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FORTHE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





;, ,.. y. 



AN ILLUSTRATED BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO 
THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 



EDITED BY 

FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT 



<BfUmi <i^rgan of t\)t ;9lubutJon ^otittit^ 

Audubon Department Edited By 

ALICE HALL WALTER 

AND 

T. GILBERT PEARSON 



VOLUME XVI— 1974 



D. APPLETON & COMPANY 

HARRISBURG, PA., AND NEW YORK CITY 



Copyright, 1914 
By frank M. chapman 



INDEX TO ARTICLES IN VOLUME XVI 
BY AUTHORS 



Abbott, Clinton G., City Nighthawks, lo. 

Abel, Angle, The Bluebird, 212. 

Allen, Arthur A., At Home with a Hell- 
Diver, 243; Photographs by, 264, 364, 420, 
450; On the Trail of the Evening Gros- 
beak, 429. 

Allen, Mary Pierson, Christmas Census, 36. 

Anderson, Hartley K., see Burleigh, Thos. D. 

Anderson, S. D., Christmas Census, 44. 

Anthony, H. E., An Unsuspicious Family of 
Great Horned Owls, 115. 

Arnold, Clarence M., Christmas Census, 30. 

Austin, Margaret, see Tramis, Sarah. 

Bailey, Guy A., The Electric Current in 
Bird Photography, 85; Photographs by, 
104, 137, 269. 

Baker, Myles P., and Henry M. Spelman, 
Jr., Christmas Census, 28. 

Barker, Lulu, A Colony of Baltimore Orioles, 
66. 

Barns, Burton, see Butler, Mrs. Jefferson. 

Barry, Anna Kingman, Lidian E. Bridge and 
Ruth D. Cole, Christmas Census, 28. 

Baxter, Miss, see Coffin, P. B. 

Baynard, O. E., Photograph by, 77; Photo- 
graphing Birds' Nests, 471. 

Beall, Laura F., Poem by, loi. 

Bean, Prof. A. M., and O. J. Murie, Christ- 
mas Census, 49. 

Beck, Herbert H., and Elmer E. Kautz, 
Christmas Census, 37. 

Beckwith, Constance, see Tramis, Sarah. 

Beckwith, Mabel, see Tramis, Sarah. 

Beebe, Ralph, Evening Grosbeaks in Michi- 
gan, SI. 

Bell, W. B., President, Report of, 527. 

Bennett, F. M., Christmas Census, 50. 

Bennett, Walter W., Christmas Census, 47. 

Bergtold, W. H., Christmas Census, 48. 

Berlin, Mrs. C. D., A Bird-Study Class in 
North Dakota, 135. 

Betts, Norman de W., Christmas Census, 46; 
A Rat in a Swallow's Nest, 283. 

Bewley, Anna, Christmas Census, 37. 

Blanchard, George G., Christmas Census, 28. 

Bodmer, Helen, The Value of Birds, 378. 

Bogardus, Charlotte, Christmas Census, 32. 

Bourne, Thomas L., and Heath Van Duzee, 
Christmas Census, 32. 

Bowdish, B. S., Photographs by, 53, 69, 70; 
Secretary's Report, 525. 

Bowen, Joseph B., A Study of a Whip-poor- 
will Family, 296. 

Boyle, Howarth S., Christmas Census, 33. 

Bradford, Mrs. William H., see Ross, Dr. 
and Mrs. Lucretius H. 

Brainerd, Barron, Christmas Census, 29. 

Brewster, William, The Voice of the Tina- 
mou, 119. 

Bridge, Lidian E., see Barry, Anna King- 
man; see Cobb, Annie W., Christmas 
Census, 30. 

Bridge, Lidian E., and Edmund, Christmas 
Census, 29. 

Brooks, Allan, colored plates by, facing 380, 
facing 466. 

Brown, Donald E., see Walker, Alex. 

Brown, Roy M., Christmas Census, 40. 



Bruen, Frank, see Ford, Royal. 

Burdsall, E. Morris, see Burdsall, Richard L. 

Burdsall, Richard L., see Maples, James C. 

Burdsall, Richard L., Samuel N. Comly, 
James C. Maples, Paul Cecil Spofford, 
Bolton Cook and E. Morris Burdsall, 
Christmas Census, 34. 

Burleigh, Thomas D., and Hartley K. Ander- 
son, Christmas Census, 38. 

Bushee, Bertha, Secretary, Report of, 511. 

Butler, Mrs. Jefferson, Burton Barns and Mr. 
and Mrs. F. W. Robinson, Christmas 
Census, 46. 

Caduc, Eugene E., and Horace W. Wright, 
Christmas Census, 28. 

Calvert, J. F., see Watson, C. G. 

Calvert, S. W., Christmas Census, 48. 

Cameron, J. A., see Watson, C. G. 

Carlson, Arthur, see Ekblau, George E. 

Carroll, John, The Bobolink, 212. 

Carson, Charles E., Christmas Census, 45; 
A Turkey Buzzard's Nest, 66. 

Carter, John D., Arthur S. Maris, E. Leslie 
Nicholson, J. Howard Mickle, Anna A. 
Mickle, William B. Evans, and George H. 
Hallett, Jr., Christmas Census, 36. 

Case, Clifford M., Christmas Census, 31. 

Case, Winthrop, Some Wrens' Nests, 189. 

Caskey, R. C, Christmas Census, 36. 

Chambers, W. M. and Stella, Christmas 
Census, 42. 

Chapman, Frank M., Notes on the Plumage 
of North American Sparrows, 24, 107, 178, 
268, 352, 442. Bird-Lore's Fourteenth 
Christmas Census, 26; Notes on Winter 
Birds, 51. Reviews by, 54, 55, 56, 198, 
199, 284, 28s, 287, 36s, 366, 451. Edi- 
torials by 58, 124, 201, 288, 368, 454; A 
Cooperative Study of Bird Migration, 
123; The Roseate Spoonbill, 214. 

Childs, Helen P., Secretary, Report of, 512. 

Christie, Edward H., Christmas Census, 41. 

Clarke, Belle, Christmas Census, 46. 

Cleaves, Howard H., see Tucker, C. R.; 
Christmas Census, 34. 

Coates, Anna, Christmas Census, 37. 

Cobb, Annie W., Alice O. Jump and Lidian 
E. Bridge, Christmas Census, 29. 

Coffin, P. B. and Mrs., Dr. Garro and Miss 
Baxter, Christmas Census, 42. 

Cole, Ruth D., see Barry, Anna Kingman. 

Colman, B. H., A Syracuse Feeding Station, 
356. 

Comly, Samuel N., see Burdsall, Richard L.; 
see Maples, James C. 

Cook, Bolton, see Burdsall, Richard L.; see 
Maples, James C. 

Cook, F. W., Christmas Census, 49. 

Cooke, W. W., The Migration of North 
American Sparrows, 19, 105, 176, 267, 351, 
438. 

Cottrell, Herbert, Christmas Census, 36. 

Cottrell, H. George, Observing Birds in 
Winter, 464. 

Cressy, Antoinette S., Christmas Census, 31. 

Crosby, Maunsell S., see Goodell, Dr. and 
Mrs. J. F.; Occurrence of the Acadian 
Chickadee in the Hudson Valley, 448. 



(iii) 



Index 



Culver, Del 

Birds aiK 

Julian K. 
Custer, C. C, A Nature-Study Class, 133 



K.. Christmas Census, 37; 
Windows, 275; sec Potter, 



Dale, M., see Watson, C. G. 

Daniels, Josephus, Letter from, 157. 

Davis, Edwin Russell, Christmas Census, 

2g. 
Dawson, William Leon and William Oberlin, 

Christmas Census, 49. 
Debes, Paul K. and V. A., Christmas Census, 

44. 
Desvernine, Edwin, and George E. Hix, 

Christmas Census, ss- 
Dill, Victoria M., The Chat in Minnesota, 

359- 
Dix, W. L., Christmas Census, 37. 
I)il)lock, Cecil, Starlings and Cows, 187. 
Dodge, Victor K., Secretary, Report of, 518. 
Doolittle, E. A., Notes from Ohio, 112; 

European Widgeon. 
Downhour, Elizabeth, Secretary, Report of, 

516; in Ohio, 197. 
Dunbar, Lulu, see Tramis, Sarah. 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., Reviews by, 122, igg, 

452. 

Edson, Wm. L. G., Christmas Census, 35; 

Notes from Rochester, N. Y., 444. 
Edson, Wm. L. G., Richard E. Horsey, 
Brewster's Warbler Seen at Highland Park, 

Rochester, N. Y., 283. 
Ehinger, C. E., Christmas Census, 38- 
Ekblau, George E., Harris's Sparrow at 

Rantoul, Illinois, 446. 
Ekblau, George E. and Eddie L., and Arthur 

Carlson, Christmas Census, 45. 
Ellis, Mr. and Mrs. John V., Jr., Christmas 

Census, 48. 
Ells, George P., see Smith, Wilbur F. 
Emmich, Maurice B., Notes from the South, 

301. 
Erichsen, W. J., Christmas Census, 41. 
Esterly, Florence L. and Ethell A., Christ- 
mas Census, 47. 
Evans, William B., see Carter, John D. 

Fair, Wm. W., Christmas Census, 36. 
Ferguson, Gertrude B., Tlie Starling at 

Glens Falls, N. Y., 187. 
Ferneyhough, J. Bowie, Summer Residents 

Identified near the University of Virginia, 

291. 
Finley, William L., Field Agent, Annual 

Report of, 502. 
Fisher, Elizabeth Wilson, Secretary, Report 

of, S30. 
Fisher, G. Clyde, A Course in Bird-Study, 

196. 
Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. G. Clyde, see Wiley 

J. C. 
Fitzwater, Clarence, Home Bird-Study, 379. 
Fleischer, Edward, Prospect Park Notes, 276. 
Floyd, Charles B., Brookline Bird Club, 353. 
Flynn, Thomas, A Walk in the Woods, 136. 
Forbush, Edward Howe, The Sora Rail, 303; 

Photographs by, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 

391. 
Ford, Royal W., and Frank Bruen, Christ- 
mas Census, 30 
Fordyce, George L., Volney Rogers, Willis 

H. Warner, Mrs. Warner and C. A. Leedy, 

Christmas Census, 44. 



Frazen, J. W., Secretary, Report of, 523. 

Freer, Ruskin S. and C. A., Christmas Cen- 
sus, 43. 

Freye, Rev. B. H., and Henry P. Severson, 
Christmas Census, 47. 

Fuertes, Louis Agassiz, Impressions of the 
Voices of Tropical Birds, i, 96, 161, 342, 
421. Colored plates by, facing i, facing 
68, facing 85, facing 138, facing i6i, facing 
243, facing 329, facing 409. 

Fuller, Wm., The Starling in Maine, 446. 

Garro, Dr., see Coffin, P. B. 

Gee, Gertrude, see Perry, Edna M. 

Gibson, Hamilton, Winter Notes from 

Massachusetts, 118. 
Gibson, Hamilton, Paul Van Dyke and 

Tertius van Dyke, Christmas Census, 30. 
Gideon, Ross E., A Story About a Bluebird, 

67. 
Gingrich, Wm. F., Young Turkey Vultures, 

280. 
Goodell, Dr. and Mrs. J. F., and Maunsell 

S. Crosby, Christmas Census, 34. 
Gormley, Liguori, and Charles Macnamara, 

Christmas Census, 27. 
Gowanlock, J. Nelson. The Grackle as a 

Nest-robber, 187. 
Graves, Frances M., Christmas Census, 31. 
Griscom, Ludlow, see Lenssen, Nicholas F.; 

see Hubbell, George W., Jr.; see Nichols, 

John Treadwell. 
Griswold, Geo. T., Evening Grosbeak and 

Acadian Chickadee at Hartford, Conn., 

52; Evening Grosbeaks and Other Winter 

Birds at Hartford, Conn., 113; Notes 

from Hartford, Conn., 449. 
Gross, Dr. and Mrs. Alfred O., Christmas 

Census, 38. 
Guggenheimer, Mrs. J. C, Miss Guggen- 

heimer, and Joseph N. Ulman, Christmas 

Census, 39. 

Hagerty, Dr. and Mrs. T. P., Mr. and Mrs. 

J. H. Sprague, and Dr. and Mrs. G. H. 

Luedtke, Red Bird Days, no. 
Hagerty, Mrs. Mary, Christmas Census, 47. 
Hallett, George H., Jr., see Carter, John D. 
Hall, James F., see Smith, Wilbur F. 
Hall, Lewis F., The Nighthawk in Connec- 

cut, 173.^ 
Handley, Charles O., Christmas Census, 40. 
Haney, Gladys, see Turner, Violet. 
Harper, Francis, An Island Home of the 

American Merganser, 338; Photograph by, 

349- 
Hathaway, Harry S., Christmas Census, 30. 
Haulenbeck, R. F., Instincts of a Parrot, 

446; Little Blue Heron in New Jersey, 446. 
Heaney, Anna M., Letter from, 159. 
Heath, Harold, Photographs by, 74, 75. 
Hersey, F. Seymour, and Charles L. Phil- 
lips, Christmas Census, 29. 
Hewlett, Charles A., Christmas Census, 35. 
Hill, F. Blanche, Sussex County, N. J., 

Notes, 277. 
Hill, J. Irving, Christmas Census, 30. 
Hinds, Mary Gibbs, Food for the Birds, 355. 
Hitchcock, Charles, see Ross, Dr. and Mrs. 

Lucretius H. 
Hitchcock, Harry D., Christmas Census, 31. 
Hitchcock, Margaret S., A Winter Pensioner, 

358. 
Hix, George E., see Desvernine, Edwin. 



Index 



Honywill, Albert W., Jr., Christmas Census, 

38. 
Horsey, Richard E., Christmas Census, 35; 

see Edson, Wm. L. G.; Photographs by, 

444, 445- 
Horsfall, Bruce, Colored plates by, facing 

138; facing 214, facing 303. 
Howe, Freeland, Jr., Christmas Census, 27. 
Hubbell, George W., Jr., see Lenssen, 

Nicholas F. 
Hubbell, George W., Jr., and Ludlow Gris- 

com, Christmas Census, 33. 
Hughes, H. Y., Christmas Census, 42. 
Hulsberg, Edmund, Christmas Census, 45. 

Jackson, Ralph W., Christmas Census, 39. 
Jackson, Thomas H., Christmas Census, 38. 
Job, Herbert K., Photographs by, 315; The 

Pintail, 380. 
Jones, Joseph C, Christmas Census, 40. 
Jump, Alice O., see Cobb, Annie W. 

Kautz, Elmer E., see Beck, Herbert H. 
Keitly, Edward D., Christmas Census, 30. 
Kenesson, Fred W., The Hummer and His 

Shower-bath, 186. 
Kent, Edward G., Pileated Woodpecker in 

Northern New Jersey, 116. 
Kimes, Edward D., Christmas Census, 43. 
Kimsey, Rolla Warren, Why the Birds Are 

Decreasing, 265. 
Kittredge, Joseph, Jr., Christmas Census, 48. 
Kohler, Louis S., Christmas Census, 35. 
Konwenhoven, Mary, Barn Swallows, 463. 
Kuser, John Dryden, Christmas Census, 33. 
Kutchin, Victor, Secretary, Report of, 537. 
Kyle, Marion and John, Bird-Houses and 

Lunch-Boxes, ig2. 

La Dow, S. v., see Nichols, John Treadwell. 

LaDue, H. J. and L. L., Christmas Census, 
47- 

Lane, James W., Jr., Christmas Census, 35. 

Larson, Clara, see Turner, Violet. 

Latham, Roy, Notes on the Black-crowned 
Night Heron and Other Birds at Orient, 
L. I., 112; Loss of the Vesper Sparrow at 
Orient, L. I., 449. 

Latham, Roy and Frank G., Christmas Cen- 
sus, 34. 

Lawless, Howard, Christmas Census, 43. 

Lear, George, Christmas Census, 38. 

Leedy, C. A., see Fordyce, George L. 

Lenssen, Nicholas F., George W. Hubbell, Jr., 
and Ludlow Griscom, Christmas Census, 32. 

Levey, Mrs. William M. and W. Charles- 
worth, Christmas Census, 40. 

Lewis, Harrison F., Christmas Census, 27; 
A Problem in Food-Supply and Distribu- 
tion, 113. 

Lewis, Merriam G., Christmas Census, 40. 

Lincoln, T., An EfiFort to Illustrate the 
Advantages and Possibilities of Inducing 
Desirable Birds to Remain within the 
Boundaries of the State During the Winter 
Months, 292. 

Link, Henry A., Christmas Census, 42. 

Lippincott, Joseph W., Photograph by, 175; 
An Owl Refugee on a Battleship, 186; 
The Early Woodcock, 186. 

Lloyd, J. William, The Whisper Song of the 
Catbird, 446. 

Logue, Mrs. I. L., Christmas Census, 48. 

Longstreet. Rubert J., Christmas Census, 41. 



Lovell, Laura E., Christmas Census, 43. 
Luedtke, Dr. and Mrs., see Hagerty, Dr. 

and Mrs. 
Lundwall, Nelson, Christmas Census, 48. 
Lyon, Wilfred, see Mackenzie, Locke. 

Mackenzie, Locke L., and Wilfred Lyon, 
Christmas Census, 44; Evening Grosbeak 
in Chicago, 51. 

Macnamara, Charles, see Gormley, Liguori. 

Madison, H. L., Secretary, Report of, 532. 

Mallory, William B., Christmas Census, 48. 

Manny, Kathrine, M., Notes from Seattle, 
Washington, 361. 

Maples, James C, see Burdsall, Richard L. 

Maples, James C, Samuel N. Comley, W. 
Bolton Cook, Richard L. Burdsall, Paul 
C. Spofiford, Evening Grosbeaks Near 
Port Chester, N. Y., 188. 

Marble, Richard M., see Wright, Horace W. 

Marckres, Geo. M., Pine Grosbeak at 
Sharon, Conn., 53. 

Maris, Arthur S., see Carter, John D. 

Marrs, Mrs. Kingsmill, Chairman Execu- 
tive Committee, Report of, 512. 

Marshall, Pendleton, A Chipping Sparrow, 
302. 

Marsh, Clara E., Secretary, Report of, 537. 

Martin, Helen, see Tramis, Sarah. 

Mason, M. E., Christmas Census, 37. 

May, George C, Letter from, 157. 

McAtee, W. L., see Preble, E. A. 

McCaffery, Edward, A Walk in the Woods, 
136. 

McConnell, Harry B., and John Worley, 
Christmas Census, 43. 

iNIcConnell, Thomas L., Notes on How to 
Start a Colony of Purple Martins, 5; 
Christmas Census, 37; The Diary of a 
New Purple Martin Colony for the Sea- 
son of 1913, 116. 

McCreary, Otto, Christmas Census, 32. 

McKay, Miss, see Roziskey, Miss. 

McNeil, Chas. A., Bird-Notes from Sedalia, 
Mo., 277. 

Meech, Mr. and Mrs. H. P., Christmas 
Census, 31. 

Mellott, Samuel W., see Piatt, Hon. Ed- 
mund; The Chickadee of Chevy Chase, 
117; Redpoll in the District of Columbia, 
188. 

Mengel, Mr. and Mrs. G. Henry, Christmas 
Census, 38. 

Metcalf, E. I., A Nest Census, 194. 

Mickle, Anna A., see Carter, John D. 

Mickle, J. Howard, see Carter, John D. 

Miller, Ansel B., Christmas Census, 38. 

Miller, Eliza F., Christmas Census, 28; The 
Song of the Philadelphia Vireo, 93; A 
Robin Accident, 361. 

Miller, Leo. E., Destruction of the Rhea, 
Black-necked Swan, Herons, and Other 
Wild Life in South America, 259. 

Miller, Milo H., Wild Fowl at Sandusky Bay 
in 1756, 114. 

Miller, W. DeW., see Wiegmann, W. H.; 
Christmas Census, 36; Reviews by, 120, 
121, 122. 

Mills, Herbert R., Terns Killed by Dogs and 
Cannon, 316. 

Miner, Mr. and Mrs. Leo D., and Raymond 
W. Moore, Christmas Census, 39. 

Mitchell, I. N., The Flocking of Purple 
Martins, 282. 



VI 



Index 



Moore, Margaret, The Robin's Nest, 301. 
Moore, Raymond W., see Miner, Mr. and 

Mrs. Leo I). 
Morenz, Herbert, A Walk in the Woods, 136. 
Morgan, Paul M., Christmas Census, 45. 
Morse, H. G., Christmas Census, 43. 
MiinsterberR, Hugo, Letter from, 263. 
Munger, Edwin H., Myron T. and Paul H., 

Christmas Census, 31. 
Munro, J. A., and Allan Brooks, Christmas 

Census, 48. 
Murie, O. J., see Bean, Prof. A. M. 
Murphy, Robert Cushman, Notes on the 

Autumn Migration of the Parasitic Jaeger, 

278. 
Myers, Harriet Williams, Secretary, Report 

of, 510. 

Newcomb, Clara B., see Perkins, Anne E. 

Newkirk, Garrett, Poems by 67, 213, 300, 
37S; The Morning Bird Chorus in Pasa- 
dena, 254. 

Nice, L. B., A City Kept Awake by the 
Honking of Migrating Geese, iig. 

Nichols, J. T., see Wiegmann, W'. H. 

Nichols, John Treadwell, S. V. LaDow and 
Ludlow Griscom, Christmas Census, 35. 

Nicholson, E. Leslie, see Carter, John D. 

Norton, Arthur H., Field Agent, Annual 
Report of, 48g; Secretary's Report, 518. 

Oldys, Henry, Lake Mohonk to be a Bird 
Preserve, 362. 

O'Neal, R. F., Wasps in Bird-Boxes, 445. 

Ottemiller, Free, Christmas Census, 39. 

Overton, Frank, Letter from, 157; Photo- 
graph of a Hummingbird on the Wing, 360. 

Pacetti, B. J., Letter from, 158. 

Packard, Winthrop, The Annual Bird-List 
of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, 
275; Annual Reports of, 493, 520. 

Packard, W. H., and James H. Sedgwick, 
Christmas Census, 45. 

Palmer, T. S., Reviews by, 122, 285, 366, 
453- 

Palmer, William M., Christmas Census, 36. 

Palmer, Winifred Holway, Our Neighbor, the 
Bald Eagle, 281. 

Pangburn, Clifford H. and Dwight B., 
Christmas Census, 31. 

Parmele, Mrs. J. O., A Bird Sanctuary for 
The Sign of the Wren's Nest, 170. 

Parrott, Jane, Secretary, Report of, 517. 

Pattee, Bertha Traer, Secretary, Report of, 
515- 

Pearson, T. Gilbert, The Wood Thrush, 68 
Editorials by, 72, 142, 148, 218, 307, 384 
The Whip-poor-will, 138; Albert Willcox 
Benefactor, 146. The Cruise of the Avocet 
385; The Crow, 466; Annual Report, 481 

Pennington, F. A., Christmas Census, 46. 

Pepper, Dr. and Mrs. Wm., Christmas Cen- 
sus, 37. 

Perkins, Anne E., and Clara B. Newcomb, 
Christmas Census, 32. 

Perkins, Ernest R., see Plimpton, George L. 

Perkins, E. H., Some Results of Bird-Lore's 
Christmas Bird Census, 13; Christmas 
Census, 28. 

Perry, Edna M., and Gertrude Gee, Christ- 
mas Census, 48. 

Phillips, Charles, Christmas Census, 47. 

Phillips, Charles L., see Hersey, F. Seymour. 



Pierce, Nettie Bellinger, Christmas Census, 

35- 
Pifer, Harry C, Red-breasted Grosbeak 

Singing on the Nest, 281. 
Piper, S. E., see Preble, E. A. 
Piatt, Hon. Edmund, and Samuel W. Mil- 

lott, M.D., Christmas Census, 39. 
Plimpton, George L., Ernest R. Perkins and 

Edward H. Perkins, Christmas Census, 28. 
Popham, Desmond, Christmas Census, 42. 
Potter, Julian K., and Culver, Delos E., 

Christmas Census, 35. Snowy Owl at 

Chillicothe, Missouri, 119. 
Potter, L. Henry, Christmas Census, 28. 
Powers, Arthur G., Christmas Census, 30. 
Pratt, Lester E., Christmas Census, 29; 

Acadian Chickadee at Hartford, Conn., 52. 
Preble, E. A., S. E. Piper, and W. L. McAtee, 

Christmas Census, 39. 
Preston, Arthur W., Christmas Census, 27. 
Prudden, Charley B., The Killdeer, 300. 
Prudden, David, What Good Winter Birds 

Are, 65; How to Study Birds, 213. 
Purple, Carl E., Photograph by, 323. 

Rattermann, Katherine, Secretary, Report 
of, 527- 

Read, A. C, Christmas Census, 50. 

Reading, Gertrude, Secretary-Treasurer, 
Report of, 521. 

Ridgway, Robert, Bird Life in Southern 
Illinois, I. Bird Haven, 409. 

Ringwalt, A. A., see Stockbridge, Chas. A. 

Ripley, L. W., see Sugden, A. W.; A Success- 
ful Campaign Against Crackles and Star- 
lings in Hartford, Connecticut, 362. 

Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. F. W., see Butler, 
Mrs. Jefferson. 

Robinson, Mrs. F. W., Christmas Census, 46. 

Robinson, R. T., A Drinking-Place for the 
Birds, 193. 

Robinson, William L., Christmas Census, 44. 

Robry, Isabelle i\lexander, Prothonotary 
Warbler in Massachusetts, 447. 

Rogers, C. H., Bird-Lore's Fourteenth Christ- 
mas Census, 26; Christmas Census, ss', 
see Wiegmann, W. H.; A Cooperative 
Study of Bird Migration, 180, 270, 
Review by, 365. 

Rogers, Volney, see Fordyce, George L.; 
Nesting-habits of the Pied-billed Grebe, 
357- 

Ross, Dr. and Mrs. Lucretius H., Charles 
Hitchcock and Mrs. Wm. H. Bradford, 
Christmas Census, 28. 

Rowe, Howard K., Christmas Census, 30. 

Roziskey, Misses, Miss McKay and W. T. 
Shaw, Christmas Census, 49. 

Ryder, R., The Chickadee, 212. 

Sadler, Nettie M., see Whitford, Mary E. 

Sanford, James M., Christmas Census, 41. 

Saunders, Aretas A., Christmas Census, 32. 

Sawyer, E. J., Poem by, 257. 

Schafer, J. J., Christmas Census, 45; Harris's 
Sparrow in Northwestern Illinois, 190; 
Additional Observations of Harris's Spar- 
row in Illinois, 283. 

Schnaller, Elizabeth, A Bird Oasis, 158. 

Schreimann, Dr. Ferdinand, Christmas Cen- 
sus, 42. 

Sedgwick, James H., see Packard, W. H. 

Severson, Henry P., see Freye, Rev. B. H.; 
A Successful Bird's Bath, igi. 



Index 



Shaw, W. T., see Roziskey, Miss. 
Sherwin, H. M., see Turner, Violet. 
Shove, Ellen M., Fall River Notes, 276. 
Simmons, Finlay, Christmas Census, 41. 
Simonds, Susie L., Christmas Census, 46. 
Simpson, Mrs. Mark L., Harris's Sparrow 

in Wisconsin, 282. 
Skinner, W. L., Winter Feeding, g; Birds and 

Windows, 275. 
Sloan, Mrs. Emma J., Christmas Census, 

45- 
Smithey, Mrs. R. B., Secretary, Report of, 

535. 

Smith, E. E., Christmas Census, 43. 

Smith, Evelyn, Poem by, 350. 

Smith, Wilbur F., Winter Notes from Con- 
necticut, 118; The Nighthawk in Connec- 
ticut, 173; Herring Gulls in Connecticut, 
357- 

Smith, Wilbur F., James F. Hall and George 
P. Ells, Christmas Census, 31. 

Spalding, Katharine Moody, Secretary, 
Report of, 511. 

Spelman, Henry M., Jr., see Baker, Myles P. 

Sprague, Mr. and Mrs. J. H., see Hagerty, 
Dr. and Mrs. T. P. 

Spofford, Paul Cecil, see Burdsall, Richard 
L.; see Maples, James C. 

Spurrell, John A., Christmas Census, 47. 

Stalker, Alex., Christmas Census, 47. 

Starr, Minna D., Secretary, Report of, 520 

Stevens, T. C, Photograph by, 279. 

Stockbridge, Charles A., and A. A. Ringwalt, 
Christmas Census, 42. 

Strode, W. S., Christmas Census, 45. 

Stuart, Katharine H., Field Agent, Annual 
Report of, 495. 

Sturgis, S. Warren, Acadian Chickadee at 
Groton, Mass., February, 1913, 448. 

Sugden, A. W., and L. W. Ripley, Christmas 
Census, 30. 

Swope, Eugene, Field Agent, Annual Report 
of, 499. 

Thayer, A. H., Comparative Abundance of 
Birds, (Letter,) 263. 

Thayer, Mrs. Stephen E., Some Ways of the 
Oregon Towhee, 102. 

Thoma, Hilda, A Nest in a Nest, 211. 

Thomas, C. Aubrey, Bird Notes from Ken- 
nett Square, Pa., in. 

Thomson, Harriet W., The Building of a 
Robin's Nest, 360. 

Thurston, Henry, and Fred Zoeller, Christ- 
mas Census, 32. 

Tooker, John, Gulls Preparing a Meal, 357. 

Toussaint, Mrs. L. H., The Fare of a Sand- 
hill Crane, 359. 

Towne, Solon R., Christmas Census, 48; 
Trial of Von Berlepsch Nests, 194. 

Townsend, Charles H., Martins and Other 
Birds at Greens Farms, Connecticut, 355. 

Townsend, Rev. Manley B., Turkey Vul- 
tures in Northwestern Iowa, 279; Coopera- 
tive Observations, 299; Secretary's Report, 
525- 

Tramis, Sarah, Mabel Beckwith, Constance 
Beckwith, Lulu Dunbar, Helen Martin 
and Margaret Austin, Christmas Census, 
46. 



Trotter, William Henry, An Abnormally 

Colored Scarlet Tanager, 359. 
Tucker, C. R., and Howard H. Cleaves, 

Christmas Census, 33. 
Tullsen, H., Christmas Census, 41. 
Turner, Violet, Clara Larson, Gladys Haney 

and H. M. Sherwin, Christmas Census, 46. 
Tyler, Mr. and Mrs. John G., Christmas 

Census, 49. 

Ulman, Joseph N., see Guggenheimer, Mrs. 
J. C; Florida Gallinule at Baltimore, 281. 

Van Duzee, Heath, see Bourne, Thomas L. 
van Dyke, Paul, see Gibson, Hamilton, 
van Dyke, Tertius, see Gibson, Hamilton. 
Vibert, C. W., Christmas Census, 31. 
Victor, K. P. and E. W., Christmas Census, 

33; Some Prospect Park Notes, 194. 
Vinal, William Gould, Suggestive Lessons in 

Bird-Study; The Woodpecker, 370. 
Visart, E. V., Letter from, 158. 

Walker, Alex., and Donald E. Brown, Christ- 
mas Census, 49. 

Walter, Alice Hall, Editorials, 59, 62, 126, 
127, 202, 204, 289, 292, 293, 369, 375, 455, 

457- 
Warner, Mrs., see Fordyce, George L. 
Warner, Willis H., see Fordyce, George L. 
Watson, C. G., J. A. Cameron, M. Dale, and 

J. F. Calvert, Christmas Census, 27. 
Watson, James D., Christmas Census, 44. 
Welty, Emma J., Secretary, Report of, 529. 
Wetmore, Alex., Christmas Census, 40. 
Wharples, Nellie J., Poem by, 171. 
Wharton, William P., Some Observations on 

Bird Protection in Germany, 329. 
Whitford, Mary E., and Nettie M. Sadler, 

Christmas Census, 35. 
Whitney, J. H., Mud for Nest-Builders, 447. 
Wiegmann, W. H., W. DeW. Miller, J. T. 

Nichols and C. H. Rogers, Christmas 

Census, 34. 
Wiley, J. C, and Mr. and Mrs. G. Clyde 

Fisher, Christmas Census, 33. 
Wilson, Burtis H., Christmas Census, 45. 
Wisman, W. H., Christmas Census, 43. 
Witman, Mabel Foote, A Summer V'isitor, 

188. 
Wolden, B. O., Christmas Census, 47. 
Wood, Clarence B., Curious Actions of a 

Robin, igi. 
Wood, Sheridan F. and Kenneth M., Chris- 
mas Census, 44. 
Woodward, Magnolia, Christmas Census, 

42; Secretary's Report, 532. 
Woolen, William Watson, Florence A. Howe, 

An Appreciation, 148. 
Worley, John, see McConnell, Harry B. 
Wright, Horace W., and Richard M. Marble, 

Christmas Census, 28; see Caduc, Eugene 

E. 

Young, John P., Fall Migration at Cobourg, 

Ontario, 356. 
Young, John P. and Chas. V. P., Christmas 

Census, 38. 

Zoeller, Fred, see Thurston, Henry. 



Index 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Advisory Council, Bird-Lore's, io8. 
Alabama, 41. 
Albino, 1 12. 

Allen's 'The Red-winged Blackbird,' re- 
viewed, 284. 
American Bird-House Journal, The, noticed, 

57- 
American Ornithologists' Union, The, 124, 

195- 
Andigena, 342; figured, 34. 
Anhinga, see Turkey, Water. 
Ani, figured, 345. 
Ant-Shrikes, 166. 
Ant-Thrushes, 161. 

Applied Ornithology, Department of, 486. 
Army-Worm, 400; figured, 401. 
Audubon Calendar, The, noticed, 57. 
Auk, The, reviewed, 122, igg, 452. 
Aulacorhamphus, 342; figured, 343. 

Barbels, 346. 

Barnard, Judge Job, Photograph of, 509. 

Bath, Birds', see Birds' Bath. 

Batten, George, Photograph of, 522. 

Berlepsch, Baron Hans von. Bird Protec- 
tion on Estate of, 329. 

Bighorn, 479; figured, 478, 479, 480. 

Bird Almanac, noticed, 57. 

Bird Census, Bird-Lore's Fourteenth, 26, 
Fifteenth. 437. 

Bird Drinking Place, 193. 

Bird Enemies, 336, 414; see Cats. 

Bird Houses, 5; figured 6, 205, 206, 333, 394, 
410; 57, 192, 194, 395. 

Bird-Lists of Massachusetts Audubon So- 
ciety, 275. 

Bird Lunch-boxes, 192, 444. 

Bird Photography, 85. 

Bird Protection in Germany, 329. 

Bird Refuges, 329, 409. 

Bird-Study, A Course in, 196. 

Bird's Bath, 191. 

Birds, Comparative Abundance of, 263, 265, 
288. 

Birds-of-paradise, 160. 

Bittern, Least, 483. 

Blackbird, Red-winged, 118, 183. 

Bluebird, 26, 67, 195, 213, 263, 277, 450. 

Bobolink, figured, 91. 

Brachyspiza capensis, 99. 

British Columbia, 48. 

Brookline Bird Club, 353. 

Bryant's 'A Determination of the Economic 
Status of the Western Meadowlark 
(Slurnella neglecta) in California, reviewed, 
120. 

Bucco ruficoUis, figured, 346. 

Bunting, Lark, figured, facing 243; 267, 269- 

Bunting, Snow, 119. 

Buzzard, Turkey, see Vulture, Turkey. 

California, 49, 50, 254, 506. 

Calospiza, 100. 

Canvasback, figured, 349. 

Capito auratus, 346. 

Cardinal, no, 275, 276, 327, 444; Brazilian, 

194. 
Cassinia, reviewed, 198. 
Catbird, 118, 400, 446. 
Catharus, loi. 



Cats, 93, 160, 256, 265, 355, 391, 414. 

Chachalaca, 425. 

Chama;za brevicauda, 164; turdina, figured, 
163, 164. 

Chat, Yellow-breasted, 359. 

Chickadee, 8; figured, 9; 13, 88, 117, 212; 
figured, 450; Acadian, 8, 26, 51, 52, 58, 
275, 444, 448; figured, 448; Carolina, 117. 

Chlorochrysa, 100. 

Chuck-will's-widow, 416. 

Colorado, 48, 507. 

Compra pan, 162. 

Condor, The, reviewed, 56, 122, 285, 366, 

453- 

Connecticut 30, 31, 52, 53, 113, 118, 173, 211, 
355, 357. 362, 405, 449, 507. 

Cooke's 'Distribution and Migration of 
North American Herons and Their Allies,' 
reviewed, 198; 'Distribution and Migra- 
tion of North American Rails and Their 
Allies,' reviewed, 451. 

Cormorant, figured, 505. 

Cotingas, Voices of, 100. 

Council, Advisory, see Advisory Council. 

Cowbird, 88, 118; young figured, 364. 

Crane, Sandhill, 359. 

Creeper, Brown, 13, 88, 276. 

Crossbill, Red, 13, 26, 113, 377; White- 
winged, 13. 

Crow, American, 90; figured, 92; 118, 466, 
468. 

Cuba, 50. 

Cuckoos, Tropical American, 345. 

Cuming's 'The Bodley Head Natural His- 
tory. Vol. II, British Birds. Passeres,' 
reviewed, 121. 

Cummins, J. P., Photograph of, 524. 

Curassow, 424; Crested, figured, 427. 

Delamare's 'The Reformation of Jimmy and 
Some Others,' reviewed, 451. 

Diplopterus, 345. 

District of Columbia, 39, 188, 508. 

Dives dives, 98. 

Dodge, Victor K., Photograph of, 515. 

Dove, Bourcier's Forest, figured, 424; Ground, 
423; Mourning, figured, 262; White- 
winged, 424. 

Drinking Place for Birds, see Birds' Drinking 
Place. 

Duck, Black, 194; Florida Dusky, 483; Mal- 
lard, 194; Scaup, figured, 143, 156, 157; 
Wood, 194, 483. 

Eagle, Bald, 281. 

Eaton's 'Birds of New York,' reviewed, 365. 

Egret, 261. 

Eider, American, 388, 482. 

Enemies of Birds, see Bird Enemies. 

Eumomota, 349. 

Eupsychortyx, 4. 

Federal Migratory-Bird Law, 149, 322. 

Feeding Birds, 355, 356. 

Finch, California Purple, 25; 105; Cassia's 
Purple, figured, facing 85; 105, 107; Guada- 
lupe House, figured, facing 85; 106; House, 
figured, facing 85; 106, 107, 256; McGreg- 
or's House, 106; Purple, figured, facing i; 
8, 21, 24. 



Index 



IX 



Flicker, go, 195, 277; figured, 407; Red- 
shafted, 256. 

Florida, 41, 359, 483, 501, 508. 

Flycatcher, Derby, figured, 98; Vermilion, 
98. 

Formicarius analis connectus, 166; rufi- 
pectus carrikeri, figured, 165; 166. 

Gain's 'The Penguins, of the Antarctic 

Regions.' noticed, 57. 
Gallinule, Florida, 281, 483. 
Georgia, 41, 170. 

Germany, Bird Protection in, 329. 
Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 275. 
Goldi's "Die Tier welt der Schweiz in der 

Segenwart und in der Vergangenheit,' 

reviewed, 365. 
Goldfinch, 89. 
Goose, Canada, 120; nest figured, 503; Snow, 

188; Wild, 115, 119. 
Crackle, 89, 90, 118, 362; Bronzed, 187. 
Grallaria hypoleuca, 163; modesta, 162; 

ruficapilla, 161; figured, 162; rufula, 163. 
Grebe, Holbcell's, 112; Pied-billed, 243; 

figured 245, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, 

253; nest and eggs figured, 243, 244, 249; 

35 7; Western, 503. 
Grinnell's 'An Account of the Mammals and 

Birds of the Lower Colorado River,' 

reviewed, 285. 
Grosbeak, Black-headed, 255; Blue, 418; 

Evening, 51, 52, 112, 113, 188, 276; 429; 

figured, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436; 

Pine, 13, 26, 53, 114, 188, 119, 277; Rose- 
breasted, 281. 
Ground-dove, 423. 
Ground-pigeons, 423; figured, 424. 
Guan, 424. 

Guillemot, Black, 388 482. 
Gull, Great Black-backed, 491; Herring, 

figured 53; 357, 385; young, figured, 387; 

nest and eggs, figured, 388; figured, 389, 

391 ; 405, 4S6, 491. Laughing, 401, 482, 491. 
Gulls, Monument to, in Salt Lake City, 148; 

figured, 150, 151. 
Gun, Big, figured, 145. 
Gurney's 'The Gannet, A Bird With a 

History,' reviewed, 55. 
Gymnostinops, 96. 

Hart, M. D., Photograph of, 532. 
Hawthorn, Berries as winter food, 292. 
Heatherly's 'The Peregrine Falcon at the 

Eyrie,' noticed, 57. 
Hell-Diver, see Grebe, Pied-billed. 
Hen, Heath, 401; Prairie, 519. 
Henshaw's 'Report of Chief of Bureau of 

Biological Survey for the Year Ending 

June 30, 1913,' reviewed, 54. 
Heron, Black-crowned Night, 112, 118, 355, 

390, 482, 483, 492; Great Blue, figured, 390; 

Green, 112, 483; Little Blue, 446, 483; 

Louisiana, 482, 483; Snowy, 483; Ward's 

483; Yellow-crowned Night, 483. 
Howe, Florence A., An Appreciation, 148. 
Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, 186, 360. 

Ibis, Glossy, 483; figured, 484; White, 483; 

Wood, 483. 
Icterus mesomelas, 97. 
Idaho, 47, 48. 
Illinois, 44, 45, 51, 1S9, 190, 193, 280, 281, 

283, 446, 511. 
Indiana, 42, 300, 512. 



Ingersoll, Ernest, 149. 
Iowa, 47, 279, 447, 513. 

Jacana, figured, 425. 

Jaeger, Parasitic, 278! figured, 278. 

Junco, Carolina, 443; Montana, 416; Ore- 
gon, 443; Point Pinos, 443; Slate-colored, 
88; figured, facing 409 ; 438, 442 ; Shufeldt's, 
443; Thurber's, 443; W^hite-winged, fig- 
ured, facing 409; 438, 442. 

Kalmbach's, 'Birds in Relation to the 

Alfalfa Weevil,' reviewed, 451. 
Kentucky, 514. 
Killdeer, 134, 300. 
Kingbird, 300; Gray, 472; nest and eggs 

figured, 473. 
Kingfisher, Belted, figured, 420; 355. 
Kite, Everglade, nest and eggs figured, 475; 

476; Mississippi, 416; Swallow-tailed, nest 

and egg figured, 474; 475, 483. 

Leucolepis, 4. 

Limpkin, 4S3. 

Linnet, see Finch, House. 

Lowe's 'Our Common Sea-Birds,' noticed, 57. 

Macaws, 421; figured, 422. 

Madison, Harold L., Photograph of, 529. 

Maine, 27, 281, 385, 446, 489, 514. 

Manikins, Voices of, 100. 

Manitoba, 187. 

Martin, Purple, 5, 57; figured, 89; 116, 282, 

355- 447- 
Alaryland, 39, 117, 281, 516. 
Massachusetts, 28, 29, 30, 1 18, 191, 275, 

276, 353, 447, 448, 493, 5i6. 
McAtee's 'Bulletin of the United States 

Department of Agriculture No. 58. Five 

Important Wild Duck Foods,' reviewed, 

121. 
McLean, George Payne, Photograph of, 392. 
Meadowlark, 90; figured, 104; 119; figured, 

137; 266, 400; Western, 120. 
Melanotis, 100. 

Merganser, American, 338; figured, 338, 339. 
Michigan, 45, 46, 51, 517. 
Migration, A Cooperative Study of, 180, 270. 
Mimocichla bahamensis, 100; plumbea, loi. 
Minnesota, 47, no, 194; 359, 519. 
Missouri, 42, 119, 265, 277, 445. 
Mocker, Blue, 100. 
Mockingbird, 194, 255, 275, 278, 327. 
Mohonk, Lake, as a Bird Preserve, 362. 
Monkey, Howling, 427; figured, 428. 
Montana, 48. 
Moth, Brown-Tail, Winter nests, figured, 

130. 
Motmot, figured, 348; 349. 
Mullen's 'Life of Gilbert White,' noticed, 

57- 
Murre, figured, 505, 506. 
Myadestes, 2. 

Nebraska, 48, 194. 

New Hampshire, 28, 355, 521. 

New Jersey, 35, 36, 37, 116, 187, 277, 358, 

446, 521. 
New York, 10, 32, 33, 34, 35, 85, 112, 188, 

194, 243, 276, 283, 338, 356, 357, 360, 

362, 444, 448, 449. 
Nighthawk, 10; figured, 10, 11, 12, 172; 173. 
Noddy, 200. 
North Carolina, 40. 



Index 



North Dakota, 135, 523. 

Norton, Arthur H., Photograph of, 400. 

Nova Scotia, 27, 113. 

Nuthatch, 8; Red-breasted, 13, 113, 449; 

White-breasted, 13, 88, 89, 112; figured, 

323. 

Odontophorus, 4. 

Ohio, 43, 44, 112, 133, 192, 197, 357, 499, 523. 

Oklahoma, 119. 

Ontario, 27, 356. 

Oregon, 49, 115, 360, 525. 

Oriole, Arizona Hooded, 255; Baltimore, 66, 
171, 273; Bullock's, 25s; Hooded, 97; 
The, reviewed, 366. 

Oropendola, 96; figured, 97. 

Osprey, 112, 276, 482, 492. 

Ostinops, 96. 

Owl, Barn, 112, 416; Great Horned, 115; 
figured IIS, 116; Long-eared, 416; Saw- 
whet, iii; Short-eared, 119; Snowy, 119. 

Packard, Winthrop, Photograph of, 494. 

Parrakeets, 421; figured, 422. 

Parrots, 421; figured, 422; 446. 

Pelican, Brown, 124; White, figured, 319, 504. 

Penguin, 259. 

Penguins of the Antarctic Regions, The, 

noticed, 57. 
Pennsylvania, 5, 37, 38, 39, m, 114, xi6, 

186, 27s, 359, 526. 
Petrel, Leach, 386; figured, 390; 482, 491. 
Pewee, Wood, 257; figured, 269. 
Phainopepla, figured, 398. 
Pharomacrus antisianus, figured, 347; 348. 
Pheasant, 119. 
Phoebe, 415, 184. 

Photography of birds, see Bird photography. 
Piaya, 345. 

Picolaptes lacrymiger, figured, 168. 
Pigeon, Passenger, figured, 399. 
Pigeons, 423. 

Pintail, 380; figured, facing 380, 381. 
Planesticus gigas, 100; jamaicensis, 100; 

tristis, 100. 
Plover, Black-bellied, 112; Wilson's, 471; 

nest figured, 471'; 482. 
Pteroglossus, 342; figured, 343. 
Puff-bird, figured, 346. 
Puffin, 388, 482. 
Pyroderus, 100. 

Quail, 4; Valley, 256. 
Querula, 100. 

Ramphastos, 342; figured, 343. 

Rail, Carolina, see Sora; Clapper, 113; King, 

483; Wood, 426. 
Raven 390. 
Redpoll, figured, facing i; 8, 13, 19, 24, 114, 

119, 188, 277; Greater, 24; Greenland, 

facing i; 24; Hoary, 21, 24; Holboell's, 24. 
Redstart, figured, 264. 
Refuges, Bird, see Bird Refuges. 
Reichenow's 'Die Vogel Handbuch der 

Systematischen Ornithologie,' reviewed, 

121. 
Rhea, 259; figured, 260; 368, 454. 
Rhode Island, 30, 296, 528. 
Robin, 26, 89, 112, 182 191, 192, 292, 355, 

360, 361, 400, 401. 

Sage and Bishop's 'The Birds of Connecti- 
cut,' reviewed, 55. 



Saltator, 99. 

Sandpiper, Baird's, 112; Pectoral, 261; Soli- 
tary, 261. 

Saskatchewan, 48. 

Screamer, Crested, figured, 425. 

Seedeater, Sharpe's, figured, facing 243; 
268. 

Selborne, A Guide to, noticed, 57. 

Shrike, Northern, 26, 114, 118. 

Singing of birds, 293. 

Siskin, Pine, 13, 26, 119. 

Skimmer, Black, figured, 315; 482. 

Snake, Pilot Black, 414. 

Solitaire, Jamaican, 2; figured, 3. 

Solitaires, 2. 

Sora, 303; figured, facing 303. 

South America, 259. 

South Carolina, 40. 

South Dakota, 48. 

Sparrow, Bachman's, 112, 176; Botteri's, 
figured, facing 161; 177, 179; Cassin's, 
figured, facing 161; 177, 179; Chipping, 
89; figured, 175; 188, 302; figured, 364; 
English, see Sparrow, House; Field, 415; 
Fox, 89; Harris's, 190, 282, 283, 446; 
House, 89; figured, 90; 116, 187, 195, 266, 
277, 355; Laguna, 178, 179; Pine-Woods, 
figured, facing 161; 176, 179; Rock, 178, 
179; Rufous-crowned, figured, facing 161; 
177, 179; Rufous-winged, figured, facing 
161; 177, 179; Scott's, 177, 179; Song, fig- 
ured, 89; loi, 255; Swamp, 89; figured, 
90; Texas, figured, facing 329; 351, 352; 
Vesper, 449; Western Chipping, 256; 
White-crowned, 89, 416; White-throated, 
89; figured, 90; Worthen's, figured, 329; 
351. 352. 

Spoonbill, Roseate, 214, 483. 

Spurwing, figured, 425. 

Starling, 27, iii, 187, 362, 446. 

Stone, Witmer, Photograph of, 527. 

Stuart, Katharine H., Photograph of, 
497- 

Swallow, Barn, 379, 463; Rough-winged, 299 
Tree, figured, 85; 113. 

Swan, Black-necked, 259. 

Swarth's 'An Account of the Birds and Mam- 
mals of the San Jacinto Area of Southern 
California,' reviewed, 54; 'A Study of a 
Collection of Geese of the Branta canaden- 
sis Group From the San Joaquin Valley, 
California,' reviewed, 120; 'A Distribu- 
tional List of the Birds of Arizona,' 
reviewed, 285. 

Swift, Chimney, 272. 

Tanager, Scarlet, 89, 359; Summer, 194. 

Tennessee, 42, 211, 528. 

Tern, Arctic, 385, 482, 492; Cabot's, 482; 
Common, 316; nest, eggs and young 
figured, 317; 385, 482, 492; Forster's, 482, 
503.; Least, 301, 482.; Royal, figured, 315; 
482; Sooty, 200. 

Texas, 41, 186. 

Thamnophilus multistriatus, 166; figured, 
167. 

Thayer, Abbott Handerson, Photograph of, 
312. 

Thrasher, Blue, loi; Brown, 355; California, 

255- 
Thrush, Bahaman, figured, 100; Hermit, 119, 

263, 350; Wood, 68; figured, facing 68, 70; 

nest figured, 69; 194. 
Tinamou, i; figured, 2; 119, 261. 



Index 



Tityra, loo. 

Toucans, 342; figured, 343. 

Towhee, 88, 400; Brown, 256; Green-tailed, 

figured, facing 329; 351, 352; Oregon, 102; 

figured, 102, 103; 361. 
Townsend, Rev. Manley B., Photograph of, 

520. 
Trogon collaris, figured, 347. 
Trogons, figured, 347; 348. 
Tropical Birds, i, 96, 342. 
Turkey, Florida, 476; nest and eggs figured, 

477; Turnstone, 112; Water, 483. 

Vermont 8, 2S, 93, 361. 

Vireo, Bell's, 418; Black-whiskered, nest and 

egg figured, 473; 474; Philadelphia, 93; 

Red-eyed, 93; Warbling, 93. 
Virginia, 40, 291, 495, 531. 
Vulture, Turkey, 66,279, 2S0; nest and young, 

figured, 279, 280. 

Warbler, Brewster's 283; Cape May, 275, 
276, 446; Hooded, 275; Kirtland's. 418; 
Myrtle, 118; Prothonotary, 112, 447. 

Washington, 48, 49, 102, 361. 

Wasps in Bird-Boxes, 445. 

West Virginia, 40, 533. 



Whip-poor-will, 138; figured, facing 138, 

296; 296. 
White-throat, Andean, figured, 99. 
Widgeon, European, 197. 
Willcox, Albert, 146; photograph of, 147. 
Willet, 4S2. 

Wilson Bulletin, The, reviewed, 56, 287. 
Windows, Birds deceived by, 275, 355, 361. 
Winter, Effects of, 62. 
Wisconsin, 46, 47, 191, 282, 283, 533. 
Woodcock, 186. 
Woodhewers, 161, 16S. 
Woodpartridge, 4. 
Wood-rail, 426. 
Woodpecker, Downy, 13; figured, 323, 358; 

37S; Hairy, figured, 88; Pileated, 116; 

Red-headed, 90; figured, 91; 195, 449. 
Woodward, Miss Magnolia, Photograph of, 

530. 
Wren, 211; House, 189; figured, 189, 190; 

213. 273, 355; Winter, 89; Wood, 4. 
Wright and Allen's 'Field Note-Book of 

Birds', reviewed, 198. 

Yellow-legs, Greater, 261; Lesser, 261. 
Zimmer's 'Birds of the Thomas County 
[Nebraska] Forest Reserve,' reviewed, 199. 



i 




1. Redpoll, Adult Male 4. Greenland Redpoll, Adult Male 

2. Redpoll, Female 5. Purple Finch, Adult Male 

3. Gkeenland Redi'oll, Female 6. Purple Finch, Female 

(One-half Natural Size) 



A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 

Official Organ of The Audubon Societies 

Vol. XVI January— February, 1914 No. 1 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 

By LOUIS AGASSIZ FUERTES 
Illustrated by the author 

SECOND PAPER— TINAMOUS, PARTRIDGES, AND SOLITAIRES 

IN THE tropics, as in more familiar scenes, the birdsongs of the fields are 
frank, pastoral, and prevalent. With us, the Meadowlark, Field Sparrow, 
Vesper, and Song Sparrows pipe often and openly, and, from May to 
October, their notes are almost constantly in the air. But the forest birds are 
more reluctant singers, and their rare notes are all mystery, romance, and 
reclusive shyness. The Field Sparrow will sit on a dock-stalk and sing, looking 
you in the eyes; the Veery will quietly fade away when your presence is 
discovered. 

So it is, even to a more marked degree, in the tropics. In the open pastures 
and on the bushy slopes of the Andes, one hears the shrill piping of the 'Four- 
wing' Cuckoo (Diplopterus) , the insistent kekking of the Spurwing Plover, 
the dry, phoebe-like fret of the Spine- tails (Synallaxis), the lisping insect- 
songs of Grassquits, and, from the bordering forest-edge, the leisurely whist- 
ling of Orioles. 

But, enter the forest, and all is of another world. For a long time, perhaps, 
as you make your way through the heavy hush of its darkened ways, no sound 
strikes the ear but the drip of water from spongy moss-clumps on broad leaves. 
You feel yourself to be the only animate thing in your universe. All at once, 
perhaps for off through the forest, perhaps close behind you, you hear the 
strangely moving whinny of a Tinamou. I think no sound I have ever heard 
has more deeply reached into me and taken hold. Whether it is the intensity 
of feeling that a deep, silent forest always imposes ; the velvet smoothness of the 
wailing call; the dramatic crescendo and diminuendo that exactly parallels its 
minor cadence up and down a small scale; something, perhaps the combination 
of all these, makes one feel as if he had been caught with his soul naked in his 
hands, when, in the midst of his subdued and chastened revery, this spirit- 
voice takes the words from his tongue and expresses so perfectly all the 
mystery, romance, and tragedy that the struggling, parasite-ridden forest 



Bird -Lore 



diffuses through its damp shade. No vocal expression could more wonderfully 
convey this intangible, subduing, pervasive quality of silence; a paradox, 
perhaps, but not out of place with this bird of mystery. 

Only less appealing are those other chaste singers in the cloud-forest, the 
Solitaires. It is, indeed, a strange sensation, in uncanny harmony with the 
unexpected familiarity one always feels in a tropic forest, when, thinking 

\- a g u e 1 y of Thrush 
songs, the silver note of 
a Solitaire crystallizes 
the thought. There are 
many kinds, and they 
have varied song-types 
beyond most similarly 
unified genera. The 
most typical is simply a 
lovely Hermit Thrush 
song, giving that effect 
of a private hearing so 
graciously done by our 
own Thrushes. For 
some elusive reason, it 
seems as if these birds 
always sang as the shy 
perquisite of the favored 
few, and thus, perhaps, 
it is that their songs 
never become common. 
Our own Townsend's 
Solitaire has a very 
different melody, a 
blithe. Grosbeak warble, 
frequently given in lark- 
like flight, quite unlike 
any of the tropical spe- 
cies I have heard. These are all of the chaste, contemplative type, given 
from a perch part way up in the forest, and in frequent accompaniment of 
splashing water in mossy and fern fringed ravines. Myadestes ralloides, of the 
Andes, sings almost exactly like a Hermit Thrush, as does Myadestes unicolor, 
of Mexico, while Myadestes soUtarius, of Jamaica, singing from the tree-ferns 
up on Blue Mountain, reminded me strongly of the Varied Thrush heard in 
the dark, cold spruce-flats of the Alaskan coast; — what a transposition! A 
vibrant, steadily crescendo note, as true as a violin, fading to nothing. Then 
another in a new key. A rich, descending broken scale foll6wed, after a 




TINAMOU (Cryplurus) 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropicall'Birds 3 

pause; then an exceedingly high trill, swelling and dying. These singers 
were common at about five thousand feet, and their choral chanting was 
an experience to be long remembered. Myadestes obscurus, of southern 
Mexico, has a song more spontaneous and overflowing than the other tropical 
species; I thought of a Bobolink when I first heard it. The song began high in 
the scale, and very loud; then through the rich progression of its bubbling 








JAMAICAN SOLITAIRE {Myadestes solitarius) 



4 Bird -Lore 

cadences it gradually fell in pitch and lost volume till it died out, as with loss 
of breath. This is the "Jilguero" of the natives, while unicolor is known as 
"Clarin." Distinguished from these as "jilguero de la tierra" are the wrens of the 
genus Leucolehis, which have a way of singing at your very feet, hidden under 
the ferns and low-growing soft plants of earth. Theirs too, are violin tones, and, 
though the songs are not rare, the singer is seldom seen, however patiently you 
search or wait for him in the mosquito-ridden air of his dripping haunts. It has 
always seemed a mystery to me how these little birds of the cloud-forest keep 
dry. They are, indeed, the only dry thing you would encounter in a week's 
hunt, for overhead all is oozing water, all the leaves are shiny-wet, and under 
foot is soaking, rotting vegetable mold or deep muddy ooze, that frequently 
lets you in over your boot-tops. 

In the same forests that shelter the Tinamou and Solitaire dwell the 
evasive and ventriloquistic Woodpartridges (Odontophorus). These are richly 
garbed in velvety, rotten-wood colors, with all the minute moth-like pattern 
of "Whip-poor-wills. But wonderful as is their coat, it is their vocal perfor- 
mance that gives them real distinction, for besides the familiar Partridge 
clucking and pipping, heard only at close range and therefore seldom, they 
possess a loud rollicking call that may be heard a mile or more across the 
forested course of a mountain river. 

Once, while I was pussy-footing along a little water trail in the hope of 
again seeing a Golden-headed Trogon, I was congealed for the moment by a 
loud, explosive alarm, at the end of a fallen and rottening bole that lay just 
before me. "Kivelry, cavalry, kivelry, cavalry, pt' , pt' , pt' , t' t' t' t, and up 
popped a brown velvet bird, called once more and dropped, already running, 
on the other side of the log. The call, at close range, had a rooster-like 
quality not noticeable in the distance, and I was surprised to see that the 
whole complicated and rapid performance was the work of one bird. 

Perhaps it is a sort of statute of limitations that makes us constantly com- 
pare new birdsongs with familiar ones at home ;— perhaps it is the paucity of 
our language that renders description almost futile. But occasionally a resem- 
blance is so striking that no alternative suggests itself. Sweltering in the heat 
and glare of the Andean foothills, veins throbbing with the exertion of the 
climbing hunt, exhaustion screaming for a let-up, and temper getting thin, 
something turns over inside one when, of a sudden, comes the cheery, old-home 
'Bob-white' of the little crested Eupsychortyx Quail. Appearances would never 
suggest the close relationship, but this little fellow, three thousand miles from 
home, says 'Bob-white' without a trace of accent, striking a primitive chord 
that does queer things, for the moment, to the inner you, caught unawares! 



Notes on How to Start a Colony of Purple Martins 

By THOS. L. McCONNELL. McKeesport, Pa. 
With a diagram by the author 

UNDOUBTEDLY a great many interested bird-lovers would start colonies 
of Purple Martins if they knew what to do and how to get about it. 
An interesting elderly physician who likes to talk about birds told me 
that, if he could only get a pair of Purple Martins, he would put up a bird-box 
right away, and then added that there were never any around. Possibly he 
needs a bird-house catalogue, with full instructions. 

The Martin has a strong tendency to cling to its old home and associations, 
and, imless driven out by the English Sparrow, only the immature (last year's 
young) birds seek new quarters. Generally it is an easy task to start a new 
colony where there are colonies in the immediate neighborhood. 

They prefer the old weather-beaten box to the new one, smelling of new 
lumber and paint, w^hen other things are the same. This may be tested by 
putting up one bird-house of each kind. Invariably, the old storm-beaten box 
will fill up, while a single pair may select the new one. New boxes, even if 
erected near other Martin colonies, will be more popular after the first season. 
Of course, there are exceptions to this rule. The writer has found it expedient 
to age the new bird-house by smearing the inside of all the rooms with wet mud 
or clay, which seems to please the birds. 

When one prefers to paint the bird-house for a new Martin colony, select 
inconspicuous colors, such as a pearl or stone color, and paint the pole black. 
Plain white without trimmings seems to harmonize with the nature of these birds. 
White, unless otherwise specified, is the standard rule for painting bird-houses 
for Martins by one of the leading bird-house companies. After a colony is a 
year or so old and well established, there is little objection to painting and, 
moreover, it is ad\dsable to do so in order to preserve the wood and beautify 
the structure. 

An eight- or ten-room house is usually large enough for the first year's 
experiment. The rooms should be about 8 x 8 x lo inches high, and each room 
should be separate and have but one entrance. The entrances or holes into rooms 
are commonly of three types: round, about 2% inches diameter; square or rect- 
angular, about 2}4 inches x 2^4 inches; or a combination of the first two, 
which gives a pretty opening with the arch. The last two types have the 
advantage of allowing greater accessibility for cleaning out Sparrows' nests. 
The regular entrance will give sufficient ventilation for each room, and no other 
holes should be provided. The rooms should be draught-proof, and be covered 
with a water-tight roof. Separate platforms may be provided in front of each 
opening, for the Martins love to sit aroimd and rest or sun themselves. 

A very important point is the location of the bird-house. Choose an open 
space, if possible, away from the shade of trees and free from buildings. 

(S) 



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(t>) 



Notes on How to Start a Colony of Purple Martins 7 

The box should be placed on a high pole, at least sixteen feet above the 
ground. 

The box should be ready about the first day of April for new colonies, but 
several weeks later will do for old colonies. Many new boxes have been taken 
up by the Martins as late as the first of June, and non-breeding birds may come 
during June and July. 

A hinged pole, which allows the box to swing down to the ground, is a great 
convenience, and has many obvious advantages. By all means make the pole 
cat-proof and, still better, take the additional precaution of exterminating 
locally the cat, the birds' worst enemy. 

The Martins require assistance in their continuous struggle with the 
English Sparrow, if you do not want to see this beautiful Swallow driven away. 

There are many ways to aid these birds: One of the best is everlastingly to 
rid the bird-houses of all Sparrow nests, beginning about the first of April, 
and continuing even after the Martins appear to be in full possession. Every 
once in a while a pair of sly Sparrows will slip into one of the rooms and fill it 
full of rubbish while the Martins are away, not to say anything about how they 
like to eat the eggs of the Martins. A claw-hook fastened to a long stick makes 
an ideal cleaning tool. 

Shooting is a first-class way to make the English Sparrow go, and this is 
effective only when both male and female are killed. When only one is killed 
the other one brings around a new mate the next day. Where a city or town 
ordinance prohibits shooting, the fourth of July is a glorious day to make up 
for lost time, and destroy a lot of pests. It is not necessary to shoot every 
Sparrow, as a few judicious shots are sufiicient in most cases. 

Poisoning is a very good method to thin out the hosts of English Sparrows, 
but is most effective as a winter treatment. For more information, see U. S. 
Department of Af^riculture Farmers' Bulletin 383, "How to Destroy English 
Sparrows," which is sold by the Superintendant of Documents, Washington, 
D. C, for five cents a copy. 

A new enemy of the Martin is the Starling {Sturnus vulgaris), a recent 
importation from England, which has gained a strong foothold in many of the 
states along the Atlantic seaboard. The writer has yet to see a Starling in 
western Pennsylvania, and intends to treat them like their cousins, the English 
Sparrow. 

Many persons who formerly have put up bird-houses for the Martin only 
to see them crowded with Sparrows have given up in despair. They should 
remember that to start and to hold a colony of Martins is a pleasure for the 
bird-lover, requiring preseverance and patience in fighting against their enemies. 
One should not become discouraged with a failure the first year. Nothing 
that comes easily is worth much. 



Winter Feeding 

By W. L. SKINNER, ProctorsviHe, Vt. 
With photograph by the author 

BIRD study has in recent years undergone a great change. Formerly 
the outfit of a bird student was chiefly a shot-gun and a scalpel ; today 
it is the camera, feeding-table, and field-glass. One cannot read Audu- 
bon without being convinced of the great appreciation and love he had for 
birds; yet his love for science was even greater, and we regret that the destruc- 
tion of so much bird life should have seemed necessary. 

Ninety-nine out of every hundred of us interested in birds do not want a 
bird's stomach cut open to find out just what he has been eating, nor do we 
care what the formation of bone and muscle may be. These things about a 
bird we do not love, but we do love beauty of form and color, his song, socia- 
bility, and intelligence. As birds learn to trust us and feel secure with us, the 
more strongly are these and other features brought out. For instance, the 
peculiar squirrel-like habit of the Nuthatch and Chickadee in hiding bits of 
food in winter-time for future use, searching diligently to find a nook or cranny 
just to their liking and many other odd items of interest which may be learned 
only when we become intimate with a bird. 

Suet is used largely as a winter food, and is good so far as it goes; but, at 
best, it is a substitute for other food. 

The writer lives in a butternut country, and for a number of years has used 
this nut in feeding birds. It is a rich, nutritious, oily, and, we might say, 
natural food for winter birds; at any rate, birds will leave suet at any time for 
butternuts. On account of the Chickadees' habit of storing food, it is better 
to crack the nut on the side, which makes a lot of fine crumbs; otherwise 
large quantities will be carried off and hidden. 

A Purple Finch friend of mine would partake of hemp seed, but he was 
exceedingly fond of butternut. This bird appeared with the Chickadees one 
morning, and in twenty-four hours had become so tame that he would respond 
to my whistle by flying into my hand for his favorite food. At times a Chickadee 
would alight in the same hand. This the Finch would resent by advancing to- 
ward the Chickadee with open mouth, scolding and using bad language gener- 
ally. The Chickadee also, with open mouth, would hang on as long as he dared, 
his body and head thrown back; and the two birds, thus facing each other, 
presented a ludicrous and most interesting sight. I made one or two snaps 
with the camera at them but, owing to some one of the uncertainties of photog- 
raphy, the result was not satisfactory. 

Redpolls would not eat butternut, but four or five of them would crowd 
into the hand after millet seed. Finding an Acadian Chickadee one day, I 
I advanced slowly toward him, and held out part of my lunch (a doughnut). 
He showed the same confidence that his black-capped relative does, and 

(8) 



Winter Feeding 9 

fluttered within a few inches of the outstretched hand several times, but did 
not quite dare accept me on so short acquaintance. Chickadees, when fed at a 
window, get into the habit of searching other windows for food and, if one 
happens to be open, they are sure to fly in, and will injure themselves by flying 
against the mndow-glass, or they will even fly into neighbors' houses. One 
of my Chickadees was killed during my absence by the well-meaning but 
awkward efforts of a young relative. To release a bird, pull down every shade 
quickly, throw up one window, and lift the shade up as far as the window 
opening, and the bird will make his way out without injury. Birds should not 
be fed at windows at all, but entirely out-of-doors. 




A BIRD IN THE HAND 

Another Chickadee lit on the pipe of a man walking on the railroad nearly 
a mile away. The man believing that he was about to have his eyes pecked 
out by some freak bird, made several passes at the Chickadee before his com- 
panion, who knew of my birds, could enlighten him. 

The writer does not believe in the use of the feeding-house having glass 
sides. If a feeding-table is protected from snow and rain, that is sufficient. 
Finally, the question of making pets of birds should be looked at frcni all 
angles, and the interests of the birds served in each case, as best we may. 

The philosophy of California John, in 'The Cabin,' is delightful. On being 
urged to tame a certain wild fawn he frequently met, he observed: "Oh, he'd 
gentle all right, but, 'Ma'am, I don't believe in gentling no wild critter what- 
ever that I can't take care of. It makes it easy for the first fellow with a gun 



lO 



Bird - Lore 



or claws that comes along." The writer has known, and knows of a number of 
tame deer, and in every case they met with a violent or premature death ; and 
that, too, regardless of whether they had their liberty or were kept in an in- 
closure. Is this not the end of every wild bird or animal? Do birds that we 
have made pets of end their career sooner than their wilder brothers? To know 
a bird individually gives us a great deal of pleasure, but are there not various 
N'iew-points to be considered? 



City Nighthawks 

By CLINTON G. ABBOTT 

Photographs by the author 




T 



*HAT "Charity begins at home" 
is admitted by all. But that 
wild-bird photography may begin 
at home — without even so much as 
going outside the front door — would 
doubtless be questioned by many. Even 
stranger would such a proposition ap- 
pear when "home" is in the midst of a 
great city. Yet the proof is found in 
the accompanying photographs, which 
were taken upon the roof of a house in 
one of Brooklyn's most closely built 
sections. 

The bird which exhibits this strange 
affinity for the city's roar and inhos- 
pitable masonry is the Nighthawk, 
normally a shy and retiring inhabitant 
of barren fields and lonely wastes. 
Whether the level monotony of city 
roofs reminds it of the plains, whether 
its insect food abounds in the urban 
atmosphere, I cannot say; but the fact 
remains that annually many of these 
birds spend the summer in large cities, 
where, as evening approaches, they may 
be seen cavorting above the chimney- 
tops and uttering their harsh cries. The 
female lays her two mottled eggs, without the slightest pretense of nest-build- 
ing, on a bare, flat roof — always selecting for this purpose a roof of the tar and 
gravel variety. 



Mosr LnN\i;MKNT COIGN 
OF OBSERVATION" 



City Nighthawks 



11 




'QUEER LITTLE GRAY FUZZY CHICKS" 



Many an evening in June I 

have searched the house-tops of the 

block where I live in New York in 

an attempt to find a Nighthawk's 

nest; or have watched until dark, 

hoping to follow one of the birds 

to its home roof, but I have 

always been unsuccessful. All I 

have seen were fascinating exhibi- 
tions of the Nighthawk's strange 

idiosyncrasies of flight — the erratic 

flaps and pauses, the bat -like 

waverings, and the rushing, roaring 

descents that well give the bird its 

colloquial name of 'Bull-bat.' And 

at night I would awake to hear, 

through the open window, the 

grating '^beedz," "beedz,^' carried 

from the starlit sky, as though taunting me. 

I was therefore delighted when, on July 20, 1906, a telephone call at my 

ofl&ce informed me of the discovery of a Nighthawk's nest on a roof in Brooklyn. 

With rare discrimination, the bird had selected the home of Dr. Wm. C. 

Braislin, a well-known ornithologist and member of the A.O. U.! Emerging 

from his front door, he 

had seen the neatly 
chipped half of a Night- 
hawk's egg lying upon 
the doorstep, which told 
him quite plainly that a 
pair of twins had been 
born in the sky-parlor 
— with the resultant 
hurry call for the bird 
photographer. 

At the close of the 
business day, I snatched 
my camera and hast- 
ened to Dr. Braislin's 
home. It was about 6 
P.M., as we mounted 
the ladder leading to 
the roof. Silently we 
"SHE TRAILED HER WINGS PITIFULLY" raised the hatch and 




12 



Bird - Lore 



peeped out. There was the mother Nighthawk brooding her callow young amid 
the incongruous surroundings of chimneys, cornices, and tin roofs. Cautiously 
creeping up on my knees (by reason of the gravel a distinctly uncomfortable 
procedure!), and slowly pushing in front of me my old-fashioned tripod camera, 
I took two pictures at varying distances. The Nighthawk sat motionless with 
eye half closed, as though dozing. But it is evident that she was watching me 
closely; for, as soon as I had approached within about ten feet, with a sudden 
start she flopped to one side and, as though painfully injured, went shuffling 
across the roof. She trailed her wings pitifully and gave every other evidence 
of helplessness in her efforts to induce us to follow after her. But, when she 
discovered that she could not decoy us away in this fashion, she abandoned 
her tactics and took up her position on the most convenient coign of obser- 
vation — a chimney. Motionless, she watched to see what we would do to her 
babies. We noted that she stood lengthwise on the chimney, not across it, — 
a habit doubtless inherited from generations of ancestors who have found this 
attitude on the limbs of trees inconspicuous and protective for the diurnal sleep. 
In fact, she assumed the same position wherever she chanced to perch — whether 
on parapet, cornice, or coping — as, in my attempts to stalk her with my camera, 
I scared her from one point to another. 

We then turned our attention to the two queer little gray fuzzy chicks, so 
unceremoniously uncovered, yet apparently quite unperturbed. They made 




'AMID THE INCONGRUOUS SURROUNDINGS 01 CHIMNEYS, CORNICES 
AND TIN ROOFS" 



Some Results of Bird-Lore's Christmas Bird Censuses 13 

not the slightest motion beyond that caused by their breathing, and squatted 
close to the uncomfortable-looking pebbles. 

However we may criticise the Nighthawk for deserting the pure air of the 
country for the city's grime and smoke, we must admit, at least, that in the 
tar-and-gravel roof she has selected about as admirable a background as could 
be found for the concealment of herself and her offspring. The downy chicks, 
especially, were practically invisible from a short distance, and they added to 
the delusion by their motionless crouching. They permitted unlimited time 
exposure from every angle, till the sun was gone altogether and we were obliged 
to withdraw from the roof. 



Some Results of Bird-Lore's Christmas Bird Censuses 

By E. H. PERKINS 

THE following curves and diagrams are based on the Christmas Bird 
Censuses published in Berd-Lore from 1901 to 1911. In the great 
accimiulation of data in these reports much can be learned on the winter 
distribution of a given species over a series of years. In the figures given in 
this article, I have plotted the rise and fall in numbers of ten species of winter 
birds over an area including New England and New York. The species have 
been selected from the two classes into which our winter birds fall. From the 
regular residents I have taken the Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, 
Downy Woodpecker, and Brown Creeper. The irregular winter visitants are 
represented by the Red-breasted Nuthatch, Pine Siskin, Redpoll, Pine Gros- 
beaks, and the Red- and White-winged Crossbills. In plotting the curves, the 
years are taken as the abscissas, while the ordinates are found by dividing the 
total number of indixdduals seen each year by the number of reports for that 
year. In figure II the scale of the ordinance is twice that in Figure I, otherwise 
the curves of the birds in Figure II would be too flat to show well. The curves 
start with 1901, as I was unable to obtain the census for 1900. 

There seems to be some evidence that the various species of birds rise and 
fall together in abundance. This is best seen between 1905 and 1907. The 
year 1906 was one of abundance for almost all species. This year was 
preceded and followed by years of general scarcity. About 1903 and 1904, 
and again in 1908, there seems to have been a more or less general rise in 
abundance. 

It might be expected that the curves of the regular winter residents would 
be fairly regular, and that those of the boreal species would be more or less 
jagged. This expectation is, in every case but one, borne out by the 
facts. The exception is the Chickadee. This bird is an abundant permanent 
resident over the area under consideration, and a regular curve might be 
expected. The fact is that the Chickadee shows one of the most irregular of all 




^f- 



'I- 



ffl 



I- 



b: 



h 




not (lot nci It OH irof mi nor iio\ jqc/t fpo /9// 



FIG. I. CURVES OF (I) CHICKADEE, (II) PINE GROSBEAK. (Ill) PINE SISKIN, 

AND (IV) REDPOLL 

(14) 



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'h 




'V 



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il/l 



h 




y 



I >itCOIit) 
f 




VI L 




I'ioi mi 1993 im iioi' ifoi no7 1901 noi /f/0 iin 

FIG. II. CURVES OF (I) RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH, (II) WHITE-BREASTED 
NUTHATCH, (III) DOWNY WOODPECKER, (IV) BROWN CREEPER (V) WHITE- 
WINGED CROSSBILL, AND (VI) RED CROSSBILL. 



i6 



Bird - Lore 



the curves. Starting from its lowest ebb in 1901, the species rose in abundance 
until it reached its maximum. Since then there have been two more waves of 
abundance, reaching their cumulations in 1907 and 1910 respectively. In 
neither of these years, however, was the bird so abundant as in 1903. It should 
be noted that no birds except the Redpoll and Pine Siskin have ever reached 
the lowest mark of the Chickadee. 

In sharp contrast to the curve of the Chickadee stand the curves of the 
other common winter birds — the White-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, 
and Downy Woodpecker. The curves of these birds are very regular, showing. 



Chickadee ^12. 2) . 



Redpoll (4.22) 



Pine Siskin (2.58) 



White-breasled Nuthatch (i.6) 



Downy Woodpecker (1.4). 



Pine Grosbeak (1.22). 



Brown Creeper (0.68). 



White-winged Crossbill (0.48) 



Red-breasted Nuthatch (0.25) 



Red Crossbill (0.14) 



L 



FIG. III. AVERAGE ABUNDANCE 
WINTER BIRDS (1901-1911) 



: 



Some Results of Bird-Lore's Christmas Bird Censuses 17 



Chickadee (80%). 



Downy Woodpecker (5Q%)- • ■ I 



White-breasted Nuthatch (51%) 



Brown Creeper (35%) 



Redpoll (17%). 



Pine Siskin (12%). 



FIG. IV. PERCENTAGE OF REPORTS 
CONTAINING SPECIES. (1901-1911) 



Red-breasted Nuthatch (io<^). 



Pine Grosbeak (6%). 



Red Crossbill (4%) . 



White-winged Crossbill (4%) . 



as a rule, only slight changes from year to year. The Creeper, which is the 
most migratory of the three, shows the smoothest curve. 

The curves of the boreal birds, on the other hand, are very irregular. The 
Red-breasted Nuthatch and the Crossbills for a series of winters appear and 
are absent on alternate years. The Pine Grosbeak, as a rule, seems to appear 
in abundance after every two years of absence. The curves of the Pine Siskin 
and Redpoll are remarkable for the great waves of 1908 and 1909, respectively. 
1908 was one of the 'bird winters.' Southern birds were common north of 
their normal winter range, while, for some reason, boreal birds came south in 
greater numbers than usual. This was the year of the Siskin wave, but it was 



i8 Bird - Lore 

also the first year since 1902 when there had been no Redpolls. The next 
year was one of scarcity. The curves show that all the birds fell off, while the 
Chickadees reached their lowest mark for eight years. Then the flocks of Red- 
polls came in numbers that barely missed the highest mark of the Chickadee 
in 1903. Why the Redpolls came in 1909, instead of in 1908, is one of the many 
mysteries of the bird migrations. For the last two years, the Redpolls although 
less abundant than in 1909, have remained far above their usual numbers. 

The average abundance of the selected species for the last ten years is 
shown in Figure III. The figures are obtained in the same manner as the 
ordinates of the curves. The total number of individuals seen is divided by the 
total number of reports for the ten years. The diagram shows the remarkable 
fact that Redpolls and Pine Siskins are, on the average, more abundant than 
such common regular residents as the White-breasted Nuthatch and Downy 
Woodpecker. This is due to the great waves of Redpolls and Siskins mentioned 
above. This is not the true state of affairs in an average winter. 
Everyone knows that, while at times Redpolls and Siskins may be more 
abundant than Nuthatches and Downy Woodpeckers, the latter are to be 
ranked among our few everyday birds. 

Figure IV indicates more nearly the relative abimdance for an average 
winter. The diagram shows the percentage of the total number of reports that 
contain the species under consideration. Here the regular winter residents 
stand ahead of the irregular visitants, like the Siskins, Redpolls, and Crossbills. 




The Migration of North American Sparrows 

TWENTY-SIXTH PAPER 

Compiled by Prof. W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 
(See Frontispiece) 

REDPOLL 

The common form of the Redpoll breeds from ocean to ocean in the northern 
two-thirds of Canada, and comes south in winter into the northern half of the 
United States. 

SPRING MIGRATION 



PLACE 



Number 

of years' 

record 



Average date of 
the last one seen 



Latest date of the 
last one seen 



Beaufort, S. C 

Fort Runyon, Va 

Washington, D. C 

Philadelphia, Pa. (near) 

Norristown, N.J 

Northern New Jersey 

Portland, Conn 

Providence, R. I. (near) 

Central Massachusetts 

St. Johnsbury, Vt. (near) 

Southern Maine 

Phillips, Me 

Quebec City, Canada 

Montreal, Canada 

Scotch Lake, N. B 

Pictou, N. S 

North River, Prince Ed. Island 

Brownsville, Tenn 

St. Louis, Mo 

Canton, 111 

Northern Ohio 

Northern Michigan 

Ottawa, Ont 

Southern Ontario 

Central Iowa 

Central Wisconsin 

Baldwin, Kans 

Long Pine, Nebr 

Southeastern South Dakota. . . . 

Northern North Dakota 

Aweme, Manitoba 

Osier, Sask 

Edmonton, Alberta 

Denver, Colo 

Terry, Mont 

Stony Plain, Alberta 

Banff, Alberta 

Fort Klamath, Ore 

Okanagan, B. C 



4 


March i8 


5 


March i8 


lO 


April 8 


4 


March 19 


12 


April I 


8 


April 17 


IS 


April 13 


3 


April 22 


3 


April 23 



April 29 



April 8 
April 12 
April 9 
April 21 
April 8 
April 13 

March i{ 
April 4 
April 16 
April 19 



April 14 
May 4 
May 9 



February 23, 1901 
February 19, 1875 
February 12, 1899 
March 24, 1888 
March 28, 1888 
April 18, 1888 
May II, 190C 
April 21, 1886 
April, 21, 1907 
April 29, 1887 
May 5, 191 1 
May 8, 1909 
April 28, 1894 
May 5, 1909 
May 3, 1910 
April 28, 1895 
May 2, 1891 
January 9, 1884 
February 7, 1883 
April 17, 1894 
April 15, 1891 
April 19, 1895 
May 14, 1909 
May 12, 1885 
April 25, 1885 
April 23, 1883 
March 13, 1875 
March 20, 1897 
April 9, 1904 
April 18, 1909 
May 2, 1902 
April 20, 1893 
May 8, 1903 
April 27, 1907 
April 17, 1896 
May 7, 1909 
May 12, 1909 
May 9, 1878 
May 2, 1907 



(19) 



20 



Bird - Lore 



FALL MIGRATION 



PLACE 



Okanagan, B. C 

Eagle Lake, Calif 

Banff, Alberta 

Columbia Falls, Mont 

Terry, Mont 

Boulder, Colo 

Aweme, Manitoba 

Sioux Falls, S. D 

Gresham, Nebr 

Elk River, Minn 

Lanesboro, Minn 

North Freedom, Wis 

National, la 

Southern Ontario 

Northern Michigan 

Camden, Ind 

Chicago, 111 

New Haven, Mo 

Hickman, Ky 

Brownsville, Tenn 

North River, Prince Ed. Island 

Pictou, N. S 

Scotch Lake, N. B 

Montreal, Que 

Phillips, Me 

Southern Maine 

Jefferson, N. H 

West Barnet, Vt 

Central Massachusetts 

Northern New York 

Portland, Conn 

Morristown, N. J 

State College, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 



Number 
of years' 
record 


Average date of 


Earliest date of 


fall arrival 
October 25 


fall arrival 


4 


October 16, 1889 






November 30, 1899 






September 22, 1909 


4 


October 24 


October 7, 1895 


3 


October 29 


October 23, 1903 
October 21, 19 11 


lO 


October 14 


September 14, 1901 


2 


November i 


October 30, 1910 
November 16, 1896 


2 


November i 


October 31, 1883 


2 


November 5 


October 31, 1887 
October 2, 1904 


2 


November 10 


November 8, 1908 


4 


October 27 


October 10, 1888 


3 


October 26 


October 14, 1894 
November 5, 1878 


4 


November 2 


October 14, 1906 
November 18, 1903 
December 10, 1886 
January, 9, 1884 
October 4, 1887 
October 13, 1894 


6 


October 19 


October 14, 1904 
October 23, 1910 


5 


October 21 


October 5, 191 1 


II 


November 6 


October 26, 1910 
October 24, 1910 
October 22, 1910 


6 


November 7 


October 29, 1889 


4 


November 18 


November 5, 1889 


4 


December 8 


November 27, 1889 


4 


December 19 


December 11, 1910 
December 12, 1908 
January 17, 1897 



The dates given above refer to the movements of the common form of the 
Redpoll, linaria, but there is also another form of this bird called Holboell's 
Redpoll, which breeds probably in northeastern Asia and northwestern North 
America, and in migration comes southwestward into the northern United 
States. It is rare, but has been taken at Koshkonong, Wis., January 22, 1867; 
Meridian, Wis., January 22- April 3, 1896; near Iowa City, la., January 18- 
February 22, 1896; Chicago, 111., November 2, 1878; North Bridgton, Me., 
November 25, 1878; Gorham, Me., February 3, 1903; Swampscot, Mass., 
March 26, 1883; Lexington, Mass., March 10, 1890; and Ossining, N. Y., 
February 12-13, 1883. Thus these New England birds have migrated east 
about two degrees for each degree they have moved toward the south. 

There is still another subspecies, the Greater Redpoll, rostrata, which breeds 
in Greenland, and migrates in winter southward to the United States as far 
west as the Rocky Mountains. It is more common than the Holboell's, but, as 
compared with the common Redpoll, it is a rare visitant. It was taken at Erie, 



The Migration of North American Sparrows 21 

Pa., March 31, 1893; Princeton, N. J., February 6, 1872; New Haven, Conn., 
December 17, 1878; Providence, R. I., March 14, 1896; Boston, Mass., Decem- 
ber 26, 1906, April 10, 1907, and November i, 1910; abundant at Revere Beach 
and Nantasket Beach, February 19-22, 1883; Westbrook, Me., January 26- 
February 27, 1896, and December 12, 1903; Houghton, Mich., November 20, 
1904; near Iowa City, la., January 18-25, 1896; Meridian, Wis., January 9, 
March 26, 1896, and MagnoHa, Colo., December 9, 1895. This last individual 
had traveled twice as many degrees to the west as to the south. 

HOARY REDPOLL 

The Hoary Redpoll breeds in the high Arctic regions of North America, and 
comes south in the winter as far as the northern United States. The beginning 
of the fall migration was noted September 19, 1903, when flocks appeared at 
Fort Franklin, Mackenzie. Some fall or early winter records in the United 
States are: Cambridge, Mass., November 15, 1880; Swampscot, Mass., 
November 16, 1878; New^ Haven, Conn., November 24, 1906; Meridian, Wis., 
December 13, 1895; Sault Ste Marie, Mich., December 7, 1899, and Fairbault, 
Minn., December 15, 1883. It was noted in southern Ontario at Guelph 
December 8 and 26, 1903, and was fairly common at Milton the winter of 
1882-3. 

It has remained at Cambridge Mass., in the spring until March 20, 1888; 
Hamilton, Ont., April 6, 1885; Meridian, Wis., March 26, 1896; Miles City, 
Mont., March 12, 1900; Winnipeg, Monitoba, April 3, 1900; Indian Head, 
Saskatchewan, April 17, 1892, and Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, April 30, i860 
and May 10, 1904. 

Another subspecies of this bird — the Greenland RedpoU^has only one 
record in the United States, that of a single bird taken March 29, 1900. at 
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

PURPLE FINCH 

The breeding range of the Purple Finch includes southern Canada east of 
Alberta, and the neighboring portions of the United States south to Minnesota, 
Michigan, Pennsylvania (mountains), and Long Island. The great bulk of the 
individuals winter south of the breeding range, but a small percentage remain 
at this season, farther north in the southern part of the breeding range, and 
sometimes even to the middle part. There is therefore a broad belt, covering at 
least a third of the entire range of the species, in which migration dates are 
unsatisfactory, because the records of real spring migration are so mixed with 
notes on birds that have wintered. The case is made more involved by the 
fact that the Purple Finch is normally a late migrant, so that there are, in 
reality, two sets of notes, one of birds that have wintered unnoticed in the deep 
woods and are recorded when they spread to the open country during the first 



22 Bird - Lore 

warm days of spring, and the other of migrants from the south that arrive two 
to six weeks later. 

Thus at Madison, Wis., during nine years of observation, the average date 
of the first seen for five of these years is April 21, probably a fair average date 
of arrival for this district, while, during the other four years, the average date 
is March 27, representing birds that had wintered not far distant. Even at 
Ottawa, Ontario, which is well toward the nothern limit of the breeding range, 
the dates of the first seen during twenty-two years are for three years in Feb- 
ruary, ten in March, six in April, and three in May. The above facts show the 
reason for the lack of a regular progression in the dates as given in the follow- 
ing tables. 

SPRING MIGRATION 



PLACE 



Number 

of years' 

record 



Average date of 
spring arrival 



Renovo, Pa 11 

Alfred, N. Y 23 

Ballston Spa., N. Y 13 

Center Lisle, N. Y 22 

Ithaca, N. Y 8 

New York City, N. Y. (near) 15 

Hartford, Conn 14 

Jewett City, Conn 17 

Providence, R.I 9 

Beverly, Mass 13 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 13 

Hanover, N. H 6 

Plymouth, Me 10 

Quebec City, Canada 9 

Scotch Lake, N. B 7 

Pictou. N. S 4 

North River, Prince Ed. Island 

St. John, N. F 

Chatham, N. B 9 

Chicago, 111 7 

Sedan, Ind 4 

Petersburg, Mich 4 

Houghton, Mich 

Ottawa, Ont 12 

Strathroy, Ont 9 

Grinnell, la 5 

La Crosse, Wis 5 

Lanesboro, Minn 5 

Minneapolis, Minn 8 

White Earth, Minn 2 

Aweme, Manitoba 10 

Edmonton, Alberta (near) 7 

Osier, Saskatchewan 

Fort Chipewyan, Alberta 



April 16 
April I 
April 10 
April 5 
March 19 
April 15 
April 6 
April 9 
April 10 
April 2 
April 5 
April 8 
April 20 
April 2 
April 18 
April 14 



May II 
March 24 
March 19 
April 9 

March 18 
April 14 
March 30 
March 30 
April 7 
March 28 
April 22 
April 23 
May 4 



Earliest date of 
spring arrival 



March 11, 1897 
March 4, 1910 
March 18, 1903 
March 13, 1886 
March 14, 1906 
Rare, winter 
February 6, 1888 
February 24, 1905 
January i, 191 1 
March 12, 1905 
February 12, 1905 
March 7, 1886 
March 26, 1882 
March 6, 1907 
February 4, 1901 
February 20, 1887 
April I, 1 89 1 
April, 18, 1883 
April 28, 1897 
January 9, 1896 
March 11, 1887 
March 17, 1889 
February 23, 1905 
February 20, 1909 
April 5, 1897 
March 28, 1889 
March 19, 1910 
January i, 1893 
March 11, 1889 
April 19, 1882 
March 22, 1910 
April 19, 1910 
May 4, 1909 
May 17, 1901 



The Migration of North American Sparrows 



23 



PLACE 



Talladega, Ala 

Kirk wood, Ga 

Raleigh, N. C . . 

Western North Carolina 

Lynchburg, Va 

French Creek, \V. Va. . . 

Washington, D. C 

Beaver, Pa 

Philadelphia, Pa. (near), 

Morristown, N. J 

New Orleans, La 

Bay St. Louis, Miss 

Gainesville, Tex 

Helena, Ark 

Athens, Tenn 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Oberlin, O 

Keokuk, la 

Emporia, Kans 




Latest date of the 
last one seen 



April 16, 1898 
April 7, 1903 
April 30, 1890 
May 23, 1885 
May 5, 1899 
May 8, 1893 
May 26, 1907 
May 15, 1908 
May 18, 1907 
May 24, 1907 
March 23, 1895 
March 13, 1902 
March 20, 1884 
April 23, 1899 
May 3, 1 904 
May 19, 1907 
May 19, 1907 
June 6, 1908 
May 7, 1893 
May 23, 1885 



FALL MIGRATION 



PLACE 



Lanesboro, Minn 

Hillsboro, la 

Sioux Falls, S. D 

Lawrence, Kans 

San Angelo, Tex 

Chicago, 111 

Eubank, Ky 

Oberlin, O 

Delight, Ark 

Morristown, N. J 

Philadelphia, Pa. (near) 

Beaver, Pa 

Washington, D. C 

French Creek, W. Va.. . 

Raleigh, N. C 

Aiken, S. C 

Chipley, Fla 



Number 

of years' 

record 



-Average date of 
fall arrival 



October 13 

September 



August 30 
September 13 
October 14 

September 14 
October 19 

October 21 
September 25 
November 4 



Earliest date of 
fall arrival 



October 6, 1891 
September, 8, 1896 
October 5, 1908 
October 21, 1905 
October 20, 1886 
August 16, 1896 
September 7, 1892 
September 7, 1901 
November 9, 191 1 
August 30, 1910 
September 18, 1890 
September 10, 1890 
September 7, 1908 
September 4, 1892 
October 28, 1890 
November 12, 1887 
November 21, 1902 



PLACE 



Aweme, Manitoba 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Ottawa, Ont 

Chicago, 111 

North River, Prince Ed. Island 

Scotch Lake, N. B 

Montreal, Canada 

Hebron, Me 

Hartford, Conn 



Number 
of years' 
record 



Average date of 
the last one seen 



October 6 
October 25 
November 11 
October 31 

November 30 
October 21 
October 6 
October 13 



Latest date of the 
last one seen 



October 22, 1899 
November 12, 1887 
November 24, 188. 
November 9, 1906 
October 6, 1888 
December 7, 1905 
November 8, 1908 
October 11, 1908 
October 29, 1887 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 

TWENTY-FIFTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(See Frontispiece) 

Redpoll {Acanthis linaria linaria, Figs, i and 2). In juvenal plumage the 
young male Redpoll resembles the adult female in general color, but the crown 
is without red and is streaked like the nape; the throat lacks a black spot 
and the breast is streaked. 

At the post-juvenal (first fall) molt, in which the wing-quills and tail-feathers 
are retained, the bird acquires its first winter plumage, which is much like that 
of the female (Fig. 2), but in some cases the breast and sides of the neck are 
tinged with rosy. 

As Dwight has shown, there is no spring molt, and the difference between 
winter and summer plumage is due to the effects of fading and wear which make 
the crown-patch seem brighter, the body plumage more sharply streaked and 
less brownish. 

At the post-nuptial (second fall) molt, this plumage, as usual, is completely 
lost, and the rosy-breasted, advdt plumage (Fig. i) acquired. There is more or 
less individual variation, which is probably also in part due to age, in the extent 
of the rosy color of the breast and rump, but this color, once gained, is not lost. 
As in the immature bird, the differences between winter and summer plumage 
are occasioned by fading and by wear. 

Holboell's Redpoll {Acanthis linaria holboelli). This is a more northern 
species, which rarely reaches the United States. It differs from A . I. linaria in 
being larger, while the Greater Redpoll {Acanthis linaria rostrata) of Greenland 
which visits the United States more frequently, is of approximately the same 
size as holbcelli, but is darker. These differences, however, while appreciable 
in specimens, are too slight to render identification in life certain. 

Hoary Redpoll {Acanthis hornemanni exilipes, Figs. 3 and 4). The 
plumage changes in this species appear to be the same as those which take 
place with Acanthis linaria, from which it may be known by its unstreaked 
rump and other characters. 

This species rarely comes so far south as the United States, while the Green- 
land Redpoll {Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni), a larger, whiter species, has 
been found in the United States but once. 

Purple Finch {Carpodacus purpureus. Figs. 5 and 6). The nesting or 
juvenal plumage of the male Purple Finch, both in color and pattern, is much 
like its succeeding or first winter plumage. At this age the bird resembles the 
adult breeding female (Fig. 6) but, like winter females, from which it cannot 
be distinguished, the plumage is tinged with buff. There is no spring molt, and 
the first breeding plumage is acquired by wear and fading, when the bird 
resembles the female in summer (Fig. 6). 

(24) 



A Co-operative Study of Bird Migration 



25 



At the first post-nuptial (second fall) molt, the pink plumage of the adult 
(Fig. 5) is gained. For the first year of its life, therefore, the male Purple 
Finch resembles the female in color, but, having once assumed the pink plumage 
of maturity, it is thereafter retained, and the only further change in color is 
due to the wearing off of the whitish barbules of the reddish feathers, which, 
as Dr. Dwight has shown ('Sequence of Molts and Plumages', Ann. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci., 1900, 173), makes the adult male appear to be brighter in summer than 
at other times. 

The California Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus calif ornicus) , of 
the Pacific Coast Region, closely resembles the eastern bird, but the male is 
duller and darker, the female more olive-green above. As is well known, caged 
male Purple Finches lose their pink plumage and become and remain saffron 
in color, a phenomenon which is generally ascribed to the effects of change of 
food, 

A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 

Bird-Lore asks the cooperation of its readers in -recording the migrations of 
certain common birds in the belief that a joint study of their movements will add to 
the interest with which their coming is awaited, and contribute something of 
value to our knowledge of their travels in particular, and bird migration in general. 

By restricting the plan to a small number of common and well-known birds, we 
largely avoid the danger of misidentification, focus our efforts and thereby increase 
the value of the records contributed. 

It is proposed to take three birds which arrive during the earlier part of the 
migration season, and three more which are due in the latter part. A summary 
of observations on the first group will be published in Bird-Lore for June, while 
those relating to the second group, the names of which will be announced later, 
will appear in Bird-Lore for August. 

The first three birds selected are the Redwinged Blackbird, Robin, and 
Phoebe. A blank form is appended showing how the records should be scheduled 
before sending them to Bird-Lore. These records should be mailed to Mr. Charles 
H. Rogers, care of Bird-Lore, .American Museum of Natural History, New York 
City, not later than April 10. — F. M. C. 



Report from. 



(Give locality) 



Made by. 



(Give 


name and address of 


observer) 






^ 


Date 
first seen 


No. 
seen 


Date 
next seen 


No. 
seen 


Date of 
becoming 
common 


Red-winged blackbird 










Robin 












Phoebe 

























Bird-Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 



y\^ 





T 



HE returns for the Christmas Census 
of 1913 have exceeded in number 
those for any previous year; and, both 
as a means of saving space and of improving 
the character of the censuses, it has been 
deemed advisable to publish only the lists 
which seem more or less adequately to 
represent the winter bird-life of the locality 
to which they relate. Many lists have there- 
fore been rejected under this ruling, while 
others have been excluded, either because 
they were received too late for publication 
or because, in one way or another, they did 
not conform to the plan of the Census out- 
lined in Bird-Lore for December. It has, of 
course, been difficult to know just where to 
kJMT ' »'''Y \ /' V draw the line, and doubtless some lists have 

^^ WWj I # ' > been excluded which are quite as worthy of 

publication as some which have been re- 
tained, but, in the absence of time to confer 
with the author, the editors have been 
obliged to use their own discretion. 

We have again to thank Mr. Charles H. 
Rogers for preparing the censuses for pub- 
lication, as well as for the following introductory note. — F. M. C. 






PINE GROSBEAK 

Photographed by S. S. S. Stansell, 

Manly, Alberta 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



This winter's extensive southward movement of Acadian Chickadees is 
the most striking bit of news in the bird world as revealed by the Christmas 
Census. This species breeds as far south as nothernmost or mountainous New 
England and New York, but wanders ordinarily so little in winter that it very 
rarely reaches even Massachusetts. This winter, however, it has appeared as 
far south as southern Rhode Island and Connecticut, and Rhinebeck, New 
York. 

Pine Grosbeaks, Redpolls and the Crossbills have come down in small, 
numbers through New England, but not farther. Pine Siskins came earlier in 
much greater numbers and considerably farther south. Northern Shrikes are 
unusually well distributed, although more than one is rarely seen in a day. 
Robins, Bluebirds and others that are chiefly summer residents in the north 
and middle East are, for the most part, scarce. This is the first Christmas when 

(26) 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 27 

Starlings have been really prevalent in the Philadelphia and Boston regions, and 
one flock has reached Bennington, Vermont. Santa Barbara, California, with 
a list of 96 species, takes the lead as in pre\dous years. 

This year, it was deemed desirable to exclude a number of the lists submitted 
usually because — considering the locality — the time spent aiield, or the number 
of birds seen, showed the list to be not at all fairly representative of the Christ- 
mas time bird-life of the region. 

As usual, some observers paid so little attention to the request as to arrange- 
ment that their lists had to be entirely rewritten. In the absence of a specific 
date it is assumed that the census was made on Christmas Day. — C. H. R. 

Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.— Dec. 23; 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Clear; overcast in late p.m.; 
ground bare; wind variable, very light; temp, at sunrise, 19°. Old-squaw, i; RufiFed 
Grouse, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Northern Raven, 4; Crow, 
46; Junco, 8; Song Sparrow, 4; Myrtle Warbler, 10; Chickadee, 15; Acadian Chickadee, 
4; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 5. Total, 12 species, 103 individuals. — Harrison F. Lewis 
and E. Chesley Allen. 

Amprior, Ont. — 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ten inches of snow; wind east, light; temp. 
27° to 31°. American Goldeneye, i (female); Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Blue Jay, i; American Crow, i; Evening Grosbeaks, heard; Purple Finch, 
i; Redpoll, 6; American Goldfinch, 18; Snow Bunting, 20; Brown Creeper, 2; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 19. Total, 12 species, 72 individuals. — Liguori Gormley and 
Charles Macnamara. 

London, Ont. (vicinity of). — Dec. 20; 2.30 to 5.30 p.m. Sky overcast, light rather 
bad; ground barely covered with snow; wind, light, southwest; temp. 34°. Herring Gull, 
i; Scaup, sp. (female), i; Ruffed Grouse, i; Cooper's Hawk, i; Kingfisher, i; Blue Jay, 
i; Crow, 19; Redpoll, 3; Junco, 20; Brown Creeper, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; 
Chickadee, 28; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 4. Total, 13 species, 90 individuals. Other 
species seen recently: Bronzed Crackle, Pine Grosbeak, American Crossbill, Snow 
Bunting (1,000), Cardinal (pair). Northern Shrike, Robin. — C. G. Watson, J. A. 
Cameron, M. Dale, and J. F. Calvert. 

Millbrook, Ont. — Dec. 25; 9 a.m. to 1.15 p.m. Six inches of snow on ground; wind 
northeast; temp. 32°. Great Blue Heron, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 
i; Blue Jay, 3; Chickadee, 6; Robin, 5. Total, 6 species, 17 individuals. A flock of Wild 
Geese seen flying South ten days ago, many northern lakes being still open. — Sam Hunter. 

Port Dover, Ont. — Dec. 26; 10 a.m. to 12.45 P-M. Cloudy; ground covered with 
three or four inches of snow; wind north to northeast, fresh; temp. 23°. Downy Wood- 
pecker, i; American Crow, 7; Bronzed Grackle, i; Pine Siskin, flock of 125; Junco, 23; 
Song Sparrow, i (heard); Winter Wren, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 11; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 10 species, about 174 individuals. — Arthur W. 
Preston. 

Norway, Maine. — Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 12 m. Overcast; twelve inches of snow; wind 
east, light; temp. 32°. Woodpecker, i (heard); Blue Jay, 10; Evening Grosbeak, 14 
(5 males, 9 females, at South Paris; this flock has been seen several times about the 
sumacs just preceding the 25th); Pine Grosbeaks, 16; Hoary Redpoll, 2; Redpoll, 100; 
Greater Redpoll, i; Goldfinch, i; Tree Sparrow, 6; Northern Shrike, i; Red-breasted 
Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 20; Acadian Chickadee, 2. (Have seen this bird only once 
before this year, and then only one; have seen these two several times this fall and can 
always distinguish their note from that of the common Chickadee.) Total, 14 species, 
277 individuals. — Freeland Howe, Jr. 



28 Bird - Lore 

Tilton, N. H. — 9.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Cloudy; above five inches of snow on ground; 
wind, none; temp. 36°. Goldeneye, 15; Canadian Ruffed Grouse, 3; Hairy Woodpecker, 
2; Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, heard several; Redpoll, 6; Tree Sparrow, 13; 
White-breasted Nuthatch i (heard); Chickadee, 34; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. Total, 
ID species, 75 individuals. Crows, Brown Creepers, a Song Sparrow, and an Acadian 
Chickadee have been present within a few days. — George L. Plimpton, Ernest R. 
Perkins and Edward H. Perkins. 

Wilton, N. H. — Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to ii a.m. Cloudy; ground covered with two inches 
of snow; no wind; temp. 38°. Ruffed Grouse, 2; Blue Jay, 3; Tree Sparrow, 15; Northern 
Shrike, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 5; Robin, 1. Total, 7 species, 29 
individuals. — George G. Blanchard. 

Clarendon, Vt. — Dec. 25; 7 a.m. to i p.m. Cloudy; eight inches of snow on ground; 
wind north, light; temp. 35°. Ruffed Grouse, 4; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Blue Jay, 1; Pine Grosbeak, 3; Redpoll, 12; Red-breasted Nuthatch, i; 
Chickadee, i. Total, 8 species, 30 individuals. Redpolls, Siskins and Pine Grosbeaks 
were very numerous up to the middle of December. — L. Henry Potter. 

Bethel, Vt. — Dec. 22; 9.15 a.m. to 2.15 p.m. Cloudy, but became clear; snow in thin 
patches; wind north, light; temp. 31° to 5^°. Duck, sp. i; Downy Woodpecker, i; 
Redpoll, i; Chickadee, 18; White-breasted Nuthatch, i. Total, 5 species, 22 individuals. 
— Eliza F. Miller. 

Bennington, Vt. — Dec. 26; 10 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy, with light flurries of snow; 
ground covered with from three to ten inches of snow; wind northeast, strong; temp. 36°. 
Ruffed Grouse, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Blue Jay, 4; Crow, 
3; Starling, 30; Pine Grosbeak, i; American Goldfinch, i; Tree Sparrow, 19; Northern 
Shrike, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 2. Total, 12 species, 68 individuals.— 
The Starling made its first appearance in Bennington, Dec. 12, 1913, when a flock of 
about 30 arrived. — Dr. and Mrs. Lucretius H. Ross, Charles Hitchcock and Mrs. 
Wm. H. Bradford, 

Boston, Mass. (Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Jamaica Pond, Olmsted and 
Riverway Parks, and Charles River Basin. — Dec. 22; 8.45 a.m. to 3.45 p.m. Cloudy a.m., 
clear p.m.; ground bare, wind northeast, light; temp. 42° to 47°. Great Black-backed 
Gull, i; Herring Gull, 850; Merganser, 59; Mallard, 4; Black Duck, 413; European 
Widgeon, 2 drakes; Baldpate, i; Scaup 2; Lesser Scaup, 77; Goldeneye, 4; Bufflehead, i; 
Ruddy Duck, 2; Coot, 8; Ring-necked Pheasant, 15; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Northern 
Flicker, 8; Blue Jay, 13; Crow, 34; Goldfinch, 12; Pine Siskin, 57; White-throated 
Sparrow, i; Tree Sparrow, i; Junco, 4; Song Sparrow, i; Northern Shrike, i; Brown 
Creeper, i; Chickadee, 27; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 7; Robin, 2. Total, 29 species, 
1,609 individuals. — Horace W. Wright and Richard M. Marble. 

Boston to Gloucester, Mass. (by boat). — Dec. 23; i to 3.45 p.m. Cloudy; sea rough 
wind southeast, strong; temp. 40°. Brunnich's Murre, 3; Dovekie, 7; Kittiwake, 80 
Iceland Gull, i; Great Black-backed Gull, 4; Herring Gull, 1,000; Bonaparte's Gull, 2 
Red-breasted Merganser, 8; American Goldeneye, i. Total, 9 species, 1,106 individuals. 
— Anna Kingman Barry, Lidian E. Bridge and Ruth D. Cole. 

Cambridge, Mass. (Fresh Pond and adjoining grounds). — Dec. 25; 9.05 a.m. to 
12.05 P-M. Overcast; ground bare; wind northeast; temp. 40°. Black-backed Gull, 3; 
Herring Gull, 9; American Merganser, 54; Black Duck, 65; Redhead, 2; American 
Goldeneye, 4; Ring-necked Pheasant, 5; Sparrow Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; 
Flicker, 11; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 8; Starling, 75; Meadowlark, 9; Purple Finch, 4; Gold- 
finch, 2; Tree Sparrow, 36; Junco, 3; Song Sparrow, 5; Swamp Sparrow, i; Brown 
Creeper, 2; Chickadee, 11. Total, 21 species, 315 individuals. — Eugene E. Caduc and 
Horace W. Wright. 

Cambridge, Mass. (Waverley, Belmont, Arlington and Fresh Pond).— Dec. 23; 



Bird - Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 29 

6.50 to 10.20 A.M. Overcast; ground bare; wind southeast, strong; temp. 40° to 30°. 
Point of Pines to Nahant, Mass. — 11.40 a.m. to 3.40 p.m. Same conditions. Great Black- 
backed Gull, 50; Herring Gull, 2,000; Red-breasted Merganser, 10; Black Duck, 80; 
American Goldeneye, 25; Old-squaw, 5; Ring-necked Pheasant, 3; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, i; Northern Flicker, 10; Horned Lark, 30; Blue Jay, 
i; Crow, 20; Tree Sparrow, 3; Goldfinch, 2; Northern Shrike, i; Black-capped 
Chickadee, 2; Acadian Chickadee, i; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 9. Total, 19 species, 
2,255 individuals. — Myles P. Baker and Henry M. Spelmax, Jr. (Morning trip 
taken with Howard M. Forbes.) 

Cohasset, Mass. (BlackRock Station to Sandy Cove). — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 12.15 
P.M. Cloudy; ground bare; wind northeast, light; temp. 40°. Loon, i; Herring Gull, 75; 
Old-squaw, i; American Scoter, 7; White-winged Scoter, 5; Brant, 30; Ring-necked 
Pheasant, i; Flicker, 5; Crow, 8; Purple Finch, 20; Tree Sparrow, 4; Cedar Wax- 
wing 8; Myrtle Warbler, 6; Brown Creeper, i; Chickadee, 25. Total, 15 species, 197 
individuals. — Edmund and Lidian E. Bridge. 

Dighton, Mass. — -Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind northeast. 
light; temp. 40°. Black Duck, 2; a V of 17 Canada Geese honking due south; Wood- 
cock, i; Ruffed Grouse, 2; Downy Woodpecker, i; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 40; 
Goldfinch, 25; W^hite-throated Sparrow, 18; Tree Sparrow, 8; Junco, 25; Song Sparrow, 
10; Myrtle Warbler, 30; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 30; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 4. Total, 17 species, 221 individuals. The Geese were observed at Bourne, 
Mass., Christmas Eve, by C. L. P. — F. Seymour Hersey and Charles L. Phillips. 
(We covered nearly the same ground, keeping well together, while making above list.) 

East Carver, Mass. — Dec. 25; 7 to 10 a.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind northwest, 
medium; temp. 45°. Canada Goose, 52; Bob-white, 6; Ruffed Grouse, 2; Screech Owl, 
i; Kingfisher, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Flicker, 2; Blue Jay, 15; Crow, 23; Purple 
Finch, i; American Crossbill, 18; American Goldfinch, 12; Tree Sparrow, 5; Junco, 12; 
Song Sparrow, i; Fox Sparrow, i; Myrtle Warbler, 45; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 50; 
Chickadee, 15; Brown Creeper, 3; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 18; Robin, 5. Total, 22 
species, 289 individuals. — Lester E. Pratt. 

Ipswich, Mass. (Castle Hill, beach and dunes). — Dec. 27; 9.45 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. 
Clear; ground lightly covered with snow; wind northeast, strong; temp. 26°. Horned 
Grebe, i; Loon, i; Dovekie, ?; Kittiwake, 5; Black-backed Gull, 4; Herring Gull, 30; 
Red-breasted Merganser, 12; Black Duck, 1,000; American Golden-eye, 3; Old-squaw, 2; 
Canada Goose, 7; Brant, 25; Pheasant, 3; Rough-legged Hawk, i; Northern Flicker, 3; 
Horned Lark, 12; American Crow, 100; Meadowlark, i; American Crossbill, i; Redpoll, 
i; Snow Bunting, 80; Lapland Longspur, i; Ipswich Sparrow, 3; Tree Sparrow, 24; Junco, 
8; Song Sparrow, i; Northern Shrike, i; Myrtle Warbler, 24; Chickadee, 18; Acadian 
Chickadee, 3; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 31 species, 1,369 individuals. — 
Annie W. Cobb, Alice O. Jump and Lidian E. Bridge. 

Leominster, Mass. — Dec. 25; 7.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare, with 
patches of snow; no wind; temp. 38°. Herring Gull, 2; Pigeon Hawk, 2; Blue Jay, 2; 
Crow, 150; Redpoll, 25; Goldfinch, 125; Tree Sparrow, 10; Northern Shrike, i; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 5. Total, 10 species, 323 individuals. — Edwin Rus- 
sell Davis. 

Pittsfield, Mass. — Dec. 20; 10.25 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Clear; ground partly covered 
with snow; ponds frozen over; wind southwest, very light; temp. 28°. Black Duck, 16; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, i; Crow, 2; Starling, 11; White-winged Crossbill, i; 
Redpoll, 114; Tree Sparrow, 3; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chick- 
adee, 14. Total, II species, 166 individuals. On Dec. 6 before the ponds froze over I 
noted Holboell's Grebe, 2; Merganser, 10; Black Duck, 16; Canvasback, 6; Scaup, 24; 
Goldeneye, 5; BuflBehead, i. — Barron Brainerd. 



30 Bird -Lore 

Randolph, Mass. — Dec. 23; 9 a.m. to 12.15 pm- Cloudy; ground bare; wind 
southeast, light; temp. 40°. Canada Goose (?), 50; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 7; Pine Gros- 
beak, 8; Tree Sparrow, 8, Northern Shrike, i; Chickadee, 10. Two Myrtle Warblers 
were seen later in the day. Total, 7 species, 87 individuals. — Howard K. Rowe. 

Sheffield, Mass. — Dec. 26; 10.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Two inches of snow on the 
ground and snowing steadily all morning; wind northeast shifting to northwest; temp. 
32°. Ruffed Grouse, i; American Crow, i; Blue Jay, i; Pine Grosbeak, 25 (i mature 
male); Tree Sparrow, 25; Chickadee, 15. Total, 6 species, about 68 individuals. — Hamil- 
ton Gibson, Paul van Dyke and Tertius van Dyke. 

West Medford, Mass. (through Middlesex Fells to Melrose). — Dec. 21; 8.30 to 
11.45 A.M. Clear; ground bare; wind light, southwest; temp. 45°. Herring Gull, 3; 
American Merganser, 75; Black Duck and Red-legged Black Duck, 500; Ring-necked 
Pheasant, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Northern Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 8; 
Crow, 15; American Crossbill, i; Redpoll, 8; Goldfinch, 2; Tree Sparrow, i; Song Spar- 
row, 2; Brown Creeper, 2; Red-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 14; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 3. Total, 17 species, 652 individuals. — Lidian E. Bridge. 

Glocester, R. I. — 8 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind north, light; temp. 32°. 
Flicker, 1; Blue Jay, 1; Crow, 2; Tree Sparrow, i; Chickadee, 4. Total, 5 species, 9 
individuals. — J. Irving Hill. 

Providence, R. I. — Dec. 21; 11 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare; temp. 46°. 
Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, i; White-throated Sparrow, i; Junco, i; 
Song Sparrow, 4; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; 
Chickadee, 6. Total, 10 species, 23 individuals. — Edward D. KeitlY. 

Warwick, R. I. — Dec. 25; 9.20 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Cloudj^; ground bare; wind light, 
northeast; temp. 40°. Herring Gull, 19; Scaup, 356; Flicker, 17; Blue Jay, 7; American 
Crow, 27; Starling, 200; Meadowlark, 9; Purple Finch, 7; Pine Siskin, 31; Tree Sparrow, 
107; Song Sparrow, i; Myrtle Warbler, 295; Chickadee, 48; Acadian Chickadee, i 
(second record for Rhode Island). Total, 14 species, 1,125 individuals. — Harry S. 
Hathaway. 

Woonsocket, R. I. — Dec. 25; 8.30 to 11 a.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind north to 
east, very light; temp. 30° to 34°. Blue Jay, 15; Crow, 16; Tree Sparrow, 2; Goldfinch, 5; 
Chickadee, 7; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 1. Total, 6 species, 46 individuals. — Clarence 
M. Arnold. 

Bristol, Conn. — Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 4.10 p.m. Overcast; hazy; later entirely clouded; 
dark day; rain at 5.30; dead calm; ground bare; temp. 33°; 39° at return. Birds unusually 
quiet. Black Duck, 35; Canada Goose, 3; Ruffed Grouse, 5; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; 
Downy Woodpecker, 3 ; Blue Jay, 45 ; Crow, 9; Starling, 33 ; Tree Sparrow, 18; Junco, 2 ; Song 
Sparrow, i; Northern Shrike, 2; Winter Wren, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chicka- 
dee, 5. Total, 15 species, 165 individuals. — Royal W. Ford and Frank Bruen. 

Glastonbury, Conn. (Connecticut River and adjacent meadow). — Dec. 25. Cloudy; 
ground bare; temp. 35° to 45°. Herring Gull, 11; Mallard, 12; Black Duck, 400; Ruffed 
Grouse, 2; Red-tailed Hawk, 1; Red-shouldered Hawk, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Flicker, 2; Blue Jay, 11; Crow, 1,000; Starling, 200; Goldfinch, i; Tree 
Sparrow, 20; Song Sparrow, i; Junco, i; Northern Shrike, i; Brown Creeper, 2; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 12. Total, 19 species, 1,686 individuals. — -A. W. 
SuGDEN and L. W. Ripley. 

Hartford, Conn. — Dec. 25; 7 to ic a.m. Cloudy; heavy frost; ground bare; no wind; 
temp. 29°. Herring Gull, 10; Goldeneye, i; Sparrow Hawk, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, 6; Blue Jay, 2; Crow, 1,000; Starling, 100; Purple Finch, 5; Gold- 
finch, 25; Tree Sparrow, 250; Junco, 8; Song Sparrow, 5; Brown Creeper, 5; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 25; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. Total, 17 species, 
1,450 individuals. A pair of Acadian Chickadees and several large flocks of Pine Siskins 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 31 

had been seen by me only a few days before today, but search for these two species 
today was fruitless, although they have both been seen frequently for the past month. 
— Arthur G. Powers. 

Hartford, Conn. — Dec. 25; 10 a.u. to 12 m. Cloudy; ground bare; no wind; temp. 
32°. Downy Woodpecker, 2; Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 8; Starling, 82; Redpoll, 6; Goldfinch, 
21; Tree Sparrow, 51; Junco, 38; Northern Shrike, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; 
Chickadee, 22. Total, 11 species, 241 individuals. — Clifford M. C.\se. 

Hartford, Conn. (Keney and Elizabeth Parks). — Dec. 25; 9.30 a.m. to 2 p.xi 
Cloudy; raw; temp. 35°. Ring-necked Pheasant, i female; Downy Woodpecker, 2 
Blue Jay, 12; Crow, 4; Meadowlark, 2; Pine Siskin, 150; Junco, 50; Brown Creeper, i 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 8; Black-capped Chickadee, 10. Total, 10 species, 240 
individuals. — H.\rry D. Hitchcock. 

West Hartford, Conn. — Dec. 25; 9.15 a.m. to 12.15 p-M- and 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Very 
cloudy; ground bare; wind light, southeast; temp. 32° to 36°. Marsh Hawk, i female 
Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 3,000; Starling, 1,000 
Tree Sparrow, 100; Northern Shrike, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; Chickadee, 6 
Bluebird, i. Total, 11 species, 4,119 individuals. — P^dwix H., Myron T. and P.aul H. 

MUNGER. ^ 

New Haven, Conn. (Edgewood Park). — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to i p.m. Sun behind thin 
clouds; ground bare; wind light, east; temp. 36°. Barred Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 7; Starling, 7; Tree Sparrow, 82; Junco, 25; 
Song Sparrow, 8; Brown Creeper, 1; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 31; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 13 species, 170 individuals. — Clifford H. and Dwight B. 
Pangburx. 

New London, Conn. — Dec. 27; 10.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and 2 to 4.30 p.m. Clear; 
ground bare; wind northwest, strong, diminishing; temp. 26°. Herring Gull, 67; Screech 
Owl, i; Crow, 16; Starling, 6; Meadowlark, 16; Purple F"inch, 3; Goldfinch, i; Tree 
Sparrow, 4; Junco, 14; Myrtle Warbler, 16; Chickadee, 5; Bluebird, 3. Total, 12 species, 
152 individuals. — Frances M. Graves. 

South Windsor, Conn. — Dec. 26; 9 a.m. to i p.m. Snow and sleet; temp. 34°. Her- 
ring Gull, 4; .\merican Merganser, i; Ring-necked Pheasant, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; 
Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Flicker, i; Horned Lark, 25; Blue Jay, 
i; Crow, 12; Starling, 3; Meadowlark, 2; Tree Sparrow, 75; Junco, 5; Song Sparrow, i; 
Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 10. Total, 18 species, 204 
individuals. — C. W. Vibert. 

Stratford Point, Conn. — Dec. 28; 10 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. 10 miles. Fair; no snow; 
temp. 20° at 8 a.m. Horned Grebe, 3; Herring Gull, 77; Black Duck, 7; Lesser Scaup, 
200; Goldene^^e, 11; Old-squaw, 6; White-winged Scoter, 90; Marsh Hawk, 2; Goshawk 
(?), i; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, 2; Short-eared Owl, 3; Red-headed 
Woodpecker, i; Horned Lark, 50; American Crow, 172; Starling, 222; Cowbird, i (posi- 
tive); Meadowlark, 40; Purple Grackle, i; Red-winged Blackbird, 36; Tree Sparrow, 
202; Song Sparrow, 30; Fox Sparrow, i; American Pipit or Lapland Longspur, 15; 
Chickadee, 7; raft of ducks in Sound, species undetermined, probably Scaup, 1,000 
(estimate low). Total, 25 species, 2,198 individuals. — Wilbur F. Smith, James F. 
Hall and George P. Ells. 

Unionville, Conn. — Dec. 24; 12 m. to 6 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind west, light; 
temp. 60°. Black Duck, i; Ruffed Grouse, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 4; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Blue Ja3% 2; American Crow, 9; Redpoll, 6; Goldfinch, 8; Tree Sparrow, 3; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 8; Chickadee, 12. Total, 11 species, 57 individuals. — 
Antoinette S. Cressy. 

West Hartford, Conn. — Dec. 25; 7.15 to 11.15 a.m. Cloudy; ground bare; 
temp. 30° to 43°. Downy Woodpecker, 4; Starling, 47; Crow, 447; Blue Jay, 4; Tree 



32 Bird - Lore 

Sparrow, 15; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 21. Total, 7 species, 540 indi- 
viduals. — Mr. and Mrs. II. P. Meech. 

Amityville, L. I. (Jones Beach and Great South Bay). — Dec. 28; 7 a.m. until dark. 
Clear, becoming slightly overcast after 11 a.m.; ground, marshes and creeks mostly 
frozen; wind light, northwest; temp. 21° to 34°. Holbcell's Grebe, 3; Horned Grebe, 19; 
Loon, 27; Red-throated Loon, 1; Great Black-backed Gull, 5; Herring Gull, 2,000; 
Red-breasted Merganser, 46; Black Duck, 148; Scaup, 21; Goldeneye, 7; Old-squaw, 
42; American Scoter, 21; White-winged Scoter, 500 (estimated); Canada Goose, 183; 
Brant, 636; Wilson's Snipe, i; Marsh Hawk, 3; Rough-legged Hawk, i; Short-eared 
Owl, 3; Horned Lark, 68; Crow, 50; Starling, 10; Meadowlark, 23; Snow Bunting 47; 
Ipswich Sparrow, g; Savannah Sparrow, 3; White-throated Sparrow, 4; Tree Sparrow, 
38; Song Sparrow, 20; Swamp Sparrow, 7; Fox Sparrow, 4; Northern Shrike, i; Myrtle 
Warbler, 176; Winter Wren, i; Short-billed Marsh Wren, i (a genuine surprise; seemed 
stupefied with the cold, though able to fly well; as this is the third record for Long 
Island, and the first winter record for New York State, the bird was collected); Chicka- 
dee, 10. Total, 36 species, 4,135 individuals. Waterfowl abundant as result of the north- 
west gale on Dec. 26. Brant in much greater numbers yesterday. Seen yesterday, 
Kittiwake, 5; Surf Scoter, i; Long-eared Owl, i. — Nicholas F. Lenssen, George W. 
HuBBELL, Jr., and Ludlow Griscom (all keeping together). 

Collins, N. Y. (hospital grounds and Cattaraugus Indian Reservation). — Dec. 25; 
9 to 10 A.M. and 12.30 to i and 3 to 3.50 p.m. Overcast; ground bare, unfrozen; no wind; 
temp. 35°. Downy Woodpecker, 3; Prairie Horned Lark, 25; Blue Jay, 2; Crow, 3; 
Tree Sparrow, 15; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 24. 
Total, 8 species, 77 individuals. — Anne E. Perkins, M.D., and Clara B. Newcomb. 

Far Rockaway, L. L, N. Y. — Dec. 26; 9 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. Cloudy, with occasional 
rain; ground bare; wind east, brisk; temp. 44°. Horned Grebe, 4; Loon, i; Black-backed 
Gull, 4; Herring Gull, 550; (outer bar shore line covered with many thousands of Gulls, 
several species unidentified); Scaup, 51; Old-squaw, 34; Canada Goose, 15; Brant, 6; 
Black-crowned Night Heron, 8; Marsh Hawk, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Barred Owl, 
i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Crow, 25; Starling, 350; Meadowlark, 
18 (singing); Tree Sparrow, 28; Junco, 11; Song Sparrow, 2; Chickadee, 5; Robin, 2. — 
Total, 22 species, 1,124 individuals. — Charlotte Bogardus. 

Floral Park, L. I., N. Y. — Dec. 25; 9 to 12 a.m. Cloudy; wind northeast, brisk; 
temp. 40° to 58°. Herring Gull, 10; Sharp-shinned Hawk, 2; Cooper's Hawk, i; Accipiter, 
sp., i; Screech Owl, i; Horned Lark, i; Crow, 500; Fish Crow, 8; Starling, 300; Tree 
Sparrow, 10. Total, 9 species, 864 individuals. — Henry Thurston and Fred Zoeller. 

Geneva, N. Y. — Dec. 21; 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind west, light; 
temp. 35° to 40°. Horned Grebe, 13; Loon, i; Herring Gull, 5; Ring-billed Gull, 8; 
Black Duck, i; Canvasback, 30; Goldeneye, 55; BufHehead, 17; Old-squaw, 16; Ring- 
necked Pheasant, 3; Short-eared Owl, i; Screech Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Crow, 
100; Tree Sparrow, 10; Song Sparrow, 1; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 3; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 11; Chickadee, 18; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. Total, 21 species, 
300 individuals. — Otto McCreary. 

Hamburg, N. Y. — Dec. 22; 1.30 to 4.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind southwest, 
light; temp. 34° Screech Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Crow, 4; Northern Shrike, i; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 1; Chickadee, 10. Total, 6 species, 18 individuals. Flushed 
3 Ruffed Grouse on Dec. 20. — Thomas L. Bourne and Heath Van Duzee. 

New York City (Pelham Bay Park and vicinity). — Dec. 24; 8.10 a.m. to 1.40 i'.m. 
Clear; ground bare; wind light, northwest; lemp. 38°. Herring Gull, 450; Scaup, 3; 
Goldeneye, 16; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, 9; Flicker, 2; Crow, 75; 
Blue Jay, 7; Starling, 50; Meadowlark, 6; Goldfinch, 18; Pine Siskin, 90; Tree^Sparrow, 
53; Junco, 45; Song Sparrow, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 47; Bluebird, i. 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 33 

Total, iS species, 882 individuals. On Dec. 23, 3 Night Herons and a Kingfisher, and 
on Dec. 21,15 Bob-whites were seen on this area. — Aretas A. Saunders. 

New York City (western half of Van Cortlandt Park). — Dec. 20; 8.30 a.m. to 4.45 
P.M. Partly cloudy; ground bare; no wind; heavy frost at start; temp. 54° at 2 p.m. 
Bob-white, covey of at least 7; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, i 
(male); Blue Jay, 3; American Crow, 13; Starling, 105; Red-winged Blackbird, 5; Pine 
Siskin, flock of 14; Tree Sparrow, 80; Field Sparrow, 6; Junco, flock of 26; Song Sparrow 
6; Swamp Sparrow, i; Brown Thrasher, i (same spot as Nov. 30; in dense cover; lively 
but will not fly); Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; 
Black-capped Chickadee, 11. Total, 19 species, about 290 individuals. — Charles H. 
Rogers. 

New York City (Westchester Ave., Watson's Woods, Bronx Park to Van Cort- 
landt Park), — Dec. 25; 11.30 a.m. to dark. Overcast and threatening, hail after 4 p.m. 
Ground free from frost; wind northeast, fairly strong; temp. 45° to 38°. Herring Gull, 
109; Black-crowned Night Heron, 25; Sparrow Hawk, i, Barred Owl, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Crow, 14; Starling, 71; Goldfinch, 5; White-throated Sparrow, 17; Tree Spar- 
row, 10; Field Sparrow, 7; Junco, 19; Song Sparrow, 6; Swamp Sparrow, 2; Fox Sparrow, 
41 (all in one flock — a phenomenal number so late) ; Towhee, i (female); Brown Creeper, 
5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 22. Total, 19 species, 361 individuals. — 
George W. Hubbell, Jr., and Ludlow Griscom. 

New York City (West Farms to Clason Point). — Dec. 27; 2.15 to 4.45 p.m. Clear; 
ground bare, very wet in places from recent rain; wind northwest, brisk; temp. 31°. 
Herring Gull, 1,000 or more; Bonaparte's Gull, 50; Red-breasted Merganser, i (drake); 
Black Duck, 20; Scaup, 200; a flock of at least 500 ducks riding upon the water, too far 
out to identify; Red-tailed Hawk, 4; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Flicker, i; Crow, i; Starling, 17; White-throated Sparrow, 10; 
Tree Sparrow, 20; Song Sparrow, 2; Fox Sparrow, 30; Winter Wren, i; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 2. Total, 19 species, about 2,000 individuals. — Edwin Des- 
vernine and George E. Hix. 

New York City (Central Park). — Dec. 25; 9.30 to 10.30 a.m. Cloudy; ground bare; 
light wind; temp. 28°. Herring Gull, 9; Starling, 4; Crackle {Q. quiscula subsp.), 2; 
Rusty Blackbird, i; White-throated Sparrow, 3 (males); White-breasted Nuthatch, i; 
Chickadee, 4. Total, 8 species, 24 individuals. — John Dryden Kuser. 

New York City (Central Park). — Dec. 25; 7.15 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground 
bare; wind northeast, brisk; temp, about 40°. Herring Gull, no; Downy Woodpecker, 
3; Starling, 70; Crackle, (Q. quiscula, subsp.), 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chicka- 
dee, 9; Robin, I. Total, 7 species, 200 individuals. — J. C. Wiley and Mr. and Mrs. 
G. Clyde Fisher. 

New York City (Prospect Park, Brooklyn). — Dec. 21; 8.30 to 10.30 a.m. Clear; 
ground bare; wind southwest, light; temp. 45°. Herring Gull, 2; Black Duck, 8; Screech 
Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Starling, 30; Pine Siskin, 3; White-throated Sparrow, 3; 
Junco, 2; Song Sparrow, 2; Northern Shrike, i; Carolina Wren, i; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 4. Total, 13 species, 61 individuals. — K. P. and E. W. Vietor. 

New York City (Flushing, L. I.). — Dec. 27; six hours. Clear and cold; temp, 
about 30°. Herring Gull, 9; Wilson's Snipe, i; Red-tailed Hawk, 3; Rough-legged Hawk, 
4; Crow, 16; Starling, 50; Meadowlark, 15; White-throated Sparrow, 6; Tree Sparrow, 
13; Junco, 12; Song Sparrow, 6; Swamp Sparrow, 10; Towhee, i; Long-billed Marsh 
Wren, i; Chickadee, 5. Total, 15 species, 153 individuals. — Howarth S. Boyle. 

New York City (Princes Bay to New Dorp, Staten Island). — Dec. 28; 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Hazy to cloudy, clearing in late p.m.; ground bare and frozen; wind light northwest; 
temp. 20° at start, rising several degrees during day. Great Black-backed Gull, 1; 
Herring Gull, 431; Bonaparte's Gull, 5; Greater Scaup, i; Goldeneye, 18; Bufliehead, 2; 



,•^4 Bird - Lore 

()l(l-sciiui\v, lo; Marsli Hawk, 3; Sliarp-shinncd Hawk, 1; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; 
Sparrow Hawk, t; Harn Owl, i; Long-eared Owl, 3; Barred Owl, i; Saw-whet Owl, 2; 
Downy Woodpecker, 2; Blue ]ny, 8; Crow, 45; Starling, 377; Meadowlark, 7; Ipswich 
Sparrow, 2; Tree Sparrow, ,^4; Junco, 27; Song Sparrow, 4; Cardinal, 3; Myrtle Warbler, 
8; White-breasted NulhaUh, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 3; Chickadee, 3; Robin, i. Total, 
30 species, 1,008 individuals. — C. R. Tuckkr and Howard H. Cleaves. 

New York City (Princes Bay to Tottenville to Great Kills, Staten Island). — Dec. 
21; 8.15 A.M. lo 4.15 I'.M. Slightly hazy; ground bare; wind \'ery light, southwest; temp. 
30° at start, rising. Herring Cull, 46; Greater Scaup, 5; Bufflehead, 2; Red-shouldered 
Hawk, i; S])arrow Hawk, 5; Long-eared Owl, i; Barred Owl, i; Screech Owl, i; King- 
fisher, i; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Blue Jay, 10; Crow, 34; Starling, 224; Meadowlark, 
21; Goldfinch, 2; Pine Siskin, 56; Tree Sparrow, 22; Field Sparrow, 7; Junco, 5; Song 
Sparrow, 13; Cardinal, 2; Carolina Wren, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Tufted Tit- 
mouse, 5; Chickadee, 10; Robin, 3. Total, 26 species, 485 individuals. — Howard H. 
Cleaves. 

Battery, New York City, to and at the Cholera Bank (about 10 miles off Long Beach, 
L. I.) and back. — Dec. iq; 8.25 a.m. to 4.25 p.m. Clear; light southerly wind; temp. 45° 
at Bank at 1.30 p.m. Loon, sp., 3; Kittiwake, 40; Black-backed Gull, 4 (adults); 
Herring Gull, 1,500; Bonaparte's Gull, 300; Old-squaw, 5; White-winged Scoter, flock 
of 23. Total, 7 species, about 1,875 individuals. — W. H. Wiegmann, W. De W. Miller, 
J. T. Nichols and C. H. Rogers. 

Orient, L. I., N. Y. — Dec. 22; all day. Clear; ground bare and free from frost with 
e.xception of a slight white frost in a.m.; wind calm; temp. 29° to 45°. Horned Grebe, 25; 
Loon, 30; Black-backed Gull, i; Herring Gull, 250; Cormorant (P. carbo )i; Red-breasted 
Merganser, 30; Black Duck, 8; Greater Scaup, 1,000; Goldeneye, 60; Bufflehead, 325; 
Old-squaw, 600; White-winged Scoter, 400; Surf Scoter, 550; Canada Goose, 17; Bob- 
white, 8; Pheasant, 2; Marsh Hawk, i; Rough-legged Hawk, i; Screech Owl, 3; King- 
fisher, i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Flicker, 35; Horned Lark, 170; Crow, 300; Fish Crow, 
4; Red-winged Blackbird, i; Meadowlark, 100; Purple Crackle, 2; Red Crossbill, 2; 
Goldfinch, 2; Siskin, 25; White-throated Sparrow, i; Tree Sparrow, 45; Junco, 4; Song 
Sparrow, 40; Swamp Sparrow, 3; Northern Shrike, i; Myrtle Warbler, 300; Catbird, 
i; Winter Wren, 2; Chickadee, 40; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 10; Hermit Thrush, i; 
Robin, 10. Total, 44 species, 4,155 individuals. Each party covering different ground. 
Roy and Frank G. Latham. 

Port Chester, N. Y. — 9 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind north, high; 
temp. 20°. Horned Grebe, 2; Loon, i; Herring Gull, 150; Red-breasted Merganser, 2; 
American Goldeneye, r; Old-squaw, 20; White-winged Scoter, 50; Sharp-shinned 
Hawk, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; Long-eared Owl, i; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Horned Lark, 30; Blue Jay, 5; Crow, 20; Starling, 150; 
Meadowlark, 20; Purple Finch, 20; Goldfinch, 20; Snow Bunting, 20; White-throated 
Sparrow, 3; Tree Sparrow, 20; Junco, 4; Song Sparrow, 20; Brown Creeper, 6; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 8; Black-capped Chickadee, 35; Golden-crowned King- 
let, 4; Bluebird, i. Total, 30 species, 488 individuals. — Richard L. Burdsall, Samuel 
N. CoMLY, James C. Maples, Paul Cecil Spofford, Bolton Cook and E. Morris 
Burdsall. 

Rhinebeck, N. Y. — 9 a.m. to i p.m.; 2 to 3 p.m.; area covered, 1,200 acres. Cloudy; 
ground bare; wind south, light; temp. 33°. Herring Gull, 2; English Pheasant, 9; Red- 
tailed Hawk, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; Barred Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 6; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 12; Blue Jay, 2; Crow, 10; Redpoll, 26; White-throated Sparrow, i; Tree Spar- 
row, 17; Junco, 15; Song Sparrow, 3; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 12; 
Chickadee, 38; Acadian Chickadee, 2; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 3; Bluebird, 9. Total, 
20 species, 173 individuals. — Dr. and Mrs. J. F. Goodell and Maunsell S. Crosby. 



Bird - Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 35 

Rochester, N. Y. (Highland Park). — Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy, threatening 
rain; ground bare; no wind; temp. 32° to 40°. Herring Gull, i; Screech Owl, i; Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, i; American Crow, 4; Cardinal, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 
2; Chickadee, 12. Total, 8 species, 23 individuals. — Richard E. Horsky. 

Rochester, N. Y. (Highland Park). — Dec. 29; 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Light snow on ground; 
wind southwest; temp. 22° upwards. Pheasant, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 
i; Crow, 8; Junco, i; Cardinal i; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 12. Total, 
8 species, 26 individuals. — Wm. L. G. Edsox. 

Rochester, N. Y. (Highland Park and Mt. Hope). — Dec. 25; 9.30 a.m. to 12 m. 
Cloudy, with mist; ground bare; wind southwest, slight; temp. 35°. Downy Wood- 
pecker, i; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, i; Crow, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; Chickadee, 5. 
Total, 6 species, 20 individuals. — Nettie Sellinger Pierce. 

St. James, L. L, N. Y. — Dec. 21; 12.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Cloudy, foggy, sun show- 
ing at intervals; ground bare; wind very light; temp. 56°. Horned Grebe, 15; Herring 
Gull, 125; Greater Scaup, 20; American Goldeneye, i; Old-squaw, 10; White-winged 
Scoter, 85; Sparrow Hawk, 1; Crow, 12; Junco, 25. Total, 9 species, 294 individuals. — 
James W. Lane, Jr. 

Syracuse, N. Y. — 9.30 .a.m. to i p.m. and 3 to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground covered with 
thin coating of sleet; no wind; temp. 38°. Loon, 2; Herring Gull, 13; Screech Owl, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, 3; Crow, 4; Tree Sparrow, 12; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; 
Chickadee, 9. Total, 8 species, 47 individuals. — Mary E. Whitford and Nettie M. 
Sadler. 

Woodmere, N. Y. — Dec. 27; 10.10 a.m. to i p.m. Seven-mile walk, covering woods, 
fields and marshes. Clear; ground bare; wind strong, cold, northwest; temp. 273^°. 
Marsh Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 2; Crow, 24; Starling, 3; Meadow- 
lark, i; Tree Sparrow, 4; Junco, 7; Song Sparrow, 3; Myrtle Warbler, 5; Black-capped 
Chickadee, i; Robin, i. Total, 12 species, 53 individuals. Dec. 29, Cedar Waxwing and 
American Pipit. — Charles A. Hewlett. 

Camden, N. J. — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Cloudy; starting to rain 1.30 p.m. 
wind northeast; temp. 38°. Herring Gull, 5; Black Duck, i; Mourning Dove, 15 (flock); 
Cooper's Hawk, i; Red-tailed Hawk, 8; Sparrow Hawk, 7; Downy Woodpecker, 2; 
Flicker, 4; Crow, 81; Starling, 18; White-throated Sparrow, 12; Tree Sparrow, 23; 
Field Sparrow, 2; Junco, 49; Song Sparrow, 16; Swamp Sparrow, 2; Fo.k Sparrow, 3; 
Towhee, i; Cardinal 7; Carolina Wren, i; Winter Wren, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 
2; Tufted Titmouse, 2; Chickadee, 10. Total, 24 species, 273 individuals. — Julian K. 
Potter and Delos E. Culver. 

Clinton, Horse Neck and Lower Montville, N. J. — Dec. 25; 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Cloudy; 
ground bare; wind northeast, light; temp. 40°. Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Rough- 
legged Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 10; 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 8; Crow, 88; Starling, 58; Goldfinch, 12; Pine 
Siskin, i; White-throated Sparrow, i; Tree Sparrow; 96; Junco, 31; Song Sparrow, 2; 
Northern Shrike, i; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; 
Chickadee, 8; Bluebird, 9. Total, 21 species, 336 individuals. — Louis S. Kohler. 

Englewood, N. J. (Leonia, Overpeck Creek, Teaneck, Phelps Estate, Palisades, 
Interstate Park to Alpine and Cresskill). — Dec. 21; dawn until dark. Fair; becoming 
partly overcast after 11 .\.m.\ ground bare, free from frost e.xcept in early morning; 
wind west, very light; temp. 30° to 45°. Herring Gull, 35; Black Duck, i; Marsh Hawk, 
2; Red-tailed Hawk, 4; Rough-legged Hawk, i; Duck Hawk, i (Palisades); Barred Owl, 
i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy' Woodpecker, 12; Flicker, 2; Blue Jay, 11; Crow, 21; 
Starling, 90; Meadowlark, 15; Goldfinch, 5; European Goldfinch, 8; Pine Siskin (?), 2; 
White-throated Sparrow, 14; Tree Sparrow, 70; Field Sparrow, 3; Junco, 55; Song 
Sparrow, 17; Swamp Sparrow, 5; Cardinal, 2; Carolina Wren, 7; Winter Wren, i; 



36 Bird - Lore 

White-hrc;isted Nulliatch, 3; Chickadee, 35; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 10; Bluebird, 
4 (only the second lime \vc ha\'e seen it in winter). Total, 29 species, 430 individuals. — 
John Trf.adwf.i.l Nichols, S. V. LaDow and Luni.ow Griscom. 

Hackettstown, N. J. — Dec. 18; g to 11.40 a.m. Partly cloudy; ground bare; temj), 
31". Great Blue Heron (?),t; Downy Woodpecker, i; Crow, 3; Starling, i; Purple Finch 
2; Goldfinch, 2; White-throated Sjiarrow, i; Tree Sparrow, 5; Junco, 2; Song Spar- 
row, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 3. Total, 12 species, 26 individuals. 
— Mary Pierson Allen. 

Moorestown, N. J. — Dec. 25; 6.53 a.m. to 3.50 p.m. Some of the party not in field 
so long. Clear to cloudy; rain in afternoon; ground bare; wind northeast, light, 
becoming fresh; temp, at start, 35°. Herring Gull, 5; Ruddy (?) Duck, i; Great Blue 
Heron, 2; Killdeer, 19; Mourning Dove, 17; Turkey Vulture, 2; Marsh Hawk, 2; Sharp- 
shinned Hawk, i; Cooper's Hawk, 2; Red-tailed Hawk, 12; Red-shouldered Hawk, 
6; Sparrow Hawk, 5; Barn Owl (recently killed; leg broken as by a trap), i; Long-eared 
Owl, i; Belted Kingfisher, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 5; Downy Woodpecker, 20; Flicker, 
6; Horned Lark, 5; Blue Jay, 24; Crow, 762; Starling, 183; Meadowlark, 116; Purple 
Grackle, i; Goldfinch, 11; White-throated Sparrow, 41; Tree Sparrow, 230; Chipping 
Sparrow, i; Junco, 674; Song Sparrow, 92; Fox Sparrow, 2; Cardinal, 45; Northern 
(?) Shrike, 2; Carolina Wren, 3; Winter Wren, 11; Brown Creeper, 8; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 11; Tufted Titmouse, 9; Chickadee, 64; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 4; Robin, 
4; Bluebird, 3. Total, 42 species, 2,414 individuals. Observers worked in four parties 
covering for the most part different ground. One Pine Siskin seen on Dec. 24. — John 
D. Carter, Arthur S. Maris, E. Leslie Nicholson, J. Howard Mickle, Anna A. 
MiCKLE, William B. Evans and George H. Hallett, Jr. 

Morristown, N. J. — Dec. 25; 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind 
east, moderate; temp. 39°. Blue Jay, 7; Crow, 5; Starling, ic; Goldfinch, i; Tree Spar- 
row, 23; Field Sparrow, i; Song Sparrow, 23; Junco, 25; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; 
Tufted Titmouse, i; Chickadee, 24. Total, 11 species, 124 individuals. — R. C. Caskey. 

Mountain View, N. J. — Dec. 21; 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Fair; ground bare; no wind; 
temp. 45°. Black Duck, 4; Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, 1; Spar- 
row Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 10; Blue Jay, 25; Crow, 25; 
Starling, 20; Goldfinch, 3; Tree Sparrow, 100; Junco, 100; Song Sparrow, 2; Fox Spar- 
row, 2; Northern Shrike, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 25; Tufted 
Titmouse, 25; Chickadee, 10. Total, 19 species, 357 individuals. — Herbert Cottrell. 

Newfield, N. J. — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 3.10 p.m. Cloudy in forenoon, rain in after- 
noon; wind northeast, brisk; temp. 43°. Bob-white, 6; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 3; Meadow- 
lark, 3; Tree Sparrow, 40; Song Sparrow, i; Junco, 75; Cardinal, i; Chickadee, 5. 
Total, 9 species, 137 individuals. On Dec. 24, i Goldfinch, and flock of several hundred 
Red-winged Blackbirds were seen. — Wm. W. Fair. 

Plainfield, N. J. (to Ash Swamp), — Dec. 25; 7.10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Cloudy, raining 
from 2.30 P.M.; ground bare (has not been snow-covered this season); wind east; temp. 
41°. Canada Goose, 11 (flock, flying south); Marsh Hawk, i; Red-tailed Hawk, i; 
Hawk {Buieo sp.) 2; Barred Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 7; 
Blue Jay, 12; Common Crow, 160; Fish Crow, 3; Starling, about 660 (one flock of fully 
600); Meadowlark, 18 (flock, at roost); Rusty Blackbird, 14 (flock); Pine Siskin, 6 
(flock); White- throated Sparrow, 4 (flock); Tree Sparrow, 45; Field Sparrow, 2 (together); 
Junco, 25; Song Sparrow, 4; Swamp Sparrow, 2 (together); Cardinal, 3; Northern Shrike, 
i; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; Tufted Titmouse, 
8; Black-capped Chickadee, 23; Hermit Thrush, 2 (together). Total, 27 species, about 
1,025 individuals. — W. DeW. Miller. 

Trenton, N. J. (and vicinity). — Dec. 25; 9.30 a.m. to 2 p.m. Clear; ground bare; 
wind light, west; temp. 40°. Downy Woodpecker, 3; Junco, 50; Song Sparrow, 15; 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 37 

Cardinal, 3; Myrtle Warbler, 6; Brown Creeper, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chicka- 
dee, 20; Bluebird, 4. Total, g species, 108 individuals. — William M. Palmer. 

Trenton, N. J. (Pennsylvania side of river bank). — 10 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Cloud)-; 
ground bare; wind fresh, northeast; temp. 44^. Sparrow Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 
i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Crow, g; White-throated Sparrow, 8; Tree Sparrow, 35; 
Junco, g5; Song Sparrow, 20; Cardinal, g; Carolina Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 4; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 4; Tufted Titmouse, i; Chickadee, iS. Total, 14 species, 211 indi- 
viduals. — W. L. Dix. 

Cochranville, Pa. — Dec. 28; 1.30 to 4 p.m. Partly cloudy; ground bare; light 
northwest wind; temp. 31°. Turkey Vulture, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Crow, 20; 
\'esper Sparrow, i; Tree Sparrow, 11; Junco, 15; Chickadee, 3. Total, 7 species, 52 
individuals. Two Cardinals (a pair) and a Marsh Hawk were seen Dec. 24. — Anna 
Coaxes. 

Delaware Co., Pa. (Clifton Heights to West Chester Pike on Darby Creek and 
return). — Dec. 24; 7 a.m. to 2 p.m.; distance about 11 miles. Clear until noon, then 
becoming overcast; ground bare; very light, northwest wind; temp, at start, 37°, at 
finish, 46°. Cooper's Hawk, i; Red-tailed Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Flicker, i; Crow, 45; Starling, 7; Goldfinch, 3; Savannah Sparrow, 5; 
Tree Sparrow, 4; Field Sparrow, 4; Junco, 225; Song Sparrow, 13; Cardinal, 5; Carolina 
Wren, 2; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 7; Tufted 
Titmouse, 4; Chickadee, 11; Bluebird, 3. Total, 21 species, about 347 individuals. — 
Delos E. Culver. 

Doylestown, Bucks Co., Pa. — Dec. 24; 7 a.m. to 4 p.m. Partly cloudy; ground 
bare; east wind; temp. 40°. Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Blue Jay, 2; 
Crow, 250; Starling, i; Purple Crackle, flock of 200 to 300; Goldfinch, 3; White-throated 
Sparrow, 2; Tree Sparrow, i; Junco, 15; Song Sparrow, i; Cardinal, i; Brown Creeper, 
2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 4; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 16 
species, 543 individuals. I consider this record unique, as the observations were made 
entirely from the windows of my home on one of the principal streets of the town. — 
— M. E. (Mrs. Wm. )Mason. 

Forest Grove, Pa. — g a.m. to 12 m. Clear; ground bare; wind northwest; temp. 
60°. Great Horned Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Crow, several hundred; Starling, 
200; Field [Tree?] Sparrow, 25; Song Sparrow, 3; Cardinal, i; Cedar Waxwing, 4; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, i; Chickadee, 10; Robin, i; Bluebird, 
4. Total, 13 species, 454 individuals. — Anna Bewley. 

Lititz, Pa. (northern Lancaster Co., valley of Hammer Creek). — 8.45 a.m. to 4 
P.M. Cloudy, occasional snow; ground covered; high northwest wind; temp. 34°. Bob- 
white, 17 (2 coveys); Turkey Vulture, 6; Red- tailed Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, 5; Screech 
Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Flicker, i; Horned Lark, 70; Blue Jay, 7; Crow, 1,500; 
Meadowlark, 3; American Goldfinch, 6; Tree Sparrow, 115; Junco, 145; Song Sparrow, 
2; Winter Wren, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, 26; Black-capped Chickadee, 24. Total, 
18 species, about i,g5o individuals. — Herbert H. Beck and Elmer E. Kautz. 

McKeesport, Pa. — Dec. 21; g a.m. to 4 p.m. Misty rain, a.m., and cloudy, p.m.; 
ground bare; no wind; temp. 37°. Distance walked, estimated 14 miles. Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Crow, 5; Goldfinch, 4; Tree Sparrow, 40; Junco, 12; 
Song Sparrow, 12; Cardinal, 21; Carolina Wren, i; Winter Wren, 2; Brown Creeper, 2; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, g; Tufted Titmouse, g; Chickadee, 31. Total, 14 species, 
156 individuals. — Thos. L. McConnell. 

Philadelphia, Pa. (Fairmount Park). — Dec. 21; g.45 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground 
bare; no wind; temp. 40° to 45°. Merganser, 5; Red-tailed (?) Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, 
3; Downy Woodpecker, 5; Flicker, i; Crow, 20; Starling, 2; Goldfinch, 3; White-throated 
Sparrow, 7; Junco, 22; Song Sparrow, 13; Fox Sparrow, 3; Towhee, i; Cardinal, 35; 



38 Bird - Lore 

Carolina Wren, i; Winter Wren, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 30; Robin, 
1. Total, 19 species, 15^) individuals. Kach bird seen l)v both observers. — Dr. and Mrs. 
Wm. Pkpper. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. (Fern Hollow, Homewood Cemetery). — Dec. 25; 10.45 a.m. to 12 
M. Cloudy, showers; wind liKhl, south to southwest; tern]). 28°. Downy Woodpecker, 
2; Cardinal, 5; Carolina Wren, 2; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; 
Tufted Titmouse, 2; Chickadee, 5. Total, 7 species, 24 individuals. — Albert W. 
HONYWILL, Jr. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. to Harmarville, Pa. — Dec. 21; 8.45 a.m. to 5.05 p.m. Foggy and 
rainy most of the day; sunshine for a short time in the afternoon; ground bare; no wind; 
temp. 37°. Hairy Woodpecker, 4; Downy Woodpecker, 7; Crow, 6; Tree Sparrow, 35; 
Song Sparrow, 12; Cardinal, 16; Carolina Wren, 3 (2 singing); Winter Wren, 2; Brown 
Creeper, 11; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; Tufted Titmouse, 25; Chickadee, 35. Total, 
12 species, 151 individuals. On Dec. 14, a White-throated Sparrow and a small flock of 
Juncos were seen. The latter birds have been surprisingly scarce in this locality this 
year.- — Thos. D. Burleigh and Hartley K. Anderson. 

Reading, Pa. — Dec. 21; 9 a.m. to 12 m., and 2 to 4 p.m. Partly cloudy; ground bare; 
light wind; temp. 40°. Hawk, sp. i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Crow, 5; Meadowlark, 
2; Tree Sparrow, 50; Junco, 7; Cardinal i; Winter Wren, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 
4; Chickadee, 5; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 4; Bluebird, 2. Total, 12 species, 86 indi- 
viduals. — Mr. and Mrs. G. Henry Mengel. 

Reading, Pa, (River road along the Schuylkill). — Dec. 27; 6.30 to 10 a.m. Fair; 
ground bare; snow in protected places; wind north, strong; temp. 5°. Distance five 
miles. Cooper's Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, 2 (females), i (male); Yellow-bellied 
Sapsucker, i (female); American Crow, 800; American Goldfinch, 12; Tree Sparrow, 
65; Junco, 34; Song Sparrow, 2. Total, 8 species, 918 individuals. — Dr. and Mrs. 
Alfred O. Gross, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine. 

Springs, Pa. — Dec. 21; 8.15 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; ground bare; no wind; temp. 34° 
to 45°. Downy Woodpecker, i; Pileated Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, i; Tree 
Sparrow, 31; Junco, 10; Song Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 2; Winter Wren, 3; Brown Creeper, 
i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, i; Chickadee, 4; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 4. Total, 14 species, 66 individuals. — Ansel B. Miller. 

West Chester, Pa. — 10.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind east, 
moderate to brisk; temp. 38°. Red- tailed Hawk, 2; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Sparrow 
Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, 6; American Crow, 35; Pine Siskin, 4; Tree Sparrow, 
17; Junco, 116; Song Sparrow, 16; Cardinal, 3; Winter Wren, 3; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, i; Chickadee, 3; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 3; Robin, i. Total, 15 species, 212 
individuals. — C. E. Ehinger. 

West Chester, Pa. — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; no snow on ground; streams 
clear of ice and ground free from frost; east wind; temp. 42°. Downy Woodpecker, 6 
American Crow, 50; Purple Grackle, i; Starling, 19; Meadowlark, i; Purple Finch, 2 
Pine Siskin, 7; Junco, 200; Tree Sparrow, 20; Song Sparrow, 2; Winter Wren, i 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; Chickadee, 22; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2; Brown Creeper, 
4. Total, 15 species, about 340 individuals. — Thos. H. Jackson. 

White Marsh Valley, near Chestnut Hill, Pa. — Dec. 21; 11.40 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. 
Partially cloudy; ground bare; wind southwest, light; temp. 45°. Downy W'oodpecker, 
2; Flicker, i; Crow, 30; Starling, 9; Junco, 61; Song Sparrow, 5; Vesper Sparrow, i; 
Cardinal, i; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 1; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chicka- 
dee, II. Total, 12 species, 127 individuals. — George Lear. 

Williamsport, Pa. — Dec. 23; 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Showers all day; ground bare; 
east wind; temp. 35°. Distance walked, twelve miles, the two of us walking together 
over same territory. Bob-white, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; Belted Kingfisher, i; Downy 



Bird - Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 39 

Woodpecker, 8; Red-bellied Woodpecker, i; American Crow, 24; Goldfinch, i; Tree 
Sparrow, 28; Junco, 49; Song Sparrow, 2; Brown Creeper, 3; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 11; Tufted Titmouse, 6; Chickadee, 32. Total, 14 species, 169 individuals. — 
John P. Youxg and Chas. V. P. Young. 

York, Pa. — Dec. 26; 8.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground covered with two inches 
of slushy snow; wind northwest, strong; temp. 35°. Crow, 64; Meadowlark, 10; Tree 
Sparrow, 24; Junco, 31; Song Sparrow, 2; Cardinal (male), i; Carolina Wren, 2; Winter 
Wren, i. Total, 8 species, 135 individuals. — Free Ottemiller. 

Baltimore, Md. (Windsor Hills, valley of Gwynn's Falls, and vicinity). — Dec. 25; 
10.15 -^-^J- to 12.30 P.M. Cloudy until 11.45, then light rain; ground bare; wind north- 
east; temp. 42°. Red-shouldered (?) Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Red-headed Woodpecker, 5; Blue Jay, 11; American Crow, 13; Fish Crow, i; 
Purple Finch, 3; Goldfinch, 28; White-throated Sparrow, 5; Tree Sparrow, 3; Field 
Sparrow, 2; Junco, 39; Song Sparrow, 3; Cardinal, 5; Carolina Wren, 4; Brown Creeper, 
i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 3; Chickadee, 12; Bluebird, 12. 
Total, 21 species, 156 individuals. — Mrs. J. C. Guggexheimer, Miss Guggenheimer 
and Joseph N. Ulman. 

Cambridge, Md. — 8.30 to 10.30 a.m. Cloudy at start, turning to rain; wind north- 
east, light; temp. 36°. Wild duck, flying overhead, supposed species. Lesser Scaup, 4; 
Turkey Vulture, 10; Cooper's Hawk, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Southern Downy 
Woodpecker, 5; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, i; Flicker, i; Crow, 5; Red- winged Black- 
bird, 29; Field Sparrow, 12; Song Sparrow, 2; Junco, flock of 60; Cardinal, 4; Logger- 
head Shrike, i; Tufted Titmouse, 9; Carolina Chickadee, 9; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 
21; Mockingbird, i. A Great Blue Heron and several Killdeers seen on Dec. 20. 
Total, 18 species, 176 individuals. — Ralph W. Jackson. 

Chevy Chase, Md. — Dec. 21; 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind west, 
light; temp. 40°. Mourning Dove, 21; TurkeyVulture, 11; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Blue 
Jay, 3; Common Crow, 25; Meadowlark, i; Goldfinch, 25; White-throated Sparrow, 5; 
Tree Sparrow, 66; Junco, 69; Song Sparrow, 14; Fox Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 23; Mock- 
ingbird, 4; Carolina Wren, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; Tufted 
Titmouse, 9; Black-capped [Carolina?] Chickadee, 6; Bluebird, 19. Total, 20 species, 
313 individuals. Also saw Yellow-bellied Sapsucker almost daily in December up to 
the 19th. — Hon. P:dmund Platt, M. C. and Sam'l. W. Mellott, M.D. 

Kensington, Md. — Dec. 30; 9.20 to 11. 15 a.m.; 12 m. to 2.25 p.m. Clear and cloudy; 
ground bare; light northwest wind; temp. 42° to 50°; distance seven miles. Mourning 
Dove, 3; Turkey Vulture, 100; Cooper's Hawk, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Spar- 
row Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Blue Jay, 10; Crow, 120; 
Fish Crow, 6; Goldfinch, 20; Pine Siskin, 50; W^hite-throated Sparrow, 5; Tree Sparrow, 
15; Field Sparrow, 5; Junco, 400; Song Sparrow, 10; Cardinal, 15; Migrant Shrike, i; 
Mockingbird, i; Carolina Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 4; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 3; Carolina Chickadee, 30; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 10; Bluebird, 13. Total, 28 species, 832 individuals. — Mr. and Mrs. 
Leo D. Miner, and Raymond W. Moore. 

Washington, D. C. (actual trip, Roslyn to Wellington, Va.). — Dec. 29; 8 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Cloudy at first, sunny but hazy later; calm; temp. 29° to 48°. Herring Gull, 43; 
Lesser Scaup, 18; Killdeer, 208; Bob-white, 12; Turkey Vulture, 20; Marsh Hawk, 3; 
Cooper's Hawk, 2; Red-shouldered Hawk, 4; Sparrow Hawk, 3; Barred Owl, i; Belted 
Kingfisher, i; Hair>- Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 7; Flicker, 11; Crow, 237; 
Fish Crow, 7; Meadowlark, 11; Purple Crackle, i; Purple Finch, i; Goldfinch, 23; 
White-throated Sparrow, 6; Tree Sparrow, 143; Field Sparrow, 27; Junco, 64; Song 
Sparrow, 29; Swamp Sparrow, 1; Fox Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 15; Loggerhead Shrike, 2; 
Maryland Yellowthroat, i; Mockingbird, 4; Carolina Wren, 4; Winter Wren, 2; Brown 



40 Bird - Lore 

Creeper, i; White-breaslcd NuLhatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 11; Carolina Chickadee, 
13; Golden-crowned Kinglet. Total, 38 species, 944 individuals. — E. A. Prebi,e, S. E. 
Piper and W. L. McAtkk. 

Four-Mile Run, Va. (across from Washington, D. C). — Dec. 28; g a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Overcast, with (nrasional sunsliinc; wind light; temp. 29° to 38°. Herring Gull, 3; 
Lesser Scaup, 25; Killdcer, 100; Turkey Vulture, 3; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Barred 
Owl, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 7; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, i; .\mcrican Crow, 35; Fish Crow, 
6; Purple Finch, i; Goldfinch, 4; Pine Siskin, 1; White-throated Sparrow, 22; Tree 
Sparrow, 80; Junco, 125; Song Sparrow, 8; Fo.x Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 9; Carolina 
Wren, 7; Winter Wren, 5; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 11; Tufted 
Titmouse, 8; Carolina Chickadee, 8; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2; Bluebird, 5. Total, 28 
species, 483 individuals. — Alex. Wetmore. 

Lawrenceville, Va. — Dec. 20; 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy, sprinkle of rain during 
middle of day; ground bare; no wind; temp. 29° to 54°. Killdeer, 6; Bob-white, 15; 
Wild Turkey, 3; Mourning Dove, i; Turkey Vulture, 7; Black Vulture, 11; Red-should- 
ered Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Yellow-bellied, Sapsucker, 
i; Pileated Woodpecker, 5; Flicker, 2; Phoebe, 3; Crow, 26; Meadowlark, i; Goldfinch, 
4; White-throated Sparrow, 19; Field Sparrow, 4; Junco, 400 (conservative estimate); 
Song Sparrow, 10 (i singing); Swamp Sparrow, 5; Fox Sparrow, 2; Cardinal, 6; Caro- 
lina Wren, 8 (i singing); Winter Wren, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Red-breasted 
Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 5; Carolina Chickadee, 14; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 
20; Hermit Thrush, 2. Total, 31 species, 596 individuals. Pine Siskins were seen Nov. 
27. — Merriam G. Lewis. 

Lewisburg, W. Va. — Dec. 27; 8 to 10.45 a.m.; 1.15 to 4.45 p.m. Clear; quarter of an 
inch of snow; no wind; temp. 20°. Bob-white, i; Mourning Dove, 18; Turkey Vulture, 
3; Red-tailed Hawk, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Pileated Wood- 
pecker, i; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 4; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 2; American Crow, 27; 
Meadowlark, 67; Purple Finch, i; Tree Sparrow, 155; Junco, 103; Song Sparrow, 2; 
Cardinal, 4; White-breasted Nuthatch, 14; Tufted Titmouse, 13. Total, 20 species, 
428 individuals. Dec. 26: i Saw-whet Owl, first one I ever saw here. — Charles O. 
Handley. 

Vicinity of Boone, N. C, elevation 3,000 to 4,000 feet. — Dec. 24; 8.30 a.m. to 12 m. 
Cloudy, following a clear frosty night; ground bare; wind west, light, changing to east 
about noon; temp, at start, 42°. Bob-white, 12; Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 4; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Red-headed Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 4; 
American Crow, 5; Meadowlark, 36; Junco, 100; Song Sparrow, 2; Fox Sparrow, 2; 
Cardinal, i; Carolina Wren, 7; White-breasted Nuthatch, 20; Tufted Titmouse, 30; 
Chickadee, 9. Total, 17 species, 230 individuals. — ^RoY M. Brown. 

Louisburg, N. C. — Dec. 25. Cloudy, misty, rain; ground bare; temp. 50°. "Buz- 
zard," 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; Belted Kingfisher, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Southern Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Pileated Woodpecker, i; Flicker, 2; Phoebe, i; Crow, 25; White-throated 
Sparrow, 25; Field Sparrow, 6; Slate-colored Junco, 20; Song Sparrow, 15; Cardinal, 4; 
Mockingbird, i; Carolina Wren, 3; Winter Wren, 5; Brown-headed Nuthatch, i; 
Chickadee, 2; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2; Hermit Thrush, 2; Bluebird, 2. Total, 22 
species, 123 individuals. — Joseph C. Jones. 

Aiken, S. C. (Pine Ridge Camp to Aiken in a.m. around camp in p.m. — Dec. 24; 
8.15 to 9.15 a.m. and 4 to 6 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind northeast; temp. 52°. 
Turkey Vulture, i; Screech Owl, i; Red-headed Woodpecker, 4; Phoebe, i; Blue Jay, 
11; Crow, i; Purple Finch, 2; White-throated Sparrow, 3; Chipping Sparrow, 2; Field 
Sparrow, 25; Junco, 50; Song Sparrow, 4; Cardinal, 2; Loggerhead Shrike, 2; Myrtle 
Warbler, 2; Pine Warbler, 3; Mockingbird, 3; Carolina Wren, i; Brown-headed 
Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 2; Carolina Chickadee, 2; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 41 

Total, 22 species, 125 individuals. — Mrs. William IM. Levey, and W. Charles- 
worth Levey. 

Atlanta, Ga. (Piedmont Park, Druid Hills, South River Valley and Lakewood).— 
Dec. 28; 6 A.M. to 5 P.M. Clear at start, cloudy and rainy later; temp, about 45°. Pied- 
billed Grebe, 3; Wilson's Snipe, 4; Killdeer, 6; Bob-white, 10; Mourning Dove, 40; 
Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Cooper's Hawk, 2; Red-tailed Hawk, 2; Red-shouldered Hawk, 
i; Sparrow Hawk, 2; Kingfisher, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 4; 
Red-headed Woodpecker, 3; Red-bellied Woodpecker, i; Flicker, 10; Phcebe, 2; Blue 
Jay, 60; Crow, 20; Red-winged Blackbird, 20; ]Meadowlark, 200; Rusty Blackbird, 3; 
Purple Finch, 10; Goldfinch, 100; Vesper Sparrow, 50; Savannah Sparrow, 10; White- 
throated Sparrow, 100; Chipping Sparrow, 10; Field Sparrow, 20; Junco, 20; Song 
Sparrow, 40; Swamp Sparrow, 20; Fo.x Sparrow, 6; Towhee, 30; Cardinal, 20; Logger- 
head Shrike, 6; Pine Warbler, 6; Palm Warbler, 4; American Pipit, 4; Mockingbird, 
10; Brown Thrasher, i; Carolina Wren, 20; Bewick's Wren, 2; Winter Wren, i; Brown 
Creeper, 10; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Tufted Titmouse, 10; Carolina Chickadee, 
20; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 6; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 2; Bluebird, 20. Total, 51 
species, 960 individuals. — James M. Sanford. 

Savannah, Ga. — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Cloudy, ground bare; wind southwest, 
high; temp. 60°. Herring Gull, 500; Ring-billed Gull, 50; jSIallard, 2; Great Blue Heron, 
i; Killdeer, 14; Bob-white, 6; Ground Dove, i; Turkey Vulture, 24; Black Vulture, 4; 
Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Florida Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Southern Downy Wood- 
pecker, 50; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, 15; Southern Flicker, 10; Blue Jay, 5; Crow, 35; 
Fish Crow, 50; Field Sparrow, 12; Cardinal, 9; Myrtle Warbler, 29; Yellow-throated 
Warbler, 8; Mockingbird, 4; Carolina Wren, 2; Robin, 16; Bluebird, 16. Total, 25 spe- 
cies, 865 individuals. — W. J. Erichsen. 

Coronado Beach, Fla. — Dec. 25; 3.30 to 5.00 p.m. Cloudy and rain; wind heavy, 
southwest; temp. 65°; bar. 29.65. Herring Gull, 3; Caspian Tern, 8; Brown Pelican, 20; 
Lesser Scaup, 12; Wood Ibis, 2; Great Blue Heron, 9; American Egret, 2; Louisiana 
Heron, 6; Little Blue Heron, 5; Semipalmated Sandpiper, 75; ^larsh Hawk, 3; King- 
fisher, 15; Towhee, 2; Cardinal, 3; Seaside Sparrow, 50; Carolina Wren, i. Total, 16 
species, 216 individuals. The heavy wind and the rain together contributed to 
make this the smallest list that I have ever prepared for the Christmas Census 
from this locality. Usually, from 35 to 50 species may be found. — Rubert J. Long- 
street. 

Coden, twenty-five miles south of Mobile, Ala. — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 
Cloud}-; wind northeast. Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, 2; Kingfisher, i; 
Hairy Woodpecker, i; Red-bellied Woodpecker, i; Red-headed Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, 8; 
Phcebe, 5; Blue Jay, 7; Crow, 10; Meadowlark, 10; Song Sparrow, i; Towhee, 2; Logger- 
head Shrike, 5; Myrtle Warbler, 75; Palm Warbler, 5; Mockingbird, 5; Carolina Wren, 
i; Winter Wren, i; Robin, 100. Total, 20 species, 245 indi\iduals. — Edward H. 
Christie. 

Houston, Tex. — Dec. 25; 10.45 ■^■^^- to 12.30 m. Clear; ground bare; wind north, 
strong; temp. 40°. Killdeer, 2; Turkey Vulture, 3; Marsh Hawk, i; Florida Red- 
shouldered Hawk, 2; Sparrow Hawk, 4; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, i; Northern Flicker, 
3; Phoebe, 4; Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 2; Western Meadowlark, i; Brewer's Blackbird, 3; 
Goldfinch, 2; LeConte's Sparrow, 2; Field Sparrow, 2; White-throated Sparrow, 8; 
Song Sparrow, 7; Gray-tailed Cardinal, 10; Tree Swallow, 118; While-rumped Shrike, 
5; Myrtle Warbler, 4; Pine Warbler, 42; Pipit, 47; Mockingbird, <i; Brown Thrasher, i; 
Carolina Wren, i; House Wren, 2; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 5; 
Plumbeous Chickadee, 3; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 4; Hermit Thrush, i; Robin, i; 
Bluebird, 3. — Total, 34 species, 308 individuals. — Finlay Simmons. 

Taylor, Tex. — Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Partly cloudy to clear; ground bare; wind, 



42 Bird - Lore 

twelve to twenty-lour miles an hour; average temp. 41°. Killdecr, 15; Red-shouldered 
Hawk, i; Sparrow Ilawk, 1; Flicker, 1; Crow, 2; Meadowlark, 15; Western Meadow- 
lark, 100; Junco, 2; Song Sparrow, 6; Cardinal, 5; Loggerhead Shrike, 2; Sprague's 
Pipit, 125; House Wren, i; Bewick's Wren, i; Mockingbird, 3; Plumbeous Chickadee, 
4; Texan Tufted Titmouse, 15; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 6; Bluebird, 3. Total, 19 
sjK'cics, 308 in(li\iduals. — H. Tullsen. 

Chillicothe, Mo. — Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 12 m. and 1 to 2 p.m. Temp. 32°. Bob-white, 
7; Prairie Chicken, 13; Sparrow Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 
5; Red-headed Woodpecker, i; Flicker, 4; Horned Lark, 12; Blue Jay, 7; Crow, 15; 
(ioldfinch, 13; Tree Sparrow, 52; Junco, 60; Fox Sparrow, 2; Cardinal, 2; Northern 
Shrike, 1; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, i; Chickadee, 11. Total, 19 
species, about 220 individuals. — Desmond Popham. 

Concordia, Lafayette Co., Mo. — Dec. 25; i to 3 p.m. Cloudy; snow; strong north- 
west wind; tcmj). 34°. Red-tailed Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker, i; Prairie Horned Lark, 12; Blue Jay, 9; Red-winged Blackbird, i; Goldfinch, 
5; Tree Sparrow, 78; Junco, 104; Cardinal, 12; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted 
Titmouse, 4; Black-capped Chickadee, 2. Total, 13 species, 235 individuals. — Dr. 
Ferdinand Schreimann. 

Knoxville, Tenn. — Dec. 26; 8 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; light north- 
west wind; temp. 32°. Downy Woodpecker, 2; Blue Jay, 5; Crow, 2; Junco, 2; Song 
Sparrow, 2; Fox Sparrow, i; Towhee, 2; Cardinal, 5; Carolina Wren, 5; White-breasted 
(?) Nuthatch, 8; Tufted Titmouse, 10; Chickadee, 12. Total, 12 species, 56 individuals. 
— Magnolia Woodward. 

Tazewell, Tenn. — Dec. 26; 9 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground slightly covered 
with snow; wind northwest, brisk at times; temp. 31° at start, 32° on return. Killdeer, 
4; Bob- white, 10; Mourning Dove, 6; Red-shouldered Hawk, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
Hairy Woodpecker, i; Southern Downy Woodpecker, 3; Northern Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 
3; American Crow, 12; Meadowlark, 8; Purple Finch, i; American Goldfinch, 17; 
Vesper Sparrow, 6; White-throated Sparrow, 4; Field Sparrow, 8; Slate-colored Junco, 
51; Song Sparrow, 6; Cardinal, 14; Cedar Waxwing, 28; Myrtle Warbler, 14; Mocking- 
bird, 2; Carolina Wren, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 2; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 6; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2; American Robin, 3; Bluebird, 22. 
Total, 29 species, 273 individuals. — H. Y. Hughes. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. — Dec. 21; 8 a.m. to 3.15 p.m. Cloudy, clearing by noon; ground 
bare; wind north, light; temp. 26°. Belted Kingfisher, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy 
Woodpecker, 8; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 28; American Crow, 312; Purple Finch, 3; Tree 
Sparrow, 59; Junco, 10; Song Sparrow, 6; Cardinal, 9; White-breasted Nuthatch, 9; 
Tufted Titmouse, 6; Black-capped Chickadee, 30. Total, 14 species, 485 individuals. — 
Chas. a. Stockbridce and A. A. Ringwalt. 

Marco, Greene Co., Ind. — Dec. 25; 1.40 to 4 p.m. Cloudy, air filled with damp snow; 
strong northeast wind; temp. 28°. Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Screech Owl, i; Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Red-headed Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, 4; Blue Jay, 6; Meadowlark, 3; 
Tree Sparrow, 11; Junco, 18; Song Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 19; Carolina W^ren, 3; 
Tufted Titmouse, 11; Chickadee, 22. Total, 14 species, 104 individuals. — W. M. and 
Stella Chambers. 

Richmond, Ind. — Dec. 26; 10.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Overcast; ground snow-covered; 
wind west by north; temp. 28°. Sparrow Hawk, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, i; 
Crow, 350; Lapland Longspur, 100; Tree Sparrow, 12; Junco, 6; Song Sparrow, 4; 
Cardinal, 6; Chickadee, 5. Total, 10 species, 487 individuals.— P. B. Coffin, Mrs. 
Coffin, Dr. Garro and Miss Baxter. 

"Waterloo, Ind. — Dec. 25; 7.30 to 9.30 a.m. Dark and gloomy, threatening snow; 
ground covered with an inch of snow and ice; wind northeast, fairly strong, cold and 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 43 

damp; temp. 30° to 38°. Hairy Woodpecker, 4; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Blue Jay, 5; 
American Crow, 10; American Goldfinch, 13; Tree Sparrow, 20; Junco, 5; Song Sparrow, 
i; Cardinal, 2; Carolina Wren, 2; Brown Creeper, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 12; 
Tufted Titmouse, i; Black-capped Chickadee, 13; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 5. Total, 15 
species, 102 individuals. — Henry A. Link. 

Cadiz, Ohio. — Dec. 21; 8.15 a.m. to 12.15 p.m. Cloudy with a light rain at noon; 
ground bare; wind moderate, south; temp. 36°; distance walked, as registered by a 
pedometer, six miles. Red-tailed Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, 3; Bob-white, 10; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 5; Downy Woodpecker, 7; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, i; Red-bellied 
Woodpecker, 4; Flicker, 4; Prairie Horned Lark, 4; Blue Jay, i; Crow, 6; Goldfinch, 6 
Tree Sparrow, 50; Junco, 15; Song Sparrow, 10; Cardinal, 7; Carolina Wren, 5 (sings) 
Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 10; Tufted Titmouse, 6; Chickadee, 13 
Bluebird, 20. Total, 22 species, about 200 individuals. — Harry B. McConnell and 
John Worley. 

Campbellstown, Ohio. — Dec. 26; 9 to 11 a.m. and 12.30 to 2.30 p.m. Two inches of 
snow; brisk northwest wind; temp. 24°. Bob-white, 8; Ring-necked Pheasant, i; Mourn- 
ing Dove, 4; Sharp-shinned Hawk, 3; Cooper's Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, i; Hairy 
Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 5; Red-bellied Woodpecker, i; Flicker, i; Horned 
Lark, 3; Blue Jay, 2; .\merican Crow, 200; Tree Sparrow, 107; Junco, 3; Song Spar- 
row, 51; Cardinal, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 27; Chickadee, 12. Total, 19 species, 434 
individuals. — W. H. Wisman. 

Canton, Ohio. — Dec. 25; 7 a.m. to 1.15 p.m. Cloudy and threatening, with severe 
snow storm beginning at 11.30 a.m.; strong northeast wind; temp. 32°. Red-shouldered 
Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 3; Tree Sparrow, 57; Song Sparrow, i; 
Cardinal, 4; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 7; Tufted Titmouse, 3; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 9. Total, 10 species, 88 individuals. — Edward D. Kimes. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — Dec. 28; 10 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; light covering of snow on 
ground; temp, about 30°. Downy Woodpecker, 4; Blue Jay, 2; Crow, 4; Bronzed 
Grackle, i; American Crossbill, 15; Goldfinch, 2; Junco, 75; Song Sparrow, 8; Cardinal 
6; Carolina Wren, 2; Brown Creeper, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 2; Carolina Chickadee, 6. 
Total, 13 species, 130 individuals. — Howard Lawless. 

Columbus, Ohio. — Dec. 26; 8 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; ground covered with snow; 
wind northwest; temp. 28°. Red-shouldered Hawk, 3; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Southern 
Downy Woodpecker, 8; Flicker, 4; Blue Jay, 3; American Crow, 25; American Gold- 
finch, 2; Tree Sparrow, 50; Junco, 25; Carolina Wren, 3; Brown Creeper, 2; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 50; Black-capped Chickadee, 2. Total, 14 
species, 180 individuals. — Laura E. Lovell. 

East Liberty, Ohio. — Dec. 27; 10 a.m. to i p.m. Partly cloudy, but sunny most 
of the time; three inches of snow; light north wind; temp. 15°; four miles. Sparrow Hawk, 
i; Downy Woodpecker, 8; Horned Lark, 22; Crow, 8; Song Sparrow, 2; Cardinal 2; 
Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; Tufted Titmouse, 25. Total, 9 species, 
75 individuals, — Ruskin S. and C. A. Freer. 

Huron, Ohio. — Dec. 28; 8.30 a.m. to 12 m. Clear, then cloudy; one inch of snow 
on ground; wind southwest, light; temp. 24° to 32°. Herring Gull, 7; Sparrow Hawk, 
i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Northern Flicker, 2; Blue Jay, 14; 
Crow, 6; Meadowlark, 13; Lapland Longspur, 2; Tree Sparrow, 80; Song Sparrow, i; 
Cardinal, 8; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 2; 
Chickadee, 3. Total, 16 species, 148 individuals. — H. G. Morse. 

Laceyville, Ohio (tenmiles west of Cadiz). — Dec. 21; 9 a.m. to 12.20 p.m., and 1.30 to 
3.30 p.m. Dark and cloudy, with misty rain by spells; ground bare; wind moderate, south; 
temp, morning, 38°, noon, 46°, evening, 36°. Sparrow Hawk, i; Screech Owl, i; Great 
Horned Owl, i; Ruffed Grouse, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 12; Red- 



44 Bird - Lore 

bellied Woodpecker, 6; Flicker, i; Crow, 2; Tree Sparrow, 60; Junco, 30; Song Sparrow, 
2; Cardinal, i; Carolina Wren, 6; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 15; 
Tufted Titmouse, 20; Chickadee, 25; Bluebird, i. Total, 19 species, 19c individuals. 
This is the best record for number of species by one that I ever made on a winter day. — 
E. E. Smith. 

Mt. Vernon, Ohio. — Dec. 28; 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Partly cloudy; about four inches of 
snow; wind moderate northwest; temp. 28° to 3 2°. Mourning Dove, 7; Cooper's Hawk, i; 
Sparrow Hawk, 3; Barred Owl, 1; Screech Owl, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 11; Red-headed Woodpecker, 17; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 2; Flicker, i; 
Blue Jay, 17; American Crow, 5; Meadowlark, 10; American Goldfinch, 2; Tree Spar- 
row, 2; Junco, 9; Song Sparrow, common; Cardinal, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 11; 
Tufted Titmouse, common; Chickadee, 2; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2; Bluebird, 5. 
Total, 23 species. — William L. Robinson. 

Mt. Vernon, Ohio. — Dec. 26; 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Cloudy; four inches snow; light west 
wind; temp. 28°. Ruffed Grouse, i; Hawk (probably Red-shouldered), i; Sparrow 
Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 1; 
Blue Jay, 8; Crow(heard); Goldfinch, 20; Tree Sparrow, 15; Junco, 30; Song Sparrow, 3; 
Cardinal, 5; Carolina Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 8; Tufted 
Titmouse, 7; Black-capped Chickadee, 12. Total, 18 species, 130 individuals. — Paul 
E. Debes and V. A. Debes. 

Spencerville, Ohio. — Dec. 25; 7 to 8.30 a.m. and 10.30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Heavy clouds; 
sleet turning to snow; ground bare; wind northeast, strong; temp. 33°; distance walked, 
nine miles. Red-shouldered Hawk, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 5; Blue Jay, 16; Crow, 15; 
Junco, 18; Song Sparrow, 6; Fox Sparrow (?), i; Cardinal, 10; Brown Creeper, i; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 5; Tufted Titmouse, 13; Chickadee, 2. Total, 12 species, 95 indi- 
viduals. — Sheridan F. Wood and Kenneth M. Wood. 

Youngstown, Ohio. — Dec. 25; 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. Cloudy; sleet and snow afternoon; 
temp. 35°; miles walked, about twelve; by automobile, twenty miles. Hooded Merganser, 
2; Black Duck, i; Ruffed Grouse, 2; Marsh Hawk, 2; Sparrow Hawk, 2; Long-eared Owl, 
i; Short-eared Owl, i; Screech Owl, i; Great Horned Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, 8; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 2; Flicker, 2; Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 11; 
Goldfinch, 11; Tree Sparrow, 37; Junco, i; Song Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 12; Cedar Wax- 
wing, i; Carolina Wren, i; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 20; Tufted Titmouse, 10; Black-capped Chickadee, 53. Total, 27 species, 193 
individuals. — George L. Fordyce, Volney Rogers, Willis H. Warner, Mrs. 
Warner and C. A. Leedy. 

Chicago, III. (Jackson Park). — Dec. 25; 2 to 5 p.m. Cloudy; ground with thin cover- 
ing of snow; wind northerly, heavy; temp. 38° to 40°. Herring Gull, abundant; Ring- 
billed Gull, 5; Bonaparte's Gull, 7; Common Tern, 6; Black Duck, i; Kingfisher, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 4; Robin, 
I. — Total, II species, 35 individuals (plus Herring Gulls). — L. L. Mackenzie and W Lyon. 

Geneseo, IlL — 7.30 to 11 a.m. Cloudy; three inches of snow; light south wind; 
temp. 24°. Downy Woodpecker, 5; Red-headed Woodpecker, 2; Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker, i; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 13; American Crow, 3; American Crossbill, 14; Tree 
Sparrow, 20; Junco, 40; Cardinal, 7; Chickadee, 25; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet. Total, 13 species, 134 individuals. — S. D. Anderson. 

LaGrange, III. — Dec. 22; 12.45 to 4.15 p.m. Wet; slight fall of snow; wind north- 
west, light; temp. 37°. Screech Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Horned Lark, 5; Blue 
Jay, 10; Crow, 10; Red-winged Blackbird, 3; Purple Finch, i; Goldfinch, 150; Lapland 
Longspur, 300; Tree Sparrow, 120; Junco, 10; Song Sparrow, 4; Cardinal 2; Brown 
Creeper, 9; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5; Chickadee, 25. Total, 16 species, 65S individ- 
uals. — James D. Watson. 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 45 

LaGrange, 111. (seven miles along Salt Creek). — Dec. 21; 8 a.m. to 2.15 p.m. Clear; 
ground bare; northwest wind; temp. 35°. Hairy Woodpecker, 10; Downy Woodpecker, 
15; Red-headed Woodpecker, 7; Blue Jay, 35; Crow, 17; Goldfinch, 2; Tree Sparrow, 
no; Junco, i; Song Sparrow, 3; Cardinal, 16; Brown Creeper, 14; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 8; Chickadee, 27. Total, 13 species, 264 individuals. Dec. 20: Red- winged 
Blackbird, 2; Purple Finch, i. Dec. 25: Red-shouldered Hawk, 3; Horned Lark, 25; 
Lapland Longspur, 300. — Edmund Hulsberg. 

Lewistown, 111. — Dec. 18; 8 to 10 a.m. Partly clear; ground bare; wind northwest; 
temp, at start 38°, on return 42°; five miles, mostly open woods. Hairy Woodpecker, 
i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 2; Horned Lark, i; Blue Jay, 8; 
American Crow, 4; Purple Finch, 3; American Goldfinch, 16; Tree Sparrow, 4; Chip- 
ping Sparrow, 7; Song Sparrow, 3; Cardinal, 6; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 7; Black-capped Chickadee, 12; Bluebird, 3. Total, 17 spe- 
cies, 79 individuals. — W. S. Strode, M.D. 

Moline, 111. — Dec. 22; 9 to 11.30 a.m. Clear; ground bare; no wind; temp. 22°. 
Gull, sp., i; Duck, sp., 3; Bob- white, 40; Ring-necked Pheasant, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; 
Downy Woodpecker, 4; Blue Jaj% 9; Crow, i; Goldfinch, i; Tree Sparrow, 100; Junco, 
6; Cardinal, 5; Brown Creeper, 8; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; Chickadee, 22; Robin, i. 
Total, 16 species, 211 individuals. — Mrs. Emma J. Sloan. 

Mt. Carmel, 111. — Dec. 26; 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Clear; one inch snow; wind north, heavy; 
temp. 32° Bob-white, 18; Hawk, sp., 1; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 2; 
Red-headed Woodpecker, 9; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 10; Flicker, 2; Blue Jay, 13; 
Crow, i; Meadowlark, 19; Junco (?), 40; Song Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 3; Brown Creeper, 
4; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Tufted Titmouse, 7; Chickadee, 14; Bluebird, i. Total, 
18 species, 138 individuals. — Chas. E. Carson. 

Peoria, 111. — Dec. 26; 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground covered with snow; 
wind north, light; temp. 24°. Herring Gull, 18; Canada Goose, 2; Hawk, sp., i; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 14; Blue Jay, 15; American Crow, i; Tree Spar- 
row, 150; Junco, 200; Cardinal, 18; Cedar Waxwing, 7; Brown Creeper, 4; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 8; Tufted Titmouse, 7; Black-capped Chickadee, 25; Robin, 3. Total, 16 
species, 476 individuals. — W. H. Packard and James H. Sedgwick. 

Port Byron, 111. — Dec. 21; 9.20 to 10.45 a.m., and 1.15 to 3.30 p.m. Clear; ground 
bare; wind west, moderate; temp. 21° to 40°. Bob-white, 2; Rough-legged Hawk (dark 
phase), i; Screech Owl, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Red-headed 
Woodpecker, 25; Blue Jay, 12; Crow, 4; Tree Sparrow, 15; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; 
Brown Creeper, 3; Chickadee, 4. Total, 12 species, 74 individuals. — J. J. Schafer. 

Rantoul, 111. — 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. Cloudy, snow flurries; ground slightly covered with 
snow; wind, north to northeast, medium; temp. 30°. Cooper's Hawk, 3; Red- 
tailed Hawk, i; Marsh Hawk, i; American Rough-legged Hawk, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 
3; Downy Woodpecker, 7; Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, i; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 3; 
Flicker, 2; Horned Lark, 20; Prairie Horned Lark, 100; Blue Jay, 50; Crow, 75; Lapland 
Longspur, 1,500; Chestnut-collared Longspur, 100; Vesper Sparrow, i; Tree Sparrow, 
25; Cardinal, 3; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, 12; Red-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 5; Tufted Titmouse, 36; Chickadee. 10. Total, 23 species, 1,862 individuals. 
— George E. Ekblau, Eddie L. Ekblau and Arthur Carlson. 

Rock Island, 111. (Arsenal Island). — Dec. 25; 10 a.m. to 12.15 p.m. Partly cloudy; 
three inches of snow; Mississippi River free from ice; wind northeast, light, but cold; 
temp. 30°. Lesser Scaup, 8; Bob-white, 26; Ring-necked Pheasant, 4; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 2; Goldfinch, 1; Song Sparrow, i; 
Brown Creeper, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 9; Rocin, i. Total, 13 
species, 67 individuals. — Burtis H. Wilson. 

Battle Creek, Mich. — Dec. 28; 10.30 a.m. to 1.55 p.m. Cloudy; two inches of snow; 



46 Bird - Lore 

wind southwest, light; temp. 29°. Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, i; Red- 
headed Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 14; American Crow, 8; American Goldfinch, 8; Tree 
Sparrow, 20; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 4; 
Chickadee, 2. Total, 11 species, 63 individuals. Saw Towhee in wood on Dec. 26. 
Juncos and Redpolls have not arrived. — Paul M. Morgan. 

Detroit, Mich. — Dec. 21; 11 a.m. to 3.15 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind northerly, 
brisk; temp. 30°; distance covered, about four miles along River Rouge. Bob-white, 
14; Red-shouldered Hawk, 2; Blue Jay, 7; Crow, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; 
Chickadee, 9; Robin, 2. Total, 7 species, 38 individuals. — Mrs. Jefferson Butler, 
Mr. Burton Barns, and Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Robinson. 

Detroit, Mich. — Dec. 22; 1.15 to 3.30 p.m. Partly cloudy; ground bare; wind 
southwest, light; temp. 32°; distance covered, about three miles on Belle Isle. Herring 
Gull, 7; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Red-headed Woodpecker, 3; Brown Creeper, i; White - 
breasted Nuthatch, 11; Chickadee, i. Total, 6 species, 29 individuals. — Mrs. F. W. 
Robinson. 

New Buffalo, Mich. — Dec. 26; 8 to 11.30 a.m. and i to 3.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground 
lightly covered with snow; water of Lake Michigan and Galien River open; moderate 
northerly wind, diminishing; temp. 29° to 32°; distance covered, twelve miles. Horned 
Grebe, 3; Herring Gull, 9; Ring-billed Gull, 37; Lesser Scaup, 11; Goldeneye, 10; 
Bufflehead, 2; Coot, 3; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Red-headed 
Woodpecker, 8; Blue Jay, 15; Crow, 7; Purple Finch, 4; Tree Sparrow, 85; Junco, i; 
Towhee, i; Cardinal, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 11. Total, 19 species, 
219 individuals. Many unidentified gulls and ducks out on the lake. — F. A. Pennington. 

Elkhorn, Wis. (Lauderdale and Delavan Lakes and vicinity). — Dec. 21; 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind northwest, light at time of starting, changing to south- 
west; temp. 22°. Canada Goose, 125; Wilson's Snipe, 4; Marsh Hawk, 3; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Red-headed Woodpecker, 5; Prairie Horned Lark, 2; 
Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 100; Purple Crackle, i; Tree Sparrow, 108; Junco, 4; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 8; Chickadee, 16. Total, 14 species, 391 individuals. — Sarah Tramis, 
Mabel Beckwith, Constance Beckwith, Lulu Dunbar, Helen Martin and 
Margaret Austin. (This census gives the combined results of three groups of census 
takers working in different parts of the same general locality. The ground covered was 
within a radius of eight or ten miles of Elkhorn. A large number of Red-headed Wood- 
peckers with us this winter. They feed at our lunch counters.) 

Hartland, Wis. — Dec. 23; 8.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind north- 
east; temp. 30°. Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Red-headed Woodpecker, 5; Blue Jay, 10; 
Crow, 3; Purple Finch, 5; Tree Sparrow, 4; Junco, 16; Chickadee, 10. Total, 8 species, 
55 individuals. — Susie L. Simonds. 

Madison, Wis. — Dec. 22; 8 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy; ground bare; still; temp, about 
20°. Red-headed Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 2; Crow, 2; Tree Sparrow, 25; Junco, 6; 
Brown Thrasher, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 6. Total, 6 species, 46 
individuals. Dec. 26: Red- winged Blackbird, 2. — Belle Clarke. 

Verona to Madison, Wis. — Dec. 24; 7.45 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; 
still; temp. 30°. Bob-white, 12; Mourning Dove, 10; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy 
Woodpecker, 7; Red-headed Woodpecker, 5; Blue Jay, 23; Crow, 13; Goldfinch, 60; 
Snow Bunting, 5; Tree Sparrow, 40; Junco, 13; Song Sparrow, i; Brown Creeper, i; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Black-capped Chickadee, 18; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. 
Total, 16 species, 215 individuals. Additional species seen Dec. 21: Prairie Chicken, 2; 
Marsh Hawk, 4; Rough-legged Hawk, 4; Prairie Horned Lark, 9. — Norman deW. Betts. 

Sparta, Wis. — Dec. 25; 9 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare; light south wind; 
temp. 17°. Bob-white, 20; Ruffed Grouse, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 5; Red-headed 
Woodpecker, 10; Crow, 31; Blue Jay, 75; Goldfinch, 38; Junco, 22; White-breasted 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 47 

Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 73, Total, 12 species, 286 individuals. — Violet Turner, 
Clara Larson, Gladys Haney and H. M. Sherwin. 

Whitewater, Wis. — Dec. 24; 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; light north 
wind; temp. 29°. Pied-billed Grebe, 2; Mallard, 7; Screech Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 
i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Red-headed Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 10; Crow, 10; Red- 
winged Blackbird, i; Junco, 8; Brown Creeper, i; Chickadee, 5; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 10. Total, 13 species, 58 individuals. — Florence L. and Ethell A. Esterly. 

Winneconne, Wis. — Dec. 25; 9 a.m. to i p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; sUght north- 
east wind; temp. 22°; five miles covered — meadow, marsh, woods, and lake. Herring 
Gull, 2; Marsh Hawk, i; Blue Jay, 8; American Crow, 10; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Red- 
headed Woodpecker, i; Brown Creeper, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 10; Chickadee, 12. 
Total, 9 species, 55 individuals. — Rev. B. H. Freye and Henry P. Severson. 

Fairmont, Minn. — 3 to 5 p.m. Clear; ground bare; light west wind; temp. 20°. 
Screech Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 6; Downy Woodpecker, 9; Blue Jay, common; 
Crow, common; American Crossbill, i; White- winged Crossbill, i; Harris's Sparrow, 2; 
Tree Sparrow, 70; Fox Sparrow, 2; Northern Shrike, i; Brown Creeper, 3, White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 7; Black-capped Chickadee, 11. Total, 14 species, 114 individuals, 
plus Crows and Jays. — Mrs. Mary Hagerty. 

Minnehaha Falls, Minneapolis, Minn. — Dec. 25; 9.30 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy, 
snowing slightly; ground lightly covered; wind northwest, moderate; temp. 11°. Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 2; Tree Sparrow, 16; Cedar Waxwing, 2; Brown 
Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 5. Total, 8 species, 32 individuals. 
— Charles Phillips. 

St. Peter, Minn. — Dec. 28; 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Hazy; ground bare; wind south, light; 
temp. 20° Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 8; Crow, 
6; Red-winged Blackbird, 9; Tree Sparrow, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2. Total, 8 
species, 37 individuals. — H. J. and L. L. LaDue. 

High Lake Township, Emmet Co., Iowa. — Dec. 26; 10 a.m. to 12 m. Cloudy, with 
snow flurries, followed by clear; ground bare; wind south; temp. 15°. Hairy Woodpecker, 
i; Downy Woodpecker, 2; FKcker, i; Blue Jay, 24; Crow, 10; Rusty Blackbird, 10; 
Tree Sparrow, 120; Nuthatch, 6; Chickadee, 38. Total, 9 species, 212 individuals. — 
B. O. Wolden. 

Sioux City, Iowa. — Dec. 28; 10.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare; light south- 
east wind; temp, about 15°. Great Horned Owl (chased by a flock of 30 Crows), i; 
Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 5; Prairie Horned Lark, 2; Blue Jay, 3; 
Crow, 40; Goldfinch, 2; Tree Sparrow, 30; Junco, 2; Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, 2; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 10. Total, 13 species, 104 individuals. — 
Walter W. Bennett. 

Wall Lake, Iowa. — Dec. 25; 1.30 to 4.45 p.m. Clear; ground bare; light north wind; 
temp. 26°. Prairie Chicken, 17; Screech Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, i, seen by my 
sister; Flicker, i; Tree Sparrow, 25; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, i. 
Total, 7 species, 48 individuals. Seen in week previous. Western Red-tailed Hawk, i ; 
Short-eared Owl, i; Bronzed Crackle, i ; Black-capped Chickadee, 2. — John A. Spurrell. 

Meridian, Idaho (irrigated farm lands). — Dec. 23; 9.05 a.m. to 2.45 p.m. Foggy; 
twelve inches of loose snow; no wind; freezing all daj-; five and one-half miles. Duck, 
sp., 30; Bob-white, 2 (heard); Chinese Pheasant, 9; Marsh Hawk, 6; Sharp-shinned 
Hawk, i; Long-eared Owl, 4; Short-eared (?) Owl, i; Red-shafted Flicker, i; Horned 
Lark, 96; American Magpie, 61; Tricolored Blackbird, 30 (number probably includes 
San Diego Redwing and Brewer's Blackbird); Western Meadowlark, 17; House Finch, 
21; Intermediate Sparrow, 34; Coues's Junco, 52; Merrill's Song Sparrow, in; White- 
rumped Shrike, i; Long-tailed Chickadee, 2; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 3. Total, 19 
species, 482 individuals. — Alex, Stalkei?. 



48 Bird - Lore 

Priest River, Idaho (on flat, near the river, mostly timbered). — Dec. i8. Clnudy; about 
six inches of snow on the ground; calm; temp. 38°. Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker, 
i; Northern Pileated Woodpecker, i; Black-headed Jay, 2; Rocky Mountain Jay, 3; 
Crossbill, 20; Redpoll, 2; Western Winter Wren, 2; Chestnut-backed Chickadee, 4. 
Total, 8 species, 35 individuals. — Joseph Kitteedge, Jr. 

Omaha, Nebr. — i to 4.30 p.m. Clear; ground nearly bare; wind southeast; temp. 
40° to 34°; five miles. Pigeon Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 6; 
Prairie Horned Lark, 3; Purple Finch, 25; Goldfinch, 3; Tree Sparrow, 30; Junco, 28; 
Chickadee, 11. Total, 9 species, 108 individuals. — Solon R. Towne. 

Lennox, S. D., to Sioux Falls, to Canton by train and thence along Sioux River on 
foot. — Dec. 22; 9 to 10 A.M. and 11.30 a.m. to i p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind, south, 
light; temp. 25° to 38°. Prairie Chicken, 100; Screech Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Crow, 6; White- winged Crossbill (?), 12; Pine Siskin, 27; Tree 
Sparrow, 200; Brown Creeper, 2; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 60. Total, 
II species, 410 individuals. — William B. Mallory. 

Aspen, Colo.— Dec. 24. Altitude, 7,500 feet. Clear and calm; eight and one-half 
inches of snow; temp, 10° at 10 p.m. Downy Woodpecker, 2; Black-headed Jay, 4; 
Rocky Mountain Jay, 2. Total, 3 species, 8 individuals.^MRS. I. L. Logue. 

Denver, Colo. — 9 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Partly cloudy; thirty inches of snow; south wind, 
light; temp. 5° to 26° above. Prairie Falcon, i; Red-shafted Flicker, 18; Long-crested 
Jay, i; Woodhouse's Jay, 3; House Finch, 5; Pink-sided Junco, i; Gray-headed Junco, 2; 
Northern Shrike, i; Rocky Mountain Creeper, i. Total, 9 species, ^^ individuals. — 
W. H. Bergtold. 

Bozeman, Mont. — Dec. 24; 10 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Clear; still; three inches of snow; 
temp. 15°. Magpie, 18; Western Tree Sparrow, 17; Mountain Song Sparrow, 5; Bohe- 
mian Waxwing, about 90; Long-tailed Chickadee, 15. Total, 5 species, 145 individuals. 
— Nelson Lundwall. 

Lashbum, Saskatchewan (latitude 53°). — Dec. 18; 8.40 a.m. to 12.55 p-m. and 1.35 
to 4.30 p.m. Overcast; one-half inch of snow; temp. 27°. Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse, 
40; Ruffed Grouse, 4; Snowy Owl, 3; Prairie Horned Lark, i; Redpoll, 40; Snow Bunting, 
27; Chickadee, i. Total, 7 species, 116 individuals. — S. W^ Calvert. 

Okanagan Landing, B. C. (shore of Okanagan Lake and pine covered foothills — 
18 miles). — 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind northeast, light; temp. 22° at 
8 a.m. Holboell's Grebe, i; Horned Grebe, 7; Herring Gull, 8; American Merganser, 2; 
Greater Scaup, 9; American Coot, i; Gray Ruffed Grouse, 3; Northern Pileated Wood- 
pecker, i; Red-shafted Flicker, 3; Magpie, 10; Clarke's Nutcracker, 4; Pygmy Owl 
(pinicola), 2; Pine Grosbeak, 3; Pine Siskin, 150; Shufeldt's Junco, 30; Sooty Song Spar- 
row, 3; Western Winter Wren, i; Rocky Mountain Nuthatch, 17; Red-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 12; Pj'gmy Nuthatch, 4; Black-capped Chickadee, 4; Mountain Chickadee, 32; 
Western Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. Total, 23 species, 310 individuals. Observers in 
company. Also observed in past two days: California Gull, Canvasback, Columbian 
Sharp-tailed Grouse, Crow, Black-headed Jay, Western Evening Grosbeak, Western 
Tree Sparrow, Slate-colored Junco, Northern W^axwing, Goshawk, Saw-whet Owl, 
and Tree Creeper. — J. A. Munro and Allan Brooks. 

Grandview, Wash. — Dec. 24; 10.30 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. Cloudy; snowy; temp. 32°. 
Ring-necked Pheasant, 6; Red-bellied Hawk, 2; Spotted Owl, 1; Red-shafted Flicker, 
2; Desert Horned Lark, 15; American Magpie, 6; Cowbird, 10; Red-winged Blackbird, 
S; Western Meadowlark, 10; Brewer's Blackbird, 35; Willow Goldfinch, 20; Gambel's 
Sparrow, 35; Western Tree Sparrow, 3; Slate-colored Junco, 15; Oregon Junco, 40; 
Song Sparrow, 12; Northern Shrike, i; Western Robin, i. Total, 18 species, 213 
individuals. — Edna M. Perry and Gertrxtde Gee. 

JfQrth Yakima, Wash. — Dec. 24; 8.30 a.m. to 1.30 p. At. One inch of snow; no wind; 



Bird -Lore's Fourteenth Christmas Census 49 

temp. 40°. Baldpate, i; Mongolian Pheasant, 50; Bob-white, loo; Hungarian Par- 
tridge, 2; Wilson's Snipe, 2; Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Short-eared Owl, 2; Magpie, 3; 
Red-shafted Flicker, 15; Brewer's Blackbird, 200; Western Meadowlark, 6; White- 
rumped Shrike, 2; Western Goldfinch, 12; Redpoll, 2; Pine Siskin, 12; Oregon Junco, 
250; Slate-colored Junco, 3; Merrill's Song Sparrow, 250; Gambel's Sparrow, 60; 
Black-capped Chickadee, 5. Total, 20 species, 978 individuals. — Mr. and Mrs. John 
V. Ellis, Jr. 

Pullman, Wash, (elevation, 2,536 feet). — Dec. 25; 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Snowing; light 
east wind; six inches of snow on ground; temp. 27°. Short-eared Owl, i; Red-shafted 
Flicker, 3; Western Meadowlark, 7; Crossbill, i; Gray-crowned Leucosticte, 4; Hep- 
burn's Leucosticte, 20; Pale Goldfinch, 3; Merrill's Song Sparrow, 3. Total, 8 species, 
42 individuals. — Misses Roziskey and McKay, and W. T. Shaw. 

Seattle, Wash, (to head of Lake Washington, returning via west shore of lake, to 
Pontiacj. — Dec. 21; 11.45 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. Partly cloudy; ground bare; wind east by 
south to southeast, and south, moderate breeze, falling about 4.30 p.m.; temp. 44°. 
Western Grebe, i; Hoelbell's Grebe, 6; Pied-billed Grebe, i; Western Gull, 3; Shoveller, 
4; Scaup, 8; Ruddy Duck, i; Coot, 306; Bob-white, 21; Harris's Woodpecker, i; West- 
ern Meadowlark, 5; Oregon Junco, 5; Rusty Song Sparrow, 6. Total, 13 species, 368 
individuals. — F. W. Cook. 

Forest Grove, Ore. (along Gale's Creek, and in the hills to 800 feet). — Dec. 27; 
Cloudy with light rain in the morning; wet snow covering the ground in the timbered 
hills. Mountain Quail, i; Oregon Ruffed Grouse, 7; Chinese Pheasant, 4; Harris's 
Woodpecker, i; Northern Pileated Woodpecker, 2; Northwest Flicker, 3; Coast (?) 
Jay, 3; Western Crow, 20; Northwestern Redwing, 50; Oregon Junco, 15; Rusty Song 
Sparrow, i; Oregon Towhee, i; Western Winter Wren, 10; CaHfornia Creeper, i; Red- 
breasted Nuthatch, 2; Oregon Chickadee, 4; Chestnut-backed Chickadee, 15; Western 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 20; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 5. Total, 19 species, about 165 
individuals. — Prof. A. M. Bean and O. J. Murie. 

Mulino, Ore. — Dec. 24; 8.30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Cold and rainy; ground bare; wind 
north, light to brisk. Pied-billed Grebe, 3; Bob- white, 10; Mountain Quail, 21; Oregon 
RufTed Grouse, 2; Ring-necked Pheasant, i; Western Redtail, i; Desert Sparrow Hawk, 
i; Gairdner's Woodpecker, 4; Northern Red-breasted Sapsucker, 3; Red-shafted Flicker 
(including Northwestern Flicker), 53; Coast Jay, 2; Oregon Jay, i; Western Meadow- 
lark, 6; Shufeldt's Junco, (including Oregon Junco), 214; Rusty Song Sparrow, 29; 
Oregon Towhee, 11; Seattle Wren, 3; Western Winter Wren, 39; California Creeper, 3; 
Oregon Chickadee, 32; Chestnut-backed Chickadee, 17; Bush Tit, 25; Western Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 94; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 2; Varied Thrush, 10. Total, 25 species, 
587 individuals. — Alex. Walker and Donald E. Brown. 

Fresno, Gal. (along public roads).— Dec. 25; 12 m. to 1.30 p.m. and 3.30 to 4.30 p.m. 
Cloudy, light showers; temp. 60°. Killdeer, 2; Valley Quail, 45; Western Mourning 
Dove, 11; Western Red-tailed Hawk, i; Desert Sparrow Hawk, i; Barn Owl, i; Bur- 
rowing Owl, i; Red-shafted Flicker, 17; Anna Hummingbird, i; Say Phoebe, i; 
Black Phoebe, i; California Horned Lark, i; Bicolored Blackbird, 150; Western Meadow- 
lark, 25; Brewer's Blackbird, 100; House Finch, 300; Western Vesper Sparrow, 12; 
Western Savannah Sparrow, 7; Gambel's Sparrow, 100; Thurber's Junco, 35; Heer- 
mann's Song Sparrow, i; San Diego Towhee, 5; California Towhee, 2; California Shrike, 
12; Audubon's Warbler, 53; Western Mockingbird, 38; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 1; 
Western Gnatcatcher, i; Mountain Bluebird, 20. Total, 29 species, 948 individuals. — 
Mr. and Mrs. John G. Tyler. 

Santa Barbara, Calif. — Dec. 27; 6.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. Hazy to heavily overcast; 
temp.'44° to 59°. Mission Canyon, Estero, Beale's, Hope Ranch, La Patera; 42 miles by 
automobile, but all save 5 species recorded within 3 miles of city limits. Numbers 



50 Bird - Lore 

necessarily eslimaled. Western Grebe, ii; Horned Grebe, i; American Eared Grebe, 6; 
Pied-billed Grebe, i; California Brown Pelican, lo; Farallon Cormorant, 300; Brandt 
Cormorant, 100; Great Blue Heron, 4; Green-winged Teal, 40; Cinnamon Teal, 5; 
Shoveller, 1,200; Pintail, 700; Canvasback, 200; Lesser Scaup, 100; Bufflehead, 
3; White-winged Scoter, 200; Surf Scoter, 75; Ruddy Duck, 150; Turkey Vulture, 
3; Prairie Falcon, i; American Sparrow Hawk, 25; Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Cooper's 
Hawk, 2; Western Red-tailed Hawk, 4; Red-bellied Hawk, 2; Valley Quail, 10; Coot, 
200; Least Sandpiper, 20; Red-backed Sandpiper, 5; Sanderling, 150; Black-bellied 
Plover, 30; Killdeer, 75; Snowy Plover, 20; Glaucous- winged Gull, 10; Western Gull, 
300; California Gull, 40; Ring-billed Gull, 40; Short-billed Gull, 20; Heermann Gull, 
10; Bonaparte Gull, 500; Royal Tern, 4; Belted Kingfisher, 3; Barn Owl, 2; Short- 
cared Owl, 2; California Screech Owl, i; Burrowing Owl, i; Anna Hummingbird, 6; 
White-throated Swift, 60; California Woodpecker, 20; Red-shafted Flicker, 200; Black 
Phoebe, 7; Say Phoebe, 12; California Horned Lark, 30; American Pipit, 140; Dwarf 
Hermit Thrush, 10; Western Robin, 4; Western Bluebird, 6; Pasadena Thrasher, i; 
Western Mockingbird, 5; Tule Wren, 6; Western House Wren, 2; Pallid Wren-tit, 20; 
Ashy Kinglet, 150; Western Gnatcatcher, 2; Tree Swallow, 15; California Shrike, 
20; Hutton Vireo, i; Plain Titmouse, 12; California Bush-Tit, 40; California Jay, 
20; Dusky Warbler, 2; Audubon's Warbler, 300; Tule Yellowthroat, 4; Brewer's 
Blackbird, 400; San Diego Redwing, 500; Western Meadowlark, 250; Willow Goldfinch, 
20; Green-backed Goldfinch, 200; California Purple Finch, 2; California Linnet, 200; 
Western Lark Sparrow, 60; Western Savannah Sparrow, 3; Bryant Marsh Sparrow, i; 
Belding Marsh Sparrow, 2; Large-billed Marsh Sparrow, 10; Sierra Junco, 20; Golden- 
crowned Sparrow, 6; Intermediate Sparrow, 400; Nuttall Sparrow, 15; San Diego Song 
Sparrow, 8; Rocky Mountain (?) Song Sparrow, 20; Lincoln Sparrow, 2; Valdez Fox 
Sparrow, 3; Spurred Towhee, 7; Anthony Brown Towhee, 20. Total, 95 species, 
7,831 individuals. — William Leon Dawson and William Oberlin Dawson. 

Vallejo, Cal. (Mare Island Navy Yard). — Dec. 25 ; i to 4.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare; 
wind southwest, light; temp. 58°. Western Gull, 88; Desert Sparrow Hawk, i; Short- 
eared Owl, 2; Red-shafted Flicker, 2; California Horned Lark, 22; California Jay, 2; 
Western Meadowlark, 25; Brewer's Blackbird, 2; House Finch, 2; Bryant's Marsh 
Sparrow, 3; Intermediate Sparrow, 5; Oregon Junco, 5; California Shrike, i; Audubon's 
Warbler, i. Total, 14 species, 161 individuals. — F. M. Bennett. 

Santa Barbara, Isle of Pines, Cuba. — Dec. 4. Cool; wind northeast, strong. Great 
Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), i; Louisiana Heron {Hydranassa tricolor), i; Cuban Green 
Heron {Bulorides hrunnescens) , 3; Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax 
ntzvius), i; Least Bittern {Ixobrychus exiiis), i; Cuban Bob-white {Colinus cubanensis), 
12; 'El bobo' Figeon {Columba inornala) , 5; Cuban Mourning Dove {Zenaidura macroiira 
macroura), 24; Cuban Ground Dove {ChccmepcUa passerina aflavida), 150; Southern 
Turkey Vulture {Cathartes aura aura), 20; Cuban Sparrow Hawk {Falco sparveroides), 
10; Cuban Owl (Gytnnasio lawrencei?), i; Cuban Pigmy Owl {Glaucidium siju), 3; 
Cuban Parrot {Amazona leticocephala), 25; Ani {Crotophaga ani), 18; Isle of Pines Lizard 
Cuckoo {Saurothera merlini decolor), 4; Isle of Pines Trogon {Priotelus temnurus vescus), 
2; Cuban Tody {Todiis multicolor), 5; Cuban Kingbird {Tyrannus cubensis), 4; Cuban 
Crested Flycatcher {Myiarchiis sagra), 11; Cuban Pewee {Blacicus caribcBus), 15; Cuban 
Meadowlark {SturneUa hippocrepis), 6; Cuban Oriole {Icterus hypomelas), 20; Cuban 
Grackle {Holopiiiscalus gundlachi), 75; Grasshopper Sparrow {Ammodramus savannarum 
australis), i; Melodious Grassquit {Tiaris canora), i; Yellow-faced Grassquit {Tiaris 
olivacea olivacea), 2,0; Mangrove Warbler {Dendroica petechia gundlachi), 2; Yellow Palm 
Warbler {Dendroica palmar um hypochrysea), 95; Florida Yellowthroat {Geothlypis 
trichas ignota) , 2,', Red-legged Thrush {Mimocichla nibripes rubripes), 2. Total, 31 spe- 
cies, 551 individuals. — A. C. Read. 



Notes on Winter Birds 

THE space required for the Bird Census prevents the publication of a 
number of 'Notes from Field and Study,' but the timeliness of some 
make it advisable to print in this issue of Bird-Lore certain records 
of the occurrence of winter birds. Birds are, of course, far more likely to be 
observed while migrating than after they have settled for the winter. Hence, 
doubtless, the apparent scarcity of certain northern species in midwinter 
which seemed common in the fall; though change of base incident to migra- 
tion is of course also to be considered. 

For example, Mr. Horace W. Wright, of Boston, in sending his census, 
writes; "in the vicinity of Boston we have had many Redpolls, a few Cross- 
bills of each species, a Pine Grosbeak or two, and not less than 50 Acadian 
Chickadees have been observed, but none of these enter into the park list." 

From Leominster, Mass., Mr. Edwin Russell Davis writes, under date of 
December 26, 1913: "The Evening Grosbeaks have been with us for the last 
two weeks, some five or six individuals, but I was unable to find them yester- 
day." And this species, is also recorded from Washington, Conn., by Wil- 
helmina C. Knowles, who writes that on December 13 fifteen were seen 
"feeding on seeds of the sugar maple on the grgund." She states that the 
birds were "extremely tame." 

Below we publish a note on the occurrence of Pine Grosbeaks at Sharon, 
Connecticut, on November 17, and we have also a record from Mrs. J. C. 
Anderson, of the appearance of four birds of this species at Great Barrington, 
Mass., on November 18, and Mrs. Caroline T. Brooks reports eight or ten 
Pine Grosbeaks at Goshen, Conn., on November 29. Other notes on winter 
birds foUow.— F. M. C. 

Evening Grosbeaks in Michigan Here the Evening Grosbeak is observed 

to feed upon the berries of sumach, moun- 

On November, 26, 191 2, while walking tain ash, choke-cherry, wild red cherry, 

about among a grove of choke-cherries I seeds of maples and buds of forest trees, 

heard Evening Grosbeaks. I soon located particularly poplars. — Ralph Beebe, 

the flock, which consisted of about fifty Newberry, Michigan. 
birds. Most of them were feeding upon the 

fallen cherries, large quantities of which Evening Grosbeak in Chicago 
lay on the ground. A number posed for 

their photograph. A flock of about a We had the pleasure to see, on Nov. 9, 

dozen Redpolls accompanied the Gros- 1913, in Jackson Park, Chicago, 111., a 

beaks. Presumably they had learned that pair of Evening Grosbeaks, 

the Grosbeak is rather a slovenly feeder, We were w^atching a pair of Juncos and 

scattering generous amounts of food upon listening to a Blue Jay calling, when we 

the ground. This food is partly crushed by saw a large dull-colored bird hopping 

the heavy bills of the Grosbeaks so it is about on the ground eating seeds and 

well prepared for the more delicate Red- berries. When we approached it, it flew 

polls. up and perched on a small bush where 

(51) 



52 



Bird - Lore 



we had a beautiful view of it. We could 
not think what kind of a bird it was at 
first, but it soon uttered a soft whistle 
something like that of a Robin, and was 
immediately answered from a nearby 
bush. We soon discovered the bird thai 
answered and instantly identified it as a 
male Evening Grosbeak. 

It was very brilliantly colored, the yel- 
low almost orange, and the black on the 
wings and tail shone out very conspicu- 
ously. They were very tame and did not 
seem to fear when we approached within 
a few feet of them. 

On November 22, we saw in the same 
place two old males and one young male. 
The birds were all tame and we man- 
aged to get a photograph but the image 
on the plate was very small and there was 
no detail. 

The bird is a very rare winter visitor, 
and we know of several other people who 
saw these same birds. — Locke Macken- 
zie and Wilfred Lyon, Chicago, III. 

Evening Grosbeak and Acadian Chick- 
adee at Hartford, Conn. 

The undersigned, who has been a close 
observer of birds for many years and is a 
member of The Hartford Bird Stud}- 
Club, wishes to report a most excellent 
observation on January i, 1914, of a 
flock of eleven Evening Grosbeaks. These 
birds were seen, with a fellow bird student, 
in the outskirts of one of our city parks. 
Much of this park is primeval forest with 
the usual variations brought about by 
the landscape gardener in parks of several 
hundred acres which are oftentimes, as 
in this case, extended beyond the city 
limits. All the birds were in most excel- 
lent plumage, but there was one full- 
plumaged male whose colors exceeded in 
brilliance the pictures in any of Chap- 
man's books or 'Reed's Handbook' in 
that the yellow was more nearly that of 
the Goldfinch; but this may have been 
partly because the birds were sitting 
directly in the sunlight, — it being at 
half after one o'clock that the observa- 
tion was made. We watched this flock as 



long as we cared to, observing every 
detail of plumage of both species, but we 
did not identify more than the one male. 
The birds showed no fear, either because 
I hey were too stupid or because lack of 
association with man had not taught 
them that he might be dangerous. This 
flock has since been seen by several other 
members of the club and several photo- 
graphs have been taken. 

On November 25,1 saw in Wethersfield 
a pair of Acadian Chickadees, and two 
days later, or on Thanksgiving Day, I 
observed for forty minutes another pair in 
West Hartford. As these towns are 
several miles apart there is no doubt but 
that there were two pairs of these birds. 
Each pair was subsequently seen by other 
members of the club. 

Redpolls are at present reported to be 
quite common in Windsor, a town about 
six miles north of this city. — Geo. F. 
Griswold, Hartford, Conn. 

Acadian Chickadee at Hartford, Conn. 

A rare treat has been furnished to some 
of the members of The Hartford Bird 
Study Club during the past week or ten 
days in observing at exceedingly close 
range the Acadian Chickadee. A pair of 
these extremely rare visitants have been 
fed at the hospitable feeding-tray of Miss 
Katherine C. Robbins in Wethersfield 
(about three miles from Hartford) almost 
daily since about November 13, 1913. Mr. 
Albert Morgan, Treasurer of our Club, 
and myself, observed these interesting 
creatures for nearly an hour during the 
early afternoon of November 22, all of that 
time within a distance of ten to twenty 
feet. They are most active in their move- 
ments, and it was difJ&cult to say which 
species was more sprightly, the Acadian 
Chickadee or the Golden-crowned King- 
lets, whose company they seemed to 
enjoy. The Chickadees seemed to be 
particularly fond of the suet placed in the 
tree for their use, and they would feed for 
a time on the suet and then feed on small 
bits of something gathered from the boughs 
of a large spruce tree nearby. In their 



Notes on Winter Birds 



53 



nervous and rapid change of positions, 
one would believe them to have a 
quantity of Warbler blood in their veins, 
although, of course, they were not the 
least bit timid, for Miss Robbins had 
fed them within two or three feet from 
her hand. 

These birds differ from our native 
Chickadee, in that they possess no black 
cap, and the Acadian's under-parts are as 
red as those of the Red-breasted Nuthatch 
and very nearly the same color. The black 
cap is superseded by one of a buffy brown, 
which color seems to follow its nape and 
back almost to the rump in a somewhat 
graduated manner. 

The call has a similarity to that of our 
native Chickadee, but is uttered much 
more briskly and is more wheezy. Often 
it will contain two higher notes followed 
by one low, (chick-a-dee), and again it can 
be heard with two higher notes and two 
low, (chick-a-dee-dee), but always more 
husky and brief than our native favorite. 
— Arthur G. Powers, Hartford, Conn. 



Pine Grosbeak at Sharon, Conn. 

You may be pleased to note in next 
issue of Bird-Lore the phenomenallj^ 
early arrival in this latitude of the Pine 
Grosbeak. My daughter saw a flock of 
fifteen or twenty on November 17, 1913, 
about a mile from my store and although 
she knows the birds quite well I feared 
she might be mistaken, as in the three or 
four times I had s.'en them in Connecticut 
in the past thirty years, it was never 
earlier than the middle of December with 
cold weather and plenty of snow, so this 
noon I walked with her to the little grove 
of pines, maples and shrubbery, and was 
most agreeably surprised to count ten of 
my old friends, the Pine Grosbeak. I 
could approach within six feet when 
they were in the bushes and within eight 
feet when they were on the ground. As 
usual, one was in the red plumage to about 
eight or nine in the immature and famale 
plumage of slaty gray and yellowish on 
head and rump. — Geo. M. Marckres, 
Sharon, Conn. 




HERRING GULL ON WESTERN ISLAND, LAKE CHAMPLAIN, X. Y. 
Photographed by B. S. Bowdish 



iloob jBtetofi^ ant) 9^etoieto0 



Report of Chief of Bureau of Bio- 
logical Survey for the Year End- 
ing June 30, 1913. By Henry W. 
Henshaw. From Annual Reports of 
the Department of Agriculture for 1913. 
14 pp. 

No one can read this summary of the 
activities of the Biological Survey for the 
period covered by this report without 
being impressed by the scope and impor- 
tance of its labors. The destruction of 
prairie-dogs, ground-squirrels, and seed- 
eating rodents in the National forests, the 
economic status of the mole, fur-farming, 
control of crawfish in the Mississippi, 
destruction of the alfalfa weevil and cot- 
ton-boll weevil by birds, the food of wild 
fowl, and work in Porto Rico, are headings 
which indicate some phases of the eco- 
nomic investigations of the Survey. 

Forty-one species of birds have been 
found feeding on the alfalfa weevil, chief 
among the enemies of which is Brewer's 
Blackbird. No less than 542 weevils were 
taken from the stomach of a single bird 
of this species. The boll-weevil is now 
known to be preyed on by 50 species of 
birds. 

An index has been made to the 131 
publications relating to economic ornithol- 
ogy which have been published by the 
Survey, in which 401 species of native 
and 59 species of foreign birds have been 
reported on. 

Under 'Biological Investigations' refer- 
ence is made to work in progress in Ala- 
bama, Arizona, California, Idaho, and 
North Dakota. Migration reports have 
been secured from about 200 volunteer 
observers, and acknowledgement made 
of the service the reports of this kind 
already on file were to the Survey in 
formulating the regulations of the migra- 
tory bird bill. 

Each year shows a slight increase in 
the number of birds (chiefly Canaries) 
imported into this country. In 1908 
325,285 were imported, last year the num- 
ber reached 392,422. 



The report shows that seven new na- 
tional bird reservations, including the 
Aleutian Islands, were set aside during 
the year ending June 30, 1913, raising 
the total number now existing to sixty- 
three. Comments on the new reservations 
and reports from some of the old ones 
are given. 

The report concludes with an outline 
of the Survey's increasingly important 
work for game protection. — F. M. C. 

An Account of the Birds and Mammals 
of the San Jacinto Area of South- 
ern California, with Remarks upon 
the Behavior of Geographic Races on 
the Margins of Their Habitats. By J. 
Grinnell and H. S. Swarth. Univ. 
of Cal. Pub. in Zool., Vol. 10, No. 10, 
pp. 197-406, pis. 6-10, 3 text figs. 
Oct. 31, 1913. 

This is an important contribution to 
regional and philosophic zoology. The 
authors are thoroughly equipped to handle 
their problem in field and study and we 
are becoming increasingly indebted to 
them for the growing series of papers for 
which independently, or together, they 
are responsible. 

Following details of when, where, and 
by whom the observations and collections 
on which this paper is based were made, 
are descriptions of the localities worked, 
and this is succeeded by a discussion of 
the 'Life Areas of the Region,' in which it 
is shown that the ranges of species are 
controlled by zonal, faunal, and associa- 
tional factors. The term "Associations," 
as here defined, is said to be "allied 
in meaning to the formations' of 
some botanists." Associations are 
classed as of major and minor rank. 
Chaparral, for example, is of major 
rank, chinquapin chaparral of minor 
rank. Thus Stephens's Fox Sparrow is 
said to belong "to the Chinquapin minor 
association, of the Chaparral major asso- 
ciation of the San Bernardino Faunal 
division of the Transition zone," a some- 
what sonorous formula which possibly 



(54) 



Book News and Reviews 



55 



might sound less formidable after one 
becomes accustomed to it. 

One hundred and sixty-nine species and 
sub-species of birds are recorded from the 
area in question, and pp. 224-319 are 
devoted to a presentation of the facts 
ascertained in regard to their distribution 
and habits. 

In discussing the behavior of geographic 
races on the margins of their habitats 
(pp. 393-395), the authors state their 
belief that the characters on which geo- 
graphic races are based are stable and not, 
therefore, somatic. Their paper is illus- 
trated with a colored map of the life 
zones of the San Jacinto area and an 
exceedingly interesting profile, along the 
"divide separating desert and Pacific 
drainages, in southern California, from the 
high southern Sierras to the Mexican line, 
showing life-zones." Like others of the 
series to which it belongs, in manner of 
arrangement and appearance this paper 
is above criticism. — F. jNI. C. 

The Gannet, A Bird With a History. 
By J. H. GuRNEY. Illustrated with 
numerous photographs, maps and draw- 
ings, and one colored plate by Joseph 
Wolf. Witherby & Co., London, 1913, 
8vo. 11-567, pp., upward of 150 ills. 

That a volume of over 600 pages could 
be profitably devoted to the history of 
but one kind of bird would probably be 
doubted by most readers of books, and to 
them we would commend Mr. Gurney's 
work as a monograph which, in thoroughly 
covering its subject, illustrates also the 
need of space in which to do it. The 
author writes of the names and distribu- 
tion of the Gannet, of the localities in 
which it breeds or has bred, and a census 
of existing colonies permits him to esti- 
mate the number of Gannets now living 
as 101,000. 

He treats at length of the Gannet's 
nesting and general habits, of the develop- 
ment of its young, of its food and the 
manner in which it is secured, of its flight, 
of mortality among Gannets, with some 
discussion of the age which this bird 
attains, and there are also chapters on 
the Gannet's plumage, osteology, anat- 



omy, its historic and prehistoric remains 
and its allies. 

The mere enumeration of these major 
headings indicates the importance of this 
work, while the exceptional definiteness 
of the data presented makes it not only a 
noteworthy contribution to the literature 
of ornithology, but to the study of animal 
life in relation to environment. — F. M. C. 

The Birds of Connecticut. By John 
Hall Sage and Louis Bennett 
Bishop, assisted by Walter Park 
Bliss. Bull. 20, State Geological and 
Natural History, Hartford, 19 13. 8vo, 
370 pp. 

Written by men who have long been 
leading authorities on the bird-life of 
Connecticut, it goes without saying that 
this volume both adequately and accu- 
rately presents recorded knowledge and it 
at once takes it place among the stand- 
ard state lists. The method of treatment 
adopted involves a general statement of 
the manner of occurrence and status of 
the species, earliest, latest, and unseason- 
able records, and the situation of the nest, 
number of eggs and nesting dates for the 
breeding species. 

The total number of species and sub- 
species recorded is 334, of which 80 are 
listed as Residents, 78 as Summer Resi- 
dents, 38 as Winter Residents, 24 as 
Transient Visitants and 89 as Accidental 
Visitants. The last-mentioned figure 
shows that slightly more than one-fourth 
of the birds known from Connecticut are 
of only casual occurrence, a fact of no 
small interest in the study of distribu- 
tional problems. In this connection it 
may be suggested that in the light of 
this winter's invasion of Acadian Chicka- 
dees the record of the Hudsonian Chicka- 
dee on page 174 should refer to littoralis. 

A bibliography occupies pp. 202-257; 
and Part II of the work 'Economic 
Ornithology,' by Bishop, filling pp. 261- 
360, is an important addition to the Bulle- 
tin. 

The authors state their belief that the 
collecting of birds and eggs for scientific 
purposes "can never appreciably reduce 
their numbers, as long as they are pro- 



56 



Bird -Lore 



tected from loo much slaughter in the 
name of sport, and their eggs and young 
arc guarded from cats," "which," they 
add, "probably do as much damage to the 
young of our small, useful birds near our 
towns and cities as all other agencies 
combined." — F. M. C. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Condor. — The autumn number of 
The Condor,' which is usually published 
about the middle of September, appears 
this time under date of October 15 and 
contains only three general articles. The 
first paper is one of the occasional techni- 
cal studies which are always welcome 
contributions to our knowledge of the 
systematic relationships and distribution 
of some group. This paper, by H. S. 
Swarth, is devoted to 'A Revision of the 
California Forms of Plpilo maculalus,' 
the Spotted Towhee. Six subspecies are 
recognized as occurring in California, three 
of which are of general distribution. One 
of these, the Sacramento Towhee (P. m. 
falciiielliis) is described as new, based on 
a specimen from the Marysville Buttes 
in Sutter County, and, as its name indi- 
cates, it ranges throughout the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin valleys. The San 
Francisco Towhee {P. m. falcifer) ranges 
along the coast from the northern border 
of the state to San Luis Obispo County, 
while the Spurred Towhee {P. m. megal- 
onyx) occupies the southern coast region. 
The other three forms are very limited 
in distribution. The Oregon Towhee is 
represented by a single specimen collected 
on San Clemente Island; the Nevada 
Towhee is restricted to the Warners 
Mountain region in the northeastern 
corner of the state, and the San Clemente 
Towhee is found only on San Clemente and 
Santa Catalina Islands. 

'An Unusual Nesting Site of the Mal- 
lard' on Columbia Slough, Oregon, is des- 
cribed by O. J. Murie. The nest, built 
in the crotch of an ash tree, 9 feet from 
the ground, contained 10 eggs. Nine of 
these eggs hatched safely and the young 
birds evidently found their way to the 



water nearby but the author was too late 
to observe their transfer from the nest. 

Under the title 'Call-notes and Man- 
nerisms of the Wren-tit,' Joseph Grinnell 
recognizes seven distinct kinds of notes 
and comments on several inaccuracies 
regarding the habits ascribed to this bird. 

Among the shorter notes are several 
records by Allan Brooks including those of 
a Water Turkey (Anhinga anhinga) seen 
on the California side of the Colorado 
River, Feb. 9, 19 13; an eastern Phoebe 
collected at Moss Beach March 7, 1913; 
and a Bryant's Marsh Sparrow taken at 
Carpinteria, Calif., Dec. 23, 191 2, the 
last being the southernmost occurrence of 
this bird thus far recorded. 

In a timely review Grinnell criticizes 
certain inaccuracies in a 'Check-List of 
the Birds of the Sequoia National Park,' 
mentioning five deviations from the A. O. 
U. 'Check-List' and ten very question- 
able records in a list of 184 species. It is 
true that these should not have occurred 
but we venture to say that examination 
of a carefully annotated copy of the A. 
O. U. 'Check-List' would show a sur- 
prisingly large number of corrections of 
various kinds even in this standard ref- 
erence book. No paper is free from mis- 
takes and when they occur they should be 
corrected. Now that attention has been 
called to the Sequoia Park bird-list, we 
trust that the next edition will have the 
errors corrected and be otherwise im- 
proved. In time we should have an accu- 
rate and well annotated list of the birds 
of each of the National Parks. — T. S. P. 

The Wilson Bulletin (No. 84, Sept. i, 
1913) opens with an important contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of the life-history 
of the Glossy Ibis by Oscar E. Baynard 
who records no less than twenty-six 
nests of this rare bird from Florida; an 
even more extensive study of the nesting 
habits of a single species is presented by 
Cordelia J. Standwood who, on pp. 118- 
137, writes of the Olive-back Thrush in its 
summer home in Maine. Her paper, like 
that of Baynard's, is illustrated by some 
excellent photographs. 



Book News and Reviews 



57 



G. Eifrig tells of 'A Vacation in Quebec' 
and Allen Cleghorn of 'The Winter Birds 
of Algonquin Park, Ontario,' from which 
he has recorded 35 species at that season. 

Number 85 of the Bulletin (Dec, 1913) 
opens with one of Miss Althea R. Sher- 
man's careful, exhaustive studies of the 
life of the nest entitled 'Experiments in 
Feeding Hummingbirds During Seven 
Summers' and another addition to the 
now growing number of intensive studies 
of the home-life of birds is furnished by 
Ira N. Gabrielson, under the title 'Nest 
Life of the Catbird.' 

In 'Bird Notes from the Southwest,' 
J. L. Sloanaker records with enthusiasm 
and hence readable observations made 
near Tucson, Arizona; T. C. Stephens 
gives the data of 'An Unusual Flight of 
Warblers in the Missouri Valley,' and the 
number is closed with editorials, notes, 
and reviews. No field student should be 
without the Wilson Bulletin. — F. M. C. 

Book News 

'The Audubon Calendar' of the 
Massachusetts Audubon Society for 19 14 
resembles in style those of preceding 
years. It contains life-size colored figures 
of the Wood Pewee, Tree Swallow, Cres- 
ted Flycatcher, Orchard Oriole, Golden- 
winged Warbler, and Chipping Sparrow. 
The accompanying text is from Hoffman's 
excellent 'Guide to the Birds of New 
England and Eastern New York.' 

A 'Bird Almanac,' published bj' 
the Audubon Society of Buffalo met with 
such a well-deserved reception that the 
edition was quickly disposed of. With a 
calendar it combines quotations in verse 
and prose, and a large number of attrac- 
tive and seasonably suitable photographs 
of birds from nature. The success of the 
Buffalo Society in this venture should 
stimulate other local or state bird clubs to 
prepare almanacs or calendars adapted to 
the bird-life of their region. 

The first number of the second volume 
(January, 1914) of 'The American Bird- 



House Journal,' published by the Jacobs 
Bird-House Co., at Waynesburg, Pa., con- 
tains reports of experiences in establish- 
ing Martin colonies, and much other news 
of interest to those who would have bird 
tenants. 

Mr. Edward F. Bigelow, who for 
fourteen years has so successfully edited 
the department of 'Nature and Science' 
in St. Nicholas, has resigned from the 
staff of that magazine, and hereafter will 
devote himself more exclusively to 'The 
Guide to Nature,' which he proposes 
greatly to improve and to enlarge. Mr. 
E. J. Sawyer, the well-known bird artist, 
will take charge of a new department 
under the heading of 'Birds in the Bush,' 
and Mr. Bigelow himself will conduct a 
section to be known as 'The Fun of 
Seeing Things.' 

Geo. Newnes Ltd., 8-1 1 Southamp- 
ton Street, Strand, London, announces 
as important additions to their 'Country 
Life' library 'Our Common Sea-Birds,' 
by Percy R. Lowe, and 'The Peregrine 
Falcon at the Eyrie,' by Francis Heath- 
erly. Both are fully illustrated with photo- 
graphs from nature. 

The British Ornithologists' Bird Club 
issues as its 190th Bulletin 'A Guide to Sel- 
borne and Synopsis of the Life of Gilbert 
White,' by W. H. Mullens. Wholly aside 
from its distinction as the scene of Gilbert 
White's intimate studies of nature, its own 
attractions for the bird-lover may well 
make it a Mecca for every American orni- 
thologist visiting England, and we there- 
fore cordiallj' recommend this Bulletin, 
which can be purchased of Witherby & Co., 
320 High Holborn, London, for two shil- 
lings and sixpence. 

The Smithsonian Institution repub- 
lishes in its report for 1912 (pp. 475-482) 
Gain's 'The Penguins of the Antarctic 
Regions.' As naturalist of the Charcot 
Expedition, Dr. Gain had exceptional 
opportunity for the study of these remark- 
able birds. 



5^ 



Bird - Lore 



^irD Sore 

A Bi-Monthly Magazine 

Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 

OFFICIAL OEGAN OF THE AUDUBON SOCIETIES 

Edited by FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

ContributingEditor.MABELOSGOOD WRIGHT 

Published by D. APPLETON & CO. 



Vol. XVI Published February 4, 1913 No. 1 
SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

Price in the United States. Canada and Mexico, tuenty cents 
a number, one dollar a year, postage paid. 

COPYRIGHTED. 1913, BY FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush Is Worth Two in the Hand 



The southward invasion this winter of 
Acadian Chickadees has brought this 
species to the notice of many observers 
to whom it was before a stranger, and 
various notes we have received indicate 
that the comparatively recent change in 
the common name of this eastern form has 
created more or less confusion. 

In 1722 Forster described a Chickadee 
from Ft. Severn, Hudson Bay, as Parus 
[now Penthestes] hudsonicus, and, until 
the 19 ID edition of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union's 'Check-List' appeared, 
this bird, commonly known as the 'Hud- 
sonian Chickadee,' was the only bird of 
its type recognized by the Union from 
eastern North America. In 1863, however, 
Bryant described an eastern race of this 
Chickadee as Partis hudsonicus var. 
littoralis, basing his description on a 
specimen from Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. 
Bryant's proposed race was ignored for 
many years, but it proves to be recog- 
nizable, and the name littoralis is now 
applied to the Chickadees of the hud- 
sonicus type inhabiting northern New 
England, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Quebec and Newfoundland, while the 
subspecific name hudsonicus is restricted 
to those from farther north and west. It 
is to this more northern race that the 
name Hudsonian Chickadee now properly 
belongs, while to littoralis, the more 
southern race, the name Acadian Chicka- 
dee has been given. The differences 
between the two are too slight to be 



obvious in nature, but an examination of 
specimens proves, as might be expected, 
that the birds which have visited southern 
New England this winter are of the 
littoralis type, and hence they should be 
known as Acadian Chickadees. 

Mr. W. L. Dawson's bird census from 
Santa Barbara, published on another 
page, came at the last moment when it 
was possible to insert it. He writes: 
"Just as I am closing I am reminded that 
I have followed my habitual order of the 
California Check-List (Grinnell's) instead 
of the A. O. U., as I had intended." He 
adds that he had not time to revise his 
list, nor have we. It is too interest- 
ing to omit, and it is published therefore 
as an excellent illustration of the evil of 
using other than the accepted standard 
of classification for faunal lists in which 
convenience of reference is of infinitely 
greater importance than the expression of 
one's opinion as to whether one family of 
birds should precede or succeed another. 

Mr. Fuertes' articles on the songs of 
tropical birds seem to us to prove what we 
have long believed to be true, that one 
can best convey a conception of the char- 
acter of certain songs by describing the 
effect on the listener rather than the song 
itself. 

Purposes of exact analytical record may 
possibly be served by musical annotation, 
when the employment of this method is 
possible; but miles of notes accurately 
placing on the staff the trills of the Tina- 
mou would not begin to convey the impres- 
sion created by its song as vividly as 
Fuertes does in a paragraph. 

Leo E. Miller, one of the representa- 
tives of the American Museum, with 
Colonel Roosevelt, writes us from Buenos 
Aires that he saw in a warehouse there 
()o,ooo kilos of Rhea plumes taken from 
killed birds. The figures are almost 
incredible. That a single firm should have 
60 tons of the feathers of this bird at one 
time implies destruction on a scale which 
surely no species can long withstand. 



Cbe ^luDubon ^octette^ 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Edited by ALICE HALL 'WALTER 

Address all communications relative to the work of this depart- 
ment to the editor, at S3 Arlington Avenue, Providence, R. L 



SIGNS OF THE TIMES 



In a recent bulletin entitled Animal Communities in Temperate America, 
as Illustrated in the Chicago Region,"* a study in animal ecology of practical 
interest to the general nature-lover as well as to the student, man's relation 
to nature and his conduct toward animals are frankly discussed and criticized. 

The writer makes a strong plea for "a. consideration of wild nature as it 
really is," instead of a sentimental conception of the relations which bind 
together all forms of life. He draws a vivid picture of the conditions of prime- 
val nature w^here the struggle for existence goes on uninterrupted or unhindered 
by man, and of what he styles "a man-made nature from which the con- 
spicuous animals and their deadly struggles have been eliminated." 

We are living to-day very largely in this man-made nature, a nature which 
is constantly changing by reason of man's acti\dties and which is often unduly 
influenced for better or worse by man's legislation. In advocating a broad 
and thoroughly sane study of past and present natural conditions, the author 
of this instructive bulletin warns against a biased or narrow field of vision. 
"With some people," he says, "birds obscure all else in the animal world. 
. . . Why protect birds? Is the present attempt justified? . . . All other 
things being equal there are but two more reasons for special measures for 
the preservation of birds than for the preservation of reptiles, amphibians 
or insects. First, birds are subject to destruction by reckless gunners. Second, 
they are less dependent upon natural conditions on the ground and are better 
able to sur\dve after land has been put under cultivation than some other 
groups. Many other animals whose diets are varied have been exterminated 
or will be so by agriculture, leaving the birds at the most easy point for pro- 
tective effort. The protection of birds should not be urged at the expense of 
the extermination of other animals because of their alleged occasional attacks 
upon birds. (Squirrels, for example.) The great danger of acting on partial 
truth regarding animal interdependences makes societies for the protection 
of birds alone scientifically and educationally unjustified. The protection of 
all groups should be urged, in particular through the preservation of the natural 

*Bulletin No. 5, Victor E. Shelford, Ph.D., of the University of Chicago, pub- 
lished by the Geographic Society of Chicago. 

(59) 



6o Bird - Lore 

features upon which they depend. . . . When one comes to love an animal 
or a group of animals, he is in no position to draw scientific conclusions regard- 
ing it. For this reason bird enthusiasts are not always to be trusted. (Intro- 
duction of the English Sparrow into this country, for example.) Mistaken and 
sentimental ideas cause the killing of many useful animals and the protec- 
tion of many noxious ones." (Snakes, skunks, shrews and centipedes are 
examples of useful animals which are ruthlessly killed wherever found.) 

This arraignment of a sentimental conception of nature is closed by the 
significant caution that with regard to the actual relations of the living world 
about us, "the complexity of the problem demands careful study and con- 
servative action." 

This is not the place to amplify the statements quoted or to defend the 
principle of bird-protection and the methods used to obtain it. It is the place, 
however, to emphasize the need of a clear, unprejudiced view of nature in 
general and of birds in particular, and to put forward a plea for a "back to 
nature" attitude in teaching or presenting publicly the facts about the world 
in which we, together with many other animals and living things, are placed. 
By a "back to nature" attitude is meant studying at first-hand not only birds 
but all that goes to make up their world and our world, the simple method of 
natural history as exemplified by Gilbert White and John James Audubon. 
We are not all scientists or even students, but we may all become careful and 
broad-minded observers, who see more than birds when afield, and beyond 
the present when considering measures of conservation. 

The reports of the State and National Audubon Societies for 1913 show 
that the time has come when nature-study will not much longer be kept out 
of public or private schools through indifference or misapprehension of our 
motives. Now is the time to prove the intrinsic value of this study, by helping 
teachers and educators to grasp it in a broad, sane way, not as a pleasing or 
entertaining form of instruction, although this it surely is, but as the basis 
of natural history, and later, of biology and other sciences along specialized 
lines. 

Some of the encouraging signs of the times are; first, that the demand for 
our work is apparent on every hand, and second, that criticisms of our aims 
and methods come from quarters of scientific research, indirectly interested 
in helping us deal with the subjects of birds and bird-protection in a funda- 
mental way. 

II 

The yearly record of the work done by our State Societies and National 
Association and the plans for future efi'ort therein outlined, offer so many 
suggestions worthy of our careful attention that it may not be out of place to 
mention a few especially encouraging points; and first, let us notice that the 
quotation from Mr. Dutcher's report of 1909, made by Mr. Pearson, to the 



The Audubon Societies 6i 

effect that education of the public with reference to the value of birds will 
result logically in their protection, is quite in line with the best ideals of con- 
servation as opposed to the sentimental plea for protection, condemned by 
Professor Shelford, provided that this education is put on a sufficiently 
broad basis, which we think is the aim of bird-protectionists in general. 

The Junior Audubon work is fast becoming a most important part of this 
great educational movement. The fact that it is being extended to Alaska so 
efficiently, is a fine exhibition of the energy and power controlling it. 

The Massachusetts bill, authorizing the appointment of paid bird-war- 
dens by city councils or town meetings, is a significant hint of what we may 
expect of an aroused public sentiment as a result of such education. Hitherto, 
game-wardens have been appointed with little attention to their fitness for the 
ofl&ce. California and Oregon are leading the way to the selection of wardens 
who shall be capable "not only of giving police service but who are fitted to 
carry on research and educational work" — in other words, a civil-service 
standard is now demanded in wide-awake communities in the matter of the 
protection and conservation of wild life. Arizona shows how a game-warden 
may be an equally capable President of the State Audubon Society. 

When bird-legislation is directed, as in Oregon, toward the restriction of the 
use of firearms by children under fourteen, the prevention of the pollution of 
streams, the seizure and sale of the outfits of illegal hunters, and against the 
shooting of game from a public highway, railroad right of way, ocean beach 
or the shores of a large river, the criticism of sentimental narrow-mindedness 
on the part of ornithological enthusiasts loses ground. 

What Mr. Swope says about cooperation with commissioners of education, 
editors of newspapers, and teachers in the matter of making this educational 
work, particularly, the Junior Audubon part of it, better understood, should 
be reread with care. 

The transfer of Dr. C. F. Hodge from the field of specialized biological 
investigation to the enlarged work of applied civic biology in connection with 
the former, and the natural history campaign in New Jersey are both notable 
happenings, the outcome of which is to be watched with keen interest. 

Space forbids more than the mention of the following items, each one of 
which might be looked up with profit. The results of supervision of nature- 
study in California by a special Director; the presentation of the cat problem 
in a leaflet by the Connecticut Audubon Society; spring-study classes in the 
District of Columbia; the model law of Kentucky, enforcing "the wTitten con- 
sent of the ow^ner" clause with reference to shooting upon farms; the new bird 
chart with explanatory pamphlet, issued by the Massachusetts Society, and 
also, the efforts of the Field Secretary in that state, to keep in touch with local 
work; the erection of bird-boxes in cemeteries and the investigation of the com- 
parative mortality of the bird-population in sections where nesting-boxes are 
placed, the distribution of food for birds in winter by rural mail carriers and 



62 Bird - Lore 

also, cooperation with the Associated Press, in Michigan; bird- and nature- 
study courses in summer schools, as suggested by the work of the President of 
the Minnesota Society; New Jersey's permanent exhibit of the economic value 
of birds; the extension work of the North Dakota Agricultural College and pre- 
miums offered by the State Audubon Society in connection with membership; 
the practical use of fees derived from hunting-licenses in North Carolina; 
Pennsylvania's exhibit in Philadelphia; museum- work as enlarged by the 
Audubon Society of Rhode Island; exhibits and visiting schools in East 
Tennessee; the results of cooperation in West Virginia, and finally, the effort to 
furnish teachers with suitable nature-study material and topics for class use 
in Wisconsin. 

Such a hasty survey of the manifold means now in operation for the edu- 
cation of the public along fair and broad lines of thought, concerning the value, 
use and conservation of nature, does scant justice to the inspiring effort of the 
bird-lovers of this country. The signs of the times point to a speedy and 
permanent uplift in the attitude of our people toward questions affecting wild 
life. 

By acting upon the suggestions of individual workers and societies, the 
results of our work as a whole may be easily doubled and tripled. — A. H. W. 



JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 
Exercise XIII: Correlated Studies, Botany and Reading 

THE BIRD'S LIFE IN WINTER 

Having studied briefly the way in which birds get their food, we may very 
profitably look about us during the winter months and see what it means for 
a bird to live in cold climates from fall until spring. 

And first, let us try to forget our own surroundings, and look out upon 
the world as the bird does. It would certainly seem a difficult matter to any 
civilized human being to find enough to eat and drink, to say nothing of suit- 
able shelter even in summer or autumn, when nature is most lavish in display- 
ing attractive food of many kinds and hospitable nooks protected from sun 
and storm, but in winter, one cannot imagine a more desolate fate, in northern 
latitudes at least, than to be cast adrift with no resource except one's hands and 
wits to sustain life. 

The bird's problem is more difi&cult, since it must brave not only cold, 
stormy weather, a variable and greatly lessened food-supply, but also dangers 
and enemies which man does not need to fear. Suppose we set down this 
problem as one might a sum in arithmetic, in two columns, one showing the 



The Auduben Socieries 63 

advantages and the other the disadvantages which a bird has, and add up the 
results to see what the actual chances are for birds to live in winter. 

Advantages — Disadvantages — 

Flight Scanty Food-supply 

Sight Enemies 

Plumage Colds 

Sense of Direction Storms 

Other Dangers 

Looking at the disadvantages first, we find that the food-supply of birds 
is decreased in many ways. Ponds, small streams and many rivers and lakes 
are generally frozen over, which means that most water- and shore-birds can- 
not find suitable feeding- areas in cold latitudes. A few species, like the Her- 
ring Gull and others of its kind, have discovered an artificial source of food in 
the garbage-scows about the harbors of our large cities and towns, but the 
majority of fish-eating, water-loving birds must migrate south in order to live 
through the winter. Some of the diving ducks find food on the coast or in 
open water throughout cold weather, but when we consider that they may 
go down as far as one hundred and fifty feet to secure a meal of small crus- 
taceans, clams or other tasty morsels, we realize that existence with them 
calls for far greater energy' and sense of location than we would have in simi- 
lar conditions. 

It is not cold weather, but the effect of cold weather which makes ice-bound 
surroundings unfit for most of these birds in winter, since lack of food or 
inability to break through the ice in search of food are both results of frigid 
conditions. 

Land-birds fare little better, with the exception of seed-eating and carnivor- 
ous species and a few insect-hunters like the Woodpeckers, Nuthatches and 
Chickadees, for the ground is frozen and covered with snow much of the time 
in winter, cutting off the supply of worms and sundry other small creatures. 

There are no winged insects flying about trees and shrubs or through the 
air. There are no nectar-bearing flowers and no berries or fruits except an 
occasional frozen apple, pear or the like while the supply of seeds and nuts is 
scanty as compared with autumn abundance, indeed, one might hunt a long 
time without discovering sufficient nourishment of any kind for a meal. 

There are pine-cones in certain places, to be sure, but only the Crossbills 
are fitted to pry them open. There is a great quantity of insects' eggs and 
larvae, too, well hidden away in crevices or under the bark of trees, or even 
rolled up in occasional dead leaves that cling and flutter in the high winds 
of January and February. 

There are some small animals which may be found by the far-seeing 
Hawks and Owls, field-mice and squirrels, for instance, but for the most part, 
the silence of the outdoor world is unmistakable — a land of plenty has become 
a land of want. 



64 Bird - Lore 

In addition to scarcity of food, birds must face enemies, although these 
are proljably fewer in winter than in summer, with the exception of the enemy 
man, who appears in the form of the trapper or hunter. The Shrikes or 
Butcher-birds are conspicuous in cold weather, ready to strike the unwary 
Kinglet, Redpoll, or Sparrow, on their legitimate search for mice and insects, 
while cats prowl at large, springing upon feathered prey with easy stealth. 

Some enemies of the birds are hidden away, sleeping through the cold 
months. The turtles, for example, some species of which are fond of the eggs 
of wild or domesticated Ducks, hibernate in winter, and many snakes lie 
in torpor too, rolled up singly or several together, in holes in the ground. 

Sudden drops in temperature and sleet-storms that cover everything with 
an ice-mantle are very hard upon bird-life, as the chronicles of nearly every 
winter tell us. In addition to these dangers, there are unsuspected dangers 
lurking in the form of electric wires and lights, high netted wire fences and 
polluted streams, but these cause more destruction among birds at other sea- 
sons of the year than in winter. Can you think for what reasons this is so? 

The one great advantage which birds possess over all other living things 
is the power of flight, a power that enables them to seek more favorable con- 
ditions when the winter is too rigorous and food over-scarce. Flight alone, 
however, could not save a bird from death by starvation although it might 
from death by cold. A wonderful sense of sight and a more mysterious sense 
of direction guide birds in their search for food, while a remarkable covering 
of feathers protects them alike from cold, moisture or heat. 

Look at the bark of any tree and listen carefully as you look, with your 
ear against the tree if you choose, and then watch a Woodpecker, Nuthatch 
or Brown Creeper do the same. Feel of the bark, running a finger slowly 
along its rough surface. Which sees and hears and feels the most, you or the 
birds? Try to follow a bird on its daily round of food-gathering and think 
whether you could locate a second time all the places which it visits as long as 
a food-suj)ply lasts. Notice how quickly a Chickadee discovers a chunk of suet 
put out to attract it and with what regularity it finds its way back to the novel 
ration. Try the same clothes on during the coldest day in winter and the 
warmest day in summer and stand out in a drenching rain or driving snow, 
if you wish to prove how far superior a bird's plumage is, as a means of 
protection, to our customary coverings. 

After all, it is very little that we know about life in the open in winter, 
shut up as we are in heated houses, surrounded with artificial light when 
darkness draws down, fed upon forced food-supplies from hothouses and 
distant climes when our gardens are frozen and unproductive, and protected 
in numberless ways from dangers and enemies of all kinds. 

A hole in a tree may look snug and tight to a Woodpecker, Owl or squirrel, 
but not to you or to me. The Ruffed Grouse keeps from freezing under a 
blanket of snow and Gulls sit upon the ice, but neither of these places would 



The Audubon Societies 65 

be safe or comfortable for us, for our blood would soon cool below the tempera- 
lure of the atmosphere and then we would be in danger of freezint^ to death. 
Many other animals besides man cannot live through intense cold, and these 
must do one of three things, go away (migrate), go to sleep in a protected place 
(hibernate), or perish. 

Of all birds which stay with us in winter, perhaps the seed-eaters are the 
most attractive. The gay Redpolls come down from the north in flocks to hunt 
for food; also the Crossbills and occasionally a Siskin or the rare Evening Gros- 
beak. In New Hampshire the Pine Grosbeak has already appeared, while 
any day a brilliant male Purple Finch in company with several dull speckled 
mates may greet you, let it snow or blow as it will. 

All of these birds sing, as do the Junco and Tree Sparrows, too, long before 
the great song-period of the year, the mating-season in late spring and early 
summer, so that they are especially welcome to us as February and March 
hold winter lingering in our neighborhood. 

Make friends then with the birds in winter, when they most need your 
kindly care, and repay them with a generous hand for their careful surveil- 
lance of trees and shrubs infested by insect pests. Be a part of nature, if you can, 
instead of a careless onlooker. It is not nearly as difficult as it seems to become 
intimate with birds and animals or with any living thing, but this may not 
be learned in books or by the fireside. The real nature-lover follows the trail 
on foot and through all kinds of weather. 

SUGGESTIONS 

Read selections from "Sharp Eyes," by Hamilton Gibson. 

"Wild Life near Home," by Dallas Lore Sharp. 

"Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers," by John Hurrou<,dis. 

"Walden" (Chap. XV. Winter x\nimals), by Henry Thoreau. 
What plants have seeds left on them in winter? W^hat trees bear cones? 
Where do worms, frogs and toads pass the winter? What animals sleep in winter? 
What would you expect to find under stones in winter? In decayed stumps or under 

masses of dead leaves ? 
Are the Bob-whites as hardy as the Grouse? 
What becomes of the bees, ants and spiders in cold weather? 
Look up Hibcnialioii in the p]ncyclop;edia Brltannica. — A. H. W'. 



FROM YOUNG OBSERVERS 

What Good Winter Birds Are 

The winter birds eat thousands of seeds. Some of the winter birds are 
the Downy Woodpecker, the Nuthatch, and the Junco. The Junco eats seeds. 
He likes the best, ragweed seeds and silver-leaf seeds. 

I have a bird-table. The Nuthatch, and the Downy Woodpecker visit 
it every day. Once a Sparrow came to eat. Then the Nuthatch came. They 



66 Bird - Lore 

had a fight. The Nuthatch came down the limb, and flew under the Sparrow, 
then came behind the Sparrow and drove him ofif. Then the Nuthatch ate his 
dinner. I put nuts, crumbs, and ground corn on my table. — David Prudden, 
(age ii), Logansville, N. J. 

[Will our young observers tell us what seeds the Junco likes best in their vicinities? 
Are there many seeds unfit to eat ? Each owner of a lunch-counter, food-table or even 
of a tree with suet attached may watch the actions of birds toward each other when 
feeding. In my bacii yard, the Blue Jay, Downy Woodpecker, White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, English Sparrow and Chickadee claim the suet put out, in the order named. — 
A. H. W.] 

A Turkey Buzzard's Nest 

Last summer, while camping in the woods near Kelly's Ripple, I noticed a 
large number of Buzzards in a swampy woods and concluded from their 
actions that they nested nearby. So I hunted for their nest several days and 
finally did stumble upon it by accident. It was simply a depression lined 
with leaves, under the overhanging edge of an old Indian mound, and con- 
tained two creamy white eggs lightly blotched with brown. I found this nest 
on May the fourth. It was a red-letter day for me, because I think a bird's 
nest is of more beauty and attraction than the bird itself, and it is the only 
Buzzard's nest I have ever found. I had to leave shortly afterwards and felt 
the keenest disappointment that I was not allowed to watch the incubation 
and growth of the young birds. — Chas. E. Carson (age 15). 

[What other species of birds nest on or near the ground? — A. H. W.] 



A Colony of Baltimore Orioles 

I live at Rudkin, W. Va. We have a Barker Junior Audubon Club in our 
school and I am a member. We have studied Bob-white and Cardinal, and are 
going to study the Baltimore Oriole at our next meeting. We all enjoy our 
meetings and our pictures so much. This fall I found four Baltimore Oriole's 
hammock nests on our farm. There must have been a colony of them. I am 
going to watch for them next year and see if they come back to the same 
place again. 

We are going to make bird-houses in January and February in order to 
have them ready for the first Bluebird. 

I like to feed the birds now while it is so cold for they get so tame they will 
eat with the chickens. — Lulu Barker (age 12). 

[Finding nests when the trees are bare is a pleasant and instructive diversion, for 
one can see plainly then just how the nests are placed and how well they were built. 
What other nests besides the Baltimore Oriole's may be found in winter? — A. H. W.] 



The Audubon Societies 67 

A Story About a Bluebird 

The Bluebirds like a warmer climate, therefore there are not many Blue- 
birds here in cold weather. They lay four eggs in a nest. It takes twenty-five 
days for their eggs to hatch, and their eggs are also blue. They lay their 
eggs in May and June. They build their nest of grass and hair. 

The Bluebird sings sweet songs, which are pleasing to the eye and charming 
to the ear. The Bluebird eats grasshoppers and crickets and green grass and 
corn and wheat. The Bluebirds are careful not to betray the location of their 
home and do not sing near their nest. A female is different than a male. The 
male Bluebird's feathers are dark. The female's feathers are light blue, and 
a female does not go very far from her nest. 

A Bluebird does not like anybody to bother its nest. You can tame Blue- 
birds to be pets. A Bluebird has a short bill and a fuzzy tail, and takes a trip 
down south in the winter time. A Bluebird will not fight over her young ones. 

The male Bluebird does not rely only on the charms of his plumage to win 
him a mate but woos her also with voice. Bluebirds are most desirable 
citizens from every point of view, and are as useful as they are beautiful. — 
Ross E. Gideon, Tonganoxie, Kans. 

[This little story has much information in it about one of our most attractive song- 
sters. Now that the writer of it has learned so many facts about the Bluebird from 
books, it will give him added pleasure to study this species out-of-doors, and see for him- 
self Just what kinds of food it prefers, where its nest is located, when the young are 
hatched, whether its tail is really fuzzy or not, and many other details. Perhaps he can 
tell us later on whether the Bluebird is decreasing in numbers in Kansas. — ^A. H. W.) 

The Bluebird 

By GARRETT NEWKIRK 

Fond lover of home; Clay-colored his breast, 

Tho' far he may roam And white to the nest. 

Over the wide, green earth, Cerulean blue to the sky; 

For mating and loving and singing he He seems to be telling of peace upon 

comes earth, 

Back to the land of his birth. And glory of heaven on high. 

First color he brings, And when in the fall 

The first note sings. The last low call 

When skies are gloomy and gray; Of Bluebird comes to the ear. 

The hour of his choice and sound of A feeling of sorrow we have for the 

his voice, morrow, — 

Make a memorial day. To know he is gone for the year. 



THE WOOD THRUSH 

By T. GILBERT PEARSON 



Cl^e Rational ^00octatton ot Sintmhon ^otietk0 

EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET No. 72 



Throughout the southern part of its range this bird is widely known as 
the Wood Robin. Altogether, this is not a bad name. The Wood Thrush is 
not far from the size of our well-known and much-beloved Redbreast, and 
its movements when walking or hopping along the ground are strikingly sim- 
ilar to those of this well-known species. A near approach reveals the fact that 
the general marking, particularly the heavily spotted breast, is quite distinct. 
At close range, therefore, there is little possibility of even the most amateur 
student confusing the two birds in the adult plumage. The wonderfully melo- 
dious song of this Thrush is highly characteristic. As Dr. Chapman has said, 
"It is a message of hope and good cheer in the morning, a benediction at the 
close of day." 

In 'Useful Birds and Their Protection,' Mr. E. H. Forbush has written: 
"The song of the Wood Thrush is one of the finest specimens of bird music 
that America can produce. Among all the bird songs that I have heard, it is 
second only in quality to that of the Hermit Thrush. It is not 
The Song projected upon the still air with the effort that characterizes the 

bold and vigorous lay of the Robin, or the loud and intermittent 
carol of the Thrasher. Its tones are solemn and serene. They seem to harmonize 
with the sounds of the forest, the whispering breeze, the purling water, or the 
falling of rain-drops in the summer woods. As with most other birds, there is a 
great difference in the excellence of individual performers, and, while some males 
of the species can produce such notes as few birds can rival, this cannot be said 
of all. At evening, the bird usually mounts to the higher branches of the taller 
trees, often upon the edge of the forest, where nothing intervenes to confine 
or subdue his 'heavenly music' There, sitting quite erect, he emits his wonder- 
ful notes in the most leisurely fashion, and apparently with little effort. 
A-olle, he sings, and rests; then, unhurried, pours forth a series of inter- 
mittent strains, which seem to express in music the sentiment of nature; 
powerful, rich, metallic, with the vanishing vibratory tones of the bell, they 
seem like a vocal expression of the mystery of the universe, clothed in a melody 
so pure and ethereal that the soul, still bound to its earthly tenement, can 
neither imitate nor describe it. The song rises and falls, swells and dies away, 
until dark night has fallen. The alarm note of the bird is a sharp pit, pit, 
several times repeated; this alarm often rises to a long roll. A soft cluck, also 
repeated, is sometimes heard. A mellow, rather liquid chirp is another common 
note." 

(68) . 







WOOD THRUSH 
Order — Passeres Family — Tukdid^ 

Genus — Hylocichla Species — Mustelina 

National Association of Audubon Societies 



The Wood Thrush 



69 



The Wood Thrush is not among the early feathered arrivals in spring. In 
fact, we do not see it until the new leaves are well started, and warm weather 

has advanced sufl&ciently to render improbable the recurrence 
In Spring of One of those backward blasts of winter which so often occur 

in early spring. It is during the last ten days of April that we 
usually lind the first Wood Thrush in the latitude of New York. Within a few 
days after his song is heard ringing through the woodlands, practically all the 
Wood Thrush delegation arrives. Love-making shortly begins, and full comple- 
ments of eggs may be looked for within three weeks. 




NEST AND EGGS OF WOOD THRUSH IN CEDAR TREE, DEMAREST, N. J. 

Photographed by B. S. Bowdish 

The building of a nest to suit the taste of a pair of Wood Thrushes involves 
no small amount of labor. Although the birds feed on the ground, and spend 

much of their time running or hopping about in the grass or 
The Nest among the fallen leaves, they do not regard this as a good place 

for their eggs and young. Up in a small tree from six to ten feet 
above the earth they choose their nesting-site. In the fork of an upright limb, 
or where the main stem of a sapling divides, is looked upon as a choice loca- 
tion. Here large dead leaves, and sometimes pieces of paper, are brought, and 
these, held together with sticks and twigs, form the bottom and sides of the 



70 Bird - Lore 

structure. Mud is brought to make the inner cup secure and strong. This 
feature of the nest follows closely the architectural plan employed by the 
Robin. The similarity ends here, however, for the Wood Thrush's nest is 
usually lined with fine rootlets, while the Robin seems to prefer dried grass for 
this purpose. 

The eggs are usually deposited one each day, until the full complement 
has been reached. Four is the number most generally laid, although the bird 

may sometimes be found engaged in the business of incubation 
Eggs with only three, and again five may be seen. The color is a 

delightful bluish green, and, by way of comparison, it may be 
said that they are lighter and do not possess such a deep green as the Cowbird. 
In fact, they resemble very closely those of the Robin, and if they were only 
slightly darker it would be almost impossible to distinguish the two. 




YOUNG WOOD THRUSH JUST AFTER LEAVING NEST 
Photographed by B. S. Bowdish 

In reference to its food, the Wood Thrush is classified as an insect-eating 
bird, and its value as such has become so generally recognized that it is now 

protected by local laws in all parts of the United States where 
Its Food it is found. As an additional safeguard, a measure known as 

the McLean law, which was enacted by Congress in the year 
1913, absolutely prohibits the killing of these birds at all seasons in all parts 
of the country. In this way, the bird now dwells beneath the combined pro- 
tection of the Government and the several states. As most of this bird's life is 
passed on the ground or among the shrubbery, we would naturally expect it 



The Wood Thrush 71 

to eat those small forms of life found in such situations; and, in fact, careful 
observation has found such to be true. Practically any insect which it comes 
upon in its apparently aimless travels about the groves and thickets is doomed 
to speedy destruction, unless escape is instantly effected. Beetles which in- 
habit the ground or the bark of trees are eaten, as well as grasshoppers, snails, 
spiders, and the larvae of many moths and other succulent insects. Now and 
then the bird steals into the garden to take a gooseberry or blackberry, but, 
if the earth has been recently spaded, it shows a decided preference for any 
cutworm, or other undergrowing form of similar character, which may have 
been exposed to the light of day. Wood Thrushes eat wild fruit and berries to 
some extent, but their characteristic shyness evidently prevents them from 
acquiring that intimacy with mankind which would tend to make them feel 
as much at home in the cherry tree as does our dear, but at times annoying, 
Robin. 

All wild creatures, of course, have their enemies. Snakes, weasels, hawks, 
and owls are among what we may call the natural enemies of small birds. 

Against these destroyers our feathered friends have for long 
Enemies centuries been able to hold their own in numbers. Mankind, 

however, has brought many changes in the wild-life conditions 
of the country, and, while we have destroyed many of the creatures which 
formerly thinned the Wood Thrush ranks, we have introduced others whose 
destructive effects are vastly more potent. Here is the tragic trio which we 
have let loose upon American wild bird life; the sling-shot boy, the all-eating 
Italian, and the ravenous house cat. 

Classification and Distribution 

The Wood Thrush belongs to the Order Passeres, Suborder Oscines, Family 
TurdidcB, Subfamily TurdincE. Its scientific name is Hylocichla mustelina. It breeds 
from southern South Dakota and southern New Hampshire, south to eastern Texas 
and northern Florida, and winters from southern Mexico to Nicaragua and Costa 
Rica, occurring casually in winter as far north as New Jersey. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Edited by T. GILBERT PEARSON. Secretary 

Address all correspondence, and send all remittances for dues and contributions, to 
the National Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City 

William Dutcher, President 
F. A. Lucas, Acting President T. Gilbert Pearson, Secretary 

Theodore S. Palmer, First Vice-President Jonathan Dwight, Jr.. Treasurer 
Samuel T. Carter, Jr., Attorney 

.Any person, club, school or company in sympathy with the objects of this Association may become 
a member, and all are welcome. 

Classes of Membership in the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild 
Birds and Animals: 

$5.00 annually pays for a Sustaining Membership 
Sioo.oo paid at one time constitutes a Life Membership 
$1,000.00 constitutes a person a Patron 
$5,000.00 constitutes a person a Founder 
$25,000.00 constitutes a person a Benefactor 



Egret Protection for 1914 

Never have the officers of this Associa- 
tion appealed to the members and friends 
of the movement for support for our cam- 
paign against the aigrette traffic with 
more confidence than we do at this time. 
This feeling is based on the knowledge 
that the past year witnessed greater results 
from Audiihon activities than has any like 
period in the history of American bird 
protection. 

The Record for 1913 

Just glance for a moment at what was 
accomplished by the Association with the 
$10,000 contributed to the Egret Protec- 
tion Fund last year: 

First. The passage of the Pennsylvania 
.\nti-Plumage Law, which put an end to 
the business of the great wholesale feather 
dealers whose American headcjuarters 
were located in Philadelphia. 

Second. The passage of laws preventing 
the sale of aigrettes also in the states of 
Michigan and Vermont. 

Third. The employment of field agents 
to locate colonies of breeding Egrets in 
the southern states. 

Fourth. The employment of a force 
of eighteen Wardens, who so successfully 
guarded the 8,000 Egrets in these rook- 
eries that throughout the nesting season 
not over twelve of the protected birds are 



believed to have been killed by plume- 
hunters. 

Fifth. Secured a hearing before the 
Ways and Means Committee of Con- 
gress, and later, with the cooperation of 
the New York Zoological Society, con- 
ducted a campaign of publicity and per- 
sonal appeal, which finally resulted in 
the passage of the Federal Plumage Law. 
])rohibiting the importation of feathers of 
wild birds to America. 

Si.vlh. Secured evidence which led to 
the prosecution of five plume-hunters in 
Morida and several milliners in northern 
cities. 

Seventh. By means of attractive litera- 
ture, magazine, and newspaper articles, a 
more systematic and wide-extended propa- 
ganda of public education on the cruelty 
of wearing feathers was conducted than 
during any previous year in our history. 

With this showing of results accom- 
plished during the past twelve months, we 
come before the public with the utmost 
confidence, believing that the good people 
of the country will be even more ready 
than heretofore to support this well- 
organized, well-known, and productive 
humane movement. 

Plans for the Present Season 

The Association must have at least 
$10,000 at the earliest possible moment 



(72) 



The Audubon Societies 



73 



for Egret protection work the coming 
year. Here are some of the things which 
are urgently needed: 

First. A bill has already been intro- 
duced in Congress to amend the national 
law which prohibits the importation of 
feathers. This, and doubtless other meas- 
ures of similar character, must be met. 

Second. It is important to secure laws 
for stopping the sale of feathers in many 
states where this traffic is still permitted. 

Third. The work of locating and guard- 
ing nesting colonies of Egrets has proved 
so remarkably successful that we feel the 
utmost justification in urging the con- 
tinuance and increase of this effort. 

Fourth. The illegal sale of aigrettes at 
Florida winter resorts and in millinery 
stores in the North must be broken up 
by careful detective work. 

Fifth. There is much educational work 
yet to be done by appealing to the press 
and supplying schools and farmers' 
institutes with literature on the subject. 

Sixth. To hundreds of women's clubs 
in the country speakers should be sent to 
lecture on the needless cruelty of wearing 
bird feathers for hat trimmings. 

If our friends could but visit the home 
office of the National Association, and 
here see the number of wonderful oppor- 
tunities for effective work which come 
flooding in, they would certainly be pro- 
foundl}' impressed with the great open- 
ings presented for useful service. Wc 
have the organization, and -we have the 
experienced workers; all we need is the 
necessary funds. The work is conducted 
on lines of the most careful economy 
consistent with securing good results, 
and every dollar contributed to the 
Association is made to reach just as far 
as possible. 

This work of preserving the White 
Egrets is one of the most human move- 
ments in the interests of wild life which 
has ever been undertaken. Will you not 
lend it the aid of your practical support 
and speak to your friends on the subject? 

As we go to press, the following con- 
tributions for the Egret Protection Fund 
for 1914 have been received: 



Balance unexpended from 1913, 

as per Annual Report S433 78 

Kuser, Mr. John Drj'den. ... 20 00 

Bliss, Miss Lucy B 10 00 

Brown, Mr. T. Hassall 10 00 

Fairbanks, Miss Maria B.. . . 2 00 

Hodgman, Miss E. M 5 00 

Kempton, Miss May M i 00 

Kimball, Mrs. D. P 25 00 

Norfolk Bird Club 2726 

Phelps, Mrs. J. W 10 00 

Tod, Mr. J. Kennedy 10 00 

$554 04 
To Amend the Plumage Law 

Many women returning from abroad 
who have attempted to bring in aigrettes 
or other birds' feathers on their hats have 
been made to feel keenly the strong arm 
of the new federal law. There have been 
many outcries of resentment from those 
who felt it an outrage that, in their case, 
the law should be enforced. Law is all 
right for other people, but there are not 
many of us who will praise a restrictive 
legislative measure when its enforcement 
interferes with our own pleasure or 
convenience. So women who have lost 
their plumes by the watchfulness of the 
Customs officials have had no hesitancy 
in voicing their indignation. 

And now they have found a champion 
in the person of Congressman E. Y. 
Webb, of Shelby, North Carolina. He 
declares that the ladies' wrongs shall be 
righted. To bring this about he intro- 
duced a bill (H.R. iioio) in Congress, on 
December ig, 1913, to amend the new 
plumage measure. The change which he 
proposes is to add the following ])aragraph 
to the existing law: 

"Provided further, That, in the case of 
residents of the L^nited States returning 
from abroad, aigrettes, quills, heads, 
wings, tails, skins, or parts of skins, of 
wild birds lawfully in the United States 
prior to October fourth, nineteen hundred 
and thirteen, and taken by such residents 
out of the United States to foreign coun- 
tries subsequent to that date, shall be 
admitted to entry, on return, upon their 
identity being established under appro- 
priate rules and regulations to be pre- 
scribed by the Secretary of the Treasury." 




FORRESTER ISLAND, ALASKA, GOVERNMENT BIRD RESERVATION 

Over 200,000 sea-birds bred here in 1913. Photographs made by the Association's specia 

agent, Mr. Harold Heath. 




LOOKING SOUTH OVER FORRESTER ISLAND 
Twenty-one species of land birds were here identified 



(74) 




HIGHLAND MEADOW-LAND, FORRESTER ISLAND 

Eagle's bathing place on roots to left 



^^^^.^^f^^: 




ON THE GROUND IN THE WOODS, FORRESTER ISLAND 
Note entrances to nesting burrows of Leach's Petrels and Cassin's Auklets under stump and tree roots 



(75) 



76 



Bird - Lore 



The Silz Case 

Probably the most gigantic attempt to 
defraud the state of New York in the 
matter of violating the game laws was the 
one for which the Franco-American 
Poultry Company has just paid the State 
Conservation Commission the sum of 
$20,000 in settlement, rather than risk 
trial and a heavier punishment. This is 
the largest penalty ever paid in this 
country for breaking a game-i>rotccti\-e 
measure. 

The Bayne Law in New York State, 
which makes it illegal to sell American 
game-birds, provides, however, that any 
one who will secure a breeder's license from 
the State Conservation Commission may 
raise Mallard and Black Ducks, and cer- 
tain other game, and market the same. 
Late in 191 2, A. Silz, of New York City, 
America's largest dealer in game, secured 
such a permit for the Franco-American 
Poultry farm at Goshen, New York. To 
this farm he then had shipped between 
3,000 and 4,000 wild Ducks, trapped for 
him along the coast of Virginia. At 
(ioshen they were promptly killed, and 
rcshipped to the markets of New York 
City, presumably as Ducks raised and 
sold under the Game Breeders' permit. 

Few cases of game law violations have 
contained for the writer so many exciting 
and interesting phases as did this one. 
For several months Mr. C. E. Brewster, 
game-law expert for the United States 
Department of Agriculture, made this 
ofl&ce his headquarters while in the city, 
ferreting out the necessary evidence to 
bring a prosecution. There were puzzling 
turns and bewildering complications in 
the trail of guilt, for the transactions of 
the Franco-American Poultry Company 
had been most skilfully covered. 

A full story of how this case was worked 
out by Mr. Brewster and the Hon. George 
Van Kennen, Chairman of the State 
Conservation Commission, would fill a 
volume of considerable size. Long con- 
ferences were held in the offices of the 
National Association, in which wejwent 
over with the utmost detail every point 



as the case developed. The Secretary 
also accompanied Mr. Brewster to the 
Poultry Company's farm at Goshen, 
where we secured much damaging infor- 
mation. 

Although kind letters have been received 
from both Mr. Brewster and Mr. Van 
Kennen, thanking the Association for 
our assistance, in a perfectly truthful 
statement of the case it must be admitted 
that these energetic and resourceful 
officials received no very substantial or 
necessary aid from any outside source. 

England's Plumage Bill 

The bill now pending in the British 
Parliament to prohibit the importation 
of the plumage of wild birds into the 
United Kingdom, the full text of which 
appeared in Bird-Lore for September- 
October, 1913, is being fought with great 
desperation and fierceness. The millinery 
wholesalers and importers, after witness- 
ing the crash and devastation wrought 
among their fellows of the feather-looting 
fraternity in America, when our general 
plumage law went into effect, are strug- 
gling in a frenzied manner to stem the 
rising tide of English public opinion. 

On the other hand, the workers of the 
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 
and their associates are equally alive to 
the situation, and the English press is ring- 
ing with their presentations. There is no 
one in England better qualified to speak 
on this subject, or who has been more 
active in the support of the bill, than that 
resourceful, energetic, and individual 
worker, Mr. James Buckland. 

The following quotations are from one 
of his recent vivid and forceful addresses 
on the subject: "Owing to the red death 
billow which the plumage trade was 
rolling through India, in utter disregard 
of the Wild Birds' Protection Act of 1887, 
the Government, in 1902, prohibited the 
export from British India of the plumage 
of all wild birds. Replying to the London 
Chamber of Commerce, which sought on 
behalf of its plumage section to obtain a 
repeal of this law, the Bombay Chamber 



The Audubon Societies 



77 



of Commerce pointed out that the pro- 
hibition was meant not only to prevent 
beautiful birds being exterminated, but 
also to prevent useful birds being reduced 
in numbers. The Chamber also explained 
that it was a recognized fact that crops 
of all kinds were subjected to incalculable 
damage by insect pests, and that the com- 
bating of this evil had become one of the 
greatest diflSculties of the Indian agri- 
culturist. The principal enemies of these 
pests were the insectivorous birds, yet 
these were the very species that hitherto 
has been relentlessly slaughtered for their 
plumage. Furthermore, the Chamber 
continued: As the birds that are killed 



for millinery are held in reverence, their 
destruction, for any purpose, is strongly 
resented by Hindus throughout the coun- 
try, and, with the present political unrest 
in India, it would be extremely unwise in 
any way to outrage such deep-rooted 
feelings. 

"As an object lesson on the respect 
which the feather-dealer pays to the 
wishes of India — or of any other country, 
for the matter of that — that she may be 
allowed to keep her own birds for the 
benefit of her agriculture and of her people, 
it may serve a useful purpose to let you 
know that the plumage of all that is held 
most sacred in Hindu mythology, all that 




EGRET SHOT BY FLORIDA PLUME-HUNTER AND BACK "SCALPED" 

FOR THE PLUME 

Photographed by Audubon Warden O. E. Baynard 



78 



Bird - Lore 



is most prized for beauty or iitilily, in 
I lie wild-bird life of In<lia, is, to this 
hour, smuKslcd out of that country and 
sold in the London feather mart. . . . 

"The injury done to domestic animals 
and to man by biting and parasitic insects 
is great beyond the imagination of those 
who have no knowledge of tropical climes. 
One of the first acts of Mr. Wilson, when 
he became President of the United States, 
was to issue an Executive Order pro- 
hibiting, under heavy penalties for infrac- 
tion, the destruction of any wild bird in 
the Panama Canal Zone. A matter of 
very grave concern for us all is the enor- 
mous number of fly-catching and parasite- 
eating birds that are being killed annually 
for their plumage in Central Africa. For 
instance, in warm countries Kingfishers 
feed almost entirely on insects, and it is a 
conservative estimate to say that in 
these regions every Kingfisher eats daily 
150 of these noxious pests. Wherefore the 
sale of the skins of 216,660 Kingfishers at 
the last six London feather sales is — if 
you will pardon a somewhat free use of 
the vernacular of the man in the street 
— asking for trouble. 

"From every part of the world comes 
the same story of wholesale slaughter of 
wild-bird life. Here are the totals of just 
a few species whose plumage has been 
sold during the past twelve months at 
the London feather sales: 216,603 King- 
fishers; 21,318 Crowned Pigeons, 20,715 
quills of the White Crane; 17,711 Birds-of- 
Paradise; 5,794 pairs of Macaw wings; 
4,112 Hummingbirds; and so on, through 
the whole list of brilliantly plumaged 
birds. I ask you to ponder on these 
figures and — since plumages used in milli- 
nery are of greatest value when taken from 
the slain bird during the breeding-season — 
to reflect what this annual hecatomb 
darkly yet plainly indicates. . . . 

"The (ierman explorer, Professor Neu- 
hauss, who recently returned to Berlin 
from New Guinea, has sent the following 
communication to the Imperial Secretary 
of Slate for the Colonies. Inter alia, he 



says: 'The official figures as to the yearly 
shooting of the Birds-of-Paradise in Ger- 
man New Guinea do not give a correct 
idea of the actual state of affairs, as at 
least double the number is shot every 
year. Considering the sparsely populated 
coast, it is impossible to properly super- 
vise the export of skins. There are nu- 
merous secret paths which make it possible 
to get a large quantity of plumage out of 
the country unnoticed. By limitation of 
the shooting, or by the introduction of a 
close time, practically nothing is done. 
The prospect of profit is far too attrac- 
tive not to find ways and means for the 
evasion of the law. I frequently hear it 
remarked that the extermination of the 
Birds-of-Paradise on the coast is not such a 
serious matter after all, as the mainland 
is of such vast extent that there is ample 
room in the interior to ensure the preserva- 
tion of the species. It is a remarkable fact 
that in nearly all branches of the animal 
and vegetable life in New Guinea a strict 
localization presents itself hardly known 
elsewhere. For this reason the various 
species of Birds-of-Paradise are found in 
comparatively circumscribed areas, so 
that if all members of a certain species are 
shot in their restricted habitat that species 
is exterminated. On some stretches of the 
coast the ranks of some species have been 
so wasted that the hunters have great 
trouble in collecting any skins at all. It 
is impossible to insist strictly on the 
observance of a uniform close time, for 
the breeding season varies very much in 
different localities. For instance, the 
.Augusta Victoria Bird-of-Paradise moults 
from December to April, and during that 
lime the plumes are worthless. But in 
May and June — the mating time — the 
plumes are in perfect condition. Every 
hunter knows this, and therefore, in these 
two months, the most important for propa- 
gation of the species, tries to procure as 
many plumes as possible. Even if the 
close time were extended from December 
to the end of August, when the young are 
reared, the hunters would shoot the birds 
during the time of reproduction, that 
being the only time when the feathers are 



The Audubon Societies 



79 



of value to trade. Of course, they would 
hide their boot\- until the expiration of 
the close lime. 

"Special evils exist near the IJutch 
border. During my somewhat prolonged 
stay in this neighborhood, Malay hunters, 
who had come over from the Dutch ter- 
ritory, were behaving outrageously. Not 
only did they shoot every bird they saw — 
of course without a license — but they ter- 
rorized the natives into doing the same. 
It is always the hunters of the Birds-of- 
Paradise who give occasion for punitive 
expeditions against the natives. In forc- 
ing these poor fellows to bring in skins of 
the Birds-of-Paradise, they proceed 
against them in the most brutal way. At 
length their victims turn upon them and 
kill them. Then the Government sends 
out an expedition for execution of punish- 
ment, and a few dozen natives are shot 
down. 

"The Professor concludes his com- 
munication to the Imperial minister by 
remarking that if these miracles of Nature 
are to be saved from extermination a 
speedy and general prohibition against 
all shooting is absolutely necessary." . .. 

"When these atrocities are brought to 
the notice of the feather-dealers, they say 
blandly that is something that no trade 
can direct or control. This is on a par 
with the shuffling excuse of the craven 
Macbeth, when he cried to the spirit of 
Banquo, 'Thou canst not say I did iti 
Never shake thy gory locks at me.' Not 
only are these revolting massacres and 
sickening cruelties something that the 
trade can control, but, what is more, the 
trade is directly responsible for them. 
Let the dealers refuse to profit by this 
bloody business, and the horrifying 
brutalities that have scandalized the world 
will come to an end in an instant. 

"The immense commercialized slaugh- 
ter of valuable and beautiful birds for 
the feather trade that has been going on 
for years with constantly increasing 
barbarity, as the wild beast temper of 
the killers rises more and more to the top, 
serves no defensible purpose. All the uses 



of ornament and millinery can be served 
as well by ostrich plumes, by the feathers 
of poultry and of birds killed for food, and 
by other means. The argument that 
the prohibition of the importation of 
feathers will throw many hands out of 
employment is fallacious; on the contrary, 
there will be an increased demand for 
labor for the making of ornaments for 
hat-trimmings as substitutes for the 
excluded feathers, and for the making up 
of the feathers that are not excluded. 

"There was a time — a time well within 
living memory — when it was thought no 
shame for Englishmen to regard the 
Colonies simply as a means to an end — 
as something to be exploited for private 
gain. But those days, happily, are past. 
The Empire now is one; its interests are 
one; and no one part has any legal or 
moral right to profit by the theft and 
illict export of one of the natural resources 
of another part. Instead of attempting 
to justify such nefarious practices as 
these, it would be more seemly in Eng- 
lish merchants — since it is manifest that 
it is not within the power of our dominions 
to protect themselves and secure the bene- 
fit and protection to which they are justly 
entitled — to come to their rescue in their 
distress. 

"With what is taking place in India in 
my mind, I will, before I pass on to other 
matters, ask the trade one question. 
Does the material prosperity of the Em- 
pire depend on agricultural pursuits, or 
does it depend on the profits of a few 
feather merchants? 

"The only other serious argument 
brought against the Plumage Bill is the 
contention that even if it became law in 
this country no other European power 
would follow England's lead. True, none 
of us is a seer; but I know, as well as 
anyone, what is going on on the Conti- 
nent, and it is my belief that if Great 
Britain passes this bill it will be a writing, 
not on the wall, but on the northern sky. 
The people of the United States gave their 
answer yesterday; Great Britain must 
put the question tomorrow. The salva- 
tion of the birds of the world has become 



8o 



Bird - Lore 



the Englishman's new burden, and it is a 
burden that no Englishman can any 
longer ignore. The duty of the hour is for 
Great Britain to lead the way in Europe 
now as she had led the way in the past in 
every great moral step upward toward 
God. Let her do this, and the rest is 
assured. She did a noble deed when 
she freed the slave from his chains. She 
can do a noble deed now by freeing the 
bird from the clutches of greed." 

New Members 

From October 20, 1913, to January i, 
1914, the Association enrolled the follow- 
ing new members: 

Life Members. 
"E. S. C." 

Coolidge, J. Randolph 
Draper, Mrs. Henry 
Fay, Dudley B. 
Fenno, Mrs. L. Carteret 
Grew, Mrs. H. S. 
Harrah, Mrs. Charles J. 
Knight, Miss A. C. 
Loring, Mrs. W. Caleb 
Merrill, Miss F. E. 
Thorn, Mrs. Augusta C. (In mem 

oriam). 
Torrey, Mrs. Alice W. 
Wood, Mrs. Antoinette Eno 

Sustaining Members. 
Alexander, Wm. H. 
Allen, Dr. J. Wilford 
Arkwright, P. S. 
Arnold, Miss Mittie 
Arrowood, Mrs. Bertha M. 
Audubon, Miss M. E. 
Bachman, Mrs. Julia R. 
Bailey, Mrs. A. T. 
Bartlett, Miss Florence 
Beattie, W. E. 
Beer, Mrs. J. 
Bingham, Miss Madeline 
Bliss, Mrs. Mildred B. 
Blitch, N. H. 
Block, Dr. E. Bates 
Blood, Mrs. C. O. 
Brabham, Idis 
Breese, Mrs. Sydney S. 
Brown, J. Epps 
Bryan, Shepard 
Burdick, Marcus M. 
Burnham, E. F. 
Campbell, John Boyleston 
Campbell, Mrs. Thomas B. 
Chan!er, Miss Alida 
Chapman, Mrs. James 



Sustaining Members, continued 
Cheney, Jr., Frank 
Charleston Fish & Oyster Co. 
Chase, Mrs. W. M. 
Cheever, James G. 
Civic League of Mayesville 
Claflin, Miss Alice H. 
Clarke, Miss Cora H. 
Clarke, Mrs. Prescott, O. 
Coker, Major J. L. 
Colton, Jr., Mrs. Sabon W. 
Cooley, Miss Rossa B. 
Dana, Mrs. S. F. 
Davis, Hon. C. L. 
Davis, Mrs. Jeffrey. 
DeLoach, Prof. R. J. H. 
Department of Agriculture — 

Canada. 
DuBose, B. M. 
DuPont, Eugene 
DuPont, Eugene E. 
DuPont, Mrs. Eugene E. 
Dyar, Miss Dorothy 
Ellis, Mrs. L. E. 
Emery, Mrs. Mary M. 
Emmons, Mrs. A. B. 
Erickson, Mrs. A. W. 
Evans, Mrs. J. G. 
Evins, Samuel Nesbit 
Feaster, Miss Florence G. 
Flint, Charles R. 
Forbes, Miss Cora J. 
Ford, Frank C. 
Fowler, George F. 
Gale, Charles H. 
Gammell, Mrs. R. J. 
Gardner Dr. C. H. 
Goddard, Mrs. R. H. I. 
Goodridge, Dr. F. G. 
Haden, C. J. 
Hager, Karl 
Halsted, David C. 
Hamlin, Miss Eva S. 
Hanahan, J. Ross 
Hancock, Harry J. 
Hannum, W. E. 
Hardenbagh, Miss Adelaide C. 
Harmon, Judson 
Hart, Judge John C. 
Helmer, Mrs. George J. 
Hewitt, Miss Eleanor G. 
Hidden, Walter 
Hofer, Miss Elizabeth J. 
Holter, Mrs. Sarah Sage 
Homans, Mrs. John 
Hornaday, Miss Nina 
Huger, Alfred 
Inslee, Stephen D. 
Jay, Mrs. August 
Jay, Pierre 
Jelliffe, W. R. 
Jennings, Miss A. B. 
Jones, Mrs. Edward P. 
Kendrick, Dr. W. F. 
Keppel, David 



The Audubon Societies 



Sustaining Members, continued 
Ketchin, H. E. 
King, Charles S. 
Laidlaw, James L. 
Lefferts, M. C. 
Levor, G. 

The Macmurphy Co. 
Main, Frank H. 
Manning, Hon. Richard I. 
Marden, Miss Doris F. 
Martin, L. C. 
Merriman, Mrs. Daniel 
Morris, Mrs. Wistar 
McAllister, John 
McCreary, Dr. J. P. 
McMaster, K. R. 
The News & Courier 
Newton, Dr. E. D. 
Olmsted, Dr. John C. 
Paine, 2nd, Mrs. R. T. 
Peacock, Prof. D. C. 
Pellew, Miss Marian J. 
Pendleton, Miss Ellen F. 
Pennington, Mrs. A. G. 
Petermann, G. H. 
Planten, W. Rutger J. 
Powell, Dr. John C. 
Powers, Thomas H. 
Prentiss, William A. 
Ramsay, Major William G. 
Rea, Dr. Paul M. 
Reynolds, Walter S. 
Rood, Miss Mary W. 
Rotch, Mrs. William J. 
John Rugheimers Sons 
Sanford, Miss Susan S. 
Scarborough, Robert B. 
Seabury, Miss Caroline O. 
Seabury, Miss Sarah E. 
Semken, E. H. 
Simons, E. A. 
Smith, Mrs. L. C. 
Smoak, William M. 
Spooner, Miss E. O. 
Stebbins, Miss Annie C. 
Stone, Mrs. F. H. 
Talbot, Miss Mary 
Taylor, P. J. 
Tilden, Mrs. Charles L. 
Tucker, R. P. 
Tyler, Mrs. D. T. A. 
Valentine, Miss Myra 
Villard, H. A. 
Wadsworth, H. C. 
Waite, Frank A. 
Wallace, Jr., Mrs. Thomas 
Wayland, Mrs. Francis 
Webster, Mrs. L. Florence 
Webster, G. K. 
Welch, S. E. 
Welch & Eason 
White, Mrs. Hattie D. 
Williams, Miss Belle 
Williams. Mrs. D. W. 
Williams, E. A. 



Sustaining Members, continued 
Williams, Miss Susan 
Woodsome, Mrs. Clara W. 
Worsham, Hon. E. L. 
Young, Horace (i. 
Zobel, Robert P. 

New Contributors 

Allen, Miss Annie E. 
Anonymous 

Baker, Miss M. Elizabeth 
Blackinton, Mrs. Roswell 
Bugbee, Miss & Miss Baker 
Carson, Mrs. J. R. 
Chamberlin, Miss A. H. 
Christensen, Mrs. A. H. 
Civic League of Beaufort 
Converse, Costello C. 
Crane, Mrs. H. W. 
DeWoIf, Holsey 
Ellis, The Misses 
Ferris, Miss Ida J. 
"A Friend" 
May, Miss Alice 
Newton, Mrs. Charles P. 
Page, Miss Myrtis 
Shaw, Mrs. John C. 
Treat, Robert B. 
Van Bosherck, Miss Lizzie 
Wise, Miss Anna Ellis 

Notes from the Field 

Under date of January i, 19 14, Mr. 
Paul Kroegel, the Association's Warden 
of Pelican Island Reservation, Indian 
River, Florida, reports — "We have now 
as fine a batch of young birds as I can 
remember for this time of year. There 
are about 1,600 young at present." There 
are two striking things about this Pelican 
colony; first, it is the only permanent 
breeding colony of Pelicans on the Atlan- 
tic coast in the United States, and second, 
the birds do not lay their eggs during the 
spring months which almost any other 
bird regards as the proper time for domes- 
tic activity. These Indian River Pelicans 
deposit their eggs usually in November or 
December, fully five months before the 
Pelicans in the Gulf colonies, less than 
two hundred miles away, deem it wise to 
begin nest-building. 

Upon the occasion of the annual meet- 
ing of the Virginia State Audubon Society 
recently held in Richmond, Mr. M. D. 



82 



Bird -Lore 



Hart, well kiiDwn in business circles in 
that city, was elected President to suc- 
ceed Mrs. W. K. Harris. Mr. Hart has 
begun a most active campaign of publicity 
in the interests of a bill which the Society 
will put before the Virginia Legislature 
this year for the purpose of establishing a 
state game commission to be supported by 
a resident hunters' license tax. In this 
work he not only has the cooperation of the 
Virginia (iame and Game Fish Protective 
Association, but is being greatly assisted 
by the Field Agent of the Association, Miss 
Katharine H. Stuart. There is probably 
no woman so well known in Virginia today 
as Miss Stuart, her field-work and lec- 
tures during the past four years having 
taken her into every nook and corner of 
the Old Dominion State. 

Dr. Eugene Swope, Ohio Field Agent 
for the Association, is working in Florida 
this winter. The Florida State Audubon 
Society has combined with the National 
Association in financing an extensive 
lecture tour for Dr. Swope. He is visit- 
ing practically all the cities and towns of 
importance in the state. In his addresses 
and newspaper work he is laying special 
stress on the importance of teaching the 
children the value of bird-study by means 
of Junior Audubon classes. He is also 
doing much to cultivate a sentiment to 
support the new game commission, which, 
largely by the efforts of the Audubon 
workers, was established at the session 
of the Florida Legislature last spring. 

Mr. Henry Oldys, Washington City's 
well-known bird-lecturer, has recently 
finished a course of lectures throughout 
the state of Illinois, the expense having been 
borne jointly by the state Society and the 
National Association. So well was Mr. 
Oldys received, and so much good resulted 
through his efforts, that upon the conclu- 
sion of his engagement, arrangements 
were immediately made by Mr. Ruthven 
Deane, President of the Illinois Audubon 
Society, to have him return shortly and 
continue the good work so auspiciously 
begun. 



There is undoubtedly a growing ten- 
dency on the i)art of magistrates and 
judges to impose heavier penalties on 
l)co])le who wilfully \iolate tlic bird- 
protection laws. This is but another 
evidence of the tremendous force of public 
sentiment once it is aroused in the inter- 
est of any good cause. Justice James 
Bratt, of Bergen County, New Jersey, 
is one of those who belie\'e in imposing 
fines of sufficient size to cause the illegal 
bird-killer to realize that it is no small 
matter to shoot birds wantonly. Recently 
two men were brought before him charged 
with shooting one Snowbird each and for 
hunting without a license as required by 
the state. For the first offense they were 
fined $ioo each, and for the latter $20 each. 
Having to pay out $240 for one afternoon's 
hunt will certainly have the effect of caus- 
ing these two men and all their friends to 
be careful how they break the bird-laws. 

On December 9 there was reported to 
the New Jersey Audubon Society the 
killing of a "Golden" Eagle by a man 
near Daretown. Another man was said 
to have had the bird mounted and taken 
home. The matter was promptly reported 
to the Fish and Game Warden for Salem 
County, and on December 24, the war- 
den reported that he had prosecuted both 
parties and that fines of twenty dollars 
and costs had been assessed and collected 
in each case. The practice still obtains 
in far too many cases of killing on sight 
any large bird of unusual appearance. 
Those who honestly desire to obtain 
specimens for study may legally do so by 
following the procedure for obtaining 
permits provided for in the law. With the 
spirit that would deplete the rare bird 
fauna to "ornament" one's home there 
can be no sympathy. 

It is much pleasure to record renewed 
activity in regard to local Audubon work 
on the part of two New England states 
where but little interest has been shown 
for the past year or two. Largely through 
the efforts of Mr. E. H. Forbush, our 
New lingland Agent, and seconded by 



The Audubon Societies 



83 



Mr. Winthrop Packard, our Agent for 
Massachusetts, the New Hampshire Audu- 
bon Society has been reorganized and gone 
actively to work. New reorganization 
was perfected in November with Gen. 
Elbert Wheeler, of Manchester, Presi- 
dent, and Rev. Manley B. Townsend, of 
Nashua, Secretary. The Vermont Audu- 
bon Society was revived in the same way, 
Dr. Avery E. Lambert, of Middlebury 
College, was elected President, and Mr. 
C. J. Lyford, of Middlebury, was chosen 
Secretary. These new organizations have 
our most hearty goodwill and we hope 
to be able to cooperate with them in 
many fields of activity during the days to 
come. 

Mr. H.^rt, President of the Virginia 
.\udubon Society reports: "I wish to 
report how the Virginia Audubon Society 
last year was instrumental in shortening 
the hunting-season on Quail. This was 
accomplished by our writing to the Board 
of Supervisors in each county in the state, 
calling their attention to the reported 
scarcity of game and the advisability of 
some action on their part which would 
keep the hunters out of the fields. The 
Supervisors have power to shorten sea- 
sons for killing game in this state. We 
followed this up in January by an inquiry, 
addressed to the Clerk of each county in 
the state, as to what had been done by the 
Supervisors, and found that twenty-two 
counties had shortened the season after 
our December notice, and that twenty- 
three counties had closed the season before 
our warning. The late Dr. Robert L. 
Blanton and I went over these inquiry 
cards and estimated conservatively the 
number of birds (Quail) saved to be from 
20,000 to 25,000. These estimates were 
arrived at by taking the area of a county 
in square miles and estimating so many 
birds to the mile and then taking the popu- 
lation of the county and estimating that 
about three men in a thousand would be 
hunting each day, with an average of 
about si.x birds to the man, then multiply- 
ing the number of birds by days closed. 
We believed our estimate to be about as 



accurate as such estimates usually are. 
These cards were turned over to the 
Department of Agriculture, in Washing- 
ton, and the Society's action in the matter 
received high commendation in papers 
devoted to game matters. In March I 
went to Washington on two occasions 
in the interest of the McLean Migra- 
tory Bill, which later became the law of 
the United States of America. As to 
whether my services there amounted t<i 
anything I have only to say that every 
X'irginia member of Congress in l)()th 
houses voted for the bill." 

Mr. William Finley, the Association's 
Field Agent for the Pacific Coast, and also 
State Game Warden for Oregon, has been 
very active of late in enforcing the state 
law against the wearing of the forbidden 
"aigrette." In referring to some of his 
work in this line the "Morning Oregonian" 
for December 17, 1913, says: "One of the 
most beautiful aigrette plumes that any of 
the deputies of State Game Warden Fin- 
ley has ever secured is reposing in the 
offices in the Yeon building, as a spoil of 
a raid which Finley ordered on the dress- 
ing-room of Miss Lillian Herlein, prima 
donna at the Orpheum Theater. 

"When Miss Herlein stepped from the 
stage Monday afternoon, Mrs. J. C. Mur- 
ray, a deputy warden, was on hand to seize 
the plume. Despite the agitated protests 
of the temperamental singer, they were 
shorn from her head-dress. 

"Since the crusade on the forbidden 
plume began about six months ago, Mr. 
Finley's deputies have taken in some won- 
derful plumes. It is said that the piece for- 
merly owned by Miss Herlein was, in num- 
bers of individual feathers, almost equal 
to the fruits of the entire campaign. It had 
forty-six dozen distinct plumes, it is said, 
and the money value was about $41 2 at the 
time of the purchase, according to report. 

"Her first appearance was at Monday's 
matinee. In less than five minutes after 
she took the stage the telephone rang, and 
the voice of an irate woman, who was re- 
cently relieved of a plume, informed the 
Game Warden of the prize bunch of feath- 



84 



Bird -Lore 



ers on display in the theater. Mrs. Mur- 
ray was dispatched to the scene. She in- 
formed the management of her purpose 
and went behind the scenes to make a 
closer inspection of the plumes. She said 
she found they were real, and informed the 
singer of the Oregon law." 

Beginning this year, the Field Colum- 
bia Museum of Chicago is to put into 
operation a systematic plan of having some 
of its collections of mounted wild birds 
used in the public schools, somewhat after 
the manner which has been employed for 
several years by the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York City. It had 
long been felt that the collections were not 
of so much use to the public as they might 
be made. It was to supply such facilities 
as these for object lessons in the public 
schools that N. W. Harris, a Chicago ban- 
ker, conceived the plan of extending the 
Field Museum into the schoolroom, and 
in December, 1911, donated $250,000 to 
carry out the work. Long a friend of the 
Field Museum, he had with others realized 
that the museum was not in some ways 
reaching the people as it should. He had 
studied museum reports and saw that out 
of a public school membership of 280,000 
the total number that had visited the mu- 
seum during the year had been about 
22,000, and that of the latter number the 
vast majority had poorly comprehended 
what they saw; for teachers had reported 
that school-day visits to the museum were 
generally regarded by the pupils as holi- 
days, valuable because they afforded a 
variety from school routine. 

Mr. Harris believed that the museum 
contained splendid opportunities to aid in 
the education of the young, if a different 
method of seeking to reach them with the 



riches were adopted. Accordingly he of- 
fered to cooperate with the Field Museum 
in extending the institution into the class- 
rooms of certain grades of the public school 
through the means of little traveling mu- 
seums, or cabinets, placed in the class- 
rooms of certain grades at certain intervals 
accompanied by brief lectures descriptive 
of the cabinets, and elaborating the labels 
attached to the specimens. The result was 
the foundation of $250,000 which Mr. Har- 
ris decided upon, after he had advised 
with leading teachers and sociologists. 

Mr. Bowdish 

Mr. B. S. Bowdish, who since November 
1905, has been chief clerk in the home 
office of the Association, left our employ on 
January 17, to devote his entire time, in 
future, to the position of Secretary-Treas- 
urer of the New Jersey State Audubon 
Society. It will be recalled that it was 
largely through the efforts of Mr. Bowdish 
that the New Jersey Audubon Society was 
reorganized and incorporated in 1910. On 
December 29 of that year, the board of 
directors met, and he was elected secretary. 
From that moment the New Jersey work 
began to expand, and since then the So- 
ciety has in every way been a wide-awake 
and going institution. In addition to his 
duties with the National Association, Mr. 
Bowdish has been able to bring the New 
Jersey work up to such a stage that the 
demand for his entire time to look after its 
welfare has become imperative. For the 
present, his office will be at Demarest. Mr. 
Bowdish takes with him the good-will of 
the directors and office force, and we proph- 
esy for him the great success which his 
conscientious devotion to the work so 
warmly merits. 




1. Cassin's Purple Finch, Adult Male 4. Guadalupe House Finch, Female 

2. Cassin's Purple Finch, Female 5. House Finch, Adult Male 

3. Guadalupe House Finch, Adult Male 6. House Finch, Female 

(One-half Natural Size) 



A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 

Official Organ or The: Audubon Societies 



Vol. XVI 



March — April, 1914 



No. 2 



The Electric Current in Bird Photography^ 



TREE SWALLOW 



By GUY A. BAILEY, Geneseo, N. Y. 
With photographs by the author 



A' 



iNYONE who has attempted bird photog- 
raphy,- and used the uncertain thread or 
the bulb with its cumbersome tubing for 
releasing the shutter, must have wished for an 
^^ electric shutter. 

M^^ So far as I can find out, there is no such 

^K^M shutter on the market. It would seem to be a 

^^^fr simple contrivance if there were a large demand 

^K^R^ for the product. 

^^^^H^ In the absence of such a shutter, I have 

#^r ^^ substituted an ordinary electric bell, made over 

to serve the purpose. The only parts used are 
the electro-magnets, armature, and frame. The 
hammer is removed and the shaft bent at right 
angle to the armature. The wiring is changed so 
that the interrupter is cut out. Two pieces of 
sheet-zinc, two inches by three-fourths of an 
inch, are bent to form a right angle and soldered 
together at the base, leaving a three-sixteenth- 
inch space between the upright portions. A hole 
is bored in the outer zinc, to admit the end of the 
bent shaft which normally rests against the 
second zinc. A piece of number eighteen copper wire, four inches long, is 
bent to form a loop. One end is fastened to strong thread that leads to the 
release, and the other end is fastened to rubber bands that are secured below. 
This apparatus should be fastened to a board, and the whole thing nailed to 

*During the past several years Bird-Lore has published a number of unusual bird 
photographs by Mr. Guy A. Bailey. In this article Mr. Bailey describes some of his 
unique methods in bird photography and gives additional examples of his work. — Ed. 






CAMERA SHOWING Al lACHMENT OF ELECTRICAL RELEASE 




A CAMERA BOX PLACED ON TOP OF AN OAK; A PHOTOGRAPHIC TRAP FOR HAWKS 
AND OTHER HIGH PERCHING BIRDS OF THE OPEN 

(86) 




THE OBSERVATION ROOM, SHOWING TELESCOPES TRAINED ON FEEDING-STATIONS 

OR PERCHING -PLACES, AND PUSH-BUTTONS CONNECTED 

WITH ELECTRIC RELEASE ON CAMERA^ 




A VIEW OF FEEDING-STATIONS AND CAMERA-STAXI)> AT THE HEAD OF THE RAVINE 



(87) 



Bird - Lore 



a support for the camera. The magnets should come directly under the shut- 
ter, so that the pull will come straight down. The wire loop is hung over the 
shaft and the rubbers drawn down tight and fastened. The thread should 
just reach from the wire to the release on the shutter. When the current is 
passed, the shaft will be drawn from the loop and the rubber bands will pull 

the wire down, instantly releas- 
ing the shutter. 

With this apparatus a bird 
may be snapped in any position 
it assumes. It acts instantly, 
and a speed of one fiftieth of a 
second will be fast enough for 
any that moves only at the 
stroke of the armature. In 
some cases a slower speed may 
be used. With a lens working 
at f./4.5, it is possible to get 

^ «^ "^T^J.flfi'-'-^l / - 'j/i^?^ ^^^^ negatives in cloudy 
hjBif '•7 ^^ r^^^jjfi «^^^ weather and without motion, 

PjP' tr* 1 l^^i'k^^lfc oITt r ^y setting the shutter for a 

slow-instantaneous exposure. It 
will require some time to find 
just the speed that is slightly 
faster than the reaction period 
of the bird. 

At the present time, I have 
seven of these electrical releases, 
with all the necessary push- 
buttons in one window. Four 
of them are about one hundred 
feet from the window near feed- 
ing-stations. One is set near a 
tree into which a hole was 
bored and suet placed for Wood- 
peckers, Nuthatches, Chickadees, and Brown Creepers. These birds have 
been photographed many times, but the station is still kept up for them as 
well as for some uncommon bird that may come. There is a chance that the 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker, or some other desir- 
able stranger, may be the next visitor. 

The second camera is placed near a horizontal limb bored out and nailed 
to a post. This limb is filled with various seeds such as hemp, millet, rape, 
and canary. Seed-eating birds will be attracted to this place. Among those 
that come to this particular station are Juncos, Song Sparrows, Towhees, Cow- 




hairy WOODPECKER 



The Electric Current in Bird Photography 



89 




birds, White-throated Sparrows, 
White-crowned Sparrows, Chip- 
ping Sparrows, Swamp Spar- 
rows and, most abundantly of 
all, English Sparrows. Ninety 
per cent of the seed put out 
are eaten by these pests. Still, 
I give them credit for leading 
the way. It is their noisy feed- 
ing that attracts any other bird 
within hearing. I do not find 
that they really keep the others 
away; for most of the others 
mentioned will eat with them 
The Song Sparrow is more 
belligerent than the English 
Sparrow. I have seen a Song 
Sparrow drive away three Eng- 
lish Sparrows, attacking them 
savagely. It is the usual thing 
for the English Sparrow to give 
way to the Song Sparrow. 

A third feeding-station is a 
horizontal limb like the second, but mounted on gas-pipe, which is provided 
with a large funnel, to keep down the squirrels. The food used is crumbs of 
fried cakes, sunflower seeds, and other foods that the squirrels eat. The 
numerous gray squirrels are given plenty to eat, but we prefer that it come 
from some other place than here. Robins, Crackles, Scarlet Tanagers, and 

other birds, are fond of the doughnut 
crumbs; Coldfinches and Nuthatches 
eat the sunflower seeds. 

A fourth feeding-place is near a 
stump in a ravine. The stick is bored 
out and a hole about two and a half 
inches deep by three inches long made. 
The sides are lined with copper, and the 
bottom covered with plaster of paris. 
In this are placed meal worms. The 
smooth sides prevent them from crawl- 
ing out, and the white bottom makes 
them conspicuous to the birds. This is 
intended for Winter Wrens, Fox Spar- 
soNG SPARROW rows, and Thrushes. It is always in the 



PURPLE MARTIN 




90 



Bird - Lore 



shade. To make it possil)le to use a quick exposure, light is thrown from a 
large mirror, controlled from the window where the push-buttons are located. 
The fifth feeding-station is in the middle of a pasture-lot about five hundred 
feet from the window. It is surrounded with a fence, to keep the cattle from 
disturbing the camera. The food used is seeds, crumbs, and meal worms. 




WHITE-THROATED SPARROW 
HOUSE SPARROW 



SWAMP SPARROW 




Meadowlarks, Sparrows, Crows, and Flickers have used this station so far. 
Other birds of the fields are expected in due time. 

A sixth station is located about eight hundred feet away. A limb is driven 
into the ground. A hole is bored in the top and two other holes are bored 
in the side of the limb. The stick is three inches in diameter and extends 
about sixteen inches above the ground. English walnut meats are put in the 
hole in the top. Red-headed Woodpeckers are constant visitors when this 
food is used. Doughnuts and seeds are placed in the holes in the sides. Crows, 
Meadowlarks, Crackles, the various Sparrows, have already visited this sta- 
tion. It was set up for the purpose of attracting Pheasants, Quail, and those 
birds that keep away from the buildings. Of course, the other more familiar 
birds were to be expected. 

The seventh circuit does not run to a feeding-station. The apparatus is 
placed in the top of an oak tree sixty feet from the ground. Three ladders 
permanently mounted in the tree make the ascent easy and rapid. The 
camera is focused on the end of the tallest limb in the tree, all others limbs 
near having been cut out. This tree has for j/ears been the lookout for a great 



The Electric Current in Bird Photography 



91 



variety of birds. Shrikes, Sparrow Hawks, Cowbirds, Bluebirds, Crackles, 
Grosbeaks, and many others, have perched in this tree, but thus far have 
been out of reach of a camera. This place has just been arranged, and no 
pictures have yet been taken. 

The tree itself is not visible from the window and, to overcome this diffi- 
culty, a large fine mirror has been set up in the pasture lot. The mirror is 
set at the proper angle and, by focusing a telescope on the mirror, the top of 
the oak is watched. I should add that all the stations are covered with tele- 
scopes permanently mounted and focused on them. These telescopes are just 
over the push-buttons in the window. Even those that are one hundred feet 
away have telescopes, for at that distance it is necessary positively to 
identify the birds, and to be sure of their exact position before touching 
the button. 





FEMALE BOBOLINK 



RED-HEADED WOODPECKER 
Taken with a $12 camera 



92 Bird -Lore 

Seven years ago, I started a permanent feeding-station, using only suet 
for food and a string to release the shutter. From year to year the number has 
increased and the kinds of foods varied. I find it best to use certain foods 
regularly in the same station. There is more chance of getting the birds you 
want if you increase the number of feeding-places. 

One might imagine that after two or three years few new subjects would 
ofifer themselves. On the contrary, each year of the seven has brought some 
new species. Earlier in the work there were more. In these seven years. 
Scarlet Tanagers came but one year; Towhees, one year; Swamp Sparrows, 
one year; Cowbirds, two years; Fox Sparrows, one year. Of course, there are 
many that come regularly each year, and that gives a chance to improve 







'"■^^ 



A CROW FEEDING ON A DOUGHNUT AT FEEDING-STATON NO. 6 

the pictures that were made previously. Then, there is that long list of 
migrants that may stop if you can get the right food, bath, or perch. These 
are the ones that keep you always hoping. 

These feeding-stations, with the telescopes, give you an opportunity to 
study the birds when they are absolutely undisturbed by your presence. The 
boxes with the cameras become part of the landscape, and birds are not at 
all disturbed by them. Even the click of the release becomes, after a time, 
a familiar sound. 

The four feeding-stations nearest the window have a favorable location 
by nature. Below them is a wooded ravine that opens out into a pasture lot. 
Birds moving from the lowlands for shelter would come to the stations. The 
English Sparrows are the decoys that lead them on. Above these stations 
there is a spring that is open the year round, and this draws many birds. 



The Song of the Philadelphia Vireo 93 

This ravine is located in the village of Geneseo, N. Y., near the Normal 
School building. There are residences close at hand. House cats roam through 
this ravine early in the morning and late in the afternoon. They, of course, 
catch many of the birds, and frighten others away. Some of them hide in the 
camera-boxes, and pounce on the birds from this vantage-point. 

It is most unfortunate that we have no legislation against roaming cats. 
They are roaming, mostly because they are improperly cared for or insuffi- 
ciently fed at home. It is common for people to own cats and let them "hunt 
for a living.'' It means often that they feed on birds. 

It is entirely legal now to keep a cat that lives on song-birds. A large 
number of people are not keeping cats because they do feed on birds. If public 
sentiment continues to increase, the cats will be less numerous and the birds 
will have a better chance. Anyone who tries to feed the birds will find that 
the cats are a nuisance, and will be willing to aid in securing legislation to 
protect the birds from this their worst enemy. 



The Song of the Philadelphia Vireo 

By MRS. ELIZA F. MILLER, Bethel, Vermont 

THAT is a Red-eyed Vireo singing, isn't it?" said a visiting friend? 
as we walked down the street near my home. 

I don't know," was my reply, "I begin to suspect that Vireo." 

This was on June 16, 191 2. The bird had been singing all day for weeks, 
and I too had thought it a Red-eye. But the voice w^as unusually sweet and 
there was a difference in the song that was quite pronounced, when once 
noticed. I listened intently many days, and at last decided to try to write 
it down. At the piano, it seemed to correspond with G G C E, rest, G C E, 
rest, F B ; the G highest, the other two notes the next lower ones in the scale. 

Of course, the bird's pitch was "way beyond the keyboard." Over and 
over, he sang these three phrases. 

One might think, perhaps, that this is not very unlike the Red-eye's song; 
but the highest tones were emphasized and dwelt upon, instead of slighted, 
as is the way of the Red-eye, and there was the briefest of pauses between the 
high G and the C, ever>' time. Sometimes, in an absent-minded way, he 
uttered the high G, or tweet, alone. Sometimes he was particularly 
emphatic on the second G of the first phrase. 

Later, he often sang so much like a Warbling Vireo that I should have 
believed it to be one, only that he tacked his own peculiar song to the end; 
or else he sang his own, and finished with the Warbling Vireo song, and all 
in the same sweet tone. On comparing the song of the real Warbling Vireo 
with that of the new Vireo, a slight difference, difficult to describe, could 
be detected. 



94 Bird - Lofe 

Durin}2; these weeks of listening, I was trying hard, at every opportunity, 
to see the singer, but he kept in tall tree-tops usually. However, I had a few 
good looks, when he was perhai)s twenty feet above me. He certainl}- might 
readily be confused with the Warbling Vireo as to appearance, "as Reed's 
Bird Guide states. He had a very short, notched tail, no wing-bars, light line 
over eye; and the underparts usually looked white, but sometimes showed a 
faint lemon tinge. He had a way of standing still and giving his mind entirely 
to his music; but he was very quick in his gleaning, and sang as he gleaned. 
He was not heard after the middle of July. This is all that I learned that year. 

I wrote to Mr. Harry Piper about this bird, and he directed me to Mr. 
William Brewster, of Cambridge, Mass. I described my bird to Mr. Brew- 
ster, and received this from him: 

"Your description of the song fits very well that of the Philadelphia 
Vireo, which is closely like that of the Red-eye, but yet slightly different, 
being slower of delivery and less smoothly flowing, and having an occasional 
note or phrase more or less unlike any that the Red-eye uses. The simple 
'tweet, very high and sweet,' is one of these notes, and you render it admi- 
rably. Another is a clear-ringing note, not unlike one that the Solitary Vireo 
gives. Some Philadelphia Vireos that I have studied could be quickly and 
certainly distinguished by one or another of these peculiarities of song. 
Others sang exactly like Red-eyes, so far as I could discern. 

"In good lights, they usually look very yellow beneath; but this is not 
always the case, and I have seen some that looked no yellower than Red-eyes, 
while exceptionally small birds of the latter kind occasionally appear no 
larger than Philadelphias. In other words, it is not always possible to make 
quite sure of a bird either by hearing or seeing him, unless he is very near 
and closely scrutinized. I am not sufi&ciently familiar with the fauna of your 
region to be able to judge if it is likely to include the Philadelphia Vireo as 
a summer resident, but everything you say inclines me to think that the bird 
you saw probably belonged to that species." 

Much pleased with this encouragement to believe that what I had already 
hoped was true, I was eagerly listening again when spring came. On May 
II, 1913, the first Red-eye announced himself, and, soon after, a Vireo, with 
the peculiarly sweet voice of my last year's bird, began to be heard on our 
street, not far from his old stand, but nearer to us. His emphasis and spacing 
were not like the bird's of last year, but rather more like a Red-eye's, except 
that every third phrase was different from anything that the Red-eye sings, 
— weecher, weecher,'' — very rapid, downward inflection, second word higher 
than the first. Later in the season, this distinctive phrase came in only as 
fifth or sixth. But always there was the remarkable sweetness of tone. 

I had some very fair looks at the bird, and he was like the one of 191 2, 
in every point. 

On May 25, I was out at 5.30 a.m., looking for this Vireo, and saw him 



The Song of the Philadelphia Vireo 95 

high in his chosen maple. I followed him around his small circle of trees, and 
saw that, as he sang, another small bird attacked him several times. At last 
he flew to a lower tree, where he was attacked again. The two birds fought 
and flew, falling into tall grass not far from me. They stayed so long that I 
stepped to see, when up they came, still fighting, and tried to alight in a low 
tree near me, but fell again, this time upon bare ground not three feet from 
where I stood. They did not heed me in the least. One at once stood very 
erect, and as still as though frozen. The other took a threatening attitute 
before it, with outstretched head and neck, and open beak, showing the scar- 
let interior of the mouth, and in a moment began to sway the head and body 
to right and left rigidly, still with open beak. I watched breathlessly. The 
first bird kept its upright posture, thus allo^vang me to observe the decided 
yellow of the breast, which was just what was needed to complete my satis- 
faction that this was a pair of Philadelphia Vireos, in a lovers' quarrel. The 
underparts of the other bird were hidden, but I knew it was the white-breasted 
singer of the song that was nearly like that of the Red-eye. 

The birds were exactly alike above. The line over each eye was slightly 
yellow, and there was no black crown border, as in the Red-eye. The birds, 
always noticeably smaller than a Red-eye, looked more delicate than ever 
now, as their feathers were held close to the body. 

After a long moment, the one that threatened flew away, and sang as soon 
as he touched the branch. The yellow-breasted one went in another direc- 
tion, and silently. 

The song was heard until near the end of June, almost constantly, though 
at the last less frequently; and the rests between phrases were longer, and 
sometimes only two phrases were repeated, one of them often having a liquid 
quality. I think that I heard it a few times in August, but am not positive, 
as I did not see the bird, which seemed to be at quite a distance. 

On August 20, on our blackberry bushes, eating the firuit, were two tiny 
birds in close company, that at first I took for Warblers, but could not recog- 
nize them. It suddenly came to me that they must be Philadelphia Vireos, 
perhaps the young ones. They were softly yellow all below, a pretty greenish 
above, had a yellow line over each eye, and very short, notched tails. They 
really resembled the picture in the Revised Edition of Reed's Bird Guide 
more than either of the two seen on the ground, on May 25. Those first 
ones must have had the two extremes of color of the underparts. 

I have given these particulars so minutely because I have rarely seen the 
Philadelphia Vireo named in Vermont bird-lists, and think that possibly some 
one may benefit by my experience. Mr. Brewster, in a second letter says: 
"Perhaps you will later find that this species is more commonly represented 
than you are now aware." 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 

By LOUIS AGASSIZ FUERTES 
Illustrated by the author 

THIRD PAPER-ORIOLES, FLYCATCHERS. FINCHES, AND THRUSHES 

A COMPARATIVE study of the notes and songs of the birds of the 
tropics and their familiar northern representatives is certainly not 
less interesting than the study of their physical resemblances and 
differences. And here it may be suggested that resemblances, which are of 
greatest value as showing relationships, are even more elusive and hard to 
follow out than are more physical characters. Differences are of negative 
importance; resemblances alone count in tracing racial affinities. 

In this respect the great family of tropical Orioles hangs together as a 
unit, and ties closely to its more familiar northern offshoots. From the tiny 
Mexican Orchard Oriole to the crow-sized Oropendolas, there is some subtle 
quirk of tone that makes them all recognizable to anyone having a single 
good acquaintance in the family. 

I think no birds in tropical America have given me more pure fun with 
their vocal performances than the big Yellowtails, or Oropendolas; Gymnos- 
tinops in southern Mexico, and the various species of Ostinops in Colombia. I 
cannot now remember any striking differences in their songs or calls, except 
that Gymnostinops combines more gymnastics with his effort than mere 
Ostinops. But everywhere in tropical America the loud rasps, chucks, and 
gurglings of these great Orioles are as characteristic as the steady flashing of 
black and gold in the burning sky, as they wing over head from bank to bank 
of the great rivers. 

They are all highly polygamous, and I have frequently seen them demon- 
strate a most watchful and efficient warden-service in favor of the old males. 
After one shot, you may stalk and stalk the big black Sultan, "quisking" 
from the bare dead spike above the forest roof, only to be defeated, time after 
time, by the party of six or eight silent and watchful females perching around 
him at lower points. Silent, that is, until you get within about twice gunshot 
of their lord, when they suddenly squawk and yell, and the old boss "yips" 
loudly and, with batting wings, leaves for foreign parts. 

The calls of the male, given from a high perch with a commanding view, 
may be variously described: a loud, vigorous "quisk," — an equally carrying 
but very liquid "churg," ending inside an empty cask, — a series of dry, ascend- 
ing clicks or twig-snaps, probably done with the enormously strong and hol- 
lowed bill. But his true song, to call it so, defies description or imitation with- 
out all the "traps" of the triangle-man in the orchestra. Imagine a perform- 
ance lasting only about two seconds, commenced by breaking off a handful of 
willow sticks, then running into a rising series of "choog-choog-choogs," to 
end in a loud, explosive "keow," easily audible at a quarter of a mile. This 

(96) 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 



97 



is only the vocal part of the performance, and it is accompanied by a contortion 
of which the Cowbird's spring effort gives a mild idea. The bird first looks 
down, ruifies the nape feathers and elevates the tail, and then, clattering the 
bill and emitting the other sounds that he alone is capable of, falls forward, 
clapping his wings lustily over his back, until he is under his perch, with his 
bill pointing directly up. Now he delivers his last explosive yell, wings and 




MEXICAN OROPENDOLA— SIXGIXG. (Gymnoslinops Montezuma) 

glorious tail all outspread to their utmost, and by means of his first foothold, 
not relinquished in his effort, and with wings folded, he draws himself back 
to his first position, where he sits ruified for a minute or two. Then, depressing 
his feathers, he repeats his acrobatic song. The males are a full half larger than 
the females, and have enormously developed legs and feet, apparently for this 
performance, recalling a Raven's foot; while the females have the usual slen- 
der, Grackle-like feet of the family. One need never be bored when there is a 
colony of these striking and virile birds in the vicinity. 

Some of the typical Orioles and Troupials have exceedingly brilliant, if 
monotonous, songs, and they are kept as pets in nearly every house in the 
towns or along the trails in Colombia. Icterus mesomelas nearly drove us 
insane with his piercing song in the hotel in Cali., repeating it incessantly 
from his cage at our door. ''"^^T^^ k ^ T r 



Ail Orioles are great singers of little tunes, usually going just enough off key 
to get on your nerves, and this is only one of hundreds of such little phrases. 
The Hooded Oriole group have a deliciously naive way of singing little "ear- 
less" tunes, like a small boy on his reluctant way to school, whistling himself 
along the road. This is the most companionable bird song I know, and has 
frequently been real company to me, when hunting alone along the banks of 
tropical rivers and in the foothills. 



98 



Bird - Lore 



It would be impossible here to take up more than a few of the striking 
types of this large family of brilliant singers, but it would certainly be doing 
the whole group an injustice not to mention the wonderful silver and golden 
songs of one of the black offshoots of the family, Dives dives of Yucatan. This 
glossy beauty was very common at Chichen-Itza, and was a source of constant 
marvel from the variety, richness, and volume of its notes. I cannot describe 
them, nor even remember them concretely, but I was at once reminded of the 
Pastor Bird I had once heard in the Philadelphia Zoo. It had all the deep- 
throated richness of the best Oriole songs, combined with a sweetness more 
Thrush-like and of infinite variation. Among all the varied and rich songs 
about the place — Wrens, Orioles and Thrushes — on my first morning afield 
in the continental tropics. Dives made the one deep and lasting impression 
above all others, in the classic and thrilling surroundings of the ruined 
Maya city. 

While Orioles are always within hearing, I think that doubtless the most 
pervasive and ever-present sounds in the tropics come from the even larger 
family of Flycatchers. From the blue, lonesome, plaintive little "phew" of 
Myiarchus I. platyrhynchus and the equally despondent sighs of some of the 
Elainias, to the executive "yips" of the Big-billed and Derby Flycatchers, 

these characteristic sounds are ever 



in the ear. So far as I know, only 
one Flycatcher can really be pro- 
claimed as a singer, with a real song 
different from his ordinary calls and 
scolds. This one exception is no less 
distinguished by his coat from the 
rest of the rather somber-colored 
family. The gorgeous little Ver- 
milion Flycatcher has a simple but 
very sweet song; lispy and thin, but 
delivered with great devotion. Dart- 
ing like a flame up into the flood of 
sunlight, he reaches a point about a 
hundred feet from earth, and then, 
with scarlet crest spread out like a 
hussar's hood and head thrown back, 
he floats lightly down on trembling wings, lisping in ecstasy his poor, sweet 
little song, Cirivi' cirivi' cirivi' . It is hardly noticeable, even among the little 
Finch twitters along the roadside, but for a Flycatcher it is remarkable; and 
surely no gifted Thrush or Lark ever went to his matins more devoutly. It 
is a strange contrast to the usual Flycatcher utterances, which are loud, 
raspy, egotistic, and highly commandeering. Our Kingbird is a fair example 
of the family, with the Greatcrest as a good amplifier of the impression. It 




DERBY FLYCATCHER 
(Pitangus sutphuralus derbianus) 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 



99 



is the forest Flycatchers, like the Wood Pewee and some of the Elainias, 
that have the lost- soul, hollow-hearted plaints; the sun-lo\dng kinds are 
very kings of earth in their noisy self-confidence. 

The Finches and Sparrows in general do not add much to the tropical 
melange of bird-music. They are frequently birds of great beauty, and all 
have some blithe little song, "finchy," and characteristic of each species. How- 
ever, to a Sparrow falls the distinction of being the most widely distributed 
singer we encountered in South America. It is safe to say that anywhere in the 
Andes above two thousand feet, from the Pacific to the Orinoco slope, the 
little Andean White-throat, Brachyspiza, will cheer the traveler with his 
brief and pleasant piping. "It is sweet cheer, here," gives the phrase and 
accent. It is more like an ab- 
breviated Fox Sparrow song 
than anything I can recall. I 
shall always feel a personal 
debt to its cheery optimism, 
as it sang daily in the court 
of the hotel in Bogota, in the 
clammy chill of the damp days, 
nine thousand feet above sea, 
while I was fighting through 
the fever contracted in the low- 
lands. He gave my scrambled 
and fevered brains the one 
tangible hold I had with the 
wonderful world outside, and it 
recalled nearly all of our asso- 
ciations in South America. 

Some of the roadside Finches 
and Grassquits have curious and explosive little buzzy sounds. Volatinia, a 
raven-black mite living along the hedge-rows, has an amusing song-habit. 
Sitting on the top of a grass or weedstalk, he suddenly rises in bee-like flight 
about a yard into the air: at the apex of his little spring he turns a rapid 
somersault, with a volatile "Bzt," and drops back to his perch. The whole 
effort takes perhaps a second! 

Most of the Tanagers, which grade insensibly into the Finches, are not 
much when it comes to singing. However, the larger Saltators have clear, 
whistled songs that are highly charactertisic. They are leisurely soprano songs, 
usually heard from thickets of soft growth on the mountain-sides. One song 
heard in the Eastern Andes that I ascribed to S. atripennis, though I could 
never quite satisfactorily prove the singer, was as loud, pure, and wide-ranged 
a song as I have heard. Though quite complicated, it was always identically 
the same in form and range. Two long descending slurs, one ascending, a long 




ANDEAN WHITE-THROAT 

(Crachyspiza capensis) 



Bird - Lore 



descending trill, then a descending run in couplets (like a Canon Wren), a 
rising slur, and a final short trill on a high note. In many songs, heard in 
several localities, this scheme was closely followed. The mountain forests of 
the tropics furnish an endless and enchanting field for this kind of study, 
which our hasty survey and limited time unavoidably rendered all too super- 
ficial and fragmentary. 

We found, as a rule, that the gemlike Tanagers of Calospiza, Chlorochrysa, 
etc., were nearly devoid of song. Their drifting flocks, sifting along through 
the tree-ferns and higher levels of the forest, were much like a flock of migra- 
ting Warblers, always made up of several species, and their little lisping sounds 
were further reminders of our north- 
ern tree-gleaners. ' 

The Cotingas, as a rule, were 
silent, though some of the more Fly- 
catcher-like, such as Tytyra, have 
loud, buzzy calls, and the big ones, 
like Pyroderus and Querula, have 
deep, pervasive vocal sounds hard to 
describe, but fairly easy to imitate. 
The tiny and gorgeous Manikins all 
make loud, staccato "pips," out of 
all proportion to their diminutive size. 

The Thrushes, however, are quite 
as satisfactory singers in the tropics 
as they are in New England. The 
Robin group, Planesticus, is large 
and varied from Mexico south, and 
we had many chances to study and 
compare them in song and actions. 
P. gigas, of the Andes of Colom- 
bia, considerably bigger than a Blue 
Jay, and solid dusky but for his corn-colored bill, feet, and eyelids, had 
a disappointingly weak and squealy song. Members of the tristis group, 
however, are to me the finest singers of the whole genus, trilling, piping and 
warbling with the greatest abandon and purity of tone. They are shy singers, 
and rarely to be heard except after long silence in one spot. P. jamaicensis, 
heard with a divine accompaniment of Solitaires, lost nothing of its beauty by 
the comparison. The related genus Melanotis, the "blue mockers," are accom- 
plished and brilliant singers, with much of the well-known quality of all 
Mockingbirds. But they rank very high, as do the members of the interesting 
Antillean group, Mimocichla. I shall never forget a concert I once heard on 
New Province, in the Bahamas. We were out in the "coppet," or woods, col- 
lecting, in the afternoon. About four o'clock a drenching thunderstorm broke, 




BAHAMAN THRUSH 
(Mimocichla bakamensis) 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds loi 

and for an hour we were subjected to as thorough a wetting as could be desired, 
and most of our efiforts went toward keeping our specimens from getting 
soaked. After a time, however, it stopped almost as suddenly as it had 
begun, and through the breaking sky the level rays of a declining jsun red- 
dened the straight columns of the pines and glistened from the wet and 
shining foliage of the broad-leaved trees. Suddenly, and so Robin-like that 
I was for a moment quite moved, there commenced a chorus of delicious and 
brilliant singing that I have no similar recollection of. It was from the 
"Blue Thrasher," Mimocichla plumbea, and for a few breathless moments 
we were carried into an enchanted realm that it is still a joy to remember. 
The music was no less scintillating than its clean and glistening setting. 

It is perhaps too bad, and a sign of limitation that we should hesitate to 
admit, that the songs that please us most are apt to be those that perfect or 
glorify songs we already know at home. It may even not be true; but I think, 
nevertheless, that no birdsongs have ever given me a more welcome turn of 
heart than some of these tropical Thrushes, which carry farther the lovely 
qualities of intonation so richly present in our Hermit Thrush's song. The 
group known as Catharus, true Thrushes, haunt the moist, ferny mountain 
forests, and from the quiet fragrance of these silent places come the exquisite 
silvery bell-tones of their songs. They sing from the ground or very near it, 
and never have I heard them lift their voices high. But their tone is more 
pure, their delivery more perfect, and their chaste cadences more prismatic 
and rich, than those of any other Thrush I know, and I should find it hard 
to pick the slightest rift within the lute. It is upon these tender, ineflfably 
sweet flutings that I base my concept of a perfect bird-song. 

THE SONG SPARROW 

Before the purple crocus dares to fhng 
The snow aside, and bare its golden heart, 
Before the boldest bee has found a mart, 

Or flecked with pollen rich his veined wing, 

There comes a \^dstfvil voice, thrilled through with spring. 
And joy, and hope, and quaint unconscious art, 
As though an angel, doubtful of his part, 

Should lift beseeching eyes, and pray, and sing. 

The frost's white fret-work Hngers on the pane. 
And hunger makes the startled rabbit bold; 
But not scant fare, nor winter's latest sting, 

Can silence this brown minstrel's dauntless strain. 
Supreme in faith, as in his voice of gold, 
The truest-hearted lover of the spring. — Laura F. Beai-l. 



Some Ways of the Oregon Towhee 

By MRS. STEPHEN E. THAYER, Everett, Wash. 
With photographs by the author 

THE Oregon Towhee is a permanent resident of western Washington. 
It frequents the half-cleared country about the farms, and the suburbs 
of the cities, where a morning's walk at any season of the year is sure 
to be rewarded by the sight of two or three of these handsome birds. Their 
plumage of black, cinnamon-red, and white, renders them conspicuous objects 
in the landscape, even on the dullest days. They are to be seen about the 
fences and brush-piles, or passing in low, graceful flight from cover to cover, 
or feeding on the ground in protected places, usually singly, though sometimes 
in pairs, and rarely in companies of three. When feeding, the Towhee 




MALE OREGON TOWHEE FEEDING YOUNG 
Note the comparative inconspicuousness of the young bird 

scratches so energetically that the debris is scattered in every direction, and 
he is so intent upon his work that, with care, one may approach near enough 
to see with a glass the uncanny red eye. At the slightest alarm, he slips into 
a thicket, and remains so completely hidden that only the tremble of a branch 
betrays his presence. Only during the mating season is a favorable opportunity 
afforded to observe him at leisure in the open. Then he perches on the top- 
most twig of a shrub or low tree, and sings untiringly. At its best, the song is a 
clear trill, introduced by a rather prolonged low note, To-whee-e-e, with 
much emphasis on the trill. Often the first note is omitted, when the trill 

(102) 



Some Ways of the Oregon Towhee 



103 



begins with an explosive effect, Ch-e-e-e, and is much less musical. When 
disturbed, the singer dives head foremost into the brush, and protests in an 
angry Hey! or G'way! This note is capable of much modulation, being 
at times quite gay and cheerful, at others harsh and querulous. 

Unlike most members of the sparrow family, the Towhee is unsocial in 
his habits. He lurks in the dusky shadows of the undergrowth, showing little 




MALE OREGON TOWHEE 

interest in others of his kind, excepting at nesting-time. Even at that time, 
the male apparently tolerates rather than enjoys the presence of the female. 
We have watched them for a number of years at our lunch-counter and, so 
far as we have seen, he never allows her to feed with him, excepting when both 
are busy carrying grain to their young. At that time, he is probably too much 
occupied with his share of the domestic duties to pay much attention to her. 
Though naturally shy and suspicious, the Towhees seem to appreciate 
the advantages to be derived from the neighborhood of man. They soon 
learn to feed about the outbuildings and chicken-yards. Our lunch-counter, 
which is within a few feet of the dwelling, is freely patronized by them. The 
dwelling, however, is most favorably situated on the edge of the city, with 
plenty of shrubbery for cover, and no near neighbors. If food is not in evidence 
on their arrival in the early morning, they remain in the neighborhood, call- 
ing their insistent H-e-y! until they are fed. We so won the confidence of 
one pair that we could call them to us at almost any time. In response to our 
"Come on! come on!," we would hear their eager H-e-y! at first far away, 
then nearer and nearer, until they appeared, more than ready for their food. 



I04 



Bird - Lore 



At the lunch-counter, the female is composed, even dignified in manner, 
feeding quietly until satisfied. The male, on the other hand, is nervous and 
self-conscious, as if quite aware that his more brilliant plumage increases his 
dangers. He fidgets under cover of the brush-pile provided for his benefit, 
until his hunger gets the better of his caution. Then he slips out, snatches, a 
hurried morsel or two, seizes a big kernel and retires with it to the friendly 
shelter, where he devours it at his leisure, and gathers courage for another 
sally. On very dark days he is able to feed more comfortably. The young 
birds are brought to the lunch-counter and fed there until they are able to 
help themselves. Often, in August, the young of two broods appear together. 
Those of the first brood are easily distinguished, as by this time they have 
begun to change their streaked brown plumage for that of the mature birds. 
The change shows first on the lower parts, where a few black, white, or red 
feathers mingle haphazard with the brown, giving the bird a peculiar mottled 
appearance, quite disreputable for a Towhee. At these family gatherings the 
female feeds the young of either brood indiscriminately, but the male not only 
refuses to feed those of the older brood, but will not allow them to feed while 
he is present. If they venture to approach, he promptly gives chase, and the 
young birds retire to a safe distance, to await the departure of their 
unfriendly parent. 




v^ 



MEADOWLARK 
An admirable study in pattern of coloration showing how the margins of the feathers tend to 
make continuous white lines 
Photographed by Guy A. Bailey 



The Migration of North American Sparrows 

TWENTY-SEVENTH PAPER 

Compiled by Prof. V/. ^V. Cooke, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 

(See Frontispiece) 

CALIFORNIA PURPLE FINCH 

This bird is the western representative of the Purple Finch, treated in the 
last issue of Bird-Lore. The eastern form, (purpureus) extends west to the 
Plains; while the subspecies, known as the California Purple Finch (Cali- 
fornicus) is confined, for the most part, to the Pacific slope, and is separated 
in the United States from the range of the eastern bird by the whole chain 
of the Rocky Mountains, in which neither form occurs. In Canada, however, 
the range of the eastern forms bends westward and extends at least to Stuart 
Lake, B. C, thus intergrading in central British Columbia with the California 
Purple Finch, which is a common bird of southern British Columbia. 

The latter form breeds over much of California, and moves south, in the 
fall, to the extreme southern part of the state. The first arrival was seen at 
Mount Whitney, October lo, 1875; Dunlap, October 26, 1890; Santa Barbara, 
October 29, 1910; Pasadena, October 27, 1896; Los Angeles, October 31, 
1908; and Santa Catalina Mills, Ariz., November 11, 1885. 

The birds remained at this last place until February 9, 1886, and were 
seen at Fort Verde, Ariz., until March 25, 1886; at Los Angeles, Calif., to 
March 25, 1908, and at Pasadena to April 29, 1896. 

A few winter so far north that they were noted at Fort Vancouver, Wash., 
January 18, 1854; and at Chilliwack, B. C, January 28, 1889. As with the 
eastern form, the presence of these scattering winter birds makes it impossible 
to tell when spring migration really begins. Some dates of the first seen are: 
Fort Klamath, Ore., March i, 1887; Portland, Ore., March 10, 1897, and 
February 27, 1900; Beaverton, Ore., March 6, 1884, and February 20, 1885; 
Sumas, B. C, March 7, 1905, and Burrard Inlet, B. C, April 4, 1885. 

CASSIN'S PURPLE FINCH 

Breeding south to southern California, central Utah, and southern Col- 
orado, the Cassin's Purple Finch has few migration records south of the regu- 
lar breeding range, while a few birds wintering north to Colorado and north- 
ern California interfere with the determination of the dates of spring migra- 
tion. The first appeared at Willis, N. M., August 26, 1883; Mogollon Moun- 
tains, Ariz., October 6, 1884; and Fort Whipple, Ariz., October 21, 1864. The 
last was noted at Albuquerque, N. M., November 15, 1853; and near Zuni, 
N. H., November 20, 1873. 

The fiist spring migrant was seen at Tucson, Ariz., February 19, 1886; 

(105) 



io6 



Bird - Lore 



Camp Burgwyn, N. M., March 14, 1859; Denver, Colo., February 26, 1885; 
Rathdrum, Idaho, March 24, 1906, and March 7, 1908; Columbia Falls, Mont., 
April 4, 1894, and x\pril 5, 1897 ; Carson City, Nev., March 21, 1868, and March 
27, 1900; Fort Klamath, Ore., April i, 1887; Anthony, Ore., April i, 1906; 
Pullman, Wash., March 31, 1910; Cheney, Wash., April 8, 1905; Okanagan 
Landing, B. C, March 8, 1906, and March 13, 1910. 

Migrants have been seen at Camp Burgwyn, N. M., as late as May 24, 
1858; Fort Lyon, Colo., May 28, 1886; Fort Whipple, Ariz., May 12, 1865; 
Fort Verde, Ariz., May 10, 1888; Huachuca Mountains, Ariz., May 11, 1903; 
and Los Angeles, Calif., April 26, 1901. 

HOUSE FINCH 

The House Finch, or 'Linnet,' as it is best known in California, is a non- 
migratory species of the western United States, ranging north to Oregon, 
Idaho, and Wyoming, and south to Mexico; it is abundant east to the 
eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains and less common to western Kansas 
and middle Texas. It has been separated into several subspecies, and the 
above is the range of the most common form frontalis. The San Lucas House 
Finch, ruberrimus, occupies the southern half of Lower California, while the 
San Clemente House Finch, dementis, occupies the islands off the coasts of 
southern California and northern Lower California. 

Two other species of House Finch occur in Lower California. The Guada- 
lupe House Finch lives on the island from which it derives its name, and 
McGregor's House Finch occurs on San Benito Island. All these species and 
subspecies of the House Finch are non-migratory. 




Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 

TW^ENTY-SIXTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(See Frontispiece 

Cassin's Purple Finch {Carpodacus cassini, Figs, i and 2). This western 
species resembles the Purple Finch, but is somewhat larger and has the bill 
slightly longer and more regularly conical — that is, less bulbous at the base. 
In color, the male is paler than the male of the Purple Finch, particularly on 
the underparts, the back is more broadly and heavily streaked, and the red 
of the crown appears as a more or less well defined cap. Between the females 
of the two species the differences in plumage are less apparent, but in Cassin's 
the streaks on the underparts are darker and much more distinct. 

The plumage changes of Cassin's Finch appear to be the same as those of 
the Purple Finch. That is, the juvenal or nestling plumage resembles in pat- 
tern and color the succeeding or first winter plumage, in which the male 
cannot be surely distinguished from the female. 

This plumage is worn during the first breeding season, at the end of which 
it is lost by post-nuptial molt, and the pink plumage of maturity is acquired. 

There is no spring molt, and the differences in the appearance of summer 
and winter birds are due to wear which makes females and young males look 
more sharply streaked, while adult males, as was explained under the Purple 
Finch in Bird-Lore for February, seem brighter. 

House Finch {Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis, Figs. 5 and 6). The House 
Finch, or 'Linnet,' is one of the commonest birds of the western United States, 
and lives even in large cities, where, in places, it is as familiai.- as the House 
Sparrow. Its differences from the Purple Finch are clearly shown by Mr. 
Fuertes' plates, and need not be dwelt on here. The plumage changes appear 
to be the same as those of the Purple Finch, but the differences between 
summer and winter plumage are more pronounced than in that species, the red 
areas in the adult male being much deeper and brighter in summer than in 
winter. 

This member of the genus Carpodacus is responsive to the influences of its 
environment, and hence shows more or less geographic variation which has 
resulted in the recognition of several geographic races or subspecies. Three of 
these are confined to Mexico, and five are found within the limits covered by 
the 'Check-List' of the American Ornithologists' Union. They are (i) the 
House Finch of the western United States, mentioned above, and figured in 
the frontispiece; (2) the San Lucas House Finch {Carpodacus mexicanus ruber- 
rimus), of Lower California; (3) the San Clemente House Finch {Carpodacus 
mexicanus dementis), of certain islands off the coast of California from Santa 
Barbara southward; (4) Guadalupe House {Carpodacus amplus. Figs, 2 and 3), 
of Guadalupe Island; and (5) McGregor's House Finch, of San Benito Island. 

(107) 



Bird-Lore's Advisory Council 

WITH some slight alterations, we reprint below the names and 
addresses of the ornithologists forming Bird-Lore's 'Advi- 
ory Council,' which were first published in Bird-Lore for 
February, 1900. 

To those of our readers who are not familiar with the objects of the Council, 
we may state that it was formed for the purpose of placing students in direct 
communication with an authority on the bird-life of the region in which they 
live, to whom they might appeal for information and advice in the many diffi- 
culties which beset the isolated worker. 

The success of the plan during the fourteen years that it has been in opera- 
tion fully equals our expectations; and from both students and members of 
the Council we have had very gratifying assurances of the happy results 
attending our efforts to bring the specialist in touch with those who appreciate 
the opportunity to avail themselves of his wider experience. 

It is requested that all letters of inquiry to members of the Council be 
accompanied by a stamped and addressed envelope for use in replying. 

NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS OF THE ADVISORY COUNCIL 

UNITED STATES AND TERRITORIES 

Alaska. — Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

Arizona. — Harriet I. Thornber, Tucson, Ariz. 

California. — Joseph Grinnell, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

California. — Walter K. Fisher, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Colorado. — Dr. W. H. Bergtold, 1460 Clayton Ave., Denver, Colo. 

Connecticut. — J. H. Sage, Portland, Conn. 

Delaware. — S. N. Rhoads, Haddonfield, N. J. 

District of Columbia. — Dr. C. W. Richmond, U. S. Nat'l. Mus., Washington, D. C. 

Florida. — Frank M. Chapman, American Museum Natural History, New York City. 

Florida, Western. — R. W. Williams, Jr., Talahassee, Fla. 

Georgia. — Dr. Eugene Murphy, Augusta, Ga. 

Illinois, Northern. — B. T. Gault, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

Illinois, Southern. — Robert Ridgway, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Indiana.^A. W. Butler, State House, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Indian Territory. — Prof. W. W. Cooke, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Iowa. — C. R. Keyes, Mt. Vernon, la. 

Kansas. — University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Louisiana. — Prof. George E. Beyer, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. 

Maine. — A. H. Norton, Society of Natural History, Portland, Me. 

Massachusetts. — William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 

Michigan. — Prof. W. B. Barrows, Agricultural College, Mich, 

Minnesota. — Dr. T. S. Roberts, 1603 Fourth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mississippi. — Andrew Allison, EUisville, Miss. 

Missouri. — ^O. Widmann, 5105 Morgan St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Montana.^ — Prof. J. M. Elrod, University of Montana, Missoula, Mont. 

(108) 



Bird-Lore's Advisory Council 109 

Nebraska. — Dr. R. H. Walcott, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Nevada. — Dr. A. K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

New Hampshire. — Dr. G. M. Allen, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Boston. 

New Jersey, Northern- — Frank M. Chapman, Am. Mus. Nat. History, N. Y. City. 

New Jersey, Southern. — Witmer Stone, Academy Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New Mexico. — Dr. A. K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

New York, Eastern. — Dr. A. K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

New York, Northern. — Egbert Bagg, 191 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y. 

New York, Western. — E. H. Eaton, Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. 

North Dakota. — Prof. O. G. Libby, University, N. D. 

North Carolina.^ — Prof. T. G. Pearson, 1974 Broadway, New York City. 

Ohio. — Prof. Lynds Jones, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Oklahoma. — Dr. A. K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

Oregon. — W. L. Finley, Milwaukee, Ore. 

Pennsylvania, Eastern. — Witmer Stone, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pennsylvania, Western. — W. Clyde Todd, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rhode Island. — H. S. Hathaway, Box 1466, Providence, R. I. 

South CAROLiNA.^Dr. P. M. Rea, Charleston Museum, Charleston, S. C. 

Texas. — H. P. Attwater, Houston, Tex. 

Utah. — Prof. Marcus E. Jones, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vermont. — Prof. G. H. Perkins, Burlington, Vt. 

Virginia. — Dr. W. C. Rives. 1723 I Street, Washington, D. C. 

Washington. — Samuel F. Rathburn, Seattle, Wash. 

West Virginia. — Dr. W. C. Rives, 1723 I Street, Washington, D. C. 

Wisconsin. — H. L. Ward, Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis. 

CANADA 

Alberta. — G. F. Dippie, Calgary, Mta.. 

British Columbia, Western. — Francis Kermode, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C. 

British Columbia, Eastern. — Allan Brooks, Okanagan Landing, B. C. 

Manitoba. — Ernest Thompson Seton, Greenwich, Conn. 

Nova Scotia. — Harry Piers, Provincial Museum, Halifax, N. S. 

Ontario, Eastern. — James H. Fleming, 267 Rusholme Road, Toronto, Ont. 

Ontario, Western. — W. E. Saunders, London, Ont. 

Quebec. — E. D. Wintle, 189 St. James Street, Montreal, Canada. 

MEXICO 
E. W. Nelson, Biological Survey, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

WEST INDIES 
C. B. Cory, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

Clinton G. Abbott, 153 West 73d St., New York City, N. Y. 



^ote0 from JTtelfi anti ^tufip 



Red Bird Days 

For some three years, six congenial 
friends — all lovers of God's great big out- 
of-doors — have spent some hours each 
week in field and wood, at delightful 
study and observation of bird-life in and 
about our beautiful little city of Fair- 
mont, located near the Iowa line, in south- 
central Minnesota. Our lakes are nu- 
erous, and many of them are lined with 
native groves of oak, elm, basswood, 
hackberry, ash, poplar, black walnut, 
and a few red cedar trees. The under- 
brush consists, for the most part, of wild 
gooseberry, hazel, sumac, elderberry, 
thorn-apple, and a few wild currant bushes 
and plum trees. With water, woods, and 
prairie so closely associated, and all so 
generously distributed throughout the 
county, birds of all the three groups, 
water, woods, and prairie, find condi- 
tions favorable for domestic activities. 
This brings "to our very door" all the 
species naturally found in this latitude, 
and also occasionally a stranger from dis- 
tant parts, far removed from home and 
kin. 

While the male members of the sextette 
were out for a Christmas Census, a few 
days after December 25, one of them. Dr. 
T. P. Hagerty, observed a flutter of red 
in some willows ten rods ahead of us. 
The doctor became excited at the sight 
of the unusual bird and gave vent to a 
series of wild yells. His companions, 
somewhat shocked at the doctor's antics, 
remarked that "seeing red" was common 
experience with some folk, but for a man 
of his habits was rather strange. They 
spoke to him soothingly and cautioned 
him against the dangers of apoplexy 
from such uncontrolled excitement. 

All three advanced a few steps when, 
suddenly, another series of yells broke 
upon the stillness of the quiet afternoon. 
This time it was Dr. Luedtke, who "saw 
red" with the above consequences. Mr. 
Sprague, who was on the other side of 

(i 



the hedge, saw the form of the disappear- 
ing bird, but could not see the color, so 
his mental poise remained unchallenged. 
All sorts of derogatory accusations and 
charges were hurled at the two doctors. 
The very next week the three visited the 
same spot, and this time John Sprague 
also "saw red," and yelled as the others 
had done. The word "yell" may not be 
the best or most elegant English, but it is 
the only word that expresses what 
actually took place. 

On our way home from our "Census" 
walk, we deliberated at length as to what 
the bird we saw might be, and finally 
concluded to report him as an American 
Crossbill; although we were not satisfied 
with that classification, for he seemed too 
large and altogether too brilliant and too 
wild. The next week, about the middle 
of January, 19 14, Dr. Hagerty and John 
Sprague saw our new friend again, and 
this time discovered a distinct crest on 
his head. He was too far away to note 
other markings distinctly. The two 
declared it to be a Cardinal. The boys 
were somewhat piqued because the rest 
of the "family" did not accept their 
diagnosis as final and without question, 
but they hid their feelings, expecting that 
time would vindicate their position. A 
few days later, Dr. Luedtke received a 
telephone call from Mrs. John Lowe, who 
lives in the bit of wood where the red 
bird had been seen. She too had "seen 
red," and the echo of the characteristic 
yells were still sufiiciently strong to be 
detected by the doctor's listening ears, 
so that he knew what had happened. In 
a rather excited tone Mrs. Lowe told of 
seeing "the most wonderful bird" right 
near her house, from one of the upstairs' 
windows. It was fiery red all over, and 
had a crest and a black throat, and she 
wished to know what it was. That prac- 
tically settled the identity, but, being of a 
conservative nature, we some of us post- 
poned positive opinion until the bird 
was actually observed by our own eyes. 



10) 



Notes from Field and Study 



The next time, Mrs. Luedtke accom- 
panied the trio of male members to the 
red bird's haunts. It was a beautiful 
afternoon during the latter part of Janu- 
ary. The ground was covered with four 
inches of new, white snow. The air was 
still, fresh and warm, with the sun shi- 
ning most of the time. We were separated 
some sixty rods at the extreme, strain- 
ing every nerve to locate the object of 
our tramp. At last! The very thing we 
hoped and wished for happened. A series 
of yells from Mrs. Luedtke told more 
graphically than word, pen, or picture, 
to the three of us with experience (although 
we were many rods away), that the red 
bird had been sighted. We are not sure 
whether it was the presence of the lady 
or the increased confidence in us because 
of former visits, but this day the red 
bird let us all come to within four rods 
of him. With our glasses all focused upon 
him simultaneously, we looked and 
looked to our heart's content, at the bril- 
liant plumage, the strong pink bill, the 
fiery, tall crest, and the black throat and 
black circle about the bill. The aristo- 
cratic Cardinal! A few times he deigned 
to talk to us in sweet, low monosyl- 
lables. Of course, we did not expect 
him to sing at this season, but hope to 
hear him next May. We have looked for 
his mate, but so far have seen nothing 
of her. 

Mrs. Hagerty and Mrs. Sprague have 
been with us a number of times, but each 
time we were unable to find the red bird. 
They enjoy talking to us about hallucina- 
tions and delusions and all sorts of mental 
disturbances, — even "brain storms." We 
listen serenely, and patiently await their 
turn at vocal demonstrations. 

Just how or why the Cardinal came to 
southern Minnesota to spend the winter is 
a mystery to us. Why he should locate 
where he did, after once here, is not so 
hard to explain. A field of unhusked 
sweet corn, adjoining the heaviest wooded 
strip of land on the east shore of Hall and 
Budd Lakes, is reason enough. In the 
woods are many planted cedars and ever- 
greens of various kinds. This makes as 



good a shelter as can well be provided by 
nature in this climate. 

Our January was a very mild one, but 
last week one night the mercury went to 
1 8 degrees below zero, and we were greatly 
concerned about our Cardinal. Much to 
our joy, we found him last Sunday after- 
noon, February 7, in one of the densest 
cedars, very much alive and seemingly 
very contented. — Dr. and Mrs. T. P. 
H.^GERTY, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Sprague, 
and Dr. and Mrs. G. H. Luedtke, 
February 11, 1914, Fairmont, Minne- 
sota. 

Bird Notes from Kennett Square, Pa. 

Having been a regular subscriber to 
Bird-Lore since 1907, and having enjoyed 
reading the contributions from various 
subscribers, I think it is my duty to con- 
tribute a few notes and observations 
from this section of Chester County, Pa. 

(i) The first Starlings observed in the 
vicinity of Kennett Square, in south- 
eastern Chester County, were observed 
by me on the afternoon of March 8, 1913. 
Two of them were on the steeple of a 
church, and were identified and closely 
observed through bird-glasses, ^though 
they were about seventy-five feet from 
the ground, their notes could be heard 
plainly, and consisted of various short 
medleys resembling the song of the Yel- 
low-breasted Chat. While the birds were 
under my observation, I heard one utter 
a short collection of notes which sounded 
exactly like the notes of a Guinea-hen. 
Another song sounded like that of a Red- 
winged Blackbird, and, from what I 
could hear of its various songs, I concluded 
that the Starling is a mimic, like the 
Mockingbird and Chat. The Starlings 
are now regular inhabitants of the steeple, 
although I have not seen them elsewhere. 

(2) On December 11, 1913, I was given 
an Acadian or Saw-whet Owl, which had 
been taken from a cat that had killed it 
that day. As this Owl is a rather rare 
visitor to this section, this note may be 
interesting to any reader of Bird-Lore 
who lives in this part of Chester County. 



112 



Bird - Lore 



(3) For several years a partially albino 
Robin has nested near the public school 
in this town. The wings and head of this 
bird are gray, sprinkled with white, and 
the tail is black, or dark gray. The breast 
and back and other parts are pure white. 
As it nests in the same tree every year, it 
furnishes some proof that birds return 
to the same place to nest every year. I 
have observed this bird and its nest closely, 
and find that not one of the young inherits 
the albinistic character of its parent. 
I think the bird is a female. 

(4) On January 11 of the present year 
I was watching a White-breasted Nut- 
hatch eating suet which I had placed on a 
maple tree in our yard. He seemed to be 
enjoying himself, when suddenly two 
Sparrows flew to the suet and began to 
eat. The Nuthatch immediately left the 
suet and flew to the ground, where it 
hopped around for nearly five minutes 
and kept picking at seeds in the grass. 
While on the ground it hopped like a 
Sparrow. As a Nuthatch alighting on 
the ground was a new occurrence to me, 
I observed its actions closely. Is this 
habit of ground-feeding a rare habit, or 
just something which I have overlooked? 
— C. Aubrey Thomas, Kenneit Square, 
Chester County, Pennsylvania. 

Notes from Ohio 

The following records on the rarer 
birds noted during the year of 1913, may 
be of interest to Ohio readers: 

1. HolbcBll's Grebe. Jan. 30 and May 11. 

2. Baird's Sandpiper. April 25, July 
27, until late Sept. in small numbers. 

3. Black-bellied Plover. Two, Aug. 24 
on tract of Lake Erie. 

4. Turnstone. One, Sept. 14. Beach of 
Lake Erie. Allowed a close approach. 

5. Barn Owl. A specimen was found 
dead in the woods this winter. It has 
been mounted by a local collector. 

6. Evening Grosbeak. A single bird the 
morning of Jan. 6, 1914. 

7. Bachman's Sparrow. Sept. 22. First 
observed in Sept., 1909, and have seen 
them in same locality each year since. 



8. Prolhonotary Warbler. One, May 4. 

9. Sycamore Warbler. One, May 18. 

— E. A. DooLiTTLE, Painesville, Lake 
County, Ohio. 

Notes on the Black-crowned Night 

Heron and Other Birds at 

Orient, L. L 

On Gid's Island, a low, isolated patch 
of mixed woods, entirely surrounded by 
broad salt marshes and protected from 
common trespassing by wide, muddy 
drains, a new Black-crowned Night 
Heron heronry has become established. 

There are no records of these Herons 
ever nesting at Orient prior to 191 2, 
although they are common non-breeding 
summer residents about our marshes and 
shores, where they come daily and nightly 
to feed from the great rookery at 
Gardiner's Island, ten miles distant. 

This station at Orient was visited in 
191 1, and no nesting was in evidence. In 
1912 it was not examined. June 1913, I 
again visited the locality, and discovered 
a colony of nine pairs. 

In addition to the nine occupied nests 
there were three nests not in use that 
season that had been constructed the 
previous year. 

It will be observed that the heronry was 
originally started in 191 2 with at least 
three nests, and increased the second 
season to nine. 

Cedar trees appeared to be a favorite 
building-site, as these were selected for 
each nest. 

The young at that time (June 22) were 
ranging from just hatched to nearly full- 
grown, and were fed on algae, identified 
as Agardhiella gracilaria and similar 
forms, which abound in the shallow water 
near at hand. 

In addition to the Night Heron's, 
the small collection of trees contained in 
breeding species four pairs of Green 
Herons, five pairs of Ospreys, one each 
of Catbird, Red-eyed Vireo, Yellow Warb- 
ler, Kingbird, Spotted Sandpiper, and 
Chickadee. The encircling salt meadows 
were inhabited by hundreds of Sharp- 



Notes from Field and Study 



113 



tailed Sparrows and numerous Meadow- 
larks. In piles along the channel, at the 
edge of the bay, Tree Swallows were 
nesting in company with Flickers and 
Starlings. Here the Fish Hawks erected 
their nests right on the fishing-grounds, 
where their offspring lie on the floor of 
their home staring at the blackfish, 
cunners, and snappers, swimming in the 
clear water below. 

In the vicinity of the interesting Island 
a pair of Clapper Rails were nesting. 
Although common in the western sec- 
tions of Long Island, they are extremely 
rare toward the eastern end, and this is 
the first record of their breeding near 
Orient. — Roy Latham, Orient, L. I. 

A Problem in Food-Supply and 
Distribution 

During the winter of 191 2-13, the 
spruces of Nova Scotia bore an abundant 
crop of cones, well filled with seed. As a 
consequence. Red-breasted Nuthatches 
were very common throughout the pro- 
vince during the winter, an unusual con- 
dition. Crossbills were likewise abundant, 
occurring often in large flocks, some of 
which must have contained as many as five 
or six hundred individuals. This winter, 
I have but once seen Red-breasted Nut- 
hatches, a pair being observed on Jan- 
uary 24, and Crossbills are also com- 
paratively very scarce. This condition 
prevails throughout Nova Scotia, and, 
when we examine the conifers, we find, as 
we should expect, that the crop of seed 
is very light. So far all is plain enough. I 
had supposed that the majority of the 
above species, depending largely on the 
seeds of coniferous trees for food, had 
migrated southward during the autumn, 
and were now in the New England and 
Middle Atlantic states. On looking over 
the results of the last Christmas bird 
census, as published in Bird-Lore for 
February of this year, I find, however, 
that this supposition is apparently only 
very partially correct. In North America 
east of the Alleghanies, Crossbills and 
Red-breasted Nuthatches are reported 



practically from the State of Massachu- 
setts alone, and from the rest of the coun- 
try the reports of them are very few and 
far between. Presumably the conifers of 
Massachusetts bore a good crop of seed 
this winter. But are the great majority of 
the Crossbills and Red-breasted Nut- 
hatches of eastern North America crowded 
within the confines of Massachusetts? 
If so, we should expect to find them in 
large numbers in the reports from that 
state. To a slight extent this is so, for 
Mr. Lester E. Pratt reports from East 
Carver, Mass., fifty Red-breasted Nut- 
hatches, an unusual number to be observed 
in three hours. But this species is men- 
tioned in only one other report from the 
state, and the numbers of Crossbills 
reported are not at all phenomenal. 
Where, then, are the great majority of 
these three species? They are not here, 
in their breeding-range; they are not in 
their customary winter range to the south- 
ward. It would seem that either they 
have perished from some cause, probably 
lack of food, or else they have migrated, 
in search of food, to some region from 
which no reports were received. The 
only considerable territory in North 
America north of Mexico to come under 
this head is that covered by the great 
forests of northern Canada, and it is to be 
regretted that no census was sent from 
this extensive area. It would be most 
interesting to know that these species, 
or a large part of them, had migrated 
northward at the approach of winter 
because they found thus a more favorable 
food-supply. However, that is theory. 

I hope that some readers of Bird-Lore 
may be able to throw light on this ques- 
tion. — Harrison F. Lewis, Antigonish, 
N. S. 

Evening Grosbeaks and Other Winter 
Birds at Hartford, Conn. 

On Saturday afternoon, February 21, 
following our customary habit on a half- 
holiday, and nothwithstanding the nearly 
three feet of snow on the level, we decided 
to see what could be found in the way of 



114 



Bird - Lore 



bird life. Providing ourselves with a 
liberal supply of several kinds of bird- 
food, we went to what is called Reservoir 
Park, although not a park at all, but 
simply the watershed for the city reser- 
voirs therein located. Wading through 
the snow well above our knees at every 
step, and avoiding drifts that were six 
or eight feet deep, we had not gone more 
than an eighth of a mile from the car- 
line before we heard what can best be 
described as the sound produced at a dis- 
tance by striking a telegraph wire several 
rapid blows with another piece of wire, — 
a sort of rapid and metallic chit, chit, 
After listening, to get the direction, we 
soon discovered in a clump of white birches 
a flock of fourteen Redpolls. Practically 
every bird showed the bright poll and an 
an abundance of the red wash on the 
breast. They all seemed to be in unusually 
fine plumage; but, as the day was perfectly 
clear and all underfoot an unbroken 
expanse of white, their colors were per- 
haps given a more conspicuous bril- 
liance than usual. Later in the day we 
saw another flock somewhat larger than 
the first; but as it was nearly at the close 
of day, the observation was not so pleas- 
ing as the first one. 

We then half-waded and half-crawled 
through the deep snow among some small 
white-pine growth, and were well repaid 
for our efforts by soon finding a flock of 
sixteen excellent specimens of the Pine 
Grosbeak family. The birds were feed- 
ing on the seeds of the pines and sumachs, 
not more than ten feet from the ground, 
and were very fearless; so we had an excel- 
lent opportunity to see them at our 
leisure. There were several males in the 
full rosy plumage of this beautiful bird 
of the North, and occasionally one of the 
birds would give voice to a little ripple of 
a song, just as though he were trying to 
tell the rest of the crowd something in 
an undertone. 

On Monday, February 23 (Washing- 
ington's Birthday), we again took to the 
woods and fields to try our luck. After 
considerable search in one of the large 
outlying parks, and finding several of the 



more common species of birds, we were 
fortunate enough to happen upon a flock 
of eight Evening Grosbeaks. This spe- 
cies was first reported by me on the first 
day of January, and the birds have been 
seen in varying numbers by many of the 
members of our club up to about a month 
ago, when they disappeared. However, 
on Lincoln's Day, with the thermometer 
at eight above zero, I discovered eleven 
nearly a mile from where they were seen 
today. They are evidently of the same 
flock seen New Year's Day, having one 
very brilliant male, although all of the 
birds today were very much brighter- 
plumaged than when first reported several 
weeks ago. 

We then took a car about five miles, 
to get in the same trip, if possible, the 
Pine Grosbeak seen on the previous Satur- 
day, and were successful in finding the 
flock of sixteen, together with a flock of 
some fifteen Redpolls. We have thir- 
teen species for the day, which averaged 
about fifteen degrees above zero, with 
snow, as above stated. Has anyone else 
seen the Redpolls and the Pine and Even- 
ing Grosbeaks in the same trip in central 
or southern Connecticut? 

I have also seen within the past month 
at least a half-dozen Northern Shrike. 
They are reported as being more than 
usually abundant in this section this 
winter. — Geo. T. Griswold, 24 Imlay 
Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Wild Fowl at Sandusky Bay in 1756 

In the November-December, 1913, 
issue of Bird-Lore, there is a very inter- 
esting article by E. L. Moseley entitled 
'Gull Pensioners.' It describes the 
feeding of thousands of Herring Gulls by 
the foreman of the fish companies at 
Sandusky during the unusually severe 
winter of 191 2, and is illustrated with 
photographs taken by Ernest Niebergall, 
of that city. 

At the time when Professor Moseley's 
article appeared, I was making a study 
of the itinerary of Col. James Smith, who 
visited Sandusky Bay during the autumn 



Notes from Field and Study 



"5 



of 1756, while a captive among the 
Indians, and was surprised to learn that 
Sandusky Bay, or lake, as it was then 
called, was a great resort for Geese, 
Swans, Ducks, and Gulls, even in those 
early times. In an account of his travels 
published by Smith after his escape from 
captivity, he speaks of the abundance of 
aquatic birds at "Sunyendeand," an 
Indian town near the "little lake" — • 
Sandusky Bay. 

He says, "Sunj^endeand is a remarkable 
place for fish, in the spring, and for fowl, 
both in the fall and spring. At this sea- 
son, the Indian hunters all turned out 
to fowling, and in this could scarce miss 
of success." He says that the wild- 
fowl here feed upon a kind of wild rice 
that grows spontaneously in the shallow 
water, or wet places along the sides or in 
the corners of the lakes; and that the 
Geese, Ducks, Swans, etc., being grain-fed, 
were remarkably fat, especially the 
Green-necked Ducks. 

Smith also speaks of the migration of 
Wild Geese. He says that "the Indians 
imagined the Geese as holding a great 
council concerning the weather, in order 
to conclude upon a day, that they might 
all, at or near one time, leave the northern 
lakes, and wing their way to the southern 
bays. The Indians believed that at the 
appointed time messengers were sent off 
to let the different flocks know the result 
of this council that they might all be 
ready to move at the appointed time." 
Smith observes that, as there is a great 
commotion among the Geese at this time, 
it would appear by their actions that such 
a Council had been held. "Certain it is," 
says he, "that they are led by instinct to 
act in concert, and to move off regularly 
after their leaders." — Milo H. Miller, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

An Unsuspicious Family of Great 
Horned Owls 

On September 17, 191 2, a family of 
Great Horned Owls was found near Iron- 
side, Malheur Co., Oregon, which was 
tame enough to allow splendid oppor- 



tunities for photography had I been able 
to avail myself of them. Under the cir- 
cumstances, however, only three expo- 
sures were made. * 
I had driven several miles up Willow 
Creek to get data on a large beaver-dam, 
and, while skirting the edges of the pond, 




I flushed a Great Horned Owl from a 
thicket of alders. He flew but a short 
distance to a nearby alder and lit upon an 
upper limb. It was about one o'clock 
P.M. and the sunlight was rather strong. 
He sat blinking in the sunshine and seemed 
to pay but little attention to me beneath. 
I had my camera with me, and approached 



ii6 



Bird - Lore 



to the foot of the tree, where I made two 
exposures; then, desiring to try for an 
exposure on the wing, I focused and drew 
the slide of the Graflex. At first my 
attempts to put the bird to flight, with- 
out laying down the camera and deliber- 
ately throwing at it, were unsuccessful. 
At a particularly loud demonstration on 
my part, he would look disapprovingly 
down upon me, but showed little inclina- 
tion to leave the tree. Finally, after con- 
siderable shouting, he took to wing, and a 
snap was taken at him as he wheeled out 
over my head. He lit about seventy-five 




feet distant in a similar location, but he 
was not dislodged from this position until 
proceedings were resorted to which left no 
opportunity for photography. 

Two others were found in the same 
grove. The first of these was lost around 
a clump of trees, but the second was seen 
before he was flushed, and sat so close 
that I anticipated a very near approach. 
Light conditions necessitated coming up 
from a brushy side, and just before I 
could get an exposure, at a distance of 
approximately ten feet, the bird took 
alarm and disappeared on noiseless wing. 
As my time was very limited, I could not 
avail myself further of this rather unusual 
tameness on the part of Bubo. Still 



another Owl was seen later in the after- 
noon, lower down the creek, and he, too, 
was so tame that I came up to within 
about fifteen feet; but, in the desire to 
obtain better light for my last plate, I 
overdid it and frightened the bird. — H. 
E. Anthony, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City. 

Pileated Woodpecker in Northern 
New Jersey 

While at Newfoundland, N. J., on 
October i8, 1913, I saw a Pileated Wood- 
pecker, which was of much interest to me, 
as I had never before seen one in this 
vicinity. 

As I can find no mention of this 
species having been seen in this section of 
the country for some years, I thought 
its occurrence might be of interest gen- 
erally. 

Three years ago, while in Maine dur- 
ing October, I saw quite a number of 
individuals of this species, and had a good 
chance to observe them. 

The one noted at Newfoundland, N. J., 
was evidently a male, and was for some 
time busily engaged on a dead chestnut 
tree, and I had a good view of him for 
several minutes. — Edward G. Kent, 
5 Prospect St., East Orange, N. J. 

The Diary of a New Purple Martin 
Colony for the Season of 1913 

April 5. Martin-box put up about 5 

P.M. 

April 6. English Sparrows inspect and 
familiarize themselves with bird-house. 

April 7. One pair* of Sparrows take 
possession and begin to build nest. 

April II. Box lowered to ground on 
hinged pole and nest with one egg re- 
moved. 

April 13. Sparrows rebuilding nest in 
same room of bird-house. 

April 14. Nest and one egg removed. 

April 15. The pair of Sparrows decide 

*A second pair of Sparrows may have been re- 
sponsible for some of the nests and eggs. In some 
instances, the entries in the diary were made a day 
or two after the occurrence in question, or two en- 
tries were made at the same time. 



Notes from Field and Study 



117 



to build their next nest in another room 
of bird-house. 

April 16. Nest removed (no eggs).*t. 

April 19. A new nest and one egg 
removed from another room. The work 
of the same pair of persistent Sparrows. 

April 23. Nest and two eggs removed. 

April 25. Nest removed from attic 
room of bird-house. t 

May 2. Nest and three eggs removed. 

May 6. Nest and one egg removed. 

May 9. Same old story (another nest 
and egg). 

May 12. The original pair of Sparrows 
fight and drive off a second pair that 
attempt to build in box. 

May 13. Nest and egg removed. 

May 14. Egg found in box in a mere 
shell of a nest. (Bird evidently hadn't 
time to build much of a nest.) 

May 16. Nest removed.*! 

May 20. Large nest and two eggs 
removed. 

May 22. Nest removed.*! 

May 23. Nest and one egg removed. • 

May 25. Nest removed.*! 

May 27. Flock of six to eight Purple 
Martins visit box in p.m. (This news 
reported by next-door neighbor.) 

May 28. One pair of immature Martins 
stay around box all day. At 7.25 a.m., 
before leaving for work, the writer saw 
his first Martin on bird-house. 

May 29. Bird-house lowered in the 
absence of pair of Martins (about 5.30 
P.M.) and Sparrow's nest removed. 

First week of June. — The pair of Mar- 
tins commence to build nest. Both birds 
assisting in carrying nesting materials, 
sticks, grass, leaves, etc. (The box cannot 
be lowered any more, but fortunately the 
Sparrows seem to have yielded to the 
Martins.) 

June 20. An energetic immature Mar- 
tin (making three regular occupants of 
box) commences to build a nest (its mate 
not seen). Sex of bird probably female. 

June 23. Colony now numbers two 

*tVVhen the bird-house was lowered, very often 
the eggs would ro ll fr om the nests and out of_the 
entrance. Thus_sqme_of the eg gs may have been 
lost in the grass and weeds, although most of them 
were found and recorded. 



pairs. (The odd bird having brought 
home a mate.) Transients, solitary 
Martins, appear from time to time, but 
seldom spend more than one or two 
nights in box. Every day since May 27, 
visiting Martins to the number of two to 
twelve come daily to box. and fierce 
encounters occur between the regular 
occupants and visitors. 

July 29. Both pairs of Martins desert 
their nests, but visit box on July 30 and 
31, and about Aug. i. Martins leave 
bird-house for the last time. 

Several days later the bird-house was 
lowered, and one nest (of pair to build 
first) was found empty, while the other 
contained two eggs, which were addled. 
No young birds had been seen, although, 
from their actions, the first pair were 
feeding young birds for a couple of days 
about the time young should have been 
hatched. Possibly the young were killed 
by the pair of English Sparrows, which 
persisted in annoying the Martins in 
many ways. 

This is typical of the early experience 
of persons starting colonies of House 
Martins, and shows how our jolly Swal- 
lows suffer from depredations of the 
English Sparrow. The colony, next year, 
will swell in numbers from one or two 
pairs (the original pairs) the first week of 
April, until the bird-house is well filled 
and, less trouble will be experienced from 
the Sparrow pests. 

Everyone should put up bird-houses 
for the Purple Martins, and they will 
come, provided the Sparrows are kept 
out. — Thomas L. McConnell, McKees- 
port, Pa. 

The Chickadee of Chevy Chase 

In the January-February, 1914, num- 
ber of Bird-Lore (page 39), the species 
of Chickadee observed in Chevy Chase 
is questioned. On that day (Dec. 21) we 
saw only the Northern Chickadee {Pen- 
thestes atricapillus). This species has been 
very common in Chevy Chase since early 
in December^much more common in 
fact than Parus carolinensis, and I have 



ii8 



Bird - Lore 



had both feeding together in my 
garden. 

In winter I always keep a variety of 
bird-food on my window-sills, as well as 
on food-shelters, and whenever the snow 
covers up the supply of food in the fields 
the birds come into the yard by the score. 
Last Sunday was no exception to the rule, 
and my place was alive with birds, includ- 
ing White-throated Sparrows, Purple 
Finches, Juncos, Cardinals, Mocking- 
birds, Blue Jays, etc., and, as I was stand- 
ing at a window, there were feeding at 
the same time on the window-sill a Caro- 
lina Chickadee, a Black-capped (northern) 
Chickadee, and a Tufted Titmouse. The 
Black-capped Chickadee is readily dis- 
tinguishable from its southern cousin by 
its larger size and its white-edged wing- 
feathers; yet, as we are near the line 
separating the territory of these two 
species, one has to use caution in this 
section not to report the Black-capped as 
the Carolina Chickadee. — S. W. Mellott, 
Chevy Chase, Md. 

Winter Notes from Massachusetts 

Since November 7, I have observed 
almost daily, in locations scattered pretty 
generally over Southern Berkshire, large 
flocks of Pine Grosbeaks. They are among 
the more common of our birds at this 
date (December 6), and have been for the 
last two weeks. Not since January, 1907, 
have I seen them in anything like such 
numbers. Last winter, and the winter 
before, there were none in this particular 
neighborhood. Now it is no infrequent 
thing to come upon four or five flocks 
within as many miles, each flock number- 
ing upward of fifteen individuals. But 
in their daily appearance they are irregu- 
lar. Several days may elapse with no 
record, and then for several more they are 
feeding in the birches within a few yards 
of the house. The proportion of mature 
males seems to be less than one in ten. 
Wherever one finds them, they are much 
less tame than in 1907, flying off when 
approached more closely than twenty 
or thirty feet, going first into the tree- 



tops, and then away into the deeper 
woods in a straggling flock. In 1907, I 
succeeded in touching several while 
feeding, and caught one in the air as it 
flew directly into me. It would seem that 
this year's birds are better acquainted 
with men; their wildness, coupled with 
the early date of their arrival, seems to 
suggest that the individual birds we have 
here now are the vanguard, living in 
summer on the border of civilization. 
This fancy of my own creation is strength- 
ened by the report of a friend observing 
in eastern Maine, who says thay are com- 
mon there and very tame. 

I have also recorded several Shrikes, 
frequently observing them on the out- 
skirts of a flock of Grosbeaks. I watched 
one for many minutes, and during that 
time his bearing was entirely amicable. 
A little later I returned to see three Blue 
Jays drive him off. The Grosbeaks, mean- 
while, had disappeared into the woods. — 
Hamilton Gibson, Sheffield, Mass. 

Winter Notes from Connecticut 

There has been a scarcity of northern 
birds, but many most interesting records. 

December 8, Robert McCool shot a 
Snow Goose at Cedar Point, near West- 
port, and it has been mounted. 

December 28, there was a flock of 
thirty-six Red-winged Blackbirds, one 
Crackle, and one Cowbird, at Stratford 
Point. 

Through January, Myrtle Warblers 
were numerous in suitable places, and on 
February 19 I saw a Shrike chasing one 
through the trees, the Warbler trying 
hard to escape, and uttering its alarm 
note constantly. 

The same day, I found a Catbird in a 
tangle of cedar, briar, and bayberry 
bushes. It seemed all right, but stupid, 
and with feathers much fluffed, and it 
must have succumbed in the severe cold 
soon after. 

February 21, in a swamp where the 
Night Herons nest, I found where the 
Crows had feasted upon two Night 
Herons, every particle of flesh having been 



Notes from Field and Study 



119 



cleaned from the bones, and they must 
have been eaten within three days, since 
the last snow. 

Mr. Miller, of the American Museum, 
pronounced one as a two-year-old bird, 
and the other is clearly a younger bird. 
Sage and Bishop, in their 'Birds of Con- 
necticut,' give the latest date for the 
Night Heron as November 17, though 
they occasionally winter near here. Three 
Pine Grosbeaks were noted in January, 
a few Siskins, and a few Snow Buntings. 

February 27, Mr. James Hall found a 
Hermit Thrush among sumacs in a swamp, 
the bird being in fine condition. 

March 4, I found the first flock of Red- 
polls, about fifty in number, and con- 
taining some fine males. 

Ice and the cold have been hard on 
birds, many Ducks have died, a Pheasant 
a Meadowlark, and a Short-eared Owl, 
all terribly emaciated, were found dead, 
and their fate told that of many others, 
no doubt, though more people have been 
feeding birds about here this winter than 
ever before. — Wilbur F. Smith. 

A City Kept Awake by the Honking 
of Migrating Geese 

Shortly after midnight, October 6, I 
was awakened from sleep by the honk- 
honking of migrating geese. I arose at 
once and looked out to see the birds. The 
air was filled with heavy mist, and the 
sky was hidden by black clouds, so that 
the birds could not be seen in the darkness. 
The honking was very loud at first, and 
then it could hardly be heard. Soon it 
would seem as if the Geese were flying 
past my window again. It was evident 
that the Geese were flying back and forth 
over the city. The honking continued 
until daybreak. 

The next day, many citizens in Norman 
remarked about the flock of Geese which 
seemed to be flying back and forth over 
the city during the latter part of the night. 

These Geese were doubtless migrating 
southward, under a clear sky, during the 
early part of the night. Then the sudden 
extreme darkness which came on between 



10.30 p. M. and midnight must have 
bewildered them so that they lost their 
way. In their wanderings, they came 
into the zone illuminated by the electric 
lights of the city, and flew back and 
forth over the lights until daybreak. — 
L. B. Nice, Univeristy of Oklahoma, 
Norman, Okla., Nov. 12, 1913. 

Snowy Owl at Chillicothe, Missouri 

About ten o'clock on the morning of 
February 14, while passing through a 
grove of small oak trees, I saw a large 
white object among the leaves of one 
of the trees. After observing it for a 
few more minutes. I was able to identify 
it as a Snowy Owl. A few days before, 
we had a snowstorm followed by some 
very cold weather, during which the Owl 
had probably came southward. The 
next day I heard another person speak 
of seeing a large white Owl, which I sup- 
pose was the same individual. — Desmoxd 
PoPHAM, Chillicothe, Mo. 

The Voice of the Tinamou 

Having heard Tinamous calling at 
nightfall in tropical forests on the Island 
of Trinidad, I cannot help doubting if 
anyone not an artist as well as an ornitholi- 
gist, and no less gifted with pen than 
brush, could possibly have characterized 
their utterances in terms at once so true 
and picturesque as those employed by 
Mr. Fuertes, in a paragraph published in 
the last number of Bird-Lore. Dealing 
subjectively with a matter of uncommon 
diflSculty, this remarkable passage is 
essentially a word picture, sketched with 
such rare and effective combination of 
literary skill, artistic fervor, refined appre- 
ciation of the spiritual in nature and 
careful avoidance of all overstatement, 
that it expresses precisely what every 
reverent-minded naturalist must feel 
when listening to the soul-stirring voice 
of the Tinamou, however incapable he 
may be then or afterward of rendering 
his impressions into similarly worthy 
language. — William Brewster, Cam- 
bridge. Mass. 



iloofe ^etos: anH 9^etotetD6 



A Determination of the Economic 
Status of the Western Meadowlark 
(Sturnella neglecta) in Cali- 
fornia. By Harold Child Bryant. 
University of California Publications 
in Zoology, Vol. ii, No. 14, pp. 377- 
510, pis. 21-24, 5 text figs. Feb. 27, 
1914. 

This paper of 126 pages, devoted to 
a study of the food of the Western 
Meadowlark, at once takes its place 
among the most important contribu- 
tions to the subject of economic orni- 
thology that have yet appeared. It is 
based on the examination of nearly two 
thousand stomachs of this species from 
all parts of California, collected in every 
month of the year. 

Of the total amount of food taken 
throughout the year, sixty-three per cent 
was found to be animal, and thiry-seven 
per cent vegetable. Beetles and Orthop- 
tera (crickets and grasshoppers) each 
constitute one-lifth of the total quantity. 
In summer and fall, Orthoptera form a 
large percentage of the food — eighty- 
five per cent of the whole amount in 
August. Cutworms and caterpillars also 
constitute an important item. The only 
non-insect animal diet comprises a few 
sow-bugs, snails, earthworms, and milli- 
pedes. Of the vegetable food, grain con- 
constitutes seventy-five per cent, or nearly 
thirty-one per cent of the total; but nearly 
one-half of the entire amount of grain is 
consumed in November, December, and 
January, when little insect food is avail- 
able. 

As the author states: "Few people have 
any realization of the great quantities 
of insects consumed by birds," and he 
computes that in the great valleys — the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin — alone, the 
young Meadowlarks in the nest require 
343/^ tons of insect food each day! 

Of the charges brought against this 
species, only one of any importance is 
sustained. Its depredations in fields of 
young grain are sometimes serious, due 
to its habit of boring down beside the 

(i 



sprout and pulling off the kernel. The 
author believes, however, that this 
damage is more than balanced by the 
good done by the destruction of harmful 
insects, and does not warrant wholesale 
killing of the Meadowlark. He advises 
certain preventive measures and frighten- 
ing the birds from the fields during the 
short period necessary. 

Ten reasons are given why the Meadow- 
lark should be a protected non-game bird, 
among the number being its esthetic 
value, and the author concludes that it 
"has been shown to be distinctly bene- 
ficial to agricultural interests as a whole, 
and thus to all the people of the state." 

In the introductory matter, Mr. Bryant 
discusses the History of Methods in 
Economic Ornithology, and a comparison of 
the various methods. Supplementary sec- 
tions include miscellaneous data secured in- 
cidentally, to the examination of the large 
series of birds, as parasitism, malforma- 
tion, albinism, molt, etc., and several 
pages are devoted to the important 
question of whether protective adapta- 
tions of insects protect them from the 
attacks of birds, and of availability as a 
factor in the kind and quantity of food. 

A bibliography and four plates illus- 
trating food and feeding habits conclude 
the paper.— W. DeW. M. 

A Study of a Collection of Geese of 
THE Branta canadensis Group 
From the San Joaquin Valley, Cali- 
fornia. By Harry S. Swarth. Uni- 
versity of California Publications in 
Zoology, Vol. 12, No. i, pp. 1-24, pis. 
1-2, 8 text. figs. Nov. 20, 1913. 

As one of the earliest tokens of return- 
ing spring-time, the Wild Geese are of 
interest to everyone; while the ornitholo- 
gist finds in their variations in size, form 
and color, scarcely paralleled among birds, 
fruitful material for study in evolution. 

Mr. Swarth, in an endeavor to deter- 
mine the exact status of the Canada Geese 
of California, examined numbers of each 

20) 



Book News and Reviews 



'121 



of the currently recognized subspecies. 
He concludes that all four are well founded, 
but intergrade so completely that they 
cannot be separated as species, notwith- 
standing the differences in size and other 
respects between the little Cackling Goose 
of Alaska and the big Canada Goose of 
the United States, which are so striking 
that no one seeing only the extremes 
would question their specific distinctness. 

The form breeding in California is 
found to be identical with the Common 
Canada Goose of the eastern states. The 
least known of the four races, the White- 
cheeked Goose, is a large, dark non- 
migratory form, occupying the humid 
northwest coast region. It does not 
breed in northern California, as has been 
supposed; nor even reach the state in 
winter, so far as can be determined. 

Diagrams graphically illustrate the 
variations in size and proportions; and 
the diversity in the pattern of the head 
and neck is shown by two plates of figures 
representing twenty individuals. — W. 
DeW. M. 

Bulletin of the United States 
Department of Agriculture No. 
58. Five Important Wild Duck Foods. 
By W. L. McAtee. 

Owing to the interest manifested in a 
previous circular of the Department of 
Agriculture, giving information on cer- 
tain plants of importance as food for 
Wild Ducks, namely the wild rice, wild 
celery, and pondweeds, the department 
authorized Mr. McAtee to continue his 
investigation of this subject. 

The present paper summarizes the 
results of Mr. McAtee's work. Five 
additional plants of great value as food 
for wild-fowl were found to be the delta 
duck potato and the wapato (species of 
Sagittaria, or arrowhead), the nut grass 
or chufa {Cy penis esculentus), the wild 
millet {Echinochloa crus-galli), and the 
banana water-lily {Nymphcea mexicana). 
While at present most of these plants are 
of only local importance, the author 
believes that their field of usefulness can 
be greatly extended. 



Maps illustrate the distribution of 
each species, and the plants with their 
tubers or bulbs — the principal edible por- 
tion in most species — are figured. — W. 
DeW. M. 

The Bodley Head Natural History. 
By E. D. Cuming. With illustrations 
by J. A. Shepherd. Vol. II, British 
Birds. Passeres. lamo. 122 pages; 
numerous illustrations. New York. 
John Lane Company. Price 75 cents, 
net; postage, 6 cents. 

The second volume of this attractive 
little work contains accounts of the 
British Warblers, the Dipper, the Nut- 
hatch, and the Creepers. Mr. Shepherd's 
quaint illustrations in color, one or more 
on every page, "do not aim so much at 
scientific accuracy as at giving a general 
impression of the character, habits, and 
appearance of the animal depicted. It is 
believed that in this respect they will be 
found certainly more artistic, and proba- 
bly more suggestive than elaborate plates 
or even photographs." — W. DeW. M. 

Die Vogel. Handbuch der Systema- 
TiscHEN Ornithologie. By Anton 
Reichenow. Zwei Bande. I. Band. 
Large 8vo. 529 pages; numerous illus- 
trations. Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart, 

This is a handbook of ornithology for 
the student, and a work of reference for 
the general reader. Though written in 
the German language, it treats of the 
birds of the world, and hence demands 
our notice. Volume I consists of 529 
pages, the first 67 of which relate to the 
subject in general, as internal and ex- 
ternal structure, geographical distribution, 
and classification. 

The systematic portion includes all the 
"lower groups" down to and including the 
Owls and Parrots. Determination of the 
genera, and in many cases the species, is 
facilitated by "Keys;" every genus being 
diagnosed and at least a representative 
series of the species treated. Descrip- 
tions of habits, nests, and eggs are limited 
to brief summaries under the headings of 
the orders and families. — W. DeW. M. 



122 



Bird - Lore 



We have received from the Comstock 
Publishing Company, of Ithaca, New 
York, a copy of their new Bird Note 
Book, designed by Anna Botsford Com- 
stock, and illustrated with outline figures, 
by Fuertes, of thirty common birds. 

This notebook is planned to combine 
schoolroom work with field observation. 
Sixty pages for notes, two for each species, 
are so arranged that the proper descrip- 
tive term may be underlined and the 
blank spaces filled in by the observer. The 
outline figures are intended for careful 
coloring in the schoolroom or at home. — 
W. DeW. M. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Auk. — The January issue is a 
bulky number, and filled with numerous 
half-tone plates including one of a new 
Petrel {Mstrelata chionophara), which is 
described by Mr. R. C. Murphy. The 
first instalment of an elaborate article by 
Dr. R. M. Strong 'On the Habits and 
Behavior of the Herring Gull, Lams 
argentatus, Pont.,' is well illustrated. The 
systematic grouping of facts follows the 
lines of modern research work and the 
original observations are a well marshaled 
host, setting a standard for future workers 
in kindred topics. 

'In Memoriam: Philip Lutley Sclater,' 
by Dr. D. G. Elliot, marks the passing of a 
great ornithologist of the old school. 
During a long and active life, Sclater con- 
tributed no less than 1,500 scientific 
papers, most of them on birds, in which 
his interest never flagged. 

Dr. C. W. Townsend enters 'A Plea for 
the Conservation of the Eider' on the 
coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, 
where persecution by Indians, Esquimaux, 
and fisherman threatens the duck with 
extinction. Mr. W. M. Tyler writes 
minutely 'Notes on the Nest Life of the 
Brown Creeper in Massachusetts.' He 
thinks that "the species will be found 
breeding here as long as the [gypsy] 
moths continue to kill the trees." Mr. 
J. D. Figgins, writing on 'The Fallacy 
of the Tendency toward Ultraminute 



Distinctions,' shows that considerable 
changes both in size and color have 
occurred in Gambel's Quail introduced 
into parts of Colorado some twenty-five 
years ago. 

Of local lists, we find 'Notes on the 
Ornithology of Clay and Palo Alto Coun- 
ties, Iowa,' by Mr. A. D. Tinker, and 
'Additions to ... . Birds of ... . 
Cass and Crow Wing Counties, Minn.,' 
by A. W. Honeywill, Jr. Some nomen- 
clatural questions are brought up afresh 
by Mr. G. M. Mathews under title of 
'Some Binary Generic Names,' and an 
account of the thirty-first meeting of the 
A. O. U. is given by our Secretary, Mr. 
J. H. Sage. Notes and Reviews are 
numerous and valuable, and an obituary 
of Alfred Russel Wallace adds another 
prominent name to the long list of deceased 
members. — J. D., Jr. 

The Condor. — Two recent numbers of 
'The Condor' still await notice in these 
columns. The number for November, 
concluding Vol. XV, contains nine general 
articles on a variety of topics. Joseph 
Mailliard contributes a brief obituary 
notice of H. B. Kaeding, one of the active 
members of the Cooper Ornithological 
Club. Herbert Massey, a member of the 
British Ornithologists' Union, supple- 
ments Dr. Shufeldt's recent paper on the 
eggs of North American Limicolse with 
an account of the eggs of European spe- 
cies which are accidental in America. 
Ray adds 'Some Further Notes on Sierran 
Field-Work,' with a list of 49 species of 
birds observed, in June, 1910, in Eldorado 
County. Mailliard describes three 'Cu- 
rious Nesting-places of the xAilen Hum- 
mingbird' at San Geronimo — one on a 
pulley and another on a rope under a 
wagon-shed, and the third on a wire hook 
in a carriage-house. Wright notes briefly 
12 species of 'Birds of San Martin Island, 
Lower California.' Dawson contributes 
three brief but interesting articles, one on 
'Identification by Camera,' showing the 
differences between certain shore birds, 
and two critiques of Ridgway's 'Color 
Standards,' under the titles, 'A Mnemonic 



Book N«ws and Reviews 



123 



Device for Color- Workers' and 'A Prac- 
tical System of Color Designation.' 

The most extended paper is a 'Prelim- 
inary Report,' by T. C. Clarke, on an 
extraordinarj'^ disease which has occurred 
among the Ducks near Tulare Lake, Calif., 
each year since 1909. The chief species 
affected were the Shoveller, Pintail, Cin- 
namon Teal, and Greenwing Teal. The 
dead birds found in 1913 included i,753 
Ducks, and about 300 other miscellaneous 
birds. It is hoped that this investigation 
will be continued until the cause of the 
disease, still obscure, is fully determined. 

The January 'Condor' opens with an 
interesting article, by Dawson, on 'Direct 
Approach as a Method in Bird Photog- 
raphy,' illustrated by some remarkable 
pictures of Ibises, Phalaropes, Sander- 
lings, and Dowitchers, taken at short 
range. In a characteristic review entitled 



'The People's Bread,' the same author 
points out the numerous shortcomings 
in the recent 'Western Bird Guide,' by 
Reed, Harvey and Brasher. Van Rossem 
contributes some 'Notes on the Derby 
Flycatcher' in Salvador, in 191 2; and 
Rust, a detailed, illustrated account of 
the 'Nesting of the Sharp-shinned Hawk' 
near Coeur d' Alene, Idaho, in 1913. 

A 'Second List of the Birds of the 
Berkeley Campus,' by Joseph Grinnell, 
shows some interesting results of inten- 
sive bird study of a limited area. The 
campus of the University of California 
includes 530 acres. The first list of its 
birds published three years ago contained 
76 species, while the present list enumerates 
97 species, and the author estimates that 
a mean population of approximately 8,000 
individual birds is maintained throughout 
the year within this area. — T. S. P. 



A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 

Bird-Lore asks the cooperation of its readers in recording the migrations of 
certain common birds in the belief that a joint study of their movements will add to 
the interest with which their coming is awaited, and contribute something of value to 
our knowledge of their travels in particular, and bird migration in general. 

It is proposed to take three birds which arrive during the earlier part of the migra- 
tion season, and three more which are due in the latter part. A summary of observa- 
tions on the first group will be published in Bird-Lore for June, while those relating to 
the second group will appear in Bird-Lore for August. 

The first three birds selected were the Red-winged Blackbird, Robin, and Phoebe; 
the second group of three includes the Chimney Swift, House Wren, and Baltimore 
Oriole. A blank form is appended showing how the records should be scheduled before 
sending them to Bird-Lore. These blanks should be mailed to Mr. Charles H. Rogers, 
care of Bird-Lore, American Museum of Natural History, New York City, not later 
than June i. — F. i\L C. 



Report from. 



(Give locality) 



Made by. 



(Give name and address of observer) 



Date 
first seen 



Chimney Swift . . 
House Wren .... 
Baltimore Oriole 



No. 
seen 



Date No. 

next seen seen 



Date of 
becoming 



124 



Bird - Lore 



A Bi-Monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 

OrriCIAL OKGAN OP THE AUDUBON SOCIETIES 

Edited by FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

Contributing Editor.MABELOSGOOD WRIGHT 

Published by D. APPLETON & CO. 

Vol. XVI Published April 1, 1914 No. 2 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 
Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico, twenty cents 
a number, one dollar a year, postage paid. 

COPYKIGHTED. 1913, BY PRANK M. CHAPMAN 

Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush Is Worth Two in the Hand 



For the first time in its history of 
thirty-one years, the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union will hold its annual congress 
in the spring. Heretofore these always 
memorable gatherings have usually 
occurred in November, but the present 
year it is proposed to convene on April 
7-9, in Washington, D. C. This combina- 
tion of date and place gives promise of an 
exceptionally enjoyable meeting. The 
beauties of 'spring at the Capital' have 
long been sung, and visiting ornitholo- 
gists may be assured an opportunity to 
experience them under both sympathetic 
and skilful guidance. 

The hotel headquarters of the Union 
will be the Ebbitt House. The daily 
public sessions for the presentation and 
discussion of scientific papers will be held 
in the National Museum. 

Anyone interested in the study of birds 
is eligible for election to Associate Mem- 
bership in the Union; and everyone who 
realizes how much the causes of bird- 
study and bird-protection owe to this 
organization should welcome an oppor- 
tunity to become affiliated with it. The 
annual dues of Associate Members are 
$3, and all members receive 'The Auk,' 
the 600-page journal of the Union, with- 
out charge. Candidates for Associate 
Membership should apply to Dr. J. 
Dwight, Jr., Treas., 134 West 71st, 
Street, New York City, or, from April 
6 to 9, care of the National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 



The creation of reservations and 
appointment of wardens may protect 
birds from their human enemies, but even 
government control and the services of 
so faithful a guardian as Paul Kroegel 
have been insufficient to protect the 
Pelicans of Pelican Island from disaster 
which befell their offspring during the 
nesting-season just past. 

In the last issue of Bird-Lore, Warden 
Kroegel wrote, under date of January i, 
1914: "We have now as fine a batch of 
young birds as I can remember for this 
time of year;" but when, with Ernest 
Seton, we visited the island on February 
15, we beheld the most distressing scene 
of which one could well conceive. The 
ground was as thickly strewn with the 
bodies of dead young Pelicans as though 
batteries of guns had been discharged at 
close range into massed flocks of them. A 
few dozen young were still alive, some of 
which could fly, while others vainly tried 
to do so. At the southwest and northern 
ends of the island possibly a thousand 
old birds were resting or bathing, and one 
nest held three eggs, on which one of a 
pair of adults sat while the other stood 
nearby. This was the only occupied 
nest on the island. 

We have visited Pelican Island on many 
occasions, and have before seen the heavy 
fatality which may follow unfavorable 
weather conditions, but never before 
have we found anything approaching the 
catastrophe which has befallen the colony 
this year. 

Its cause is by no means clear, but 
there are certain facts which are beyond 
dispute. Thus the cause of the young 
birds' death seems beyond question to 
have been starvation, but why they should 
have starved is another question. Death 
had occured since February i, just as 
the birds were about to fly. Some birds 
indeed, had escaped the fate of their less- 
advanced or weaker comrades by acquir- 
ing the power of flight, and with it ability 
to feed themselves, and some of these 
were seen about the island, as well as 
some distance from it; but it was obvious, 
even without an exact census, that the 



Editorial 



125 



greater part of the 1,600 birds recorded 
by Mr. Kroegel, after surviving the period 
of early Pelican life had died at an age 
when, with a week or so more of food and 
growth, they too would have been able 
to care for themselves. 

That starvation was the cause of death 
was evinced by the emaciated condition 
of all the bodies of the birds examined, 
and even more convincingly and patheti- 
cally by the actions of some of the sur- 
viving young which were awaiting their 
fate. With open bills they came directly 
to us, touching our clothing and voicing 
their wants eloquently, but in tones 
which bore but faint resemblance to the 
vigorous food-call of the hungry but well- 
nourished young Pelican. 

These birds had obviously been deserted 
by their parents, and it is not unreasonable 
to suppose that the birds whose bodies 
dotted the Island thickly about us had 
starved to death, because of similar 
desertion. 

If this be true, one naturally seeks the 
reason for this desertion. In February, 
1908, on our last visit to Pelican Island, 
large numbers of young were found that 
had died during an exceptionally cold 
spell, which had evidently prevented the 
parents from fishing. These young, how- 
ever, were all in the downy stage, and 
hence we may believe were less hardy 
than birds which had almost acquired 
the power of flight. Furthermore, we 
had been in eastern Florida the present 
year since February 2, and can affirm 
from personal experience that there had 
been no storm or cold wave of sufficient 
severity to prevent the parent birds from 
fishing. Is it possible, then, that for a 
period of several days the old birds had 
had such poor fisherman's luck that they 
could not find sufficient food for their 
young? While this supposition might be 
true of a few pairs of birds, in view of the 
wide area of sea and river covered by 
the parents of all the dead young it is 
difficult to believe that it could be true 
of them all. 

Personally, therefore, we believe that 
starvation followed desertion, and deser- 



tion was due to a failure, or gi\ ing out, 
of the feeding instinct, which had run its 
course. Possibly the weather may to 
some extent have induced the old birds to 
abandon their young; but we are con- 
vinced that, if exactly the same weather and 
fishing conditions had prevailed earlier in 
the season, the feeding instinct would have 
then been sufficiently strong to have 
induced the birds to overcome them and 
to secure food enough to support their 
families. 

Pelicans begin to gather on their chosen 
island generally in November, and the 
nesting season is well under way in Decem- 
ber, but on the west coast of Florida, 
Brown Pelicans do not begin to nest until 
x\pril. 

This past season (1913-14) the birds 
returned to the island in October, the 
earliest date. Warden Kroegel states, on 
which he has recorded their arrival. The 
nesting-season was correspondingly early, 
and hence abnormal, a fact which should 
be taken into account when one tries to 
explain the failure of the parent birds 
properly to care for their offspring. 

But, whatever conclusions we may 
reach in regard to the factors which 
brought disaster to the nesting-season of 
1913-14, it is clear beyond dispute that, 
under the circumstances now existing on 
Pelican Island, the Pelicans are more in 
need of protection than at any previous 
time in their history. It is not the plume- 
hunter who is so much now to be feared 
as the thoughtless tourist whose landing 
drives young from their ground-nests and 
creates a confusion which may result in 
many deaths. Fortunately, Warden 
Kroegel's watchfulness prevents mishaps 
of this kind. His guardianship of the 
island is now so generally known that, 
in most instances, application for a per- 
mit to visit it under his guidance is made 
in due form. But, if a strange boat is 
detected in suspicious proximity to the 
Pelicans' home, the National Associa- 
tion's patrol boat 'Audubon' is soon under 
way, and the trespassers are made aware 
of the effectivenss of the warning notices 
posted about the island. 



Cl)e Audubon ^oeietfe« 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Edited by ALICE HALL WALTER 

Address all communications relative to the work of this depart- 
ment to the editor, at 53 Arlington Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

BIRD AND ARBOR DAY 

Perhaps the greatest value of festival days and anniversaries of all kinds 
lies in their significance, and especially in the appeal which they make to those 
who observe them. The appointment of a new anniversary is a matter of far 
more import than it might at first seem to be. Authority alone, even of presi- 
dents, governors, or other officials of the people, cannot make a festival, or 
even a fitting anniversary, out of a particular day. Upon those who take part 
in the observance of the day falls the responsibility of its success 
and continuance. 

In the long-forgotten past, when man approached Nature with a child- 
like fear and imagination, it was not difficult to people the universe with 
deities whom he must propitiate, and in whose festivals he must share. 
Throughout later ages, it has seemed consistent with man's maturer judgment 
to pay some annual tribute to heroes and patriots, to celebrate events of national 
importance, or to commemorate experiences which have had lasting influence 
in shaping human environment and in molding character. The days set apart 
by different peoples for such formal acknowledgment of man's indebtedness to 
great lives, great events, and great ideals, ought to be true festivals and signal 
anniversaries, rather than mere holidays, given up to feasting and ordinary 
pleasures. 

Arbor Day is a very recent anniversary, while Bird and Arbor Day combined 
is as yet observed in comparatively few states. This day has been set aside 
in the hope that man may be brought closer to nature in a practical, suggestive 
and inspiring way. Whether the day fulfills its mission, it is the privilege of 
this generation to determine. 

Possibly not one of our school anniversaries carries with it such fresh- 
ness and buoyancy as this festival of the trees and birds. This is because 
spring is the expression of each New Year in its youth, not only budding trees 
and returning birds, but also freshly coated animals, flooded streams and 
lengthening days of luxurious sunshine, remind us that the transcendent mira- 
cle of Nature is taking place. To appreciate this miracle, we must share in 
the general transformation of our surroundings. 

Who that has ever stepped on the yielding ice among the hummocks of a 
marshy pasture, or picked a treacherous way along the gullies and sink-holes 

(126) 



The Audubon Societies 127 

of a retreating brook-channel at freshet-time, can forget the feeling of the earth, 
of the air, and the scent of spring which everywhere abounds? No other days 
are like these days of budding leaves and drying soil. It is a glorious time, not 
only to be outdoors, but to be outside self. It is a revelation of a new kind of 
kinship to plant a tree and to welcome the return of the birds — a kinship 
with Nature. 

But the real spirit of spring must go with the planting and the welcome; 
otherwise the observance of Bird and Arbor Day will become a tiresome 
repetition of a once novel idea. 

Viewed in this light, it becomes a large but pleasant task to instruct our 
boys and girls how to meet spring with open hands and hearts. What work 
more attractive or more full of joy could Audubon Societies take part in 
than this one of interpreting the true meaning of Bird and Arbor Day! 

Busy teachers and restless pupils would both appreciate the cooperation of 
bird-students and nature-lovers in this spring-festival season. Will you not 
all make some definite attempt to obser\'e Bird and Arbor Day more in the 
spirit of spring? Will you not make an attempt to observe it together in the 
school-grounds and public parks of our land, or better yet, in the woods 
and fields of the open? Will you not strive to attach more significance to the 
great idea which was the reason for the appointment of this day, the preserva- 
tion and conservation of Nature? — A. H. W. 



JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 

Exercise XIV: Correlated Studies, Reading, Elementary Agriculture, 

and Geography 

"Look at this beautiful world, and read the truth 
In her fair page; see every season brings 
New change to her of everlasting youth — 
Still the green soil with joyous living things 
Swarms — the wide air is full of joyous wings." — Bryant. 

As the wild winds of March tear the tree-tops and rush the melting snows 
of February down the hillsides into swollen brooks and channels, we feel the 
hope of springtime rising high in our breasts. There may be more storms 
ahead, but they cannot last long, for the great sun stays with us more and 
more each day, and neither snow nor wintry storms can brave the heat of 
its life-giving power. 

Jack Frost must stop playing with the temperature now, dropping it to 
the nipping point for the last time. The ice will break up in the rivers, rush- 
ing headlong down stream, and it will soon melt, too, from our streets and 
crackling ponds. 



128 Bird -Lore 

But this is not life, only a preparation for life. It is perhaps not joyous 
to many, only the sign of coming joyousness. Still there is far more life in late 
February and March than one uninitiated in the truths of Nature might 
suspect; while April brings myriads of creatures we ought to know by sight 
or sound, or some kindred sense. The early bluebird, the skunk-cabbage and 
honey-bee are a few of the forms of life that greet the observant eye. If a 
wave of sunlight breaks the chill of the air, an occasional "mourning cloak" 
butterfly may appear. In grassland, woodland, and plowed fields, hordes 
of insects are about to hatch from winter eggs, crawl forth from hibernating 
refuges or to emerge from snugly hidden pupse, which have survived the 
coldest weather, housed in the earth, under roots or in sheltered nooks. 

To check this winged army of destruction, other winged hosts are advan- 
cing from the distant Southland, our migratory birds, whose coming brings the 
joyous certainty of spring. How wonderful it is that just as leaves and buds 
are swelling and unfolding, and insects in countless numbers are finding their 
way to the open, the birds should arrive in a feathered multitude to swell the 
ranks of living things. There is a reason for this, a law of nature, if we could 
understand it, that governs the migratory movements of birds. 

There is a special work for birds to do in nature, and, with almost clock- 
like regularity, they journey north exactly at the time when this work is 
ready to be done. (Cmp. Bird-Lore Vol. XIII, No. 3, p. 160.) Perhaps you 
have never thought of birds as workers. Watch them, and see how much they 
do in a day, or even in an hour. Their chief work is to get food for themselves 
and their nestlings, and, in doing this, they eat not only seeds and small ani- 
mals, but also thousands and thousands of insects, which would otherwise 
spread over the earth, devouring vegetation with frightful rapidity. 

If man had never tried to change the ways of Nature by cutting off for- 
ests, draining and plowing up large tracts of land to plant to special crops, 
if he had never brought into our country seeds and trees and insects and ani- 
mals from across the ocean, it might be easier to study the natural habits of 
birds, and to judge exactly what the results of these habits are. We have 
already learned that birds are fitted with tools which enable them to crack 
seeds of nearly all kinds, to dig beneath the bark of trees, to probe in the 
earth, to scoop through the air and water, in short, to hunt for food in an 
almost endless variety of ways and places. Since they are, on the whole, quick 
to discover new kinds of food as well as new kinds of nesting-sites, we call 
them easily adaptable to the changing conditions of wild and cultivated Nature. 

An illustration of the adaptability of birds to a new food-supply which is 
now found in the north-eastern United States is shown in connection with 
the gipsy and brown-tail moths, introduced insects whose yearly devastations 
cost us many thousands of dollars. 

The Downy Woodpecker, Kingbird, Ring-necked Pheasant (introduced 
into our country from the Old World), Phoebe, Least Fly-catcher, Scarlet 



The Audubon Societies 129 

Tanager, Red-eyed Vireo, Black and White Warbler, and other species, 
attack these pests and devour them. Forbush says: "As time goes on, it is 
probable that birds will become more and more efficient enemies of the gipsy- 
moth and the brown-tail moth, as they learn better how to manage them. . . . 
As the gipsy-moth spends more than half of the year in the egg, this is its most 
^allnerable point. If Jays, Creepers, Nuthatches, Woodpeckers, and other 
birds, could learn to eat these eggs, as European birds are said to do, they would 
then have an increased food-supply the year round. Naturally, they would 
increase in numbers, and thus an effective natural check to the gipsy-moth 
in America would be established, provided these birds were protected. 

"The brown- tail moth is more exposed to the attacks of birds than is the 
gipsy-moth, since the larvae hibernate in their nests in curled-up leaves that 
remain on the tree all winter (see illustration). Already some birds are learn- 
ing to open these winter nests and to extract the larvse from them. If the birds 
once learn this lesson thoroughly, the power of this pest will be greatly 
lessened." 

The Red-winged Blackbird and Blue Jay seem to have found out this new 
food-supply, while a number of other species eat the hairy caterpillars which 
have crawled out of their winter nests, and also of the moths upon their emer- 
gence from the pupal stage. 

The variety and number of insects are so great that, if birds had no other 
kind of food-supply, there would doubtless be more than enough for all of 
them, provided there were less cold weather and more warm weather. 

In the remarkable economy of Nature, however, every form of life has 
its place, its season, and its work. To study the intricate relations which 
result from this order is a life-long task. Perhaps this is one chief reason 
why nature-study is so absorbing, because there is so much to learn that is 
entirely new. Surely, in no other study can teachers and pupils be discoverers 
and observers together to better advantage. 

But, to go back to the food of birds, numberless as the insects are, birds 
find other kinds of food awaiting them when they journey northward. Let us 
turn for a moment to the lists of trees, plants and animals which we studied 
in connection with the distribution and migration of birds, taking the Robin 
as our guide. (See Bird-Lore, Vol. XIV, No. i, p. 57; No. 5. pp. 303-306; 
No. 6, pp. 364-368; Vol. XV., No. I, pp. 53-57-) 

How delightful a trip it would be to fly with the Robin, from one place to 
another, from one tree to another, somewhat slowly at first, then more and 
more rapidly as spring hurried by us, seeking the distant North? 

Through tropics and semi-tropics, great plains and deserts, pine-barren 
country, by mountains and valleys, we should go; each day almost, finding 
new feeding-areas and nesting-places. If we could count the different trees 
which a Robin visits on its migration-trip, and the different things which it 
finds to eat, what a long list it would make! 




By permission of the Rhode Island Department of Agriculture 
WINTER NESTS (Uibernacula) OF THE LARVAE OF THE BROWN-TAIL MOTH 

These nests should be cut off in March and burned 



(i3<^) 



The Audubon Societies 



131 



Now that we are watching for the Robin, Red -winged Blackbird, and 
Phoebe, suppose we learn a few facts about their food, putting our informa- 
tion down as follows: 



Food of the Robin, Red-winged Blackbird and Phoebe, Three of Our 

Beneficial Birds 

(See, Some Common Birds in their Relation to Agriculture, by F. E. L. Beal, 
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 54, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, and also. The Relation between 
Birds and Insects, Yearbook of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture for 1908.) 





Robin 


Red-winged Blackbird 


Phoebe 


January 


Wild fruit. 


Weed-seed. 


In winter home. 


February 


Wild fruit. 


Weed-seed. 


In winter home. 


March 


Wild fruit, beetles and 
worms. 


Weed-seed and insects. 


In winter home. 


April 


Wild-fruit, worms and 
insects. 


Weed-seed and insects. 


In winter home. 


May 


Wild fruit, worms and 


Mostlj' insects, a little 


Insects such as 




insects. 


grain, a few snails and 


Mav beetles 






crustaceans. 


Click beetles 


June. . 


\\'ild fruit, worms and 


Weevils, 25 per cent less 


Weevils 




insects. 


grain. 


Grasshoppers 


July 


Wild fruit, worms and 


Mostly insects, a very 


Wasps. Wild fruit 




insects. 


little fruit, more grain. 


Flies 


August 


Wild fruit, grasshoppers 


Weed-seed 30 per cent. 


Bugs. Wildfruil 




30 per cent. 


Considerable grain in 
certain localities, in- 
sects. 


Spiders 


September 


Wild fruit, beetles. 


Weed-seed and insects, 
grain and rice notably 
in the West and South. 




October 


Wild fruit, beetles. 


Weed-seed and insects, 
grain and rice notably 
in the West and South. 




Noyember 


Wild fruit, a few insects. 


Weed-seed. 


In winter home. 


December 


Wild fruit. 


Weed-seed. 


In winter home. 


Summary 


Animal matter, chiefly in- 


Vegetable matter about 


Insects and spiders 




sects, 42 per cent, large- 


74 per cent. 


93 per cent. 




ly injurious species. 








Small fruits and berries 


Animal matter, mainly 


Wild fruit 7 per 




about 58 per cent, of 


insects, 26 per cent. 


cent. 




which 47 per cent is 


Nearly seven-eighths 






wild fruit, and a little 


of the food of this 






over 4 per cent culti- 


species is weed-seed 






^'ated fruit. 


and injurious insects. 





In habit of nesting, manner of feeding, song, plumage, and distribution 
quite different, these three species will furnish us ample work for study and 
observation during the year. It will be very much worth while to find out 
all that we can about them without in any way disturbing them. They have 
come, and are still coming, thousands of miles, to spend the summer with us. 
The Robin may even linger through late fall, or, if the winter be mild, the 



132 Bird - Lore 

entire year. When we stop to think how many places they have passed through 
which we have never visited, how many things they have seen, heard, touched 
and tasted which we know nothing about, and how many things they do 
which we cannot do, we shall feel a great wonder about the beautiful world, 
of which the poets never tire of singing to us, — the world of life and joy. 

As we start out to greet the birds and trees and flowers, the animals, and 
everything which nature has to show us, let us not forget the wise instruc- 
tion of Dr. William Turner, an old English physician, chaplain, and natural- 
ist who, in the dedication of his history of the principal birds noticed by 
Pliny and Aristotle, published in 1544, wrote: "No one demands sight in the 
feet, hearing in the legs, smell (or taste) in the hands, or smell in the arms; 
but all these things are necessary in the head. Inasmuch, therefore, as so many 
senses are requisite in the head, which is set over one body alone, how 
many senses and what a wealth of wisdom and learning are demanded from 
that head . . .?" 

So let us keep our ears open as well as our eyes, our noses ready to catch 
the faintest odor, our tongues quick to taste, and our hands to feel, while the 
head directs all, including the heels, to paraphrase an old adage. — A. H. W. 

"He filled their listening ears with wondrous things." 



SUGGESTIONS 

1. Address Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, asking for Circular 96, 
leaflet on Arbor Day, prepared by Gifford Pinchot. 

2. Plant trees and shrubs, and plant them right, as a forester would, first learning 
which kinds of trees and shrubs are most needed in and best suited to your locality. 

3. Are there any maple keys about your neighborhood, and, if so, what are they 
doing now? 

4. Did you ever see a mud- wasp make a vase of clay? 

5. Where do the bees go for food at this season? 

6. Look at the ragweed, to see what birds find its seeds to their liking as it matures. 

7. Can you hunt for a fairy shrimp? Where? Why is it called fairy? 

8. How many frogs and toads do you know by sound and by sight? 

9. How does a squirrel strip a pine-cone to get at the seeds? 

10. Can you name all the trees and shrubs about your home and school? 

11. Learn the meaning of egg, larva, pupa, and imago, as applied to insects. 

12. How many kinds of insects do you know? 

References: Nature's Craftsmen, by H. C. McCook; Nature-Study and Life, by 
C. F. Hodge; Our Native Trees, by H. L. Keeler; The Birds' Calendar, by H. E. Park- 
hurst; The Migratory Movements of Birds in Relation to the Weather, by W. W. 
Cooke (See Yearbook of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture for 1910); The Legend of the Blue 
Flower, by F. H. Burnett; Bird and Arbor Day Program, Bird-Lore, Vol. XIII, No. 2; 
Handbook of Nature-Study, by A. B. Comstock. 



The Audubon Societies 133 

FROM ADULT AND YOUNG OBSERVERS 

A NATURE-STUDY CLASS 

Early in the spring of 191 2, the writer was given a class of twelve twelve- 
year-old boys in Sunday School. Some of them had not been attending regu- 
larly, and an inquiry resulted in finding that some of them preferred walking 
in the woods and digging out chipmunks on Sunday to attending Sunday 
School. In order to form a bond of common interest with these boys, I prom- 
ised to take a stroll with them on each Sunday afternoon, and help them to 
study birds, flowers, and trees in a systematic and orderly way. One of the 
boys had a stub-tailed dog by the name of Spot. This Scotch terrier went 
with us the first time, but after that he was tabooed, because he would now and 
then scare up a rabbit, and our orderly walk was likely to degenerate into a 
rout. By making the dog stay at home and making the boys promise not to 
throw stones, we succeeded in keeping probably as orderly a crowd as other 
Sunday-afternoon strollers were. 

The boys kept lists of the birds we saw on each trip. The number seen on 
each trip that we were able to identify was from twenty to twenty-five, the 
total number of kinds running somewhere between eighty and ninety. The 
following are some of the more interesting observations made. 

Among the earlier visitants, we noted a pair of Black-capped Chickadees, 
and a Tufted Titmouse and his mate. Although these birds generally nest 
farther north, the above mentioned individuals stayed with us all summer. 
The Tufted Titmouse supposedly nested in a hollow somewhere in a large 
elm. At any rate, every morning during April and May, from 3.45 to 4 a.m., 
just at daybreak, the male bird might be heard in the top of the elm singing 
his "Peeler, peeler, peeler;" but at any other time of day he was entirely 
silent. The Chickadees gave their characteristic notes only when they first 
appeared in the spring. During the summer they were entirely silent, but 
very much in evidence, from time to time as they carefully searched our 
apple trees for insects. The last seen of the Chickadees, they had a large 
family of young in tow. 

During the migrating season in the spring a number of Warblers were 
seen, but the only ones that would remain quiet long enough to be identified 
were the Black-throated Green Warblef and the Maryland Yellow-throat, 
or "Witchety" bird. This latter bird has been of very common occurrence. 

Almost every time we went past a certain pasture, we saw a rusty-looking 
male Cowbird and his three wives walking along before the cattle. 

We found two Cowbird's eggs in two different nests of Chipping Sparrows, 
and removed them. One of the eggs we put in a Robin's nest. Before 
going back on her nest, the female Robin held her head on one side and in- 
spected the nest; then she deliberately pulled out the strange egg and 



134 Bird - Lore 

dumped il over the edge of the nest in just the same manner that a sitting 
hen will pull eggs around with her beak. The other Cowbird's egg was put into 
a Kingbird's nest, the nest being so deep that I thought it would be impos- 
sible for the birds to get the egg out over the edge. Both birds set up an 
uproar when they saw the strange egg in the nest, but they did not seem to 
know what to do. Next day, however, the broken remains of the Cowbird's 
egg were found beneath the tree, and an inspection of the nest seemed to 
indicate that the birds had made a hole in the side of the nest large enough to 
shove out the offending egg, and then afterward repaired the hole. 

One day we saw a Sparrow building a nest in a wild rose-bush along the 
road. A female Cowbird was slyly looking on from some bushes near by. 
Next day the nest was completed, and contained a Cowbird's egg and a Spar- 
row's egg. A third chapter to this story was added three weeks later, when 
we came by and found two Sparrows feeding a large young Blackbird that 
was just learning to fly. 

On one stroll, we found two old Killdeers with two half-grown young. 
The young were very swift of foot, and were run down after quite a chase. 
One of them ran into a creek and, to our surprise was perfectly at home in 
the water. It floated like a cork and, after it had paddled its way across, we 
took up the chase on the other side. The two young were finally coaxed to 
sit still on the hand, for inspection, while the old birds came within fifty feet 
of us and pretended to be badly wounded, standing on their heads in a curious 
manner and spreading out their wings. On our releasing the little ones, they 
all made for a swamp. 

On Decoration Day my twelve boys and one older boy started at 4 a.m., 
in a spring wagon, for a day's outing at Greenville Falls, which is a 
fine resort for fishing, boating, swimming, and bird-study. On the way, we 
stopped to listen to a solo from a Black bird with a white back, which sat on 
a telegraph wire at the roadside, pouring forth a melody that resembled a 
chime of bells. The bird was identified immediately as a Bobolink. The boys 
noticed a plainer-looking bird along the fence, with yellowish stripes, and I 
told them that if it flew away with the soloist it must be its mate. The pre- 
diction proved correct. The Bobolink is rather rare in this locality. On this 
trip we found a Phoebe's nest by a bridge, and also several Orchard Oriole's 
nests, made entirely out of green grass. The black cape of these Orioles 
seemed to extend far down their neck and there was more chestnut than yel- 
low in their plumage. They gave a note that sounded like "Keeler, Cooler, 
Cooler," which seemed to distinguish them from the Baltimore Oriole. We 
observed some grayish-looking Swallows entering a small opening in the side 
of a limestone cliff. The hole was so small and so dark that we could not see 
anything inside. What kind of Swallows were they? 

We also tried to stalk a bird that said "pe-er-e-er-e-er-r-r-rl," all in one 
tone of voice ending in a rolling trill, sometimes with the ascending accent on 



The Audubon Societies 135 

the end. This bird has been a mystery to us all summer. Although we have 
heard it very often on the hot summer days, we have never been able to get 
close enough to identify it. 

We found several pairs of Dickcissels that chirped their song from tall weeds 
in the hay fields. They said: 'V////> chip chip chip chip.'' (do mi sol mi mi.) 

We also thought that we identified the Savannah Sparrow that sat on a 
weed in similar fashion, singing "tsup, tsup," ending in an explosive sort of 
whistle or trill which it is impossible to indicate on paper. 

The doings of the boys' club would fill a large volume, but, as indicative 
of the spirit of sympathy with wild creatures, let me relate just one more cir- 
cumstance. 

Having found some young Redbirds (Cardinals) just learning to fly, I 
asked the boys if they would like to take them home and try to raise them. 
They said yes, they would like to, but did not want "to disappoint the old 
birds." — C. C. Custer, Piqua, Ohio. 

[This communication answers in a very practical way the inquiry of a teacher who 
wishes to know how to conduct outdoor excursions of young pupils in bird- and nature- 
study. The fact that the excursions described were made on Sunday afternoons has 
nothing to do with the value of the method employed. The class of twelve boys evi- 
dently saw things and got a great deal out of the trips besides needed exercise. 

It would be useless, probably, to caution such classes against chasing birds, since it 
takes a well-seasoned observer to maintain perfect patience and self-control in moments 
of ornithological excitement. 

However, it is well to remember that the quiet observer, who is willing to devote 
plenty of time to each observation, usually gets more, in the end, than the hasty, thought- 
less person. Some day this class will find out to its satisfaction the Bank or Rough- 
winged Swallow, whichever species it happens to be, and the bird whose song did not 
disclose its identity. The apparent failures of a bird-walk are likely to be as valuable 
as the successes. — A. H. W.l 



A BIRD-STUDY CLASS IN NORTH DAKOTA 

About three dozen of our native birds are known to nest in the vicinity 
of our town and on the shores of the two small lakes near by. Robins, Meadow- 
larks, Song Sparrows, and Chestnut-collared Longspurs are some of the sweet 
singers we hear almost daily during the summer months. One of the very 
interesting species is the Bobolink, discovered near one of the lakes on an early 
morning in June. There were two males that sang, apparently not heeding 
us, and keeping only a few yards distant. That successfully hidden some- 
where near were the nests and mother birds, we did not doubt. The gay sum- 
mer dress and delightful song of the male Bobolink gave great pleasure to the 
Junior Audubon members, who made a majority of the party. Yellow-headed 
and Red-winged Blackbirds, Mourning Doves, Sandpipers, and Plovers were 
also seen on the same excursion. The Baltimore Oriole, Brown Thrasher, 
Wren, Yellow Warbler, and Maryland Yellow-throat are some of the inter- 



136 Bird - Lore 

esting residents of the other lake, during the nesting season. Barn Swallows 
are rare, and the scarcity of native Sparrows was noted this year. A Wood 
Duck made her nest in the cavity of a large tree in front of a summer cottage. 
Every day, for some time, she flew to and from the nest, but, as more people 
came to occupy the cottage, she finally left the nest. Just how many eggs she 
laid is not known. Crows are becoming numerous here. — Mrs. C. D. Berlin, 
Wimbledon North Dakota. 

[The work of this bird-study class is exactly the right kind, and teachers elsewhere 
would do well to look up one or two accessible places frequented by birds, where they 
could go with their pupils in small parties, without too great fatigue or expenditure of 
time. Learn what your particular part of Nature has to tell you, is an excellent rule to 
follow. What someone else does in a different locality can never be precisely duplicated.' 
Therefore, discover your own resources, and adopt the methods which can be most 
practically used with your own jjupils. We shall be glad to hear more from North Dakota. 
— .\. H. W.l 

A WALK IN THE WOODS 

I was hunting in the woods one day. I saw an old tree in the woods with a 
hole in it. I was going to climb up the tree. As I got up a little way it fell 
over with me. It was rotten. When I looked in the hole I saw three baby 
owls. They all tumbled out on the ground. Then I was sorry. But I did not 
know it was going to fall over with me. I set the stump up where the hole was. 
I put the little owls back into the hole. I fixed the stump up so that the wind 
would not blow it down. How queer they looked! I hope they grew up to be 
nice big owls. Herbert Morenz (age 11), Sea Side Ave., Eltingville. 

Once I was walking in the woods with a friend of mine. I saw a squirrel. 
I went up the tree after it. When I got up to the top of the tree, a mother 
squirrel ran out. I put my hand down into the hole of the tree. Five or six little 
flying squirrels came out. They flew to one tree, and when I got up that tree 
they flew to another tree. In this way they were in seven or eight trees. Two 
came to the ground, and we caught them. The rest got away. I took the two 
home and put them into a cage. I fed them all of the nuts that I bought at 
the store, but they would not eat for me. I left the door open a little bit. One 
morning I found they had gone. — Edward McCafpery (age 16), 137 Giffords 
Lane, Great Kills, N. Y. 

One day I went for a walk into the wood. When I had gone a little way I 
saw a nest of baby rabbits. The mother ran as fast as a bullet. That was the 
way I found the nest. I also found a lot of turtle's eggs. I also found a quail's 
nest. It had six eggs. That winter I saw the quails. They were looking for 
food. My mother sent me over with chicken corn for them. They did not fly 
away when I threw them the corn. They ate it in a delicious way. A man 



The Audubon Societies 



137 



said, "The Quails call my name." That summer I heard them call it, "Bob, 
Bob, White." His name was Robert White. — Thomas Flynn (age 12). 

[This exercise in composition, based on original observations, suggests another 
method of making use of the time allowed for bird- and nature-study in our schools. 
There is a very definite pleasure to be derived from describing what one has seen, heard, 
or done himself, and the spirit of this kind of pleasure is shown in these compositions. 

The boy who "fixed the stump up so that the wind would not blow it down," the 
boy who "left the door open a little bit," when his caged squirrels would not eat, and the 
boy who carried "chicken-corn" to the hungry quail, are all boys who can be trusted to 
make friends with Nature. An experienced teacher, as I may have already told you, 
once said that we should not need to preach about kindness to animals to boys and girls 
if we would teach them to know outdoor life. 

No Bird and Arbor Day message could be finer than the poet's call to the world of 
"joyous living things." — A. H. W.] 

"Welcome back to your North-land, 
Birds, to our hearts so dearl 
Sorrowful were the summer 
Without your songs of cheer. 
We long for you when absent, 
We'll cherish you while here." 
From the Return of the Birds, by M. C. Bolles, Grass Range, Montana. 




SPRING'S HERALD 
(Photograph of Meadowlark by Guy A. Bailey) 



THE WHIP-POOR-WILL 

Bv T. GILBERT PEARSON 



%^t Rational Si&&omtion ot Audubon ^ocittit& 

EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET No. 73 



While walking along a country road one evening after the sun had set, 
and darkness had all but fallen, I suddenly discovered some object on the 
ground a few yards ahead. At almost the same moment it rose, and, on slow- 
moving wings, flew over the fence and disappeared in the' gloom of the woods. 
The flight was so silent, and the wings were so broad, it was difficult to believe 
that it was not a great moth that had just departed from view. I knew, how- 
ever, that I had disturbed a Whip-poor-will in the midst of its twilight dust- 
bath. Evidently it had been trying for several minutes to find just the right 
spot, for there in the soft earth were three slight but distinct hollows, such as 
only a dusting bird would make. 

Soon afterward I heard it calling, or perhaps it was its mate, whip-poor-will, 
whip-poor-will; the shouts came ringing through the darkness, six, eight, or 

perhaps twenty times repeated. Then, after a pause, the plain- 
The Song tive but Stirring notes would again come up from the old apple 

orchard, and fill all the space round about the farm-house. 
The still summer night seemed to belong to this strange bird of the shadows, 
for its rhythmical cry took possession of the silences, and filled the listener with 
contented exhilaration. All attempts to approach it that night were futile, 
for its big, bright eyes evidently penetrated the shadows with ease, and, 
long before we could even make out its form, it would fly to another perch 
several rods away. Only when it announced its presence by calling did we 
know its new position. Two or three times, however, we came near enough 
to hear the low note, something like chuck, which immediately precedes the 
first loud whip of its song. 

Ernest IngersoU, in his book "Wit of the Wild," says that a Whip poor- 
will, while singing, "will often make a beginning and then seem to stop and 

try it over again, like a person practising a new tune; but 
ops inging |.j^ggg interruptions really mean so many leaps into the air, 

with perhaps frantic dodges and a somersault or two, for the 
snatching and devouring of some lusty insect that objects to the process." We 
listened for this, but all the calls we heard were complete throughout each 
performance. It was fully two hours after the sun had set before the last note 
of this mysterious night-flyer was heard. Just before dawn it called again 
several times, and the farmer's wife said she feared it was sitting on the stone 
door-step. She was somewhat disturbed about this, and intimated that if 
it were there the action would bring sorrow to the household. It seems odd 

(138) 




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The Whip -poor- will 139 

that people should be superstitious about anything so harmless as a bird, but 
in rural communities one often finds people who believe much ill luck may 
happen to them if a Whip-poor-will sings too close to the house. If they were 
better acquainted with this gentle feathered creature, they would surely know 
that nothing evil could come from it. 

Many more people have heard this bird call than have ever seen it; for, 
like the owl, its day begins only when the sun goes down, and before the sun 
comes up again it has settled to sleep on the dead leaves that cover the ground 
in the thicker parts of the woods. It appears never to give its call during the 
daytime. While hunting for wild flowers, you will sometimes come upon its 
hiding-place. It must sleep with one ear open, for the bird seems always to 
hear you before you see it, and, on silent wings it will rise and fly quickly out 
of sight among the bushes. 

If such an experience should happen to one in the month of May or June, 
it is quite worth while to search the leaves very carefully, for you may have 
stumbled upon its nest, which, in reality, is no nest at all, but 
The Nest is simply a place on the leaves which the mother-bird has chosen 

to be the temporary home of her little ones. The mildly 
spotted, cream-colored eggs so closely resemble the faded, washed-out, last 
season's leaves on which they are lying that it takes a sharp eye, indeed, to 
find them. So one should proceed slowly, lest an unfortunate step might 
crush the two little oblong beauties. Usually one is not quite certain of the 
exact spot from which the bird flew. On such occasions I sometimes place 
my hat or handkerchief on the ground near the place, and, like a dog hunting 
for a lost trail, begin to walk around the spot, increasing the circle constantly 
as I go. By this means, sooner or later, one will be pretty sure to find the 
eggs if they are there. 

If, when the bird flies, it soon comes to the earth again, and appears to be 

suffering from sudden injury, you may be sure that it has a secret that it is 

trying to keep from you, and, by feigning a broken wing, it 

eigning hopes you will follow in an attempt to capture it. If you 

approach the bird, it will fly before you a few yards at a time 

until, having led you away a safe distance from the nest, it will suddenly 

recover, and, rising strong on the wing, you will see it no more. Doubtless 

the eggs are often saved from destruction in this way; for a hunting dog, fox, 

or 'coon, will seek to catch the bird, and entirely overlook the presence of 

eggs or young. 

If the eggs have hatched, you will need to look even closer if you are to 
be rewarded. The two little Whip-poor-wills, with their soft, downy coats, 
will lie motionless on the leaves, without even so much as an eyelid moving 
to betray their presence. Their coloring, too, blends so wonderfully with 
their surroundings that I sometimes wonder if any enemy is ever able to 
find them. 



I40 Bird - Lore 

In many of the southern states lives the Chuck-wiU's-widow, which also 
bears the name given to its call. It is larger than the Whip-poor-will, but, like 
it, is nocturnal in its habits. So closely do the two birds resemble each other, 
both in physical structure and in habits, that naturalists tell us they are near 
relatives, and, in fact, they classify them as belonging to the same family. 
Many of the people who live in the forests where these birds are found do not 
know much about the scientific study of birds, and usually believe that these 
two night-prowlers are one and the same birds. They will tell you that the 
Chuck-wiU's-widow is the male Whip-poor-will. 

Down in the lake country of central Florida, as a boy, I used to listen to 
the Chuck-wiU's-widow calling on summer nights. When the winter months 
came, however, the cries that came up from the deep woods of an evening were 
different; for at that season these birds were all gone, and their places taken 
by Whip-poor-wills, which had arrived from the more northern states to pass 
the winter where snows never fall, and frost seldom comes. 

Another closely related bird is often confused in the public mind with the 

Whip-poor-will. This is the Nighthawk, or "Bull-bat." Very many persons 

think there is no difference in these birds, but there is a marked 

s ig aw fiiffereiice both in appearance and habits. The Nighthawk's 

Cousin ^ ^ 111 

wings are much longer, and, when folded, reach well beyond 
the end of the tail, while the Whip-poor-wiU's wings do not extend even so 
far as the end of the tail. The Nighthawk flies about in the early evening, long 
before sunset, and may sometimes be seen, even at noontime, hawking about 
for insects. It often feeds hundreds of feet in the air, and may remain on the 
wing for an hour or more at a time. On the other hand, its cousin of the shadows 
only comes out of its seclusion so late in the evening that it is difficult to see it, 
and it captures its food by short flights near the ground. 

The Whip-poor-will, and the other two birds I have mentioned, belong to 
the family of birds called Goatsuckers. They have very weak feet and legs, 
and so move very slowly and feebly when on the ground. They sit lengthwise 
on a limb, fence-rail, or other object on which they chance to perch, and very 
rarely use the crosswise position so commonly adopted by the perching birds. 
The mouth in this group is one of the wonders of the bird-world because of its 
enormous size. All around the upper lip is arranged a series of long, stiff, 
curving hairs, which form a sort of broad scoop-net in which the bird entangles 
and seizes its insect-prey, for it always feeds while on the wing, and the agile 
gnats and moths might often be able to dodge or slip out of the very small 
beak possessed by these birds were it not for the wide fringe of bristles. 

Few birds are more valuable to the farmer than is the Whip- 
Its Food poor-will. It never does him any harm in any way, for it does 

not eat his cherries and strawberries, nor does it pull up his 
newly planted corn, nor eat his millet seed. It does not fill up the drainage- 
pipes of his house with sticks and leaves, does not eat his chicken-feed, nor catch 



The Whip-poor-will 141 

his young poultry. What it does do for him is to eat the insects that lay the 
eggs that hatch into caterpillars and destroy the leaves of shade and fruit 
trees. May-beetles and leaf-eating beetles are destroyed by it also. In truth, 
fortunate, indeed, is the grower of grain, or the raiser of fruit who, during the 
spring and summer nights, has one or more pairs of these birds about his place, 
for all during the hours when the farmer sleeps the Whip-poor-will is busy 
ridding his place of these harmful insects. 

Mr. Ingersoll says: "They never regularly sweep through the upper air, as 
does the Nighthawk, but seek their food near the ground by leaping after it in 
short, erratic flights. They have a way of balancing themselves near a tree- 
trunk or barn- wall, picking ants and other small provender off the bark; and 
even hunt for worms and beetles on the ground, turning over the leaves to root 
them out. It is not until their first hunger has been assuaged that one hears 
that long steady chanting for which the bird is distinguished, and which, as 
a sustained effort, is perhaps unequaled elsewhere." 

In the early autumn, the Whip-poor-wills simply disappear without warn- 
ing. As they reappear far to the south, we know, of course, that they have 
migrated, but when did they go and how? Did they journey over the hun- 
dreds of miles of intervening space by short flights, or did they mount high 
in air as do many small birds, and fly swiftly for long hours at a time? Did 
they go singly or in flocks? These and other questions about this mysterious 
bird of the night remain to be answered fully. Perhaps some younger reader 
of this paper will grow up to be the naturalist who will explain these things 
more fully to the less observant students of birds. 

No one should ever kill one of these useful birds. Its great value to man- 
kind has become generally recognized in recent years, and the laws of all the 
states where the bird is found provide that any one who kills a Whip-poor- 
will shall be fined or imprisoned. 

CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION 

The Whip-poor-will belongs to the Order Macrochircs and the Family Capy'imid- 
gid(B, and its scientific name is Antrostomiis vocijerus vocifcrus. It ranges through 
eastern North America, breeding from the St. Lawrence Valley and Nova Scotia south 
to northern Georgia and Louisiana, as far west as the border of the Plains; it winters 
from the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast to British Honduras. The only other sub- 
species is macromystax, of Mexico and the adjacent border of the United States. 

Note. — Additional copies of this and other educational leaflets may be obtained for 2 cents each 
from the National Association of Audubon Societies, 1074 Broadway, New York City. 



Cbe ^uDubon ^ocietiec 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Edited by T. GILBERT PEARSON. Secretary 

Address all correspondence, and send all remittances for dues and contributions, to 
the National Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City 

William Dutcher, President 
Frederick A. Lucas, Acting President T. Gilbert Pearson, Secretary 

Theodore S. Palmer, First Vice-President Jonathan Dwight, Jr. Treasurer 
Samuel T. Carter, Jr., Attorney 

Any person, club, school or company in sympathy with the objects of this Association may become 
. member, and all are welcome. 

Classes of Membership in the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild 
Jirds and Animals: 

$5.00 annually pays for a Sustaining Membership 
$100.00 paid at one time constitutes a Life Membership 
$1,000.00 constitutes a person a Patron 
$5,000.00 constitutes a person a Founder 
$25,000.00 constitutes a person a Benefactor 

MR. DUTCHER HONORED 

Mr. William Dutcher, President of the 
National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties, was recently awarded the gold medal 
of the Camp-Fire Club of America. The 
presentation was made at his home in 
Plainfield, New Jersey, on January 21, 
1914, with a simple but most impressive 
ceremony. On the medal was engraved, 
"To William Dutcher, Founder of the 
National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties, for his work in preserving American 
birds." The Committee of the Camp-Fire 
Club, which journeyed to Plainfield to 
perform this pleasant duty, consisted of 
Mr. William E. Coflin, President; Mr. 
Edmund Seymour, Treasurer; and Dr. 
William T. Hornaday. By invitation, the 
Secretary of the Association also accom- 
panied them. Mr. Seymour read to Mr. 
Dutcher and to the friends assembled 
warm letters of appreciation from Mr. 
Ernest Seton, Mr. Rex Beach, and Mr. 
Irving Bacheller. In giving Mr. Dutcher 
the medal. Dr. Hornaday, speaking for 
the Camp-Fire Club, thus concluded his 
address: "With this token, the Club sends 
congratulations to you for the great work 
you have done and the place you have 
won in the hearts of your countrymen, 
and its prayers for your complete restora- 
tion to health." Mr. Samuel T. Carter, 
WILLL\M Jr., replied with an address of thanks in 

behalf of Mr. Dutcher.— T. G. P. 

(142) 




MEDAL 



AWARDED TO MR. 
DUTCHER 



The Audubon Societies 



143 



FEEDING THE BIRDS 



On February 16, two days after the great 
storms of February-March, 19 14, began, 
telegrams authorizing the expenditure of 
funds were sent from the office of the 
National Association to Audubon workers 
throughout the snow-bound states, ask- 
ing them to call on the public to feed the 
birds. Agents were authorized to expend 
sums varying from $10 to $100, to start 
the work. Responses were immediate, 
as the following brief statements show: 

Connecticut. — Appeals for personal 
service and financial aid were printed in 
newspapers throughout the state, and 
were followed vigorously by subsequent 
articles in some papers, especially those 
of Bridgeport, thanks to the energy of 
Miss Spalding and her fellow-members of 
the local Audubon Society. Large quan- 
tities of bird-food were purchased and dis- 
pensed by the Society and by private 
means. Many mail-carriers in the Rural 
Free Delivery service cheerfully carried 
bags of buckwheat, and scattered it 
along the routes with special reference to 
the Quail. Another striking evidence of 
public spirit was evinced by a water- 
company, which provided hundreds of 
pounds of grain, suet, and ground bone, 
and had its workmen distribute it intelli- 
gently throughout the large wooded area 
surrounding its reservoirs. 

Illinois. — The newspapers spread far 



and near the State Society's appeal for 
help for the birds, and its president sent 
out 2,000 instructive post-cards. 

Indiana. — Under the impulse of the 
secretary of the State Society, Elizabeth 
Uownhour, patrols of Boy Scouts at Fort 
Wayne, the students at Teachers' College. 
Indianapolis, and many other helpers, 
were soon busy, proving that the people 
of Indiana generally were wide awake to 
their duties and privileges. 

Maine. — The State Society's appeal to 
the press, with instructions, was widely 
published. 

Massachusetts. — The press and peo- 
ple responded generously to the call for 
work, the Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, 
and other clubs of young people exerting 
themselves everywhere, as the records 
show. 

New Hampshire and Vermont. — 
Similar methods and kindly energy 
brought excellent results. 

New York. — A widespread and urgent 
appeal was voiced by the press, and a 
vast amount of rescue-work was done, 
especially in reference to Ducks and 
upland game-birds. 

Vermont. — The press repeated the 
warnings sent them, with good efTect. 

Virginia and West Virginia. — Great 
publicity was obtained and much bene- 
ficial work promptly accomplished. 



■ 






; -- V 






•4s 



4 * 
1, -« -. 




THOUSANDS OF SCAUP DUCKS WINTERING IN SAFETY AT DAYTONA, FLORIDA 



144 



Bird -Lore 



TWO INTERESTING CASES 



Mr. C. E. Brewster, Game Law Expert 
of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, who has been doing such 
si)lendid work for a number of years in 
enforcing the federal regulations in refer- 
ence to the interstate shipment of game, 
is continually making interesting dis- 
coveries. Two of these are referred to in 
the following communication recently 
received from him. The big gun to which 
he refers is a type of the enormous weapons 
which have long been used by the pot- 
hunters in certain regions along our 
Atlantic coast. The value of one of these 
guns to the market hunter lies in the fact 
that it can throw shot to a far greater 
distance than an ordinary fowling-piece 
and, further, the quantity of pellets 
which it hurls at a single discharge is 
capable of producing enormous execution 
on a flock of feeding wild-fowl. The 
"duck scaffold" is an ocular demonstra- 
tion of the length to which bird-butchers 
will go in order to defeat the law, as long 
as there is an open market for wild game- 
birds. Mr. Brewster writes: 

"In December, 1913, two oHQcers of 
Washington, D. C, saw a man start out 
from the Virginia shore in a skiff. They 
intercepted him, and found in his boat a 
gun 8 feet 6 inches long, of an inch and 
five-eighths caliber, weighing over 100 
lbs., loaded and placed ready for firing. 
He had with him, too, a double-barrel 
ten-gauge gun, also loaded. They drew 
the load out of the big gun, and found it 
consisted of a half-pound of flashing pow- 
der and a pound of small buck-shot. It 
would appear that the man was going 
duck-hunting with this destructive wea- 
pon. Since that time, the Biological Sur- 
vey has been conducting a general inves- 
tigation, and we now have the record of 
eleven big guns owned on the Potomac 
River, some of them more than 10 feet 
in length. If Virginia and Maryland, fol- 
lowing the example of other states, enact 
laws making it unlawful to have these 
guns in possession, we shall have no trou- 
ble in finding them." 



"yVnother matter that may interest 
you is in connection with the duck-trap- 
pers of Virginia. After we had made 
successful prosecutions in the federal 
courts, two years ago, against these Vir- 
ginia parties, for shipping trapped ducks, 
they hit on the plan of tying up a bunch 
of dead ducks, after they had taken 
them from the traps and killed them, and 
shooting a load of fine shot into them at 
close range. They would then claim, in 
case the shipments were intercepted, that 
the ducks were legally killed. (You will 
remember that the Virginia law provides 
that ducks legally killed may be shipped 
out of the state.) 

Late in 191 2 we intercepted a shipment, 
going from Virginia to Maryland. We 
took a number of pairs and had them 
picked, and, of course, discovered the 
shot marks; but the ducks had previously 
been killed by piercing the head with a 
sharp instrument. Eichelberger and 
Bradford, the shippers, were convicted 
and heavily fined, this being their second 
conviction. Immediately the trappers 
arranged to take the birds from their 
traps, tie them up in bunches, and fire 
shot into them while alive. 

Last month, with two men in our 
employ, I made a trip along the eastern 
shore of Virginia. Off Quinby we found 
the apparatus or scaffolding used for 
tying up these birds to shoot. I am in- 
closing you a photograph of it. You will 
readily see that it has been used some." 

Christmas Trees for Birds 

There comes from the Audubon Society 
in Buffalo a novel suggestion, to be noted 
for use by bird-lovers next winter. This 
is, that after the children's Christmas trees 
have served their pretty purpose they be 
not thrown away or burned, but planted 
in some suitable place near the house, 
and loaded with food for the winter birds. 
This plan offers many advantages over 
merely scattering the food, or placing it 
on some shelf accessible to cats, etc. 





I 



CHARLES E. BREWSTER AND CAPTURED 
'BIG GUN" 



SCAFFOLD FOR EXECUTING LIVE 
DUCKS IN VIRGINIA 



(145) 



146 



Bird - Lore 



ALBERT WILLCOX, BENEFACTOR 



Albert Willcox, whose magniticent 
bequest to this Association first placed it 
on a permanent financial basis, was, in 
many ways, a most interesting man. He 
was born in New York City, on February 
15, 1847, but spent most of his childhood 
and youth on his father's farm on Staten 
Island. At the age of lO he went to work 
for a drygoods firm in New York City. 
His father had a small insurance business, 
and the two joined later in it under the 
firm-name of A. W. Willco.x & Company, 
and embarked in fire and marine insur- 
ance brokerage. On the death of his 
father, several years later, he became 
associated with a younger cousin, Wil- 
liam G. Willco.x, under the firm-name of 
Albert Willcox & Company; a partner- 
ship which terminated only upon the death 
of the senior member, twenty years later. 

Albert Willcox accumulated a consider- 
able fortune, which he used liberally dur- 
ing his lifetime and distributed generously 
at his death. He was a large, strong man, 
and succeeded in life by his indomitable 
perseverance. 

He first became interested in the Audu- 
bon movement by seeing some notice of 
its work in a newspaper. He at once went 
to see Mr. Dutcher, then Chairman of the 
National Committee of Audubon Socie- 
ties, and after inquiring thoroughly into 
the work of the Committee, and especially 
as to just how the funds were expended, 
he offered to assist financially. 

I well remember when I first met him, 
in the autumn of 1904. Mr. Willcox had 
contributed money to the National Com- 
mittee the year before, and had recently 
stated to Mr. Dutcher that if some young 
man should become connected with the 
movement as financial agent, he would 
personally pay the necessary salary and 
expenses. I was living in North Carolina 
at the time, and, summoned by a tele- 
gram from Mr. Dutcher, came to New 
York and had an interview with Mr. 
Willcox. He impressed me as a very 
frank, straight-forward business man, on 
whose mind two things bore heavily, — 



one the need of educating the Negro in 
the Southern States, and the other a 
desire to see better means adopted for 
preserving the wild-hird and animal life 
of the country. 

At the termination of our interview, 
we went to Mr. Dutcher's office, and Mr. 
Willcox agreed to provide the Associa- 
tion with $3,000 annually, in order that 
I might give half of my time to advan- 
cing its work. This he continued to do 
until the time of his death, which occurred 
on August 13, 1906, in his fifty-ninth year. 

He had always been intelligently inter- 
ested in the achievements of the National 
Association, which had in the meantime 
become incorporated, but never attempted 
to take any actis'C part in the details of 
the work. By his will, the Association 
was made the beneficiary to the extent of 
$331,072. The Board of Directors at 
once made of this the beginning of a 
permanent endowment-fund for the .\sso- 
ciation, and provided that only the inter- 
est from the same should ever be used 
for current expenses. Thus Mr. Willcox 
enabled the directors to place on a per- 
manent basis, for all time to come, the 
work of the National Association of 
Audubon Societies. 

Mr. Willcox was a man of great modesty, 
and while he lived he would never permit 
his name to be published in connection 
with his contributions. Whenever he was 
approached on the subject, he would 
always declare most emphatically that 
he did not want personal advertisement, 
but that with all his heart he did desire 
to see the wild life of the country pre- 
served. He was interested not only in 
bird-protection but in the preservation 
of other wild animals as well, and it was 
in response to his suggestion that the 
scope of the Audubon work was broadened 
to include wild animals as well as birds. 
Mr. Willcox had the utmost faith in the 
growth of the Audubon movement; and 
he desired that his gifts be used chiefly 
for securing additional support for the 
Association's working-fund. — T. G. P. 




MR. ALBERT WILLCOX 
Benefactor of the National Association of Audubon Societies 



(147) 



148 



Bird - Lore 



FLORENCE A. HOWE: AN APPRECIATION 



When, seventeen years ago, the Indiana 
Audubon Society was founded, it began 
to promote the organization of local 
societies in various towns in the state. 

A few of the friends of the birds in 
Indianapolis organized such a society, 
and made me its president. It was my 
thought that, if we could extend our 
work into the schools, we could educate 
the children to know and value birds; and 
also that it would be well to interest the 
newspapers of the city, so that the atten- 
tion of the public might be attracted to 
whatever was accomplished. The scheme 
worked well. The superintendent of 
schools was much interested in local 
ornithology, entered into the spirit of 
what we sought to do, and facilitated our 
efforts. Very soon, one or another of us 
was constantly called upon to visit the 
schools and talk to classes about birds. 
The newspapers very heartily responded 
to our request to give publicity to what 
was being done, and these notices attracted 
the attention of Miss Florence A. Howe, 
a lady who had been a school-teacher, and 
a lover of the birds. One day Miss Howe 
introduced herself to me, and said that 
she had read accounts of our work, and 
would like to be one of us. Of course, I 
welcomed her to our fold; and because 
of her experience as a teacher, and intense 
interest in the cause of bird-protection, 
she became and continued a most effec- 
tive worker in the schools of Indianapolis 
and its vicinity. 

Miss Howe soon became a member of 
the State Society, was elected its secre- 
tary, and for several years was the lead- 
ing spirit in the work of that organiza- 
tion. Her work was so effective as to 
attract the attention of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and soon to 
make her well known throughout the 
entire country. She was one of the most 
energetic and industrious women that I 
have ever known — energy and industry 
that were not expended for a selfish pur- 
pose, but rather for the comfort of her 
family and friends, and for the advance- 



ment of the cause of bird-protection. One 
would expect such a person to be of a 
sunny and cheerful disposition, and she 
exceptionally illustrated these qualities. 
Her presence made happy everyone with 
whom she came in contact. It was evi- 
dent before the annual meeting of the 
State Society, in 1912, that her health 
was failing, and, at her request, she was 
relieved from the duties of the office 
which she had so well and conspicuously 
filled. She was, however, continued as 
a member of the executive committee, and 
regularly attended its meetings until 
within a few days of her death, which 
occurred, very suddenly, on July g, 1913, 
bringing to a close a life full of disinter- 
estedness and Christian character. — 
William Watson W^oollen. 

A Thank-offering to Gulls 

A monument absolutely unique in 
character and purpose was unveiled in 
Salt Lake City, Utah, on October i, 1913 — 
a monument to the Gulls that saved the 
first settlers from famine. No wonder 
that it is inscribed as "Erected in Grateful 
Remembrance of the Mercy of God to the 
Mormon Pioneers." 

The incident so strikingly commem- 
orated happened in the summer of 
1848, when flocks of Gulls came to the 
settlers' fields from the lake, and made 
successful war on the hoards of "crickets" 
(grasshoppers) that were destroying the 
crops. Mrs. E. B. Wells, said at the 
unveiling: 

"It is a poetic coincidence that our 
idea of national freedom from oppression, 
and our idea of state deliverance from 
starvation, should be presented by birds. 
The eagle, majestic monarch of the air, 
is represented on shield, and coin, and 
tablet of bronze, all over the broad land. 
The gentle Gull, humble habitant of the 
shores of our great salt sea, has found 
shrine heretofore only in the grateful 
memories of this valley's pioneers and de- 
scendants. My heart swells with thanks- 



The Audubon Societies 



149 



giving that we are now to preser\e in 
sculptui^al art the miraculous incident we 
all know so well; and I now have the 
honor to unveil this beautiful monument 
to the eye and admiration of grateful 
thousands now living, and of untold 
thousands yet to come." 

President Smith, of the jNIormon 
Church, said, among other things: 

"I am only relating what I saw. When- 
ever the Gulls had been iilled to capacity, 
they would fly to the banks of the creek 
and there disgorge the dead pests, which 
lay along the stream in piles, manv of 
which were as large as my fist. These 
piles literally co\'ered the banks of the 
creek. After the crickets had been so 
nearly destroj-ed that they began to 
shelter themselves wherever they could 
from the attacks of the Gulls, the birds 
became so tame that they followed under 
our wagons as we drove along, into our 
yards, and under every shelter where 
the crickets sought protection from them. 
With the help of the Lord, we were able 
to reap, that fall, a fairly good harvest." 

The monument is the work of Mahonri 
M. Young, a grandson of the Mormon 
pioneer, Brigham Young, and is said to 
have cost $40,000. It consists of a granite 
column more than fifteen feet high. 
Upon the top of this there rests a great 
ball, upon which two Gulls of gilded 
bronze seem to be just alighting. The 
square pedestal bears four historical 
bronze plaques in high relief; and is sur- 
rounded by a fountain forty feet in diame- 
ter, in which water-lilies grow and gold- 
fish swim, and where song-birds may 
quench their thirst. 

Think for a moment of the dift'erence 
between the sentiment held by the Mor- 
mons for the Gull and that entertained 
by the Louisiana Legislature years ago, 
when they passed a law taking all legal 
protection away from this family of birds, 
on the ground that they ate fish! What if 
they do eat fish? Surely the good Creator 
made enough fish for us and the birds too. 
And fish is not all they eat, as any Utah 
man will gratefully testify. It is a per- 
fectly truthful statement that America 



holds no native bird which does not have 
its part to play in the great economy of 
nature; and the world would be the worse 
were any one of them to disappear. 

Ernest Ingersoll 

^Ir. Ernest Ingersoll, well known as a 
writer on natural histor}^, has become 
connected for a time with the home-office 
of the National Association in the capac- 
ity of assistant to the Secretary. The office 
has become a regular clearing-house for 
questions and information relating to 
natural history, and the correspondence 
increasingly required in this direction has 
already outgrown the limited time the 
Secretary is able to devote to this subject. 
IMr. Ingersoll will assist him in this and 
other phases of the work. It is hoped that 
some of his time may also be de\oted to 
giving public lectures in response to the 
almost incessant calls for such service. 

Among the more popular of Mr. Inger- 
soll's books relating to outdoor life are, 
"Wild Neighbors," "Wild Life of Orchard 
and Field," "Nature's Calendar," "The 
Wit of the Wild," and "Animal Competi- 
tors," the last named, an account of North 
American mammals in their economic 
relations to agriculture and fur-growing. 
In his "Life of Mammals," the public 
has a standard work on the four-footed 
animals of the world. Mr. Ingersoll had 
charge of the zoological department in 
both the New International and Nel- 
son's encyclopedias; was for several years 
on the editorial staff of the Standard 
Dictionary; and is now editor of the 
Farmers' Practical Library. His writings 
have also appeared in many of the popu- 
lar magazines published in this country. 

Enforcing the New Federal Law 

The following is from a news-letter 
recently given out by the United States 
Biological Survey, bearing the signature 
of T. S. Palmer, Assistant Chief. 

"During the past four months, work 
under the migratory-bird law has been 
pushed as rapidly as the limited means at 




THE MONUMENT TO SEA-GULLS AT SALT LAKE CITY 



(150) 







BRONZE PLAQUES OF THE PEDESTAL OF THE GULL MONUMENT 

Top at left; north plate, containing dedication; right, east plate, pioneers' arrival. Below left; 

south plate, despair, hope, and arrival of the gulls; right, west plate, the harvest. 



dsi) 



152 



Bird - Lore 



the disposal of the Biological Survey 
would permit. Unexpected obstacles have 
delayed the organization of the field- 
force in some of the states, and in a few- 
cases it has been impracticable to act on 
the recommendation for the appointments 
of deputies to cooperate in this work, 
which were made some time ago by cer- 
tain commissions. The department now 
has a force of 129 wardens in the field, 
organized under the direction of eight 
district inspectors and two special agents. 
These wardens are distributed in twenty- 
seven states, chiefly in the Middle States, 
the Mississippi Valley, the Great Basin, 
and on the Pacific Coast. In the East, the 
department is actively cooperating with 
local authorities, to prevent undue de- 
struction of wild-fowl by the practice 
of night-shooting and trapping. Several 
arrests and convictions have been secured 
for shooting at night on the upper Chesa- 
peake. 

"More than 125 convictions have been 
thus far reported, although returns have 
been received from comparatively few of 
the states. Every case thus far prosecu- 
ted in the Federal courts has resulted in 
conviction and the imposition of a fine. 
The first case in a Federal court was 
reported from California, where a notori- 
ous market-hunter was arrested under a 
Federal warrant for shooting after sunset, 
was taken to San Francisco, and convicted 
and fined. As most of the oflfenses under 
the Federal regulations involve a viola- 
tion of state law, a majority of the cases 
have been prosecuted in the state courts, 
where some heavy penalties have been 
imposed. The largest number of convic- 
tions have been reported from New York, 
New Jersey, and Oregon. The heaviest 
fines reported in the state courts have 
been: In New York, $50 for possession of 
a Meadowlark; in Oregon, $25 with con- 
fiscation of gun and boat, for shooting 
after dark; and, in New Jersey, eight 
fines of $100 or more, including one of 
$200 and one of $300, for killing insec- 
tivorous birds. Several cases involving 
the killing of birds protected for five 
years under the Federal regulations have 



been prosecuted. Killing a Swan on the 
Chesapeake cost the offender $100; kill- 
ing a Killdeer Plover in New Jersey 
resulted in a sentence to jail for nine 
days." 

New Members 

From January ist to March ist, 1914, 
the Association enrolled the following 
new members: 

Life Members. 

Arnold, Benjamin Walworth 
Beech, Mrs. Herbert 
Bennett, Mrs. Edward B. 
Borden, Miss Emma L. 
Case, Miss Louise W. 
Dows, Tracy 

"E. D. T." (In memoriam) 
Forbes, Mrs. William H. 
Gladding, Mrs. John Russell 
Hentz, Leonard L. 
Kittredge, Miss Sarah N. 
Mallery, Mrs. Jane M. 
Mason, George Grant 
Mershon, Hon. W. B. 
McClymonds, Mrs. .\. R. 
Newman, Mrs. R. A. 
Peabody, George A. 
Perkins, Miss Ellen G. 
Pierrepont, Mrs. R. Stuyvesant 
R,enw\ck, Mrs. Ilka H. 
RoBtrts, Miss Frances A. 
Russell, Mrs. Gordon W. 
-Schley, Grant B. 
Tingley, S. H. 
Wallace, Mrs. x\gusta H. 
Wyman, Mrs. Alfred E. 

Sustaining Members. 
Adler, Max A. 
Andrews, Miss Kate R. 
Barfield, Josiah 
Barker, Miss Emeline L. 
Barton, Mrs. Warner J. 
Beckwith, Jr., Mr. Truman 
Bird Society of the Misses Shipley 

School 
Bloomingdale, Miss Laura A. 
Bolter, Miss Alice E. 
Bonnett, Charles P. 
Bradley, George J. 
Brakelej^ Joseph 
Brewster, Mrs. Horace C. 
Briggs, I'rank H. 
Brill, Dr. A. A. 
Brookline (Mass.) Bird Club 
Brown, J. Adams 
Buchanan, R. P. 
Burgess, John A. 
Burrall, Mrs. Mary E. 
Burritt, Mrs. C. P. 
Chautauqua Bird and Tree Club 



The Audubon Societies 



153 



Sustaming Members, conlhincd. 

Civic League of Florence, S. C. 

Clarke, Miss Elizabeth 

Colon, George Edward 

Comstock, Airs. Richard B. 

Cooke, Mrs. H. P. 

Cooper, Miss Theresa B. 

Cowd, Mrs. Henry 

Dana, Mrs. E. S. 

Davol, Charles J. 

Dittmann, Mrs. A. J. 

Doepke, Mrs. W. F. 

Drewry, L. D. 

Eaton, Mrs. D. Cady 

Edwards, Miss Helen C. 

Ellison, Secretary 

Ellison, J. Huyler 

Ferguson, Mrs. Walton 

Florence, S. C, Council of 

Fo.x, Mrs. Joseph M. 

Fray, John S. 

Gardner, Mrs. George Warren 

Gates, Mrs. John 

Gilbert, Miss Nellie 

Gilbert School, The 

Gill, Mrs. K. F. 

Gilman, Miss Caroline T. 

Goehring, J. M. 

Godfrey, Mrs. W. H. K. 

Greene, Arthur D. 

Griswold, Miss Florence 

Hanna, Jr., Mrs. H. M. 

Harris, George W. 

Harrison, Harry W. 
Hatch, Mrs. H. R. 
Hauck, Louis J. 
Heyn, Otto P. 
Hopekirk, Mrs. Helen 
Hoyt, N. Landon 
Hubbell, Miss Helena 
Hutzler, George H. 
Jacobus, John S. 
Johnson, Rev. Alfred E. 
Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. H. H. 
Jones, Miss Amelia H. 
Leigh, Mrs. R. Walter 
Lewis, A. N. 
Lindsay, Mrs. J. W. 
Lloyd, N. Ashley 
Lord, Mrs. A. M. 
Mathewson, E. P. 
Maurer, Mrs. Oscar 
Merrill, L. K. 
Mildrum, Henry G. 
Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth C. T. 
Mitchell, Mrs. William 
Morgenthau, Mrs. M. L. 
McCampbell, Theron 
McNiel, Miss Ruth E. 
Neilson, Miss Emma C. 
Nelson, Miss Helen D. 
Newcomb, Jr., C. A. 
New Smyrna Board of Trade 
Newton, Mrs. Francis 
O'Brien, David 



SKstaining Members, continued. 

Onondaga County .\udubon Society 

Pagenstecher, Miss Friede 

Paris, Mrs. F. U. 

Pearl, Mrs. Frank H. 

Pell, James D. 

Pfeiffer, Curt G. 

Piek, Mrs. W. F. 

Porter, Mrs. Clarence 

Potter, Alonzo 

Potts, Mrs. William M. 

Preston, Mrs. Walter Lane 

Putnam, Miss Elizabeth 

Quincy, C. F. 

Rand, Mrs. Charles E. 

Rebasz, Mrs. Wm. Mortimer 

Research Club of Florence, S. C. 

Rice, Miss E. Josephine 

Riglander, Mrs. Moses M. 

Roberts, Mrs. Coolidge S. 

Rodewald. F. L. 

Ruperti, Justus 

Salisbury, Mrs. E. MacCurdy 

Scribner, Mrs. Arthur 

Seward, Miss A. D. 
Siedenburg, Jr., Mrs. R., 
Skeel, Mrs. Frank D. 
Strong, E. W. 
Swann, Mrs. A. D. 
Swinnerton, Mrs. J. A. 
Tanenbaum, Moses 
Thayer, Miss Ruth 
Thompson, Raymond B. 
Tompkins, Miss Elizabeth M. 
Townsend, Jr., J. B., 
Troubetzkoy, Prince Pierre 
Trussell, Arthur J. 
Tucker, Miss Abbie 
Tyler, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. 
Van Name, Ralph G. 
Wallis, Mrs. Hamilton 
Weil, Charles S. 
White, C. H. 
White, Roger S. 
Wiard, Mrs. F. Louise 
Wilco.x, Mrs. Ella Wheeler 
Wilco.x, Mrs. Frank L. 
Williams, Miss Elizabeth G. 
Wilson. Mrs. Henry B. 

New Contributors 

Adams, Charles Ouincy 
Ault, L. A. 

Brandegee, Miss Florence S. 
Brandegee, Miss Katharine 
Brookes, Mrs. Frank 
Collins, Mrs. Atwood 
Coxe, Mrs. Brinton 
Dawes, Miss Emily M. 
DeForest, Henry W. 
Dennis, Arthur W. 
Dickinson, Charles 
Edwards, Miss Elizabeth S. 



154 



Bird - Lore 



Edwards, Henry A. 
Emerson, Mrs. G. D. 
"F.O" 

Greer, Austin M, 
Griffin, Mrs. Solomon B. 
Hall, Mrs. John H. 
Harris, Miss Frances K. 
Haskell, Miss Helen P. 
Hopkins, James 
Hussey, Wm. H. 
James, Miss Ellen F. 
Jamison, Charles A. 
Jenks, Mrs. Wm. H 
Lawrence, John B. 
Mitchell, James T. 
McMurray, Miss B. E. 
O'Connor, Mrs. Ruth Davis 
Paine, 2nd, Mrs. R. Treat 
Patterson, T. H. Hoag 
Perkins, Mrs. George W. 
Priest, Miss Electa M. 
Richardson, Mrs. Geo. F. 
Rogers, Mrs. Hubert E. 
Russell, James Townsend, Jr. 
Schlaet, Mrs. Annette Vail 
Shaw, Mrs. G. H. 
Sherman, A. L. 
Stanley, Mrs. Mary R. 
Van Brunt, Mrs. Charles 
VVakeman, Miss Frances 
Wallace, Miss Harriet E. 
White, Marcus 
Wilbour, Mrs. Charlotte B. 
Winthrop, Grenville L. 

Contributors to the Egret Protection 
Fund 

Below is given a list of the contributors 
to the Egret Protection Fund for 1914 
received before March i : 

Previously acknowledged. . $554 04 

Abbott, Holker i 00 

Abbott, Mrs. T. J 3 00 

Adams, Miss Emily Belle i 00 

Adams, William C i 00 

Allen, Miss Mary P 15 00 

Althouse, H. W 5 00 

Ames, Mrs. J. B 5 00 

Anonymous S 00 

AsLen, Mrs. Thomas B 5 00 

Babson, Mrs. Caroline W i 00 

Barclay, Miss Emily 2 00 

Barnes, R. Magoon 10 00 

Barri, Mrs. John A 5 00 

Barry, Miss Anna K 2 00 

Bartol, E. F. W 10 00 

Bartol, Mrs. J. W 25 00 

Ba.\ter, Miss Lucy W 5 00 

Beebe, C. K 2 00 

Beebe, Mrs. Wm. H. H 2 00 

Beck with, Mrs. L. F 5 00 

Amount carried forward $664 04 



Amount brought forward $664 04 

Benjamin, Mrs. John 5 00 

Bergfels, Mrs. Henry i 00 

Bernheimer, Mrs. J. S 10 00 

Bignell, Mrs. Efhe i 00 

Birch, Hugh T 10 00 

"Bird Lover" 5 00 

Blackwelder, Eliot i 00 

Boggs, Miss M. A 5 00 

Bole, Ben P 10 00 

Bonham, Miss Elizabeth S.. . . 5 00 

Bonham, Mrs. Horace 10 00 

Bowdoin, Miss Edith G 10 00 

Bowdoin, Mrs. George S 20 00 

Boynton, Mrs. C. H i co 

Braman, Mrs. D wight 12 00 

Brent, Mrs. Duncan K 2 00 

Brooker, Mrs. Charles F 5 00 

Brooks, Mrs. Shepherd 20 00 

Brown, Mrs. C. S 10 00 

Brown, D.J 2 00 

Brown, T. Hassall 10 00 

Burgess, E. Phillips 3 00 

Burnham, William 10 00 

Burpee, W. Atlee 5 00 

Burt, Miss Edith B 2 00 

Busk, Fred T 5 00 

Butler, Miss Virginia 10 00 

Button, Conyers 25 00 

Caesar, H. A .' . . i 00 

Cameron, E. S i 00 

Carse, Miss Harriet 2 00 

"L. C. L." ID GO 

Chapman, Miss M 10 00 

Chapman, Mrs. John W 2 00 

Clarke, Mrs. E. A. S 5 00 

Clarke, Mrs. L 2 00 

Clerk, A. G i 00 

Cleveland, Mrs. Clement i 00 

Cobb, Miss Annie W 2 00 

Colby, Howard A 5 00 

Collord, George W 5 00 

Colton, Miss Caroline West... 2 00 

Conner, Miss M. A 5 00 

Cristy, Mrs. H. W i 00 

Crocker, Rev. W. T 2 00 

Crosby, Maunsell S 5 00 

Cummings, Mrs. H. K i 00 

Curie. Charles 10 00 

Curtis, Miss Mildred 10 00 

Cutter, Dr. George W 2 00 

Cutter, Ralph Ladd 10 00 

Davis, Miss Lucy B 3 00 

Davis, Wm. T 10 00 

Day, Miss Carrie E 2 00 

Day, Stephen S 5 00 

Delalield, Mrs. John Ross. ... 2 00 

Dennie, Miss M. H 2 00 

Dodd, Miss Jean Margaret. . . 2 00 

Doering, O. C 10 00 

Doughty, Mrs. Alia 10 00 

Douglas, Mrs. James 15 00 

Duer, Mrs. Denning 10 00 

Amount carried forward $1,045 04 



The Audubon Societies 



155 



Amount brought forward. . . .$1,045 04 

Dwight, Mrs. M. E 2 00 

Early, Charles H 2 00 

, Eastman, George 50 00 

Edwards, Wm. S 5 00 

Ellis, Wm. D 10 00 

Ellsworth, Mrs. J. Lewis .... i 00 

Essick, Wm. S 2 50 

Ettorre, Mrs. F. F 2 00 

Evans, Wm. B 4 00 

Fergusson, Alex C 2 00 

Ferry, Miss Mary B 5 00 

Folsom, Miss M. G 10 00 

Foot, James D 2 00 

Franklin, Mrs. M. L 10 00 

French, Daniel C 2 00 

Friedman, Mrs. Max 2 00 

Friers, Miss Emilie i 00 

Frothingham, John W 35 00 

Fuguet, Stephen 5 00 

Gannett, Aliss C K. . i 00 
Gannett, Rev. W. C. and 

Friend 2 00 

Gannette, IMiss ]\Iary T i 00 

Garst, Julius 2 00 

Gibbs, H. E. A 30 00 

Gladding, John R 1 5 00 

Godeffroy, Mrs. E. H 10 00 

Goodwin, George R 5 00 

Greene, Miss Caroline S i 00 

Gwalther, Mrs. H. L 4 00 

Hager, George W 2 00 

Hallett, Wm. R 10 00 

Hallowell, Miss Charlotte 2 00 

Halsey, Mrs. Edmund D 8 00 

Harkness, David W 5 00 

"C. R. H." 5 00 

"M. G. H." 5 00 

Hathaway, Harry S 2 00 

Hay, Mrs. John 25 00 

Haynes, IMiss Louise deF 10 00 

Hazen, Miss Emily H 3 00 

Hearst, Mrs. P. A 50 00 

Henderson, Alexander 2 00 

Herpers, Henry 2 00 

Heydt, Herman A i 00 

Higbee, Harry G i 00 

Higginson, Mrs. J. J 10 00 

Holt, Mrs. R. S 30 00 

Hooker, Miss Sarah H 2 00 

Hopkins, Miss Agusta D 3 00 

Horr, Miss Elizabeth 5 00 

Howe, Mrs. J. S 15 00 

Howe, Dr. James S 5 00 

Hoyt, Miss G. L 5 00 

Hunter, Mrs. W. H 2 00 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Charles L... 10 00 

Ireland, Miss Catharine 1 10 00 

Jackson, Miss Marion C 25 00 

Jackson, Jr., P. N 6 00 

Jenkins, Miss L 5 00 

Jennings, Dr. Geo. H 3 00 

Johnson, Mrs. Eldridge R 10 00 

Amount carried forward $i,547 54 



Amount brought forward. . . .$1,547 54 

Jones, Boyd B i 00 

Jopson, Dr. and Mrs. John H. i 00 

Jordon, A. H. B 20 00 

Joslin, Miss Ada L 2 00 

Jube, Albert B 3 00 

Keim, Thomas D i 00 

Kennedy, Mrs. John S 5 00 

Kerr, Mrs. T. B i 00 

King, Miss Ellen 25 00 

Kuser, Mrs. A. R 10 00 

Kuser, Anthonj' R 10 00 

Lagowitz, ^liss ]\Iarriet L i 00 

Laughlin, Mrs. H. M 2 00 

Lawrence, Roswell B 4 00 

Lewis, Mrs. August 10 00 

Lewis, J. B 2 00 

Lippitt, Mrs. C 5 00 

Livingston, Miss A. P 15 00 

Loring, Mrs. Charles G 3 00 

Lov'ering, Mrs. Helen E i 00 

Luttgen, Walter 5 00 

Mann, J. R i 00 

Marlor, Henry S 5 00 

Marsh, J. A 5 00 

Marsh, Spencer S i 00 

Mason, G. A 5 00 

Mason, Mrs. Geo. G 10 00 

Mason, Jr., H. L 5 00 

Mellns, J. T 2 00 

Merritt, Mrs. James H i 00 

Miller, Hon. Charles R 10 00 

Minot, William 2 00 

Montell, Mr. and Mrs. F. M. 2 00 

Morgan, Jr., Mrs. J. P 5 00 

Morgenthau, Mrs. M. L i 00 

Moore, Henry D 100 oc 

Morgan, Miss C. L 5 00 

Morrill, Miss A. W 5 00 

Mosle, Mrs. A. Henry 5 00 

Mott, Miss Marian 5 00 

Murray, Jr., J. Irwin i 00 

McConnell, Mrs. Annie B 5 00 

Nesmith, Miss Mary 5 00 

Nice, Mrs. Margaret M 3 00 

Oliver, Dr. Henry K 10 00 

Osborne, Arthur A 5 00 

Osterholt, E 5 00 

Patton, Mrs. Margaret S 10 00 

Peck, Dr. Elizabeth L i 00 

Pegram, Mrs. Edward S 5 00 

Pepper, Mrs. William 5 00 

Petty, E. R 2 00 

Phelps, Francis Von R 10 00 

Phinney, C. G 3 00 

Porter, Miss Elizabeth B i 00 

Porter, Miss Juliet 5 00 

Pott, ISIiss Emma i 00 

Procter, William 5 00 

Proctor, Wm. Ross 25 00 

Pusey, Mrs. Howard 2 00 

Putnam, Mrs. A. S 3 00 

Raht, Charles 5 00 

Amount carried forward $i,q66 54 



15^ 



Bird -Lore 



Amounl l;)rought forward. . . ..'if;t,Q6() 54 

Kiiymond, Charles II '5 00 

Reed, Mrs. Win. Howell 10 00 

Rhoads, S. N 1 00 

Richmond, Miss KdiUi 11 1 00 

Rickctson, Walton 2 00 

Robins, Miss N. P. H 2 00 

Robbins, Mr. and Mrs. R. E.. 20 00 

Robinson, William A i 00 

Ross, Dr. Lucretius H 2 co 

Sabine, Dr. George K 2 00 

Sampson, Miss Lucy S i 00 

Saul, Charles R 5 00 

Saunders, Charles G i 00 

Savage, A. L ^ S 00 

Sawtelle, Mrs. E. M 2 00 

Sawyer, Mrs. C. R 2 00 

Schweppe, Mrs. H. M i 00 

Scofield, Miss Helen 20 00 

Scofield, Miss Marion 10 00 

Sellers, Howard i o 00 

Severance, Mrs. P. C 3 00 

Shepard, Sidney C 10 00 

Simpkins, Miss M. W 10 00 

Sleght, Mrs. B. H. B 5 00 

Small, Miss A. M 2 00 

Smith, Mrs. Cornelius. B 6 00 

Smith, Marshall E i 00 

Spachman, Miss family S i 00 

Spalter, Mrs. F. B i 00 

"Sphin.x" S 00 

Spong, Mrs. J. J. R 35 00 

Sprague, Dr. P'rancis P 25 00 

Spring, Miss Anna R 5 00 

Squires, Mrs. Grace B 3 00 

Stanton, Mrs. T. G 2 00 

Stevens, F. E 2 00 

Stevenson, Mrs. Robert H.. . . 10 00 

Stimson, Wm. B 2 00 

Amoimt carried forward $2,207 54 



Amount brought forward. . . .$2,207 54 

Struthcrs, Miss Mary S 10 00 

Tapley, Miss Alice P 20 00 

Thayer, Mrs. Ezra R 100 .00 

'I'liomas, Miss Emily Hinds... 10 00 

Thorndike, Mrs. Alice Amory i 00 

Thorne, W. V. S 10 00 

Timmerman, Miss Edith E. . . i 50 

Topliff, Miss Anna E 5 00 

Tower, Miss Ellen M 5 00 

Troescher, A. F 10 00 

Troup, Charles A. S 3 00 

Tuckerman, Frederick 2 00 

Ulmann, Mrs. Carl J 5 00 

Underwood, Mrs. C. J 2 00 

V'aillant, Miss Maria J 3 00 

Van Wagenen, Mrs. G. A 2 00 

Vermilye, Mrs. W. G 2 00 

\'on Zedlitz, Mrs. Anna 2 00 

Walker, Miss Mary A 2 00 

W'arner, Mrs. Edward P 3 00 

W'ashburn, Miss Annie M 3 00 

Webster, F. G 10 00 

Westover, M. F 2 00 

W'heeler, Frank P i 00 

W^ieeler, Wilfrid 3 00 

White, Horace 10 00 

Wilkins, Miss Laura i 00 

Willard, Miss Helen 10 00 

W'illcox, Prof. M. A 10 00 

Williams, Mrs. C. Duane 75 00 

Williams, Geo. F 5 00 

Williams, Mrs. Sidney M 4 00 

Wilson, Orme Jr 5 00 

Witherbee, Miss Elizabeth W. 2 00 

Woodward, Dr. S. B 5 00 

Wright, Miss Mary A 2 00 

Zimmerman, Dr. M. W 5 00 



52,559 04 













WILD DUCKS SWAk.Ml.Xt, IN GRE.\T SOUTH BAY, FEBRUARY, igi4. 
rimtuyraph by Dr. Frank Overton 



The Audubon Societies 



15: 



LETTERS FROM CORRESPONDENTS 



Naval Cooperation 

"I am in receipt of your letter of 
inquiry. Aigrettes were undoubtedly, in 
some instances, brought in by officers 
and men of the navy from Central-Ameri- 
can countries, where the birds are ruth- 
lessly killed, and their plumes sold locally 
or exported; but this was before there was 
any law forbidding their importation. 
Since their importation is now forbidden, 



'The Irish Society for the Protection of 
Birds, at their annual general meeting, 
held on the 23d of January, 1914, in 
Dublin, desire to place on record their 
appreciation of the good work done by 
the Audubon societies in the cause of 
bird-protection, by bringing about the 
passing of the new tariff law, which pro- 
hibits the importation into the United 
States of America of the feathers of wild 
birds. By their action the Audubon socie- 




LONG ISLAND DUCKS, LOSING FEAR OF MAN IN QUEST OF FOOD, DURING 

THE BLIZZARD OF FEBRUARY, 1914 

Photographed by Dr. Frank Overton 



and commanding officers of ships are 
required to submit lists of all articles, 
acquired by purchase or otherwise, which 
are to be landed, and the Treasury Depart- 
ment requires its officials to act upon said 
lists, it does not appear necessary to issue 
any further orders on the subject. I am 
in thorough accord with the spirit of the 
Audubon Societies, and I do not wish to 
condone in any manner violations of any 
customs regulation by persons in the 
naval service; and did not the whole mat- 
ter appear to be now adequately covered 
by Navy and Treasury Department regu- 
lations, I should take steps to have fur- 
ther orders issued." JosEPHUs Daniels, 
Washington, D. C. Secretary of the Navy. 

A Compliment from Ireland 

"I have been directed by the Committee 
of this Society to forward to 30U the fol- 
lowing resolution: 



ties have struck a heavy blow against 
a most cruel and iniquitous trade.' " 

George C. May. 
Dublin, Ireland. Honorable Secretary. 

Tamed by Hunger 

"The cold weather which suddenly 
developed on February 9, 1914, froze the 
Great South Bay, Long Island, from 
shore to shore, leaving only small patches 
of open water at the mouths of the creeks. 
Owing to the unseasonably mild weather 
which had prevailed during December and 
January, large numbers of ducks were 
caught unawares, and were compelled 
to seek the open places near shore. On 
Sunday morning, February 15, a flock of 
about 5,000 Broadbills were swimming 
in the open water at the mouth of 
Patchogue Creek, and when frightened 
away they would immediately return. 
Every inlet on the south shore also con- 



158 



Bird - Lore 



tained vast numbers of birds, and a great 
deal of illegal shooting took place, espe- 
cially in the inlets away from habitations. 
The Ducks that were shot were too poor 
to eat, and there was absolutely no 
excuse for their killing. A good game- 
warden could have done an immense 
work in preserving the flocks. The Ducks 
are so tame that they swim unconcerned 
near the vessels, and beside a large lum- 
ber-yard and planing-mill in the creek 
near the railroad-crossing. The accom- 
panying photographs (on pages 156 and 
157) will give a little idea of their num- 
bers, and also how tame they have be- 
come." 

Frank Overton, M.D. 
Patchogue, L. I. 

A Victory in Arkansas 

"I feel that one of the greatest victories 
gained was when I succeeded in convinc- 
ing the attorney general of Arkansas that 
the local law for Mississippi County, 
which permitted the exportation of 
Ducks for market, was unconstitutional, 
and secured, as you know, his opinion to 
that effect. This will put a stop to the 
shipping of millions of Ducks for market- 
jHirposes, and absolutely put the market- 
hunter out of business in Arkansas. I 
am very proud of the success I have had 
in knocking out the local game-laws; and 
now, since I have succeeded in stopping 
the shipping of game, I feel that I am very 
well paid for all my work for the past 
eight years." 

E. V. ViSART. 

Little Rock, Ark. 

Law-breaking Tourists 

"On January 19, 1914, the yacht 
Flaneur, of New York, with Mr. John 
Noething, of New York City, passed by 
here and ran aground within a few hundred 
yards of that big warning notice on the 
Mosquito Inlet Bird Reservation. In a 
few minutes I saw him get into a small 
boat and drift down to a large bunch of 
Pelicans that were resting on a sand-bar. 
I saw the liirds fly but heard no report 



from a gun, and concluded that they were 
photographing them, as many persons 
do; but they had a high-power small- 
caliber rifle. Some men fishing near saw 
them shoot and pick the birds up and 
carry them across the river and hide them 
in the brush, and so informed me, and 
told me where to find them. I at once 
went down, found one bird, and took it 
over and confronted Noething with it. He 
promptly denied any knowledge until I 
told him it was useless, and so placed him 
under arrest, and am taking him to 
Daytona, where I can put a marshal 
aboard the boat to take care of him until 
I can get action. It was a purely wanton 
and illegal act on the part of Noething." 
B. J. Pacetti, 
Inspector of Government Reservations. 
Ponce Park, Florida. 

[At a cost of $75; the National Associa- 
tion assisted in prosecuting this man 
Noething, who later, in the Federal Court 
at Jacksonville, Fla., was fined $110 and 
costs.— T. G. P.] 

A Bird Oasis 

"Last summer, during the extreme 
heat and drought (it was unusually severe, 
for we had no rain for more than two 
months, and for several days the ther- 
mometer registered 118 degrees in the 
shade), I used to watch the birds gather- 
ing daily in our yard for shelter from the 
terrible heat. As the city water-supply 
was very low, residents were not allowed 
to use water on their lawns at any time 
for a period of four or five weeks; conse- 
quently our town presented a parched and 
desert-like appearance, except for a few 
lawns, like ours, which had a constant 
supply of water from individual water- 
plants. This yard, with its dense shade 
and green grass, was a veritable oasis, to 
which the birds flocked by the hundreds, 
to bathe in the spray from the lawn- 
sprinkler, and to drink from the vessels 
I had provided for their use. Realizing 
their needs, I placed several basins and a 
large tin pail, which I kept filled to the 
brim, where they might have access to 



The Audubon Societies 



159 



Ihem, and was repaid for my trouble by 
the very excellent opportunity it gave 
me to study their peculiarities. There 
were many human attributes manifested 
by that feathered tribe, in those few days, 
over their privileges and fancied rights. 
The English Sparrows seemed to hold a 
monopol)^ over the water-pail, and it was 
a pleasing and not uncommon sight to 
find an unbroken circle of trim little tails 
fringing its rim. For two days, a solitary 
Nighthawk selfishly appropriated one of 
the basins for his exclusive use, and the 
Robins and Blackbirds were almost con- 
stantly disporting themselves in the spray 
circling from the sprinkler. The Wood- 
pecker always kept on the outskirts. I 
never once saw him join the rest of the 
company. The Brown Thrashers and 
Mockingbirds, too, were rather timid and 
never asserted themselves aggressively. 
Unlike the Woodpecker, however, they 
mixed quite freely with the rest of my 



guests. I was struck, too, by the number 
of strangers which came to this party — • 
birds I had never seen before; and so I 
kept a lookout for the little black-and- 
white singer previously mentioned to 
you, but he never appeared. One day I 
made a note of the different varieties 
perched within a radius of seventy-five 
feet, and, as nearly as I can remember, 
there were fifteen distinct varieties. 
Among them were Robins, Thrushes, 
Orioles, Goldfinches, Sparrows, Catbirds, 
Kingbirds, Mockingbirds, and Blackbirds, 
also a Woodpecker and the Nighthawk." 
Elizabeth Schnaller. 
Hayo, Kansas. 

Lively Juniors 

"When I read to the class your letter, 
received previous to organization, I was 
somewhat surprised at the hearty response 
and enthusiasm manifested. A meeting 




THE BRUSH HILL (MASS.) BIRD-CLUB EXHIBIT 
Natural bird-food, and apparatus for attracting birds. Arranged by Dr. Harris Kennedy. 



i6o 



Bird-Lore 



was called, ofticers for a Junior Audubon 
Society were elected, and the require- 
ments of the society more definitely 
explained. To strengthen the enthusiasm, 
I gave the jiresident full control of the 
meeting. He proceeded to business by 
ajjpointing two members to prepare 
papers on some bird of their choice, to be 
read at the ne.xt meeting. An additional 
fee of 25 cents was assessed upon each 
member, for the purpose of purchasing 
books about birds. Some of the boys have 
agreed to build a bird-house to be placed 
on the school-grounds." 

Anna M. Heaney. 
Wallkill, N. Y. 

NOTES OF RECENT LEGISLATION 
Shall Cats Be Licensed? 

The bird-lovers and agricultural econo 
mists in both Massachusetts and New 
Jersey have renewed this year their 
efforts to get state laws licensing cats, in 
order to reduce the number of strays, 
which are virtually wild animals of prey, 
and cause the death of innumerable birds 
whose services would be of benefit to the 
community. In Massachusetts, the pro- 
posal, which was defeated in committee 
on March 13, was that a single male cat 
should be permitted unlicensed to each 
family; but that all others should be safe 
from capture and death only on payment 
of a license ($1 for a male, and $2 for a 
female), indicated by wearing a collar 
and tag. 

In New Jersey, a bill, originating with 
the game commission, has passed the 
Assembly, and is now pending in the 
Senate. 

In both these cases, members of the 
State Audubon Societies, and of several 
organizations interested in game-protec- 
tion, as well as many private supporters, 
have appeared to urge the passage of the 
measures; and this Association has 
added its influence. The opposition comes 
mainly from conservative farmers, and 
from women defending their pets; but 
the arguments of both were sentimental 
rather than substantial. 



No Escape by Parcel Post 

That the facilities of the parcel post 
cannot be used by malefactors as a means 
of breaking the law against the importa- 
tion of prohibited millinery feathers has 
been established by rulings of the post- 
oftice authorities, .\mong the first results 
of this wise decree were the seizure, in 
the Chicago post-otilice, of two packages 
of foreign feathers, mailed, one from 
China, and one from Japan, to ladies in 
Massachusetts, and in Ohio. 

Progress in Great Britain 

A cable message from London informs us 
that the bill prohibiting the importation 
into Great Britain of the plumage of 
wild birds, or "bits of birds," passed its 
second reading in the House of Commons 
on March 9, and was forwarded by the 
overwhelming majority of 297 to 15. 

A Check in Virginia 

The bill to establish a state warden 
force, to be supported by the license- 
fees of resident hunters, which has been so 
strongly urged in Virginia by the State 
Audubon Society, encouraged by this 
Association and other kindred influences, 
failed on March 13, by four voles, to pass 
the Assembly, after having passed the 
Senate, because, as President Hart says, 
some members could not obtain objec- 
tionable amendments. 

Relief for Birds-of-paradise 

The German government, through Dr. 
Wilhelm Solf, Minister for the colonies, 
has forbidden any hunting of Birds-of- 
paradise in German New Guinea during 
the next eighteen months, the order 
issuing on March 11. In announcing this 
decision in the Imperial Parliament, Dr. 
Solf said he had originally intended to 
make the prohibition permanent, but 
had changed his view after receiving a 
report from an expedition in the interior 
of New Guinea, which said there were im- 
mense numbers of birds there, and that 
no danger existed of their extinction. 




A//' -''W"i ^uf'f^!, 



1. Cassin's Sparrow 3. Botteri's Sparrow 

2. Pine-Woods Sparrow 4. Rufous-winged Sparrow 

5. Rufous-crowned Sparrow 
(One-half Natural Size) 



A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 

Official Organ of The Audubon Societies 

Vol. XVI May-June, 1914 No. 3 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 

By LOUIS AGASSIZ FUERTES 

Illustrated by the author 

FOURTH PAPER— ANT-THRUSHES AND THEIR ALLIES, AND WOODHEWERS 

TO NORTHERN perceptions and training, the ghostly, long-legged 
forest ground-runners, generally known as Ant-thrushes, make an 
immediate and lasting appeal. The many species of Grallaria, For- 
micarius and Chamaza, finding their most congenial surroundings among 
the tree-ferns and moss-filled undergrowth of the wooded slopes, at once 
impress the student with their presence, but leave him, after however long 
an acquaintance, with little more knowledge of their lives and doings than he 
had on first hearing their invitation to the game of hide-and-seek they so 
skilfully and persistently play. 

They are all strictly terrestrial and, on the rare occasions when they fly, 
they keep so close to the ground that their dangling feet almost touch. Indeed, 
I suspect that they fly only upon some special stimulus, ordinarily going about 
on foot. 

The commonest and most generally distributed species in Colombia is 
Grallaria ruficapilla. It is about as big as a Robin, but is almost round, stubby- 
tailed, big-eyed, and comically long-legged. But while it was really a common 
bird, and its whistled compra pan was almost constantly in our ears in all 
three ranges of the Andes, not over six or seven were taken. Certainly nine 
out of every ten efforts to see the author ended blindly, even though they 
respond immediately to a whistled imitation of their notes. But so silent 
is their approach, and so densely are their ground haunts veiled by ferns, 
large fallen leaves, earth-plants and other visual obstructions, that they 
may call almost from between your feet with impunity, while with pounding 
heart and eager eyes you fail to penetrate the veil of intervening leafage. 
I have usually found that, while all these ground-running birds answer eagerly 
to a call, they are very easily satisfied on seeing its author, and usually the 
response, now almost under foot, suddenly fails, and the little feathered 
mouse that gave it swiftly and silently trots away after one quick look at the 



l62 



Bird - Lore 



huge impostor. I think we all had certainly scores of these little ground- 
ghosts within fifteen to twenty feet, and not one-tenth of them gave us so 
much as a fleeting glance at them. 

Grallaria's note can always be closely imitated by a whistle. The call 
of the common Compra pan, whose name is the Spanish literation of his 
call, has a very 'quaily' quality when heard near at hand. Three drawled 
notes — A, F, G, the first and second three tones apart, and the last between. 
We came to recognize this as an exact marker of the lower line of the second 
life-zone, beginning at about 4,500 feet. This species goes up almost to the 
upper limit of trees, and adheres closely to the cloud forest. I never heard 




COMPRA PAN (GraUaria ruficapilla) 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 



163 




THE NOON-WHISTLE {Chamaza turdina) 

any variation in the song except, when the bird is near the limit of its curiosity, 
the last note sometimes drops off in a throaty slur, instead of rising a tone: 
A, F, E. 

On the west slope of the Eastern Andes we found another species, G. 
hypoleuca, whose song, though readily recognizable as a Grallaria was radi- 
cally different in form. One longish note on B; a rest; then about five ascend- 
ing notes a scant semitone apart, and four to the second. This bore a strik- 
ing resemblance to the first half of Chamceza brevicauda's song heard on 
the eastern slope of the Eastern Andes at Buena Vista, and is almost identical 
with that of Grallaria rufula from the highest timbered ridges of this chain, 
except that here the pause is omitted and the song is higher, beginning on E. 

Little Grallaria modesta from the eastern foot of the Andes at Villavicencio, 



i64 Bird - Lore 

has a most characteristic little song, all on E. It has seven sharply staccato 
notes, forming a perfect crescendo to the fourth, then diminishing to piano 
again at the end. The middle note is strongly accented. This little hermit 
lives in the sweltering weed-thickets along the sun-baked beds of the low- 
land streams. I shall never forget an hour in a burr-thicket with nettle 
accompaniment, at a temperature of perhaps 115°, trying to find the elusive 
author of that queer little song. At least five times I had him within close 
range, but never could I see more than a ghost of a movement, or the sudden 
wiggle of a fern rubbed against in his approach. Nearly discouraged, with 
hair, eyebrows and clothes matted thick with little burrs, almost exhausted 
with the heat, I at last hit upon a very effective scheme. Deliberately 
clearing out a space of ten or fifteen feet, and a tapering lane through which 
I could watch the opening, by gently approaching the sound I drove it to 
a point well beyond my clearing, and retreated to my station. Waiting 
here a few minutes in silence, I repeated the call, in full loudness, until I 
got a response. Then, as the bird approached, I did the call more softly, 
to appear farther away and allay his wariness. My unfair subterfuge worked, 
and little long-legged piper entered my trap unsuspecting, and I was able to 
identify it. We had not encountered this species before, and never saw it 
again after leaving the torrid lowlands about Villa vicencio. I was never able 
to identify the song of the big slaty-blue breasted G. ruficeps, in the upper- 
most forest zone above Bogota. These were all the species of the genus that 
I, personally, encountered. 

On the wooded slopes above Villa vicencio we found another bird conspicuous 
in song, but spirit-like in actions. We at first thought it was a Grallaria, but 
it proved to be a closely allied bird, Chamceza brevicauda, very similar, but 
with shorter legs and more delicate bill. It had a curious song of about seven 
gradually ascending 'toots,' followed by four or five queer little falling 
yelps: oot, odt, hot, oot, oot, oot oat — elp, elp\ elf, ulp', ulp\ It was com- 
mon, and, because the forest was much opener and almost like our woods, 
it was much easier to find and see. But, even so, many more were heard than 
we were ever able to discern, and we never got over a feeling of victory when 
we succeeded in seeing the singer. The color gradation was so perfectly ad- 
justed to the lighting in the woods that only a motion was visible, and that 
scarcely. 

In the dark, fog-steeped forest along the culm of the Central Andes, a 
closely related species, darker in color, gave me one of the great song-sen- 
sations of my life. I heard a sharp, loud, wip-wip-wip and ascribed it to one 
of the Wood-quail. I hunted it unsuccessfully, until I was discouraged and 
exhausted. Also, I became dully aware of a distant and long protracted whistle, 
which I vaguely attributed to a steam-whistle in some neighboring village. 
So does our common sense become dulled when we are confronted by un- 
familiar surroundings! On my tired way back to camp, I realized that there 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 



165 



were neither mills, steam nor villages in these mountains, which are un- 
broken virgin forest for a hundred miles or more either way. Perhaps I had 
heard a cicada. I could scarcely credit a bird with such a prolonged sound 
as this. 

The next day I went back to solve the thing. When, after two hours 
of steep ascent, I had reached the 8,000-foot level, I heard again my mysterious 






.::n^ 






ANT-THRUSH {Formicarius rufipectus carrikeri) 

whistle. Listening carefully, and imitating it as well as I could, I was able to 
discern that the sound became definitely more loud and distinct. No insect, 
this. Soon I could analyze it quite closely, and found it to be a very gradually 
rising crescendo, beginning about on C, and a full though slightly throbbing 
or tremolo whistle. I was astonished at its duration, for I could detect no time 
at which a breath could be taken. Timing three successive songs, I found 
them to endure forty-seven, fifty-seven, and fifty- three seconds! This was 



1 66 Bird -Lore 

more than twice the length of any continuous song I have ever heard, the 
Winter Wren being second with twenty-eight seconds. But in this broken 
song there are surely many opportunities to catch the thimbleful of breath 
a Wren can hold, while the Chamaza song was one long, unbroken, and con- 
stantly increasing sound. 

Eventually, my singer came so near that I was afraid of scaring it away 
by the imperfection of my imitation, which required a full breath out, an 
in-breath to full lung-capacity, and then the last bit of breath I could expel 
to accomplish even a forty-second song! So I sat silent, tense and eager, 
hoping almost against hope that the mystery-bird would reveal himself. 
Suddenly, almost at my heels, a song began. Very soft and throaty at first, 
gradually rising and filling, the steady throbbing crescendo proceeded until 
I was so thrilled that I was afraid I couldn't stand it any longer. I dared 
not move, as I was in plain sight, on the edge of a scar in the earth from a 
recently uprooted tree. Finally, though, the tension was relaxed; the song 
ceased. Where would it be next time? In front of me? Or would the singer 
see me and depart for good, still a mystery? Even as I was thinking these 
things, a ghostly-silent little shadow sped dangling past me and came to a 
halt about thirty feet away, half lost in the dark fog, on the far side of the 
raw little clearing. In awful anxiety lest he become swallowed up in the mist 
and lost to me, and with a great effort not to lose the dim impression of the 
faintly-seen bird, I moved slightly for a better view. My long watch was 
futile, for my spirit bird disappeared. I sat awhile and mourned, with a great 
deal of invective in my heart. But soon realizing that this was futile, I decided 
to practise the song I had learned. Imagine my surprise, after the first 
attempt, to hear, close by, the loud wip-wip of yesterday, and to see it 
followed almost immediately by another ghost-bird, which had the grace to 
alight or stop running (I couldn't be positive which) within range and in sight. 
This proved to be C. turdina. Although we often heard the curious pro- 
tracted song later, when we went to the top of the range, we never again 
caught sight of this little-known bird, and this specimen remains unique in 
the whole South American collection. 

The several species of true Ant-thrush, Formicarius, all have characteristic 
notes, combined with the same skulking, rail-like habits of the foregoing. 
The recently described Colombian form of F. rufipectus has two sharp whistles, 
the last a semitone above the first. This, in our experience, was never varied. 
F. analis connectens, from the lower forest zone of the eastern foot above 
Villavicencio, had a song the exact reverse of that of Grallaria hypoleuca; 
a loud note on G, followed, after a rest, by a close descending scale of three or 
four semitones. Formicarius, like Grallaria, has a sort of clucking quality 
when heard near at hand. 

Few brush-birds have more distinctive notes than the Ant-shrikes or 
Thamnophilus and their relatives. The commonest one we encountered, 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 167 

T. multistriatus, has the characteristic dry, woody, descending scale common 
to many species. It strongly suggests in quality the spring 'rucking' of a 
Nuthatch. It might be written ruk, ruk, nik, uk, uk, k, k, k beginmng 
lazily, and gathering speed as it descends. All these birds put much effort 




y^^^ 



ANT-SHRIKE {Thavmophilus multistriatus) 

into their calls, and sing with head up and tail down. The latter moves 
noticeably at each note and, as with the Trogons, we came to look for the 
vibrating tail when hunting them. 

The many species have different notes, but most are readily recognizable 



i68 



Bird-Lore 



as Thamnophilus when any one of them becomes thoroughly familiar. Until 
one has had real experience with tropical birds, it is hard to work up much 
of an interest in the great mass of dull-colored brown and gray birds that 

form such a large pro- 
portion of the whole. 
In a case of South Am- 
erican birds, the eye 
alights on the brilliant 
Tanagers, Callistes, 
Trogons, Cotingas, and 
Hummingbirds, and ig- 
nores all the myriad Fly- 
catchers, Ant-thrushes, 
Furnarian birds, and 
other dullish and nega- 
tive-colored things. 
But, in the field, the 
sense of sound enters 
and combines with the 
very interesting habits 
of the more obscure 
species. I can hardly 
subscribe to the popu- 
lar idea that tropical 
Ijirds are as a rule 
bright-colored and 
devoid of song after 
listening with an ap- 
preciative ear to the 
morning chorus in a 
Mexican or South 
American forest. 

One of the most 
extensive and typical 
families is that of the 
Dendrocolaptidai, or 
Woodhewers. They 
are> in actions, over- 
grown Brown Creep- 
ers. There are many 
genera and almost endless species. As a family it is nearly as exten- 
sive and varied as the family of Finches, though all have a single 
general type of coloring that is hardly departed from. The great, Flicker- 




WOODHEWER {Picolaptes lacrymiger) 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 169 

sized Dendrocolapies, the tiny Xenops, and all between, are mainly wood- 
brown varying from rusty to olive, and streaked or not, but never boldly 
marked. They are also fairly unanimous in their songs, though of course 
there is considerable variation. Most that I have heard have a harsh, raspy 
note of alarm or displeasure, and many species sing a loud, ringing song that 
strongly recalls our Canon Wren; tee, twee, tui, tui, tool, tool, a descending 
series of whistles, which, pure and piercing in the lesser species, becomes 
coarse and 'Woodpeckery' in the larger. There are really no fine singers 
in this group, although several make pleasant sounds in the spicy-scented 
slashings, and all are interesting. They are rather silent birds, as a rule, and, 
as the family contains many rare and curious types, which are elusive and 
tricky, they are a never-ending source of interest and curiosity. 

The Woodpeckers may be dismissed in a sentence. Their calls and notes 
are all perfectly typical of the group as we know it in this country, and I 
recall no species that deviate noticeably from the well-known types of cries 
and calls by which we recognize our own species. 





THE UNCLE REMUS BIRD SANCTUARY. HOME OF THE LATE JOEL 

CHANDLER HARRIS 

The mail-box at the left was used by the Wrens for a nest, and gave the place the name of 

"The Wrens' Nest" 



A Bird Sanctuary for The Sign of the Wren's Nest 

By MRS. J. O. PARMELE, Atlanta, Ga. 

THE Sign of The Wren's Nest" is a phrase always used when people 
speak of the home of the late Joel Chandler Harris, situated on one 
of the most beautiful streets in Atlanta, Georgia. 
The local chapter of the Burroughs' Nature Club and the Uncle Remus 
Association have made The Wren's Nest a bird sanctuary. It is proposed by 
the committee to make at once an effort to get rid of the English Sparrows by 
the use of a Dodson sparrow-trap, and they have put in place two bird-baths 
and one or more feeding-stations. Bird-houses will later be placed in the trees, 
and plants and trees useful to attract birds and produce fruit will be set out, 
particularly those that bear berries in the late fall that will serve as food for 
the birds during the winter. 

The Uncle Remus Bird Sanctuary is the first bird sanctuary in Georgia, 
though there are many in other states. Years ago a little family of Wrens, 
worried and persecuted by the bulldozing Sparrows of the neighborhood, 

(170) 



A Bird Sanctuary for The Sign of the Wren's Nest 171 

sought refuge at The Wren's Nest. First, the fugitives built a nest at the gate, 
in the letter-box, which thereafter was scrupulously respected by the postman, 
and even by the children of the vicinity. Thus encouraged, they made them- 
selves at home in many quiet nooks and corners in the vines, and, receiving 
watchful care and protection from the inmates in the cottage, they organized 
a little republic of their own; and in their picturesque domain they have ever 
seemed to regard themselves as the rightful owners and rulers of the entire 
tract. Birds, next to children and flowxrs, were the special objects of 'Uncle 
Remus's' attention. 

The Park Board of Atlanta is caring for the trees at The Wren's Nest and 
the grounds are kept in perfect order. The Memorial Association is planning 
a series of scenes for moving pictures that will show The Wren's Nest and 
places of interest about the place. Everybody loves the home where "Brer 
Rabbit" lived, and the tourist always wishes to go to Snap-Bean Farm, that 
he may enjoy the scenes where Uncle Remus talked to the Little Boy, and the 
old "Bar" and "Sis Cow," and all the other fanciful people and animals that 
lived in the imagination of the author. 

There is a guest-book at the Sign of the Wren's Nest that shows enrolled the 
names of distinguished men and women of world-wide interest. Fifty-three 
states and governments are represented, but the tourist does notlinger over the 
guest-book to see the distinguished names it bears. He wishes to see the birds, 
the rabbits, the trees, the flowers, and the vines, where "Brer Possum" was 
caught napping. 

It is the earnest desire of all Atlantians that some day there may be a child's 
hospital at The Wren's Nest, that will be the greatest memorial that can be 
erected to the memory of Joel Chandler Harris. 



THE BALTIMORE ORIOLE 

Is it a firebrand, tossed in the air. 

Which the soft breeze fans to a flame? 
Glowing and brilliant beyond compare. 
As it darts and flashes, now here, now, there, . 

Pray, can you give it a name? 

Or is it a petal from some gorgeous flower. 

Wind-blown from the tropics this way? 
Or a meteor shooting through orchard and bower, 
Till the blossoms come falling, a glorious shower, 

Like the ghost of a snowstorm in May? 

— Nellie J. Wharples. 



The Nighthawk in Connecticut 
I 

By LEWIS F. HALL, Bridgeport, Conn. 

I HAVE read of Nighthawks laying their eggs on the gravel roofs of build- 
ings in the heart of cities, but never before this summer has it been my 

good fortune to see them nesting, or to obtain a good photograph of the 
female on the eggs. 

On June 14, 19 13, 1 learned that a Nighthawk had laid two eggs on the tar- 
and-gravel roof of the Southern New England Telephone Go's, building at 184 
Fairfield Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. This is a three-story building in the heart 
of the business section. Being anxious to photograph the bird, I at once paid 
a visit to the Telephone Office and obtained permission to go up on the roof. 
This I did by means of the fire-escape, and there, beside two bricks which were 
lying on the roof, sat the female Nighthawk, her color matching perfectly 
that of the tar and gravel. 

After flushing the bird and finding only one egg, I learned that the other 
had been broken by the bird in removing it with her wing from under a peach- 
basket which had been placed on edge over the eggs by employees of the 
Telephone Co., in an endeavor to capture the bird. 

I then set up my camera eighteen inches from the egg and, after photo- 
graphing it, I concealed myself behind a skylight and waited for the return 
of the bird. She soon flew from a neighboring building, alighted on the roof 
about twenty feet from the egg and, after spending about fifteen minutes care- 
fully scrutinizing the camera, which was covered with black cloth, returned 
to the nest. 

I then crept out on my hands and knees and succeeded in pressing the 
bulb, which was only about one foot in back of the camera. I repeated this 
operation several times, taking, in all, two pictures of the egg and four of the 
bird. The last three photographs of the bird were all taken within fifteen 
minutes' time, the bird, which had then become used to the camera, returning 
to the nest each time almost immediately after I had hidden behind the 
skylight. During the time the last three photos were taken, the bird did not 
once leave the roof, but merely flew upon the coping about twenty feet from 
the egg, wh e I changed the plates in preparation for the next picture. 

II 

By WILBUR I. SMITH, South Norwalk, Conn. 

ONE of my earliest memories is of my grandfather taking me out into 
one of his meadows and showing me a Nighthawk sitting on her 
eggs, laid on a bare rock. 
The bird allowed us to approach quite near, when grandfather told me to 
^'pick her up," but the bird went fluttering off with all the manifestations of 

(173) 



174 Bird - Lore 

distress and broken wings, I eagerly following, until safe away from her nest 
the Nighthawk gracefully rose in air and sailed away, to come back and alight 
on the bar way. I was puzzled at the bird's distress and quick recovery, and 
would have followed it further, but grandfather led me away, for he was 
fond of the birds, and had wished to show me what curious birds they were. 

A pair of Nighthawks had nested on that rock for many years, and was 
fairly common in that section, but I have not known of a pair nesting there- 
abouts in many years. In the fall we sometimes see large flocks of Nighthawks 
migrating in a westerly direction, and their numbers give us faith to believe 
that somewhere they are holding their own. 

At five-thirty in the afternoon of September 6, 1913, while approaching my 
home station on a train, I noticed a flight of Nighthawks over the upper harbor, 
and at home, two miles further, their numbers seemed undiminished, and more 
were coming out of the east. 

The birds were feeding, most of them flying low, and cutting all kinds of 
figures in the air, as they rose and dropped, zig-zagged and crossed each 
other in their search for food. 

My companion of the day had left me, to go to his cottage at Fairfield 
Beach, eleven miles east of my home, and he found that large numbers of the 
Nighthawks were feeding over the broad meadows, and that certain of the 
beach population were shooting them. 

He secured three of the dead birds, while more drifted off with the tide, and 
evidence that resulted in convicting two men of the shooting, but not without 
some difficulty, as one of them was assistant city clerk in one of our large cities. 

Making a note of this Nighthawk incursion, I find that on the evening of 
September 6, 1905, there was a similar migration of Nighthawks when their 
numbers seemed inexhaustible. 

This time, the birds were flying high in open formation, in slow and heavy 
flight, as though tired, and came out of the east and disappeared into the west. 

It is an interesting coincidence that both of these flights should have 
occurred on the same day of the month and the same time of the day, and that 
both were following the shore of Long Island Sound. 




r^- 




A SUMMER VISITOR (CHIPPING SPARROW) 
Photographed by Joseph W. Lippincott, Bethayres, Pa. 



(175) 



The Migration of North American Sparrows 

rVVENTY-EIGHTH PAPER 
Compiled by Prof. W. "W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 
(See Frontispiece) 



BACHMAN'S SPARROW 

Though technically considered a subspecies, Bachman's Sparrow {Peuccta 
(tstivaUs bachmani) has a wider distribution and is better known than the type 
species, the Pine- woods Sparrow (Peucaa cBstivalis astivalis). The latter is 
only slightly migratory, breeding in a restricted area from southern Georgia 
to central Florida, and wintering from the southern part of the breeding-grounds 
to southern Florida. It is probable that the short migration journey is per- 
formed in late February and early March, and by the end of this latter month 
the species is settled in its summer home. 

Bachman's Sparrow is an example of a bird that is apparently extending 
its range. Within recent years it has become common locally in southern 
Virginia, and has increased around Washington, D. C, until it is now known 
in four localities. It has invaded Ohio, even to the northern part of the state, 
and also western Pennsylvania. The more northern breeding individuals are 
strictly migratory, while from eastern Texas to northwestern Florida the birds 
are present throughout the year. 

SPRING MIGRATION 



PLACE 



Number 
of years' 
record 



Average date of 
spring arrival 



E&rliest date of 
spring arrival 



Greensboro, Ala 

St. Mary's, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Atlanta, Ga. (near) 

Charleston, S. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Weaverville, N. C 

Lynchburg, Va 

Washington, D. C 

Rockwood, Tenn. (near) 

Eubank, Ky 

Ink, Mo 

Mt. Carmel, 111 

Bicknell, Ind 

Bloomington, Ind 

Cincinnati, O 

Cedar Point, O 

Beaver, Pa 



March 14 
March 13 
March 14 
April 16 
April 13 

April 27 
April 7 
April 6 



March 25 
April II 
April 34 



Ffbruary 21, 1890 
February 17, 1902 
March 5, 1909 
March la, 1906 
February 25, 1885 
March 19, 1887 
March 38, 1890 
April 7, 1 901 
April 26, 1914 
April 3, 1884 
March 20, 1889 
March 19, 1905 
April 3, 1910 
March 19, 1908 
April 6, 1884 
April 33, 1903 
May 14, 1909 
April 39, 1910 



The birds that winter as far south as central Florida leave, on the average, 
March 13; latest March 26, 1887. Migrants appeared at Atlanta, Ga., Sep- 
tember II, 1902; Savannah, Ga., September 16, 1906; Raleigh, N. C., Sep- 

(176) 



The MigradoM of North American Sparrows 177 

tember 20, 1901; and in northern Florida, on the average, October 7, the 
earliest, September 27. 

The last one noted at Eubank, Ky., was on September 26, 1889; Monteer, 
Mo., September 27, 1909; near Mt. Carmel, 111., October 28, 1882; New Har- 
mony, Ind., September 24, 1902; Weaverville, N. C, November i, 1890. 

BOTTERI'S SPARROW 

This is a Mexican species, scarcely, if at all, migratory. It has a wide 
range in Mexico, but barely reaches the United States in the Rio Grande 
Valley of extreme southern Texas. It has also been recorded from a few 
localities in southern Arizona, north to the Santa Catalina Mountains. 

CASSIN'S SPARROW 

Wintering in Mexico, Cassin's Sparrow migrates early in the season into 
the contiguous parts of the United States. It was noted at Brownsville, Texas, 
as early as February i, 19 10; while the average date of arrival at San Antonio 
is March 23, the earliest, February 18, 1897. Migrants enter southern Arizona 
soon after the middle of March, and the species breeds north to southeastern 
Nevada, southern Colorado, and southwestern Kansas. It was still common at 
Carlsbad, N. M., September 12, 1901, and remained at Laredo, Texas, until 
November 12, 1885. 

RUFOUS-WINGED SPARROW 

Southeastern Arizona, north to the Santa Catalina Mountains, is the only 
part of the United States where the Rufous-winged Sparrow occurs. The 
main part of the range is in northern Mexico; but the few individuals that 
occur in Arizona remain there the entire year, and the nesting season is so 
extended that fresh eggs have been noted from the middle of May to the 
second week in September. 

RUFOUS-CROWNED SPARROW 

This Sparrow has been separated into four forms, or subspecies. The 
earliest-known form, now called the Rufous-crowned Sparrow {Aimophila 
ruficeps ruficeps), occurs in California west of the Sierra Nevada, and north to 
Marin and Placer Counties; it ranges south to the San Pedro Martir Mountains 
of Lower California. While not strictly a non-migratory species, yet some 
individuals remain through the winter at the extreme northern limit of the 
summer home, and prevent the obtaining of any exact data on the movements 
of the migrant birds. Apparently most of the short migratory flight occurs 
in March. 

Scott's Sparrow (Aimophila r. scotti) ranges from northern Mexico north to 
southern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Texas. It is not 



1 78 Bird -Lore 

probable that the individuals breeding in northern New Mexico remain at 
their summer home through the winter, but the species is found at this season 
in the southern part of that state. 

The Rock Sparrow (Aimophila r. eremoeca) breeds principally in Texas east 
of the Pecos River, while a few birds range north to the Wichita Mountains, 
Oklahoma. Though the species is partially migratory, and is found in winter 
south to Puebla, several hundred miles south of the breeding-range, yet some 
birds also remain at this season in northern Texas nearly to the northern limit 
of the summer home. 

The fourthjform, the Laguna Sparrow {A. r. sororia), is a non-migratory 
sub-species inhabiting the mountains of southern Lower California. 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 

T-WENTY-SEVENTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(See Frontispiece) 

Both range and habit tend to prevent the Sparrows figured in this issue of 
Bird-Lore from being widely known. Confined for the greater part to our 
southern border states, they do not, as a rule, enter the region where bird 
students most abound, while their retiring habits and generally elusive ways 
make them far from conspicuous, even in localities where they are common. I 
have no personal knowledge of the more western species, but, if any of them 
sing as sweetly as does our Pine-woods Sparrow (and its northern race, Bach- 
man's Sparrow), it is indeed a pity that their voices should so rarely fall on 
appreciative ears. 

As the frontispiece shows, even those birds of this group which are ranked 
as species bear a close general resemblance to one another. The 'Check-List' 
of the American Ornithologists' Union places them in two genera, Peuccea and 
Aimophila, but Mr. Ridgway, in his great work on the 'Birds of North and 
Middle America,' includes them all in Aimophila, proof that the exact degree 
of their relationships is largely a matter of opinion. 

The molts of these birds have not, so far as I am aware, been minutely 
studied, nor have we at this time sufficient material to go thoroughly into this 
subject. It may be said, however, that in all the species the sexes are alike, 
and there are no marked seasonal changes in color. 

The nestling always has the underparts more or less distinctly streaked. 
These streaks are lost at the post-juvenal molt, and in our eastern species 
(and doubtless also others) the young birds pass into a plumage (first winter) 
which cannot be distinguished from that of the adult of the same season. The 
differences between winter and summer plumage are largely due to wear. 

To this brief outline may be added a list of the species and races, with the 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 179 

characters by which they may be distinguished. Their ranges are given by 
Professor Cooke in the preceding article. 

Pine-woods Sparrow (Peuccea cBsHvalis (Bstivalis, Fig. 2). — All three species 
of PeuccBa agree in having the bend of the wing yellow, a mark which is wanting 
in our species of Aimophila. In addition to this feature, the heavily washed 
chest, in connection with the absence of maxillary streaks, distinguishes this 
species. Its northern form, Bachman's Sparrow {Peuccea a. bachmani), has 
much less black on the upperparts, which are sometimes only bay and gray. 

Cassin's Sparrow (Peucaa cassini, Fig. i). — The spotted or barred appear- 
ance of the back is the diagnostic character of Cassin's Sparrow. Instead of 
being centrally streaked, the feathers of the back have a narrow black bar 
near the end. The general color of the plumage is decidedly paler than that of 
the other birds ha\dng the bend of the wing yellow {Peuccea). 

Botteri's Sparrow {Peuccea botteri, Fig. 3). — This species most nearly resem- 
bles the Pine-woods Sparrow, but is larger, pale above, and the breast is less 
heavily washed. 

Rufous-winged Sparrow {Aimophila car palis, Fig. 4). — The chestnut- rufous 
lesser wing-coverts, and the similarly colored, gray striped crown will serve 
to identify this species, which bears a singularly close resemblance to a Western 
Chipping Sparrow in winter plmnage. 

Rufous-crowned Sparrow {A imophila ruficeps ruficeps, Fig. 5) . — This species 
may be known by its rufous cap, well-marked maxillary streaks, and absence 
of black markings (less than Fig. 5 shows) in the back, together with the lack 
of yellow on the bend of the wing. This is the California form. In southern 
Lower California it is represented by the Laguna Sparrow (A. r. sororia), a 
nearly related race, somewhat brighter above and with a slightly larger bill. 
In Arizona there is a third form, Scott's Sparrow {A. r. scotti), which has the 
underparts decidedly paler, the back with grayer margins; and in Texas a 
fourth form, the Rock Sparrow {A. r. eremmca) has the crown darker, more 
chestnut than in Scott's Sparrow, and the back still grayer. These races, how- 
ever, can be satisfactorily identified only on comparison of specimens, but 
since, during the nesting season, one is unlikely to find any two of them at 
the same place, the locality at which a bird is found will, at this season, go a 
long way toward determining to which particular race it belongs. 




A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 

IN RESPONSE to the request published in the January-February Bird- 
Lore, fifty-seven reports of the arrival, etc., of the Red-winged Black- 
bird, Robin and Phoebe have been received. We wish to thank our 
readers for these reports, and especially — in almost every case — for copying 
so carefully the form we printed. 

The arrival of these early migrants is much more irregular than that of 
those species due in May. It is more dependent on the weather conditions, 
and this year all sections of the country report an exceptionally late mi- 
gration, owing to the frequent and heavy snow-storms and unusually cold 
weather in the early spring. The dates given in the following columns, there- 
fore, are far from normal. The January and February dates must refer, in 
most cases, to wintering birds, not to newcomers. 

The Robin was at most stations the earliest species to appear and to become 
common. After passing New York City, those that continued along the coast 
went much faster than those that followed up the big river valleys. Robins 
reached northern New Hampshire and northern Nova Scotia at about the 
same time, though the former is three hundred, and the latter seven hundred 
miles from New York. That makes the advance of the species along the coast 
about forty-seven, and up the Connecticut Valley only twenty miles a day. 
The evidence indicates that they entered Nova Scotia from the mainland, 
appearing first in the central portion adjoining New Brunswick, and spreading 
thence southward and northward. Several widely scattered stations report 
Robins as more than usually abundant after they did come, one Chicago 
observer going so far as to say, "Never saw so many Robins in the spring as 
this year — at least ten to every one seen in previous springs." The Mississippi 
Valley dates average several days ahead of those of the same latitude along 
the Atlantic coast. 

The Red-winged Blackbird dates seem more irregular as a series than 
the Robin dates. This is perhaps due to the Blackbird's being more gregarious 
and less scattered than the Robin; if the observer misses the two or three 
flocks of Red-wings in his locality, he misses the species. Many more are 
usually seen on the first day than is the case with the Robin. 

The Phoebe, needing as it does plenty of gnats or other flying insects, is 
naturally the last of these three species to be noted. In many places where 
it is a regular summer resident it is never really common, just a pair or two 
nesting here and there. — Charles H. Rogers. 

Postscript. — Nine reports were received too late for tabulation. The last 
reached us on May 4, long after the copy had gone to press. The Red-winged 
Blackbird was recorded as not yet common at Reaboro, Ont., Apr, 18 (E. W. 
Calvert), nor at Detroit, Mich., Apr. 26 (Mrs. F. W. Robinson).— C. H. R. 

(180) 



A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration i8i 

Reports were received from the following localities and persons: 

Atlantic Coast District. 

Kennett Square, Chester Co., southeastern Pa. — C. Aubrey Thomas. 

West Chester, Chester Co., southeastern Pa. — Isaac G. Roberts. 

York, York Co., southeastern Pa. — David W. Sunper. 

Englewood, Bergen Co., northeastern N. J. — John Treadwell Nichols. 

Central Park, New York City, southeastern N. Y. — John Treadwell Nichols. 

Bay Ridge, New York City, southeastern N. Y. — Mrs. F. V. Abbott. 

Port Chester, Westchester Co., southeastern N. Y. — Samuel N. Comly, Paul C. 
Spoflford, James C. Maples. 

New Haven, New Haven Co., central southern Conn. — Aretas A. Saunders. 

Block Island, in the Ocean off R. I. — Elizabeth Dickens. 

Waterbury, New Haven Co., western central Conn. — Mrs. A. A. Crank, R. E. 
Piatt, Mrs. Nelson A. Pomeroy. 

Bournedale, Barnstable Co., southeastern Mass. — Anna M. Starbuck, N. B. Hart- 
ford, Ethel L. Walker. 

Grafton, Worcester Co., eastern central Mass. — T. P. Staples. 

River Hebert, Cumberland Co., western central N. S. — J. H. Fitch. 

Bass River, Colchester Co., central N. S. — William A. Doane. 

Truro, Colchester Co., central N. S. — L. A. DeWolfe. 

Wolfville, Kings Co., central N. S.— H. G. Perry. 

Milton, Queens Co., southern N. S. — R. H. Wetmore. 

Yarmouth, Yarmouth Co., southern N. S. — E. Chesley Allen. 

Antigonish, Antigonish Co.. eastern N. S. — Harrison F. Lewis. 

Hudson and Connecticut Valleys. 

Rhinebeck, Dutchess Co., southeastern N. Y. — Maunsell S. Crosby. 
Williamstown, Berkshire Co., northwestern Mass. — Wm. J. Cartwright. 
Bennington, Bennington Co., southwestern Vt. — Lucretius H. Ross. 
Saratoga Springs, Saratoga Co., central eastern N. Y. — Mrs. H. M. Herrick. 
St. Albans, four miles north of, Franklin Co., northwestern Vt. — Lelia E. Honsinger. 
Lancaster, Cods Co., northwestern N. H. — Thomas W. Wallace. 

Ohio Valley. 

Urbana, Champaign Co., central eastern 111. — Frank Smith and collaborators. 
Stafford Twp., Greene Co., southeastern Ind. — Mrs. Stella Chambers. 
Lexington, Fayette Co., northern central Ky. — Victor K. Dodge. 
Columbus, Franklin Co., central Ohio. — Laura E. Lovell. 
Huron, Erie Co., central northern Ohio. — H. G. Morse. 

Pittsburgh, within lo miles of, Allegheny Co., central western Pa. — Thos. D. Bur- 
leigh. 
Youngstown, Mahoning Co., northeastern Ohio. — Volney Rogers. 
Meadville, Crawford Co., northwestern Pa. — F. Cecil First. 
Little Valley, Cattaraugus Co., southwestern N. Y. — Mary M. Bedient. 
Geneva, Ontario Co., southwestern N. Y. — Otto McCreary. 
Lyons, Wayne Co., southwestern N. Y. — S. B. Gavitt. 
Kingston, Frontenac Co., southeastern Ont. — E. Beaupre. 

Mississippi Valley. 

Lafayette Co., central eastern Mo. — Dr. Ferdinand Schreimann. 

Wichita, Sedgwick Co., central southern Kan., Audubon Society of Fairmount College 



l82 



Bird - Lore 



Mississippi Valley, continued. 

Chillicothe, Livingston Co., central northern Mo. — Desmond Popham. 

Zuma Twp., Rock Island Co., northwestern 111. — J. J. Schafer. 

LaGrange, Cook Co., northeastern 111. — Edmund Hulsberg, James Watson. 

Chicago, Cook Co., northeastern 111. — C. L. Cheney, Wilfred Lyon. 

Rockford, Winnebago Co., central northern 111. — Norman E. Nelson. 

Lauderdale Lakes, Walworth Co., southeastern Wis. — Lula Dunbar. 

Viroqua, Vernon Co., southwestern Wis. — R. Spellum. 

Milwaukee, Milwaukee Co., southeastern Wis. — Mrs. Mark L. Simpson. 

Madison, Dane Co., central southern Wis. — A. W. Schorger, N. de W. Betts. 

Sheridan, Waupaca Co., central Wis. — Katherine Johnson. 

Newberry, Luce Co., northeastern Mich. — Ralph Beebe. 

Lennox, Lincoln Co., southeastern S. D. — W. B. Mallory. 

Fargo, Cass Co., southeastern N. D. — Miss N. S. Evans, Edna M. Stevens, O. 

Stevens. 
Palisades, Mesa Co., central western Colo. — -J. L. Sloanaker. 
Seattle, King Co., central western Wash. — F. W. Cook. 



ROBIN 



Atlantic Coast District. 

Kennett Square, Pa 

West Chester, Pa 

York, Pa 

New York City and vicinity 

New Haven, Conn 

Block Island, R. I 

Waterbury, Conn 

Bournedale, Mass 

Grafton, Mass 

River Hebert, N. S 

Bass River, N. S 

Truro, N. S 

Wolfville, N. S 

Milton, N. S 

Yarmouth, N. S 

Antigonish, N. S 



First seen 



Number 



Hudson and Connecticut Valleys 

Rhinebeck, N. Y 

Williamstown, Mass 

Bennington, Vt 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y 

St. Albans, Vt 

Lancaster, N. H 



Ohio Valley. 

Urbana, 111 

Stafford Twp., Greene Co., 

Ind 

Lexington, Ky 

Columbus, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Huron, Ohio 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and vicinity 
Southwestern New York.. . . 
Kingston, Ont 



March 12 
March 15 
March 16 
March 15 
March 15 
March 21 
March 15 
Jan. 18 
March 24 
March 7 
March 28 
March 23 
March 29 
March 26 
April I 
March 26 



March 16 
March 26 
March 26 
March 27 
March 27 
March 28 

March 3 

Feb. 10 
Feb. 20 
Feb. 7 
March 14 
March 8 
Feb. 14 
March 16 
March 28 



I 
3 
4 

ID 

35 



15 



Next seen 



15 
5 



March 14 
March 16 
March 17 
March 16 
March 17 
March 28 
March 21 
Feb. 27 
March 26 
March 15 
March 31 
April 7 
April 2 
March 29 
April 5 
March 28 



March 17 
March 27 
March 27 
March 29 
March 29 
March 29 

March 6 

March 6 
March 7 
March 10 
March 15 
March 9 
March 15 
March 17 
March 30 



Number 



24 



several 
many 
5 



hundreds 
10 



common 
13 



Becomes 
common 



March 15 
March 17 
March 21 
March 25 
March 27 
March 29 
March 28 
March 31 
March 28 
April I 
April 7 
April 8 
April s 
April s 
April s 
April 9 

March 28 
March 27 
March 27 
April 5 

April 10 

March 14 

March 13 
March 12 
March 14 
March 15 
March 14 
March 16 
March 17 
March 30 



A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 

Robin, continued 



183 



First seen Number 1 Next seen Number 



Mississippi Valley. 

Lafayette Co., Mo Feb. 20 

Wichita, Kan March 2 

Livingston Co., Mo March 3 

Zuma Twp., Rock Island| 

Co., Ill March 11 

Chicago, 111., and vicinity. . . | March 11 

Rockford, 111 March 7 

Lauderdale Lakes, Wis March 14 

Viroqua, Wis March 12 

Milwaukee, Wis March 15 

Madison, Wis March 14 

Sheridan, Wis March 14 

Newberry, Mich I April i 

Lennox, S. D I March 15 

Fargo, N. D \ April i 



15 



Feb. 22 
March 4 
March 5 

March 14 
March 14 
March 14 
March 15 
March 13 
March 16 
March 15 
March 25 
April 2 
IMarch 16 
April 4 



20 

20 



25 
4 



Becomes 
common 



March 8 
March 4 
March 15 

March 15 
March 15 
March 16 
March 17 
March 15 
March 21 
March 25 
April 7 

March 25 



RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD 



Atlantic Coast District. 

Kennett Square, Pa 

West Chester, Pa 

York, Pa 

New York City and vicinity 
' New Haven, Conn 

Block Island, R. I 

Waterbury, Conn 

Bournedale, Mass 

Grafton, Mass 

Nova Scotia 



First seen I Number 1 Next seen 



March 15 
IMarch 17 
March 21 
March 17 
March 21 
March 21 
April I 
March 29 
March 27 
None seen 



Hudson and Connecticut Valleys 

Rhinebeck, N. Y March 25 

Williamstown, Mass March 31 

Bennington, Vt April 4 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y April 5 

St. Albans, Vt ; April 10 

Lancaster, N. H None seen 



Ohio Valley. 

Urbana, 111 

Stafford Twp., Greene Co., 

Ind 

Lexington, Ky 

Columbus, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Huron, Ohio 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and vicinity 
Southwestern New York. . . . 
Kingston, Ont 



March 14 

March 14 
Feb. 24 
March 20 
March 16 
Feb. 22 
March 26 
March 18 
March 28 



2 
12 



by April 



several 



March 22 
March 27 
March 22 
March 18 
March 25 
March 24 
April 2 
March 30 
April I 
10. 



March 27 
April 4 
April 5 
April 10 



by April 13. 



50 



5 
I 

35 



March 15 

March 15 
March 25 
March 25 
March 17 
March 6 
March 28 
March 22 



Number 



42 
I 

2 
2 
7 



several 

S 



25 



Becomes 
common 



March 27 
April 4 
March 27 
March 28 
IMarch 27 
March 25 

April 3 
April 2 



March 28 
April 9 



March 14 

March 19 
March 30 

March 18 
March 15 
April 4 
March 26 
March 28 



x84 



Bird - Lor« 

Red-winged Blackbird, continued 





First seen 


Number 


Next seen 


Number 


Becomes 
common 


Mississippi Valley* 

Lafayette Co., Mo 


Feb. 25 
March 8 
March 19 

March 14 
March 14 
March 24 
March 2 
April 13 
March 31 
March 10 
March 29 
Accidental 
March 15 
April 5 


8 
7 
3 

12 
2 

3 

8 

200 

6 

3 

flock 

here. 

12 

I 


March i 
March 9 
March 21 

March 15 
March 15 
March 26 
March 8 
April 14 
April 8 
March 15 
March 31 

March 17 


35 


March 10 


Wichita, Kan 


8 March n; 


Chillicothe, Mo 


12 

SO 
no 

4 

8 
4a 

3 

80 

flock 

IS 


March 25 


Zuma Twp., Rock Island 
Co., Ill 


March 15 


Chicago, 111., and vicinity.. . 
Rockford, 111 


March 15 
March 28 


Lauderdale Lakes, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 


March 2 
April 13 
April 13 
March 22 
April 5 

March 20 


Milwaukee, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Sheridan, Wis 

Newberry, Mich 

Lennox, S. D 

Fargo, N. D 



^The records from the Great Plains are of another subspecies, the Thick-billed Red-wing. 



PH(EBE 



Atlantic Coast District. 

Kennett Square, Pa 

West Chester, Pa 

York, Pa 

New York City and vicinity. 

New Haven, Conn 

Block Island, R. I 

Waterbury, Conn 

Bournedale, Mass 

Grafton, Mass 

Nova Scotia 

Hudson and Connecticut Valleys 

Rhinebeck, N. Y 

Williamstown, Mass 

Bennington, Vt 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y 

St. Albans, Vt 

Lancaster, N. H 

Ohio Valley. 

Urbana, 111 

Stafford Twp., Greene Co., 

Ind 

Lexington, Ky 

Columbus, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Huron, Ohio 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and vicinity 
Southwestern New York. . . . 
Kingston, Ont 



First seen 



March 16 
March 16 
March 27 
March 17 
March 27 
Occurs onl 
March 27 
March 6 
March 27 
None seen 



March 28 
None seen 
April 5 
April 5 
None seen 
April II 



March 15 

March 15 
March 11 
March 25 
March 17 
March 22 
March 15 
April I 
March 22 



Number 



Next seen 



y in 



March 22 
March 25 
April 7 
March 22 
March 31 
migr ation. 

March 29 
March 9 
March 26 
10. 



by April 



by April 

3 

I 

by April 



March 29 
10. 

April 6 
April 13 
10. 
April 12 



March 24 

March 28 
March 29 
March 26 
March 22 
March 25 
March 28 
April 4 
April 28 



Number 



Becomes 
common 



March 27 
April 2 
April 9 
March 30 

April 10 
April 7 
March 31 



April 8 
April 13 

April 3 



April 3 
March 29 
March 27 

April 7 



A CoSperative Study of Bird Migration 

Phcebe, continued 



185 



Mississippi Valley. 

Lafayette Co., Mo 

Wichita, Kan 

Chillicothe, Mo 

Zuma Twp., Rock Island 

Co., lU 

Chicago, 111., and vicinity.. . 

Rockford, 111 

Lauderdale Lakes, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Sheridan, Wis 

Newberry, Mich 

Lennox, S. D 

Fargo, N. D 



First seen Number Next seen Number 



March 15 
March 29 
March 27 

March 29 
March 29 
March 28 
March 26 
March 28 
April 3 
March 29 
March 26 
Rare. 
None seen 
None seen 



by April 
by April 



March 17 
April 5 
March 28 

April 7 
March 30 
April 3 
March 29 
April 4 
April s 
April s 
March 30 

10. 
10. 



Becomes 
common 



March 25 
March 30 



April 4 
April s 

April 10 
April 14 

April 8 



Palisades, Colo. 

San Diego Red-wing, winter resident in small numbers. 

Western Robin, first (one) seen Feb. 22; becomes common March 25. 

Say's Phoebe, first (one) seen March 25. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Northwestern Red-wing, first (7) seen April 5. 

Western Robin, wintered in some numbers, becomes common March 29. 



:^.- 




jBtote« from JTtelD anD ^tuDp 



An Owl Refugee on a Battleship 

When the U. S. S. New Jersey was 
hurrying down to Mexico, last October, 
to aid American refugees, the first pas- 
senger it received was an Owl. This hap- 
pened while the ship was off northern 
Florida, about sixty miles from the coast. 
A fresh breeze was blowing from the land, 
causing a steady roll, which must have 
made it difiBcult for him to alight on the 
yard-arm of the mainmast, particularly 
as he came about two a.m., when it was 
very dark and the ship's lights were 
confusing. 

There he gravely sat while the masts 
swept backward and forward and the 
wind whistled around the wires. The 
interest of the sailors did not affect him 
in the least, in spite of the fact that it 
kept the officers busy restraining some 
of those who climbed aloft from trying to 
catch him. The reports of the men on his 
size, color, etc., varied greatly, although 
all agreed that he had a white breast, 
with no bars or stripes of any kind, and 
that he was rather small, smaller than a 
chicken, anyway. The man who finally 
climbed up after him in the afternoon of 
that day said that the top of his head was 
smooth and round — but others were sure 
it had horns. Mr. Owl started from the 
ship with the wind, as though bound for 
Africa, poor fellow. — J. W. Lippincott, 
Bethayres, Pa. 

The Hummer and His Shower-bath 

The day was hot — too hot to remain 
indoors; so, taking our chairs and moving 
to the shady side of the house, we hoped 
by putting to use the lawn-sprinkler to 
cool the air and the surroundings. 

As we were thus comfortably seated, 
whom should we see but our tiny friend, 
the Ruby-throat, who also wanted the 
enjoyment of the water. Alighting on a 
scarlet sage in blossom, where he could be 

( 



sprinkled, he would hang back-down- 
ward by his feet, sometimes losing his 
hold and falling to the ground, but always 
succeeding in regaining his perch. 

After watching this performance, I at 
last approached him, expecting to see 
him fly or, at least, attempt to do so; but 
no, acting almost as if tipsy, he seemed not 
to notice me. Picking the little fellow up 
gently, I carried him in my open hand out 
of range of the water, to show the others. 
He seemed to be injured. I was thinking 
that possibly he was hurt by his falls. 
When, unawares, with a whirr he was off; 
but, alighting in a nearby pine, he com- 
menced the pruning of his feathers. 

About an hour later he was again seen 
at his shower, repeating the same per- 
formance. — Fred W. Kenesson, Remlig, 
Jasper Co., Texas. 

The Early Woodcock 

In New Jersey and Pennsylvania there 
comes a time, each March, when the 
ground suddenly gives up the hard ice it 
has been holding and allows the earth- 
worm once more to come to the surface. 
Right after this comes the mole, and then 
the Woodcock — every time. 

I watch a certain patch of meadow in 
south Jersey which lies behind a mill and 
a great hedge in such a way as to catch all 
the sun and none of the cold wind. Here 
the Woodcock come first each year, and 
here five appeared on March 15, in the 
midst of a beautiful warm spell. That was 
very fine for the birds, and boring was 
easy, but five days later it blew up cold, 
with four inches of soft snow, and a biting 
gale to pierce the snuggest corners all 
through the following night. 

I wondered what had happened to the 
Woodcock and, finding no tracks near the 
mill in the early morning, wandered over 
the pine barrens and the swamps nearby, 
until I finally found where one had lit 
in an opening of the woods the [night 

186) 



Notes from Field and Study 



187 



before and walked to windward through 
the snow, until he came to a shelter- 
ing bunch of leaves beside which he 
could snuggle among the snowflakes and 
avoid the wind. He had fairly plowed 
his way those ten yards, often throwing 
out a wing to steady his short steps as he 
wound in and out among some sweet- 
fern twigs. The resting-place was abso- 
lutely hidden from above, and left very 
snug by the bird's slipping in without 
disturbing the snow more than to stamp 
it down underneath. 

In the early morning hours he had 
walked sedately out, turned once more 
into the wind and threaded his way 
farther into the pines, twice making a 
wing mark where he stumbled on hidden 
twigs, and leaving a furrow in the snow 
much like that of a weasel when walking. 
In a tangle of small bushes he had taken 
wing so hastily as to leave a downy 
feather on a twig. 

Later in the day, a small patch of grass 
showed through the snow behind the mill, 
and three Woodcock appeared, as if by 
magic, to bore for the succulent worms. 
Yes, the early Woodcock knows how to 
provide for himself. — Joseph W. Lip- 
PINCOTT, Bethayres, Pa. 

The Starling at Glens Falls, N. Y. 

It may be of interest to record that the 
Starling has arrived in Glens Falls. A 
small flock was found in the vicinity of 
the railway station during the recent 
February blizzard. One of the birds was 
so exhausted that it fell down in the snow, 
was captured, and is now contentedly 
wintering in the D. &. H. freight station 
here. — Gertrude B. Ferguson, Secy, of 
the Glens Falls Bird Club. 

Starlings and Cows 

In answer to a request in Bird-Lore 
for information regarding the Starlings' 
custom of flying around cows after the 
manner of Cowbirds, I should like to give 
my experience. This is not a new habit. I 
have seen Starlings alight on the backs of 



cows and sheep, to procure insects, in the 
Pevensey Marshes, Sussex, England. 

To quote Wood's Popular Natural 
History: "These birds have a habit of 
following cows, sheep, and horses, flut- 
tering about them as they move, for the 
purpose of preying upon the insects which 
are put to flight by their feet. The Star- 
lings also perch upon the backs of the 
cattle, and rid them of the parasitic 
insects that infest them." — Cecil Dip- 
lock, Plainfield, Ni J. 

The Grackle as a Nest-robber 

Being very much interested in the 
study of our native birds, I thought I 
would send you a short note on what 
seemed to me the unusual habits of a 
Bronzed Grackle. 

In the latter part of June and for at 
least the first half of July, 191 1, this 
Bronzed Grackle regularly, every four or 
five days, visited the houses on the west 
side of our street, always beginning at 
the south and finishing up at the north 
end of the block. He would alight on the 
veranda roof, enter the nests of the Eng- 
lish Sparrows built in the corners, and, 
after eating the eggs and young, he would 
emerge, stand for a moment or two, 
ignoring the throng of distracted Spar- 
rows, and fly to the next house, where the 
scene would be repeated. We would 
alwaj'^s know when he was out visiting by 
the shrieking of the Sparrows. On no 
occasion did the latter attempt to attack 
him, though a flock of about a score fol- 
lowed him from house to house. They 
would perch around on the wires, and 
make as much noise as possible while he 
was lunching. 

About the middle of July I had to leave 
the city, and on my return in early Sep- 
tember the Grackle had disappeared. I 
have never seen him since, nor do I know 
if he robbed nests on any other streets. 
Why he visited only the west side of the 
street is a mystery, for Sparrows' nests 
were abundant on both sides. 

He was certainly the coolest, most 
methodical, and heartless nest-robber I 



1 88 



Bird - Lore 



have ever seen or heard of. — J. Nelson 
GowANLOCK, Winnipeg, Man. 

Evening Grosbeaks Near Port Chester, 
N. Y. 

There was a flock of eight Evening 
Grosbeaks about this vicinity the last 
two weeks in February and the first week 
in March of this year. They could be 
seen nearly every morning up in the box- 
elder trees by the house, eating the seeds. 
They were very tame, allowing us at 
times to get within fifteen feet of them, 
and in this way we have made their 
identification positive. 

We have seen these birds near here on 
two other occasions, namely, January 8, 
9, iQii, and November 29, 1913. — James 
C. Maples, Samuel N. Comly, W. 
Bolton Cook, Richard L. Buedsall, 
Paul C. Spofford, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Redpoll in the District of Columbia 

In the January-February number of 
Bird-Lore, the latest date of the Redpoll 
seen in the District of Columbia is given 
as February 12, 1899. 

On March 9, 1914, I, together with 
Raymond W. Moore, of Kensington, Md., 
saw a Redpoll (Linaria) feeding on the 
seeds of a clump of alders on Chevy Chase 
Drive, D. C; and on the following Wed- 
nesday morning, March 11, we together 
with Mr. and Mrs. Leo D. Miner, of 
Washington, saw four Redpolls on the 
same clump of alders, and observed them 
for ten minutes or more through our 
field glasses at a distance of fifteen to 
twenty feet. It was snowing hard at the 
time. 

Prof. Wells W. Cooke, reports that this 
is the third record in sixty years for the 
Redpoll in D. C. — Sam'l W. Mellott, 
M.D., Chevy Chase, Md. 

A Summer Visitor 

It was in the summer of 1906, in a small 
village in northern Pennsylvania, that I 
first became really acquainted with a 



Chipping Sparrow. I had always noticed 
how dapper and bright the little fellows 
looked, but never knew what friendly 
little birds they were until this one came 
to us. 

One morning, as we were sitting on the 
porch of our summer home, a dainty little 
song broke forth near us. We listened 
breathlessly for a moment, and again the 
happy song sounded, and a dear little 
Chipping Sparrow lit on the railing of the 
porch and cocked his head on one side, 
as much as to say, "Well, how do you do, 
folks?" We happened to have some 
freshly baked caraway-seedj cakes in our 
hands, just feasting on their crisp good- 
ies, and purely to tempt him we scat- 
tered a few crumbs on the porch floor. 
Judge of our surprise when the little fel- 
low, with an excited little 'chip,' hopped 
down and began greedily to eat them. 
After satisfying his hunger, he flew upon 
the railing and sang a polite little "thank 
you," and then flew away. 

The next day and the next he came for 
crumbs. By that time we had begun to 
keep crumbs on the window-sill for him, 
but the Sparrows found that out, and 
quarreled and fought over them until we 
had to stop leaving them there for the 
little guest. Each day he would come, 
light on the ridge of the roof of the house 
next door and call. If we answered, 
down he would come, eager for crumbs. 
We talked to him as we would to a child, 
and when crumbs were not on the porch 
we would tell him to wait a minute while 
we went in to get them. Whether he 
understood or not I do not know, but at 
least he stayed and hopped to meet us, 
eating the crumbs from our hands. 

Mornings, my father would go down 
stairs early, whistle a clear, sharp call, 
and down the little fellow would come, 
light on the arm of father's chair, and 
while father whistled the tiny bird would 
throw back his head and sing with all 
his might. 

I used to sit on the floor, crumbs in 
my lap, and the little fellow would hop 
up into my lap and eat. He was very, 
very partial to cooky crumbs, and 



Notes from Field and Study 



189 



when we gave him bread would leave in 
disgust. 

One day a heavy thunder-storm came 
up just as he called to us from the neigh- 
boring roof, and then, in answer to our 
whistle, he came straight to the chairs 
where mother and I were sitting, hopped 
onto one of the rounds of the chair under 
her, and sat huddled up there during the 
entire storm, as if frightened. After it 
was over, out he came and sang to us his 
own inimitable song. 

Every night he came at dusk to sing good- 
night. How we grew to watch 
for him and love him! One 
day he brought two tiny baby 
chipping birds to the porch. 
It was slow, hard work for 
him to coax the little midgets 
onto the porch floor, but 
finally the two flufiFy, 
speckled little things were in 
the midst of a pile of crumbs 
and seeing that they were all 
safe and busy, off he flew. 
He brought them every day 
for a week or more, and then 
one day he didn't come. 
How we watched and waited 
for him for nearly two weeks! 
We were so lonesome with- 
out him, and so afraid he 
had been caught. Each eve- 
ning we would call him, but 
no little "cheep" would re- 
ward us. 

One evening, just at 
dusk, when we had given 
up ever seeing him again, we were 
all startled by a familiar little call. 
Jumping up, we ran to the porch railing 
and called, and from out of an old pear 
tree in the end of the yard came the 
dear little fellow straight for the porch. 
He lit on the railing, threw back his head, 
and oh, how he did sing! For at least 
fifteen minutes he stayed, holding us 
entranced by his song, and then, with a 
goodnight 'cheep,' he was gone, and for 
the rest of the summer we waited and 
watched for him in vain. — Mabel Foote 
WiTMAN, Washington, D. C. 



Some Wrens' Nests 

The accompanying photographs of 
House Wrens were taken early in July, 
19 13. I had heard that there were a couple 
of pairs of Wrens nesting near a certain 
residence, so, taking my camera, I came 
there one sunny afternoon. The first 
nest was in a birdhouse, high up under 
the eaves of the house, and inaccessible. 

The owners of the place had a tennis- 
court at one side, and there were back- 
stops of chicken-wire, upheld by iron 




HOUSE WREN 

pipes, which were fastened together at 
their upper ends with horizontal pipes 
connected to the others with the regular 
connections. In one of the end pipes the 
second pair of Wrens had made their 
nest. The entrance was from one side, 
through the iron connection, and the bird, 
after entering, dropped down in the verti- 
cal pipe about ten inches to its nest. 

Now came the photographing of the 
bird. I borrowed a step-ladder from the 
owner of the residence and set it up near 
the entrance to the nest. Upon the steps 
of this I placed and fastened the legs of 



igo 



Bird - Lore 



my camera tripod. Then I focused my 
camera, from the tripod, using the single 
lens, on the hole, about three feet away, 
and fastened a thread to the shutter. I 
waited, holding the end of the thread, at 
a distance of about twenty feet. The 
female Wren (I imagine it was she, since 
only one bird appeared) went right in 
with food to feed her young, not minding 
the click of the shutter in the least. Then 
I moved the ladder and camera nearer, 
and with the double lens got still better 
pictures, releasing the shutter with the 
bulb. In one of these the bird was so 
tame that I had my hand, holding the 
bulb, within a foot of it, with no attempt 




HOUSE WREN 

at concealment either. Thus I took seven 
pictures of which two were spoiled by the 
Wren moving and blurring the image. I 
was unable to see the young, since they 
were down inside the pipe. 

Earlier in the season, I found another 
Wren's nest in an exactly similar location 
to that just described. I attempted to 
photograph the Wren, but my plates did 
not turn out satisfactorily. 

Another interesting nest came to my 



attention, this time in a more unusual 
place. This pair had built their nest in 
a home-made, wooden mail-box on the 
front porch of another house. The Wren 
entered through the slot, which was 
about three-quarters of an inch wide. The 
lady of the house was so afraid that I 
would frighten the birds so that they 
would desert their nest that she refused 
me permission to photograph it. — Win- 
THROP Case, Hubbard Woods, III. 

Harris's Sparrow in Northwestern 
Illinois 

On March 15, 1Q14, I visited a large 
hedge-fence near where we live, to look 
for new bird arrivals from 
the South. 

Starting at the west 
end, and walking east 
along the south side, I 
did not see anything but 
a few Tree Sparrows and 
two Bluebirds. When 
near the east end, which 
is in a slough, a flock of 
about a dozen Bob-whites 
was flushed, and, after 
watching them disappear. 
I again looked at the 
fence and saw a large 
Sparrow sitting on a limb 
about ten yards from 
where I was standing. 
It had its breast toward 
me and sat very quiet, 
giving me an excellent 
opportunity to observe it 
with my field-glass. 

I noticed that the 
bill was pinkish, the 
crown, throat, lores, and breast, glossy 
black; the belly white, and the sides 
streaked with black. I observed it sev- 
eral minutes, and then walked east of 
where it was sitting, to get a side view, 
when it flew toward the other end of the 
fence. I immediately followed it, to try 
to get a back or side view, but did not 
get near enough until it reached the west 
end, where there were a Goldfinch and 
some Tree Sparrows sitting. There I 



Notes from Field and Study 



191 



again observed it from a distance of about 
twenty yards, and could see that it had 
white wing-bars. After observing it sev- 
eral minutes, I tried to get closer, when 
it again flew toward the east end of the 
fence. I did not follow, but hurried home 
to consult Chapman's 'Birds of Eastern 
North America.' On looking over the list 
of Sparrows which are not common here. 
I found that the description of Harris's 
Sparrow exactly suited the one which I 
had observed. This is the largest and most 
beautiful Sparrow I have ever seen, and 
is easily identified, on account of its large 
size and very different markings from 
any other Sparrow. — J. J. Schafer, Port 
Byron, III. 

Curious Actions of a Robin 

Can any reader of Bird-Lore explain 
the actions of a Robin as described below? 

I live at West Newton, and my house 
has a covered porch, underneath which 
projects a bay-window with three sashes. 
Adjoining is a glass-enclosed breakfast- 
room on one side, and on the other a sash 
recessed about six feet from the floor of 
the porch. 

Upon coming down to breakfast, April 
8, we found a Robin flying repeatedly at 
the three windows in the bay, trying to 
get in, striking the glass with its bill, 
wings and feet. This it kept up all day 
long, and until darkness settled down. 
We tried to drive it away, fearing that it 
would hurt itself. When it appeared to be 
somewhat exhausted from its labors it 
would fly to the recessed window, which 
afforded room for it to alight on, and 
would then gaze into the room. Con- 
stantly throughout the day it issued its 
call. 

The next morning it appeared promptly, 
and I pulled the shades down thinking 
that it might discourage its efforts; but 
when I left it was still flying toward the 
sash and then back to the porch-rail. 

In flying against the sash, with the 
exception of the recessed window, there 
was no opportunity to alight; so that, 
after striking the glass with its bill, wings 



and feet, it would return to the porch- 
rail. These efforts occurred about every 
ten seconds, and would last about one- 
half to three quarters of an hour. 

When under observation, the Robin 
would drop to the lawn, running about a 
bit and returning to its futile efforts to 
get into the house. Nothing that we 
could do would discourage it. 

This Robin was under observation by 
us for three days but it did not appear to 
us to be seeking self-destruction. It was 
apparently careful in striking the window 
not to injure itself. But for fear that it 
would exhaust itself, other means failing, 
we tied cross lines in front of the window, 
with many fluttering streamers. The 
Robin did not appear to mind these par- 
ticularly, though naturally it acted as 
though it could not quite make out why 
they were there, but the flutterings did 
not entirely discourage it in its efforts. 
The fourth day it acted more rationally, 
and since then apparently has been 
normal. 

.\fter erecting the streamers in front of 
the three windows which attracted its 
first efforts, it shifted its attentions to 
adjoining windows, but in a lesser degree. 

Another reason which makes me feel 
that it was not trying self-destruction is 
that it would land on the sill of an adjoin- 
ing window and call for minutes at a time. 
— Clarenxe B. Wood, Boston, Mass. 

A Successful Bird's Bath 

Possibly a description of a birds' bath 
I have found to be successful may be of 
interest to Bird-Lore readers. 

The stones which form the support are 
laid up without mortar, so as to leave 
openings between them. These are filled 
with soil and ferns planted in them, and 
in one large opening we planted an 
umbrella plant, which grows very fast, 
as the drip from the tank keeps it well 
watered. The stone support is about two 
feet high by three feet long and eighteen 
inches wide. The open bathing-tank on 
top of the stones is ten inches wide, three 
feet long, and one and one-half inches 



192 



Bird - Lore 



deep, made of galvanized iron. Back of 
the stones we drove a cedar post, leaving 
the post about six or eight inches above 
the bathing-tank. On this post we have 
a galvanized tank which holds three pails 
of water. This tank has an opening on 
one side near the bottom, so that the 
water drips from it into the bathing-tank 
below; this drip can be regulated to run 
fast or slow, according to the weather, as 



•^^ 




A SUCCESSFUL BIRD'S BATH 

on hot days the birds use the tank more, 
and the drip can be arranged so that the 
lower tank is kept full. We usually fill 
the tank in the morning and put in an 
extra pail at noon, so the water is kept 
fresh all day. This is all the attention 
necessary. We have a cover on the larger 
tank, as the water keeps cooler. 

The birds certainly like the arrange- 
ment, as it is used all day long. Very 
often there will be four or five birds 



bathing at once, and others waiting their 
turn. 

The tank is in a shady corner of the 
lawn about thirty feet from the house. 
The shrubbery near the tank is a mixture 
of wild roses, elderberry, wild crab, cherry, 
and hawthorn trees. On the other side 
of the tank is a large bed of perennial 
phlox. 

It is altogether the most interesting 
part of our yard, and we feel 
very well paid for the work 
and small expense we have 
been to in building it. — 
Henry P. Severson, Winne- 
conne, Wise. 

Bird-Houses and Lunch- 
Boxes 

In housing and feeding our 
little feathered friends, we 
have had considerable an- 
noyance from other birds 
which we do not care to pro- 
vide for. Our Bluebird boxes 
have had no lack of renters, 
and several broods have been 
reared successfully in the last 
three or four years. We place 
them on posts of our garden 
fence, about eight or ten feet 
high, for we have discovered 
tha the English Sparrow does 
not claim nests that are so 
low, and we manage to pro- 
tect from prowling cats by 
covering the hollow limb of 
the tree which forms the house 
with tin sheeting for two or 
three feet above the top of the 
fence-post, and weaving together a num- 
ber of slender osage branches around the 
base of the house. The cats do not ven- 
ture to climb over this thorny barrier, 
and, if they should, the tin sheeting pre- 
vents nearer approach to the little home. 
For lunch-boxes we take the small, 
square boxes which gardeners use for 
berries, line them with thin cloth to pre- 
vent the food from falling out, tie stout 
cords to the four corners and unite them 



Notes from Field and Study 



193 



about six inches above 
the box; then make a 
roof of heavy card- 
board long enough to 
extend about four 
inches over the two ends 
of the box, with little 
slits cut into the edges 
so that the cords 
entering will hold the 
roof on in spite of the 
wind and weather, 
and swing the box 
from the limb of a 
tree. 

The roof should not 
be more than three 
inches above the box 
at the 'ridge,' and 
should fit closely 
down to the sides of 
the box. 

Sparrows are very 
wary birds and few of 
them will venture to 

enter a box with such a covering, the Jays 
can not get in, but the Chickadees and 
the Nuthatches fearlessly help themselves 
to the cracked nuts and the seeds within. 
— Marion and John Kyle, Xenia, Ohio. 

A Drinking-Place for the Birds 

Do you ever stop to think that in the 
summer time, when it is very hot and the 
water in the nearby creek has dried up, 
it is very hard for the birds to find water 
enough to drink? They need it not only 
to drink, but would like to bathe in some 
nice cool water. It is very interesting to 






THE DRINKING POOL 

watch the birds when they come to drink. 
One should learn to know and protect 
them. If they find feed and water in some 
place today, they will be back to the 
same place tomorrow for more. 

Some people put a pan of water and a 
few crumbs out, and find that many dif- 
ferent kinds of birds come every day. 
The writer has made a very enticing place 
for the birds to drink and bathe. The 



CC_ 




y^P-OTionAu viCLw 



194 



Bird - Lore 



water comes from the drip of the ice-box. 
Where this is convenient, it eliminates all 
trouble with the ice-box overflow. 

Any boy could get a few feet of old 
pipe and a few elbows from a plumber 
for almost nothing. This he can run from 
the drip underneath the ice-bo.x and out a 
distance from the house, not less than ten 
feet. The size of the pipe should be about 
one-half inch in diameter, although this 
is immaterial. It should be laid under the 
surface of the ground to the drinking- 
place, or grotto, as it should be called. 

The photograph shows the kind of 
grotto built by the writer. It is con- 
structed of concrete and stone. The base 
is of concrete, with a basin left so that 
the water is from one-half to about two 
inches in depth. This difference in the 
depth of the water is mainly to accom- 
modate both large and small birds. The 
rocks that are piled up and around are 
securely cemented together. By looking 
closely, you may see the pipe that carries 
the water from the ice-box. There is also 
a pipe that drains the water off when it 
gets to the right height. 

A very good plan is to plant flowers 
around the grotto, such as ferns, hepati- 
cas, violets, and nasturtium. This relieves 
the bareness of it, and it takes but little 
time and money to make this a very 
attractive drinking-place for the birds. — 
R. T. Robinson, Normal, Illinois. 

Some Prospect Park Notes 

In the summer of 191 2, all the Ducks 
in Prospect Park Lake were sold. A male 
Black Duck had mated with a female 
Mallard, and they raised a brood of seven. 
These seven were not caught, and 
remained in the lake until November 20. 
About March 26, 1913, three of these 
Ducks returned to the lake. We are sure 
these three belonged to the seven that 
left in November, 1912, because of 
their markings. A pair mated and raised 
a brood of thirteen. About August 8, 
seven of the Ducks disappeared. The 
general coloration of the nine remaining 
is that of Black Ducks. One has the 



speculum and recurved tail-feathers of 
the male Mallard, some have the Mallard 
speculum, and some the speculum of the 
Black Duck; all have reddish orange feet, 
four have light greenish yellow bills, two 
have orange bills mottled with greenish 
black, and three have the bill of the 
Black Duck. All have the under side of 
the wings white. These Ducks have 
become very tame. 

From December 25, 191 2 to January i, 
1913, a female Wood Duck was in the 
open water of the lake; another was seen 
July 20. 

A Brazilian Cardinal {Paroaria cuciil- 
lata) was in the park from May 9 to 13. 

On May 13 a male Summer Tanager 
was seen in the park, and on September 
24 a Mockingbird. 

After an absence of three years, a pair 
of Wood Thrushes nested in the park; 
besides these, an unmated male stayed 
with us all summer. — Kate P. and E. W. 
ViETOR, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A Nest Census 

On January 15, 1914, 1 took a walk from 
the old Round Tower at Fort Snelling, 
Minn., past the soldiers' barracks and offi- 
cers' quarters, a little over a quarter of a 
mile. In the big elms lining the walks I 
counted thirty-one birds' nests. Orioles 
predominated, some Robins' nests, and 
others that I did not know. These 
thirty-one nests meant thirty-one pairs, or 
sixty-two birds. With three young to a 
nest — a low average — there were 93, or 
155 birds total, in that quarter of a mile. 
— E. I. Metcalf, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Trial of Von Berlepsch Nests 

Mr. Fred Adams, of Omaha, has a fine 
home near a natural grove. That these 
trees might be the better preserved from 
insect attacks, he secured from the manu- 
facturer twenty-five of the von Berlepsch 
boxes. While the boxes are especially 
fitted to European species, he is gratified 
at his experience here. 

He presented one to the writer. It was 



Notes from Field and Study 



195 



attached to a black walnut at the edge of 
of a grove of these trees, and placed 
among the limbs some ten feet above 
ground. We very much hoped that a 
pair of Bluebirds, which soon examined 
it, remaining several days, would settle 
down to family life. 

The English Sparrows were very 
impudent, coming by the score, and no 
doubt were the chief cause of the sud- 
den departure of the Bluebirds. 

There followed a pair of Red-headed 
Woodpeckers, after enlarging the mouth 
of the nest a bit; a home and family duly 
followed. At Mr. Adams' place all the 
boxes were occupied — one by a Chickadee, 
one by a Wren that reared two families, 
at least. Redheads and Flickers took the 
rest. No Bluebirds came. Other varie- 
ties of birds in the neighborhood seemed 
more familiar because of the presence 
of these nests and occupants, such as 
Cardinals, Goldfinches, Grosbeaks, and 
Thrushes. None of these, however, took 
any type of the von Berlepsch boxes. — S. 
R. TowNE, Omaha, Neb. 

Thirty-second Annual Congress of the 
American Ornithologists' Union 

The Thirty-second Annual Congress of 
the American Ornithologists' Union was 
held in Washington, D. C, April 6-8, 
1914. 

At the Business Meeting of Fellows, 
held at the Ebbitt House on the evening 
of the 6th, the following officers were 
elected: President, Dr. A. K. Fisher; 
Vice-Presidents, Henry W. Henshaw and 
Dr. Witmer Stone; Secretary, John H. 
Sage; Treasurer, Dr. Jonathan D wight, 
Jr.; Councillors, Ruthven Deane, Wil- 
liam Dutcher, Joseph Grinnell, F. A. 
Lucas, Wilfred H. Osgood, Dr. Charles 
W. Richmond, Dr. Thomas S. Roberts. 

There being no vacancies in the list of 
Fellows, no election for fellowship was 
held. The following were elected Members: 
Egbert Bagg, Utica, N. Y.; Dr. Thomas 
Barbour, Cambridge, Mass.; Robert 
Thomas Moore, Haddonfield, N. J.; 
Robert Cushman Murphy, Brooklyn, 



N. Y.; John Treadwell Nichols, New 
York City. 

Twenty-five Associates were elected, the 
small number being due to the short time 
which has elapsed since the annual meet- 
ing of 1913. 

The public sessions of the Congress, 
which were held at the United States 
National Museum, were attended by 
nearly one hundred members of the 
Union, twenty-six of these being Fellows. 

The Congress of November, 1913 hav- 
ing afforded opportunity for reports on 
recent ornithological studies, the pro- 
gram was, in consequence, comparatively 
limited. It contained, however, several 
papers of much interest, and some which 
developed considerable discussion. Par- 
ticularly was this true of a paper on the 
comparative numbers of our insectivorous 
birds. 

While the difficulty of making anything 
like exact comparison of present with 
past conditions was recognized, the 
speakers on this subject were agreed that 
insectivorous birds were far more com- 
mon now than they could possibly have 
been at the time of the settlement of 
this country; a fact which is made evi- 
dent by comparing the small numbers of 
birds found in remaining areas of primeval 
forests with those which exist in farming 
regions, where the diversity of conditions 
furnished by meadow, orchard, wood-lot, 
crops of various kinds, etc., afford homes 
and food for a great variety of birds. 

The speakers also agreed that in their 
respective experiences, extending over 
from twenty to thirty years, no appre- 
ciable change in the numbers of insec- 
tivorous birds, as a whole, had been 
observed. Local conditions, some of 
which were apparent, others obscure, had 
occasioned the decrease of some species, 
while others had increased; and the loss 
on one hand was about balanced by the 
gain on the other. 

The members of the Union and their 
friends were entertained daily at luncheon 
by the Washington members. The Annua 
Subscription Dinner, which was largely 
attended, was held on the evening of the 7th. 



196 



Bird - Lore 



The next Congress of the Union will be 
held in San Francisco in May, 1915. This 
promises to be an event of exceptional 
interest. Information in regard to details 
of transportation may be obtained in due 
time through the Secretary of the Union, 
Mr. J. H. Sage, Portland, Conn. We are 
sure that no member of the A. O. U. party 
which crossed the continent, to meet in 
San Francisco in May, 1903, will wil- 
lingly forego an opportunity to duplicate 
that memorable experience. 

PROGRAM 

Some Letters from Robert Kennicott. By 
Ernest Thompson Seton, Greenwich, 
Conn. (10 min.) 

On the Zonary Stomach in the Euphonias. 
By Alexander Wetmore, Washington, 
D. C. (10 min.) 

Winter Birds at Ithaca, N. Y. By Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes, Ithaca, N. Y. (15 min.) 

Visits of Pine and Evening Grosbeaks. By 
Mrs. E. O. Marshall, New Salem, Mass. 
(10 min.) 

A Note on the Herring Gull. By John 
Treadwell Nichols, New York City. 
(15 min.) 

Side Light on the Saw-whet Owl. By 
Ernest Thompson Seton, Greenwich, 
Conn. (15 min.) 

Anatomical Notes on Trochalopteron and 
Sicalis. By Prof. Hubert Lyman 
Clark, Cambridge, Mass. (10 min.) 

The Intimidation Display of the White- 
breasted Nuthatch. Illustrated by lan- 
tern-slides. By Dr. Arthur A. Allen, 
Ithaca, N. Y. (10 min.) 

Notes on the Distribution of Breeding 
Egrets in the United States. Illustrated 
by lantern-slides. By T. Gilbert Pear- 
son, New York City. (20 min.) 

Winter Feeding of Birds. Illustrated by 
lantern-slides. By B. S. Bowdish, Dem- 
arest, N. J. (30 min.) 

Ten Minutes With Lower California 
Birds. Illustrated by lantern-slides. By 
Dr. Paul Bartsch, Washington, D. C. 
(25 min.) 

The Curious Tail Molt of Rhinoplax. 
With exhibition of specimens. By Alex 
Wetmore. (15 min.) 



Are Our Insectivorous Birds Decreasing? 
Subject introduced by Dr. Frank M. 
Chapman, to be discussed by William 
Brewster, Prof. Wells W. Cooke, Wal- 
dron DeWitt Miller, Dr. Witmer Stone, 
and others. 

Migration in the Mackenzie Valley. Illus- 
trated by lantern-slides. By Prof. Wells 
W. Cooke, Washington, D. C. (30 min.) 

A Trip to Pelican Island, Florida. Illus- 
trated by lantern-slides. By Ernest 
Thompson Seton, Greenwich, Conn. 
(20 min.) 

With the Terns on Bird Key, Tortugas. 
Illustrated by lantern-slides. By Dr. 
Paul Bartsch, Washington, D. C. 
(15 min.) 

Ten Minutes with the Birds of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Illustrated by lan- 
tern-slides. By Dr. Paul Bartsch, 
Washington, D. C. (10 min.). 

Random Notes on Bird Preservation. 
Illustrated by lantern-slides. By Ed- 
ward H. Forbush, Westboro, Mass. (25 
min.) 

Results of the Federal Bird Migration 
Regulations. By Dr. T. S. Palmer, 
Washington, D. C. (30 min.) 

The American Museum's Expeditions in 
South America. By Dr. Frank M. 
Chapman, New York City. (30 min.) 

A Course in Bird-Study 

A course in bird-study has been given 
regularly every summer for the last eight 
years at the Biological Laboratory of the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 
The Laboratory, which is located at Cold 
Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York, 
is thirty miles east of New York City, on 
an arm of Long Island Sound. In the 
immediate vicinity are four fresh-water 
lakes, sphagnum bogs, pine barrens, 
forest-clad hills, scrubby pastures, and 
salt marshes, as well as the shore of the 
Harbor. This variety of habitat is con- 
ducive to a varied list of birds. The Green 
Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, and 
Spotted Sandpiper, as well as a great 
many species of land birds nest in the 
vicinity. 



Notes from Field and Study 



197 



The course, which consists of some 
twenty lectures and of daily excursions 
for field-study, is in charge of Mrs. Alice 
Hall Walter, co-author of 'Wild Birds in 
City Parks,' and editor of the Audubon 
School Department of Bird-Lore. The 
course will be given again this coming 
summer, beginning July i, and continu- 
ing to August 12. Mrs. Walter will be 
assisted by Dr. C. E. Ehinger, of the 
State Normal School of West Chester, Pa. 

Several of the lectures wiU be given by 
Professor H. E. Walter, of Brown Uni- 
versity. 

A summary of the lectures is as follows: 
Classification, with particular reference 
to North American birds; ancestry; 
anatomy, based upon the evolution of the 
skeleton and the adaptation of structure 
to environment; plumage and molts, 
showing the development of the different 
kinds of feathers and their uses; songs; 
nesting-habits; food-habits, with especial 
reference to economic ornithology; pro- 
tection; theories and facts of migration; 
distribution (i) in general, (2) within 
limited areas; general and particular 
methods of study adapted to wide or 
restricted areas, together with practical 
suggestions for bird-study in schools. 
A collection of books, pamphlets, etc., 
dealing with birds and bird-study will 
be exhibited, discussed, and placed at the 
^disposal of students taking this course; 
also, a collection of nests. 

Excursions for the summer of 1914 are 
as follows, subject to conditions of weather 
and the regular schedule of work: Gardi- 
ner's Island, Lake Ronkonkoma; Oak 
Beach or Fire Island; the Brooklyn 
Museum; American Museum of Natural 
History, or Bronx Park, as the class 
may choose. 

During the six weeks, a beginner can get 
an introduction into ornithology, and 
can become more or less familiar with 
some sixty species of nesting-birds. In 
addition to learning to identify by eye 
and ear the birds in the field, much work 
is done toward obtaining accurate and 
complete data, first-hand, concerning the 
habits and behavior of the birds of the 



vicinity. A nesting-chart is made each 
season, together with a list of species 
identified. Last summer, more than three 
hundred and fifty nests, either in use or 
abandoned, were located and identified. 
Special observations have to do with 
decline of song, changes in feeding-habit, 
and occurrence, early fall migration 
movements, late nesting records, and the 
post-nuptial molt. 

In addition to the field-work outlined 
above, particular attention is paid to the 
identification of trees and all forms of 
vegetation which furnish nesting-sites, 
nesting-materials, or food for the birds. 

The course is especially valuable for 
teachers of nature-study, and each sum- 
mer a number of teachers avail themselves 
of the unusual opportunity to add to 
their efficiency in this very enjoyable 
way. — G. Clyde Fisher, American 
Museum of Natural History, New York 
City. 

European Widgeon in Ohio 

On April 5, 1914, with Mr. Ed. Hadeler, 
I discovered four Ducks upon the river, 
and succeeded in reaching the thin fringe 
of willows at the water's edge, where we 
could watch them with our glasses at 
close range. 

Two were female Baldpates, the third 
an adult male Baldpate, while the fourth, 
being a red-headed 'Baldpate' with black- 
ish chin and throat, staggered us for 
awhile; but upon consulting a pocket- 
guide, and later other works, we were 
assured that we had seen a European 
Widgeon in adult male plumage. I am 
glad to say we made the most of this 
opportunity until the Ducks were startled 
by a boy appearing across the river. 

This particular specimen had as white 
a 'pate' as the Baldpate, the rest of the 
head and neck being so distinctly reddish 
brown as to attract notice at once. This 
changed to blackish on chin and throat. 
The back, sides and flanks were so finely 
lined with black upon white as to appear 
a French gray; the breast was a light 
cinnamon, belly white, the tail black. — E. 
A. DooLiTTLE, Painesville, Lake Co., Ohio. 



iloob jBtetofi^ anti 3^etofetD0 



Distribution and Migration of North 
American Herons and Their Allies. 
By Wells W. Cooke. Bulletin No. 
45, Biological Survey. 70 pp., 21 maps 
in text. 1913. 

Through an oversight this important 
publication has not before been noticed 
in Bird-Lore. It treats of the Ibises, 
Jabiru, Flamingo and Roseate Spoonbill, 
as well as the Herons, and includes all the 
species of these groups found from Panama 
northward. When any of these birds are 
found south of Panama their South 
American as well as North American 
range is given. 

The ranges of all the species regularly 
occurring in the limits prescribed are 
given in great detail, and are graphically 
illustrated by a series of most instructive 
maps. The localities from which a species 
is recorded are entered on the map of its 
distribution, and the symbols employed 
readily enable one to determine whether 
the bird occurs at the point marked, as a 
breeder, in summer, in winter, etc. 

Comparatively few of the species 
treated are strictly migratory, those which 
breed from southern Florida and south- 
eastern Texas and southward being found 
as species, throughout the year. There 
is, however, more or less wandering, and, 
with some species, a curious northward 
movement after the breeding season. 

Professor Cooke calls due attention to 
this post-breeding 'migration' and adds: 
"A still more remarkable migration habit 
is that of the Snowy Egret. Numbers of 
these birds migrate in the spring far north 
of the breeding range, and remain through- 
out the summer in these northern dis- 
tricts as non-breeders." 

This Bulletin takes its place with similar 
ones prepared by Professor Cooke for 
the Biological Survey, on the shore-birds. 
Ducks and Geese, Warblers, etc., and is a 
mine of information for anyone who would 
know where and when the birds it deals 
with may be found. Let us hope that 
others will soon appear. — F. M. C. 

(I 



Field Note-Book of Birds. By. A. H. 
Wright and A. A. Allen. Department 
of Zoology, Cornell University. Includ- 
ing Outlines for the Recording of 
Observations, and Sheets for Preserv- 
ing a Check-List of Birds Seen. For 
Sale by the Cornell Co-operation. 
Ithaca, N. Y. Price 50 cents, postage 
4 cents. 

This field book is intended primarily to 
receive one's observations on the color, 
form, actions and notes of strange birds 
as a means to their identification. Each 
page of the body of the book is headed by 
an outline representing a generalized 
figure of a passerine bird. Woodpecker, 
Gull, wading-bird, shore-bird. Duck or 
Hawk. A model sheet explains how these 
outlines are to be filled in, and also how 
the remainder of the page may be utilized 
in recording data on habits, distribution, 
nest, etc. Tables giving 'The Average 
Date of Spring Arrivals of Birds at 
Ithaca' and 'Earliest Nesting Dates for 
Ithaca,' and ruled pages for a check-list 
roll-call are added. The whole makes an 
attractive and practical booklet well 
designed to aid the field student both in 
observing and recording.^F. M. C. 

Cassinia: Proceedings, Delaware Val- 
ley Ornithological Club, XVII, 
1913. [Issued March, 1914.] pp. 1-68; 
I plate. 

'Cassinia' for 1913 opens with one of 
Witmer Stone's always acceptable con- 
tributions to the literature of biographical 
ornithology, if this term may be used in 
contradistinction to ornithological biog- 
raphy! He writes of Alexander Wilson, 
and reminds us of the remarkable fact 
that his "entire ornithological career, from 
the day he announced his intention of 
making a collection of 'all our finest 
birds,' to his premature demise [at the 
age of forty-seven], covered but ten 
years!" Mr. Stone speaks especially of a 
statue of Wilson by Alexander Calder, 
now in the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and makes the admirable 

98) 



Book News and Reviews 



199 



suggestion that a life-size cast in bronze 
be made of this statue and placed in the 
new Parkway which will pass in front of 
the Academy. A half-tone plate of the 
statue illustrates Mr. Stone's article. 

Henry W. Flower's paper on 'Some 
Local Fish-eating Birds' contains much 
interesting information concerning the 
food habits of 25 species of birds. 

In 'The Ovenbird's Call-Song,' Robert 
Thomas Moore presents an addition to 
his studies of the songs of American birds. 
Annotated records of eleven songs or types 
of songs are presented; but, accurate as 
they doubtless are, we feel that this 
method of rendering bird-notes can never 
make so strong an appeal to one's imag- 
ination as does such an apt bit of syllabi- 
fication as Mr. Burroughs' (whose name 
is consistently misspelled "Borroughs") 
'Teacher, Teacher, teacher, TEACHER, 
TEACHER!^ This statement, however, 
is in no wise intended to detract from the 
value of Mr. Moore's important studies. 

Samuel N. Rhoads' discovery of 'The 
Snow Hill Bird-Roost' near his own 
home shows that the most observant 
student never gets to the end of the pos- 
sibilities of even a locally restricted area. 

'A Census of the Turkey Vulture in 
Delaware,' by Charles J. Pennock, a 
'Report on the Spring Migration of 1913,' 
compiled by Witmer Stone, an 'Abstract of 
the Proceedings of the Delaware Valley 
Ornithological Club, 1913', 'Club Notes' 
and Bibliography for 1913, conclude the 
number. 

We note that the reports of attendance 
at the regular meetings of the Club read, 
"Thirty-five members and two visitors 
present;" "one visitor and twenty-one 
members present," etc., whereas one 
member and twenty-one visitors present 
is a condition which sometimes prevails 
in allied organizations! — F. M. C. 

Birds of the Thomas County [Ne- 
braska] Forest Reserve. By John T. 
ZiMMER, Proceedings Nebraska Ornitho- 
logical Union, V, 1913, pp. 51-104. 

If the efforts of the United States Forest 
Reserve are successful, the region in which 



these studies are made will, in due time, 
be changed from one of treeless, grass- 
covered prairies and sand-dunes to an 
area of pine forests. It is a matter of 
much importance, therefore, to make a 
study of the avifauna there under existing 
conditions for comparison with those 
which will prevail when the hundreds of 
thousands of pines planted have become 
large enough to furnish food, shelter and 
nesting-places for birds. 

In view of the facts that the open nature 
of the country makes it possible to dis- 
cover, with comparative ease, the birds 
inhabiting it and, furthermore, that many 
of the observations herein recorded were 
obtained during the nesting season, Mr. 
Zimmer's paper, which lists 142 species, 
appears to supply just the kind of basis 
which will be useful in determining how 
the character of the bird-life may be 
affected by the radical change which will 
occur in the locality it covers. — F. M. C. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Auk. — The April number opens 
with an article entitled 'Among the 
Birds of the Sudan,' by Mr. J. C. Phillips, 
who gives us a glimpse of bird-life along 
the Blue Nile, and illustrates his paper 
with a color-plate of- a new Night-jar 
{CaprimulgHS eleanorce). Mr. Phillips also 
has notes elsewhere on the effect of cold 
storage on the molt. Mr. E. S. Cameron 
writes pleasantly of 'The Ferruginous 
Rough-leg {Archibuleo ferrugineiis) in 
Montana,' and gives us also some fine 
pictures of birds and scenery. His anec- 
dote of how a bird of this species picked 
up a cat by mistake for a rabbit is an 
excellent illustration of the present-day 
phrase 'reaction to stimuli.' An impor- 
tant contribution to economic ornithology 
is by Mr. H. C. Bryant on 'Birds as 
Destroyers of Grasshoppers in California;' 
wherein tables of figures and percentages 
are well worth the careful consideration 
of those interested. 

Dr. R. M. Strong's paper, 'On the 
Habits and Behavior of the Herring Gull,' 
etc., is concluded. It might be called an 



200 



Bird - Lore 



intensive study, which brings out many 
points of interest. There is a world of 
significance in the following quotation: 
"just how much this behavior is tied up 
with instinctive activity is of course 
beyond knowledge." This, however is no 
reason for discouragement in the making 
of minute observations. Mr. A. A. 
Saunders seems to have succeeded well 
in 'An Ecological Study of the Breeding 
Birds of an Area near Chateau, Montana.' 
An exact census is hardly ever possible, 
but repeated counts are better than the 
repeated guesses of many local lists. It is 
pleasant, however, to find so excellent 
a list as that by Messrs. L. S. Golson and 
E. G. Holt, on 'Birds of Autauga and 
Montgomery Counties, Alabama.' The 
putting of three pictures on one plate has 
not given a happy result in this case. 

Mr. V. Burtch certainly got a remark- 
able 'ghost' photograph of Holbcell's 
Grebe, which he explains under the cap- 
tion, 'Does a Grebe Spread its Wings Just 
before Diving.' Mr. H. W. Wright 
describes an unprecedented incursion of 
Acadian Chickadees into eastern Massa- 
chusetts in the fall of 1913, some seventy 
having been seen at many different places. 

The General Notes are filled with 
unusual records too numerous to mention, 
and the department of Recent Literature, 
especially the reviews of items in the 
ornithological journals, is fully up to its 
high standard. The annual lists of mem- 
bers of the A. O. U. conclude the issue. — 
J. D., Jr. 

Book News 

The first fourteen volumes of Bird- 
Lore recently sold for forty dollars, 
unbound, a sum nearly three times as 
large as that for which they were pub- 
lished. 

The Annual Report of the Director of 
the Department of Marine Zoology of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
for 1913, contains a list of 57 species of 
'Birds Observed on the Florida Keys, 
April 25 to May 9, 1913,' by Paul Bartsch, 



a note on the 'Homing Instinct in the 
Noddy and the Sooty Tern, which Nest 
upon Bird Key, Tortugas,' by John B. 
Watson and K. S. Lashley, and another 
upon 'Nesting Instincts of Noddy and 
Sooty Terns,' by K. S. Lashley. 

In continuing his important experi- 
ments on the homing instinct of Noddies 
and Sooty Terns of Bird Key, Dr. Wat- 
son, among other tests, had six of the 
former and four of the latter released 
near the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, 
515 miles from the Key. Of the ten, 
eight returned (three Noddies and five 
Sooties), the first one arriving three 
days and twenty-two hours after it was 
set free. 

'Birds in the Bush,' the new depart- 
ment of 'The Guide to Nature,' con- 
ducted by Mr. E. J. Sawyer, is abun- 
dantly illustrated by its editor with draw- 
ings of birds, which shows them much as 
they appear in Nature. The plan is an 
admirable one, and so well executed 
that these drawings, aside from their 
attractiveness, should prove a help in 
identifying the birds they represent. 

The Department of Game and Fish of 
the State of Alabama issues an admirable 
Bird Day Book, the seventh of its series. 
It is prepared by John H. Wallace, Jr., 
the Game and Fish Commissioner, con- 
tains 88 pages and a number of illustra- 
tions, both colored and uncolored, forming 
a most attractive and useful publication. 

If the manuals they issue may be 
considered an index, Alabama and Wis- 
consin may, we believe, claim to be far 
in the lead of other states in the atten- 
tion they give to Bird Day. 

The Fifteenth Annual Report of the 
Michigan Academy of Science contains a 
paper (pp. 178-188) by N. A. Wood, on 
'The Breeding Birds of the Charity 
Islands with Additional Notes on the 
Migrants.' From these Saginaw Bay 
islets 170 species of birds have now been 
recorded of which thirty-seven are known 
to breed. 



Editorial 



20I 



iStrti'itort 

A Bi-Monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 

OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THl AUDUBON SOCIETIES 

Edited by FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

ContributingEditor.MABELOSGOOD WRIGHT 

Published by D. APPLETON & CO. 

Vol. XVI Published June 1, 1914 No. 3 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico, twenty cents 
a number, one dollar a year, postage paid. 

COPYRIGHTBD, 1914, BY FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush Is Worth Two in the Hand 



Never before has the interest in birds 
in this country been so widespread as it 
is today. Laws, both Federal and State 
are, as a whole, the best we have ever 
had, and they are more effectively 
enforced than at any previous time. 

The educational work of the National 
Association of Audubon Societies, as its 
report shows, has been so successful that 
the Association has with difficulty met 
the demands made upon it. 

Many plans are on foot for the estab- 
lishment, in various parts of the country, 
for bird-refuges or sanctuaries, and for 
the systematic placing of nesting-houses 
and feeding-stations in parks and ceme- 
teries. Owners of country places, small 
and large, are endeavoring in various 
ways to attract birds about their homes. 

All that has been done in this direc- 
tion we feel is only a beginning. We look 
forward to the day when birds will be 
considered as essential a part of country 
life as flowers are now; when the com- 
moner species, at any rate, will be as 
generally known as are daisies and 
dandelions. 

Then will man begin to realize on one 
of Nature's endowments, of which until 
recent years only the elect have availed 
themselves. Then will the potential 
value of birds to man become in greater 
measure actual. 

That this day will come we have not 
the slightest doubt. The change in our 
attitude toward birds, and our gradual 



awakening to the beauties of bird-life 
has been a perfectly normal response to a 
variety of causes all of which can be 
traced primarily to the influence of the 
American Ornithologists' Union, and to 
the Audubon movement which originated 
in the Union. 

At present, in our opinion, the greatest 
single factor hastening this ornithological 
millenium is the formation of Junior 
classes by the National Association. The 
enrollment in a single season of nearly 
100,000 children in definite courses of 
bird-study, and supplying them with the 
leaflets and colored plates of the Asso- 
ciation is an accomplishment of untold 
importance. Nor does this figure convey 
a real idea of the far-reaching effects of 
the Association's labors. Next year it 
has been promised support to continue 
to develop this most productive field. 
At the present rate of increase, with 
adequate means, not many years will pass 
before one million children will have had 
some instruction concerning our com- 
mon birds, and will have learned where 
they can get further information if they 
want it. 

It is not to be expected that they all 
will want it. We can make bird-lovers 
far easier than we can make bird-students. 
Nor should we expect everyone who shows 
appreciation of the charm of the living 
bird to become an ornithologist. We 
have all heard of the person who hated 
botany and loved flowers; but that 
surely is no reason for discouraging a love 
of flowers. 

So let us continue our work in making 
bird-lovers, with a hope that now and 
then we may rouse the latent spark 
which fires the ambition of the true 
ornithologist. 

It is greatly to be hoped that Con- 
gress will make a large enough appro- 
priation to insure the enforcement of the 
law designed to protect migratory birds. 
Although this law did not go into effect 
until October, 1913, the results of the 
protection it has afforded wild fowl 
are apparent in many places. 



Cl)e Audubon ^octet{e0 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Edited by ALICE HALL 'WALTER 

Address all communications relative to the work of this depart- 
ment to the Editor, at 53 Arlington Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

HOW TO REACH TEACHERS AND PUPILS 

A considerable number of our State Audubon Societies have worked out 
this problem in various practical ways ; but since, from time to time, evidences 
come to this Department that the teachers and pupils of public schools are not 
in touch with the Audubon Societies of their particular states, it may not be 
out of place to suggest ways of promoting a closer relationship between them, 
at the risk of repeating what has previously been said on this subject. 

To the novice, it might seem quite an easy task for any Audubon Society to 
reach all of the public as well as private schools of a single state, without undue 
expenditure of time or expense. It might also seem easy to such a person for 
every teacher of elementary grades to include some form of bird- or nature- 
study in the curriculum without great efifort or thought. The experienced 
observer, however, knows that such points of view are oversanguine, and, at 
the present time, have their counterpart not in practice but in imagination. 
True, this ideal is exactly the one we all hope to see come to pass, but fitting 
the realities of any situation to an ideal, it goes without saying, "comes hard." 

The difficulties of this particular situation are several. First: Not all 
Boards of Education favor the introduction of bird- and nature-study into our 
public schools or the assistance of any outside society, however worthy or 
well directed its work may be. 

Second: Teachers are not equally well fitted, either by training, environ- 
ment or by special aptitude, to take up nature-study successfully. 

Third: The resources of the different State Audubon Societies are not 
uniform, and seldom are adequate to the demand made upon them. 

The one really favorable and universally acknowledged condition in support 
of bird- and nature-study is that the children are eager for it, and a further 
argument might be added by stating a truth not always taken into consider- 
ation, namely, that some pupils are reached through this study who cannot 
be aroused to interest themselves in any other kind of prescribed work. 

Admitting the difficulties which must be met at the start, is it not however, 
more than worth while to bring teachers and pupils everywhere into touch 
with a study so attractive, valuable, and full of possibilities as nature-study 
has been proven to be? 

Audubon Societies that are going into this matter most efficiently are 
sending a paid worker or supervisor of nature-study throughout their states 

(202) 



The Audubon Societies 203 

to visit schools and personally assist teachers. After a canvass of this kind, 
public sentiment usually comes to the support of the work by favoring the 
introduction of nature-study into the schools as a part of the regular curriculum. 

Societies which cannot yet afford this extensive kind of work need not 
wait for fortune to come their way, for the possibilities of working by post 
are great. 

A yearly circular to teachers, containing information about the following 
points, ought not only to arouse much interest, but also to awaken confidence 
in the sincerity of the Audubon Society, and enthusiasm as to the possibilities 
of bird- and nature-study: 

1. Traveling-libraries and traveling-pictures. 

2. Instructions as to forming Junior Audubon Societies. 

3. Demonstration material for loan purposes. 

4. List of nature-books available in libraries of the state. 

5. List of books and material available in museums of the state. 

6. Lectures and lecturers, also meetings desirable to attend. 

7. Exhibitions, fairs, conventions, or other general and public methods of 
illustrating nature-study from the point of view of horticulture, agricul- 
ture, etc. 

8. List of excursions for short or long field-trips, with a definite schedule 
covering all details of the itinerary. 

9. List of magazines, books and other publications, with addresses of 
publishers and cost stated. 

10. List of national and international legislation of importance, and also 
of notable gatherings in the interest of bird- and nature-study, with short 
descriptions of the same. 

11. Statement in brief of state game-laws and definite objects to work for, 
to improve these laws. 

12. Invitation to report work done in nature-study to a central committee, 
with the double object of keeping in touch with the needs and accomplishment 
of each school, and of forming a bureau of exchange, which shall bring different 
schools in different parts of the state into friendly, competitive relations. 

Other suggestions might be made, but the above are sufficient to test the 
aliveness of any Audubon Society. Such an annual bulletin might be well 
combined with a Bird and Arbor Day program, and should be sent to every 
school in the state and to as many teachers as possible. The very fact that the 
Audubon Society of any state has sufficient interest in teachers and pupils to 
prepare a comprehensive and entirely useful bulletin of up-to-date information 
each year would go a great way in furthering the cause of the birds and that 
of nature-study. 

In order to make this Department of assistance in this matter, an invita- 
tion is herewith given to all Audubon Societies and to all teachers to send in 
suggestions which may be printed for the benefit of others. — A. H. W. 



204 



Bird - Lore 



[Note. — The following letter, which was received after the above suggestions were 
written, is indicative of the interest that is felt by many educators in bird- and nature- 
study— A. H. W.] 

CONSERVATION OF OUR BIRDS 

Dear Teachers: In our crowded curriculum of school subjects, I feel that we do not 
give enough attention to the study of our native birds. Considerable space is devoted 
to the subject of birds in our Common School Manual, viz.. paragraphs 376 and 415 
to 423 inclusive. A suggestion is made that birds should be studied all the year round, 
but I very seldom find any effective work done along that line. 

Permit me to suggest that we devote special attention to birds this spring, teaching 
the value of birds, both from an esthetic standpoint and for their economic value. 

Children should be taught to love birds for their beauty and song, and should be 
led to see the value of birds to farm life. The loss to the American farmer through 
weeds and insects runs into millions of dollars annually, and the most effective check 
on these is our birds. 

Instill in the minds of our children a desire to protect, rather than destroy, the birds 
and their homes. Learn the names and habits of as many birds as possible. Now is a 
good time to get acquainted with our migratory birds, as they return from their win- 
ter quarters. 

I would suggest that every school in the county have a Bird Day program this 
spring. For material, refer to the Bird Day annuals and library books on birds found 
in your school library, and write for information on birds and bird-study, from the fol- 
lowing sources: United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, and 
our College of Agriculture; National Association of Audubon Societies; State Audubon 
Society, Madison, Wis.; Fish and Game Warden Department, Madison, Wis.; The 
Farm Journal Liberty Bell Bird Club, Washington Square, Philadelphia, Pa.; American 
Humane Education Society, 45 Milk St., Boston, Mass.; State Normal Schools, and 
other Colleges; Federal Inspector of Migratory Birds, Portage, Wis. 

To perpetuate the work on bird-study, perhaps it might be well to organize an 
Audubon Society in your school. Please send us a copy of your Bird Day program. 

Yours for kindness to birds, 

H. A. AuNE, County Superintendent. 
Baldwin, St. Croix Co., Wis., March 31, 1914- 



JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 
For Teachers and Pupils 

Exercise XV: Correlated Studies, Manual Training, Arithmetic, 
English and Reading 

THE LAW OF LIFE 

James Russell Lowell voices so truly and so sincerely the feelings of the 
nature-lover that I am going to ask you to commence this exercise for May and 
June by re-reading the familiar prelude to "The Vision of Sir Launfal." Read 
it for the melody in it, the joyousness and deep-welling hope. One who loves 
Nature as an interpreter, as a teacher, or, best of all, as a child, cannot help 



The Audubon Societies 



205 



feeling that "the high tide of the year" is coining now, "flooding back with a 
ripply cheer" everything which has for months been bare and chill and dead. 
By means of the keen senses and delicate imagination of the poet, we may 
come nearer to the heart of Nature, and may better understand why she has 
been called ''Mother Nature." And let this thought of the motherhood of 
Nature be very clear in our minds as we go out into the fields among butter- 
cups and cowslips and daisies, with life murmuring and glistening everywhere — 
"whether we look or whether we listen." 




A GROUP OF BIRD-HOUSES MADE BY BOYS OF THE SIXTH, SEVENTH AND 
EIGHTH GRADES OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NORWALK, OHIO, AT THE SUGGES- 
TION OF THE FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS. 

We have seen many times before, perhaps, grass and trees and sky; but it 
is a beautiful thought and a wonderful one that "there's never a leaf or a 
blade too mean to be some happy creature's palace," and that over all "the 
warm ear of Heaven is softly laid!" 

It is our pleasant task to find these palaces and their inmates, and to learn 
how Nature is the mother of all forms of life. 

In preceding exercises, much has been said about the necessity of food, not 
only for birds but, also for all other living creatures. We have tried to dis- 
cover some of the ways in which birds get food, as well as some of the places 
where they find it. But, if food-getting alone were the chief end of life, there 
would soon be no life at all upon the earth; because in a short span of years, 
pionths, or even days, any single creature must live out its allotted time and 



2o6 



Bird - Lore 



die. Some other law must go with the law of food-getting and this, we find is 
the law of reproduction, — that is producing again creatures to take the place 
of those which die. This law is without doubt the most wonderful law we know 
of, and since reproduction is a long, cumbersome word, we may call it simply, 
the law of life. 

Man has endeavored by his inventive skill, to duplicate some of the laws of 
Nature, as, for example, by means of the camera to reproduce a likeness of an 




MANUAL TRAINING WORK 
A few of the 1-13 Wren houses made by the boys in manual training classes. All of these houses were 
put up and over half have occupants. — H. P. Brown, Instructor, Berwyn, 111. 1913. 

object; but this is very far removed from the real law of life. A photograph, 
although a perfect and exact reproduction of its kind, has no power to make 
either another photograph or another object similar to the one of which it is a 
copy. In Nature, the law of life demands that each living creature be endowed 
with power to give life to another creature like itself. 



The Audubon Societies 207 

You may pick up a seed carelessly, and toss it away without thought of 
what is packed so compactly and securely in its close-fitting coats; and yet 
that tiny seed contains something more wonderful and more lasting than an 
iron-clad warship, for it has the power to live and to grow and to leave other 
seeds possessed of life-giving power when it shall have gone through its own 
brief life-history. So, when you look at giant locomotives, at whirling spindles 
and looms, at ocean steamships, at air-ships, or any of the creatures of man's 
mechanism, remember that, powerful and remarkable as they are, they lack 
this one greatest endowment — the germ of life. 

In May and June, the earth is full to overflowing with life. Everywhere we 
can find Nature, the great Earth-mother, offering not only food, but homes for 
shelter and cradles for offspring to the myriad creatures which abound through- 
out fields, streams, forests, and mountains. 

We have already learned about some of the shelters and cradles of birds 
(see Bird-Lore, Vol. XV, No. 4, p. 253), but without particular reference to the 
law of life. Now we are to learn that only by means of this law can there be 
any birds here or anywhere. People are slowly coming to understand that, in 
spite of the great number of birds we seem to have, it takes only a short time 
to destroy them completely, to lose them forever from this earth of ours, 
through careless destruction during the mating- and nesting-season. 

The greatest lesson we may learn in this exercise is that of the value of life. 
I cannot tell you what life is, — no one knows that, — but it is possible to learn 
something of the value of life, and the wonder of life and the joy of living. 

These are the things to keep in mind as you go in search of flowers and birds 
and insects, and when once you begin to realize how every single living organ- 
ism has a part all its own to perform, how it is necessary for it to do this work 
in Nature, then you will not need to be cautioned by your parents and teachers, 
or compelled by laws, to protect living creatures, instead of destroying 
them. 

In order that you may gain some idea of the enormous amount of life which 
is around you and of which you are scarcely aware, I am going to ask you to 
work out a few sums in arithmetic about the food of nestling and adult birds, 
since this is the season of nesting with most of our migratory and permanent 
birds. The table below is compiled from figures which patient observers have 
tabulated, and represent many hours of careful watching and waiting, as you 
will believe, should you once try to discover the amount eaten by a single 
brood of young birds. 

Sums Taken from a Table of the Capacity of Nestling Birds 

1. If a single nestling Robin eats 60 earthworms in i day, how many worms would 
6 nestlings eat in 10 days? 

2. A brood of Long-billed Marsh Wrens have been known to eat 30 locusts in i 
hour. How many would they eat in a week, if they were fed from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.? 



208 



Bird - Lore 



3. A brood of House Wrens eat about 1,000 insects in i day. How many would be 
eaten in i hour, reckoning the feeding period from 5 a.m. to 6.30 p.m.? 

4. The Purple Martin has been observed to feed its young 100 to 300 times a day. 
Reckoning from 4.30 a.m. to 7 p.m., how often would the young birds be fed? 

Sums Taken from a Table of the Eating Capacity of Adult Birds 

1. If 6 Robins eat 265 Rocky Mountain locusts at a single feeding, how many can i 
Robin eat? 

2. I Nighthawk has been known to eat 500 mosquitos at a feeding. If it fed only 
three times a day, how many mosquitos would it eat in a week? 

3. Two Scarlet Tanagers have been observed to eat 35 small gipsy moth caterpillars 
a minute, for 18 minutes. How many did they eat? 

4. One Bobwhite ate 1,700 weed seeds at a feeding, while another ate 5,000 pigeon- 
grass seeds. How many feedings would it take to destroy 50,000 of these weed seeds? 




A section of the Junior Audubon class, taken just previous to locating bird-boxes 
in April. During the summer we took many morning tramps and made the acquaint- 
ance of a number of our bird friends. — Mrs. Cora D. Berlin, Wimbledon, North Dakota. 

See "A Bird-Study Class in North Dakota," Bird-Lore, Vol. XVI, No. 2, p. 135. 

Large as these figures seem, they show but a fraction of the ceaseless activ- 
ity of life around us. There are not figures enough to denote the countless num- 
bers of insects which are devouring equally countless numbers of plants and 
other forms of vegetable life. Looking at the clear, still air above us, or the 
ceaselessly moving ocean which is ever beyond us, we cannot even imagine the 
life which is contained in them. There is no part of nature-study more delight- 
ful than simply finding out living things. The kinds of life, the amazing variety 



The Audubon Societies 



209 



of these kinds, their habits and history. No fairy-tale can equal this story 
of Nature. 

It has been the joy of very many people to go out and study nature each 
spring, particularly when life is at its height. Bird-lovers keep lists of the 
different kinds of birds which they see, and welcome each new arrival as a 
returning friend. Plant-lovers hunt for the first violet, and the pure white 
bloodroot, lingering long in favored nooks and dells to discover shy blossoms. 
Insect-lovers need do no more than search here and there, wherever they 
may happen to be, to find all kinds of treasures. The impossibility of ever 
becoming acquainted with all the different kinds of insects only adds to the 
charm of the study. 

The following list of birds seen by a boy fifteen years old, during a single 
year, in the neighborhood of his home, shows the variety of feathered life 
which may be found in a very limited area, provided the observer is a real 
nature-lover who knows the haunts of wild creatures and how and where to 
look. 



[Note. — The following list was seen during 191 2 by Charles O. Handley, at Lewis- 
burg, W. Va., in a country 2,100 feet above sea-level. This boy kept a lunch-counter 
for birds in winter, and put up nesting-boxes for them at the proper time.] 



Lesser Scaup Duck 
Least Bittern 
Sandhill Crane 
Wilson Snipe 
Greater Yellow-Legs 
Lesser Yellow-Legs 
Solitary Sandpiper 
Bartramian Sandpiper 
Spotted Sandpiper 
Killdeer 
Bob-white 
RuiTed Grouse 
Mourning Dove 
Turkey Vulture 
Marsh Hawk 
Sharp-shinned Hawk 
Cooper's Hawk 
Red-tailed Hawk 
Bald Eagle 
Sparrow Hawk 
American Osprey 
Screech Owl 
Great Horned Owl 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
Black-billed Cuckoo 
Belted Kingfisher 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Downy Woodpecker 



Yellow-bellied Sapsuckcr 
Pileated Woodpecker 
Red-headed Woodpecker 
Flicker 
Nighthawk 
Chimney Swift 
Ruby-throated Humming- 
bird 
Kingbird 

Crested Flycatcher 
Phoebe 
Wood Pewee 
Red-bellied Woodpecker 
Least Flycatcher 
Prairie Horned Lark 
Blue Jay 
Crow 
Bobolink 
Cowbird 

Red-winged Blackbird 
Meadowlark 
Orchard Oriole 
Baltimore Oriole 
Rusty Blackbird 
Purple Gracklc 
Goldfinch 
English Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 



Savannah Sparrow 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
White-crowned Sparrow 
White-throated Sparrow 
Tree Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Field Sparrow 
Slate-colored Junco 
Song Sparrow 
Swamp Sparrow 
Fox Sparrow 
Towhee 
Cardinal 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak 
Indigo Bunting 
Scarlet Tanager 
Purple Martin 
Cliff Swallow 
Barn Swallow 
Cedar Waxwing 
Red-ej^ed Vireo 
Yellow-throated Vireo 
Blue-headed Vireo 
Black and White Warbler 
Worm-eating Warbler 
Golden-winged Warbler 
Nashville Warbler 
Tennessee Warbler 



2IO 



Bird - Lore 



Parula Warbler 

Cape May Warbler 

Yellow Warbler 

Black-throated Blue War- 
bler 

Myrtle Warbler 

Bay-breasted Warbler 

Blackburnian Warbler 

Black-poll Warbler 

Palm Warbler 

Oven-bird 

Water-Thrush 

Black-throated Green War- 
bler 



Maryland Yellow-throat 

Yellow-breasted Chat 

Hooded Warbler 

Wilson Warbler 

Canadian Warbler 

Redstart 

Mockingbird 

Catbird 

Brown Thrasher 

Carolina Wren 

House Wren 

Winter Wren 

Brown Creeper 

White-breasted Nuthatch 



Red-breasted Nuthatch 

Tufted Titmouse 

Black-capped Chickadee 

Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 

Wood Thrush 

Olive-backed Thrush 

Hermit Thrush 

Robin 

Bluebird 

Whip-poor-will and Chest- 
nut-sided Warblers heard 
but not seen. 



This list represents the kind of bird-work which hundreds of people are 
doing, for their own pleasure and profit. It is a good kind of work to do, but 
may be bettered in one way, namely, by working in connection with others. 

For example, if the bird-lovers in each town, city or village would put their 
lists together and combine them with the lists of other observers all over their 
state, these state-lists could be put into the hands of an expert, who would be 
able to gather considerable valuable data from them, which he, in turn, might 
send to the head of the Bird-migration Bureau, Prof. Wells W. Cooke, at 
Washington, D. C. 

Our schools would do best to get information about the birds which are 
now given each month in Bird-Lore; for definite data about a few well-known 
species is worth far more than indefinite data about many doubtful species. 
By learning how to get together a few facts each year about any single species 
of bird, plant, insect, or other organism, one may become trained to look for 
the essential and important facts of life, instead of groping around, in a maze, 
without any clue to the meaning of what is seen and heard. 

In bird-study, as in everything else, a few things well done count for 
more than many things half done. 

To sum up this exercise in a few lines: There are two great laws which con- 
trol every organism, namely, food-getting (nutrition), and life-giving (^repro- 
duction); the variety of living forms is everywhere apparent; the value of life 
may be learned, but what life is no one yet knows; in studying life, have a 
method, whatever the forms studied, and finally whenever possible cooperate 
with others, at least in bird-study. 



SUGGESTIONS 

1. Why do poets use adjectives so much more truly than the averasce person? Is it 
because they see things more correctly? Notice the adjectives in selection from Lowell. 

2. How many kinds of flowers, birds, insects, trees, fishes and other living forms do 
you know? Make a list of them. 

3. In how many different ways are nests made by birds? 



The AuduboD Socieries 211 

4. What creatures besides birds make nests? 

5. How early do you hear birds in the morning? How late in the evening? 

6. Which birds sing first in the morning and last at night? 

7. Do birds ever sing during the night? 

8. Are soft-bodied or hard-bodied insects fed to nestling birds? Why? 

9. Do nestling birds get any water to drink? 

10. How are the nests of birds protected from heat, rain and wind? 

11. How does the nest of the English Sparrow compare with that of other birds? 

12. Do birds of a kind always build the same kind of nest? 

13. How would you go to work to construct a Robin's nest? a Chipping Sparrow's? 
a Woodpecker's? a Chimney Swift's? 

14. Where and how would you place a nest to make it secure? 

References: Nestlings of Forest and Marsh, by Irene G. Wheelock; The Home 
Life of Wild Birds, by W. H. Herrick; Food of the Bob white, by Margaret M. Nice; 
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1910; The Food of Nestling Birds, by 
Sylvester D. Judd, Yearbook of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1900; Birds' Nests and Eggs, 
by F. M. Chapman, Guide Leaflet No. 14, Supplement to American Museum Journal, 
Vol. IV, No. 2; The Nature-Study Review; Field and School Bird Note-Book, No. i 
by Anna B. Comstock. — A. H. W. 



FROM ADULT AND YOUNG OBSERVERS 

A NEST IN A NEST 

A large hornets' nest, measuring about four feet in length and two feet 
across its greatest width, hung as a much-admired trophy on the front porch of 
a country home in Middle Tennessee. A pair of Wrens chose it as the place for 
their home, and were soon busy making it to their liking. 

They chose an opening in the upper side of the huge hornets' nest, and 
there fashioned their own snug little nest. 

The four little boys living in the country home enjoyed to the utmost 
watching the busy little birds. 

The nest hung within three feet of the front door of the dwelling, but the 
frequent passing in and out of the door did not seem to disturb the birds in the 
least. Soon seven eggs were in the nest. 

How impatient the four boys became, waiting for the baby birds to break 
the shell! At last the day came when the cry of seven little hungry Wrens 
was heard. 

Then the old birds were very busy feeding the little Wrens until they were 
strong enough to fly away from their "nest in a nest." — Hilda Thoma, Tul- 
lahoma, Tenn. 

[An unusual observation, showing the adaptability of birds in the selection of nesting- 
sites. Since Wrens raise two and three broods in a season, it would be interesting to 
know whether the hornet's nest sheltered more than one brood. — A. H. W.l 



212 Bird - Lore 

THE BLUEBIRD 

I saw a Bluebird near the sandheap in the apple tree. He had his nest in 
our apple tree. He had a blue back. He had a blue side. He eats seeds. We 
throw crumbs of bread out to the birds. I always watch for the birds. I watch 
for the Bluebirds in the spring. The Bluebird has a red-brown breast. — 
Angie Abel (Grade 11, age 8). 

[The habit of watching for the birds in the spring and for the blossoming of plants 
and hatching of insects is a fine habit to form. "Study Nature, not books," was the 
favorite advice of one great teacher of Nature. — A. H. W.j 

THE BOBOLINK 

I am a member of the Junior Branch of the Audubon Society of Connecti- 
cut. I live in Redding. 

The Orchard Oriole is commonly called the Bobolink throughout the coun- 
tries it inhabits. Its plumage varies with age and sex. It is often confounded 
with other species. Its nest is a wonderful structure, woven strongly of grasses 
into a purse-like shape, and it looks as though it was spun on a loom. 

This bird is the true friend of the farmer, for it destroys the destructive 
bugs which infest the fruit trees. 

Since I have joined the bird club I have tried to find out the habits of birds, 
and have fed them until they have become tame and come every morning for 
food. — John Carroll, (aged 12). Redding, Conn. 

THE CHICKADEE 

I am a member of the Junior Audubon Society of the Connecticut branch. 
I have chosen the Chickadee to WTite about. 

The Chickadee's song is heard in the woodland fields. The Chickadee starts 
with a human voice and calls its own name, "Chickadee," Chick-a-dee-dee-dee- 
dee, then starts all over again. 

The Chickadee is fond of meat scraps that some kind boy or girl has tied 
to a limb of a tree where they have seen the Chickadee perch. 

One day in February, when the ground was covered with snow, I took some 
scraps of meat and tied them to a cherry tree. One day afterward I saw a 
Chickadee on the under side of the meat. It got a good mouthful and flew 
away. It became so tame that it flew in the woodhouse door and flew against 
the window, but I caught it and set it free. I joined the Bird Society when I 
was twelve years of age. — R. Ryder (aged 12), Redding, Conn. 

[These two entertaining letters show the value of our Junior Audubon organization. 
It might be well to notice that the Orchard Oriole and Bobolink are two quite differ- 
ent species. Although both are fine songsters, and the male and female of each are 
unlike in coloration, the nesting- and feeding- habits and flight of the two are entirely 
distinct.— A. H. W.l 



The Audubon Societies 213 

HOW TO STUDY BIRDS 

When you see a bird, watch what he is doing, and his particular markings. 
Get as close as you can, to be sure how large he is; notice what he is eating. 

I have a bird-house. It has five rooms. When you make a bird-house, you 
must have plenty of air in it for the mother bird. When you want a House 
Wren to build, he must have a little hole to fit him about an inch high. He 
can drive the Sparrow and the Bluebird away. He is a saucy little fellow. 
He is quick and sly. One year we put a box in a tree. The Bluebird built his 
nest in it first. The eggs were about to hatch. Then the Wren came and took 
possession of the house. Then the Bluebird went away. The Wren went 
and brought his wife. They threw the eggs and hay out of the box. They 
put in new. Then more eggs were laid. The young hatched. They were 
fed spider's eggs. When they were quite large they came up to the hole to 
get their meals. We put another box up. The father bird built another 
nest in it. Then the mother bird laid eight white eggs. The family of birds 
came out and went off to the woods, then came back. In a few weeks the birds 
hatched. I could not go to school without seeing birds. — D.wid Prudden 
(Grade V, age 12). 

[The closing sentence of this letter has a message for everyone. When one is wide- 
awake to the outside world, the trees and shrubs and roadsides are alive with birds and 
life of all kinds, and going to school becomes a journey of discoverj' instead of a 
tiresome compulsory walk. — A. H. W.] 



THE FLYCATCHER CLASS 

The Flycatcher bird is a lively bird, On seeing one, he's off like a flash, 
And a way of his own hath he, For a capture quick, and then, 

To perch perchance on a weed or a post With easy, dancing flight, returns 
Or the outer branch of a tree. To his chosen perch again. 

There, turning his head from side to side, Oh, the Flycatcher birds are lively birds, 
He looks with an eager eye, And sportsmen every one, 

Above, below, and all around, They always take their game on the wing, 

For insects as they fly. Without the noise of a gun. 

— By permission of Dr. Garrett Newkirk. 



THE ROSEATE SPOONBILL 

By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 



^t)e il^ational SLfi^ocimion of Audubon &ocutU0 

EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET No. 74 



In 1858, when Dr. Henry Bryant visited Pelican Island, on Indian River, 
he found not only Brown Pelicans, but also Roseate Spoonbills nesting there. 
But even at that early date these beautiful and interesting birds were prey 
for the plumer, some of whom. Dr. Bryant writes, were killing as many as 
60 Spoonbills a day, and sending their wings to St. Augustine to be sold as 
fans! 

From that time almost to this, 'Pink Curlews,' as the Floridan calls them, 
have been a mark for every man with a gun. Only a remnant was left when 
the National Association of Audubon Societies protested against the further 
wanton destruction of bird-life, and through its wardens and by the estab- 
lishment of reservations, attempted to do for Florida what the state had not 
enough foresight to do for itself. 

In consequence, the Spoonbill and other birds, have been saved, to delight 
future generations of nature lovers. Warden Kroegel, of Pelican Island, tells 
me that, in June, 19 13, he saw a flock of 60 on the Mosquito Inlet Reser- 
vation, and the day I pen these lines word comes from President Blackman 
of the Florida Audubon Society, that he had seen 50 Spoonbills on Bird Island, 
on the Gulf coast. So let us hope that what I have to write here relates not 
to a species approaching extinction, but to one which, under proper guardian- 
ship, is increasing and will continue to increase. 

The Roseate Spoonbill belongs to one of those families of birds which, like 
Ibises, Parrots, Trogons, and many others, are distributed throughout the 
warmer parts of the earth. Thus there are European, African, Asian, and 
Australian Spoonbills, none pink like ours, but all with the singularly shaped 
bill which gives them their common name. There are only six members in 
this small family; and how they should have become so widely separated is 
a question no one has answered satisfactorily. It is, however, known that, 
at one time in the earth's history, what are now Arctic regions were very 
much warmer, and it is not improbable that at this period Spoonbills may have 
lived on the border of the Arctic Sea. When the climate changed and the ice 
of the Glacial Periods formed. Spoonbills, with other birds, were forced 
southward, and hence, although we find them today at far distant parts of 
the globe, they at one time may have lived much nearer together. 

Of the six known species America received but one, the Roseate Spoonbill, 
whose peculiar scientific title of Ajaia ajaja is based on the name given it 
by certain South American Indians. When naturalists first knew this bird 

(214) 




ROSEATE SPOONBILL 
Order — Herodionea Family — Plataleidae 

Genus — Ajaia Species — Ajaja 



The Roseate Spoonbill 215 

it was found throughout tropical America north to our Gulf States from 
Texas to Florida. In the United States, it is now confined largely to south 
Florida, where, as I have already said, it was fast approaching extinction 
when the Audubon Societies came to its rescue. 

Although I first went to Florida in 1887, it was not until 1908 that I saw 
Spoonbills there. Doubtless always more common on the coast than in the 
interior, the few survivors were to be found only in the most remote part of 
the great mangrove swamps south of the Everglades. On the evening of 
March 29, 1908, after traveling all day through mud and mangroves, we 
reached Cuthbert Rookery, near the extreme southern part of the peninsula, 
and found, to our intense satisfaction, that among the thousands of Herons 
nesting on it there were about 40 Spoonbills. 

The beautiful peach-bloom-like pink of the Spoonbills was noticeable at 
a great distance. In manner of flight they resemble Ibises rather than Herons, 
the neck being fully extended. The flock formation is also like that at times 
assumed by the Ibis, each bird flying behind, but a little to one side, of the 
bird before it, a number, therefore, making a diagonal file. Spoonbills, how- 
ever, so far as I have observed, maintain a steady flapping of the wings, 
uninterrupted by short sails, as in the case of the Ibis. 

The Spoonbill's peculiarly shaped bill is adapted to an equally peculiar 
method of procuring food. I have never seen one of these birds in nature 
feeding nearby, but Audubon tells us that they "wade up to the tibia, and 
immerse their bills in the water or soft mud, sometimes with the head and 

even whole neck beneath the surface They move their partially 

opened mandibles laterally to and fro with considerable degree of elegance, 
munching the fry, insects or small fish which they secure, before swallowing 
them." 

Audubon says nothing of the voice of the Spoonbill. At Cuthbert Rookery 
I heard no notes I could identify as theirs, but two years later, in Mexico, 
I heard them utter a low, croaking call at their nests. 

Fear in animals is so often born of pursuit by man that it is often difiicult 
to say whether birds which have been much hunted are shy instinctively or 
intelligently. Wild Ducks, we know, are as wary as birds can well be where 
they are shot, but surprisingly tame where they are protected and fed. 

I have seen White Egrets roost nightly near a hacienda in Cuba where 
they had learned they were safe, but those in Cuthbert Rookery were startled 
into sudden flight by the report of a gun fired at a distance of a mile and 
a half. 

If, therefore. Spoonbills could be made to realize that man was their 
friend rather than their enemy, they, too, might learn to trust him. But, 
unfortunately, their experience with the human race has developed anything 
but love of it. 

Although the Spoonbills in Cuthbert Rookery had nests with eggs, they 



2i6 Bird - Lore 

deserted them as soon as we entered the rookery. An umbrella blind was 
placed in one of the larger mangrove bushes, but after hours of waiting, no 
Spoonbills were seen. At sunset the birds of various species began to return 
to the rookery for the night. Flock after flock of White Ibises, with bright 
red feet and faces, came to roost in favorite trees. With much talking Louis- 
iana Herons greeted birds that had evidently been absent during the day. 
Turkey Vultures silently sailed in to perch in rows on the branches of a dead 
tree, and, suddenly, six Spoonbills, with a resonant woof-woof-woof of beating 
wings, lit in my foreground. One of them was within fifteen feet of me. As 
it grew darker the birds became more numerous, pouring into the rookery 
from every side, and as they settled for the night and disputed the possession 
of some perch with their neighbors, there arose a veritable babel of voices. 

Their keen sight dimmed by the gloom, the birds were now less shy. A 
Louisiana Heron sought what was doubtless his regularly frequented perch 
within reach of my foot, others took adjoining limbs, and, as the crowning 
event of the afternoon, a Spoonbill and two Snowy Egrets roosted in the 
same tree with me. 

There were about a dozen Spoonbills' nests in this rookery, four or five 
of which held fresh eggs. In one there were four, in the others, three eggs. 
The nests were in the mangroves often near one another, and at an average 
height of ten to twelve feet. They were made of larger sticks than those 
used by the American Egrets which were nesting near them. As a rule the 
sticks were rather loosely put together and the nests were far from care- 
fully made. 

Spoonbills' eggs, like their habits and structure, indicate that they are 
more nearly related to the Ibises than to the Herons. Instead of being blue 
like those of Herons, they are white or pale greenish blue, more or less heavily 
blotched with brown at the larger end, and with spots or specks scattered 
over the remaining surface. Thus, they resemble the eggs of the White Ibis. 
They measure about two and a half inches in length and one and three-quarters 
in breadth. 

The eggs we found in Cuthbert Rookery on March 29 were freshly laid, 
but we had reason to believe that the birds had been robbed and that this 
was a second laying. Audubon says that the eggs are laid about the middle 
of April, but there are specimens in the United States National Museum 
which were secured on Marquesas Key, Florida, January 11, 1883. Un- 
questionably, therefore, the birds begin to nest as early as January. Later 
dates may be, as with the Cuthbert Rookery birds, second layings, or due 
to the variation in nesting-time which sometimes occurs among birds breeding 
in warmer climates, where the necessity for regularity is not so urgent as it 
is further north where the warm season is shorter. 

On April 17, 1910, I found a colony of about 200 pairs of Roseate Spoon- 
bills on Pajaro Island, in Tamiahua Lagoon, on the Gulf Coast of Mexico, 



The Roseate Spoonbill 217 

south of Tampico. Most of the nests contained well-grown young at least a 
month old, and probably older. Allowing a month for hatching, and it is 
evident that these birds begin to lay about the middle of February. 

Shortly after birth, Spoonbills are covered with a snowy white down, 
through which one can see enough of their pink skin to give them a pinkish 
appearance. The feathers, however, are not colored. While they are in the 
nest, this plumage, 'natal down' as it is called, is followed by what is known 
as the 'Juvenal plumage' in which they leave the nest. 

In general appearance they now strongly resemble their parents; but 
the head and throat are thinly covered with white feathers, and the rusty 
marks at the sides of the breast and end of the tail of the adult are replaced 
by pink. 

In the Mexican colony, four was the usual number of young. They were 
well-behaved youngsters and, in the absence of their parents, rested peace- 
fully in their homes, or occasionally ventured on thrilling excursions of a 
few feet to the adjoining limbs. 

But, when their parents returned, they were all attention and on the 
alert for food. At such times they usually stood in a row on the edge of the 
nest facing the old birds, and in a most comical manner swung the head and 
neck up and down. I have seen balanced mechanical toys which would make 
almost exactly the same motion. The toys, however, were silent, while the 
little Spoonbills all joined in a chorus of tremulous, trilling whistles, which 
grew louder and more rapid as the parent approached. 

What their parents brought them I could not see, nor, for that matter, 
could they. But, with a confidence born of experience, the bird that had the 
first opportunity pushed its bill and head far down its parent's bill to get 
whatever was there. This singular operation sometimes lasted as long as 
ten seconds, and it was terminated only by the parent which, much against 
the will of its offspring, disengaged itself; then, after a short rest, a second 
youngster was fed, and thus in due time the whole family was satisfied. 

The young now sank contentedly back in the nest, and the old ones stood 
quietly by, or went back to the shores and marshes for further supplies. 




EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Edited by T. GILBERT PEARSON, Secretary 

Address all correspondence, and send all remittances for dues and contributions, to 
the National Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City. 

William Dutcher, President 
Frederick A. Lucas, Acting President T. Gilbert Pearson, Secretary 

Theodore S. Palmer, First Vice-President Jonathan Dwight, Jr., Treasurer 
Samuel T. Carter, Jr., Attorney 

Any person, club, school or company in sympathy with the objects of this Association may become 
a member, and all are welcome. 

Classes of Membership in the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild 
Birds and Animals: 

$5.00 annually pays for a Sustaining Membership 
$100.00 paid at one time constitutes a Life Membership 
$1,000.00 constitutes a person a Patron 
$5,000.00 constitutes a person a Founder 
$25,000.00 constitutes a person a Benefactor 



GLORIOUS RESULTS FROM THE JUNIOR CAMPAIGN 




A Junior Architect, of Plain- 
field, New Jersey 



lEYOND doubt, 
nothing is so 
great a problem, 
or one wliose 
solution is so im- 
portant to the 
future prosperity 
and peace of the 
country, as the 
rescue of the 
children of the 
land from evil 
influences, and 
the diversion of 
their r es 1 1 ess 
activity and curiosity into safe and bene- 
ficent channels. To do this their interest 
must be excited in something which will 
appeal to their minds as amusing, and at 
the same time really worth while. 

The pursuit of the study of natural 
history offers just these attractions, and 
to a large extent appeals to girls as well as 
to boys. No better place to begin this 
study exists than in watching the activities 
of birds, which invite the interest of all 
children by their pretty ways, sweet 
voices, and domestic habits. In respect 
to no other class of animals is sentiment 
so mingled with science as here; and, when 
one needs to cultivate in a young mind a 
sense of the duty of consideration for 

(2 



animals, the bird offers the best possible 
point of beginning. 

These thoughts would rise first to the 
mind of the moralist and social economist 
as he looked at the astounding success 
of the Junior Audubon movement dis- 
played by the statistics published in these 
pages,^and mayhap that is really the 
important thing that has been accom- 
plished. It may be that these tens of 
thousands of children, poring over their 
leaflets, memorizing the various birds 
pictured while happily reproducing their 
portraits with their crayons, and exer- 
cising their ingenuity in pleasant rivalry 
as they contrive their bird-lodges and set 
them in cautiously chosen places, are 
acquiring, quite unknowingly, powers 
and qualities that will be of far greater 
value to them in the future than will their 
store of ornithology. 

But for us in the National Association 
such training is a by-product, very wel- 
come, but not the main subject for con- 
gratulation. Our wonder and joy are 
excited by the fact that all over our broad 
land groups of children have had their 
point of view completely changed in 
respect to the world of life. A bird, or a 
squirrel, or a butterfly, is no longer to 
their eyes merely a thing which arouses 
the barbaric instinct of capture, but a 

18) 



The Audubon Societies 



219 



being with distinct and interesting char- 
acteristics, qualities, and relations to us 
and the rest of the world — an object 
from which something may be learned, 
and which must not be wantonly sacri- 
ficed. With the growth of interest, there 
naturally arises a sense of care; and bird- 
lov^ers are inevitably bird-protectors. 

That this is the real significance of 
'bird-study' in the schools, is plain from 
the letters printed elsewhere in this num- 
ber. None of these letters was written 
for publication, but each gives the simple 
annals of a little club here and there, many 
of whose 
bright faces 
smile at 




pared material at half, or less than half, 
the actual cost of printing and handling. 
By the end of the school-year, in 191 1, 
533 Junior Classes had been formed, 
with a total paid membership of 10,595. 
Mrs. Sage has continued to contribute 
each year a sum equal to her first gift, 
and the work has gone steadily forward. 
In 191 2, 10,004 children were enrolled; 
in 1913, 12,815; and within the present 
year, up to May i, the number of Junior 
members who have received systematic 
instruction in bird-study Is 17,947. 

At the annual meeting of the National 
Association in October, 191 1, one of the 
members who was present and heard of 
this work became impressed with the 
desirability of ex- 
tending similar 
benefits to the 
children of the 
Northern and 
Western States. 



from ^these pages, 
and each shows that 
the work that little 
club is doing is a 
very important if 
not a conspicuous element in the educa- 
tion of every member. 

As a matter of fact, bird-study is every 
day coming to be a more pronounced 
factor in the instruction given to children 
in the public and private schools of this 
country. 

The plan of supplying pupils with two 
Educational Leaflets, colored plates, and 
outline drawings of birds, and an Audu- 
bon button, all for ten cents, was first 
offered to children in the Southern States 
in the autumn of 1910, when Mrs. Russell 
Sage gave the Association $5,000 for 
educational work in bird-study in that 
region. Mrs. Sage was particularly inter- 
ested in the protection of the Robin; and 
the Association felt that in no better way 
could a part of the fund be expended than 
in instructing the children of the South 
on the beauty of bird-study and the value 
of bird-protection. Hence, it was arranged 
to give the children this carefully pre- 



BIRD-HOUSE 




He therefort - -.^ 

proceeded t i -* 

arrange for a ^"^^ -^ 

fund of $5,000, 

to pay the expense of the proposed experi- 
ment. The office-force of the Association 
was at once increased, and the plan pre- 
sented to northern and western teachers. 
The results were even better than in the 
South, for, when the schools closed in June, 
191 2, it was found that 19,365 Juniors had 
been enrolled. For the work the next 
year this good patron of the children 
increased his gift to $7,000, and 40,342 
Juniors were added to the ranks. During 
the past year this same interested friend 
has provided $12,000 for this work, and 
the total number of Juniors enrolled this 
year, up to May i, is 79,823. 

Statistics of Junior Classes and their 
members, from June 15, 1913, to May i, 
1914, arranged by states. North and 
South, follows on page 221. 



The Audubon Societies 



221 



Southern States (Mrs. Russell 
Sage Fund) 

Summary ending May i, 1914. 1913- 

States Classes Members Members 

Alabama 29 461 203 

Arkansas 8 113 99 

District of Co- 
lumbia 5 91 

Florida 162 3,426 2,202 

Georgia 66 1,151 763 

Kentucky 66 1,414 1,081 

Louisiana 24 424 124 

Maryland 113 2,270 344 

Mississippi 37 646 269 

North Carolina.. 54 889 607 

Panama i 31 92 

South Carolina.. 33 431 168 

Tennessee 77 1,501 2,027 

Texas 46 872 646 

Virginia 155 2,252 1,647 

West Virginia. . . 97 1,975 1,338 

Totals 973 17,947 11,610 

Northern States (Children's 
Educational Fund) 

Summary ending May i, 1914. 1913- 

States Classes Members Members 

Arizona i 16 

California 45 915 136 

Canada 154 2,586 249 

Colorado 25 418 245 

Connecticut.... 83 1,666 606 

Idaho 10 160 28 

Delaware 6 64 



Carried forw'd. 324 



5,825 



1,264 



States Classes Members Members 

Brought forw'd 324 5,825 1,264 

Illinois 358 6,274 2,524 

Indiana no i,934 2,649 

Iowa 155 2,755 905 

Kansas 26 406 143 

Maine 51 834 225 

Massachusetts. 268 6,508 2,668 

Michigan 499 8,852 2,881 

Minnesota 194 3,434 1,856 

Missouri 74 1,290 782 

Montana 46 689 20 

Nebraska 30 346 237 

Nevada 27 435 132 

New Hampshire 32 544 518 

New Jersey. .. .406 8,566 7,695 

New Mexico... 21 361 136 

New York 721 12,901 957 

North Dakota.. 24 514 277 

Ohio 291 5,923 4,634 

Oklahoma 38 573 

Oregon 41 717 77 

Pennsylvania. .302 5,774 1,666 

Rhode Island. . 36 595 1,73° 

South Dakota.. 59 813 91 

Utah 6 129 20 

Vermont 33 636 158 

Washington.... 56 835 207 

Wisconsin loi 1,019 2,172 

Wyoming 19 341 91 

Totals 4,348 79-823 36,715 

The grand totals for the whole coun- 
try are: 5,311 classes, with 97,770 members 
on ]May i, 1914, as compared with 48,325 

members enrolled up to May i, 1913 — 
one year ago. 



REACTION IN CALIFORNIA 



A concerted and strenuous effort is 
being made by the market-hunters and 
game-dealers of California to invoke the 
initiative at the election next November, 
for the purpose of changing the existing 
game-law so as to permit marketing of 
game under "restrictions" which look 
beautiful on paper but will stand little 
in the way of the greed of gunners and 
dealers. They are using every means 
ingenuity suggests to gain votes for the 
change, shouting the old argument that 
the game belongs to the people, and that 
preservation, and the restrictions of the 
present excellent law, are made wholly in 
favor of rich men and "swell sportsmen." 
The fallacy in the logic of this argument 
is completely ignored; as is the lesson 
of experience, everywhere, that "the 



people" will not take care of the game that 
is alleged to be theirs, but will let it be 
wasted by the few whose interest it is to 
destroy it as fast as possible, regardless 
of what may come after their time. 

Against this onslaught upon law and 
order in game-protective matters the 
California Fish, Game, and Forest Pro- 
tective League is making a sturdy fight. 
It has something worth fighting for. 
"The sale of game in this State during 
the Exposition year," it is declared by 
Harry Harper, the spokesman of the 
League, "will put five thousand market- 
hunters in the field, and will . . . place 
a bounty upon virtually every living game- 
object that swims, walks or flies." 

The National Association trusts local 
resistance will succeed. 



The Audubon Societies 



223 



THE JUNIOR COMPETITION 
A\VARD OF PRIZES TO SUCCESSFUL CLUBS 



Early in the spring, the Secretary of 
the National Association sent out to all 
teachers and leaders of Junior Audubon 
Classes the circular letter quoted below: 

"Will you not send us a brief, concise 
letter of just what you have been able to 
do, and what you think of this plan of 
work? The result of your efforts will be 
interesting to other people, and will 
probably encourage our friends to con- 
tinue to make contributions for this 
special work in future. Can you send 
me a photograph of your class? You 
might arrange the children to show them 
tying suet and crumbs to limbs, or scat- 
tering seed on the ground for the birds. 
If any of the children are making bird- 
boxes, let them hold these up on the pic- 
ture. 

"For the teacher sending in the most 
interesting photograph of her class, and 
a brief account of the work done, we will 
give a prize of $10. The two next best 
will each receive Chapman's 'Handbook 
of Birds of Eastern North America,' 
and to each of the seven next best, we 
will give a copy of 'Reed's Guide'." 

The result of this appeal was the 
receipt of a large quantity of photographs 
and many letters detailing methods and 
accomplishments, from which a selection 
of winners has been made, as follows: 

List of Prize-Winners 

First Prize. — Albany Junior Audubon 
Class, Albany, Indiana. Miss Edna 
Stafford, Teacher. 

Second Prize. — Sutton Junior Audubon 
Class, Sutton, West Virginia. Miss Ida 
S. Gieven, Teacher. 

Third Prize. — Stevenson School Junior 
Audubon Class, New York City. Miss 
Ida Ullrich, Teacher. 

Fourth Prize. — Wm. McGuffey Audubon 
Class, Oxford, Ohio. Miss Anna E. 
Wilson, Teacher. 

Fifth Prize. — Ashland Junior Audubon 
Class, Ashland, Ohio. Ralph D. Rich- 
ards, Teacher. 

Sixth Prize. — Albuquerque Junior Audu- 
bon Class, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
Miss E. Mrytle Plant, Teacher. 



Seventh Prize. — Mississippi Agricultural 
Model School Junior Audubon Class. 
Miss Ada Joyce Foster, Teacher. 

Eighth Prize. — Fourth -Grade Junior 
Audubon Class, Manchester-by-the- 
Sea, Massachusetts. Miss Eliza G. 
Goldsmith, Teacher. 

Ninth Prize. — Second-Grade Junior Audu- 
bon Class, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Miss 
Marie Kugler, Teacher. 
Tenth Prize. — Fifth-Grade Junior Audu- 
bon Class, Chagrin Falls, Ohio. 
The photographs awarded the first and 
the second prizes, and some of the others 
in the list, will be found reproduced in the 
present number. The others have been 
reserved for future publication. Of the 
essays sent in, several will be found 
printed in this number, in whole or in 
part, and will furnish many helpful sug- 
gestions to other workers in this broad 
and fertile field, whose cultivation is not 
yet fully understood. The letters show 
that thousands of bright little minds are 
busy in bird-study; but they show also 
that bright minds among the teachers are 
earnestly solving the problems that rise 
in conducting these eager Juniors. 

The National Association of Audubon 
Societies offers its sincere thanks and 
compliments to all who have so promptly 
responded to its circular of invitation. 




LOOKING UP A SUBJECT, AT SOUTH 
WINDHAM, MAINE 



224 



Bird - Lore 




THE "AUDUBON CORNER" OF A RALEIGH SCHOOL-ROOM 



LETTERS FROM JUNIOR CLASSES 



From the Prize-Winning Club 

The first prize for a class photograph 
was awarded to the Junior Class of 
Albany, Indiana, and is reproduced on 
page 220. The leader of this fine class is 
Miss Edna Stafford, who sketches its 
origin and progress in the pleasant para- 
graphs quoted below: 

"One day last summer a twelve-year- 
old boy was out on our street with an 
air-gun, thoughtlessly shooting at every 
bird he could see. Recently the same boy 
came to me with a bird which had been 
hurt, and in the most sympathetic tones 
said: 'Who do you suppose could have 
been so cruel as to hurt this dear little 
bird? What can we do for it?' 

"Our study of birds in the Junior 
Audubon Society brought about this 
change in the boy. It has greatly inter- 
ested the boys and girls, especially in 
respect to the protection of the birds. 
The boys are out very early each morning, 
watching and following the birds. 

"We spend one hour each week in 



studying birds. Each one in the class is 
making a bird note-book. Our first lesson 
was a study on the life of John James 
Audubon. We next made a list of the 
birds that remained with us during the 
winter, noting their food and what we 
could do to help them. We then studied 
the usefulness of birds, and made a study 
of the ways by which we might attract 
the most useful to our homes. Of course, 
the building of bird-boxes came next. 
We were getting ready to receive our 
summer guests. It was requested that 
our bird-boxes should be in our picture, so 
I spoke of it to the class; but to my sur- 
prise the boys refused, although they 
had been so proud of them. But listen to 
their reasons. The boxes had already 
been put up, and some said, 'Oh we can- 
not take our boxes down, for the birds 
have begun to build in them,' while others 
said, 'I am sure the birds have our boxes 
placed, and it would never do to take 
them down.' 

"But they were willing to build more. 

"So in our picture you see them at 
work: and there can be no doubt that they 
are enjoying it." 



The Audubon Societies 



22: 



The second prize picture (page 222) is 
that of the Junior Audubon Class at 
Sutton, West Virginia, Miss Ida S. 
Gieven, teacher. The picture gives a 
good illustration of the pride taken in 
these clubs everywhere by their youth- 
ful members. 

Suggestions from the South 

Next comes an interesting letter from 
the South, showing how teachers in 
Raleigh, North Carolina, foster the 
movement in their schools; the writer is 
Miss Mary W. Quinn, of Thompson 
School, who has charge of the fifth-grade 
Juniors depicted on this page. 

"The Junior Audubon Society of 
Thompson School was organized in the 
fifth grade in January, 1914. Since that 
time we have had meetings fortnightly, 
studying the literature supplied by the 
National Association. At each meeting 
a story or poem about birds was used. 

"In our spring drawing-lessons, and in 
our language-work, we have used the 



Audubon leaflets and colored plates. 
The children found this very interesting, 
and never failed to write good stories. 
It seemed to put new life and interest 
into our work. We have had a most 
interesting visit to the State Museum to 
study the birds there, as to form, color, 
etc.; and on pleasant days we have made 
some delightful trips into the woods. One 
boy has mounted some birds given him 
at the museum, and we have added these 
to the Audubon corner of our school- 
room. Our collection includes birds' nests 
of last 3'ear, cocoons, bird-maps and pic- 
tures. The boys at present are building 
houses for the Purple Martin. 

"During the recent cold weather, each 
member fed and cared for the birds near 
his home. Quite a number are keeping 
bird-diaries. We sing bird-songs at our 
opening exercises. Some very interest- 
ing maps showing the range of certain 
species of birds in the United States have 
been made. 

"Our Audubon Society has been one of 
the most helpful aids to school-work I 
have ever had. Some boys who were 
reckless and cruel to birds have become 
friends and champions of them. As 
future citizens, they will realize how 




FIFTH -GR.\DE JUNIOR .\UDUBON SOCIETY, RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA 




m&j^ 



ia^ 



CLUB-WORK AT ST. JOSEPH SCHOOL, ESCANABA, MICHIGAN 




A CLASS AT MURTUN PARK SCHOOL, CICERO, ILLINOIS 
(227) 



228 



Bird - Lore 



valuable birds are to man, and will pro- 
tect and spare them." 

Rather more formal than most, the 
Junior Class at the Practice School of 
the Agricultural College of Mississippi 
may offer some suggestions to other clubs. 
It is under the supervision of Miss Ada 
Joyce Foster. 

"This society," Miss Foster writes, 
"grew out of the daily studies in nature- 
work, and the children have become very 



and in other good ways. The society, 
as a whole, obligates itself to devote at 
least one day in each month to the study 
of bird-life, and discussions of their own 
observations. Instead of this, they have 
given ten or fifteen minutes each day in 
the week, except Wednesday, on which 
day we have an hour's lecture with the 
picture-slides. 

"Through the study of birds, they have 
learned much of insect-life; grouping 
insects, as they do the birds, into 'the 
good' and 'the bad.' Prof. R. N. Lob- 




much interested. They have learned to 
recognize our native birds at sight; to 
give the names, habits, and place and 
method of nesting of those that frequent 
the campus and the surrounding wood- 
land. They have, from observation, 
learned much of the kinds of food each 
bird lives upon, and can tell the haunts 
of each, and the loss per capita in dollars 
and cents through failure to protect and 
encourage birds. Each member of this 
society pledged himself to do something 
to encourage bird-life on the campus, 
and upon their home premises. They 
have made good this pledge by feeding 
the birds through the winter months, 
putting up bird-houses near their homes. 



dell, of Rosedale, Miss., the director of 
the Department of Entomology at the 
Mississippi Agricultural College, offered 
to give the children of this school one 
hour, each week, of illustrated lecture. 
He is one of the few men who can present 
to children dry facts in a fascinating way, 
awakening not only interest but enthu- 
siasm in the smallest tots. Consequently 
Wednesday is a day watched for in 
impatience." 

Hints Helpful to Teachers 

The next picture and letter disclose 
what the Sisters of Notre Dame, at 



The Audubon Societies 



229 



Escanaba, Michigan, have accomplished 
among their little people. 

"Although our Junior Audubon classes 
have been so recently organized, we have 
nevertheless accomplished some work. 
We are sending you two pictures of our 
classes, in which several pupils are 
represented with bird-boxes of their own 
construction (see page 227), others have 
the Audubon bird-pictures, and still 
others, bird-pictures painted by them- 



these ways we advanced in bird-lore 
without omitting anything from the cur- 
riculum. The younger pupils were encour- 
aged to tell in class of birds they had 
seen, and some even ventured to tell 
of birds they had shot. Then came 
the teachers' opportunity for emphasizing 
the need of kindness and protection for 
the birds, and for encouraging pupils to 
scatter crumbs for them in the cold win- 
ter days. Many of the pupils have bird- 
boxes alread}^ placed in trees and on poles 




EIGHTH PRIZE.— FOURTH-GRADE CLASS, MANCHESTER-BY-THE-SEA, MASSACHUSETTS 



selves. We have utilized the Educational 
Leaflets in the following ways: First of all, 
since all our pupils are interested in water- 
coloring, we encourage them to paint the 
outline-copies, besides painting other birds 
from the charts shown in the pictures. 
All pupils, whether members of the clubs 
or not, have written compositions on 
birds; those who could, wrote something 
of their own experience. The ninth- 
grade pupils were permitted to study the 
bird-lessons, and to deliver them as oral 
reports during the English period. They 
also used the same material to distinguish 
enumerative from suggestive descrip- 
tion, and for practice in condensing. In 



near their homes, and thus could not 
bring them for the picture." 

Very helpful to teachers who find some 
embarrassment in learning the method 
of conducting their classes is the account, 
by Miss Rebecca L. Harding, of how the 
meetings of a Junior Class in Springfield, 
Massachusetts, are sustained in interest. 
This class was organized in Grade VII of 
the Central Street School, and is wide- 
awake, as the photograph on page 228 
attests. 

"Games, such as 'Bird-Catcher,' and 



230 



Bird - Lore 



■|^Mi|^P^^iflHKr^H 








^^^^^^^^^^HHlEilnEi' ^ ^^^v^KMJB'^a^ii^^l 


^^^^^^^^^Hjj^Hj^Kf. '^^J^l^l 


^^^^^^^^^HK^^^^^^S^H^H 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^PV^^^^r^' ^^^KB^^^^^^^^^^^^^b ' ** -'l^^^^^. i!i^''''^^flil^E^|^^Bl^^^^^^^^^^^| 


^^^^■H^^^^^^H^^^H||i|^'^^^l 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^r%-f ; ^^^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^^^^P^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I 


^^^^^^Hk..-. .^ ....^ .^.^HHHHHHI 



THE THIRD-GRADE JUNIOR AUDUBON CLASS AT RUSTON, LOUISIANA 



'International Birds,' are frequently 
played for a few minutes, that interest 
may not lag. The latter is a game similar 
to 'Authors,' naming the birds by using 
the final letters of each bird named for the 
initial letter of the next to be named. 
Poems about birds are committed to 
memory; and many of the members have 
written letters representing themselves 
as birds who have completed their migra- 



tion, and are sending messages from their 
summer homes to the friends who still 
remain at the winter resort. 

"The accompanying picture shows some 
of the work of the past winter. Two boys 
are tying suet to the tree, a third lad is 
providing a home for some feathered 
songster, and others are scattering crumbs, 
or have built houses which they hope will 
soon be rented at a reasonable price. 




A LOURING- CLASS BECOMES A JUNIOR AUDUBON SOCIETY 



The Audubon Societies 



231 



The boy with a bird-house in the center 
of the front row is a prize-winner; the two 
at his right discovered and carefully 
guarded an Oven-bird's nest containing 
four eggs, enthusiastically conducted their 
teacher to the sacred spot and, later, 
chose to escort the president of our city 
bird-club to see their favorite resort and 
introduce him to their adopted family, 
rather than to attend an anticipated 
party at which ice-cream and cake were 
to be served." 

The picture reproduced on page 229 is 
also a product of New England enterprise. 



"This class, which was organized last 
February, and has a membership of 18, 
meets twice a month. When the roll is 
called each member answers with the 
name of a bird he knows in plumage and 
song. The president has requested every 
member to make a written report of some 
bird observed, to be handed in by May 
and giving an account of the nest, care 
of young, food and plumage. Out of the 
material we have received from the 
Department of Agriculture, the birds 
in our locality have been selected first 
from the ten; but we intend to study 
others known to some of the children. 




YOUNG BIRD-LOVERS AT FISHER. AMONG THE LOUISIANA PINES 



representing Miss Eliza G. Goldsmith's 
class, in Grade IV, of the George A. Priest 
School of Manchester-by-the-Sea. It is 
evident that these pupils are about to spend 
a few of the most delightful moments of 
the school-week. 

Experiences in the Gulf States 

Next we spring a thousand miles down 
the coast, and get a report from the High 
School at Ruston, Louisiana, where the 
third-grade group pictured have formed a 
wide-awake society under the leadership 
of Miss Blanche Heard, who speaks of her 
charge as f oUows : 



Each member selects a certain point or 
paragraph from the pamphlet, and adds 
to it any experience of his or her own 
that he or she thinks most interesting. 
Several pieces of poetry have been learned, 
one about the Meadowlark, and another 
'The Bird's Nest.' The field-trips are 
more interesting to this class, although 
they do show a great deal of enthusiasm 
in the reading and memorizing of the 
poetry about the birds. But to see the 
birds and hear the song is, to them, so 
real. We have in view many more field- 
trips. Several of the boys are making 
bird-boxes, but only two have completed 
theirs. The picture exhibits what an 
eight -year -old boy and a nine-year-old 
boy can do with rough materials and few 
tools. It is good for the boys as well as 
for the birds." 



2^2 



Bird -Lore 




A FOURTH-GRADE CLASS AT MORRISTOWN, N. J. 



The picture just below the one taken 
at Ruston represents a cooking-class in 
the Madison School at Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, which has joined with the Junior 
Audubon Class in scattering bird-food 
on the roof of their school-building. 
Probably the birds will come to the feast 
after the pretty cooks and waitresses 
have departed. The ladj' in the first line 



is the reporting teacher, Miss Helen M. 
Hall. 

The happy group depicted on this page 
represents the flourishing society in the 
fourth-grade room of the Speedwell 
Avenue School at Morristown, New Jersey. 
It is under the care of Miss C. E. Beach. 

The next illustration carries one in 
thought from colonial New Jersey to 



The Audubon Societies 



233 



modern Florida, and shows the club at 
Palm Beach, in respect to which Mrs. 
Flora Grice Havill, its organizer, writes 
an entertaining story: 

"This Audubon Class was the result of 
the interest aroused by a lecture by Dr. 
Eugene Swope; and, after listening to 
him, it was easy to arouse enthusiasm in 
the pupils. I began by reading to them a 
delightful little book, 'Dickey Downy,' 
by Virginia Sharpe Patterson, an auto- 



program of poems and sketches. We use 
our leaflets for either a reading- or a 
language-lesson, or both; and so enthusi- 
astic have the children become that they 
want to study birds only — nothing else 
seems to possess enough of life and charm. 
They have brought in several deserted 
nests, and some of the boys are making 
bird-houses. The oflicers of the society 
have ofi^ered a prize to the class for the 
best essay, of not less than one hundred 
and fifty words, on the Robin. They 
have chosen for judges the supervisor of 




THE DICKEY DOWNY AUDUBOX SOCIETY AT PALM BEACH, FLORIDA 



biography of a bird. As I finished the 
last chapter, my oldest, roughest, and most 
trying boy laid on my desk a good like- 
ness of the Meadowlark that he had cut 
from a paper and nicely colored; on the 
underside were these words: 'I will never 
kill another bird.' Then every child 
wanted to bring some story, or a clipping 
from a newspaper or magazine, pertain- 
ing to birds or animals; and some of the 
boys consulted the sheriff as to the laws 
for their protection. I then organized 
an Audubon Society of twenty-six mem- 
bers out of my Fifth Grade of thirty-two 
pupils, and we named it Dickey Downy 
Society. 

"We have a meeting once in two weeks, 
at which the officers are learning to con- 
duct a business meeting and a literary 



the primary department and the English 
teacher in the high school; and the con- 
test promises to be a very interesting one." 

Methods in Ohio and New Jersey 

Ashland, Ohio, has an important 
Junior Class, composed, as its leader, 
Ralph D. Richards tells us, of freshmen 
and junior high-school students, who have 
shown much interest in birds, and call 
themselves "The Bluebirds." All are 
working for new members, and the class 
has grown from thirteen members to 
twenty. Its officers are energetic in 
getting new members, arranging for 



The Audubon Societies 



235 



meetings, and planning for bird-study 
and bird-protection. Only workers can be 
in this class, and the members themselves 
made a rule that three unexcused absences 
from meetings cause one to lose his or 
her membership. 

"During the past winter we studied 
habits and characteristics of birds, so 
that as the spring came we might appre- 
ciate and help them. Our meetings are 
held once a week after school at the school- 
house, and once a month in the evening 
at the home of a member. Miss Eddy, 



three distinct Junior Audubon classes 
have been organized in School No. ii in 
that city; and they now have a combined 
membership of more than one hundred 
pupils. 

"Meetings are held regularly, in which 
bird-charts are kept, recording the time 
and place of birds first seen. Family 
characteristics are studied; also the habits, 
nests, food, etc., of individual birds, with 
particular stress on their usefulness. Ways 
and means of attracting bird-neighbors 
are discussed. Many bird-houses have 




BOYS OF JUNIOR AUDUBON CLASS, No. 732, AT FLINT, MICHIGAN 



another high-school teacher, is a member, 
and helps with the work. We all plan to 
take early-morning walks together soon, 
and all look forward with much pleasure 
to them. Some of the most enjoyable 
events of my life have been with young 
people out in the field, watching bird- 
life and listening to bird-music." 

The Class in Flint, Michigan, is so 
large that it required two pictures to 
carry all the portraits; the one printed 
shows that the Flint boys and girls, led 
by G. E. Sherman, are ingenious archi- 
tects "in the small," as artists say. 

Passaic, New Jersey, is evidently an 
Audubonian stronghold, for we learn that 



been built, with quite as much diversity 
as to size and architecture as may be 
seen in human habitations. Mr. Kip, of 
Passaic, has given the boys and girls 
permission to use a ten-acre wood-lot 
for their bird-houses. The principal of 
the school purposes to have each of the 
twelve school-rooms put up a bird-house 
in the trees on the school-grounds. The 
American Museum of Natural History, 
in New York City, has loaned the school 
specimens of birds to be found in the 
neighborhood. Altogether, much interest 
has been manifested; and field-trips will 
be undertaken when the weather 
permits." 

This school enjoys special advantages 
of situation for bird-study. 




READY FOR SPRING WORK AT CHARLOTTETOWN, PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA 




AN ENERGETIC SOCIETY IN PASSAIC, NEW JERSEY 
(236) 



EXAMINING AN ORIOLE'S 
NEST 




THIS LAD HAS RISEN TO AN 
EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITY 



A NEW JERSEY BIRD-LOVER 



(237) 



238 



Bird - Lore 




COLORING LEAFLETS AT KENOSHA, WISCONSIN 



Facts from Western Societies 

One of the most extensive reports that 
have accompanied the pictures sent in 
competition for the offered prizes is that 
from Kenosha, Wisconsin, by Miss Lulu 
C. Lampe, who has worked hard for the 
success she rejoices in. Her picture (page 
238) shows the Junior Audubon Class 
of the Frank School (Grade IV) coloring 
leaflets. Miss Lampe describes how she 
utilizes the Audubon enthusiasm in school- 
work: 

"The work in the study of birds was so 
arranged to correlate with language, read- 
ing, drawing, and geography. The nature- 
study period was used in studying the 
bird, the drawing period for coloring the 
outlines in the leaflets; the language time 
for writing a composition about the 
bird; and the colored plates were used for 
the decoration of booklet-covers. All the 
places spoken of in the leaflets were 
located on the map during the geography 
class. Even the music can be taken into 
consideration, as I have a list of selected 
songs for each bird studied. In June of 
last year we took a half-holiday, and went 
to the woods for a picnic, and also for the 
study of birds. Each child took a heap- 



ing box of lunch, and the teacher treated 
all to ice-cream. The children's parents 
have taken a great interest in our club- 
work. Many have joined our club, and 
desire to attend our meetings, and our 
annual picnic. One of the mothers told 
me that formerly she was bothered by 
children killing the birds near her house, 
but that now members of our bird-club 
did the watching and punished wrong- 
doers." 

Another wide-awake western city, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, is represented by the 
unabashed group depicted on page 239, 
which is the Audubon Class of second- 
grade pupils in the Johnson School. 
Their teacher is Miss Marie Kugler, who 
writes: 

"Last year we organized a Junior 
society and enjoyed the work very much. 
When we found that we could get another 
set of leaflets and birds to color, my pupils 
were delighted. Each of the forty-seven 
pupils in my room is a member, and all 
take an active interest in birds, and in 
nature-lore in general. During the win- 
ter many of the pupils put food in the 
trees about their homes, and at Christ- 
mas we placed grain and suet in a tree on 
the school-grounds. Some have reported 
placing drinking-cups about the yards of 



The Audubon Societies 



239 



their houses, as well as several bird-houses. 
We have taken bird-walks, and shall visit 
the natural-history department of Coe 
College." 

The three illustrations on page 240 are 
notable. The first is especially interest- 
ing because it represents, as its teacher, 
Miss Julia V. Goodloe, writes, children 
from the mining districts near Birming- 
ham, Alabama, most of whom are of 
foreign parentage. It is of great impor- 
tance to reach this class of our population 
and get them to understand and appre- 
ciate the American view of bird-saving, 
and the reasons for it. 

The pleasing Class-picture from Knights- 
town, Indiana, is sent by its conductor, 
Miss I'lora Strait; that from South Wind- 
ham, Maine, (page 223) represents the 
class on Forest Home Farm, led by C. A. 
Nash; and the Hummingbird lesson is 
being given by ISIiss Florence C. Sammon 
at Castana, Iowa. This lady writes: 

"My bird-class consists of thirty first- 
grade and second-grade pupils. Although 
the children are small, I am sure you 
would smile with pleasure at the bird- 
lore they know. I purchased thirty 



copies of your bird-pictures, about thirty 
different birds. These I mounted, and 
hung about the room. Every child knows 
every bird-picture I have; and many are 
recognizing these birds when they see 
them out-of-doors, or hear them about 
town. We also keep notebooks and fasten 
a leaflet in each one. Thus we can read 
it at any time. All together we write a 
story of the bird studied, some pupils 
offering sentences, and others correcting 
them until we have a good, readable 
story." 

Virginia's Public Bird Day 

It was characteristically accommoda- 
ting in the always genial Audubon to be 
born at so proper a time of the year as 
early May; and it is equally graceful in 
Governor H. C. Stuart, of Virginia, to 
proclaim the observance of May 4, 
Audubon's birthday, as the time when the 
State's new Bird Day should be cele- 
brated. The establishment of this annual 
festival of the birds is a notable event for 
Virginia, and one that rewards a vast 
amount of patient, persistent, and skil- 
ful exertion upon the part of the Audu- 
bon workers and bird-lovers of that State; 




NINTH PRIZE.— A JOLLY CROWD OF JUNIORS AT CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA 




THE JL'MOR SOCIETY AT WYLAM, A SUBURB OF BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA 




MAKING HOMES FOR BIRDS IN VIRGINIA 




AN ACTIVE LITTLE CLASS AT KNIGHTSTOWN. INDIANA 
(240) 



The Audubon Socieries 



241 




A LESSON ON THE HUMMINGBIRD 

and it must be particularly gratifying 
to Mrs. R. B. Smithey, Secretary of the 
Virginia State Society, and to Miss 
Katherine B. Stuart, who have struggled 
valiantly to win this boon. 

The proclamation, a photographic copy 
of which is reproduced herewith, is an 
admirable document; and workers in 
other States may well turn to it as a model 
in assisting their governors to frame 
similar proclamations. Other States need, 
and would profit by, an annual Bird Day 
quite as much as will Virginia. 

The Federal Law Operates 

It was reported early in April, by Edward 
Rayner, deputy United States Game 
Warden at Hoboken, N. J., that Sooty 
Terns were on sale in New York City by a 
dealer named S. Ferster, in violation of 
the Federal law. Dr. Palmer, of the Bio- 
logical Survey, who has charge of the 
enforcement of this law, at once set the 
wheels of retribution in motion, and a 
State Protector of Fish and Game very 
soon had seized 41 pairs of Gulls' wings 
and 31 pairs of Terns' wings. The offend- 
ing merchant paid $50 for his attempt to 
trade in defiance of law. 

A Girls' Club in Vermont 

An interesting history is related by Miss 
Eliza F. Miller of the Society at Bethel, 
Vermont, which seems to have arisen 



spontaneously and to have unusual 
strength. 

"About three years ago, at Bethel, 
Vermont, three little girls discovered that 
I was making a study of caterpillars and 
cocoons. They often ran into my kitchen 
to see what changes had taken place, and 
soon began to hunt specimens for me, 
and for themselves. Their wonder was 
great when the caterpillar changed to 
chrysalis or cocoon, and still greater 
when the beautiful winged insect appeared. 
These, if they were perfect, were allowed 
to float away and be happy. In the winter 
of 1911-12, notable for its abundance of 
birds, the little folks saw many Chicka- 
dees, Redpolls, and others, at my piazza, 
and delighted to coax the Chickadees to 
their hands. Some of them fed the birds 
at their homes. 

"Sometimes I gave them reading- 





ri H out- r.tpijly atlvunclng civillt 

.md uiih the growing apprtMrlatiou of 

the importance of conserving Nature** 

Cifls. Lomcs each year ftreater realtza- 

tfonof the necewity for tile protection 

iif Ijirds. The farmer recoilnlies them 

more anj more ai-hls friends, and all 

tile people lalue them for the heauty 

isic they brinft ro the world. 

Thit llii-se Ihinfs l.c .l..iibly Imprc-ssi-d. especially 

l>uii the v...iiii, 1 ll.r.liy reclaim .inj desl5n;i(e 

MONDAY. MAY 4, 1")14 



The hirlh.lL.y 


,t John J.t 


nes Su.ll.h. 


... \nie 


id's 


tre.n 


natural!"! . 

BIRD 


DAY 






For tlie Com 


nonise.illh 


ol \irSl.iia 


1 esi»et 


ially 


urfte (iiitt in 


tht p.il.li, 


sch.x.ls of 


Vlrninia 


the 


teachers read 


his ptucl.i 




dd their 


ossn 


words to its in 


tenr. I so 


'.i.sl Tll.l! tl 


cv call a 


tten- 


tton Id the «r. 


tules ..n tl 


e pr.iie, t|..i 


„t hlrds 


. the 


li.« aUaiiiM II 


e killinfl .. 


rol'itis .11 


n> timt 


■ 'he 


laws protwli 


fi ..lihle 1 


irds .luri.ii. 


llK- m 


>lin« 


season, tli.- li^^ 


s lor tilt.' |H 


nisttnient .1 


vv.inton 


slay- 


lot; ol bird iif 


.1.1.1 ol d.-s 


.,.li,>l...n ..1 


tests. St 


that 


the children. 


the l.iiurt 


i.tiiens. 111 




• iht- 


rcspon«il..m> 


th.it h up.) 


1 them. 






In wiii.ew « 


litre..!, i h 


ve hei,....t. 




.(till. 


and cau.ssd the li-»sel se 


ai o( the i: 


mnii.t.,. 


e.ilth 


to he afltied. 


in Kiihniu 


nd. this ih 


SLith d 


ly ol 


.\prll. in the 


y,ar .j( ...ir 


Lord .)iie t 


housand 


nine 


himdred and 


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tnmonss 


ealth 


tile one hundf-ed and tlvi 


ty-elghtb. 








■^X^ ^ 


.-^ 


>i 


^^ 




242 



Bird -Lore 



matter, and in March, 1913, they formed 
a Nature and Culture Club. This ran a 
rather irregular course, but they held 
their meetings, and they earned their 
first book. Reed's 'Bird Guide.' In 
November, 1913, these girls learned of the 
offer by the National Association of 
leaflets and buttons to any class of ten 
children, and at once began a canvass for 
a class. On November 15, twelve girls 
met in my kitchen for organization, and 
since then interest has steadily increased. 
Meetings are held twice a month in the 
homes of the members, invitations com- 
ing weeks ahead. The club is their own, 
they take pride in it; the mothers are 
cordial toward it, and new members join 
it at nearly every meeting. 

"They have studied four leaflets, have 
colored their outlines, are able to answer 
questions about these birds, and are wide- 
awake for the spring arrivals. They 
bring clippings and sketches for the roll- 
call, and always repeat the Lord's prayer 
and a psalm, led by their young president. 
Many are keeping their leaflets for bind- 
ing. Boxes and tomato cans are going up 
fast, for bird-houses. The leaflets are 



always eagerly received and carefully 
studied, as the answers of even the little 
ones show. The mothers must be learning 
through helping their children. This 
plan of work will do wonders for the rising 
generation. 

"For years, teachers in Bethel schools 
have given the children some instruction 
in nature-studies, though it is not in the 
course. This year Miss Ellen Preston is 
helping her boys to make bird-houses, 
some of which are bought by the girls 
in the class. The boys in the front row 
of the illustration are hers. They do 
not belong to the Audubon Class, but are 
interested in their house-building, and are 
anxious for tenants." 



Lists of Members, Etc. 

We greatly regret that we have not 
space this month to print the customary 
lists of New Members and of Contributors 
to the Association. They will be given in 
the next issue of Bird-Lore; and will be 
found to be of encouraging length. 





EAGER YOUNG BIRD-LOVERS AT BETHEL, VERMONT 




1. Sharpe's Seedeater, Adult Male 3. Lark Bunting, Im. Male 

2. Sharpe's Seedeater, Female 4. Lark Bunting- Female 

5. Lark Bunting, Adult Male 
(One-half natural sizei 



A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 

Official Organ of The Audubon Societies 



Vol. XVI 



July— August, 1914 



No. 4 



At Home with a Hell-Diver 
Some Observations on the Nesting of the Pied-billed Grebe 

By ARTHUR A. ALLEN, Ithaca, N. Y. 
With photographs by the author 

FEW birds are more widely distributed than the Pied-billed Grebe. 
Occurring from the region of the Great Slave Lake to Chile and Argen- 
tina, it differs from most birds in breeding throughout its range. It 
is, indeed, rather local 
in its distribution, and 
in some places almost 
absent; but the pond, 
lake, or stream that 
has not had its 'Hell- 
diver,' at least during 
the period of migration, 
is very exceptional. It 
is common, it is well 
known, if familiarity 
with its name implies 
knowledge of it, and 
yet it has been one of 
the least studied of 
our familiar birds. Ob- 
servations on its nest- 
ing habits have been 
extremely desultory ; 
careful studies have as 
yet not been made. 

Nor is this with- 
out reason. Few birds 

offer greater difficul- ^jjg ^^^j ^^ ^^^ hell-diver, a floating 

ties to the ornitholo- mass of debris 




244 



Bird - Lore 



gist who would become familiar with their lives. During their migration 
they are conspicuous enough, floating about on the surface of the water, 
sinking from sight when intently watched, or diving with a saucy flip of the 
feet at the discharge of a gun. But as soon as the breeding season has begun, 
no bird is more wary or difficult to observe. Occasionally their peculiar soft 
love-notes float out from the reeds to indicate their presence, or a few widen- 
ing circles on the surface of the pond mark the spot from which the watchful 
bird has espied us, but it is rarely indeed that we can sit and watch them as we 
would other birds. I have known of three pairs nesting about a small and 
much-frequented pond, with scarcely a person suspecting their presence; even 

though one nest, 
sheltered by only a few 
rushes, was almost con- 
spicuous from the path 
not fifty feet away. 
No one for a moment 
assumed that the float- 
ing pile of debris, 
anchored near the outer 
edge of the rushes, and 
freed from all attempts 
at architecture, was the 
nest of a bird, much 
less that of the Hell- 
diver which had been 
heard calling, off and 
on during the spring, 
and occasionally seen 
floating on the open 
surface of the pond. 
It resembled more the 
platform of a water- 
rat or a' pile of drift stranded by the subsidence of the spring floods. The 
eggs, moreover, were never left exposed to the hostile search of Crows or 
water snakes, but were always carefully covered with material from the nest 
when not actually concealed by the inconspicuous body of the Grebe. 
Little wonder, then, that the nest was overlooked. 

I was first directed to the spot by a friend who said that 'Coots' were 
nesting there. I was not a little surprised, therefore, when, after wading for a 
short distance along the edge of the pond, my attention was attracted by a 
splash in the water ahead, accompanied by a startled note like the syllable 
"keck," and a few seconds later a Grebe bobbed into sight. Instead of immedi- 
ately sinking again, as one learns to expect of a Grebe, it rose up on its legs 




THE SAME WITH THE COVERING OF THE 
EGGS REMOVED 



At Home with a Hell -Diver 245 

and began beating upon the water with its wings. Such behavior bespoke 
something very unusual happening in the nearby nest. I looked just in time 
to see the last of the striped young scramble from it and disappear beneath 
the water. Then ensued a series of maneuvers on the part of the bird which 
were evidently intended to distract my attention. The customary silence, 
ease, and grace of diving were entirely abandoned. Each appearance above 
the water was announced by a shake of the body, followed by a beating of the 
wings on the surface, and a flip of the feet as it again dove, which sometimes 
sprayed water for more than a yard. This performance took place within 
ten or fifteen feet of me, and sometimes the bird swam in even closer. At such 





i 
i 


4 


f 

\ 

\ 



THE HELL-DIVER 

times it rested rather high on the water, holding its fail, if we may speak of 
it as 'such, erect, and nervously flashing the light areas on the flanks, as do 
the Gallinules. 

Meanwhile the young birds had made their way toward the center of the 
pond. The largest could not have been more than a few days old, and yet, 
when I tried to catch them, they showed all the ingenuity of the old birds, 
diving, doubling, swimming with just the bill showing, or lying concealed in a 
bunch of water-weeds, with only the nostrils above the surface. Had the 
water been less clear, I probably should have been unable to catch any of 
them; but, as it was, I could follow them as they escaped in various directions. 
They were even conspicuous when attempting to hide. I was reminded of the 
old story of the Ostrich which buried its head in the sand to escape detection; 
for, in spite of the fact that only the bill was exposed above the water, the 



246 



Bird - Lore 



entire body was nearly as conspicuous as though floating on the surface. In 
diving, as in floating, the wings of the young projected nearly at right angles 
from their bodies, even more so than in other precocial birds. 




FLASHING ITS WHITE FLANK FEATHERS 

The largest of the young had already reached the open water beyond my 
depth, and when I returned to the shore the old Grebe swam toward it, chang- 
ing her alarm note of 'keck,' 'keck,' to a softer 'cup,' 'cup,' as though 
calling to it. Swimming beyond it, she turned her tail toward it and slightly 
raised her wings. This was the signal for the young one to crawl upon her back, 
which it repeatedly attempted to do until its mother, disgusted with such 
clumsiness, clapped her wing on its neck and started off at a great rate for the 
other end of the pond. When far enough away she checked her speed and gave 
it another chance. Then with her wobbly passenger she continued to the 
end of the pond, where she was joined by her mate. Here they sported about 
for some time, the young bird plunging from the the back of one and swim- 



At Home with a Hell -Diver 



247 



ming across to the other, all seemingly forgetful of the rest of the family. 
Finally they disappeared into the rushes, and I continued my course around 
the pond. 

From the alders at the far end a strange call floated out; 'wup-pup-pup- 
caow-caow-caow-cao-o-o-o-o-ow' the note sounded to me, and was sometimes 
answered by its mate calling 'cuck-cuck-cuck-oo-oo-00-,' and I knew that 
another pair of Grebes had chosen this secluded pond for their home. Careful 
search revealed only a deserted or incompleted nest, and I continued until I 
came to a weedy stretch. Examining it with binoculars, before entering, as it 
was quite open, I espied another of these elusive water-witches upon its nest. 
Unfortunately it saw me at the same time and rose, quickly and deftly pulling 
fragments from the rim and piling them over the eggs. It was the work of 




ASSISTING THE YOUNG FROM THE SHELL 



248 



Bird - Lore 



but a moment, then the Grebe plunged from the nest and disappeared beneath 
the water, not to be seen again that day. Hoping to study the home-life of 
this bird, I cut a few branches and built a partial shelter about twenty feet 
away; but disappointment awaited me, for when I came back at two in the 
afternoon and again at five, the Grebe had not returned. 




CARRYING OFF THE EGG-SHELL 

Two days later found me again at the pond, bent upon studying the old 
birds with their young and making another trial upon the incubating bird. I 
arrived about seven a.m., but a careful survey of the whole surface failed to 
reveal any of the Grebes. Neither was the second bird upon the nest, though 
the warmth of the eggs attested her recent departure. Securing a boat, ^I 
drifted about the pond, searching the edge of the rushes, and soon was rewarded 
by a movement a hundred yards or so below the first nest. The old bird came 



At Home with a Hell -Diver 



249 



into sight, diving and splashing as before to distract my attention, and I 
barely caught a glimpse of the young before they disappeared. I realized that 
it would be futile to try to observe them so long as they had the whole pond 
for a hiding-place, and I therefore resolved to catch them and limit their 
range. The next task was to tie threads to their legs and to fasten them near 
the edge of the rushes where they could be watched conveniently after the old 
birds should have found them. 

After about two hours I returned, but there was no sign of either of the old 
birds until five o'clock, after the whole day had been spent in fruitless waiting. 
Then one of them approached, calling 'cup'-'cup,' as it had done before, 




INDULGING IN A PRODIGIOUS YAWN 

and the young answered with low, lisping peeps. Turning her tail to them, 
she lifted her wings and waited their climbing on her back, encouraging them 
to follow by moving slowly away. This they did, but usually reached the limit 
of their threads before they were able to crawl up completely. I was inter- 
ested to see whether, after repeated trials and failures on the part of the old 
bird, she would fathom the difficulty; but it proved entirely beyond the scope 
of her past experience. I secured a number of photographs of the old bird with 
the young at her side but as soon as they were safely ensconced upon her 
back, they snuggled down beneath her wings, hardly ruffling her feathers, 
and never deigned to raise their heads. The light soon became too poor for 
photographing so I freed the young and awaited the result. The old bird 
backed up to them, as she had done scores of times before, raised her wings in 
the approved fashion and started slowly off. The young were soon safely upon 



iSo Bird - Lore 

her back, and this time continued with her. I looked for some expression of 
surprise or satisfaction, but not one of them blinked an eye. As though this 
were the first time she had invited them to ride, she swam unconcernedly 
toward the middle of the pond, where I left them in the gathering dusk. 




CALLING TO ITS YOUNG 

Eight days passed before another trip to the pond was possible. Neither 
the old nor the young of the first nest were seen on this visit, but the eggs 
in the second nest were hatching. The Grebe was incubating when I arrived 
at eight in the morning, but as I approached she covered the eggs and departed. 
Her further actions, however, entirely changed; for, instead of disappearing 
as formerly, she came up again a few yards away, and began beating upon the 
water with her wings even more frantically than had the first bird. She con- 
tinued diving and splashing until the camera was ready, when she inconsider- 
ately desisted. 

Only one of the eggs had hatched, and the young had been covered with as 
much care as the eggs. The eggshell was gone. Concealing the camera near 



At Home with a Hell -Diver 



251 



the nest, I pulled my boat into some bushes about fifty feet away, from which 
an unobstructed view could be obtained. It was evident that the instinct to 
protect the nest had been greatly augumented by the hatching of the first egg, 
but whether this would extend to the instinct to incubate was yet to be learned. 
The Grebe soon came back to the vicinity, but was evidently alarmed. Most 
of the time it swam back and forth behind the nest, flashing its white flank 
feathers; occasionally it peered into the nest, but, even after hours of waiting, 
when its nervousness had entirely disappeared, it showed no disposition to 
ascend the nest. It certainly appeared as though incubation were unnecessary 
with this bird. After about three hours, when hope had almost vanished, 
something seemed to arouse its interest, and suddenly, without the slightest 




THE OLD BIRD SWAM UP TO MEET IT 

hesitation, it sprang upon the nest and began prodding into it with its bill. 
At first I was at a loss to understand such strange actions, but, upon a closer 
view, saw that another egg had hatched, and the old bird had been assisting 
the young from the shell. A white substance which I had seen in the bfll of 
the Grebe as she was departing must have been a fragment of eggshell, as 



252 



Bird - Lore 



half of it had disappeared. Hardly was I back in the blind before the bird 
returned, and, again without warning, sprang lightly and gracefully upon the 
nest — this time to seize the remaining fragment of shell, lest by its conspicu- 
ousness it should add to the manifold dangers of her newly hatched young. 

She carried it but a 
short distance away, 
however, and dropped 
it into the water. 

The first - hatched 
young, having now be 
come quite lively, had 
struggled free from 
the weeds with which 
it had been covered; 
but the newly-hatched 
bird was still very 
weak, and most of the 
time lay on the bot- 
tom of the nest with 
its neck outstretched. 
Occasionally as though 
not yet recovered from 
its previous cramped 
existence, or as though 
bored with the stern 
horizon of the life be- 
fore it, it raised its 
head and indulged in a prodigious yawn — a yawn such as Ursus might give 
when aroused from his winter's sleep. A more scientific diagnosis might 
have explained these yawns as physical rather than emotional; but, to my 
eye untrained in Podicipian infirmities, they expressed only weariness and 
acute ennui. 

I next uncovered the eggs and young, thinking that the old bird might 
see fit to get upon the nest and cover them. I was disappointed, however, for, 
as she approached, she changed her alarm {keck) note to the call-note {cup), 
and the first-hatched was strong enough and obedient enough to scramble 
from the nest. The old bird swam up to meet it, backed up, lifting her wings, 
and a moment later started off with her youngster upon her back, leaving me 
to spend the rest of the day awaiting her return, communing with muskrats 
and dragon-flies and the omnipresent mosquitos. 

Sixteen days passed before my next visit to the pond, when, of course, all 
the eggs had hatched and the young had left the vicinity. One hundred yards 
down the pond and quite in the open at the outer edge of the rushes, I flushed 




CLIMBING ABOARD 



At Home with a Hell -Diver 



253 



the old bird and several young from a new nest that had evidently been con- 
structed as a sort of roosting- or resting-place. The down of the young is evi- 
dently not as impervious to water as are the feathers of the adults, and it is 
necessary- for them to emerge from the water occasionally to dry off. Whether 
the original nest would have been used for this purpose if it had not been dis- 
turbed, cannot be said; but I am inclined to believe that these 'roost-nests' 
are frequently constructed, as several more were found in other parts of the 
pond, probably built by other Grebes. In construction they were similar to 
the regular nests, except that the hoUow, never having been filled with debris 
was always better formed. The young at this time, although but sixteen days 
old, showed remarkable growth; but I was forced to cease my observations 
at this point. 




THE FIRST RIDE 



The Morning Bird Chorus in Pasadena 

By GARRETT NEWKIRK 

THE full chorus begins here, as it does everyvv'here else, with the dawn — 
that is, when there is just enough light in the sky to show that day 
will come in a few minutes, and yet quite dark all around and beneath. 
Some bird, awake and more watchful than the others, or advantaged by his 
position on the sunward side of a tree, gives forth the first note. 

If you are awake and listening, you may hear it. At the time of this writing, 
May 15, it will be by the clock, "western time," about 4.15. Most people 
never hear the bird chorus because they are asleep at that time. If they were 
awake, they would hardly note the first bird- voice; they would not be listen- 
ing for it. 

In this world we usually see what we are looking for, and hear what we 
listen for. We have in mind, as a rule, whatever we seek and find. Even if we 
are startled, surprised by something, the mind has in some way been prepared 
by training for its recognition. 

It seems as if the first bird wakens a number of others; they add their 
voices instantly to his, and in a few moments all the birds are awake. Every 
one adds his note of joy. The effect is more than a song or chorus, it is a cheer. 
It might remind one of a political mass-meeting, when some leader stands 
upon the platform, waves his cane, and calls out "Hip, hip, hipl" and all join 
in, each at the top of his voice, "Hurrahl" and again, "three times three," 
"Hurrahl" 

So the birds are cheering the coming of the day, not with a hoarse and 
strident "hurrah," but each with his joyful song. 

The full chorus will continue, however, but a few minutes. As the light 
increases, sentiment gives way, as it does in human life, to practical necessity. 
One by one, the songsters are impelled by their all-night fast to seek their 
breakfast where it may be found, and they know. Some know that breakfast 
is not ready yet for them, and keep on singing. Some sing at intervals between 
the courses of their meal; but the real "chorus" is soon over; just as the enthus- 
iastic democrats or republicans may continue cheering on their way home 
or at their front gates, so do the birds. 

This bird chorus might be likened to a pyramid of music with the base at 
dawn and the apex at six o'clock, when they are all too busy to think of sing- 
ing very much. 

When the chorus is in full, only the trained ear could distinguish each of 
the many voices engaged, or a majority of them. Some of course are loud and 
evident; others must be listened for particularly. I am sure that I cannot 
segregate the half of them, for every voice, from the least to the greatest, 

joins in. 

Each one as if a dozen songs were chorused in his own, 
And all the world were listening to him, and him alone. 

(254) 



The Morning Bird Chorus in Pasadena 255 

In my own immediate neighborhood, in Pasadena, surrounded by consider- 
able open space with trees, the leader of the chorus in May is certainly the 
Black-headed Grosbeak. He gives the first, or one of the first notes, and his 
voice may be heard almost continuously above all, and the sweetest, too, 
unless it be the Western Meadowlark, who surpasses his brother of the East, 
in the compass and clearness of his songs. 

But the Grosbeak sings on all day, and up to the very dark. He seems 
loath to cease for the evening shades. He is like some happy housewife sing- 
ing at her work, singing to her babes, singing to herself, and to all whose ears 
are attuned to hear the voice of gladness anywhere. 

I may be mistaken, but it seems to me that our Mockingbird takes second 
place in the chorus. He is, of course, our star performer, and knows it so well 
that he likes to be a soloist. He is apparently a very self-conscious sort of bird, 
an actor posing for efi"ect and special recognition. I know that no mere man is 
capable of judging really the 'soul of a bird;' but Mr. Burroughs has a similar 
impression as to the Mocker, even to the extent of aversion that I do not have. 
He thinks the Mocker is just a cold-blooded artist, with no real feeling in his 
performance. Well, the Mockingbird would not be willing to be left out of 
anything going on in public, so he joins now and then our morning chorus. 
But I have the feeling that he isn't exactly pleased to be outclassed by the 
Grosbeak, and overborne by the volume of sound proceeding from the throats 
of all those inferior birds. 

The Arizona Hooded Oriole (who builds usually here on the under side of 
a broad palm leaf) may be heard occasionally in the chorus by a trained ear, 
but he does not specialize in music. His glorious beauty and charming manner 
fully compensate. Bullock's Oriole has a voice of emphasis, easily distin- 
guished, and he likes to exercise it in the morning air. It is not specially musi- 
cal, and seems to have a challenge in it, "Touch me if you dare! I'll keep my 
place if you'll keep yours." Bullock's is the western representative — close 
brother or cousin — of the eastern Baltimore. 

Easily distinguished in the chorus will be the voice of our Song Sparrows. 
We have a number of varieties, or sub-species. (Some who have been winter- 
visitants are not here now, but a number of others remain.) Their mingling 
strain is delightfully sweet, and ever remindful of the old voice we used to hear 
back east. Equal to it? Not quite, I think; but we are happy to possess the 
song of second quality, as we cannot have the first. It is delightful, anyway. 

Early in the season — February or March — the California Thrasher, bird 
of the foothills, is quite sure to come singly or in pairs for a vacation in town. 

A plain, brown bird and slender, with delicate, curving bill, 
No great pretense of feather but a voice to make you thrill. 

Only once or twice I have heard of a pair nesting near a house. A chief 
attraction for the Thrasher is the rich ground of our gardens and orchards, 



256 Bird - Lore 

where worms are plentiful near the surface; and he is a wonderful scratcher. 
I have seen him cultivating the flower-beds, even, and he is very fond of my 
bread bits. His song is delightful and unique. It reminds me at times of the 
Catbird's, though much louder, and of certain notes of the Mocker. 

Along the arroyo often, elsewhere occasionally, one might distinguish in 
the chorus, and hear at intervals all day, the delicate, clear strain of the 
Phainopepla, that beautiful creature, iridescent bluish black with pointed 
crest, wing-bars of gauzy white ; worth going far to see. 

But the singers never absent from our chorus, enthusiastic, continuous, 
are the Linnets, or crimson-throated House Finches, happy and unpopular. 
We could ill afford to spare them from our chorus, or their cherry singing all 
day long, injurious though they sometimes are to bud and fruit. 

If our friends, their enemies, would take the trouble to cut in two some of 
the millions of 'cull' oranges that are otherwise worthless, and scatter their 
halves daily on the ground, the Linnets would find in them much of the fruit 
acid they crave. They are not vicious, just dear and joyous. 

Then, we have in our chorus, too, the "Warbler's minor music," faintly 
heard, and the small notes of minor Sparrows. Little Chippie, near my win- 
dow this morning, was 'chipping in' with the regularity almost of a clock-tick, 
and something like it. He was doing his best, but, contrasted with the bell- 
like tones of the Grosbeak, the effect was amusing. 

And then we have the sweet little notes, that touch your heart whenever 
you hear them, of our dear little Willow Goldfinches. Occasionally will sound 
the strident note of our Flicker, nearby or a block away, just to let you know 
he's here, and has a nest in some old tree or telephone pole half a mile off. He's 
a glorious bird, with rich old-gold, instead of the lighter yellow of his east- 
ern cousin. 

In a lull of the chorus growing less, you may hear, if you listen closely, 
a little squeak in the bushes, of the Brown Towhee, our very exclusive, usually 
silent citizen. But he can sing, if he will, a solo or duet. I have heard 
it just once. 

Along the arroyo, where some people are protecting coveys of Valley Quail^ 
their entrancing notes are heard, not only in the chorus but at other times^ 
notably at the sunset hour. 

And nearly all these birds of the chorus I may see each morning later in 
my back yard, beneath the spreading branches of a great pepper tree. There 
I have scattered the night before, a plentiful supply of bread and other cereal 
scraps, to be in early readiness. There, too, is the dripping hydrant and basin 
for their use. No meat scraps are thrown out till later; those might attract 
the cats. They, however, seldom appear on my premises, having been dis- 
couraged in divers ways.* 

*£very center of population, and important premise should have plots of ground known 

as "catacombs." 



The Morning Bird Chorus in Pasadena 



257 



Is the morning bird chorus worth waking for? I think so. If I could not 
awake otherwise, at the "first peep o' day," I'd set an alarm clock to call me 
at least once. 

If enthusiasm, hope and joy are contagious, surely one could not afford 
to miss entirely the inspiring chorus of the birds, when they are 

Calling on the world asleep to waken, and behold 
The king in glory coming forth along his path of gold. 



§?- 




THE PEWEE'S NOTE 

Tbe voice of your sadness 

So sweet is, Pewee, 
With voice for your gladness 

A songster youd he. 

— E. J. Sawyer. 



Destruction of the Rhea, Black-Necked Swan, Herons^ 
and Other Wild Life in South America 

By LEO E. MILLER 

NO ONE will question that the federal law prohibiting the importatioQ 
of the plumage of wild birds, has achieved results of far-reaching 
importance. Perhaps in no other country has its effect been sa 
immediately felt as in South America. 

In the early part of November, 19 13, as a member of Colonel Roose- 
velt's South American Expedition, I had occasion to spend a week in Buenos 
Aires. Following my usual custom, I visited the various natural history 
stores, curio shops, and exporting houses, for in this manner I have occasion- 
ally succeeded in adding a rare specimen of real scientific value to the 
collections. 

Newly made acquaintances interested themselves in my behalf, had fur- 
nished letters of introduction to Mr. Hahn, the Guatemalan Minister, who had 
at some previous time been a controlling figure in the natural-products export 
business. From Mr. Hahn were secured the letters that opened to us the 
inmost recesses of the warehouse of M. EUi, probably the largest concern of 
its kind in South America. Mr. Elli personally conducted us through his 
establishment. 

At first the bales and heaps of mammal skins held my attention. Promi- 
nent among them were many thousands of skins of the otter, although this 
animal is fast disappearing from its old haunts. Our guide explained that the 
firm furnished the traps, and that a good man, upon discovering a lake or stream 
inhabited by otters, could catch all the inhabitants of the colony with great 
case, visiting the traps several times each day to remove the captives. I 
think the government of Argentine was contemplating the adoption of some 
protective measure, at the time of our visit, to prevent these animals from 
being entirely exterminated. 

Probably next in order of abundance were the skins of deer, those of the 
great, beautiful marsh deer predominating. The smaller mammals such as 
rabbits, skunks, opossums, coypu rats, and various small rodents, were well 
represented by thousands of pelts. One great bale that excited my curiosity 
was found to contain the breasts of Penguins, — many hundreds of them. 

My attention was next directed to the ceiling. We were in a great, long, 
barn-like room, the 'ceiling' of which was supported by strong rafters that 
ran, close together, the length of the room. On nails and hooks driven into 
both sides of these rafters, hung immense bunches of entire skins of the Black- 
necked Swan. There were many, many thousands of them, and, as we looked 
in speechless amazement, our host explained that at certain seasons of the 
year these birds congregated on the rivers of Lower Argentine in great numbers, 
and that a good gunner could usually kill several at one shot. I ventured ta 

(259) 



26o 



Bird - Lore 



inquire for what purpose these skins were used; and was told, though not in 
these same words, that the only excuse or reason for this wholesale slaughter 
of the beautiful and graceful creatures was to supply the women of the civi- 
lized world with powder-puffs. I wonder how many women have realized 




RHEAS IN THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN AT BUENOS AIRES 
Photographed by L. E. Miller 

this gruesome fact, when insisting on "genuine swan's down" when purchas- 
ing the fluffy daubers! But the greatest surprise of all was still awaiting us. 
I was called into the office and given the opportunity to listen to some 
rather heated arguments against the laws that had recently been enacted in 
my country, prohibiting the importation of wild birds' plumage. And by 
degrees it dawned upon me that the concern had a large sum of money invested 
in a stock of these goods, upon which it suddenly found it impossible to realize. 
As proof, I was shown into a lower storeroom almost completely filled with 
enormous burlap-covered bales that were stacked from floor to ceiling. These 
were filled with Rhea feathers, and I was repeatedly assured that they had all 
been taken from wild killed birds; and that practically the only market that 
existed for these feathers was the United States of America, where they were 
manufactured into dusters. No other country imported sufficient quantities 
to render their collection profitable. As I vainly tried to estimate the quan- 
tity that was housed within those four walls, I was relieved of all difficulty 
by being told that there were exactly sixty thousand kilos — approximately 



Destruction of Wild Life in South America 



261 



sixty tons. Next day I purchased a copy of the bulletin giving the statistics 
of Argentine imports and exports. I found that 34,206 kilos, over thirty-four 
tons of Rhea feathers had been exported during the first six months of the 
fiscal year. Later, while strolling through the zoological gardens of Buenos 
Aires, I came upon two splendid specimens of the Rhea insolently blocking 
my path, and I wanted to congratulate these fortunate individuals upon 
having escaped the general massacre. 

The markets of Buenos TVires, at this season, were abundantly supplied 
with Solitary and Pectoral Sandpipers, and Greater and Lesser Yellow-legs. 
Tinamon of two species (N. maculosa and Colopersus elegansis) were offered 
by the barrel and basketful. In Asuncion, Paraguay, small birds, including 
Tanagers and Ovenbirds were occasionally on sale, plucked, though in small 
nmnbers. 

Several months later I was spending a short time among the Portuguese 
planters on the Lower Madeira and Solimoens, where are found the impene- 
trable swamps interspersed with shallow lagoons. It was the beginning of the 
nesting season, and Herons were donning their fatal nuptial garments. An 
agent had \asited the locality a short time before, offering to buy all aigrettes 
collected at three contos of reis (about $1,000) per kilo (about 2 lbs.). Judg- 




PORTUGUESE PLANTERS' HUT ON THE SOLIMOENS WHERE LARGE 

NUMBERS OF EGRETS ARE KILLED 

Photographed by L . E. Miller 



ing by the numbers of the birds as I had seen them, and they were 
not extremely abundant here, I was calculating how many shots would be 
required to secure enough birds to produce two pounds of aigrettes, and if the 
high price of ammunition in Brazil would make it a profitable occupation for 
the natives. The birds seemed fairly safe. My swarthy Portuguese friend 



362 



Bird - Lore 



for a time ventured no information beyond answering my questions. Then 
decided to admit me into his confidence; and the single word "veneno" spoke 
volumes. 

About the time the Heron's plumage is at its best, the annual floods have 
begun to recede, leaving shallow lakes and marshes teeming with myriads of 
imprisoned fish. And as the drying-up process continues, the stranded fish 
die in heaps. I saw tons of them — dying, dead and decaying — in the pan- 
tanales on the Taquary. It was the season of harvest for the Jabiru, Heron, 
Vulture and opossum, and they were enjoying their periodical feast to the full. 

It is the custom of the plume-hunter, I was told, to collect quantities of 
these fish, poison them, and then scatter them broadcast over the Heron's 
feeding-grounds. Occasionally, poisoned shrimp are used, if the inundations 
extend beyond the usual time. This method is of course cheaper than shooting: 
the birds are not frightened away, and the results of such relentless persecu- 
tion must be obvious. A whole colony may be exterminated in its feeding- 
grounds, even if the rookery is impregnable. 

I do not know to what extend this process of extermination is carried on. 
I have never seen it in operation, and had never heard of it elsewhere. But 
such, my informant assured me, are the methods employed on the Madeira 
and Solimoens. 




MOURNING DOVE 
Photographed by Guya Bailer, Geneseo, N, Y. 



Comparative Abundance of Birds 
A Letter from Abbott H. Thayer 

Editor of Bird-Lore: 

I send you herewith a letter from Professor Munsterberg. 

Having long believed that our common birds are not widely diminishing, 
except in certain special cases where circumstances of civilization have ceased 
to sustain them at an artificial abundance (as in the case of Swifts and Barn 
Swallows), I asked Prof. Hugo Munsterberg, the Harvard Professor of 
Psychology, to corroborate my belief that circular question-lists sent about to 
gather the public opinion on this subject are dangerous and misleading, 
because of the very psychological reason that he gives in the accompany- 
ing letter. 

His answer sent you herewith should influence all the local Audubon Socie- 
ties who publish such dismal annovmcements. These Societies will swiftly 
diminish their own credit by such an unscientific position. 

Let me here say that I go annually over my boyhood stamping-ground 
around Keene, N. H., a small city of ten thousand inhabitants, now about twice 
the size it was fifty years ago when I knew every foot of its surroundings. 
Every meadow has still its Meadowlarks and, close by the town, one of the 
principal meadows has still its Upland Plovers; although I do not, of course, 
class this species with the rest. Bobolinks are everywhere that they ever 
were; hundreds of them, young and old, crowd the fences, the grass, and the 
tops of the neighboring groves, when the year's generation is accomplished. 
Every wet place has its Redwings; the elms their Orioles and Crackles; the 
river its Spotted Sandpipers and Wood Ducks. Bluebirds are just now scarce 
hereabouts, but I saw three or four pairs last week in Keene, and, to my great 
joy, Nighthawks seem to be picking up. There, again, they build on the tops 
of the stores about the center of the town. It is true, I saw only one individual 
there, the other day, but it was the first for several years; we have seen four 
in all, hereabouts, this year. In this region Hermit Thrushes still seem less 
numerous than up to 191 2, and in Dublin I have seen no Bluebirds this sea- 
son; but, taking the whole region together, its bird fauna is, in my belief, 
unabated. Its Robins, Bobolinks, Catbirds, Kingbirds, Flickers, Orioles, 
Warblers, Swallows, Flycatchers, its three kinds of Vireo, its Meadowlarks, 
Spotted Sandpipers, and many other species, are all at their posts, and this, 
in my belief, is all there ever were. Of course, all species fluctuate, and the 
Hermits and Bluebirds will doubtless abound again. — A. H. Thayer, Monad- 
nock, N. H., May 31, 1914. 

Professor Miinsterberg's Letter 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 28, 1914- 
My dear Sir: You raise the interesting question of whether the testimony 
of those who claim that many species of bird are today less common than 

(263) 



264 



Bird - Lore 



formerly is reliable. I should say that such testimony underlies all the well- 
known illusions which are today familiar to the psychologist through recent 
experimental studies concerning the value of evidence on the witness stand. 
The illusions of perception, of memory, of suggestion, of attention, play an 
important role there. 

In this particular case, it may be taken as probable that, looking backward^ 
the imagination exaggerates the pleasure received from such birds in the past 
in comparison with the present experience. If the feelings were different, if 
it were the question of dangerous birds, or of birds disliked for any other rea- 
son, the suggestive illusion would probably be the opposite. The observers 
would have the impression that there are more birds today than formerly, 
because displeasures of the past are easily underestimated as compared with 
present displeasures. I should not trust such impressionistic records at all. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Me. a. H. Thayer. Hugo Munsterberg. 

Monadnock, N. H. 




FEMALE REDSTART, NEST AND YOUNG 
Photographed by Arthur A. Allen, Ithaca, N. Y. 



Why the Birds Are Decreasing 

By ROLLA 'WARREN KIMSEY, Lathrop, Mo. 

BIRDS are a great deal like people. There is probably no bird, regard- 
less of what its reputation for good may be, but that does some harm. 
Most of our best-known insect-destroyers are also great lovers of fruit ; 
devouring large quantities of cherries, strawberries and grapes. I think, 
however, that, all things considered, the good done by the feathered folk is 
sufficient to credit them, as a class, as the friend of man. Then, if it is a fact 
that the birds are decreasing, it is time for something practical to be done for 
their protection. 

The first thing I desire to set forth is that the breeding-places are being 
destroyed. I have in mind a certain territory where hawthorn, red thorn, 
wild plum and crab trees, wild rose-bushes and other small, thick bushes 
grew in profusion along the streams, fence-corners and roadside. These fur- 
nished an ideal nesting-place, and also protection, for the Catbird, Brown 
Thrasher and Mockingbird. Then there were miles of hedge-fence, so closely 
matted that it was almost impossible for one to locate or reach a nest within 
the thorns. In these places I have found dozens of nests in the course of an 
afternoon stroll. Now this land has been steadily advancing in value, and as 
a result, the brush and thickets have been cleared away, the hedge-fences 
uprooted, and along the roadside appears the neat wire fence. The birds that 
once found shelter and protection for their nest and young have been forced 
to build more in the open, or to leave the neighborhood for more desirable 
nesting-places. So, with less protection, a greater number of their young 
are being destroyed each year. I go over the same ground, and consider myself 
fortunate if I find three or four nests where in previous years I have found 
many, with little eflfort. 

Around almost every farmhouse there are from six to fifteen half-fed cats. 
In the villages and cities there are hundreds of them, homeless, and li\dng as 
it were by their wits. The birds, that love the friendship and companionship 
of man, build their nests in the great trees around the house, and in the old 
neglected orchard, which knows nothing about a pruning-hook or saw. In 
one of these old trees I have seen the nest of a Woodpecker in a decayed stub ; 
up in a substantial fork, the nest of a Robin; and on a low, flat limb, a Dove 
over her eggs. But now the old orchard has given way to closely trimmed, 
business-like trees, in which a nest would have no more protection than out 
on the highway. I have stood in some yards and counted ten and twelve 
nests, without moving. Now it is about the yard and orchard that the cat 
gets in its most deadly work. It is impossible for young birds to stay in the 
trees when learning to fly; in fact, one will find them on the ground nearly as 
often as in the trees. And how often have I been reading in the shade, on some 
summer day, to be aroused by the cry of a fledgling Oriole or Robin, as it strug- 

(26s) 



266 



Bird - Lore 



gled in the jaws of a wretched cat. This is going on constantly, for there is no 
food for which a cat will seek more diligently than young birds, in nesting-time. 

In the territory of which I speak, there are only two birds that seem to 
hold their own: the Meadowlark and the English Sparrow. I need not go into 
detail about the latter, but shall give a reason as to why the Larks have, to all 
appearances, held their own, and seem to be as numerous as ever. Their 
breeding-places have been increased. I mean that the timothy and clover 
fields furnish ideal nesting-places for them ; for, as soon as the young leave the 
nest, they are well protected by the long grass from Hawks and any Var- 
mints' that would prey upon them. If one ever attempted to catch a young 
Lark in the tall grass he will readily understand my position, when I refer to 
the hay-fields as protection. Then the rapidity with which Quails will multi- 
ply, when given a closed season, bears out the position that any bird that 
builds in the grass is well protected. 

What is the remedy? It must come through the states, and from the 
counties within the states. Every county should have a bird park, where 
rose-bushes, buck bushes, plum thickets, thorn trees, and all kinds of wild 
trees, can grow in rank profusion. The park will become a sort of a recruiting 
point, as the birds will soon learn to nest there; and, if the farmers are 
instructed to encourage the growth of thick shrubs along their fence-rows, 
the birds will scatter out over the country. 

Cats in town should be taxed and required to wear a small collar. This 
would cull out a large number of the prowlers. Then our farmers need some 
advice along the cat line. 

Finally, there are only two questions before us: Do we need the birds? 
Are they decreasing? If an affirmative answer is given to the above questions, 
I shall add, no expense should be withheld for their protection. 




The Migration of North American Sparrows 

TWENTY-NINTH PAPER 

Compiled by Prof. W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 

(See Frontispiece) 

LARK BUNTING 

Wintering in northern Mexico, and less commonly in southern Texas 
and southern Arizona, the Lark Bunting begins its northward journey in early 
March, but migrates so slowly that it is the first of June before it reaches 
the northern limit of its breeding range. Its principal home is on the treeless 
prairies just east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, whence it spreads 
west in migration to southern California and has wandered east to Mount 
Pleasant, S. C, April 19, 1895; Montauk Point, N. Y., September 4, 1888; 
and Lynn, Mass., December 5, 1877. 



SPRING MIGRATION 



PLACE 



Southern Arizona 

Pilot Knob, Calif 

Southern New Mexico. . . 
Pahrump Valley, Nev. . . , 
Springfield, Colo. (near). 

Beloit, Colo, (near) 

Yuma, Colo 

Denver, Colo. (near). . . . 

Cheyenne, Wyo 

Badger, Nebr 

Valentine, Nebr. (near).. 

Rapid City, S. D 

Harrison, S. D. (near) . . . 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Terry, Mont 

Aweme, Manitoba (near) 

Indian Head, Sask 

Dinsmore, Sask 

Flagstaff, Alberta 



Number 
of years' 
record 



.\verage date of 
spring arrival 



March i 
April 6 



^ 


April 29 


5 


May 2 


s 


May 8 


4 


May 14 


4 


May 10 


4 


May 7 


6 


May 9 


S 


May 10 


9 


May 13 


8 


May 15 


7 


May 22 


.S 


May 26 


3 


May 31 



Earliest date of 
spring arrival 



February 13, 1910 
April 6, 1890 
April 3, 1892 
April 29, 1890 
April 27, 1908 
April 28, 1894 
May 4, 1906 
April 28, 1889 
May 7, 1888 
May 4, 1900 
April 22, 1894 
May 6, 1906 
May 10, 1 89 1 
May II, 1884 
May 10, 1893 
May 15, 1908 
May 15, 1908 
May 22, 1909 
May 24, 1909 



The last were noted at San Antonio, Tex., on the average May 6, and the 
latest May 13, 1899; the last in the Huachucas, Ariz., May 16, 1902; and at 
Poway, Calif., May 25, 1886. 

The southward movement in the fall begins so early that by July 27, 1881, 
the first appeared at Brownsville, Tex., several hundred miles south of the 
breeding range. The average date of the first seen in southern New Mexico 
is August 2, earliest July 31, 1901, and in southern Arizona, average August 7, 
earliest August 5, 1909. An unusually early individual was noted July 20, 1905, 
at Santa Barbara, Calif. 

(267) 



268 Bird -Lore 

The last one noted at Badger, Nebr., was on September 28, 1899; Rapid 
City, S. D., average October i, latest October 2, 191 1; Yuma, Colo, (near), 
average September 13, latest September 21, 1891, and Carrizozo, N. M., 
October 28, 1902. 

SHARPE'S SEEDEATER 

The principal home of Sharpe's Seedeater is in northeastern Mexico, but 
some individuals migrate north in summer to the lower Rio Grande Valley 
of Texas, and at this season the species is fairly common locally in Cameron 
and Hidalgo Counties. It arrives on the average near Brownsville, March 18, 
earliest February 21, 1880, and may occasionally winter, as one was taken 
January 30. 1S80 at Brownsville. 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 

TWENTY-EIGHTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(See Frontispiece) 

Sharpe's Seedeater {Sporophila morelletisharpei, Figs, i, 2). — The plumages 
of this little Seedeater are still a puzzle to ornithologists. In southern Mexico 
and southward, the adult male has a jet-black back and broad black breast- 
band, but in northeastern Mexico and the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas, 
no specimen of this kind has been taken, and our plate (Fig. i) shows as mature 
a male as is known from this region. It is because of this difference in the 
plumage that a northern race of the bird has been described; but whether 
in this northern bird the back and breast never become black, or whether as 
yet a fully adult male has not been found, is an open question. In my opinion, 
the first-named condition is correct; in other words, Sharpe's Seedeater never 
has the back and breast-band wholly black. Consequently, in its fully adult 
plumage it resembles the southern race of this species {i.e. Morellet's Seed- 
eater) in immature plumage. 

The case is unusual and doubtless requires further investigation. In the 
meantime, I have not the material for a satisfactory study of this Seedeater's 
plumage changes. The case is complicated by the impossibility of determining 
whether winter specimens from southern Mexico are residents or migrants 
from the North. 

Lark Bunting {Calamospiza melanocorys, Figs. 3-5). — It is difficult to 
explain under any theory of protective coloration, the relation between the 
plumage and the haunts of the male Lark Bunting. Conspicuous in color, 
and action, it inhabits the open plains where cover is scant and where one 
might well imagine it was exposed to such enemies as it may possess. The 
female, however, is in a high degree protectively colored; and, indeed, it is 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 269 

only during the mating- and nesting-season that the male wears his striking 
black-and-white costume. 

The nestling male is buffy white, faintly streaked below; above the feathers 
are blackish margined with buffy, producing a somewhat scaled appearance. 
At the postjuvenal molt the tail and wing-quills are retained, the rest of the 
plumage molted. The new plumage (first winter) resembles that of the female 
but the wings and tail are blacker and there is more black on the underparts, 
particularly on the throat. 

The breeding or nuptial plumage is gained by a spring or prenuptial molt, 
in which, as in the postjuvenal or first fall molt, the tail and wing-quills are 
retained. The body plumage, wing-coverts and tertials are shed and replaced 
by the black- and-white breeding-dress. Birds in their first nuptial plumage 
may now be distinguished from fully mature birds by their browner wings and 
tail and, often, less intensely black body feathers. 

At the postnuptial or fall molt, which, as usual, is complete, the bird 
assumes a costume somewhat like that of the first winter ; but the tail and wing- 
quills are now fully black and there is more black on the underparts. 




WOOD PEWEE 
Photographed by Guy A. Bailey, Geneseo, N. Y. 



A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 

^LTHOUGH we received seventy-one reports on the migration of the 
/\ first group of birds — Robin, Red-winged Blackbird and Phoebe — 
(including five that were held and sent with the second group), only 
forty-four reports on the Chimney Swift, House Wren and Baltimore Oriole 
have come in. Therefore we cannot make such comparisons nor come to such 
conclusions as might have been possible from a larger number of returns. It 
would have been interesting, for instance, to see whether the Swifts reached 
Nova Scotia from the mainland, as the Robins apparently did, or entered 
the south end directly, from over the water. 

The migration of the present three species called forth few comments as 
to its being unusual in any way. Pittsburgh reported all three as being uncom- 
monly early, Milwaukee that the Oriole was four days ahead of its record, 
and New Haven that the Swift and Wren were late. For all three species the 
Mississippi Valley dates average several days earlier than those of the 
Atlantic coast. 

The Chimney Swift averaged the earliest species to appear and to become 
common, though at some stations, particularly in the north, it was the latest. 
The first individuals took just a month from southeastern Pennsylvania to the 
far end of Nova Scotia. As with the Robins, after passing New York City, 
those that continued along the coast went much faster than those that followed 
up the big river valleys. Swifts reached northern Vermont but three or four 
days before others reached northern Nova Scotia, though the former is three 
hundred, and the latter seven hundred miles from New York. That makes 
the advance of the species along the coast about thirty-two, and up the Hud- 
son and Champlain Valleys less than seventeen miles a day. This rate is much 
slower than the Robin's, which was forty-seven and twenty miles, respectively. 

Although the House Wren breeds north to New Brunswick and Quebec, 
it is apparently too rare north of southern New England to be counted on 
regularly. In the Middle West, however, it is common much farther north — 
as far as these records extend. In Norway, Maine, "In 191 1 several bird- 
houses in town had one lone House Wren, who made a nest and sang and 
waited for a week or two, but no mates arrived and they disappeared. We 
never saw them before or since." It is remarkable that this species was noted 
at Viroqua, Wis., twenty days earlier than at any other station in that state, 
and thirteen days earlier than at any other station from Missouri northward, 
— in fact, it became common there six days before it was first seen elsewhere 
in Wisconsin. 

The Baltimore Oriole seemed to become common at substantially the same 
date along a line from the lower Delaware Valley to southwestern Maine 
(except at Bernardsville, which is in the hilly interior of northern New Jersey), 
and to reach, several days later, points farthest to either side of that line, — ■ 
Orient, Bournedale, Clarendon and St. Albans. — Charles H. Rogers. 

(270) 



A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 271 

Reports were received from the following localities and persons: 

Atlantic Coast District. 

Benvyn, Chester Co., southeastern Pa. — Frank L. Burns. 

Andover, Sussex Co., northwestern N. J.— Mrs. W. K. Harrington. 

Bernardsville, Somerset Co., central northern N. J.— John Dryden Kuser. 

Port Chester, Westchester Co., southeastern N. Y.— James C. Maples, Samuel 

N. Comly, Paul C. Spofford, Bolton Cook. 
New Haven, New Haven Co., central southern Conn. — Aretas A. Saunders. 
Orient, eastern Long Island, N. Y. — Roy Latham. 
Waterbury, New Haven Co., western central Conn.— R. E. Piatt, Mrs. Nelson 

A. Pomeroy. 
South Auburn, northeastern R. I. — Harry S. Hathaway. 
Providence, northeastern R. I. — Roland Hammond, Lucy H. Upton. 
Cambridge and vicinity, Middlesex Co., eastern Mass. — Myles Peirce Baker, 
Bournedale, Barnstable Co., southeastern Mass. — Ethel L. Walker. 
Norway, Oxford Co., southwestern Maine. — Corabelle Cummings. 
Milton, Queens Co., southern N. S. — R. H. Wetmore. 
Antigonish, Antigonish Co., eastern N. S.— Harrison F. Lewis. 

Hudson and Champlain Valleys. 

Hyde Park, Dutchess Co., southeastern N. Y.— Harry T. Briggs. 
Rhinebeck, Dutchess Co., southeastern N. Y.— Maunsell S. Crosby. 
Clarendon, Rutland, Co., central western Vt.— L. Henry Potter. 
St. Albans, four miles north of, Franklin Co., northwestern Vt.— Lelia E. Hon- 
singer. 

Ohio Valley. 

Urbana, Champaign Co., central eastern 111. — Frank Smith and collaborators. 

Marco, Greene Co., southeastern Ind. — Mrs. Stella Chambers. 

Huron, Erie Co., central northern Ohio. — H. G. Morse. 

Detroit, Wayne Co., southwestern Mich. — Mrs. F. W. Robinson. 

Pittsburgh, within lo miles of, Allegheny Co.. central western Pa.— Thos. D. 

Burleigh. 
Collins, Erie Co., southwestern N. Y. — Dr. Anne E. Perkins. 
Geneva, Ontario Co., southwestern N. Y. — Otto McCreary. 
Aurora, Cayuga Co., southwestern N. Y. — Matilda Jacobs. 
Highland Park, Rochester, Monroe Co., southwestern N. Y. — William L. G. 

Edson. 
Reaboro, Victoria Co., central southern Ont. — E. W. Calvert. 

Mississippi Valley. 

Concordia, Lafayette Co., central western Mo.— Dr. Ferdinand Schreimann. 

Washington Park, Springfield, Sangamon Co., central 111.— Frances S. Davidson. 

Iowa City, Johnson Co., central eastern Iowa. — R. W. Wales. 

Zuma Twp., Rock Island Co., northwestern 111.— J. J. Schafer. 

Rockford, Winnebago Co., central northern Ill.^Norman E. Nelson. 

Atlantic, Cass Co., southwestern Iowa. — Thos. H. Whitney. 

Lauderdale Lakes, Walworth Co., southeastern Wis. — Lula Dunbar. 

Viroqua, Vernon Co., southwestern Wis. — Raymond Spellum. 

Milwaukee, Milwaukee Co., southeastern Wis. — Mrs. Mark L. Simpson. 



272 



Bird - Lore 



Mississippi Valley, continued. 

Madison, Dane Co., central southern Wis. — A. W. Schorger. 
Reedsburg, Sauk Co., central southern Wis. — Ethel A. Nott. 
Newberry, Luce Co., northeastern Mich. — Ralph Beebe. 
Lennox, Lincoln Co., southeastern S. D. — W. B. Mallory. 
Fargo, Cass Co., southeastern N. D. — O. A. Stevens. 



CHIMNEY SWIFT 



Atlantic Coast District. 

Berwyn, Pa 

Andover, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Port Chester, N. Y 

New Haven, Conn., and vie. 

Orient, L. I., N. Y 

Waterbury, Conn 

Providence, R. I., and vie... 
Cambridge, Mass., and vie. 

Bournedale, Mass 

Kittery Point, Me 

Norway, Me 

Milton, N. S 

Antigonish, N. S 

Hudson and Champlain Valleys 

Hvde Park, N. Y 

Rhinebeck, N. Y 

Clarendon, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt 

Ohio Valley, 

Urbana, 111 

Marco, Ind 

Huron, Ohio 

Detroit, Mich 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and vie 

Southwestern New York. . . . 
Reaboro, Ont 

Mississippi Valley. 

Concordia, Mo 

Wash. Park., Springfield, 111. 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Zuma Twp., Rock I. Co. ,111. 

Roekford, 111 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Lauderdale Lakes, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Newberry, Mich 

Lincoln Co., S. D 

Fargo, N. D 



First seen 



April 2 2 
April 26 
May 4 
April 27 
May I* 
May IS 
May s 
May 3 
May 4 
May II 
An early 
May 7 
May 18 
May 22 



April 23 
May 2 
May 8 
May 19 



April 21 
April 18 
April 18 
May 3 
April 25 
April 30 
May 4 



April 18 
May 24 
April 17 
April 29 
April 18 
April 23 
May 3 
April 27 
May 5 
April 27 
April 14 
May 18 
No record 
May IS 



Number 



4 

2 
2 

ndividual 

25 
common 



3 
3 
3 
7-8 
6 



Next seen 



April 27 
April 28 
May s 
April 30 
May 4 
May 17 
May 7 
May 6 

May IS 
April 21 
May 8 

May 23 



April 24 
May 3 
May 10 
May 20 



April 28 
April 22 
April 19 

April 26 
May I 
May s 



April 19 
May 26 
April 23 
April 30 
April 26 
April 26 
May 4 
May I 
May 6 
April 28 
May 13 
May 19 

May 16 



Number 



Becomes 
common 



4-5 



3 
by M. P. 
countless 



5 

3 

16 

7 

14 

6 

4 



April 28 

April 28 

May 4 

May 3 

May 8 

n ot common 

May Q 

May 9 

May 6 

May 17 

Baker. 

May 7 

May 18 

May 2S 



April 26 
May 8 
May 17 
May 21 



May 4 
April 25 
April 26 
rare here 
April 26 
May 10 
May 10 



April 24 

(?) 
April 29 

May 2 

April 27 

May I 

May 3 

May I 

May 6 

April 28 

May 15 

May 20 

May 20 



*By Dr. L. B. Bishop. 



A Cooperative Study of Bird Migration 

HOUSE WREN 



273 



First seen Number Next seen 



Atlantic Coast District. 

Berwyn, Pa 

Andover, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Port Chester, N. Y 

New Haven, Conn., and vie. 

Orient, L. I., N. Y 

Waterbury, Conn 

Providence, R. I., and vie... 
Cambridge, Mass., and vie.. 

Bournedale, Mass 

Norway, Me 

Nova Scotia 



April 22 I 

April 2Q I 

May 7 I 3 

April 24 I 

May 4 I 

May 4 I 

May 4 I 

May 16 i 2 

May 16 I 

not seen 

Seen only in 191 i 

Accidental 



April 23 
April 30 
May 8 
April 25 
May 5 
very rare a 
May 7 

May 17 



Hudson and Champlain Valleys 

Hyde Park, N. Y May 4 i May 6 

Rhinebeck, N. Y May 2 3 ' May 3 

Clarendon, Vt None seen 

St. Albans, Vt ; None; som e seasons one or two 



Ohio Valley. I 

Urbana, 111 I April 18 

Marco, Ind ' April 21 

Have seen House Wrens here but th ree times. 

Huron, Ohio April 20 

Detroit, Mich April 26 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and vicinity April 21 

Southwestern New York. . . . April 28 

Reaboro, Ont 1 May 3 

Mississippi Valley. 

Concordia, Mo April 23 

Wash. Park, Springfield, 111. April 22 

Iowa City, Iowa April ig 

Zuma Twp., Rock I. Co. ,111. April 25 

Rockford, 111 April 26 

.Atlantic, Iowa April 26 

Lauderdale Lakes, Wis 1 May i 

Breeds regularly but neve r common 

Viroqua, Wis April 6 

Milwaukee, Wis | April 27 

Madison, Wis April 27 

Reedsburg, Wis j April 26 

Newberry, Mich 1 May 15 

Lincoln Co., S. D May 4 50 

Fargo, N. D May 17 



April 23 
April 22 

April 23 
April 27 
April 22 
April 30 
May 10 



April 26 
April 23 
April 20 
April 26 
April 27 
April 27 
May 13 

April 8 
April 29 
April 28 
May I 
May 16 
May 5 
May 18 



Number 



Becomes 
common 



nd irregul 



50 



April 28 
May I 
May 8 
May I 
May 7 
ar trans. 
May 9 
rare 
May 17 



May 8 
May 4 



April 26 



April 26 
May 2 
April 23 
May 6 
May 24 



April 29 
April 28 
April 23 
April 26 
April 29 
May I 



April 20 
May 2 
May 7 
May 4 
May 18 
May 4 
May 20 



BALTIMORE ORIOLE 



Atlantic Coast District 

Berwyn, Pa 

Andover, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J. 
Port Chester, N. Y 



First seen Number Next seen 1 Number 



May 6 
May 2 
May 4 
April 27 



May 7 
May 3 
May 7 
April 2I 



Becomes 
common 



May 9 
May 5 
May 13 
May 8 



274 



Bird - Lore 



Baltimore Oriole, continued 



Atlantic Coast District, continued. 
New Haven, Conn., and vie. 

Orient, L. I., N. Y 

Waterbury, Conn 

Providence, R. I., and vie. 
Cambridge, Mass., and vie... 

Bournedale, Mass 

Norway, Me 

Nova Scotia 



Hudson and Champlain Vallevs 

Hyde Park, N. Y '. . 

Rhinebeck, N. Y 

Clarendon, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt 



Ohio Valley. 
Urbana, 111. 
Marco, Ind. 



Huron, Ohio 

Detroit, Mich 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and vicinity 
Southwestern New York. . . . 
Reaboro, Ont 



Mississippi Valley. 

Concordia, Mo 

Wash. Park, Springfield, III. 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Zuma Twp., Rock I. Co., 111. 

Rockford, 111 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Lauderdale Lakes, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Reedsburg, Wis 

Newberry, Mich 

Lincoln Co., S. D 

Fargo, N. D 



First seen Number Next seen 



May 


5 


May 


4 


May 


8 


May 


7 


May 


8 


May 


II 


May 


5 


Accidei 


ital 

4 


May 


May 


4 


May 


i.S 


May 


12 


April 


2,^ 


April 


25 


April 


20 


May 


I 


April 


-7 


April 


,SO 


May 


6 


April 


22 


April 


24 


May 


S 


April 


27 


May 


s 


(?) 




April 


27 


May 


4 


May 


2 


May 


I 


May 


.S 


May 


21 


May 


.s 


May 


16 

1 



3 
3-4 



May 6 
May II 
May 10 
May 8 
May 9 
May 13 
May 7 



May s 

May 6 
May 17 
May 13 



April 25 
May 6 

May I 

May 2 
April 28 
May I 
May 7 



April 28 
April 26 
May 4 
April 28 
May 4 

April 28 



May 
May 
May 
May 

May 
May 



Number 



4 

4 

I 

a pair 



common 



Becomes 
common 



several 



May 8 
May 14 
May 10 
May 10 
May 10 
May 16 
May 10 



May 6 
May ID 
May 18 
May 18 



May 5 
Only two 
pairs breed 
May 3 
May 2 
April 30 
May 10 
May 21 



May 2 
April 27 
May 5 
May 3 
May 6 
May 10 
May I 
May 4 
May 5 
May 6 
May 10 
rare 
May 15 
May 17 



^otes from JFtelti anti ^ttit)|> 



The Annual Bird-List of the Massachu- 
setts Audubon Society 

Many members of the Massachusetts 
Audubon Society made a careful study of 
Massachusetts birds during the year 1913 
and reported upon the check-lists. The 
observer seeing and recording the largest 
number of species was Miss Annie W. 
Cobb, 30 Massachusetts Avenue, Arling- 
ton, who reports 197. Nearest her, on the 
list, is Anna Kingman Barry, 5 Bowdoin 
Avenue, Dorchester, with 169. Royal E. 
Robbins, 61 Monmouth Street, Brookline, 
follows with 127; Mrs. George W. Kaan, 
162 Aspinwall Avenue, Brookline, in; 
Helen W, Kaan of the same address, 92, 
and Eleanor E. Barry, 91 Hillside Avenue, 
Melrose, 87. Edwin H. Merrill, 33 Walnut 
Street, Winchendon, reports 32, but it is 
interesting to note that these were all 
seen within the limits of Winchendon. 
Quite a number of birds not common in 
Massachusetts are reported by these 
observers. A Hooded Warbler — a male 
in full breeding plumage — was seen for a 
number of days on Boston Common in 
October by several observers. Acadian 
Chickadees were noted by several, and 
also Cape May W^arblers. The Blue-gray 
Gnatcatcher and the Mockingbird were 
also seen. The blanks for these lists are 
supplied free by the Massachusetts 
Audubon Society. — Winthrop Packard, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

Birds and 'Windows 
I 

In the May-June Bird-Lore is an 
account of the curious actions of a Robin 
flying repeatedly against windows. Nearly 
all questions relating to natural history 
have an answer — it is merely a question of 
searching out the right one. 

The same thing occurred here in the 
early nesting-season, and I am satisfied 
as to the solution of the problem. 



On numerous occasions I have seen 
Tree Sparrows, Chickadees, etc., which 
feed in the yard in wintertime, fly against 
the windows with such force as to stun 
themselves. One bird I picked up dead 
beneath a plate-glass window. 

This is liable to occur if birds become 
suddenly alarmed for in the window there 
is reflected more or less clearly, according 
to the quality of the glass, sky, trees, 
fields, etc., which to the bird seems an 
avenue of escape. Now the Robins in 
question were not trying to break into 
the house or escape to Elysian fields, but 
fighting their own reflections which they 
supposed to be determined rivals. The 
window here was fixed so that it ceased to 
act as a reflector and the battle ceased. 
I remember a pet Mockingbird that used 
to race back and forth on the mantlepiece 
and scold at his reflection in a mirror for 
half an hour at a time. — W. L. Skinner, 
ProctorsviUe, Vt. 

II 

In reply to Mr. Clarence B. Wood's 
query in the May-June issue of Bird- 
Lore, I would say that a very short time 
ago I saw a male Cardinal act almost 
exactly as did his Robin. 

In a trumpet vine on the side of my 
home, over three stories high, was located 
a Cardinal's nest (rather an unusual site 
for a Cardinal). The female had been 
incubating for some time when the nest 
was discovered, and the male was ob- 
served in and about the vine at all hours. 
One evening in the last week of May while 
at work in the garden, my attention was 
attracted by many excited hissing chirps, 
followed by some object continually 
striking the glass of a small garret window 
some three or four feet from, and slightly 
below, the nest. 

Upon examination it proved to be the 
male Cardinal who for some seemingly 
unknown cause was flying continually 
with considerable force against the glass 



(275) 



276 



Bird -Lore 



panes. Some of his attacks were repeated 
with such force that many times he fell 
panting and almost exhausted to the 
narrow sill of the window, only to hop 
back into the vine and renew his attacks. 
The eggs must have hatched. The parent 
bird was now exceedingly watchful to 
guard the young from any lurking dangers, 
and had seen reflected in the panes of 
glass, as a result of the dark background 
within, his own image. Mistaking it for a 
foraging male of his own species, he had 
decided to drive it from the vicinity of 
the nest. After falling to the sill, as the 
result of an attack, the bird would hop to 
the vine directly in front of the window, 
and, seeing his image again reflected in 
the glass, would renew the attack. 

Satisfied now that this was the cause of 
the curious actions of the bird, I decided 
to confirm my theory. Going directly to 
the garret I opened the window, knowing 
that if the above suppositions were the 
case that this would be the quickest way 
to end the trouble; while if the bird really 
wanted to get inside for some reason or 
other it would have all the chance in the 
world to do so. Before leaving the spot 
I reached up and felt in the nest and, just 
as I had supposed, the young were 
hatched. It might be here stated that 
while at the window arranging things, the 
male bird was nowhere to be seen. 

Returning to the garden, I awaited 
results, and after a short while the male 
bird returned and, flying to the top of the 
vine began to descend by dropping down 
a few inches at a time, until he was again 
directly in front of the window. Here he 
stopped and peered in, seeming not a little 
surprised at there being no adversary 
there to meet him. After sitting in this 
position for a moment or two, all the 
while nervously twitching his tail and 
uttering low, discontented chirps, he flew 
' directly to the sill where after an instant's 
pause and investigation, he flew back into 
the vine, then to some nearby shrubbery, 
and the incident was ended. 

Could not Mr. Wood's Robin have had 
a nest in the vicinity and, as in the case 
of the Cardinal, desired to keep away all 



straggling intruders of its own kind? — 
Delos E. Culver, Addingham, Pa. 

Fall River Notes 

As you are getting in observations on 
earliest arrivals of birds, I think the follow- 
ing item which appeared in our Fall River 
paper may be of interest. 

As you undoubtedly know there is 
quite a colony of Fish Hawks on the 
shores and inlets of Narragansett Bay, 
near Swansea and Touisset. An observer 
in that neighborhood, who has observed 
them for many years, sent word to the 
paper that year after year they had ar- 
rived there on the morning of March 24. 
This year he sent word that they arrived 
March 24, at 8.40 p.m., twenty minutes 
late; their usual time being 8.20! 

I should also like to add that the Evening 
Grosbeaks have visited us again this year, 
but instead of fourteen there were only 
two, neither of them in perfect color. 
They have been here to our knowledge 
only three times and making very short 
visits — a half hour or so. The fruit of the 
box elder tree, of which they were so fond 
before, was all on the ground, and they 
paid no attention to it. They were here 
in March. A friend saw a pair in February, 
about a half mile from our home. — Ellen 
M. Shove, Fall River, Mass. 

Prospect Park Notes 

I wish to report the presence of a male 
Cardinal in Prospect Park, Brooklyn. As 
far as I can learn this the first record since 
1902. According to Braislin's 'Birds of 
Long Island,' the Cardinal was formerly 
common in this section and bred in 
Prospect Park in 1884. It is now very rare 
here. The bird was seen by me on May 2, 
1914, on the large peninsula near the 
lake. A few days later it was observed by 
Miss Kumpf of the Brooklyn Bird Club. 

There was a rather unusual migratory 
wave on May 2, which brought many 
Warblers before their usual time. A male 
Cape May on that date seems to be an 
early record. At the same time five Brown 



Notes from Field and Study 



277 



Creepers were observed, a rather large 
number for so late in the season. — 
Edward Fleischer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bird-Notes from Sedalia, Mo. 

Birds seem unusually plentiful in Sedalia 
this spring. In a drive fourteen or fifteen 
blocks from the business streets of a citj- 
of twenty-five thousand one may see 
Bluebirds, Robins, Mourning Doves, 
Brown Thrashers, Bronzed Crackles, 
Meadowlarks, Baltimore Orioles, Red- 
headed Woodpeckers, perhaps a House 
Wren, and Flickers. 

There are many trees along the resi- 
dence streets that furnish nesting-places 
for all these, except the Meadowlarks that 
nest in the outlying vacant prairie lots. 
In the back yards, where cats are not too 
plentiful, and where the copse is suffi- 
ciently thick and secluded, the Brown 
Thrasher has his nest. 

In my own yard are several soft maples; 
in one of these having a stump at the top, 
a flicker has made his nesting-place and 
has worked persistently for nearly two 
weeks now to fashion a house for the brood 
to come. The female seemed to do all 
the work, commencing early in the morn- 
ing and working until the warm hours of 
noon. In the afternoon she was again at 
work making the chips fly until about six 
o'clock. From appearances the hole is 
about finished. The male occasionally 
visits the scene of activity but takes no 
part. 

About three feet from the Flicker hole 
a pair of English Sparrows have piled up 
one of the conglomerations they use as 
nests. 

These near neighbors seem to agree 
fairly well and get along with some hard 
language and quite a bit of scolding. 

About forty feet from the Flicker tree 
is another maple; on this I put up a piece 
of fence-post with a hole made in it with 
auger and chisel, thinking I could perhaps 
have a family of Bluebirds. I was re- 
warded by a pair selecting it for a nesting- 
place in spite of the numerous English 
Sparrows. The Bluebirds are valiant 



fighters and seem always in eye-shot 
ready to give battle to any intruder. The 
Sparrows do not seem to care for that 
particular nesting-place, and I can not 
determine whether it be a case of sour 
grapes or whether the hole is not suffi- 
ciently large for their liking. 

In the same tree with the Bluebirds, 
but higher up is another Sparrow's nest; 
a kind of an apartment house. 

I had hoped for a Robin's nest but so 
far none have built on my grounds. A 
couple of House Wrens stayed a few days 
and a box furnished for them was scorned. 

Many interesting moments that I can 
spare are spent watching the little home- 
makers in a busy city. — Chas. A. McNeil. 
M. D., Sedalia, Mo. 

Sussex County, N. J., Notes 

We notice, in your introductory notes 
to the Christmas census, the statement 
that Pine Grosbeaks, Redpolls, and Cross- 
bills have not come farther south than 
New England. 

We sent no Christmas list, but it may 
interest you to know that a flock of twenty- 
five Pine Grosbeaks came to us on 
January 9. Only one male in full red 
coloring was among them. The others 
were females and young males. The flock 
visited our maple trees almost daily until 
about the middle of February, when the 
extreme cold and the big storms seemed 
to break up the flock into smaller groups. 
We saw them in various places throughout 
the town until March 20, when the last 
one disappeared. 

A flock of about a dozen Redpolls fed 
on a row of tamarack trees in our drive- 
way from February 22 till March i. 
During a heavy snowstorm one venture- 
some fellow appeared at the window 
where some Chickadees were feeding. 

On March i, ten American Crossbills, 
came to a small spruce tree about twenty- 
five feet from our house, and industriously 
and systematically exhausted the seeds 
from a small crop of cones in the top of 
the tree. 

What we consider our most wonderful 



278 



Bird - Lore 



observation for Ihc year was a Mocking- 
bird which perched on a vine just beneath 
our window for some little time, giving us 
opportunity to make a positive identifi- 
cation. This was on December 14, 19 13. 
On March 3, during the big storm, it 
appeared again, but we have not seen it 
since. We believe this is the first record 
of a Mockingbird for Sussex County, al- 
though the members of our nature-study 
club have kept an accurate list for a 
number of years. — F. Blanche Hill, 
Aiidovrr, Sussex Co., N. J. 




PARASITIC JAEGER 

Notes on the Autumn Migration of the 
Parasitic Jaeger 

During an Atlantic cruise in the New 
Bedford whaling brig Daisy I made the 
following notes concerning Jaegers {Stcr- 
corarius parasiticus), on their autumn mi- 
gration. 

September 23, 191 2, latitude 12° 46' N., 
longitude 25° 05' W. (about 100 miles 
south of the Cape Verde Islands). Two 
Jaegers seen, of which one was collected. 



The specimen is a male of the dark phase, 
and in fresh plumage. 

September 27, 191 2, latitude 10° 46' N., 
longitude 24° 38' W. Calm, with heavy 
ground-swell. One Jaeger seen and col- 
lected, a uniformly dark female, fully 
adult, with slightly worn central rec- 
trices. 

October 3, 191 2, latitude 6° 46' N., 
longitude 24° 35' W. Two Jaegers of the 
dark phase seen together. 

October 20, 1912, latitude 10° 21' S., 
longitude 34° 04' W. (off the coast of south- 
ern Pernambuco). Three Jaegers were 
noted. A pair of them tagged after the 
Daisy from nine o'clock in the morning 
until four in the afternoon. One was of 
the dark phase, the other white-breasted. 
Both had short central rectrices, differing 
in this respect from the birds noted north 
of the equator a month earlier. The two 
would fly up our wake with slow wing- 
beats, hover for a moment over the stern 
of the brig, then glide slowly to the wind- 
ward side and settle on the water, where 
they would tuck their long wings into 
the resting position and float high and 
gracefully. When the ship had left them a 
few hundred yards astern, they would rise 
and overtake us, and again drop down. 
This was repeated monotonously for 
seven hours. The white-breasted bird, 
whose photograph is here reproduced, 
was bolder than its mate, and regularly 
flew nearer to the ship. Occasionally the 
two were seen to pick up food, including 
scraps of pork fat which I threw over- 
board. They did not seem to molest the 
Petrels {Oceanites oceanicus) which fol- 
lowed us in numbers. 

October 26, 1912, latitude 21° 40' S., 
longitude 34° 12' W. Two Jaegers seen 
separately. One which accompanied us 
for a short while appeared to chase some 
of the Oceanites (Petrels), although I 
could not be certain that it was trying to 
rob them. 

October 28, 191 2, latitude 2t,° S., longi- 
tude 35° 45' W. (on the verge of the south 
temperate zone). One Jaeger seen. — 
Robert Cushman Murphy, Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences. 



Notes from Field and Study 



279 



Turkey Vultures in Northwestern Iowa 

A few years ago, when a resident of 
Sioux City, Iowa, I had an interesting 
experience with Turkey Vultures. One 
day, with a companion, I was roaming 
through a ravine on the outskirts of the 
city, when, from the top of an enormous 
elm, a large bird rose and flew upward to 
a great height, where it 
continued circling and 
soaring, on motionless 
pinions, an aviator of 
marvelous skill. 

It was plainly not an 
Eagle. But what could 
it be? Not until I got 
my binoculars focused 
upon it, and could dis- 
tinguish the naked, red 
head, did I recognize it 
as a Turkey Vulture, or 
'Buzzard.' The persist- 
ency with which the 
bird hung about caused 
me to suspect a nest. I 
resolved to investigate. 
But how should I get 
into the tree? The huge 
elm must have been 
fully fifteen feet in cir- 
cumference. Up beyond 
the lower limbs a few 
decayed cleats, utterly 
unsafe, showed where 
someone had once made 
the ascent. I solved the 
difficulty by procuring 
a stout rope at the 
nearest farmhouse. 
After a number of un- 
successful throws, I 
succeeded in getting the 
rope over the lowest limb. Then up 
I went, hand over hand. The operation 
was repeated until the limbs were reached 
that were near enough for climbing. At 
the very top there was the hollow, dead 
shell of the main trunk; and, in this, upon 
the bare, decayed wood, two eggs as large 
as Turkey eggs. They were of a dirty 
white color, heavily blotched with brown. 



amber and lilac, especially about the 
larger end. One was larger than the other. 
This was on May 15. 

Two weeks later, in company with Prof. 
T. C. Stephens, of Morningside College, 
and Dr. Guy C. Rich, both ornithologists 
of note in that section, I again visited the 
nest and Professor Stephens photographed 
the nesting-site and the eggs. Twentv- 




SITE 



OF A TURKEY VULTURE'S NEST 
Photographed by T. C. Stephens 

three days later I again visited the locality 
and climbed to the nest. This time the 
parent bird did not fly. I suspected the 
cause. Not until I actually put my hand 
upon her did she leave her post. In place 
of the eggs, there were two snow-white 
little fellows, fat as butter-balls, covered 
with fuzzy down. They smelled atro- 
ciously, however, for the parent bird 



28o 



Bird - Lore 



feeds the young on regurgitated carrion. 
A dead cow, nearby, just ripe to the 
Vulture taste, indicated an inexhaustible 
food-supply. 




YOUNG TURKEY VULTURE IN NEST-LOG 



It is rare to find a Vulture nesting so far 
north, and no ornithologist in that section 
had ever before observed such an occur- 
ence. I have noted these birds soaring 
above the forests in northern Minnesota, 
but it may be that they did not nest 
there, though the inference would be that 
they did. Can anyone supply information 
in regard to this point? 



It is such adventures as this, unexpect- 
edly coming into one's life, that give to 
the study of ornithology in the field its 
peculiar charm, and e.xplain why the 

study of birds, once 

entered upon, becomes an 

ever-increasing delight. 

— Rev. Manley B. 

TowNSEND, Nashua, N. 

II . (Photograph by Prof. 

T. C. Stephens, Sioux 

City, Iowa). 

Young Turkey Vultures 

I am sending you two 
. pictures of young Turkey 
\"ultures which I pho- 
tographed under rather 
novel circumstances. 
After taking them on the 
fallen tree, they took 
fright and ran into the 
hollow log, which was 
Determining the location 
focused my camera at ten 
feet and placed it in the hollow log. I 
then ignited a flashlight behind and slightly 
above the camera. Thinking the unusual 
way in which this picture was taken, as 
well as the resulting view of the birds, 
might interest you I am sending them, 
hoping you may find them available for 



their nest, 
of the nest I 





■'■ .* 


■^^ 








.4 
V 





TWO YOUNG TURKEY VULTURES 



Notes from Field and Study 



281 



reproduction in your magazine. — Wm. F. 
Gingrich, Chicago, III. 

Florida Gallinule at Baltimore 

On the morning of June 9, 1914, one of 
my neighbors who knows my interest in 
birds, told me that a very peculiar bird 
had flown into his place of business in the 
central portion of Baltimore City two 
nights before and that he still had the 
bird in the yard back of his place. He 
described it as having a head like that of a 
pigeon and being black in color. Knowing 
how inaccurate are the observations of 
those not particularly interested in birds, 
I expected to find a Crow or something 
equally commonplace. 

I went with him to his store and in the 
brick-paved yard saw what I knew at once 
to be a wading bird, because of its long 
legs and wide spreading feet. Beyond this, 
however, I had to admit myself stumped. 
I took a memorandum of the bird's 
characteristics, and the long green legs, 
with a bright red band around the tibiae, 
made it very easy to identify the Florida 
Gallinule. I observe in Chapman's 'Hand- 
book' that this bird is reported from the 
District of Columbia as a migrant only. 
Its appearance in June would seem to 
indicate that it is breeding in the marshes 
near Baltimore. In this connection I may 
say that the nearest marshy ground to the 
place where this Gallinule was taken is 
distant about two miles. There have been 
no very high winds for the past week or 
so, and it is certainly surprising that the 
bird should have flown into a window in 
the city. 

It has frequently been remarked that 
all wild animal stories have a sad ending 
and this one is no exception. I suggested 
to my friend that he have the bird taken 
to the outskirts of the city and liberated 
near the water-front, or else that he send 
it to the Zoo in Druid Hill Park. He 
thought both of these were good sugges- 
tions and therefore adopted neither. The 
next day he told me that the bird had 
died, doubtless of starvation. — Joseph 
N. Ulman, Baltimore, Md. 



Red-breasted Grosbeak Singing on the 
Nest 

In many nature-study books I have 
noted a discussion as to whether the 
adult bird ever sings while sitting on the 
nest. In 191 2 I located a Rose-breasted 
Grosbeak's nest a few feet up in a tree on 
a boulevard. I watched it closely and 
saw the male incubating. While watching 
him he voiced a few of those indescribable 
notes of his exquisite song. It was not 
long until he discovered me and hopped 
off the nest. — Harry C.Pifer, Lovington, 
III. 

Our Neighbor, the Bald Eagle 

One of my earliest recollections is of 
the sight of a Bald Eagle scaling from the 
hills behind my home to the sea before it. 
My aunt, who at the age of ninety-four 
has a better momory than many young 
people, says that they were here in her 
childhood just as now, and of course it is 
impossible to tell for how many years 
these birds (or their ancestors) have nested 
in these wooded hills. 

Some years ago the nest, a huge plat- 
form of rough sticks and twigs, was located 
in an old pine which has since blown down. 
Another was constructed, also in an old 
pine, which I think still does duty as a 
home. 

We usually see but one bird at a time, 
never more than two, except once, when 
two old birds and two young were seen 
going down to the sea together. The young 
with dark head and tail, are sometimes 
seen alone and are commonly called 
"Black Eagles." 

At one time, some years ago, one of the 
Eagles disappeared and for several years 
the bereaved one led a solitary life in the 
pine tree. Then I think that it, too, must 
have met with some mishap, as later a 
pair appeared and are still living here. 

It seems strange that there are not 
more nesting here, where they have been 
undisturbed for so many years, but doubt- 
less this is due to their solitary habits. 

Sometimes we see them, a mere speck 
on the sky, and sometimes they hang low 



282 



Bird -Lore 



so that they may be plainly seen, tipping 
slightly as the wind varies, with the 
extreme tips of the wings fanning gently, 
but otherwise apparently motionless. 

When the magnificent birds fail to 
appear for a week or two we miss them 
and feel that a very important feature 
is lacking in our view. Their graceful 
flight, like that of our Sea Gulls, adds a 
charm to the landscape impossible to 
describe. — Winifred Holway Palmer, 
Machias, Maine. 



disappeared to the northwest. They were 
reported to gather in a similar way in the 
morning, though the writer did not have 
the pleasure of seeing them at that time. 
The accompanying photograph was taken 
September 4th, at 6 p.m. A careful esti- 
mate indicated that there were 13,440 
Martins on the wires alone. Examination 
made it clear that there were no other 
Swallows in the company — all were 
Purple Martins. — I. N. Mitchell, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 



The Flocking of Purple Martins 

On September 2d, 3rd, and 4th, and to 
a less extent until the 15th, large numbers 
of Martins gathered on the telephone 
wires on Park Place between Farwell and 
Frederick Avenues, Milwaukee. They 
kept on the wing till about 5:30 and then 
began to settle on the wires. Occasionally 
the whole company would leave the wires, 
almost together, then settle down again. 
They seemed to wish to get close together, 
and many gathered on the house-tops and 
trees in the neighborhood of the middle of 
the flock At about 6.30 they left as with 
one accord. The only night that the writer 
caught them in the act of leaving they 



Harris's Sparrow in 'Wisconsin 

In the May-June number of "Bird- 
Lore, I was much interested to read the 
report of Harris's Sparrow from Illinois, 
since this rare visitant was also seen in 
Milwaukee this year. 

On May 12, while watching a flock 
of fifteen or twenty White-throated Spar- 
rows, the attention of Mr. Simpson and 
myself was attracted by a 'black-faced,' 
unfamiliar Sparrow, that seemed so much 
larger than any of his companions, as 
well as most unusual in appearance. 

We followed and watched the bird for 
a long time, getting within ten feet of 
him, as he fed busily on the ground. We 



St- 







ABOUT 13,000 PURPLE MARTINS IN MILWAUKEE 



Notes from Field and Study 



283 



noted every detail of its unusual, really 
striking markings. On reaching home, we 
readily identified our new bird by the ex- 
cellent plate in the series of 'Migration of 
North American Sparrows' in Bird-Lore, 
as well as from the description in Chap- 
man's 'Birds of Eastern North America.' 

The bird was seen the following day by 
Mrs. John Hill, in about the same section 
of Lake Park, again with a flock of White- 
throated Sparrows. 

Harris's Sparrow seems to me to be, in 
shape, in size and in the manner of holding 
up its head, more like the White-crowned 
Sparrow than any other member of the 
Sparrow family. — Mrs. Mark L. Simpson, 
1340 Grand Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Additional Observations of Harris's Spar- 
row in II inois 

Since writing my report of the first 
observation of Harris's Sparrow here, 
and which was published in the last 
number of Bird-Lore, I have observed 
the same species at the hedge-fence where 
the first one was seen, on the following 
named dates: 

April 26, one was seen on a willow tree 
in the slough at the east end of the fence. 

May 3, two were seen at the east end of 
the fence. 

May 5, one was seen at the west end of 
the fence, and May 7, the last one was 
seen at the same place. 

The first and last ones observed had the 
most brilliant plumage, and were evidently 
adult birds. In the slough near the hedge 
there is always water during the spring, 
and this is probably the reason they came 
there. — J. J. Schafer, Port Byron, III. 

A Rat in a Swallow's Nest 

In deepening the channel in the stream 
that connects Lakes Monona and Wau- 
besa, near Madison, Wisconsin, the dredges 
have formed many sandbanks from one to 
ten feet in height. Many Bank Swallows 
and a few Rough-wings have been quick 
to take advantage of the opportunity, and 
several colonies have located their burrows 
along the water-course, some within a few 



feet of the water. W^hile canoeing between 
the lakes with Mr. A. W. Schorger, on 
May 29, we stopped to examine some of 
the burrows. The first hole inspected 
proved to be straight enough to allow a 
ray of reflected light to reach the end, 
which was about two or two and a half 
feet from the entrance. Instead of the 
expected Swallow or eggs, we discovered 
a rat curled up very comfortably for an 
afternoon siesta — very probably an after- 
dinner nap! He managed to escape from 
the first attempt on his life and swam 
under water for about twenty feet. He 
was finally overtaken and consigned to a 
watery grave. From the rat's point of 
view, it was an ideal summer resort; a 
good meal (presumably) and a comfortable 
room available every few feet along the 
water-front. — Norman DeW. Betts, 
Madison, Wis. 

Brewster's Warbler Seen at Highland 
Park, Rochester, N. Y. 

On May 2, 1914, a Warbler was observed 
in Warner's Woods about 9.30 a.m.; again 
between 11.20 and 12 m. 

The bird was closely studied, and the 
following notes taken: a Warbler about 
five inches long; had a large, almost 
square patch of bright yellow on the wing 
near the shoulder, a black line through 
the eye, and a black bill. The tail grayish 
slate, grading to grayish yellow-green on 
the back and slightly darker on the head. 
Underparts light gray tinged with yellow. 
The bird was approached within twenty 
feet in open woods and shrubs with the 
bright sun of a clear day shining over our 
shoulders on the bird. Mr. Edson carries 
a Bausch & Lomb Zeiss prism stereo six 
power glass and Mr. Horsey a good field- 
glass. We are, therefore, very positive of 
the above points. 

Brewster's Warbler is the nearest bird 
described in 'Warblers of North America' 
by Chapman, and it is said to show yellow 
on the underparts intergrading with the 
Blue- winged Warbler. — Wm. L. G. Edson, 
Richard E. Horsey, 12 Fairview Ave., 
Rochester, N. V. 



2^oofe ji^etDg mh Ctebietosi 



The Red-winged Blackbird. A Study 
in the Ecology of a Cat-tail Marsh. By 
Arthur A. Allen, Zoological Labora- 
tory, Cornell University. Abstract 
Proc. Linn. See. N. Y. [care of Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.] Nos. 24, 25, 1914, pp. 
43-128; pis. 20; figs. 2. 

In this admirable monograph Dr. Allen 
has not only given us much new informa- 
tion concerning the habits of the Red- 
winged Blackbird, but also a demonstra- 
tion of methods in the study of birds 
in nature which forms an object lesson 
we cannot too strongly commend to the 
field student. 

Bird-Lore has long advocated spe- 
cialization as a means of extending the 
boundaries of the known and of deepening 
one's interests. Here then, is a model 
which, we gladly confess, represents a 
distinct advance over anything we had 
in mind. 

Ornithologists have been too prone to 
flock by themse'ves. Their studies have 
been apt to consider the bird apart from 
its environment — as that term implies 
not alone climatic and physiographic 
factors, but all the other forms of life 
with which directly or indirectly it may 
come in contact. While such studies 
may be above criticism by ornithologists, 
they are far from filling the demands of 
the ecologist. That is, of one who studies 
the relationships of organisms to one 
another and to their surroundings. 

Dr. Allen's paper is a contribution to 
this newer, broader type of ornithology. 
It opens with a study of environment. 
The "plant associations" with their char- 
acteristic animals are outlined, and the 
changes due to seasonal or other causes 
mentioned. 

This generalized survey of a particular 
area lays the foundation for the more 
specialized study of any of the forms of 
life which inhabit it, whether plant, fish, 
reptile, bird, or mammal. From its fauna 
Dr. Allen selects as his subject the Red- 
winged Blackbird, and Part II of his 

(2 



paper (pp. 74-128) is devoted to an eco- 
logical study of this bird as it was 
observed in and near Renwick Marsh at 
the head of Cayuga Lake, New York. 

Beginning with the Redwing's migra- 
tion, some conception of the intensiveness 
of Dr. Allen's studies may be gained by 
the following table. Doubtless few birds 
have been more generally recorded in 
migration than this conspicuous species, 
but where else will we find such detailed, 
intimate information in regard to its 
movements? 

I. Vagrants. Feb. 25, March 4. 

II. Migrant adult males. March 13- 
April 21. 

III. Resident adult males. March 25- 
April 10. 

IV. Migrant females and immature 
males. March 29-April 24. 

V. Resident adult females. April 10- 
May I. 

VI. Resident immature males. May 
6-June I (1910). 

VII. Resident immature females. May 
lo-June II (1910). 

With these dates is presented much 
correlative matter in regard to the develop- 
ment of vegetation, changes in food-sup- 
ply, variations in actions, sexual growth, 
etc., all of which is designed to show the 
relation of cause and effect. Consequently, 
we have a contribution not alone to 
ornithology but to general biology — or 
better, to bionomics. 

'Mating and Song,' 'Nesting,' 'The 
Young,' 'Fall Migration,' 'Enemies,' 'Molt 
and Plumage,' 'Food and Food-supply,' 
'Correlations Between Changes of Food 
and Changes in Structure of Stomach,' 
'Correlations in the Changes Occurring in 
the Reproductive Organs,' are the further 
headings under which Dr. Allen presents 
the results of his studies of the Redwing. 
Each contains something more or less 
original in matter and in method; and 
each contributes to what, in our opinion, 
is the best, most significant biography 

84) 



Book News and Reviews 



285 



which has thus far been prepared of any 
American bird. 

Bird-Lore's readers do not have to be 
assured of Dr. Allen's success as a bird 
photographer, and the thirty-odd photo- 
graphs illustrating this article bear witness 
both to his skill with a camera and good 
judgment in the selection of subjects. — 
F. M. C. 

An Account of the Mammals and 
Birds of the Lower Colorado 
River, with Especial Reference to 
THE Distributional Problems Pre- 
sented. By Joseph Grinnell, Univ. 
of Calif. Pub. in Zool. Vol. 12, No. 4, 
pp. 51-294; pis. 13; figs. 9. 

The observations and specimens on 
which this paper is based were gathered 
by its author, Frank Stephens, Joseph 
Dixon, and L. Hollister Jones. Working 
with funds provided by Miss Annie M. 
Alexander, founder of the California 
Museum of Vertibrate Zoology, they 
began operations at the Needles on the 
Colorado River, on February 15, and 
reached Yuma May 3, and concluded 
their work a few miles farther south on 
May 15, 1910. Transportation was pro- 
vided by a scow and a skiff, while the 
current supplied the motive power. 
Twenty-nine camps were made, some on 
the Arizona, some on the California side 
of the river. These served as bases from 
which the immediately surrounding coun- 
try was explored. 

Collections were made of birds, mam- 
mals, reptiles, amphibians, a few fishes, 
and the more conspicuous plants. No less 
important than the specimens themselves, 
and greatly increasing their value, are 
the observations made on the country 
traversed by the trained naturalists com- 
posing the party. 

The results, as contained in this report 
on the birds and mammals secured, is 
therefore not merely a systematic treatise, 
but an important contribution to our 
knowledge of the manner of occurrence 
and habits of the species concerned, and 
particularly, as the title of the paper 
states, to the distributional problems 
presented. 



It is this portion of the paper which 
makes it of value to the student of 
faunistics, whatever be the group of 
animals to which he devotes himself. We 
cannot at this time give to this paper the 
attention it deserves,'"but wemay at least 
present Mr. Grintiell's 

Classification of Barriers to Species as Regards 

Birds and^Mammals 
Barriers 

A. Tangible (mechanical). 

(a) Land to aquatic species. 

(b) Bodies or streams of water to ter- 
restrial species. 

B. Intangible (non-mechanical). 

(a) Zonal (by temperature). 

(b) Faunal (by atmospheric humidity). 

(c) Associational. 

(i) By food-supply. 

(2) By breeding-places. 

(3) By temporary refuges. 

(Each of these three with regard to the 
inherent structural characters of each 
species concerned). — F. M. C. 

A Distributional List of the Birds 
OF Arizona By Harry S. Swarth. 
Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. 10; Cooper 
Orn. Club, Hollywood, Calif. May 25, 
1914. 133 pp., map. Price $1.50. 

To its noteworthy series of special 
publications on western birds the Cooper 
Club now adds this authoritative list of 
Arizona birds. It includes 362 species and 
subspecies which are classed as follows: 

Resident 152 

Summer Visitant 72 

Winter Visitant 57 

Transient 30 

Of Casual Occurrence 51 

In addition to the main annotated list 
(pp. 9-81), nominal lists of species are 
given under these seasonal headings, and 
there are also similar lists under faunal 
headings. A colored faunal map and a 
bibliography add to the valiJ- ->( this 
paper. — F. M. C. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Condor. — The March 'Condor' 
is an unusually large number with its 



286 



Bird - Lore 



fifty-four pages and seventeen illustra- 
tions. It contains five main articles, 
eighteen short notes, and five pages of 
editorials, reviews, and minutes of Cooper 
Club meetings. 

The opening article of B. Dixon on a 
'History of a Pair of Pacific Horned Owls' 
is well illustrated, and is based on a series 
of observations in the Escondido Valley, 
San Diego County, extending over a 
period of thirteen years. During this time 
the Owls nested three times in old Hawk's 
nests in trees, twice in a Hawk's or 
Raven's nest in a cliff, and at other times 
made their home on a rocky ledge. Five 
sets of three eggs were laid, but all the 
others contained but two eggs each. The 
dates of laying (completed sets) varied 
from Jan. 29, 1911, to Feb. 14, 1907. 

Another Owl article appears under the 
title of 'An Asionine Ruse,' in which 
Dawson recounts briefly an experience in 
Washington with a Long-eared Owl that 
went through all the motions and cries 
attendant on capturing a Flicker or a 
mouse, apparently merely to decoy the 
intruder away from her nest. 

In a short but very interesting article 
on 'Destruction of Birds in California by 
Fumigation of Trees,' A. B. Howell 
reports finding ninety-two dead birds, 
representing nine species, under two hun- 
dred trees, the morning after his orange 
grove at Covina had been fumigated. He 
suggests that a law imposing a fine of 
five cents for each bird killed might make 
fumigators more careful. 

Among 'Some Discoveries in the Forest 
at Fyffe,' in El Dorado County, made 
during a ten days' stay in May, 1913, Ray 
describes and gives some very clear photo- 
graphs of a nest of the rare Hermit Warbler 
and a family of young Saw-whet Owls, the 
latter constituting the first definite breed- 
ing record for this Owl in California. 

A contribution on the 'Birds of Sitka 
and Vicinity, Southeastern Alaska.' by 
George Willets, contains careful notes on 
152 species observed during the summers 
of 191 2 and 1913 on Kruzof, St. Lazaria, 
Biorka, and other islands in or near 
Sitka Sound. 



In a review of Grinnell's report on the 
'Birds of the San Jacinto Area,' Dawson 
takes exception to the substitution of the 
term 'summer visitant' for 'summer resi- 
dent.' "Am I," he asks, "only a 'winter 
visitant' at Santa Barbara, because I 
spend four months at home and eight, or 
thereabouts, afield. The state holds 
otherwise, and so does common sense." 

The May number of 'The Condor' con- 
tains an unusually varied and interesting 
series of eight papers. The opening 
article is the presidential address of Harold 
C. Bryant on 'The Cooper Club Member 
and Scientific Work' delivered before the 
Northern Division of the Club on March 
19. After briefly sketching the history of 
the Cooper Club, he divides the general 
work of the organization into eight 
groups: Collecting specimens; prepara- 
tion of local lists, recording field observa- 
tions, description of new species, photog- 
raphy, distribution, economic investiga- 
tions and conservation of wild life, and 
adds the comment, "If there is anything 
in our work that we have possibly over- 
done, it is the plain faunal list." 

Jewett's 'Bird Notes from Netarts 
Bay, Oregon,' including observations on 
fifty-seven species of water-birds and 
shore-birds, made in 1912 and 1913, and 
Saunders' 'Birds of Teton and Northern 
Lewis and Clark Counties, Montana' 
(182 species), are the only local lists in 
this number. Allan Brooks contributes 
two papers, one on 'The Races of Branla 
canadensis' and the other entitled 'A 
Sadly Neglected Matter.' In the latter, 
he calls attention to the importance of 
noting the color of the bill, feet, and iris 
on the labels of all bird skins, and men- 
tions several cases in which failure to 
record these facts has given rise to error 
in descriptions, or failure to differentiate 
properly forms which are closely related. 

Thayer's account of the 'Nesting of the 
Kittlitz Murrelet' high up on the slopes 
of Pavloff Volcano, on the Alaskan 
Peninsula, is one of the most important 
facts recorded for some time. The eggs 
of this species, previously unknown, were 
discovered by Captain F. E. Klein- 



Book News and Reviews 



287 



Schmidt, who secured three specimens 
(one broken) in May and June, 1913, and 
incidentally substantiated the Eskimo 
reports that the birds nested in the moun- 
tains. Possibly the closely related Mar- 
bled Murrelet may have similar habits, 
which will explain in part the failure thus 
far to discover its nesting-place. 

Fayre Kenagy describes the 'Change in 
Fauna' on the Minidoka Project in South 
Central Idaho, and gives a table showing 
the fluctuation in numbers, during the 
last seven years, of nineteen species of 
birds, due to irrigation. 

Under the caption 'Resident versus 
Visitant,' Dawson takes issue with the 
recent attempt to restrict the term 'resi- 
dent' to species which remain in a locality 
throughout the year, declaring that "it 
is grossly inappropriate to call any breed- 
ing bird a 'visitant' in its breeding-home." 
Grinnell, in an editorial note, is equally 
positive that "Birds are either resident 
or migratory; if they migrate they can 7iot 
be resident; hence such an incongruity as 
winter resident is impossible!" 

In referring to the Annual Directory, 
which closes the number, it is interesting 
to remember that the Cooper Club was 
organized twenty-one years ago. Begin- 
ning with a membership of four, in June 
1893, it has steadily increased until it now 
has six honorary and four hundred and 
thirty-three active members. — T. S. P. 

Wilson Bulletin. — -The March num- 
ber of this Quarterly (Vol. XXVI, No. i) 
opens with an illustrated study of the 
Woodcock, by Gerard Alan Abbott; R. 
W. Shufeldt writes a somewhat rambling 
dissertation on Owls, accompanying it 
with two photographs and a reproduction 
of a painting of Snowy Owls by Gerhard 
Heilmann. Ira N. Gabrielson gives some 
interesting 'Pied-billed Grebe Notes,' in 
which he records seeing, on August 19, 
1913, a flock containing about two hun- 
dred of these Grebes, which is twice as 
large a flock as the reviewer has noted. 
Ernest W. Vickers writes a graphic 
description of the roll or drumming of 
the Pileated Woodpecker, and Lynds 



Jones discusses the bird-life of northern 
Ohio during the winter of 1913-14. 
Professor Jones also contributes 'A Brief 
History of the Wilson Ornithological 
Club,' which was organized on December 
3, 1888. Elsewhere in this number of the 
Bulletin appear the minutes of the meet- 
ing of the Club held in Chicago on Feb- 
ruary 5 and 6, 1914. Heretofore the work 
of the Club and communication between 
its members has been conducted by cor- 
respondence. Henceforth it is proposed 
to hold regular meetings, and the evident 
success of the meeting seems fully to 
warrant the adoption of this plan. 

Further articles in this number are by 
Geo. L. Fordyce, who writes on 'Changes 
in the Avifauna of Youngstown, Ohio,' 
incident to the building of reservoirs, 
which have added some 60 species to 
those observed by him in the preceding 
ten years, and a detailed review of Reiche- 
now's 'Handbuch der Systematischen 
Ornithilogie,' by W. F. Henninger. There 
are also editorials, field-notes, and reviews. 
— F. M. C. 

Book News 

The National Geographic Magazine 
for May, 1914, makes a notable contribu- 
tion to popular ornithology in an article by 
Henry W. Henshaw on 'Birds of Town and 
Country,' with 64 illustrations in color by 
Louis Agassiz Fuertes. This article, with 
a similar one by Mr. Henshaw in the issue 
of the same magazine for June, 1913, with 
50 colored illustrations by Fuertes, a 
paper by F. H. Kennard on 'Encouraging 
Birds around the Home' and a study of 
certain phases of bird migration by Wells 
W. Cooke, has been bound in one volume. 
Copies may be obtained from the National 
Geographic Society, Washington, D. C, 
at one dollar each. 

The fourth part of Mr. Fuertes' 'Im- 
pressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds' 
will appear in the next issue of Bird-Lore. 
This magazine has published few articles 
which have been more warmly commended 
than these graphic descriptions by Mr. 
Fuertes. 



288 



Bird - Lore 



2^irti=lLore 

A Bi-Monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 

OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE AUDUBON SOCIETIES 

Edited by FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

Contributine Editor. MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT 

Published by D. APPLETON & CO. 

Vol. XVI Published August 1, 1914 No. 4 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

Price in the United States. Canada and Mexico, twenty cents 
a number, one dollar a year, postage paid. 



COPYRIGHTED, 1914, BY FRANK M. CHAPMAN 



Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush Is Worth Two in the Band 



On a preceding page of this issue of 
Bird-Lore, Abbott H. Thayer discusses 
the question of the comparative number 
of our birds. This subject was brought 
before the last meeting of the American 
Ornithologists' Union, and it is interesting 
to observe that Mr. Thayer independently 
reaches the conclusions which were ex- 
pressed by the members of the Union who 
took part in the discussion. 

The lack of proper evidence and the 
worthlessness of opinions based on memory 
alone were admitted. Professor Munster- 
berg's letter to Mr. Thayer gives a psy- 
chologist's reasons why such testimony 
lacks value. To them may be added 
several which are more physiological. 
Three or four decades is apt to make a 
decided, if unacknowledged, difference in 
one's power to see and to hear birds, as 
well as to dull the keenness with which 
one searches for them. When neighbors 
tell us that Robins, or Orioles, or 'Chippies' 
are not so common as they were thirty 
years ago, we know that it is human-life 
rather than bird-life which is failing. 

One, however, should avoid generalizing 
on observations covering only one locality. 
Following Mr. Thayer's statement that, 
on the whole, birds are as numerous about 
Keene, H. N., as they have been at any 
time in his experience, covering fifty 
years, we have the claim of Mr. Rolla 
Warren Kimsey that at Lathrop, Mo., 
birds are decreasing; and he gives evi- 
dently valid reasons for this decrease. 



But, on a succeeding page (p. 277) of this 
number, another Missouri correspondent 
writes that birds "seem unusually plentiful 
in Sedalia this spring." From Saginaw, 
Michigan, Mr. W. B. Mershon reports 
that he has never seen more Baltimore 
Orioles than are present there this year, 
but that there are fewer Bluebirds than 
usual. 

With this variety of statement about 
existing conditions, how can we hope to 
know exactly the conditions which existed 
say, thirty or forty years ago, in order 
that we may compare them with those of 
today. Few men are qualified by personal 
experience to make such comparison, but, 
so far as we are aware, those in a position 
to speak with authority detect, all in all, 
no marked change in the numbers of our 
song and insectivorous birds. 

Mr. Joseph Grinnell, Director of the 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the 
University of California, writes us that, 
in view of the proposal to legalize the 
marketing of all game in California, Dr. 
Walter P. Taylor has been detailed from 
the Museum's staff to conduct the cam- 
paign against this undesirable legislation. 
Mr. Grinnell so clearly expresses the duty 
to the state of professional zoologists in 
crises of this kind that we take the liberty 
of quoting from his letter: 

"In thus announcing our participation 
in active conservation, which of course 
means putting aside, for the time being, 
such other interests as field and museum 
research, I would urge that it is the duty 
of zoologists to make their special knowl- 
edge available for the common good when- 
ever the opportunity offers. By reason of 
our work in field and museum we have 
been privileged to acquaint ourselves inti- 
mately with the animal life of the state. 
This knowledge is now of economic impor- 
tance. In the present instance, there is the 
threatened danger that many of our game- 
birds and mammals will be nearly or quite 
exterminated through the excessive hunt- 
ing which free marketing will undoubtedly 
bring. This impending calamity is worth 
fighting against." 



^\)t Bububon Societies; 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Edited by ALICE HALL WALTER 

Address all communications relative to the work of this depart- 
ment to the editor, at S3 Arlington Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

PROGRAM - MAKING 

Not only Audubon Societies, but Bird Clubs and various organizations 
interested in the study and conservation of birds, are considering the annual 
problem of what to do next which will best stimulate their members and 
appeal to the public. The very fact that this problem must be considered 
from such a point of view is, at once, a confession and a concession ; inasmuch 
as the general average of members, on the one hand, not only need but demand 
an attractive program mapped out to whet their interest, while, on the other, 
cooperation with the public is an essential of growth, without which any 
isolated, individual group of bird-lovers must eventually dwindle and 
disintegrate. 

Schedules of work should be recognized as a vital part of any organization, 
and the effort put into their making valued at its true worth. Unfortunately, 
too many people are willing to shift the burden of program-making on to the 
shoulders of a few efficient, self-sacrificing workers, without taking the trouble 
to discuss conditions or to make helpful suggestions. An undue amount of 
responsibility is consequently thrust upon the program-maker. 

The measure of success to which any society attains may be readily esti- 
mated by the kind of program it carries out. With this fact in mind, a yearly 
program of work becomes a test of strength and activity on the part of mem- 
bers, as well as an index of growth. 

The question each member should ask himself is. Am I doing my part of 
the work? 

A program ought not to be a formidable affair, overambitious, complicated, 
and involving an undue amount of work from those who carry it out. Like a 
house, or a library, or a musevmi, it should fit those who are to use it, other- 
wise it will fall far short of the mark. 

For this very reason, it is impossible to offer a set schedule which shall 
meet the requirements of all Audubon Societies and Bird Clubs. Suggestions 
may help to some extent, but the wisest course is to investigate thoroughly 
the needs and possibilities of your own particular community. The difficult 
part of arranging a program is not in the formulation of a printed schedule, 
but rather in establishing a direct relation between that schedule and the pub- 
lic for which it was made. 

(289) 



290 Bird - Lore 

Suppose your Society covers a locality which is becoming overrun with 
Starlings. It is of great importance for everyone to know about the habits 
and distribution of this species, in order to gather reliable data upon which 
to base laws regarding this intruder from the Old World. 

Or, suppose you are confronted with the gypsy and browntail moth pest, 
or the chestnut-disease fungus, your duty is plainly to investigate conditions 
and to inform people of the community how to control these menaces to veg- 
etation. The adaptability of birds is a matter for careful study with regard 
to such pests, and in this connection, the feeding-habits of tree-loving species 
might well be studied with minute care. 

Other problems which belong to local societies as well as to state or federal 
commissions, to solve, are changes in bird-population, decade by decade, or 
year by year, correlated with changes in habitat and distribution; oppor- 
tunities and need of bird-protection ; propagation of wild birds under domestica- 
tion; nature-study in the schools and home, and a systematic survey of the 
arrival and departure of migratory species. 

Each of these topics may be subdivided in different ways, and other topics 
may be added to those given above, but any one of them, if thoroughly taken 
up, would furnish work for many observers. Perhaps the criticism might be 
fairly made that the schedules of work undertaken by most Audubon Socie- 
ties are too fragmentary or, in frequent instances, too desultory. Why not 
commence this year and take one objective point of attack, a single problem, 
and devote more time and thought to that? 

The following communications from quite different sources show the value 
of doing one thing well. The first gives the result of observations during mid- 
summer in a limited area by a class sufficiently large to be compared with the 
average local Audubon Society, or Bird Club. The second deals with the 
problem of providing a suitable food-supply for birds which ordinarily migrate 
farther south. 

BIRD-STUDY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA 
SUMMER SCHOOL 

During the sessions of the University of Virginia Summer School, for several years 
a group of teachers numbering from fifty to seventy-five has given a good deal of time 
to careful and accurate bird-study. This work has been entirely voluntary, for the 
University does not allow credit for bird-study in the nature-study course. 

These early morning walks at five or at five-thirty o'clock, while testing the 
earnestness of the bird-lover, did not interrupt the regular work of the school, 
beginning at 8:30 a.m., but encouraged the formation of friendships, and the 
exchange of information regarding birds, between teachers from all sections of the 
United States. 

Real bird-study at the University of Virginia Summer School was started by Dr. 
K. C. Davis, of the Peabody College for Teachers (Nashville), who conducted it most 
successfully from igio to 1912. Other work kept Doctor Davis in New Jersey for the 



The Audubon Societies 



291 



session of 19 13, and the bird-study class fell to the writer, who had enjoyed many 
bird-walks with Doctor Davis. 

A large class cannot do very close work in identifying shy birds, but our identifi- 
cation was successful, as will be seen from a list of summer residents made between 
June 25 and August 5. These bird-walks covered territory within two miles of the 
University, with the exception of two week-end trips to Humpback Mountain in the 
Blue Ridge, where the additional species noted in the list were found. 

Summer Residents Identified near the University of Virginia 



A.O.U. 


A.O.U. 


190 — American Bittern 


529— ( 


191 — Least Bittern 


540—^ 


200 — Little Blue Heron (immature) 


546-( 


201 — Green Heron 


547-1 


263 — Spotted Sandpiper 


560— ( 


273 — Killdeer 


563-1 


289 — Bob-white 


567^— 


300 — Ruffed Grouse (on Humpback) 


581-5 


310a — ^Wild Turkey (on Humpback) 


587-^ 


316 — Mourning Dove 


593— < 


325 — Turkey Vulture 


598-] 


360 — Sparrow Hawk 


608—5 


373 — Screech Owl 


610— J 


387 — Yellow-billed Cuckoo 


611—] 


388— Black-billed Cuckoo 


614 — ' 


390 — Belted Kingfisher 


616—] 


3936 — Hairy Woodpecker 


619— ( 


394c — Downy Woodpecker 


622 — ] 


406 — Red-headed Woodpecker 


624—] 


412a — Flicker 


627—^ 


41 7 — Whip-poor-will 


628—^ 


420 — Nighthawk 


631-^ 


423 — Chimney Swift 


636—] 


428 — Ruby-throated Hummingbird 


638—5 


444 — Kingbird 


639-^ 


452 — Crested Flycatcher 


641—] 


456 — Phoebe 


652—' 


461 — Wood Pewee 


654—] 


463 — Yellow - bellied Flycatcher (on 




Humpback) 


671—] 


465 — Acadian Flycatcher 


674— ( 


467 — Least Flycatcher (on Humpback) 


676—] 


477— Blue Jay 


677-J 


488— Crow 


681—: 


495 — Cowbird (on Humpback) 


683—^ 


498 — Red-winged Blackbird 


684—] 


501 — Meadowlark 


686— ( 


506 — Orchard Oriole 


687—: 


507 — Baltimore Oriole 


703—; 


511 — Purple Grackle 


704—1 


House (English) Sparrow 


70s—: 



Goldfinch 
Vesper Sparrow 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Henslow's Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Field Sparrow 

Carolina Junco (on Humpback) 
Song Sparrow 
Towhee 
Cardinal 
Indigo Bunting 
Scarlet Tanager 
Summer Tanager 
Purple Martin 
Tree Swallow 
Bank Swallow 
Cedar Waxwing 
Loggerhead Shrike 
Red-eyed Vireo 
Warbling Vireo 
Yellow-throated Vireo 
White-eyed Vireo 
Black and White Warbler 
Swainson's Warbler 
Worm-eating Warbler 
Blue-winged Warbler 
Yellow Warbler 
Black-throated Blue Warbler (on 

Humpback) 
Pine Warbler 
Oven-bird 

Louisiana Water-Thrush 
Kentucky Warbler 
Maryland Yellow-throat 
Yellow-breasted Chat 
Hooded Warbler 

Canadian Warbler (on Humpback) 
Redstart 
Mockingbird 
Catbird 
Brown Thrasher 



292 Bird - Lore 

Summer Residents Identified near the University of Virginia, continued 

A.O.U. A.O.U. 

718 — Carolina Wren 75 1 — Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 

721 — House Wren 755 — Wood Thrush 

724 — Short-billed Marsh Wren 756 — Veery (on Humpback) 

727 — White-breasted Nuthatch 761 — Robin 

731 — Tufted Titmouse 766 — Bluebird 

736 — Carolina Chickadee 

— J. Bowie Ferneyhough, Richmond, Va. (P. O. Box 1458). 



An Effort to Illustrate the Advantages and Possibilities of Inducing 

Desirable Birds to Remain within the Boundaries of 

the State During the Winter Months 

There seems no reason to doubt that the fall migration of several species is 
due primarily to the absence of an adequate food-supply, and that heavy snows and 
low extremes of temperature, while of some importance, are not vital factors in causing 
this phenomenon. Proof of this is afforded when we find large flocks of Robins here 
during some of our severest winters, detained by the various wild fruits, chief of which 
is the hawthorn or thornapple (Crataegus). 

This beautiful shrub grows commonly throughout the foothill and adjacent plain 
region from 5,000 to 8,000 feet, bearing fruit liked by many birds, such as Robins, 
Jays, and numerous Finches. As it yields readily to cultivation and is in itself a beau- 
tiful?ornamental shrub, its introduction and propagation in city parks and residence 
districts is much to be desired. 

To illustrate its value to the avian world, a group containing a small clump of the 
bushes has recently been finished, and is now on exhibition in the Bird Hall, showing 
Robins, Solitaires, Jays, Juncos, Towhees, Song, Tree, and Gambel's Sparrows, feeding 
on the seeds and berry pulp. 

Near by an insect-killed pine has been placed, with Rocky Mountain and Pygmy 
Nuthatches, Rocky Mountain Creepers, and Long-tailed Chickadees, searching out 
each crevice for eggs and larvae, while a large Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker is 
sounding for borers. 

This group is the first of a series of four, now planned, each exhibiting a season with 
the characteristic birds at their work as man's most important ally. — T. Lincoln, 
Acting Curator of Ornithology, Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver, Col. 

Both of these communications offer practical suggestions, which have been 
tested in at least one locaUty with success. By comparing the summer list of 
birds identified at the University of Virginia by a class of seventy-five with the 
list of a year obtained by a single boy, with hardly any assistance, in West 
Virginia (see Bird-Lore, May- June, 1914), some idea may be had of the great 
value of the "limited area" study as opposed to hit-or-miss observations in 
various localities. 

These lists are in themselves of considerable interest, since they contain 
the record of Carolinian, AUeghenian, and Canadian faunal differences within 
specific areas. Compare them with lists which you may make in other places, 
and note the differences of distribution. 



The Audubon Societies 293 

The suggestion of discovering a suitable winter food-supply for desirable 
species is one that many societies might follow up with good results. Such an 
investigation would naturally lead to experiments with a variety of trees and 
shrubs, and, incidentally, add much to a general knowledge of arboriculture. 

Other methods of work will be welcomed and discussed in this department. 
—A. H. W. 

JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 
For Teachers and Pupils 

Exercise XVI : Correlated Studies, Reading, Observation and Recreation 

THE PERIOD OF SONG 

Touch your lips with gladness, and go singing on your way, 

Smiles will strangely lighten every duty; 

Just a little word of cheer may span a sky of gray 

With hope's own heaven-tinted bow of beauty. 

Wear a pleasant face wherein shall shine a joyful heart, 

As shines the sun, the happy fields adorning; 

To every care-beclouded life some ray of light impart. 

And touch your lips with gladness every morning. — Nixon Waterman 

Vacation-time has come again, books and lessons are laid aside, examina- 
tions and rank forgotten. Why have an exercise for the Junior Audubon 
members in midsummer, even in the School Department of Bird-Lore? Why, 
indeed, except to add to the interest of the long, hot days when body and mind 
relax and sag, and precious time is wasted for lack of energy to fix upon any- 
thing which seems worth while? 

The following exercise is correlated with some things which you may never 
have thought of as studies, namely, observation and recreation. It is rather a 
curious fact that most people have to be taught to observe and to play, unless 
they have grown up under very favorable conditions for cultivating these gifts. 

It is well to read as much as one can, for the right kind of books and papers 
and magazines contain a vast amount of observation presented in attractive 
form. It is better, however, to be able to observe for one's self, to cultivate the 
habit of observing, and of mentally crystallizing into memory what has been 
observed. 

Add to the habit of reading and observation the gift of knowing how to 
play, and the combination is still better. One philosopher — and, by the way, a 
philosopher who practises what he teaches — has called attention to the 
advantage of learning to play as one works. The reason that work of any kind 
is likely to become first a tiresome task and then dull drudgery is because no 
element of recreation enters into it. The spirit which makes one feel like play- 
ing also makes one contented and cheerful. The haymaker who starts to his 



294 Bird -Lore 

work singing "Happy as the day is long," is a man who finds something in 
that work besides a hard task, and who gets something out of it besides fatigue 
and discouragement. He works and plays at the same time. 

This same beautiful lesson is taught us by the birds. With them, song is 
an expression of health and energy, and of a natural instinct linked with the 
great law of life which we touched upon in the last exercise. The period of 
song is at its best when mates are chosen and nesting is begun, but song is 
also an accompaniment to food-getting, with many species. Watch the Vireos 
feeding and singing, throughout the long, sultry summer, or listen for the 
Nighthawk sweeping the twilight-gloom, calling its strange, rasping note. 

Hear the frequent repetitions of the Maryland Yellowthroat's song, as the 
busy singer slips about shrubbery by roadside or brook; the bubbling phrases 
of the Bobolink, as it rises for a moment from the grassy meadows, or the 
faint tzee of the secretive Savannah Sparrow from the mow-fields. If you 
are so fortunate as to be in the North at this season, you cannot fail to hear the 
silvery pipe of the White-throated Sparrow, now here, now there, all the day, 
or a strain from the harp of the Hermit Thrush in the evergreen woodland; 
although these occasional snatches are but a suggestion of the wonderful 
matin and vesper choruses of these famous singers. 

The 'flycatcher clan' sing often as they feed, some more than others, and 
notably the indefatigable Chebec, while the dancing, flashing Goldfinch wings 
its way on a path of song. From every side comes some sound of cheer, some 
reminder of the jubilance of life. Train not only your eyes but your ears to 
observe, for strange to say, we hear ordinarily only a fraction of the songs of 
birds, insects, frogs, leaves, winds, and ocean, while we see oh! so little of the 
shifting symphonies of color and form on Nature's canvas. We live in a world 
of sound, of vibrant life, and we should be attuned to it. 

The period of song with birds is different with different species, but we 
may distinguish some points of resemblance which hold good for all with 
regard to the exercise of the gift of song. But, first, we should notice that all 
birds cannot sing equally well. The song-mechanism of a bird is in the lower 
part of the throat or larynx and is called the syrinx. This mechanism is com- 
plicated and difficult to explain, but it consists in part of a membrane held 
tautly in place and delicately adjusted by various sets of muscles. 

In certain birds the song-mechanism is very simple, almost rudimentary, 
and such an instrument can produce only hoarse or raucous call-notes, capable 
of hardly, if any, modulation. The Ostrich, Emu and Cassowary are exam- 
ples of species that lack much of the mechanism of song. All water and shore- 
birds, gallinaceous birds. Doves and Pigeons, birds of prey, the Woodpeckers, 
Cuckoos, Kingfishers and Whip-poor-wills, Swifts, and Hummingbirds have 
poorly developed singing instruments, and so we find that of our birds, true 
song belongs only to the perching species, and even among these there is a great 
diversity in the development of the syrinx. 



The Audubon Societies 295 

All birds have call-notes, which are varied more or less to express sociabil- 
ity, fear, the mating instinct, solicitude for offspring and natural exuberance. 
Usually both male and female birds possess call-notes in equal variety and 
intensity, but this is not true of song. In a few species the female sings some, 
for example the Purple Finch, but in the majority of perchers, the males 
alone possess the full power of song. The reason for this is not hard to discover, 
when we study the part which song plays in the daily life of birds. The female 
birds, as mothers, must stay quietly hidden on the nest, to incubate their 
eggs and shelter their nestlings, while the males are much freer to leave the 
nesting-site and keep watch for dangers and enemies; so to them is given the 
joyful task of singing. Just how much the beautiful songs which they sing 
mean to their mates, we do not know, but we may be sure that song is a wise 
provision of Nature, and that it is an indispensable part of the bird's life. 

It is a delightful accomplishment to be familiar with bird-songs, and a 
difficult one, too. It is perhaps quite as delightful, but far more difficult, to 
acquire familiarity with the call-notes of even the most common species, so 
great is their variety and similarity. 

No part of bird-study can give you more pleasure at this season than the 
study of song. Those who have 'an ear for music' will gain a hold on bird- 
music much more readily than those who are duller of hearing, but no one 
need despair who has patience and enthusiasm. You can hear birds far oftener 
than you can see them at this time of the year. 

And as you awaken to the strains of the morning-chorus of the feathered 
choirs about you, remember this little midsummer sermonette on song, and 

"Touch your lips with gladness, and go singing on your way." 

SUGGESTIONS 

1. How many phrases do the different species of Vireos sing per minute? Time the 
Red-eyed, Yellow-throated, and White-eyed Vireos. 

2. What kind of call-note does the Robin give in times of excessive heat? 

3. What birds have been named from their call-notes and songs? 

4. What are the best singers among birds that you know? 

5. Can you tell the call-notes of nestling birds from those of their 'parents? 

6. What birds sing at night? How late have you heard birds sing? 

7. Are the evening and morning songs of birds different. 

8. Study one common species and see how many different kinds of songs and call- 
notes it gives. Take the Robin, for example. 

9. Do individuals of the same species of birds sing differently? Study the Song 
Sparrow, for example. 

10. Do individuals of the same species sing in different keys in different localities? 
Study the Baltimore Oriole, for example. 

11. Can you recognize any single bird by some peculiarity in its song? 

12. What birds are mimics in song? What birds lure their prey by means of mim- 
icry? 

13. What other creatures besides birds have the gift of song?— A. H. W. 



296 



Bird - Lore 



FROM ADULT AND YOUNG OBSERVERS 

A STUDY OF A WHIP-POOR-WILL FAMILY 

This Whip-poor-will was discovered May 25 by my father and mother. They were 
walking in the woods on a side hill, and went to the crest to obtain the view. It was a 
bare granite ledge, that at one time had been worked, and large blocks of stone lay 
strewn about. As they stepped back into the woods, which at that place consisted of a 
young growth of walnut and chestnut, with more or less underbrush and huckleberry 
bushes, a large brown bird flew from the ground at their feet and alighted on a fallen 
tree close by. Instead of resting crosswise on the [limb, [the|[bird^sat lengthwise, so 
father thought it must be a Whip-poor-will, as they are quite numerous in this locality 















•^^.■.>.idrr,\^yiii«» 



WHIP-POOR-WILL ON NEST 
"Her brown, blotched plumage so closely matched the leaves that 1 did not see her" 

after sundown. On looking for the spot from which it flew, they saw two conspicuous 
eggs, pale blue mottled with small dark brown spots. There was no visible nest, the 
eggs resting on the dead leaves, which were pressed down smoothly by the bird's body. 
The next morning I went with father and set up my camera about four feet from the 
nest. My kodak has a plate attachment, and with the help of the ground glass I care- 
fully focused on the eggs. After taking a time exposure, for they were in the shade, I 
attached a long rubber tube, with a bulb, to the camera, and dropped the end over a 
stone wall about thirty feet away. Covering the camera with a black cloth and partly 
hiding it with leafy twigs, I sat down behind the wall to wait for the old bird to come 
back to her nest. I had taken a book with me, thinking the bird would be afraid of the 
camera and might not return very soon. In about half an hour I looked through the 
chinks of the wall, but could not see anything of the bird. After waiting another hour, 
I started for home to get some lunch. Passing by the camera, I saw that the eggs had 
disappeared. Going closer, to look more carefully, I was startled by the bird suddenly 
flying up from the ground at my feet. She had been sitting over the eggs, and her brown, 
blotched plumage so closely matched the leaves that I did not see her. Then I thought 



The Audubon Societies 



297 



to myself that, if she would keep as quiet as that again, I could take a time exposure, 
because a snap-shot would not be very good in so shady a place. Setting the camera 
for a time picture, I went home for lunch. 

When I returned, I approached the nest very cautiously and came within fifteen 
feet of the exact spot where I knew she would be crouched on the leaves, before I could 
make out whether she was there or not. When the camera snapped, she did not move, 
but remained quiet, with her eyes half closed. I had a field-glass and examined her 
through it. The glass made her stand out more distinctly from the leaves, but even 
then, if it had not been for her bright black eyes, I could scarcely have known that I 
was looking at a live bird, so closely did her dark brown feathers, mottled with gray and 
black, resemble patches of lichens, moss, and dead leaves. Even her short curved bill 




WHIP-POOR-WILL'S NEST AND EGGS 



was half hidden by a thin tuft of feathers. She squatted low on the ground, with her 
large head drawn close to the body, looking like a half-decayed stump. It seemed a 
pity to disturb her, but I wanted more pictures, so it had to be done. When she flew as 
I approached, she seemed merely to spread her broad wings and rise without an effort. 
With a few slow, silent wing-strokes she sailed off from twenty to thirty feet and dropped 
to the leaves, instantly becoming invisible although in plain sight. As long as she 
remained quiet I could not pick her out except with the aid of the glass, but every few 
minutes she would give a low, hollow, subdued, cluck, and move one step nearer. Fit- 
ting a fresh plate in the camera, I retired behind one of the rocks on the ledge not more 
than twenty feet away, holding the bulb in my hand. In less than ten minutes I saw her 
silently drop out of the air on to the eggs. Letting her remain quiet for half an hour 
I secured another picture. After taking three views of the old bird in this way, I went 
home and left her in peace. 

A week later I visited her again, but the eggs had not hatched. On the following 
weekly visit, when she flew, there was nothing in sight but a few broken bits of egg- 



298 



Bird - Lore 



shells. Very carefully I made my way to the spot which the old bird had just left, and 
minutely examined the leaves for the young, but without success. The mother was a 
short distance away with half-spread wings. She slowly moved about, uttering soft 
'chucks' and taking a single step at each sound. As she seemed so worried, I thought 
her babies must be in the neighborhood, so I went to the ledge and sat down behind a 



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VOUNG WHIP-POOR-WILLS 



Stone, to see if she would call them. In a few minutes she alighted on the former nesting- 
place and uttered a few gentle, almost inaudible 'coos,' like a Dove, only very much 
softer. Then, only two feet away from the old bird, I saw two fluffy yellow-gray chicks 
come hopping and running over the leaves to their mother. They nestled down out of 
sight under their mother's breast, and the old bird closed her eyes in contented sleep. 
Some time later I stood up, and at the first movement the mother slightly opened her 
eyes. As I approached, she did not move until I could almost touch her, and when 
she did fly she gave a warning 'chuck,' and both birdlets ran a few steps and squatted 
on the leaves. If I had not seen them as they ran and stopped, I should never have been 
able to find them, for they looked exactly like the dried leaves on which they sat. Both 
were covered with yellow down, tipped with gray or white, and their immense mouths 
were hidden in downy feathers, only the tips of their bills protruding from the soft 
sheath. One of them kept his eyes fast -closed, while the other watched me between his 
half-opened lids. Moving one nearer the other, I placed it so as to get a side view (the 
other had its back to the camera) and took their pictures. 

The next week, as it was dark and threatening rain, I did not take my camera with 
me when I visited the Whip-poor-wills. The mother bird was not in her old place, so I 
walked around in the neighborhood and soon started her up, but again I could not find 
the young birds. Going back among the rocks, I waited until she had called them 
together. When I came near, the mother flew and her babies squatted on the leaves. 
They had grown to twice their former size and were well feathered, being almost ready 
to fly away. The plumage was light gray, with dark brown spots on the back and along 
each wing, giving them the appearance of moss-covered stones. While admiring the 
delicate blending of their somber colors, it seemed to me that I could just see traces of 



The Audubon Societies 299 

the beginnings of fear in their sparkling black eyes. This I knew was a sign of approach- 
ing maturity and I left them with but a faint hope of ever seeing them again. On the 
next visit they were nowhere to be found, and I knew that they no longer belonged to 
me, but to the wide, wide world. 

I forgot to say that I saw the Whip-poor-will's mate only once. It flew from a tree 
where it was roosting, as soon as I came in sight, and disappeared over the crest of the 
hill. — Joseph B. Bowen, Grants Mills, R. I. 

[Aside from the general interest of this description, the writer's method of observa- 
tion is worthy of notice. Those who care to look up the topics of protective coloration 
and the development of fear in birds and other animals will be repaid for the time spent 
in such study. — A. W. H.] 

COOPERATIVE OBSERVATIONS 

In the March-April number of Bird-Lore there is a communication from 
C. C. Custer, Piqua, Ohio, in which he tells of observing "some grayish-look- 
ing Swallows entering a small opening in the side of a limestone cliff." The 
hole proved too small and dark to be explored. ]Mr. Custer asks: "What kind 
of Swallows were they?" 

Undoubtedly these were Rough-wiiiged Swallows. The writer lived in the 
Middle West four years and had frequent opportunities to observe this species 
at close range, in Iowa, South Dakota, and JMinnesota. Mr. Custer well 
describes it as a "grayish-looking" bird. It is almost the counterpart of the 
common Bank Swallow, except that, instead of the white underparts, with a 
dark band across the breast, the throat and breast are a uniform soft gray, 
shading into white on the belly. The Bank Swallows nest in tunnels in banks, 
while the Rough- winged Swallows nest more commonly in crevices of masonry 
or holes in ledges, though often in banks, in company with the Bank Swallows. 
Moreover, the latter nest in colonies, while the former prefer a more solitary 
life, seldom more than one pair nesting together. If one sees what looks like 
a Bank Swallow entering a crevice in a ledge or masonry, he may be reasonably 
sure he has seen a Rough-winged Swallow. 

The WTiter once watched, for some fifteen minutes, one of these birds in 
Cherokee, Iowa, as it perched on a dry twig close at hand, and had a splendid 
opportunity to observe the roughness on the wings caused by the fluting of 
the ends of the outer primary feathers. Hence the name, 'Rough-winged' 
Swallow. One must be very close to the bird to note this, however. 

I have never seen the Rough-winged Swallow in New England, though it 
is said to be found in southwestern Connecticut, and a pair has been reported 
as breeding for many years in a limestone quarry at North Adams, Mass. — 
Manley B, Townsend, Nashua, N. H. 

[For the occurrence of the Rough-winged Swallow in Connecticut, consult Sage and 
Bishop's 'Birds of Connecticut'. — A. H. W.] 



300 Bird - Lore 

THE KILLDEER 

One year a Killdeer lived in our pasture. When we were driving our cows 
down to get a drink one day, we were walking along and all at once a bird 
flew up and my brother started to chase it, because it went fluttering along as 
if it was hurt. I said: "Go and look for the nest. It isn't hurt." Then he went 
back to look for it and found four eggs lying in a little cow track, with their 
pointed ends pointing down. Their color is a delicate creamy white tint and 
they are thickly spotted or lined with chocolate-brown. Like the eggs of all 
Plovers, their size is out of all proportion to the size of the bird. As soon as 
the little ones are hatched, they leave the nest. When you go to look for them, 
the old one will start up and act as if it cannot fly, and the young will run and 
hide. The young are brown on the back, and have a white breast with a black 
streak under the neck. They have long legs something like an Ostrich's legs. 
The Killdeer builds in the swamps the most. Its call is kildee, kildee, dee, dee, 
dee. — Charley B. Prudden (age 14, seventh grade), Bashing Ridge, Indiana. 

[The Killdeer, like the Whip-poor-will, builds little or no nest, and yet it succeeds 
in making itself quite inconspicuous while incubating its eggs and brooding its young. 
With the Bartramian Sandpiper ('Upland Plover') and certain others of its kind, this 
beautiful species has become scarce in sections of its range, by reason of changing con- 
ditions and inadequate protection. Let us study the habits of ground-nesting species 
more closely, in order to better conserve them. — A. H. W.j 

THE KING BIRD 

Knight defender of every nest, 

Foe of every shade-tree killer; 
Hunter of many a common pest, 

Gad-fly, moth, and caterpillar. 

Policeman over the fields of green, 

Chasing every crow from the farm; 
Watchman keen when a hawk is seen, 

Giving the poultry wild alarm. 

Beautiful bird is he in flight, 

Sporting a fan of brilliant feather; 
Black with a border of perfect white, 

Useful in every kind of weather. 

Bird King indeed of the catcher clan. 

And Queen of the clan his mate, 
Proud as a prince of Hindostan, 

Or Alexander the Great. 

— By permission of Dr. Garrett Newkirk. 



The Audubon Societies 301 



NOTES FROM THE SOUTH 

On Sunday, July 13, 1913, I was fishing in Lake Centennial, part of the 
Mississippi River. When the fish stopped biting, I persuaded my uncle to 
row me over to De Soto island, which extends along the whole water front of 
Vicksburg. 

This island is a bird paradise. We got off on a large raft, and back in the 
Willows we could see Purple Crackles, Red-winged Blackbirds, Swainson's 
Warblers, and could hear Prothonotary and Parula Warblers. On the mud- 
flats and in shallow ponds. White Ibises, Reddish Egrets, Creen Herons, and 
Little Blue Herons without number were walking about in search of frogs and 
fishes. 

I would have walked inland, but as the high water had just gone down, the 
ground was too soft. I also saw a few Black-necked Stilts, Willets and Kill- 
deer. Over the water, at least fifty pairs of Least Terns were seen flying about. 

Coing back, I had my back to the island, but my uncle, who was rowing, 
was facing it. Suddenly, he told me to look around, and there was a Least 
Tern, flying straight after the boat. When about six feet away, it turned, 
flying so close by the boat that I could see that a fish it carried was a roach 
minnow. — Maurice B. Emmich (aged 12), Vicksburg, Miss. 

[Another example of the treasures in store for the bird-lover in a 'limited area' 
excursion. It may be possible that the Crackles seen were Boat-tailed rather than 
Purple Crackles, and the Willets some other species of the large family of shore-birds, 
but this does not make the observations of less value or interest. It takes sharp eyes 
and long field-experience to know birds, and this boy's enthusiasm promises well for 
an intimate acquaintance with nature. — A. H. W.] 

The Robin's Nest 

About two weeks ago, I saw a Robin building a nest made of mud and 
dead grasses. It made its nest near my house in a sugar maple tree. It sat 
there for two or three weeks on the bluish green eggs, until the baby Robins 
came out of the little eggs. They looked like the mother and father birds, 
with brown spots on their breasts. When they are learning to fly, the father 
bird flies under them; so, when they fall, they fall, not on the ground, but 
on the father's back. — Margaret Moore (aged 8, Third grade), St. Clair, 
Mich. 

[This brief letter contains personal observations in every sentence and is especially 
commendable for the variety of these observations. The material from which the nest 
was made, the location, approximate time of incubation, plumage of the nestling young, 
and initial flight of the nestlings are mentioned. What near relatives of the Robin 
always have spotted breasts? How does a nesthng Bluebird look? Is the statement 
about the flight of the young strictly correct? — A. H. W.] 



302 



Bird - Lore 



A CHIPPING SPARROW 

Last summer in New Hampshire, while I was playing, I climbed a tree and 
heard a noise. I had often climbed the tree before and knew that there was a 
Chipping Sparrow's nest, but never heard so queer a noise before. When I 
got up a little higher and got a good view of the nest, I saw a young Chipping 
Sparrow hanging by one leg. He had evidently fallen out of the nest and got 
his leg caught in one of the pieces of string the nest was made out of. Another 
boy and I got a long stick. Some people under the tree held a rug, and we got 
the young bird safely on the ground. All this time the mother and father were 
wild. I do not know if the young bird lived or not, but I hope so. — Pendle- 
ton Marshall (aged ii). New York City. 

[It might interest this correspondent and other readers to make a catalogue of 
accidents with which birds have been known to meet. The writer saw a nestling Phoebe, 
a few summers ago, that had been strangled by swallowing one end of a hair, which 
had evidently been wound around the food given it. The hair was so long that the 
free end may have caught on some object outside the nest, thus resisting every effort 
of the young bird to swallow the food attached in this accidental way.— A. H. W.] 

CORRECTION 

In the preceding issue, page 213, read clan for class. 





SORA 
Order — Paludicote Family 



Genus — Porzana 



RallidaE 
Species — Carolina 



THE SORA RAIL 

By EDWARD HOWE FORBUSH 



Cfie jl^ational association of Studubon Societies 

EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET No. 75 



In the marsh the wilderness makes its last stand. Civilization sweeps away 
the forest, dams and diverts the streams, cultivates prairie, hill, and meadow, 
traverses the pond in boats, and destroys the native birds and mammals, 
but the marsh remains unconquered to the last. Along the Atlantic seaboard, 
where agriculture and civilization have held sway for hundreds of years, 
stretches of marshland yet extend even within the corporate limits of large 
cities; and many of the shy creatures that inhabited them when Columbus 
discovered America still maintain their homes among the reeds. Here the 
great snapping-turtle drags its slow length along, here the Bittern may be 
heard "driving its stake," and here the Rail peers from its age-old fastness — 
the cover of reeds, flags, and sedges. Man dislikes the quaking bog and the 
miry ooze, and so it remains a refuge for the light-footed and defenseless ones 
that can run over its shuddering expanse or crawl in its mud and water. 

Rushes, sedges, and wa\dng cat-tails, and lush w^ater-plants in wild pro- 
fusion, form a curtain screening the private life of the Rails from human view. 
We hear sounds from behind this screen, and now and then a 
^ ,, , "Mud-hen" peeps out; and so we have come to associate them 

the Marsh f f ^ 

with the steaming summer morass, the pond-weeds, pickerel- 
weed, and the lily-pads over which, light of weight and splay-footed, they can 
run at will. Some of their notes are such as might be expected to come from 
a frog-breeding morass; others are as sweet and wild as those of the Whip- 
poor-will or the Solitary Vireo. Rails have some notes that resemble and 

harmonize with the frog-chorus, such as krek, krek, kuk, kuk, 
Its Notes kuk, and others more subdued and varied. I may venture to 

assert that no man yet has fully identified all the notes of all 
the species of American Rails, and probably no one man ever will. I have 
heard many notes in the marshes that I could not identify. In 1889, William 
Brewster devoted most of his time for two weeks to an attempt to see a sup- 
posed Rail that was heard calling in the Cambridge marshes. He never saw 
it, and the voice is still a mystery, although it has been heard many times 
since and in other places. This bird may have been a Yellow Rail, but I have 
twice heard a wonderful solo from the marshes, partly original, and partly 

in seeming imitation of other birds, which, from its quality, I 
Sings like a . ; > n ^ ? 

Pj.Qg can attribute only to the Sora. TJiis "song" was kept up 

intermittently for several hours, and showed great versatility; 

some of the notes were frog-like, but most of them were like those of a bird. 

(303) 



304 Bird - Lore 

A common call, or song, has been rendered ker wee; and the Sora has a 
high 'whinny;' also notes like peeping chickens. 

The Rail is a bird of mystery. I always feel like putting an interrogation 
point after the name. About the habits of no other common birds do we 
know so little. The Sora Rail is one of the most abundant and widely spread 
birds of North America. It has been slaughtered and sold in the markets by 
the hundreds of thousands for more than a century. It breeds commonly, 
even abundantly, over a great part of the United States and Canada; yet 
most of its habits, and perhaps many of its notes, are still largely its own 
secret. While floating in a light canoe down the sluggish current of some marsh- 
bordered river in September, you may watch the Sora silently stealing along 
the muddy margin, poking things with its short yellow bill, and gently jetting 
its tail; or, in tramping along the edge of the marsh, you may see one flutter 
up, just above the grass and reeds, and fly awkwardly with dangling legs 
across some slimy pool, to drop clumsily out of sight again, as in the accom- 
panying picture. This is about all the observant traveler ever sees of the 
bird. Rails are timid, skulking fowls, and pass the greater part 
of their lives wading under cover of water-plants or squeezing 
between the grass-stems. They have done this so much that 
their little bodies have become compressed from side to side, and they can 
voluntarily shrink in width so as to push their way between stems apparently 
only half an inch apart. Hence the phrase 'thin as a rail.' Rails make for 
themselves dark and winding passages among the reeds, grasses, and rushes, 
along which they may run swiftly to escape four-footed enemies, and at the 
same time remain concealed from winged foes. They come out into the open 
when they believe that the coast is clear, with no enemy in sight, or at night, 
when Hawks are absent. The Black Rail has kept its secrets so well that, 
although a century has elapsed since Americans began to study ornithology, 
Arthur T. Wayne, in 1904, was the first person to see the mother-bird on her 
nest; this was in South Carolina. Perhaps some investigator of the future may 
build a watch-tower in a marsh and study the habits of the marsh- folk with 
spy-glasses; but, until something of this sort is undertaken, we are likely 
to know little of Rails' habits. The curiosity of these birds, however, may 
become of advantage to the observer, as they have been known to approach 
a hunter lying in wait for ducks, and peck his clothing, boots, or gun-barrel. 
A quiet man is to them a wonder, for they are accustomed to associate much 
noise and movement with aU humankind. 

The Sora nests about the borders of prairie sloughs, in the soft dense 

grasses, or sometimes on a tussock. In the marshes of the East, the nest is 

often placed in a bunch of coarse grass, or among the cattail- 

_ , ^ flags or other rushes. It is sometimes a bulky, arched structure. 

Bulrushes ° - . . , , 

made of weeds, grasses, rushes, etc., sometimes a slight plat- 
form or a mere shallow basket. It is often set in tall cattails several inches 



The Sora Rail 30S 

clear of the water, with a pathway of trampled blades leading to it, while nest 
and all are screened by the overarching flags; and occasionally one is found in 
a tussock on the bank of a brook. The eggs vary from six to fifteen in number, 
are buffy white, but deeper in shade than those of the Virginia Rail, and are 
heavily spotted with brown and purple. 

Nelson says that the parents desert their nests and break their eggs when 
floods submerge their homes. The young Rails just from the egg are fascina- 
ting and supremely comical mites. Little balls of down, black as 
omica j^^^ ^^^j^ j^^g ^ bright red protuberance at the base of the bill, 

and an air of pert defiance — is a very clown! So says Dawson 
who came upon a brood just hatching. All took to their heels except two 
luckless wights not yet out of the egg. At his approach, one more egg flew 
open, and a little black rascal rolled out, shook its natal coat, tumbled off the 
nest, and started to swim off to safety. 

The young of this bird have often been mistaken for those of the little 
Black Rail. They are certainly both small and sable. When they once leave 
the nest, they are constantly in danger. Most of the larger animals and birds 
of the marshes, from the Sandhill Crane down to the mink, devour the eggs 
and young of Rails wherever they find them. In the water, snakes, frogs, fish, 
and turtles lie constantly in wait to swallow them. They soon become experts 
in climbing and hiding. They can clamber up and down the water-plants, or 
run through them over the water by clinging to the upright stems. They 
swim more like a chicken than like a duck, nodding their little heads comically 
as they advance. Necessity soon teaches them to drop into the water and 
dive like a stone to safety. 

As the autumn nights grow cooler, migration begins. The ancients believed 
that the Rails passed the winter in the mud at the bottom of ponds, changing 
into frogs. Their frog-like notes and the chug with which they 
Migration sometimes dive favored this delusion; also the sudden disap- 

pearance of all the Soras on a frosty night seemed suspicious. 
Some still moonlit night, after a north wind, the Rails disappeared; on the 
next morning, ice covered the marshes; so the explanation that they had 
dived to escape the ice gained credence. Now we know that they fly southward 
after dark. They often dash themselves against lighthouses, poles, wires, 
and buildings, and one has even been known to impale itself on a barbed-wire 
fence. The little wings which erstwhile would hardly raise the birds above 
the grass-tops now carry them high and far. Some cross the seas to distant 
Bermuda, and they occasionally alight on vessels hundreds of miles at sea. 
They have been taken on the western mountains even as high as 12,500 feet, 

in the sage-brush of the desert, and on the cliffs of Panama. 
Its Food The food of Rails never has been carefully studied. We 

know that they are fond of many kinds of insects and worms, 
and that they eat snails and other kinds of aquatic life; also the seeds 



3o6 Bird - Lore 

and other parts of water-plants. The Sora, like many other swamp-birds 
and water-fowls, feeds largely in autumn on the seeds of wild rice. This 
makes them so fat that they become a dainty morsel for the epicure, and 
are pursued without mercy by market-hunters and "sportsmen" of all colors, 
ages, and classes. In the fresh-water meadows, they are sometimes driven 
from cover by dogs, and many are shot in this manner. 

Shooting them in their slow fluttering flight in the daytime is about as 
difficult as hitting a tin can floating down a brook, and a good marksman 
rarely misses one. The greatest slaughter is perpetrated on the tide-water 
marshes of the Middle Atlantic States, where gunners shoot almost anything 
that flies, from Eagles to Blackbirds, Bobolinks, and Swallows, There, when 
the tide rises high enough to allow small boats to float over the marshes, boats 
are poled into every refuge of the poor birds, and as they seek safety in flight 
they are shot down without mercy. Hundreds of thousands are thus killed 
by daylight when the tide is high. The negroes of the South pursue a similar 
sport at night, blinding the birds with torches, and striking them down with 
sticks. This wholesale killing has greatly decreased the Sora Rail in New 
England, but the species is very prolific, and is still numerous in many marshes 
in the West and Northwest. 

The draining of lakes and marshes for farming purposes, which breaks up 
their breeding-grounds, will inevitably reduce their numbers still more, year 
by year, so that stringent protection will be necessary to maintain the species. 

Classification and Distribution 

The Sora belongs to the Order Paludicolce, or marsh birds, Suborder Raili, Family 
Rallida, and Subfamily Rallina, which includes the Rails and Crakes. It ranges over 
most of North America, breeds from central British Columbia, and the valleys of the 
North Saskatchewan and St. Lawrence rivers, south to southern California, Utah, 
Colorado, Kansas, Illinois, and New Jersey; and it winters from northern California, 
Illinois, and South Carolina, to Venezuela and Peru. 




EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Edited by T. GILBERT PEARSON, Secretary 

Address all correspondence, and send all remittances for dues and contributions, to 
the National Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City. 

William Butcher, President 
Frederic A. Lucas, Acting President T. Gilbert Pearson, Secretary 

Theodore S. Palmer, First Vice-President Jonathan Dvvight, Jr., Treasurer 
Samuel T. Carter, Jr., Attorney 

Any person, club, school or company in sympathy with the objects of this Association may become 
a member, and all are welcome. 

Classes of Membership in the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild 
Birds and Animals: 

$5.00 annually pays for a Sustaining Membership 
$100.00 paid at one time constitutes a Life Membership 
$1,000.00 constitutes a person a Patron 
$5,000.00 constitutes a person a Founder 
$25,000.00 constitutes a person a Benefactor 



$20,000 FOR BIRD-STUDY 



The growth of the Junior Audubon 
Class movement in the schools through- 
out the northern states and Canada has 
encouraged the patron of this work to 
increase still further the extent of his sup- 
port. Note how this phase of the Audubon 
movement has developed, as the result 
of the growing support this great friend 
of the birds and the children has provided 
in the northern and western states and 
Canada! During the school-year ending 
June 15, 191 2, 19,365 children joined the 
classes. In 1913 the number was 40,342; 
while the year which closed on June 10, 
1914, saw 95,918 pupils in this territory 
wearing Audubon buttons and obtaining 
instruction in bird-study and bird-pro- 
tection. 

As every member receives in return for 
a ten-cent fee ten expensive colored bird- 
pictures, each with its accompanying 
leaflet, an outline drawing, and an Audu- 
bon button, and as the teacher forming 
the group receives much valuable printed 
information and instruction, it will 
readily be seen that the ten-cent fees by 
no means cover the cost of the material; 
not to mention the clerical work, office- 
rent, postage and expressage bills, which 
must be paid. To meet the deficit, there- 
fore, our good patron, who still insists on 
withholding his name from public men- 



tion, contributed in 191 2, $5,000; in 1913, 
$7,000; for the school-year just past, the 
magnificent sum of $14,000; and now, for 
1915, he has subscribed $20,000! 

Final Reports 

The Junior Class enrollment in the 
southern states has also been larger during 
the past year than ever before. This is a 
splendid indication of increasing appre- 
ciation of this work, which Mrs. Russell 
Sage enabled us to establish and continue 
up to the present time. 

Although Junior clubs are formed in 
small numbers during all the summer 
months, the greater amount of the activity 
comes to an end with the conclusion of 
the school year. This naturally follows 
from the fact that the greater number of 
clubs consist of pupils in schools, who are 
naturally grouped in their work, and are 
easily organized. Yet many classes exist 
outside of schools, and are likely to con- 
tinue active throughout the summer. 

On the next following page is given a 
full report by states of the number of 
Junior Classes formed, and number of 
Junior members enrolled, in the various 
states of the Union. For the South, the 
accounts closed on June i; and for the 
northern states and Canada, on June 10. 



(307) 



3o8 



Bird - Lore 



Southern States 

States Classes 

Alabama 30 

Arkansas 9 

District of Columbia 6 

Florida 177 

Georgia 69 

Kentucky 89 

Louisiana 30 

Maryland 119 

Mississippi 38 

North Carolina 57 

Panama (Canal Zone) i 

South Carolina 37 

Tennessee 91 

Texas 47 

Virginia 160 

West Virginia 97 

Totals 1,057 

Northern States 

States Classes 

Arizona i 

California 55 

Canada 221 

Colorado 26 

Connecticut 137 

Delaware 6 

Idaho 10 

Illinois 439 



Mem- 
bers 

471 
123 
129 

3.701 
1,222 

1,465 
503 

2,401 
660 
962 

31 

SCO 

1,716 

910 

2,336 

1,991 

19,121 



Mem- 
bers 
16 

1,119 

3,655 
447 

2,451 

64 

180 

8,065 



Northern States, continued 

Mem- 
States Classes berg 

Indiana 128 2,200 

Iowa 169 3,220 

Kansas 31 498 

Maine 58 947 

Massachusetts 359 8,463 

Michigan 576 10,414 

Minnesota 243 4,509 

Missouri 80 1,427 

Montana 50 770 

Nebraska 34 422 

Nevada 28 471 

New Hampshire 34 597 

New Jersey 436 9,273 

New Mexico 22 376 

New York 779 14,174 

North Dakota 28 604 

Ohio 386 7,934 

Oklahoma 41 608 

Oregon 42 780 

Pennsylvania 354 6,790 

Rhode Island 63 1,096 

South Dakota 65 901 

Utah 7 142 

Vermont 35 674 

Washington 67 982 

Wisconsin 115 1,253 

Wyoming 20 396 

Totals 5,14s 95,918 



COOPERATIVE WORK IN OREGON 



The Oregon Fish and Game Commission 
has been carrying on an active educational 
campaign during the past few months 
under the direction of our Western Field 
Agent, William L. Finley. Prof. Charles F. 
Hodge, formerly of Worcester, Mass., has 
been employed jointly by the University 
of Oregon and the Commission to devote 
his entire time to lecturing among the 
schools of the state. Professor Hodge has 
not only been giving stereopticon lectures 
upon the economic value of song-birds 
and insect-eating birds, but also has been 
lecturing in the schools upon the protec- 
tion and propagation of game. The idea 
has been to encourage children in the 
country toward rearing quail, grouse, and 
other game-birds, to stock the fields and 
supply the demand for propagating pur- 
poses. 

In order to create greater interest from 
an educational point of view, moving- 
picture films have been exhibited, illus- 



trating the State Game Farm, fish-hatch- 
eries, angling, and other features of out- 
door life. An excellent educational film 
has been secured of school-children making 
and putting up bird-houses. Others will 
be taken illustrating wild birds and other 
animals in various parts of the state, 
especially on some of the larger wild-bird 
refuges. 

As a result of educational work in the 
schools, boys in some of the country school 
districts, who were formerly accustomed 
to kill birds at every opportunity, have 
now become their greatest protectors, by 
supplying food in the winter when the 
snow is on the ground, and by furnishing 
bird-homes in the spring. 

From the office of the National Audubon 
Association in New York, 780 Oregon 
school-children have also been enrolled in 
Junior Audubon classes, and by this means 
provided with careful instruction in study 
and bird-protection. 



The Audubon Societies 



309 




SOME MEMBERS OF THE COUCH SCHOOL JUNIOR CLASS IN PORTLAND, OREGON 

The right kind of bird-boxes 



Plans are now being carried out to make 
a thorough biological survey of the state 
in conjunction with the United States 
Department of Agriculture, the University 
of Oregon, and other state institutions. 
One of the objects of this work is to collect 
and publish educational leaflets and other 
material on the natural history of the 
state. Mr. Bruce Horsfall, of Princeton, 
New Jersey, who is well known for his 
drawings of birds, has been employed to 
make sketches and illustrations for this 
work in addition to photographic repro- 
ductions, and has taken up his residence 
in Oregon. 

Enthusiasm on Long Island 

An Audubon Society has been organized 
at Forest Hills Gardens, a suburb of New 
York City, on Long Island, with a large 
and enthusiastic membership. The presi- 
dent is E. A. Quarles, and the secretary is 
Miss Mary E. Knevels; and the Junior 
work, to which particular attention is to 
be given, is in charge of Mrs. Patience B. 
Cole and a committee. The society 



immediately affiliated itself with the 
National Association, and further showed 
its wisdom by seeking the guidance of 
competent ornithologists and field-agents 
in planning its local work. President 
Quarles has sketched for us progress 
made thus far: 

Our first activity was to place fifty 
Berlepsch nest-boxes about the place. 
This was done under the direction of Mrs. 
I. A. Washburne. We then planted Rus- 
sian sunflower and other seeds that furn- 
ish good bird-food, on vacant plots here 
and there. Special committees on the 
European Sparrow, and on cats, are hard 
at work in an endeavor to diminish the 
menace that comes from these enemies of 
bird-life. Two lectures have been given, 
one in the afternoon for the children, and 
one in the evening for adults. They were 
enthusiastically received by all present. 

We expect to place the Audubon course 
in our public school when it is opened 
next fall, and we are much indebted to 
Mr. Pearson and the National Associa- 
tion for their help in getting organized. 
It is hoped that this is only a beginning of 
bird-organization on Long Island, and 
that not many years may pass before we 
have a Long Island league of Audubon 
Societies. 




LAUREL JUNIOR AUDL'BOX CLASS, WALLSBURG, WEST 
MISS S. ELMA SCOTT, TEACHER 




SECOXD-GRADE JUNIOR AUDUBON CLASS, FORSYTH, GEORGIA, 
MRS. T. C. PORCH, TEACHER 

(311) 




ABBOTT HANDERSON THAYER 



(312) 



The Audubon Societies 



313 



HONOR TO ABBOTT H. THAYER 

It is not generally known that the sys- New York 2 

tern of protecting by wardens such of our ir-^^- J.^'^^^y ^ 

,., ^ . ,.,. .. , Virginia 8 

birds as breed in colonies was originated North Carolina 4 

by the artist, Abbott H. Thayer. Florida 4 

In speaking of Mr. Thayer's efforts in Texas i 

this matter, Mr. Dutcher wrote in The Auk Michigan i 

(1901, page 76) : "The thought of this 

special [warden] protection was his alone, Mr. Thayer's efforts ceased only in 
and his unflagging and unaided energy and 1905, when the National Association was 
tact secured the sinews of war, a fund of incorporated, and its officers were able to 
over $1,400, with which wardens were raise funds in other directions, and thus 
paid; without this fund, nothing could relieve him of what was a loving, though 
have been accomplished. Where he burdensome, service. Mr. Thayer's in- 
should have received encouragement (i. c, terest in this phase of bird-protection has 
among the ornithologists) he met with always been intense. I recall that one 
discouragement, for he was told that it year, when it appeared that the amount 
was impossible to raise any funds for the of money subscribed was not sufficient to 
work. By his personal courage and faith meet the needs of the Committee, Mr. 
he accomplished what others said could Thayer, although in no sense a wealthy 
not be done." man, promptly sent his personal check for 
The moment, however, that Mr. Thayer $1,000, upon receipt of a letter from Mr. 
brought his plans to Mr. Dutcher, he Dutcher telling him of the financial situ- 
found he had come to the right man. Mr. ation. 

Dutcher kindled at once, saying: "If you To Dr. George Bird Grinnell will ever 

will raise the money, I will see to getting belong the credit of having created the 

the wardens," and he soon began doing his term "Audubon Society'" and for starting 

full share of the money-raising, also. A the first Audubon movement, in 1886; 

good deal of it came through advertising while the name of William Dutcher will 

in the newspapers. be held in memory by the bird-lovers of 

This was the beginning of the warden this country as the man who later founded 

system to protect colonies of water-birds, the National Association of Audubon 

which has had so many interesting de- Societies, gave it form and purpose, shaped 

velopments. For five years Mr. Dutcher its policies, and directed it into many of the 

and Mr. Thayer continued to gather sub- lines of activity still pursued. The extent 

scriptions annually for this purpose, and of a man's usefulness to a cause often 

the funds increased in amount each year. depends upon his ability to instill enthusi- 

In the spring and summer of 1904 the asm into the minds of others, and, by 

Protection Committee was enabled by drawing additional workers into the field, 

means of the "Thayer Fund," to employ multiply the activity of his own hands, 

thirty-four wardens, that were distributed Such a leader was William Dutcher, and 

as follows: one of his earliest and most useful co- 

jj^jg^ij^g jQ workers was Abbott H. Thayer, naturalist 

Massachusetts i and artist. 



Bird - Lore 




From Life 



WHY WARDEN WORK IS NECESS.wm 
The Remote Cause The Immediate Cause 

AUDUBON WARDEN WORK 



From the time when Abbott H. Thayer, 
back in 1901, first directed public atten- 
tion to the value of guarding and pro- 
tecting breeding colonies of water-birds, 
the Audubon Society's effort in this line 
has increased annually. At the present 
time, our wardens guard almost every 
colony of importance on the islands and 
beaches of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of 
the United States. Many nesting colonies 
in the interior of the country likewise 
receive this protection. 

During the summer of 1913, about 
2,000,000 water-birds, embracing many 
species, are believed to have been gathered 
in the rookeries, made safe from human 
intrusion by the National Association's 
agents. The most hazardous positions in 
connection with this work are held by 



those wardens who in the Southern States 
stand guard over the colonies of White 
Egrets. 

Thanks to the very liberal support 
which the members and friends of the 
Association have provided during the 
past few years, we have been able to seek 
out these colonies, which are usually 
hidden deep in the cypress swamps, and 
safeguard them during the season when 
the birds bear plumes. Some killing, of 
course, still goes on, especially at the 
feeding-grounds, miles away from the 
rookeries, but the great slaughter in the 
United States has been checked. Already 
the birds are showing a marked increase 
in several important regions of the South. 
We may yet be able to bring these birds 
back in great numbers. 




ROYAL TERNS NESTING ON BATTLEDORE ISLAND, LOUISIANA 

Protected by Warden Sprinkle in the Audubon patrol-boat Royal Tern 

Photographed by Herbert K. Job 




BLACK SKIMMERS PROTECTED ON GRAND COCHERE ISLAND, LOUISIANA 
Photographed by Herbert K. Job 

(31S) 



3i6 



Bird - Lore 



TERNS KILLED BY DOGS AND CANNON 

Illustrated from photographs by Herbert R. Mills, M.D. 



Haddock Rock is a small island, about 
an acre in area, lying in ihe outer portion 
of Casco Bay, about seventeen miles 
northeast of Portland, Maine. It is com- 
posed of rock, and is cleft and broken at 
the base, but rising about thirty feet into 
a fairly level table-land. There is no vege- 
tation on this storm-swept eminence except 
the slippery rock-weed clinging to the 
tide-washed base, and a stunted growth of 
sea-plantain (Plant ago decipiens) occupy- 
ing the scanty soil in the crevices above 
the breakers. Until the summer of 1913, 



the residents of Casco Bay took his dogs 
over to Mark Island and turned them 
loose. At this time many hundred young 
birds were on the nesting-grounds, unable 
to fly, and the dogs devoured them to the 
last bird. 

The following season (1912) the much- 
depleted colony returned to the same 
breeding-grounds, but only to have the 
same pack of dogs destroy their eggs and 
young; and, reduced to two hundred pairs 
of birds, the colony returned to Casco 
Bay, in 1913, to try their luck on Haddock 




HADDOCK ROCK, CASCO BAY, MAINE 



birds were not known to breed on this 
little island, but during the past season 
two hundred pairs of the common Tern 
attempted to raise their young on Haddock 
Rock. This was an overflow colony from 
one of the islands protected by wardens 
employed by the National Association. 

Casco Bay is dotted with islands, and 
many of them were formerly occupied by 
sea-birds, but the encroachments of 
civilization had gradually crowded the 
wild birds back until the only breeding 
colony left was a few hundred Terns on 
Mark Island, not far from Haddock Rock. 
For several seasons the birds held their 
own on Mark Island, and it seemed as if 
they had at last found a safe refuge, since 
this island is unoccupied government land; 
but, during the summer of 1911, one of 



Rock, there to meet another tragedy, 
which I will now relate: — 

On July 30, 1913, I landed with much 
difficulty on the treacherous base of 
Haddock Rock. Climbing to the level 
summit-plateau I found hidden in the 
crevices five young Terns about seven 
inches long, feathered out on the back and 
wings, although they still had down on 
the head and underparts. Among the 
sea-plantain I found twenty-five nests 
built upon thin soil with a few stems of 
dried vegetable fiber, and containing sets 
of one and two eggs each (one with four). 
I was at once impressed with the dull 
appearance of the eggs and, upon examin- 
ation, found them to be very light in 
weight. I then opened every egg in the 
rookery (with the exception of the set of 



The Audubon Societies 



317 



four) and found about half of them to 
contain the dried bones of embryonic 
birds, which I calculated must have been 
killed six weeks before. The rest of the 



times, and their state of preservation 
showed this to be six weeks and one week 
previous to July 30. I then recalled that 
the Naval Station at Diamond Island, 




NEST AND EGGS OF COMMOX TERN OX HADDOCK ROCK 



eggs contained embryos, which were still 
in an only slightly decomposed condition, 
and appeared as though they had been 
dead about a week. Many of the eggs were 
just ready to hatch at the time they were 
killed — in fact, some of them were pipped. 
The set of four which I did not open 
appeared so bright, and the nest was in 



twelve miles nearer Portland, had engaged 
in target-practice on July 23, and I later 
learned that target-practice was held at 
this station during the first week in June. 
The correspondence of these dates with 
the time the eggs were killed on Haddock 
Rock is itself significant; and, when I 
recall the fact that the atmospheric shock 




YOUNG COMMON TERN HIDING ON HADDOCK ROCK, JULY 30, 1913 



so good repair, that I was encouraged to 
believe that they had been recently laid. 
The point I wish to emphasize is that 
all the eggs showed conclusive evidence 
that they were killed at only two different 



from this cannonading jarred the windows 
of the houses on Baily Island, near 
Haddock Rock, I am satisfied that it was 
this aerial vibration from the cannonading 
on Diamond Island that killed the eggs on 



3i8 



Bird - Lore 



Haddock Rock. Moreover, I was told by 
fishermen on Baily Island that they were 
unable to raise chickens on their island if 
cannonading occurred during the incu- 
bating period. In both these cases, the 
islands affected were almost directly in 
front of the guns, where the shock is 
greatest. 

Since target-practice is held only at 
comparatively long intervals, the time 
could easily be arranged so as not to 
conflict with the incubation-period of the 
Terns, which require only about six weeks 
from the time the first egg is laid until the 
last one is hatched. Arthur H. Norton, 
the field-agent for Maine of the National 



Association of Audubon Societies, informs 
me that the Common Tern deposits its 
eggs from June 15 to 30, a few a little 
earlier, perhaps, and many later. Accord- 
ing to this, the last eggs would undoubt- 
edly be hatched by the end of July. If, 
therefore, the District Commander would 
set the time for target-practice in accord- 
ance with the above dates, there would 
be no further trouble from this source. 
Such action would practically complete 
the effectiveness of the work of the 
National Association's string of eighteen 
wardens guarding the seaboard colonies 
on the coast of Maine. — Herbert R. 
Mills, M.D., Tampa, Florida. 



A WOMAN GAME-^VARDEN 



No one is surprised in these days at a 
woman's attempting any sort of a task in 
a field heretofore regarded as belonging 
exclusively to man, nor is there doubt of 
her ability to succeed — simply a momen- 
tary surprise at the novelty of some of her 
undertakings. This pleased wonder yields 
to admiration as one reads of the very 
valuable service Mrs. L. H. Bath is doing 
as a protector of wildfowl, and as a terror 
to lawbreakers, at Klamath Lake. This 
great body of fresh water and marsh, on 
the boundary between California and 
Oregon, is one of the most extensive and 
populous feeding-places and breeding- 
resorts for wildfowl in the whole country, 
and it is especially important to bird-life 
in that region, where a great part of the 
surrounding area is arid. The traditions 
of the abundance of bird-life thronging 
there half a century ago are almost in- 
credible; but latterly reckless slaughter by 
market-gunners, and by careless farmers 
and sportsmen, had so depleted these 
numbers that, in 1908, it was necessary 
to include the lake in a federal game 
preserve in order to save the remnant of 
the wild life. The regions of the lake where 
water-birds chiefly breed have since been 
patrolled by a warden in the National 
Association's patrol-boat Grebe. This 
made little difference, however, to the 



market-gunners in the neighborhood of 
Klamath Falls, who often came as before, 
or to some local men and boys who had 
been accustomed to kill Ducks and rob 
nests, regardless of law or gospel. Such 
local guardianship as was attempted was 
often defied, therefore, until Mrs. Bath be- 
came game-warden in the autumn of 191 2. 

Soon she made everyone, neighbor or 
stranger, understand that illegal shooting 
must stop. She went at the work, woman- 
fashion, to explain its need and work up a 
favorable sentiment. She made her rounds 
of lake-shore and stream, and sometimes 
had to interfere with shooters, but her 
firmness and persuasiveness and grit 
carried her through without making an 
arrest. That real trouble would follow 
otherwise was plainly felt, however; and 
now, as an eye-witness writes, "Birds are 
as safe in Mrs. Bath's district as they are 
in her back yard." 

One of her channels of influence has 
been through the children, whose regular 
amusement it has been to throw stones at 
the birds, which, to their uninstructed 
minds, were swimming there as heaven- 
sent targets. Mrs. Bath uprooted that 
error and planted a better idea in their 
thoughts, so that soon the children were 
feeding the birds instead of stoning them, 
and were watching against trespassers. 



The Audubon Societies 



319 



Mrs. Bath has also exhibited what 
influence may be gained over wild water- 
fowl by a quiet and habitual kindness that 
displaces their suspicious fears. She has 
tamed Grebes, Gulls, and certain wild 
Ducks, so that they recognize her and do 
not flee upon her approach. Coots hasten 
to flock about her when she calls, and she 
has taught some of them — wild birds — to 
take food from her fingers. She has so 
impressed the people of the town of 



held them up for the inspection of the 
Pelicans, and they at once became very 
much interested. By careful coaxing, they 
came a little nearer each day. Finally I 
coaxed them to eat from my hands, and 
after days of patient working with them 
I was delighted to have one of them fly 
on the dock and stand and look at me. 
Fortunately, I had a fish in my hands, 
and I held it so the Pelican could see it. 
He seemed determined to get that fish. 




MRS. BATH AND HER FRIENDLY PELICANS 



Klamath Falls with the propriety of safety 
for wildfowl in the close season that last 
year more than fifty wild Ducks were 
hatched on the river-banks within the 
limits of the city. This friendly public 
influence was strongly tested when six 
White Pelicans came to town, and seemed 
inclined to settle there. Mrs. Bath relates 
what followed: 

"I immediately cautioned everyone to 
be extremely careful not to frighten them 
in any way. They seemed to be full- 
grown, and, as near as I could tell, were 
probably early spring birds and parents, 
as it was about the first of August when 
they came. I got some live chubs and 



and followed after me the distance of a 
block. I finally gave him the fish, and 
stood perfectly still, and so gave him 
plenty of time to walk to the edge of the 
dock and get back into the water. I knew 
then that he would come back. 

"He came every day about the same 
time, and I always was there with a"^fish 
for him. After ten days of patient working 
with him, I was rewarded by having the 
rest of the band come on the dock, and 
now they follow me anywhere." 

We extend to Mrs. Bath hearty compli- 
ments and congratulations upon the pluck 
and the success with which she has man- 
aged her diflScult role. 



The Audubon Societies 



321 



Indiana's Good Example 

The perennial vigor of the Indiana 
State Audubon Society was shown in its 
May meeting, this year, at Evansville. 
This society profits by the policy of hold- 
ing its annual meetings in difTerent cities, 
thus stimulating interest throughout the 
state. Evansville was a fortunate choice, 
since Audubon himself lived and studied 
in that neighborhood for several years 
previous to 1824. 

The visiting state society was publicly 
welcomed in Evans\-ille at the e\'ening 
meeting on April 30, and the retiring 
president, William Watson Woollen, made 
a historical address. This was followed 
by an illustrated lecture on local birds by 
Amos W. Butler; and this and the other 
meetings were enlivened by music. On 
the morning of May i, "bird-talks" were 
given in every school, public or private, 
in the city, and much enthusiasm was 
aroused among the children. 

This is a feature of the program which 
might well be imitated elsewhere. 

The afternoon of this pleasant day was 
devoted to an .excursion to Henderson, 
where the house in which Audubon lived, 
and the foundation of the mill that em- 
barrassed him during many troublous 
years, may still be seen. 

The presence of Miss Harriet Audubon, 
granddaughter of the ornithologist, among 
the guests, added peculiar interest to this 
excursion. In the evening, addresses were 
given by Dr. D. W. Dennis, of Earlham 
College, and by Prof. Stanley Coulter, of 
Purdue University, the latter discussing 
methods of bird-work in the schools. All 
of the sessions were largely attended. 
Professor Coulter was elected president of 
the state society, and Miss Elizabeth 
Downhour reelected secretary. The Evans- 
ville society has as president George S. 
ClifTord, and as secretary, Miss Lida Ed- 
wards. Dr. Eugene Swope, the National 
Association's field-agent for Ohio, attended 
the meetings, and sent to the home office 
the photograph of some of the prominent 
members present, which is reproduced in 
this issue. 



Bobolinks May Be Slaughtered 

It is with profound regret we learn that 
those responsible for making the regula- 
tions under the McLean Migratory-Bird 
Law have been forced by pressure from 
the killers of song-birds to open wide the 
door permitting the killing of Bobolinks 
in certain states where they were protected 
last year. 

It will be recalled that, under present 
state laws. Bobolinks could still be killed 
in several eastern and southern states. 
Under the Federal regulations, which 
went into operation last year, the slaugh- 
ter was made illegal in much of this ter- 
ritory. 

Gunners in certain parts of Delaware, 
eastern Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, 
who represented oily seven counties, have 
had all this upset, and on September i, 
1Q14, the old system of butchering Bobo- 
links will go on as before, if President 
Wilson signs this new order. Below is a 
"news-letter" recently sent to the daily 
papers by the government officials who 
have authorized this backward step, as we 
strongly feel it to be: 

Washington, D. C. — Notices have been 
issued by the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture calling attention to a proposed 
amendment in the federal regulations for 
the protection of migratory, insectivorous 
birds. Under the new rule, reed- or rice- 
birds can be shot in September and 
October in the states of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland, 
the District of Columbia, Virginia and 
South Carolina. The law requires three 
months' notice of this change. If it is 
decided to adopt it, the rule will be 
officially promulgated at the end of that 
time, and will go into effect on September 
I, 1914. 

The effect of this change will be to 
extend to sportsmen in New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and Delaware the privilege 
of shooting the birds during a period of 
two months. This they may now do in 
Maryland, the District of Columbia, Vir- 
ginia, and South Carolina. As the sea- 
son is so short, it is not believed that the 
birds will suffer appreciably in numbers. 
In the late summer and early fall they 
migrate to the far south, where they are 
known as reed- or rice-birds. They are 
regarded in the states where they can 
now be shot as offering good sport. 



322 



Bird - Lore 



THE FEDERAL MIGRATORY- BIRD LAW IN THE COURTS 



Two prosecutions for violation of the 
McLean Migratory-Bird Law, which 
have come into the federal courts of late, 
have attracted much attention because of 
their bearing on the much-mooted ques- 
tion, whether the law is constitutional. 
In one of these cases, the presiding judge 
declared in favor of the law, while the 
other held the act to be unconstitutional, 
and, therefore, not binding on the people. 
The facts of these cases briefly are as 
follows: 

On April i8, 1914, Alfred M. Shaw, a 
banker and prominent resident of Del- 
mont, South Dakota, was arraigned before 
Judge J. D. Elliott in the federal court, 
and pleaded guilty to an indictment 
charging him with violation of the United 
States laws regarding the shooting of 
migratory game-birds. He was fined $100. 
The fine is the first obtained for violations 
of the law in that state. A lawyer ques- 
tioned the constitutionality of the law, 
but the court held that there was little 
doubt of its validity. 

The other case occurred in Arkansas. 
On May 28, 1914, Judge Jacob Trieber, 
in the United States District Court for 
the Jonesboro Division of the Eastern 
District of Arkansas, rendered an opinion 
adverse to the law. The case is recorded 
as United States vs. Harvey C. Shauver. 
Shauver killed birds in violation of the 
McLean law, and was indicted for the 
offense. The Government was represented 
by W. H. Martin, United States District 
Attorney, and by Col. Joseph H. Acklen, 
of Tennessee, a member of the Advisory 
Board of Directors of the National Asso- 
ciation. 

The defendant demurred to the indict- 
ment, and this was sustained by the 
Judge. His decision was written at con- 
siderable length, in which he cited many 
previous court-decisions. In summing up, 
he states, in part: 

The claim that the migratory birds are 
the -property of the United States must 
be held untenable. It is also argued that 
Congress has frequently exercised the 



power to regulate matters which could 
only have been done under the general 
police power, and the validity of these 
acts, when attacked, as beyond the power 
of Congress, has been upheld. Counsel 
refers to the lottery acts, the anti-trust 
acts, the national railway legislation, the 
safety-appliance act, the quarantine laws, 
the pure food and drug act, the act regu- 
lating mailable articles, and other acts 
of similar nature. But every one of these 
acts was upheld under some provision of 
the constitution, either that of the Post- 
ofl&ce Department, the commerce clause, 
the taxing power, or some other grant. 
Whenever Congress or the head of a 
department went beyond that power, as 
by including intrastate carriage with 
interstate, the acts were declared uncon- 
stitutional. 

It may be, as contended on behalf of 
the Government, that only by national 
legislation can migratory wild game and 
fish be preserved to the people, but that 
is not a matter for the court. It is for the 
people, who alone can amend the consti- 
tution, to grant Congress the power to 
enact such legislation as they deem 
necessary. All the courts are authorized 
to do, when the constitutionality of legis- 
lative acts is questioned, is to determine 
whether Congress, under the constitu- 
tion as it is, possesses the power to enact 
the legislation in controversy; their 
power does not extend to the matter of 
expediency. If Congress has not the 
power, the duty of the court is to declare 
the act void. The court is unable to find 
any provision in the constitution authoriz- 
ing Congress, either expressly or by 
necessary implication, to protect or regu- 
late the shooting of migratory wild game 
when in a state, and is, therefore, forced 
to the conclusion that the act is uncon- 
stitutional. The demurrer to the indict- 
ment will be sustained. 

About three weeks after rendering the 
above opinion, Judge Trieber, yielding to 
the plea of counsel, agreed to re-open the 
case, so there is a possibility that in the 
end he may be led to reverse his own 
former decision. 

Now what will be the practical effect of 
these two decisions? In the North Dakota 
case, a precedent has been established, 
which all bird-protectionists will applaud, 
and which will have a tendency to 
strengthen the law. In the other case, 
it will mean that probably no further 



The Audubon Societies 



323 



efforts will be made to enforce the federal 
migratory-bird law in the Eastern District 
of Arkansas until Judge Trieber's decision 
has been reversed by a higher court. It will 
take a year, or perhaps two years, to carry 
a case up through the courts and get a 
final decision from the United States 
Supreme Court. In the meantime, how- 
ever, the bird-protection treaty now 
pending between this country and Canada 
may be signed. According to the reported 
opinions of Elihu Root and other con- 
stitutional lawyers this would then take 
the subject entirely out of the courts, and 
the treaty agreements would prevail. It 
is clear, therefore, that the very important 
task of impressing the United States 
Senators with the wish of the American 
people that the treaty be ratified now 
devolves upon bird-lovers. 

Legal Struggles in Maryland 

In reference to recent wild-life legis- 
lation in Maryland, W. Scott Way, 
reports: 

The new general law appears to have 
repealed all local laws conflicting with it, 
in which case the state will have a uni- 
form season for the more important spe- 
cies. Another measure, repealing and 
reenacting the non-game-bird law, shows 
some improvements over the old act, but 
is not as it should be. I see no reason why 
the Legislature could not have been 
induced to pass the Model Audubon Law, 
while it was about its tinkering, but the 
state game-warden, with whom I took the 
matter up early in the legislative session, 
persuaded me that there was no hope for 
success along that line; and, as there 
seemed to be a general indifference on the 
part of everybody concerned, save Miss 
Starr and myself, I let the matter drop. 

I regret that the effort to put through 
a hunting-license law failed because of 
strong opposition from many counties. 
The politicians seem to be afraid of it, 
but, at the next session, with the right 
kind of force behind it, I believe it can be 
put through. My observation has been 
that at the past three sessions of the 
Maryland Legislature failure has been 
mainly due, in the matter of up-to-date 
game and bird laws, to the lack of the 
right sort of man at Annapolis. An effort 
was made to remove protection from the 
Turkey Buzzard, but by active work, in 



which I was aided much by Dr. Henry 
Oldys, I succeeded in having this measure 
confined to the town of Easton, where 
the proposition originated. This will, 
therefore, do little harm. 



Mutually Satisfactory 

The accompanying capital photograph 
illustrates admirably the Audubonian 
way of "killing two birds with one stone," 




TWO DELIGHTFUL GUESTS 
Photographed by Carl E. Purple 

— a shot from a camera. The parallel, 
indeed, is double. The photographer fed 
two birds at once, and took their pictures 
for his pay, using but a single plate. This 
was as economical as the result is pretty. 
Both parties to this amiable arrangement 
were perfectly satisfied. The photographer 
gets his credit; the Woodpecker is living 
on the fat of the land; and the Nuthatch 
may be said to be in clover. The lesson 
of the picture is as obvious as is its beauty. 



324 



Bird - Lore 



NEW MEMBERS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



KnroUed from Miirch i lo July i, 1914. 

Life Members: 

Andrews, Mrs. E. B. 
Austen, Mrs. Isabel Valle 
Barbey, Henry G. 
Brown, Miss Annie H. 
Camden, Mrs. J. N. 
Goodwin, Walter L., Jr. 
Harral, Mrs. Edward W. 
Jamison, Miss Margaret A. 
Loyd, Miss Sarah A. C. 
Rogers, Dudley P. 
Stone, Miss Ellen J. 
Wade, Mrs. J. H. 
Woodman, Miss Mary 

Sustaining Members: 
A Friend 
Aichel, Oskar G. 
Angstman, Mrs. Charlotte S. 
Archer, George A. 
Audubon Society, Sewickley 
Back Bay Audubon Society 
Bacon, Miss Helen R. 
Balch, Joseph 
Baldwin, Mrs. S. T. 
Barr, Miss Caroline F. 
Beck, Charles W. 
Biddle, Mrs. George 
Billerica Girls' Club 
Blanchard, John A. 
Bliss, E. J. 
Borne, Mrs. John E. 
Bradford, Miss Daisy Smith 
Bradley, E. R. 
Brandegee, Mrs. Edward D. 
Braun, John F. 
Brewer, Miss Rosamond 
Brockway, Mrs. Charles T. 
Bull, M. 

Campbell, Miss Clara D. 
Carpenter, Ralph G. 
Chandler, William E. 
Chapman, B. G. 
Chase, A. C. 
Chipman, Miss Grace E. 
Cousens, John A. 
Crawford, William 
Dana, Mrs. Harold W. 
Davidson, Miss Clara 
Diman, Miss Louise 
Dutton, Harry 
Edgerton, Dr. J. Ines 
Eisemann, Alex. 
Eliot, Charles W. 
Enggass, Mrs. Barbara 
Fahy, Mrs. John 
Farrell, Mrs. C. P. 
Fa.xon, Henry M. 
Fearon, Mrs. Charles 
Fenenden, R. G. 
Fitchburg Out-of-Doors Club 



Fitzroy, Mrs. H. A. 
Fordyce, George L. 
Ford, Mrs. John B. 
Forest Hills Gardens Audubon 

Society 
Fowle, Seth A. 
Fuller, C. W. 
Gallogly, E. E. 
Gifford, Mrs. James M. 
Gilchrist, Miss Annie T. 
Ginn, Frank H. 
Grant, Henry T. 
Grasselli, Miss Josephine 
Grat, Russell, 
Gridley, Mrs. Mary T. 
Guild, E. L. 
Gunn, Elisha 

Harbeck, Mrs. Emma Grey 
Hartford Bird Study Club 
Hartline, D. S. 
Hedge, Henry R. 
Hibbard, Thomas 
Hill, Donald M. 
Hill, Mrs. Lysander 
Hoppin, Charles A. 
Horner, Charles S. 
Hovey, Burton M. 
Howes, F. L. 

Hubbard, Herman M., Jr. 
Miss Mary C. Hubbard 
Hunter, Arthur M., Jr. 
Hurlburt, Miss Annie M. 
Jaques, H. P. 
Jenkins, Mrs. A. C. 
Jenness, Charles G. 
Juran, Mrs. K. M. 
Keith, Mrs. D. M. 
King, Miss Mabel D. 
Kingsbury, Miss Alice E. 
Livermore, Robert 
Low, Miss Nathalie, F. 
Lyman, Joseph 
McCord, Miss Belle 
McQuesten, Mrs. G. E. 
Magner, Thomas 
May, George H. 
Melbourne Women's Club 
Merrill, Mrs. Payson 
Mills, Rev. John N. 
Morley, Mrs. W. G. 
Murphy, Miss Anne D. 
North, Mrs. R. H. 
Osborn, Mrs. William C. 
Ossberg, Miss Olga W. 
Oswald, Edward 
Paine, Cyrus F. 
Parker, Mrs. Horace J. 
Payne, Mrs. Frederick W. 
Peabody, George Foster 
Pease, Miss Harriet R. 
Penhallow, Charles T. 
Perihelwin Club 
Perkins, G. Howard, Jr. 



The Audubon Societies 



325 



New Members and Contributors, continued 



Poor, George H. 

Pratt, Bela L. 

Prentiss, F. F. 

Putnam, Wm. Lowell 

Randolph, Mrs. E. 

Rice, William North 

Richardson, Mrs. C. F. 

Robinson, Edward P. 

Rogan, Mrs. M. K. 

Rosenbaum, S. G. 

Rosentwist, B. G. A. 

Russell, B. F. W. 

Rust, David W. 

Sackett, Mrs. F. M. 

Sackett, Mrs. F. M., Jr. 

Saltonstall, Philip L. 

Schaefer, Miss Ella A. 

Schwarzenbach, R. J. F. 

Scott, Albert L. 

Scudder, C. R. 

Scudder, Heyward 

Severance, J. L. 

Shaw, Miss Eleanor 

Shaw, Henry S., Jr. 

Shaw, S. P., Jr. 

Sheridan, J. J. 

Sibley, Mrs. Rufus A. 

Simpson, G. Fred. 

Sisler, L. E. 

Smith, Frank .\. 

Smith, Mrs. Fred. W. 

Smith, George A. 

Spafford, Joseph H. 

Spalding, Philip L. 

Storm, George L., Jr. 

Sturgis, J. H. 

Swenson, John 

Tillinghast, Miss H. 

Tooke, Mrs. C. \V. 

Townsend, Henry H. 

Travelli, Mrs. C. R. 

Tucker, Mrs. Stanley 

Turner, Miss Elsie II. 

Turner, Miss Mary E. 

Van Dusen, Eugene F. 

Van Gerbig, Mrs. B. 

Vanlentwerp, F. J. (Our Lady of the 

Rosary Church) 
Villard, Vincent S. 
Wade, F. C. 

Wadham. Mr. and Mrs. H., Jr. 
Wakeman, Stephen H. 
Walker, Grant 
Walker, Dr. John B. 
Walker, Mrs. Thaddeus 
Walker, William H. 
Waterman, Miss Mary E. 
Watson, Mrs. W. W. 
West, Albert S. 
White, Miss Hannah A. 
White, Miss Henrietta 
White, Miss K. L. 
Whitehouse, Mrs. C. A. 
Whittaker, Miss M. 



Winn, Herbert J. 
Winship, C. F. 
Winship, C. N. 
Wood, Mrs. Anna L. 
Wood, Miss Sarah L. 
Woods, Edward F. 
Woods, Joseph W. 
Wright, Mrs. M. A. 
Wright, Mrs. Wm. L. 
Zapp, George C. 
Zell, George L. 
Zimmerman, ]Mrs. J. E. 

New Contributors 

A Game Protector 

Anonymous. 

Anthony, D. M. 

Baldwin, S. P. 

Brackett, Dr. C. A. 

Carruthers, Mr. and Mrs. T. H. 

Case, IVIrs. F. C. 

Chapin, Miss Maud H. 

Cross, Miss Grace L. R. 

Crusselle, W. F. 

Danziger, Max. 

Davis, David D. 

Drummond, James J. 

Dutton, B. F. 

Fitch, Mr. and Mrs. W. 

Goldman, Mrs. Louis J. 

Harrington, George W. 

Holman, Miss C. B. 

Kellogg, Stephen W. 

Lord, Sliss Elinor L. 

Lowell, ^liss Georgina 

Robertson, W. N. 

Sawj'er, Mrs. C. A. 

Smith, J. S. 

Taber, Miss M. 

Wander, Edward 

W^illiam, Master 

Yates, Dr. S. Anna 

Contributors to the Egret Protection 
Fund 

Previousl}' acknowledged. .§2,559 04 

A Friend 100 00 

Agar, Mrs. John G 5 00 

Albright, Mr. J. J 5 00 

Allen County Audubon So- 

cietj' 2 00 

.Allen, Miss Gertrude 15 00 

Allen, Miss Mary P. and 

friends 15 00 

A Sympathizer 5 00 

Auchincloss, ]\Irs. H. D 5 00 

Ayres, Miss Mary A 2 00 

Baldwin, Mrs. John D i co 

Baldwin, William H 2 00 

Barron, George D 2 00 

Carriedjorward $2,718 04 



326 



Bird - Lore 



Brought forward $2,718 04 

Berlin, Mrs. D. B i 00 

Best, Mrs. Clermont 5 00 

Biddle, E. C. and C. B 1000 

Birdlovers' Club of Brooklyn. 5 00 

Brewer, Edward M 10 00 

Bridge, Edmund S 00 

Bridge, Mrs. Lidian E 10 00 

Burden, James A 5 00 

Byington, Mrs. Louisa J 2 00 

Casey, Edward P 10 00 

Chambers, Miss Katherine... 10 00 

Chittenden, Mrs. S. B 2 00 

Christian, Miss Elizabeth.. . . 3 00 

Christian, Mrs. M. H 2 00 

Christian, Miss Susan 6 00 

Church, C. T 5 00 

Cimmins, Mrs. Thomas 5 00 

Clinch, Judge E. S 10 00 

Colon, George E 4 00 

Coney, Miss Kate E 2 00 

Convers, Miss C. B 2 00 

Coolidge, Prof. A. Cary 5 00 

Crittenden, Miss Viola E... . i 00 

Cummings, Miss B.J 2 00 

Cummins, Miss Anne M 5 00 

Cummins, Miss E. 1 5 00 

Cushing, Miss M. W i 00 

Dana, Mrs. E. S 4 00 

Davidson, Mrs. F. S 5 00 

Davidson, Gaylord 5 00 

, Davis, E. F 5 00 

Davis, Dr. Gwilym 5 00 

Dawes, Miss E. B 10 00 

De Beaufort, W. H 5 00 

De la Rive, Miss Rachel 4 00 

Detroit Bird Prot. Club 5 00 

Dickerman, W. B 25 00 

Dryden, Mrs. Cynthia P 25 00 

Dudley, Miss Fannie G 10 00 

DuPont, F. A 10 00 

Emerson, Elliot S 3 00 

Emmons, Mrs. R. W., 2nd... 5 00 

Enders, John 5 00 

Faulkner, Miss Fannie M.. . . 10 00 

E. B. F 5 00 

Foote, Mrs. F. W 2 00 

Freeman, Miss H. E 10 00 

Freeman, Dr. W. J i 00 

Gilman, Miss Clarabel 4 00 

Goehring, J. M 5 00 

Gray, Miss Isa E 10 00 

Greer. Miss Almira 5 00 

Hage, Daniel S i 00 

Hager, George W 2 00 

Hale, Thomas, Jr i 00 

Hering, W. E 5 00 

Hills, Mrs. J. M 3 00 

Hodenpyl, Anton G 25 00 

Holbrook, Mrs. Edward 5 00 

Holt, Mrs. Frank 2 00 

Horton, Miss F. E 2 00 

Carried forward $3,080 04 



Brought forward $3,080 04 

Hungerford, R. S 10 00 

Hupfel, J. C. S 5 00 

Hurd, Elizabeth 5 00 

James, Mrs. Walter B 10 00 

Jennings, Miss A. B 5 00 

Jewett, George L 5 00 

Jones, Mrs. Cadwalader S 00 

Junior Audubon Society i 00 

Keep, Mrs. Albert 3 00 

Kleinschmidt, Miss H i 00 

Kuser, John Dryden 5 00 

Lang, Henry 5 00 

Lasell, Miss Louisa W i 00 

Livermore, A. E i 00 

Mann, Miss J. Ardelle 3 00 

Manning, Leonard J 3 00 

Mansfield, Helen 6 00 

Massachusetts, S. P. C. A.... 5 00 

Mellen, George M i 00 

Merriman, Mrs. Daniel 10 08 

Metzger, William T 2 00 

Mitchell, Mrs. E 2 50 

Mitchell, James T 5 00 

Moore, Mrs. E. C i 00 

Moore, Henry D 100 00 

Moore, Robert T 50 00 

Motley, James M 10 00 

McPheeters, Miss C 23 00 

O'Connor, Thomas H 15 00 

Olmsted, F. L., Jr i 00 

Osborn, Carl H 4 00 

Parsons, Miss K. L 3 00 

Peoples, W. T 2 00 

Peters, Mrs. E. McC 3 00 

Puffer, L. W i 00 

Putnam, George P 3 00 

Putnam, Dr. James J 3 00 

Randolph, Coleman 15 00 

Reynolds, Miss Mabel D 2 00 

Richard, Miss Elvine 15 00 

Robbins, Royal 20 00 

Shannon, W. Purdy 7 00 

Sibley, Hiram 25 00 

Small, Miss Cora 2 00 

Smith, Adelbert J 4 00 

Smith, Mrs. Mary P. W 2 00 

Snyder, Warren 5 00 

Somers, L. H 3 00 

Steiner, G. A 10 00 

Stern, Benjamin 10 00 

Stick, H. Louis 8 00 

Thaw, J. C 10 00 

Thomson, William H i 00 

Towne, Mrs. William E i 00 

Tucker, William F 5 00 

Van Name, Willard 15 00 

Von Arnin, Miss A 3 00 

Wadsworth, Clarence S 10 00 

White, Mrs. A. Ludlow 5 00 

Winslow, Miss M. L. C 6 00 

Woman's Study Club 3 00 

Grand.total $3,585 62 



The Audubon Societies 



327 



REPORTS FROM WORKERS IN THE FIELD 



Progress in Florida 

One of our most active workers in 
Florida is Dr. Herbert R. Mills, of Tampa. 
He is constantly on the alert, and is always 
doing useful and interesting things for 
the birds, as is indicated by the follow- 
ing communication: 

"l have been noting the results of the 
Junior Audubon work here in Tampa, and 
I am greatly impressed with the immense 



that might not be reached in any other 
way. For example, I was on one of the 
Favorite Line excursions a few weeks 
ago, and I overheard a lady remark to a 
friend: 'Since Margaret joined the Audu- 
bon Society, she simply can not wear her 
aigrettes any more.' These things are so 
encouraging that I have decided to 
devote a large share of my spare time next 
fall to organizing Junior Audubon Classes 
in Tampa. 




THE CARDINAL DETAINED AS EVIDENCE 



value of this work. I organized a few 
classes here this winter, with a total 
membership of over three hundred, and 
every day I see some example of the good 
results obtained. Recently I saw a couple 
of boys fighting, and later learned that 
one was a sixth-grade Junior Audubon 
boy who was beating a fellow for killing a 
Warbler of some kind. And not only is 
our game-warden service being thus 
increased by this work, but our campaign 
of education is being carried into homes 



"Some time ago, I sent you an account 
of the arrest of the Italian, Frank Alfino, 
for selling Cardinals and Mockingbirds. 
I am enclosing you a print of the Cardinal 
which I bought from this man for evidence. 
This picture was taken just before the 
bird was given its liberty under the orange 
tree from which the cage is suspended. I 
later learned that the bird found a mate 
soon after gaining his liberty, and is now 
raising a brood of little ones. This Cardinal 
has no toes on his right foot." 



328 



Bird - Lore 



Good Sentiment in Rhode Island 

The Association's field-agent for Massa- 
chusetts, Winthrop Packard, has been 
able to do much work outside his state 
of late. A practical report of his efforts 
in behalf of helpful legislation in Rhode 
Island is here given: 

"The Rhode Island law, making the 
state law agree with the federal law on 
migratory birds in the matter of seasons 
for shooting, passed without an amend- 
ment. There was some opposition at the 
last moment, but it was all swept aside. 
The law forbidding the shooting of Ducks 
from motor-boats, which the Newport 
Gun and Game Protective Association 
originated, was passed, and the bill mak- 
ing Warwick Neck a bird-reservation for 
five years, also went through. There 
seems to have been, this year, a great 
change in sentiment in favor of bird-pro- 
tection in Rhode Island. Much of the 
good work has been done by Dr. Horace 
L. Beck." 

Views of Teachers 

A group of Ohio teachers who have 
tested bird-study, as promoted by the 
Junior Audubon classes, have favored us 
with the result of their experience. All 
approve of it, and speak of the real enjoy- 
ment taken in it by themselves as well as 
by the pupils. "It is surprising," Miss 
Wolff, of Norwood, exclaims," how much 
the children find out for themselves. In a 
great many instances I learned from them 
fully as much as they learned from me." 

"I found bird-study fascinating both 
for myself and the children," a Sharon- 
ville teacher, Miss Doepka, writes. "The 
mental training received was greater 
than from any other study, especially in 
developing their powers of observation. 
The information received was useful, as 
it showed them that birds are of great 
benefit and all should join in protecting 
them. As the information your leaflets 
give is not abstract, but such as children 
can observe for themselves, it is retained 
as well, if not better than any other." 

This last point is emphasized by a prin- 
cipal, who says that his experience shows 
that children retain useful information 
.onger than other. "An excellent test of 



the retention of this information," Miss 
Aler, of Mt. Vernon, thinks, "may be 
shown by unexpectedly asking children 
to write ten minute' compositions on 
'The Robin' or the 'Baltimore Oreole' 
without having an opportunity to look 
up anything in connection with the topic, 
and then reading the splendid composi- 
tions turned in." The value of the study 
in training the children in English com- 
position is remarked upon by many teach- 
ers, who find good models and great help 
in the leaflets. The keeping of notes of 
observations is recommended from experi- 
ence by several correspondents. One of 
these. Miss Cameron, of Salem, says: 

"I am glad to express myself as more 
than satisfied with results of bird- 
study in the school. It was taken up in 
connection with the English lesson once 
a week, and in no period of the week's pro- 
gram was the interest of the pupils more 
deeply centered. I was a student with 
the children when it came to this lesson, 
and I know that all were in love with the 
study. It has been the means of creating 
a very desirable spirit in the school. The 
children are more attentive, more thought- 
ful of the feelings of others, more kind- 
hearted to all living creatures, and are 
eager to do something that will count for 
happiness or betterment in the bird-world, 
and hence, in our own." 

The two succeeding letters come from 
teachers more advanced than are most of 
them in a knowledge of zoology. 

"I have always been interested in 
birds," writes Ruth Buckingham, of Love- 
land, and have a picture-collection of over 
fifty different species found in this part of 
Ohio. I keep this collection where the 
children can have access to it, so that 
when they have a few spare moments 
they may get a bird and try to draw it 
with the colored crayons I give them for 
that purpose. I do not try to stuff the 
children with information. I try to get 
them to find out things for themselves." 

This last one is from a principal, W. N. 
Thayer, of Norwood: "I have been giving 
incidental instruction in bird-study in 
connection with our work in biological 
nature-study, for some years past, and 
I have found the Audubon leaflets and 
pictures valuable supplements." 




1. Worthen's Sparrow 3. Green-tailed Towhee. Im. 

2. Texas Sparrow 4. Green-tailed Towhee, Adult 

(One-half natural size) 



2^irlr=1tore 

A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 

Official Organ of The Audubon Societies 



Vol. XVI September— October, 1914 No. 5 



Some Observations on Bird Protection in Germany 

By WILLIAM P. WHARTON 

With photographs by the Author 

IN August, 1913, the writer had the good fortune to make a brief visit to 
the estate of Baron Hans von Berlepsch, at Seebach, district of Langen- 
salza, Germany, and to observe something of the methods for attracting 
and protecting wild birds employed with such wonderful success there. For a 
full description of these methods, the reader is referred to the book entitled 
'Methods of Attracting and Protecting Wild Birds,' which, in its English trans- 
lation, is for sale by the National Association of Audubon Societies. 

Those familiar with that book are aware that the Baron's success rests 
upon three cornerstones: (i) Large numbers of suitable nesting-sites both for 
birds nesting in cavities and for those nesting in trees or shrubs; (2) an abun- 
dant food- and water-supply; (3) protection from their enemies. To supply the 
first, Baron von Berlepsch devised the nesting-box made by hollowing out 
sections of tree limbs or trunks in as nearly as possible exact imitation of the 
cavities excavated by Woodpeckers; boxes of this kind are now being manu- 
factured by two or three different persons in the United States. The Baron 
also devised, after much study and experimentation, a method of pruning 
undergrowth and special plantations of shrubbery in such a manner as to pro- 
duce 'whorls' of side branches at a given point, which, by subsequent pruning, 
form a natural platform or crotch particularly suited for birds' nests to be 
placed in. Food in the form of suet and various seeds is provided, in winter, at 
various points on the estate, and is often placed in the shelter of the Hessian 
food-house, very similar to the Audubon food-house now being sold in this 
country. In summer, besides the natural supply of insects, which must be 
large in the dense undergrowth and about the pond and brook, groups of shrubs 
and trees, planted for that purpose, supply a rotation of berries and seeds 
especially liked by birds. Owing to the presence of the pond, and the brook 
running through the estate, artificial bird-baths are not much required. Pro- 
tection from enemies requires constant vigilance in destroying the predatory 
quadrupeds, such as weasels, squirrels, polecats and house cats, and such pred- 




THE CASTLE FROM THE PARK; ESTATE OF BARON VON BERLEPSCH 

The trees and shrubs on each side of the vista are filled with birds' nests 

(330) 



Some Observations on Bird Protection in Germany 331 

atory birds as have been found to prey especially on their own kind. The 
methods used in carrying out the purposes above stated are given in some detail 
in the book. 

In visiting Seebach, the WTiter had in mind, by seeing for himself the results 
of this remarkable experiment, to supplement and make more practical such 
knowledge as he had already acquired from reading the book. Unfortunately, 




VIEW OF THE HOME PARK FROM THE TOP OF THE CASTLE. 
OF BARON VON BERLEPSCH 



ESTATE 



there was not sufficient time to make any careful study, and the weather was 
such as to render the taking of satisfactory photographs difl&cult or impossible. 
Notes were made more especially on practices, or modifications of practices, 
which have either been developed since the book was written, or weie not 
fully described therein. 

The nesting-boxes are probably the most conspicuous and interesting devices 
to the average visitor, especially to the American who has already become 
familiar with them in his own country. These are scattered everywhere through 
the home park and adjacent woods, and also in the forest, which is situated at 



332 



Bird - Lore 



a distance of some six miles from the castle. They are, as a rule, of the regula- 
tion sizes and shapes as described in the book, being imitations of the cavities 
excavated l)y Woodpeckers, and about 90 per cent are said to be occupied each 

year. A modifica- 
tion, however, has 
been made in the 
covers to these boxes, 
which should be of 
special interest to 
New Englanders liv- 
ing within the region 
infested by the gipsy 
moths. In order to 
make the interior 
easily accessible, 
both for cleaning it 
out and for purposes 
of observation, the 
regular wooden 
cover, held in place 
with lag screws, has 
been discarded, and 
one of cement is now 
used. This has a 
projection or flange 
below, which fits 
loosely into the top 
of the box, and pre- 
vents the cover slid- 
ing off; the weight 
of the cement is 
sufficient to prevent 
its being blown off. 
The nesting-holes in the walls of the castle are made wholly of cement, being in 
the form of blocks, which fit into spaces from which the stone blocks have 
been removed. These cement block boxes are in two 
parts, one being three-fourths and the other one-fourth 
of the whole. The larger contains the whole of the 
lower portion of the cavity and the rear half of the 
upper portion, and is set permanently into the gap in 
the wall. The other quarter contains the front half of 
the upper portion of the nesting cavity together with 
the entrance hole, and may be easily removed by 




ONE OF THE CEMEXT-BLOCK NEST-BOXES IN THE 
WALLS OF THE CASTLE; HERR FRIEDERICH SCHWABE, IN 
CHARGE OF THE SCHOOL OF BIRD PROTECTION, STAND- 
ING NEAR IT. 










r 




V 


1 
1 

^4 


FRONT 
VIEW 




SI 
VI 


DE 
EW 



Some Observations on Bird Protection in Germany 333 



inserting the finger in the latter, and the contents of the interior be thus 
exposed to \-iew. In the upper stories of the castle, where the walls consist 
of a single thickness only of wood, entrance-holes of the proper size have been 
bored in the walls, and the ordinar>^ type of nest-box hung on a nail inside, 
after the upper front of the box has been sawed off 
diagonally, thus: 




FRONT MEW 



SIDE VIEW 




SIDE VIEW IX 
POSITION ON 
WALL OF CASTLE 



A narrow iron band, with a notch in the middle of the lower edge to receive 
a nail, is fastened horizontally across the upper part of the saw-cut, and the box 
is then hung on the nail driven into the side of the castle just above the entrance- 
hole. These boxes are said to be more favored by birds than those conspicuously 
placed on the outside of the castle wall, and have the great advantage that they 
are easy to inspect and clean out. Baron von Berlepsch plans to insert a pane 
of glass in the rear of some of these boxes opposite the nest, surround them with 
a dark closet, and study by this means the feeding of the young. These boxes 
in the walls of the castle are used almost entirely by Starlings. 

In the Hainich forest, where the birds, attracted by Baron ^'on Berlepsch's 
methods, saved his trees from defoliation by caterpillars in 1905, when the 
surrounding forests were stripped, there are several thousand nest-boxes. 
These are chiefly in the deciduous woods, which are composed largely of beech 
and oak. Here they are hung not less than thirty paces apart, and approxi- 
mately 90 per cent are said to be occupied annually. In the dense spruce woods 
it has been found impracticable to place boxes, except on the edges of small 
clearings or partial openings. In such places, an experiment has been tried of 
placing four different kinds of boxes close together, in order to ascertain which 
kind is preferred by the smaller Tits. A box of ear thern ware has been found to 
be useless. The other three boxes are of the usual pattern, and two of them of 
stock sizes — A and B. The third is a B box with an A entrance-hole — that is, 
a good-sized box with a small hole, — and for this the Tits have sho\^^l a decided 
preference. Evidently they like roomy quarters better than cramped ones, 
provided the entrance is small enough to keep out larger birds. In an old apple 
orchard here behind the forester's house, two and sometimes three boxes of 



334 



Bird - Lore 



different sizes hang on the same tree, and two are often occupied at the same 
time, according to Herr Schwabe, the head of the von Berlepsch School of Bird 
Protection. 

Because of their novelty as well as their remarkable success, the shelterwood 
plantations, with the special pruning of stock bushes for nests, was of particular 
interest to the writer. The form of these plantations, and the species of plants 
used in them, are carefully described in the book already referred to ; but sub- 
sequent experiments have somewhat extended the list there given of plants 
suitable for pruning. Baron von Berlepsch still prefers Cratcegus oxyacantha to 
any other thorns for this purpose, but he finds that the common privet {Ligus- 
trum vulgare) is of value as a stock bush in poor soil under considerable shade, 




THE ANCESTRAL CASTLE FROM THE PARK; ESTATE OF BARON \i(\ liERLEPSCH 

One or more pairs of Moorhens nest about the pond and many other birds in the trees and shrubbery, 

and cavities made in the walls of the castle. 

and that horse-chestnut {Msculus hippocastanum) also does well under larger 
trees. The yew {Taxus baccata) is also used in similar situations. As a general 
rule, however, the thorn {Cratcegus oxyacantha) is used for this purpose. After 
the shelterwood is planted, it is allowed to stand three or four, or even five 
years, and is then cut down, as described in the book. The effect of this is to 
make the thorns send up straight shoots from the ground. After two or three 
years, strong shoots here and there in the plantation are cut off just above 
several dormant eyes, which, so far as the writer could understand, are to be 
found in greatest abundance at the point where the growth of about two years 
previous began. The effect of this pruning is to force out a whorl of new shoots, 
starting in a generally horizontal direction. The following year, these shoots 
are cut back to within perhaps a couple of inches of the parent stem, and each 



Some Observations on Bird Protection in Germany 335 

year thereafter the new shoots are again cut back to within an inch or less of 
their starting points. The effect of this pruning is to form a very secure founda- 
tion, or support, on which to place a nest, surrounded during the spring and 
summer by a dense screen of foliage from the new shoots. That the provison 
thus made for them is appreciated by the birds was evidenced by the very great 
number of nests of the year which were found in these w^horls. In a double-row 
thorn hedge along the edge of a wood, w^hich has been pruned in this fashion, 
the WTiter counted thirty-one nests in a distance which could not have much 
exceeded 300 feet, — an average of one nest to every ten feet. The lateness of 
the hour unfortunately prevented further exploration of this hedge, which 




A GENERAL VIEW OF ONE OE THE SPECIAL 'SHELTERWOOD' BIRD-NESTING PLAN- 
TATIONS OF SHRUBBERY ON THE BORDER OF A WOOD 



extended for perhaps twice the distance beyond, and was said to be fully as 
thickly populated throughout. 

With one exception, all these shelterwoods are connected by lines or blocks 
of trees or shrubs. The line of poplars bordering the brook, and the method 
of pruning these trees, are described in the book; suffice it to say here that at 
least one nest was to be found in almost every tree, and in some there were 
two. On the opposite side of this brook is a row of lindens {Tilia parvifolia), 
and these trees had been pruned by cutting the branches one foot or more 
from the trunk, in order to make whorls for nests. Baron von Berlepsch 
stated that any of the lindens are adapted to this purpose, as well as Ulnius 
campestris, and that they are particularly suitable for planting in rows to 
connect shelterwood plantations, and along brooks, roads, etc. Another tree 
suitable for making connections between the plantations is the Norway 



33^ 



Bird - Lore 



spruce (Picea excelsa), which is there planted in three rows one yard apart, 
the middle row being removed after about six years. This removal leaves a 

small opening, which is soon 
arched over, and forms a 
covered passageway for birds, 
and an excellent winter feed- 
ing-place. The remaining trees 
should be topped regularly, to 
maintain this densely covered 
archway. Mountain ash trees 
are planted along the row with 
the spruces, to provide food 
with their berries. The excep- 
tional shelterwood, uncon- 
nected with others, stands in 
the midst of cultivated fields. 
This is largely an experiment, 
and is as yet too young to show 
results. Most of the others are 
either under partial or entire 
shade, or else along the edges 
between woods and fields, such 
as that shown in the picture. 
It should be noted that all 
nests are thrown down each 
autumn from the whorls, as 
well as from the boxes. 

The matters of feeding and 
of control of enemies were given 
less attention by the writer 
than they deserved, chiefly. be- 
cause of lack of time. The 
winter feeding arrangements 
at Seebach have already been 
briefly referred to, and are fully 
set forth in the book describ- 
ing Baron von Berlepsch's 
methods. Control of natural 
enemies is effected largely by 
trapping, and to some extent by shooting. An ingenious trap baited with live 
English Sparrows is used successfully for Sparrow Hawks, — said to be similar 
in size and habits to our Sharp-shinned Hawks, — which are considered the 
only distinctly harmful birds of this family. The larger Hawks are not 




THREE NESTING-BOXES IN POSITION ON 
THE EDGE OF A SPRUCE STAND IN THE 
WOODS OF BARON VON BERLEPSCH. 
These are for experiments with the smaller Tits, as described 
herein. 



Some Observations on Bird Protection in Germany 337 

troubled, and are commonly seen about the grain-fields. Some of the shelter- 
wood plantations in the home parks are protected by a wire box- trap, with 
long extending wings of wire mesh approximately at right angles to each other, 
and only a few feet high. Any prowling creature coming upon one of these 
wings follows it up to the central trap, and, upon entering, closes the door 
and is held fast until the arrival of the bird-keeper, who disposes of his 
captive as may be thought best for the interests of the birds. Great vigilance 
in this work of ^•ermin control is necessary. 




A VIEW OF POPLARS WHOSE BRANCHES ARE CUT BACK TO THE TRUNK 
EVERY FIVE OR SIX YEARS TO FORM NESTING-SITES. ONE OR TWO NESTS OF 
THE YEAR WERE TO BE FOUND IN PRACTICALLY EVERY TREE. 

In conclusion, it may be of interest to refer briefly to the imitation of Baron 
von Berlepsch's methods in the forests of Hess and Baden. The writer visited 
those in the vicinity of Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Heidelberg, Baden-Baden, and 
Forbach, and, in all except the last, found that active measures were being 
taken to protect and increase birds because of their economic value in the 
forest. The von Berlepsch nesting-boxes and feeding-stations and baths were 
in evidence, especially. It is noteworthy that in the most intensively culti- 
vated forests 80 per cent to 90 per cent of these boxes were occupied; whereas, 
in the forest at Baden-Baden, where there are a good many old and unsound 
trees, which doubtless offer natural nesting cavities, not more than 25 per cent 
or 30 per cent were said to be occupied. At Heidelberg, the Von Berlepsch 
pruning idea is carried out on single or small groups of shrubs, the object 
being the protection of these young plantations from insect pests. 



An Island Home of the American Merganser 

By FRANCIS HARPER. Ithaca, N. Y. 
With photographs by the Author 

IN THE widest waters of Lake Champlain, between two and three miles off 
Willsboro Point, on the New York side, lies a cluster of islets, which are 
known as the Four Brothers. On the east, beyond the Vermont shore, 
looms the huge mass of Camel's Hump, and the high summits of the Adiron- 
dacks mark an irregular western horizon. All of the islets are tree-grown, and 
several bear also a thick cover of grass. Their shores are strewn with large and 
small fragments of shale from the precipitous banks, which, in places, rise to a 
height of thirty or forty feet. The comparative security afforded by an island 
home attracts to the Four Brothers, in the breeding season, several species of 
water- or shore-loving birds; and they also receive protection from a warden, 
whom the owner of the islands employs during the summer months to guard 
the birds and their nests from human disturbers and thieving Crows. 

In early July, 1910, when Mr. Clinton G. Abbott and I spent several days 
at this delightful spot, the scores of Herring Gulls had nearly finished their 
nesting; and both old and young Spotted Sandpipers fairly swarmed over the 
rocky shores and on the higher, grassy portions of the islands. But a far more 
elusive and more imperfectly known species very soon engaged our attention. 
The zealous guardian of the birds, William E. Ward, told us of an unknown 
sort of 'Duck' that was nesting within a stone's-throw of his cabin on House 




AMERICAN MERGANSER ON NEST, HOUSE ISLAND. LAKE CHAMPLAIN, N. Y. 

JULY 10, 1910 

(338) 



An Island Home of the American Merganser 



339 




Island (the westernmost of the group) ; and we followed him with eager interest 
toward a cluster of arborvitae growing at the edge of the ten- or twelve-foot 
bank. There, in a little nook, which was overhung by the low-spreading 
branches of arborvitae 
and surrounded by 
projecting roots, we 
rejoiced to see a female 
Merganser on her nest. 

So accustomed had 
the bird become to the 
warden's daily visits 
that she now remained 
for a time and very 
quietly met our admir- 
ing gaze. The sharp 
line across her neck, 
setting off the rich 
brown of the head from 
the ashy gray of the 
rest of the body, at 
once determined the 
species as Merganser 
americanus. From 
where we stood, we 
could even note the 
position of the nostrils 
well forward on her 
bill — another specific 
character, which, how- 
ever, one very seldom 
has an opportunity to 
observe in the field. Some long feathers stuck out from the back of her head 
to form a sparse yet fairly conspicuous crest. 

When presently the Merganser departed from her nest, she disclosed five 
eggs, which were resting on a mass of down in the midst of a loose collection 
of sticks and leaves. At less than a yard's distance, the bank dropped abruptly 
down to the beach, which was a couple of rods in width at that point. This 
nesting-site on the fairly open ground differs considerably from those described 
in most of the published accounts, and it very likely represents a modification 
brought about by the security of its environment on an isolated group of islets. 
The complement of five eggs was smaller, of course, than the typical number. 
Another Merganser's nest, which the warden showed us on Middle Island, was 
situated far under a stump cast up on the rock-strewn beach, and contained 
nine or ten eggs. 




FEMALE AMERICAN MERGANSER FLYING FROM NEST 



340 



Bird -Lore 



Late in the followinpj afternoon, I began to approach cautiously toward the 
nest on House Ishmd, going inch l)y inch with increasingly deliberate move- 
ments. In this manner I was enabled to set up a tripod only fifteen feet from 
the nest, focus the camera on the sitting bird, and secure a 20-second exposure. 
Now and then a pugnacious Gull, whose young were probably somewhere near, 
created a diversion by swooping past my head with a hair-raising swish of 
stiffly set wings, and uttering its angry cry, a-ka-ka-kak; but the Merganser 
appeared little concerned. It was not until I had moved still closer, and was 




AMERICAN MERGANSER'S NEST AND EGGS, HOUSE ISLAND, LAKE CHAMPLAIN, N. Y. 

JULY 10, iQio 

about to make another exposure, that the bird decided to seek safer quarters. 
She scurried swiftly to the edge of the bank and launched into the air, dropping 
down close to the water at first, but not settling on its surface until a consider- 
able distance otifshore. 

The warden told us of a somewhat different manner in which he had seen 
the bird take her departure from the nest. She would start, he said, in a rather 
steeply inclined course from the top of the bank, strike the water just beyond 
the shore-line, and rise up at once (doubtless with a vigorous use of feet as well 
as of wings) to fiy ofif farther over the lake. This interesting performance on 



An Island Home of the American Merganser 341 

the Merganser's part may be the more readily comprehended by one who has 
observed how a Cofmorant, when it takes wing from a harbor stake in calm 
weather, is obliged to 'wet its tail,' as the fishermen say, before it can get fairly 
under way. 

Several times we tried the experiment of leaving the camera set closeto 
the nest, with a covering of green branches, and with a long thread attached to 
the shutter. Upon one such occasion, I was drifting in a rowboat out on the lake, 
in order to observe the bird's return. Presently I saw her come flying in straight 
toward the bank, and rise to a level with its top ; but, at the last instant before 
alighting, she stopped in mid-air and hovered for a moment or two almost in 
the manner of a Kingfisher. As if not satisfied with the appearances about the 
nest, she turned and came to rest offshore. It was not long, however, before 
she winged her way in again, and this time alighted on the bank beside the 
nest. I felt safe in concluding that she had no land-trail leading to her home 
under the arborvitae. 

We were dismayed, one morning, to discover that both bird and eggs had 
disappeared from sight; but a little closer investigation of the apparently 
empty nest revealed that she had merely arranged a neat covering of down over 
the eggs, before setting out for a fishing-trip on the lake. One would hardly 
expect an instinct for concealing the eggs in such a way to have been developed 
in a species that typically nests in holes; in the present case, however, the device 
both served what was probably its original purpose in pre\-enting the eggs 
from becoming chilled during the bird's absence, and also kept them safe from 
the greedy eyes of Crows and Gulls. 

The male not only failed to share in the incubation, but did not even come 
into sight during our stay; and, as appeared later, he probably manifested no 
interest in the welfare of the young. 

I am much indebted to the warden for the use of the careful notes which he 
made on this Merganser at various times during a period of more than seven 
weeks. The following extracts (which have been freely paraphrased) make evi- 
dent the very long period of incubation, and also touch upon one or two points 
of interest in regard to the development of the young and the mother's care of 
them. "On June 16, a nest with five eggs was discovered on House Island. Tour 
of the five eggs had hatched by July 14. No further observations were made on 
the Merganser until July 18, when she was seen with the four young on the 
south shore of House Island. The mother was very timid, and swam rapidly 
out into the lake, diving often, while the young seemed to run over the water. 
They were noticed on several different dates thereafter, being finally seen on 
August 5 near High Island; the young then dove with the mother." 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 

By LOUIS AGASSIZ FUERTES 

Illustrated by the Author 

FIFTH PAPER.— TOUCANS, CUCKOOS, TROGONS. MOTMOTS, AND THEIR ALLIES 

THE principal sensation one gets in the tropical forest is the mystery of 
the unknown voices. Many of these remain forever mysteries unless 
one stays long and seeks diligently. I am very sure that many sounds I 
now tentatively attribute to certain birds really belong to others, though several 
are among the striking sounds. 

The Toucans are all noisy birds, and for the most part they are all very 
boldly marked with strongly contrasting colors, all but the small green members 
of the genus Aulacorhamphus being brightly dashed with black, yellow, red, 
white or blue, with bills as bizarre as they are huge. Andigena is commonly 
called the "Siete-color" — seven color — from his Joseph's coat of black, blue, 
red, yellow, chestnut, green, and white. Pteroglossus, as an entire group, is 
garbed in the most strikingly contrasting patterns of black, yellow, red, and 
green, with bills of enormous relative size and painted like a barber's pole. 
Rhamphastos, containing the biggest of all Toucans, with beaks like elongated 
lobster-claws, of all imaginable and many unimaginable designs in black and 
yellow, white, red, blue, green, or orange, are themselves principally black, 
trimmed with a yellow or white throat and breast, and lesser patches of 
red and white or yellow at the base of the tail. One would naturally suppose 
that with these flashy colors and their noisy habits and large size. Toucans 
would be among the easiest of birds to find; but this is far from the case. I 
think we all found them to be as hard to locate, after their calls had given us 
their general whereabouts, as any of the birds we encountered. The little 
green snarlers of the genus Aulacorhamphus, whose harsh voice seemed to me to 
sound like the slow tearing of a yard of oil-cloth, were in many places quite 
common; but only those whose movements disclosed them ever fell into our 
hands, for it was about hopeless to discover them when they were sitting quiet 
among the leafage. The blue-breasted group, Andigena, we encountered only 
once or twice. The only one I saw I got from the steep trail in the Central 
Andes, and it was to the rattling accompaniment of horns of some fifty pack- 
oxen we were passing on the narrow road. The excitement the shot caused 
among the startled beasts gave me other things to think of, at the moment, 
and I do not now remember whether my "siete-color" had a voice or not. When 
I finally retrieved him, he was some forty yards or more down the steep and 
tangled mountain-side. In this connection, it may not be out of place to offer 
one suggestion in explanation of the great difficulty of locating these large and 
apparently gaudily colored birds in the tropical woods, and in retrieving them 
when shot. 

To our northern eyes, used only to green leaves seldom larger than our hand, 

(342) 




^ 



(f ^,lc^;«|f'^'rO 











/; .^ C«^ 'i/^UA;^ 



TOUCANS 
Sketched from Nature 

(343) 



344 Bird - Lore 

the extravagant wealth of size, form and color in tropical vegetation offers 
quite as much wonderment and occupation as do the birds themselves; and 
here we have a diversion of the attention, however unconscious it may be, that 
certainly has its effect. Added to this, there are actual variations in the accus- 
tomed color of the foliage that repeat with greatest suggestiveness any red, 
yellow, blue, green, orange, or other color, that may be present on a bird. 
No Toucan's throat is yellower than the light shining through a thin leaf, and 
when leaf-forms are further complicated like those of the Dendrophilum 
creepers, by having great holes that let through patches of the dark back- 
ground or the blue sky, no black-patched Toucan in the foreground looks more 
velvety than do these leaf-interstices. As for the bizarre bills, they only serve 
to make it harder; for they bear no resemblance to bill or bird, and simply 
merge their brilliancy with that of the whole picture they sit in. I don't know 
how many times I have searched and searched and scrutinized, to find the 
author of some raucous carping, only to see one of the large Toucans burst 
away from a perch in plain sight, where he had been all the time. This has 
happened to me so frequently that I am sure other students must have had the 
same experience. Perched on a dead stub above the sky line. Toucans, like 
everything else, are conspicuous in the extreme; sitting quietly within the 
shade of the forest cover, however varied their patchwork coat, they melt 
tantalizingly into their setting. 

The big, black Toucans of Rhamphastos are generatly called by the natives 
Dios te de or Dios te ve — meaning God will give to you, or God sees you. This 
is not a confession of faith on the part of the simple native, but a free and lilting 
transcription of the bird's call. It gives the rhythm and general shape of the 
sound fairly well. I could analyze it a little more closely by calling it a loud, 
hoarse whistle, with the words Tios-to-to or Tios, to, to, to. It has something of 
the queer quality of a Yellow-billed Cuckoo's song, only, of course, it is much 
larger and louder. R. tocard is the ''Dios te de;'' but the name fairly well fits, 
and is generally applied, to the whole group of heavy-billed Toucans. 

The only other group we encountered was Pteroglossus, the Aracari Tou- 
cans. These are small Toucans, all joints and angles, much given to going 
around in noisy troops, like Jays, Skilful and jerky acrobats, they are the 
very extreme of bow-legged angularity. Curious as Jays, they jerk and perk 
their way up into the branches of some dead tree, their great clumsy beaks 
and thin pointed tails complementing each other at odd angles. Toucans are 
all great tail-jerkers, and the Aracaris the most switchy of all. Their harsh 
mobbing-cries recall some similar sounds made by Jays, but are even louder 
and much more prolonged. Both are a great nuisance to the hunter, as they 
follow endlessly, their curious prying screeches and squawks effectually chas- 
ing out all the birds requiring more finesse in their approach. I should call their 
most characteristic noise a rattling, throaty squawk. In any case, it will not 
take a green hunter long to identify these birds, as they are restless and their 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 



345 



motion will soon catch the eye. I strongly suspect all the Toucans of the habit 
and ability to slip noiselessly and rapidly away, in case their curiosity is satis- 
fied or their fear aroused. They are capable of making long leaps from branch 
to branch with their wings closed, like Jays and Cuckoos, only more so. What 
with their looks, their noises, and their actions, no group of birds has more 
amusing and interesting new sensations to offer than the Toucans. 

The family of Cuckoos has some very interesting developments in the 
American Tropics. The little Four-wing — Diplopterus — heard in the sunny 
river-bottoms and lower brushy slopes — such places as a Brown Thrasher 




ANI 

would affect — has perhaps the most insistent voice in his habitat. The com- 
monest is an ascending couplet of notes a semitone apart: £, F. This is a sharp, 
piercing whistle, that gets to be as much a part of the shimmering landscape 
as a Hyla's notes do of a northern meadow-bog in March. Indeed, the Four- 
wing's fuller song, which is a long, piercing note, followed after a short pause 
by an ascending series of shorter notes, awoke a strangely familiar chord, which 
I afterward attached to the very similar pond-toad call at home. The name 
Four-wing arises from the curious over-development of the false-wing, or 
thumb plumes, which in this queer little bird form a sharply defined and 
separately distensible fan of black, which the bird displays with a curious 
ducking motion. 

The larger brown Cuckoos of the genus Piaya, which the natives rather 
aptly call 'squirrel birds,' from their color and the slippery way they glide 



346 



Bird - Lore 



..'.^ip 



through the branches, I have never heard call but once, though they are fairly 
common throughout most of tropical America. This one sat in a bare cecropia 
tree, and did a loud, rough kek, kek, kek, repeated twenty times or more, and 
I at first took it for a big Woodpecker. 

It is the little black, witch-like Ani, that is really the common Cuckoo of the 
open savannas, and abounds over the cattle-ranges and around the villages. 

There are a great 
many common native 
names for these con- 
spicuous little black 
whiners, the common- 
est being Garrapatero, 
or tick-eater. This is 
almost universal, 
though in Cuba and 
Porto Rico it bears, 
from its obsequious 
manner and its great 
thin curved beak, the 
apt title of Judio — or 
Jew. They are almost 
always in molt, and 
look shoddy and worn, 
and their peevishly 
whined "ooo-eek" gets 
to be a mildly annoy- 
ing accompaniment to 
the day's work. 

The Barbets and 
Puff-birds {Capita and 
Bucco) fall naturally 
into this group, though 
they did not give us much to work on as to their notes. Bucco was usually 
found perching quietly on some twig halfway up in the trees along the road- 
side or pasture edges. All I remember of him is that he had a buzzing sort 
of scold, and could bite a piece out of my finger when caught in the hand. 

The little spotted Barbet, however (C. auratus), at Buena Vista, on the 
eastern foot of the Andes, had a curious little toot that was the despair of all 
of us till Mr. Chapman associated it with Capito. Hoot-oot . . . Hoot-oot in 
perfect time — Hoot-oot (blank) Hoot-oot (blank), almost indefinitely. It was 
a pervasive sound, about as loud as and very like the indi\ddual toots of a 
Screech Owl, and was given to the invariable accompaniment of the twitching 
tail, and with the neck humped up and the bill directed downward. 




J'Ul'l'-BlRD {Bucco ruficallis) 




/(,"/.' yuit^i't 



TROGONS (Trogon collaris and Pkaromacrus aniisianus) 



(347) 



348 



Bird - Lore 



Every student in the tropics hopes he may soon meet with Trogons, at 
once the most beautiful and the most mysterious of all the varied tropical birds. 
Nothing could exceed the richness of their contrasting blood-red underparts, 

white and black tails, 
and resplendent 
emera Id - green heads 
and backs. The large 
Pharomacrus Trogons, 
of which the famed 
Quetzal is a type, 
with their delicate yet 
richly gorgeous and 
pendulous mantle of 
feathers, are, for 
sheer beauty, among 
Nature's truly great 
triumphs, and cannot 
fail to force deep ap- 
preciation from the 
most calloused or 
mercenary collector. 
P. antisianus has a 
loud, rolling call, which 
I put in my notes as 
Whee 00, corre o, done 
in a round, velvety 
whistle. When, after 
quite a long time spent 
in imitating the un- 
known note, in the 
soggy tree-fern forest 
at the ridge of the 
coast Andes, this 
magnificent ruby and 
emerald creature came 
swinging toward me in 
deeply undulating waves and perched alertly in full sight not far away, I found 
it hard to breathe, so great was my excitement and joy. We never found it a 
common bird and only three were seen in all our travel in Columbia. 

A close congener of antisianus, the Golden-headed Trogon, fails in elegance 
before this distinguished beauty, though a marvel, nevertheless. Its notes are 
more commonplace, too, being merely booming hoots, not very loud but quite 
pervasive. The little banded Trogons, with pink breasts, as well as the yellow- 




^^ #*^''^- 



MOTMOT 



Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds 349 

breasted ones, have very characteristic calls, so like each other that I never 
learned to distinguish the various species. They all sit quietly on some slender 
perch or vine-stem, and do their rolling call ruk, ruk, uk, uk, uk, k, k, k, k, all 
on the same note. Here again the tail seems to be indispensable to the per- 
formance, and jerks sharply forward under the perch with each syllable. 
More than once this motion became the index to the authorship of the strangely 
pervasive and ventriloquistic sound. 

One other group of birds has this quiet fashion of softly hooting from some 
low perch in the thicker and more watered parts of the forest. The curious 
racket-tailed Motmots have what I call the most velvety of all bird notes. It 
is usually a single short oot, pitched about five tones below where one can whistle. 
This note is very gentle, though fairly loud, and I think that some persons who 
do not hear low vibrations ver>' well would often fail to notice it at a short 
distance. Most of the natives have sound-names for Motmots, and the Maya 
Indians of Yucatan call the brilliant little Eumomota "Toh," and, as an appre- 
ciation of the interest, he has come to nest and roost familiarly in the age-long 
deserted ruins of their former glory. 

Indeed, these mysterious, gentle, shy, little birds came to me, at least, to be 
the living symbol of this great lost magnificence; for the present-day Mayas 
know naught of the art and history of their great forefathers, whose temples 
and beautiful buildings are now in utter oblivion and disuse, except as the 
shelters and dwellings of little "Toh," the Motmot, and his soft hoot is the 
only sound that ever issues from their carved portals. 



CANVASBACKS, CAYUGA LAKE, N. Y., FEB. i6, igia 
Photographed by Francis Harper 



The Hermit Thrush 

Here, on the river, a shining reach, 
My love'd canoe and the sunset glow; 
Gray rocks inverted in the tide, 
Two silver birches that lean below. 

Sudden, as twilight gathers round. 
And the ripples stir as I drift along, 
Close to the bank, where the branches bend, 
The Hermit Thrush bursts into song. 

Joyous and clear on the quiet air 
Peals forth that wonderful silver strain, 
Like the sunset bells from the ivied tower 
Of some gray convent in far-off Spain. 



In the streets I left an hour ago, 
News of battle across the foam — 
Strife and carnage in lands afar — 
Grief and mourning with us at home; 

War's red hand over land and sea, 
Ruin that smites the field and hearth; 
Thunder of guns on the Northern main, — 
Tramp of armies that fill the earth. 

Yet here on the river, a shining reach, 

Golden ripples that stir and cease. 

And clear and sweet through the gathering gloom 

The silver voice that sings of Peace! 

— Evelyn Smith. 




(350) 



The Migration of North American Sparrows 

THIRTIETH PAPER 

Compiled by Prof. W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 

(See Frontispiece) 

WORTHEN'S SPARROW 

Little is known of the distribution of Worthen's Sparrow. So far, it has been 
taken at only three places: Silver City, N. M., June i6, 1884; Chalchicomula, 
Puebla, April 28, 1893, and Miquihana, Tamaulipas, June 8, 9, 1898. 

TEXAS SPARROW 

The lower part of the Rio Grande Valley is the home of the Texas Sparrow, 
and it ranges here northwest to Fort Clark, and along the Gulf Coast to Cor- 
pus Christi, and San Patricio County. It is non-migratory. It also occurs in 
northeastern Mexico, in the States of San Luis Potosi, Nuevo Leon, and 
Tamaulipas. 

GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE 

From its winter home in northern Mexico and along the border of the 
United States, the Green-tailed Towhee moves slowly northward, occupying 
more than tw^o months — late February to early May — in passing across the 
less than a thousand miles from the northern limit of the winter home to the 
northern boundary' of the breeding range. Some dates of spring arrival are: 
San Antonio, Tex., February 25, 1885; Carlisle, N. M., March 21, 1890; 
Camp Grant, Ariz., March 6, 1867; Santa Catalina Mountains, Ariz., March 
18, 1902; near Fort Lewis, Colo., average April 29, earliest April 27, 1906; 
Fort Lyon, Colo., April 30, 1885; Beulah, Colo., average May 6, earliest. 
May 4, 1904; Yimia, Colo., May 3, 1906; Cheyenne, Wyo., May 10, 1889; 
Pasadena, Calif., April 4, 1896; Murphy's, Calif., April 17, 1877; Carson City, 
April 25, 1868; Fort Crook, Calif., May i, 1859; Fort Klamath, Ore., May 
17, 1887. 

The last one seen in the fall at Fort Lyon, Colo., was on September 26, 1885 ; 
Yvuna, Colo., average September 26, latest September 30, 1908; Beulah, Colo., 
average September 22, latest October 23, 1907; Piney Divide, Colo., October 
8, 1906. 



(3SI) 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Sparrows 

TWENTY-NINTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(See Frontispiece) 

Worthen's Sparrow (Spizella wortheni, Fig. i). — Few of our birds have 
a briefer history than this Sparrow. Discovered in 1884, near Silver City, 
New Mexico, it is still known from very few specimens taken chiefly in Mexico. 
Doubtless Worthen's Sparrow is a representative of the Field Sparrow, the 
western form of which it resembles but, as Ridgway remarks, its tail is shorter, 
the wing-bands less distinct, the sides of the head are gray, and there is no 
brown postocular streak. There are no specimens of this bird in the Ameri- 
can Museum, and I can say nothing about its changes of plumage. 

Texas Sparrow (Arremenops rufivirgata, Fig. 2). — Few birds show less 
change of plumage than does this bush-haunting Sparrow. The male resembles 
the female; there is practically no difference between the winter and the sum- 
mer dress, and after the post-juvenal molt the bird of the year cannot be dis- 
tinguished from its parents. 

The Juvenal, or nestling plumage, however, is strongly streaked with fuscous 
both above and below. At the post-juvenal molt apparently only the wing- 
quills and tail-feathers of this plumage are retained, and the bird passes into 
its first winter plumage, which, as just remarked, resembles that of the adult. 

There appears to be no spring molt, and summer birds differ from winter 
ones only in being more worn. 

Green-tailed Towhee {Oreospiza chlorura, Figs. 3 and 4). — In this so- 
called Towhee, the adult male and female are alike in color, and there is 
essentially no difference between their summer and winter plumages. The 
young male, also, after the post-juvenal molt, resembles its parents; but the 
young female (Fig. 3) in corresponding (first winter) plumage has the chestnut 
crown-cap largely concealed by the grayish tips of the feathers, and the back 
is grayer than in the adult. 

The Juvenal or nestling plumage is streaked with dusky blackish both 
above and below. At the post-juvenal molt, only the wing-quills, primary 
coverts and tail-feathers of this plumage are retained, when the young male, as 
said above, acquires a plumage resembling that of the adults, while in the young 
female the crown-cap is absent. 

The prenuptial or spring molt appears to be confined to the throat and 
anterior parts of the head. Probably the immature female acquires fresh 
chestnut feathers in the crown, and with the wearing away of the grayish tips 
of the winter plumage her crown-cap becomes like that of the adult. Aside 
from this, the summer plumage differs from winter plumage only through the 
effects of wear and fading, the upper parts being grayer, the flanks paler. 

(35?) 



^otes from Jftelti anti ^tutip 



Brookline Bird Club 

The Brookline, Massachusetts, Bird 
Club was organized in June, 1913, at a 
meeting of a handful of people held in the 
Public Library. It was found, upon in- 
quiry, that there were many residents of 
the town, both adults and minors, who 
were interested in the study and preserva- 
tion of birds, and others who only needed 
an incentive to become thoroughly fasci- 
nated by the subject. 

It was further discovered that, while 
nature-study is taught in the elementary 
grades of the public schools, the study of 
birds is almost optional with the teachers, 
and it remains with them whether or not 
their efforts are more than superficial. 
Instructors who are not interested in a 
subject do not interest their pupils. 
Brookline has grown with such rapidity 
during the last ten years that it is no 
longer a small town of fine residences and 
large estates. The ornithologist, aside 
from the fine park system, must now go 
further into the country to find the rarer 
birds, and few people know where to go. 
It was thus necessary, not only to arouse 
and enthuse, but to lead them to the 
proper parts of the surrounding country, 
where the opportunities for becoming 
acquainted with many species are excep- 
tionally good. The forestry department 
of the town, than which there is none more 
efficient in the state, has done fine work 
under Supt. Daniel Lacey in exterminating 
many varieties of insect pests. This de- 
partment also feeds the birds in winter, 
has put up some four hundred nesting- 
boxes in different parts of the town, and, 
after studying the subject carefully, has 
came to the very logical conclusion that the 
birds must be protected and encouraged 
to live in the town if the fight against the 
insects is to be successful. 

The cooperation of this department 
with the Bird Club has become of much 



mutual benefit. At the organization meet- 
ing, a tentative plan was agreed upon, 
and the drawing up of a constitution was 
intrusted to a small committee. A second 
meeting was held, the constitution adopted, 
ofiicers elected, and the club launched. 
Permission was granted by the trustees of 
the Public Library for the use of a large 
room by the new association, bulletin 
space was given, books on ornithology 
were bought and set aside for special use, 
and the privilege of having mail sent there 
was agreed upon. Publicity was given 
freely in both of the local papers and the 
Boston press, so that many applications 
for membership came from unexpected 
quarters. At the close of the first year, 
500 names are on the membership book. 
The ofiicers are five in number, president, 
vice-president, secretary, corresponding 
secretarj^, and treasurer. There are seven- 
teen directors, including the ofiicers. The 
Club has four classes of membership: Life, 
Sustaining, Senior, and Junior. Life mem- 
bership is obtained by the payment of ten 
dollars, and this exempts the payer from 
further dues. Sustaining membership 
requires a subscription of five dollars, and 
the subscriber is not called upon for the 
yearly fee. Senior members must be over 
fourteen years of age, and contribute 50 
cents per year. Those under 14 years of 
age are juniors and are charged 25 cents 
per annum. 

The membership dues were placed as 
low as possible, in order that no one should 
find the amount burdensome, and that 
all should receive as much as could be 
given for the lowest fee. 

Walks for senior members were arranged 
Saturday afternoons, and bulletins giving 
the date, place, leader, carfare, and 
and general information, were mailed to 
each member. These walks were so success- 
ful that, another year, two separate 
walks will^be*scheduled each Saturday, 
to accommodate the large numbers that 



(353) 



354 



Bird -Lore 



enjoy them. In the morning of the days 
on which the senior walks are held the 
junior walks are listed. Mr. Horace 
Taylor, who conducts the junior depart- 
ment, gives the children a short illustrated 
talk about the birds that are expected to 
be seen on the walk. This talk is given 
on the afternoon before the walk is taken. 
The children keep notebooks and their 
lists of birds, make colored pictures and 
nesting-boxes, and compete in many ways 
for small prizes. Where the distance re- 
quires the use of the electric cars, a special 
car is hired. The children average from 
fifty to seventy-five in number on these 
little excursions. 

One of the most encouraging features 
of the work is the interest and enthusiasm 
of the Junior department. The meetings 
of the Club are held once a month in the 
club-room at the Library, and consist of 
a short business meeting, preceding an 
informal talk or lecture on some phase of 
bird-study. Mr. Edward Howe Forbush, 
Mr. Winthrop Packard, and Mr. Ernest 
Harold Baynes are among those who have 
addressed the organization during this 
last year. 

The activity of the club was marked 
with such success from the start that the 
directors decided to undertake an educa- 
tional movement oh a larger scale. Acting 
in cooperation with the Forestry Depart- 
ment of the town upon an idea originating 
with the Milton (Mass.) Bird Club, an 
exhibition was planned of everything 
pertaining to the study, conservation, and 
attracting of wild birds. This exhibition 
was held in the Public Library. 

Through the large room ran an arbor- 
way, constructed of the limbs of trees with 
the bark on. To the arbor were attached 
all kinds of nesting-, feeding-, and shelter- 
boxes, and wire racks for holding grain 
and suet. On long tables on the right of 
the room were baths of varied construction 
and size, and large feeding-boxes. Hang- 
ing on the wall were samples of the bird- 
work done by the children in the schools. 
On the left of the arborway were stuffed 
specimens of native birds. Some were 
borrowed from the Fish and Game Com- 



mission, and others were loaned from 
private collections of the president, Mr. 
Edward W. Baker. A number of his 
specimens were mounted on the nesting- 
boxes and limbs of the trees through the 
arbor, which was particularly pleasing 
and well represented real bird-life. An- 
other table held a complete exhibit of 
seeds and berries that our local winter 
birds feed upon. These were placed in 
glass jars, giving the name of each, where 
they could be purchased, and the price. 
At the rear was a display of the Forestry 
Department, showing the work of de- 
structive insects, particularly the leopard 
moth and elm-tree beetle, and illustrating 
most vividly the necessity of attracting 
the birds to destroy them. Cases were 
set up containing specimens of the birds 
that eat the gypsy and brown-tail moths; 
others showed the- moths in various 
stages of growth. Pictures of all kinds 
including a number of originals of Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes, books, pamphlets, eggs, 
nests, photographs, charts, and in fact 
everything bearing on the subject could 
be found in the room. The exhibition was 
open for one month from 2 to q o'clock 
r. M., and 3,800 visitors signed the regis- 
tration book; many others, particularly 
children, attended. In the morning, the 
room was open to classes of school children 
with their teachers. 

At the close, the exhibition was loaned 
to the Lynn and Nahant Bird Clubs, and 
when it is returned will be made into a 
permanent exhibit. Each day, a member 
of the Forestry Department and two mem- 
bers of the Bird Club were in attendance, 
to answer questions and explain. By a 
recent act of the state legislature, each 
town or city is entitled to a bird warden. 
At the last annual town meeting. Superin- 
tendent Lacey, of the Forestry Depart- 
ment, was appointed warden for the town 
of Brookline. The Bird Club has its own 
bird warden. We look forward to a more 
successful and busier year. Walks, lec- 
tures, and another exhibit are all planned 
already, and we intend to keep Brookline 
foremost in the list of those towns and 
cities that are working for the interest of 



Notes from Field and Study 



355 



the birds. — Charles B. Floyd, Vice- 
president, Brookline, Mass. 

Martins and Other Birds at Greens 
Farms, Connecticut 

We banished the cat and the English 
Sparrows, and had more birds nesting 
about the home grounds than we had last 
year. 

Wrens occupied four of the five boxes 
put up, and their music encircled the 
house. There were three nests of Robins, 
one on the lintel of the front door, close 
against the glass transom. The Kingbird 
nested for the third season in the same 
pear tree, and the Brown Thrasher in the 
syringa in the garden. When I looked into 
the Thrashers' nest after the eggs hatched, 
the mother bird dived ofif a tree branch 
overhead and struck me fairly in the back 
of the neck. The young Thrashers spent a 
good deal of time on the lawn close to the 
house, and there was no cat to alarm 
them. 

One of the old Robins got the habit of 
pecking early and late at its reflection 
in the glass of the cellar window, which is 
on a level with the lawn. We finally tilted 
the window to stop the continual pecking. 

Many Night Herons passed morning and 
evening between their roost in the woods 
across the road to the salt marsh opposite. 
Their flight-calls were usually answered 
in chorus by our Canada Geese. 

One morning, two Kingfishers came fly- 
ing up the road with such noisy cries that 
I rushed to the window. One of them 
darted around the house and fell exhausted 
on the lawn, while the pursuing bird 
passed over the house and disappeared. 
The fugitive remained on the lawn while 
I finished dressing, and did not leave until 
I tried to get close enough to see whether 
it was a male or a female. I suspect that 
it was a male, being chased by another 
male. 

Barn Swallows occupied the barn, and 
Chimney Swifts the chimney. Keeping 
one of the barn doors propped open all 
day encourages the Swallows. The Blue- 
birds used only one of the two boxes put 



up; the first pair was discouraged by 
Sparrows. 

Best of all, we had half-a-dozen pairs 
of Martins. Last year, they left without 
nesting, as the Sparrows held the Martin 
house against all comers. By diligent use 
of the long-barreled, dust-shot pistol, in 
April, I banished the Sparrows for the sum- 
mer and the pleasant gurglings of the 
Martins paid many times for the trouble 
of fighting the Sparrows. 

In this region, the holes of Martin 
houses must be large enough to let Mart- 
ins in and keep Starlings out; but the 
Martins will not enter a one-and-seven- 
eighths-inch hole unless there is a half- 
inch hole just above it, to let in light. 
The Martin's body in the small entrance 
makes the compartment dark, and the 
bird seems afraid to enter. After the half- 
inch windows were bored, they entered 
freely. I expected the Kingbirds close by 
to make trouble for the Martins, but was 
happily disappointed. 

Next spring, we will have another and 
larger Martin house, and keep the dust- 
shot pistol handy for Sparrow invaders. 
It makes little noise, does not seem to 
frighten Wrens, Bluebirds, or Swallows, 
and the Martins pay no attention to it. 
The shotgun makes too much noise and 
alarms all birds. I know of nothing that 
will banish Sparrows as effectively as 
the shot-pistol. 

Get rid of the home-cat! One bottle of 
Pasteur Rat Virus every four months will 
clear out rats and mice better than a dozen 
cats. We have demonstrated that to the 
satisfaction of the neighbors, which is 
more than was expected. — Charles H. 
TowNSEND, Greens Farms, Conn. 

Food for the Birds 

Here is an example of what can be 
accomplished by throwing out food to 
the birds. 

In the storm of April i6, 1914, when it 
snowed in central New Hampshire to the 
depth of four inches, we swept a spot of 
ground about twelve feet square, every 
little while, and strewed cracked corn, or 



356 



Bird - Lore 



what is known at the store as chicken- 
feed. This had been a feeding-station for 
some time, but heretofore only Jays, a few 
Song Sparrows, or a Junco or two, had 
patronized it. 

On the day of the storm, the average 
number of birds seen at a time was 40. 
As night approached, we counted 125 
feeding together. Of the species, the Junco 
predominated and in order according to 
numbers: Song-Sparrow 12, Blue-Jay 5, 
Tree Sparrow 3, Fox Sparrow 3, Vesper 
Sparrow 2, Pine Siskins 2. On the sur- 
rounding trees and bushes, attracted by 
the other birds, we saw Robins, a flock of 
Crackles, Red-polls, and one Phoebe, mak- 
ing eleven species in all. — Mary Gibes 
Hinds. Grafton, N. H. 

A Syracuse Feeding-Station 

My home is only iifteen minutes' walk 
from the center of a busy city. There are 
three lines of cars passing the house, but 
we have large yards at the rear. Last 
winter, I fastened pieces of suet to one of 
the trees and the grape-arbor in the yard. 
I called them my bird restaurants — At 
The Sign of the Suet. I had five patrons — 
not counting English Sparrows — two 
pairs of Downies, and at least one Nut- 
hatch. This year, I have greatly increased 
the scope of the restaurant privilege, and 
have crocheted six bags with large meshes, 
in which the suet can be much better pro- 
tected from the elements. The bags deco- 
rate the various trees in the yard and the 
grape-arbor. This morning, January 14, 
I counted ten patrons — the same two 
pairs of Downies, undoubtedly, which 
came last year, also the Nuthatch. In 
addition to these are a Hairy Woodpecker 
and four Chickadees. I had read in Bird- 
Lore how Chickadees might be induced 
to eat out of one's hand; but I confess I 
was somewhat skeptical. However, I 
thought I should try. For several days I 
was unsuccessful, but one morning a 
Chickadee actually flew on my hand and 
pecked at some suet. I held my breath 
from sheer delight. Every day since then I 
go out, and two of the four Chickadees 



come with perfect fearlessness. This morn- 
ing, all four of them were much in evidence. 
They fairly fought each other to get the 
suet from my hand. As fast as one flew 
away, another would come. They even 
perched on the top of my head, shoulder, 
and arm, to wait their chance. I have tried 
walnut meats ground up fine, also peanuts 
in small pieces. The walnuts they toss to 
the ground in scorn; the peanuts meet with 
more favor, but they prefer the suet to 
either. They will take a few dainty nibbles 
then brace themselves with their claws 
and detach a much larger piece from the 
suet chunk. This they fly away with, and 
wedge in between some twig and branch, 
or even in the wire-fencing — for future 
need, I suppose. 

One morning when I went out, I saw a 
Downy feeding from one bag, a Nuthatch 
from another, a Chickadee from a third, 
and, I regret to say, an English Sparrow 
from a fourth bag. The Sparrows are the 
most numerous patrons. During the year 
just passed, I have seen forty different 
varieties of birds in my own yard. — B. H. 
CoLMAN, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Fall Migration at Cobourg, Ontario 

While in Cobourg, Ontario, on Septem- 
ber 4, 1913, it was noticed that many 
birds were migrating. An incomplete list 
of all the birds seen showed the following 
species: 

Pied-billed Grebe, Herring Gull, Yellow- 
legs, Spotted Sandpiper, Kildeer, Mourn- 
ing Dove, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Sparrow 
Hawk, Kingfisher, Downy Woodpecker, 
Flicker, Hummingbird, Kingbird, Crested 
Flycatcher, Phoebe, Least Flycatcher, 
Blue Jay, Crow, Goldfinch, Vesper Spar- 
row, Savannah Sparrow, White-throated 
Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Slate-colored 
Junco, Song Sparrow, Rose-breasted Gros- 
beak, Scarlet Tanager, Barn Swallow, Red- 
eyed Vireo, Black-and-white Warbler, 
Nashville Warbler, Northern Parula Warb- 
ler, Black-throated Blue Warbler, Myrtle 
Warbler, Magnolia Warbler, Bay-breasted 
Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, 
Ovenbird, Water-Thrush, Redstart, Cat- 



Notes from Field and Study 



357 



bird, Brown Thrasher, Winter Wren, 
Long-billed Marsh Wren, White-breasted 
Nuthatch, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Chick- 
adee, Rubj^-crown Kinglet, Wood Thrush, 
Olive-black Thrush and Bluebird. 

The large numbers of Flycatchers and 
Warblers were particularly noticeable. 

On the night of September 5, the migra- 
ting birds left; for, on the sixth, it was hard 
to find a Warbler or Flycatcher, and very 
few birds of any kind were in sight. 

Cobourg is on the north shore of Lake 
Ontario, and the question presents itself 
whether the migrating birds regularly 
bank up on the lake shore, and leave at 
one time, thus sending a cloud of birds 
over into the states. — John P. Young, 
Yottngstown, Ohio. 

Nesting-habits of the Pied-billed Grebe 

I may be able to add a few further facts 
to those given by Arthur A. Allen, in the 
July-August number of Bird-Lore, on 
the nesting-habits of the Pied-billed Grebe. 
Finding a pair of these birds in a lily-pond 
in Mill Creek Park at Youngstown, Ohio, 
in June, I procured a boat and with a 
friend searched for a nest, with success. 
It was found anchored to and concealed 
by cat-tails near the center of the pond, 
which covered about three acres. The nest 
was composed principally of leaves and 
stems of dead cat-tails, and contained six 
eggs. The mother bird was not on the nest 
and the eggs were covered; the platform 
upon which they rested was floating upon 
the water and very moist. Later, reliable 
observers reported to me that they saw the 
male birds feeding the female while on the 
nest. I walked to the pond usually every 
day during incubation. The male at first 
would come to meet me, and wovdd stop 
from fifteen to twenty feet from me, if I 
stood at the shore. (I observed that he 
would not do this with strangers.) Then, 
if I walked along the shore, he swam along 
near the shore, keeping between me and 
the nest. If I turned to leave the pond, he 
usually indulged in gyrations with his 
wings, cutting circles on the surface of the 
water, and diving. 



One day, I found the female dead on the 
edge of the pond, and the male still on 
guard. I saw him there for two days, when 
he disappeared. About two weeks after 
the disappearance of the male, I heard a 
faint call in the cat-tails, like a (irebe, and 
upon investigation found the male still on 
the pond, and that he was accompanied 
by six little Pied-billed Grebes, apparently 
just off the nest. 

The valiant little fellow remained with 
his charge in the lily-pond, to the delight 
of many visitors, until the fall- migration 
period, when all disappeared. — Volney 
Rogers. 

Gulls Preparing a Meal 

Where I am staying among the islands 
in the Great South Bay, watching the birds 
is a pastime that never tires, and occasion- 
ally develops something new. Last Feb- 
ruary and March, when for weeks the 
ice-covered waters caused much suffering 
among the water-fowl, especially those 
kinds which are not divers, and were 
thereby debarred from deep-water feed- 
ing, various expedients were restored to 
in acquiring a meal. 

It was amusing to watch the Herring 
Gulls obtain the flesh of mussels that lived 
along the bank. They would take one and 
fly up about a hundred feet or more in the 
air, and then let it drop down upon the ice. 
Sudden contact with the hard surface 
after such a fall would crack the shell 
apart, and their feast was ready. 

Sometimes dozens of them might be 
observed rising up, holding themselves 
suspended a moment at a certain eleva- 
tion, dropping their mussels, then swoop- 
ing down after them. As it often took 
several ascents to accomplish their pur- 
pose, their evolutions of rising and falling 
made a beautiful and animated sight. — 
John Tooker, Babylon, Long Island, N. Y . 

Herring Gulls in Connecticut 

In 'The Birds of Connecticut,' by Messrs 
Bishop and Sage, the Herring Gull {Lams 
argentatus) is called "an abundant winter 



358 



Bird - Lore 



visitor," with the earliest record from New 
Haven, August 14, 1883, and the latest 
from New Haven, May 24, 1900. The 
authors of the book say: "That the list is 
unsatisfactory and incomplete in many 
ways the authors realize all too well, and 
they hope that it will be a stimulus to 
others to fill up the gaps by conscientious 
collecting." 

I wish to fill in one of the "gaps," 
not by "collecting," but by careful obser- 
vation, backed by many witnesses, and a 
photograph taken in mid-July. 

My work takes me up and down the 
sound along some fifty miles of shore and, 
throughout June, 1914, I saw Gulls in 
varying numbers between Norwalk and 
Greenwich. The largest number stayed 
about Goose Island bar, in the Norwalk 
Islands; and Smith's Ledge, near Stam- 
ford, was also a favorite place. On an 
average, two-thirds of the birds seen were 
in immature plumage; the rest fine adults, 
and not one showed signs of injury. 

Throughout July, the Gulls were to be 
found at low water on the bars and reefs, 
and a man living so as to overlook Goose 
Island bar tells me that "There was seldom 
a day when there were not between forty 
and one hundred Gulls seen." 

July 18 and 19, 1914, I counted sixty- 
four Gulls at one time, and the next day 
there were twenty-eight in the same place. 
They were also seen in varying numbers 
on the 22d, 23d, and 28th; and, on the 
31st, I counted forty on Goose Island 
bar. 

Knight, in 'The Birds of Maine,' says 
that "westward of their breeding range it 
[the Herring Gull] occurs as a non-breed- 
ing summer coast bird to beyond our 
border." 

It is evident, then, that the Herring 
Gull is a summer bird at this end of the 
state, and has occured this summer in 
larger numbers than formerly, and seems 
akin to the "non-breeding" birds of Maine, 
for, as the author of that work says: 
"Breeding birds have other things to do 
than to sit on a sand-bar and sleep and 
preen their feathers." — Wilbur F. Smith, 
South Norwalk, Conn. 



A Winter Pensioner 

The Downy Woodpecker in the picture 
has been a winter pensioner; I fully be- 
lieve the same one for about ten years. 
This last winter, a dead chestnut tree, with 
limbs cut within two or three feet from 
the trunk, was placed on the ground, and 
suet fastened to the limbs in several 
places. This spring, on account of repairs 
to the porch, it was greatly in the way, and, 
being the last of March, and the weather 
mild, it was decided to take it up. After 
this was done, it was cut in two about five 
feet from the top, the bottom to be uti- 







; 




m 


' 1 

I 


■^ 


1 



DOWNY WOODPECKKR AT SUET 

lized as a post; but when Mrs. Downy 
came and found the tree which she and 
her mate had fed in every day all winter 
had gone, her anxiety was very pro- 
nounced. She viewed the wreck, as it lay 
on the ground, from every available perch, 
with loud exclamations, and directed them 
particularly at my brother who was work- 
ing on the piazza roof, coming not more 
than ten feet away on the eaves of the 
house just above his head. Finally, the 
top section, which had a piece of suet 
fastened where they had pecked out the 
inside, making what remained look like 
a nest or basket, was placed on the hitch- 
ing post, as in the picture, and Mrs. Downy 



Notes from Field and Study 



359 



came down and was quite satisfied. She 
even took no exceptions whatever at hav- 
ing a black camera only three feet from 
her head, not even turning when the 
shutter clicked. The strong confidence 
shown, I dare say, is born of long 
acquaintance, and is most gratifying to us. 
— Margaret S. Hitchcock, New Ver- 
non, N. J. 

The Fare of a Sandhill Crane 

While 'Jack,' my Sandhill Crane, and 
I were out in the grove this morning, he 
ate 148 grasshoppers, 2 moths, i roach, 
I 'swift' (a species of lizard), 2 grubs 
thicker than a lead-pencil, about two and 
one-half inches long, and n spiders. 

After we returned to the house, he 
added 17 'grapenut' pellets, the size of 
common marbles. Breakfast was finished 
about 9 o'clock. Between that time and 
three o'clock, he had 'scratch-feed,' cracked 
corn, Kafir corn, and wheat. At three 
o'clock he had a good-sized piece of porter- 
house steak cut into small pieces, and 
would have eaten more insects, but the 
rain drove us home. — Mrs. L. H. Tous- 
SAiNT, Rio, St. Lucie Co., Florida. 

An Abnormally Colored Scarlet Tanager 

In all bird-lovers, the sight of a Scarlet 
Tanager makes the pulse quicken! So, 
when one day in late May I discovered a 
female Tanager building her nest in a 
hickory tree within a few yards of my 
house, I considered myself peculiarly 
blessed by nature, and was prepared to 
take full advantag( of the good fortune. 

Lack of leisure • 1, first curtailed obser- 
vation, and a weeV passed before T saw the 
male; although I frequently heard a Tana- 
ger song and the typical chip-churr call of 
the species. My surprise, therefore, was 
intense to see the female returning one 
morning accompanied to the nest by a 
bird in brilliant orange plumage of a Balti- 
more Oriole. Careful watching soon con- 
vinced me that he was entirely at home, 
and undoubtedly the father of the estab- 
lishment. I fear, a few years ago, I would 



ruthlessly have slain the two birds, ex- 
cusing my conscience on the weak plea of 
adding something to science. It was soon 
quite evident that my Tanager was un- 
doubtedly a true Tanager, masquerading 
in strange plumage. A close and very care- 
ful investigation showed him to have the 
typical black wings and tail of all male 
Scarlet Tanagers, while his body and head 
were brilliant orange, paling to yellow on 
the belly, very similar but slightly darker 
than the coloring of the Baltimore Oriole. 
At present writing, mother Tanager is 
faithfully incubating, while the head of 
the house continues to delight both our 
eyes and ears.^WiLLiAM Henry Trotter, 
Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

The Chat in Minnesota 

For a number of years I have searched 
the woods diligently during the migration 
of the Warblers for a sight of the Chat. 
Finally I came to the conclusion that I 
lived too far north. 

On the evening of October 2, 191 2, just 
at dusk, my attention was called to a loud 
chuck. What attracted me at once was 
the loud and forceful call — a call that I 
knew I had never heard before. It came 
from a large syringa bush not more than 
four feet from our back porch. The bird 
seemed to be in great distress and was 
flying back and forth in the bush, so that 
at first I could not get a good view; but 
knew it was larger than any Warbler I 
had ever seen. 

Finally it flew out into view, and I had 
no difficulty in recognizing it at once as 
the Chat. I could hardly make it seem 
true. Several days after, a small boy 
brought me a paper bag containing a 
dead bird. To my surprise it was a Chat. 
It had been killed, but he claimed to 
have found it in an alley near a large tree. 
I sent it to a taxidermist to be mounted. 
He has lived near La Crosse, Wisconsin, 
for thirty years, and he wrote me that 
during that time he had never seen a 
Chat. In "The Warblers of North Amer- 
ica" no record is given of the Chats' migra- 
tion in Minnesota, excepting that few 



36o 



Bird - Lore 



are left after September i, north of the 
39th parallel. We are near the 44th. — 
Victoria M. Dill, Wabasha, Minn. 

Photograph of a Hummingbird on 
the Wing 

On June 5, 1914, I photographed a 
Hummingbird on her nest with a Grafiex 
camera, by standing on a step-ladder. 
The incubation period was about at an 
end, and the mother bird persistently re- 
turned to the nest. The photograph of the 
bird sitting still was readily obtained. I 
then arranged a mirror to reflect an excess 
of direct sunlight upon the nest, set the 
shutter at its fastest speed, and snapped 
the bird about twenty times as she flitted 
to and fro behind the nest. I tried to photo- 
graph her while she was at a distance from 
the nest, but, by the time the shutter would 
snap, she would be behind the nest. If I 
had tried to snap her while she was behind 
the nest, I should probably have obtained 
a photograph of her a foot or so away from 
the nest. I obtained five pictures, show- 
ing the wings clearly and distinctly. 

The bird on the wing appears to be 
alighting on the nest, for the camera was 
pointed upward at an angle of about 30 



degrees. She is really behind the nest, and 
flying upward with great speed. 

The photograph was taken with an 
eight-inch Zeiss protar lens, at its full 





RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD ON 

NEST 



HUMMINGBIRD APPROACHING NEST 

opening, in about one fifteen-hundredth 
of a second. — Frank Overtow, Patch- 
ogiie, N. V. 

The Building of a Robin's Nest 

I read with much interest the article in 
the September-October, 1913, issue of 
Bird-Lore on "The Building of a Robin's 
Nest" and bethought me of my own obser- 
vations at Port Sanilac Michigan, April 
28, 1907. 

To quote from my notes, "I have just 
been watching a lady Robin building her 
nest over the front door. I stood on a step- 
ladder next to the door, on the inside of 
the house, with my face at the frosted- 
pattern glass not ten inches from the bird. 
Last year's foundation was in place, but 
she has replastered it and is now carrying 
soft, dead, lawn grass. She alights on the 
edge of the nest with a mouthful, drops it 
in, hops on top of it, and sq.uats down 
with the ends sticking up all around her. 
At once she lowers her tail over the nest's 
edge for a support, braces her wings 
against the inside of the nest, and throws 
her weight onto her breast. Then she 
begins a perfect tattoo with her feet 
against the sides and the bottom. After 
ten to fourteen kicks, she rests a moment, 
turns a little, tucks down a few grasses 
with her bill, and repeats the performance. 



Notes from Field and Study 



361 



She keeps this up until all the grass ends 
are tucked in. This operation shapes the 
nest and presses the grass into the soft 
mud, which I was not fortunate enough to 
see her do. At no time was she conscious 
of being watched. 

I am writing these notes at my desk in 
the library, about seventy feet away from 
the nest, and can hear the patter of her 
feet every time she kicks. 

Later! She worked an hour after I 
discovered her, about noon, and then 
began feeding. T did not have a chance to 
observe her again. — Miss Harriet W. 
Thomson, Women's Gymnasium, Uni- 
versity of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. 

A Robin Accident 

The story of the accident to the Chip- 
ping Sparrow, told by Pendleton Marshall 
in the July-August Bird-Lore, reminds 
me of a similar accident to a Robin. 

On May 6, 1914, a girl came running to 
me, saying that she wanted a ladder, as a 
Robin was hung in one of their maples. 
We took a long ladder and went to the 
tree, where we found several women and 
children watching the Robin as it fluttered 
head downward, hung by a long string 
that was twisted about the branch and the 
bird's leg and wing. A boy speedily climbed 
up and brought it down. We found the 
leg broken off half way of its length, just 
holding by the skin, which was stripped 
from the bone. 

We thought it useless to try to mend the 
leg, so we cut the string of skin. We put 
the bird in a cage, but after resting some 
hours, it fought desperately to get out, 
and it would not eat, so we released it. It 
flew strongly across the yard to the fence. 
For some time the Robin was seen to have 
difficulty in perching, especially if there 
was a wind; but it learned to balance, and 
was able to find food. It seemed not long 
before it wholly recovered from the shock, 
and was as well as any bird. The neighbor- 
children saw it in different places, and it 
was often in our yard, hopping about on 
its one foot, or using the bath. Sometimes 
it scratched its head with the stump of 



the leg, but seemed not to use it other- 
wise. 

I do not recall seeing this bird since 
July 30, when it was bathing in our bird- 
bath, with an English Sparrow. We think, 
but are not sure, that it had a nest of 
young in July. — Eliza F. Miller, Bethel, 
Vermont. 

Notes from Seattle, Washington 

In the May-June number of Bird- 
Lore, in "Notes from Field and Study," 
I was greatly interested in the "Curious 
Actions of a Robin." Our country home 
is on Lake Washington, and last year we 
had a Robin experience identical with that 
related by Mr. Wood. We had re-papered 
the house, painted and cleaned windows, 
after the months spent in the city. It was 
in April that the Robin, for four or five 
days, seemed bent on self-destruction at 
a corner bay window on a covered porch. 
We tried leaving windows and doors open, 
but to no effect. The only solution to this 
puzzling problem was the fact that the 
wall-paper was of a robin's-egg blue! I 
decided it must be a case of color attrac- 
tion, but a few days later my decision was 
weakened by a neighbor having a like 
experience, who was finally obliged to 
barricade the windows. It would be inter- 
esting to know the meaning of such queer 
actions. 

I should also like to say, in reference to 
the picture of a "Summer Visitor," in 
May-June Bird-Lore, that for four years 
we had an Oregon Towhee as one of our 
family, each year bringing his brood to 
be fed, but never allowing his families to 
take the privileges of house and porch, 
that he seemed to feel belonged to himself 
alone. He knew my call, as I knew his, 
and would come to me in the house or in 
the woods, regardless of how many people 
were about us, feeding from my hand, or 
perching on my shoulder, and taking 
bread from my teeth. 

Last year he seemed to have an infection 
of the eye, and this year did not come 
to us. — Kathrine M. Manny, Seattle, 
Wash. 



362 



Bird - Lore 



Lake Mohonk to be a Bird Preserve 

Lake Mohonk lies a few miles west of 
the Hudson River, a little north of the 
latitude of Poughkeepsie. It is twelve 
hundred feet above sea-level, and is held 
up, like a giant dewdrop, by one of the 
peaks of the Shawangunk range of moun- 
tains, almost at its very crest. Here, 
standing on one of the crags which rise 
precipitously from the shore-line of the 
lake, one may look across the Wallkill 
Valley to old Storm King, at whose foot 
nestles the quiet little town of Cornwall- 
on-the-Hudson, and, farther to the north- 
ward, the Berkshires in Connecticut and 
Massachusetts. To the westward the 
gaze travels over the Rondout Valley, and 
rests, at the horizon, on Slide Mountain, 
Plateau Mountain, and other well-known 
peaks of the Catskills. 

It was here, immediately at the western 
edge of the lake, that the late Mr. Albert 
K. Smiley built, in 1869, the Lake Mohonk 
Mountain House, which has since become 
so famous a resort, and which is noted 
particularly as the scene of several impor- 
ant yearly conferences, notably the 
gathering in the interest of international 
arbitration, which, every May, holds a 
three-day session at this delightful spot. 
More than fifty miles of driveway have 
been constructed to bring all the most 
interesting points of the estate within 
easy access, rustic covered seats have 
been placed wherever attractive views are 
to be found, and a garden of twenty-five 
acres stretches eastward to a wall of pre- 
cipitous rock a quarter of a mile from the 
hotel. Immediately surrounding the hotel, 
besides the garden, are an athletic field, 
open groves, tennis-courts, cottages, sta- 
bles, and the other usual appurtenances of 
a summer hotel. 

Bird life is about normal at Mohonk. 
In the garden are numerous Robins, Gold- 
finches, Chipping and Song Sparrows, and 
Hummingbirds; in the open groves nearby 
are Wood Thrushes and Towhees; along 
the craggy shores of the lake are Phoebes, 
Blue-headed Vireos, and an occasional 
Winter Wren; Nuthatches, Chickadees, 



Scarlet Tanagers, Wood Pewees, Red- 
eyed Vireos, Woodpeckers, and Warblers 
of various kinds may be seen or heard in 
the woods; and Juncos, Indigo Buntings, 
and Hermit Thrushes nest along the sides 
of the cliffs. In the valley below Bobo- 
links, Meadowlarks, and Barn Swallows 
may be observed, and even Yellow- 
breasted Chats. There are many other 
species of birds inhabiting Lake Mohonk 
and its immediate environs, but these are 
the most conspicuous. 

But it can support many more. With 
its expanse of water, its rocky cliffs, its 
wooded streams, its variety of woods, its 
large garden, and its numerous build- 
ings, and with its facilities for protection, 
Mohonk could be made a veritable bird 
paradise. With this end in view, measures 
have been undertaken to attract birds to 
the place. Permission has been secured 
of the present proprietor, Mr. Daniel 
Smiley, brother of Mr. Albert K. Smiley, 
to conduct such an enterprise, funds have 
been supplied by interested bird-lovers, 
and the work has been begun. Fifty nest- 
ing-boxes of the Berlepsch pattern have 
already been placed in suitable localities, 
and a hundred more have been ordered. 

This is the modest beginning of what, 
it is hoped, may be the establishment of 
an unusually fine bird preserve. As the 
estate embraces the whole mountain and 
extends for several miles in every direc- 
tion from the hotel, it can be readily 
understood that the possibilities it offers 
are very great. I may add that, as full 
charge of the work is in my hands, I will 
gladly welcome any suggestions that may 
tend toward making the Lake Mohonk 
bird preserve a notable example of what 
can be accomplished in the way of in- 
creasing birds on large estates. — Henry 
Oldys, Washington, D. C. 

A Successful Campaign Against Grackles 
and Starlings in Hartford, Connecticut 

For more than twenty-five years, the 
residents of a certain section of Washing- 
ton Street in Hartford have suffered great 
annoyance by reason of a large flock of 



Notes from Field and Study 



363 



Grackles, which have been accustomed to 
gather during the summer in large trees 
on the lawns and bordering the highway. 

Washington Street is perhaps the finest 
residential street in the city, running 
along the top of a ridge well above the 
Connecticut River. It is bordered by solid 
rows of beautiful elms and maples, inter- 
spersed here and there with trees of other 
varieties, notably horse-chestnuts. These 
trees form an arch extending in many 
places entirely across the wide street. The 
elms probably average eighty feet in height, 
the maples somewhat less, and the horse- 
chestnuts from fifty to sixty feet. In 
these trees, particularly the horse-chest- 
nuts and maples, in the block between 
Ward and Park Streets, a distance of six 
hundred feet, the birds have gathered for 
the night, coming in small flocks from all 
directions, but principally from the mead- 
ows bordering the river, a mile or two 
away. 

Within the last three or four years, the 
flock has been greatly augmented by the 
addition of large numbers of Starlings. 
This year, the Starlings seem to be in the 
majority. The birds, numbering probably 
several thousand, began to come in just 
before dark, and by seven o'clock all had 
arrived, and from this time until about six 
in the morning constituted a first-class 
nuisance, whistling and chattering until 
about 8 P.M., and beginning about 4 a.m., 
making a tremenduous racket so that it 
was difi&cult to sleep. Not less annoying 
was the filthy condition of the walks and 
lawns, and the damage to the clothing of 
those passing along the street was not 
inconsiderable. 

On several occasions during the last 
ten or fifteen years, attempts have been 
made to get rid of them. 'Scarecrows' 
have been erected in the trees. Rockets 
were used at one time and small roman 
candles at another time. Once, the experi- 
ment was tried of fastening a pulley high 
up in a tree and drawing up a pail con- 
taining a pack of fire crackers which were 
set off with a fuse. None of these plans 
was successful. 

The annoyance became so great this 



year that early in August one of the resi- 
dents brought the matter to the attention 
of the City Board of Health. This board, 
having some doubt as to its jurisdiction 
in the matter, suggested that application 
be made to the police department for per- 
mission to shoot the birds, there being a 
city ordinance against the use of fire- 
arms within the city limits. The trouble 
with this suggestion was, that anyone 
attempting to carry it out would encounter 
the Connecticut statute prohibiting the 
killing of any wild bird other than a 
game-bird. 

At this juncture, the Board of Health 
applied to the President of the Hartford 
Bird Study Club for advice, receiving the 
suggestion that an attempt be made to dis- 
perse the birds by the use of roman can- 
dles. In the meantime, the person making 
the complaint had applied directly to the 
mayor of the city for relief. The mayor 
thought that the matter might come under 
the duties of the Park Department and 
so turned it over to the Superintendent of 
Parks, whose name very appropriately is 
Parker. Mr. Parker thought it would 
more properly be a subject for the con- 
sideration of the Street Department, and, 
after consultation with them, the decision 
was finally reached to turn the job over 
to the City Forester. 

In the meantime, the Bird Study Club 
had offered to make an effort to drive the 
birds away. Their offer was very gladly 
accepted and a plan suggested by them 
was carried out. Twelve men provided 
with roman candles were stationed at 
intervals along the street, six on each side. 
At a pre-arranged signal, each man was to 
light a candle and discharge it into the 
adjacent trees. The first night, an experi- 
ment showed that candles of a very much 
higher power must be used. A supply of 
such candles was telegraphed for and the 
following evening the plan outlined above 
was carried out. The candles used were 
ten-ball, weighing 56 lbs. to the gross. 
The first volley, fired just as the birds 
were well quieted down, drove the entire 
flock out immediately. They soon began 
to return in detachments and within 



364 



Bird - Lore 



15 minutes most of them were back at 
the old stand. A second volley was then 
poured into them resulting in a very notice- 
able diminution of the returning birds. 
This second volley was fired just before 
the street lights were turned on, at 7.45. 

The next evening the same tactics were 
used and in addition to the firing of the 
big candles from the ground, the Forester 
placed three of his climbers high up in the 
worst trees where they used some of the 
weaker candles. This second night the 
birds w^ere scattered over an area more 
than twice that originally occupied. The 
first volley was fired a little earlier, about 
7.15. while the birds were still fluttering 
about from tree to tree. The second volley 
was fired ten or fifteen minutes later. 

An investigation the next morning 
showed that the birds had been still more 
widely scattered, covering about 1,500 
feet on Washington Street and 300 feet on 
Ward Street. The third and last evening, 
15 men were used, placed about 100 feet 



apart in the middle of the street. The first 
volley cleared out the whole flock and 
only a few scattering birds returned, so 
that only a few candles were needed in the 
second volley. 

As a net final result, about eight dozen 
candles were used at a total expense of 
about fio and, at the end of a week, only 
a couple of dozen birds are to be found 
where there were thousands. Some idea 
of the number of the birds, and the 
annoyance caused, may be gathered from 
the fact that people living near one of the 
worst spots on the street were unable to 
keep their windows open on account of 
the filthy condition of the lawn and trees. 
On another lawn, the grass for several 
years, soon after the coming of the birds, 
looked as if a fire had passed over it. One 
resident says that for the first time in 
years he had been saved the trouble of 
hiring a man to wash off the walks in the 
morning. — Lewis W. Ripley, Hartford, 
Conn. 




A 'Call-note' 



The 'Call-note' Paid 



CHIPPING SPARROW AND COWBIRD 
Photographed by Arthur A. Allen 



2^oofe ji^etMJ^ anb lltetiietos; 



Birds of New York. By Elon Howard 
Eaton. New York State Museum, 
Memoir 12, Part II. Introductory 
Chapters: Birds of Prey to Thrushes. 
Albany, University of the State of New 
York, 1914. 4to text, pages 1-543; 
plates. 43-106. 

With the appearance of the second and 
concluding volume of Mr. Eaton's mono- 
graph, the state of New York may justly 
claim to have produced the best and most 
elaborate memoir of its kind which has 
thus far been published. In a word, this 
volume is a worthy successor of the one 
which preceded it (see a review in Bird- 
Lore, 1910, p. 118). Higher praise than 
that cannot be asked. 

The biographical section begins with 
the Birds of Prey, on page 61, and, fol- 
lowing the order of the American Ornithol- 
ogists' Union's 'Check-List,' ends with 
the Thrushes, on page 541. The method 
of treatments conforms with that of 
Volume I and includes some synonyms, the 
derivations of the scientific name, descrip- 
tions of plumage, and detailed considera- 
tion of 'Distribution' and 'Haunts and 
Habits.' This authoritative matter is 
prefaced by a thoughtful and suggestive 
section on 'Bird Ecology,' which has a 
practical bearing on current questions of 
bird conservation. The causes governing 
the comparative numbers of birds under 
natural conditions, and the factors which 
tend toward their increase or decrease, 
are here presented at some length. The 
opinions advanced are the mature views 
of a trained biologist, as well as experi- 
enced bird student, and this introduction 
of some 50 pages forms an original and 
valuable contribution to a subject which, 
as our population grows, will become 
increasingly important. 

The 64 plates, figuring all the species 
of regular occurrence in the groups treated, 
are wholly admirable bird portraits by 
an artist whose sympathy with his sub- 
ject is equaled only by his rare ability to 



give form to his impressions. It is most 
gratifying to know that the originals of 
the 106 plates which form Mr. Fuertes' 
share of this great work have been pur- 
chased by Mrs. Russell Sage, and pre- 
sented by her to the State of New York. — 
F. M. C. 

Die Tierwelt der Schweiz in der 
Gegenwart und in der Vergan- 
GENHEiT. Von Dr. Emil August 
Goldi, Professor der Zoologie an der 
Universitat Bern. Band I: Wirbeltiere. 
Mit 2 Karten und 5 farbigen Tafeln. 
Bern-Verlag von A. Francke-1914. 
Pages, 654-XVI. 

This first volume of 'The Animal World 
of Switzerland' deals with the Verte- 
brates. The first part (171 pp.) treats 
of the fossil fauna, and has long tables 
showing the different periods of the earth's 
history and the forms of life occurring in 
each, with especial reference to Switzer- 
land. In the second part, the Swiss mam- 
mals, birds, reptiles, batrachians and 
fishes are taken up in turn, with a final 
chapter on the hunting and fishing. 

There are a few rather statistical pages 
on the number and composition of the 
Swiss avifauna, which consists of about 
360 forms (out of the 660 known from 
Europe), of which 75 are permanent 
residents, 107 summer residents, 70 
transients, 36 winter visitors, 18 summer 
visitors, and 55 irregular. A tabular list 
(following, unfortunately, the archaic 
Raptores-Natatores classification) shows 
at a glance to which of these groups any 
species belongs, and gives the German 
names, British Museum Catalogue and 
Sharpe's 'Handlist' names, and synonomy 
in the works of Fatio and Studer. Nearly 
a hundred pages are then devoted to a 
cursorial treatment of the Swiss birds, 
still following this classiiication. The bird 
chapter ends with a twenty-page article on 
the migration in Switzerland, with a map 
showing the major and minor routes. 



(365) 



366 



Bird - Lore 



The book is intended for the general 
reader in natural history, not for the 
amateur who wishes to identify and learn 
about the birds he sees on a trip to Switz- 
erland.— C. H. R. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Condor. — The July number of 
'The Condor' is essentially an oological 
number, as two of the three main articles 
are devoted to the subject of eggs. In 
one, Dr. T. W. Richards, U. S. N., pre- 
sents 'A Plea for Comparative Oology,' 
and in the other, Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, 
U. S. A., writes 'On the Oology of the 
North American Pygopodes.' Dr. Rich- 
ards calls attention to the tendency to 
form 'faunal' rather than 'group' collec- 
tions of eggs, and shows that more valua- 
ble information can be acquired from a 
study of the eggs of a certain group of 
birds than from the eggs of those which 
breed in a certain area. But the main 
weakness of oology is touched on only 
incidentally, namely, that, although it 
is the means by which many students 
become interested in birds, its chief result 
seems to be acquisition rather than serious 
study. Oologists are apt to be more con- 
cerned with making collections than with 
carefully studying their specimens. Most 
collectors of eggs, at least in this country, 
have unfortunately published little, and 
aside from notes on color, size, and num- 
ber of eggs in a set, the larger private col- 
lections have thus far yielded only a 
meager contribution to our knowledge of 
the life histories of birds. Dr. Shufeldt 
describes the eggs of the North American 
Grebes and Loons from specimens in the 
U. S. National Museum and the E. J. 
Court collections. Excellent figures are 
given of selected eggs of the Western, 
Holbcell, Mexican, Eared, and Pied-billed 
Grebes, and of the Common, Black- 
throated, and Red-throated Loons. 

In a brief but interesting illustrated 
article, Willett gives an acount of the 
'Peculiar Death of a California Bush-Tit' 
which became entangled in the wool used 
in the construction of its nest. This nest 



was found March 28. 19 14, near Live 
Oak, Sutter Co., Calif. 

Among the shorter articles, A. B. Howell 
makes 'A Plea for More Lasting Field 
Notes,' and urges that provision should be 
made by field collectors to turn over their 
notes (after they are through with them) 
to some central agency, such as the Cooper 
Ornithological Club, where they will be 
preserved and utilized. If this suggestion 
could be carried out, the club would soon 
have a unique collection of manuscripts, 
and would be able to preserve much 
valuable material, now lost. How much 
could be added to our knowledge of cer- 
tain phases of bird-life in the last century 
if the notebooks of some of the older 
ornithologists were now available! How 
much light could be thrown on Pacific- 
coast ornithology if the field-notes of 
Bryant, Cooper, Gambel, Grayson, Suck- 
ley, and others, were preserved and 
accessible. But who knows whether any 
of these notes are still extant or where 
they are?— T. S. P. 

The Oriole. — The first number of the 
second volume of 'The Oriole' (June, 1914) 
organ of the Somerset Hills Bird Club 
(Bernardsville, N. J.), opens with an 
article, by William S. Post, on the oppor- 
tunities for bird students afforded by the 
region about Bernardsville. They are 
obviously so promising that we hope the 
members of the Somerset Hills Bird Club 
will take advantage of them. Meredith 
H. Pyne, however, in 'The Destruction 
of Bird Life in Bernardsville,' tells us that 
"savage cats," "tree-climbing children," 
and the encroachments of civilization, 
have left "very few" of the birds which 
ten years ago abounded there. 

Evidently not sharing Burroughs' 
estimate of alliteration, Lilian Gillette 
Cook writes of meeting some of the com- 
mon European birds in their haunts, under 
the title 'A Few Friendly Foreigners in 
Feathers.' 

The Editor, John Dryden Kuser, pre- 
sents a series of thoughtful replies to the 
question 'Why Study Birds?' and in a 
second article, William S. Post makes an 



Book News and Reviews 



367 



important contribution to our knowledge 
of the nesting habits of the Merganser 
(Merganser americaitiis). On June 18, 
1910, and on June 12, 1913, on the 
Tobique River, N. B., Mr. Post saw most 
of the individuals of broods of eleven and 
seven, respectively, downy Mergansers 
jump from their nest in the limb of a 
live elm, about forty feet from the ground. 
The tree stood some fifteen feet from the 
bank of the river. Several of the young 
were seen to fall on the ground, and Mr. 
Post believes that none fell into the water. 
On landing, they immediately went to 
the water, where their mother was wait- 
ing for them. 

Under the title 'Intensive Field Obser- 
vation,' C. William Beebe gives an out- 
line for the study of birds in nature, based 
largely on one prepared for Bird-Lore by 
Ernest Thompson Seton some ten years 
ago (Vol. VI, 1904, p. 182). 

Beecher S. Bowdish, Secretary of the 
New Jersey Audubon Society, writes of 
the work of that society which, it appears, 
now has a membership of more than 
twenty thousand. In an editorial on bird 
destruction, the Editor would grant the 
scientist permission to collect specimens 
and the sporstman permission to kill game 
birds, provided such collecting or killing 
did not result in decreasing the numbers 
of the species concerned. In this country, 
at any rate, the taking of specimens for 
scientific purposes is now so controlled by 
law that the result of scientific collecting 
is wholly negligible. Indeed, in our 
opinion, it has never been otherwise. It is 
now very difficult for a student to secure 
a permit to collect even a limited number 
of specimens for scientific purposes. Some 
states refuse entirely to honor applica- 
tions for permits to collect specimens, but 
will give to the same applicant a license 
to shoot birds for sport. 

Other states limit the number of scien- 
tific permits to six or eight, and in a single 
year issue over one hundred thousand 
permits to kill for pleasure! Evidently 
there is room in the treatment of this 
subject for a little of the reasonableness 
the Editor of 'The Oriole' advocates. 



The August number of 'The Oriole,' 
forming the second and concluding issue 
of Volume II, opens with a short article 
on the nesting of the Blue- winged Warbler 
at Little Falls, N. J., by Louis S. Kohler; 
who also describes the experiences of an 
ornithologist on 'a June Day at Green- 
wood Lake'; Lee S. Crandall writes of 
'Some Costa Rican Orioles;' T. Gilbert 
Pearson tells of the successful efforts of 
the National Association of Audubon 
Societies in protecting plume-bearing 
Herons; George D. Cross gives 'Some 
Hints for Better Game Protection;' Helen 
Bull, Sally Sage, and Cornelia Sage con- 
tribute brief notes on 'The Orioles,' 'The 
Swallows,' and 'The Cowbird' respectively, 
while the Editor discusses terms which 
will definitely describe the manner of 
occurrence and relative abundance of a 
given species in a certain area. 

Book News 

The Universit}' of Iowa issues a booklet 
of ten plates illustrating its cyclorama of 
Laysan Island bird-life, doubtless the 
most elaborate museum exhibition of its 
kind in the world. The cyclorama was 
composed and executed by Prof. Homer 
R. Dill, of the University of Iowa, and the 
background, which is 138 feet long and 12 
feet high, was painted from studies made 
in Laysan by Charles A. Corwin, dis- 
tinguished for his success in painting back- 
grounds for the bird and mammal groups 
of the Field Museum. 

'Our Feather Monitors,' a booklet 
of poems by J. H. A. B. Williams, of Glen- 
mont, Ohio, is published with the object 
of 'stimulating an interest in bird-life,' an 
end it seems well-designed to accomplish. 

The Royal Society for the Protection of 
Birds issues in attractive leaflet form an 
account of its Bird Reserve 'Brean Dawn,' 
which describes a locality apparently well 
designed to promote the ends in view. 
This publication, which is sold by the So- 
ciety of 23 Queen Anne's Gate, London, S. 
W., for two cents, suggests the desirability 
of issuing similar pamphlets in connection 
with Bird Reserves in this country. 



368 



Bird - Lore 



2^irbHore 

A Bi-Monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 

OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE AUDUBON SOCIETIES 

Edited by FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

ContributingEditor.MABELOSGOOD ■WRIGHT 

Published by D. APPLETON & CO. 

Vol. XVI Published October 1. 1914 No. 5 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico, twenty cents 
a number, one dollar a year, postage paid. 

COPYRIGHTED, 1914, BY FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush Is Worth Two in the Hand 



When we published, in the last issue of 
Bird-Lore, Mr. Leo E. Miller's surpris- 
ing figures concerning the destruction of 
the Rhea in temperate South America, 
we were under the impression that, owing 
to the closing of the American market to 
the feathers of wild birds, this interesting 
species would be spared the annihilation, 
with which, in the light of Mr. Miller's 
figures, it appeared to be threatened. 

It will be recalled that Mr. Miller saw 
bales containing sixty tons of feathers 
taken from killed Rheas stored in the 
wareroom of but one firm in Buenos 
Aires, while an official trade bulletin 
showed that during the first six months of 
the year 1913, 34,206 kilos (about 34 tons) 
of Rhea plumes were exported from 
Buenos Aires alone. Doubtless additional 
shipments were made from other southern 
South American ports. 

It seems that these feathers are sold 
almost wholly in the United States, where 
they are manufactured into feather 
dusters! The sixty tons of which Mr. 
Miller writes had accumulated in the 
hands of but one importer because of 
the prohibition at that time (November, 
1913) of the importation of Rhea feathers, 
as well as the feathers of other wild birds 
into the United States. Knowing this, we 
felt there was especial cause for congratu- 
lation that a law of the United States 
should extend its protection to this bird 
of a foreign land. 

Now, however, we learn that on Jan- 



uary 13, 1914, the Treasury Depart- 
ment of the United States, acting on what 
it believed to be adequate authority, 
declared the Rhea to be an Ostrich, and 
since the Federal law permits the importa- 
tion into this country of 'Ostrich' plumes 
those of the Rhea, under the guise of being 
Ostrich plumes, are also admitted. 

The correctness of the decision of the 
Treasury Department evidently depends 
upon whether a Rhea, even in the broad- 
est sense, can be properly called an Ostrich. 
That it has been popularly so called is 
true; but it is equally true that from the 
standpoint of actual relationships, it is not 
an Ostrich. Newton believed that the fun- 
damental structural differences between 
the Ostrich and Rhea were important 
enough to warrant their being classed in 
separate orders. No one has ever ventured 
to placed them in the same family. 

Obviously then, they cannot rightly 
share the same common name. To call 
a Rhea an Ostrich because it is a large, 
long-legged, flightless bird does not, of 
course, make it an Ostrich, any more than 
calling a Goatsucker a Nighthawk makes it 
a Hawk, or calling an Ovenbird a Golden- 
crowned Thrush makes it a Thrush. 

Popular zoological nomenclature abounds 
in misnomers based on superficial 
resemblances, but we cannot believe 
that the government will accept these 
'nicknames,' rather than those based on 
actual relationships, in determining a 
bird's legal status. 

The growing interest in this country in 
the establishment of priv^ate bird-reserves 
is one of the most gratifying results of 
the long-continued effort to arouse in the 
public an appreciation of the beauty and 
value of bird-life. The surprising success 
of Baron von Berlepsch in increasing the 
bird population of his estate at Seebach, 
Germany, has supplied an object lesson 
in wild-bird propagation which has rightly 
led others to adopt the methods which he 
has developed. We publish, therefore, 
with much satisfaction the article by Mr. 
William P. Wharton, based on his own 
observations at Seebach. 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Edited by ALICE HALL WALTER 

Address all communications relative to the work of this depart- 
ment to the editor, at 53 Arlington Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

THE VALUE OF A DEFINITE PURPOSE 

It is a truism to state that a definite purpose has value, but since very 
many people overlook or misconstrue value, it may serve a good end to once 
more emphasize this point in connection with the work of our State Audubon 
Societies. 

That the Audubon Society as a whole has always had a definite purpose, 
no one can gainsay. This purpose was, and still is, the protection of our native 
birds, and, in this day and generation, we are reaping the benefits of the cumu- 
lative efforts of the pioneers in what is now understood to be a movement in 
the interests of conservation. 

As the work of the Society has become more far-reaching, its purpose has 
become broader until, today, the word protection does not adequately express 
all that is meant by the organization. 

Along with the idea of protection has grown up the conception of the value 
of protection, and in order to bring this value before the public in definite form, 
a particular kind of education has been, and still is, necessary. 

The importance of having a definite purpose in strengthening measures for 
the protection of our birds has been shown over and over again in legislation. 
What we seem to lack most now, is making clear and definite to the public our 
purpose in education along the line of nature-study. As soon as a definite 
value is attached to nature-study, its success will be assured. The general 
uncertainty still surrounding this delightful study in the minds of many people, 
educators among the rest, lays a special task upon the Audubon Society. The 
National Association is taking up this task nobly in its Junior Audubon work, 
but state societies are not keeping pace in this great educational movement. 

Again the plea is made, not only for a definite program of work but, also, 
for some definite piece of work aside from the program, which shall be of value 
to the entire community. 

Perhaps the example of the Audubon Society of Rhode Island may help 
other states to see their way clear to more practical undertakings. 

This society, on a venture, has raised a fund something short of five hun- 
dred dollars, with which it is training a field-worker at the Roger Williams 
Park Museum, for a position which, though not as yet recognized as a legitimate 
part of the grade-school, is felt as a latent demand in many places. 

(369) 



37° 



Bird - Lore 



This field-worker will go out to schools, lecturing, suggesting methods, carry- 
ing material for nature-study, and in general, opening up avenues of approach 
to outdoor life and outdoor observation. The fact that so many teachers are 
in need of a special adviser is one strong argument in favor of keeping such a 
worker in the field. One trained worker with a definite purpose can work more 
effectively than twenty untrained teachers with no particular purpose, or a 
hazy one. 

If each State Audubon Society would raise funds to keep one or more 
trained workers in the field, nature-study would soon come to its own. Strive 
to get at definite values in plans for the year's work and values which shall 
be general rather than restricted in scope. Convince your community and your 
school-board that nature-study is an essential; that to omit it from the 
curriculum is a backward step; that, to teach it properly, teachers must first 
be taught themselves. How teachers shall be taught and where they shall be 
taught is another question. Suggestions from teachers and field-workers or 
from educators will be welcome. — A. H. W. 

SUGGESTIVE LESSONS IN BIRD-STUDY: 
THE WOODPECKER 

WILLIAM GOULD VINAL, Instructor in Nature-Study, The Rhode Island Normal School 

The following lessons are suggestive for an introduction to bird-study in the grades. 
The Flicker is taken as a type, since it is a permanent resident, at least as far north as 
Massachusetts, and may become an acquaintance before the arrival of other species. 




Fig. I. WORK OF WOOD-BORING GRUBS AND OF THEIR WOODPECKER ENEMIES 



The Audubon Societies 



371 



Moreover, the Flicker is a good bird to know. This woodland drummer is venturing 
into cities where it is adapting itself to civilization. One has taken up its abode in a 
telephone pole, within sight of my home, and its reveille on tin roofs may be heard 
nearly every morning. It seems as pleased with this new invention as a boy with a new 
drum. An old barn at home has been a 
Flicker hotel for years. These facts may 
be an indication of how other birds might 
fall into civilized habits if we should 
meet them half way. If we can develop 
an appreciative interest in these things 
in our boys and girls, we will have taken 
a long step toward gaining this end. 

Lesson I. Field Observations. — The 
teacher should become acquainted with 
a Flicker rendezvous, or retreat, as the 
species is usually solitary, and take the 
class to visit the place. The pupils must 
approach on the alert, "all eyes and 
ears,'' for any secrets which the birds 

may divulge. Suddenly one flies up 

from the ground. What color did it 

show when it flew? (White rump.) 

What was the path of its flight? (A 

wavy, up-and-down motion. When the 

wings went down the bird went up, and 

vice versa.) Someone should make a 

drawing on the ground, to show the 

manner of flight. If the pupils do not 

observe these points, they must sharpen 

their eyes for another trial. What was the 

Flicker probably doing on the ground? 

(Feeding.) All birds do not eat the 

same food. If we would like to know 

what the Flicker was eating when we 

disturbed its feast, let us walk to the 

place where it was feeding and investi- 
gate. What do we find that might be 

eaten by the Flicker? (Weed seeds, bay- 
berries, black alder, poison sumac, and 

poison ivy berries. An ant's hill might be present, as this is a favorite morsel of the 

Flicker.) The Flicker eats all of these things that we have found. We might think 

that it is a good thing for the Flicker to eat the seeds of these poisonous plants, but 

it has been found that after the waxy substance on the outside of the berry has been 

digested the seed is thrown out from the mouth. These seeds will germinate and, since 

the scattering of poisonous plants is not desirable, this cannot be placed on the credit 

side of our account with Mr. Flicker. 

Who saw where our friend went? (To an old apple tree across the field.) Let us visit 

the home of the Flicker family. On our way we may hear the Flicker call to its mates. 

If we do, let us try to tell what it says. After interpretations by the class, tell them how 

other listeners have read the call. 

"If-if-if-if-if-if-if," Burroughs; "Up, up, up, up, up, up, up," Thoreau; "Wick, 

wick, wick, wick," Mrs. Wright; "Wake-up, wake-up, wake-up, wake-up," Dr. Charles 




Fig. 2. MATERI.^L EXCHANGED WITH 
DISTANT SCHOOLS. THIS SHOWS THE 
WORK OF THE CALIFORNIA WOODPECKER 
IN STORING ACORNS. 



372 



Bird - Lore 



Conrad Abbott; "Kee-yer, kee-yer, kee-yer, kee-yer," Chapman; "Yarup! yarup! 
yarup-up-up-up-up!" Dallas Lore Sharp. Does anyone think that this Woodpecker sings? 
In which does it excel, instrumental or vocal music? What kind of a musician might we 
call it? (Drummer.) Investigate and describe its drum. (A hollow dead limb.) Some- 
times it telegraphs a wireless message to its mate; at other times it is a sort of an anvil 
solo, and quite frequently a duller beat in the search for food. Try to learn these sounds 
in the Flicker's signal code. As we get nearer, let us make an effort to see some of the 
Flicker's colors. (Black crescent on breast, golden shaft of quill feathers, and spotted 
underparts.) In what position is the bird resting on the tree? (Perched on a limb or 
clinging to the trunk.) Remember this is a Woodpecker, and most of its kind cling to 
trees instead of perching. The class should observe the position of the tail (outer end 

braced against the trunk) and, 
if possible, note character of 
tail-feathers. (Sharp, pointed 
ends). Of what use is such a 
tail? (Acts as a prop.) Since 
Mr. and Mrs. Flicker have not 
set up housekeeping, we may 
look in at the door. In what 
kind of limb are they build- 
ing? (Dead limb. Knock on 
the limb with a stone.) Why? 
(Because it is easier to dig out 
the decaying particles of wood.) 
Fathom the hole, to find how 
far it extends. (One to three 
feet.) What is the advantage of 
so deep a hole? (To escape 
enemies and better protect 
inmates from the weather.) Let 
the class look for places on the 
tree where a Woodpecker has 
been drilling. What was it after? 
(Grubs.) We may call the 
Flicker a tree surgeon. Why? 
(The tree is the landlord and 
Dr. Flicker pays rent to his 
Treeship by removing undesir- 
able insect visitors. These insect 
lodgers do not pay rent and are 
injurious to the health of the tree.) We have found that Dr. Flicker sometimes eats 
things which reflect upon his good character, and at other times he eats things which 
make him very useful. 

Lesson II. Indoor Observation. — Use stuffed specimens and pictures. The class 
should collect illustrative material such as that shown in Figure i. The teacher may 
exchange material with distant schools. The portion of a tree, for instance, illustrated 
in Figure 2 came from the Pacific Coast. It shows the work of the California Wood- 
pecker, a red-headed Woodpecker on the western edge of our continent, which drills 
holes and stores acorns in them for future use. 

Review the field-trip, asking about the Flicker's flight, colors, home, call and food. 
The class is now ready to make close observations, and to study some of the detailed 
structures which fit the Woodpecker for its life, which has been observed in the field. 




Fig. 3. WORK OF SAPSUCKER AND OF DOWNY 
WOODPECKER. AS FAR AS POSSIBLE MATERIAL 
SHOULD BE COLLECTED BY PUPILS. 



The Audubon Societies 



373 



Lead the class to discover the difference between the male and the female. Mr. 
Flicker has a moustache. Madame Flicker, of course, has not. If all of the colors of 
the plumage were not seen on the trip, they should be noted now. 

Compare the arrangement of the toes with that of the Robin. The Flicker has two 
toes in front and two behind, the Robin has three in front and one behind. Who remem- 
bers something the Woodpecker was doing that it could not have done as well if its 
toes had been arranged like the Robin's? (Clinging to the side of the tree.) What was 
the position of its tail when it was clinging to the trunk? (It was bent under against the 
tree.) Look closely at the tail and tell how it differs from the Robin's tail. (It has sharp- 
pointed, stiff feathers.) What use does the Flicker make of such a tail? (Helps hold 
itself on the trunk.) We call this kind of tail a prop. Tell the different ways in which the 
Woodpecker is fitted to cling to tree trunks. (The toes are arranged like ice-tongs for 
nipping, and the bird braces itself with its tail.) Why does the Flicker want to cling to 
the side of the tree? (To excavate for grubs, or to build a home.) What tool does the 




Fig. 



FEMALE FLICKER, REDHEADED AND HAIRY WOODPECKERS MALE FLICKER 



Flicker use for this work? (The bill.) In what way is its bill a good instrument for this 
work? (Sharp-pointed, stout and hard.) 

The teacher may now tell the class the following story, using material such as is 
shown in Fig. i to illustrate the point. Yesterday, we found places in the apple tree 
where Dr. Woodpecker had performed a surgical operation. (Open the sticks, which 
have been split.) Inside of this tree were 'worm tracks' such as are seen here. Worms 
did not make these borings, but young beetles called grubs. They correspond to the 
<:aterpillar stage of the