the Studebaker Company 
as an employe, and has been variously occupied 
in a business way since coming to the United 
States. He and his wife are residents of Sturgis, 
Mich., where they have dwelt for many years 
and are much respected and loved. His father, 
William Harding, was engaged in a private bank- 
ing business in Ireland, and his wife's father, 
George Lester, was a sea- faring man, interested in 
trade with the West Indies and trans- Alantic 

Professor Harding is the eldest of the four sur- 
viving children of his parents. In boyhood he 
learned the trade of making chairs, and by in- 
dustry earned sufficient money to enable him to 
complete his higher education. In 1874 he grad- 
uated from the University of Michigan, and three 
years later had the degree of Master of Arts con- 
ferred upon him by his alma mater. His natural 
tastes lying in the direction of pedagogic work, 
he soon embarked upon his career as a teacher 
and has met with success from the first. For 
several years he taught in his native state, in 
Minnesota and in Indiana. In 1890 he resigned 
the position that for five years he had filled most 
acceptably in Middlebury, Ind., and coming to 
Colorado, he took charge of the city schools of 
Longmont. This position he resigned in 1893, 
as he had been elected to the superintendency of 
the county schools. Upon the expiration of his 
term he was re-elected, and again in 1897. He 
has inaugurated many valuable reforms and 
changes in our school system, and his earnest and 
constant aim is to elevate the standard and en- 
courage teachers and pupils to greater efforts. 
He was a member of the committee that succeed- 
ed in securing the Texas Chautauqua for Boul- 
der; is a member of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion; has been president of the State Association 
of County Superintendents and of the Boulder 
County Teachers' Association. In 1892 he took 
the required state teachers' examination in Colo- 


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O^ x^^X_ 

-;*Ai"/*/>a, Pub. Co 1~h 



rado, and received a diploma. Previously he 
had been granted a similar certificate in Indiana. 

In 1895 his name was on the Populist ticket 
and in 1897 he received a plurality of about eight 
hundred votes. For some time he has been the 
president of the People's Publishing Company, 
which carries on a general publishing business 
and edits the Colorado Representative as well. 
Fraternally he was made a Mason in 1886 in Mid- 
dlebury, Ind., and is now identified with Boulder 
Lodge No. 45, A. F. & A. M. He also belongs 
to the Order of the Eastern Star. 

In 1878 Professor Harding married Miss Alice 
Stansbury, daughter of John Stansbury, of Ligo- 
nier, Ind. She has been of great assistance to 
him in his work and is a lady who is beloved by 
all who have the pleasure of her acquaintance. 
With their two daughters, Eva and Mildred, she 
holds membership with the Methodist Episcopal 

(Junius F. brown, since 1870 Mr. Brown 
I has been identified with the business in- 
C/ terests of Denver, and has contributed to its 
advancement by his connection with progressive 
enterprises and public-spirited movements. As 
the president of the Brown and Uifi" Land Com- 
pany he is intimately associated with a concern 
widely and favorably known for reliability and 
extensive operations. He is also vice-president of 
The J. S. Brown & Bro. Mercantile Company, an 
old and well-known wholesale house of Denver. 
For a number of years he was president of the con- 
struction company of the Denver & New Orleans 
Railroad Company (now the Union Pacific, Den- 
ver & Gulf Railroad), and from the organization 
of the Denver Tramway Company until 1896 he 
was one of its directors. He was for many years 
vice-president of the City National Bank, but 
withdrew in 1894, before its consolidation. 

The ancestry of the Brown family is given in 
the sketch of J. Sidney Bro.wn. In Conneaut, 
Ohio, where he was born September 3, 1827, 
Junius F. Brown received public-school and 
academic advantages. In 1850 he began clerk- 
ing in a mercantile house in his native place, but 
two years later removed to Toledo, where he 
clerked in a dry-goods house one year, and then 
spent a similar period with the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railroad. His next position 
was with Buckingham & Co. In May, 1857, he 

went to Atchison, Kan., and embarked in the 
manufacture of lumber for the home market. 
The mills were located on the Missouri side, and 
when the war broke out his strong northern pro- 
clivities made it undesirable for him to continue 
business there, so he abandoned the enterprise. 

Wishing to utilize the large number of teams 
on hand, he loaded a wagon train with merchan- 
dise and placed his brother in charge, with in- 
structions to cross the plains to Denver. While 
waiting for the latter's return, he continued in 
charge of affairs at Atchison, but afterwards per- 
sonally engaged in freighting until 1865, and 
then became a member of the firm of Drury & 
Brown, wholesale grocers, in Atchison. Closing 
out the business in 1870 became to Denver, with 
the business history of which he has since been 
intimately connected. 

In Conneaut, Ohio, Mr. Brown married Jane 
B. Kilborn, who was born in Canada, and accom- 
panied her father, John H. Kilborn, to Conneaut. 
She died in 1877, leaving two daughters and a 
son, namely: Helen, Mrs. S. H. Nesmith, of 
Denver; Jane M. , Mrs. F. S. Titsworth, of Ana- 
conda, Mont.; and Harry K., a graduate of Yale 
College in 1892, and secretary of The J. S. Brown 
& Bro. Mercantile Company. The second mar- 
riage of our subject, solemnized in Denver, united 
him with Miss Mary L. Brundage, by whom he 
has one child, June Louise. Mrs. Brown is a 
lady of intellectual attainments, and is a member 
of the Woman's Club, the Fortnightly Club and 
the Daughters of the Revolution. Her father, 
Marcus B. Brundage, was born in Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., the youngest of twelve children, and was 
orphaned at fourteen years. After completing 
his education he went to New Haven, Conn., 
where he engaged in carriage manufacturing, but 
removed from there to Tallmadge, Ohio, engag- 
ing in the same business. Failing health brought 
him to Colorado, and afterward to California, 
where he died in 1883. He married Harriet 
Parmelee, who was born in Ohio, the daughter 
of Theodore Hudson Parmelee, of Goshen, Conn., 
and a descendant of a Revolutionary patriot. 
The family came to this country in 1639 from 
England, where the name was originally Parmly. 
Mrs. Brundage died in Ohio, at the age of seven- 
ty-five years, leaving four children, of whom 
Mrs. Brown is next to the oldest. 

The business interests of Mr. Brown and his 




brother have been In common for many years, 
having achieved satisfactorj' results, not only in 
the mercantile business, but also in real-estate 
and banking interests. Mr. Brown has always 
been interested in the election of good men to 
fill responsible official positions, and has given 
them every assistance. He has assisted in the 
development of Denver and in the progress of 
its material prosperity by the energy he has dis- 
played in private affairs, and by the executive 
ability he has shown in the capacity of director 
in many important organizations. A worthy 
cause of a philanthropic, religious, social or edu- 
cational character is sure of his prompt and gen- 
erous assistance, and in a way that the left hand 
will not know what the right hand does. 

Mr. Brown is a man of untiring energy in his 
devotion to every business interest committed to 
him, the smallest detail receiving the attention 
it deserves, and this, in a great measure, has led 
to his success in the financial world. 

The lives of Mr. Brown and his brother Sid- 
ney have been closely interwoven, both having 
taken a firm stand as Republicans, although 
neither has accepted political preferment. They 
have been devoted to their business, and have 
demonstrated to the world at large what the con- 
centration of energy, indomitable will and splen- 
did courage, even in adversity, can accomplish. 

pCjARREN C. DYER, ex-sheriff of Boulder 

\ A / County, is engaged in the real-estate busi- 
YV ness. He has his office in the Camera block. 
Eleventh and Pearl .street, Boulder, and has built 
up a large business in general real estate, insurance 
and conveyancing. He platted Dyer's addition 
to Boulder, consisting of the southeast forty 
acres of section 26, adjoining Chautauqua 
and University place; also handles Newland's 
addition, consisting of one hundred and forty 
acres, which has been platted in town lots. 

It is supposed that the Dyer family came to 
America from England. From Cape Cod, Mass., 
one of the name migrated to Maine, where oc- 
curred the birth of our subject's grandfather, a 
farmer, who died aged eighty-seven years. The 
father of our subject, Hon. Zachariah Dyer, a 
native of Maine, served as under sheriff of Frank- 
lin County for six years and as sheriff for a 
similiar period, also represented his district in 

the state legislature for two terms, being in public 
service during much of his active life. Meantime 
he also superintended the management of his 
farm. He is now living retired, having justly 
earned the freedom from business cares that he 
enjoys. His wife, Emily Cram, was born in 
Maine and died there in 1859. Her father was 
a member of an old Maine family that came from 
England; he died at seventy-four years of age. 
Of the four children of whom our subject was 
the youngest all but one are still living. The 
oldest son, Augustus, a veteran of the war, is a 
merchant in Lewiston, Me.; a younger son, Row- 
land, resides in North Dakota. 

The subject of this sketch was born in New 
Sharon, Me., September 21, 1855, and was reared 
in his native town. In the spring of 1877 ^^ 
went to the Black Hills, where he remained for 
three months, and then moved to Hastings, Neb. 
Five months after settling in that place, he was 
appointed under sheriff to Mr. Martin, and con- 
tinued in the position until he came to Colorado. 
In June, 1880, he began prospecting and mining 
at Breckenridge, and later was appointed under 
sheriff to William Iliff, of Summit County, con- 
tinuing in the position for two years. He still 
owns three patent claims in that county. In the 
spring of 1887 he went to Denver, where he 
engaged in building, contracting and selling, but 
in 1890 sold out the business and removed to 
Lyons, Boulder County. There he engaged in 
the mercantile business until the fall of 1893, 
when he was elected sheriff on the People's 
party ticket. After two years of successful, 
efficient service, he was re-elected by a large 
majority. The time of his service extended from 
January, 1894, to January, 1898. At the close 
of his second term, the bar of Boulder, though 
opposed to him politically, showed their apprecia- 
tion of his valuable services by presenting him 
with a gold-headed cane and at the same time 
gave a set of resolutions commending him for his 
ability in filling the office. During the time he 
served as sheriff he had forty-eight insane people 
in his charge and also had five murder cases. 
The Democratic platform, adopted by the Chicago 
convention in 1896, is in accord with his opinions, 
for he favors free silver and free trade. While 
in Lyons he held the position of alderman and 
was at one time mayor pro tern, but resigned the 
position on being elected sheriff. 



In Summit County, Colo., Mr. Dyer married 
MoUie T. Churchill, who was born in Florence, 
Ala., and accompanied by her father, Willard 
Churchill, to Breckenridge, Colo., in 1880. Mr. 
and Mrs. Dyer are the parents of two daughters, 
Laura E. and Elvie C. Fraternally he is con- 
nected with the Knights of Pythias at Boulder; 
also the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
which he joined in Hastings, Neb., in 1879, but 
afterward became identified with Breckenridge 
Lodge No. 49, then was a charter member of 
Denver Lodge No. 96, later a charter member of 
Lyons Lodge No. 102, and finally a charter 
member of Boulder Lodge No. 112, also a mem- 
ber of Unity Encampment No. 13, in which he is 
a oificer, and Boulder Canton No. 5. He is 
also a member of Columbia Lodge, A. F. & A.M., 
of Boulder. In the lodges with which he has 
been identified he has held various oificial posi- 

(fi\ ARON S. BENSON, president of the Bank 
I 1 of Loveland, president of The Louden Irri- 
I 1 gating Canal Company, and also connected 
with several other irrigation and business enter- 
prises, is a native of the state of New York, 
the son of Sherman and Jane E. (Shaw) Benson, 
both of New York state. 

The boyhood years of our subject were spent 
in New York and Iowa. In 1862 he returned to 
New York for the purpose of settling his grand- 
father's estate. In 1865 he returned to Louden, 
Iowa, where he was engaged in the nursery busi- 
ness for some years. His health failing, he con- 
cluded to try a change of climate and came to 
Colorado, settling at Golden, Jefferson County, 
where he carried on the nursery bu.siness, con- 
nected with market gardening and fruit growing. 
In 1878 he came to Larimer County for the pur- 
pose of constructing the Louden Canal, and has 
since been an officer of the county. At the same 
time he purchased and improved farm lands and 
engaged in stock-raising -and the dairy business, 
in which he has successfully continued. 

He owns about one thousand acres of cultivated 
farm lands in Larimer County, which is divided 
into five farms, and is also the owner of a fine 
residence and property in Loveland. In 1882 he 
became interested in the Bank of Loveland, of 
which he has been president since 1883. 

The first wife of Mr. Benson was Eliza Cleg- 

horn, who died in 1862, leaving three children. 
Perry, Mary (now the wife of J. A. Lewis), and 
Charles. In 1864 Mr. Benson was united in 
marriage with Miss Marion Vanderburgh, of 
New York. Four children blessed their union, 
Clarence V., who is cashier of the Bank of Love- 
land; Velma V., wife of Alfred Beebe; Franc V. 
and Aaron V. The family is identified with the 
Baptist Church. Fraternally he is a Mason, be- 
ing a member of Lodge No. 53, A. F. & A. M., of 
Loveland. In his political belief he is a Repub- 
lican and as such has been active in local and 
state affairs. 

While in Jefferson County he was for three 
years a member of the board of county commis- 
sioners. Soon after coming to Larimer County 
he was elected county commissioner and after 
serving for three years he was elected a member 
of the state legislature. Having served his time 
he was again elected a member of the board of 
county commissioners for three years. He served 
as school director in Jefferson County for six 
years, and in Larimer County he has for sixteen 
years filled a similar position in District No. i. 
He is a member of the board of trustees of 
the State Agricultural College. As a friend of 
education he favors any plan whereby the educa- 
tional interests of the state may be fostered and 

(JOSEPH T. ATWOOD is a successful attor- 
I ney-at-law, and a member of the firm of 
(2J Minor & Atwood, who have offices in the 
Masonic Temple building in Longmont. He is 
the legal adviser of the Farmers' National Bank 
of Longmont, and has a large practice in Long- 
mont and vicinity. In the political world he is 
verj^ prominent and popular, and has frequently 
been chosen to preside as chairman over conven- 
tions of the Boulder County Democratic party in 
late years. Moreover, he has frequently been 
sent as a delegate to the state conventions of the 
party, and has been an active and aggressive 
worker in the cause. For several terms he has 
served as city attorney, and has made a good 
record for himself and constituents. 

Marsylus' Atwood, father of the above-named 
gentleman, was a native of Greene County, Ind., 
born in 1823. He was a son of George B. 
Atwood, who was born in Massachusetts, and 
came from an old and respected New England 



family. George B. Atwood married a Miss 
I^awrence, who, though born in Georgia, was of 
English parentage. The couple moved to Indiana 
at an early day in the history of that state, and 
in 1837 went to Texas. Mr. Atwood took up a 
tract of forty -five hundred acres of land in Hen- 
derson County, under the peculiar laws then in 
force in that region, and died just prior to the 
Mexican war. His wife returned to Indiana at 
the outbreak of hostilities between the two 
countries, and thus the property was lost to the 
family under the statute of limitations. Marsylus 
Atwood was reared to manhood in Indiana and 
Texas, and after he returned to his native state 
he was occupied in farming in Greene County 
until his death, during the Civil war, in 1863. He 
married Martha Ann Martindale, likewise a 
native of Indiana, and five children came to bless 
their union. Two of the number are deceased. 
Mrs. lyce resides in Longmont and William is 
living in Boulder. The Martindales were origin- 
ally from England, and settled in Virginia at an 
early period. Mrs. Atwood was the daughter of 
William Martindale, who was born and brought 
up in Virginia and went to Indiana on arriving 
at maturity, there to engage in cultivating a 
homestead during the rest of his active life. Mrs. 
Atwood departed this life in Indiana when but 
forty years of age. 

Joseph T. Atwood was born in Newark, Greene 
County, Ind., in 1862. His father died when 
the boy was scarcely a year old, aud the mother 
died a few years later. Until he was fourteen 
our subject attended the public schools of 
Newark, and in the fall of the Centennial year 
he started for the west. For nearly a year he 
lived in Taylor County, Iowa, but in 1877 came 
to Boulder County. Here he spent about ten 
years in agricultural pursuits, giving as much 
time as possible to his studies and going to the 
district schools several terms. In 1887 he en- 
tered the State Agricultural College, and con- 
tinued until the cldse of his junior year. In 1890 
he returned to the east and in the fall matricu- 
lated in the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor. He was one in a class originally number- 
ing three hundred and twelve, but twenty-two 
failed to graduate, a large percentage. It was in 
the summer of 1892 that he received the honors 
for which he had been striving, that of Bachelor 
of L,aws. The same year he opened an ofiSce in 

Longmont and has since been engaged in the 
practice of general law. The following year he 
entered into partnership with Mr. Minor and the 
present firm of Minor & Atwood was formed. 
Mr. Atwood has rapidly risen in his profession, 
and his friends predict for him a brilliant future. 
He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and 
of the Woodmen of the World, and is a great 
favorite in social circles. 

HN. BR ADIvEY, who is engaged in the mer- 
cantile business at No. 720 Sixteenth street, 
Denver, was born in Sunderland, Vt. , May 
6, 1846, and is a son of Gilbert and Mary (Lock- 
wood) Bradley. His father, who was born in 
the same town in 1800, was a son of Ethan Brad- 
ley, who removed from Connecticut, his birth- 
place, and settled in Vermont, engaging in the 
mercantile businesss there. Gilbert, who was 
also a merchant, was a man of considerable prom- 
inence in his locality and in politics was an old- 
line Democrat. He died at eighty years of age. 
In his family there were seven children who at- 
tained mature years, and five of these are still 
living, namely: Frances, who lives in New York; 
Jane, Mrs. Isaac G. Johnson, of New York; Gil- 
bert W. , a manufacturer living in Manchester, 
Vt.; Herbert N., who was next to the youngest; 
and John, a manufacturer, living in Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

In the schools of Sunderland and the academies 
at Manchester and Bennington, Vt., the subject 
of this sketch gained his education. At the age 
of sixteen he left school and began to give his 
attention exclusively to his father's store, where 
he continued until 1866. Having meantime saved 
his wages, he started in business for himself at 
Rupert, Vt., where he remained for seven years. 
In 1873 he sold out and came to Colorado, open- 
ing a store in Boulder in the spring of the follow- 
ing year and continuing in the same place until 
1897. At the organization of the bank in Boul- 
der he was chosen its head and for several years 
served as president, when he resigned, sold his 
stock and went east, remaining several years, but 
not engaging in business. On his return he ac- 
cepted the position as vice-president of the bank, 
which he still holds. In June, 1895, he began in 
the mercantile business in Denver, where he has 
a large and lucrative business. He has invested 




in real estate in various parts of the country from 
Vermont to Colorado. 

In Orange County, N. Y., in 1884, Mr. Brad- 
ley married Miss Margaret Brodhead, who was 
born and reared in that county, a daughter of 
Capt. Edgar Brodhead, who graduated from An- 
napolis Naval School, served for many years in 
the United States Navy and is now living retired 
in Orange County. Mr. and Mrs. Bradley have 
two children: Mary, who was born in Boulder in 
June, 1886; and Herbert N., born in Boulder Oc- 
tober 12, 1888. Though reared a Democrat, Mr. 
Bradley has always supported Republican prin- 
ciples, and cast his first vote for Gen. U. S. Grant. 
While in business at Rupert he became a member 
of Morning Flower Lodge, A. F. & A. M.,in 
which he filled all the chairs. After he had been 
living in Colorado for some time, and during a 
trip east, he took the chapter degrees at Man- 
chester, Vt. He became a charter member of 
the chapter in Boulder and later took the com- 
mandery degrees there, being the first to do so 
after its organization. 

admission of Colorado as one of the states of 
the Union, the name of Senator Maxwell 
has been closely identified with its history. 
Elected to the first session of the state senate in 
1876, after having ably represented his district in 
important territorial positions, he drew the long 
term and served until 1880. In the second ses - 
sion, in 1879, he served as president pro tem of 
the senate. He was prominently connected with 
early legislative acts and took a warm interest in 
securing the appropriations for the state uni- 
versity. In 1877 he had the distinction of plac- 
ing in nomination for the United States senate 
Hon. H. M. Teller, who then began his long and 
distinguished connection with public affairs. 
Elected mayor of Boulder in 1878, he served for 
one term of two years, resigning in 1880, after 
which he held the ofiBce of county treasurer 
for two years. He was again elected to the state 
senate in 1896, as the candidate of the silver Re- 
publicans and Democrats, and was the recipient 
of a large majority in a county that usually gives 
a majority to the People's party. At the close of 
the eleventh session he was elected president pro 
tem of the senate for the next session. 

Three miles from the foot of Geneva Lake, at 
Bigfoot, Walworth County, W^is., the subject of 
this sketch was born in June, 1839, a son of 
James A. and Susan V. (Clark) Maxwell, and a 
grandson of Col. James Maxwell, who was a pio- 
neer of Walworth County, a merchant by occu- 
pation, a member of the territorial legislature and 
colonel of the Wisconsin state militia, dying in 
Wisconsin at eighty years of age. His brother, 
Philip Maxwell, M. D., was one of the prominent 
physicians in the early days of Chicago. 

For some years James A. Maxwell was a large 
land holder, a successful merchant and a promi- 
nent man in the public affairs of Walworth 
County, but removed from there to Sauk County, 
and from there came to Colorado in i860. He 
assisted in the construction of the Boulder and 
Blackhawk wagon road, which he operated for a 
time, but sold to the railroad company on the 
building of the railroad through the canon. In 
early days he also engaged in the sawmill 
business in Boulder. He was a consistent and 
active member of the Methodist Epi.scopal 
Church. One Thursday evening in 1892 he at- 
tended the regular weekly prayer-meeting, walk- 
ing three-quarters of a mile to the church. He 
seemed in his usual health at the meeting and 
when it had closed he walked home, where he 
sat down in a rocking chair, with his feet on the 
fender, a paper in his hands, and his glasses on. 
In that position he was found, dead, the follow- 
ing morning. He had passed peacefully away, 
at the close of a service in the church he had 
helped to organize, and in his home, surrounded 
by every comfort, and apparently without any 
pain. He was twice married. His first wife, 
Miss Clark, accompanied her parents from New 
York to Indiana, thence to Wisconsin, where 
she remained until her demise. She was the 
mother of six children, viz. : Emma, Mrs. H. H. 
Potter, ofBaraboo, Sauk County, Wis. ; James P.; 
Charles A., of Boulder; Ophelia, Mrs. George H. 
Rust, who died in Boulder; Ellen, wife of 
William Hill, of Missouri; and Augusta, wife of 
J. V. Pierce, of Kansas City. 

In 1854 t'ls subject of this sketch entered the 
Lawrence University at Appleton, Wis., where 
he was graduated in 1859 with the degree of A.B. 
In i860 he joined his father, who had preceded 
him to Omaha, and together they journeyed 
with horses over the plains, reaching .Denver 



June lo, after a journey of six weeks. They 
went to Central City and Nevadaville, thence to 
Lump Gulch and engaged in placer mining. In 
i860 our subject was elected sheriff of Gold Dirt 
district, serving for one year, and then for a simi- 
lar period engaged in lode mining at Leaven- 
worth Gulch. In 1863, with Captain Tyler, his 
brother-in-law, he embarked in the lumber busi- 
ness on South Boulder Creek, putting up a mill, 
and engaging in the manufacture of lumber of 
all kinds. This lumber he sold in Blackhawk, 
Central City and Cheyenne. Also, in partnership 
with his father, he operated, by water power, a 
mill at the mouth of Four Mile Creek. In 1867 
he moved from South Boulder to the mouth of 
Four Mile, three miles from Boulder, and from 
there in 1870 he came to Boulder. For several 
years, as deputy United States mineral and land 
surveyor, he made surveys of the public lands of 
the state. In 1872 he was elected to the territo- 
rial legislature from Boulder, two years later was 
re-elected, and in 1876 was made a member of the 
first state senate. From 1882 to 1888 he en- 
gaged in government surveying in western Colo- 
rado, and from 1888 to 1893 he acted as state en- 
gineer, under appointment by Governors Cooper 
and Routt. As state engineer he had charge and 
control of the irrigation of the state, and the ap- 
propriations made for public improvements by 
two legislatures, amounting to about $200,000 
each term, of which amount, by economical ex- 
penditures, he returned about f 100,000 each two 
years. Appropriations for bridge building, road 
construction and re,servoir building were made at 
his discretion and under his supervision. He gave 
personal oversight to every contract and its com- 
pletion, and such roads and bridges asked for, 
but not deemed actual necessities by himself, 
were not built. 

For the past ten years Mr. Maxwell has been 
engaged in the cattle business, and owns ranches 
and real estate. He laid out Maxwell's addition 
of fifteen acres on the mesa, a fine site, and was 
vice-president of the Mapleton Company that 
laid out forty acres. With others, in 1888, he be- 
gan the construction of the Silver Lake ditch, 
the highest ditch of Boulder canon, covering 
about two hundred acres of his laud; irrigation 
has made of this section a valuable fruit tract. 
He is president of the Silver Lake Ditch Com- 
pany, and through his efforts an abundance of 

water has been given to this property. He has 
also stocked Silver Lake with and is making 
of the lake and surrounding country a fine resort. 
For fifteen years he was president of the Steam- 
boat Springs Company, that laid out Steamboat 
Springs in Routt County. He is still interested 
in mining and prospecting in different parts of the 
state. Besides his other interests, he is the owner 
of .Maxwell block, on Pearl near Twelfth street, 

In Gilpin County, Colo., Mr. Maxwell married 
Miss Francelia O. Smith, who was born near 
Milwaukee, Wis. Her father. Nelson K. Smith, 
was long a resident of Wisconsin (see sketch 
elsewhere in this work) and came to Colorado in 
i860, engaging in the sawmill business, in manu- 
facturing enterprises and in the construction of a 
toll road from Golden to Central. He died in 
Boulder in 1896. The children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Maxwell are named as follows: Clint J., who is 
in charge of his father's ranches and also carries 
on a stock business; Mark N., who is a drug- 
gist in Boulder; Helen M., who studied German 
and music under the best instructors in Germany; 
and Marie O. , wife of Prof. Charles R. Burger, 
instructor of mathematics in the East Denver 
high school. 

Fraternally Mr. Maxwell is connected with 
Boulder Lodge No. 14, A. F. & A. M. , in which he 
is past master; Boulder Chapter No. 7, R. A. M., 
in which he is past high priest; Mount Sinai 
Commandery No. 7, K. T. , in which he is past 
eminent commander, and was grand commander 
of the grand commandery of Colorado for one 
year; the consistory in Denver and El Jebel 
Temple, N. M. S. For some years he acted as 
president of the state forestry association and is 
now a member of the State Historical Society. 
For several terms he has held the office of presi- 
dent of the Boulder County Pioneer Society and 
he is also identified with the Society of Colorado 

CySAAC LAMB BOND, M. D., a resident of 
I Boulder since 187 1, came to Colorado in that 
X year with the Chicago-Colorado Colony, 
which located Longmont, but instead of making 
the new town his permanent location he settled 
in Boulder and has since made this city his home. 
He engaged in the practice of his profession for 
only five years after coming west, and is now re- 



tired from active participation in professional 
work or in business. For one term he acted as 
mayor of Boulder. He took no active part in poli- 
tics until populism sprang up; he opposes this 
doctrine with all his intellect and influence, giv- 
ing his support to kepublican principles and 
working for their success. 

The Bond family was founded in Massachu- 
setts about two hundred years ago, coming there 
from England. The doctor's father, George S., 
was a son of George Bond, a farmer of Worcester 
County; he was born in Brimfield, Hampden 
County, but was reared in Leicester, Worcester 
County, where he has since resided, being now 
eighty-three years of age. He married Eliza 
Lamb, who was born in Worcester County and 
still lives there, being now eighty years of age. 
She was a daughter of Isaac and Abigail (White) 
Lamb, natives of Spencer, Worcester County. 
Her father, who was born in 3765 and died in 
1853, took part in the Revolution and later was 
major of militia. Her grandfather, John Lamb, 
was born in Massachusetts in 1727 and died in 
1796; he was a son of Jonathan Lamb, a native 
of Boston, who settled in Worcester County in 
1726 and served as a lieutenant in the early colo- 
nial wars. Jonathan's father, Joshua, came from 
England to Massachusetts and held the rank of 
colonel in early wars. 

The family of George S. and EHza Bond con- 
sisted of two children, the older being Mrs. Maria 
Kent, of Worcester. The younger, who forms 
the subject of this sketch, was born in Leicester, 
Mass., March 31, 1841. He received his educa- 
tion in the Leicester Academy and the State Nor- 
mal School, from both of which he graduated. He 
then taught school at Holyoke, Mass., for three 
years, after which he took up the study of medi- 
cine with Dr. Blodgett, of Holyoke, and later 
studied in the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 
New York, from which he graduated in 1866, with 
the degree of M. D. Opening an ofiRce in Wor- 
cester County he continued in practice there until 
1871, when he came to Boulder. After five years 
here he retired from practice on account of poor 
health and since then he has engaged in mining, 
farming and banking. 

In 1887 Dr. Bond organized the Boulder Elec- 
tric Light Company, of which he served as presi- 
dent for eight years and which has had a very 
successful history. In 1884 he assisted in the or- 

ganization of the Boulder National Bank and 
served as its vice-president from that time until 
1 89 1, after which he acted as cashier for two 
years. He is still connected with the bank as a 
stockholder. He has dealt extensively in mining 
properties and has also engaged in mining. As 
an irrigation farmer, he was interested in the 
building of some of the first ditches in the St. 
Vrain Valley, and was president of a number of 
the companies. Much of his land lies in Boulder 
County and consists of improved ranching prop- 

The marriage of Dr. Bond, solemnized in New 
York City, united him with Arabella, daughter 
of James and Anna (Watson) Coates, and a sis- 
ter of the present postmaster of Boulder. She 
possesses many admirable qualities and is a lady 
of refinement. A stanch Republican, Dr. Bond 
has been a member of the state central committee, 
was chairman of the county committee 1894-96, 
served as mayor of Boulder in 1891-93, and was 
his party's candidate for state senator in 1892, 
but was defeated by the Populists. He has done 
much to advance the welfare of his party, among 
whose members he is very popular. 

HON. ADAIR WILSON, associate judge of 
the Colorado State Court of Appeals, was 
born in 1841 in what is now Cambridge, 
Saline County, Mo., and is of Scotch-Irish lineage. 
His paternal great-grandfather emigrated from 
Ireland to the United States and after a short so- 
journ in Pennsylvania went to the Shenandoah 
Valley, of Virginia, where he was engaged as a 
planter until his death. He had a brother, 
James, who was a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, also of the Constitution, by pro- 
fession an attorney, and under appointment by 
President Washington chosen to fill the position 
of justice of the supreme court of the United 

The grandfather of our subject, William Wil- 
son, was born in Virginia, and took part in the 
Revolution when a young man. Many years 
later, in 1824, he removed to Missouri and settled 
upon a farm near Glasgow, Howard County, 
where he lived retired until his death. The young- 
est of his large family was William A., a native 
of Augusta County, Va., and in early life a mer- 
chant, but later a student of law with his brother, 



Gen. John Wilson, who had preceded the family 
to Missouri and had served in the war of 1812. 
William was admitted to the bar in Saline County 
and opened an office in Marshall, where he was 
a pioneer and prominent attorney. For years he 
was clerk of all the courts there. When the 
Civil war broke out he was somewhat advanced 
in years, but enlisted in the state militia and was 
made lieutenant-colonel of a regiment, serving 
until the close of the war, but the exposure of 
camp life caused his death soon afterwards. He 
was then about fifty-seven years of age. Frater- 
nally he was a Mason. 

Our subject's mother was Mary E. Reeves, a 
native of Todd County, Ky., and now living in 
Marshall, Mo. She is the descendant of English 
and Scotch-Irish ancestors, who early settled in 
Virginia. Her father, Col. Benjamin H. Reeves, 
was born in Augusta County, Va., but about 
the close of the eighteenth century, when in in- 
fancy, he removed to Kentucky with his parents. 
His father had served in the Revolution and he 
took part, as a captain, in the war of 1812, being 
of the greatest assistance to the cause in Indiana 
and Kentucky and relieving Zacliary Taylor 
when the latter was besieged near Lafayette. 
During his residence in Kentucky he was for 
many years a member of the legislature. In 
1818 he removed to Missouri, where he was a 
member of the constitutional convention, later 
state senator from his district, and afterward 
lieutenant-governor of the state for one term. 
He was one of the commissioners appointed by 
the president of the United States to locate the 
Santa Fe trail. Both while in Kentucky and 
Missouri he was active in the skirmishes with the 
Indians, and during the Iowa Indian war he was 
colonel of a regiment. He died in 1849, at the 
age of sixty-two years. Politically he had been 
an ardent supporter of Henry Clay and the Whig 

The family of which our subject is a member 
consisted of seven children, he being third in 
order of birth. One brother, Benjamin H., was 
a captain in a Missouri regiment during the 
Civil war and is now a resident of Denver. Our 
subject was reared in Marshall and received his 
education in the Masonic College, from which he 
graduated with the degree of A. B., in 1858, 
when less than seventeen years of age, being the 
youngest member of his class. He studied law 

under an uncle. Judge Abiel Leonard, who was 
at one time judge of the supreme court of Mis- 
souri. In i860 he was admitted to the bar at 
Marshall and in the spring of the following year 
came to Denver, making the trip overland with 
teams. After a few weeks he proceeded west- 
ward to California and located in San Francisco, 
where his uncle. Gen. John Wilson, was a prom- 
inent attorney. The uncle and nephew practiced 
together for two years, then the latter went to 
Virginia City, Nev., and embarked in the news- 
paper business as city editor of the Virginia City 
Union, at the same time that Mark Twain was city 
editor of the EnterpHse. After one year he went 
to Austin, Nev., where he was the first editor of 
the Reese River Reveille, a paper that is still being 
published. Resigning his position a year later, 
he went bac