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Audubon Department EniTr.n by 




VOLUME FII — igos_ 



Copyright, 1905 



Abraham, Henry W., Christmas Census, 

Antes, Frank T., Christmas Census, 25. 
Archer, John, and Albert H. Wright, 

Christmas Census, 26. 
Arnold, Clarence M., Christmas Census, 


Bailey, Guy A., The Chimney Swift, 130. 

Ball, Jennie C, How the Birds Come, 280. 

Barker, Samuel H., Christmas Census, 28; 
Starving Crows, 174. 

Baxter, M., P. B. Coffin, Mrs. Coffin and 
Miss Carpenter, Christmas Census, 30. 

Baynes, Ernest H., Christmas Census, 23; 
Our Avian Creditors, 223. 

Beebe, C. William, The Motmots of our 
Mexican Camp, 157. 

Beebe, R. H., Photographs by, 21, 129, 
164; A Goldfinch Study, 189. 

Bennett, F. M., The English Sparrow as 
an Evictor, 176. 

Bickford, E. L. , Christmas Census, 31. 

Bildersee, Isaac, Christmas Census, 26. 

Blake, Francis G., Christmas Census, 23,24. 

Blake, Maurice C. See Wright, Horace W. 

Blake, Winifred Ballard, Poem by, 132. 

Blanchard, George G., Christmas Census, 

Bohlman. See Finley. 

Bole, Marion, Christmas Census, 22; Pro- 
tection for Bird Tenants, 178. 

Brennan, Chas. F., Christmas Census, 30. 

Brooks, Earle C, Christmas Census, 29. 

Brownson, J. F., J. F. Fanning and Louis 
E. Legge, Christmas Census, 22. 

Bruen, Frank. See Ford, R. W. 

Burns, Frank L., The Worm-eating War- 
bler, 137. 

Byerly, Francis, Christmas Census, 24. 

Calvert, E. Wellington, Christmas Census, 

Canfield, Albert B., A Boy's Invention, 142. 
Case, Bert F., Note on Winter Feeding, 242. 
Caskey, R. C, Christmas Census, 27. 

Caton, Wm. P., Christmas Census, 29; Balti- 
more Oriole in Virginia in Winter, 282. 

Chapman, F. M., Photographs by, 16, 262, 
315; Reviews by, 36, 37, 145, 147, 179, 
212, 246, 248, 283 ; Editorials by, 38, 148, 
181, 214, 249, 287; The Warbler Book, 
136; Note on the Migration of Warblers 
from the Bahamas to Florida, 140; The 
Feeding Habits ofthe Northern Phalarope, 
273; An Opportunity for the Local Or- 
nithologist, 286. 

Codman, J. S., Christmas Census, 23. 

Coffin, P. B. See Baxter, M. 

Cooke, W. W., The Migration of War- 
blers, 32, 135, 169, 203, 237, 276. 

Crosby, M. S. Photograph by 16, Christ- 
mas Census, 26; Photograph by, 170. 

Dawson, C. C, Poem by, i. 

Dawson, W. Leon, Christmas Census, 31. 

Dean, R. H., A Peculiar Snare, 211. 

Dean, R. H., and V. K. Dodge, Christ- 
mas Census, 29. 

Dike, A. C, Photograph by, 232. 

Dodge, V. K. See Dean, R. H. 

Drew, Emma E. Christmas Census, 22. 

Dutcher, William, Which Shall be the 
National Association Bird? 35; Editorials 
by. 39> 150. 182, 216, 250, 288; Report 
of the National Association of Audubon 
SocietiesandHistoryof the Audubon Move- 
ment, 43 ; Educational Leaflets, 153, 185, 
219, 253, 290; Guy M. Bradley, 218; 
Gulls Destroy Insects and Mice, 280; 
Annual Report ofthe National Association 
of Audubon Societies for 1905, 295. 

Dwight, J., Jr., Reviews by, 146, 179, 

Ehinger, C. E., Christmas Census, 28. 
Evans, William B., Christmas Census, 28. 

Fanning, J. F. See Brownson, W. H. 
Fair, William W., Christmas Census, 27. 
Fairbanks, Mrs. Edward T., Christmas 
Census, 22. 



Finley and Bohlman, Photographs by, 294, 
321, 323, 337, 338, 339, 340. 

Fiske, Geo. W., Jr., The Olive-sided Fly- 
catcher, 195. 

Floyd, Charles B., Christmas Census, 24. 

Forbush, Edward Howe, Nesting-Boxes, 5; 
How to Attract the Winter Birds About 
Our Homes, 233. 

Ford, R. W., Newton Manross, E. E. 
Smith and Frank Bruen, Christmas Cen- 
sus, 25. 

Fordyce, George L., Christmas Census, 29. 

Goodrich, Juliet T., Christmas Census, 30. 

Gorman, Vincent E., Christmas Census, 

Graham, J. M., The Story of a Tame Bob- 
white, 271. 

Gravis, Edward W. , Christmas Census, 30. 

Griffin, Delia I., and Isabel M. Paddock, 
Christmas Census, 22. 

Gross, Alfred O., Christmas Census, 30. 

Hagar, Arthur F., Christmas Census, 28. 

Hales, Henry, Swallow Notes from Northern 
New Jersey, 282. 

Harper, Francis, Christmas Census, 25. 

Heflfelfinger, C. E. See Metcalf, Zeno. 

Hegner, R. W., Photograph by, r6. 

Hail, Charles E., Christmas Census, 24. 

Hepburn, Mrs. C. E. See Honsinger, 
Lelia E. 

Hill, J. Irving, Christmas Census, 24. 

Hix, George E., Christmas Census, 26, 27. 

Honsinger, Lelia E., and Mrs. C. E. Hep- 
burn, Christmas Census, 22. 

Hoxie, Emily N. , Feeding Birds in Winter, 

Howland, Randolph H., Christmas Cen- 
sus, 27. 

Hunt, Chreswell J , Christmas Census, 28; 
The Bird to the Bird-lover, 207. 

Hutchins, John, A Recent Visit of the Even- 
ing Grosbeak, 173. 

Jackson, Anne Wakely, Note on Winter 

Feeding, 243. 
Jackson-, W. M., Christmas Census, 29; 

Note on Winter Feeding, 24. 
Jacobs, J. Warren, On the Construction of 

Houses for the Purple Martin, 1 1 ; Unique 

Martin Boxes, 20. 

Jencks, F. M., Christmas Census, 25. 
Johnson, Susan M., Christmas Census, 31. 
Johnson, W. S., A Shivering Chickadee, 


Keim, Thos. D., Christmas Census, 28 . 

Keyser, Leander S., A New Wren Song, 
. 143. 

King, Henrietta H. D., Nest-Box Note, 

King, Hervey W. See Wellman, Gordon B. 

Knowles, Wilhelmina C, Christmas Cen- 
sus, 25; Where the Blue Jays Find a 
Breakfast, 178. 

Larkin, Harry H., Christmas Census, 22. 
Latham, Roy, Christmas Census, 26. 
Legge Louis E. See Brownson, W. H. 
Lemmon, Isabel McC. , Note on Winter 

Feeding, 242. 
Lewis, Elta M., Christmas Census, 22. 
Luther, Ella F., Note on Winter Feeding, 


Manross, Newton. See Ford, R. W. 
Mason, E. H., Jr., Christmas Census, 25. 
McConnell, Harry B., Christmas Census, 

Mercer, Berton, Our 'Pioneer ..Tenants', 

Metcalf, Clell. See Metcalf, Zeno. 
Metcalf, Zeno, Clell Metcalf, and C. E. 

Heflfelfinger, Christmas Census, 30. 
Miller, W. DeW., A Note on the Food ot 

the Bronzed Grackle 144. 
Mosby, Ella, The Song of the Carolina 

Wren, 211. 

Paddock, Isabel M. See Griffin, Delia I. 

Palmer, T. S., Reviews by, 146, 180, 246 

Pearson, T. Gilbert, Editorials by, 41, 141; 
The Cormorants of Great Lake, 122; A 
Bluebird and his Mates, 210; Notice of 
National Association Meeting, 250. 

Pennell, Elizabeth A. S., Pine Warblers 
Eat Suet, 211. 

Perkins, L. R., Christmas Census, 25. 

Perkins, Edward H , , and George L. Plimp- 
ton, Christmas Census, 23. 

Phillips, W. H., A Tree Swallow Home, 


Pierce, Nettie Sellinger, An Unknown Bird 
Enemy, 178. 

Plimpton, George L. See Perkins, Edward 

Porter, E. H., and H. E., Christmas Cen- 
sus, 26. 

Porter, H. E. See Porter, E. H. 

Praeger, William E. , Chimney Swift Notes, 

Prentice, M. H., A Pasture Tragedy, 197. 

Princehorn, A. L., Photographs by, 4, 172, 

Kidgway, Robert, Nest Box Note, 18. 
Rogers, Charles H., Christmas Census, 28. 
Rogers, Ruth, Note on Winter Feeding, 

Rowley, John, Sport in Italy, 143. 

Schneider, William, Christmas Census, 30. 

Schaller. Carieton, Christmas Census, 26. 

Seeman, Ernest, Nest-Box Note, 18; 
Christmas Census, 29. 

Shattuck, Gertrude A., Note on Winter 
Feeding, 240. 

Smith, E. E. See Ford, R. W. 

Smith, Harriet S., Note on Winter Feed- 
ing, 240. 

Smith, Wilbur F., Christmas Census, 25; 
An Interesting Phoebe's Nest, 144; Blue 
Jays at Home, 268. 

Soule, Caroline Gray, A Belated Robin, 

Stackpole, Rob E., and William H. Wieg- 
mann, Christmas Census, 27. 

Stillman, William M., An Englisii Spar- 
row as a House-Breaker and Other 
Notes, 21. 

Stone, Witmer, Reviews by, 37, 247; Some 
Early American Ornithologists: Mark 
Catesby, 126; William Bartram, 162; 
Benjamin S. Barton, 193 ; Alexander 
Wilson, 265. 

Street, J. Fletcher, Nest-Box Notes, 19; 

Christmas Census, 27. 
Strong, Selah B., and Walter White, 

Christmas Census, 26. 
Stupp, Frederick J., Christmas Census, 

Styer, K. R., Christmas Census, 28. 

Tabor, E. G., The American Bittern at 

Home, 165. 
Taylor, John W., Incidents Among Birds, 

Tresilan, John, Photograph by, 223. 

Vredenburgh, Abbie, Note on Winter 
Feeding, 244. 

Warren, E. R., The Growth of a Young 

Bird, 263. 
Wellman, Gordon B., Horace W. Wright, 

Maurice C. Blake and Hervey W. King, 

Christmas Census, 23. 
Wellman, Gordon B., A Black and White 

Creeper Family, 170. 
Wetmore, Alick, Christmas Census, 31. 
Wheeler, William Morton, The Structure 

of Wings, 257. 
Widmann, Otto, Nest-Box Note, 17; A 

Vote for the National Association Bird, 

^39; 'Opposed to Compulsory Instruction 

on Birds,' 211. 
Wiegmann, William H See Stackpole, 

Rob E. 
Wilson, Burtis H , Christmas Census, 

Wright, Albert H. See Archer, John. 
Wright, Horace W., Christmas Census, 

23 ; and Maurice C. Blake, Christmas 

Census, 24. 
Wright, Mabel Osgood, A New Year Sug- 
gestion, 16; Editorials by, 149, 215, 288; 

The Winter Feeding of Birds, 228. 
Wright, Waller. See Strong, Selah B. 




Abstract of the Proc. Linnasan Society, re- 
viewed, 145. 

Alabama, 74, 310. 

American Ornithologists' Union, twenty- 
third Congress of, 282. 

Arizona, 310. 

Arkansas, 74. 

Audubon Movement, History of the, 43. 

Audubon, Note on Portrait of, 35. 

Audubon Societies National Association, 
Meeting of, report of, 288. 

Auk, Great, 246. 

Auk, The, reviewed, 146, 284. 

Avocet, American, 337. 

Bahamas, 140, 179. 

Barton, Benjamin Smith, 193. 

Bartram, William, 162. 

Beebe's 'Two Bird-Lovers in Mexico,' 
reviewed, 283. 

Bird Boxes, 2, 5, 11, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 

Bird Census, Bird-Lore's Christmas, 22, 

Bishop, L. B., mentioned, 37. 

Bittern, American, 165. 

Blackbird, Red-winged, 128. 

Bluebird, 174, 176, 210. 

Bobolink, 128. 

Bob-white, 271, 283; figured, 206, 223. 

Boraston's 'Birds by Land and Sea,' re- 
viewed, 37. 

Bradley, Guy M., 218, 250. 

Bryan, W. Alanson, papers by, mentioned, 

Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological 
Club, reviewed, 37. 

Bunting, Snow, 280. 

Bush-tit, California, 282. 

California, 31, 75, i 
Canada, 63. 
Cardinal, 21, 245. 
Cassinia, reviewed, 145. 
Catesby, Mark, 126. 
Cat Question, The, 288. 
Chickadee, 178, 233, 244. 

273, 281, 311. 

Colorado, 76, 263. 

Condor, The, reviewed, 146, 284. 

Connecticut, 25, 77, 173, 178, 228, 240, 

241, 242, 268, 280, 312. 
Cooke's 'Distribution and Migration of 

North American Warblers,' reviewed, 36. 
Cormorants, Brandt's, figured, 104. 
Cormorant, Florida, 121. 
Council, Bird-Lore's Advisory, 133. 
Crow, American, 174, 327; figured, 242' 
Cuckoo, Yellow-billed, 219. 

Delaware, 77, 217, 312. 
District of Columbia, 78, 211, 313. 
Duck, American Eider, 322. 
Duck, Black, 322. 
Duck, Pintail, 337. 

Eaton, E. H., mentioned, 37. 

Finch, House, 263, 281. 
Flamingo, figured, 201. 
Flicker, 21 ; figured, 272. 
Florida, 78, 140, 183, 314. 
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, 195. 

Georgia, 81, 317. 

Goldfinch, American, 189, 290; figured in 

color, facing 291. 
Goldfinch, Arkansas, 281. 
Grackle, Boat-tailed, 128. 
Grackle, Bronzed, 144. 
Grebe, Eared, 337. 

Grebe, Western, 337; figured, 339, 340. 
Grosbeak, Evening, 173. 
Grosbeak, Rose-breasted, 21. 
Grouse, Ruffed, 326. 
Guillemot, Black, 322, 324. 
Gull, California, 335; figured, 294. 
Gull, Herring, 323, 325. 
Gull, Laughing, 321, 327, 332, 335. 

Hawaii, 82. 

Hen, Heath, 329. 

Heron, Black-crowned Night, 325, 326. 

Heron, Great Blue, 322, 325. 

Heron, Louisiana, 321. 


Hummingbird, 139. 
Hummingbird, Anna's, 282. 

Illinois, 30, 82, 210, 243, 244, 317. 
Indiana, 30, 83. 
Iowa, 84, 319. 
Italy, 143. 

Jay, Blue, 128, r78, 209, 268. 

Journal of the Maine Ornithological Society, 

reviewed, 37. 
Judd's 'The Bob-white and Other Quails 

of the United States in their Economic 

Relations,' reviewed, 283. 
Junco, 245. 

Kansas, 30, 31. 

Kearton's 'The Adventures of Cock Robin 

and His Mate,' reviewed, 37. 
Kentucky, 29, 85, 2ii, 245. 
Kingbirds, figured, 200. 
Kingfisher, Belted, 197. 
Kinglet, Ruby-crowned, 282. 
Kittiwakes, figured, 65. 

Lark, Horned, 280. 
Lark, Prairie Horned, 280. 
Longspur, Lapland, 280. 
Louisiana, 86, 320. 

Macoun's 'Catalogue of Canadian Birds,' 

reviewed, 36. 
Maine, 22, 90, 182, 211, 322. 
Martin, Purple, 7, 11, 2r. 
Massachusetts, 23, 24, 88, 171, 217, 233, 

240, 327. 
Matthews 'Field Book of Wild Birds and 

their Music,' reviewed, 145. 
Meadowlark, 181. 
Mexico, 67, 157. 
Michigan, 94, 176, 216, 329. 
Minnesota, 95, 184, 209, 330. 
Mississippi, 95. 
Missouri, 31, 96, 330. 
Mockingbird, 128, 129, 244. 
Motmot, Mexican, 157. 
Murres, California, figured, 44. 

National Association, The, Its Needs and 

Aims, 39. 
National Association Bird, A Vote for the, 


Nebraska, 96, 331. 

New Jersey, 27, 28, 98, 183, 242, 282, 

New Hampshire, 23, 97, 223, 331. 
New York, 25, 26, 99, 165, 178, 182, 189, 

240, 331. 
North Carolina, 29, 100, 209, 334. 
North Dakota, loi, 335. 
Nuthatch, White-breasted, 244. 

Ohio, 29, 102, 143, 336. 

Oklahoma, 102, 184. 

Ontario, 22. 

Oregon, 103, 336. 

Oriole, Baltimore, 282; nest figured, 174. 

Ornithologist, Work for the Local, 286. 

Ostrich, 153. 

Owl, Barn, 185. 

Owl, Snowy, 21. 

Oyster-catcher, figured, iir. 

Pacific Islands, 68. 

Parakeet, Carolina, 128, 150. 

Pelican, White, 341; figured, 337, 338. 

Pennsylvania, 28, 108, 174, 183, 342. 

Petrel, Stormy, 324. 

Phalarope, Northern, 273. 

Phoebe, 144. 

Pigeon, Passenger, 128. 

Plover, Ring-necked, figured, 66. 

Redstart, 140. 

Rhode Island, 24, 25, 108, 183, 342. 
Ridgway's 'The Birds of North and Mid- 
dle America,' Part III, reviewed, 36. 
Roberts, T. S., mentioned, 37. 
Robin, American, 143, 209; figured, 172. 

Sage, John, mentioned, 37. 

Sandpiper, Spotted, figured, 164. 

Shrike, California, 282. 

Skimmer, Black, 321, 335. 

Snipe, Wilson's, figured, 66. 

South Carolina, 109, 343. 

Sparrow, English, 21, 176, 209, 229; 

Lark, 282; Tree. 245; White-crowned, 

244, 281. 
Starling, European, figured, 4. 
Stilt, Black-necked, 337. 
Swallow, Bank, 178; Barn, 282; Cliff, 

282 ; Tree, 20, 254. 
Swift, Chimney, 130, 21Q. 


Teal, Cinnamon, 337. 

Tennessee, 271. 

Tern, Black, 337; Cabot's, 321; Caspian, 
338; figured, 321; Common, 321, 322, 
325, 327, 328, 332, 335, 343 ; Forster's, 
321, 337, 341; Least, 335, 343; Royal, 
321, 335, 343; Sooty, figured, 262. 

Texas, iii, 184, 343. 

Thrush, Wood, 21. 

Tit, Tufted, 21, 244. 

Towhee, Brown, 281. 

Utah, 280. 

Vermont, 22, 113, 143, 178, 343. 
Virginia, 28, 113, 282, 344. 

Warbler Book, Notice of, 136. 

Warbler, The, reviewed, 147. 

Warblers, The Migration of, 140. 

Warbler, Audubon's, 282; Black and White, 
170,203, 211; figured, facing 189; Black- 
poll, 204; figured, facing 189; Cape May, 
140, 276; figured, facing 275; Connecti- 
cut, 135; figured, facing 121; Kentucky, 
135; figured, facing 121; Macgillivray's, 
169; figured, facing 157; Mangrove, 34; 
figured, facing i ; Mourning, 169 ; figured, 
facing 157; Nashville, 237; figured, facing 
223; Orange-crowned, 238; figured, facing 

223; Palm, 276 ; figured, facing275; Pine, 
211; Prairie, 34; figured, facing i; Ten- 
nessee, 289; figured, facing 223; Worm- 
eating, 137; Yellow, 32, 209; figured, 
facing I. 

Washington, 31. 

Waxwing, Bohemian, 247 ; Cedar, figured, 

West Virginia, 29. 

Willet, figured, no. 

Wilson, Alexander, 265. 

Wilson, Bulletin, reviewed, 147. 

Wings, Structure of, 257. 

Winter Feeding, 240. 

Wisconsin, 30, 115, 344. 

Woodcock, American, 132. 

Woodpecker, Downy, 244; figured, 234; 
Hairy, 244; Ivory-billed, 128, 150; Red- 
bellied, 244. 

Woollens' 'Buzzard'sRoost: A Bird Study,' 
mentioned, 37. 

Wren, Carolina, 143, 211; House, 17, 177, 
209 ; figured, 16. 

Wyoming, 115. 

Yellow-throat, Belding, 278; figured, facing 

Yellow-throat, Maryland, 277; figured, fac- 
ing 257. 


20o. a Copy 
SI a Year 



January -February, 1905 



Frontispihce — Yellow, Mangrove and Prairie Warblers Bruce Horsf all . 

Advertisement. Verse ' . . C C. Dawson . 

A New Year Suggestion. Illustrated by the author Mabel Osgood Wright . 

A Natural Nesting Box. Illustrated A. L. Princehorn . 

Nesting Boxes. Illustrated by the author Edward Howe Forbush . 

Nest-Box Suggestions 

On the Construction of Houses for the Purple Martin. Illustrated by the author 

/. IVarren Jacobs . 
Three Wren Homes. Photographs by M. S. Crosby, R. IV. Hegner and F. M. Chapman 


From St. Louis, Otto IVidmann; Wood Duck's Nest (illustration); From Washington, 
Robert Ridway ; An Unwelcome Tenant (illustration) ; From Durham, N. C, Ernest 
Seeman; A Wren House (illustrated), J. Fletcher Street; A Tree Swallow Home (illus- 
trated), W. H. Phillips ; From the Catskills, H. H. R. King ; Unique M.\rtin Boxes, 
T. Warren Jacobs; An English Sparrow as a House-breaker, Wm. M. Stillman ; 
Flicker (illustrated), R. H. Beebe. 



Bird-Lore's Advisory Council. (Held over for April issue.) 

The Migration of Warblers. Eighth Paper W. W. Cooke 34 

Kentucky and Connecticut Warblers. Full-page in color Bruce Horsf all . 

(Publication unavoidably postponed until April.) 


Macoun's Birds of Canada; Cooke's Migration of Warblers; Ridgway's 'Birds of 
America', Part III; Kearton's 'Adventures of Cock Robin'; Boraston's Birds by 
Land and Sea ; Ornithological Magazine ; Book News. 





William Dutcher, Chaitman . 43 

«♦« Manuscripts intended for publication, books, etc., for review, and exchanges should be 
lent to the Editor, at Englewood, New Jersey. 

To subscribers whose subscription 
expired with the last (December, 
1904) issue of Bird-Lore, the 
present number is sent with the 
hope that the matter of renewal 
has been overlooked. 
On receipt of your renew^al w^e 
will send you the Seton Shrike 
picture, w^hich should be consid- 
ered due notification of the entry 
of your subscription. 

Reduced line cut of Ernest Thompson Seton's drawing of a Northern Shrike. Presented to every sub- 
scriber to Volume VII, 1905, of Bird-Lore. The original is nearly life-size. 

Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Harrisburg, Pa. 

1. Yellow Warbler, Male. 

2. Yellow Warbler, Female. 

3. Mangrove. Warbler, Male. 

(one-half natural size 

4. Mangrove Warbler, Female. 

5. Prairie Warbler, Male. 

6. Prairie Warbler, Female. 


Official Organ of the Audubon Societies 

Vol. VII January — February, 1905 No. 1 



1 have houses newly builded, 
Bright with paint and newly gilded. 
They will be for rent in Spring — 
Who will come a-tenanting? 

They are in a choice location, 
Beautiful for situation. 
Sheltering branches round them play, 
Turning breath of AJarch to May. 

Houses mine, just made for pleasure 
Unalloyed, and without measure. 
Who the homes I offer take. 
Shall be blessed for Love's sweet sake. 

These alone are my conditions: 
All my tenants are musicians, 
And the songs they sweetly sing 
Are the only pay they bring. 

A New Year Suggestion 


WE are supposed to encircle each new year with a frame of good 
resolutions all pointing progressively in the direction of new aims 
and hopes. 

The pessimist says: "There is no new year; tomorrow is as today 
and all arbitrary divisions of time are purely commercial arrangements." 
I do not agree with this person; the so-called last day of the old year and 
the first of the new have a strong moral efifect upon us. We clear our 
desks of unanswered letters, pay our bills, and begin life anew. 

If our interest in birds and their protection has waned in late autumn 
and early winter, we feel a new impetus. The shortest day has passed, 
spring is ahead of us. What shall we do to earn the joy of it when it comes? 
There is legislation to be watched, there are laws to be enforced, people 
to be persuaded, children to be taught; but in spite of these various 
duties, two practical needs equal them all. As it is inevitable and desirable 
that the land should be peopled and tilled, the birds' leaseholds of their 
hereditary haunts run out slowly but surely, and we must supply them 
with food and shelter, even as we do the red men on the reservations 
that have been allotted them. 

It is not enough to say, "We will see that you are not destroyed, 
we will tell the world of your good deeds, that it may pause and admire " — 
we must, at least, place homes and a livelihood within their reach. 

Our editor has wisely made this issue a Bird -house number, and 
if any one expects to have bird -dwellings ready for occupancy in April, 
they should be made and placed in the month of February, that they may 
become a bit weathered and a part of their surroundings before the return 
of the first migrants. 

As to these houses themselves, they may be of many shapes and 
patterns, but a few simple rules apply to them all. 

In making a bird -house, try to study both box and location from the 
point of view of the species of bird you hope may occupy it, not from your 
own standpoint of a pretty bit of color in a picturesque location. You will 
notice that bird -hotels, full of impossible and draughty rooms with openings 
at both ends, are very seldom tenanted, save by squirrels and English Spar- 
rows, and as we have no conspicuous or gaily colored nests, we should take 
this hint of color protection in the making of bird-houses. For this work 
there are no materials so suitable as weathered boards and sections of logs 
and tree trunks with the natural bark securely fastened in place. 

In the process of rebuilding a shed or two and replacing some old dead 
hedges with new growth, I found that the haunts of my Robins had been 


A New Year Suggestion 3 

much disturbed and. instead of four score or so nests, each season the num- 
ber was dwindhng. Three years ago, therefore, 1 tried the experiment of 
having some flat, shallow trays about six inches square, bracketed in suitable 
locations so as to form attractive nesting-places for nest-building Robins, 
who, as we all know, are fond of straddling a tree-crotch with their com- 
pound of clay and grass or utilizing any flat beam or odd nook that will 
give them a resting-place. 

These boxes had a few holes in the bottom, so that they should not 


hold water, and were placed so that a branch or other projection afiforded 
at least partial top shelter. 

The first season the Robins examined but distrusted the contrivance ; 
the second, two were used, while last year five were occupied by Robins 
and the sixth was appropriated by a Phoebe, who has thus kindly given me 
a hint for more trays to be placed in locations likely to suit this lovable 
worker for garden good. Until two years ago, by dint of gun and vigilance 
I kept that cheerful nuisance, the English Sparrow, at bay; but somehow 
or other he has arrived, probably because I was alert only eight hours out 
of the twenty-four while he was scheming for at least sixteen. 


European Starling, photographed by A. L. Princehorn at Glen Island, N. Y. These are the first American 

photographs of these lately introduced and rapidly increasing species which we have seen 


Nesting -Boxes 


Illustrated by the author 

THERE is no better waj' to attract and protect several species of useful 
birds than to put up nesting-boxes. Every family, rich or poor, that 
lives in the country, can provide them. Old worn or waste materials 
may be used if others cannot be procured : for the birds seem rather to prefer 
weather-beaten lumber or rusty metal to that which is new, bright or 

Among my early recollections there comes to mind an 
old, unpainted, weather-beaten New England farm-house, 
the home of a poor farmer with many children. It stood 
in the shade of a giant elm by the roadside, and high up 
the rugged trunk of the old tree another home, a box 
made of ancient shingles weather-stained and moss-grown, 
was occupied by a family of Bluebirds. I noted every 
detail of their airy castle, and on returning home secured 
four old shingles and a piece of board from amongst the 
kindling wood, and with a hatchet and saw a rouglf box, 
like the accompanying cut, was made and put up in one of 
our cherry trees. 

Soon a pair of Bluebirds came, and after that many 
pairs nested in such boxes. The shingle box answers its 
purpose fairly well if put up against the side of a building, or on a tall pole 
or tree trunk, where the cat is not likely to climb. Any small box will do, 
if it is nearly the right size and shape, but it will be better to have a piece 
of thin board or shingle nailed fiat on the top and projecting a little on 
all sides to make the roof tight and shed the rain. If the board projects 
well out over the entrance hole, it will keep the rain 
from driving in. In Massachusetts, where my experi- 
ments have been made, it is best to have the entrance 
to the box face the west. Those who cannot conve- 
niently make or purchase boxes may use tomato cans, old 
tinware, such as milk-cans, funnels, pails, cofifee-pots 
or tea-pots. The worn-out funnel nailed to a piece 
of old board serves to show one way in which such 
contrivances may be put up. The board may be nailed 
or screwed to a tree or the side of a barn. 

I have seen a Barn Swallow's nest built in a lard pail 
which was used to stop a stove-pipe hole in the chim- 
ney of a deserted house. If old tinware is used, it is best 
to have it in trees where, being shaded by the leaves, it 




Bird- Lore 


will not be heated by the sun's rays. There should be a few small 
holes in the bottom of each pot or can, so that, should the rain happen to 
drive in, it may run out. There never should be an uncovered hole in the 
top. If a lard pail is used, it must have a cover to keep 
out the rain and a hole must be cut in one side for an 
entrance. Tree pruning is a chief cause of the scarcity 
of certain birds in some localities. When hollow limbs 
are cut off they may be cut up into sections and each 
section roofed, bored and mounted in such a way as to 
make two or more nesting-places out of one. 

A handsome and durable box may be made of bark. 
This style of box is one of Mr. William Brewster's 
ingenious inventions, and is yet untried; but I have 
made a considerable number of them 
and see no reason why they will not be 
serviceable. Old tin utensils may be 
useful to the farmer to put up in his 
orchard, but they are not ornamental 
and so should be placed in trees where they will be hidden 
by the foliage; but the bark box is novel, useful, neat, 
and also decorative in a rustic way. 

The birch boxes must be made late in June, when the 
bark will peel readily. A small tree can be cut down and 
cut into sections long enough for boxes. Each box is 
made by peeling off both outer and inner bark, then saw- 
ing a slice off each end of the stick for the bottom and 
top, tacking the bark on the ends, nailing on the support- 
ing stick, and then covering the top with the green bark from a young 
pine, to make it water-tight. 

These small boxes are suitable for the Chickadee, 
The bark of the chestnut makes strong and durable 
boxes, which may be covered or roofed with zinc, for 
the larger birds. 

The cat and the English Sparrow are the chief 
enemies of the native birds about our villages and cities. 
An objection to many bird" houses is that they are not 
cat -proof. When my first shingle box had been up 
three or four weeks the family cat was found, one day, 
hanging on it and clawing out the young birds. Later 
a box which seemed to be cat -proof was devised for 
Bluebirds. It was very deep with an overhanging cover 
or roof, no perch, and the entrance hole well up under 

BOX FOR BLUEBIRDS . . . . . . . 

OR CHICKADEES the eaves. This makes it difficult, if not impossible. 


Nesting- Boxes 

for the cat to hang on and reach the nest. The young birds find it 
rather hard to get out of such a box at first. They have to make many 
attempts, and when they finally escape they are quite strong and less 
likely to be caught by cats than they would be if reared in a box from 
which they could get out before they were fully fledged. 

The ordinary small bird -house that is put up for Martins or Tree 
Swallows must be set on a tall, slim pole, to give the birds a degree of 
immunity from the cat. These birds usually seem to prefer a house 
elevated from fifteen to thirty feet from the ground on such a pole. 
Ordinarily, the entrance holes are made too near the bottom or floor, and 
the young birds, being nearly on a level with the 
doorway, are sometimes pushed out or fall out 
in their eagerness for food, and so become the 
prey of the prowling cat. 

In building Martin boxes this danger may be 
partially guarded against by having a little plat- 
form around each story, and a railing not less 
than three or four inches in height around the 

The shape and size of the bird-boxes must be 
regulated by the size and habits of the birds for 
which they are intended. It is better to have 
them comfortably large than too small, for this 
gives the birds more room and air. In my experience, when birds have 
their choice, the long, deep boxes placed rather low are more likely to be 
occupied by Bluebirds, Chickadees and Wrens, than are the square boxes 
or bird-houses, especially if they are raised high in the air on poles. 

While the exact size of the box is rather immaterial, the size of the 
entrance hole is most important. This should be. just large enough to 
admit the desired tenant, and small enough to keep out all larger birds. 
A diameter of one and seven -eighths of an inch will do for Wrens, 
one and one-fourth inches for Chickadees, one and one-half inches for 
Bluebirds or Swallows, two and one-half inches for Martins, and three and 
one-half inches for Flickers and Screech Owls. By observing this simple rule 
about the size of the doorway, it sometimes is possible to have several 
species nesting amicably within a small area. 

Martins, breeding as they do in large communities, are particularly sub- 
ject to parasites and other adverse influences. Nearly all the Martins in 
Massachusetts seem to have succumbed to the cold rain -storms of June, 1903. 
They were then decimated throughout most of southern New England. It 
seems probable that the only hope of their soon recovering their foothold 
there lies in putting up more Martin boxes and thoroughly cleaning out 
those now filled with dead Martins or with English Sparrows' nests. In a 



Bird - Lore 

few cases in southern Maine where this was done Martins bred during the 
past season. Elsewhere in the same towns there were no Martins. 

One of the most important questions asked by those who are putting up 
bird-houses is, "How shall we get rid of the English Sparrow?" The Spar- 
rows are kept away from my bird -boxes by the use of a gun loaded with small 
charges of powder and dust shot. They have so well learned their lesson 
that there has been no necessity for shooting any for two years. Where 
these birds are plenty, however, continuous shooting may be necessary. I 
have never had any success in putting up boxes hung so as to swing by a 
wire. The Sparrows do not nest in them, but neither do other birds; never- 
theless, some of my correspondents have known both Bluebirds and Tree 
Swallows to nest in these boxes. This is only one of the numerous instances 
that teach one that his own experience alone is never an infallible guide. 
Those who are much troubled by the Sparrow may 
find the swinging boxes worth trying. 

Little reliance can be placed on boxes without a 
perch, for a Sparrow is likely to get into any hole that 
any other bird of its size can enter. Mrs. Mary R. 
Stanley suggests the use of Martin boxes without a 
perch and with the entrance underneath. I have had 
no experience with such houses. 

Every small nesting- box should be provided with a 
cover or door, by which it can be opened and the con- 
tents removed. This is alwaj's practicable, except perhaps 
with large Martin boxes, which should have entrance 
holes large enough so that the rooms can be cleaned out through them. A 
box which can be opened provides a way to get rid of the Sparrows. Their 
eggs can be removed every week until they tire of laying and leave the 
locality, or their nests can be destroyed with little trouble. There need be 
no sentiment about destroying these unfortunate little pests. Squirrels and 
mice often occupy these boxes, and their nests must be removed unless we 
prefer them to the birds. All the boxes mentioned above provide for this, 
except the shingle and bark boxes, which, however, can easily be made to 
open. The box shown in the cut above is the most convenient of all, 
where English Sparrows are plenty. The door extends half-way down the 
front and is attached to a narrow cover which overlaps a part of the top of 
the box. This arrangement needs no locking so long as it is not meddled 
with by children, and can be taken out in an instant without disturbing the 
nest, leaving an opening large enough to put in the hand and remove the 
contents of the box at once. 

For those who wish to study the habits of such birds as can be induced 
to nest in boxes, the observation box shown in the cut is very nearly perfect. 
More than thirty years ago I made the first one for the purpose of studying 


Nesting- Boxes 9 

the domestic economj' of a pair of Bluebirds. It is a simple affair with one 
side rabbeted for a pane of glass, and a door which shuts over the glass. The 
door is kept closed most of the time until the young are hatched. It can 
then be kept open as much as seems desirable, to observe the habits of the 
birds through the glass; but it must be arranged so that the sun will not 
shine in it, as that might be fatal to the young birds. The box shown in 
the cut is mounted on a short board projecting from my window-sill. The 
door is hinged at the bottom by a piece of leather, and opens toward the 
window. It has been occupied for three seasons by Chickadees, and any one 



sitting at the open window can watch the young birds as they are fed, note 
their growth and development, the character and amount of their food, the 
nest -cleaning and all their household afifairs. The old birds were first at- 
tracted to the windows by feeding them there. Then they found the box 
a good place for shelter, and finally nested in it. They are good neighbors, 
attending to their own business and. as unpaid laborers in our fruit trees 
and woodland, their work of clearing insects from the premises is of the 
utmost value. 

From the Cornell Nature Study Bureau. Courtesy of Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock 


On the Construction of Houses for the Purple Martin 


Illustrated by the author 

IT is a task for me to give plans and describe the manner of constructing 
houses for Purple Martins. This is not because I have lacked experience 
in building these houses, but because in making a score or more of 
Martin homes, I have followed no set plan or rule, except to have the 
rooms a certain size, the entrances to the same of proper dimensions, and 
the whole, when finished, to have the appearance of a miniature residence 
or other building. 

Before commencing on a bird-house, I had firmly fixed in my mind about 
what I wanted to do, and could fairly well picture how the house would 
look when completed. With my head for a guide, and a well-equipped kit 
of wood -working tools, I went to work on a house, which, when com- 
pleted, was a well-proportioned, miniature building, bearing close inspection 
by architectural critics. 

The first Martin house I ever built contained rooms 6 inches square 
and 7 inches high, with entrances 2>4 inches square, i inch above the floor. 
The birds were so well pleased with this box that I have followed this rule 
in making all others. Of course, the model of some of the houses I have 
made compelled me to vary in the dimensions of some of the rooms, but in 
nearly all cases the capacity was about the same: — if the width of a room 
was an inch less than the regular size, the depth was greater. 

If you wish to build a Martin house and are fearful that you cannot 
devise and carry out a plan for a neat, well proportioned, miniature resi- 
dence, make a plain box of twelve rooms, paint it well and erect it I2 to 15 
feet above the ground, on a stout pole or iron pipe, in a position twenty or 
more feet from your buildings and where the tree branches do not reach. 
To make such a box, take a board 13 inches wide and 20 inches long; this 
is for the bottom or first floor, and should be at least }i inch thick. For 
sides and ends get a poplar board 16 inches wide and ^ inch thick. Cut 
off two 13-inch sections for the ends, and two pieces 21/^ inches long for 
the sides. With a rule and pencil, divide these two side pieces off in three 
equal sections each; then draw a line full length the board, through the 
middle; make an opening 2% inches square, centrally in each of the six 
sections, 2 inches from the bottom edge, for the first story, and i >^ inches 
above the middle line for the second story. This gives openings for six nest- 
ing rooms in each of the two sides. Now nail the end pieces to the bottom 
board, and then add the side pieces, and the house is ready to receive the 
partitions, second floor and top ceiling — all of which can be made of pine 
box-stufif >^ inch thick. This completes the inside up to the 'square.' 
Now cut four triangular pieces for gables and roof supports, nailing two of 




them on top of the end pieces and two directly over the partitions. This 
leaves a space in each gable end which can be utilized by the birds if a 
round hole iVz inches in diameter is cut for an entrance. Nail on the roof 

"R oo rvr. 

-2.71 'N. 


'Roof TuaN 
.StR-'^'&I't JDotted Vines st.o^v 


DoTr&D pCTA&OM itYoK/s 

£. Cornice.. 

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C- a. p/£cts. 

£>.- 8 ?,ec.Ei. 

F.-Top FOR Cupou^ 
Made J3Y TiNsnvITH, 

1st. Sf ^wdTlooiv 
8 Rooms 


t§ I2.E: OF 'Rooms, 

6 iw. sqa. 7iN. /-/ic-H- 

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£i) OU D/At-RAIV1 BY 
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|JN£:.S •Rep*?ti£'(VTINC BOrtRDS ARE 


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boards, leaving the eaves and ends to project about an inch, put a perch be- 
neath each opening, or a strip 1% inches wide full length of the box beneath 
each row of doors. Add ornaments on each end of roof, and a little piece 
of wood representing a chimney in the middle. Paint the body of the box 
white and the roof a slate color. Four short angle-irons, with holes for 

On the Construction of Houses for the Purple Martin 13 


screws or nails, and made of 
old buggy tire at the black- 
smith shop, will serve as the 
safest means of fastening the 
box to the top of the pole. 
Wooden braces or supports 
of any kind reaching from 
the pole to the edge of the 
box should be avoided, if 
you wish to deprive your 
neighbors' cats of an occa- 
sional feast on Martin flesh. 
The tools necessary for con- 
structing this box are ordi- 
nary carpenters' savy and 
hammer, a brace and ^- 
inch bit for starting the 
openings to the rooms, and 
a compass-saw for enlarging 
and squaring the same. For constructing more elaborate bird -houses, 
other wood-working tools will be needed and a work-bench with a strong 
vise is desirable. 

Two designs are selected from photographs of bird-houses I have built, 

and the floor and roof plans 
are given to aid those who 
wish to build elaborate 
houses. To go into detail 
and describe these plans 
would take up much valu- 
able space, and be so tedious 
to follow that many persons 
would become confused and 
discouraged at the begin- 
ning; therefore, I give a brief 
description here, and add 
figures, measurements and 
explanations to the plans as 
a further help. 

The principal points are 
to get the rooms a suitable 
size, and the openings rightly 
placed and of the proper 



Bird- Lore 

Fig. I is a four -gabled structure of twenty rooms : the height from 
bottom board to cornice is i6 inches, and the width of each front is 14 
inches ; the little gable pieces, in which the round openings are cut, are 8 




1st. ''■^ 2.NP. F1.00 ft pL^N , 
3 Isr.To 3rd Fi-oop PlAn\ 

EACrt. — 3rd. FuooR. 4 Rooim5 


5filft- Ones S^V/X?!^. 

/N £/y03 or Mfi(N PA'^'T' R£-p- 
A£S£/V7- J)OUQl.£ iVJNDOl^i,, 


T*LAN OF "Roof. 

Fuuu UENQTh J30fl'RDS. 
IS.- C ORN \CE. . 

E,.- CH/MNEy'' 'Portion. 
F.~ "Roor OF 'S.ound 

Ct.-CiflSLt /\?)ECE.. 


inches high. The cupola is 6 inches high, exclusive of the two octagon 
pieces, which are of ^-inch stuff and 6 inches in diameter ; on top of 
this is the little dome-shaped roof made by a tinsmith. The size of all the 
rooms on the first and second floors is 6 inches square and 7 inches high — 
four rooms on each side of a hollow space I2>2 inches square. Little roof 

On the Construction of Houses for the Purple Martin 15 

ornaments for the birds to perch on are whittled out of white pine blocks, 
and the corner strips and window -frames and caps are made of thin pine 
strips. The window-sills are Y^ to Yx inch thick, which gives the birds a 
foothold in going in and out of their nesting-rooms. 

The same materials used in No. i will answer in building No. 2, with 
the addition of round wooden cylinders (I use "E Twist" tobacco crates, 
which are very convenient and cost but a trifle ; they are about the size of 
a half -bushel m.easure, and parts 
of three are required in making 
this house). The rooms in the 
third story of this round part are 
only 5 inches high. Porch col- 
umns can be turned out of poplar 
pieces at the planing-mill, or 
square ones, made by hand, with 
beveled corners, look well and 
cost less. 

The outside of all joints, 
gutters and valleys in the roof 
should have a strip of tin securely 
nailed on to exclude water and 
preserve the house. 

The first floor of all bird- 
houses weighing fifty pounds or 
over should be double, one ex- 
tending above (inside), and one 
below the weather-boarding. 
Use ?^-inch oak boards for the 
first floor ; clean poplar, Y\ inch 
thick for the sides and roof, and 
white pine, Y^ inch thick, for 
partitions and inside floors (shoe 
boxes are the best for this). 

I paint the body of all my 
bird-houses white, and the corner strips, window-frames and other trim- 
mings in light or dark green, red or slate ; gable pieces in terra -cotta ; 
roof dark slate, and chimney and roof ornaments white. Upper half of 
windows are painted green, to represent shades. Bottom of box and the 
pole are painted black. 

The angle-irons, four in number, for fastening the box to the top end 
of the pole, are made of old buggy or wagon tire, according to the weight 
they have to support, and are screwed to the bottom of the box and to the 
pole ; or, if an iron pipe is used, to a piece of wood which will slip down 



Bird -Lore 

into the end of the pipe. All expensive Martin houses should be erected 
on a pole provided with a pair of barn-door hinges and a clasp for locking 
securely in position, and for lovv^ering the same and placing in the dry dur- 
ing the winter. This is done by casing 2 feet of the lower end of the 
pipe in a box made of 2-inch joists, and hinging it to the top end of a 
solid piece of oak or locust, 8 or lO inches square and 3 feet long, placed in 
the ground to a depth of 2J/2 feet. 

Photographed by M. S. Crosby, at Rhinebeek, N. Y. 

Photographed by R. W. Hegner, at Decorah, la. 

Photographed by F. M. Chapman, at Englcwood, N.J. 

^eet i§oi J^otes 

From St. Louis, Mo. 

Since Bird-Lore is to have a Bird-House 
number, I think, as an old hand in the use 
of bird-boxes, I should contribute a few 
hints in regard to them. 

1. A simple and effective way of keeping 
the English Sparrow out of a Bluebird's box 
is to put it up not higher than eight to ten 
feet from the ground. Bluebirds like this 
situation, prefer it even to a higher one, 
but no English Sparrow cares for such a 
box, — it is not nearly safe enough for him, 
and though one may, exceptionally, try to 
take possession of it, he is easily discouraged 
when he sees that anybody can reach it 
from a chair. 

2. The Martins like their houses higher 
up, at least sixteen to eighteen feet from the 
ground. My advice is to put each box on 
a separate 2x4 pine wood scantling, this 
to be fastened near the ground by two 
bolts to a 3x4 cedar post, — this cedar 
post to be six feet long, half in the ground, 
half out of it. Two wires reaching from 
near the box down to some Hxed objects 
keep the box from swinging too much in 
a strong wind. The great advantage of 
this arrangement is that anybody can, by 
simply taking out one of the two bolts, 
easily lower the box to the ground in order 
to remove the Sparrow's nests which other- 
wise could only be reached by the risky and 
troublesome use of a long ladder. The 
reason why one box is better than two or 
more on the same pole, is because it is very 
probable that after one pair of Martins has 
begun building, Sparrows will take posses- 
sion of the other boxes, and by our interfer- 
ence we should seriously disturb the Martins, 
already building or laying. 

Martins' boxes should be at least 8x8 
inches inside and six inches high, with a 
double roof, one parallel with the floor 
to keep the box closed and dark, the other 
slanting and projecting several inches over 
the three- inch-wide porch in front of the 

entrance. This second roof is important, 
as without it the heat in the box becomes 
so intense that the young ones suffer greatly 
and are likely to leave the box, fall to the 
ground and are lost, since no Martin feeds 
its young on the ground. The entrance 
should not be larger than 2x2 inches, flush 
with the floor and porch. The roof should 
be on hinges, to allow easy removal of the 
contents of the box, if necessary. 

3. I would also say to those who put up 
bird -houses of any kind to keep a watchful 

Made by Ernest Thompson Seton, on his place at 
Cos Cobs, Conn., of wire-netting covered with cement 
modeled to resemble bark. 

eye on the House Wren. He is as great 
a nuisance as the English Sparrow. He 
enters bird homes in the absence of the 
owner, ruins their nests, pierces and throws 
out eggs and can do enough mischief in 
one season to threaten the existence of a 
whole colony of Martins. Nor are his 



Bird - Lore 

attentions confined to bird-houses either; 
open nests also suffer from his sneak- 
ing visits, and much of the damage laid at 
the English Sparrow's door may be traced 
to the innocent - looking Jenny Wren. — 
O. WiDMANN, St. Louis. 

From Washington, D. C. 

As to the matter of bird-boxes, there is 
really very little I could say, and probably 
nothing that would be new. The boxes 
on my place are all of the ordinary type, 
the only special point (and that, of course. 


Photographed with the aid of a mirror to reflect light. 

by E. Van Altena 

not original with me) being that the holes 
are made too small for the English Sparrow, 
My boxes are placed anywhere, almost. 
One is on my veranda ; one on top of 
a fifteen-foot post to which a climbing rose 
is trained; one is in a tree, and in other 
trees are hung long-necked gourds with a 
small hole in one side. These nesting- 
places are occupied solely by House Wrens, 
for they will not allow any other bird to 
use them. Each spring a pair of Carolina 
Chickadees build their nest in one of them 
and have begun incubation by the time the 
House Wrens arrive, but that is as far as 
the poor Chickadees ever get, for the Wrens 
immediately oust them and destroy their 

eggs. If it were not for the English 
Sparrows I could easily have Bluebirds, 
Tufted Titmice, Carolina Wrens and 
Crested Flycatchers, for all these are numer- 
ous in the vicinity of my place and 
frequently come inside the grounds; but it 
is simply of no use whatever to put up 
.boxes with holes large enough to admit the 
Sparrow, for he alone benefits thereby. I 
tried putting up boxes without perches, as 
some one advised, but (as I really thought 
would prove to be the case) it made no 
difference whatever to the Sparrows, which 
I have seen fly directly into a box without 
stopping first to cling to the edge of the 
entrance. — Robert Ridgway, Brookland, 
D. C. 

From Durham, N. C. 

Birds have simple tastes in the selection 
of nesting-sites. I have found by experi- 
ence that the nesting-box on which most 
time and trouble have been expended is 
usually the one that goes without a tenant 
(English Sparrows not counted as tenants). 
After several unsuccessful attempts to in- 
duce wild birds to nest in the orchard, I 
abandoned the fancy-box idea and began 
to pattern after nature's bird-houses — and 
with success. A hollow log, about a foot in 
length and with three inches inside diameter, 
was secured to the branch of one of the 
orchard trees by dull-colored twine. Both 
ends were plugged with old bark and a 
chink in the side with gray moss. A round 
hole, one and one-half inches in diameter, 
had previously been bored in the side of the 
log, near the top. A pair of Chickadees 
were the first occupants, and a brood of 
four was reared that spring. The next year 
no suitable box was provided, but in the 
spring of 1904 a pair of Chickadees again 
built in a new log at the same place. 

A hollow section of dogwood, over a 
yard in length, and with an inside diameter 
of five inches, was strapped to the trunk of 
another orchard tree as the small log had 
been placed for the Chickadees. The lower 
end was simply plugged with a few old 
chips and sticks, while a small board tacked 
over the top served to keep out the rain and 

Nest- Box Notes 


sun. An irregular opening was cut in the 
side of the log. It was, of course, larger 
than the one in the small log, measuring 
about 4x2/^ inches. A pair of Tufted 
Titmice were the first occupants. They 
reared a brood of five. 

This was an interesting family of birds. 
By gradual advances I succeeded in taming 
the parents so that they would fly in at the 
entrance as I sat on a near-by branch of 
the tree, — so near, in fact, that my knee was 
less than a foot below the log entrance and 
the parents were obliged to fly directly over 
it. I often remained motionless at a yard's 
distance from the nest entrance and thus 
secured considerable data on feeding habits. 
A few days before the Titmouse family left 
the log a pair of Crested Flycatchers began 
to investigate about the log and remained 
in its vicinity much of the day. It seemed 
as if they had made an agreement with the 
Titmice about the length of their occupancy 
and had now come to see that they moved 
out. Be that as it may, the Titmice left on 
the afternoon of May 27, and on the 
morning of June i, the Flycatchers began 
to move their furniture in the log. This 
consisted of chicken feathers, green weeds 
and snake-skins. An interesting brood was 
reared that spring, and the next spring 
(1904), a pair of Crested Flycatchers (pre- 
sumably the same ones) again reared their 
young in the log. 

For Bluebirds I have tried another device. 
I cut circular holes in the sides of two tin 
coffee cans and mounted them on a pole, 
only about two inches apart. That was a 
mistake, for a rough-and-tumble fight 
ensued when two pairs of Bluebirds tried 
to build in such close proximity. One pair 
was driven away by the other. This last 
pair reared two broods. It is evident that 
such birds as have built in my bird-houses 
are of great value in the orchard. Nearly 
all feeding was done in the orchard, and 
the food consisted, as far as I know, of 
insect diet. I observed the Titmice several 
days, and during that time saw nothing but 
insect food given the nestlings. I was 
watching at very close range, too. Grass- 
hoppers, hmar moths, green beetles, green 
bugs, and dragonflies were part of the 

Flycatcher's diet. — Ernest Seeman, Dur- 
ham, N. C. 

A Wren House Which Should not 
Lack a Tenant 

It is made of strips of bark and sur- 
rounded by twining branches of old grape- 
vine, and it contains two compartments, 
each with one opening. By another sum- 
mer the clematis vine, which has been 
planted about it, will partially conceal it, 
thus affording a most natural setting. — 
J. Fletcher Street, Bet'erly, N. J. 


Bird - Lore 

A Tree Swallow Home 

The notice in December Bird-Lore that 
the next issue would be largely devoted to 
bird-houses tempted me to send you the 
enclosed photograph of a Tree Swallow's 
nest on a rose trellis in front of my barn. 
The handsome little pair moved in May 14, 


1904, raised a brood, and left July 6. They 
were very tame and decidedly attentive to 
€ach other during their stay. The male 
spent a large part of his spare time perched 
on a telephone wire a short distance from 
the nest, within sight and easy call of his 
mate. They had a few tilts with a pair of 

Bluebirds, who occupied another similar 
tenement a short distance away, and who, 
for a time, seemed not to desire the Swal- 
lows for neighbors but finally decided to 
bury the hatchet and let them remain. 

We took great pleasure in watching them 
soar gracefully about, catching food and 
feeding their young. The little house 
stands ready for them next season, and we 
shall be on the lookout, hoping they will 
return. — W. H. Phillips, Brattleboro, Vt. 

From the Catskills 

As Bird-Lore invites us to send notes 
about bird -houses, I venture to suggest that 
one side of each house be made so that it 
can slide out. We have found that very 
important, as they need to be emptied and 
cleaned in the autumn, after the birds have 
left them — so that they will be ready for 
spring use. Especially is this true when 
Wrens occupy them, as their building ma- 
terial is so profuse ; if the sticks, etc., are 
left to accumulate, the young birds may be 

Another suggestion would be, to place 
the bird-house on a post in an open space ; 
out of the way of cats, and also of chip- 
munks — who have been known to raise their 
families in bird-houses that were placed in 
trees. The posts to be painted green, and 
the part that is sunk in the ground to be 
tarred, for preservation. 

We had discs of tin placed around some 
of our bird-houses that were not near our 
home ; but perhaps the mountain red 
squirrels are greater athletes than squirrels 
generally, for they overcame all difficulties 
and perseveringly lived there. — Henrietta 
Haines Doremus King. 

Unique Martin Boxes 

I might mention a unique Bird- House 
used by a store-keeper at a little town in the 
southern part of Greene County, Pennsyl- 
vania. He has two or three candy-buckets 
made into Bird-Houses, and hung on a wire 
stretched from his store to his warehouse. 
He has quite a colony of Martins nesting in 
these swaying 'castles,' and states that the 
Sparrows do not disturb them. — J. Warren 
Jacobs, Waynesburg, Pa. 

Nest -Box Notes 


An English Sparrow as a House-breaker 
and Other Notes 

Some years ago, at my home in Plain- 
field, New Jersey, I erected a small Wren 
house, placing it on top of a small tele- 
graph-pole in the garden. I made the 
entrance hole to the box so small that an 
English Sparrow could not enter, and here, 
for several years, a pair of Wrens made 
their home and raised their families. Last 
winter, an English Sparrow determined to 
take possession, and I found it repeatedly 
clinging to the side wall of the house, and 
pecking at the wood and enlarging the 
hole. This it kept up most determinedly 
for a number of weeks, until it was large 
enough for its entrance, when it at once 
took possession and went to house-keeping. 
I then took the house down and destroyed 
it. I found the wood-work of soft pine 
badly eaten around the entrance, showing 
that the Sparrow can dig into wood as well 
as into grains and seeds. 

One of the sights of this city is a large 
Purple Martin colony on the main business 
street, consisting of three bird-houses, con- 
taining probably ten pairs in each. Here they 
come every April and raise their families 
without apparently being in the least dis- 
turbed by the noisy traffic going on around 
them. Here they have come for so many 
years that the oldest inhabitant cannot re- 
member to the contrary. They were cer- 
tainly here in 1828, and, how long before, 
we have no record. 

Other noteworthy bird appearances here 
were a Tufted Titmouse who spent the 
winter of 1902 3 with us, whose clear 
whistle was frequently heard as he fed with 
the Nuthatches and Downies, on the suet, 
placed on a tree in front of the house; also, 
a flock of Cardinals who spent the winter 
in a near-by swamp, and the visit of a flock 
of Starlings, that came in one of the heavy 
snows of last winter. The Wood Thrush is 
plentiful here in summer, with numerous 
Rose-breasted Grosbeaks, and I have one 
Jarge Snowy Owl to my credit. — Wm. M. 
Stillman, Plainfield, N . J. 



Photographed by R. H- Beebe at Arcade. N. Y. 

Bird-Lore's Fifth Christmas Bird Census 

THE results of Bird-Lore's fifth Christmas Bird Census are a tribute 
to the enthusiasm of the true bird lover. In what other branch of 
nature study would we find so large a number of students who, 
under similar conditions, would consider it not only a pleasure but a privi- 
lege to tramp miles through the snow under threatening skies, with the 
mercury below freezing? 

Reports have been received from the Atlantic to the Pacific, one observer, 
indeed, venturing well out on the troubled waters of the Atlantic itself; 
and they represent from a part of an hour to as many as ten and a half 
hours' observation. 

Reaboro, Ontario. — December 23, 1904; time, 10.05 a. m. to 12.15 p. m. ; 1.40 p. m. 
to 3.30 p. M. Sky dull, heavy thaw; snow in patches; wind southwest; lemp., from 37° 
to 38°. Ruffed Grouse, 10; Pine Siskin, 58; Brown Creeper, i ; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, i; Chickadee, 9. Total, 5 species, 79 individuals. — E. Wellington Calvert. 

Queenston, Ontario. — December 23; time, 8 A. M. to 11 A. M. ; 12 M. to 4 P. M. 
Cloudy; ground partly covered with snow ; wind southwest, high; temp. 40°. Herring 
Gull, about 300; Bonaparte's Gull, i; Golden-eye Duck, 5; Blue Jay, 4; American 
Crow, about 300; Goldfinch, 4; Junco, 4; Brown Creeper, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, 
4; Chickadee, about 70 ; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 11. Total, 11 species, 706 individ- 
uals. — Harry H. Larkin. 

Cape Elizabeth, Maine.— Time, 9.30 a. M. to 12.45 P- M- Clear; three inches of 
snow ; wind northwest, light; temp., zero. Herring Gull, 38 ; Chickadee, 25 ; Ameri- 
can Goldfinch, 20; Myrtle Warbler, 5; Snowflake, 5; Tree Sparrow, 2; Crow, 2; 
Hermit Thrush, i. Totil, 8 species, 98 individuals.— W. H. Brownson, J. F. Fanning 
and Louis E. Legge. 

St. Albans, Vt. — Time, 12 M. to 2 P. M. Clear; about eight inches of snow; no 
wind; temp., 8° below zero. Ruffed Grouse, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Black- 
capped Chickadee, approximately, 30. Total, 3 species, 35 individuals. — Lelia E. 
Honsinger and Mrs. C. E. Hepburn. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt. — December 20; time, 10.30 A. M. to 2.30 p. M. Clear; no wind; 
ground covered with snow ; temp., 28°. Chickadee, 14 ; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3 ; Tree 
Sparrow, 2. Total, 3 species, 19 individuals.— Delia I. Griffin and Isabel M. Paddock. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt. — December 21 ; 8 a. m. to 10 a. m; after a light snow. Birds that 
visited a lunch counter; Chickadee, 52; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 17; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 9. Total, 3 species, 78 individuals. — Mrs. Edward T. Fairbanks. 

West Barnet, Vt. — December, 26; time, 8 to 10 A. m. Clear; ground mostly covered 
with snow; wind northwest, light; temp., 5° at 8 a. m. From windows overlooking bird 
table and orchard. Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Redpoll, 15; Gold- 
finch, 6; Pine Siskin, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 9. Total, 7 species, 
36 individuals. I have recently seen large flocks of Goldfinches and Pine Siskins; also a 
few American Crossbills. — Marion Bole. 

Bethel, Vt. — Time, 2 P. M to 3.20 p. M. Sky overcast; ground mostly snow-covered, 
as for six weeks past; wind northeast, light; temp., 20° to 14°. Ruffed Grouse, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Pileated Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 8; Redpoll, 5; Goldfinch, 
23; Tree Sparrow, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Chickadees, 7. Total, 9 species, 
52 individuals. — Elta M. Lewis. • 

Burlington, Vt. — Time, 2 P. M. to 3.15 P. M. Cloudy; ground covered with snow, 


Fifth Christmas Bird Census 23 

south wind, light; temp., io°. Downy Woodpecker, 3; Crow, 3; Cooper's Hawk, i; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; Red-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 17. Total, 6 
species, 30 individuals. — Emma E. Drew. 

Tilton, N. H. — December 26; time, 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. Cloudy; a little snow on 
ground; wind northeast to north, light; temp., 26°. American Merganser, about 21; 
Black Duck, i; American Golden-eye, about 14; Canadian Ruffed Grouse, i; Downy 
Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 3; American Crow, i; White breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chicka- 
dee, 18. Total, 9 species, 62 individuals.— Edward H. Perkins and George L. Plimpton. 
Wilton, N. H. — Time, 8.30 to 10.30 A. m., 1.45 to 3.30 p. m. Clear in forenoon, 
cloudy in afternoon; ground lightly covered with snow in patches; wind west, light; 
temp., 4° to 25°. Ruffed Grouse, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 5; 
Blue Jay, 7; American Crow, 18; Redpoll, 5; American Goldfinch, 60; White- breasted 
Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 16; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. Total, 10 species, 116 indi- 
viduals. — George G. Blanchard. 

Hanover, N. H. — December 21 ; 8.15 a. m. to 10 A. M. Clear, about five inches of 
snow covering the ground; wind northwest, fresh; temp., 18°. Canadian Ruffed 
Grouse, i; Northern Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, i; American Crossbill, 2; Gold- 
finch, i; Pine Siskin, 15; Brown Creeper, 3; Red-breasted Nuthatch, i; Chickadee, 21. 
Total, 9 species, 46 individuals. — Francis G. Blake, Brookline, Mass. 

Meriden.N. H. — Time, 10 a. m. to i P. m. Distance covered, nine miles, over rolling 
and hilly country half open, half mixed-growth woodland; temp., 4° below zero; no 
wind, hazy sunlight, ground about two-thirds covered with snow. Ruffed Grouse, 2; 
Red-tailed Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, i; Pileated Wood- 
pecker, i ; Blue Jay, 8; Redpoll, about 100 ; Goldfinch, 40; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2 ; 
Chickadee, 25. Total, 10 species, 181 individuals. — Ernest Harold Baynes. 

Boston, Mass. — (From Harvard Bridge, through the Back Bay Fens and Riverway, 
Olmsted and Jamaica Parks and the Arnold Arboretum; six miles of the city park system.) 
December 23; 8.15 a. m. to 4.15 p. m. Cloudy, with occasional light rain and sunshine; 
eight inches of snow on the ground ; wind southwest, light; temp., 38° to 48°. Great 
Black-backed Gull, 7 ; Herring Gull, 55 ; Black Duck, 3 ; Red-legged Black Duck, 
115; American Golden-eye, 21 ; Bob-white, 16; Sparrow Hawk, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, i; Flicker, 36; Blue Jay, 17; American Crow, 32; Purple Finch, 21; Goldfinch, 
3; Snowflake, 2; White-throated Sparrow, 4; Tree Sparrow, 34 ; Junco, 20; Song 
Sparrow, 19; Fox Sparrow, 3 ; Cedar Waxwing, 87 ; Mockingbird, 2; Brown Creeper, 
6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 27 ; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 12; Robin, 3. 
Total, 26 species, 549 individuals.— Horace W. Wright, Francis G. and Maurice C. 

Boston, Mass. (Franklin Park, Arnold Arboretum and Fenway) December 26; 
time, II A. m. to 3 p. M. Ground well covered with snow; sky overcast; temp., about 23°. 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Flicker, 2; Crows 15; Junco, 4; Chickadee, 4 ; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 2. Total, 6 species, 28 individuals. I have also to report the appearance of a 
Catbird in the Boston Public Garden December 21 and 23, 1904. This bird seemed to 
be in good condition. — J. S. Codman. 

Medford (through Middlesex Fells, to Pine Banks Park, Maiden, Mass.).— Time, 
8.40 A. M. to 3.30 p. M. Clear, followed by snow-flurries ; ground covered with snow; 
wind west, brisk; temp., 25°. Ruffed Grouse, 3; Northern Downy Woodpecker, i; 
Arctic Three -toed Woodpecker, i male; Blue Jay, 3; American Crow, 19; American 
Crossbill, 11 ; American Goldfinch, 41 ; White-throated Sparrow, i ; Tree Sparrow, 4; 
Junco, 48; Song Sparrow, i ; Fox Sparrow, i; Brown Creeper, 9; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, i ; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 105; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. 
Total, 17 species, 255 individuals —Gordon Boit Wellman, Horace W. Wright, 
Maurice C. Blake, and Hervey W. King. 

24 Bird - Lore 

Brookline, Mass. — Snowing, ground snow-covered; temp., io°. Black Duck, 9; 
Mallard, 5; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Flicker, 14; Crow, 8; Blue Jay, 9; Tree Spar- 
row, 5 ; Junco, 4 ; White-throated Sparrow, 6 ; Catbird, i ; White -breasted Nuthatch, 2; 
Chickadee, 9; Golden -crowned Kinglet, 3. Total, 13 species, 76 individuals. I got to 
within ten feet of the Catbird, which seemed very tame and hungry. — Charles B. Floyd. 

Cambridge (Fresh Pond Marshes), Arlington Heights, Belmont and Waverly, Mass. 
— December 30 ; time, 9.15 A. M. to 5.10 P. M. , Cloudy A. M., clear p. M.; ground mostly 
snow and ice-covered; wind southwest, light; temp., 30°. Great Blue Heron, i (in 
flight southward); Ring-necked Pheasant, 2 ; Marsh Hawk, i ; Screech Owl, 2 ; Hairy 
Woodpecker, i ; Downy Woodpecker, i ; Flicker, 3; Blue Jay, i ; American Crow, 21 ; 
Red-winged Blackbird, 3; Meadow-lark, i; Purple Finch, i; American Goldfinch, 79; 
White-throated Sparrow, i ; Tree Sparrow, 52 ; Song Sparrow, 13; Swamp Sparrow, 5 ; 
Chickadee, 37; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 44; Robin, 4. Total, 20 species, 273 individ- 
uals. — Horace W. Wright and Maurice C. Blake. 

Near Boston, Mass., Lynn Beach and Nahant. — December 26; time, 11 a.m. to 
4.15 P. M. Cloudy ; light snow on ground, light snow-flurries ; strong east wind ; tenip., 
20°. Horned Grebe, i ; Briinnich's Murre, 2 ; Herring Gull, 8 ; American Scaup Duck, 
17; American Golden-eye, 13; Old Squaw, ir; Surf Scoter, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
Horned Lark, 3; American Crow, 4; Goldfinch, i ; Snowflake, i; Song Sparrow, i; 
Brown Creeper, 2 ; Chickadee, 2. Total, 15 species, 72 individuals. — Francis Byerly. 

West Roxbury, Mass. — December 22; time, 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. Partly cloudy; 
ground snow-covered ; wind west to southwest, brisk ; temp., 19°. Downy Woodpecker, 
2 ; Flicker, 4; Blue Jay, 6; Crow, 20 ; Tree Sparrow, 3; Junco, 3; Song Sparrow, i ; 
Fox Sparrow, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 12! 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 12 species, 57 individuals. — Charles E. Heil. 

Nahant, Mass. — December 24; time, 9.20 a.m. to 2.10 p. m. Cloudy, remaining 
snowdrifts, some bare ground ; wind northeast, brisk; temp., 30° to 24°. Holboell's 
Grebe, 2; Loon, i; Briinnich's Murre, or Razor-billed Auk, 4; Great Black-backed 
Gull, 6 ; Herring Gull, 165; Red-breasted Merganser, 7; American Golden-eye, 36 ; 
Old Squaw, 25; White-winged Scoter, 13; Horned Lark, 35; American Crow, 105; 
Snowflake, 2; Song Sparrow, 2; Chickadee, i. Revere Beach. — Time, 3 15 p. M to 
4.15 p.m. Great Black-backed Gull, 49; Herring Gull, 750; American Crow, 12. 
Total, 14 species, 1,215 individuals.— Maurice C. Blake and Horace W. Wright. 

Atlantic, Squantum and Moon Island, Mass. — December 28 ; time, 9 A. M. to 4.15 
p. m. Cloudy; wind northeast, very light; very dense fog, lifting from 12 M. to 12.30 
P.M.; wind shifting to southwest and increasing to very strong; at 2 P. M. sky nearly 
clear, ground mostly snow-covered ; temp., 36° to 38°. Loon, i; Great Black-backed 
Gull, 12; Herring Gull, 350; Red-breasted Merganser, 5; Red-legged Black Duck, 51 ; 
American Scaup Duck, 562 ; American Golden-eye, 136 ; Bufflehead, 14; Old Squaw, 
2 ; American Scoter, 5 ; Sparrow Hawk, i; Northern Downy Woodpecker, 2; Flicker, 7; 
Horned Lark, 14; American Crow, 197; Meadow-lark, i; Snowflake, 100; Song Spar- 
row, 4; Cedar Waxwing, 26; Chickadee, 7; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i. Total, 21 
species, 1,498 individuals. — Francis G. and Maurice C. Blake. 

Woonsocket, R. I. — December 24; time, 8 to 10.30 A. M. Cloudy; snow 8 inches 
deep; wind north, strong ; growing cold after a two days' thaw ; temp., 42° down to 28°. 
Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 2; Song Sparrow, i; Chickadee, 3. Total, 4 species, 9 individuals. 
—Clarence M. Arnold. 

Glocester, R. I. — Time, at intervals all day; partly to wholly cloudy, snow-squalls in 
forenoon; ground covered with snow; wind northeast, light ; temp., morning 5°. Ruffed 
Grouse, 2, their tracks plentiful; Blue Jay, 4; Crow, 2; Junco, i; Chickadee, 2. Total, 
5 species, 11 individuals. December 21, Northern Shrike i; December 22, flock of 
12 to 15 Goldfinches, and 6 Tree Sparrows. — J. Irving Hill. 

Fifth Christmas Bird Census 25 

Providence, R. I. — December 28; time, 9 A. M. to 12 M. Cloudy; ground covered 
with snow; wind northwest, strong; temp., 22°. Downy Woodpecker, 3 ; Flicker, 7; 
Blue Jay, 9; American Crow, i; Goldfinch, 4; Tree Sparrow, 19; Field Sparrow, 7; 
Junco, 7; Song Sparrow, 11; Brown Creeper, 6; Chickadee, 20; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, i. Total, 12 species, 90 individuals'. Also December 17, Robin i. White- 
throated Sparrow, i. — E. H. Mason, Jr. 

Drownville, R. I. — Time, 9 a. m. to 12 M. Occasional snow-flurries; ground covered 
with ten inches of snow; wind northeast, light; temp., 34°. Herring Gull, i ; Red- 
shouldered Hawk, i; Crow, i; Tree Sparrow, 15; Slate-colored Junco, 10; Song 
Sparrow, 1 ; Myrtle Warbler, i. Total, 7 species, 30 individuals.— F. M. Jencks. 

Bristol, Conn. — Time, 7 to 10 a. m. Cloudy; ten inches crusty snow, wind north- 
east, fresh; temp., 6°. Ruffed Grouse, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Blue Jay, 6; American 
Crow, 11; Goldfinch, 3; Tree Sparrow, 39; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 
15 ; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 6. Total, 9 species, 87 individuals. — R. W. Ford, 
Newton Manross, E. E. Smith and Frank Bruen. 

Bristol, Conn. — December 26 ; time, 7.15 a. m. to 2.30 P. M. Ground snow-covered^ 
wind northeast, light; temp., 16°. Bob-white, 16; Ruffed Grouse, 2; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Blue Jay, 28; American Crow, 52; Goldfinch, 6; 
White-throated Sparrow, i ; Junco, 8 ; Song Sparrow, 2 ; Tree Sparrow, 69 ; Winter 
Wren, i ; White-breasted Nuthatch, 5 ; Chickadee, 11 ; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. 
Total, 15 species, 211 individuals. — E. E. Smith and Frank Bruen. 

Washington, Conn. — Time, 3 p. m. to 4.30 p. m. Cloudy ; ground covered with 
snow; wind northeast, light; temp., 20°. Downy Woodpecker, 2; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 2; Chickadee, 4. December 24. — Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Jay, 2; and flock of 
Tree Sparrows were in the neighborhood. December 27, heard Goldfinch and Flicker. — 
Wilhelmina C. Knowles. 

South Norwalk, Conn. — Ther. 13° at 9 a. m.; raw north wind; 10 inches of snow in 
evening; snowing parts of all day. Herring Gull, i; Marsh Hawk, i; Snowy Owl, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, 9; Blue Jay, 10; Crow, 10; European Starling, 5 ; Purple Finch, 
i; Goldfinch, 6; Snowflake, 6 ; Tree Sparrow, 40 ; Junco, 6; Song Sparrow, 6 ; Fox 
Sparrow, i; Carolina Wren, i; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, i ; Chick- 
adee, 25; Robin, I. Total, 20 species, 106 individuals. Five members of Norwalk Bird 
Club, each covering a different territory. — Wilbur F. Smith, Pres. 

Trudeau, N. Y. (In the Adirondacks). — December 26; time, 5 p.m. 105.30 p.m. 
Cloudy; snow on the ground ; no wind; temp., 20°. Chickadee, 3; American Gold- 
finch, 4; White-breasted Nuthatch, i. Total, 3 species, 8 individuals. —L. R. Perkins. 

Canandaigua, N. Y.— December 24; time, 8 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.; 1.15P. M.toj 
p.m. Cloudy; wind northeast, with driving snow; temp., 14°. Herring Gull, 2; 
American Scaup Duck, 3; Screech Owl, i; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Red-headed Wood- 
pecker, i; American Crow, about 350; Red-winged Blackbird, i; Meadow-lark, i; Tree 
Sparrow, 38; Song Sparrow, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 7; Chickadee, 16; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, i; Mongolian Pheasant, 2. Total, 14 species, 430 individuals. — 
Frank T. Antes. 

Auburn, N.Y. — Time, 8.30 a. M. to 4 P. M. Cloudy; ground covered with snow, 
except in exposed portions; wind southeast, very strong, with snow after 12 noon ; temp., 
18°. Herring Gull, 25; American Merganser, 3; Red-breasted Merganser, 6; Hooded 
Merganser, 6; American Golden-eye, 13; Red-tailed Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, i ; Crow, 27; Goldfinch, 3; Brown Creeper, 
i; White-breasted Nuthatch, i. Total, 13 species, 90 individuals. — Frederick J. Stupp. 
Ithaca, N. Y. — December 24; time, 7.05 a. m. to 8.10 A. M. ; 8.30 A. M. to 4.40 p. m. 
Cloudy; light snow for a time ; ground snow-covered; wind north, brisk; temp., 16 . 
Herring Gull, 4; Bald Eagle, i ; 'Hairy Woodpecker, 5; Downy Woodpecker, 9 ; Crow, 

2.6 Bird -Lore 

250; Goldfinch, 4; Tree Sparrow, 100; Junco, 5; Song Sparrow, 2; Brown Creeper, 3; 
White -breasted Nuthatch, 12; Chickadee, 25; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 1 (heard); 
Robin, 2. Total, 14 species, 423 individuals. — Francis Harper. 

Hilton, N, Y. — December 23 ; time, 9.30 A. m. to 2.30 P. M. Wind southwest, 
•strong ; ground thinly snow-covered. Marsh Hawk, 2 ; Downy Woodpecker, 14 ; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 6 ; Red-headed Woodpecker, 5 ; Crow, 12 ; Redpoll, 3 ; Goldfinch, 8 ; 
Purple Finch, i; Song Sparrow, i; Tree Sparrow, 15; Chickadee, 30; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 20; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Brown Creeper, 6. Total, 14 species, 129 
individuals.— John Archer and Albert H. \Vright. 

New York City, Central Park. — ( iioth Street Woods and Upper Reservoir) . Time, 

3 to 4 P. M. Snowing; wind north; temp., 28°. Herring Gull, nearly a thousand; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; White-throated Sparrow, 8; Junco, 2; Song Sparrow, i; 
Towhee, i; Cardinal, 4; Brown Creeper, 4; Chickadee, 6. Total, 9 species, 27 
individuals (excluding Gulls). — Maunsell S. Crosby. 

New York City, Central Park. — December 26; time, 8.30 A. M. to 10.40 A. M. Brisk, 
northeast wind; temp., 24°. Herring Gull, 23; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, i; Crow, 1; White-throated Sparrow, 15; Cardinal, 4; Junco, i; Chickadee, 6; 
'Golden-crowned Kinglet, i; Robin, i. Total, 10 species, 54 individuals. — Carleton 

New York City, Central Park. — Time, 9 to 10.25 A. M. Cloudy ; four inches of snow; 
wind strong; temp., 21°. Herring Gull, 70; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Wood- 
pecker, i; Starling, 2; White-throated Sparrow, 13; Junco, i; Song Sparrow, i; 
■Cardinal, 2; Black-capped Chickadee, i; Robin, i. Total, 10 species, 93 individuals. 
— E. H. and H. E. Porter. 

New York City, Central Park. — December 26; time, 8.30 to 9.40 A. M. Cloudy; 

4 inches of snow; no wind ; temp., 27°. Herring Gull, i ; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; White-throated Sparrow, 20; Junco, 1; Song Sparrow, i; 
Cardinal, 2; Brown Creeper, i; Black-capped Chickadee, 2; Hermit Thrush, i; 
Robin, I. Total, 11 species, 32 individuals. — H. E. Porter.' 

New York City, Central Park. — Time, 8.45 to 10.30 A. M. North of 90th Street. 
12.50 to 1.30 P. M. 'Ramble.' Cloudy; snow at close; ground snow-covered; wind 
strong northeast; temp., 22°. Herring Gull, 70; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Downy 
Woodpecker, i; White-throated Sparrow, 27; Song Sparrow, i; Fox Sparrow, i; 
"Cardinal, 6; Brown Creeper, i ; Chickadee, 11. Total, 9 species, about 118 individuals. 
— George E. Hix. 

New York City, Central Park. — Time, 8.15 to 9.45 a. m. Cloudy; ground cov- 
ered with snow; wind north; temp., 23°. Herring Gull, 39; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; American Crow, i; European Starling, 2; White-throated 
Sparrow, 19; Junco, i; Song Sparrow, 2; Cardinal, i; Brown Creeper, 2; Chickadee, 
4; Hermit Thrush, i; Robin, 2. Total, 13 species, 76 individuals. — Isaac Bildersee. 

Manhattan Beach, L. I. — Time, 3.30 to 4.30 p. M. Heavy snow-storm ; wind violent, 
northeast ; ground covered with snow ; temp., 25°. Black-backed Gull, 7 ; Herring Gull, 
innumerable (an immense flock of Herring Gulls, resting on the ocean, extended as far to 
-the east and south as I could see); American Scoter, 5; American Crow (est.), 800; 
White-throated Sparrow, 8. Total, 5 species, 820 individuals (excluding the Herring 
Gulls). — Isaac Bildersee. 

Setauket, Long Island, N. Y. — Time, 8 a. m. to 4 p. M. Cloudy ; ground covered 
with snow; began to snow at 3.15 p. M.; wind east, fresh; temp., 17° to 25°. Herring 
Gull, 29; Black Duck, 200; Whistler, 21; Shell-drake, 33; Great Northern Diver, 
I ; Crow, 5; Junco, 15 ; Cedarbird, i ; Chickadee, 54. Total, 9 species, 359 individuals. — 
Selah B. Strong and Walter White. 

Orient Point, Long Island. Time, 10 A. m. to 2 p.m. Cloudy; ground covered 

Fifth Christmas Bird Census 27 

with deep snow; wind northeast, strong; temp., i6°. Horned Grebe, 4; l.oon, 2; Great 
Black-backed Gull, 4 ; Herring Gull, 200; Red-breasted Merganser, 13; Black Duck, 
40; American Golden-eye, 2; Buffle-head, 20; Old Squaw, 46; White-winged Scoter, 2; 
Short-eared Owl, i ; Horned Lark, 160; Crow, 80; Snowflake, 8; Tree Sparrow, 23; 
Junco, 6; Song Sparrow, 14; Myrtle Warbler, 5; Meadow-lark, 33; Chickadee, 13 ; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 4. Total, 21 species, 680 individuals. Two Carolina Wrens 
and a large flock of SnowHakes, which have been here since November i, were not seen. — 
Roy Latham. 

Atlantic Ocean (from 10 to 25 miles east of Long Branch, N. J). — December 31 ; time, 
8.20 A. M. to 3.45 P. M. ; wind light southeast to brisk northwest; temp., 35°. Dovekie, 
i; Bonaparte's Gull, 67; Ring-billed Gull, 12 ; Heriing Gull (estimated) , 5,000; Great 
Black-backed Gull, 29; Glaucous Gull, 2; Kittiwake, 74 ad., 57 im. (found only after 
having almost lost sight of land); Gannet, 54 ad., 20 im. ; Double-crested Cormorant, i. 
White-winged Scoter, 491 ; American Scoter, 33; Old Squaw, 34. Total, 12 species; 
about 5,800 individuals. — Rob E. Stackpole and William H. Wiegmann. 

Edgewater, Palisades Park, Leonia and Nordhoff, N. J. — December 26; time, 8.20 
A. M. to 2.55 P. M. Cloudy; about six inches of snow on the ground ; wind light, north; 
temp., 25^^. Herring Gull, too; Marsh Hawk, i, Red-tailed Hawk, i ; Blue Jay, 2; 
American Crow, 15; American Goldfinch, 7; Tree Sparrow, 34; Song Sparrow, 7; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, i ; Chickadee, 3. Total, 10 species, about 171 individuals. — 
George E. Hix. 

Montclair, N. J. — December 26; time, 8.30 A. M. to 12.45 P- M. Cloudy; snow on 
ground; wind northeast, light ; temp., 23°. Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 
3; Downy Woodpecker, 9; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 19; Crow, 68; European Starling, 3; 
Goldfinch, 73; White-throated Sparrow, 2 ; Tree Sparrow, 163 ; Junco, 282 ; Song Spar- 
row, i; Northern Shrike, i; Brown Creeper, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Red- 
breasted Nuthatch, i ; Chickadee, about 150; Golden -crowned Kinglet, 3 ; Robin, i ; 
Bluebird, 2. Total, 20 species, about 792 individuals. — Randolph H. Howland. 

Montclair and Pine Brook, N. J. — Time, 9 A. M. to 3 P. M. Cloudy; ground snowy ; 
occasional showers, turning to sleet; wind west, light, to northeast, strong; temp., 42°, 
failing to 28°. Marsh Hawk, i ; Downy Woodpecker, 4 ; Blue Jay, 79; Crow, 47 ; Tree 
Sparrow, 44; Junco (est.), 100; Song Sparrow, 7; Cedar Waxwing, 10; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 58; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 11 species, 355 indi- 
viduals. — Vincent E. Gorman. 

Morristown, N. J.— Time, 10 to 10.30 A. M., temp., 22°; cloudy. 2.15 to 5 P. M ; 
temp., 20°, snowing hard; ground snow-covered ; wind strong, northeast. Crow, 2 ; Jay, 
I ; Tree Sparrow, 22 ; Song Sparrow, 2; Carolina Wren, i; Winter Wren, i ; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 6. Total, 7 species, 33 individuals. This is the first time I have seen 
a Carolina Wren in mid-winter, and I know of no other record for this locality. — R. C. 

Beverly, N. J. — December 26; time, 6.45 to 7.30 A. M. and 8 A. M, to 5.15 P. M. 
Sky clouded ; ground covered with snow to depth of six to eight inches; wind northwest, 
moderate; average temp., 26°. Bob-white, 7; Red-tailed Hawk, 2 ; Downy Woodpecker, 
4 ; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, i; Crow, 450; Meadow-lark, 6; Goldfinch, 58; White-throated 
Sparrow, 16 ; Tree Sparrow, 105 ; Junco, 175 ; Song Sparrow, 36 ; Cardinal, 23 ; Brown 
Creeper, i ; Chickadee, 3 ; Golden -crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 16 species, 890 individ- 
uals. — J. Fletcher Street. 

Newfield, N. J. — Time 12.20 to 4 P. M.; light, misty snow at first, becoming heavy 
later; ground covered with crusted snow; grass and trees covered with ice; temp., 29°. 
Bob-white, i; Flicker, i; Crow, 4 ; Blue Jay, 6; Mourning Dove, i; Song Sparrow, 2; 
Tree Sparrow, i ; Junco, about 75 ; Chickadee, 2. Total, 9 species, 93 individuals. — 
William W. Fair. 

28 Bird -Lore 

Moorestown, N. J. — December 26 ; time, 6.30 to 7.30 A. M. and 8 a.m. to 5.30 p. m. 
Cloudy; wind north to northeast, light, 5 inches of snow; fine precipitation from 9.3010 
II A, M., freezing to a glassy coat on the bare twigs and on the drooping evergreens; temp., 
24°. Mallard, i; Red-tailed Hawk, 3; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
Downy Woodpecker, 9; Flicker, i; Horned Lark, 4; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 87; Rusty 
Blackbird, i; Meadow -lark, 4; Purple Finch, i; Goldfinch, 11; White-throated 
Sparrow, 7; Tree Sparrow, 44 ; Junco, 81; Song Sparrow (sings), 17; Cardinal, 7; 
Northern Shrike, i ; Winter Wren, 3 ; Brown Creeper, i ; White-breasted Nuthatch, i ; 
Chickadee, 9. Total, 23 species, 298 individuals. — William B. Evans. 

Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa. — Time, 11 A. M to 4.30 P. M. Cloudy ; a steady 
snow falling; ground covered with snow ; wind northeast, moderate; temp., 22°. Ameri- 
can Herring Gull, 6 ; American Merganser, 25 ; Downy Woodpecker, 5 ; Crow, 34 ; 
Goldfinch, 13; White-throated Sparrow, 12; Tree Sparrow, 10; Junco, 23; Song 
Sparrow, 45; Fox Sparrow, i; Cardinal, 13 ; Carolina Wren, 2; Winter Wren, i; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tufted Titmouse, 5; Chickadee, 4; Brown Creeper, i; 
Robin, I. Total, 18 species, 204 individuals. — Chreswell J. Hunt. 

Germantown, Pa. — Time, 8 A. M. to 11 A. M. Clear; snow on ground; wind west, 
light; temp., 20°. Hairy Woodpecker, i ; Downy Woodpecker, 2 ; American Crow, 9 ; 
White-throated Sparrow, 4; Slate-colored Junco, 12; Cardinal, 2; Carolina Wren, 8; 
Winter Wren, 2; Brown Creeper, 2 ; Chickadee, 6 ; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 3. Total, 
II species, 51 individuals. — Arthur F. Hagar. 

West Chester, Pa. — Time, 2.30 to 5.00 p. M. Snowing hard, several inches on the 
ground ; moderate northwest wind ; temp., 19°. Turkey Buzzard, 9 ; Downy Woodpecker, 
5; Crow, 152; Song Sparrow, 7; Tree Sparrow, 5; Junco, 7 ; White-breasted Nuthatch, 
3 ; Carolina Wren, i. Total, 8 species, 189 individuals. — C. E. Ehinger. 

Glenside, Pa. — Time, 9.45 a.m. to i P. M. Overcast; eight inches snow; wind 
east, moderate; temp., 26°. Red-tailed Hawk, i; Crow, fully i,ooo; Meadow-lark, 8; 
Song Sparrow, 10 ; Junco, 17 ; Tree Sparrow, 2 ; Goldfinch, i ; Brown Creeper, i ; 
Chickadee, 3. Total, 9 species, 1,043 individuals. — Samuel H. Barker. 

Radnor Township, Delaware County, Pa. — Time, 9.10 a. m. to 3.25 p. m. Snowing 
almost throughout ; ground well covered ; wind northeast, moderate ; temp., 20° at start, 
23° at return. Red-tailed Hawk, i; Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, 4; 
Crow, 25; Purple Finch, i; Goldfinch, 2; Tree Sparrow, 35 ; Junco, 30; Song 
Sparrow, 11; Cardinal, 2; Carolina Wreri, i; Winter Wren, i; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 5. Total, 14 species, about 123 individuals. — Charles H. 

Bristol, Pa. — December 26; time, 9.45 A. M. to i P. M. Cloudy; about 4 inches 
of snow on the level; wind east, light; temp., 24°; finish, 28°. Red-shouldered Hawk, 
I ; Sparrow Hawk, i ; Downy Woodpecker, 2 ; Blue Jay, i ; Crow (common) ; Fish 
Crow (common); Goldfinch, 7; Song Sparrow, 7; Tree Sparrow, 56; Junco, 40; 
Cardinal, 2; Myrtle Warbler, i; Brown Creeper, i; Tufted Titmouse, i. Total. 14 species, 
122 individuals (excluding Crows). — Thos.D. Keim. 

Concordville, Pa. — December 21; time, 10.30 A. m. to i p. m. Cloudy, and com- 
mencing to snow, ground well covered with snow; wind southeast, sharp and steady; 
temp., near 20°. Bob-white, 3; Turkey Vulture, 2; Red-shouldered Hawk; Sparrow 
Hawk; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Meadow-lark, 3; Crows; Purple Finch, 3 ; Goldfinch, 
2; Tree Sparrow, flock of 50; Junco, 50 (together); Song Sparrow, 3; Cardinal, i; 
Carolina Wren, i; Winter Wren, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Black-capped Chicka- 
dee, 3; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2. Total, 18 species. — K. R. Styer. 

Accotink, Va.— Time, 12.30 p. M. to 12.45 p. m. Hailing; ground nearly bare; 
wind northeast, rather brisk; temp., 29°. From front and side windows of house. Bob- 
white, 9; Crow, 2; Cardinal, 2; Bluebird, 2. From 3 p. M. to 3.30 P. M., in short 

Fifth Christmas Bird Census 29 

walk around the place, wind and temperature the same: Junco, 3; Song Sparrow, 4; 
Cardinal, 2; Bluebird, 7. Total, 6 species, 31 individuals. — Wm. P. Caton, M.D. 

Waverly, W. Va. — December 26; time, 9 A. M. to 2 p. m.; 4 p. m. to 5.30 p. M. 
Cloudy, rain falling heavily after 3 p. M.; wind east, light; ground bare; temp., 45°. 
Red-tailed Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Horned Lark, 6; 
American Crow, 4; Goldfinch, 4; Tree Sparrow, 14; Field Sparrow, ii; Slate-colored 
Junco, 15; Song Sparrow, 7 ; Cardinal, 7; Carolina Wren, 7; Brown Creeper, 3 ; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 6; Tufted Titmouse, 14; Carolina Chickadee, 23; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 2; Bluebird, 3. Total, 18 species, 133 individuals. — Earle A. Brooks. 

Durham, N. C. — December 27; time, 8.30 A. M. to 10.30 a. m. A dense fog, the 
ground muddy after heavy rains; temp., 52°. Bob-white, 12 ; Downy Woodpecker, i 
Turkey Vulture, 2 ; Flicker, 3 ; Crow, 5; Goldfinch, 2; White-throated Sparrow, 5 
Field Sparrow, 40; Junco, 50; Song Sparrow, 15; Swamp Sparrow, 10; Cardinal, 8 
Myrtle Warbler, i; Carolina Wren, 6; Tufted Titmouse, 10; Carolina Chickadee, 5 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 3; Bluebird, 3. Total, 18 species, 181 individuals. — Ernest 

Lexington, Ky. — Time, 7.30 A. m. to 4.30 P. M., less one hour at noon; distance 
traversed, about nine miles; temperature at starting, 55°; at return, 50°; maximum, 60°, 
being abnormally high; cloudy till 8 to 9 o'clock, clear balance of the day; wind fresh, 
shifting from south through west and north to east. Bufflehead, i; Mallard, 18; Killdeer, 
2; Red-shouldered Hawk, i ; Broad-winged Hawk, 2; Sparrow Hawk, i; Screech Owl, 
1; Hairy Woodpecker, 5; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 6; Flicker, 
12; Horned Lark, 25; American Crow (est.), 831; Meadow-lark, 23 ; Bronzed Grackle, 70; 
American Goldfinch, i ; Vesper Sparrow, 2; White-crowned Sparrow, 8 ; Tree Sparrow, 
10; Slate-colored Junco, 55; Song Sparrow, 30; Fox Sparrow, 2; Cardinal, 6; Mock- 
ingbird, I ; Carolina Wren, 9; Bewick's Wren, r, reported by Mrs. W. B. Hawkins; 
Brown Creeper, 8; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Carolina Chickadee, 10; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 3; Bluebird, i. Total, 31 species, 1,151 individuals. — R. H. Dean 
and V. K. Dodge. 

Campbellsville, Ky. — Time, 2.40 P. M. to 3.50 p. M. Clear; ground bare; wind 
south, light; temp., 59°. Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, 
15; Crow, i; Meadow-lark, 60; Junco, 23; Cardinal, 2; Wren, i; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 4; Carolina Chickadee, 6; Tufted Titmouse, 5. Total, 12 species, 127 indi- 
viduals. — W. M. Jackson. 

Youngstown, Ohio. — December 26 ; time, 7 a. M. to 12 M.; 1.30 p.m. to 5 p.m. 
temp., 34'^ 1040°. Cloudy; trees and shrubbery covered with ice in the morning; about 
one inch of snow, melted by noon; wind south, turning to east; drizzling rain in the 
afternoon; distance walked (as registered by pedometer), 16 miles. Tree Sparrow, no; 
Song Sparrow, 2; Blue Jay, 8; Chickadee, 24; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 7; Tufted 
Titmouse, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 10; Junco, 10; Sparrow Hawk, i; Towhee, i, 
male; Ruffed Grouse, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 5; Downy Woodpecker, 4 ; Red-bellied 
Woodpecker, 2; Flicker, i. Total, 15 species, 192 individuals. WhiL- Crows usually 
remain with us all winter, I have not seen one since early in November, although I have 
been out frequently. — George L. Fordyce. 

Cadiz, Ohio. — Time, 12.35 ^o 3.10 p. m Ground and trees coated with ice, follow- 
ing heavy rain; foggy, and light northeast wind; temp., 36°. Bob- white, 7; Red-tailed 
Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 2; 
Tree Sparrow, 8; Song Sparrow, 7; Junco, i ; Cardinal, 5; White-breasted Nuthatch, 7; 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, i ; Tufted Titmouse, 14; Chickadee, 9. I also saw an immature 
or female White-throated Sparrow, and on December 23d, two Robins. Total, 
14 species, 72 individuals. — Harry B. McConnell. 

McZena, Ohio. — December 24; time, 8.50 a. m. to 3.10 p. m. Cloudy; ground 

30 Bird- Lore 

covered with thin coating of ice and a few remaining snow-drifts ; wind north, light ; 
temp., 24°. Ruffed Grouse, 3 ; Mourning Dove, i ; Red-tailed Hawk, i ; Sparrow 
Hawk, I ; Hairy Woodpecker, i ; Downy Woodpecker, 11 ; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 2;. 
Flicker, 3; Blue Jay, 7; American Goldfinch, 3; Tree Sparrow, 100; Junco, 35; Song 
Sparrow, 12 ; Swamp Sparrow, i ; Cardinal, 9 , Carolina Wren, i ; Brown Creeper, 3 ; 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 20; Tufted Titmouse, 15; Chickadee, 12; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, 5. Total, 21 species, 246 individuals.— Zeno Metcalf, Clell Metcalf and 
C. E. Heffelfinger. 

Richmond, Ind. — Time, 2 P. M. to 4 P. m'. Wind strong, northwest, heavy, cold 
rain; temp., 35°. Downy Woodpecker, i; Crow, 6; Cardinal, 2; Junco, in flocks; 
Tree Sparrow, 12 ; Chickadee, 2. — M. Baxter, P. B. Coffin, Mrs. Coffin and Miss 

Mt. Carmel, 111. — December 22; time, 7.3a A. M. to 11.30 A. M.; 2 to 4 P. M. 
Partly cloudy ; ground partly covered with snow; light south wind; temp., 32°. Gull(sp. ?), 
7; Duck sp. ?), 8; Bob- white, about 20; Mourning Dove, 4; Bald Eagle, i; Sparrow 
Hawk, 5; Kingfisher, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, 9; Red-headed 
Woodpecker, about 25; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 7; Flicker, about 20 ; Prairie Horned 
Lark, 6 ; Blue Jay, about 50 ; Crow, about 35 ; Meadow-lark, 22 ; Goldfinch, 2; White- 
crowned Sparrow, 14; Tree Sparrow, about 25; Slate-colored Junco, about 200; Song 
Sparrow, 17; Towhee, 2 ; Cardinal, about 20; Loggerhead Shrike, 2; Mockingbird, 3; 
Carolina Wren, 3; Winter Wren, 2; Brown Creeper, 8; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; 
Tufted Titmouse, about 35; Chickadee, 31; Golden -crowned Kinglet, 8; Robin, i; 
Bluebird, 8. Total, 34 species, about 609 individuals. — Chas. F. Brennan. 

Urbana, 111. — Time, 9.30 a. m. to i P. M. Cloudy, foggy, ground bare; wind north- 
west, moderate; temp., 35°. Downy Woodpecker, 5; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 50; Crows, 
500; Tree Sparrow, 25; Junco, 30; Song Sparrow, 2; Loggerhead Shrike, i; Chicka- 
dee, 5. Total, 9 species, 619 individuals. — Alfred O. Gross. 

Rock Island, III. — Time, 10.30 to n.30 A. M., 1.45 to 3 30 P. M. Cloudy, with 
cold, damp, east wind, a little snow on the ground; both Mississippi and Rock Rivers 
free from ice; temp., 33°. Lesser Scaup Duck, 2 ; Hairy Woodpecker, 5; Blue Jay, 
i; Crow, 2; Redpoll (Lesser), 6; Tree Sparrow, 3 ; Snowbird, 15 ; White-bellied 
Nuthatch, i ; Chickadee, 12. Total, 9 species, 47 individuals. — Burtis H. Wilson. 

Chicago, 111.— Lincoln Park, 9.20 to ri A. m., Graceland Cemetery, 11.15tox2.30A.M- 
Cloudy, flurries of misty rain and fine snow ; ground glazed and sprinkled with snow ; 
wind east, light; temp., 32°. Herring Gull, 6; Red-breasted Merganser, 3; Logger- 
head Shrike, i. Three small flocks of Ducks seen flying over the lake at a considerable 
distance from shore. — Juliet T. Goodrich. 

La Crosse, Wis. — Time, 12.15 to 12.30 p. M., 2.45 to 4.15 P. M. Cloudy, dull, 
ground partly covered with snow; wind variable, northeast to southwest ; temp., 32-30°. 
Cedar Waxwing, 14; Robin, 4; Chickadee, 2. Total, 3 species, 20 individuals. Robin 
seen every day up to December 28 , White-breasted Nuthatch and Brown Creeper fre- 
quently seen. — William Schneider. 

Appleton, W^is. — Time, 9.30 A. M. to 12 M., 1.30 to 4.30 p. M. Cloudy, ground 
covered with light fall of snow; no wind; temp., 30°. Red-headed Woodpecker, 3; 
Downy Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay, 6; Snowflake, 70; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; 
Crow, I. Total, 6 species, 83 individuals.— Henry W. Abraham. 

Abilene, Kans. — Time, 8.45 a. m. to 1.30 p. M. Cloudy; ground bare; wind east; 
temp., 30°. Marsh Hawk, i; Red-tailed Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy 
Woodpecker, 4; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 2 ; Crow, 22; Prairie Horned Lark, 62; 
Meadow-lark, 23; Goldfinch, i ; Harris' Sparrow, 84; Tree Sparrow, 34; Slate-colored 
Junco, 30; Towhee, i; Cardinal, 26; Bewick's Wren, i ; Brown" Creeper, i; Chickadee, 
9. Total, 17 species, 305 individuals. — Edward W. Gravis. 

Fifth Christmas Bird Census 31 

Independence, Kans. — Time, 8.40 A. M. to 12.30 p. m. Foggy in the morning, with 
light, but steady northeast wind, changing to clear at noon, with wind south to southeast ; 
ground bare; temp., 45° to 60°. Red-shouldered Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, i ; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 6; Downy Woodpecker, 10; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, 20; 
Prairie Horned Lark, 58; Blue Jay, 40; American Crow, 50; Meadow -lark, 100; Western 
Meadow-lark, 2; Rusty Blackbird, 6; Purple Finch, 17 ; American Goldfinch, 10; Lap- 
land Longspur, 84; Harris Sparrow, 51 ; White-crowned Sparrow, 18 ; Gambel Sparrow, i ; 
Field Sparrow, i ; Slate-colored Junco, 250; Song Sparrow, 15; Fox Sparrow, i ; Car- 
dinal, 26; Cedar Waxwing, 58; Myrtle Warbler, i; Carolina Wren, 16; Winter Wren, 
i; Brown Creeper, 11; White-breasted Nuthatch, 2; Tufted Titmouse, 7; Chickadee, 
16; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i; American Robin, 60; Bluebird, 12. Total, 34 species, 
956 individuals. — Alick Wetmore. 

LaGrange, Mo. — December 23; time, 9 a.m. to 12.30 P. M. Ground dry; heavy 
clouds; several little dashes of rain; wind soft, south, changing to cutting north; temp., 
45° to 35°- Bob-white, i; Cooper's Hawk, i; Screech Owl, i; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; 
Downy Woodpecker, 12; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 4; Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 5; Crow, 
2; Red-winged Blackbird, 60; Purple Finch, i; Goldfinch, 25; Tree Sparrow, 200; 
Junco, 100; Cardinal, 8; White-breasted Nuthatch, i; Tufted Titmouse, 3; Chickadee, 
28; Bluebird; i. Total, 19 species, 457 individuals. — Susan M. Johnson. 

Blaine, Wash. (Lat. 49°). — December 26 ; time, 7.45 A. M. to 12.30 P. M.; 1.30 p. 
M. to 5.30 P. M. Slightly overcast to clear; two inches of snow on ground ; no wind; 
temp., 31° at 8 A. M., 40° at noon. Western Grebe, 4; Holboeil Grebe, 100 ; Horned 
Grebe, 23; Loon, 3; Pacific Loon, 4; Marbled Murrelet, 22; Pigeon Guillemot, 11; 
California Murre, i; California Gull, 10; Ring-billed Gull, 3; Short-billed Gull, 15; 
Bonaparte Gull, 2; Mallard, 2; Pintail, 6; Scaup Duck, 1,000; Lesser Scaup, 250; 
American Golden-eye, 14; Barrow's Golden-eye, 2; BufHehead, 500; Old Squaw, 22; r^ 

Harlequin Duck, 2 ; White-winged Scoter, 300 ; Surf Scoter, 200 ; Black Brant, 20 ; 
Fannin's Heron, i; Harris' Woodpecker, i; Gairdner's Woodpecker, 2; Northern ^ — '' 
Pileated Woodpecker, 1; Northwestern Flicker, 2; Northwest Crow, 120; Brewer's Black- 
bird, 2; California (?) Purple Finch, i; English Sparrow, 2; Oregon Junco, 200; Rusty 
Song Sparrow, 33; Sooty Song Sparrow, 2 ; Oregon Towhee, 5; Northwest Bewick Wren, 
8; Western Winter Wren, 12 ; Oregon Chickadee, 31 ; Western Golden-crowned King- 
let, 38; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 3; Western Robin, 128; Varied Thrush, 10. Total, 
44 species, about 3,000 individuals. — W. Leon Dawson. 

Napa, Cal. — December 25; time, 12 noon to 12.45 P- m; 2 P. M. to 2.30 P. M. Clear, 
strong north wind; temp., 46°. December 26 ; time, 11 A. M. to 4 p. M. Clear; wind; 
north, medium ; temp., 49°. [The results of the two days' observations are combined, but 
owing to impossibility of securing separate lists in time for publication the MS. is printed 
as received. — Ed.] Great Blue Heron, i; Killdeer, 8; White-tailed Kite, i; Western 
Red-tailed Hawk, i; Desert Sparrow Hawk, 2; Harris Woodpecker, 3; California Wood- 
pecker, 6; Red-shafted Flicker, 29; Anna's Hummingbird, 3 ; Say's Phoebe, i; Black 
Phoebe, 2; Steller's Jay, i; California Jay, 19; American Crow, 3; Western Meadow- 
lark, numerous, 66 counted ; Brewer's Blackbird, very numerous, 600 estimated; Willow 
Goldfinch, 39; Green-backed Goldfinch, 21; Western Savanna Sparrow, 7; Gambel's 
(White-crowned) Sparrow, 41; Golden-crowned Sparrow, 19; Thurber's Junco, 12; 
Samuel's Song Sparrow, 4; Spurred Towhee, 2; California Towhee, 8; California 
Shrike, 5; Audubon's Warbler, 18 ; American Pipit, 11; Plain Titmouse, 3 ; California 
Bush-tit, I (flock heard); Western Golden-crowned Kinglet, 9; Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 
I. (Crimson Crown-patch undoubtedly seen); Dwarf Hermit Thrush, 2; Western Blue- 
bird, 5; Ducks (flying too high to distinguish species) 26. Total, 35 species, 980 indi- 
viduals. — E. L. BiCKFORD. 

JFor Ceact)ers^ anti ^tutient0 

The Migration of Warblers 


Compiled by Professor W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data 
in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertls and Bruce Horsfall 


More notes have been contributed' by the observers on the Yellow Warbler than on 
any other species of Warbler, and the following records are an epitome of about two thou- 
sand observations during a period of more than twenty years. The winter range of the 
Yellow Warbler and its subspecies extends from Western Mexico to Dutch Guiana, a 
longitudinal winter range equaled by few species. But, though occurring throughout 
Central America, it is absent from the West India Islands, and reaches the eastern United 
States in the spring by a roundabout course across the Gulf of Mexico, and is one of the 
later Warblers to arrive in the Gulf States. 


No. of years' 

Average date of 

Earliest date of 


spring arrival 


April 14, 1888 

April 16, 1894 


April 17 

April 10, 1900 
April 17, 1885 


April 13 

April 5, 1888 


April 15 

April 12, 1893 


April 22 

April 17, 1896 


April 23 

April 16, 1896 


April 20 

April 15, 1888 


April 24 

April 17, 1896 


April 23 

April 18, 1891 


April 30 

April 24, 1896 


May I 

April 26, 1902 


May I 

April 28, 1891 


May 4 

April 18, 1891 


May 5 

April 29, 1897 


April 29 

April 23, 1896 


May 2 

April 26, 1897 


May 3 

April 30, 1897 


May I 

April 26, 1889 


May 4 

May I, 1891 


May 3 

April 30, 1902 


May 5 

May 3, 1903 


May 4 

April 29, 1899 


May 2 

April 25, 1897 


May 9 

May 4, 1887 

1 1 

May 10 

May 4, 1887 


May II 

May 9, 1896 


May 14 

May 10, 1894 

1 1 

May 10 

May 7, 1887 


May 15 

May 10, 1902 

Atlantic Coast — 

Greensboro, Ala. . . 
Savannah, Ga. . . 

Atlanta, Ga. (near) .... 
Frogmore, S. C. ... 

Raleigh, N. C 

Asheville, N. C 

New Market, Va 

White Sulphur Springs, W. Va 

Washington, D. C 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Renovo, Pa. ..... 

Englewood, N. J. 
Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y. 
Shelter Island, N. Y. . . 

Ballston Spa, N. Y 

Branchport, N. Y. 
Alfred, N. Y. 
■Center Lisle, N. Y. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Jewett City, Conn. 

Hadlyme, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

Providence, R. I 

Framingham, Mass. , . . 

Randolph, Vt 

Southern New Hampshire 

Orono, Me. 

Plymouth, Me. 

Montreal, Can 

Quebec, Can 


The Migration of Warblers 



Atlantic Coast — 

St. John, N. B. 

Scotch Lake, N. B 

Pictou, N. S 

Halifax, N. S 

North River, Prince Edward Island 
Hamilton River, Que 

No. of years' 

Mississippi ('alley — 
New Orleans, La. 
Helena, Ark. . . 
Eubank, K) . . . . 
St. Louis, Mo. . . . 
Brookville, Ind. . . 
Waterloo, Ind. 
Columbus, Ohio . . 
Wauseon, Ohio . . 
Cleveland, Ohio . . 
Morgan Park, III. 
Rockford, III. 
Southern Wisconsin 
Petersburg, Mich. . . 
Strathroy, Ont. 
Listowel, Ont. . . . 
Ottawa, Ont. 
Keokuk, la. . . 
Davenport, la. 
Lanesboro, Minn. 
Elk River, Minn. 
Aweme, Manitoba 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 
San Antonio, Tex. 
Bonham, Tex. 
Onaga, Kans. 
Lincoln, Neb. 

tVestern United States — 

Pueblo, Colo 

Loveland, Colo. . 

Cheyenne, Wyo 

Great Falls, Mont 

Rathdrum, Idaho 

Osier, Saskatchewan . . . 
Red Deer, Alberta 
Fort Chippewyan, Athabasca 
Fort Resolution, Mackenzie 
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie 
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie 
Southern California 

Chilliwack, B. C 

Kowak, Alaska . . 






Average date of 
spring arrival 

May 24 

May 14 
May 14 

May 25 


1 6 
I 18 
I 16 
I 19 

1 15 
I 25 
I 22 
I 26 
I 28 

May I 
May 8 
May 6 
April 26 
May I 
May 2 
May 7 
April 30 
May I 
May 7 
May 12 
May 14 

April II 
April 25 
April 28 

May II 
May 16 

April 7 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

May 21, 1893 
May 13, 1901 
May 10, 1895 
May 12, 1896 
May 20, 1890 
May 31 

April I, 1892 
April 14, 1901 
April 12, 1889 
April 15, 1888 
April II, 1897 
April 18, 1891 
April 18, 1889 
April 20, 1889 
April 25, 1886 
April 28, 1900 
May I, 1887 
May 2, 1890 
April 19, 1894 
April 25, 1897 
April 24, 1885 
May 3, 1895 
April 25, 1897 

April 28, 1888 
May 9, 1888 
May 9, 1902 
April 22, 1891 
April 15, 1890 
April 8, 1889 
April 22, 1900 
April 25, 1891 

May 6, 1894 
May 7, 1890 
May 9, 1889 
May II, 1 89 1 
May 15, 1903 
May 17, 1893 
May 16, 1893 
May 24, 1893 
May 25, i860 
May 26, 1861 
May 21, 1904 
April 5, 1889 
April 27, 1889 
June 9, 1899 


The Yellow Warbler begins its southward migration among the very 
earliest of the family, and fall migrants have been noted in central Florida 
July 20 and at Key West July 26. So rapid is the southward journey that 


Bird -Lore 

the arrival of the first in the fall has been noted in southeastern Nicaraugua 
August 9, 1892; San Jose, Costa Rica, Aug. 25, 1889, and Aug. 24, 1890; 
Bonda, Colombia, August 27, 1898. 

Newport, Ore 

Berkeley, Cal 

Great Falls, Mont 

Latitude 64°, Mackenzie 

Aweme, Manitoba 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Ottawa, Ontario 

Southern Ontario 

Glen EUyn, III 

Wauseon, Ohio 

North River. Prince Edward Island 
St. John, New Brunswick . . . 

Montreal, Can. 

Lewiston, Me 

Renovo, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Washington, D. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

St, Louis, Mo 

Onaga, Kans 

Bonham, Tex 

New Orleans, La 

No of years' Average date of 
record last one seen 

October 5 

September 3 
August 14 
August 20 
August 23 
September 5 
September 15 
August 21 

August 26 
September i 
September 6 
August 27 

Latest date of last 
one seen 

September 18, 1900 
October 9, 1888 
September 13, 1889 
August 10, 1903 

September 10, 1889 
September 7, 1901 
September 5, 1902 
September 6, 1899 
September 26, 1891 

September 2, 1890 
September 3, 1890 
September 5, 1898 
September 17, 1894 
September 30, 1888 
September 28, 1890 
August 28, 1888 
September 3, 1896 
August 24, 1894 
September 12, 1889 
October 27, 1893 


The Mangrove Warbler is a non-migratory species occurring in w^estern 
Mexico and Lower California. 


From its winter home in the West Indies and Florida, the Prairie 
Warbler begins to move northward early in March, though the full tide of 
migration does not start until the last of the month. 



No. of years' 

Average date of 

spring arrival 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Washington, D. C 

Southeastern New York 

Portland, Conn 






April 15 
April 22 
May 4 
May 6 
May 7 
May 8 
April 20 

April 6, 1892 
April 19, 1891 
May I, 1891 
April 27, 1888 
May I, 1896 
May 4, 1891 
April 13, 1893 
May II, 1900 

Jewett City, Conn 

Boston, Mass ... 

Eubank, Ky. 

Toronto, Ont 

The latest records of striking the southern lighthouses are in the first 
half of May, and the earliest spring date is March 7. Thus the period of 
spring migration in the southern United States extends over more than nine 

A Portrait of Audubon 35 


The southward migration occupies more time than the northward, and 
lasts from the middle of August to the first week in November. Some 
dates of the last ones noted are at Taunton, Mass., Sept. 15, 1887; 
Shelter Island Heights, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1901; Washington, D. C, 
September 4, 1887; Raleigh, N. C, September 9; Frogmore, S. C, 
September 30, 1886; Fowey Rocks Lighthouse, Florida, November 6, 1891. 

The records indicate that the southern breeding birds spend about five 
months in the summer home, at least as long in the winter home and the 
remainder of the year in migration. Even the northern nesting birds remain 
for four months at the breeding grounds. 

Which Shall Be the National Association Bird? 

The Committee appointed to adopt a seal for the National Association 
of Audubon Societies are at a loss which bird to select; therefore, it is 
thought best to defer the selection until the Audubon members have had an 
opportunity to vote on the subject. 

The members of the Audubon Societies can vote as societies or individ- 
ually for any North American Bird, and the Committee will be largely 
guided in their selection by the result of the ballots. 

It is suggested that a thoroughly representative bird should be the one 
selected: that is, one that is found throughout North America from the 
Arctic to Panama. 

All votes must be sent to the undersigned prior to the first day of May. 

William Dutcher, 

Chairman National Committee of Audubon Societies 

525 Manhattan Avenue, New York City 

A Portrait of Audubon 

At the suggestion of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, A. W. Elson 
& Company, of Boston, have reproduced, in photogravure, the well-known 
Inman portrait of Audubon. This reproduction is artistically attractive, and 
has been pronounced, by those qualified to judge, to do full justice to the 

Congratulations are due the Massachusetts Society on the successful 
outcome of their efforts to fill the demand for a standard portrait of Audubon. 

iloofe J^eto0 anti 3^ei)(eto0 

Catalogue of Canadian Birds. Part III. 
Including the Order Passeres after the 
Icteridae. By John Macoun. Geological 
Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 1904. Pages 
i-iv; 4.15-733; i-xxiii. 

The present volume completes this im- 
portant work, though the author remarks 
that "much additional information regard- 
ing the birds included in the first two parts 
has come to my hands; and this will, in the 
near future, be published in the form of an 
addendum to the complete catalogue." 

Reference to our notices of the preceding 
parts of this memoir will indicate its nature 
and scope. More space is allotted each 
«pecies in the present part, with a corre- 
sponding increase in the amount of informa- 
tion given. This is especially true, we are 
glad to say, of that portion of the arinota- 
tions relating to nesting habits. 

The data given are carefully accredited 
to their respective sources, but the place at 
which certain observations were made is not 
always stated. For example, Mr. J. 
Hughes-Samuel's record of the occurrence 
of Kirtiand's Warbler leaves one in doubt 
as to the locality where the bird was found. 
Again MS. notes here published for the first 
time are not distinguished from those which 
have already appeared. Both these defects 
could be remedied in a bibliography, which 
we trust will be included in the proposed 
addendum. — F. M. C. 

Distribution and Migration of North 
American Warblers. By W. W. 
Cooke. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Division of Biological Survey, Bull. No. 
18. Washington, 1904. 8vo; pages 142. 

This work is based primarily on the MS. 
reports of the numerous observers, who for 
years have been contributing migration 
records to the Biological Survey; but Pro- 
fessor Cooke has also had access to all other 
available sources of information, including 
the leading collections of this country. His 
publication, therefore, adequately represents 
the existing knowledge of the subject to 
which it relates. 

It treats of ' Routes of Migration,' 'South- 
ernmost Extension of Winter Ranges of 
Warblers of Eastern North America,' and, 
in a 'Systematic Report,' of the general dis- 
tribution and migration. Particular atten- 
tion has been paid to routes of migration 
after the species leaves the United States, 
and here Professor Cooke works in a practi- 
cally untouched field and brings together 
much information which tends to show that 
many of our current beliefs in regard to 
routes of migration have no foundation in 

In determining the winter homes of our 
Warblers, Professor Cooke again sheds light 
where before there was comparative dark- 
ness, and his tabulation of Warblers accord- 
ing to their winter distribution furnishes an 
interesting summary of the results obtained. 

The Systematic Report gives the breed- 
ing range and winter range, together with 
spring and fall migration records, for the 
fifty- nine species and nineteen subspecies 
of North American Warblers. Professor 
Cooke is to be congratulated on the thor- 
ough manner in which he has completed a 
work which, for an indefinite period, will 
remain the standard authority on the jour- 
neys of the Mniotiltidae. — F. M. C. 

The Birds of Middle and North Amer- 
ica. Part III. By Robert Ridgway. 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 50; 8vo. 
Pages XX -j- 801 ; plates xix. Washing- 
ton, 1904. 

The families treated in the third part of 
this great work, with the number of species 
and subspecies contained in each, are as 
follows: Wagtails and Pipits, 8; Swal- 
lows, 32; Waxwings, 2; Silky Flycatchers, 
5; Palm Chats, 2; Vireos, 75; Shrikes, 8; 
Crows and Jays, 81 ; Titmice, 36 ; Nut- 
hatches, 10 ; Creepers, 6 ; Wrens, 135 ; 
Dippers, 3 ; Wren-tits, 4; Warblers (Syl- 
viidse) , 22. 

Mr. Ridgway remarks that the three vol- 
umes which have now been published de- 
scribe about 1,250 species and subspecies, 


Book News and Reviews 


or about two-fifths of the total number of 
North and Middle American birds. 

Part IV, which will contain the Thrushes, 
Mockingbirds, Larks, Starlings, Weaver 
Birds, Sharp-bills, Tyrant Flycatchers, 
Manakins and Chatterers, is said to have 
been about half completed in September 
last. Doubtless its appearance will be de- 
layed by Mr. Ridgway's absence in Costa 
Rica, but even those students to whom this 
treatise proves most useful and who, conse- 
quently, are most eager to see it advanced, 
cannot but rejoice that its industrious author 
has been induced to take a much - needed 
rest— F. M. C. 

The Adventures of Cock Robin and his 
MATE. By R. Kearton, with upwards 
of I20 illustrations from photographs taken 
direct from nature by Cherry and Rich- 
ard Kearton. Cassell & Company, Ltd. 
1904. i2mo. Pages xvi + 240. 

In this book Cock Robin tells not only 
the history of his own life but adds much 
information concerning the ways of other 
feathered folk. Designed primarily for 
younger readers, no one can fail to be inter- 
ested in the striking photographs from 
nature with which the book is illustrated. 
The Kearton brothers have the knack of 
making not only good, but artistic bird 
pictures, and the generous supply they have 
given this, their latest work, places it far 
above the usual run of children's nature 
books.— F. M. C. 

Birds by Land and Sea: The Record of a 
Year's Work with Field-glass and Cam- 
era. By John Maclair Boraston. Il- 
lustrated by photographs taken direct 
from nature by the author. John Lane, 
London and New York. 8vo. Pages 
xiv -L 282 ; half-tone ills., 72. 

The author gives in this book the gist 
of almost daily observation of birds in 
Stretford, England, and the surrounding 
districts from September, r902, to Septem- 
ber, 1903. The area of observation has 
been extended by occasional excursions over 
the Cheshire border, while the account also 
includes the narrative of the author's ex- 
perience during a summer holiday spent in 
the Island of Anglesey. He has set down 
his experiences in chapters devoted to the 

successive months of the year. Not the least 
attractive and valuable feature of this book 
is the series of photographs which the author 
has succeeded in taking. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

Journal of the Maine Ornithological 
Society. — Besides the numerous notes on 
the occurrence and breeding of various birds 
in Maine, the July number contains the 
conclusion of A. H. Norton's careful paper 
on the ' Finches of Maine,' the second of 
the Warbler series, by J. M. Swain, treat- 
ing of Wilson's Warbler, and an article by 
F. J. Noble on the ' Feeding Habits of the 
Turnstone.' — W. S. 

Bulletin of the Michigan Ornitho- 
logical Club. — The leading articles of the 
September issue are the first instalment of 
Prof. W. Barrows, paper on ' Birds of the 
Beaver Islands ' and one on ' Nesting of 
Kirtland's Warbler in 1904.' An editorial 
announces the steps taken bv the state game- 
warden to protect this bird, including the 
revoking of all collecting permits so far as 
this species is concerned. A page is de- 
voted to the Michigan Audubon Society, 
and a frontispiece represents Cory's and the 
Least Bittern, from wash drawings by 
Taverner. — W. S. 

Book News 

The success accorded Mr. W. Leon 
Dawson's ' Birds of Ohio ' has induced 
him to project a similar work on the birds 
of Washington. Details of the proposed 
publication may be obtained from Mr. 
Dawson, at Blaine, Wash. 

William Watson Woollen, of Indianapo- 
lis, has almost ready for publication a bird 
book, to be entitled 'Buzzard's Roost: A 
Bird Study.' Mr. Woollen has made a 
special study of our common birds. 

Among the official state bird lists, now in 
course of preparation, are those on the birds 
of Connecticut, by J. H. Sage and L. B. 
Bishop; the birds of New York, by E. H. 
Eaton, and the birds of Minnesota, by T. S. 


Bird- Lore 


A Bi-monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 



Vol. VII Published February 1. 1905 No. 1 


Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico 
twenty cents a number, one dollar a year, post- 
age paid. 


Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush is IVorth Two in the Hand 

The publisher of a popular magazine, 
noted for its large circulation rather than for 
its literary excellence, sometimes adorns the 
cover of his production with the statement 
that he thinks the present number quite the 
best which he has ever issued ; an out- 
spoken blowing of trumpets which, at least, 
has the merit of frankness even if it grates 
on one's sense of the fitness of things. 

While we would not, therefore, so openly 
express our satisfaction with the present 
number of Bird-Lore, we cannot wholly 
conceal our pleasure in being permitted to 
place in our readers' hands a magazine con- 
taining so many eminently practical, useful 
and permanently valuable features as this 
issue of Bird-Lore. We have so frequently 
been asked for information in regard to 
bird-houses, we are assured that the fully 
illustrated, authoritative article on this sub- 
ject which we present will be welcomed by 
bird-lovers throughout the land. Surely 
there is no more delightful way in which to 
establish intimate relations with birds than 
to have your own particular bird tenants, 
with every detail of whose home-life you may 
became familiar, and who, possibly, may 
accept of your bounty year after year. The 
readiness with which suitable nesting houses 
are occupied not only ensures a successful 
outcome of a speculation in ornithological 
real estate, but is an indication of what an 
agent would call " the demand for desirable 
homes," and the extent to which we supply 

this demand is a measure of our aid to the 
cause of practical bird protection. Let us 
then prepare or erect our bird-houses for 
the season now almost here, and in due time 
send a brief report on our bird tenants for 
publication in a later issue of Bird-Lore. 

Our chief cause for congratulation on the 
present number of Bird-Lore, however, is 
not alone due to the generosity of those who 
contributed articles on bird-boxes, or to 
the success of the Christmas Bird Census, 
or Professor Cooke's migration records, or 
the character of our Advisory Council, but 
also to the inclusion in Bird-Lore, for the 
first time, of the annual report of the Na- 
tional Association of Audubon Societies. 
Annual reports are apt to be perfunctory 
affairs, at the best, and their enforced peru- 
sal is an almost certain means of dispelling 
the interest they were designed to arouse. 
We venture to assert, however, that no one 
having the slightest sympathy with bird 
protection can begin Mr. Dutcher's report 
without finishing it, nor can he finish it 
without being surprised and impressed by 
the development of the Audubon movement, 
and the splendid foundation which has been 
laid for the erection of an enduring struc- 

The instincts which prompt us to con- 
demn and prevent cruelty and inhumanity, 
to appreciate and delight in the beautiful, 
to preserve man's heritage in nature so that 
those who come after us may find the world 
as beautiful as we have found it, should in- 
spire our enthusiastic support of the cause 
which Mr. Dutcher and his associates 
throughout the country are so ably ad- 

When a subscription list is headed with 
a donation of $100,000, no further guarantee 
of the importance of the object for which it 
appeals should be necessary ; and we trust 
that the close of the present year will see 
the National Association of Audubon So- 
cieties with an endowment of $1,000,000. 
Then the one weak side — the financial — of 
its work will have been so strengthened 
that under the efficient management of the 
interest of this sum the friends of the birds 
need have no fear. 

" Vou cannot with a scalpel find the poet' s soul. 
Nor yet the wild bird's song." 


Communications relating to the work of the Audubon and other Bird Protective Societies should 
be addressed to Mrs. Wright, at Fairfield, Conn. Reports, etc., designed for this department, should be 
sent at least one month prior to the date of publication. 


With names and addresses of their Secretaries 

California W. Scott Way, Pasadena. 

Colorado Mrs. Martha A. Shute, Denver. 

Connecticut Mrs. William Brown Glover, Fairfield. 

Dolav«rare Mrs. Wm. S. Hilles, Delamore Place, Wilmington. 

Oiatrict of Columbia Mrs. John Dewhurst Patten, 2212 R street, Washington. 

Florida Mrs. I. Vanderpool, Maitland. 

Georeia Professor H. N. Starnes, of Experiment. 

Illinois Miss Mary Drummond, 208 West street, Wheaton. 

Indiana Florence A. Howe, Hillside Ave., Indianapolis. 

lovra Mrs. W. F. Parrott, Waterloo. 

Kentucky Miss Juliet O. Alves, Henderson. 

Louisiana Miss Anita Pring, 1682 Peters ave., New Orleans. 

Maine Mrs. C. B. Tuttle, Fairfield. 

Maryland Miss Anne Weston Whitney, 715 St. Paul street, Baltimore. 

Massachusetts Miss Jessie E. Kimball, care Boston Society of Natural History, Boston. 

Michigan Jefferson Butler, Suite 79, Home Bank Building, Detroit. 

Minnesota Miss Jessie Whitman, 2356 Bayless ave., St. Paul. 

Missouri August Reese, 2516 North Fourteenth street, St. Louis. 

Nebraska Miss Joy Higgins, 544 South 30th street, Omaha. 

New Hampshire . .' Mrs. F. W. Batchelder, Manchester. 

New Jersey Miss Julia Scribner, 510 E. Front street, Plainfield. 

New York Miss Emma H. Lockwood, 243 West Seventy-fifth street. New York City. 

North Carolina T. Gilbert Pearson, Greensboro. 

North Dakota Miss Elizabeth L. Abbott, Grand Forks. 

Ohio Mrs. D. Z. McClelland, 820 West Ninth street, Cincinnati. 

Oklahoma Mrs. Adelia Holcomb, Enid. 

Oregon A. W. Anthony (Pres't), 900 Thurman street, Portland. 

Pennsylvania Mrs. Edward Robins, 114 South Twenty-first street, Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island Mrs. H. T. Grant, 187 Bowen street. Providence. 

South Carolina Miss S. A. Smyth, Legare street, Charleston. 

Tennessee Mrs. C. C. Conner, Ripley. 

Texas M. B. Davis, Waco. 

Vermont Mrs. E. B. Davenport, Brattleboro. 

Vircinia Mr. E. C. Hough, Falls Church. 

Wisconsin Mrs. Reuben G. Thwaites, 260 Langdon street, Madison. 

Wyoming Mrs. Cordelia Chivington, Cheyenne. 

The National Association— its Needs *■ To publish and distribute documents 

and Aims ^"'^ other printed matter on these or other 

subjects, and to acquire and maintain a 

The National Association of Audubon library. 

Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds c. To cooperate with the National and 

and Animals completed its incorporation state Governments and regularly org^anized 

January 5, 1905. natural history societies in disseminating 

The particular objects for which said cor- knowledge relative to wild birds and ani- 

poration is formed are as follows : mals. 

a. To hold meetings, lectures and exhi- In carrying out the purposes of the Cor- 

bitions in the interest of the protection of poration, it needs a permanent endowment 

wild birds and animals and to use all law- of not less than one million dollars, 

ful means for their protection. The aims of the Corporation are : 



Bird = Lore 

1. To organize, foster and strengthen 
State and Local Audubon Societies. 

2. To permanently maintain and greatly 
enlarge the number of wardens now guard- 
ing colonies of breeding birds. 

3. To increase, in the rural districts, 
circulating nature-book libraries. 

Since the organization of the National 
Association in 1901, the several branches of 
its work have been carried on in a very 
economical manner, with the contributions 
of a few deeply interested patrons who have 
annually given the sum of three to four 
thousand dollars. The lack of a fund 
commensurate with the needs of the Asso- 
ciation has, in the past, very greatly ham- 
pered the growth of the work 

Over $62,000,000 was given by wealthy 
philanthropists during 1904, for the mainte- 
nance of educational institutions, hospitals, 
homes, churches, missions, libraries and mis- 
cellaneous charities. Of these the most no- 
table and by far the largest gift was the muni- 
ficent sum donated by Mr. Carnegie for the 
establishment of libraries which are almost 
entirely located in cities or the larger towns. 
The people who most need good books are 
the dwellers in the rural districts, and un- 
fortunately, the Carnegie libraries do not 
benefit them in the slightest degree. The 
Audubon Societies, since their organization, 
have, in a small way, done all they could to 
give to the farmers and their families good 
nature literature through the medium of 
small circulating libraries. The extent of 
this work has been limited only by the very 
small means at the disposal of the societies. 

When the National Association succeeds 
in securing the desired endowment, a very 
large portion of the annual income will be 
devoted to the expansion of the Audubon 
library system. It is also purposed to em- 
ploy trained lecturers to instruct the rural 
public by means of illustrated talks about 
birds, animals, flowers, trees, and, in fact, 
every branch of nature, especially along 
economic lines. The income of one million 
dollars would not be too large for these pur- 
poses when the magnitude of our agricultu- 
ral interests is considered. The Secretary 
of Agriculture, Hon. James Wilson, in his 
New Year's greeting to the people of the 

United States, makes this statement: "AIT 
the gold mines of the entire world have 
not produced, since Columbus discovered 
America, a greater value of gold than the 
farmers of this country have produced in 
wealth in two years; the products of the 
farms for this year alone (1904) amount to- 
more than six times the capita! stock of all 
the National Banks." 

It is a well-established fact that insects 
destroy annually agricultural products to 
the value of $300,000,000, this sum includ- 
ing the terrible loss 'to the cotton industry 
from the boll-weevil, and, in addition to 
this sum, the Bureau of Forestry reports: 
"At current stumpage values and whole- 
sale prices of commercial products the an- 
nual loss from forest insect depredations is 
estimated to be about $100,000,000." 

Birds are the principal check on the 
increase of insect pests ; therefore, every pos- 
sible means should be employed to increase 
bird life. It is believed that the most effec- 
tual and rapid method of reaching this end 
is by educating the agricultural masses- 
about the economic value of birds through, 
the use of thousands of nature libraries and 
millions of educational leaflets. To carry 
out this purpose the National Association, 
pleads for a liberal endowment. 

The National Association, during the 
past four years, has employed a small 
number of active and earnest men as bird 
wardens to protect during the breeding 
season colonies of birds that were threatened 
with extermination by plume - hunters. 
There are many other colonies that need 
such special protection, but it can only be 
given provided a sufficient endowment fund 
is secured. A few thousand dollars spent 
this way annually, will preserve for the 
benefit and enjoyment of future generations 
the beautiful and interesting birds that 
dwell along the coast. 

The National Association is fully organ- 
ized, is incorporated, and has a great and 
important economic work to carry on ; but 
it is powerless to accomplish any of the 
great good that it aims to do unless a gene- 
rous and appreciative public recognizes its 
needs and furnishes the desired endowment 

Address all communications for this Department to the Editor, at Greensboro, N. C. 

Bird Tenants 

OUR young observers will find in this number of Bird-Lore descrip- 
tions and pictures of a great many different kinds of bird-houses. 
We hope that they will make a practical use of the suggestions given 
and, when possible, try to secure some bird tenants this coming spring by 
offering them suitable homes. 

It is already time to begin to prepare these dwellings, and, as Mrs. 
Wright tells us, the sooner we place them out of doors the sooner will they 
begin to look as though they be- 
longed there. In the next issue of 
Bird-Lore we will give a plan for 
the study of Bird Tenants, and at 
the same time make some sugges- 
tions which we are sure will interest 
our young observers. 

The first prize for the letters on 
' Feeding Birds in Winter ' was won 
by Miss Emily N. Hoxie, whose 
article is published below. 

Feeding Birds in Winter 

By EMILY N. HOXIE, Peace Dale, R. I. 

Last winter we put out suet in 
the trees for the first time, and soon 
the Downy Woodpeckers, Nut- 
hatches, Chickadees and Blue Jays 
came and ate. The Chickadees 
would take a few little pecks, then 
fly away. The Blue Jays and Nut- 
hatches would break of^ a big piece 
and carry it away, but Downy would 
stay for a long time and make a good 
meal. Only two Downies came, and 
they both had the red spots on their 
heads. One we called the big 
Downy and one the little Downy, 



42 Bird - Lore 

because there was so much difference in their size. They became very tame 
and I could roll my hoop under the tree and they would not fly away. We 
kept a pan of crumbs out in the yard for the Sparrows and J uncos. Many 
English and Tree Sparrows came, and nearly all winter we had one little 
Song Sparrow for a daily visitor. He would fly at the English Sparrows and 
drive them all away if they ate too near him. We heard him sing in Janu- 
ary. We had Kinglets in the fall, but they did not stay here in the winter. 
On sunny days we saw little birds (sometimes five at once) flying round the 
windows and roofs and porches. We saw they were after flies, so we caught 
a great many flies in our attic and put them in a box on the window-sill 
outside. The birds were very tame, and came and ate while we stood at the 
window. We found by 'Bird-Life' that they were Myrtle Warblers. 
There were flocks of Bluebirds around all winter, and some of them came 
and ate flies with the Warblers. 

In May the winter birds stopped coming and the Robins and Cat -birds 
began to eat the suet. It was much easier than digging worms. It was 
very funny to see the birds. The Robin who had a nest in one of our trees 
would bring her little ones under the tree where the suet was and fly up and 
bring pieces down to them. While she was on the ground feeding them, 
the Cat-bird would go to the suet. As soon as the Robin saw the Cat-bird 
on the suet she would go and drive him off, when he would fly down under 
•the tree to pick up the pieces which dropped. They would keep this up 
for some time. Papa nailed a piece of suet on the table in the yard where 
my sister and I mix mud-pies, and the Cat-birds would come there and eat 
and carry some away while we were there playing. The Red -winged Black- 
birds came to the back part of our garden, where we kept a pile of food for 
the birds, and carried off great pieces for their young ones. They made 
many trips a day for some time. This winter the Downy and the Nuthatch 
came the first day of December, though the Chickadees were here weeks 
before that. We read in ' Bird-Life ' that bayberries were the Warbler's 
favorite food, so mamma and I picked some and put them out in a dish on 
the window-sill for him. We put out some flies, too, and he ate those and 
did not seem to care for the bayberries. We saw him eat three berries, 
and he could hardly swallow them ; they seemed so large for his little bill 
and throat. We have had thirteen different kinds of birds in the yard this 
winter, and enjoy watching them very much. 

'li'ffiil ' ■iii||i 

Report of the National Association 
of Audubon Societies 


Results of Special Protection to Water Birds 



History of the Audubon Movement 



Introductory. V 

History of the Audubon Movement. 

Work of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

EstabHshment of the Biological Survey. 

A. O. U. Committee on Bird Protection. 

The Organization of the First Audubon Society. 

The Audubon Magazine. 

Decline of the First Audubon Movement. 

Origin of the Second, or Present Audubon Movement. 

The Thayer Fund. 

Formation of the National Committee. 

Report of the National Co.mmittee for 1904. 
Thayer Fund. 

Bird Protection Abroad, in Canada and Mexico. 
Government Aid. 
Live Bird Traffic. 

State Reports. 

Reports of Receipts and Expenditures. 


Admit into thy silent breast 

The notes of but one bird, 
And instantly thy soul will join 

In jubilant accord. 

— Johanna Ambrosius. 

PROGRESS is defined as advancement of any kind; growth, develop- 
ment, improvement; and is a high word for the promotion of 
human knowledge, character and general welfare. In all these 
things we feel that the great economic movement in which we are 
engaged has made positive gains, not only on the material, but also on 
the spiritual side. The material gains can always be seen, recognized and 
enumerated, because they are tangible; for instance, there is the model 
law adopted in two important states, an active Audubon Society organized 
in another important state, and additional colonies of water-birds discovered 
and effectively cared for by paid wardens, while many of the colonies 
that have had protection for several years show a marked increase in size. 
The spiritual gains are intangible, but are nevertheless positive and 
recognizable in increased interest, willingness to work, inquiry about 
methods, and, above all, a growing and generous response to financial 
calls for support. 


In order that the great gains that have been made may be more easily 
recognized, let us take a retrospective view. 

As early as 1883 there was an evident awakening to the fact that 
too many birds were being killed, for 'Forest and Stream,' in comment- 
ing on a communication from a correspondent, remarks: "The subject 
of protecting our small birds is, we are glad to see, occupying each year 
a larger share of public attention." Later in the same year, in an editorial 
on 'Spare the Swallows,' it says: "The milliners now demand the breasts 
and wings of Swallows for decorating ladies' hats. To supply the call, 
thousands of these birds are killed by agents of the millinery taxidermists." 
During the following year, 1884, this awakening was more evident, from 
the greater number of newspaper articles that appeared under such titles 
as the following: 'Protect the Small Birds,' the writer of which says: 
"For several years I have watched the decrease in numbers of our small 
birds"; 'Protecting Song Birds,' 'Preservation of Song Birds,' in which 
the writer says : "Let us have a law to prevent the shooting, by men 


46 Bird - Lore 

as well as boys, of the insect-eating and song-birds of our land " ; 
'Decrease of Song Birds,' in which the writer directs attention to the 
advertisement of a Boston taxidermist who calls for ' all kinds of native 
birds' and states, "I saw in the window of a large millinery store here 
over one hundred and fifty stuffed skins of the Baltimore Oriole, labeled 
75 cents each." In an editorial in ' Forest and Stream,' entitled, 'The 
Sacrifice of Song Birds,' it is stated: "The destruction of American 
wild birds for millinery purposes has assumed stupendous proportions. 
The unholy work gives employment to a vast army of men and women, 
and this arrny wages its campaign of destruction with a diabolical per- 
fection of system." The editorial refers to details of the work published 
in other columns of the paper which furnish evidence of the ghastly 
character of the business. It was during this year that the work of 
exterminating the Terns commenced and the gruesome business was carried 
on from Florida to Massachusetts and hundreds of thousands of these 
beautiful and graceful creatures were sacrificed on the altar of fashion. 
Today the small remnant of the once countless throngs of Terns, or 
Sea Swallows, are being carefully guarded by wardens in the employ of 
our Society who are paid from the Thayer Fund. They now live in 
peace and happiness, are permitted to breed in security, and, thanks to a 
growing sentiment of kindness to all wild life, are rapidly increasing 
in numbers. 

Work of the American Ornithologists' Union. — In the minutes of the 
second annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, held 
at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, September 30, 
1884, may be found the following entry: "Mr. Brewster called attention 
to the wholesale slaughter of birds, particularly Terns, along our coast 
for millinery purposes, giving some startling statistics of this destruction, 
and moved the appointment of a committee for the Protection of North 
American birds and their eggs against wanton and indiscriminate destruc- 
tion, the committee to consist of six, with power to increase its number, 
and to cooperate with other existing protective associations having similar 
objects in view. After earnest support of the motion by Messrs. Brewster, 
Chamberlain, Coues, Goss, Merriam and Sennett, it was unanimously 
adopted, and the following gentlemen were named as constituting the 
committee: William Brewster, H. A. Purdie, George B. Grinnell, 
Eugene P. Bicknell, William Dutcher and Frederic A. Ober." 

Establishment of the Biological Survey. — At this same meeting action 
was taken which proved far more reaching in its results than was prob- 
ably ever dreamed of or hoped for by its originators. The Union 
instructed the Council to prepare and present a proper memorial to 
Congress and also to the Canadian Government, in behalf of the Com- 
mittee on Bird Migration, and to consider what other means could be 

History of the Audubon Movement 





48 Bird - Lore 

devised to promote the work. As the result of the appeal to Congress, an 
appropriation of $5,000 in aid of the work was secured through the United 
States Department of Agriculture. In recognition of the action taken by 
the American Ornithologists' Union in securing the appropriation, the 
Department of Agriculture invited the Council of the A. O. U. to select 
a superintendent to carry on the work. The Council at a meeting held 
April 21, 1885, in Washington, unanimously appointed Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam, who secured as his assistant Dr. A. K. Fisher, both among the 
founders of the American Ornithologists' Union. From this humble 
beginning has grown the present Biological Survey, a Division of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, which still has at its head 
Dr. Merriam, the original superintendent, who has gathered about him 
a staff of well-known ornithologists. 

The great value of the work of this important division of the Govern- 
ment is becoming more and more apparent every year, especially in the 
great mass of educational material that is being published, and in the active 
part it is taking in the work of protecting both game and non-game birds. 
The Audubon Societies work in close touch with the Biological Survey, in 
fact being practically auxiliary to it. All important movements and plans 
of the National Association are adopted after consultation with the Biologi- 
cal Survey, which furnishes a large part of the food data which is embraced 
in the Educational Leaflets published by this Society. 

Early Legislation. — To continue our review, early in 1885 the Legisla- 
ture of New Jersey passed a bill, introduced by Senator Griggs, forbidding 
the killing of any Nighthawk, Whippoorwill, Tern, Gull, or any insectivo- 
rous or song bird not generally known as a game bird. This was probably 
the first comprehensive bird law passed, in that it protected all the birds 
that could not strictly be considered game birds. 

Song Birds as Food. — During the same year Mr. Sennett, of the first 
A. O. U. Protection Committee, published in 'Forest and Stream' an 
article entitled ' The Lesson of a Market,' in which he gave a list of the 
non-game birds that he found exposed for sale in the Norfolk, Virginia, 
market. It consisted of twenty-six species, among them the Robin, Cat- 
bird, Brown Thrasher, Bluebird, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Waxwing, 
Red -eyed Vireo, eight species of Sparrows, Dove, and included even the 
Crow and Screech Owl. Twelve or fifteen stands had the birds for sale, 
some having as many as three or four hundred. Contrast that condition 
with the conditions today. The markets at the present time are bare of 
song birds and in some states even game birds are not sold. During the 
present year even the New Orleans markets were closed for song birds, 
where they had been sold in large quantities ever since the days of the 
French occupancy. This last gain was the direct result of the effective 
work of th3 Louisiana Audubon Society. 

History of the Audubon Movement 49 

A. O. U. Committie on Bird Protection. — At the mectini^ of the Ameri- 
can Ornithologists" Union held at the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, November 17-18, 1885, a report of the Committee on the 
Protection of Native Birds was made by Mr. Brewster, chairman, who 
stated that owing to ill health he was obliged to resign the chairmanship, 
and for this and other adverse circumstances the Committee had been 
unable to develop a systematic plan of work. The discussion following the 
report showed that there was no lack of interest in the subject, and that 
active measures would be taken to enlighten the public and to create a 
proper sentiment in relation to the wholesale slaughter of birds going on for 
millinery purposes. "Dr. Merriam regarded the work of this Committee 
as the most urgent now before the Union." A new Committee was ap- 
pointed which met at 51 Liberty Street, New York, December 12, 1885, 
for organization. Mr. George B. Sennett was elected permanent Chair- 
man and Mr. Eugene P. Bicknell, Secretary, the other members of the 
Committee being Dr. J. A. Allen, Dr. J. B. Holder, Dr. George B. 
Grinnell, William Dutcher and L. S. Foster, all of New York City; Mr. 
Wm. Brewster, of Cambridge, Mass. ; Mr. Montague Chamberlain, St. 
John, N. B., and Col. N. S. Goss, Topeka, Kansas. Weekly meetings 
were held thereafter at the American Museum of Natural History, when a 
large amount of preliminary work was done. A sub-committee was 
appointed to collect statistics respecting the extent of the trade in bird 
skins for millinery purposes; to another sub-committee was entrusted the 
duty of procuring a full series of the legislative enactments of the different 
states in behalf of bird protection, as a basis for intelligent action in respect 
to this phase of the subject. 

The Committee deemed it advisable that its first work should be edu- 
cational in its character, in order to create sentiment against the use of 
birds for decorative purposes and in general for the protection of all 
native birds. 

The year 1886 seemed to mark the high tide of bird protection work 
during its first cycle of development, and great activity was displayed. The 
A. O. U. Committee, through the cooperation of the editor and publisher 
of 'Science' and of Mr. G. E. Gordon, President of the American Humane 
Association, were able to effectively reach the public. A sixteen-page sup- 
plement to No. 160 of Science,' February 26, 1886, was issued; and it was 
subsequently republished as 'Bulletin No. i of the A. O. U. Committee 
on Bird Protection' in an edition of over 100,000 copies. It contained the 
following articles: 'The Present Wholesale Destruction of Bird-Life in 
the United States,' by J. A. Allen; 'Destruction of Bird-Life in the 
Vicinity of New York,' by William Dutcher; 'Destruction of the Eggs of 
Birds for Food,' by George B. Sennett; 'Birds and Bonnets,' by Frank 
M. Chapman, and as editorials, 'The Rchtion of Birds to Agriculture,' 

50 Bird -Lore 

'Bird-Laws,' and 'An Appeal to the Women of the Country in Behalf of 
the Birds.' 

In this Bulletin was presented the first completed draft of what has since 
been known as the A. O. U. Model Law, 'An Act for the Protection of 
Birds and their Nests and Eggs.' While the Model Law has been im- 
proved and strengthened as the result of experience, yet it substantially 
remains the same as when first drawn in January, 1886. One of the tangi- 
ble gains in bird protection work is the fact that in January, 1886, the 
Model Law was not in force in a single state ; today it is in full force in 
twenty-eight states, the territory of Alaska and the Northwest Territories, 
across the border. 

Organization of the First Audubon Society. — An editorial entitled 'The 
Audubon Society' appeared February 11, 1886, in 'Forest and Stream,' 
from which is quoted some facts relating to the organization of the first 
Audubon Society, the successor of which we now are: "Very slowly the 
public are awakening to see that the fashion of wearing feathers and skins 
of birds is abominable. Legislation of itself can do little against this bar- 
barous practice, but if public sentiment can be aroused against it, it will die 
a speedy death. While individual effort may accomplish much, it will work 
but slowly, and the spread of the movement will be but gradual. Some- 
thing more than this is needed. 

"In the first half of this century there lived a man who did more to teach 
Americans about birds of their own land than any other who ever lived. 
His beautiful and spirited paintings and his charming and tender accounts 
of the habits of his favorites have made him immortal, and have inspired his 
countrymen with an ardent love for the birds. The land which produced 
the painter-naturalist, John James Audubon, will not willingly see the 
beautiful forms he loved so well exterminated. 

"We propose the formation of an Association for the protection of wild 
birds and their eggs, which shall be called the Audubon Society. Its mem- 
bership is to be free to every one who is willing to lend a helping hand in 
forwarding the objects for which it is formed. These objects shall be to pre- 
vent, so far as possible, (i) the killing of any wild birds not used for food ; 
(2) the destruction of nests or eggs of any wild bird, and (3) the wearing 
of feathers as ornaments or trimming for dress. 

"To bring this matter properly before the public at large, we shall em- 
ploy every means in our power to diffuse information on the subject over 
the whole country. Those who are willing to aid us in our labors are 
urged to establish local societies for work in their own neighborhood. To 
such branch societies we will send, without charge, circulars and printed 
information for distribution among their neighbors. A little effort in this 
direction will do much good. As soon as the association shall have a 
membership and shall be in a position to organize, and shall have attained 

History of the Audubon Movement 51 

an existence, we will hand the books and any funds which it may have, 
over to its members, who will, thereafter, take charge of it. The work to 
be done by the Audubon Society is auxiliary to that undertaken by the 
Committee of the American Ornithologists' Union ; and will further the 
efforts of the A. O. U. Committee, doing detail duties to which they can- 
not attend." 

That the Audubon Society attracted the attention of the best minds of 
the country is indicated by the following letters, selected from many others, 
received by ' Forest and Stream ' : 

"Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1886. 
I am heartily in sympathy with your purposes for the protection of 
birds, and should be glad to contribute any influence that I can to that end. 
If there were no purchasers there would be no demand, and no reason for 
slaughtering these winged gems. But as only women create a demand, it 
rests upon them to stay this wanton destruction. I am sure it is only nec- 
essary to bring before American women the cruelty of this ' slaughter of the 
innocents ' that fashion is carrying on to secure a renunciation of this orna- 
ment and the salvation of birds. On this subject the kind feelings, the 
taste, and aesthetic sympathy of the whole community are on your side, 
and if you persevere you will assuredly win. Yours, 

Henry Ward Beecher." 

"Oak Knoll, Danvers, Mass., 2d mo., 20, 1886. 
I heartily approve of the proposed Audubon Society. We are in a way 
to destroy both our forests and our birds. A Society for the preservation of 
the latter has long been needed, and I hope it is not too late for the ac- 
complishment of its objects. I could almost wish that the shooters of the 
birds, the taxidermists who prepare their skins, and the fashionable wearers 
of their feathers might share the penalty which was visited upon the Ancient 
Mariner who shot the Albatross. Thy Friend, John G. Whittier." 

Bishop Henry C. Potter wrote: "There is an element of savagery in the 
use of birds for personal decoration, which is in grotesque contrast with 
our boasts of civilization : but even the savage stops short, as a rule, with 
the feathers. It is only Christian people who think it worth while to 
butcher a whole bird to adorn their headgear. I am sure, however, that it 
is largely from that unreflecting habit which is a leading vice in people who 
follow the fashions. But it is a vice, as Hood sang, when he wrote, 

' For evil is wrought 
By want of thought, 
As well as by want of heart.'" 

Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote: "I assure you of my hearty sympathy 
with the members of the Audubon Society in their efforts to prevent the 

52 Bird - Lore 

waste of these beautiful, happy, innocent and useful lives on which we de- 
pend for a large share of our natural enjoyment." 

Charles Dudley Warner sent the following message: "A dead bird does 
not help the appearance of an ugly woman, and a pretty woman needs no 
such adornment." 

In June, 1886, the Audubon Society reported that it had passed the 
10,000 mark in membership and that additional names were being added at 
the rate of one thousand per week. On'May 20, 1886, the Legislature of 
New York State substantially passed the A. O. U. Model Law, thus being 
the first commonwealth to adopt this measure. 

At the end of the first six months of its existence the Audubon Society 
had enrolled over 11,000 members, and it was deemed necessary to incor- 
porate. Steps were taken to that end, and on August 6, 1886, the incor- 
poration was completed in the city of New York, with the corporate 
title of ' The Audubon Society for the Protection of Birds.' The incor- 
porators were George Bird Grinnell, Edward R. Wilbur, Charles B. Rey- 
nolds, Joel A. Allen and William D. Page. 

In November following, the A. O. U. Protection Committee published 
its second Bulletin in ' Forest and Stream.' This was subsequently repub- 
lished in pamphlet form as ' Protection of Birds by Legislation.' This 
Bulletin contained the New York Law of 1886, with detailed comments, 
also a revised and simplified draft of a model law with full explanation 
thereof, and suggestions how the law might be enforced, the effect of the 
law on bird protection, the work of the Audubon Society and other perti- 
nent matter. The report of the A. O. U. Protection Committee pre- 
sented by Mr. Sennett, chairman, at the fourth annual meeting of the 
Society, held November 16-18, 1886, at Washington, D. C, proved of 
special interest and showed activity on the part of the members. During 
the year twenty meetings were held at which a quorum was present. After 
detailing the work and successes of the year, it concluded by stating that 
the public press had warmly seconded its efforts, and it felt justified in 
claiming that its labors had yielded most encouraging results, and that 
the future was full of promise of further successes. The public was thor- 
oughly aroused to the importance of enforcing strenuous measures for the 
better protection of our birds, and the sympathy and assistance received by 
the Committee in its work was full of encouragement to further effort. 

At the close of the year 1886 the Audubon Society had 16,000 
members, with over three hundred local secretaries, scattered throughout 
the United States and in various foreign countries. 

The Audubon Magazine. — In January, 1887, ' The Audubon Magazine' 
appeared as the organ of the bird protection movement. ' Forest and 
Stream' in an editorial, January 13, 1887, states: "The methods of 
personal letter writing and circular distribution, heretofore adopted by the 

History of the Audubon Movement 53 

Audubon Society, have proven inadequate to keep pace with the growth 
of the movement, and now the Society is to have its own special 
medium in the world of journalism. ' The Audubon Magazine,' devoted 
to extending and building up song-bird protection, will be published in 
the interest of the Society by the Forest and Stream Publishing Company. 

"The special purpose of the new monthly will be to advance the 
work already so well under way, give stability and permanence to 
that work, and broaden the sphere of effort in such directions as may 
with reason suggest themselves. Ornithology, discussed in a popular 
way, will, as a matter of course, take precedence over other subjects 
of natural history, to which the pages of the new magazine will be largely 
devoted, but it will treat of outdoor life and animated nature in many 
forms. The price has been made merely nominal, fifty cents per year. 
The Audubon Society will hereafter grant admission to associate member- 
ship. This step is taken out of deference to the expressed desires of a 
large number of persons who are in hearty sympathy with the Society 
in its aims and in all of its methods, except the pledging of members. 
For one reason or another such persons do not care to sign the Audubon 
pledges. They will, however, be glad to lend to the work their influence 
and active aid, and it is therefore desirable that they should in some way 
be recognized." 

In May the Audubon Society reported a membership of about 30,000, 
and 'Forest and Stream' in an editorial said: "The expenses of this 
movement, which have been very heavy, have been borne by Forest 
and Stream Publishing Company without any assistance from outside 
persons. Four numbers of the Audubon Magazine have appeared and 
we are able to form an intelligent judgment of the character of the 
periodical. It is full of matter which is both instructive and entertain- 
ing. Each number contains a full-page illustration of some well-known 
bird, carefully reproduced from Audubon's plate, together with a descrip- 
tion and life history of the species figured. Besides this the story of 
the life of the great artist -naturalist is appearing as a serial. Economic 
questions are treated in an intelligent and novel way, and there are lighter 
articles and stories for the younger folks." June 30, 1887, the Secretary 
of the Audubon Society reported a membership of 36,000, and, in 
August, 38,400. 

At the fifth meeting of the A. O. U. held at the Museum of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, October 11-13, 1887, Mr. Sennett, 
chairman of Committee on Bird Protection, reported as follows: "The 
Committee was doing all in its power to disseminate information in relation 
to the subject, the chief obstacle to its work being the ignorance of 
the public on all matters relating to the utility of birds and the measures 
necessary for their protection. This ignorance was especially dense among 

54 Bird - Lore 

farmers, who were intensely prejudiced against Hawks and Owls, and 
indifferent to the services rendered by these and many other useful species 
which they were accustomed to regard as enemies and pests. The informa- 
tion the Committee had gathered respecting the food of birds of prey showed 
conclusively that, with two or three exceptions, these species were far 
more beneficial than harmful, many of them subsisting chiefly on field 
mice and other farm pests. In this connection quite an extended account 
was given of the very excellent work of the Audubon Society." 

Decline of the First Audubon Movement. — During 1888 the tide of 
bird protection was rapidly ebbing, for the subject seemed to be given 
little attention in the public press. ' Forest and Stream ' pointed to the 
fact that large numbers of song birds were shot during the spring migration 
in the vicinity of New York, notwithstanding the law forbidding shooting 
of such birds and, in an editorial in November, said as follows: "Essays 
have been written to demonstrate the foolishness of small bird destruction, 
laws have been passed to protect the useful species, societies have been 
organized and tens of thousands of members enrolled pledged against the 
fatuous fashion of wearing bird skins as dress; arguments, pleas, appeals 
to reason and appeals to sentiment have been urged; and what is the 
outcome of it all? Fashion decrees feathers; and feathers it is. The 
headgear of women is made up in as large a degree as ever before of 
the various parts of small birds. Thousands and millions of birds are 
displayed in every conceivable shape on the hats and bonnets. This 
condition of affairs must be something of a shock to the leaders of the 
Audubon Society, who were sanguine enough to believe that the moral 
idea represented by their movement would be efficacious to influence 
society at large. Meantime the reintroduction of feather millinery in 
no way derogates from the value of the work done by the Audubon 
Society. It has called attention to the ethical and economic aspects of 
the question and has educated a very respectable minority to organized 
action. In the face of this minority thoroughly convinced that indulgence 
in feather millinery is wrong in itself, or conducive to consequences 
inimical to human well-being, the arbiters of fashion cannot achieve that 
complete success they have been accustomed to look for." With the 
end of the second volume, December, 1888, the Audubon Magazine 
ceased to exist and, with it, organized effort for bird protection. 

At the sixth annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union 
a very brief statement of the work of the Protection Committee was made 
by Dr. J. A. Allen, in the absence of the chairman, Mr. Sennett. "Efforts 
were being made to influence legislation and the Committee was trying 
to enlighten the public." 

During 1889 the subject received no attention from the press, and 
at the Seventh Congress of the A. O. U., held November 12-15, Mr, 

History of the Audubon Movement 55 

Sennett, chairman of the Protection Committee, made a very brief verbal 
report of progress, the most important statement being that the law 
recently enacted by the State of Peimsylvania, in a measure through the 
influence of the Committee, was commended as the best thus far adopted. 

The report of the A. O. U. Protection Committee, made by 
Mr. Sennett, chairman, at the Eighth Congress, November 18-20, 1890, 
merely referred to the fact that no additional legislation had been obtained, 
but there was a general feeling manifested to protect song birds. 

At the Ninth Congress of the A. O. U., November 17-19, 1891, 
the chairman, Mr. Sennett, merely reported progress, and Mr. Brewster 
stated what had been done to protect the Terns on Muskeget Island 
(Mass.) during the past four years. 

The Protection Committee did not make any report to the American 
Ornithologists' Union during the years 1892 and 1893. At the Eleventh 
Congress, 1894, Mr. F. M. Chapman was appointed chairman of the 

At the Twelfth Congress the chairman, Mr. Chapman, in his report, 
detailed the special protection .given to the Terns on Great Gull Island, 
N. Y., to prevent their extermination, and also the successful efforts of 
Messrs. Brewster and Mackay to prevent the repeal of the Massachusetts 
law protecting the Terns of Muskeget Island. The Committee was con- 
tinued and, Mr. Chapman declining the chairmanship, Mr. Gurdon Trum- 
bull was made chairman. 

At the Thirteenth Congress, Nov. 12-14, 1895, Mr. Brewster stated, in 
behalf of the Protection Committee, that the Terns on Muskeget Island 
showed great increase, as did the colony of Laughing Gulls; and that great 
cudit was due Mr. George H. Mackay for his continuous efiforts to save 
these birds from destruction. Messrs. Stone and Dutcher reported on the 
protection given to the coast birds in New Jersey and New York. A new 
committee was appointed, consisting of William Dutcher, chairman, Ruth- 
ven Deane, Witmer Stone, Leverett M. Loomis and George H. Mackay. 

At the close of the year 1895 the low tide of bird protection had come 
and the end of the first cycle was at hand. The A. O. U. Protection 
Committee was discouraged and hopeless, feather- wearing was as rampant 
as ever, the legislatures of the states of New York and Pennsylvania, where 
the model law had been enacted, had amended or repealed the same, and 
bird legislation was as defective as it was before the protection movement 
began; the Audubon Society had practically ceased to exist, and the 
'Audubon Magazine' was no longer published. Truly it might be said that 
the cause of bird protection seemed hopeless, for the movement that had 
Started so brilliantly in 1883 was seemingly dead after a short career of 
twelve year§. An analysis of the cause of the decline points to the follow- 
ing reason; the movement was started and carried on as a single society. 

56 Bird -Lore 

the expenses of the same being borne by a liberal and public -spirited corpo- 
ration that was organized for another purpose. The magnitude of the 
undertaking was too great for any person or corporation to carry on unaided, 
the actual physical labor and the great expense were beyond the strength or 
purse of anything but a cooperative movement among the several states and 
the contributions of hundreds of individuals. There was also a total lack 
of supporting laws, nor was the warden system adopted during the first 

Origin of the Second, or Present Audubon Movement. — The second cycle 
of bird protection practically commenced in January, 1896, when the sys- 
tem of State Audubon Societies was started by the -organization of a Society 
in Massachusetts; this was followed by one in Pennsylvania, and thereafter 
state organizations followed in rapid succession, until now there are societies 
in thirty-five states, one territory and the .District of Columbia. Many of 
these societies are large ahd flourishing ones, some of them being incorpo- 
rated. The Society in North Carolina is unique in that it acts in that 
state as a Game Commission with power of appointing bird- and game- 
wardens who can arrest violators of the game-laws. 

Uniform bird legislation was found to be absolutely necessary and has 
rapidly been secured, so that at this date the model law is in force in 
twenty-eight states, one territory and the Northwest Territories in the 
British Provinces. In addition, the Audubon Societies, individually and 
through the National Association, have exerted avast and valuable influence 
in game-bird protection, having found it impossible not to become 
interested and involved in this important branch of economics. All of the 
societies stand emphatically for short open seasons, no spring shooting, 
non- export, no sale of game, and every known method of preserving the 
rapidly diminishing game-birds of the country. 

Another of the gains is the powerful auxiliary to Audubon work, the 
very excellent illustrated magazine BiRD-LoRE, now in its seventh volume, 
which is the organ of the societies, and is a medium of exchange of 
thought, methods and news between the several state Societies, and serves 
to keep them in touch with one another; further, it is a means of com- 
munication between the officers and committees of the individual societies 
and their members. This magazine is of the highest character, being 
scientifically correct and correctly popular; the editor having kept up to the 
high standard promised in his editorial in the first number, February, 1899. 
The several societies and bird lovers at large can in no surer way advance 
the cause of bird protection than by extending very widely the circulation 
of our official organ, BiRD-LoRE. 

The Thayer Fund. — Early in 1900 Fashion had again attacked the Gulls 
and Terns, and dealers said that the demand for these skins far exceeded the 
supply. An appeal to bird lovers was made by Mf. Abbott H. Thayer, and 

History of the Audubon Movement 57 

through his efforts a generous fund was raised which was used for special 
protection to sea-birds during the breeding season, wardens being employed 
for this purpose. Mr. Thayer has diligently and patiently worked to con- 
tinue the fund from year to year, with annually increasing results, so that 
during the past year thirty- four wardens have been employed, as follows: 
Maine, 10; Massachusetts, i; New York, 2; New Jersey, 2; Virginia, 8; 
North Carolina, 4; Florida, 4; Texas, i; Michigan, i; Oregon, i; and 
a contract has just been made with a warden in Louisiana. 

Formation of the National Committee. — In November, 1900, an important 
meeting took place in Cambridge, having as its object the discussion of 
the Federation of the State Audubon Societies in order to strengthen 
the bird-protection movement and more effectually place it upon a lasting 
basis. A committee was appointed, which reported at a meeting held in 
New York in November, 1901, as follows: 

1. That the several societies retain their individuality, that is, that 
they be not merged into a National Organization. 

2. But in view of the increased efficiency that would always result 
from some form of union, which would admit of concerted action, it is 
recommended that, 

3. The several societies shall each appoint one member of a Committee 
to be known as the National Committee of the Audubon Societies of 

4. That the members of the Committee may be empowered to repre- 
sent the societies whenever concerted action on the part of the societies 
be deemed by the Committee expedient. 

5. That an annual Conference be held. 

Since 1901, the National Committee has had charge of the formation 
of new Audubon Societies, the fostering and encouragement of the new 
and weaker organizations, the warden system, legislation, and general 
educational work, and it is also an additional medium of exchange between 
the several state societies. In 1903 the National Committee began to 
issue a series of illustrated leaflets for educational purposes. 

The above resume of the bird -protection movement, from its inception 
to the end of 1903, is presented in order that the public may have 
in concise form a history of the movement. 

If desired, fuller details may be obtained in the published reports 
from 1896 to 1903 of the work done in those years. 

58 Bird -Lore 


Suggestions. — This brings us to the present year's activities, but, before 
detailing them, it is deemed advisable to present certain important sugges- 
tions for the consideration of the several state societies; the most vital 
of these is legislation. 

In the states of Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, 
Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hamp- 
shire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Rhode Island, 
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming, there 
will be legislative sessions commencing early in 1905- In each of these 
states the Model Law is now in force, and it is, therefore, extremely 
important that measures shall be adopted to prevent any adverse bird 
legislation. The Audubon Societies of the several states in question 
should at once have their Law Committees arrange to watch closely for 
any such legislation. If this is not done, it will be a very easy matter 
-for selfish people to have amendments passed that will very seriously weaken 
the present excellent laws. In Ohio, in 1903. an amendment was passed 
removing the Dove from the protected birds. This was a very serious 
loss to the state itself, besides having a bad influence in other sections 
of the country. The best method of watching legislation is to arrange 
with some reliable person at the Capitol, preferably a bright newspaper 
reporter, to furnish a copy of every bird bill that is introduced; the 
Law Committee will then determine whether the bill is adverse or benefi- 
cial; if the latter, it should be supported by the Society, but, if adverse, 
every means should be taken to defeat the passage of the bill. This 
is one of the most important activities for Audubon Societies to engage 
in, and under no circumstances should it be overlooked or passed by 
as a matter of no importance. 

The National Committee, having large experience in such matters, 
holds itself in readiness to advise and aid the Audubon Society of any 
state where adverse legislation may be introduced. 

A second suggestion, equally important, is the incorporation, not only 
of each State Society, but of the National Committee also, for the same 
reasons apply to all. 

We have seen that the original Audubon movement was not permanent 
chiefly because of lack of pecuniary support. Permanency for all the 
societies can be obtained only by incorporation, in order that each may 
be in a legal position to receive bequests from persons to whom our great 
economic movement appeals. The financial support of such an under- 
taking as ours is always largely in the nature of voluntary subscriptions, and 
to a smaller extent from dues of members. That these latter arc in no 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 59 

way adequate, every executive officer of an Audubon Society knows only 
too well. Early in the year a large number of letters regarding the 
incorporation of the National Committee were sent to contributors, and 
the officers of the several societies. It was the consensus of opinion that 
incorporation was desirable and important. 

There are large numbers of Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children and Animals in the country, which in almost every instance are 
incorporated, and some of them are endowed with large sums, and are the 
owners of a considerable amount of income-producing property. None of 
these societies has objects of greater economic importance than the one we 
represent, for the preservation of the birds of the country has a direct bear- 
ing on the greatest of all the industries of the United States — its agriculture. 
As the Committee is now constituted, it is without legal form and cannot 
accept bequests, should any be ofifered. The popular character of bird 
protection, which appeals, as it does, to all persons who, in the slightest 
degree, love nature and her beautiful creatures, is sure to attract the notice 
of persons who are looking for desirable channels in which to dispose of 
surplus wealth. During the past year the New York Audubon Society 
found it necessary to incorporate in haste. A letter was received by the 
secretary in which the writer said that she was about to have a will made 
and, if the Society were in a legal position to accept a bequest, that one- 
half of her estate would be devised to it. 

Again, the chairman of the National Committee was visited recently 
by a friend of the movement, who, after listening to a detailed statement of 
the plans and scope of work carried on and also seeing the evidences of 
actual results obtained from the small fund annually received, stated that 
just as soon as the National Committee was legally constituted he would 
add a codicil to his will devising to the National Committee the sum of 
one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), which, on its receipt, was to be 
securely invested, the interest of the same only to be used. The only con- 
dition he made was that the scope of the work of the National Committee 
was to be broadened enough to embrace wild animals as well as birds. He 
added, on the occasion of a second visit, "if, after seeing the names on 
your board of trustees, I find that they are of a class that will faithfully 
carry out the present purposes and plans of your society, I may not limit 
the sum to $100,000." 

The above is only one of the many cogent reasons why the National 
Committee should be incorporated at once, and the same reasons apply 
equally to all of the State Societies that are not already incorporated. We 
are warranted in looking forward to the time when the central body shall 
have the means at its disposal from interest and rents alone, to send out 
trained lecturers and organizers to all parts of the country, to publish for 
gratuitous distribution necessary educational matter and to conduct earnestly 

6o Bird -Lore 

and freely one of the greatest economic and aesthetic movements of the 

- The third suggestion is regarding the Junior members, the boys and 
girls. It is believed that not enough stress is laid upon enlisting the youth 
of our country in this work. It has been truly said by an educator in Ken- 
tucky, "It is surely vi^ith the school children, the men and w^omen to be, 
rather than the adults, we must grow." This idea is the keynote, and sug- 
gests the future strength of the Audubon movement. What are we doing 
for the youth at the present time? Surely not enough when we ask them 
only to sign a pledge, and in return give a button or a leaflet of some kind. 
Let us look back to our own youth and think how such action would have 
affected us, — should we have had more than a passing interest which would 
have been about as lasting as the morning dew ? Children are superlatively 
creatures of action, full of life and vigor and anxious to do something; they 
are not satisfied to sit idly by and not be a part of any activity that is going 
on. Can we not apply this very force to our own benefit ? I think we 
may. How ? 

It is well known that the individual is the unit, but stronger than the 
unit is the family, stronger than the family is the hamlet, stronger than the 
hamlet is the township, then the state, and finally the country. Let us 
apply the institutional method to the children of villages and towns and 
form them into branches or clubs, with officers and committees. Are we 
not always complaining of the boy with the beanshooter or the first gun, 
who we claim is killing birds or collecting eggs. This is merely misdirected 
force, and at heart the boy is not bad. If the supposedly worst boy in a 
hamlet were to be made the chairman of a committee of boj^s and girls 
whose duty it was to protect birds, one could not find in all the Audubon 
ranks a more earnest, consistent worker than he would be. What chil- 
dren need is to have a sense of responsibility for the care or safety of some 
object. They can always be trusted under such circumstances. It is a 
vitally different proposition if you say to that same lad, "You must not hurt 
or frighten the birds, because it is not only wrong but against the law." 
That is a proposition in which he takes little interest; but let him be per- 
sonally responsible for the care of the birds, and, believe me, he will not 
fail you. The stimulus of interest makes all the difference in the world in 
that boy; in other words, let us judiciously steer the force and activity of 
the child in the proper channel. Will it not interest the average boy or 
girl to be on a Committee on nesting boxes, on feeding birds in winter, 
on a nature library for the town, or school, on bringing the Audubon 
travehng lecture to the town, on ushering and seating the audience; these 
things will all serve to help our work and incidentally make good citizens. 
Let us give this suggestion a fair trial during the coming year. 

The fourth suggestion is that most of the Societies are not growing fast 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 6i 

enough in membership, and consequently are hampered for workers and 
financial support. How can this be remedied? 

1. By preparing a concise and effective appeal, stating the objects of the 
Society and asking all persons who are interested in birds or nature to join. 

2. Asking for persons who will act as local secretaries. 

3. Getting every paper in your state to publish your appeal once or 
twice. The Audubon Societies do not avail themselves enough of the sup- 
port, aid and influence of the public press. The columns of the news- 
papers are always open to any great popular movement. 

4. Getting the boys and girls to act on committees for addressing 
envelopes and folding circulars, and thus distributing them by the thousands, 
when a single overworked secretary could prepare only a few hundreds. 

5. By making special efforts to secure bird and nature libraries and illus- 
trated bird lectures to be loaned free to all applicants. 

6. By trying to secure the influence and cooperation of women's clubs 
and especially trying to get them to refrain from using aigrettes. 

The fifth suggestion is for every Society to have a law committee who 
should prepare a circular giving the names of the state officials charged with 
the duty of bird and game protection, with the names and addresses of the 
special or local officers. The information should also embrace the law and 
how it is enforced. This circular should be distributed broadcast through- 
out the state, and the press should be asked to publish the same. Warning 
notices should be prepared for tacking on trees and public places, and if there 
is a large foreign element in the population some warning notices should be 
printed in the foreign language most used. The principal foreign offenders 
are Italians, Poles and Germans, who congregate in or about the large cen- 
ters of population. 

Further suggestions will be made by the National Committee from 
time to time through our organ, BiRD-LoRE. 

Thayer Fund. — It is gratifying to be able to report that contributions 
to the Thayer Fund, the financial support of the National Committee, 
are growing more liberal each year. In 1900 this fund was $1,400; 1901, 
$1,680; 1902, $1,945; 1903, $3,054; and during the present year, $3,731. 

The following table shows where the citizens are most interested in the 
preservation of birds, as indicated by the amount of funds contributed: 
Massachusetts, $2,027 ; New York, $1,212; Michigan, $130; Connecti- 
cut, $93; Rhode Island, $65 ; Pennsylvania, $63 ; Switzerland, $25 ; New 
Jersey, $23; Illinois, $16; Vermont, $15; Canada, $14; District of Colum- 
bia, $ii; Maine, $10; Ohio, $11; Wisconsin, $5. 

Bird Protection Abroad. — The Sub-Committee on Foreign Relations has 
not been idle during the past year, and it is pleased to be able to report the 
following: The very pleasant relations existing between the English and 
American Societies for the Protection of Birds is every day becoming more 

62 Bird -Lore 

close and intimate. A large number of educational leaflet No. 7 on the 
Snowy Heron were distributed by the English Society. Mrs. Edward 
Phillips, one of the vice-presidents, writes: "I was intending to write to 
you to tell how immediate the appreciation of your admirable article on the 
'Snowy Heron' has been, and to add an assurance of my earnest desire that 
it may please the Creator of every living thing to direct and strengthen your 
efforts and those of your co-workers and sympathizers, among whom please 
count me." Mrs. Praeger, of Holywood, Ireland, says, "Your Society 
makes a very touching and powerful plea for the Herons; it is quite the 
best leaflet I have seen on the subject, and I was glad to have it to dis- 
tribute at our last meeting." 

Early during the present year large numbers of Swallow skins were 
offered in the millinery shops in New York. On examination they were 
found to be Hirundo rustica, a common European bird. Some were pur- 
chased and sent to the British Society in order to keep them informed of 
the situation in the United States. The Secretary replied, "Your enclo- 
sure is of melancholy interest — the poor little bodies of these young Swallows, 
killed when just out of babyhood and making, probably, their first flight to 
a new and unknown home — Swallows that ought to have come and twit- 
tered about our English homes, but instead are ghastly little corpses for the 
'decoration' of American women's hats. 

"I think I may say that in England the Swallows are everywhere pro- 
tected and valued. I doubt whether one is ever intentionally killed. On 
the contrary, the decrease in their numbers has of recent years been a subject 
of serious concern. It is on the Mediterranean, in France and Italy, that 
the slaughter of these birds takes place, during the migration season ; and 
this I fear we shall have no power to stop until some international law of 
bird protection is agreed upon. 

"May I again express our indebtedness to you for the 'Snowy Heron' 
leaflets, which are, I believe, doing good work." 

An inquiry was received early in the year from Dr. Heuss, of Berlin, 
asking for information regarding the plan and scope of the Audubon work. 
This was furnished, and the National Committee stated that it would be 
very glad to cooperate with the German Society in any international move- 
ment to protect the birds of the whole world. Attention was also called to 
large numbers of wild birds that annually were shipped alive from Europe 
to America for sale by the cage-bird dealers. A letter from Louisa, 
Countess V. I. Groben, will be of interest to the members of the Ameri- 
can Societies. "Having read your letter to Dr. Heuss, I must say how 
happy I am that we have come into connection. When I founded our 
Frauen-bund, only last March, I had no idea that a society with nearly the 
same aims and plans was existing in America! I admire all I read in the 
Audubon papers immensely, and only hope that in years to come our society 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 63 

will reach up to your standing. As we are going to have a new law about 
bird protection brought before the Reichstag next winter, it was of great 
value for us to read what you mentioned about the export of our birds 
via Bremen." 

From Switzerland comes the following good news from Mr. Herbert 
Edward Gans, of Geneva: "I am actively occupied with the vital question 
of the protection of useful birds, especially migratory birds, and as I have 
heard through the British Society that the laws in the United States have 
become very stringent, and that the efforts of your Union are being 
rewarded, I should feel very much obliged if you could send to me the best 
of the United States laws, or decrees, on the protection of birds, and 
especially of insectivorous and migratory birds, and of those unfortunate 
creatures which are exterminated for ornaments for ladies' hats. 

"I should feel obliged if you could also add a short summary or notice on 
the question, in general, and the way in which your Union has gone to 
work to accomplish its purpose. If you could answer me as soon as possi- 
ble, it might be of use to me, in the course of December next. 

"In Germany they are introducing, in many cities, a progressive law 
on cats (in proportion to the number owned by each person), and this 
measure renders valuable services; for cats are one of the great causes of 
destruction of useful birds, especially those, like the Nightingale and 
Black-cap, which nest near the ground." A detailed reply was sent, together 
with the fullest sympathy of the Audubon Societies in the movement to 
tax cats. A complete set of reports and other Audubon publications was 

Bird Protection for Canada. — Strange to say, it has been impossible to 
establish any close relations with our neighbors on the north, nor is it 
evident that Audubon work has taken much hold there. The Toronto 
* Sun ' seems to be most alive to the situation, for from time to time it 
publishes excellent editorials, one — 'Don't Shoot Hawks,' — being especially 
commendable. It closes as follows: "The newspapers throughout Ontario 
should keep this subject constantly before their readers, until some day 
the foolish prejudice against the Hawk and Owl families will have been 
dispelled." As the British Provinces are the summer homes of many of 
our birds, it is extremely desirable that the bird -protection movement 
should be extended to cover the whole of North America, both by the 
passage of the Model Law and the formation of Audubon Societies for 
educational work. The warden system is very much needed in the Marine 
Provinces, as is indicated by the accompanying statement of Mr. Herbert 
K. Job, the well-known ornithologist and explorer: 

"The last half of June and the early part of July I spent at the 
Magdalen Islands and off the southern coast of Nova Scotia, at Seal 
Island. Bird life on the Magdalens is holding its own very well. The 

64 Bird - Lore 

Common Terns are robbed in certain localities by the fishermen, but the 
regioQ is so wild that it would be hard to stop it. 1 examined a fine breed- 
ing colony of Ring-necked Plovers. Various ducks are breeding numerously, 
notably the Red-breasted Merganser and the Black Duck. 

"At Bird Rock the colony has decidedly increased. The keeper thinks 
there are ten thousand birds there. Certainly there are more than when 
I was there in 1900. The greatest increase is with the Kittiwakes, and 
the Gannets are also doing finely. The usual ledges are crowded with the 
latter, and North Bird Rock is white with them. Only the Puffins have 
not quite held their own, though they have not been disturbed. Not 
a soul had molested the birds this season at the time of our visit, — 
June 23 to 25. The keeper has been ordered by the British Government 
to let no one trouble the birds, yet he hesitates to enforce this absolutely, 
as he is left largely dependent upon the courtesy of the crews of vessels who 
land. Previous to our arrival he had seen no one — with one exception, 
in May — since the previous November, when the government supply 
steamer had called. 

"It is remarkable that the birds have so increased, since during the 
summer of 1903 a gang of workmen were engaged in blasting out 
a cut into the west side of the Rock, where is being built a stairway, a 
landing-jetty and a track up which boats are to be drawn by a steam 
winch to the top. These improvements were to have been completed 
this season. Henceforth it will be easier to ascend the Rock, yet, until 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence meets with ' a change of heart,' reaching the 
Rock and landing will still be uncertain and dangerous. The vessel 
we engaged failed to appear, and our party, rather than give up, after 
having come so far, made the trip from Grosse Isle in an open boat, 
at the risk of our lives. 

"On Seal Island, Nova Scotia, the once fine colony of the Herring 
Gulls is in a very bad way. Keeper Crowell and his talented daughter, 
Bernice, do all they can to protect the birds, but the island is too 
large for them to watch, being some three miles in length. Fishermen 
land and rob them, and as late as early July, when I was there, very 
few nests had eggs, and only one young Gull had been seen. The 
old Gulls are as wild as hawks. The colony has decreased 75 per cent, 
I think, since my visit there eight years ago. The Common or Arctic 
Tern colonies are also suffering, but the Black Guillemots are still 
numerous because, being mostly near the light-house, they are guarded by 
the Crowells. It is too bad to leave this good family unaided to carry 
on this unequal struggle to save these beautiful birds from ignorant, sense- 
less vandalism. The Nova Scotians are fine people, and they ought 
not to allow themselves to lag behind New Brunswick in the matter 
of bird protection." 

Photographed by H. K. Job 




Vertical height of cliff, lo; feet; distance by ladder, about 150 feet 
Photographed by H. K. Job 

Photographed by H. K. Job 

Photographed by H. K. Job 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 67 

Bird Protection in Mexico. — On the other hand, the work of bird protec- 
tion is being carried on admirably in Mexico, through the "Comision de 
Parasitologia Agricola." Prof. A. Meraz, of this Committee, furnishes the 
following outline of the work : 

"r. As the protection of birds is a matter which relates directly to the 
subjects of the Department of Agricultural Parasitology, Prof. Alfonso L. 
Herrera, Chief of that Department, submitted to the Second National 
Mexican Scientific Congress a proposed law for the protection of birds use- 
ful to agriculture. 

"2. Diverse studies relative to the useful birds have appeared in the 
Publications of the Commission. 

"3. Circulars have been distributed among the farmers with the object 
of forming Ornithology Leagues. 

"4. They are being established in Zacatlan, State of Puebla, Orizaba,, 
State of Vera Cruz, and Celaya, State of Guanajuato. 

"5. The Governors of some states have promulgated special laws regu- 
lating hunting, and especially prohibiting the hunting of useful birds. 

"6. The undersigned, under the direction of Prof. A. L .Herrera, and 
with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, gave a hearing on 
'The Protection of Birds Useful to Agriculture.' (On the 5th of May, 
last. ) 

"7. The Commission of Parasitology will regularly issue engravings of 
each one of the useful birds. Said engravings will be distributed preferably 
among the farmers, colleges and societies for the protection of animals.. 
The press will be asked to reproduce these engravings. 

"8. It is proposed that in the National Primary Schools, and if possible 
in their private capacity, the directors and professors will treat of the birds 
useful to agriculture in their lectures on zoology, and will teach this subject 
to the boys and girls. 

"9. It is proposed to construct large aviaries in the parks and public 
gardens of the Federal District for the purpose of procreating the useful 
species, and then setting them free. 

" 10. In everyway possible it will be arranged to dififuse knowledge rela- 
tive to the useful birds. 

"11. In due time the National Government will be asked to elevate the 
present laws to the category of laws for the entire Republic. 

"To conclude, it remains for me to express to the National Committee 
of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Birds, my fullest thanks in the 
name of this Commission for the interesting publications which the Com- 
mittee has sent me on such an interesting subject. 

"Separately, I am sending today to that honorable group, the publica- 
tions of this Department. I hope that from this date our interchange of 
pamphlets will be regularly established. 

68 Bird - Lore 

The report of the Conference of the 5th of May is now in the press, 
and I will send it at first opportunity. 

"I would be much obliged to you, Mr. Dutcher, if you would kindly 
send me the electrotypes which illustrate the pages of the ' Educational 
Leaflets,' so that we may reproduce them in the publications of this office." 

Later an appeal was made to Professor Meraz that some steps be taken 
to prevent the slaughter of White Herons in Mexico, to which he replied 
as follows : 

"This society has given an account to the secretary of same that some 
Mexican hunters do business in your market with the Snowy Heron's 
feathers. The hunting in Mexico of aforesaid birds is very limited at pres- 
«nt, and Prof. A. L. Herrera, Chief of this Department, together with a 
Mr. Manuel Ortega y Espinose, who is the Assessor of the Improvement 
Secretaryship, are now making a very minute study so as to reform the laws 
relative to the hunting of the benefited species. As soon as these studies 
are published I will send you some without delay. 

"I have also the pleasure to announce the receipt of your last leaflets, 
Nos. 9 and 10. My intention is to translate all of the series, and will take 
notice particularly of the Mexican species. 

"I have associated myself with an inspector of the official primary schools 
so as to see if it is possible for us to organize a society for the protection of 
birds, the results of which I will advise you of later. 

"Finally, several editors of the pedagogic agricultural publications have 
solicited your electros which you have so kindly loaned to this commission, 
and I would be very much obliged if you will allow me to loan them to 

The National Committee furnished to the Mexican Commission elec- 
tros of all of the illustrations of its educational leaflets. 

Bird Protection in Pacific Islands. — Dr. Richmond, of this Committee, 
writing in behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, says, "We have recently 
received from the Treasury Department several specimens of birds from the 
island of Lisiansky, one of the outlying Hawaiian islets, with the following 
history: Capt. O. C. Hamlet, of the Revenue Cutter Service, command- 
ing the U. S. S. 'Thetis' was sent to this island for the purpose of taking 
away certain Japanese who were unlawfully engaged in the killing of birds. 
No doubt these fellows were collecting plume -birds. The skins were made 
by the Japanese and have no data or labels attached. The species repre- 
sented one Albatross, one Tropic Bird and three Terns." 

The newspaper account of this slaughter is correct and is given here- 
with : 
"Special Correspondence of the 'Chronicle.' 

Honolulu, June 23. — Captain Hamlet, of the Thetis, states that the 
destruction wrought by the party of Japanese poachers on Lisiansky island 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 69 

to bird life was something appalling. He estimates that they killed at least 
300,000 birds, to judge from the number of cases of plumage and the 
amount of meat they secured. All of their spoil had to be abandoned, but 
it is properly preserved and will keep for a long time. There are 335 of 
these cases, the plumage in them being of the highest quality. 

''The Japanese who were brought here by the Thetis are the remains of 
a party of bird poachers whose presence on an American island was reported 
by Captain Niblack, of the United States steamer Iroquois, some weeks ago, 
and the Thetis was sent to stop their operations, but she arrived to find 
them only too anxious to leave their hunting-ground and to abandon spoil 
which is worth at least $20,000. 

"The Japanese were employed by a Tokio firm, and they fitted out in> 
the schooner Yeiju Maru in Yohohama last December. Their destination 
was Lisiansky Island, a wonderful center of ocean -bird life in mid -Pacific 
not far from Midway Island. The island is the property of the United 

"According to their story, they arrived at Lisiansky Island on January 
8, and commenced at once to kill birds. They had a stafif not only of 
hunters, but also of skilled taxidermists and skinners, for the birds' plumage 
was intended for the millinery markets of Paris. The men collected skins 
and wings by the thousand, the birds being very tame. 

"On January 18 a fierce gale struck the island and the Yeiju Maru, 
dragging her anchor, struck a coral reef and was totally lost, ten of the men 
who happened to be aboard being drowned. Seventy-seven men were left 
helpless on the island." 

Our member, Mr. W. A. Bryan, of Honolulu, while in the States dur- 
ing the past summer, was asked to prepare a statement and appeal to 
present to the General Government, asking that some steps be taken at 
once to prevent the destruction of the wonderful and highly interesting 
bird colonies in the Pacific Ocean. The following letter was sent to the 
Chief Executive: 

Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H. I., October 31, 1904. 

To the Honorable Theodore Roosevelt, 
President of the United States, 
Washington, D. C. 

Sir: — While in New York and Washington during the latter part of July, Mr. 
Wm. Dutcher, President of the National Committee of the Audubon Societies for the 
Protection of Birds, made an at»^empt to arrange a meeting with you at which I might 
have the honor to bring before you in person the urgent need of our Government taking 
active steps to prevent the extermination of the bird-colonies on the outlying islands of 
the North Pacific Ocean, knowing it to be a matter in which you take an active 

It was impossible to arrange an audience at that time, and, in accordance with 

70 Bird - Lore 

the suggestion of your secretary, I submit herewith a sketch of the wanton destruction of 
bird life on these islands, in the belief that it can and will be stopped in the near 

During the past few years I have visited practically all of the low coral islands in 
the North Pacific, and have been appalled at the destruction of the birds on these islands 
by Japanese ' plume-hunters ' who make a business of visiting not only the bird islands of 
their own possessions, but those of the United States as well, and killing birds by the 
hundreds of thousands. 

On Marcus Island, a colony had been at work for six years. In that short time they 
had wiped out of existence one of the largest Albatross colonies in these waters. So com- 
plete was their work of destruction that during the year of my visit (1902) they had only 
secured thirteen specimens of the Albatross! While there I estimated that they had 
40,000 Tern skins ready for shipment, which was the second boat- load to be shipped 
that year. 

Most of the sea-birds rear but a single young, a fact which makes their extermination 
certain if this slaughter is allowed to continue. 

Midway Island at the time of my visit in 1902 was covered with great heaps of 
Albatross carcasses, which a crew of poachers had left to rot on the ground after the quill 
feathers had been pulled out of each bird. This mischief was done notwithstanding the 
fact that the previous year a similar party had been warned off by the United States 
Steamer ' Iroquois' which visited the island by chance. 

Laysan Island, which fortunately is at present worked for guano, is inhabited by a 
company of laborers. So far this large and interesting colony has not been molested, 
although ' bird-skin pirates ' have more than once called there in the hope of finding the 
island uninhabited. 

The enclosed clipping gives a reliable account of recent depredations on the neigh- 
boring island of Lisiansky, which is not fifty miles from Laysan. 

I am informed that the other low islands in the chain are similarly scourged. 

The necessity of visiting these islands from time to time has been brought to the 
attention of various departments of the Government by Mr. E. R. Stackable, Collector of 
Customs for the Port, in the hope that a much-needed revenue cutter might be perma- 
nently stationed in these waters. I would not presume here to go over the ground which 
he has so ably covered in his reports, further than to summarize and say, that such a vessel 
is needed here — 

ist. To enforce the immigration laws — to prevent aliens from visiting these un- 
inhabited and unvisited islands as temporary landing places, on the way to the larger 

2d. To enforce the customs laws — prevent smuggling, etc. 

3d. To assist distressed vessels. As life-saving stations, the value of this chain of 
islands — stretching, as they do, for hundreds of miles along the track of trans-Pacific 
travel,— cannot be over-estimated when it is known that they will be regularly visited 
by a relief vessel. 

4th. For the protection of property. Such a vessel would effectually break up the 
wholesale slaughter of sea-birds which inhabit these islands; a step which must be taken 
noijj if it is to be at all effective. 

In conclusion, I would therefore again respectfully urge upon your attention the im- 
portance of the Federal Government maintaining in these waters a revenue cutter which 
would be regularly stationed at Honolulu under the direction of the Treasury Department 
and the local Collector of Customs in the usual manner, with its duties so arranged that 
the vessel would make at least two trips a year to the outlying islands of the region, to 
enforce the immigration and customs laws; to relieve shipwrecked and marooned seamen, 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 71 

and prevent the destruction of bird life on the several islands, and in various other ways 
make it possible to protect and utilize our possessions in these waters. 

Trusting the subject may receive your favorable consideration, I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

William Alanson Bryan, 
United States Special Inspector Birds and Animals, 

Curator Ornithology. 

The Committee regrets that it is unable to make any report regarding 
the passage of bird-laws in the Philippine Islands. (See Report 1903, 
p. 106). 

Government Aid. — It is with the greatest pleasure that the National 
Committee acknowledges the cordial and hearty cooperation of all depart- 
ments of the General Government in its efforts to preserve the birds of 
the country. 

The Post-office Department, as shown by the following letter, willingly 
accorded the very great privilege of displaying our warning notices, giving 
the Federal and State Laws relating to birds, in any post-ffice in the United 

Office of the Postmaster General, 

Washington, D. C, July 28, 1904. 
National Committee of Audubon Societies, 
525 Manhattan Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Gentlemen: — In reply to your letter of July 26, I have to state that the Depart- 
ment has no objection to postmasters' posting a warning against the killing of birds and 
game in violation of the State laws and in violation of the Federal laws governing such 

You are at liberty to forward a copy of this communication to any Postmaster to 
whom you send the warning notice for posting in his office. 

Very respectfully, 

R. J. Wynne, 
Acting Postmaster General. 
J. R. A. 

A photographic reproduction of this letter has been prepared for dis- 
tribution, with a warning notice to postmasters, the following note being 
appended : 

Postmaster. — Please post the attached Warning Notice in a conspicuous place in 
your office, in accordance with permission of Post Office Department. 

National Committee of Audubon Societies. 

A report,* after a personal visit of investigation regarding certain islands 
in the Gulf of Mexico off the east coast of Louisiana, was made to the 
National Committee by Mr. F. M. Miller, President of the Louisiana 
Audubon Society. This showed the conditions relative to the bird life there 
to be so deplorable that it was formulated and was sent to Mr. Frank Bond, 
* For details of this bird destruction see beyond, under ' Louisiana.' 

72 Bird -Lore 

of the Department of the Interior, with the request that Government 
action be taken at once in order to prevent the total extermination of cer- 
tain sea-birds in that district. The matter was presented to President 
Roosevelt through the Departments of Interior and of Agriculture, October 
3, and the next day the President, with his usual admirable promptness and 
intelligent appreciation of the needs of bird protection, set aside a number 
of large islands belonging to the General Government as a reservation by 
the following order: 


It is hereby ordered tliat Breton Island, as shown by tlic General Land Office map 
of the State of Louisiana, of date 1896, in Township 13 South, Range 20 East St. Helena 
Meridian, when same shall be surveyed; and Old Harbor and Freemason Islands, in 
Townships 14 and 15 South, Ranges 21 and 22 East, same Meridian, when surveyed, be, 
and they are hereby reserved and set apart for the use of the Department of Agriculture, 
as a preserve and breeding-ground for native birds. This reservation to be known as 
'Breton Island Reservation.' 

(Signed) Theodore Roosevelt. 

White House, October 4, 1904. 

Adjacent to and just east of the Breton Island Reservation is a large 
group of islands known as the Chandeleur and Errol Islands Light -House 
Reservation. In order to carry out effectually the plan of bird protection 
in that portion of the Gulf of Mexico, Mr. Bond was requested by the 
National Committee to present the subject to the proper authorities in 
Washington, which he did, with most happy results as indicated by the fol- 
lowing correspondence : 

Department ok the Interior, General Land Office, 

Washington, D. C, October 7, 1904. 

Rear-Aomirai. John J. Reeo, Chairman of the Light-House Board, 
Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: — The Audubon Societies of the United States, through their National 
Executive Committee, are now arranging to employ a warden to patrol the islands within 
the ' Breton Island Reservation,' created by Executive Order of October 4, 1904, for the 
preservation of native birds. In connection with this patrol and protective work, such 
cooperation by the employees of the adjacent islands contained within the Chandeleur and 
Errol Islands Light-house Reservations, as may be proper, is greatly desired, and will 
materially aid us in the work of protecting the birds. The Chairman of the National 
Committee of Audubon Societies lias authorized me to bring the matter formally before 
you, in the hope that we may secure the issuance of an order forbidding egging and 
shooting of all kinds within these reservations, such order to be accompanied by instruc- 
tions to the employees to warn off' haters and otherwise prevent trespass, whenever 
possible. ^ 

In view of the fact that the pot-hunting season will open with the arrival of the 
migrating water-fowl, early action will be necessary to save tiie birds this year. The 

Report of the National Committee for 1904 73 

Audubon Societies of the United States will be greatly obliged for your advice and 
assistance in acconnplishing the end sought. Very respectfully, 

(Signed) Frank Bond, 
Member of the National Committee of Audubon Societies. 


Washington, D. C, October 14, 1904. 
Commander William W. Kimball, U. S. N., 

Inspector Eighth L. H. District, New Orleans, La. 

Sir: — The Board incloses herewith a copy of a letter dated October 7, 1904, from 

Mr. Frank Bond, member of the National Committee of Audubon Societies, recoiimiend- 

ing that action be taken to suppress the destruction of native birds within the Chandeleur 

and Erroi Islands Light-house Reservations. 

The Board authorizes you, in accordance with this request, to post notices on these 

two light-house reservations, forbidding the shooting of birds thereon, and also to issue 

instructions to proper light- house employees to prevent trespassing on these reservations. 


(Signed) C. T. Hutchins, 

Captain, U. S. N., Naval Secretary. 

Okfice of Insi'ector, 8th District, 

New Orleans, La., October 21, 1904. 
Mr. Thorwald Hansen, 

Keeper Chandeleur Light-House, Biloxi, Miss. 

Sir: — A copy of a letter of the Light-House Board, with its enclosure, is hereby for- 
warded for your information and compliance. 

The Magnolia will post the reservations with sign-boards early in November; mean- 
time put up such notices as you can arrange. 

Once a week, weather permitting, you or the Assistant Keeper will proceed by boat 
to the southward as far as Freemason Island, and will take the names of all persons found 
trespassing afloat or ashore, and the names of all vessels trespassing. You will warn off 
trespassers and inform them that they and their vessels, sail-boats, schooners, power 
boats or other craft will be reported to the U. S. District Attorney for prosecution or libel, 
or both, as the case may be. 

You will report to this office all cases of trespassing observed, with such details as to 
date, time and character of offense, as will give sufficient data for basing actions of pros- 
ecution or of libel, or of both. 

It may be difficult to obtain a knowledge of the names and places of abode of tres- 
passers, but the name of the vessel used by the trespassers can be readily obtained. 

You will note as far as possible the names of all light-draft vessels passing into 
Chandeleur Sound, and will make it your duty to acquaint yourself with the trade and 
character of such vessels, so as to know which are and which are not to be suspected of 
intention to trespass. 

You will understand that shooting ashore or from vessels along the beaches of the 
reservation, egging, landing on the islands without permission, and the taking of shells, 
are all trespasses that render the doers liable to prosecution, and their vessels to libel in 
the United States Courts. 

You will render to Captain Sprinkle, the Warden of the Breton Island Bird Pre- 
serve, such aid in his duties as does not interfejfcwjth your own as Keeper of the Light, 
and the Chandeleur and Errol Islands Reservation. Respectfully, 

(Signed) W. W. Kimball, 
Commander, U. S. Navy, Inspector 8th L. H. District. 

74 Bird - Lore 

Live Bird Traffic. — -There are still a few bird trappers and netters in the 
vicinity of the large cities, notably New York, who ply their trade with 
the greatest caution. The National Committee during the past autumn 
has exercised special vigilance in order to stop this trade. As none of the 
captured birds could be sold in this country, they were trapped for ship- 
ment abroad. With the aid of a detective, some of the trappers were 
located in the vicinity of New York City, and the channel through which 
they shipped the birds was discovered. The men have been warned in 
such a pointed way that it is hoped that this practice has been broken up. 


The following details of Audubon work in the several states and terri- 
tories give the activities in the respective commonwealths during the past 

As legislation has been considered in detail, no further mention of it 
will be made. Warden work will be mentioned only in the states where 
the system was employed. 

Alabama. — This is the only Gulf Coast State that has not adopted the 
Model Law. Considerable work has been done in this Commonwealth 
during the past year by the I' ational Committee, but seemingly without any 
visible result. There are a few people who seem to take a slight interest, 
but it has been impossible to find any citizens who will start an Audubon 
organization or lead in the movement for a comprehensive bird law. With 
over 20,000,000 acres of farm lands in the State, valued at $100,000,000, it 
seems strange that the agricultural public are so dead to their own interests. 
It would seem as though the boll- weevil scourge, which is an imminent danger 
to the cotton-growing interests of the state, would arouse the planters and 
lead them to demand the protection of birds. Alabama stands almost alone 
in this indifference to a great danger. 

An excellent paper, 'The Civic Value of Birds,' was written and circu- 
lated freely by Hon. John H. Wallace, of Huntsville, but even this voice 
from one of her own citizens has not seemed to arouse the people. 

Arkansas. — Arkansas has no Audubon Society yet, but Mrs. Stephen- 
son, a member of the National Committee, still keeps the subject of bird 
protection and the enforcement of the game laws before the people. It will 
be strange if her great civic work does not soon attract the notice of her 
fellow citizens, and cause many of them to flock to her aid in this important 
matter. Mrs. Stephenson says in a letter: 

State Reports 75 

"The work in Arkansas for the past year has been effective, though, be- 
ing confined to the distribution of protective literature and appeals through 
letters, it has not attracted the attention of the public. Numerous requests 
for information regarding Audubon work have been referred to the National 
Committee. Some copies of Educational Leaflet No. 7 have been sent to 
newspapers of the state with a request that they be published; and the 
interest of Senator Clark, member of the Committee on Territories, has 
been assured to the side of those who oppose the repeal of the Alaska 
Game Law. 

"While friends for the birds have been won among men and boys, the 
magic words that shall win pity and forbearance from the gentler sex are still 
to be spoken." 

California. — Sooner or later, it is always the case that the proper per- 
sons are found to head a great philanthropic movement ; it is only a matter 
of seeking until they are found. The State of California certainly has rea- 
son to be proud of some of her public-spirited citizens. While the Audu- 
bon movement only crystallized into the first local organization in May of the 
present year, yet before the close of the first six months it has gained such 
momentum that nothing can now stop its onward progress. The report of 
Secretary W. Scott Way is given in full: 

"The California Audubon Society had its beginning at Pasadena, on 
March 25, 1904. Local societies were soon afterwards formed at Garvanza 
and El Monte, each with senior and junior sections, and under the direction 
of the senior societies a number of junior sections were formed in city and 
country schools. 

"The Ladies' Song-bird Protective Association, of Santa Cruz county, 
voted to affiliate with the Audubon societies, and has already given active 
and efficient assistance. A fourth local society, under the leadership of Miss 
Anna Head, is just organized at Berkeley with a large membership, and 
gives promise of entering upon the work with much activity and enthusiasm. 

"At the end of six months from the organization of the first society, the 
combined membership, senior and junior, exceeds one thousand, which we 
shall more than double before the day of our annual meeting in May. 

"A great deal of effective work has already been done, including the se- 
curing of local protection in Los Angeles county for thirty species of birds, 
ordinances prohibiting shooting on the public roads, in both Los Angeles 
and Santa Cruz counties, and, in the last-named county, the closing of the 
open season for Doves for a period of five years. 

"The society has also entered actively into the work of game protection 
during the closed seasons, and by the aid of deputy wardens, who are serv- 
ing without pay on account of their interest in game preservation, violations 
in places where the society has a footing have almost ceased. 

76 Bird - Lore 

" Since its organization the society at Pasadena has held eight public meet- 
ings, all of which have been well attended and productive of much good. 
Each meeting has resulted in a considerable increase in membership. 

"A great amount of literature has been distributed, including the Edu- 
cational Leaflets of the National Committee, and special leaflets on the 
Mourning Dove and in the interest of the Audubon movement. Cards 
calling attention to the closed seasons for game and giving lists of protected 
birds have been posted throughout Los Angeles county, and educational 
leaflets are now being put into the hands of teachers throughout the state. 

"At this writing our chief efforts are being directed toward securing the 
enactment of the Model Law at the approaching session of the Legislature, 
and in persuading the sportsmen to lend their cooperation in gaining better 
protection for the Mourning Dove. Under the existing state law, this bird 
is exposed to the hunters during more than half its nesting season, a condi- 
tion which has caused the Audubon Society to place the cruel results before 
farmers and land -owners throughout the state and thus, by arousing public 
sentiment against the inhumanity of summer Dove shooting, has caused the 
posting of ' No Shooting ' signs on more than I00,ooo acres of land in Los 
Angeles county alone. About half this acreage was posted by one man, E. 
J. Baldwin, a sportsman himself, but one whose humane instincts are deeper 
than his love of sport. 

"Included in our plans for the near future are federation of the local or- 
ganizations into a state society, and active Audubon work in the public 

"The society is receiving much assistance and encouragement from va- 
rious organizations of farmers, and also of women's clubs. For example, 
the California Club, of San Francisco, numbering nearly 500 members, has 
entered actively into the spirit of the Audubon movement, and has placed 
Mrs. Alice L. Park, an enthusiastic friend of the birds, in charge of this 

"The present outlook for the Audubon movement, and the gaining of 
state protection for non-game birds, and better laws relating to nearly all 
species of game, is at this writing certainly very encouraging." 

Colorado. — The active spirit and leader in the Audubon work in this 
state has been so much occupied with her duties as Secretary of the State 
Board of Horticulture and the added duties of World's Fair work that she 
has not been able to give much time to Audubon work. Mrs. Shute 
writes: "It is very hard to get people interested who are capable of realiz- 
ing the need for a strong society in our state. At the annual Horticultural 
Convention in January next, Prof. George L. Cannon will give an illus- 
trated talk on the plumage of birds, which it is hoped will create some 
additional interest." 

State Reports 77 

Connecticut. — The Connecticut Audubon Society is withdtit a doubt 
one of the best organized societies in the National Association, and has 
carried its educational work far beyond the point reached by any other 
society. Mrs. Glover, the secretary, reports: "We have not increased 
largely in membership this year, but we feel that the school children are 
being well taught about birds and are encouraged to notice and study them. 
We will shortly have a small text -book of Connecticut birds gotten up by 
Mrs. Wright ready for distribution among the teachers of the state. The 
State Board of Education prints and distributes it. We published our usual 
Bird Day program. We have purchased 14 new libraries of ten books each 
for circulation in the schools. We sent a library of 22 books to the St. Louis 
Exhibition in a case provided by the Board of Education, and these books 
will make two libraries for use in schools on their return to Connecticut." 

The above report is terse, but it gives to other societies a text of the 
greatest value in "we feel that the school children are being well taught 
about birds." A single generation has not yet passed since the Audubon 
movement started (1883), and we are now reaping the benefit of the early 
work; how much easier will be the work in two or three decades hence 
when the school children of today are the men and women who will be 
conducting Audubon affairs! 

The National Committee earnestly hopes that many more secretaries 
will be able to report before the end of 1 905 that "the school children are 
being well taught about birds." 

Delaware. — This is a small state, but there is a great deal of good 
Audubon work done within its borders. Prof. A. R. Spaid, Superin- 
tendent of Free Schools in New Castle County, gave a series of fifty-six 
illustrated nature lectures to over 5,000 people, free to all school children; 
twenty-one of these talks were on bird subjects. 

Prof. Spaid thinks that, in time, illustrated lectures will become apart of 
a school course, and he suggests to persons of wealth that the public schools 
should no longer remain below their dignity. These generous people have 
showered upon our colleges and universities millions of gold, and have to a 
very large extent ignored the public schools. While we do not want these 
schools made charity institutions, we do need gifts of money for special 
purposes for which Legislatures do not usually appropriate. The interest 
created by the bird lectures was so great that about 600 new members were 
added to the Audubon Society. 

The State Ornithologist, Mr. Pennock, has been giving bird lectures to 
agriculturists, and also preparing and sending out Bulletins under the 
auspices of the State Board of Agriculture, in the general line of bird 
protection, by showing the value of some species frequently destroyed 
wantonly or through ignorance of their value. 

78 Bird - Lore 

Mrs. Hilles, secretary of the Audubon Society, reports: "We are 
hampered for want of money, but have gone on extending our membership, 
and have made arrests for the killing of Robins, etc. We are now con- 
templating a system of small dues, in order to keep up our treasury, which 
has only voluntary support. We have succeeded in awakening a public 
sentiment, which I hope will stimulate the good work and win us many 

The foreign bird -shooting element is being looked after sharply; an 
Italian was arrested for killing nineteen birds — Robins, Flickers, Thrushes, 
etc., — was held by magistrate for Court of General Sessions, was found 
guilty and fined ninety-five dollars, the full statutory limit. Not being able 
to pay, he was sent to the work -house for ten days. Such prompt and 
vigorous enforcement of the law has a very decided and wholesome 

District of Columbia. — The report of the secretary, Mrs. Patten, is 
given in full. The only suggestion that the National Committee has to 
offer is that some of the enthusiastic workers in the District of Columbia 
Society be sent across the borders into Maryland and Virginia in order to 
increase enthusiasm in those rather dormant state societies. "Work has 
been carried on through indoor meetings; lectures each month, classes for 
the instruction of teachers, popular classes to promote the interests of bird 
students and bird lovers of all ages and both sexes, a successful reception of 
a social nature to increase membership, primarily in order that those already 
enrolled might have opportunity to become further acquainted. Field meet- 
ings in April and May were productive of a large attendance and great 
enthusiasm. Laws have been well observed. Millinery stores, markets and 
bird stores have been visited. The work in the schools now holds equal 
place with other branches in the 'Nature work.' 

"About 800 leaflets have been distributed, consisting mostly of the pub- 
lications of the National Committee. Circulars to increase subscriptions to 
Bird-Lore have been sent out upon every opportunity. The Society has 
increased largely in membership. Its annual meeting was crowded to the 
doors. Practically the same program will be repeated this year. New bird- 
skins will be purchased for the use of lecturers and schools. We now have 
an illustrated lecture of our own also available in this way. The Society 
increases annually along the lines most desirable — increased membership, 
broadening fields of work and widely reaching interests of many kinds sug- 
gested by its enthusiastic and hard-working Board of Directors, who are 
ably equipped for the work." 

Florida. — Warden work has been very successful during the past year; 
a short resume of the results, extracted from a great mass of letters and 

State Reports 79 

formal reports from the men employed, will be of interest and will give 
some idea of the extent and value of the system. Warden Paul Kroegel, 
who has charge of the Pelican Island Reservation, reports: During the 
breeding season of 1903-4 the Pelicans deserted the large island of the 
reservation where they had bred for many years past, and occupied some 
small adjoining islands during the nesting season. Why they deserted their 
ancestral home the warden could not determine. Mr. Chapman, who has 
had a long acquaintance with this colony of Pelicans, having visited and 
studied it several seasons, was of the opinion that the gradual killing of the 
trees had caused the birds to abandon the island. The Pelicans usually 
commence to gather about the Reservation early in November, and this 
year the date was anxiously awaited in order to determine whether the 
abandonment of the large island was permanent or not. A most interesting 
fact in natural history developed as follows: The National Committee, in 
its anxiety to prevent trespass on the reservation, had a very large sign 
painted and set up on the big island. This was evidently the reason why 
the Pelicans went to the adjoining islands. When the birds returned in 
November, 1904, some four to five thousand in number. Warden Kroegel 
watched their actions carefully, to learn, if possible, why the large island was 
not occupied. He reported that the birds seemed restless and disturbed 
about something on the island which prevented their occupancy. Thinking 
that possibly the large sign was the trouble, it was taken down, and two 
days after all of the birds were back on the island. On November 15, 
about one hundred nests had been started, and the indications were that 
laying will commence about the usual date, December first. 

Warden Guy M. Bradley is employed by the year and is continually 
cruising in the launch 'Audubon' among the keys and islands at the 
extreme southerly point of the state, or else is patrolling on foot the 
swamps and everglades in that wild section. He covers some hundreds of 
square miles. Frequent reports are made of his travels, with notes about 
bird conditions. It is impossible to give the details in a published report, 
but the Committee are satisfied that the results achieved are most excellent. 
The warden writes that there are no less than nine nesting-places, — 
rookeries, — within ten miles of his home. With the exception of the 
Cuthbert rookery, these have not been disturbed. Formerly they were 'shot 
out ' and robbed of eggs quite often by pleasure parties, pot-hunters and 
plume -hunters. This section is a most interesting one and will well repay 
a visit by any bird student or nature photographer. 

Warden Charles G. Johnson, of the Sand Key Light-House Station, 
reports a very favorable year for the Gulls and Terns that breed near his 
station. He and his assistant keeper prevent any landing on the breeding- 
grounds during the nesting season, nor will they permit shooting thereafter. 
Mr. Johnson reports also that the Key West markets do not now ofifer sea- 

8o Bird - Lore 

birds' eggs for sale, as was the custom formerly. On August 3, all the 
birds, young and old, from the other keys and sand spits in the immediate 
neighborhood were gathered on Sand Key and were estimated to number 
about four thousand. They remained until the 7th, when they left about 
4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

A new warden, Benjamin Peacon, who was recommended to the Com- 
mittee by Capt. Geo. A. Bicknell, U. S. Navy, Commandant Key West 
Naval Station, was employed during the breeding season on the Dry 
Tortugas. The warden resided on Bird Key from May 10 to July 23, and 
reports that the Terns had an undisturbed season and made a normal 
increase. It is his opinion, however, that, unless a warden is stationed on 
Bird Key every year, the colony will be systematically robbed of their 
eggs, as the sentiment in that locality is decidedly against prevention of 

The following interesting and important report by Mrs. Marrs, Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee of the Florida Audubon Society, gives a 
very clear idea of the excellent work that is being done in Florida, and it 
also contains a most pertinent suggestion regarding the prohibition of 
Pigeon shooting at traps. This is a cruel and debasing practice, and the 
Florida Audubon Society will only be doing its duty when it takes up the 
matter with the legislature and press of the state. "An increasing mem- 
bership shows a more general interest in the state for bird protection. 
Membership, including all grades, 750. Leaflets and pamphlets distributed, 
10,000. Warning notices sent out for posting, 2,000. Some 800 letters 
have been written." Original leaflets published during year, 6, making the 
total number of Florida leaflets 14. A large card has been printed giving a 
summary of the ' Bird Laws of the State' (arranged by Mr. R. W. Wil- 
liams, Jr.) ; 600 have been sent for posting in merchandise stores, express 
offices, stations, hotels, etc. Sixty-seven teachers are enrolled as members. 
There are 8 local secretaries, who have in charge for use of schools 30 
Massachusetts Audubon charts. Prizes were offered at close of the school 
year for Bird Chart compositions. Ten prizes and several rewards of merit 
were given. Of these prizes 4 were books, 5 were subscriptions to BiRD- 
LoRE, I to 'American Birds.' The average age of children 11 years. 
Bird -Lore is also offered gratuituously, on application, to the principal of 
any Florida college, institute or school. Ten prizes of $2 each were 
given for articles written on Florida birds at the 'Student Help Fair' held in 
Jacksonville in May. 'The Palmetto Club' at Daytona, and 'The Rosa- 
lind Club' of Orlando, have each paid a 'Sustaining Membership.' The 
Florida State Federation of Women's Clubs have a sub-committee on the 
'Preservation of Birds.' The Sunshine Society of Florida lends us a 
helping hand. All such organizations are urged to become members, to 
more widely establish an interest. 

State Reports 8i 

"Again we have paid for six months the salary of Warden Guy M. Brad- 
ley at Cape Sable, in response to a call from the National Committee; real- 
izing, if our means are limited, the importance of guarding the rookeries, 
but while doing this we look forward with the hope that the time may 
come when our Florida legislators will realize that money spent to estab- 
lish our own bird wardens would be money well invested for the benefit 
of our state. For the hazardous work our wardens carry on so well, our 
public thanks are due them. 

"In February, 1904, Mr. Geo. N, Chamberlin (a vice-president) made 
a two-hundred-and-fifty-mile trip, down Indian River, from Daytona to 
Lake Worth; a letter to the Society gives an account 'of the feeding or 
breeding-grounds of Cranes, Herons, Ducks, White and Brown Pelicans.' 
With Warden Kroegel he visited the Pelican Island Reservation and its 
vicinity, where he saw thousands of Brown Pelicans nesting; they were 
found to be quite tame on approaching them to view the nests, which were 
built of sticks and grass and contained eggs or young. Mr. Chamberlin 
urges that a small steam motor- boat be provided the warden, as Pelican 
Island is three miles from Sebastian, where Kroegel lives. 

"As the attention of all humane persons has been directed to the inhuman 
practice of the slaughter of live Pigeons by 'trap shooting,' which is per- 
mitted in certain localities in Florida for the entertainment and amusement 
of both women and men 'pleasure -seekers,' we would here make our pro- 
test against this brutal so-called 'sport,' with the hope that public -spirited 
Floridians will cause it to be forbidden in the near future, by seconding the 
efforts of this Society." 

Georgia. — Unfortunately Audubon matters are not in a very encourag- 
ing condition in this great agricultural state. Prof. Starnes, the secretary, 
reports as follows: "I have hoped I would be able to make a report of 
something definite accomplished by the Georgia Audubon Society, but I 
am forced to admit that it is impossible. I have not been able to induce 
any one to take hold and push things, and I have personally, at this season 
of the year, an overwhelming amount of routine work which consumes all 
of my time. I yet hope to enlist the active sympathies of one or two par- 
ties. It is difficult to arouse effort in this matter, since our state law 
covers all points except extending protection to the Dove and the Lark. Yet 
it is sadly defective in the provision made for wardens. This is of really 
more moment than the omission of protection to the Dove and the Lark. 

"I am sorry that so disappointing a report must be made of our organi- 
zation in this state; success cannot be achieved until some one is found 
with sufficient time to devote to the cause." 

The National Committee will make earnest efforts during the coming 
year to find such a person. 

82 Bird -Lore 

Hawaii. — The following is the report of Mr. Bryan, a member of our 
Committee : 

"As yet no effort has been made to organize an Audubon Society in the 
Hawaiian Islands, although the matter is under consideration and we hope 
to be able to efifect an organization within the coming year. 

''The annexation of Hawaii by the United States has necessitated the 
recasting of many of the fundamental laws of the country, and, in conse- 
quence of the unusual amount of urgent legislation before the local 
assembly, the modification of the game laws has been deferred; although 
the subject has been thoroughly discussed and a model bill is at hand which 
will be presented as soon as it is possible to secure its consideration by the 

"When compared with any other state in the Union, it will be observed 
that an unusually large proportion of the native land -birds of Hawaii are 
now considered as being extinct. Fortunately their extermination has been 
brought about by causes which it would have been impossible to cover 
by legislation. 

"The subject of the introduction of desirable birds has received atten- 
tion in years past. As a result, all of the larger islands have more or less 
thriving colonies of introduced game-birds of several species. The people 
are aroused to the importance of the introduction of beneficial insectivorous 
and song-birds, and indications point to the subject receiving substantial 
encouragement at no distant date. 

"The leaflets and circulars distributed by the Audubon Society have 
little bearing on our local conditions, as none of the birds treated are found 
here. However, the matter contained in them is of general interest and 
stimulates observation and inquiry." 

Illinois. — Audubon work in this state is progressing steadily and surely, 
especially among the juniors. Miss Drummond, the secretary, makes the 
following encouraging report: "The work of the year has been carried on 
along the usual lines. The number of persons joining since our organiza- 
tion, April I, 1897, now totals 16,094, — 1,035 adults and 15.059 juniors. 
Of these 60 adults and 1,573 juniors were added during the past year. 

"The first Arbor and Bird Day, under the law passed in 1903, was kept 
in April, 1904 (Arbor Day alone having been kept before). We have dis- 
tributed during the year 7,060 leaflets, the greater portion being the publi- 
cations of the National Committee. Since our annual meeting in April, a 
leaflet by Mrs. H. E. Walter, one of our Directors, 'Helps for Bird Study,' 
has been published for the use of teachers and others. It is also being 
issued in monthly instalments in 'By -the -Wayside.' A letter from the 
secretary to the teachers of the state was published in the Arbor and Bird 
Day Annual, issued by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

State Reports 83 

''At the annual meeting in April a new committee was suggested, which 
has since come into being with some fifty members, a committee on mem- 
bership, whose duty it is to bring as many new members as possible into 
our flock. 

"Our illustrated lecture has done good work; the two libraries have 
been little used. The junior work, under Mrs. Wm. M. Scudder, has 
been encouraging and the teachers are proving themselves good helpers. 

"We have spent during the year $225.61 and have received $232.76, but, 
thanks to a balance on hand from last year, we closed our year with a 
balance of ^64.31. 

"Out of 102 counties in the state the secretary had letters from 47, 
but we have very few local branches. 

"We hold two general meetings in Chicago, and a goodly number of 
other meetings have been held in the state." 

Indiana. — The Audubon movement in this state is on a solid and pro- 
gressive basis and is doing a great work in the schools. The report of 
Miss Howe, the secretary, gives some of the interesting details. 

"The Indiana Audubon Society has continued its activities, especially 
emphasizing the work among the children and through the press. 

"During the spring months bird-talks were widely given in the schools 
of the cities. 

"The Indianapolis News Audubon Society, an auxiliary of the State 
Society, furnished somewhere about seventeen thousand bird buttons to the 
school children of the city and state; the ' News' bought the buttons and 
distributed them through the sub-stations or by mail. The payment for a 
button consisted of a signed pledge to protect the birds. 

"The State Superintendent of Public Instruction, in the last Arbor and 
Bird Day Annual, devoted over forty pages to the Audubon work in one 
way or another, and to the birds. These annuals are now being sent to 
the i6,ooo teachers in the state, and will be used by nearly 500,000 pupils, 
at the annual Bird Day of the schools of this state. The members of the 
Audubon Society very gladly helped in getting the matter for the annual 
which serves as the bird text -book for many teachers. Again and again has 
the state society had reason for congratulation in the fact that the State 
Superintendent is a man alive to the great value of bird study by the pupils. 

"Audubon societies, as a rule, are not overburdened with money, and 
the Indiana Society is no exception to the rule. Hence, when we have 
found friends of the birds who were in a position to do for them what 
we could not, we have helped these friends in their larger work, — for 
instance, few societies could have afforded the large outlay for bird buttons 
or could have put into general circulation the bird pledge which was pub- 
lished in every issue of the ' News ' for the latter part of the spring. All 

84 Bird - Lore 

this the 'News' did, and then distributed the buttons, reaching much 
further than could an individual or a society. Yet, who can estimate the 
value, from an educational point of view, of the daily publishing of the 
Bird pledge, for weeks at a time, in the leading daily paper of the state? 

"Again, in no other way could the society do so much for the birds and 
the children, both, as to help the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
(himself a member of our executive board) to fill the pages of the Bird 
Day Annual. 

"The annual meeting of the society was one that received the enthusi- 
astic recognition of the city in which it was held. The schools furnished 
the music, and they were closed for the afternoon session. 

"Always, one of the papers of the session is furnished by a pupil of the 
High School in which the meeting is held; at this meeting the paper was 
illustrated by tabulations on the blackboard showing the economic value of 
the bird studied, at different seasons of the year. The work was represen- 
tative of what is done in the schools of that city along these lines, and shows 
what an exceptionally practical as well as pleasurable subject bird study is. 

"As far as the plans for the coming year are made, we shall continue 
work already begun, and develop and extend it as we have means and 
opportunity. Our only new work for next year will be to establish local 
secretaries, according to suggestions from the National Committee." 

Iowa. — The effort of the National Committee to secure the adoption 
of the Model Law by the legislature of 1904 met with failure, although a 
large amount of work was done. Miss Hamand, the secretary of the 
Schaller Society, spent some weeks at the Capitol at the request, and par- 
tially at the expense, of the National Committee, in the interest of proper 
bird legislation, and also to help the passage of a bill to abolish live -bird trap- 
shooting. The latter bill was successful, and the cruel practice of trap- 
shooting at animate targets is now illegal. Mrs. Parrott, corresponding 
secretary, furnishes the following summary of work done in 1904: 

"In Iowa there are many societies and organizations for the protection 
of birds. Very few of these have united with the state organization, how- 
ever; better results could be obtained in the way of enforcing the laws and 
educating the public if all would unite with one central organization. 

"The State Audubon Society was founded and incorporated at Keokuk 
in 1898, although the Schaller Society is the oldest in the state. Both so- 
cieties have done considerable work distributing National Committee leaflets 
and along other educational lines. 

"Much has been done to improve legislation in our state. It was largely 
through the efforts of Miss Jane Hamand, of Schaller, that our Iowa legis- 
lature passed a law prohibiting the use of live Pigeons and Turkeys in trap- 

State Reports 85 

"The various bird and outdoor clubs in our cities and towns are doing 
excellent work in an educational way, actual observation in field and woods 
taking the place of the printed page. 

"Rev. Rett E. Olmstead, of Decorah, has delivered many entertaining 
lectures and awakened great interest in the study and protection of birds. 

"Howard Burrell, of Washington, Iowa, has written numerous good 
articles for the Iowa press, and is now and then prevailed upon to deliver a 
lecture, which is always enthusiastically received. 

"One of the good results of the work this year is the organization of a 
strong and enthusiastic society at Humboldt, among whose members are 
some of the best -read and posted bird and nature students in the state. A 
committee of three has been appointed to outline work for the public schools 
in that place. Good results are expected. Since the issuing of the circular 
by the United States Department of Agriculture, suggesting that a Bird Day 
be added to the school calendar, the study of birds in Iowa has been given 
quite a little attention. 

"In some schools we have Bird Day in connection with Arbor Day, 
which is usually devoted to the study of trees and birds. There are others, 
however, which devote some time each week of the year to the study of 

"Charts are made out showing which species are with us in the different 
months, and the birds are studied in their proper season. In this way the 
children learn to love them, know their value and are more thoughtful for 
their safety. 

"In Waterloo the teachers have taken up the work. Some field work has 
been done, one teacher identifying about a hundred different species of birds. 

"For the coming year the local societies and state organizations are pre- 
paring an outline of work to be presented at the Biennial of the Federation 
of Women's Clubs, which will meet in Waterloo next May, and by which 
it is hoped to bring about some uniform and concerted action in the various 
clubs throughout the state. 

"We are deeply interested and anxious to assist in the passing of the 
Model Law at the next session of the legislature." 

Kentucky. — There is a small amount of Audubon work being done in 
the state in some five or six stations. This takes the form of bird talks on 
the lecture platform, and work in grade and kindergarten schools. Mr. C. 
W. Wilson, of Mayfield, writes: "The Model Law is still in force, and is 
highly commended by all who are familiar with its provisions, also that the 
new series of readers for public schools devote more space than heretofore 
to birds and their beauty and value. I think this tends to educate children 
in the right direction." Mr. R. H. Dean, of Lexington, mentions that the 
principles of bird protection are inculcated in the kindergarten work in the 

86 Bird -Lore 

local public schools, as well as at the summer playground work. Prof. W. 
M. Jackson, of Campbellsville, writes: ''I know the National Committee 
has other matters than state affairs to see to, and that this work ought to be 
done by the state; but, if the state won't do it, and the National organiza- 
tion can take the lead and start the work, then probably the state will take 
up the responsibility. Of course the trouble with the National, as with the 
state organizations, is that it takes money to do these things. For a Na- 
tional Emblem, our society suggests a Cardinal, — or, as we in Kentucky say, 
a Kentucky Cardinal." 

Louisiana. — The results of the Audubon work in this state are simply 
marvelous, and show forcibly what the efforts of a few active spirits can 
accomplish, led by a man who, besides being a splendid organizer, is a pleasing 
and persuasive speaker and an untiring worker. With such a combination 
an Audubon Society cannot help succeed. Two years since (see report for 
1902) Audubon work was unknown in Louisiana, the bird laws were worse 
than none, for they permitted trapping and shipping live birds from the state. 
A little less than two years' arduous labor directed toward the education of 
the public to the needs of bird protection, aided by the boll-weevil scare, has 
completely changed the condition of bird and game affairs, and now the 
citizens of Louisiana can congratulate themselves on having the most perfect 
non-game bird law in the country. It became effective August 9, 1904, 
and at the same time a new and very excellent game law became operative. 
These laws prevent the trapping, caging and exporting of all birds; conse- 
quently the traffic in Cardinals, Mockingbirds, Nonpareils and Indigo Birds 
is prevented, not only in Louisiana, but also in all parts of the country, since, 
as soon as the citizens of Louisiana made the trade illegal in their own state, 
the Federal Law, known as the Lacey Act, made it illegal to trade in Lou- 
isiana birds in other portions of the country. As Louisiana heretofore sup- 
plied all of the above trade, the influence of her new law reaches far beyond 
the borders of her own state. In August last the president of the society, 
Mr. Frank M. Miller, made a cruise among the islands in the Gulf of 
Mexico to the eastward of the state coast line; he found the eggs of the 
Royal and Least Terns, Laughing Gulls and Black Skimmers being used 
by glue manufacturers, — assuredly one of the most flagrant and vicious 
forms of bird destruction. It was impossible to determine exactly the ex- 
tent that this nefarious trafllic was carried on; but, making due allowance 
for the exaggerations of fishermen and others who gave the evidence, 
it is possible that a conservative estimate would be 50,000 eggs destroyed, 
and probably the number was far greater. One well-authenticated case 
was that 600 dozen eggs of the Royal Tern were taken in one day by a 
single vessel from Old Harbor Island. It was ascertained that there were 
about thirty-five islands which were occupied as breeding-grounds. Some 

State Reports 87 

of these islands were small sand-bars or shell heaps, others were of consid- 
erable size, with areas of marsh grass. Among other distressing conditions 
discovered on the trip, was the fact that the market hunters of wild -fowl, 
principally in the employment of cold storage houses, contemplated visiting 
the outlying islands, beyond the jurisdiction of the Louisiana laws, in order 
to kill Ducks. This meant the destruction of some two or three hundred 
thousand birds, which were to be shipped via Mobile, as the new non-export 
law of Louisiana prevented the shipment of these game birds out of the 
state, as had heretofore been done. 

The conditions were so appalling that President Miller visited New 
York in order to lay the matter in detail before the National Committee, 
hoping that some means could be devised to stop both the egging in summer 
and shooting water-fowl in winter. The larger of the islands visited is the 
most outlying, and is a natural refuge for wild -fowl in the cold season prior 
to the spring migration. The island referred to is some twelve miles long, 
and contains many thousand acres, with ponds and natural feeding-grounds. 
An examination of the records in the Land Office in Washington by Mr. 
Bond, of the National Committee, revealed the fact that several of the is- 
lands, including Breton Island referred to above, were still the property of 
the General Government. The details furnished by President Miller were 
then presented by Mr. Bond to the Departments of the Interior and Agri- 
culture, which referred the matter to the Chief Executive, with the result 
that seven of the islands were set aside by President Roosevelt as a Public 
Reservation (see page 72). 

The balance of the bird islands on examination were found to have been 
ceded to the State of Louisiana, or were within the jurisdiction of the state, 
so that the bird laws can be enforced. A large number of these islands be- 
long to the Lake Borgne Levee Association, and can be purchased for a 
nominal sum per acre, as they are entirely valueless for any purpose except 
breeding -places for birds. The several islands in question, some thirty in 
number, aggregate some thousands of acres, and should be he property of 
the Louisiana Audubon Society. 

It is hoped that some rich and public -spirited citizen of Louisiana will 
furnish the Audubon Society with the means to buy these islands, that they 
may be dedicated forever as breeding-places and winter homes for water 
birds. Louisiana was the birthplace of John James Audubon, the great 
artist -naturalist, and within her borders he passed a considerable portion of 
his life. The citizens of Louisiana can in no more fitting way show honor 
to one of the greatest of her sons, one whose name will always shed luster 
on the state, than to make these bird islands a refuge and name them the 
Audubon Reservation. It is what the great Audubon would have chosen, 
and will be a far more fitting and enduring monument than a shaft of marble 
or granite. 

88 Bird - Lore 

To complete the chain of protection in this part of the Gulf, the Light 
House Department was appealed to for aid, which was promptly given (see 
details, page 73). On the recommendation of President Miller, a warden 
has been employed by the National Association to patrol among the islands, 
to post warning notices on them, and to warn masters of vessels that for any 
violation of the bird or game laws by themselves or their crews, they will be 
held to the strictest accountability, even to the libeling of the vessel. Capt. 
Wm. M. Sprinkle, the warden, furnishes his own schooner and a helper, 
and as he is thoroughly acquainted with all of the breeding-grounds and the 
islands resorted to by the birds, it is believed that in the future they will be 
safe and will be permitted to breed undisturbed. President Miller, in a re- 
cent letter to the National Committee, gives this guarantee of future efifort: 
"This state has made a splendid beginning, and, with the Audubon Society 
still engaged in educating the people to the value of bird life as a great pub- 
He asset, we hope to carry on the work until our state laws and a wise sen- 
timent make us abreast of the most advanced commonwealth." 

Massachusetts. — The only paid warden employed has charge of the 
Weepecket Islands. His report is very satisfactory, as it shows that the 
Terns breeding on that island were unmolested during the entire season 
and that they made a normal increase. Mr. George H. Mackay, who has 
for so long a period given such watchful care to the birds breeding on 
Muskeget, writes, "I have nothing new regarding this island; conditions 
there were long ago settled satisfactorily to me, and it runs itself without 
care nowadays. So far as I know, there is nothing to complain of in that 
quarter." Mr. Mackay adds, regarding game legislation, that he has 
watched and guarded the interests of the public most earnestly and closely. 
"No obnoxious bills were passed, but a most important and valuable bill 
was championed and was successfully passed. This was the prohibition of 
sale of spring shore, marsh and beach birds. I regard it as a most impor- 
tant factor in bird protection." The National Committee agree most 
heartily with Mr. Mackay in his opinion, and consider that the citizens of 
Massachusetts owe a great deal to his persistent and indefatigable work. 
The influence of this excellent legislation reaches far beyond the limits of 
the commonwealth where it was enacted. 

Mr. Mackay intends to make an effort to secure similar legislation for 
Ducks, and he should be supported most earnestly by every sportsman in 
the state, as the killing of any species of game birds during the northward 
migration is wrong both in principle and practice, and is indefensible from 
any standpoint. Mr. Frederick A. Homer gives the following interesting 
account of the Terns breeding on that historical island, Penikese: "The 
Terns are increasing very rapidly from year to year, and the past year seems 
to have been an exceptional one. In all my experience 1 have never seen 

State Reports 89 

so many here. The Roseate Terns are also increasing wonderfully, and 
while a few years ago they seemed quite rare, this year I saw great bodies 
of them, with not a Common Tern among them, and I judge the colony is 
divided about equally between the Common and the Roseate. This fact is 
very pleasing to me, as it evidences the care we have taken to see that pro- 
tection is afforded them. There have also been but few fishermen in our 
harbor of late, and it has thus been easy to control the taking of eggs, and 
having but few sheep on the island very few of the young Terns have been 
crippled. My notes give but twelve as having been found in a crippled 
state, and I can say with confidence that this has been an exceptional year 
for the constantly increasing Tern colony at the island of Penikese. Grad- 
ually they are nesting nearer the outbuildings than ever before, and all my 
fear is that they will finally overrun the island; but this matter will regulate 
itself, I suppose. 

"Below are some extracts from my note-book: May 5, 1904. The 
Terns arrived early this A.M. in small detached squads, the weather being 
fine and the wind strong from the S.W. 

"May 6. The Terns are arriving in greatly increased numbers and by 
evening had all arrived. Weather fine, wind N.E. 

"May 26. Saw the first egg. 

"June 21. Saw the first young Tern, just hatched. 

"July 17. The young are beginning to fly. 

"August 3. Terns commenced to leave with some young. 

"Sept. 15. Terns have all left." 

Unfortunately, the Common and Least Terns breeding on Katoma 
Beach, Martha's Vineyard, did not fare so well, for some lawless party 
robbed the birds of all their first laying of eggs. As the Least Terns are 
less prone to breed in colonies than the other members of the family, it may 
be possible that they did not suffer so much from the raid as did the Com- 
mon Terns. A reward of twenty-five dollars was offered by the National 
Committee for evidence that would convict the eggers, but it was without 
result and the person who committed the crime is still unpunished. Mr. 
John E. Rowland, of Vineyard Haven, who has aided the National Com- 
mittee in many ways, writes that he is of the opinion that the Least Terns 
breed sparingly all along the south shore of Martha's Vineyard. He adds, 
"The severe winter, even on this favorably located island, was more than 
our game birds could stand and the Quail were nearly exterminated; it is to 
be regretted that our Legislature did not make a close season on these 
beautiful little game birds. In May I saw quite a number of Heath Hens, 
but at this writing I cannot give you any information as to how they 
nested. Local shooters are respecting the laws protecting Gulls, Terns 
and Night Herons in a way they have never done before." 

Miss Kimball, secretary of the Audubon Society, sends the following 
report of growth and good results: 

90 Bird - Lore 

"Since the last report sent you (Nov., 1903), our society has gained 
431 new members, giving a total membership of 6,016 persons, of which 
1,505 are Juniors. We have 118 local secretaries working in 117 
districts through the state. 

"A good number of Educational Leaflets, and other circulars, have 
been distributed. New warning posters, or copies of the law, printed on 
cloth, have been sent out freely. There has been a good demand for the 
two bird charts published by the Society. The calendar for the last year 
has been republished for 1905, and plates taken from it without dates, 
to sell in sets. A number of 1904 calendars were given to teachers of 
vacation schools, to help them in their nature -work. 

"A new traveling lecture, written for children, illustrated by colored 
plates, was added to our two lectures, with lantern and slides, and all 
three were used a good deal, especially during the spring. 

"Our four traveling libraries have been loaned continuously, and new 
books are now being added. 

"The very few complaints of violations of the law which have been 
made, have been reported to the Fish and Game Commission. 

"An appropriation for this year was made to help the Biological 
Farm which Dr. Field has started at Sharon. 

"The following meetings have been held, in addition to the regular 
monthly meetings of the Board of Directors: A course of three lectures 
by Rev. Herbert K. Job; a free lecture or public meeting, addressed by 
Mr. Ralph Hoffmann, and Mr. William Dutcher, and a field-meeting or 
bird -walk, open only to Associate members." 

Maine. — A session of the legislature will be held early in 1905, and 
the Committee hopes to be able to carry out some of the recommen- 
dations suggested in the last report, for the improvement of the game and 
bird statutes. Whether public opinion is strong enough at the present 
time to secure the passage of a law preventing spring shooting of Ducks, 
Geese and shore birds, is not definitely known; however, such a law is 
much needed, especially in the case of the American Eider. Fishermen 
still take the eggs of this fast -disappearing bird, notwithstanding all the 
efforts to prevent this wasteful practice. Each year lessens the number 
of these Ducks breeding on the Maine coast, and, unless some radical 
measure can be devised to protect the Eiders, they will shortly have to 
be classed among the birds that formerly bred in the state. A close 
season for ten years would not be too radical a law to meet the exigen- 
cies of the case. 

Eleven wardens were employed during the breeding season of 1904, 
and it gives the Committee great pleasure to state that all of these men 
gave faithful, interested and excellent service. All of the bird colonies on 

State Reports 91 

the Maine coast are in particularly favorable localities for effective pro- 
tection. That most of the colonies are in fine condition, and are increas- 
ing rapidly in size, is very clearly stated in an interesting report made by 
Mr. A. H. Norton, after a personal inspection, his trip lasting from July 
12 to August 16. A summary of Mr. Norton's report is appended. 

The Puffins at Matinicus Rock numbered six, a gain of two since 
last year. 

Black Guillemots still maintain the full extent of their range in Maine. 

Herring Gulls show a general increase in number. While the birds are 
found in considerable numbers as far west as Scarborough, No Mans Land 
marks their western breeding limit on this coast. At no point are the birds 
as abundant in the same area as at No Mans Land, which contains but 
twelve acres. 

At the Duck Islands the conditions still continue to be excellent-. In 
fact, nowhere is protection extended and conducted with more zeal and 
better results than at Great Duck Island and No Mans Land. At Little 
Duck the birds are rather less accustomed to the presence of man than at 
Great Duck, and are a little wilder than the birds at the latter place. The 
colony has increased extensively since protection became established. No 
evidences of molestation were visible. 

Laughing Gulls have left Metinic Green Island this year and returned 
to Western Egg Rock in Muscaugus Bay. This is a less desirable place 
from our point of view, and it is to be hoped that they may return to the 
island first named. The reason for this change is not entirely clear, as they 
returned to Metinic Green Island in the spring. It is possible that the 
erection of a small shed for the shelter of the three sheep pastured here, 
near the resort of the Gulls, may have had the effect of changing their place. 

Common and Arctic Terns of Maine sometimes breed separately but 
more often together, so that they may be conveniently treated under the 
general term. Terns. On the whole, there has been a decided increase in 
the numbers of these birds. 

No mortality was noted among them at any point, and it is said that 
food seems to have been more abundant than it was last year. Mr. Ruth- 
ven Deane, one of the directors of the National Association, while on the 
Maine coast the past summer, visited the Tern colony in Saco Bay and con- 
firms Mr. Norton's favorable report. He says, ''During July and August 
large numbers of Terns were seen daily fishing in Saco Bay and off Scar- 
boro Beach." 

Leach's Petrels, so far as observed, have not suffered molestation. The 
introduction of dogs and cats on the islands where they breed, by 
fishermen who camp or live there, is a practice that may be serious and 
should be prohibited, as both of these animals are very destructive to 

92 Bird - Lore 

It is doubtful if any Cormorants now breed in Maine; yet they continue 
to remain throughout the summer in some numbers. 

I succeeded in getting ashore on Old Man Island, after making three 
attempts; this was on August i, a rough, foggy day. I saw only one 
Eider Duck, a female which started from the shore or close to it at the 
northeast part of the island, and flew (entirely away, not returning while I 
was there. Though I searched, I could find no nest or young. While the 
number there last year was considerably more, observations at other points 
makes it seem to me probable that only a small number were actually breed- 
ing, perhaps only the four which Captain Small, the warden, has observed 
to remain this year. 

The shooting about Old Man Island, last spring, no doubt had the 
result of driving away all but the birds most strongly attached to the place. 
With law and enforcement there seems a fair chance to save this colony. 

A single Female Eider was seen at Pulpit Rock, August 3, and on July 
30, about Jordan's Delight Ledges, off Naraguagus Bay, sixteen or more 
of both sexes were started from the water, all being strong of wing. They 
were not seen here on our return. 

At Jericho Bay I failed to see any of the birds about their resorts, 
though it may be hoped that some had bred and departed from Spirit Ledge. 
With the extended extirpation of the little Terns at the old resorts of this 
Duck further up the bay, it seems nearly certain that none could have 
escaped nest -robbing there. 

An Eider Duck was seen for some time around Matinicus by Mr. 
Merton Tolman this spring. While the outlook is not bright, another 
effort should be made to protect these grounds, with the hope of saving this 
noble bird to the breeding fauna of the United States. A law for the pro- 
tection of this Duck must be required of the legislature at the coming 

While a few of the birds spend the summer on this coast, thousands, and 
perhaps tens of thousands, winter or migrate along the outer islands, reefs, 
and ledges of Maine. They form an item of some importance in the 
economy of a class who depend to a great extent upon the 'abundance of 
the sea' for a livelihood. A pair of dressed Eiders, or Ducks and Drakes, 
command about 50 cents, while five yield a pound of feathers. 

The migrants begin to arrive late in October, and depart the last of 
April. As the birds inhabit the most exposed places at the most inhos- 
pitable seasons, they are taken only by the hardier gunners, and, as they 
are held in much esteem, all of these taken are put to use. 

With these conditions, it would be nearly impossible to prevent the 
taking of all of the birds for even a short term of years, should such a 
law be passed. 

A law prohibiting the taking of Eiders between March first and 

State Reports 93 

November first would probably meet with little opposition, and would be 
observed. Its enforcement would give security to the birds which return 
in April or May to breed. Means must be taken to enforce the pro- 
tection of the breeding-grounds, or the species must cease to breed on 
our shores. 

Great Blue Herons are protected at Bradbury's Island and Great 
Wass Island. At both of these places the young were on the wing late 
in July; they were abundant at Deer Isle, where they feed about the 
long, shallow coves at low tide. They were considered more numerous 
this year than at any previous year. About Great Wass Island many 
were also seen, indicating successful breeding. 

Black-crowned Night Herons have been protected at Falmouth and 
at Little Duck Island; both of these colonies are quite large, and have 
passed a successful breeding season. Three pairs of these birds bred this 
year on No Mans Land, this being the first instance known. The 
young which were successfully reared were leaving their nests July 21. 

Spotted Sandpipers breed, to some extent, on nearly every protected 
island, and receive the attention of the wardens. They have bred well, 
and have not been molested so far as known. 

The Secretary of the State Audubon Society reports ''progress in the 
work of bird protection in Maine. The objects of the Audubon Society 
are becoming better known, and meet the approval of the thoughtful 
everywhere. The reports from the local secretaries are encouraging." 
One writes: "The interest in bird -study is gratifying. The school 
children take an active interest in birds, and are learning the lessons 
taught by the society for their protection." Another writes: "The 
teachers are delightfully enthusiastic over the Audubon work." 

One teacher who presides over a large school composed of younger 
pupils has accomplished a great work among the children under her 
care. Every morning she gives them a bird-talk of a few minutes, and 
she has inspired them with a wonderful degree of enthusiasm. They 
surprise even herself, by the closeness and accuracy of their personal 
observation of bird -ways, and also by the amount of information which 
they have acquired through such observation. They have taken under 
their especial protection all the birds in their respective neighborhoods, 
and woe is sure to betide any would-be plunderer who dares to disturb 
the nests. One small pupil discovered some New Hampshire bojs climb- 
ing to one of the Robins' nests near his home (South Berwick is a 
border town), and endeavored to drive them away. Not succeeding in 
this, the plucky little one went promptly for a policeman, who gave the 
intruders convincing proof that it is not safe to violate our Maine laws 
for the protection of birds. I am sure that those boys will raid no more 
nests on this side of the state line. 

94 Bird - Lore 

It is a matter of common remark that the birds in this vicinity are 
remarkably tame this season. They have been so faithfully defended 
against their enemies, and so liberally supplied with food and with nest- 
ing materials by their little friends who wear the Audubon button, that 
it is not strange that the timid creatures should respond to these friendly 

Reports from other branches are equally interesting. We have con- 
tinued to distribute literature, pledge cards, buttons and certificates as 
formerly. We have two bird-charts with descriptive matter to be loaned 
to local secretaries, teachers or other bird-lovers upon application. 

Our society now numbers 1,261, of which 315 are members and 
juniors, and 946 are associates. However, it is not a show of numbers 
that we seek, but the education of the masses to the economic value 
of birds. 

Michigan. — This is one of the few states that has not as yet adopted the 
Model Law. One of the chief activities of the Audubon Society and other 
public -spirited citizens should be to try to secure its passage at the session 
of the legislature commencing in January, 1905. The large colony of 
Herring Gulls breeding near the Passage Island Lighthouse, Lake Superior, 
were protected by a paid warden, and they made a normal increase. Pro- 
fessor Barrows, of the Agricultural College, reports that some small colonies 
of Herring Gulls, Common Terns and Caspian Terns which occupy several 
small islands and rocky ledges in the northern part of Lake Michigan were 
very much disturbed and were robbed of their eggs. This was not discov- 
ered until too late to take action this season, but attention will be given to 
them during the coming breeding season. It is especially important that 
the colony of Caspian Terns should be rigidly protected, as comparatively 
few of them breed in the United States. 

Secretary Butler, of the Audubon Society, reports as follows: "Our 
work has consisted mainly in distributing literature and in endeavoring to 
organize branch societies. Some success was achieved in protection at 
various points and the state was aroused for a time over the report of the 
Fruit -Growers' Association recommending the next legislature to provide an 
open season for Robins. A colony of Great Blue Herons was being rapidly 
destroyed at Clarkson during the nesting season. The women of the 
community said the wings made good dusters, and thus encouraged the 
killing. The killing of Gulls and Terns for the milliners has been common 
in Michigan, but this has been somewhat checked. 

"At Chesaning a man was killing Hummingbirds for the millinery trade. 
On promising to give up the unlawful work, no further action was taken. 
Complaints have come from several parts of the state, but no action could 
be taken because the deputy game wardens refuse to act on information 

State Reports 95 

supplied by the Audubon Society. The State Game Warden requires that 
all complaints shall be made to him. 

"The best results obtained were from the posting of printed notices 
giving a resume of the law relating to the destruction of birds. Many of 
these signs were destroyed by vicious persons, but threats of prosecution are 
doing some good. 

"Plans for the coming year will be an effort to pass the Model Law; 
a series of lectures for the public; talks by the secretary to boys' clubs and 
church societies, especially those meeting during the summer season; plans 
to get bird study before the educational bodies of the state, and especially 
those that hold meetings during the summer months; funds to be secured 
to carry on successfully all of the above work." 

Minnesota. — This was one of the first states to organize an Audubon 
Society (1897) ; the Model Law has been adopted, but the bird protection 
movement is not yet under full headway. This commonwealth has an 
area of over 83,000 square miles in which the birds must be protected, and 
a population of over one and one -half millions of people who should be 
willing to do some bird study and bird protection work. There should be 
at least one or more local secretaries in every county in the state; Massa- 
chusetts, with only one-tenth of the area to cover, already has one hundred 
and sixteen secretaries at work. President Taylor makes a specially inter- 
esting report of educational work done: "The work of the year has been 
more than satisfactory. We have, in connection with the bird branch of 
the State Horticultural Society, issued and largely distributed a circular on 
bird protection which has done much good. We have secured one hun- 
dred lantern -slides, through different sources, and these have been used by 
Prof. D. Lange in his lectures to the High School and to school teachers 
and scholars. Four more lectures are still to be delivered before the 
children in this city. He has published under the auspices of this Society 
a book, 'How to Know One Hundred Birds of Minnesota and the North- 
west,' which is the best primary lesson book I have seen, and it has been 
very successful. A number of convictions have been secured and a general 
tone of better security for our birds has been established. The public is 
talking about us, which is always a favorable sign that we are doing some- 

"While we get somewhat discouraged for need of money, we peg along 
and slowly win our way, I am sure. We, however, need help from the 
richer sections of the country." 

Mississippi. — During the present year the Model Law was adopted 
which is a decided gain, as it helps to close up the gap in the coastwise 
states and permits the use of the warden system. As there is no Audubon 

96 Bird - Lore 

organization in this commonwealth, the necessary work of securing the 
passage of new legislation was entrusted to Mr. Miller, president of the 
Louisiana Audubon Society. His success in a state where no previous 
educational work along Audubon lines had been done is another evidence 
of what a great personal interest, added to force and determination, can 
achieve. The National Committee have distributed some educational 
matter and warning notices, but there is great need for a State Audubon 

Missouri. — In a few words Secretary August Reese tells the conditions 
in this great commonwealth: "The Missouri Audubon Society, since its 
incorporation June, 1901, has been highly successful in creating a healthy 
sentiment for the better protection of birds, both from a utilitarian and from 
a humanitarian point of view. In its effort to obtain practical legislation, 
it has fought a gallant but unsuccessful battle. Supported by the press and 
thousands of prominent citizens, the questionable influence of those who 
traffic in birds and game triumphed over the wishes of the masses. Not 
discouraged by defeat, we will renew our labors to obtain our cherished 
object, the enactment and enforcement of elective bird laws." 

With the election of a man of the character of Joseph W. Folk as the 
Governor of the State, boodle will hereafter have no power to defeat good 
bird and game legislation. The cold storage magnates will soon discover 
that it is impossible to find any state to which they may send their paid 
emissaries to slaughter game birds, both in and out of season. Gradually 
the lines are closing about them, as one state after another enacts laws 
which limits the bag, and especially prohibits sale and export. The legis- 
lature of 1905 should wipe out the disgrace of the past and place the state 
in the front rank of bird and game protection. 

Nebraska. — There are two organizations in the state working for bird 
protection, both of them sending messages of good accomplished. Miss 
Higgins, secretary of the Audubon Society, says: "This society has kept 
alive during the past year the bird interest among the 15,000 or more junior 
members. The vigilant protection of birds and their nests last spring by 
thousands of little bird -lovers was gratifying indeed, and productive of 
wonderful results. In all the parks and wooded spots in the city and the 
country round about were posted warnings. Omaha has forty special 
police officers, all members of the Humane Society and nearly all members 
of the Audubon Society; these oflScers have been of inestimable value to 
the society. We have circulated what literature it was possible for us to 

"I send this superficial account of our year's work, and hope that next 
year, when v»^e have become a state organization, we may not only have a 

State Reports 97 

report to send to the convention, but a delegate as well. We are to have a 
meeting soon for the purpose of incorporating into a State Association." 

Dr. Wolcott of the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, writes: "The 
Union has reprinted a leaflet of Professor Bruner's 'A Plea for the Pro- 
tection of our Birds.' Of these about four thousand have been circulated. 
Many newspapers, and some prominent ones, in the state, have reprinted 
the leaflet; probablj^ a total circulation of 50,000 has been reached in 
this way. 

"Representatives of the society have spoken in favor of bird protection 
at farmers' institutes, at teachers' institutes, at meetings of patrons of schools, 
to school children, etc. Probably fifty audiences have been addressed dur- 
ing the year. The officers of the society have cooperated with and advised 
the State Game Warden, especially in reference to warning of individuals 
and prosecution of a few, for destruction of game and song birds. 

"Much work has been done by members privately in securing the post- 
ing of land, in warning and watching boys and men known to be violating 
game laws, and in other ways keeping the cause of bird protection before 
the people." 

New Hampshire. — Work in this state is carried on effectively along 
most of the best lines of real progress; an outline of the same is furnished 
by Mrs. Batchelder, the secretary: "The work of the society for the past 
year has been a continuation and enlargement of that of previous years. 
The circulation of the National Association's educational leaflets has been 
increased by the addition of those recently published. 

"The colored bird-charts and BiRD-LoRE's uncolored chart have been 
introduced in many more schools, and donated to such schools as could not 
purchase them. A circulating library of bird literature has been made avail- 
able for use in rural schools. The traveling lecture and stereopticon con- 
tinue to be in demand, and are reported to be very useful. 

"At the suggestion of the National Association, feeding grounds for the 
birds were established during the latter part of the severe winter. It is the 
intention to repeat the experiment, and to make systematic observations 

"At the request of the State Federation of Women's Clubs, literature, 
charts and other materials were furnished to the Arts and Crafts Department 
for circulation among women's clubs in rural districts. 

"Contributions in money have been made to the society for the protec- 
tion of New Hampshire forests, and to the National Association of Audubon 

"The junior societies thus far organized have been very successful in 
arousing an interest in bird life among the young people. 

"The work of the coming year will be practically a continuation of that 

gS Bird - Lore 

of the past. Steps have been taken toward encouraging the improvement 
of school -house grounds in rural districts. This is undertaken with a 
view of bringing children and youth into closer sympathy with nature, of 
attracting bird life to the immediate vicinity of the schools, and thus 
indirectly but surely to accomplish the more effectual protection of the 
birds themselves." 

Ne"w Jersey. — Two wardens were' employed to watch and guard the 
few remaining Laughing Gulls and Terns on this coast. Both of them re- 
port an exceptionally favorable season, and an unusually large increase. Even 
nature was kind in that she sent no heavy storm-tides to sweep away the 
eggs and young during the breeding season. The summer boarder with a 
gun, who must kill something, still gives some trouble; but the resident pub- 
lic are beginning to acknowledge that a strict enforcement of the bird and 
game laws is a benefit to all. Miss Scribner, the secretary of the Audubon 
Society, narrates in a few clear words the important and rather strenuous 
activities of the present year. Very few of the Audubon Societies have ever 
been called upon to pass through such an ordeal as was presented to New 
Jersey during the last session of the legislature. That the Society was not 
caught napping, is a cause for congratulation and an example to other so- 
cieties who may at any moment have to face the same situation. "The 
most important result reached during the past year on the part of the New 
Jersey Audubon Society was that relating to the ' Robin Bill.' It was ru- 
mored in the preceding summer that the fruit-growers and others had planned 
to enter a bill in the legislature authorizing the shooting of Robins, Catbirds, 
Flickers and Doves, thus removing protection from some of our most valu- 
able insectivorous birds. An educational crusade among the children was 
deemed advisable, and, accordingly, several thousand leaflets on the Robin 
were sent to the superintendents and principals" of public schools, who had 
kindly agreed to distribute them. 

"In consequence of active work on the part of the friends of the society, 
and as a result of thousands of petitions sent all over the state, the mem- 
bers of the legislature and the Governor were deluged with thousands of 
names, and public opinion was sufficiently aroused to prevent the passage 
of bills in the Senate and House which proposed to make an open season 
on Robins and other important birds. 

"The next work in which the Society took a hand was that of helping 
to pass a law forbidding the shooting of Pigeons at traps. In conjunction 
with the Hudson County Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 
petitions and letters were sent all over the state and public opinion, which 
had been kept agitated for the previous two years, was thoroughly aroused. 
The sporting element made a desperate fight, and succeeded in keeping the 
bill in Committee till the close of the session, but public indignation was 

State Reports 99* 

so strong that Governor Murphy called an extra session to reconsider the 
* Pigeon Bill.' At this session the bill was passed in a few minutes. 

"About a hundred new members have been received in the New Jersey 
Society during the past year, but this inadequately represents the interest 
aroused by the work of the society. This interest is contagious, and many 
are devoting time and thought to the study and protection of birds, and in 
the schools especially much attention is given to this work." 

New York. — A determined effort was made by the baymen and hotel 
keepers of Long Island to have the law prohibiting spring shooting of Ducks 
and Geese repealed, but, owing to the strong fight made by the sportsmen of 
the other parts of the state, aided by the entire Audubon influence, the at- 
tempt was unsuccessful. The stopping of spring shooting for two years has 
increased the numbers of the above-named game birds very materially, and it 
is reported by reliable observers that more Wood Ducks and Black Ducks 
were hatched and successfully reared in New York State than for many 
years past. Two wardens were employed to care for the Terns breeding at 
the north and south end of Gardiner's Island, and each of them report a 
very large increase in the numbers of these Sea Swallows. The two colo- 
nies now number some thousands of birds which are not molested, as the 
people residing in the vicinity of the breeding grounds are fully acquainted 
with the law and generally observe it. 

Miss Lockwood, secretary of the Audubon Society, makes an extremely 
encouraging report, which is added: "The same methods have been fol- 
lowed during the past year by the New York Audubon Society as hereto- 
fore. The wall charts, the traveling lantern and slide outfit, the educa- 
tional and other leaflets, have done effective work. 

"Over 17,000 leaflets have been distributed; of these, 2,700 were sent 
to the State Fair at Syracuse. The law posters have been circulated in 
both English and Italian. 

"The lecture ' Travels of a Bird Student,' given by Mr. Chapman for 
the benefit of the society at Sherry's, added over $400 to the funds. 
$125 was contributed toward the expenses of the National Committee. 

"In October, Mr. Dutcher spoke in behalf of the society at the Con- 
vention of Societies for Prevention of Cruelty to Children and Animals, at 

"From all parts of the state reports are received showing increased pop- 
ular interest. One local secretary writes: 'I am delighted with the 
progress being made with the work of the Audubon Society: in the general 
information and awakened intelligence of the people whom I meet, greatly 
in contrast with that of a few years ago.' Another secretary was told by a 
leading clergyman of her town, after reading 'An Open Letter to Clergy- 
men' by Mr. Dutcher: ' I will aid you all I can, and will take the cause 

loo Bird -Lore 

right into the pulpit, and later on will distribute the leaflets in my 

"Never before has the New York Society begun the winter with better 
prospects. There are now enthusiastic workers all over the state and 
many new fields to be conquered. As unstinted a distribution as possible 
miust therefore be made of the many excellent leaflets now available. 

"Steps have been taken for the incorporation of the society. 

"The pressing need of the society, to<meet which all energies must be 
bent, is to gain two or three hundred sustaining members. Each town and 
city in the state should contribute its quota according to its wealth and size, 
and with persistent efifort this ought to be possible. Such an income as 
this would mean would do much to insure the permanency of the society, 
whatever (inevitable) changes in the Executive Board the future may bring. 

"The present membership is 5,217." 

North Carolina. — The report of the year's work detailed by Secretary 
Pearson shows so clearly how much a well -managed and aggressive society 
can accomplish that it becomes an excellent object-lesson for the Executive 
Officers of all other societies. 

"The Audubon Society of North Carolina is an unique organization, 
in that it is not only a society for the study of bird life and the pro- 
mulgation of the ideas of bird protection, but it has, in addition, the 
power of appointing bird and game wardens, and in other ways repre- 
sents the state as a Game Commission might do. The measure of 
success with which its afifairs have been attended demonstrates clearly 
the advisability of a non-political organization, conducting the affairs of 
the bird and game protection work of a commonwealth. 

"This Society has been adding to its warden force until, at the 
present time, forty men are employed, six of these giving their entire 
time to the work. The enforcement of the bird and game laws in the 
state is a new experience to most of the population, and when such con- 
ditions exist it is reasonable that the people should be made acquainted 
with the law, and substantial reasons given them why the insect-eating 
birds should be protected and the game preserved. To accomplish this 
end the wardens travel through the country visiting the towns, country 
stores and farmhouses, handing out literature and talking with the 
people. In this way there has been distributed during the past year in 
round numbers the following literature: 

Cloth warning notices 17,000 

Leaflets of National Committee 21,000 

Government publications 32,000 

Publications of the Stat.- Society 110,000 

State Reports loi 

"Making a total of i8o,000 different articles of printed information 
regarding bird protection, which has been given the people of the state. 
These do not take into consideration 6oo books purchased for the use 
of the local secretaries, rural school teachers and game wardens. 
Each warden is supplied not only with copies of the State and Federal 
laws, but with certain literature which he is obliged to read and become 
familiar with. For example, every warden has a copy of Neltje Blanchan's 
'Bird Neighbors,' Pearson's 'Stories of Bird Life,' Hornaday's splendid 
new ' Natural History of North America,' and the magazine, ' BiRD-LoRE.' 

"After the warden has thoroughly acquainted the people of his terri- 
tory with the bird and game laws, he proceeds to prosecute any violations 
of the law which may be reported to him. Fifty-five prosecutions have 
been successfully conducted by the Audubon Society for the past year. 

"Aided by support from the Thayer Fund, the society has been able 
to extend absolute protection to the breeding sea birds along the coast. 
About 2,700 young are known to have been raised the past summer. 
The secretary has delivered a number of talks and public lectures in 
various parts of the state, with the view of arousing further interest in 
the subject of bird study and bird protection. The work of the society 
is well received in the state, and the officers feel that they have grounds 
for much encouragement." 

North Dakota. — During the present year the local society has developed 
into a state organization which bids fair to become one of the important 
factors in bird preservation. Its field of usefulness is large, for within the 
borders of the commonwealth many large colonies of water birds find their 
breeding homes. 

The first report of the society is presented by Miss Abbott, the secre- 
tary: "As our State Society was not organized until May of this year, we 
have accomplished nothing other than the outdoor Saturday morning Bird 
classes, which were carried on during the spring and early summer. These 
classes were largely attended both by adults and children. Also, through the 
summer a number of bibliographies on nature and birds were distributed, as 
well as Audubon literature. 

"We are planning to have stereopticon lectures given in this city and 
throughout the state by members of the society who will volunteer to do 
this work. The society owns fifty bird slides. We shall issue a printed 
bulletin in which we will include Audubon news and literature and bibli- 
ographies on nature. 

"We are making great efforts toward the establishing of branch societies. 
We are also sending out the Audubon pledge, to which we hope to get the 
signatures of all the teachers and pupils throughout the state ; to those 
signing this pledge we shall send a bird button. 

I02 Bird - Lore 

"Perhaps the work that will be the most important will be that of lend- 
ing libraries, containing books and mounted pictures on nature and birds; 
these libraries are to have between ten and fifteen books in them, and, to- 
gether with the case, will cost $20. If our funds hold out we shall send a 
copy or copies of BiRD-LoRE with each library. Of course these libraries 
are to be loaned through the branch societies. At present the society is 
preparing a list of the ' Flowers and Plants of North Dakota, and Where 
Found. ' This will be published and distributed by the society in the spring." 

Ohio. — The progress made by the Ohio Audubon Society is best shown 
by the report of the corresponding secretary, Mrs. Charlotte Miller Temple : 

"We report a considerable increase in enrolment of members, and a 
continued interest and effort in bird protection. 

"Monthly meetings are held, the time being divided between reports of 
officers, committees, etc., and a program which usually includes an address 
on some subject bearing upon the work of the society, with brief field dis- 
cussions. During the year numerous talks have been given in the schools 
by members of the society. School children are welcomed at the meetings. 
A corps of speakers assisted at the school celebrations of Arbor and Bird Day. 

" Every possible effort was made by our committee to prevent the removal 
of the Carolina Dove from the protected list, but these efforts were futile, 
and Doves are being slaughtered this fall. 

"The treasurer, assisted by other members, sold Audubon calendars dur- 
ing the holiday season, netting a substantial amount for the treasury. No 
admission fee was charged at the annual public lecture; Mr. WilHam Hub- 
bell Fisher, the speaker, gave a bird talk, illustrated by lantern -slides. Other 
talks were given at various meetings by Mr. Chas. Dury (The Humming- 
bird), Mr. Benn Pitman (Birds in Art), Mr. Osburn (Bird Calls), Mrs. 
Hermine Hansen (The Scarlet Tanager), Miss Gertrude Harvey (The 
Tern Islands of Lake Erie). Dr. T. S. Palmer, of Washington, D. C, 
and State Game Warden Mr. J. T. Porterfield, of Columbus, gave inspir- 
ing talks at one meeting. A new feature, which may become a part of our 
program, was ' Field Day ' in June. 

"Branch secretaries are being appointed throughout the state, and from 
this we hope to gain much. The corresponding secretary's work has kept 
the society in touch with other state societies, the A. O. U., the Biological 
Survey at Washington, and with the Society for Protection of Birds in 

"Inquiries in regard to Audubon work are frequently coming in from 
new quarters, evidencing the growth of interest in bird protection." 

Oklahoma, — While the Audubon Society of this territory is in a dor- 
mant condition, yet the subject of bird protection and the allied subject of 

State Reports 103 

humane education are attracting considerable attention. Mrs. Henrietta 
E. Foster, of Tecumseh, who has been urging the passage of a humane 
education law, quotes a letter from the State Superintendent of Public 
Education in South Dakota, where humane education is taught in the 
schools: "It has a tendency to create a desire for nature study, not only 
with the small children, but with those of the higher grades. It has also 
tended to increase the birds. The boys who were in the habit of climbing 
trees and destroying nests now see a study in this subject. I believe that 
great good will come from it in many ways. It will make more careful 
boys and girls, as well as better educated men and women." Mrs. Foster 
adds: "You will notice that the effects on increase of birds and protection 
of them accords with my claim that such would be the result of a humane 
education law. I am glad to know that it has been proven to be a fact. 
I believe in a stringent law to protect the birds, but that alone is not 
sufficient; the humane education of the children should go with it. The 
little it has been taught in the public schools in this territory has entirely 
changed the nature of the boys who have been given the instruction, as to 
their manner of treatment of birds; like the boys of Dakota, they have 
changed the killing of birds and robbing of nests to the protection and 
study of them." 

The press are not silent on the subject of bird protection, as is shown by 
the following excellent editorial from the New Kirk 'Democrat Herald': 
"It is likely at the sessions of the territorial legislature an effort will be 
made to have more stringent game laws passed. A small per cent of the 
larger kinds of game is left in Oklahoma, but what there is, the sportsmen 
would like to protect as much as possible. The chief aim now, however, 
will be to afford better protection for birds such as Quail and Prairie 
Chickens, both of which are still quite abundant in several sections. The 
Quails are said to be especially beneficial on farms, as they are one of the 
best pest -killers known, and on that account the farmers will be glad of the 
■passage of a law which will insure their feathered friends more protection." 

Oregon. — At the request of this Committee, State Game Warden 
Baker sent two deputy wardens to the southeastern portion of the state to 
give special protection to the birds breeding in the extensive and numerous 
shallow lakes in that region. The sum of one hundred and fifty dollars 
was paid from the Thayer Fund on account of the salary of the wardens, 
the balance being paid by the state. 

Very few attempts at violation of the law were reported, the worst 
offenders being hunters from California who cross the line, hunt and 
return before they can be captured. Chief Warden Baker states: "The 
wardens arrived at the breeding grounds at least two months too early, as 
owing to late snows and high water the breeding season was late." 


Bird - Lore 

Early in the year the Committee requested Messrs. Finley and Bohl- 
man, the well-known bird photographers and nature writers, to furnish a 
report of the conditions of the bird colonies on the Oregon coast. The 
report is so interesting that it is given in full: 

"We have visited the majority of rocks which are scattered along the 
coast from the mouth of the Columbia south to the California line, and we 
find that by far the most important rookeries are to be found on the 'Three 
Arch Rocks,' which are situated near the entrance of Netarts Bay, practi- 
cally two miles north of the same, and probably ten or fifteen miles south 
of the entrance of Tillamock Bay. The rocks consist of a group of three 

Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 

large rocks, and a few unimportant smaller ones, and are a mile ofi shore. 
The one to the right is three hundred and four feet high and about eight 
hundred feet long, while the one to the left is of about the same area, the 
center one being somewhat smaller and more precipitous. These rocks are 
densely populated, principally by California Murres, of which there are ten 
or twelve large rookeries and a large number of smaller ones; the large 
rookeries, it is estimated, contain between five and ten thousand individuals 
each, which gives a Murre population, at a conservative estimate, of 
seventy-five thousand individuals. 

"There are three large rookeries of Cormorants, probably four or five 
hundred birds in each; the rock to the left is inhabited almost entirely by 
Brandt's Cormorants, while on the middle rock are found the Farallone 

State Reports 105 

Cormorants. Baird's Cormorant is found on all three rocks in isolated and 
more inaccessible spots, and is the least common; there is a fourth species 
of Cormorant found here, but it was not positively identified. There are 
two Tufted Puffin rookeries on the rock to the right and the north slope 
of the middle one, and also a few on the northern slope of the third rock. 
There are two species of Petrels found, the Forked-tail and Leach's, but 
it was impossible to estimate their numbers or that of the Puffins; 
however, the guano was honey-combed with their burrows. The Western 
Gull is quite numerous, between three and five thousand individuals; they 
breed on all of the rocks. Pigeon Guillemots, not over fifteen or twenty 
pairs, and a few Black Oyster-catchers, were found. 

''These rocks were visited in 1901 and 1903, and both times considerable 
difficulty was experienced in getting out to them, as it was necessary to 
launch a boat through the surf. We waited two weeks each time before a 
sufficiently calm day arrived to attempt the breakers, although a little later in 
the year, the storekeeper at Netarts P.O. assured us that the breakers often 
subsided entirely, and people camping along the beach (summer resort 
people from Tillamook and neighboring small cities) went out in small 
boats to see the birds and sea-lions, a large rookery of the latter inhabiting 
the smaller rocks. These people no doubt do some damage to the birds, as 
firearms are common, and they make a practice of shooting at the sea-lions 
from the blufifs on the shore; yet at this season, which is in the latter part 
of July and August, the birds have finished their breeding, and the young 
are fully grown. In the earlier part of the season, from June i to July 10, 
there are but few outside people on the beach, and the breakers are too 
heavy to allow any but the most determined and well -equipped to reach 
the rocks from the shore, so not a great deal of danger is to be appre- 
hended from this source. 

"There is, however, one great menace to the bird life present, which 
ought to be checked. The seagoing tug 'Vosberg,' of Tillamook, has been 
in the habit, in the past two years, of running Sunday excursion parties out 
to the rocks. These parties comprise most of the able-bodied male citizens 
of the town, and they go armed to the teeth, the ostensible and advertised 
object of the excursion being a sea-lion hunt, or to capture one alive. We 
witnessed the arrival of such an excursion, while waiting on the shore for 
an opportunity to get out; the tug steamed very slowly in and out among 
the rocks, while the passengers practiced marksmanship on the birds sitting 
on the clififs. That they did great damage was attested the following day 
when, along the beach, the surf line was strewn with the dead bodies of 
Cormorants and Murres, mainly the former. This is a practice that it will 
probably be difficult to check, as the town is isolated, being reached only by 
weekly steamboat and stage lines, and this is doubtless one of their most 
popular and exciting diversions in the summer. 

io6 Bird - Lore 

"At the south end of the Oregon coast, there are a number of bird 
Tocks, but not very large in size. Several years ago we were told that parties 
were gathering eggs from these rocks and were sending them to the San 
Francisco markets. Subsequent investigations proved this to be a fact. 

"The summers of i8q2 and 1894 were spent about twenty miles north 
of Cape Blanco, at the mouth of the Coquille River, where there are a 
number of bird rocks. They are not very large, but they are well populated 
with Cormorants, principally Brandt's, Tufted Puffins, Western Gulls and 
Murres. At present these rocks do not need protection, as they are not 
likely to be reached by an^'^body except the life-saving crew at Bandon, a 
small town at the mouth of the Coquille, only a short distance from the 

"From the Coquille up past Coos Bay, and clear up to Yaquina Bay, the 
rocks are small and scattering and do not need any protection. The same 
condition obtains near Cape Foulweather, north of Yaquina. 

"The balance of the rocks along the coast to the Columbia River are 
a couple opposite Cape Mears Light -house, another near the mouth of the 
Nehalem River, a few more further north opposite Cannon Beach ; but 
these have comparatively small colonies of birds and need no protection at 

The flagrant violation of Section i of the Act of 1903 (Model Law) 
by the owners of the tug Vosberg was brought to the attention of State 
Game Warden Baker, who notified the captain of the tug that any future 
violations of the statute would be prosecuted. It is proposed by the com- 
mittee to give special attention to the Oregon coast during the coming 
breeding season, in order that egging and shooting shall be prevented. 

The acting secretary of the Audubon Society, Miss Metcalfe, presents 
the following report: "During the past year our work has been divided 
between education and bird protection, or enforcement of the new bird law 
that went into effect at the close of the last session of the state legislature. 
The educative work has included free stereopticon lectures, informal bird 
talks, Saturday afternoon outings during the nesting season, and sunrise 
meets, the latter arousing the greatest enthusiasm, bringing us a number of 
new club members that we would not have obtained otherwise; many of 
those attending walked miles in the early dawn, carrying lunch baskets, 
note-book and opera glasses, to a commanding height overlooking the city 
of Portland, where we viewed the glorious panorama of snow-clad moun- 
tains and winding river under the reddening sky, while enjoying hot coffee 
and sandwiches as we listened to the sunrise chorus of the birds. 

"The usual annual award of cash prizes was made by the John Bur- 
roughs Club of Portland to the school children of Oregon for the greatest 
knowledge of our native birds, as shown both by field tests and composi- 
tions. A visit from our valued friend. Rev. W. R. Lord, author of ' The 

State Reports 107 

First Book of the Birds of Oregon and Washington,' to whose enthusiasm 
and unselfish devotion to the cause the bird -lovers of this region owe so 
much, was a noteworthy event in the early part of the year; his interest in 
the work led him to make the long journey across the continent from his 
home in Rockland, Mass., in compliance with the wishes of the bird clubs 
of the Pacific northwest. His stereopticon lecture, illustrated by the mar- 
velous and beautiful colored studies of birds by Louis Agassiz Fuertes, was 
a source of intense enjoyment to all who had the privilege of listening to it. 
"Bird protection has not been neglected, although there is urgent need 
of greater facilities for guarding that vast uninhabited territory in southern 


Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 

Oregon, the lake-lands, where thousands of beautiful Grebes and other 
water birds breed. Through the efiforts of our local bird men the interest of 
the state was aroused, to the extent of contributing the services of a game 
warden, making two altogether, for the enforcement of our new law in 
southern Oregon. The National Association furnished printed notices 
warning the public of the penalties attached to infringement of our law. 
These have been distributed throughout the state. 

"Our State Audubon Society has met with a sad loss in the sudden 
death, by drowning, of our corresponding secretary, Mr. Brugger. Our 
president, A. W. Anthony, has been in Alaska for several months past, and 
will probably remain there this winter. For this reason the report now 

io8 Bird - Lore 

offered is not as complete as it should be in its showing of the work that is 
being done in the state outside of Portland." 

Pennsylvania. — The very brief report of the secretary, Mrs. Robins, 
tells of progress in that most important line of work, new local branches 
with consequent increased membership and support. 

"Work has been carried on as usual. There has been a steady increase 
in membership and a most gratifying increase in local societies and clubs for 
the purpose of bird study and bird protection. As our state is such a large 
one, it is almost impossible for us to keep in touch with the members ex- 
cepting where these branches exist and our energies for the coming year 
are to be largely devoted to encouraging the forming of these clubs and 
branches, under the care of our local secretaries or some other competent 

"The traveling libraries continue to do good work. 

"A new bird and game bill is to be introduced in the state legislature at 
its next session, and the society will take steps to ensure such improvements 
as are needed for the preservation of wild birds, and use its best efforts to 
aid the passage of the bill." 

Rhode Island. — Notwithstanding the protest of the Audubon Society, 
the National Committee, and the intelligence of the commonwealth, the 
legislature passed a law providing for the payment of a bounty of twenty -five 
cents each for the scalps of Hawks, Owls and Crows. This statute is such 
a monument to ignorance and prejudice and is so far behind the times that 
it is published in full, in order that the public may have an opportunity of 
reading the very worst bird statute in force in any part of the United States. 
It is unfortunate when a commonwealth lacks laws for the protection of its 
birds, but it is much worse to have a bounty law for birds that scientific 
investigation has proved to be beneficial as a class. Bounty laws for birds 
or animals are wrong, both in principle and in practice. 

CHAPTER 1160. 

An Act Entitled an Act for the Protection of Song Birds and Game. 
(Passed April 13, 1904.) 

It is enacted by the General Assembly as follows: 

Section i. Every person who shall kill any wild hawk, except fish 
hawks, wild crow, or wild owl within the limits of this state shall, upon 
presentation of the proof hereinafter designated, receive for every such ani- 
mal so killed the sum of twenty-five cents, to be paid by the general 

Sec. 2. Before such person shall be entitled to receive the aforesaid 
reward he shall exhibit to any town clerk or state senator of any town, the 

State Reports 109 

head of any animal killed, mentioned in Section one, and shall make affi- 
davit of the time and place of such killing. Such town clerk or senator 
shall thereupon destroy the head of such animal, and shall, in addition to 
his official attestation of said affidavit, certify that the person making the 
same exhibited to him the head of the animal alleged to have been killed; 
and the state auditor shall, upon presentation of such affidavit and certifi- 
cate, draw^ his order upon the general treasurer in favor of the person sign- 
ing such affidavit. 

Sec. 3. The sum of five hundred dollars or so much thereof as may be 
necessary is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, for the purposes of this act. 

Sec. 4. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 

Mrs. Grant, secretary of the Audubon Society, furnishes the following 
interesting report: "Our work has been prosecuted with some vigor during 
the past year, chiefly in establishing new branches in the rural districts and 
in schools. Ten new branches have been founded, and fifty of the Massa- 
chusetts Audubon bird -charts have been placed in schoolrooms. Our two 
traveling libraries have been in constant demand, and the stereopticon and 
accompanying lecture have been used many times. We have also assisted in 
the printing and distributing of a valuable poster, ' Feed the Birds.' 

"We have increased our membership substantially, and, on the whole, 
feel that we have accomplished some good. In the future we mean to pros- 
ecute even a more vigorous and aggressive work." 

South Carolina. — This is the only state on the Atlantic coast that has 
not as yet adopted the Model Law for the protection of its non-game birds. 
Why the citizens of this commonwealth have not yet awakened to the 
importance of bird protection is difficult to understand, in view of all of the 
agitation on the subject during the past few years. Early in the spring of 
1904 Mr. Herbert K. Job made an extended bird photographing trip 
through the south, and among the other localities visited was South Caro- 
lina. The following brief, but interesting report shows the importance of 
improved legal bird protection: "During the second and third weeks of 
May I explored the Sea Islands of South Carolina. The coastwise trip was 
notably interesting from opportunities to study the shore birds, breeding 
and migrating. Oyster- catchers, Wilson's Plovers and Willets were scat- 
tered about in fair numbers and were breeding, apparently unmolested. In 
one place I was shown a fine nesting colony of Willets, and saw in one day 
as many as fifty nests with eggs. 

"Migratory shore birds were very abundant, the various small sandpipers, 
— notably the Red-backed, — Turnstones, Ring-necked and Black-bellied 
Plovers and Hudsonian Curlews. The latter were seen by thousands, feed- 


Bird- Lore 

ing in scattered flocks in the great marshes by day, and at sundown resorting 
to small, low islands to roost. I saw as many, I should judge, as ten thou- 
sand in one great flock. I did not observe much shooting, but there is some, 
and the southern coastwise states certainly should have laws prohibiting 
spring shooting of shore birds, thus preventing disturbing them while breed- 
ing or migrating northward. 

"It was too early to witness the breeding of the Black Skimmers and 
Terns. At several points there were large flocks of Skimmers and fair 
numbers of Royal Terns, apparently about to breed. The Royal Tern was 
the only species at all common; no Least Terns were seen. 

"Several low sandy islands were visited where Brown Pelicans are accus- 
tomed to breed. High tides and gales seemed to have drowned them all out 
this year. On only one island were there eggs, and these were washed 
from the nests and scattered about the sand or in windrows. Nature is more 
unkind even than man to the Pelicans, neither shielding them nor endow- 
ing them with brains." 

Mr. Job adds regarding another part of the south: "I was fortunate 
enough to ferret out a rookery of the American Egret which is probably the 
largest in North America, the existence of which does not seem to be 
known away from its immediate locality. Several hundred pairs of Egrets 
were breeding undisturbed, most of them with young, besides large numbers 

Photographed by H. K. Job 

State Reports 


of Little Blue and Louisiana Herons, many Great Blue, and numbers of 
Yellow-crowned. and Black-crowned Night Herons. Probably this rookery 
is quite safe, for the owners of the land watch it and will kill any man at 

Photographed by H. K. Job 

sight found there with a gun. Still, I think it is best that I should not 
publicly divulge the locality, nor even the state." 

Audubon work in South Carolina is not in a satisfactory condition, 
but it is hoped that, during the year 1905, the National Association will 
be in a position materially to aid the nucleus of a society that now exists. 

Texas. — Late in the year Audubon interests developed in such a 
satisfactory manner that there is no doubt that in a very short time a 
large and flourishing society will be organized, with earnest and active 
workers in charge of its afifairs. The National Association, aided by its 
resident member, Mr. Attwater, have been for a long time working to 
accomplish the above happy result. The following resume of conditions 
in Texas is furnished by Mr. Attwater, who has exceptional opportunities 
for securing reliable information: 

"Satisfactory progress has been made in bird protection work in 
Texas during the past year. 

"The search for a remedy for the cotton -boll weevil has been the 
chief cause of attracting attention to the value of certain birds as insect - 
destroyers. Numerous newspaper articles and letters on this subject, and 

112 Bird -Lore 

the distribution of Audubon Educational Leaflets and other bird h'terature 
have been the means of affording reHable information in regard to the life 
histories of some of the birds and their food habits. 

"The public is becoming interested, the use of birds more appreciated, 
and the importance of protecting them more greatly recognized than 

"By the newspaper clippings I have sent from time to time you v^^ill 
notice that the subject of bird protection is being taken up by our 
Farmers' Institutes, Truck Growers' Associations and Humane Societies. 
Until the alarming increase of insect pests of late years, very few people 
paid any attention to the relation of birds to agricultural and horticultural 
pursuits. Now there is a demand for information and a desire to form 
bird protective associations. Unfortunately, the great majotity of people 
in Texas know very little about bird life, habits, etc. 

"If the Audubon Society were able to send a bird man to Texas he 
would find conditions favorable, and many willing to assist in organizing 
bird protective associations, which would result in formation of a State 
Audubon Society, with branches and active workers all over the common- 

"The new bird law has undoubtedly resulted in stopping the indis- 
criminate slaughter of many useful birds, and if those classed as game 
were not included, it might be said that the present law gives general 
satisfaction. On account of some of its provisions which relate to certain 
game birds, there are some who do not favor the law as it now stands. 
I understand that several amendments will be offered at the next session 
of the legislature. Objections to the law in its present form come 
principally from the following classes : 

"Professional market hunters and shippers of game, restaurant and 
hotel keepers and from a great many of the general public, who do not 
themselves shoot, but who like game in season, and are now prevented 
from buying it. The chief objection from the latter class is that some 
of the so-called gentleman sportsmen return from hunting trips with 
quantities of Ducks, etc., above the limit allowed (viz., twenty-five to 
each man), having taken negroes and others with them for the purpose 
of carrying and standing responsible for the birds illegally killed. 

"In a state like Texas, with such an immense area, and so many diverse 
interests, it would have been remarkable had a law been passed including 
both game and non-game birds that would have suited all parties; however, 
there seems to be an opinion among certain people that changes of a minor 
character will strengthen and improve the law. On the other hand, there 
are those who think that it will be for the welfare of the state at large 
to let the law stand as it is; it is said that many of those who desire 
changes are actuated by individual interests. 

State Reports 113 

"The keeper of the Matagorda Lighthouse was employed as a warden 
during the breeding season. He protected all the birds in his locality, and 
reports a larger increase in 1904 than at any period for some years past. 
The birds protected were Royal and other Terns, Laughing Gulls, Black 
Skimmers, etc." 

Vermont. — The report of the secretary, Mrs. Barrows, shows very 
satisfactory progress, especially along educational lines: 

"During the past year the Audubon Society has endeavored to form 
branch societies in various parts of the state, with notable success in several 
towns. Societies have been organized in Castleton, Proctor, Essex 
Junction and Springfield. We had previously organized societies in Wil- 
liamsville and Putney. Our three traveling libraries have been in circulation 
in several towns during the year, and we have received appreciative letters 
from the teachers who have had the use of them in their schools. One 
teacher writes, ' Before these books were placed in the hands of teachers 
and pupils, there was practically no interest in the subject of birds on the 
part of either. Now there is no lack of interest in the community. It 
scarcely seems possible that so much could have been learned in so short a 
time.' In our own town, while there has been little organized work done, 
there has been much individual work, and a stimulus given to bird study 
and protection. Many of our citizens are interested in feeding the birds 
through the winter months; and it is pleasant to record that several of the 
teachers in our public schools have placed shelves outside the school win- 
dows for the benefit of the birds who come there for daily lunch, thus 
pleasing and interesting the children who watch them. The Educational 
Leaflets published by the National Committee have been bought and dis- 
tributed. A copy of Bird-Lore has been placed on the reading table in 
our public library. Our society has contributed twenty-five dollars to the 
National Committee to aid in its work of bird protection. We have pur- 
chased a lantern, and hope to secure the slides necessary for a traveling 
lecture the coming year. 

"To Rev. Wm. R. Lord, of Rockland, Massachusetts, we are much 
indebted, for work in summer schools held for teachers. His illustrated 
lectures were received with great appreciation and enthusiasm." 

Virginia. — Eight wardens were employed during the past breeding sea- 
son, this being the fifth consecutive year that special protection has been 
given at the extensive breeding grounds in Accomac and Northampton 
counties. The chairman, early in July, explored this territory quite 
thoroughly and made the acquaintance of nearly all of the wardens. No 
one can realize the vast extent of the beaches and marshes that stretch from 
Chincoteague on the north to Cape Charles on the south. At intervals of 

114 Bird -Lore 

a few miles the beaches are cut by inlets from the ocean ; some of these are 
narrow and choked with sand-bars, while others are wide and deep enough 
to admit coasting vessels of some size. From the inlets radiate channels in 
every direction through the marshes which he back of the sandy barrier 
beaches. The beaches are not usually wide, never more than a few hun- 
dred yards, but the green marshes extend for miles back to the uplands. 
Both the beaches and marshes are used as breeding homes by birds. The 
trip was made in a small gasolene launch' of light draught, but the channels 
were so tortuous and at low water were so shallow that progress was 
exceedingly slow, for hours were lost every day while waiting for flood -tides 
in order to cross shallow bays and bars. 

During the six days spent in exploring this territory. Laughing Gulls 
were never out of sight and the cackling note of the Clapper Rail was 
a common sound. Th°se two species of birds were by far the most 
common, and were breeding in large numbers. Young Laughing Gulls, seen 
on July 4, were as strong on the wing as the parent birds; this shows that 
the first laying of eggs had not been disturbed. Least Terns were seen in 
considerable numbers fishing in the channels near Chincoteague Inlet. The 
wardens, on acquaintance, proved exceptionally intelligent men, and all of 
them expressed an earnest desire to give the best of care to the breeding 
birds. The vast extent of the territory under the care of each warden 
makes it physically impossible for him to do more than exert a moral in- 
fluence and thus create a public sentiment among the baymen, and other 
residents, in behalf of bird protection. It was found that egging was still 
carried on to some extent, but it is believed that it is not nearly as preva- 
lent as it was in former years. The provisions of the new law are generally 
known, and it is thought they are respected by the citizens. The chairman 
was very much encouraged by the outlook and considers the wardens' 
salaries money well expended. 

Audubon matters in Virginia are not as flourishing as they should be. 
The secretary, Mr. E. C. Hough, briefly reports as follows: 

"We have tried to interest people in our efforts to establish our state 
society upon a firm basis, but have met with but little success. I have 
written letters to the parties whose names you sent me, but none of them 
have rendered any assistance. I have also sent copies of our Digest of the 
Laws of Virginia relating to bird protection to a number of other parties. 
We can count but few persons who have paid membership dues, and the 
money received has not been sufficient to cover expenses of printing, etc. 
We propose to continue to distribute warning notices and literature, and 
hope that we can find friends of the movement who will become active 
members of the state society." 

State Reports 115 

Wisconsin. — This is one of the oldest of the Audubon Societies, and 
the state was one of the earHest to adopt the Model Law. Bird protection 
in this commonwealth has intelligent recognition by the citizens. The 
president of the Audubon Society, Mr. Zimmerman, makes the following 
report of progress : 

"We send greetings and well wishes to you and our sister organizations, 
with the following report of work accomplished and proposed: The society 
has continued its policy of improving its collection of slides this year. The 
slides were divided into groups, for each of which groups a suitable lecture 
has been written. These slides and lectures have been sent to the various 
local organizations, where they have been much enjoyed. 

"We have assisted in maintaining our organ 'By the Wayside,' pub- 
lished under the able editorship of Miss Ruth Marshall, of Appleton. Our 
secretary, Mrs. R. G. Thwaites, has been active, as in former years, in 
interesting people in our cause and in distributing bird literature. 

"We feel that much has been gained in the closer relation between the 
society and State Game Warden Overbeck and his assistants, particularly 
Mr. Gratz, by whose kindness we have had five of our energetic members 
made volunteer deputy game wardens, thus efifectually assisting in their as 
well as our work. 

"Our plans for the coming year consist mainly in continuing with the 
above named policies, but include also a determination to especially influence 
the milliners of the state to desist in all sale of bird pieces under threat of 
prosecution. One of our wealthy adherents having said he hoped to carry 
one case through the courts for us. We sincerely hope it may be accom- 
plished this year. 

"It is also our desire to further our unity with sister organizations in 
the various states. From our own standpoint the president feels that much 
good would come to us by such a unity." 

Wyoming. — The report of this society submitted by Mrs. Chivington, 
the secretary, should be read and its methods followed by many of the other 
State Societies: 

"The Audubon Society of the State of Wyoming is actively engaged in 
promoting sentiment in favor of the protection of birds. 

"To this end, letters have been addressed to those in charge of the 
schools in every town and county in the state, asking for the organization of 
all school children into Audubon Societies. 

"Appeals for the lives of our song birds have been printed in every 
newspaper in the state, and during the early summer months of the present 
year, the state secretary visited every part of the state and talked to club 
ladies about the work. A general interest is manifested, but written 
reports of work done are slow coming in. 

ii6 Bird -Lore 

"The branch associations who have found time to report are as follows: 
Bufialo, J. A. McNaught, secretary, 450 members; Saratoga, 50 mem- 
bers; Manville, Miss Florence Christian, secretarj^ 50 members; Parkman, 
Miss Amelia Mumm, secretary, 15 members; Chigwater, Louis C. Tid- 
ball, secretary, 6 members; Sheridan, C. R. Atkinson, membership not 
sent; Macfarland, Miss Macfarlane, membership not sent; Cheyenne, 
Mrs. Cordelia Chivington, secretary, 1,200 members. 

"Early in the spring the children of the Cheyenne schools gave an 
Audubon entertainment which was largely attended. 

"Our society is not incorporated, as we could derive no particular 
benefit from incorporation. 

"We prefer to keep the financial side of our problem in the background. 
Sale of buttons and contributions in small amounts from those interested 
will pay postage when the officers feel unable to meet this item. 

"The 'fad' for collecting the eggs of birds seems to have no followers in 
the state who are willing to exhibit their collections, as they did so insist- 
ently three years ago. 

"For two years the use of birds for millinery purposes has been obsolete 
in this state, the milliners taking great pains to show that the few bandeaux 
offered for sale have been made from chicken feathers. 

"The law protecting birds and their nests in Wyoming can be found in 
Sec. I, Chap. 37, Revised Statutes of Wyoming; and public opinion is such 
that the law is pretty well enforced. 

"At the present writing I am not able to report very many local societies 
for the protection of our birds; but public opinion is right, the hearts of the 
children are right, and I venture to assert that in no state in the Union are 
the Robins, Bobolinks and Larks as happy as in our Wyoming." 

From the following states and territories the National Committee have 
nothing to report: Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, Nevada, 
New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washington and West 
Virginia. The Audubon Societies in Maryland and Tennessee are such 
merely in name, while in most of the other localities Audubon work has 
never been started, owing to the small population. 

In Kansas and Washington, considerable preliminary work has been 
done by the committee, but so far without much result. 

The Thayer Fund 



The Chairman submits the following statement of subscriptions and disbursements for 
the fiscal year ending November i, 1904, to the correctness of which he certifies. 

In account with Thayer Fund — 

New York, November /, igo4. 



Thayer, J. E $500 00 

Benefactor 400 00 

" Ormond " 400 00 

Hemenway, A 100 00 

Raymond, C. H 100 00 

Freer, C. L 100 00 

Pickman, Mrs. D. L 100 00 

Sears, J. M 100 00 

Kane, Miss L. L 60 00 

Abbott, G 50 00 

"Sportsman" 55 00 

Stone, Miss E.J 50 00 

Dodge, C. H 50 00 

Macy, Mrs. V. E 50 00 

Vanderbilt, G. W 50 00 

Hicks, J. D 50 00 

Parker, EL 50 00 

Connecticut Audubon Society ... 45 00 

Freeman, Miss H. E 40 00 

Sharpe, Miss E. D 35 00 

Van Name, W. G 25 00 

Kennedy, Mrs. J. S 25 00 

Osgood, Miss E. L 25 00 

Hoyt, F. R 25 00 

Pinchot, Mrs. J. W 25 00 

Eno, Dr. H. C 25 00 

Sage, Mrs. S. M 25 00 

Webster, F. G 25 00 

Hunnewell, H. S 25 00 

Warren, Samuel 25 00 

Newbold, Hon. Thos 25 00 

Hunnewell, W 25 00 

Hunnewell, A 25 00 

Robbins, R. C 25 00 

Metcalf, S. 25 00 

Corning, Mrs. M. 1 25 00 

Dorr, Geo. B 25 00 

Hecker, F. J 25 00 

Brought forward $2,835 00 

Warren, Miss C 25 00 

Reed, Mrs, W. H 20 00 

A Friend 20 00 

Watson, J. S 20 00 

Crane, Miss C. L 20 00 

Holt, Mrs. H 20 00 

Smith, Mr. and Mrs. W. M. . . . 15 00 

Elliot, Mrs. J. W 15 00 

Morris, R. 15 00 

Wadsworth, Mrs. W. A 15 00 

Gatter, Miss E. A 15 00 

Phillips, Mrs. E 10 08 

Parsons, M. L 10 00 

Emery, Mrs. L. J 10 00 

Emery, Miss G 10 00 

Christy, B. H 10 00 

Baird, Miss L. H 10 00 

Herrick, H 10 00 

Gwynne, Miss E. A 10 00 

Collins, Miss E 10 00 

McEwen, D. C 10 00 

Gelpcke, Miss A. C 10 00 

Clapp, G. H ID 00 

Robbins, R. E 10 00 

Howland, Miss E 10 00 

Willis, Mrs. A 10 00 

Mosely, F. S 10 00 

Scrymser, Mary C 10 00 

Greene, Miss M. A 10 00 

Derby Peabody Club 10 00 

Lawrence, Mrs. R. M 10 uo 

Ward, S. G 10 co 

Boulton, W. B 10 00 

Rainsford, Rev. W. S 10 00 

Graham, Miss M. D 10 00 

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Bird - Lore 

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Cox, Jno. L 5 00 

Donaldson. J. J 5 00 

Van Orden, Miss M. L 5 00 

Chafee, Mrs. Z 5 00 

Day, Frank M 5 00 

Brooks, S 5 00 

Clark, The Misses 6 00 

Fairbanks Museum 5 00 

Ricketts, Miss J 5 00 

Duncan, A. B 5 00 

Wheeler, S. H 5 00 

Peters, F. A. 5 00 

Richards, Miss A. A 5 00 

Appleton, F. H 5 00 

Trine, Ralph Waldo 5 00 

Lord, Miss C 5 00 

Nicoll, Benj 5 00 

Torrey, Miss J. M 5 00 

Howland, Miss 1 5 00 

White, Miss H. H 5 00 

Brown, H. W 5 00 

Clarke, Miss H. E 5 00 

Brought forward $3 

Smith, C. B 

Skeel, Mrs. R., Jr 

Hinton, Miss S. McV 

Students, Miss Baldwin's School . . 

Norton, C. E 

Saunders, W. E 

Baldwin, Mrs. G 


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26 45 
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Deficit brought forward from 1903 

California — General expenses, Audubon work $20 00 

Express 215 

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I20 Bird -Lore 

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Contents. — Methods of Studying the Food of Birds. Development of Economic 
Ornithology. The Vegetable Food of Birds. The Animal Food of Birds. The Rela- 
tions of Birds to Predaceous and Parasitic Insects. The Food of the Various Species. 
The Conservation of Birds. Accurately and lavishly illustrated with full-page plates and 
drawings in the text. 8vo. Cloth, net, $2.50. 

" Birds in their Relation to Man ' is the first manual to be written on the food habits of birds, but it is so 
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24 plates and 49 engravings in the text. 288 pages. i2mo. Cloth, fi.50. 

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Illustrated. 281 pages, izmo. Cloth, gilt top, $1.50. 

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A new Edition. Revised and edited by Edward J. Cope. Illustrated with full- 
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A Ma 2 axi ne of 

Western Orn ithology 


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JOSEPH GRINNELL, Business Manager, PASADENA, Cal. 



The Adventures of Cock Robin and His Mate 

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In this book Mr. Kearton, in his own inimitable manner, relates the various experiences 
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Photogra-vure frontispiece and upivard of 120 illustrations. Cloth, $l.yS- 

With Illustrations from Photographs taken direct from Nature by C. and R. KEARTON 
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Wild Nature's Ways 

t:ons. $4 00. 

White's Natural History of Selborne. With 

Notes bv R. Kearton, F.Z.S. , containing upward of 
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CASSELL S; COMPANY, Limited, 43-45 East 19th St., New York 



March -April, 1905 



Frontispikce— Kkntucky AND CoNNKCTicuT Warbi.krs Lovis Agossiz Fitevles . 

The Cormorants OF Lake. lUustiated by the author T. Gilbert Pearson . 

Some Early American Ornithologists, I. Mark Catesby U'itmer Stone 

The Chimney Swift. Illustrated by the author Gvy A. Bailey 

Thf. Woodcock's Wooing. A Poem Winifred Ballard Blake 




Bird-Lore's Advisory Coi'ncii ■ . . • i33 

The Migration of Warblers. Ninth Paper. lUustraled bv Louis Agassiz Fuertes and 

Bruce Horsfall U'.W. Cooke . :35 

The Warbler Book F. M. Chapman . 136 

The Worm-eating Warbler Frank L. Burns . 137 

A Vote for the National Association Bird O. IVidmann . 139 

Note on the Migration of Warblers from the Bahamas to Florida 

Frank M. Chapman 


To Study Bird Tenants 
A Boy's Invention 

Alh<rt B Canfielu . 




A New Wren Song, Leander S. Keyser ; Sport In Italy, J. Rowley : A Betlated Robin, 
Caroline Gray Soule ; The Massachusetts Audubon Society's Check-List; An In- 
teresting Phoebe's Nest, Wilbur F. Smith; A Note on the Food of the Bronzed 
Crackle, W. De W. Miller. 


Matthews' ' Fie;ld Book of Wild Birds and Their Music'; Cassinia, Proc. Dela- 
ware Valley Ornithological Club; Abstract of the Proc. Linn.«:an Society of 
New York for the Years ending March 10, 1903, and March 5, 1904 ; The Orni- 
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Editorial; Notes and News 




*** Manuscripts intended for publication, books, etc., for review, and exchanges should be 
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Reductd line fut oi Ernesi Thompson Seton's drawing of a Noilhern Shrike. Presented to every sub- 
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Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Harrisburjf. Pa. 

1. Kentucky Warbler, Male. 

2. Kentucky Warbler. Female. 

3. Connecticut Warbler, Male. 

4. Connecticut Warbler, Female. 


Official Organ of the Audubon Societies 

Vol. VII March — April, 1905 No. 2 

The Cormorants of Great Lake 


With photographs from nature by the author 

HIDDEN among the cypress swamps of eastern North Carolina there 
lies a beautiful sheet of water known as Great Lake. Roughly esti- 
mated, it is about five by seven miles in extent, and is the largest of 
an irregular chain of lakes extending across the counties of Jones and 
Craven. A heavy forest surrounds it, which for two-thirds the distance is a 
dense cypress swamp reaching away for miles in its unbroken, primitive 
condition. There are few human habitations in this territory, and many of 
the wild tenants of the forest are still found in their original abundance. 
This sequestered lake is never disturbed by the passing of a boat, except at 
intervals of a year or more, when some adventurous hunter carries his canoe 
a long distance through the tangles of the swamps and camps for a brief 
time upon its shores. 

Great Lake is the summer abode of the only colony of Florida Cormo- 
rants known to breed in North Carolina. A strong desire to become more 
familiar with the habits and activities of these wary birds led me to journey 
to this region last summer during the early days of June. As our canoe 
emerged from the heavy growth of cypress trees fringing the lake, we saw, 
about a mile distant, the whitened trees which compose the rookery. These 
were adorned with numerous black spots which, upon a closer approach, 
proved to be Cormorants. The colony at that time was found to be in the 
height of the breeding season. The heavy nests of sticks and twigs occu- 
pied low-spreading cypress trees standing solitary here and there in the 
water, usually from fifty to one hundred yards from shore. A number of 
the trees were occupied by the domicile of a single pair of birds; others 
contained two, three, five, seven or eight nests; one tree held sixteen and 
another thirty-six cradles of these great birds. One hundred and twenty- 
one homes of the Cormorants were counted, twenty-eight trees in all being 
used for their accommodation. 


Bird - Lore 

So seldom are the birds disturbed that here they show far less fear of 
man than they usually manifest when found feeding about the harbors, or 
in the shallow salt water sounds. In an open canoe we approached within 
sixty feet of some of the mother birds brooding their eggs, and photographed 
them as they sat on their nests, with their long necks stretched and their 
sharply hooked beaks pointing inquiringly in our direction. Many, however, 
left the trees when our boat arrived within a hundred yards of their breed- 
ing territory. They fly heavily, and in many instances strike the water 


within one hundred yards of their perch, but ricochetting quickly they are 
soon strong upon the wing, and, like departing bombshells, their black figures 
rush hurtling across the lake. In striking the water, it is only the posterior 
portion of the body which splashes, and this doubtless gives variety to the 
belief, entertained by my guide, that the ''nigger goose" can not fly "until 
it wets its tail." The old birds, frightened away by our approach, soon 
returned in a body, but after flying about in circles for a short time settled 
out on the lake several hundred yards distant. 

Anxious to secure photographs of the nests and young, I climbed into 
one of the trees containing a number of nests, and was interested to find 
not only eggs but young in various stages of development. The parents 
evidently furnish their offspring with an abundance of food ; for many of the 
nests, and in places the limbs, also, were strewn with fragments of eels and 




The Cormorants of Great Lake 


fish, and the young birds, excited at our approach, showered upon us and 
our boat generous quantities of half-digested fish. 

Many of the young were old enough to leave their nests and clamber 
awkwardly along the limbs. Although apparently much annoyed at first by 
our presence, the young soon became accustomed to the unusual appear- 
ance in the tree, and many of them eagerly sought to swallow the fingers 
of my extended hand. 

Alligators gather about the colony, probably to feed, in part, upon the 


fragments of food which fall from the nests above. Six were counted at 
one time within easy rifle range of the boat. One of the young, while 
climbing along a slender limb, lost its balance and fell with a splash into the 
water. It immediately dived, and, coming to the surface about twenty feet 
away, began swimming up the lake with long and rapid strokes. By the 
time I had descended to the boat with my cameras, the bird was fully fifty 
yards away. To our horror, a large alligator had given chase, and was 
rapidly approaching the swimm^. We immediately started in pursuit, and, 
after an exciting chase, rescued the young Cormorant; but not until the alli- 
gator had made two unsuccessful snaps at his intended victim, which 
escaped only by diving with marvelous quickness just at the proper instant. 
Six years ago one hundred and fifty pairs of birds were breeding here. 
For some reason the colony has decreased in the number of mated birds. 

126 Bird -Lore 

This falling off in numbers, however, may be only temporary in character, 
as Cormorants are known to have but few natural enemies, with the 
exception of Fish Crows. These black marauders were seen continually 
dodging about the colony. We saw one flying away with an egg stuck on 
the end of its beak, and, in another case, one was observed devouring a nest 
of young birds newly hatched. Many Fish Hawks breed along the shore 
of the lake, and a few pairs of Great Blue Herons and Black-crowned Night 
Herons had made their nests in the same trees occupied by the Cormorants. 
In one Blue Heron's nest a young Cormorant was found crouching between 
two frightened young Herons, apparently quite at home. 

The Cormorants breeding here on Great Lake probably retire to the 
South upon the approach of winter; and the Cormorants observed along 
the North Carolina coast during the colder months will doubtless prove to 
be the Double-crested, whose summer home is in the far north. 

Some Early American Ornithologists 



THE history of bird study in America dates back some three hundred 
years, but the contributions of the first century are little more than 
publications of myths and names of birds derived from the Indians, 
with attempts on the part of the author to correlate them with well-known 
birds of the Old World. 

Many of the early narratives of voyages to America or reports on the 
early colonies devote a page or a chapter, as the case may be, to such 
sketches of the bird life. The authors were not ornithologists, and their 
productions have little value except as literary curiosities. 

In 1712, however, there came across the water a young man thirty-two 
years of age — Mark Catesby by name — who was destined to produce the 
first reliable work upon North American birds. Catesby was a true 
naturalist, and, though we may smile at his crude pictures and his antiquated 
style of composition, we appreciate the spirit which prompted his work and 
recognize in him a brother ornithologist, well qualified for membership in 
the American Ornithologists' Union, had that body been in existence in 
his day. 

Catesby was born in England in 1679 or 1680, and, though he had "an 
early inclination to search after plants and other productions of nature," it 
was "much suppressed by his residing too far from London, the center of 
all science" ; just where he did live, however, he does not tell us. His 

Some Early American Ornithologists 127 

desire to broaden his knowledge of natural history caused him to contem- 
plate a visit to America, and, having relatives in Virginia, he made that 
colony his objective point. He arrived April 23, 1712, and remained five 
years, familiarizing himself with the strange plants and animals that every- 
where confronted him. Upon his return to England, he seems to have ex- 
perienced much regret at not having obtained more substantial results and 
he soon determined to visit again the New World and prepare an account 
of its natural history suitable for publication. 

A number of prominent men lent him financial assistance, and on the 
23d of May, 1722, he arrived at Charleston, S. C. To quote from the 
introduction of his work, he explored the "low country" during the first 
year, "searching after, collecting and describing the animals and plants"; he 
then went "to the upper uninhabited parts of the country, and continued at 
and about Fort Moore, a small fortress on the banks of the river Savanna." 
He found the life in the upland quite different from that of the lowland, 
thus giving us one of the first intimations of the effect of altitude upon geo- 
graphic distribution. "This," he says, "encouraged me to take several 
journeys with the Indians higher up the rivers, toward the mountains, 
which afiforded me not only a succession of new vegetable appearances, but 
the diversion of hunting Buffaloes, Bears, Panthers, and other beasts." 

He took with him a box in which he placed his dried plants and his 
painting materials; for, though he admits that he "was not bred a painter," 
he boldly attempted to portray the birds and plants that he discovered, with 
the result that, though "violent both in drawing and color,"* his plates are 
almost all easily recognizable. 

Catesby spent three years in Carolina and Georgia and then visited the 
Bahamas — "Providence, Ilathera, Andros and Abbacco." Reaching London 
in 1726, he set about publishing his book, but was deterred by the great 
expense involved in such an undertaking. However, he began learning the 
art of etching on copper, and, having acquired sufficient skill for his pur- 
pose, he, himself, prepared the 220 folio copper plates which illustrate this 
remarkable work; and, with pecuniary assistance from his friends, the work 
appeared in two large volumes, entitled, 'The Natural History of Carolina, 
Florida, and the Bahama Islands,' the text printed in English and French, 
in parallel columns. The first volume was published in 1731, and the sec- 
ond, 1743, and an appendix in 1748. Two other editions appeared later. 

Regarding the preponderance of birds in his work, Catesby says: "As 

there is a greater variety of the feathered kind than of other animals, and as 

they excel in the beauty of their colors * * * I was induced chiefly to com - 

pleat an account of them, rather than to describe promiscuously insects and 

other animals, by which method I believe very few birds have escaped my 

knowledge, except some Water Fowl, and some of those which frequent 

the sea." 


128 Bird -Lore 

In all, he described and figured upward of one hundred species, and in 
his plates seems to have been the first to group together birds and plants in 
the manner later followed by Audubon, Gould and others. His descrip- 
tions are recognizable and his brief accounts of the habits of the birds 
interesting, though they frequently contain amusing myths obtained from the 
settlers or the natives. 

Of the Wild Pigeon, or Pigeon of Passage, as he calls it, he says: "The 
people of New York and Philadelphia shoot many of them as they fly, from 
their balconies and the tops of their houses." The Mockbird of Catesby 
upheld its reputation as a vocalist then as now, and imitated "all bird notes 
from the Hummingbird to the Eagle" ; while this latter bird, whose head he 
tells us, notwithstanding its name of bald, is as well feathered as any other 
part of its body, pursued the 'Fishing Hawk' across Catesby's pages, just as 
it has done in the works of his successors. 

The Purple Jackdaws — our Grackles — he tells us, "have a rank smell and 
their flesh is coarse and black and is seldom eat," while their relative, the 
Red -winged Starling, he was informed, can be taught to talk and sing in 
captivity. The seasonal change in plumage of the Bobolink was noted by 
this observant naturalist, but he sagely remai^ks, "When they return south 
in the fall they are all hens," a mistake shared by later writers also. 

Our Blue Jay recalled the old-world Jay, having the same "jetting 
motion," but it struck him as more tuneful. 

Two of our finest birds, now on the verge of extinction, Catesby de- 
scribes with care, and includes some notes of much interest — these are the 
Ivory-billed Woodpecker and the Carolina Parakeet. The large white beak 
of the former, he tells, us is in great demand among the northern Indians, in 
whose country the bird does not occur, and they trade for it with the more 
southern tribes, giving two or three buckskins for each bill. After a good 
account of the Parakeet, he adds the highly useful information, "Their guts 
is certain and speedy poison to cats," — probably one of the first contributions 
to economic ornithology in America. 

Catesby was the first describer, if not the actual discoverer, of most of 
our familiar birds but, owing to no fault of his, this credit usually goes to 
another. After the Latin names of these birds in our check-lists we usually 
find the authority Linnaus, and by many the great Swedish botanist is 
looked upon as their discoverer. As a matter of fact, Linnaeus was simply 
the discoverer or rather the inventor of the 'Binomial System' of names, 
which has been in use among naturalists ever since. Catesby and his con- 
temporaries, in giving a Latin name to a bird, used as many words as they 
deemed desirable; but Linnaeus recognized the utility of a system of two 
words only, one for the genus and one for the species. Having applied 
this successfully in his favorite study — botany, — he extended it to zoology, and 
named all the described species on this plan, basing his names largely upon 

Some Early American Ornithologists 


the published works of others, as he was himself familiar with but a small 
portion of the animal kingdom. So far as North America was concerned, he 
relied almost entirely upon Catesby's 'Natural History' and gave a binomial 
name to each of the birds described and figured in that great work. So that 
the Mockbird, Turdus minor cinereo-albus non maculatiis of Catesby be- 
came the Turdus polyglottos of Linnaeus, and in our present nomenclature 
we have nothing to perpetuate the name of this worthy man. 

In the history of North American ornithology, however, Catesby will 
always stand out prominently as the pioneer, and our only regret is that he 
has not left us more details of his life and character; for a man with the 
enthusiasm and energy necessary for the production of such a work, in the 
face of such difficulties as must necessarily have confronted him, was a man 
whom we should like to know better and whose character must have been 
one well worthy of study. 

Photographed from nature by R. H. Beebe, Arcade, N. Y., July, igo? 

The Chimney Swift 


With photographs from nature by the author 

IT has not been many years since Chimney Swifts gave up nesting in hollow 
trees and began building in chimneys. At the present time, however, 
it is no uncommon occurrence to find their basket -like nests in barns 
and other outbuildings. 

During the season of 1904 I had the good fortune to find three such nests, 
— two in barns, and one in a granary. Just how general this practice is among 
our Swifts, I am not aware; but I suspect it must be common. My obser- 
vations have been made in the valley of the Onondaga Creek, near Syracuse, 
N. Y. The views herein contained are flash-light photographs, taken in a 
large barn on two consecutive afternoons; daylight being so dim that arti- 
ficial light was necessary. 

The nest was built of sticks in the usual way, near the ridge, on the south 
gable. A large circular hole near the top allowed the birds ready passage to 
and from their nests. With the aid of a ladder, to which I fastened the 

camera, I was able to 
work at close range 
without visibly disturb- 
ing their regular labors. 
The flash-light gun 
was used to explode the 
powder, and was most 
convenient. The parent 
birds were not usually 
frightened away by the 
explosion, although the 
powder was not more 
than two feet distant 
from the dusky family. 
Each flash w^as an- 
swered, however, by a 
chorus of creaking 
voices, in which both 
the 5'oung and old birds 
took a part. Although 
the heat was stifling, 
and the gases from the 
powder suffocating, the birds seemed to endure the siege better than I. 

By reference to the photographs, it will be seen that the nest is by far too 
small to hold the brood comfortably. One photograph shows one of the adults 



The Chimney Swift 


actually crowding out the j^oung birds. This practice was brought to my 

attention early in my observations, and was often repeated. In my opinion, 

it was a deliberate act on the part of the adults. By being thus forced out, 

the \oung birds are 

taught to cling to 

the side of the barn 

and to make proper 

use of the claws, 

wings and tail. The 

young thus become 

accustomed to this 

mode of perching. 

and retain it through 

their life-time. 

The action of 
the adult birds was, 
at all times, of a 
mild, suggestive na- 
ture. Generally, 
after feeding the 
young, the old bird 
crawled over to one 
side of the nest and 
cautiously insinuated 
its body behind the 
young birds. The adult bird kept crowding until all but one or two of the 
brood of five were forced out of the nest and took up positions on the verti- 
cal roost. The remaining birds would sometimes leave the nest of their own 
accord and follow their mates. This was noticed especially after those 
clinging to the boards had been fed. 

It often happened that the adult birds would remain away from the 
)'oung as long as twenty minutes, during which time the little ones would 
return to the nest. Usually, however, one parent would remain with the 
brood until relieved by the mate. On such occasions there was a period of 
several minutes when both parents were present. 

One of the adults is shown spreading its wings over the young as if to 
protect them from falling, or to allow them to shift about. This was a 
common occurrence and seemed to contrast with their rather ruthless cus- 
tom of crowding them out of the nest. 

It will be noticed that the birds are seen usually to the left of the nest. 
This position was farther from the camera and the large opening in the 
gable, and hence more desirable for the more or less suspicious birds. I 
was about four feet from the birds and in plain view from the light of the 



Bird - Lore 

opening. The birds seemed to be aware of my presence, but regarded me 
with indifference. There was no increased creaking except at the instant 

of the explosion, and 
this was brief. Sub- 
sequent casual obser- 
vations were taken 
for nearly two weeks 
and the birds were 
found still clinging to 
the boards. They 
sometimes came down 
the side, nearly two 
feet to a girder, but 
I did not see them 
rest in this conveni- 
ent place. 

Not far away, in 
the same end of the 
barn, two broods of 
Barn Swallows were 
being reared. The 
relations between the 
Swifts and the Swal- 
lows were harmoni- 
ous, all using the same entrance. The Barn Swallows did not enter during 
my stay, but kept a constant vigil at the opening, wailing bitterly as they 
flew up to the opening and caught a glimpse of me so near their nests. 
If Chimney Swifts will continue to build in such accessible places, it is 
possible that we may learn many things concerning their interesting life- 

The Woodcock's Wooing 


Peent, -peent, -peent, -peent,- 

From the thick grass on the hill; 
Peent, -peent, -peent, -peent, - 

At eve when the world isi still. 


Then a sudden whistle of whirring wings,- 

A rush to the upper air, — 
And a rain of maddening music falls 

From the whole sky, — everywhere! 

Jfor Ceaci)er0 ani ^tutient0 

Bird -Lore's Advisory Council 

WITH some slight alterations and additions, we reprint below the 
names and addresses of the ornithologists forming Bird-Lore'S 
'Advisory Council,' which were first published in BiRD-LoRE 
for February, 1900. 

To those of our readers who are not familiar with the objects of the 
Council, we may state that it was formed for the purpose of placing 
students in direct communication with an authority on the bird -life of 
the region in which they live, to whom they might appeal for informa- 
tion and advice in the many difficulties which beset the isolated worker. 

The success of the plan during the four years which it has been in 
operation fully equals our expectations; and from both students and 
members of the Council we have had very gratifying assurances of the 
happy results attending our efforts to bring the specialist in touch with 
those who appreciate the opportunity to avail themselves of his wider 

It is requested that all letters of inquiry sent to members of the Council 
be accompanied by a stamped and addressed envelope for use in replying. 


Alaska.— Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

Arizona. — Herbert Brown, Yuma, Ariz. 

California. — Charles A. Keeler, Calif. Acad. Sciences, San Francisco, Calif. 

Colorado. — Dr. W. H. Bergtold, 14.60 Clayton Ave., Denver, Col. 

Connecticut. — J. H. Sage, Portland, Conn. 

Delaware. — C. J. Pennock, Kennett Square, Pa. 

District of Columbia.— Dr. C. W. Richmond, U. S. Nat'l Mus., Washington, D. C. 

Florida. — Frank M. Chapman, American Museum Natural History, New York City. 

Florida, Western. — R. W. Williams, Jr., Tallahassee, Fla. 

Georgia — Dr. Eugene Murphy, Augusta, Ga. 

Illinois, Northern. — B. T. Gault, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

Illinois, Southern. — Robert Ridgway, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Indiana. — A. W. Butler, State House, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Indian Territory. — Prof. W. W. Cooke, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Wash- 

lovvA.— C. R. Keyes, Mt. Velnon, la. [ington, D. C. 

Kansas. — Prof. D. E. Lantz, Manhattan, Kan. 

Louisiana. — Prof. George E. Bej^er, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. 

Maine. — O. W. Knight, Bangor, Me. 

Maryland. — F. C. Kirkwood, Box 364, Baltimore, Md. 

Massachusetts.— William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 


134 Bird -Lore 

Michigan.— Prof. W. B. Barrows, Agricultural College, Mich. 

Minnesota.— Dr. T. S. Roberts, 1603 Fourth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Missouri.— O. Widmann, Old Orchard, Mo. 

Montana.— Prof. J. M. Elrod, University of Montana, Missoula, Mont. 

Nebraska.— Prof. E. H. Barbour, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Nevada.— Dr. A. K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

New^ Hampshire.— Prof. C. M. Weed, State Agricultural College, Durham, N. H. 

New^ Jersey, Northern.- Frank M. Chapman, Am. Mus. Nat. History, New York City, 

New Jersey, Southern.— Witmer Stone, Academy Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New Mexico.— Dr. A. K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

New York, Eastern —Dr. A. K, Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept. of Agr., Washing- 

New York, Northern.— Egbert Bagg, 191 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y. [ton, D. C. 

New York, Western.— E. H. Eaton, Canandaigua, N. Y. 

New York, Long Island.— William Dutcher, 525 Manhattan Ave., New York City. 

North Dakota.— Prof, O. G. Libby, University, N. D. 

North Carolina. — Prof. T. G. Pearson, Greensboro, N. C. 

Ohio. — Prof. Lynds Jones, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Oklahoma.— Dr. A, K. Fisher, Biological Survey, Dept., of Agr., Washington, D,C. 

Oregon.— A, W. Anthony, 761;^ Savier St., Portland, Ore, 

Pennsylvania, Eastern.— Witmer Stone, Acad, Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pennsylvania, Western. — W. Clyde Todd, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Rhode Island. — C. Abbott Davis, Museum Natural History, Roger Williams Park, 

South Carolina.— Dr. Eugene Murphy, Augusta, Ga. [Providence, R, I. 

Texas.— Prof. Thomas A. Montgomery, Jr., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Texas. — H. P. Attwater, Houston, Tex. 

Utah. — Prof. Marcus E. Jones, Salt Lake City, Utah, 

Vermont. — Prof. G. H. Perkins, Burlington, Vt. 

Virginia. — Dr. W. C. Rives, 1723 I Street, Washington, D. C. 

Washington. — Samuel F. Rathbun, Seattle, Wash. 

West Virginia.— Dr. W. C. Rives, 1723 I Street, Washington, D. C. 

Wisconsin.— H. L. Ward, Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Wyoming. — Dr. Mortimer Jesurun, Douglas, Wyo. 


British Columbia. — Francis Kermode, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C. 

Manitoba. — Ernest Thompson Seton, Cos Cob, Conn. 

New Brunswick. — Montague, Chamberlain, 45 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

Nova Scotia. — Harry Piers, Provincial Museum, Halifax, N. S. 

Ontario, Eastern. — James H. Fleming, 267 Rusholme Road, Toronto, Ont. 

Ontario, Western — E. W. Saunders, London, Ont. 

Quebec. — E. D. Wintle, 189 St. James Street, Montreal, Can, 

E. W. Nelson, Biological Survey, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D, C. 

C. B. Cory, 160 Boylston street, Boston, Mass. 


Clinton G. Abbott, 153 West 73d St., New York City, N. Y. 

The Migration of Warblers 


Compiled by Professor W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data 
in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz FuERTts and Bruce Horsfall 


Ranging in the winter from southern Mexico to Colombia, the Ken- 
tucky Warbler starts northward in time to reach the United States the first 
week in April. 


Tarpon Springs, Fla. . 
Atlanta, Ga. (near) . . 
Asheville, N. C. (near) 

Raleigh, N. C 

Washington, D. C. . . 

Beaver, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa. . . . 

Berwyn, Pa 

New Orleans, La. . . . 

Helena, Ark 

Eubank, Ky 

St. Louis, Mo 

Brookville, Ind 

Keokuk, la 

San Antonio, Texas. . 
Northern Texas .... 
Onaga, Kan 

No. of years 

Average date of 
spring arrival 

April 7 
April 21 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

April 6, i886 
April I, 1896 
April 18, 1894 

May I 

May 3 

May I 

April 30, 1902 

May I, 1892 

May 7 

May 3, 1900 

April I 

March 30, 1895 

April 20 

April 15, 1896 

April 21 

April 15, 1893 

April 24 

April 21, 1886 

May 6 

April 20, 1896 

May 7 

April 26, 1898 

April 14 

April 8, 1890 

April 15 

May 5 

April 26, 1896 


The southward movement begins the last of July, and on October 7 the 
species has been taken at the extreme southern limit of its known range in 
Colombia, South America. Some records of the latest observations are at 
Berwyn, Pa., September 4, 1896; Beaver, Pa., September 13, 1888; Cadiz, 
Ohio, September 23, 1900; Eubank, Ky., September 6, 1888; Raleigh, 
N. C, September 12, 189+ ; New Orleans, La., October 19, 1895. 


This is one of the few species that seem to travel different routes during 
the two yearly migrations. The spring migration is through Florida to the 
Mississippi Valley and thence north to the breeding grounds. The few 
records of spring migration note the arrival of this species in southern 
Florida, May 4-19; northern Florida, May lo-ji ; Chester county, S. C, 


136 Bird -Lore 

May 10; St. Louis, Mo., May 14-22; English Lake, Ind., May 4, 1891 ; 
Glen Ellyn, 111., May 12, 1896; southern Michigan, May 17, 1894; 
southern Ontario, May 16, 1892. 


The vicinity of Chicago is one of the few places in the United States 
visited by the Connecticut Warbler during both spring and fall migration. 
Here the average period of fall occurrence is from August 31 to September 
10, with extremes of August 30 and September 17. The path of fall 
migration passes principally east of the Allegheny Mountains and some dates 
of occurrence along the Atlantic slope are at Saco, Me., September 8-15; 
Shelburne, N. H., September 14; Pittsford, Vt., September 20; Portland, 
Conn., September 17 to October i ; southeastern New York, August 26 to 
October 12; Englewood, N. J., September 3 to October 11 ; Washington, 
D. C, August 28 to October 12 ; Raleigh, N. C, October 14-24; south- 
ern Florida, October 9. So far as known, the Connecticut Warbler has 
not been recorded anywhere during the half of the year from October 22 
to April 9. 

The Warbler Book 

As the season approaches for the return of the Warblers, I again ask the 
cooperation of bird students in the preparation of a volume devoted to these 
attractive birds. 

Since the announcement in Bird-Lore for April, 1904, of plans for this 
book, many contributions to it have been received. For the greater part, 
however, they relate to the migration of Warblers; while material of this 
kind is always valuable, it is less desirable, in the present connection, than 
information concerning the life histories of these birds. 

The appended study of the Worm -eating Warbler closely approaches the 
character of manuscript needed. It is plainly based on continued field study 
with an evident end in view. If you would sound the depths of your knowl- 
edge of your commonest Warbler, attempt to write a sketch of it similar to 
that by Mr. Burns. Doubtless you will discover room for further field work, 
and this we sincerely trust you will find time for during the present season. 

F. M. C. 

The Worm-eating Warbler 

By FRANK L. BURNS. Berwyn. Pa, 

The Worm-eating Warbler is here a common summer resident. First 
arrivals: May 3-14. Common: May 7-22. Departs: August 29 — Septem- 
ber 5. 

Son^. — I can distinguish no difference between the notes of this species 
and the Chipping Sparrow; the first may be a trifle weaker perhaps. The 
series of notes may be uttered while perched, or creeping about the lower 
branches of the trees, sapling tops, bashes or fallen brush, or while on the 
ground. With slightly drooping tail and wings, puffing out of body plu- 
mage, throwing its head back until the beak is perpendicular, it trills with 
swelling throat an unvarying Che-e-e-e-e-e-e, which does not sound half so 
monotonous in the woods as does the Chippy's lay in the open. The first 
song period is from the time of arrival until June 24 to July 5, but during 
the last two weeks, when housekeeping is a thing of the past and the hot 
days have come, it is seldom heard except in the early morning, beginning 
about four o'clock, and in the cool of the evening. The second song period 
is very brief and follows the molt. I have no dates. 

Courtship is brief if, indeed, the birds are not mated upon arrival. 

Haunts. — The bird is extremely local, inhabiting the wooded hill slopes. 
I do not remember having ever met with it in the open or in the small groves 
of the bottom-lands. It is at home in the second -growth timber of the hills, 
and is very deliberate in its movements, seeming never in a hurry and yet 
never idle. Stepping out with dainty tread and bobbing head, it is a really 
graceful little walker on ground or tree. 

Nesting-site. — The nesting-site is seldom in the denser undergrowth, but 
preferably the more open woods, and the nest is usually at the foot of a 
small stub, laurel sprout, or spray of wild huckleberry, against which there 
has been a lodgment or drift of dead leaves; and, as the bird always removes 
the leaves from the exact site, sometimes scratching out a slight hollow in 
the mold, the finished nest, sunk to the rim and protected by the leaf drift 
above and on the sides, has the appearance of being placed in a miniature 
cave. The bird exhibits a remarkable love for its chosen nesting haunts, 
building the second and third nest within a radius of a few hundred feet 
when disturbed, and returning year after year to the same place 
if successful in raising a brood. I have not observed a single pair building 
on the exact site of former years, but on several occasions within a few 
feet of it. While the female takes the leading part, the male is always pres- 
ent and seems busy, a by no means silent partner in the selection of site and 
construction of nest. 

Composition of Nest. — Dead chestnut, beech and oak leaves, sometimes, 
also, a few dogwood, cherry or maple leaves, almost always well rotted and 


138 Bird -Lore 

partly skeletonized; an occasional strip of grape-vine bark, stem of the 
walking-grass, oak or hickory blossom finds its way in the rim of the nest. 
It is noteworthy that the bird seems to prefer leaves of more than a single 
season's decay, probably on account of the lessened bulk and better binding 
quality, as the nest is an exceedingly flat , and compact structure for a 
ground -building Warbler. It is invariably lined with the flower-stems of the 
hair-moss, with only an occasional black horse-hair in a series of nests. 
The bright, reddish lining is about all there is to catch the eye, and that 
can seldom be seen from more than one point. When the bird is covering 
it, the blending is perfect at a short distance. The nest averages about three 
days in construction; the second and third buildings are frailer, showing 
haste. The nest is commenced May 15 to 20; the eggs are deposited and 
incubation is usually begun about May 28. 

Eggs. — The eggs number four or five, usually the latter, rarely 
three, unless imposed upon by the Cowbird. Second sets — the first having 
been destroyed — seldom consist of more than four, and sometimes of only 
three eggs. There can be no set rule as to time when the first egg is depos- 
ited. If it is ready it is deposited immediately upon completion of nest, 
usually one or two days elapse. Deposition occurs daily, in most instances 
before 10 A. M. , one instance every other day, when four eggs were in the set. 

Incubation. — Incubation does not always commence immediately after 
completion of set, particularly if the season be young. It is probable that 
the second night witnesses the beginning of that period and, as far as my 
experience goes, I believe it is performed by the female alone. The male 
feeds her when covering newly hatched young. The home-coming of a 
brooding bird, after a brief airing and feeding, is heralded several hundred 
yards distant by frequent chips and short flights from branch to branch near 
the ground, in leisurely fashion and circuitous route, until at length, arriv- 
ing above the nest, she runs down a sapling and is silent. The bird is a 
close sitter and if approached from the open front will often allow a few 
minutes' silent inspection, eye to eye, at arm's length, sometimes not vacat- 
ing until touched, then she runs off in a sinuous trail, not always feigning 
lameness before the young are out. When disturbed with young in the nest 
she will flutter off with open wings and tail, and, failing to lead one off, will 
return with her mate, who is seldom far off at this period, circling about the 
nest or intruder, and, if the young are well feathered, she will dash at them, 
forcing them from the nest and to shelter. Once this brave Httle bird dashed 
at me and ran up to my knee, scratching with her sharp little claws at every 
step. On the return the birds always make the vicinity ring with their pro- 
tests — a quickly repeated chip. The period of incubation in one instance 
was thirteen days. 

Young. — Young fear man soon after their eyes are open, and a menacing 
finger will cause them to scamper out and away, repeated replacing in the 

The Worm-eating Warbler 139 

nest proving of no avail after they became panic-stricken. At three days of 
age they made no outcry but opened their mouths for food, w^hich consisted 
of a species of white moth, or 'miller,' and soft white grubs, supplied by either 
of the parent birds. At that period they were naked except a fluff on head 
and wing quills, just showing feathers at tips. In the presence of an intruder 
and absence of the parents, they will sit motionless if not threatened, and, 
but for the blinking, beady eyes, one might mistake them when well fledged, 
at very close range, for dead leaves. The head stripes became visible under 
the nestling down on the seventh day, and they left the nest ten days after 
leaving the shell, in the one case I have kept record of. The parents keep 
the young together for several days at least, just how long is impossible to 
say. One brood is all that is reared in the season, I think. 

Enemies. — This Warbler's enemies are wood-mice, red squirrels and 
hunting dogs; the latter will sometimes push up and overturn the nest; an 
occasional weasel or blacksnake may destroy a few young. The percentage 
of loss while in the nest cannot be high. 

A Vote for the National Association Bird 

St. Louis, Mo., February lo, 1905. 
Dear Mr. Dutcher: — 

You want a thoroughly representative bird, suitable for a seal of the N. A. A. S., 
a bird found throughout North America from the Arctic to Panama. 

There is really not much material to choose from. It should be a truly American 
bird, identifiable by i(s contour alone, — one in which no color is needed to distinguish 
it from other birds of similar outline, as would be the case with the Bluebird, Robin, 
Swallow and others, all of which have resemblance in outline to Old World relatives. It 
shall not be a commonplace bird, like a Hawk or an Owl, though they need our attention 
as much as anything else ; even more so, because misunderstood and maligned. Neither 
would it do to take a game-bird for an Audubon Society, which has no sympathy with the 
hunter and is unwilling to recognize any of its protegees as game. I know of no bird 
which would fill the place on the seal better than a Hummingbird. North American 
Hummingbirds are found from Alaska to Panama and from Labrador to Alberta. The 
outline of a Hummer is unmistakable in any position in which it may be pictured; it is the 
exponent of elegance and grace in form and action, and of brilliancy in plumage. It is 
one that needs protection more than any other bird, because so much sought after by taxi- 
dermists, milliners and makers of artificial flowers. The destruction has been such that 
certain species with a restricted habitation are said to be already exterminated or at the 
point of extinction. I therefore ask, could anything be more appropriate than a Hum- 
mingbird? Universally known, popular throughout, unmistakable, truly admired for beauty 
and behavior, exclusively American, a fit subject for protection wherever it occurs, a living 
incentive to immediate extension of Audubon work over the entire Western Hemisphere. 

Yours truly, 


Note on the Migration of Warblers from the 
Bahamas to Florida 


WHILE sailing from Miami, Florida, directly east across the Gulf 
Stream to the Bahamas, in May, 1904, I observed three small 
bodies of migrating Warblers flying toward Florida. The birds 
were not so high in the air as we might have expected them to be, but 
were flying low, within a few feet of the water. 

The first group of six or seven birds, among them a Redstart, was seen 
about 6 A. M., May 10, when we were some six miles from land, which 
was still, of course, plainly visible. Later in the day, when we were about 
midway between the Florida coast and the Biminis, the nearest Bahaman 
land, a compact flock of seventy-five to one hundred Warblers passed us, 
flying slightly north of west. The birds were not more than ten feet above 
the water and were evidently not guided by sight in their choice of direction. 

On the morning of May 11, as we approached the Bahaman banks, 
between the Biminis and Great Isaacs, a third group of Warblers was seen, 
and they, like the two preceding, were flying toward Florida within a few 
feet of the water. 

April 28, 1904, a migratory ' wave ' of Warblers passed over Sebastian on 
the east coast of Florida, Cape May Warblers being among the common 
species. Nine miles further north, on the east shore of the Indian river at 
Oak Lodge, the home of Mrs. F. E. B. Latham, which visiting naturalists 
always recall with pleasure, Mrs. Latham supplies the birds with water, 
which, as the accompanying photograph shows, is eagerly accepted. 

Migrating Warblers at Mrs. F. E. B. Lathams, Oak Lodge. Florida. 

Photographed by Miss H. B. Wood 



Address all communications for this Department to the Editor, at Greensboro, N. C. 

To Study Bird Tenants 

IF those Young Observers who put out bird -boxes this spring will watch 
closely, they may see many new and delightful things happen when the 
birds come to make their nests in them. Let me suggest that each of 
you have a note-book and keep a diary of w^hat takes place about the bird- 
box. When you once begin this, there will be so many things to write 
down that you may find it hard to know just what to include in your notes. 
In order to guide those who may be interested in keeping a note-book, I 
am going to ask some questions, which if you can answer correctly at the 
end of the summer will show that you have made a good study of the birds 
you have been watching. With this information all carefully preserved in 
your note-book, you will be able to write an article for the ' Young Observ- 
ers ' department, and thus let us all share something of the pleasure which 
has been yours during the days when you so carefully watched the pair of 
bright birds flying daily about your home. 


1. What date did the birds first appear to take notice of the box ? 

2. What kind of birds chose the box as their home, and did any other 
species attempt to drive them away ? 

3. When did they first begin to bring material for the nest, and how 
many days before they ceased to perform their work ? 

4. What time of day did the birds work most at their task, and how 
early in the morning and late in the evening did you see them thus engaged ? 

5. Did the male and female both build their home; if not, which one 
appeared to be the most active in the work ? 

6. On what date was the first egg laid, and when did the last 
one appear ? 

7. Which bird sat on the eggs to incubate them, or did both birds take 
turns attending to this duty ? 

8. How many days passed before the eggs hatched ? 

9. How often were the young fed between eight and nine o'clock in 
the morning and between four and five o'clock in the afternoon on two dif- 
ferent days ? Did both birds feed the young, and could you tell what they 
fed them ? 


142 Bird -Lore 

10. How many days after the eggs hatched before the young left the 
nest ? 

11. Did the young know how to fly at once upon leaving the box, and 
do you think the old ones taught them to fly ? 

12. When the birds have left the nest not to return again, take out the 
nesting material and see of what it is composed. How many feathers, twigs, 
strings, pieces of grass or other articles did if contain ? 


Bird -Lore ofifers three prizes for the best studies of bird tenants on the 
lines laid down above. The prize will be a bird book or books to the value 
of $2.50 for the first prize, $2 for the second prize, and $1.50 for the third 

A Boy's Invention 

By ALBERT B. CANFIELD (aged 12 years), Curran, 111. 

One day I felt like hammering nails, and I wondered what to make. I 
thought about a bird-food shelf. I got a board one foot wide and two feet 
long. I tacked a strip around the four sides to keep the food from blowing 
ofi; then I bored four holes, two at either end, and ran wire through to hang 
it up by. If it is hung with wire, the English Sparrows will not alight on 
the shelf; I mean they will not get on anything that swings. 

We have a bird-pole twenty-five feet high; it has a fine Martin house 
on top, and about four feet down is a Bluebird house. I nailed a board on 
the bird-pole about twelve feet from the ground and put walnuts on it; 
and we have had, in one day, forty Juncos, ten Chickadees, eight Tufted 
Titmice, three Hairy Woodpeckers, two Downy Woodpeckers, seven Blue 
Jays and one Cardinal. The pole is ten feet from our kitchen window, so 
we watched them all day, as we were home from school. I wish every farm 
had a bird-food shelf. If they loved birds as well as I do, they would; it is 
so interesting to watch them eat, and a comfort to know the English Spar- 
rows will not get on a shelf that swings. 

jBtotes^ from JFieltJ anti ^tuDp 

A New Wren Song 

At the village of Shanesville, Tuscarawas 
county, Ohio, I heard a Carolina Wren sing 
a new song on the morning of December 3. 
The bird was perched in plain view on a 
peach tree, in a friend's rear yard, and sang 
precisely like a Song Sparrow, except that the 
tones were stronger and fuller. The tune, 
pitch and phrasing of the song were just like 
one of the Sparrow's favorite runs. Neither 
the quality of tone nor the technique was 
that of the Wren I was greatly surprised to 
hear this song, for I have been studying the 
Carolina's minstrelsy for many years and in 
many parts of the country. A young man 
of the town told me afterward that he had 
been hearing the bird sing for some time, 
and thought, too, it was a Song Sparrow 
until he saw the bird plainly, and noted that 
it was a Carolina Wren. I am interested in 
knowing whether any one else has ever heard 
this Wren borrow the Song Sparrow's trills, 
or whether our little musician was an ' orig- 
inal.' — Leander S. Keyser, Canal Dover, 

Sport in Italy 

A portion of a letter by Mr. J Rowley, 
formerly of the American Museum of Natural 
History, dated from Rome, will interest Bird- 
Lore's readers. Mr. Rowley writes that 
"the Italian 'sportsman' uses a live Owl — 
a little gray fellow, without horns. These 
little Owls may be seen at this season exposed 
for sale all over the town. A good lively 
Owl sells for one dollar. The ' sportsman ' 
sticks up his Owl, as shown in the enclosed 
photograph, and takes his stand some dis- 
tance away. When the small birds gather 
around to mob the Owl, the sportsman gets 
in his work on them. In Italy, no bird is 
too small for the sportsman. They kill any- 
thing with feathers upon it. A small gray 
Lark is the bird that is most highly prized, 
and these sell for 4 cents each in the markets. 
It is a common thing to see men roaming 
about the streets, hawking small birds for 

sale — pecks of them, all strung by the nos- 
trils. The chief ones are : Starlings, Gold- 
finches, Sparrows (not English), small Larks, 
Thrushes. Quail and Lapwings. I always 
thought of Mr. Dutcher when I saw these 


Strings of poor little things offered for sale 
for food purposes. The Italians are brought 
up to this here, so we can't wonder at their 
carrying the custom to America with them." 

A Belated Robin 

On October 29, 1903, in Brandon, Vt., a 
Robin was seen sitting on a nest in a leafless 
tree, near a house. The person who saw 
it went to the house and obtained permission 
to look into the nest from an upstairs win- 
dow. There were seven or eight eggs seen 
when the Robin left the nest. It was not 
possible to learn how long the Robin had 
been brooding, for the occupant of the house 
had "something else to do besides watch 
birds," and knew nothing about it. — Car- 
oline Gray Soule. 



Bird -Lore 

The' Massachusetts Audubon Society's 

In order to encourage an active interest 
in field work on the part of its nnembers, the 
Massachusetts Audubon Society supplies 
them with blank bird- lists on which to 
record the species they have identified in 
Massachusetts during the year. 

The names of the authors of the best nine 
lists for the year ending December 31, 1904, 
with the number of birds recorded by each, 
are as follows: Lilian E. Bridge, 181; 
Elizabeth S. Hill, 144; James Lee Peters, 
139 ; Lilian Cleveland, 137 ; Samuel D. 
Robbins, 113; Sarah K. Swift, 103. 
Louise Howe, 96 ; Bertha Langmaid, 86 ; 
Georgie M. Wheelock, 72. 

Photographed by Redington Dayton 

An Interesting Phoebe's Nest 

Back in the country, on a road now little 
used, stands one of the original ' little red 
schoolhouses.' I had long wished to visit 
it and was enabled to do so for the first 
time in the summer of 1904. 

The door was fastened, but the bottom 
sash of a west window was missing, and 
through this I climbed into the schoolroom 
where the desks and benches were still in 
place, carved and'^cut full of initials, mute 
testimony of the boys' jack-knives, and in 
the corner still stood the teacher's desk, 
above which, on the projecting edge of the 
window-frame, 'a'pair of Phoebes had built 
their nest. 

The nest measured nine inches, and 
was so near the ceiling as barely to admit 
the old birds upon it; and, theyoung having 
flown and it being in perfect condition and 
well built, I took it for my collection, not 
noticing any further peculiarities imtil show- 
ing it to some bird students, when we found 
that the birds had repaired and 
built upon the original nest, each 
timp adding more moss and less 
mud. Upon separating it we found 
five nests built into one, each divi- 
sion showing plainly that young 
birds had been raised in each nest. 

I have often known Phoebes build- 
ing on the ruins of their old nest, 
but never have seen any to equal 
this one, and send the photo show- 
ing the divisions, thinking it may 
Interest readers of Bird-Lore. — 
Wilbur F. Smith, So. Norivalk, 

A Note on the Food of the 

Bronzed Grackle 
Last fall I made an Interesting 
observation on the food of the 
Bronzed Grackle. This bird occurs 
here only in the migrations, our 
summer resident bird being its near 
relative, the Purple Grackle. 

On November 8 I came upon a 
large flock of Bronzed Grackles in 
the woods. They were constantly 
in motion, actively engaged in 
hunting for food among the dead leaves cov- 
ering the ground. Several times I saw a 
bird fly up with a curious object in its bill. 
Finally one alighted near me and I saw that 
the object was a wood frog, a small brown 
frog very common in our damp woodlands. 
— W. DeW. Miller, Plainfield, N. J. 

iloofe J^etos and l^etjictos 

Field Book of Wild Birds and Their 
Music. By F. Schuyler Matthews. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 1904. 
i6mo. Pages xxxv -|- 262 ; pll. mostly 
colored), 55. 

This is the most interesting and success- 
ful attempt to treat the subject of bird song 
■with which we are familiar. If we franklv 
acknowledge that in most instances no 
description, notation or graphic representa- 
tion will give one an adequate idea of a 
bird's song one has never heard, there is 
still much the describer of bird music may 
do to aid the bird student in identifying 
the voices of unseen singers. This Mr. 
Matthews proceeds to do by a variety of 
means — notation, ingenious diagrams, 
syllabification, description, etc. 

Mr. Matthews is evidently well qualified 
to handle his subject, both from the 
ornithologist's and musician's point of view. 
He avoids the mistake, common to most 
writers who render bird song by musical 
notation, of assuming that every bird student 
reads music, and furnishes a special chapter 
for those whose education in this direction 
has been neglected, which should go far 
toward making his book intelligible to them. 
He does well, we think, to emphasize the 
importance of rhythm over tone, not only 
because rhythm is less variable than tone 
but because it can be more readily and 
■clearly expressed. 

Mr. Matthews' illustrations are by no 
means the least interesting part of his book. 
Most of them are colored, from a commercial 
standpoint successfully colored, that is, they 
are easily recognizable, and all are the 
work of an artist rather than a bird artist. 
Some of them are decidedly attractive, bu*^ 
since Mr. Matthews calls the scientist to order 
for using the term " purple " for "crimson " (a 
mistake, by the way, for which the scientist 
is no more responsible than he is for the mis- 
application of the name Robin), we cannot 
forbear asking Mr. Matthews why he so 
often refuses to give nine- or ten-primaried 
oscines only four primaries! — F. M. C. 

Cassima; Proc. Delaware V'alley Orni- 
thological Club, 'viii. 1904. 8vo. 
Pages, 80. 

The annual publication of that successful 
and progressive organization, the Delaware 
Valley Ornithological Club, contains, as 
usual, evidences of the continued activity of 
the club and its members. Without further 
comment than a suggestion that those inter- 
ested secure t'-'is excellent publication, we 
append a list of its contents: ' Samuel W. 
Woodhouse ' (portraits), Witmer Stone; 'A 
Chimney Swift's Day,' Cornelius Wey- 
gandt; 'The Long-billed Marsh Wren,' 
Chreswell J. Hunt; 'The Short-billed 
Marsh Wren in Eastern Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey,' LaRue K. Holmes; 'The Barn 
Owl in Chester Co., Pa.' (ills.), Thomas 
H. Jackson; 'Summer Birds of Pocono 
Lake, Monroe Co., Pa.,' John D. Carter; 
'Summer Birds of Port Alleghany, McKean 
Co., Pa.,' Thomas D. Klim; 'A Glimpse 
of Winter Bird Life in Delaware,' Charles 
J. Pennock; 'Report on the Spring Migra- 
tion of 1904,' Witmer Stone; City Orni- 
thology, Abstract of Proceedings; Club 
Notes, list of orticers and members, the for- 
mer being: President, Spencer Trotter; vice- 
president, William A. Shryock; secretary, 
William B. Evans (56 N. Front St., Phila- 
delphia); treasurer, Stewardson Brown. — 
F. M. C. 

Abstract of the Proc. Linn^^an Society 
OF New York for the Years Ending 
NLarch 10, 1903, and March 5, 1904. 
8vo. Pages 69. 

In addition to the customary 'Abstract of 
Proceedings, ' this publication contains "Field 
Notes on the Birds and Mammals of the 
Cook's Inlet Region of Alaska' (ills.), J. D. 
Figgins; ' Some Notes on the Psychology of 
Birds," by C. William Beebe ; 'Some Appar- 
ently Undescribed Eggs of North American 
Birds', by Louis B. Bishop. 

The Linnaean Society is, or should be, to 
New York what the Delaware V^alley Club 
is to Philadelphia, or the Nuttall Club to 



Bird -Lore 

Cambridge; but when we compare its 'Ab- 
stract ' with 'Cassinia,' the publication of 
the Delaware Valley Club, above reviewed, 
we are led to believe that the comparative 
degree of interest in ornithology in and about 
both cities is fairly well expressed in the 
respective organs of these societies. The 
Linnasan Society does not appear to have 
had presented before it a single paper on 
local ornithology worthy of publication; its 
meetings were often suspended or were 
abandoned for lack of a quorum, and the 
highest attendance of members at any meet- 
ing — one of exceptional interest — was eleven, 
the average being about eight. 

The Delaware Club, on the other hand, 
seems not to have missed a single meeting; 
its average attendance of members was 23 ; 
the highest, 37. 

Ornithologists about New York may well 
consider the significance of these figures. — 
F. M. C. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Condor. — With the close of 1904, 
' The Condor ' completed its sixth year. 
This volume is larger than any previous 
one and contains nearly twice as many 
illustrations as that for 1903. The Novem- 
ber-December alone contains two full-page 
plates and eighteen half-tones in the text, 
most of them accompanying a paper on the 
habits of the ' The Black-headed Gros- 
beak,' by Wm. L. Finley, and an article 
on 'Albatross Pictures,' by Walter K. 

In ' Extracts from Some Montana Note- 
books, 1904,' Silloway gives the results of 
collecting near Lewistown, Mont., written 
ostensibly from the standpoint of the birds 
which have suffered from the raids of the 
egg-collector. In ' An Early Notice of 
Philippine Birds,' McGregor republishes 
from a collection of voyages and travels, 
issued in 1704, some notes made by Dr. 
John Careri, who visited the Philippines 
in 1696 — 97. These notes are interesting 
historically and are sufficiently definite to 
make it possible to identify seven species 
specifically and to recognize allusions to 
several groups such as the Quail and Par- 
rots, which are represented in the archipel- 

ago by a number of species, Bowles con- 
tributes an interesting account of two sets of 
eggs of the Western Golden-crowned 
Kinglets, found in Washington in 1904, 
and Sharp describes ' A Set of Abnormally 
Large Eggs of the Golden Eagle,' collected 
a few miles west of the Escondido Valley ,^ 
Cal., March 12, 1904. 

In making a comparison between the 
bird-life of the Pajaro Valley, Cal., and 
that of Sioux county. Neb., Hunter records 
106 species from the former locality and 103 
from the latter. Of these, 45 species are 
common to both regions, but, in the opinion 
of the author, gallinaceous birds and the 
best songsters are better represented ir> 
Sioux county. Among the short notes, 
Schutz's account of ' The Destruction of 
Bird-Life by Light Towers' in Austin, 
Texas, deserves special mention. The 
series of portraits is continued by an ex- 
cellent picture of Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, 
of the U. S. National Museum. — T. S. P. 

The Auk. — The January number of this 
journal is up to its usual standard, containing, 
as it does, several important articles and a 
large number of valuable notes and reviews. 
A particularly noteworthy paper is by Irene 
G. Wheelock on 'Regurgitative Feeding of 
Nestlings,' the claim being urged that 
among many broods carefully watched, 
chiefly of Passerine species, "every brood 
hatched in a naked or semi -naked condition 
was fed by regurgitation a period varying 
from one day to four weeks." The accuracy 
of the observations seems beyond question, 
and the novelty of the facts forms a valuable 
contribution to our knowledge of the home 
affairs of birds. The temporary storage in 
the crop of food for the young has previously 
been detected in only a few species, and we 
are here still left in doubt as to how much 
of the disgorgement is from the pharynx and 
how much from the oesophagus itself. As 
practically no digestion takes place in the 
crop of any bird, the assumption is unwar- 
ranted that a mass of the soft parts of insects 
and seeds mixed with the saliva of the crop 
is "partly digested "; still, the mere fact that 
any sort of regurgitation takes place is one 
that is novel and of some importance as 
showing to what extent birds employ the 

Book News and Reviews 


natural storage capacity of their throats in 
the transportation of food to their young. 

Dr. L. B. Bishop, writing on the ' Status 
of Helminthophila leucobronchiaiis and H. 
lawrencei ' furnishes strong evidence in 
favor of the view that Lawrence's Warbler 
is a hybrid between the Golden-winged and 
Blue-winged, while Brewster's is merely a 
leucochroic phase of the Blue-winged, still, 
if this be so, how is it that the song of 
Brewster's Warbler is said to be sometimes 
indistinguishable from that of the Golden- 
wing ? W. W. Cook in 'Routes of Bird 
Migration' indicates that a large number of 
species fly directly across the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, a much smaller percentage following 
around its shores, contrary to what has 
generally been supposed ; Dr. J. Dwight, 
Jr., discusses 'Plumage Wear in its Rela- 
tion to Pallid Subspecies ' ; and R. 
Deane presents a letter from Swainson to 

Two local lists are in evidence, one by 
T. H. Montgomery, Jr., on the birds of 
Brewster county, Texas, and one by N. A. 
Wood and E. H. Frothingham on those of 
the Ausable valley in Michigan. Interest 
centers in the latter locality because of its 
being the long-sought breeding ground of 
Kirtland's Warbler. The annotated part of 
the Michigan list is as dry as a table of 
logarithms, and the reader is left to flounder 
through a mass of details as best he may. 
A Sparrow of California is still without a 
breeding range, according to J. Grinnell, 
who writes under the title ' Where Does the 
Large-billed Sparrow Spend the Summer? ' 
but the number of like mysteries is reduced 
nearly to the vanishing point. So, too, are 
a number of species of birds, and E. H. 
Forbush's ' Decrease of Certain Birds in 
New England ' is a melancholy commentary, 
from the birds' standpoint, on the benefits 
of civilization! — J. D., Jr. 

The Warbler. — ' The Warbler ' for the 
' first quarter ' of 1905 appears as the first 
number of a new series greatly improved in 
character and contents. 

The present number contains colored 
illustrations of the eggs of Kirtland's and 
Olive Warblers, the first with descriptive 
text by Edward Arnold ; a note on a special 

copy of the elephant folio edition of Audu- 
bon, lately acquired by the editor of ' The 
Warbler'; 'Notes on Some Adirondack 
Birds,' by George Chahoon, with a half- 
tone illustration of a Loon, whether from 
life or not is not stated ; ' Feeding a Baby 
Hummingbird,' by Ira Lord McDavitt ; 
' The Alameda Song Sparrow,' by H. R. 
Taylor, with an attractive illustration of the 
haunts of this bird; ' The Starling,' by R. 
W. Shufeldt, who has a great deal to say 
about Starlings abroad and very little to say 
about their history in this country; 'A 
Mammoth Hawk's Nest,' by W. A. Hart, 
and ' Birds Found Breeding Within the 
Limits of the City of New York,' by John 
Lewis Childs. 

The list of New York City breeding bird* 
should closely approach a hundred species, 
we imagine, and if all are annotated a» 
fully as those grown in the first instalment 
of this paper we shall have quite a contribu- 
tion to the study of urban bird life. Surely 
we do not understand Mr. Childs aright 
when we read, "I know of but one place in 
Greater New York where the Wood Thrush 
breeds."— F. M. C. 

Wilson Bulletin. — 'Wilson Bulletin ' 
for December, 1904, completing Volume 
XVI of this excellent publication, contains 
' Kearsarge Birds,' by E. H. and H. E. 
Porter ; a July to September list of 69 
species observed at Kearsarge, N. H.; 'An 
October All-Day at Blaine, Washington,* 
by William Leon Dawson; 'A Summer 
Porch List ' of 49 species recorded near 
Chicago by Esther Craigmile; 'Some Ob- 
servations on a Captive Red -tailed Hawk,' 
by W. F. Henninger; A call for a New 
Year Bird Census by the Editor, which we 
trust met with hearty response ; 'Brewster's. 
Warbler in Pennsylvania,' by Frank L. 
Burns and in Ohio by W. F. Henninger, 
editorial and other notes, reviews, and the 
announcement of election returns, from which 
we observe that the officers of the Wilson 
Ornithological Club for 1905 are: President, 
Lynds Jones; vice-president, W. L. Daw- 
son; secretary, John W. Daniel, Jr.; 
treasurer, Frank L. Burns; executive 
council, H. C. Oberholser, John H. Sage 
and A. W. Blain, Jr.— F. M. C. 


Bird - Lore 

A Bi-tnonthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 



Vol. VII Published April 1. 1905 

No. 2 


Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico 
twenty cents a number, one dollar a year, post- 
age paid. 


Bird-Lore's Motto; 
A Bird in the Bush is Worth Two in the Hand 

Bird-Lore's editorial office is at present 
temporarily established in a photographic 
observation blind on Pelican Island, Florida, 
whence the editor, on behalf of the wards 
of the government and of the Audubon So- 
cieties, by which he is surrounded, sends 
greetings to all bird lovers who, directly or 
indirectly, have made their life one of com- 
parative security. 

Pelican Island today diflfers from Peli- 
can Island prior to the establishment of the 
warden system chiefly in the greater tame- 
ness of the adult birds and in the scarcity of 
dead young birds. In 1898, on our first 
visit to the island, the old birds arose before 
one was within gunshot and usually alighted 
in the water some distance offshore, thereto 
swim about until one had departed or con- 
cealed oneself. Today one may walk to 
within thirty feet of sitting birds before they 
leave the nest, and if one remains still they 
will soon return. This change is chiefly 
attributable to the fact that for years not a 
gun has been fired on Pelican Island, as 
well, also, to the further circumstance that 
even unarmed visitors to this natural orni- 
thological park have not been permitted to 
wander about at will for an unlimited time, 
but have been warned by ever-vigilant War- 
den Kroegel that the birds were not to be 
unduly disturbed. 

As a result, fewer unfeathered young have 
succumbed to the sun's rays through the 
enforced absence of the brooding parent, 
while birds which had left the nest are not 

driven about until they become lost or 

Nevertheless, the colony does not appear 
to be much larger than it was seven years 
ago ; high water incident to northers having 
caused great mortality on several occasions 
since the birds were protected from human 
enemies. Warden Kroegel believes that 
the greater part of the island would now be 
covered with nesting birds if all but its 
eastern rim had not been flooded in the 
latter part of December. Hundreds of 
young were then drowned, and the lower 
portion of the island is still thickly dotted 
with eggs which were washed from the 

Ninety per cent of the birds now nesting 
on the island occupy the high land of the 
eastern border. Without knowing of the 
fate of the birds that nested on the lower 
ground, one might be led to infer that the 
birds now nesting had selected their nesting 
site because of its elevation, whereas they 
evidently are merely survivors who by good 
fortune escaped the disaster which befell 
their neighbors. 

Experience apparently does not teach, and 
year after year birds nest where they are 
certain to be swamped when the water 

The possibility of planting the island 
w'th red mangroves, which might make land 
as well as furnish nesting sites for the birds, 
is worthy of consideration. 

The Pelicans take kindly to the observa- 
tion blind, and from its shelter one can 
study them at short range. Birds of all 
ages and voices are within a radius of a few 
yards, from the grunting, naked, squirming 
new-born chick, or the screaming, pugna- 
cious, downy youngster, to the silent, dig- 
nified, white-headed parent. 

At a glance one may see all the activities 
of Pelican home- life, nest-building, laying, 
incubating, feeding and brooding young, 
bathing, preening, yawning — and the Peli- 
can yawn is indeed a yawn — sleeping, all 
may be readily observed from the blind, 
whence, in truth, one may learn more about 
Pelican ways in a morning than in days of 
watching from a distance. — Pelican Island, 
Florida, March 12, IQO^. 

" Vou cannot with a scalpel Jind the poet's soul. 
Nor yet the iirild bird's song." 


Communications relating to the work of the Audubon and other Bird Protective Societies should 
be addressed to Mrs. Wright, at Fairfield, Conn. Reports, etc., designed for this department, should bft 
sent at least one month prior to the date of publication. 

Wild Hedges 

Much of the work on behalf of bird-pro- 
tection today is not so much the conceiving 
of new ideas as of repeating and insisting 
upon certain fundamental needs. For every 
time we say hands off we should say food 
and shelter at least ten times. 

Shelter of bird-houses and lunch-counter 
viands belong either with our mid-winter 
thoughts or early spring preparations; but, 
when the season is fairly on us and the sap 
begins to ascend in the veins of both plants 
and men, and we wait for the first willow 
wand, food and shelter mean trees, then we 
cry anew. Plant trees, vines, bushes, wild 
hedges, — anything that has sheltering leaf 
and edible berry! 

If the plan is to be well conceived and 
carried out, it implies much thinking, as in a 
region of fruit farms or gardens it is not 
enough to plant at random; a wild counter- 
attraction must be supplied the entire fruit 
season from the ripening of the earliest 
strawberries to the grape picking. While 
certain berry-bearers are valuable for their 
winter food, supply such as the red cedar, 
juniper, bittersweet, black alder, Virginia 
creeper, catbrier, the sumachs and frost 
grapes. The " protective " summer berries, 
those that if planted in accessible seclusion 
may reasonably be expected to at least 
partly deter Robins, Catbirds, Thrashers, 
etc., from the fruit garden, must have spe- 
cial consideration. With people owning 
large tracts of land, tree- and bush-plant- 
ing is comparatively easy, and everything 
may be done on a large scale; but it is the 
small home-garden, often over-neat and 
prim, that needs to offer hospitable shelter; 
so let us consider how this can be done 
as cheaply and expeditiously as possible. 

If the boundary be a wire or picket-fence, 


first secure the cooperation — or at least con- 
sent — of your next-door neighbor, so that 
you may not injure some favorite flower- 
bed that needs sun; then make the list of 
trees, shrubs and vines needed, the quantity 
of course, to depend upon the space. Keep 
one thing in mind from the beginning: you 
must let this wild hedge grow into a veri- 
table jungle if you wish to get the best 
results, and all ideas of neatness and prim, 
set form must be cast to the winds. Dead 
wood may be occasionally removed, but be 
wary of doing that too often. 

As for vines, give them something on 
which to drape themselves and let them 
alone to grow upside down if they will, 
thereby increasing in beauty and offering 
more nesting nooks. One of the most awk- 
ward spectacles I ever saw was a giant vine 
of the waxwork, or bittersweet, one of the 
most persistent of spiral climbers, fastened 
tight and flat to a green latticed trellis. 
Every tendril seemed bound to squirm itself 
free, and the whole effect was as awkward 
as that of a man with his head turned over 
one shoulder and trying to walk backward. 
For the taller shrubs and trees to be 
placed next the fence (or, if fence there is 
none, for the backbone of the hedge), choose 
early sweet cherries, flowering dogwoods, 
staghorn sumach, mountain-ash, Russian 
mulberry, sheepberry, wild black cherry, 
spicebush and shadbush (or service-berry), — 
this last being valuable because of the early 
ripening of the fruit in June. Next elder- 
berries, wild plums, flowering raspberry, 
barberries, currants, both black and red. 
For vines, the smaller fruited varieties of 
wild grapes (or Concords will do very well) 
that may be easily grown in pots from seed 
and set out when six months old, Virginia 
ecreper, waxwork and the yellow Chinese 



Bird -Lore 

honeysuckle, which, as well as the bush 
honeysuckle, has edible berries. 

Surround this hedge by a border of rich 
«arth a foot wide, in which plant either wild 
strawberries, transplanted from the fields, or 
the castaways from the home bed, and 
every six feet stick in a plant of the Lucretia 
dewberry. Then, when this is once started, 
hands off; don't peek and pry and intrude, 
— simply let Nature take her course and the 
Attest will survive. 

If, in due time, a tree or shrub is blown 
■over or dies, still keep your hands in your 
pockets; the charitable vines will soon hide 
its downfall and prepare a retreat from 
which a Carolina Wren may send forth his 
delicious notes. Let the leaves lie where 
they fall; who knows but what a quail 
may take a notion to nest among them ! If 
■strong canes of wild blackberries and barbs 
of greenbrier make a fence about the 
shrubbery, so much the better; the prowling 
cat must stay outside, the snake finds 
climbing uncomfortable, and for all else, 
wild bird and wild rabbit alike, the wild 
hedge should be Sanctuary. 

M. O. W. 

Notes and News 

The Directors of the National Associa- 
tion held a meeting for organization and 
•election of officers January 30, 1905. 

The officers elected were as follows : Presi- 
dent, William Dutcher ; vice-president, 
John E. Thayer; second vice-president, 
Theodore S. Palmer; secretary, T. Gilbert 
Pearson ; treasurer, Frank M. Chapman. 

This being a year when legislative ses- 
sions are held in forty-three states and ter- 
ritories, law-making is active ; and neces- 
sarily the officers of Audubon Societies have 
had to be alert and watchful to defend good 
bird- and game-laws now in force and to 
work aggressively for new legislation. 

Missouri. — A new law in this state was 
greatly needed for several reasons: it is a 
great cold-storage center; the present law 
is absolutely worthless ; the state is a great 
game country, and, finally, because the 
Audubon bill introduced at the 1903 session 
of the legislature was killed by boodle. 
The Audubon Society, while discouraged 

at that time, was not disheartened, but re- 
newed the fight at this session. Fortunately, 
the chairman of the House Fish and Game 
Committee was the Hon. Harry R. Walms- 
ley, one of the vice-presidents of the Mis- 
souri Audubon Society. He made a splendid 
fight for House Bill No. 15, and was sup- 
ported by all real sportsmen, the Audubon 
Society and the press of the state. The bill 
is practically the same as the one defeated 
in 1903 and is the A. O. U. model law, 
and, in addition, a complete game- and 
fish-law, providing very short open seasons, 
no sale, and a bag limit. The bill success- 
fully passed both branches of the legislature 
and has been approved by Governor Folk. 
It is hoped that the Audubon Society will 
in some measure become legally responsible 
for the enforcement of the new law. 

South Carolina. — A bill copied almost 
verbatim from the Louisiana model law has 
passed both branches of the legislature and 
has been approved by the Governor. The 
A. O. U. model law is now in force in every 
coast- wise state in the union, with the ex- 
ception of Alabama. 

Florida. — Early in 1904, it was discov- 
ered that a commercial bird-skin collector, 
J. R. Jack, of Punta Gorda, was sending 
to so-called scientific dealers in the New 
England states and Canada, skins of the 
rare and almost extinct Ivory-billed Wood- 
pecker which were collected in direct viola- 
tion of the Florida law, inasmuch as Jack 
did not have a permit from the Secretary of 
Agriculture of Florida to collect for scien- 
tific study. 

In a letter Jack stated : " I have no more 
Ivory-bills to sell at $15. I offered you 
what I had at your own price, and, if you 
can't pay that, all good and well ; I will 
keep my birds. I also note what you say 
regarding the birds in small doses. As for 
my part, I prefer them in as large doses as 
I can get. I now have orders for quite a 
lot, and expect to get them if they are in 
the state, and I think they are. As soon as 
I can get off, I expect to go and get all the 
birds I left. I am also counting on getting 
some Everglade Kites and a few Paraquets." 
So far as known, this species of Wood- 
pecker is now to be found only in a very 

The Audubon Societies 


restricted area in Florida and a still smaller 
one in Texas. Every bird of this species 
that is now killed hastens the day when the 
race will become extinct. These facts ren- 
dered the act of Jack and the spirit which 
prompted him the more despicable; and 
the northern dealers who received his ille- 
gallv secured goods were in no wise excu- 
sable. To verify- the facts and get evidence 
for a prosecution, a letter was written to 
Jack asking whether he could furnish two 
skins. These were promptly forwarded, 
and subsequently he sent two skins of the 
Florida Cardinal and two of the Florida 
Bob-white, the latter being game-birds 
which were killed during the close season. 
The chain of evidence being complete, it 
was forwarded to the Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington, which has charge 
of the enforcement of the Lacey Act that 
prohibits interstate commerce in illegally 
killed birds and game. Jack, in addition 
to killing non-game birds illegally and 
game-birds out of season, also violated the 
Federal Act by delivering them to a com- 
mon carrier for transportation beyond the 
state, without having the nature and con- 
tents of the package distinctly endorsed 
upon the same. The Department of Agri- 
culture placed the matter in the hands of 
the United States Department of Justice, 
and the latter caused the arrest of Jack. On 
furnishing bail he was released, to stand 
trial at Tampa, at the February term of the 
United States Court for the Southern Dis- 
trict of Florida. Jack, having no defense 
to offer, plead guiltj- and was fined. It is 
hoped that the drastic lesson given in this 
case will serve as a warning to all persons 
who do not yet seem to realize that the 
National and State Audubon Societies are 
determined to see that the state and federal 
laws for the protection of birds and game 
must be respected and observed. — The Audubon Society of this 
state, although but recently organized, has 
been precipitated into a strenuous fight to 
prevent the amendment of the present ex- 
cellent game-law in respect to wild fowl. 
The bag limit is now twenty-five birds per 
day, none of which can be shipped out of 
the state, nor can they be transported in the 

state, except when accompanied by the 

A combination of market shooters, pot- 
hunters and other selfishly interested parties, 
are making a determined effort to remove 
all restrictions to their trade. To get game 
for market, disreputable means are some- 
times employed by dealers. The following 
extract from a letter written by a St. Louis 
commission house to a prominent citizen of 
Texas shows the importance of good laws 
well enforced. 

"I was advised if I, or others, were able 
to obtain game, to ship the birds under a 
fictitious name, giving a fictitious name for 
myself and billing to a fictitious firm in St. 
Louis. Further instructions were to notify 
the commission house of the shipment and 
the name to which the package was sent. 
They could then manage to obtain it with- 
out risk to themselves or to the party at 
this end." 

Secretary Davis, of the Audubon Society, 
aided bv hosts of others who have the best 
interests of the state at heart, are doing 
everything possible to prevent any change 
in the law. The press, with one voice, is 
opposing change and is giving ver)' valua- 
ble aid bv editorial comment, and is also 
freely printing many long and valuable ar- 
ticles from the pen of Mr. Davis, whose 
activitv and earnestness, together with that 
of his Audubon associates, is in the highest 
degree commendable. In this connection, 
it is a pleasure to mention the high civic 
stand taken by General Passenger Agent 
Anderson, of the Southern Pacific Railway 
Companv, who is very earnestly working 
to prevent any change in the law. 

The legislature will remain in session for 
some time, and it is impossible to determine 
at this writing what the outcome will be; 
but it is hoped that the law will remain as 
it now is. 

New York. — The Audubon Society is 
having its annual fight to prevent the repeal 
of that section of the game-law which pro- 
hibits wild-fowl shooting after January i. 
The society is not working alone, by any 
means, for sportsmen and naturalists from 
all parts of the state are arrayed against 
a small but determined band of baymen, 


Bird- Lore 

hotel-keepers and a few sportsmen from 
Long Island, who, without regard to the 
fact that it is morally, scientifically and 
economically wrong to kill a bird, be it 
game-bird or other, while it is on the north- 
ward migration to its breeding grounds, de- 
mand the repeal of the law without regard 
to the wishes of the citizens of the balance 
of the state. The advocates of repeal say 
that Ducks were never so numerous on the 
Long Island waters as they are at the pres- 
ent time; but they refuse to acknowledge, 
what is an indisputable fact, that the in- 
crease is due to the stopping of spring shoot- 
ing in man)' parts of the United States and 
the Canadian provinces. 

At the last election, the repeal of the 
Duck law became a political issue on Long 
Island. The question is not a political one, 
but an economic one, and is, whether the 
remainder of the wild Ducks shall be con- 
served or shall be recklessly slaughtered in 
the spring simply because a few interested 
persons wish a special privilege given them 
at the expense of the balance of the state. 
The law in question was enacted in 1903, 
was successfully defended from repeal in 
1904, and the Audubon Society is putting 
forth its greatest strength to defend it again. 

The society is also working for ihe Arm- 
strong Bill, which aims to prevent unnatu- 
ralized persons from carrying firearms. 
Should this become a law, — it has passed 
both Houses, — it will save the lives ot thou- 
sands of song-birds in the state. The un- 
educated foreign laboring element, es- 
pecially if from the south of Europe, knows 
no law and regards everything with feathers 
or fur as legitimate prey for the kettle. 

The aigrette question is one of the most 
important now before all the Audubon 
Societies. The use of these plumes seems 
to be increasing rather than otherwise, not- 
withstanding the milliners' agreement that 
their sale should cease January i, 1904. 
The Millinery Merchants' Association is 
disbanded, largely owing to the question of 
the sale of aigrettes, and therefore the Au- 
dubon Societies are relieved from am' obli- 
gation regarding laws that were entered 
into under the terms of the agreement. 

In view of this fact, the New York: 
Society has had introduced in the legisla- 
ture, through the courtesy of Senator Arm- 
strong, the following amendment to Sectioit 
No. 33 of the present law. 

"Feathers or plumage commonly known 
as aigrettes, or the feathers or plumage of 
any species of the Heron family, whether 
obtained within or without the state, shall 
not be bought, sold, offered or exposed for 
sale at any time." If this passes, it will 
materially reduce the sale of aigrettes. 
Many of the retail dealers will be glad of 
an excuse for not keeping these plumes for 
sale, as they are compelled to do now be- 
cause competing stores sell them. The few 
wholesale dealers who control the trade in 
aigrettes, and are actively opposing the bill, 
claim that all of the plumes now offered for 
sale are imported and are taken from Old 
World or South American Herons. This 
is not a fact, for the National Association 
has positive evidence, in the shape of letters- 
and circulars, showing that there is a con- 
traband trade in these plumes going on in 
this country. To save the remnant of 
White Herons yet remaining in the United 
States, it is necessary to stop the sale 
of aigrettes in this country. It is ab- 
solutely impossible to distinguish the 
plumes of an American White Heron from 
those taken from an African or Asiatic 
bird. Dr. Richmond, of the Smithsonian 
Institution, an ornithologist of international 
reputation, states that he has been unable to 
distinguish them even with the aid of a 
magnifying glass. Under these circum- 
stances, the only possible way to save our 
own birds is to prevent the sale of all ai- 
grettes. The New York public who are 
interested in this important matter can ma- 
terially aid in the passage of the Aigrette Bill 
(Senate No. no), now before the Legislature, 
by writing to their senators and assembly- 
men urging favorable consideration for the 

Space will not permit presenting other 
'Notes and News ' of great interest, which 
will have to be deferred until the next issue. 
William Dutcher. 






~ JKk 











' ' -^ 



' * ^^^1 


^^^^^^^M^ 1 




I^^^P^ 1 



^' J 









Order — St ruthioni formes Family — Struthionidte 

Genus — Struthio Species — Cameliis 

The Ostrich 


President National Association of Audubon Societies 

A technical description of this exotic bird is omitted, as the public is 
already well acquainted with the strange creature that, feathered like a bird, 
is unable to fly, but can run with a speed like that of a horse. 

Linnaeus recognized only one species, but later naturalists have divided 
the genus into four or five races. The ancestral home of the Ostrich is the 
whole of Africa, together with Arabia and southeastern Persia, in Asia. 

The importance of this bird as a commercial asset is so great that in 
portions of Africa it is protected by law. Cape Colony has a duty of ^5 on 
each egg and a much larger sum on each bird exported. Ostrich -farming is 
an important and rapidly growing industry in Africa, and within the last 
twenty years has been successfully introduced in the United States, where 
it will soon occupy a very important place in the commercial enterprises of 
the country. The Audubon Societies are not opposed to the use of feather orna- 
ments which can be obtained without cruelty or the sacrifice of the lives of birds. 
The feathers of wild birds cannot be obtained unless birds are killed, and there- 
fore should never be worn; on the other hand,' Ostrich feathers are legitimate as 
well as beautiful decorations and are approved by the Audubon Societies. Their 
use does not entail the sacrifice of life, nor does it cause the slightest suffering to 
the Ostrich; taking plumes from an Ostrich is no more painful to the bird than 
shearing is to a sheep. Further, the Audubon Societies do not approve of the 
use of Ostrich feathers in combination with aigrettes as is so often done; they 
are the antithesis of each other, one plume being obtained without loss of life or 
pain to the Ostrich while the other is only secured by killing White Herons 
during the breeding season and thus causing suffering and death not only to the 
parent birds but also to the helpless nestlings. Furthermore, the use of Ostrich 
plumes encourages an important industry which gives employment, in this 
country, to an annually increasing number of people. 

The following interesting information regarding the Ostrich industry in 
America is furnished by Mr. Edwin Barbour, secretary of the Phcenix- 
American Ostrich Company, Phoenix, Ariz., and Mr. Edwin Cawston, 
owner of the South Pasadena, California, farm; the latter also furnished 
the photograph of the method of plume -cutting which illustrates this 
article : 

In 1882, Ostriches were first introduced into the United States for 
breeding purposes by a Dr. Protheroe. A number were shipped from Cape 
Town, Africa, some of which survived to reach New York, where they 
were shipped overland to California, only twenty-two birds arriving, which 
were the nucleus of the farm started at Anaheim, the corporation being 
known as the California Ostrich Company. During the next four years 
three other parties ventured in the field of Ostrich-farming, the most suc- 


The Ostrich 155 

cessful of these persons being Mr. Edwin Cawston, who went to South 
Africa and returned with forty-four selected birds. These were later divided, 
some going to South Pasadena, Cal., where the original importer owns at 
the present time the finest show farm in the United States. The remainder 
were taken to Whittier, Cal., where a breeding farm was established, at 
present containing over three hundred birds; from this shipment fully eighty 
per cent of the Ostriches in America have descended, besides those con- 
tained in Mr. Cawston's farm at Nice, France. During the Pan-American 
Exposition at Buffalo (1901), the last lot of Ostriches were brought to the 
United States. These were twelve Nubians, the most gigantic and mag- 
nificent of all the species. After the fair, six of these birds went to Mr. 
Cawston, who arranged the importation, the remainder going to the Pearson 
ranch in Arizona. The first appearance of the Ostrich in Arizona was in 
1888, when Clanton & Co. purchased of Mr. Cawston one pair of breed- 
ing birds and eleven chicks. During transportation ten of the chicks met 
with accidental death and the following year the hen was killed. From the 
survivors, the male bird and one chick, ninety-seven full-grown birds were 
sold to the Arizona Ostrich Company in 1898. In the same year, Mr. A. Y. 
Pearson and Mr. J. Taylor established the Florida Ostrich Farm at Jackson- 
ville, with thirty birds purchased from Mr. Cawston, and the original Dr. 
Protheroe shipment. In the spring of 1899 this firm dissolved, Mr. Taylor 
retaining the Florida farm, which is one of the finest exhibition places ir> 
the country. Mr. Pearson took the California interests of the firm, and in 
November, 1899, he purchased a large tract of land ten miles west of 
Phoenix, Ariz., to which he removed his California stock and also pur- 
chased two hundred more birds from the Arizona Ostrich Company. The 
Pearson Farm is now known as the Phoenix -American Ostrich Company, 
the corporation owning over one thousand birds, making it the largest 
Ostrich ranch in America. There is also the National Ostrich Company 
near Phoenix and the Tempe Ostrich Company, of Tempe, which together 
own several hundred birds. A new farm has lately been established near 
Phoenix, by J. M. Harmon, which is known as the Big Five Ostrich Farm. 
Besides the above there are about three hundred birds owned by the Bentley 
farm at San Diego, and the Leach farm at San Jose, Cal., the Coburn farm, 
Hot Springs, Ark., and a few at Asheville, N. C. There are today some- 
thing less than three thousand Ostriches in America. Until recently most 
of the farms were maintained for exhibition purposes, and it is only within 
the last few years that serious attention has been directed to the commer- 
cial possibilities of Ostrich -farming. It is not a wild hazard to believe that 
in five years Arizona alone will contain ten thousand Ostriches, valued at 
$3,000,000, with an annual output of feathers valued at $350,000. 

South Africa exports annually Ostrich feathers to the value of about 
$6,000,000, of which nearly one-third finally reach the United States. A 

156 Bird -Lore 

breeding pair of Ostriches will produce from ten to twenty chicks per year, 
which are worth, when six months old, $100 each; at one year, $150; at 
two years, $200; at three years, $300 to $350. They commence to breed 
when four years old, but do not breed satisfactorily until they are six or 
seven years of age, when, if prolific, they are valued at from $700 to $i,000 
per pair. Exceptionally fine birds sometimes bring as much as $i,000 each. 
Good birds will produce from $35 to $50 worth of feathers each year, and 
exceptional ones from $75 to $90 annually. Probably there are no wild 
Ostriches now killed for plumage. The feathers of the domesticated bird 
are very much finer and better than those of the wild Ostrich. 

Plucking is done by putting the Ostrich in a V-shaped corral just large 
enough to admit its body, with room for the workman. A hood, shaped 
like a long stocking, is placed over the head of the Ostrich, when it be- 
comes perfectly docile. The workman then raises the wings and clips the 
feathers that are fully ripe. Great care is exercised at this time, as a pre- 
mature cutting of the feathers deteriorates the succeeding feather growth. 

There is no possibility of inflicting pain in plucking an Ostrich ; not a 
<lrop of blood is drawn, nor a nerve touched. The large feathers are cut 
off, and in two months' time, when the quill is dried up, it is pulled out. 
By taking the feathers in this way it causes the bird absolutely no pain at 
all. An Ostrich is first plucked when it is nine months old ; then it is about 
six feet high. This crop of feathers is of little value; succeeding crops are 
taken every nine months, the third plucking being the full crop, which will 
weigh about one pound. Ostriches mate at four years of age and remain 
paired for life. The nest, which is simply a hole in the ground scooped out 
by the breastbone of the bird, is about one foot deep by three or four feet 
in diameter. Eggs are laid every other day until twelve or fourteen are de- 
posited, each of which weighs from three to four pounds. The eggs are 
turned daily in the nest by the birds, and are incubated forty-two days, the 
male taking the nest at five in the afternoon, where he remains on duty 
until nine the following morning, when the female goes on duty. The 
chicks, when hatched, are about the size of a domestic hen and present a 
mottled appearance. They grow about one foot in height every month 
until they attain full growth, about seven to eight feet, when they will 
weigh from three to four hundred pounds. When fourteen months old the 
plumage gradually changes, the female taking on a dull gray and the male 
a glossy black, both growing long white wing -feathers. 

For a history of the Ostrich, read Vogel Ost-Afrikas of Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub. 

New Popular Edition of the Great American Authority 



With more than 1,000 illustrations, including colored frontispieces, 64 large plates 
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THIS important work on American ornithology, giving a larger amount of in- 
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student of ornithology. An especially important feature of the work is the portion 
written by Dr. Brewer, containing the most graphic and accurate accounts of the 
habits of the birds which have been penned since Audubon. 

Other valuable features are the statements given of the exact rank of each bird, 
the analytical and synoptical tables simplifying identification, accounts of the geo- 
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Your magazine has certainly had a piienomenal success and is entirely worthy of its 
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When one considers the low price at which you sell Birds the number and excellence 
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thology may meet with the success it so well deserves - Frank M . (llinpman, EJilhr 
" Bit J- Lore " 

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378 Wabash Avenue, Chicago 

THE CONDOR ^f'^^^-r,"^ 

Ir estern Urnitnology 


THE CONDOR is now in its seventh volume. Special features for 1905 will include, 
for each issue striking photographs of wild birds by H. T. Bohlman and W. L. 
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Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Contributors to THE CONDOR in the past have included 
such well-known ornithologists as Robert Ridgway, E. W Nelson, A. K. Fisher, 
L. Belding, C. W. Richmond, Witmer Stone, Florence Merriam Bailey, L. A. Fuertes, 
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J.A.Allen T^LJ C A T TfC P.M. Chapman 

Editor • • 111 Cd X*. \_J 1.X, • • Assoc. Editor 

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology 


AS the official organ of the Union, 'The Auic' is the leading ornitholog- 
-^ ^ ical publication of this country. Each number contains about lOO 
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cipal articles are by recognized authorities and are of both a scientific and 
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Address JONATHAN DWIGHT, JR., Treas., 



oovrniaMT. laos, bv piomk m. omap* 


May -June, 1905 



Frontispiece — Mourning and MAcr.iLUvRAY's Warblers Bruce Horsfall . 

The Motmots of Our Mexican Camp. Illustrated C. William Beebe . 157 

Some Early American Ornithologists. II. William Bartram IVitmer Stone . 162 

Spotted Sandpiper on Xest. Illustrated R. H. Beebe . 164 

The American Bitter.n' at Illustrated E.G. Tabor . 165 

Fourth International Ornithological Congrkss 168 


The Migration of Warblers. Tenth Paper. Illustrated by Louis Agassiz Fnertes and 

Bruce Horsfall . . IV. W. Cooke . 169 

Sum.vier Warbler on Xest. Illustrated ....M.S. Crosby . 170 

A Black and White Creeper Family. Illustrated Gordon Bait IVellman . 170 

Jtne E.xpectatio.ns. Illustrated A. L. Princehorn . 172 


A Recent \"isit of the Evening Grosbeak, _/o/«w Hutchins ; Starving C9.c>\<^, Samuel H. 
Barker ; OiiR " Pionher Tenants," Berton Mercer ; The English Sparrow as an 
EvicTOR, F. M. Bennett: Protection for Bird Tenants, Marion Bole; An Unknown 
Bird, Nettie S. Pierce; Wherk the Blue Jays Find a Breakfast, W. C. 
Knoivles : .■\ Shivering Chickadee, U". S. Johnson. 


Allen and Barber's ' Narrative of a Trip to t»k Bahamas'; Lyon's 'Birds of the 
Bahamas'; Comstock's 'Bird Study'; Tue Ornithoi ogical Magazines. 



XOTEii ;«VD XEWS 182 


«*« Manuscripts intended for publication, books, etc., fot review and exchanges should be 
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yeu- York City, N. Y. 

Subscribers whose subscription 
has expired will find a renew^al 
blank enclosed in the present num- 
ber of the magazine. 

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will send you the Seton Shrike 
picture, -which should be consid- 
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of your subscription. 

If you do not care to renew will 
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Reduced line cut of Ernest Thompson Seton's drawing of a Northern Shrike. Presented to every sub- 
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Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Hartisburg, Pa. 

1 . Macgillivray's Warbler, Male. 

2. Macgillivray's Warbler, Female, 


3. Mourning Warbler, Male. 

4. Mourning Warbler, Female. 
Mourning Warbler, Young Male. 


Official Organ of the Audubon Societics 

Vol. VII May — June, 1905 No. 3 

The Motmots of our Mexican Camp 

Curator of Ornithologfy, New York Zoological Park 

With photographs by the author 

NEXT to actually discovering a new and interesting fact of natural 
history, comes the pleasure of verifying one of which we have read ; 
and our first meeting with the Mexican Motmot {Momotus mexi- 
canus) , and the observing of his peculiar habits, brought as sincere a thrill of 
delight as if we had been the first to report them. 

It was a sultry day in late January in the mountains of west -central 
Mexico when we first saw a live Motmot. Our camp was pitched near a 
grove of magnificent wild fig trees bordering a stream in one of the great 
gorges or barrancas which radiate from the majestic sister peaks ever loom- 
ing over us, — one dead and hoary with snow, the other vital with earth - 
fire, pouring forth smoke and ashes. 

Following the wise custom of most of the creatures of this tierra caliente, 
we were taking a midday siesta in the shade of a flowering acacia. A 
Black -throated Gray and a Pileolated Warbler were feeding fearlessly within 
a few feet, snatching tiny insects from the sweet -pea-like blossoms. Every 
green and golden feather on the body of the little Pileolated was unruffled, 
and his tiny monk's cap shone in the sunlight like burnished jet. My 
glance slipped past him and there, sitting motionless, was a Motmot. 

I had often wondered when I saw mounted specimens in museums with 
what special immunity from danger these birds are blessed; their beautiful 
coloring would seem to be such a startling advertisement of their where- 
abouts. But in reality the very diversity in tint is their protection, and they 
merge perfectly into the green foliage and bright sunlit spots. One's first 
impression of a Motmot, as seen at a distance, is of a large-headed, brown 
and greenish bird, with a broad bar of black on the head; but we were 
fortunate enough to be able to study one of these birds in our very camp. 

A slightly injured bird soon recovered, and remained about the camp for 
more than a week, retaining its full liberty, feeding upon scraps of meat or 


Bird -Lore 

occasionajlj^ catching insects for itself. Its favorite perch was a branch of 
flowering Clavillina, to which one end of the ridge-pole rope of our tent 
was attached. Here, day after day, it unconsciously posed before the 
camera, leaving nothing for regret except that its exquisite coloring, which 
showed so beautifully on the ground glass, must be lost in the negative. It 


left this perch only when hungry or when the great heat of midday drove it 
to the shade of the tent or a neighboring tree. 

I will quote some notes which I made in my journal. The bill of this 
Motmot is large and deeply serrated or toothed on each edge, and when 
angry, after being teased with a piece of meat, the bird darts at and takes 
firm hold of one's finger and suffers itself to be carried, dangling, several 
yards before flying of?. The crown of the head and the neck are bright 
cinnamon, shading into a beautiful grass-green on the back and wings. 

The Motmots of our Mexican Camp 


The large, soft brown eyes are surrounded by a ring of feathers, very small, 
circular, and black in color. Back of the eye is a broad tuft of black, 
banded above and below with beautiful blue. The breast is a most delicate 
emerald green, shot with pale blue, while exactly in the center is a twin 
black feathery pendant or tuft, similar to the eye-tufts. 


The most remarkable character about the bird is its tail, which is long 
and greenish blue in color, while the two central feathers, still longer than 
the others, are bare of barbs for about an inch of their length, each feather 
ending in a full-vaned racket. The strange thing about this ornament is 
the fact that it is produced by the bird itself. When the young birds attain 
their full plumage, the elongated pair of feathers in the tail are perfect from 
base to tip. Guided apparently by pure instinct, each Motmot begins to 

i6o Bird- Lore 

pick and pick at these feathers, tearing off a few barbs at a time with its bill. 
This is kept up until the tail is in the condition which is shown in the 
photograph, and at each succeeding moult the process is again repeated. 

This symmetrical denudation of the tail feathers might be instanced as a 
remarkable attempt at esthetic self-ornamentation on the part of the male 
bird to make himself more beautiful in the eyes of the female. But, unfor- 
tunately for this theory, the habit is as strongly pronounced in one sex as in 
the other! 

When the feathers grow out anew, although the barbs are all present, 
the vane at this point is narrower than elsewhere, showing perhaps that 
the long-continued exercise of the habit for generation after generation is 
in some way having an hereditary effect. But we cannot be at all sure 
about this. The inheritance of acquired characters is too unproved a theory 
as yet. The real cause of the habit would be a most interesting one to 
solve. In some of the individuals which we see, the process has just begun, 
only a few barbs having been torn away. 

Although a Mexican Motmot measures over a foot in length, yet its 
voice, more often than its color, betrays it. This is a most startling 
utterance : several harsh churrs followed by three distinct, beautifully liquid 
notes. But even when this is heard near at hand, little clew is given as to 
the bird's exact whereabouts, for the tones are so startlingly loud and have 
such ventriloquial power that they seem to come from all directions at once. 
No sound that I hear them utter can possibly be construed into the 
syllables mot-mot. 

These birds are not shy, but will permit one to approach quite closely 
before taking a short flight to a neighboring tree or bush. Just before they 
fly they usually give utterance to a low chuck! chuck! evidently an alarm note. 
This is always the most common sound of my tame bird when I attempt 
to approach it. What betrays a Motmot more surely than its color, or 
even its voice, is the curious pendulum motion of the tail, from side to side 
and more rarely up and down. When the bird blends so perfectly with its 
surroundings that the eye fails to locate it, the horizontal swing of its tail 
reveals it. Thjs is not a true pendulum motion, as the tail snaps to the 
highest point of the swing, and is held there for a moment before being 
jerked to the opposite side. 

Although the feet of the Motmot are weak and adapted only for perch- 
ing, and its usual method of feeding is to catch insects upon the wing, yet 
more than once, while watching these birds I see them fly to the ground 
and scratch awkwardly, picking up food after each disturbance of the leaves. 
Another habit I should dismiss as an individual freak, except for the fact 
that it is observed in three different birds. These particular Motmots are 
not aware of my presence and, after feeding for a time, they fly to a sunny 
open spot, fling themselves flat upon their backs and spreading wide their 

The Motmots of our Mexican Camp 


wings, enjoy a bath in the early morning sun. The only other birds which 
I have ever known thus voluntarily to invert themselves are a Parrakeet, a 
Caracara and a Condor, all in captivity. 

Like their distant cousins the Kingfishers, these birds bore a tunnel into 
a vertical bank and make their nest at the end, six or eight feet deep in the 
earth. The pure beauty of the water-lily is conceived in the filthy, noisome 
muck at the pond bottom, and the delicate hues of the Motmot are acquired 
in a black, ill-smelling, underground hole. 

We will ever regret not seeing these birds during the period of courtship 
and nesting, but, as with most of the other birds of this country, that occurs 
later in the year. One must visit Mexico in the early summer to study the 
birds at the most interesting of all times — the breeding season. 


Some Early American Ornithologists 


ON the thirtieth of September, 1728, a thrifty Quaker farmer by the 
name of John Bartram purchased a" tract of land on the banks of the 
Schuylkill river at Kingsessing, near Gray's Ferry, now within the 
limits of the city of Philadelphia, erected with his own hands a substantial 
stone dwelling, and laid out a garden. 

Here he indulged his interest in botany, planting trees and shrubs from 
all parts of the world, and in this attractive retreat, surrounded by birds and 
flowers, he passed his years in the enjoyment of nature, while he corre- 
sponded with botanical friends abroad, especially with Peter Collinson. Here 
the famous Swedish naturalist Peter Kalm stopped on his travels and enjoyed 
the hospitality of a host with kindred tastes. 

•And here, on February 9, 1739, was born a son, William Bartram, who 
was destined not only to continue the care of the botanic garden but to give, 
both directly and indirectly, a great impetus to the study of American birds, 
in which he became deeply interested. 

Young Bartram's surroundings were well calculated to make a natu- 
ralist of him, in addition to which his father took much interest in his educa- 
tion, fostering his love of nature and encouraging his efforts at drawing. 

When the boy was sixteen years of age, the father writes of him^ " I 
design to set Billy to draw all our turtles," and later he sent samples of his 
drawings to his friends abroad. 

The question of an occupation for young Bartram troubled the father 
not a little; he wished him to make his own living, but did not desire to 
interfere with his drawing or his studies. Benjamin Franklin, who was a 
friend of the family, offered to teach him printing, and other suggestions were 
made, but William finally entered a business house, and, after a few years, 
removed to Cape Fear, North Carolina, where his uncle had previously set- 
tled, and here established himself as a trader. 

The elder Bartram had at various times made explorations in different 
parts of the country in search of curious plants and seeds, which he sent 
abroad along with garden and vegetable seeds. In 1765, through the efforts 
of his English friends, he was appointed by King George III Botanist of the 
Floridas, at a small salary. He at once prepared for an excursion into this 
little -known territory, and took his son William with him. The latter 
was delighted with the country and its strange plants and birds, and deter- 
mined to revisit it if possible. Accordingly, in 1772, at the expense of Dr. 
Fothergill, of England, he began a much more extended tour of Florida, 
Carolina and Georgia, which lasted for some five years. His collections, 


Some Early American Ornithologists 163 

drawings, etc., were sent abroad to his patron, and in 1791 he published an 
account of his travels. In this volume, besides much botanical lore, he pre- 
sented important accounts of the birds that he observed and, what is of more 
interest, a complete list, or ' Nomenclature,' of the birds known to him as 
occurring from Pennsylvania to Florida east of the Alleghanies. 

This was a landmark in the progress of American ornithology, the next 
in importance to the work of Catesby, and the first ornithological contribution 
worthy of the name written by a native American. Unfortunately, Bartram 
neither adhered to the Linnasan system of nomenclature nor did he describe 
the birds which are here for the first time mentioned; and, although we can 
identify all the species of his list, we cannot use his names. Bartram was 
very modest; he had no intention of writing an ornithology, and merely gave 
his list, as such, for the interest of his readers; and so, perchance, we are 
compelled to take it, only regretting that we cannot bestow more credit 
where credit is due. 

But Bartram's claims to consideration as one of the pillars of American 
ornithology do not rest wholly upon his 'Travels' or his 'Nomenclature.' 
It was his profound knowledge and the assistance that it enabled him to 
of?er to others that have done more for ornithology than his own publica- 
tion, and most generously and cheerfully did he share his store with those 
who came to him for aid. 

In the year 1800, at the age of sixty-one, after his father's death, he lived 
with his brother at the Botanic Garden, happy in his congenial surroundings 
and sufficiently removed from the smoke and bustle of the neighboring city. 
Here, as was customary with men of his day, he kept a diary, in which the 
daily phases of nature were faithfully recorded; and this little volume, with 
its time-stained pages and faded writing, now lies before me. Here are rec- 
ords of the ''Mock- bird" at various dates in the winter, the arrival from the 
south of the Blackbird, the Pewit and other harbingers of spring, as well as 
the blooming of the various spring flowers and the first piping of the frogs. 

Alas! the Mock -bird no longer comes so far north as Philadelphia at 
any season, except as the rarest straggler, and so closely have the railroads 
and the oil-works encroached upon the historic garden that the wild birds 
do not visit it as frequently as they once did. But things are not all changed : 
one evening the diary tells us of the presence of the "Little Horned Owls" 
in the bushes before the door, and on my last walk through the shaded 
paths of the garden I came suddenly upon a pair of these same "Little 
Horned Owls" hiding in the ancient box-bushes. Were they the lineal 
descendants of those that Bartram heard hooting a hundred years ago ? 
Who can say ? At all events, it is pleasant to think that they were. 

In the retirement of his garden the venerable naturalist lived his peace- 
ful life, and there he ended it suddenly on the 22d of July, 1823, in his 
eighty-fifth year. But during this time many a friend was entertained. 


Bird- Lore 

many a word of advice and encouragement was given, and many a question 
was answered. 

In that year of 1800 there hved close by, on the clififs overlooking Gray's 
Ferry, Dr. Benjamin Say, whose little son Thomas, then a boy of thirteen, 
and later a naturalist of note, carried to Bartram all the curious specimens 
that he chanced to find on his rambles. Dr. B. S. Barton, the young pro- 
fessor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania, also came to him for 
assistance; while up at Milestown, a short distance north of the city, lived 
a young Scotch schoolmaster, Alexander Wilson by name, who was then 
about to take the school at Gray's Ferry, and to make the acquaintance of 
Bartram, under whose guidance he was soon to become one of the most 
famous ornithologists that our country has ever produced. 

In the development of all these men, and in others as well, much is to 
be attributed to the influence of William Bartram; and, when we form our 
judgment of his worth, we must look, as in the case of other modest men, 
beyond the work which he accomplished himself and consider also that 
which he inspired in others. 

Photographed from nature by R. H. Beebe, Arcade, N. Y. 

The American Bittern at Home 

By E. G. TABOR. Meridian. N. Y. 

With photographs from nature by the author 

THE American Bittern is a summer resident throughout central New 
York, and wherever there are favorable marshes to furnish feeding 
and breeding grounds, 'plum pud'n ' notes are common sounds as 
the sun smlcs in the west and twilight begins to gather At this time it has 
always been the delight of the writer to be at one of the numerous marshes 
that border our lakes and creeks in this locality and listen to the ' booming' 
of the Bittern, the clatter of the Rails, and the chatter of Blackbirds, 
Marsh Wrens and other small birds as they go to their accustomed roosts 
to pass the night. Nighthawks come forth from their hiding-places and 
dart down through space in their plunges; Wilson's Snipes mount into the 
air and soar and drum until lost from sight in the darkness and nothing but 
the whir of their wings is 
heard as they pass and re- 
pass within a few feet of 
your head. Finally they, 
too, are still, but the frogs 
and mosquitos have taken 
up the chorus, and many 
nights have I gone home 

wondering how anything 

could sleep in such a place. 
One might imagine that 

it would be an easy task 

to locate a Bittern's nest. 

However, if you consider 

that a marsh may contain 

from ten to one hundred 

acres, and that the female 

may be out feeding instead 

of incubating, you will 

realize that a nest repre- 
sents a very minute spot in 

that area. 

Usually it requires sev- 
eral days of persistent 

search to reveal the nest 

on the opposite side of that 

vast mixture of water, mud, 

rushes and bogs. But, de- mo. .. American bitterns nest with four eggs 


1 66 

Bird - Lore 

pend upon it, on one of these many bogs, but a few inches above the level 
of the water, on a mere handful of dry marsh grass, are the four to six 
brownish -drab colored eggs. 

About ten years ago, before I was interested in photography, I found a 
nest whose mistress was so persistent that only after I had pushed her from 
the nest with my gun did she deem it expedient to leave her home at my 

, mercy. During the seven years 
that I have used a camera, I 
have searched the Bittern's 
breeding-grounds in vain for a 
like opportunity to make pho- 
tographs of this odd yet very 
interesting inhabitant of our 
marshes. Each year I have 
found several nests, all being 
in places, however, where 
approach in anything like a 
noiseless manner was an im- 
possibility, and I have failed to 
get a single exposure at an 
adult bird, until last year. 

One day, when 1 was re- 
turning from a trip with my 
camera, I met a farmer who, 
knowing I was a bird photog- 
rapher, imparted the news 
that he could show me a Mud- 
hen's nest. I gladly promised 
to be on the spot early next 
day. Upon my arrival, he con- 
ducted me to the nest, which 
he had accidentally found in 
going for a drink to a spring 
near by. The nest was situated 
in a swampy spot in a small 
piece of woods adjoining his cornfield. There were only four eggs in it at 
that time. I made photograph number one*of it, and arranged with my 
farmer friend to keep watch and let me know when the eggs commenced 

One evening, several weeks later, his son came to me with this infor- 
mation: "Dad says she's hatchin'." Next morning I was again on the 
ground, and approached the nest very cautiously ; sure enough she was at 
home, and I hastily made photograph number two. While preparing to take 



1 68 

Bird - Lore 


another, two of the young crept 
out from under her, and I made 
photograph number three and 
others varying but slightly. 

The young at this time 
showed no signs of fear, but 
when I returned, a week later, 
and made photograph number 
four, they were evidently much 

The following week I could 
find neither parent nor young, 
and' as the young are unable to 
fly at the age of two weeks, I 
concluded that the parent must 
have led them away on foot. 

While I much regret that I 
did not get a larger series of 
pictures of these birds, experi- 
ence teaches me to be thankful 
for those I did secure, which, 
with these few words of ex- 
planation, I submit to the readers 
of Bird-Lore as a contribution 
to the life history of one of our 
most interesting birds. 

The Fourth International Ornithological Congress will Convene at 
the Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London, June 12, 1905 

The Committee of Arrangements has issued this preliminary programme. 

Monday, June 12—9 p. m., informal reception at the Imperial Institute. Tuesday, 
June 13 — 10 A. M., general meeting; 3 P. M., meetings of the Sections; evening, social 
gathering at some place of entertainment. Wednesday, June 14 — 10 A. M. and 3 p. M., 
meetings of the Sections; evening, conversazione at the Natural History Museum. 
Thursday, June 15 — Excursion to Tring; there will be lectures, and the members of the 
Congress will be the guests of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. Friday, June 16 — 10 A. M., 
general meeting; afternoon, reception by the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London at 
the Mansion House; evening, dinner given by the British Ornithologists' Union. Satur- 
day, June 17 — 10 A. M., meetings of the Sections; 2.30 p. m., general meeting, conclusion 
of the Congress. Sunday, June 18 — the Natural History Museum, the Zoological Gardens, 
and the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, will be open to members of the Congress. Mon- 
day, June 19— excursion to the Duke of Bedford's Park at Woburn. Tuesday, June 20 — 
excursion to Cambridge; Professor Newton will welcome th,e members of the Congress, and 
luncheon will be served at Magdalene College. Wednesday, June 21 — Excursion to Flam- 
borough Head in Yorkshire (breeding place of many sea-birds). The Zoological Gardens 
at Regent's Park and the Library of the Zoological Society at 3 Hanover Square will be 
open free to ail members of the Congress throughout the week. 

The Migration of Warblers 


Compiled by Professor W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data 

in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes and Bruce Horsfall 


The Mourning Warbler is one of the latest of the family to reach the 
United States from its winter home in Central and South America. It is 
not known in the Gulf States at ocean level east of Louisiana, nor in 
Georgia and South Carolina outside of the mountains, and there are only a 
few records south of Pennsylvania. It probably reaches the United States 
late in April or the first week in May. 


Beaver, Pa. 

Renova, Pa. 

Scarboro, N. Y 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Montreal, Can. 

St. John, N. B 

North River, Prince Edward Island 

San Antonio, Texas . . 

Victoria County, Texas .... 

Brookviile, Ind 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, III 

Southern Mich 

Listowel, Ont 

Parry Sound District, Ont. . . 
Ottawa, Ont. 
Lanesboro, Minn. . . 
White Earth .... 

Aweme, Man. 

No. of years 

Average date of 

Earliest date of 


spring arrival 

spring arrival 


May II 

May 6, 1902 


May II 

May 4, 1896 


May lo 

May 9, 1897 
May 20, 1900 
May 30, 1888 
May 24, 1 89 1 
June 15, 1888 
April 24, 1890 
May 3, 1887 
May 7, 1881 


May 15 

May 10, 1886 


May 19 

May 17, 1902 


May 17 1 

May 14, 1892 


May 17 

May 8, 1900 


May 22 

May 17, 1895 


May 24 

May 10, 1891 


May 18 


May 13, 1886 
May 18, 1885 
May 23, 1900 




An unusually early migrant was seen at Lanesboro, Minn., July i, 1888. 
The species mores south in July and August, and reaches Costa Rica the 
first of September. The last has been noted at Ottawa, Ont., August 28, 
1896; North River, Prince Edward Island, Septembers, 1890; Cleveland! 
Ohio, September 26, 1896; Renovo, Pa., September 26, 1899; Cambridge,' 
Mass., September 30; New Orleans, La., October 7, 1896. 


This is one of the common and characteristic Warblers of the western 
United States. It breeds from the foothills to the Pacific Ocean and 


1 70 

Bird- Lore 

winters from Lower California to northern Southern America. It appears 
in southern California the last of March ; southern Arizona earlj^ in April 
northern Colorado the middle of May; northern Montana the last of May 
at Beaverton, Oregon, May i8, 1885; Chelan, Wash., May 21, 1896 
Burrard Inlet, B. C, June 2, 1885; Chilliwack, B. C June 8, 1888. 

Photographed by Maunsell S. Crosby, Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

A Black and White Creeper Family 


With photographs from nature by the author 

ylMONG the large number of nests I found last spring, the most inter- 
jI~\^ esting of all was that of a Black and White Warbler. I was passing 
through the oak grove where her nest was finally built, one after- 
noon in late May, when I first saw her. She was carrying a straw from 
place to place, trying to find a good foundation on which to start her 

After about fifteen minutes' waiting, I made up my mind she had found 
the right place; for she had spent some time under the edge of a projecting 
ledge, picking up the leaves with her feet and bill, and had finally gone. 

A Black and White Creeper Family 


after laying her straw across the desired place. I did not wait longer that 
day, lest I drive her away by my presence. 

Not many afternoons passed before I visited her again, and found every- 
thing running smoothly and made the acquaintance of the male. He was 
a finely marked fellow; but he was always very shy and never gave me a 


chance to know him 
very well. I could 
generally find him 
running about the 
boughs of some near- 
by oaks, always sing- 
ing between every 
mouthful. The fe- 
male soon became 
accustomed to my 
frequent visits, and 
busied herself about 
her work in the usual 


The male did not take any active part in the building, although I saw 
him drop three or four straws on the nest. 

When she had begun to lay I visited her every day, lying nearer her each 
time as I watched her. By the fifth of June five eggs were laid. The first 
week after she was done laying she did not seem to be so careful about stay- 
ing on the nest, for twice I found her ofif feeding with the male. But 
toward the last of the incubation time one of the birds was constantly on 
the nest. I found the male sitting usually at about dusk, but I think the 
female sat on the eggs over night. She would not leave even if I touched 
her, nor would she move if the camera was set close beside her. 1 think I 
never heard an alarm note from her when I was there alone, but if I 
brought a friend she would grow very nervous and snap at my finger, drag- 


Bird- Lore 

ging her wings on my hand. At those times even the male would come 
swooping by our heads. 

The young birds were all born within three days of each other. They 
were little, naked, squirming fellows, all mouths and stomachs. The 
mother seemed very proud of them, for she would walk back and forth 
around the edge of the nest with her little head cocked on one side, that 
she might watch me and the young at the same time. She would never 
condescend to let me feed them. 

When they were a week and a half grown they filled the nest to the 
brim. She was very careful then not to leave them, and I think the father 
fed both her and the young birds those last two days. She would stand up, 
but would keep trotting around on their heads lest one get out, which she 
well knew would mean to have them all hopping about in the leaves before 
she was quite ready. 

At last, the day came when I found the nest empty, and located three of 
the young birds in the grass. Both mother and father must then have had 
a busv week. 

From nature by A. L. Princehorn 

J^otes from JPieHi and ^tuDj? 

A Recent Visit of the Evening Grosbeak 

Somewhere about February i, 1905, a 
flock of black and white birds flew over in 
rapid flight. They were rather high up, and 
I took them for White-winged Crossbills. 
Their course was undulating, with a suc- 
cession of rapid strokes and then a break, 
as so many of the Fringiliidae practice. I 
was struck with the somewhat bizarre effect 
of the black and white colors, even in the 
rapid flight of the flock past nie. This fact 
I recall on looking back. But I kept watch 
of the tamarack and other coniferous trees, 
even going out on snowshoes to visit them. 
But I found no Crossbills. During several 

seasons, in other years, these birds have been only a part of the flock. On these the yel 
very abundant here. On February 11, 1905, low of the forehead was also more decided 
directly in front of my house in the broad and clearly defined. These may have been 
street of Litchfield, I saw a number of black the older and more matured males, 
and white birds, running about in a nervous Although very tame on approach, the 

way in the middle of the road, and flying birds were as actively nervous as any which 
one over the other. I still thought them to I have ever seen. They ran about up and 
be the White - winged Crossbill, only I down and across the road, picking the seeds 
wondered at several things: from their snowbed ; and then, too, the rear 

First, they were picking up the undi- guard, as they were all moving forward. 

white on the different parts which it would 
be hard to locate unless one had the bird in 
his hand, and I am describing only the im- 
pressions made upon one standing at a dis- 
tance. But the feature that impressed me 
was the vividness of both the black and 
the white. 

A passing vehicle put up the birds again. 
This time they simply circled round and 
pitched again into the road behind the sleigh. 
Its two male occupants, I made note, were 
so blind to the rare wonders of bird life that 
they did not even look up at the beauties. 

Drawing quite near again, for the birds 
were very tame, I could discover that the 
strikingly black and white ones made up 

gested grains from the horse droppings in 
the middle of the road. This I had never 
seen the Crossbills do. Second, the birds 
looked too large. And, third, the black 
and white were so pronounced. When the 
flock took wing, the bizarre effect of their 
flight was so striking as to suggest the blur- 
ring of one's eyes in vertigo, or extreme 

The birds took to the elms bordering the 
street, but were very soon down in the road 
again. I reckoned that the flock numbered 
about thirty. In a moment I had the glass 
in hand, and then the revelation came that I 
was looking at the Evening Grosbeak. 

There was no pink tinge about the birds, 
but there was a very decided suggestion of 
yellow. This color was most prominent on 
the forehead and nape. The breast and 
throat were lightish. The wings, back and 
head were black, and the tail black and 
rather short than otherwise. There was the 

would take wing and fly over the heads of 
those in advance, in order to get better 
picking, just as I have often seen the Wild 
Pigeon do, forty-five years ago. 

On February 12 and 13 the birds were 
still hanging about the village, and I had a 
report of them on the 14th. 

I had hoped that they would do as their 
cousins the Pine Grosbeaks have often done, 
and stay about during the whole winter. A 
report only yesterday, February 21, from the 
neighboring village of Bantam, said they 
were there, feeding near the grist-mill. 
And this may have been true. But as all of 
our own bird-loving contingent, when they 
saw the Evening Grosbeak, at first thought 
they were looking at the Snow Bunting ; 
so some one, seeing the Snow Bunting, 
may have thought that he was having a 
sight of the Grosbeak which I had described 
in the local paper. 

The books report this Grosbeak as hav- 



Bird - Lore 

ing been recorded in New England only 
once, in the winter of 1889-90, when there 
were a number of records. 

But now, from his home in the far North- 
west, he has come again all the way to our 
North Atlantic states. Should he make 
himself seen again, Bird-Lore shall have 
further intelligence. — John Hutchins, 
Litchfield, Conn., February 22, 1905. 

A brood was raised in this nest in June, 1904. It was 
placed in a eottonwood tree twenty -five feet from tiie ground 
at the end of. a branch six to eight feet from the trunk. Pho- 
tographed by George P. Perry, Sterling, 111. 

Starving Crows 

Crows have had a hard time this past 
winter, more so than for several years. 
Deep snow which for weeks has covered 
their ordinary food supplies has driven the 
Crows to the verge of starvation. Many 
have actually succumbed, usually first going 
blind and then dying of starvation and cold 

combined. But for the improvidence of one 
farmer near here, who neglected to husk and 
take in his corn, many more Crows must 
have died. Several thousand found in this 
cornfield food for a week. About ten acres 
in extent, it had yielded a good crop. The 
Crows ate virtually all the corn, even tear- 
ing their way into the shocks to get at the 
ears inside. In and about this cornfield 
there were fifteen dead Crows. One 
had been eaten, but, as the others 
had not been touched, it argues that 
even when almost starved the Crow 
does not become a cannibal. Pos- 
sibly the one Crow had been the prey 
of a Hawk. — Samuel H. Barker, 
Glenside, Pa., February 26, 1905. 

Our ' Pioneer Tenants ' 

Having completed a new home dur- 
ing the latter part of autumn, 1902, 
and it then being too late to do any- 
thing in the way of inducing bird 
neighbors to settle around us, I be- 
gan forming plans of action for the 
coming year, and the following story 
narrates the arrival and sojourn of 
the first and only birds to remain on 
the new property the next summer, — 
hence my terming them ' pioneer 

With the earliest indications of re- 
turning spring, in accordance with 
my usual custom, I daily watched 
and waited for signs of the return of 
the more hardy members of the 
feathered fraternity, and during the 
latter part of February (1903) my vigil 
was rewarded by seeing and hear- 
ing Bluebirds on several occasions. 
Sometimes there would be two or 
three together; at other times a small 
flock would be observed. They gen- 
erally flew high, but the unmistakable sweet 
call-note came down to eager, listening ears. 
Throughout the month of March I saw 
three or four of them around our house and 
garden at different times. They would sit 
on the fence or a clothes-line pole in the 
yard, and often I saw them perched on the 
comb of the roof and even on the chimney. 

Notes From Field and Study 


Being extremely anxious to have them 
settle near by, and realizing that they were 
probably looking out for a location to be 
made use of later on, I lost no time in pre- 
paring and putting up a wooden box for 
their benefit. This box was fastened 
against the house near a second-story win- 
dow, and was not in position many days 
before a pair of Bluebirds began to inspec* 
it. We were quite interested in watching 
them; first one would go inside and remain 
for a time and come out, then the other in 
like manner would take a turn at interior 
inspection. They were all the while ' talk- 
ing ' to each other in animated tones, 
especially when some particularly good 
point was noted. They would fly around 
the box, look in at the door and sit on the 
top. This continued for a day or two, and 
the box seemed to meet with approval, as on 
the 4th day of April both birds began col- 
lecting and carrying nesting materials into 
it. They worked faithfully for about one 
week, the mother-bird sometimes remaining 
inside to adjust the materials brought by her 
mate. We were delighted veiy much and 
watched their proceedings with increasing 
interest. Misfortune was in store for the 
little workers, however, for on the 13th there 
came a severe wind- and rain-storm which 
raged with unabated fury for three days, 
and which literally tore their box to pieces 
and scattered it over an adjoining field. An 
' examination of the remains revealed the fact 
that the nest had been completed but fortu- 
nately no eggs were deposited. We found 
some consolation in this fact, as had there 
been young birds in the nest — even had the 
box remained firm in position — they would 
surely have perished, as did thousands of 
little broods of different species throughout 
the country. During the three days of 
storm we saw nothing of our birds, but on 
the fourth day (the i6th) when the ele- 
ments were getting back into normal con- 
dition, we observed them in the vicinity. 
They were evidently viewing the destruction 
of their intended home and considering what 
action to take next. We fully expected that, 
after this accident, they would depart to some 
other locality, but being determined to do 
all we could to help them, a new and much 

stronger box was hastily made with a neat 
little front door and cozy porch with a roof, 
and fastened up in the same place as 
occupiec* by the original one. We were 
delighted to note that both birds were 
sitting on the fence near by, watching the 
operation and conversing in pleasant tones 
— evidently of satisfaction with the prospect 
of a new home. 

I had no sooner completed my task and 
descended from the roof, when both birds 
flew straight to the new box, made a hasty 
examination, and within a half hour had 
commenced to rebuild with renewed courage 
and doubled energy. Another week's steady 
labor completed the second nest, and then 
for a considerable time (during the deposit- 
ing of eggs and incubation) we saw very lit- 
tle of them. This set of eggs hatched about 
the 15th of May; then we saw both birds 
constantly from early morning until dark, 
flying to and from the box. A few days 
gave the young sufficient voice to be plainly 
heard when we stood by the window above 
mentioned. This window afforded us an 
excellent opportunity of watching all that 
was going on, and the parent birds soon be- 
came accustomed to seeing us there — al- 
though so close — and would remain on their 
little porch and look at us without the 
slightest fear; in fact, we could almost de- 
tect the blinking of their bright little eyes. 
The young birds (four in number) first 
made their appearance on the porch of the 
box on May 30, and left it finally a few 
days afterwards. They did not desert us, 
however, but took up their abode in a 
row of poplars bordering our street, and 
here they remained for about two weeks, 
the mother feeding them and looking after 
their general welfare and education in the 
ways of the world. 

Dur'ng these two weeks we noticed an 
occurrence of special interest; namely, the 
careful guarding of the home box against 
the Sparrows by the male Bluebird. He 
would daily sit on his favorite clothes-line 
post or on the fence and keep a sharp watch 
over his summer home, and should a Spar- 
row dare to light on it, he would immedi- 
ately give chase and fight him off. We all 
looked upon this as an excellent example of 


Bird - Lore 

bird diplomacy and foresight, as, while the 
mother attended to the wants of the little 
family, the male remained in the rear of the 
house, keeping away all intruders, thereby 
holding their domicile for future use. The 
wise little bird well knew that if he did not 
keep this watch, the Sparrows would avail 
themselves of his temporary absence and 
take possession. Could human reasoning 
have done better? 

The young were now almost as large as 
the parents, and we daily saw the united 
family flitting around the house and yard, 
even alighting on the rails of our back 
porch. About the middle of June the old 
ones began repairs to the original nest and 
in the course of time began depositing the 
second set of eggs, and now a repetition of 
the above story began ; they were evasive 
for some time; later a second little brood 
was hatched, fed and left the home nest 
like their older brothers and sisters. They, 
too, remained in the poplars for a period of 
a week or ten days, when suddenly, the 
latter part of July, all of them — parents and 
eight little ones — entirely disappeared and 
we saw and heard no more of them until 
the first week in September, when we again 
heard their call and noticed a few among 
he trees at different times. They evidently 
came back to bid us adieu prior to their 
autumn journey southward. 

Thus ends the story of our ' Pioneer Ten- 
ants ' ; in return for a few hours' work and 
trouble, we were rewarded throughout the 
season with the presence of a pair of loving, 
confiding little birds, and had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing eight baby nestlings raised to 
maturity on our premises; a little encourage- 
ment will work wonders with the birds. — 
Berton Mercer, Lansdoivne, Pa. 

The English Sparrow as an Evicter 

Bird-Lore is certainly to be congrat- 
ulated for the quantity and quality of 
the contents of the January- February 
number. The articles are all interesting, 
and those relating to nest-boxes are especially 
so, and so timely that we may hope they will 
result in making it possible for many 
feathered infants to reach maturity that 

otherwise would have fallen prey to their 
natural enemies. 

The English Sparrow as the natural enemy 
of respectable birds is a good subject for 
discussion in your pages, as the experience 
of any of your readers who have really 
discouraged these pests would be of much 
interest and value to all of us not so suc- 
cessful. Your correspondent from St. Louis, 
Mo., gives (on page 17) a "simple and 
effective way of keeping the English 
Sparrow out of a Bluebird's box" that does 
not agree at all with a recent experience of 
my own. 

Last spring at my home in Cassopohs, 
Michigan, two or more pairs of Bluebirds 
were about the grounds for many days seek- 
ing a place to nest, and engagingin unequal 
warfare with the English Sparrows. I put 
up three or four nesting- boxes in the trees, 
and had the satisfaction of seeing the Blue- 
birds explore them almost as soon as I had 
left them; but, as soon as they made a move 
toward building nests, the Sparrows would 
get after them and drive them away, repeat- 
ing the attack every time the Bluebirds came 
back. I never saw more than a pair of 
Sparrows actually engage in the fight, but 
there were always several others present 
uttering their impudent yelps and plainly 
giving moral support that the poor Bluebirds 
could not withstand. Except in one case, 
the Sparrows did not nest in the boxes after 
they had won possession of them. 

I made one bird-house according to 
descriptions in the books and set it up on a 
pole about seven feet from the ground, or at 
just the height that your St. Louis corre- 
pondent says would be preferred by Blue- 
birds and unsatisfactory to English Sparrows. 
It was by accident that I did so, as the height 
was determined by the length of a scantling 
I found available for use as a pole, and not 
because I had ever heard that an English 
Sparrow would avoid a nesting-place so 
easily reached from the ground. Sparrows 
and Bluebirds at once began a struggle for 
its possession, the Sparrows winning of 
course, and they immediately began build- 
ing a nest in it. Each day for several days 
thereafter, I raked out of that box a mass of 
grass, leaves, twigs, etc. — almost enough to 

Notes From Field and Study 


feed a horse (if not very hungry — and 
each day the Sparrows renewed it. My 
standing on a chair, which brought my face 
to the level of the box, and destroying the 
nest daily did not discourage them in the 

Finally, for some reason, I did not destroy 
the nest for perhaps four or five days. 
When I did so I found in the long roll of 
debris that I pulled out of the hole two or 
three broken eggs and one egg intact, which I 
emptied and kept, in order that I ma\' know 
an English Sparrow's egg the next time I see 
one. After I had pulled everything, as I 
supposed, out of the box, the female bird 
darted out of the hole within six inches of 
my face and made off. She had made no 
attempt to escape before, and I had no 
suspicion that there was a bird inside. 
Within twenty minutes of that incident 
these birds (I suppose the same pair) had 
begun building another nest in the box. 

About this time, I think probablv the 
next day. the first alarm-clock trill of the 
season was uttered by the House Wren, and, 
I quickly located a pair of them in a plum 
tree only a few feet from the bird-house, as 
though they had flown straight to it from 
their winter resort in the South. It was 
then the tenth of May and the plum trees 
were in beautiful bloom, making a perfect 
stage setting for the song of birds. Real- 
izing that I could have no Bluebirds in my 
box, I concluded that I would have Wrens. 
Some bird-book or magazine that I had 
said that a hole one and one-eighth inches 
in diameter would admit Wrens and ex- 
clude English Sparrows. Accordingly, I 
made such a hole with much care in a thin 
piece of board and, after once more pulling 
out the Sparrows' nest, tacked it over the 
larger hole in the box About five minutes 
later I had the chagrin of seeing the cock 
Sparrow pass through it with seeming ease, 
and he looked like a large specimen of his 

I then made another hole just one inch in 
diameter in another strip of board and 
tacked that over the hole. This time I had 
the reward of the successful inventor, for I 
witnessed with joy that the violent efforts of 
the Sparrows to get into the box were 

thwarted by the reduced aperture. All this 
time the Wrens had remained near by and 
had on several occasions that I witnessed 
been inside the box, but the Sparrows 
always drove them away. They returned, 
however, with more persistence than the 
Bluebirds had shown, and from the man- 
ner in which they addressed the Sparrows, 
between sweet songs, it was evident that 
they intended to oust them if such a thing 
were possible 

Only a few minutes after the smaller hole 
had proved its ability to exclude the Spar- 
rows, the Wrens had apparently compre- 
hended the situation, and thev entered the 
box and threw out the few remnants of the 
nest that my hook had not extracted. 
These they brought to the hole and dropped 
to the ground, to the great annoyance of the 
Sparrows, outside and unable to prevent it. 
The Wrens came out frequently for a short 
brush with the enemy and always got the 
worst of it, but they easily got back in the 
box and continued pitching out the wreck- 
age of the nest. The hen Sparrow seemed 
to give up the game after a few hours, but 
the cock stajed there two or three days 
looking very hostile and unhappy and try- 
ing in vain to keep the Wrens from going 
in and out of the hole I drove him away 
many times, and the Wrens were, as a little 
girl would say, "just as mean as they could 
be" to him, but it was about three days 
before the completeness of his eviction fully 
dawned upon him Other Sparrows did not 
take as much interest in this case as they 
had shown in the earlier troubles with the 
Bluebirds, perhaps because the season was 
farther advanced and they were mostly 
engaged in rearing families; or, possibly, 
they knew by experience that it would 
please the Wrens too much to quarrel with 

When this malevolent bird exhibited such 
a vindictive spirit by standing guard over 
the box that he knew he could not use I 
decided that the best thing to do to him 
would be to shoot him. To that end I went 
to a hardware store in the village, where I 
had seen some 22 -caliber guns suitable for 
both shot and ball cartridges, and began 
buying one. In the course of the proceed- 


Bird - Lore 

ing I mentioned the use I had for it, when 
the clerk said that he had known other 
people to shoot English Sparrows, with the 
result that all other birds were effectually 
frightened away from the premises. I there- 
fore changed my mind, and the ^-oung man 
lost a chance to sell a gun One of your 
correspondents in the January- February 
number ( page 8 ) writes of keeping these 
Sparrows away from his bird-boxes by the 
use of a gun, but it would be interesting to 
hear further from him as to whether or not 
the shooting scared away any other birds. — 
F. M. Bennett, Lieut. Comdr. U. S. 
Na-cy . 

Protection for Bird Tenants 

If it is not too late, I should like to offer 
a suggestion as to the protection of bird- 
houses from cats. 

A strip of zinc tacked around the pole on 
which a placed will make it 
impossible for a cat to reach the nest. Of 
course, the strip must be wide enough so 
that a cat can not reach over it and far 
enough from the ground so that it cannot 
jump beyond it. If painted the same color as 
the pole it does not disfigure it in any way. 

I have often tacked such a strip around 
the trunk of a tree where a nest seemed in 
danger. A length of old stove-pipe some- 
times answers the same purpose and is prob- 
ably less objectionable from the bird's 
standpoint than unpainted zinc. Another 
device which has proved equally effective 
is simph' a bunch of thorn twigs tied around 
the trunk or branch of a tree. If properly 
placed, this forms a most effective barrier. — 
Marion Bole, West Barnet, Ft. 

An Unknown Bird Enemy 

At Forest Lawn, June 19, 1904, on the 
edge of the bluff over a colony of Bank 
Swallows, I discovered six freshly dug holes 
about three inches in diameter. Up through 
several of them were brought the contents 
of the nests, which consisted of some rather 
large white feathers and drj' grass, together 
with the wing and downy feathers of a 

June 25, there were twelve holes. On 
that date we moved into our cottage near 

the colony, bringing an Irish setter dog. 
After that no more holes were made in the 
bank. Did the dog drive the enemy away, 
and what was the enemy ? — Nettie Sel- 
LiNGER Pierce, Rochester, N. Y. 

Where the Blue Jays Find a Breakfast 

I have been greatly surprised to find 
where the Blue Jays hunt for a breakfast on 
cold winter mornings, when the snow lies 
deep in the woods. They fly to one and 
another of the old squirrels' nests made of 
leaves in the crotches of tall chestnut trees 
and scratch away in search of nuts. Fre- 
quently they find chestnuts buried in these 
leafy squirrel homes, and they open the 
nuts by hammering them against a limb 
with their bill. 

If it were not for the providence of a 
chance gray, winter would go hard with 
these birds. Living almost in the shadow 
of the woods, two pair of Jays have been 
feeding at my window-sill since the bliz- 
zard, and they greedily eat bread - crusts, 
pumpkin seeds, dry chestnuts, corn and 
suet. They come each day at the same 
hour and take turns at the feast. The 
scream of the Jay is the signal for all the 
smaller birds to finish their meal. — W. C. 
Knowles, Washington, Conn. 

A Shivering Chickadee 

Early one morning in January, 1904, I 
looked out to see if I could get a glimpse 
of any of the birds which pay daily visits 
to a birds' table that I keep well supplied 
with delicacies. As the registering ther- 
mometer indicated a temperature of 38^ 
degrees below zero the night before, and 
had by that time succeeded in getting up to 
29 degrees below, I felt rather anxious 
for our feathered friends, and little thought 
that I would see one such a frigid morning; 
but there sat a Chickadee on the vines of 
the veranda, its head under its wing, and 
with every feather on end. Every few 
seconds its little body would tremble all 
over, as does a dog's when thoroughly 
chilled. We have all seen shivering dogs 
and horses ; but who ever before saw a bird 
shiver? — W. S. Johnson, Boom-ille, N. T. 

ilooft jBtetne and jt^etoietos 

Narrative of a Trip to the Bahamas. 
By Glover M. Allen and Thomas 
Barbour. Cambridge, Mass. Decem- 
ber, 1904. Privately printed. 8vo. 10 
pages, illustrated. 

This is the descriptive itinerary of a trip 
chiefly in the islands of Great Bahama, the 
Abacos, and New Providence, made in July, 
1904. The authors propose to publish re- 
ports on their collections in various branches 
of natural history, later; Mr. Allen's, on 
the birds, has already appeared (' The 
Auk '). The reader will find here some 
very useful hints on outfit, as well as descrip- 
tions of the islands visited. 

Of the Flamingo on Abaco, it is said : 
"Formerly these birds nested in great 
flocks, but, owing to the great destruction 
of the eggs and young birds by the people 
of Marsh Harbor, a mere remnant now re- 
mains." Let us hope that the recently en- 
acted Bahaman law will at least prevent the 
wholesale, open destruction of Flamingos 
and their eggs which has heretofore pre- 
vailed.— F. M. C. 

Birds of THE Bahama Islands. By Joseph 
H. Riley. Special publication from 'The 
Bahama Islands,' bj' permission of the 
Geographical Society of Baltimore, 1905. 
8vo. Pages 347-368. 

Mr. Riley here discusses in a workmanlike 
manner the zoogeographical position of the 
Bahamas and the origin of their bird-life. 
He gives, also, a useful list of Bahaman 
birds, with the islands in the group on which 
each species occurs. We trust that the other 
papers in the volume, of which this forms a 
part, treat of their respective subjects as 
satisfactorily es does this one. — F. M. C. 

Bird Study. Home Nature-study Course, 
College of Agriculture, Cornell Univer- 
sity. New Series, Vol. I, No. 4, April, 
May, 1905. 16 pages. Anna Botsford 
COMSTOCK, Editor. 

We have had so many helps to bird study 
prepared by ornithologists who were not 
teachers that we should give an exception- 

ally cordial welcome to this leaflet written 
by a teacher of wide experience who has 
definitely in mind just what teachers as well 
as pupils require. 

Thecourse of study here outlined makes the 
best use of the most easily available material 
and seems admirably adapted to arouse and 
stimulate the child's interest in bird-life. 
We trust that this publication may have 
wide circulation, especially among teachers. 
We know of nothing of its kind which it 
should not replace. — F. M. C. 

The Ornithological Magazines 
The Auk. — In the April 'Auk' we find 
an unusual number of half-tones illustrat- 
ing several extremely interesting papers. 
E. S. Cameron, in ' Nesting of the Golden 
Eagle in Montana,' takes us into the eyrie 
of a pair of these birds, and as the weeks 
roll by we become well acquainted with the 
growing eaglets and their daily life. The 
life history of the American Brown Creeper 
is similarly portrayed by Dr. A. P. Chad- 
bourne and Messrs. Kennard and McKech- 
nie, all of whom have found this bird breed- 
ing sparingly in Massachusetts. A. H. 
Clark contributes a paper on ' Migration of 
Certain Shore Birds,' chiefly the Golden 
Plover, and is of the opinion that these 
birds find their way by breasting the trade- 
winds or winds prevailing at the time of 
their long migration from the Arctic circle 
to Patagonia. To assume that they guide 
themselves in this way when passing over 
the land, as well as over the open ocean, is 
perhaps pushing the theory to an extreme 
to which other believers in this idea have 
not ventured. ' Summer Birds in the Ba- 
hamas ' is a list containing the description 
of a new Hairy Woodpecker [Dryobates 
I'illosus piger) , as well as a great deal else 
that is of more interest to the general reader. 
Egg-collectors will be specially interested 
in ' Nesting Habits of Birds in Mississippi,' 
by C. R. Stockard. The birds seen in a 
single day in Jefferson Parish, La., are 



Bird- Lore 

enumerated by H. H. Kopman, and notes 
on Long Island, N. Y., are furnished by 
Dr. W. C. Braislin, while R. Deane con- 
tributes another letter by Audubon and 
some to him written by J. Abert. We note 
an annotated preliminary list of the birds 
of Delaware, by S. N. Rhoads and C. J. 
Pennock, and hope it may escape the fate 
of other ' preliminary ' lists that so rarely 
get beyond this stage. 

The general notes are varied and the re- 
views comprehensive, especially one of Part 
III of Ridgway's ' Birds of North and Mid- 
dle America.' We regret to see the depart- 
\, ment of 'Publications Received ' still rele- 
) gated to the back cover, for as a record of 
current literature it deserves a better fate, 
and those of us who fail to bind in covers 
will lose a valuable part of the 'Auk.' — 
J. D., Jr. 

The Condor. — Two numbers of Vol. 
VII of 'The Condor' have already ap- 
peared. The leading article of the January 
number is by Finley, on ' Photographing 
the Aerie of a Western Red-tail,' and is 
illustrated by a plate and six text figures. 
Under the title 'An Untenable Theory of 
Bird Migration,' Professor Cooke presents 
certain objections to Palmen's theory that 
"the annual migration route of a species 
indicates the way by which it originally 
immigrated into its present breeding home." 
But in the March number Dr. Stejneger 
takes exception to Professor Cooke's views 
and concludes that "Palmen's theory can- 
not be disposed of in this off-hand manner," 
An account of 'Old Fort Tejon,' one of 
the classic ornithological localities in Cali- 
fornia, is given by Grinnell, who adds a 
nominal list of 54 species of birds observed 
during a week's visit in July, 1904. The 
same trip seems to have included Mt. Pinos, 
not far distant, where a Sage Sparrow was 
collected which is described as a new sub- 
species under the name Amphispiza belli 
canescens. Some Bird Notes from the 
Central Sierras,' by Keyes; 'Notes from 
Flathead,' Mont., by Silloway, and 'Sum- 
mer Birds of the Papago Indian Reserva- 
tion,' Arizona, by Swarth, all contain 
records of value to the student of geographic 

distribution ; while the systematic zoologist 
will find much of interest in the extracts 
from Dr. Jordan's ' New Code of Nomen- 
clature.' A portrait of William Dutcher, 
president of the National Association of 
Audubon Societies, concludes the series of 
portraits of American ornithologists. 

The March number opens with 'A Note 
on, the Prairie Falcon' at Pyramid Lake, 
Nev., by Fuertes, illustrated by a repro- 
duction of a drawing by the author. An 
interesting bit of historical lore is con- 
tributed by Emerson, who tells of the 
discovery in the Cooper homestead at 
Haywards, Cal., of some 'Manuscript of 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte,' comprising the 
last three volumes of the 'American Orni- 
thology' published in 1825. -^ facsimile 
of a page of the manuscript on Steller's Jay 
and a portrait of Bonaparte add greatly to 
the interest of the paper. Under the title 
'Breeding Notes from New Mexico,' Mrs. 
Bailey mentions the birds found with young 
at high altitudes in the Rocky Mountains in 
July and early August in 1904, and records 
an instance of Golden Eagles repairing their 
nest in the Taos Mountains on August 10. 
Grinnell calls attention to the peculiar 
' Status of the Townsend Warbler in Cali- 
fornia.' The bird " occurs in California in 
two roles, as a regular winter visitant and 
as a rather late spring migrant." Two 
geographical races are apparently repre- 
sented, but, although a supposed new sub- 
species is thus indicated, the author 
considerately refrains from "burdening it 
with a name." An important feature of the 
current volume is a series of portraits of 
eminent European ornithologists, beginning 
with likenesses of two prominent English- 
men, Dr. P. L. Sclater and Mr. Howard 
Saunders; the veteran German, Dr. Jean 
Cabanis, and the well-known Austrian 
ornithologist. Count von Tschusi zu 
Schmidhoffen. A brief statement of the 
work of each author appears in the column 
of ' Editorial Notes.' The editor also makes 
the welcome announcement that the A. O. 
U. bill, which failed in 1901, has finally 
become a law in California after undergoing 
certain modifications which were found 
necessary to insure its passage. — T. S. P. 


A Bi-monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 



Vol. VII Published June 1. 1905 No. 3 


Price ill the United States, Canada and Mexico 
twenty cents a number, one dollar a year, post- 
age paid. 


Bird-Lore's Motto: 
M Bird in the Bush is IVorth Two in the Hand 

In the last number of Bird-Lore, Mr. 
Otto Widmann makes an eloquent plea for 
the selection of the Hummingbird as the 
national bird. While we freely admit the 
truth of all that Mr. Widmann so pleasingly 
says of this exquisite little creature, the fact 
that it is essentially lacking in the preemi- 
nently bird-like characteristic of song 
should, to our mind, unquestionably pre- 
vent its selection as the bird of America. 

Such a bird should, primarily, it seems to 
us, possess a song which, because of its 
musical quality or association with the 
singer's haunts or seasons, endears it to 
every nature lover; it should be a bird of 
wide distribution during the nesting season 
in order that it may be generally known 
not only as a song bird but as a home bird; 
it should be an abundant or, at least, a 
common bird; it should be typically Ameri- 
can, and, as Mr. Widmann says, it should 
possess suf^cient distinction of form and 
marking to be readily recognized in a figure. 

Among other species whose claims to the 
honorable position of national bird have 
been urged by writers to Bird-Lore are the 
Dove, the Song Sparrow and the Robin. 

The Dove conforms to most of the re- 
quirements set forth above ; indeed, it is 
perhaps our most generally distributed 
breeding bird, but its song is too mournful, 
it does not express that joyousness which we 
expect to hear from nature's minstrels. 

For a large part of our country there can 
be no doubt that the Robin more nearly 

fills the place of national bird than any 
other, but we have to remember that in the 
West the Robin is not the familiar, dooryard 
bird we in the East are accustomed to find it, 
while throughout the southern tier of states 
it is only a winter visitant, usually songless, 
and known chiefly as a basis for potpies. 

The Song Sparrow, dear as he is to every 
bird-lover, too closely resembles some other 
birds in form and markings to make an ac- 
ceptable subject for illustration in this con- 
nection, and, as we look through the list of 
North American birds, species after species 
is rejected for one or more reasons, until 
there is left, apparently, but one bird which 
fills all the conditions we have imposed, and 
that bird is — the Meadowlark. 

Including under this name all the forms of 
this species, we have a breeding range reach- 
ing from northern South America to Canada, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and through- 
out this vast area the bird is generally dis- 
tributed and sufficiency abundant to be well 
known. As a songster the Meadowlark needs 
no praise ; some writers, in fact, give the 
western form first place among our song- 
birds ; his Americanism is so far beyond 
dispute that he cannot claim even family 
relationship outside of this hemisphere ; 
while in form and coloration he is equally 
distinguished. Hail, then, to the Meadow- 
lark ! He has our vote. 

The season is at hand for the study of the 
home-life of birds, and we again earnestly 
ask assistance in securing notes on the nest- 
ing habits of Warblers for our proposed 
Book of the Warblers.' A series of defi- 
nite observations on one species will be far 
more welcome and valuable than casual 
notes on the occurrence of many. 

To our unbounded satisfaction the Ba- 
haman government has passed a law pro- 
tecting all song and insectivorous birds 
throughout the year, while for the Flamingo 
and some other species a close season has 
been established. 

During May and June the Editor expects 
to be in England, attending the International 
Ornithological Congress, and he begs the 
indulgence of correspondents during this 

Cl)e ^utiubon Societies 

" Vou cannot with a scalpel Jind the poet's soul. 
Nor yet the ■wild bird's song." 


Communications relating to the work of the Audubon and other Bird Protective Societies should 
be addressed to Mrs. Wright, at Fairfield, Conn. Reports, etc., designed for this department, should be 
sent at least one month prior to the date of publication. 

Notes and News 

The officers of the National Association 
alwaj's feel a sense of relief when the legis- 
lative season is finished ; this year the relief 
was greater from the fact that some vicious 
attempts to repeal excellent bird laws had to 
be combated. In order to give the members 
of the National Association, and also the 
other readers of Bird-Lore, some idea of 
the legislative work of the past season, the 
following resume is presented : 

Maine. — A distinct advance was made in 
the protection of Ducks ; for most of the 
species the close season now commences on 
the first day of December ; this does away 
with that worst of all practices, spring 
shooting. On the other hand, a retrograde 
step was taken by adding Mud-hens and 
Blue Herons to the wild birds that may be 
killed at any time. This amendment was 
instigated by and secured through the 
influence of a game commissioner who evi- 
dently was more interested in fish than in 
birds and was not willing to permit nature 
to preserve its own balance. It should be 
possible to protect local fish hatcheries with- 
out sacrificing these two species of birds in 
all parts of the state; furthermore, it is a 
question whether the Blue Heron is not a 
beneficial bird, inasmuch as it is known to 
eat many suckers, a fish that destroys the 
spawn and fry of game fish. 

It is also hard to understand why a bird 
like the Bittern — Mud-hen — should not be 

New York.— The fight to preserve the 
integrity of the anti-spring-shooting duck 
law in this state was carried on till the very 
last day of the legislative session. As 
reported in the last number of Bird-Lore, 
the opponents of the law early in the session 
introduced a repeal bill. After a very ex- 

haustive hearing before the Fish and Game 
Committees of both houses, the bill came 
up in the Assembly and was defeated by a 
narrow margin of twelve votes. 

Almost immediately after the defeat of 
the original bill, new bills were introduced 
in both houses ; in the lower House by 
Assemblyman Hubbs and in the Senate by 
Senator Burr. The later bills were more 
insidious and vicious than the first ope, 
inasmuch as they seemingly asked for a 
small concession; the bills proposed to 
make an open season of three days in the 
week from March i to April 15. The days 
selected were Thursday, Friday and Satur- 
day, at the very height of the migration 
period when the greatest number of Ducks 
would be in the Long Island waters. The 
plea made by the Duck shooters was, "Give 
us our spring shooting in this modified form ; 
we are not asking a great deal." By great 
activity and other methods of a questionable 
character this bill was passed in the As- 
sembly. Fortunately for the good name of 
the state and also for its game interests, the 
Senate Committee would not and did not 
approve of the bill, and it consequently 
failed of passage. The pressure brought to 
bear upon the Senate Committee was un- 
doubtedly very great, and they deserve the 
highest credit for the stand they took to 
maintain New York's present high standard 
of game laws. The National Association 
is especially indebted to Senators Arm- 
strong and White, who are bird protection- 
ists of the most advanced type and are 
earnest friends of the Audubon movement. 

The Audubon aigrette bill failed of pas- 
sage. It passed the Senate quite late in the 
session and was finall\' lost in the Committee 
on Rules, which has charge of all Assembly 
bills during the last ten days of the session. 
Had it become a law, its constitutionality 


The Audubon Societies 


would have been contested by the aigrette 
dealers. This question is now being tested; 
the attorney of our association is at the 
present time aiding the attorney-general of 
the state of New York in conducting an 
important suit to establish the right of the 
Commonwealth to prevent the sale of foreign 
game, in order to better protect domestic 

Section 141 of the New York law pro- 
hibits the sale of foreign game; if such 
game can be sold in the close season there 
is no way to prevent native game being sold 
at the same time under the name of foreign 
game. This is one of the most important 
questions now before the courts, inasmuch 
as it is absolutely necessary to determine 
whether a state has the right to prevent the 
sale within its borders of foreign game ; it 
is hoped that the courts will so construe. 

The Armstrong fire-arms bill became a 
law; this prevents aliens from carrying fire- 
arms in any public place, such as highways, 
parks, etc., and will do much to help pre- 
serve our song-birds. This is another in- 
stance where Senator Armstrong has shown 
his great interest in bird protection. 

CoNNECTiCLT.— A bill to permit fire 
lighting, i. e., shooting wild-fowl at night, 
was introduced. It was defeated through 
the efforts of the Audubon Society aided by 
sportsmen who were opposed to such a per- 
nicious and wasteful method of shooting. 
There is no surer wiy to drive wild-fowl 
away than by shooting at or disturbing 
them in the night-time. 

New Jersey. — The only changes in the 
bird laws during the present session were 
shortening the open season for wild-fowl 
fifteen days in the spring and prohibiting 
the use of batteries or water blinds more 
than one hundred feet from shore. The 
Audubon Society of this state should per- 
sistently agitate the subject of the abolition 
of spring shooting of wild-fowl and Snipe. 
It is wrong to kill these birds while on the 
northward migration, and an active move- 
ment should be commenced at once to carry 
out this needed improvement. One of the 
arguments of the Long Island gunners in 
their attempt to repeal the New York law 
was that New Jersey permitted Ducks to be 

killed in the spring, why should New York 
prohibit it? The reply of the Audubon 
representatives was, that because New Jersey 
is wrong is no reason why New York should 
be also. An attempt was made to make an 
open season on the Dove, but it was easily 

Rhode Island. — The legislature is still 
in session. Slight gains have been made in 
the laws: i. Sale of game-birds prohibited. 
2. Shooting of pheasants prohibited for five 
years. 3. Open seasons shortened fifteen 
days. No action has yet been taken on the 
ridiculous bounty law on Hawks and Owls. 
It is simply obstinacy on the part of legis- 
lators to retain this law, in the light of the 
general knowledge of the value of these 

Pennsylvania. — This state has just 
adopted a most excellent and advanced law 
in many respects. The one vital defect is 
that it permits wild-fowl shooting from April 
I to April 16. This is just at the height of 
the migration period and is therefore the 
ver}' worst time that could be selected. 
However, to offset this, sale has been 
stopped, and a bag limit is being enforced. 
In many other respects the law is a model 
in its restrictive character. The section 
referring to non-game birds is the A. O. U. 
model law. We are glad to be able to shade 
Pennsylvania on the model law map. 

Florida. — The legislature is now in 
session. A bill has been introduced to 
establish a Game Commission, which is a 
much-needed improvement, for at the present 
time there is no responsible head to see that 
the game and bird laws are enforced in this 
large state. Game protection is such a 
new idea in this commonwealth, and there is 
so much wild territory to be controlled, that 
a virile character, with a scientific training, 
should be at the head of the Commission, if 
one is established. It will not do to appoint 
a politician to do the work of an economist. 
Michigan. — The president visited the 
legislature of this state late in March and 
was given a joint hearing by the Game 
Committees of both houses. A codification 
bill had already been introduced by Senator 
Bland. This bill was discussed in detail, 
the Audubon representatives suggesting 

1 84 

Bird -Lore 

several improvements. At the close of 
the hearing your representatives were re- 
quested to prepare a bill including all the 
beneficial changes suggested. This was 
done, and the remodeled bill is now be- 
fore the legislature. If the bill becomes 
a law it will give the Audubon Society 
the right to appoint four special wardens 
with all the powers of the state game 

Minnesota. — A codification of the game 
laws made at the last session of the legisla- 
ture makes this statute probably the most 
radical and advanced of any in force in 
the United States. It shows the influence 
of the highest type of sportsmen and bird 
protectors on legislation. The wild-fowl 
close season commences December i. 

Oklahoma. — While no bird or game 
legislation of moment was secured, yet by 
the persistent energy of Mrs. H. T. Foster, 
of Tecumseh, a humane education law was 
passed. This certainly will have a very 
direct and beneficial influence on bird pro- 
tection. Under its provisions the public 
school teachers are compelled to instruct 
pupils in humane ideas and kindness to 
wild life, for one-half hour each week. A 
teacher cannot draw pay unless the above 
provision is carried out. This splendid law 
will prevent the spoliation of unnumbered 
nests and the abolition of boys' missiles, 
catapults, etc. 

Texas.— In the last issue of Bird-Lore 
a brief statement was given of the attempt 
to repeal the wild-fowl law by selfishly 
interested persons It is with great satis- 
faction that we are able to report that the 
attempt was a total failure, and the present 
law is safe from further attacks for two 
years Long before that time the Audubon 
Society, which did such wonderful work in 
the campaign just closed, will be thoroughly 
organized. When men of the aggressive 
character of Secretary Davis are at the head 
of a movement for the benefit of a state, in 
other words, good civics, they soon compel 
the moral and financial support of the 
public. Unselfish devotion to the good of 
the commonwealth always attracts attention 
and a following. 

California.— Owing to the great edu- 

cational work done by the Audubon people 
of this state and the continuous agitation 
for better bird protection that they have kept 
up for the past year, a new law has just 
been enacted. It contains so much of the 
model law, and is so far in advance of any- 
thing heretofore on the statute books relating 
to birds, tiiat the Audubon Society is cer- 
tainly to be congratulated on the result of 
its eff^orts. The spirit that moves the workers 
in this society will surely cause the new law 
to be enforced. 

In addition many marked improvements 
were made in the game sections, bag limits, 
shorter seasons, etc. In a recent publication 
of the Game Commission it is announced 
that " it is always unlawful to buy, sell, ofler 
for sale, barter or trade, at any time, any 
Quail, Dove, Pheasant, Grouse, Sage Hen, 
Snipe, Ibis, Plover, Rail, or any Deer meat 
or skins." It is unfortunate that Ducks and 
Geese are not included, but this will come in 
time. In California the county supervisors 
may pass special ordinances shortening the 
open seasons, but cannot make them longer 
than the state law. Secretary Way writes: 
" We have just won a great victory in Los 
Angeles county ; the open season for Doves 
is one day, besides we have secured shorter 
seasons for valley and mountain Quail and 
Deer. This result is a most gratifying one, 
for, two years ago, when I first took up the 
fight for the Doves, they did not seem to 
have a friend in the country. I shall now 
place this matter before the people of some 
other counties in the state, hoping to make 
gains there also. I believe this is the begin- 
ning of the end, and that public sentiment 
will compel the next legislature to strike the 
Dove from the game list." The State Chief 
Deputy Commissioner, C. A. Vogelsang, 
has promised to prevent the illegal traffic in 
the San Francisco markets in sea birds' eggs 
which has been heretofore carried on so 

To our unbounded satisfaction, the 
Bahaman government has passed a law pro- 
tecting all song and insectivorous birds 
throughout the year, while for the Flamingo 
and some other species a close season has 
been established. 

William Dutcher. 



Plwlo^riifiii by S. W. Lotlridge 


Order — Raptores 
Genus — St fix 

Family — Stri^idre 
Species — Strix pratincola 


The American Barn Owl 


President National Association of Audubon Societies 


, The upper parts are a yellowish buff overlaid with grayish, and more or less speckled 
with white; underparts varying from pure white to ochraceous buff, dotted with black, 
some individuals profusely and others with but few spots; wings and tail generally lightly 
barred with blackish; legs long and feathered almost to base of toes; feet dark; very large, 
white, heart-shaped facial disk, with narrow black and buff edging, this latter appearing 
as if burnt or charred; maroon-colored spot between eye and bill, sometimes completely 
surrounding the eye; bill yellow; eye black. The only other species of Owl with black 
eyes is the Barred Owl, which is a much larger and darker bird heavily barred on head, 
neck and breast. The two cannot be confused. 

Size. — Varies from 15 to 18 inches from end of bill to tip of tail; wings very long, 
extending beyond tail when folded. 

Nest. — None is built; the eggs are laid in a variety of situations, such as hollows in 
trees, holes in banks or cliffs, abandoned burrows, sides of wells, mining shafts, dovecots, 
barns, church steeples, etc. 

Eggs. — Pure white, from four to seven in a set, sometimes more. 

Distribution. — The northern limit of the breeding range is about latitude 41 degrees 
and extends westward to the Pacific coast. Occasionally a straggler may be found north 
of this range in favorable localities. 

The Barn Owl, Golden Owl, Church Owl, or, as it is frequently called, 
the Monkey -faced Owl, is almost cosmopolitan, being found in nearly all 
temperate and tropical climes throughout the globe. 

"Alone and warming his five wits, 
The white owl in the belfry sits." 

The Barn Owl should appeal to man because of two characteristics, — 
first, its singular and almost weird beauty, and, second, its very great eco- 
nomic value and almost total lack of harmful qualities. If it were a bird 
that was more frequently seen its beautiful soft plumage of white and gold 
would attract the lovers of color, but, being nocturnal in its habits, it is not 
often observed; indeed, even where it is common, when one is shot its 
strange appearance leads the local newspaper to publish a ridiculous account 
of a new and grotesque animal, part monkey and part Owl. Like all other 
Owls, it still bears the weight of the superstitions of over two thousand 
years; consequently the hand of man is yet against it. Shortly after sun- 
down this "pretty aerial wanderer of the night" commences flitting to and 
fro "on wing so soft and silent" that it is scarcely heard. During all its 
nightly wanderings it is working for mankind, its only enemy, while gather- 
ing food for itself and perhaps a hungry brood of callow young. Then it is 
that its peculiar screaming cry is heard, which no doubt is the basis of many 
of the strange and uncanny stories related of Owls. In Europe this species 


The American Barn Owl 187 

is the Owl of the ivy-covered tower and the ruined castle, and by its- 
nightly wailings and wanderings peoples the ruins with ghostly tenants. 

The late Major Bendire, in his 'Life Histories,' states: "The Barn Owl, 
strictly speaking, makes no nest. If occupying a natural cavity of a tree, the 
eggs are placed on the rubbish that may have accumulated at the bottom; 
if in a bank, they are laid on the bare ground and among the pellets of fur 
and small bones ejected by the parents. Frequently quite a lot of such 
material is found in their burrows, the eggs lying on and among the refuse. 
Incubation usually commences with the first egg laid, and lasts about three 
weeks. The eggs are almost invariably found in different stages of develop- 
ment, and downy young may be found in the same nest with fresh eggs^ 
Both sexes assist in incubation." One of the best methods of studying the 
food habits of Owls is to gather the pellets which they disgorge (Read 
E. L. No. 12). These consist of the undigested refuse of their food, hair, 
bones, feathers, etc. Sometimes enormous quantities of this refuse is found 
in the nesting place of the Barn Owl, one recorded instance being two or 
three cubic feet. When the tired farmer is buried deep in slumber and 
nature is repairing the waste of wearied muscles, this night-flying bird com- 
mences its beneficial work, which ceases only at the rising of the sun. All 
that has been written regarding the food of the Barn Owl shows it to be 
of inestimable value to agriculture. Mr. W. H. Hudson, of England, says 
of the Barn Owl: "It is surprising that at the present day any one should 
think it necessary to write a fresh plea for this bird — a bird that has been a 
favorite of our ornithologists for the last hundred years and whose praises- 
may be read in a hundred volumes on our library shelves ! The feathered 
cat has been minutely and lovingly described by all his biographers! 'He 
who destroys an Owl is an encourager of mice,' says one writer; and his 
value as a mouse-killer, and his beauty and singularity are points that are 
invariably dwelt upon." Major Bendire says: "Looked at from an economic 
standpoint, it would be difficult to point out a more useful bird than this 
Owl, and it deserves the fullest protection; but, as is too often the case^. 
man, who should be its best friend, is generally the worst enemy it has 
to contend with, and is ruthlessly destroyed by him, partly on account of 
its odd appearance and finely colored plumage, but oftener from the 
erroneous belief that it destroys the farmer's poultry." Dr. A. K. Fisher,, 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, the greatest living author- 
ity on the food of Hawks and Owls, presents in 'Science, N. S. Vol. III,. 
No. 69, pp. 623-624,' the following emphatic brief, showing the undeniable 
value of the Barn Owl. 

"In a work on 'The Hawks and Owls of the United States,' published 
in 1893, I recorded the results of the examination of 200 'pellets' or 
'rejects' of the Barn Owl taken from one of the towers of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D. C, June 28, 189O- Since that time; 

1 88 Bird -Lore 

475 more have been collected — 125, September 14, 1892, and 350, Janu- 
ary 8, 1896, making in all a total of 675 'pellets.' Thus abundant material 
has been carefully examined and found to contain the remains of 1,821 
mammals, birds and batrachians, as shown in the following table: 

1,119 Meadow Voles 33 Short-tailed Shrews i Vesper Sparrow 

4 Pine Voles 21 Small Short-tailed Shrews lo Song Sparrows 

452 House Mice i Star-nosed Mole 4 Swamp Sparrows 

134 Common Rats 1 Brown Bat i Swallow 

I White-footed Mouse 2 Sora Rails i Warbler 

20 Jumping Mice 4 Bobolinks 6 Marsh Wrens 

I Rabbit 3 Red-winged Blackbirds 2 Spring Frogs 

A glance at this list will demonstrate to any thoughtful person the 
immense value of this useful bird in keeping noxious rodents in check. 
Moreover, judging from the species in the list, it may be seen that the 
Barn Owl hunts almost exclusively in open country, such as cultivated 
fields, meadows and marsh lands, where such pests do most damage. In 
Germany, according to Dr. Bernard Altum (Journal f. Ornithologie, 1863, 
pp. 43 and 217), the Barn Owl feeds extensively on shrews. In 703 'pel- 
lets' a number only slightly greater than that which I examined, he found 
remains of 1,579 shrews, an average of over two to each 'pellet,' while our 
675 'pellets' contained only 54 shrews, an average of one skull to every 
12/^ pellets. On the other hand, our material contained the remains of 
2/^ mice to each 'pellet,' or 93 per cent of the whole mass. The birds, 
which constitute about 4^ per cent of the Owl's food, are in the main 
species of little economic importance." 

In the West the food of the Barn Owl consists very largely of pouched 
gophers, a specially destructive mannual, also ground squirrels, rabbits and 
insects. In the southern states large numbers of cotton rats are destroyed, 
a fact which should be appreciated by every planter. 

This little tract is presented with the hope that every farmer or fruit- 
grower who reads it will hereafter extend to the Barn Owl the protection 
it so richly deserves. 

For additional valuable information regarding the Barn Owl, read the following: 'Life 
Histories of North American Birds,' Bendire, Vol. I, pp. 325-328; 'Hawks and Owls 
of the United States,' Illustrated, Fisher, pp. 132-139, and 'Leaflet No. 19, Royal Society 
for the Protection of Birds, London, England.' 

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i6irli = lore 


Official Orqan of the Audubon Societies 

Vol. VII 

July — August, 1905 

No. 4 

'•:■ ,;*.*■'•■.;• 

^^^^^^B^"^ "!l.^id 

f^' ^^ 

iS** ''^^^'IHIi'"-'^ ^^ 



A Goldfinch Study 


Willi pliotonraphs from naturi' by llic author 

THIS past summer (1904), I have noticed a larj^er number of Gold- 
finches in this vicinity (Arcade, N. Y.) than I have observed for 
several years past. Uurinji; the latter part of July, I found quite a 
number of nests of this bird. Some of these nests were built hifj;h up in the 
larji;e maple shade trees in the village, while others that I found were 
built in small bushes about five feet from the ground, — quite a contrast in 
the two nesting sites. In both cases the nests were built in the crotch of 
a limb and very carefully concealed by overhanging leaves. The nests are 
very compact, being constructed of grasses, leaves, pieces of baik, etc., and 
are very cosily lined with platit-down. 

I go 

Bird - Lore 

I found three nests, as above described, all of which were situated 
within a radius of a few rods of each other, two of these nests containing 
four eggs each and the other one six eggs. 

The young in all three nests hatched about the seventh of August, and 
by August 25 they had all left their respective nests. It was at one of 
these nests that I obtained the photograph herewith reproduced, showing 

the mother- 
bird brooding 
the young. I 
had previously 
made several 
attempts t o 
obtain a pic- 
ture of her be- 
fore the young 
were hatched, 
but was un- 
successful, as 
she would not 

at that time re- 
turn to the nest so 
long as the cam- 
era was near. But 
after the young 
were hatched it ^ goldfinch family 

was an easy matter to photograph her at the nest, she even allowing me to 
stand by the camera while making exposures, and offering to leave only 
when I attempted to change plate-holders, and then returning at once. 

I was also desirous of obtaining a picture of the male bird at the nest> 
but was unsuccessful, as he at no time came near so long as the camera was 
in sight, although, after the camera was removed from near the nest, the 
male bird would readily return and feed his mate, bringing to her quantities 
of seeds, etc., and feeding them to her as if he were feeding young birds. 

Always when coming with his supply of provisions for his mate, he 

A Goldfinch Study 


uttered a peculiar twitter, and she would at once answer him with about the 
same notes; sometimes leaving the nest and flying to a near-by tree to be fed 
there, but usually she would remain on the nest and wait for him to bring 
the food to her. 

On August 18 I removed the six youngsters from the nest, and, after 
arranging them on a suitable perch, made the pictures as herewith 
reproduced, showing them alone, also with the old birds on the same perch. 
When I attempted to replace the young in the nest I found that to get 
them all back as they were at first was an impossibility, so I had to arrange 
them as well as possible, some of them being in the nest and others perched 
on the sides. A few days later 1 visited this nest, and found them none the 
worse for the disturbance 1 had caused them a few days previous. They 
were now ready to leave their home, and did so when I approached too 
near, all flying into the near-by bushes. 


From Youman's ' Pioneers of Science in America,' by permission of D. Appleton & Co. 

Some Early American Ornithologists 


BIRD -STUDY has been the hobby and pastime of many kinds of men. 
Some have made it their life-work and sacrificed everything to its 
pursuit, while others have reserved it for moments of relaxation from 
the cares of business. Some of our ornithologists have possessed an inborn 
love of nature but little or no education, while others have been scholars 
of broad learning and marked literary attainments. 

The first of the latter type to figure in the history of American orni- 
thology was Benjamin Smith Barton, a Philadelphian and an associate of 
William Bartram, though the difference in their ages placed the latter more 
in the light of a teacher than of a fellow student. 

Barton was born in 1766, at Lancaster, Pa., the son of Rev. 
Thomas Barton, from whom he inherited, in some degree at least, his love 
of nature. His mother came, also, of a scientific family, being the sister of 
the famous astronomer, David Rittenhouse. 

Young Barton was left an orphan at the age of fourteen, and removed to 
Philadelphia, to the home of his elder brother. He studied for a time at the 
College of Philadelphia, and then turned his attention to medicine, under 
the guidance of Dr. William Shippen, and later completed his education at 
Edinburgh and Gottingen. He returned home in 1789 and practised medi- 
cine in Philadelphia, where he was shortly elected to fill the recently cre- 
ated professorship of botany and natural history at the University of 
Pennsylvania, apparently the first of its kind in America. His reputation as 
a physician increased rapidly, and he was chosen professor of materia medica, 
at the university. His health, however, had never been good, and the con- 
stant application to his profession and his studies weakened his constitution 
to such an extent that he was compelled to take a sea voyage to France. 
This, however, proved of little benefit, and soon after his return, in the 
year 1815, his career came to an end. 

Such is an outline of the man's life as the world saw it, but there was 
another side that commands our interest. From early life Barton was a 
student; he seems to have read all the principal works on natural history, 
while he spent much time in original investigation. In 1785, as a mem- 
ber of the commission to survey the western boundary of Pennsylvania, he 
made personal acquaintance with the Indians, and their history and ways 
of living constituted a favorite subject for future study. Botany, however, 
was Barton's chief pursuit, and most of his contributions to natural history 
were in this field, while his name is fittingly perpetuated in that of one of 
our most delicate wild flowers, Bartonia virginica. 


194 Bird- Lore 

His knowledge of the birds of America was great, but he has left us 
only one notable publication on the subject, his ' Fragments of Natural 
History,' published in 1799. This work consists primarily of a table which 
he styles a ' Sketch of the Natural History Picture in the Neighborhood 
of Philadelphia.' In parallel columns are. given the arrivals of the ' Birds 
of Passage,' progress of vegetation and miscellaneous observations, from 
early spring until the close of the year 1791, — much such a table as the 
Naturalists' Calendar of Gilbert White. Here, we read of the blooming of 
the skunk cabbage and the arrival of the Red-winged Oriole (Blackbird), 
then the coming of the Pewee and the blooming of Draha verna, while the 
arrival of the Snipe is coincident with the first catch of shad in the 
Delaware River. 

So we may trace the progress of the seasons in this quaintly worded 
chronicle. Late in May "the fire-fly begins to illuminate the woods and 
meadows" and "the young Bluebirds first venture on their wings." By 
the fourth of July "most of our common birds have done rearing their 
young and the course of their melody begins to cease." In August "the 
Katy-did-it begins its cheerful chattering" and "the Blue Jays appear in 
great numbers, waiting for the nuts of the Beech, Chinquepin and Chest- 
nut." Then follow the Rice-bird, " Prib Chatterers" (Cedarbirds) in 
flocks, and the varied stream of fall migrants, duplicating in reverse order 
and direction the northward flow of springtime. 

After the table comes a list of the resident birds of Pennsylvania and 
comments upon various other species, quite as interesting reading as the 
table itself. Here the broad knowledge of the author is clearly seen. A 
creditable attempt at synonymy is offered, and the Indian names of the 
birds are given, while references and quotations from all sorts of works are 
liberally scattered through the pages. A plea for the protection of birds as 
insect destroyers and some suggestions for bird-boxes are worthy of the 
economic ornithologist of today. A final postscript states that "The 
preceding fragmentary rubbish is thrown upon the public with some 
degree of confidence merely because it regards a country the natural history 
of which has been so little attended to. Other instalments of the 'Frag- 
ments ' are promised, if leisure permits and the reception is favorable. But," 
adds the author, "I will not say when, for who does not know that the 
promises of authors are like the promises of lovers ? ' ' 

Whatever may have been the reception, the leisure seems not to have 
been forthcoming. Sometimes it is claimed that men like Barton attempt 
too much — try to cover too much ground. It may be so; but no one can 
scan the pages of this first local bird list without feeling thankful to its 
author; and we seem to read between the lines of his work indications of 
that struggle which must always be present in such men between devotion 
to their profession and surrender to the allurements of their hobby. 

The Olive-sided Flycatcher 

By GEO. W^. FISKE, Jr. 

With photographs from nature by the author 

IT was the last part of May, 1903, that I discovered a pair of the rare 
Olive -sided Flycatchers. They were in the top of a tall dead tree, 
and I should not have noticed them had not their strange notes 
attracted my attention. I searched for their nest, but could not find it. 

On May 27, 190+, I saw a pair of these Flycatchers in the same tree 
where I first found them. They preferred the tall trees near a stream for 
their hunting-ground, and both birds were always near until June 3, when 
one of them disappeared. 

I had not noticed any nest-building, but the sudden disappearance of one 
of the birds led me to suppose that one of them was caring for the eggs. 
I searched for the nest, but without success. 

One bird still remained, and I began to think that some one had shot 
the other, when, to my surprise, the other bird returned June 25. I 
concluded that the eggs had hatched and that both birds were caring for 
their young. 

They seemed quite anxious as I approached some small spruces near 



Bird - Lore 

where they were. I concealed myself, and one of the birds soon went to the 
nest, which was on the horizontal branch of a small spruce. On going up 
to the nest, I found that it contained one fresh egg instead of the young I 
expected to find. 

The tree was small (about six inches in diameter at the base), and, as 
the branches near the nest would not stand my weight, I doubled a piece of 


rope and tied it to the tree above the nest. With a piece of board this 
made a good swing to sit in while fixing the camera. I made a bracket for 
the camera by screwing two pieces of spruce to the trunk of the tree. The 
nest was out on the branch thirty inches. The birds would fly past my 
head, snapping their bills fiercely and making their strange cry. 

From the time the eggs were laid both birds got their food near the nest. 
I saw one of the birds catch a large dragon-fly, snap ofiE the wings and eat 
it. Most of their food consisted of smaller insects. '\ ;; : 

The male bird fed the female while she sat on the eggs. .'When either 
of the birds went to the nest, it would leave the top of some tree, drop 
almost to the ground under the nest, and approach it with a graceful 
upward curve. ■ v.-^ • 

The nest was composed of small spruce twigs and shaped' very much 
like the nest of the Green Heron. 

A Pasture Tragedy 


ALL the world was glad on the day that I found the Kingfisher's nest. 
^ The soft golden warmth of a fair summer's day lay over village and 
field and lured me forth. 

The previous day, the Wise Man, who knows the ways of beasts and 
birds, h^d allowed me to go with him on a field excursion in the capacity of 
Ignoramus. We had taken six fully feathered young Flickers, or High 
Holes — a misnomer in this case, for the hole was only six feet from the 
ground — and photographed them; we had released a full-fledged young 
Barn Swallow that was bound to his mud home by an entangling horse- 
hair, and had seen him fly forth " light as a swallow," and altogether I had 
begun to feel that a new world was opened to me. 

And now the Wise Man was away and the beautiful day called me out 
to explore. It has always been the way of explorers and discoverers to follow 
the course of a stream; what was I, that I should disregard their example^ 
So down through the wonderful five-acre daisy field — abomination of all 
the thrifty farmers thereabout — I went. " And still my heart with pleas- 
ure fills," as its flowers " flash upon that inward eye which is the bliss of 
solitude." Then up the hill and down the bank into the pasture through 
which curled a cheerful little stream, narrow enough in places so that I 
could step across it. A week later it was a raging flood a hundred 
yards wide. 

No sign of tragedy for beast or bird was there that day. The Thistle- 
bird winging his yellow zigzag across the field was gladness animate. A 
Red -winged Blackbird on a hickory tree looked like a note of joy, the "sol" 
of the musical scale to the people who "see" color in tone. 

As I approached, walking through the reeds and grasses of the lowland, 
this Red-wing became agitated from tip to tail as to his exterior, and, 
judging from his distressed cries and calls, evidently his mental state 
corresponded. This interested me but little, for in trustful childhood more 
than once I had been led by the oriflamme of his wings into bogs that sank 
beneath me, but never had I been able to find the light-woven nest of 
wiry twigs which he delights to build, a little above the ground, in some 
water-loving bush which grows in the midst of marshy ground. 

But this time as I, without the slightest purpose of interfering in his 
family affairs, advanced, he redoubled his demonstrations and was joined in 
them by a brown -streaked bird, very plain in appearance, his mate, as I 
afterward discovered. At last they both darted at me with wild cries. 
Then my dull intelligence took the hint. I was certainly near some treasure 
of theirs. It could not be their nest, for there was no place near at hand 
where it could be built. What then? 


198 Bird- Lore 

I experimented. When I walked in one direction, the cries of the birds 
became louder; when I walked in another, they were less agitated. I guided 
my actions accordingly, and soon the pair were hovering threateningly over 
my head and darting at me fiercely with open mouths, the little brown wife 
being the bolder of the two in the attack, and actually brushing my hat in 
her self 'forgetting courage. 

A chirp at my feet, and a little brown bunch rustled through the brown 
grass for two or three feet and — disappeared ! I knew that it was somewhere 
within a given area of two feet square, but I could not see it, and I actually 
found it first by the sense of touch ; moreover, when my hand rested upon it 
the bird neither stirred nor made a sound, — so early had he learned to 
almost completely obliterate himself in case of danger. The little one was 
an exact counterpart of the mother in coloring, — and she was an exact 
counterpart in coloring of the brown reeds and grasses. 

The excitement of the parent birds was really pitiable, so after a good 
look at my captive, which lay quiet in my hand with no sign of fear, except 
his hurried heartbeats and the glance of his scared wild eye, I let him go, 
and away he rustled out of sight. 

Then I sat me down on a knoll at a distance to see if there would be a 
family reunion. It took more than a half-hour to assure the parents that I 
meant no further mischief. Then came a pretty scene. The mother flew 
ofi down the stream a few rods and alighted, keeping a sharp eye on me. 
Then she began a series of calls, low, reassuring, with a rest now and then, 
apparently waiting for a reply. After a time a faint answer came from the 
grass up stream, and as the call and answer went on one could tell that 
the youngster was slowly making his way through the concealing grass to 
his mother. I was watching the pretty play with much interest, when my 
attention was attracted by the doings of some big birds on the further side 
of the stream. 

In one place on the slope stood a large tree, a chestnut, I think, and to 
the south of it the bank was more abrupt in its descent. Many Blue Jays 
had been flying about the tree with their usual busybody interest in every- 
body's affairs. I had failed to distinguish among them a pair of birds not far 
from the Blue Jays' size, and making, like them, a flash of blue through the 
air, but unlike them in the shortness of the tail, the whiteness of the under 
parts of the body, and the absence of the black collar. It was not until I 
saw one of them with something in his bill disappear into a hole in the 
upper part of the bank that I observed more closely and guessed that really 
for an ignoramus I had made a discovery. By and by out came my bird, 
perched himself on the fence, made some peculiar sounds (but that would 
never have led me to deny his jayhood, for a Jay has an unrivaled repertoire 
of sounds musical and otherwise), and then again flew away down stream. 

Once more I watched him come and go, and then I climbed the sandy 

A Pasture Tragedy 199 

bank. The hole was about as big around as a baseball. With the courage 
of ignorance I thrust my arm in as far as I could reach, and found nothing. 
(The Wise Man told me afterward that once he had done the same and had 
encountered a black snake). Then I tried to measure the length of the 
passage with a stick about three feet long, but the length of the passage 
was greater than that of the stick. After waiting in vain for some time for 
the return of the bird, I went home, wondering what the Wise Man 
would say when 1 told him that I had discovered a real live Kingfisher's 

That night and the next day it rained and rained, not in drops, but in 
torrents. On Monday afternoon (I had made my discovery on a Saturday) 
I offered to conduct the Wise Man, cheerful but doubting, to the scene of 
my discovery. 

Over the fields and through the drenched daisies we went, with no 
Redwing on the hickory tree to redeem the scene with a spot of brightness. 
We climbed the bank. I had noted my landmarks carefully, and conducted 
my companion directly to the spot. With blank surprise I saw that there 
was no hole in the bank. There was a careful and studied considerateness in 
the Wise Man's gentle smile. 

" The Kingfisher doesn't build in a bank of this kind," he said. " He 
builds in more solid soil and in a more precipitous bank." 

But," said I, "what did he go into the bank and carry things in for, 
if he hadn't a nest?" 

Again the Wise Man smiled indulgently. It was quite evident that 
there was no hole there, so how could there be a nest? 

The next day I insisted on looking once again for the nest with the 
magic habit of disappearing, and this time the Wise Man was interested in 
what he saw. In the place where I said the hole had been, digging had" 
been begun. Little headway had been made, but some animal or bird had 
been at work. 

" The earth has caved in," we both agreed. " The nest is buried," and 
the Wise Man took a stick and dug into the soft earth for some distance, 
but made no discoveries. 

Two days later he came in from an early morning stroll. "Come out 
after breakfast," he said; " there is something I want to show you." 

We went, and there was the Kingfisher's burrow once more dug back 
further than we could reach. No birds, however, were about. All my 
leisure time that day I watched, and the next morning we went again. 
There were still no birds, and at the opening of the burrow small black 
beetles crawled busily back and forth. 

We looked at each other. " It is a tragedy," I said. " Let us know 
what it is." 

It took more than a few strokes of the Wise Man's spade to lay bare 


Bird- Lore 

the secret, for the passage was about two feet below the surface and 
extended back quite five feet fro.n the opening. It ended in a rounded 
chamber a foot in diameter. 

A tragedy it had been. Four h'ttle drowned Kingfishers and one pure 
white egg, not far from the size of a pigeon's egg, la}' there. 

The Wise Man and the Ignoramus were both sorrowful. The pity of 
it! When the wild torrents had fallen that night the water had seeped 
through the sandy soil above the little home (if only the foolish birds had 
asked the Wise Man about its location!) and at last had come so fast and 
mercilessly that the poor mother had been driven out by the flood and her 
babies drowned by it and then entombed by the caving in of the roof of 
their house. 

But afterwards, who can tell what of love and remembrance was in 
those efforts to dig to the ruined home, and what of sorrow in its abandon- 
ment when its tragedy was discovered? 

Photographed by Maunseli S. Crosby, Rhinebeck, N. Y. 




JTor Ceacl)er0 anD ^tutient0 

The Migration of Warblers 


Compiled by Professor W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data 

in the Biological Survey 

With drawines by Louis Agassiz Fuertes and Bruce Horsfall 


A few Black-and-white Warblers winter in Southern Florida, so that 
the only way of knowing the beginnings of spring migration in that dis- 
trict is from the records of the striking of the birds at the lighthouses. 
Both at Alligator Reef and at Sombrero Key lighthouses in Southern 
Florida, this species begins to strike early in March. Thence, northward 
the progress is so slow — an average of twenty miles per day — that it is the 
middle of May before the species has reached the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 


Atlantic Coast — 

Northern Florida 

Atlanta, Ga. (near) 

Frogmore, Ga. (near) . . . 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Asheville, N. C. (near) 

French Creek, W. Va 

Washington, D. C 

Beaver, Pa 

Renovo, Pa 

Germantown, Pa. 

Englewood, N.J. . ... 

Southeastern New York 

Central Connecticut 

Eastern Massachusetts 

Providence, R.I. ... 

Southern New Hampshire .... 

Southern Maine 

Montreal, Can 

Quebec, Can 

St. John, N. B 

North River, Prince Edward Island 

Mississippi Valley — 

New Orleans, La 

Helena, Ark. 

Eubank, Ky. 

Brookville, Ind 

Waterloo, Ind 

Northern Ohio 

No. of years' 


















Average date of 
spring arrival 

March i6 
April 2 
April 3 
March 27 
April 3 
April 13 
April 13 
April 22 
April 28 
April 27 
April 26 
April 28 
April 28 
April 28 
May 5 
May I 
May 3 
May 9 
May 12 
May 14 
May 17 

March 27 
March 31 
April 4 

May 2 
April 30 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

March 13, 1885 
March 21, 1899 
March 29, 1887 
March 19, 1894 
March 28, 1891 
April 6, 1892 
April 8, 1888 
April 15, 1891 
April 20, 1899 
April 20, 1889 
April 23, 1902 
April 22, 1896 
April 20, 1896 
April 20, 1896 
May I, 1897 
April 27, 1899 
April 27, 1897 
May 3, 1890 
May ic, 1895 
May 9, 1895 
May 13, 1889 

March 24, 1902 
March 21, 1897 
April I, 1888 
April 3, 1882 
April 27, 1902 
April 25, 1885 



Bird -Lore 



No. of years' 

Average date of 

Earliest date of 


spring arrival 

spring arrival 

Mississippi Fa Hey — 

Petersburg, Mich 


April 28 

April 23, 1894 

Listowel, Ont 


May I 

April 26, 1896 

Parry Sound District, Ont. . . . 

6 ' 

May 4 

April 30, 1899 

Ottawa, Ont. 


May 7 

May 2, 1891 

Southeastern Iowa 


April 19 

Chicago, 111. 


April 30 

April 23, 1899 

Southern Wisconsin 


May 2 

April 28, 1897 

Lanesboro, Minn 


April 28 

April 23, 1888 

Elk River, Minn 


May 3 

May I, 1886 

Aweme, Manitoba 


May 8 

May 3, 1902 

Fort McMurry, Athabasca 

May 15, 1901 

Fort Chippewyan, Athabasca . . . . 

May 26, 1893 

Fort Simpson, Mackenzie 

May 28, i86i 

Fort Simpson, Mackenzie 

May 23, 1904 


The Black-and-white Warbler is one of the earliest fall migrants; it 
begins to appear in the Gulf states early in July, and reaches southern 
Florida by the middle of the month. South of the United States it has 
been noted in southern Mexico August 13, 1895; in Costa Rica August 
10, 1883, and in Colombia, South America, August 21. 1898. 


No of years' 

Average date of 

Latest date of last 


last one seen 

one seen 

North River, Prince Edward Island 


September 4 

September 5, 1887 

St. John, N.B 


September 12 

September 19, 1891 

Southern Maine 


September 19 

September 28, 1898 

Southeastern New York . . 


September 24 

October 15, 1891 

Central New Jersey 


September 24 

October 12, 1894 

Germantown, Pa. 


October i 

October 12, 1885 

Great Falls, Mont 

September 18, 1889 

Ottawa, Ont ... 


September 13 

September 20, 1887 

Southern Michigan 


September 13 

September 15, 1892 

Chicago, 111. 


September 22 

September 27, 1896 

Grinnell, Iowa 


September 22 

September 23, 1889 

Raleigh, N. C. 


October 8 

November 10, 1885 

New Orleans, La 

October 21, 1897 

Rodney, Miss. 

October 3, 1888 


No Black -poll Warbler seems to spend the winter north of South Amer- 
ica, while the southernmost breeding grounds are in northern New York 
and central Colorado. Therefore, no Black -poll Warbler can have a 
migration route less than twenty-five hundred miles in length, and the ex- 
tremes of the range — Alaska and Brazil — are twice that distance apart. 

The Migration of Warblers 


This species is correctly considered one of the latest migrating Warblers, 
and is seldom seen in the Gulf states before the last week in April. It 
makes the trip from Florida to Maine at twice the speed of the Black-and- 
white Warbler, and the individuals that nest in Alaska travel at an average 
speed of not less than seventy-five miles per day. 


Atlantic Coast — 
Atlanta, Ga. (near) 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Asheville, N. C. (near) 
Washington, D. C. . 
Germantown, Pa. . . 
Englewood, N. J. 
Southeastern New York 
Centra! Connecticut 
Providence, R. I. . . . 
Boston, Mass. 
Southern New Hampshire 
Lewiston, Me. . . 

Montreal, Can. 

Upper Hamilton River, Quebec 
Placentia, New Foundiand 

Mississippi Galley — 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Southern Ontario 
Ottawa, Ont. 
Southern Michigan . . 
Chicago, 111. . . 
Southern Wis. 
Keokuk, Iowa (near) 
Grinnell, Iowa (near) 
Lanesboro, Minn. . . 
Aweme, Man. 
Southeastern Nebraska 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Fort Chippewyan, Athabasca 
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie 
Kowak, Alaska 

No. of years' 









Average date of 

spring arrival 

April 25 
May 2 
May s 
May 6 
May 8 
May 14 
May 15 
May 15 
May 15 
May 17 
May 21 
May 23 



























Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

April 22, 1902 
April 28, 1894 
April 29, 1893 
May 4, 1890 
May 5, 1887 
May 6, 1900 
May 2, 1899 
May II, 1889 
May 12, 1900 
May 10, 1897 
May 16, 1892 
May 16, 1901 
May 28, 1892 
May 31 
June I, 1890 

April 28 
May 12, 
May 15, 
May II, 
May I, 
May 12, 
May 7, 
May 9, 
May 8, 
May 8, 
May 5, 
May 8, 
May 8, 
May 18, 
May 23, 
May 22 
June 2, I 



1 90 1 


Moving northward late in the spring, the Black-poll Warbler is almost 
equally late on its return. It starts south late in August and reaches north- 
ern South America the first week in October. 



Bird -Lore 

FALL MIGRATION, continued 

Ottawa, Ont 

Glen Ellyn, 111 

Providence, R. I 

Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y, 

Beaver, Pa 

Englewood, N.J. 
Washington, D. C. . . . 
Raleigh, N. C 

No. of years' 

Average date of first 
one seen 

September 3 
September 18 
September 17 
September 5 
September 5 

October 2 

Earliest date of first 
one seen 

August 9, 1893 
August 23, 1897 
September 16, 1900 
September 12, 1888 
August 27, 1891 
August 30, 1887 
September i, 1889 
September 24 

, N. Y. 

Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Glen Eliyn, 111. 


Beaver, Pa. 

Renovo, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J 

Washington, D. C- 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Southern Florida 

New Providence, Bahamas 

No. of years 

Average date of last 
one seen 

September 19 
September 17 
October 12 
October 19 
October 20 
October 6 

November 11 

Latest date of 
last one seen 


August 29, 1904 
September 27, iS 
September 25, li 
October 26, 1888 
October 21, 
October 27, 
October 8, i: 
October 20, i 
November 5, 
November 16, 
November 26, 


Photographed by Maunsell S. Crosby, Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

The Bird to the Bird -lover 


A FRIEND said to me the other day: " I don't see what you can find 
in the woods and fields to warrant spending so much time there." 
I said, "Birds!" but he seemed no more enlightened than before. 
What was there in a bird worth a long tramp simply to look at it? What, 
indeed ! 

I did not attempt to explain. One cannot put into words the pleasure 
he feels at meeting a new bird — new to him. We would gladly walk miles 
to make a new bird-friend, but we cannot explain why to every one's satis- 
faction. Yes, "All for the sake of seeing a little bird!" One must feel 
this enthusiasm to understand why. A bird is quite a different thing to a 
bird-lover than to a disinterested person. 

It is no doubt the happening of the unexpected that goes as far as any- 
thing toward keeping up our enthusiasm when afield. We are always see- 
ing something new, something we least expect to see. We may take the 
same walk every day in the year, yet how many times will it be the same? 
There is always something different. We always carry back with us some- 
thing new. 

I have often skirted a certain mill-pond in the early morning 1 have 
stood and watched the Chimney Swifts taking their morning dip, skim- 
ming low over the water and now then dipping one wing beneath the 
surface with a very audible "slap." Then a Kingfisher drops into the 
water from an overhanging branch, and, rising again, bears away his prize 
with a loud clatter. 

On another morning three Great Blue Herons waded slowly in the 
quiet water, making not the slightest ripple. Every little while one would 
dart his head beneath the surface, bring forth a fish and devour it. 

And again two male Red-winged Blackbirds, with angry notes, plunged 
into the water and fought, as it seemed, for life. Now one would be im- 
mersed, now the other, until at last they parted and one beat a hasty 
retreat. All this while, the cause of the fight, a brown female, clinging to 
a near-by cat's-tail stalk, scolded and watched the combat, at last to fly away 
with the victor. 

Still another trip was rewarded by a single White Heron, which stood 
and preened his feathers on a stone in the center of the pond. 

I have walked across the meadows in late May, just as the last gleam of 
the sunset was fading in the west and night had all but settled down, and 
have listened to the flight song of the Indigo Bunting as he, all but hidden 
by the darkness, mounted high into the air pouring forth his lisping song. 

On one of those early summer nights, ere the insect choruses which 
enliven the nights of July and August had gotten their instruments into 


2o8 Bird -Lore 

tune, I was sitting upon a rail fence overlooking a sea of daisies, when from 
the ground near me came a few twitters and then, full and clear, rang out 
the whistle of a Meadowlark. It sounded odd in the quiet of the night, 
but one was impressed with how much there really is in this bird's song. 

Again, at night, I heard a Song Sparrow sing — such a drowsy song. 
The bird seemed to be singing in his sleep, or rather to have roused up 
and gone off to sleep again without completing his song, as it ended 

Once I stood watching two White-throats and a Fox Sparrow scratch- 
ing among the brown leaves which a light March snow had failed to cover. 
Suddenly from above dropped a Sparrow-hawk. One of the White-throats 
barely escaped his talons. So engrossed was the Hawk in watching the 
Sparrows that he had failed to notice me until after his unsuccessful strike, 
and then, with apparent surprise, he made off in great haste. 

On another occasion I fell in with a family of young Screech Owls that 
had just abandoned their nest. There were the five baby Owls perched on 
a rather low limb, making the queerest of Owl music. The old birds were 
very much concerned as to the safety of the young, and at times darted 
uncomfortably near my face, snapping their bills in a menacing manner. 

These are but mere touches of wild life. Yet what they mean to the 
bird -lover! I felt a hundred times rep?id for my tramp. I would gladly 
have walked twice, yea, thrice as far to have seen them. 

Then there are spring days when the bird -lover's enthusiasm fairly over- 
flows, — days when the peach trees blush pink, when the cherry-trees are 
snow-white and the apple's buds are bursting; when the honey-bees are 
gathering honey in earnest and mourning cloak butterflies flit here and 
there; days when woodland hollows are yellow with dog-tooth violets and 
windflowers nod in moist thickets. Then it is that the bird-lover's cup is 
full. Then it is that the trees fairly swarm with Warblers and the woods 
ring with bird songs. We roam o'er the fields and through the woods. 
We add new birds to our lists. Our enthusiasm gets the better of us. 
We would shout aloud. 

I have watched a calf kink its tail and gallop around a pasture. I 
imagine the calf feels somewhat as I feel. He feels the joy of being alive. 

On these spring days the bird -lover is full of this feeling. He longs for 
some one to enjoy it with him. The birds have taught him the joy of living, 
but, when he speaks of it to some one outside the pale of nature -lovers, they 
laugh and say: "What is there in a bird?" 


In Bird -Lore for October it is proposed to devote especial attention 
to methods for feeding birds in winter. Will not our readers send us notes 
and photographs which could be used in this connection? 

jBtotee: from JTielD and ^tudp 

Incidents Among Birds 

Birds are not an exception in doing 
things out of the common. They have their 
freaks and fancies, which are interesting to 
the student and give additional pleasure to 
the observer. Habits are often changed by 
surroundings, but many strange things are 
done without apparently good reasons. For 
the past two seasons a Flicker has built her 
nest in an unused chimney on our country 
cottage. Surely it is a safe place. Very few 
enemies could reach the nest and it could 
be easily defended. 

This past season an English Sparrow oc- 
cupied one of three spaces in a bird-house 
of three apartments, while the other two 
were occupied by Wrens. Last year a 
Bluebird had the Sparrow's apartment, 
while the Wrens had the other two. All 
lived in peace and raised their families. 
Another Wren built in the spout of a 
discarded iron pump which had been left 
in an upright position in a corner of the 

A strange thing happened two years ago. 
Two Wrens built nests about sixty feet dis- 
tant from each other, — one in a stump, the 
other in the bird-house. One day I noticed 
a male flying first to one nest and then to 
the other with food. He was feeding the 
females. A friend and myself watched him, 
and we knew him to be the same bird, as in 
many instances he was not out of our sight. 
This continued for> many days. Our opinion 
was that one of the males had been killed 
and this one was doing double duty as a 
benefactor, for neither of us had ever heard 
of a polygamous Wren. 

In the fall of 1903, among a flock of 
English Sparrows on the court-house square 
at St. Paul, was one having a white back 
and wings and gray breast. It attracted the 
attention of many people. A policeman 
told me it had been among the flock for 
several weeks. I saw it several times at a 

distance of a few feet, and it was evidently 
an aibinistic English Sparrow. 

One day I discovered an old cocoon of 
the Cecropia moth. Opening it, I found a 
shelled peanut and a kernel of corn, both 
placed there, I have no doubt, by a Blue 
Jay. On a winter morning we found a 
mouse in a wire trap. Not wishing to kill 
it, I took it to the front lawn and let it out. 
It started to run, but had not gone ten feet 
before a Shrike pounced upon it and carried 
it away. The Shrike was probably in a 
tree overhead. On another occasion, hear- 
ing a noise in a tree I found a Robin dang- 
ling at the end of a string which had 
become wound around the foot. As I 
climbed the tree the Robin kept perfectly 
quiet, evidently knowing that help was 
intended. When released it flew to another 
tree and gave a song of thanks. 

Last summer I saw two Yellow War- 
blers feeding a young Cowbird as large as 
both the Warblers. They could not fill him 
up. His mouth was ever open, crying for 
more. Of course a Cowbird's egg had been 
laid in the Warbler's nest. Did these 
birds care for the intruder with a parent's 
love ? Were they ignorant of the imposi- 
tion ? They not only do this thing once, 
but they, and other birds, continually care 
for these youngsters. Can it be possible 
that they are deceived ? Who can say ? 

One day we were sitting upon the lawn 
and saw a red squirrel run up a tree in 
which there was a Kingbird's nest. The 
owner of the nest uttered an angry cry, and 
almost instantly a score of birds of different 
species flew to the tree and at the squirrel. 
He had business elsewhere immediately. 
Birds unite against a common enemy, al- 
though not always friendly to each other. 
I observed a Blue Jay one spring eating the 
eggs in another Blue Jay's nest. This was 
something new to me and very like canni- 
balism, I thought. 



Bird- Lore 

There is ever something happening among 
our birds which teaches that with all our 
watching and study we have yet much to 
learn before the subject can be exhausted. 
He who lives with outdoor nature finds 
many pleasures. Probably one of the 
greatest of these is to know the feathered 
tribes and to be able to call them by name. 
To him no walk is lonely, for he is con- 
stantly meeting friends. Writing of meet- 
ing friends, how often you see birds 
touching bills with a caress, as human 
beings do their lips! Dogs and horses often 
put their noses together, and dogs kiss each 
other with their tongues and salute their 
owners in the same manner. The human 
has apparently no patent on kissing. How- 
ever, I believe the love demonstrations of 
the birds to be the sweetest and most affec- 
tionate, of all creatures. — John W. Tay- 
lor, St. Paul, Minn. 

A Bluebird and His Mates 

In the early days of April, 1904, a pair 
of Bluebirds came to visit us. Almost any 
time during the hours of daylight we could 
find them among the trees or frequenting 
the garden at the rear of the house. Their 
bright presence and their clear, cheerful 
calls gladdened the time so much that we 
wished to keep them near. A wooden box 
with a small hole near the top was nailed 
to a tree ten feet from the ground, and almost 
immediately the birds chose it for their 
home. When the nest was completed we 
saw but little of the female, for her time was 
largely occupied with the five pale blue 
eggs hidden in the box. But the male was 
usually near by, and we were all glad 
together and waited with pleasant anticipa- 
tion the time when the young should 

One cool rainy evening the darkness came 
on early. All night the wind blew in gusts 
and moaned through the trees. Some time 
during the black hours the little Bluebird 
in the box must have heard a scratching 
of claws on the bark outside and a moment 
later beheld the gleam of two green eyes at 
the entrance hole. Be that as it may, in the 
morning there were many wet feathers scat- 

tered on the lawn, and beneath our window 
we found the wing-tips of a Bluebird. 

All day the bereaved male haunted the 
box and near-by trees, calling, calling con- 
tinually for his mate. However, the next 
morning we found that his anxious cries had 
turned to notes of good cheer and that an- 
other lady Bluebird was among the trees. 
At eleven o'clock I saw her enter the box. 
Then I knew that the lonesome bird had 
found another mate. The old eggs were re- 
moved from the nest and the box was swung 
by a wire two feet below a limb. Here the 
second wife took up her abode and later 
deposited four eggs. But again the cat 
climbed the tree and in some way reached 
the box, and a second time the male was 
without a companion. 

For eleven days he mourned and then the 
third time mated. This time his home was 
not invaded, for the cat never came to the 
lawn again, and a little later five young Blue- 
birds climbed out of the box and learned to 
{\y and gather food and sing just like other 
little birds the wide world over. — T. Gil- 
bert Pearson, Greensboro, N. C. 

Chimney Swift Notes 

The interesting article on the Chimney 
Swift in the last number of Bird- Lore 
reminds me of a note on the habits of this 
species that may be worth recording. 

It was at Keokuk, la., on the 6th of 
August, 1897, about 6.30 p. m., that I 
noticed an exceptional number of Swifts 
flying near the gable of our house. This 
gable was covered with shingles and in it 
was a small recessed porch; it faced south- 
west and was strongly lighted by the setting 
sun. I ascended to the porch for a nearer 
view. The birds were flying so near to me 
that I began to grab at them as they passed. 
I then noticed that some birds fluttered into 
the porch and lit there, and several of these 
I caught easily; many were also alighting 
on the wall of the house and resting a few 
moments before resuming their apparently 
meaningless flight. They were not circling 
as they so commonly do at sundown, but 
were flying irregularly near the gable of the 
building as if there was some attraction 

Notes From Field and Study 


there. No movement or noise that I could 
make seemed to disturb them, and I feel sure 
I could have caught many of those that 
rested on the shingles could I have reached 
them. I could see no insects nor attraction 
of any sort, nor any unusual condition 
except perhaps the strong yellow light from 
the sun that illuminated the brown shingles. 
I had to leave while the birds were still 
at it, and darkness had fallen before I 
returned. There was now no trace of the 
birds; none were roosting either on the 
porch or on the shingles. Swifts were com- 
mon around the house and a few bred in 
the chimneys, but conduct such as this I 
never witnessed before or since. — Wm. E. 
Praeger, Chicago. 

The Song of the Carolina Wren 

Mr. Keyser's experience with the Caro- 
lina Wren that sang the song of a Song- 
sparrow interested me much, because I 
twice heard a Carolina Wren imitate the 
Catbird's warning Zeay, Zeay! so perfectly 
that I fully expected to see the Catbird and 
was amazed to see the Wren instead. 
A young one repeated the cry. It was be- 
cause of a cat — a danger ahead. I heard 
the same warning a second time — perhaps 
from the same Wren! — Ella Mosby, 
Louise Home, Washington, D. C. 

Opposed to Compulsory Instruction 
on Birds 

5105 Morgan St., St. Louis. Mo.. March 15, 1905. 
Mr. F. M. CHAPMAN, Editor Bird-Lore. 

Dear Sir: I send you enclosed clipping 
from the 'St. Louis Republic,' which I 
think is too good to pass by unnoticed. 
Such wise words of one of our Missouri 
senators may deserve publication in Bird- 
Lore, as they show with what stuff the 
Audubon Society has to contend. 

Yours truly, O. Widmann. 
P. S. — I have just mailed Senator Fields 
Educational Leaflet No. i, and he will get 
one leaflet every day now for the next eleven 
or twelve days. 

By a Staff Correspondent. 

Jefferson City, Mo., March 14. — Walms- 
ley's bill compelling teachers to devote one 
hour a month to teaching the habits of birds 
and insects caused an hour's discussion in 
the Senate this afternoon. Senator Fields 
grew almost dramatic in his denunciation 

of the bill, and, on a roll call, the bill was 
killed, 16 to 16. 

' ' Do you think an educated school teacher 
can tell as much as a country boy about 
birds?" asked Fields. " Nobody outside of 
the Supreme Court knows what the fish and 
game laws are for. They have the last 
guess. Then you have here a bill making a 
poor girl school teacher try to tell something 
she or no one else knows anything about. 
Why, you would make the poor children 
listen to the reading of Government reports! 
Can you, Senators, be serious in this ?" 

The vote was then taken. 

Pine Warblers Eat Suet 

I was very much interested, last spring, 
in watching a pair of Pine Warblers eat 
suet which was put out for the Wood- 
peckers and Nuthatches. I have had it on 
the trees several years but never saw the 
Warblers eat it before. — Elizabeth A. S. 
Pennell, Brunsivick, Me. 

A Peculiar Snare 

While observing birds on State College 
campus this morning at 7:30 o'clock, a 
small bird fluttered down from the branches 
above to the grass about three yards away. 
Locating and easily identifying it as a 
Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta 'varia, 
I cautiously approached to within two feet 
of it and stooped to pick it up, when it 
fluttered away some two yards further. It 
was then easily captured and found to be in 
fine plumage and good health. Examining 
for the cause of its disabled condition, I 
found one of its own feathers, one and 
one - fourth inches long, attached from 
the primaries of one wing to the primaries 
of the other, binding the tips of the wings 
together. In this condition I exhibited it 
to eight or ten State College students and 
released it in their presence. It was unable 
to fly away, though it made strenuous 
efforts. It was captured a second time and 
the feather removed, the removal showing 
that it was firmly attached at either end. 
On being again released, it flew away. The 
feather is retained as a souvenir. — R. H. 
Dean, Lexington, Ky. 

ilooft J^etos and S^etJtetog 

Wild Wings, Adventures of a Camera 
Hunter Among the Larger Wild Birds 
of North America on Sea and Land. 
By Herbert Keightley Job. With an 
Introductory Letter by Theodore Roose- 
velt. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 8vo. 
xxviii-f 341 pages, 160 half-tones from 
photographs by the author. Price, $3 net. 

Since the publication, in 1902, of his 
'Among the Wild Fowl,' Mr. Job has 
been hunting birds with a camera from Bird 
Rock, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to the 
Florida Keys, and the most important re- 
sults of his work are given in this handsome 

Those who have been so fortunate as to 
hear Mr. Job describe his adventures afield 
will realize the charm of this book when we 
say that he has succeeded in transferring to 
the printed page the glowing enthusiasm 
which adds so much to the interest and 
attractiveness of his recountal of experiences 
while in pursuit of birds. 

Like many another writer, however, he 
confesses he "cannot adequately explain the 
fascination which the wild birds have" for 
him ; though every bird-lover will sympa- 
thize with his effort to explain the bird's 
power to awaken responses silent to every 
other stimulus. Armed now with more 
adequate photographic apparatus than that 
with which the illustrations for his earlier 
volume were made, Mr. Job has here done 
greater justice alike to his subject and to 
himself. But, even with the best available 
camera and lenses, bird photography is 
sufficiently difficult to tax the energy and 
patience of its most ardent disciples, and 
only the experienced can realize the effort 
required to obtain as many excellent illus- 
trations as are contained in this book. The 
description of the manner in which the 
splendid picture of the Laughing Gull ( page 
132) was secured recalls a comment made, 
a week or two later, to the reviewer, by the 
captain of the life-saving station where Mr. 
Job stayed while visiting the Gulls' haunts, 
who, apropos of the time required to secure 


this particular photograph, remarked, "that 
man Job is sure well named." 

No experience, however, is required to 
enable one to appreciate the hardships en- 
dured by Mr. Job in southern Florida, or 
the pluck needed to persevere in the face of 
the difficulties one encounters there. The 
tragic death of Warden Guy Bradley, who 
was Mr. Job's guide in this region, lends a 
melancholy interest to the chapters on Cape 
Sable and the Cuthberl Rookery, to which 
the warden took Mr. Job, and the latter's 
graphic account of the trip gives one a vivid 
impression of the hopelessly desolate country 
in which for several years Mr. Bradley 
labored so faithfully. — F. M. C. 

The Birds of Essex County, Massachu- 
setts. By Charles Wendell Town- 
send, M.D. Memoirs Nutt. Orn. Club, 
III, Cambridge, Mass., published by the 
Club, April, 1905. 4to, pp. 352, i half- 
tone, I map. 

This elaborate treatise contains not only 
an annotated list of Essex county birds, but 
also chapters on ' Topography and Faunal 
Areas,' 'Lighthouse Records,' 'Ornitholo- 
gical History of Essex County, 1616-1904,' 
and on the characteristic bird-life of the 
ocean, sand beaches, sand dunes, salt 
marshes, fresh marshes and ponds. Based 
on long-continued, minute and sympathetic 
observation, these introductory essays con- 
tain much that is of scientific importance 
and at the same time are most interest- 
ing reading. Few portions of America 
have an ornithological history extending 
over nearly 300 years, and Dr. Townsend 
has evidently availed himself of all desir- 
able sources of information concerning the 
bird-life of eastern Massachusetts when the 
Great Auk, Labrador Duck, Sandhill 
Crane and Swan were doubtless common 
there. We note that the Great Auk is said 
to have ranged southward only to Vir- 
ginia, the discovery of humeri in a shell- 
mound atOrmond, Florida, having evidently 
been overlooked. (See Bird-Lore, IV, 
1902, 97.) 

Book News and Review 


Summing up his own observations in 
Essex county during the past twenty-eight 
years, Dr. Townsend concludes that "shore 
birds have diminished in numbers" and 
that while Gulls and Terns decreased 
"during the early years of this period, they 
have noticeably increased during the last 
few years owing to the efforts of the Audu- 
bon Society." He adds that "the establish- 
ment of public reservations where shooting 
is forbidden is doing a great deal to bring 
back former conditions." 

The 'Annotated List,' occupying pages 
77-^21 of this 'Memoir,' treats of 319 in- 
digenous, and two introduced species. 

The annotations include a statement of 
the birds' manner of occurrence, migration 
and nesting dates for the migrant and 
breeding species, and much intimate bio- 
graphical matter, several pages often being 
devoted to a single species. Indeed, this 
portion of the work contains so much 
more information than is found in the 
stereotyped 'Annotated List' that it is 
deserving of a more dignified and com - 
prehensive title. 

We must refer to it not only for informa- 
tion concerning the local status of the birds 
of Essex county, but for much new and 
valuable material in relation to their habits. 
The appearance of birds in life is often de- 
scribed at length, a fact which should make 
this book particularly helpful to students 
of birds with a field-glass. 

It is, however, greatly to be regretted 
that the usefulness of this admirable work 
is largely impaired by a bulkiness which 
renders it cumbersome to handle and denies 
it a place on our book-shelves with other 
faunal lists. Quarto size for works of re- 
ference is now considered excusable only 
when illustrative matter demands a large 
page. It seems, therefore, most unfortunate 
that the Nuttall Club should adhere to 
this antiquated form for the exceptionally 
important material contained in its ' Me- 
moirs.' It is, we think, safe to say that, 
in practice, the reference value of Mr. 
Brewster's essay on migration, the first 
memoir of the Club, would have been 
doubled had it appeared as an octavo rather 
than a quarto.— F. M. C. 

The Decrease of Certain Birds, and 
Its Causes, With Suggestions For Bird 
Protection. By Edward Howe For- 
BUSH. Fifty-second Annual Report of 
the Massachusetts State Board of Agri- 
culture, pages 429-543. 

This is a capital paper. Prepared with 
due regard to the difficulties incident to the 
proper treatment of the subject, it possesses 
a value wanting, to say the least, in those 
surprisingly definite papers on bird destruc- 
tion wheie the percentage of decrease in the 
bird-life of a given region is stated with the 
exactness of a government census. 

Long-continued observation and detailed 
notes are the only satisfactory basis on 
which to make a comparison of the past and 
present bird-life of a given region. Mr. 
Forbush thoroughly understands this and, 
after weighing the evidence presented by some 
two hundred observers, concludes that proba- 
bly "the smaller birds in general have not 
decreased greatly in Massachusetts, as a 
whole, in recent years, except in and near 
centers of population." 

The expert testimony secured is presented 
in detail, and the status of the birds reported 
as diminishing is discussed at length. The 
causes of the decrease of birds are then 
considered ; man and his works being the 
artificial cause, while among the natural 
enemies of birds are included cats, foxes, 
Crows, red-squirrels, English Sparrows, 
certain Hawks, Blue Jays, weasels, minks 
and skunks. It is interesting to note that 
Mr. Forbush, like ail unprejudiced obser- 
vers of the cat in relation to birds, considers 
it the most destructive of all animals. We 
agree, too, with his estimate of the Crow's 
destructiveness to bird-life in the nest. 

Suggestions for the better protection of 
birds concludes this sane and valuable con- 
tribution to the literature of avian eco- 
nomics. It should be read by every one 
who ventures to have an opinion on the 
points at issue. — F. M. C. 

' Some Benefits the Farmer May Derive 
from Game Protection' (Dept. of Agri. 
Year-book for 1904, pages 509-520) is a 
practical discourse which should appeal ef- 
fectively to every one who appreciates a 
logical argument. 




A Bi-monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 



Vol. VII Published August 1. 1905 No. 4 


Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico 
twenty cents a number, one dollar a year, post- 
age paid. 


Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush is Worth Two in the Hand 

Feeding birds in winter not only yields 
exceptional opportunities for bird study and 
enables us to establish delightfully intimate 
relationships with our feathered guests, but 
is a practical means of bird protection 
within the reach of every one who is within 
the reach of birds. 

It is proposed, therefore, in the next issue 
of Bird-Lore to devote especial attention 
to this subject, and we shall be glad to re- 
ceive from our readers notes on proper kinds 
of foods and methods of feeding, with de- 
scriptions, drawings or photographs of feed- 
ing-tables, etc. The appearance of this 
matter in Bird-Lore for October will enable 
those who so desire to avail themselves of 
the suggestions then offered before the sea- 
son arrives when food is at a premium. 

The program of the Fourth International 
Ornithological Congress which was pub- 
lished in Bird-Lore for June (page i68) 
was carried out so successfully that every one 
in attendance formed a resolution to be 
present, circumstances permitting, at the 
Fifth Congress to be held in Germany, 
probably at Berlin, in 1910 

There were papers on systematic, on eco- 
nomic, and on bibliographic ornithology, 
museum methods, migration, oology, nest- 
ing habits, zoogeography, the significance 
of certain plumages, aviculture, bird pro- 
tection and legislation, all emphasizing the 
breadth of the ornithological field and the 
demand for many workers. 

A mere statement of the formal, scientific 

proceedings of a Congress of this kind is, 
however, far from expressing its far-reach- 
ing influence. One does not go to hear 
papers, they can be read when published, 
but to meet the men that write them ; and 
the bounteous hospitality which character- 
ized this Congress afforded the best oppor- 
tunities for the development of the social 

One of the essentials of an exhibition col- 
lection of birds is that it contains features 
which shall not only force the attention of 
the casual visitor but that their influence 
shall spread beyond the museum walls and 
induce the presence of those whose interest 
has been aroused by a description of them. 

In practice it has proved possible to 
achieve this result by appealing to the ob- 
jectless public through the universal love of 
the beautiful ; not merely by the display 
of cases of gaudily colored birds but by 
carefully planned and executed groups 
which, so far as is possible within museum 
walls, shall represent the bird in nature or, 
in other words, the living bird in its haunts. 
We refer here not only to groups with nat- 
ural accessories of branch, leaf and blossom, 
representing the nesting habits of a single 
species, but more particularly to those 
which aim to portray some more striking 
scene in bird-life where vast numbers of 
birds of one or more species together form 
what has become known as a bird colony. 

In reproducing such groups on a large 
scale, it is possible to use a painted back- 
ground so effectively that at a short distance 
one cannot readily distinguish where the 
group proper ends and the background be- 
gins. Not only is the beauty and realism 
of the group thereby greatly enhanced, but 
the introduction of birds into the painting 
make it possible to represent nature in a 
way which would be impracticable if only 
mounted birds were employed. 

In this issue of Bird-Lore we present 
photographs of two such groups which have 
recently been completed at the American 
Museum of Natural History. While these 
illustrations do scant justice to the originals, 
they will at least serve to convey an idea of 
the subjects they represent. 

Cije Audubon ^ociette0 

" Vou cannot with a scalpel find the poet's soul, 
Nor yet the wild bird's song." 


Communications relating to the work of the Audubon and other Bird Protective Societies should 
be addressed to Mrs. Wr.ght, at Fairfield, Conn. Reports, etc., designed for this department, should be 
sent at least one month prior to the date of publication. 

A Stronghold to be Conquered 

August, to the great majority, is probably 
the most enervating and irresponsible month 
of the entire year. It is high tide to the su- 
perficial eye, a time when everything on land 
and sea is at an apparent standstill, and we 
ourselves are supposed to follow Whit- 
man's invitation to " loaf and invite your 

There is also a lull in bird affairs, the 
nesting being over and the moulting begun. 
I have even thought at times that it would 
be a relief to bird protectionists if, for this 
one month, they might also moult to the 
extent of shedding their ever-present sense 
of responsibility. But, on the contrary, the 
last month of summer calls one and all to 
special effort, for with September comes the 
universal opening of the public school, and 
this, the greatest of all American institu- 
tions, is a stronghold to which the cause of 
protection of bird and beast must not only 
gain admission, but in a proper sense 
dominate and possess for its own before 
we may feel our position in any way 

In America, where it is the reflex influ- 
ence of the child upon the parent, more than 
the direct parental influence upon the child, 
that molds the point of view, it is necessary 
to meet the child face to face and win him in 
the early school years. How this may be 
done must be thought out now, in order to 
be ready for action at the opening of the 

Lack of tact on the part of well-meaning 
enthusiasts has done more to keep birds 
and flowers out of schools, than either 
politics or the so-called "stupidity" of 
schoolboards. Bird Study has a hard 
sound and suggests one more text-book to 

be bought, another task to be added as 
a link in the chain of studies already 
too heavy. Bird Life or Bird Play- 
according to the grade and age— has a far 
more alluring sound, and to be both attrac- 
tive and beneficial the matter should be 
introduced as one of the extra "topics of 
the day" rather than as a task of regular 
and fixed times. 

How can this be accomplished ? you ask. 
By skilfully influencing the supplement- 
ary reading of the schools within reach, and 
so creating a demand for nature books. 

Here in Connecticut we first cooperated 
with the intelligent and progressive State 
Board of Education by adding nature 
libraries, bought with the money of the 
Audubon Society, to the other sets of 
books that are circulated free in all school 
districts. Then we asked, what next? 

"Give us pictures and reading leaflets 
so arranged that they can be passed from 
hand to hand and desk to desk, that the 
children may feel the interest of personal 
possession," was the response. 

We sent out colored pictures of birds, 
flowers, shells, trees, etc., all mounted on 
stout cardboard. The success was instan- 
taneous — "More, give us more, the chil- 
dren learn to read the books through the in- 
terest created by the pictures. The charts, 
etc.,hungon the wall have their place, but the 
portfolios of pictures that may be handled 
and enjoyed at close range are much more 
practical, andean be kept in the teacher's 
desk to be taken out at odd moments." 

Let every officer of an Audubon Society 
while he or she is taking the August rest, 
swinging in a hammock or in a boat, camp- 
ing in the primeval forest or simply revel- 
ing in the comfort of a rural home, put on 
a thinking-cap of leaves and devise some 



Bird - Lore 

means of bringing birds and all nature into 
the schools, in their proper guise of recrea- 
tive uplifters. 

Begin by compiling some simple pamph- 
let that, starting with the autumnal migra- 
tion, shall follow the bird year to its spring 
climax Print it either by private subscrip- 
tion or state cooperation, and see that a copy 
is in the hand of every teacher in a public 
school by October first. Next procure as 
many sets of the colored pictures (twenty- 
five to a portfolio ) as you can beg or borrow 
the money to procure, and distribute them, 
while following in the wake of these must 
come the more serious ammunition of bom- 
bardment — the well -chosen libraries of 
nature books. 

Thus, having gained admittance to the 
stronghold, its complete conquest is a matter 
of tact combined with the knowledge of 
human nature, without v^hich no man or 
woman is qualified to be called a citizen of 
the world or aspire to teach or lead others. 
— M. O.W. 

Notes and News 
Apropos to Mrs. Wright's suggestion of 
a method to secure the interest of the chil- 
dren of the country, through the medium of 
the school and the teacher, it is a pleasure to 
mention the excellent work of the Glendora, 
California, public school, which is doing 
fine work both in bird study and protection. 
Recently the scholars gave an entertainment 
in the interest of birds, with a good pro- 
gram and an invitation so unique and sug- 
gestive that it is reproduced for the benefit 
of other juniors. 

fl LIDU130N SUt 1 E TY 


-- R T H M E--€^ 


The children of the Kenwood School, in 
Minneapolis, are even more ambitious than 
the young Californians, for they have com- 
menced the publication of a magazine, 
'Wood Folk.' Their Audubon Society 
was organized three years since. It speaks 
well of the continued interest, which must 
be largely fostered and guided by the teach- 
ers, that the children started an organ on 
the birthday of the great artist-naturalist, 
Audubon. Miss Marian Conner, editor, in 
her introductory editorial says: " The Au- 
dubon Society was started to encourage birds 
to make Kenwood their home. The oldest 
residents claim that birds in unusual num- 
bers and varieties have been observed in the 
summers since the organization of the so- 
ciety. Many of the children have established 
lunch-counters for the birds. The work of 
the Audubon Society has extended beyond 
the school to the home. Many of the 
mothers have taken up the study of birds 
with their children, and accompany them 
into the woods to study the habits of the 
feathered songsters." 'Wood Folk' is a 
magazine of sixteen pages of original mat- 
ter, all of which is bright and entertaining, 
and will serve as a model for other junior 
Audubons. Unfortunately, there are other 
sections where the Audubon spirit does not 
yet exist. One of the Humane officers in 
Kansas City recently found some boys who 
were trying to make little Indians of them- 
selves They had made a wigwam, and from 
this headquarters they sallied forth and shot 
all the birds they could find; these they 
hung from their belts in lieu of scalps and 
on returning to the wigwam would compare 
notes, the most successful hunter being the 
big chief. Perhaps the boys were not so 
much to blame as were their parents. Cer- 
tainly the children of the Glendora and 
Kenwood schools will make the better citi- 

Michigan. — Michigan adopted the model 
law June ar, under an "Act to revise and 
amend the laws for the protection of game 
and birds." It is an admirable statute in 
that it materialh^ shortens seasons, prevents 
sale and transportation, and permits spring 
shooting for only a few days. In addition, 
it permits the Audubon Society to name 

The Audubon Societies 


four of the deputy game-wardens, who have 
all the powers of the other game-wardens 
(see Bird-Lore, June, p. 184). 

Louisiana. — President Miller, of the Au- 
dubon Society, has just returned from a trip 
to the Breton Island Reservation and the 
other islands in charge of Wardens Sprinkle 
and Halford He says: "I wonder at the 
faithful performance of duty by these war- 
dens, owing to the unprecedented numbers 
of green flies which make life a misery. 
Even now, when they are disappearing, they 
are so bad that they drove me in ; I simply 
could not endure them.' Thanks to the good 
work of the wardens, the coast of Louisiana 
is richer by between 15,000 to 20,000 young 
Laughing Gulls, Royal, Wilson's and 
Cabot's Terns. It is a grand showing, an 
inspiring sight which I wish you could see. 
We have strong evidence and can undoubt- 
edly make a good case against the crew of 
the Schooner Alpha for egging. Am now 
working on it and shall push it to the 

Massachusetts.— Excellent work is being 
done by the State Fish and Game Commis- 
sion, the president of which is Dr G. W. 
Field, a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Massachusetts Audubon So- 
ciety. The dealers in aigrettes were notified 
as follows: " I beg to call your attention 
to our state laws covering the possession or 
wearing, for the purpose of dress or orna- 
ment, the body or feathers of insectivorous 
or wild birds, whether taken in this com- 
monwealth or elsewhere. This law covers 
the skins and feathers or parts thereof espe- 
cially of insectivorous birds. Herons (aig- 
rettes). Gulls, Terns, shore-birds, etc., 
'whenever and wherever taken.' We re- 
spectfully suggest that you can best observe 
the spirit and letter of the law bj' removing 
from sale all such feathers, and return them 
to the wholesalers; and, further, by refusing 
to buy or sell such feathers, aigrettes, etc. 
Certain dealers are claiming that the bird 
laws are not to be enforced, or that their 
particular goods, notably aigrettes, are man- 
ufactured, and therefore not prohibited by 
this law. In case such statements are made, 
the writer will be glad to give an opinion as 
to whether any particular feathers come 

within the scope of the law, and whether 
such are liable to seizure, and the possessor 
liable to arrest. 

" The state authorities entrusted with the 
protection of bird-life wish to secure results 
with the least possible hardship to the pub- 
lic and the ' trade," and therefore ask your 

" In any event, however, we beg to for- 
mally notify you that we shall use every legit- 
imate means to enforce the laws of the com- 
monwealth, and all persons having such 
birds and feathers in possession, whether as 
dealers or wearers, are liable to arrest." 

Oregon. — Messrs Bohlman and Finley, 
the well-known bird photographers and 
students, have been appointed special deputy 
game-wardens, and have gone to the exten- 
sive breeding grounds in the saline lakes in 
southeastern Oregon, where they will carry 
on their studies and photography, and at the 
same time protect the breedincr colonies of 
water-birds, as the representatives of the 
National Association. It is proposed to 
have them give an illustrated account of 
their summer's work at the annual meeting 
of the Association in October next. 

Delaware. — At the last session of the 
Delaware legislature, at the request of the 
Audubon Society, the penalty clause of the 
model law, passed in 1901, was amended as 
follows : "Any fines collected by any Justice 
of the Peace or Constable of this State, under 
the provisions of this Act, shall be forthwith 
paid by him to the Treasurer of the Dela- 
ware Audubon Society." This refers to the 
fines for the illegal killing of non-game 
birds, and should result in a fund of consid- 
erable size which will be used for bird pro- 
tection and educational purposes. It would 
be a wise move on the part of every state to 
follow the example of Delaware and North 
Carolina, which has a similar law. It is 
very certain that disinterested and public- 
spirited citizens like those engaged in Au- 
dubon work will administer a fund resulting 
from fines much more satisfactorily than will 
the ordinary game commission, which is 
generally composed of politicians, although 
there are some very marked exceptions to 
this rule, for instance, in Massachusetts and 
some other states. — W. D. 


Bird -Lore 


THE startling announcement was sent to the National Association on July 14, that 
Guy M. Bradley was shot and instantly killed while making an arrest at a rookery 
on Oyster Key, Florida, on July 8. Full particulars of this unfortunate affair 
have not been received, although it is known that his murderer has been captured and is 
now confined in the county jail at Key West. Senator Harris has been retained to repre- 
sent the National Association at the preliminary hearing in the case. The deceased acted 
as warden in Monroe County, a wild and thinly settled district, for over three years, hav- 
ing commenced his duties in May, 1902. During all this time he faithfully guarded his 
wards, the plume birds, traveling thousands of miles in the launch Audubon, in order 
to watch over them. He was originally recommended to the Association by Mr. Kirk Mon- 
roe, one of the Vice-Presidents of the Florida Audubon Society, who said that he was fear- 
less and brave and had an extensive knowledge of the country and the birds that lived there. 
A number of well-known ornithologists and members of the Association visited Bradley at 
different times, and always found him alert and faithful in the performance of his duty, and 
willing to undergo any hardship to protect the birds. He took a personal interest in his 
work and was genuinely proud when he could report an increase in numbers. He told the 
writer in February last that he felt while he was away from his home, cruising among the 
Keys, or patrolling the swamp, that his life was in his hands, for the plume-hunters, whose 
nefarious traffic he so seriously interfered with, had sworn to take his life. Even this 
knowledge did not deter him, and he proved faithful unto death. Personally he was gentle 
and somewhat retiring, was pure in thought and deed, deeply interested in and a supporter 
of the small Union Church near his home. A 3'oung wife is left to mourn his sudden and 
terrible death, and his two children, too young to realize their loss, will never know a 
father's care, 

A home broken up, children left fatherless, a woman widowed and sorrowing, a faith- 
ful and devoted warden, who was a young and sturdy man, cut off in a moment, for what ? 
That a few more plume birds might be secured to adorn heartless women's bonnets. Here- 
tofore the price has been the life of the birds, now is added human blood. Every great 
movement must have its martyrs, and Guy M. Bradley is the first martyr in the cause of 
bird protection. William Dutcher. 



»\ ^'-%^ 

A lovov kj 


Order — Coccyges Fan^ily — Cuculida 

Species — Americanus 


Genus — Coccyzus 

The Yellow-billed Cuckoo 


President National Association of Audubon Societies 


The general color above is a uniform olive-brown, in some lights showing considerable 
bronze reflection; there is quite a large area of bright reddish brown or cinnamon on the 
primaries ; under parts pure silky white, faintly tinged with gray on upper breast ; tail black 
below with six outside feathers showing large terminal white spots which are always visi- 
ble, also showing from above when the tail is spread; legs and feet dark; bill, upper 
mandible and tip of lower one black, the remainder of the lower one yellow. 

Size. — From tip of bill to end of tail varies in individuals from ii to 12.70 inches. 

The Black-billed Cuckoo (C. erythrophthalmus) is very similar to the Yellow-billed 
in appearance, but may always be readily distinguished by the color of the bill, which is 
entirely black. The cinnamon color on the primaries is lacking. It may also be quickly 
recognized by the color of the under part of the tail, which is gray instead of black and the 
terminal white spots are very small. 

The Mangrove Cuckoo { C. minor) is very similar to the Yellow-billed except that it 
lacks the cinnamon on the primaries and below is a uniform dark buff instead of white. 

Nest. — Is a very poorly constructed and frail affair, merely a platform of small sticks, 
with a little lining of moss, grass, pine needles, dry blossoms, etc. 

Eggs. — From two to five in number, of a pale greenish blue color. 

Distribution. — The Yellow-billed Cuckoo is found during the breeding season in all 
parts of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains and as far north as the upper border 
of the States. The Black-billed Cuckoo is found from about 35° north latitude to 47° in 
the East and as high as 51° in the West. West of the Rocky Mountains the California 
Cuckoo is found, ranging as far north as southern British Columbia. This Cuckoo is 
almost an exact counterpart of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, being slightly smaller in size. The 
Mangrove Cuckoo is a West Indian form, which is confined in the United States to the 
border of the Gulf between West Florida and Louisiana. 

The Cuckoo is probably one of the least known of North American 
birds. This is due to the fact that it is very retiring in its habits, secretive 
being the word that best describes its method of hiding in the thick foliage 
or shrubbery. It is a very striking bird in appearance, not so much on 
account of its color, which is severely plain, almost Quaker-like in its 
modesty, but on account of its shape, which is so narrow in proportion to 
the length that it always reminds the writer of an arrow. The flight of the 
Cuckoo is also a marked characteristic and when once known will serve as 
a sure means of identification. It has several notes, the most familiar one 
being Cow-cow, or, coo-coo. However, learning the notes of birds by actual 
observation is one of the essentials that the writer suggests to his readers. 
The series of leaflets now being issued in BiRD-LoRE is primarily to 
introduce the bird to the reader; an intimate acquaintance can follow only 
as the result of repeated visits. The Cuckoo is with us only during the 
breeding season, retiring southward in the autumn. Its nesting habits are 
of special interest and will well repay the student and bird-lover for the time 


The Yellow-billed Cuckoo 221 

devoted to their investigation. Special care must be taken, hovv^ever, as the 
Cuckoo is somewhat slow in making new acquaintances and sometimes 
resents the too earnest endeavor of the observer and abandons its home. 
The Cuckoo, or Cuckow of the Old World, is a singular contrast to its 
relative of the New World. The former bird is a parasite in the sense that 
it does not care for its own offspring, but entrusts them to the care of foster 
parents, the female bird secretly depositing her eggs in the nests of smaller 
birds. Our Cuckoo has better habits, inasmuch as it tries to care for its own 
young; indeed, the parents are very courageous in their defense, but the 
architecture of the Cuckoo is so very inferior that it is really remarkable 
that many young reach maturity. The nests are often so frail that the eggs 
can be seen through the bottom and are so small that they are strikingly out 
of proportion to the size of the incubating bird. The Cuckoo has quite a 
list of names, among them Rain Crow, Rain Dove, etc. It will be very 
interesting and important data to collect a list of the names the Cuckoos of 
North America bear. The writer would be glad to have all local names 
sent to him; these will be published in Bird-Lore. 

While the life history of the Cuckoo is of great interest to the teacher 
and student, and also to the lovers of the curious in nature, yet the relation 
that this family of birds bears to agriculture is by far the most important. 
The Cuckoo may be placed in the highest class of birds that do good to 
man and in the class that has the fewest objectionable characteristics. The 
Apple-tree Tent-caterpillar is one of the greatest and most destructive pests 
that the farmer has to contend with. Unless vigilance and care is taken the 
webs of this pest are soon in evidence. Even before the leaves open these 
caterpillars appear and feed on the buds, but the greatest damage is done to 
the fresh green foliage. Forth from its tent this destructive army marches 
each day to feed. It is like an army of men in light marching order, that 
carry few rations, but depend entirely on what they can secure by foraging. 
As the human army devastates a region leaving ruin in its train, so do these 
caterpillars leave ruin, and in many cases, death to the trees on which they 
feed. The writer in his early years spent many hours in clearing apple trees 
of this pest. Having a decided dislike to handling the repulsive crawlers, he 
devised a simple but effective method of destroying both the caterpillar and 
its tent home. A cheap gun, a pound of cheap powder, and a box of old- 
fashioned G. D. percussion caps, did the work. A thimbleful of powder in 
the gun, without a wad, held about 15 or 18 inches from the tent, was the 
means used. The explosion blew the caterpillars to pieces and the tent was 
burnt off the limb as clean as a prairie fire sweeps off dead grass. In those 
days little was known of the food habits of birds; now their relation to 
agriculture is very well defined and it has been found that the Cuckoo is 
one of the birds that considers the Tent -caterpillar a dainty tidbit. The 
food habits of the Cuckoo is a subject well worth the study of every 

222 Bird - Lore 

agriculturist and every lover of trees. A few quotations from well-known 
authorities will serve to confirm the above opinion. Mr. F. E. L. Beal, of 
the Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in his paper on the 
relation of Cuckoos to agriculture, " The Food of Cuckoos," says: 

"The insect food of Cuckoos consists of beetles, grasshoppers, cicadas, bugs, ants, 
wasps, flies, caterpillars and spiders, of which grasshoppers and caterpillars constitute more 
than three-fourths. In 129 stomachs examined, 2,771 caterpillars were found, or an average 
of 21 in each. In May and June, when tent caterpillars are defoliating fruit-treee, these 
insects constitute half of the Cuckoo's food. One stomach was so full that the bird had 
evidently devoured the whole tent colony, as there were several hundred in the stomach. 
This diet of hairy caterpillars has a curious effect on the birds' stomachs, the lining of 
which is often pierced by so many hairs as to be completely furred, the membrane itself 
being almost entirely concealed. It seems hardly possible to overestimate the value of the 
Cuckoo's work. All caterpillars are harmful, many of them are pests, and any of them 
are likely to become so. The common tent-caterpillar formerly fed on the wild cherry, but 
has now turned its attention principally to apple trees, sometimes completely defoliating 

Mr. E. H. Forbush, Ornithologist to the Massachusetts Board of 
Agriculture, says: 

" There is no question as to the value of Cuckoos; they feed mainly on the medium- 
sized and larger caterpillars. Whether there is any other family that is as useful in this 
respect as the Cuckoos, is still an open question." 

Major Bendire says: 

" Their benefit to the horticulturist is immense, and he has certainly no better friends 
among our birds." 

The Cuckoo is certainly entitled to the respect and the protection of 
man for the good it does, and the forester, the orchardist and, in fact, every- 
one who tills the soil should count himself specially favored if he can 
number among his bird guests some Cuckoos. 

Study Points for Teachers and Scholars 

Trace distribution of the Cuckoos on the map. Which species is found in your 
locality? When do they arrive in the spring, and depart in the fall ? What can you tell 
of their food from personal observation ? Describe nest, materials, location in tree, kind 
of tree, period of incubation, number and color of eggs. How long do young remain in 
nest? Local name. 

For additional valuable information read the following: "Life Histories of North 
American Birds," Bendire, 1895; "Bulletin No. 9, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture," Beal, 
1898; "Bulletin No. 5, Massachusetts Crop Report," Forbush, September, 1899; "Lit- 
tle Brothers of the Air," Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller. 


The American Sportsman's Library 

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Illustrated by Carl Rungius and others 



FIRST SERIES — In Preparation 


With many illustrations by Carl Rungius and others 




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By W. B. STEPHENS Illustrated from photographs and drawings 


By J PARMLY PARET and DR W. H MADDREN. Illustrated from photo- 
graphs with over fifty plates separately printed 


By HAMILTON BUSBEY With many illustrations 

SECOND SERIES — In Preparation 


By CHARLES E. TREVATHEN. Fully illustrated from photographs 






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AUNT JIMMY'S WILL, illustrated by FLORENCE SCOVEL SHINN. Cloth. $1.50. 

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A complete story by itself, but introducing characters already known to the read- 
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TOMMY -ANNE AND THE THREE HEARTS. illustrated by albert 

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"The child who reads will be charmed while he is instructed, and led on 
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THE DREAM FOX STORY BOOK, with so drawings by oliver herford. 

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A book about the wild flowers written from a new point of view-their relation to 
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COPIES OF BIRD -LORE WANTED.— We will eive 25 cents each for the first 50 
copies of Bird-Lore for February, 1905, Vol. VII, No. 1, returned to us at Harrisburg, 
Pa., in good condition. Mail copies flat under three cents postage. 


September -October, 1905 



Frontispiece — Tennessee, Orange-crowned and Nashville Warblers .... 

Bruce Horsfall . 

Our Avian Creditors. Illustrated Ernest Harold Baynes . 223 

The Winter Feeding of Birds. Illustrated Mabel Osgood IVright . 228 

How to Attract the Winter Birds About Our Homes. Illustrated . . 

Edward Howe Forbush . 233 


The Migration of Warblers. Twelfth Paper. Illustrated by Louis Agassiz Fuertes and 

Bruce Horsfall W. W. Cooke . 237 


From Dorchester, Mass., Gertrude A. Shattuck ; Lake George, N. Y., Ella F. Luther; 
Berlin, Conn., Harriet S. Smith; Sherman, Conn., Ruth Rogers; E-glewood, N. J., 
Lsabel McC. Lemnton ; Middle Haddam, Conn, (illustrated), Bert F. Case; Jackson- 
ville, III., Anne Wakeley Jackson ; Curran, III., ^dSze Vredenbnrg; Campbki.lsvillf., 
Kv., W M. Jackson; An Anti-Sparrow Food-Shelf. 


Howe's 'Fifty Common Birds of Vermont'; Lange"s State Biku Books; The Orni- 
thological Magazines. 




*** Manuscripts intended for publication, books, etc., for review and exchatjges should be 
sent to the Editor, at the American Museum of Natural History, jyytli Street and 8th Avenue, 
New York City, N } 

Subscribers whose subscription 
has expired w^ill find a renew^al 
blank enclosed in the present num- 
ber of the magazine. 

On receipt of your renew^al we 
will send you the Seton Shrike 
picture, which should be consid- 
ered due notification of the entry 
of your subscription. 

If you do not care to renew, will 
you please notify us. 

Reduced line cut of Ernest Thompson Seton's drawing of a Northern Shrike. Presented to every sub- 
scriber to Volume VII, 1905, of Bird-Lore. The original is nearly life-size. 

Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Harrisburg, Pa. 

1. Tennessee Warbler, Male. 3. Orange-crowned -Warqler, Male. 
■\ Tennessee Warbler, Female. 4. Orange-crowned Warbler, Female- 

5. Nashville Warbler, Male. 

6. Nashville Warbler, Female. 

i6irli = lore 


Official Organ of the Audubon Societies 

Vol. VII 

September — October, 1905 

No. 5 


MK^bu •••^ m 


Photographed by John Tresilian 

Our Avian Creditors 


IT is not an act of charity, this feeding of the birds at a season when 
even their great courage and energy often go unrewarded. Call it an 
act of friendship, and I will not dispute it ; but, after all, it is a duty — the 
partial payment of a debt, for the hundred joys which birds have added to 
our lives. But, though they were not our creditors, the fact that we call 
ourselves ' bird -lovers ' should be sufficient to insure our feeding them in 
winter; for it is not conceivable that we would allow those we love to run 
the risk of starving to death, if by any reasonable effort we could prevent 
it. In spite of all we may do, many birds will die this coming winter; but 


Bird -Lore 

the more of us there are who will give even a little thought and go to even 
a little trouble for their welfare, the fewer deaths there will be. 

The branch of bird -feeding work which is, perhaps, most in need of 
consideration at this time is that which provides for the great army of birds 
which do not come to our houses and gardens, but which struggle along as 
best they can in the woods and fields. It would seem to be the duty of 
the people of every town where deep snows prevail in winter to see that 
their own birds are provided for and not allowed to starve, and it has been 
my experience that decent people of all classes, are of just one mind 
on this subject. 

No doubt there are many plans for carrying on this work, but I will 
give the one which follows, because it has proved very successful in several 
different towns. 

First of all, two or three enthusiasts call a meeting of all those interested 
in the welfare of the wild birds. This is done through the local paper, if 
there is one, or through the school children, or both, or in any other way 
which may be convenient. A special effort is made to have this meeting 
attended by the Superintendent of Schools, and as many principals, teachers 
and ministers as possible: this tends to impress the school children and 

Photographed by Louise Bin Baynes 

Our Avian Creditors 


Others with the dignitj^ and importance of the work, and has a good general 
effect. The necessity for feeding the birds in winter is explained very care- 
fully, and then a 
few committees 
are appointed to 
arrange details. 
One committee 
devotes itself to ob- 
taining bird food, 
and money to buy 
food, and some- 
times calls to its 
assistance such 
available outsiders 
as may be able to 
help. There are 
very few people 
in any American 
town who will re- 
fuse to help such 
work along in one 
way or another, 
if the matter is 
brought directly to 
their attention in 
a proper way. It 
is usually possible 
to approach many 
people personally; 
but, in any case, 
the school children 
can be urged to 
explain the matter 
to their parents, 

and local papers are usually very willing to make known the needs of the 
committee. Local grocers, butchers and grain -dealers I have found to be 
among the most generous of contributors, and often, after they have given 
all they can afford, they will sell to bird -feeders a considerable quantity of 
food at cost. 

In the meantime, another committee is busy getting the names of 
volunteers to distribute the food in the woods and fields. Here let me say 
that this work is not, as a rule, suitable for small children, girls or women; 
it should be done by strong, healthy boys and such men as can afford or will 


Photographed by the author 


Bird- Lore 

make the time. It has been my experience that no better workers can be 
found than the boys from the High Schools and the upper grades of the 
grammar schools, especially if their work is superintended by some older 
person in whom they have confidence. But, whoever the workers are, they 
should have the support of the entire community; they are engaged in 
a public work. 

The coming of the first real snow-storm is considered the signal for 
the beginning of operations. The volunteers meet at some convenient 

^^^■^HHHBHk. x^ 



Photographed by A. J. Sears 

building, like the High School or Town Hall, where the bird food has 
previously been stored, and, if they are wise, they come dressed for work in 
the snow. The country in and about the town is divided into sections, 
and a squad of boys, two, three or four in number, is assigned to each 
section. Each squad is provided with snow- shovels, a bag or basket to carry 
the grain or bird seed, a quantity of fat meat or suet and plenty of string 
with which to tie it to the trunks and branches of trees. The suet or other 
fat, which is of course intended chiefly for the insectivorous birds, is displayed 
in conspicuous places on trees, and the string is wound round and round, so 
as to form a sort of net which prevents the food from falling to the ground. 

Our Avian Creditors 


even after it has grown beautifully smaller under the attacks of hungry birds. 
If there is danger of Crows, Jays or red squirrels carrying off more than 
their share, it is found to be a good plan to flatten out a lump of suet 
against a tree trunk, and then tack down over it a square foot of half-inch 
wire netting. This enables any bird to get a meal on the spot, but prevents 
the selfish fellows from cart- 
ing off the entire banquet at 

As a rule, the best places 
to distribute the grain, seed 
etc., are in the middle of 
wide, open fields and pas- 
tures, which can be seen for 
a considerable distance by 
birds flying over. On reach- 
ing such a spot, the mem- 
bers of a squad fall to with 
their shovels and clear a 
space from ten to twenty 
feet square, right down to 
the bare ground. If the food 
were thrown upon the snow, 
it would be liable to sink in 
at the first thaw, and then 
it would be quite out of the 
reach of most of the hungry 
ones. After scattering a 
quantity of grain, the squad 
moves on perhaps half a 
mile, and repeats the opera- 
tion, establishing as many 
feeding stations in its own 
section as possible during the 
time at its disposal. 

Of course it is somewhat 
disappointing to find that all 
the seed scattered during the afternoon is covered up by snow the next 
morning, as sometimes happens; but boys with the right stuff in them will 
not be discouraged, but will stand up to their work until it is finished. 
The High School boys of Stoneham, Mass., were among the first to show 
that no amount of snow could discourage bird-feeders who had the proper 
spirit, and, in the unusually severe winter of 1903 -1904, they got out with 
their snow -shovels and grain and suet after every storm, and established and 

Photographed by the author 


Bird - Lore 

maintained a chain of seventy-five feeding stations around their town, so 
that no intelligent bird could get either in or out w^ithout taking a meal, if 
he wanted one. 

The school children of Canton, Mass., have also done notable work in 
this field, and were greatly encouraged, last winter, by the offering of sundry 
prizes at the end of the season, for the best essays on bird-feeding written 
entirely from personal experience. Very appropriately, these prizes consisted 
of bird books by Chapman and Torrey, respectively. 

Space will not permit of my giving directions for attracting and feeding 
birds about private houses and gardens, and, besides, such directions will 
doubtless be given elsewhere in this number by those who have had much 
more experience than I have. 

The Winter Feeding of Birds 
A Suggestion for Cooperation 

By MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT. Fairfield, Conn. 

WHILE many individuals make a practice of feeding birds during the 
season when hunger and cold silently join the ranks of their 
enemies, any cooperative movement of community or Audubon 
Society toward this end is unusual. About the villages and even remoter 
farms, food is to be found scattered both by accident and design; but this 
avails nothing to the roving flocks of the shyer birds that find themselves 
snow-bound between settlements, in the regions 
of deserted forest camps or shore cottages. Also 
the usual supply of nuts, suet, cracked corn, or 
dog-bread offered by the well-supplied "lunch 
counter" of the hospitable, fails to reach the Rufied 
Grouse or Quail coveys of wood -lot and stubble- 
field. These two noble game-birds forage bravely 
for themselves during temperate seasons, but in 
severe and ice-bound winters, such as the last two, 
they have fallen in bands from the weakness of 
hunger that has prevented them from breaking out 
from under the snow crust that had formed above 
them when they had burrowed to find shelter from 
the biting wind. 

In dealing with the winter protection of birds, 

food and shelter must go hand in hand; for one 

A SELF-FEEDING FEEDER without the Other is very much like the prescrip- 

From Berlepsch's ' Der Gesamte ■ r • • i i • i i i 

vogeischutz' tion toT an appetizer given by a charitable doctor 

The Winter Feeding of Birds 


to a poor feeble man, who straight- 
way aslced for the meal tickets to 
accompan}' it. 

One of two things must be clone 
at the beginning — either a feeding 
place must be made close to suitable 
shelters, or, lacking this, the shelters 
themselves should be provided; and, 
to create a successful system of feed- 
ing, at once complete and effective, 
an organization should be formed in 
every village, either in connection 
with the local branch of the Audubon 
Society or other nature club, or as an 
independent Society for the Winter 
Protection of Birds. 

The work of this body should be 
under three separate heads — Home, 
School and Field, and, from its neces- 
sities and diversity, people of all ages 
and both sexes may be utilized. 

The Home branch, of course, is 
the simpler — the feeding about houses 
and barns ; but no little study and skill 
are required to note the needs of the 

Photozraphed by M. O. W. at Fairfield, Conn. 

different birds and place the food where they will 
take it naturally, and yet be out of the reach of 
marauding cats. For during the past dozen 
winters I have seen many little whims displayed 
by birds feeding in and about my apple trees, and 
though all the sparrow tribe feed naturally on the 
ground, the tree-feeding birds, like Nuthatches, 
Chickadees, Woodpeckers, Cross-bills, etc., relish 
their food better and are fully at ease only when 
they find it placed in a situation like to that of the 
grubs and insects they pick from twig and bark. 

To study and adapt the location to the in- 
dividual is, therefore, one duty of the Home 
branch, to outwit the English Sparrow is another, 
and I assure any one who has not tried that it is 
a process as full of mental discipline as an entire 
^.^K'1^9'^'''°'^''^L SECTION OF course of mathematics. I have waged a rather 


From Beriepschs Der Gesamte successful Warfare on this Spatrow, and the few 

V^ogelschutz ' 


Bird - Lore 

From Berlepsch's ' Der Gesamte Vogelschutz ' 

who venture about always scatter at the approach of a human being, whom 
they evidently associate with guns and such things. To my surprise, the 
past winter these Sparrows, that had 
scattered instantly when alone, re- 
mained and fed boldly whenever they 
could mix with a flock of Snowbirds, 
Juncos or Tree Sparrows. I believe 
they were conscious that these other 
birds shared a protection that was not 
accorded them. (If I belonged to the 
School of the Long Bow instead of the 
A. O. U. , I might write of a conversa- 
tion overheard between a benevolent 
Junco and a hungry English Sparrow, 
where the former offered the latter the 
protection of his company.) 

The school feeding branch is of great importance and the six or a dozen 
scattered schools of a country township may be made important feeding 
centers, if the cooperation of the teachers can be secured and system and 
regularity in the matter enforced. The following suggestion for such feed- 
ing, written for a little book 
compiled for the use of the rural 
Connecticut schools and re- 
cently issued by the State Board 
of Education may not be amiss 

"Every school has a flag- 
pole, and, while some are fast- 
ened to the building itself, many 
stand free and are planted in the 

"Around this pole a square or 
circular shelf about eight inches 
wide can be fastened, four feet 
from the ground, and edged 
with a strip of beading, barrel 
hoops, or the like. A dozen 
tenpenny nails should be driven 
on the outside edge at intervals, 
like the spokes to i. wheel, and 
the whole neatly painted to match 
the pole. 


From Berlepsch's ' Der Gesamte Vogelschutz ' "Then eachweek OnC chlld 

The Winter Feeding of Birds 


should be appointed as Bird Steward, his or her duties being to collect the 
scraps after the noon dinner hour and place them neatly on the counter, 
the crusts and crumbs on the shelf and the meat to be hung on the 

■'Nothing will come amiss — pine cones, beechnuts, the shells of hard- 
boiled eggs broken fine, apple cores, half-cleaned nuts; and, if the children 
will tell their parents of the counter, they will often put an extra scrap or 
so in the dinner-pail to help the feast. Or the fortunate children whose 
fathers keep the market, the grocery store, or the mill, may be able to ob- 
tain enough of the wastage to leave an extra supply on Friday, so that the 
pensioners need not go hungry 
over Sunday. 

"All the while the flag will 
wave gaily above little Citizen 
Bird, as under its protection he 
feeds upon his human brothers' 

The field-work section will 
give employment to both boys and 
men, two classes in the com- 
munity that the ordinary method 
of the Audubon societies often 
fails to interest, through lack of 
giving them physical labor to per- 
form. A man, preferably a sports- 
man either by nature or training, 
should plan these feeding stations 
according to his knowledge of 
the haunts of the birds, set up 
shelter of brush, of the hayrick 
type, constructed with due regard 
to protected ingress and egress — 
that, by the way, must in no wise cause suspicion as being a trap — or else 
stack corn-stalks on either side a snake or stone fence, and straightway 
appoint his feeding-wardens who will take the supplies of buckwheat, 
cracked corn, etc., to the station twice or thrice a week. By employing 
a number of boys, the task need not lie heavily, and a small compensation 
might be added as an incentive, if the district be a poor one; this, with 
the legitimate chance for an outing, will be motive enough, while those 
who really care for birds will most likely have valuable observations to report 
concerning the working of the scheme. 

Besides this, there are a dozen ways of having food distributed to these 
shelters — via the traveling peddlers, grocerymen, teamsters and rural mail- 



Photographed by F. M. C. at Englewood, N. J. 



carriers. Of course a small fund must be raised for the carrying on of so 
extensive an enterprise; but, when it is known that contributions of grain 
and mill-sweepings are even more acceptable than money, the material will 
not be lacking. 

Then, when one village tries this experiment and enthusiasm is kindled, 
another is sure to follow, like the leaf fire that runs along the fences in au- 
tumn until all the country-side seems bound by it. In due time, the 
whole country might be joined by a chain of stations for food and shelter, 
if each society for bird protection will not only lend a hand, but stretch 
it far out toward its remote neighbors. 


A disastrous proceeding for summer, as well as for winter birds 
Photographed by A. C. Dike, Bristol, Vt. 

How to Attract the Winter Birds About Our Homes 


TWENTY-NINE years ago I first began feeding the winter birds. 
In those days no observing boy who roamed the woods in winter 
could help seeing that Crows, Jays, and Chickadees came, at regular 
intervals, to feed upon the skinned bodies of foxes and other animals left 
hanging in the trees by hunters and trappers. So, in the winter of 1876-77, 
I provided a goodly feast for the birds within sight of my window. 

People have complained to me that the birds would not come to the 
food provided for them; but when this is the case the fault is usually their 
own, as they have not gone about feeding the birds in the right way. 
There is no obstacle to the plan of assembling native birds at feeding 
places in the city or country, if we except the Sparrow and the cat, both of 
which must be eliminated to insure signal success. If you wish to attract 
birds about the house next winter, do not wait until the ground is covered 
with snow, but begin now. Scatter a little hayseed, from the barn or stable 
floor, on the bare ground about the yard. Millet or any bird-seed will do 
as well. Hang some small pieces of suet or beef trimmings on the branches 
of the trees beyond the reach of dogs and cats. If, at first, these pieces 
are somewhat widely scattered at points radiating from the house as a center, 
your success should be assured. Your lures will keep best at this season if 
tied on the shady side of a tree trunk; but in winter they should be put on 
the sunny side. They should be well wound to limbs with twine or 
covered with cellar-wire netting so that neither Jays nor Crows can carry 
them off bodily. 

You are then ready to attract and hold birds that might otherwise pass 
on to the South. The birds may not find the food at once, but usually they 
will find it sooner or later. When the Chickadees have discovered it we 
are ready for the next move. 

Fresh meat or suet is now put up on the trees nearest the house, to 
accustom the birds to coming there. Gradually the more distant feeding 
stations are given up and all the fresh food is put out near the house. 

A block having a slot cut in it to receive the butt of a limb is next 
nailed up on a window-sill. A branch which will spread over most of the 
window is then thrust in the slot, so that it stands up in front of the win- 
dow like a little tree. Suet is the best food to be used here, as elsewhere, 
for, while it provides the birds with much of the heat and energy they need, 
they are still obliged to hunt constantly for insect food to secure their daily 
allowance of protein or muscle-forming material. In this quest they clear 
the hibernating insects and insects' eggs from our trees and shrubbery. 
Small pieces of suet are wound on the limb or its twigs so that no one piece 
is within a foot of any other. If this direction is observed there will be little 



Bird - Lore 

quarreling, and several birds may often be seen feeding at once at the 
same window. 

The Chickadees soon discover this new source of food supply, and they 
become so tame as to come and feed even when some one sits at the win- 
dow. Next come the Nuthatches and perhaps a little later the Wood- 
peckers appear. With the first heavy snow-storm, even the wary Blue Jay 
may venture to the window. 

By this time the seeds scattered about the yard have attracted Tree 
Sparrows, Juncos, Fox Sparrows, Quail, and the introduced Pheasant. 


Noticing how attractive to birds were the scratching sheds of the poultry, 
we provided a similar feeding shelter near the house by setting out a large 
dry-goods case minus the cover. This should be placed several rods north of 
the house at first and laid upon one side with the opening facing the house. 
Chaff, sand, seed, cracked grain, etc., may now be put in and, if there are 
cats about, it will be well to cover the opening with common poultry net- 
ting through which the smaller birds can readily pass, while the cat is kept 
out If Quail are about, the mesh must be large enough for them to pass 
through or the wire must be raised somewhat at the bottom. There must 
be no projecting points to tear, or otherwise injure, the birds. 

How to Attract the "Winter Birds About Our Homes 235 

When the birds have found the food in the box (an event which may 
be hastened by scattering some seed on the ground near by), it may be 
moved, daily, a little nearer the house, until you have your flock feeding 
under your windows. Quail may be thus tamed so that they will come and 
pick up grain that is thrown to them, while Pheasants will come close to 
the house. 

It is not easy to get these 
larger birds to feed, except 
on the ground, but for 
watching the smalller birds 
at close range we find the 
window-shelf the most sat- 
isfactory device we have 

The sill is, ordinarily, 
too small for a feeding-shelf. 
It lacks elbow-room and 
does not give the birds that 
sense of security that they 
feel when gathered in num- 
bers on a large shelf. 

The shelf may be made 
of any light boards, or the 
side of a large shoe box. It 
should be put up on the 
south side of the house. Its 
appearance, when in place, 
is shown in the cut, which 
is reproduced from a pho- 
tograph taken at a window 
of our house. The little 
tree was first added to the 
shelf one Christmas morn- 
ing and we have since called 
it the "birds' Christmas 

A large window awning that could be lowered during storms to keep ofif 
the rain or snow might be an improvement, but the tree is much prettier 
when laden with snow, although we shall often have to sweep the snow from 
the shelf during a storm, if it is not protected by an awning. 

This style of shelf soon becomes popular with the birds, and on snowy 
mornings we may find from six to a dozen birds at a time on shelf and tree. 
Where myrtle -berries or bay- berries grow, a few of the bushes may be set up 


236 Bird -Lore 

on the shelf, as they are seen in the illustration; for nearly all birds eat them 
and they may attract the Myrtle Warbler or some other bird, not ordinarily 
seen at the window. Chestnuts are the most attractive food for Jays, but 
corn or suet will call them. Crumbs from the tables, scraps, pieces of 
doughnuts or crullers, nuts, sunflower seeds, frozen milk and many other 
food materials may be utilized, if one wishes to experiment. Those who are 
not accustomed to approaching birds will be able to come quite near the 
window without disturbing them, if a lace sash -curtain is hung across it, for 
the birds will not be able to see through this distinctly. To me, the great 
advantage of feeding birds in this manner is that they may be studied, 
sketched or photographed at close range and in comfort, during the coldest 
winter weather. We may learn much, in this way, about the food preferences 
of birds, the amount of food they require, their manner of feeding and 
drinking, their hours of rising and retiring. 

Other interesting habits will be observed. Someone not long since 
asked in Bird-Lore the question, ''Did any one ever see a bird shiver?" 

Probably all who have maintained a window-shelf for feeding birds in 
this latitude have seen this. Fox-sparrows, Song-sparrows, Juncos and 
Chickadees tremble with cold early on severe mornings. 

With the thermometer at 28 degrees below zero, they were obliged to 
hold each foot alternately up under the feathers for warmth. In such 
weather, and during cold storms, some birds succumb, and their little bodies 
may be picked up, now and then, in the snow. It is of the greatest impor- 
tance, then, when once we begin feeding birds, to keep a constant supply 
available for them throughout the winter, that they may have it to rely on 
in the most inclement weather; for it is then that they are most in need of 
it. We also continue feeding them for the summer and so maintain a larger 
number of birds about the house than would otherwise live there, — but that 
is another story. 

This method of attracting and domesticating the birds has proved so 
successful with us that they will, in some cases, feed from the hand. It has 
become necessary to keep doors and windows closed at our house if we 
wish to keep the birds out of our rooms. Chickadees build their nests in 
spring, and rear their young in boxes put up for them at door and window. 

The birds now furnish entertainment and amusement to the household 
throughout the year. Any family in this latitude may have a similar experi- 
ence, though the number of birds attracted may be less in bleak localities. 

JTor Ceacl)er0 and ^tutient0 

The Migration of Warblers 


Compiled by Professor W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data 
in the Biological Survey 

With drawinss by LOUIS Agassiz Fuertes and Bruce Horsfall 


Wintering principallv in Mexico, the Nashville Warblers of New Eng- 
land seem to reach their summer home by a migration route that shuns the 
lovvlands of the southeastern United States. The species is almost unknown 
in this district south of Virginia. 



So. of years' 

Average date of 

Earliest date of 


spring arrival 

spring arrival 

Atlantic Coast — 

French Creek, W. Va 


April 28 

April 23, 1891 

Washington, D. C 


May 5 

May 4, 1887 

Beaver, Pa. .... 


May I 

April 25, 1891 

Southeastern New York . . 


Mav 3 

April 30, 1900 

Portland, Conn. 


May 7 

May 5. 1894 

Boston, Mass. 


May 5 

May I, 1896 

Randolph, Vt. 


.May 7 

May 3, 1894 

Southern New Hampshire 


.May 5 

April 30, 1902 

Lewiston, Me. ... ... 


May 9 

Maj- 7, 1897 

Montreal, Can. 

Ma}- 10, 1890 

Quebec, Can. 

Mav 14, 1890 

St. John, New Brunswick 


May i6 

May 6, 1S95 

Petitcodiac, New Brunswick . . . 

May 5, 1886 

Mississippi ralley — 

San Antonio, Texas . . 


March 25 

March 21, 1889 

St. Louis, Mo. . . 


April 26 

April 20, 1885 

Chicago, III 


May 3 

April 27, 1897 

Brookville, Ind 

April 15, 1887 

Northern Ohio . . . 


May 5 

May 2, 1895 

Petersburg:, Mich. 


May 7 

May I, 1887 

Southern Ontario 


May 6 

May 2, 1898 

Ottawa, Ont. . . 


Mav 14 

Mav 5, 1902 

Keokuk, Iowa . . 


May 6 

April 28. 1896 

Lanesboro, Minn. 


May 9 

May I, 1888 

Minneapolis, Minn. 


May 14 

May 13, 1888 

Pacific Slope— 

Yuma, Ariz. 

\Iarch II, 1902 

Huachuca Mountains, Ariz. 

April 1, 1902 

Dunlap, Cal. 

April 23, 1891 

Revelstokc, B. C 

May 9, 1890 



Bird- Lore 


The arrival of migrants south of their breeding grounds has been noted 
at Chicago, III., August i6, 1896; Beaver, Pa., September 5, 1903; 
Ossining, N. Y., August 11; Englewood, N. J., August 26, 1887; Wash- 
ington, D. C, September 5; French Creek, W. Va., September 7, 1890; 
St. Louis, Mo., September 17, 1885, and at Gainesville, Texas, October 
II, 1885. 

Lanesboro, Minn. 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Ottawa, Ont 

Mackinac Island, Mich. 

North River, Prince Edward Island . 

St. John, New Brunswick 

Southern Maine 

Renovo, Pa. . . 

Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Cooney, N. Mex 

Dunlap, Cal 

No of years' 

Average date of 
last one seen 

September 27 
September 20 

September 2 
September 11 
September 26 
October 3 

Latest date of last 
one seen 

September 29, 1889 
October i, 1886 
October 10, 1900 
September 24, 1889 
August 10, 1887 
September 5, 1895 
September 27, 1902 
October 3, 1902 
October 7, 1888 
September 30, 1889 
October 12, 1890 


This species winters in the south Atlantic states as far north as south- 
ern South Carolina, but is elsewhere so rare east of the Allegheny moun- 
tains that its normal times of migration in the north Atlantic states cannot 
be stated with any degree of accuracy. 


Onaga, Kan 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Southern Ontario 

Ottawa, Ont 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Aweme, Manitoba . . . . 

Loveland, Colo 

Columbia Falls, Mont. . . 
Red Deer, Alberta . . . . 
Fort Resolution, Mackenzie 
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie . 
Kowak River, Alaska . . . 

Central California 

Northern Oregon 

Chilliwack, B. C . . . . 

No. of years' 

Average date of 
spring arrival 

April 24 
April 27 
May 6 
May 13 
May ]8 
May 2 
May 7 
May 3 
May 5 

March 12 
March 23 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

April 17. 1892 
April 22, 1885 
May I, 1899 
May II, 1889 
May 17, 1890 
April 27, 1888 
May I, 1901 
May 2, 1889 
April 30, 1897 
May 14, 1892 
May 22, i860 
May 21, 1904 
May 25, 1899 
March 7, 1885 
March 19, 1885 
April 17, 1889 

The Migration of Warblers 



No. of years' Average date of last 
record one seen 

Near Fort Rae, Mackenzie 
Chilliwack, B. C. ... 
Columbia Falls, Mont. . 
Aweme, Manitoba 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Ottawa, Ont 

Chicago, 111 

Berwyn, Pa 

September 27 
October i 

Latest date of 
last one seen 

August 16, 1903 
September 5, 188S 
September 12, i8c 
October 3, 1901 
October 6, 1891 
September 30, i8i 
October i, 1896 
October 12, 1894 


No. of years' 

Average date of 

Earliest date of 


spring arrival 

spring arrival 

Rising Fawn, Ga. ... 

April 26, 1885 

Beaver, Pa. . . . 


May 9 

May 5, 1902 

Central New York 


May 13 

May 8, 1887 

Eastern Massachusetts . . 


May 14 

May 13, 1900 

Corpus Christi, Texas 

April 3, 1891 

San Antonio, Texas . . 

April 21, 1891 

St. Louis, Mo 


April 27 

April 24, 1886 

Brookvilie, Ind. . . . 


May 4 

April 20, 1884 

Chicago, III. . . 


May 9 

April 30, 1897 

Southern Wisconsin 


Mav 16 

May 14, 1885 

Southern Michigan . . 


May 15 

May 12, 1894 

Ottawa, Ont. 


Mav 16 

May 12, I90I' 

Grinnell, Iowa . . 


May 5 

May I, 1887 

Lanesboro, Minn. . . . 


May 1 1 

May 7, 1885 

Lincoln, Neb. . . . 


May 7 

Aweme, Manitoba . . 

May 13, 1903 

Fort Simpson, Mackenzie 


May 29 

May 26, i860 

Caribou, B. C 

Maj' 22, 1901 




No. of years' 

Average date of first 
one seen 

Earliest date of first 
one seen 

Hallock, Minn. . . 

Mackinac Island, Mich. . . . 

Chicago, 111 

Englewood, N.J . . 

Washington, D. C 

Key West, Fla 

New Orleans, La . 


August 20 
September 21 

August 2, 1899 
August 8, 1889 
August 13, 1896 
August 26, 1887 
August 31, 1890 
October 5, 1887 
September 18, 1899 

No. of 5-ears" 

Average date of last 

Latest date of last 


one seen 

one seen 

Aweme, Manitoba 

October-3, 1901 

Grinnell, Iowa ... 

October i, 1886 

Ottawa, Ont 

September 30, 1889- 

Chicago, 111 


October 2 

October 9, 1894 

Beaver, Pa 


September 30 

October 11, 1890 

Washington, D. C 

October 12, 1890 

St. Louis, Mo. . . 

October 20, 1885 

Asheville, N. C 

October 29, 1894 

New Orleans, La. 


October 28 

November 3, 1900 

jBtotes on 12ftinter JTeeUing 

From Dorchester, Mass. 

We live quite near to the city proper and 
the electric cars, yet we have many bird visit- 
ors who become very tame. Our methods of 
feeding the birds in winter are very simple, 
such as any householder could easily employ. 

We use mostly beef fat; preferably the 
outside fat of the beef-leg. This we nail in 
strips to the side or a shed where woodbine 
overgrows it, so that the birds can sit on the 
vine to pick the fat. We also have a wide 
stick secured among the lower branches of a 
pear tree, to which we tie the fat so that the 
birds can stand on the stick to eat. 

Sometimes, having many small bits of fat, 
we melt these slightly; so in winter they 
soon cool into one mass, which is easily 
secured for the eager birds. 

In an old apple tree we have nailed a 
piece of board a foot square. To this we 
sometimes tie a large soup-bone, after it has 
served its purpose in the kettle, and the birds 
are to be seen about it almost anytime pick- 
ing at every bit of meat or gristle. We tie 
it so that the cats cannot get it to the 
ground. We also tie the bony frame of any 
fowl, after it has become unfit for the table, 
among the outer twigs of a tree away from 
the reach of cats and dogs. 

No matter how deep the snow or how 
fierce the wind, the birds are eating 
by daylight and late at night. The 
Blue Jay, Flicker, Downy Woodpecker 
and Chickadee are frequent guests, be- 
sides the ever-present English Sparrow. 
Even Crows sometimes come near enough 
to the house to carry ofif at once a piece of 
fat large enough to last the smaller birds 
several days. 

For many years we have had this great joy 
of watching the birds eat of our bounty in 
the cold and wintry storms. — Gertrude A. 
Shattuck, Dorchester, Mass. 

From Lake George, N. Y. 

In the winter of 1903-04, I put suet into 
trees on the south side of the house, only a 

few feet away, and soon noticed Blue Jays, 
Chickadees, White - breasted Nuthatches 
and Hairy Woodpeckers eating it. One 
morning, I found the supply entirely gone, 
and soon discovered that Crows had taken it. 
I then tried to arrange some way in which I 
could continue to feed the smaller birds, and 
resorted to the following plan: 

I took a small-sized grape basket and cut 
the top of it off to within about an inch of 
the bottom, leaving that as a rim all around 
for the birds to stand on, then I nailed it at 
right angles on a strong stick, about 
eighteen inches long and two inches wide, 
and then nailed the free end of the stick to 
the window ledge, leaving space to open 
and shut the window easily. 

I had two or three trays, one from a 
second-story window and one from the first. 
Into them I put bread-crumbs and suet, ty- 
ing the latter in, by putting cord around it, 
and fastening it to the stick, just next the 
tray; this kept it from falling out, when the. 
birds pecked at it vigorously. 

Gradually, by shortening the stick, I 
brought the trays nearer the windows, and 
found that Chickadees, Nuthatches and an 
occasional Woodpecker did not hesitate to 
come to them, even though someone was 
sitting on the window-seat. 

The trays were kept filled until the middle 
of June and used daily, though only bread- 
crumbs were put into them after the warm 
weather came. 

One day in that month, a White-breasted 
Nuthatch made twenty-three trips to the 
tray. I have not had an opportunity to try 
the plan again, but I think it might be 
necessary first to put suet into nearby trees, 
to attract the birds. — Ella F. Luther, 
Lake George, N. Y. 

From Berlin, Conn. 

In these days of systematic winter feeding, 
I think that our wild birds are not so likely 
to suffer from hunger as from thirst. I have 
reached this conclusion from observation of 


Notes on Winter Feeding 


the many birds who visit my window food- 
shelf. Here I keep a cup of fresh water the 
year round, and the birds drink eagerly at 
almost every visit for food. During very cold 
weather this water has frequently to be 

When the weather was extremely cold and 
the water was put on the shelf in a steaming- 
hot condition, I discovered that both Chick- 
adees and Nuthatches found it very grateful. 
They used the cup as a foot-warmer, and, 
after a drink of its contents, would very evi- 
dently be warmed and made more comfort- 

This hot water also accomplished an acci- 
dental cure. The patient was one of my 
Nuthatches whose feet became somewhat 
paralyzed. He appeared otherwise ill; los- 
ing his appetite ; sleeping for hours on the 
shelf; and being so weak as easily to be 
caught in the hand. While I was trying to 
think of some safe and possible remedy to 
try upon a sick wild bird, he solved the 
problem himself. 

Happening to fly to the shelf just after 
I had placed a cup of very hot water 
there, he drank deeply of It and, settling 
close to the warm cup, remained there for 
along while. When he finally left the 
shelf, his whole aspect showed remarkable 
improvement, and, with a drink of hot 
water each morning, he was an entire con- 
valescent inside of a week, regaining the 
use of his feet, which now seem almost nor- 
mal, except forthe nail of the back toe, which 
is transparent red, showing distinctly the 
central vein. 

I ascribe this bird's recovery partially to 
the bird-tonic which I mixed with his 
chopped nuts. This tonic was that which I 
use for my Canary, and I tried it upon the 
Nuthatch, doubting much if he would eat 
it; but he enjoyed it greatly from the start 
and was, I think, benefited thereby. How- 
ever, I feel warranted in attributing the cure 
mostly to the hot water, and I think that if 
those who feed the birds would also give 
them water, especially in winter when natural 
supplies are frozen, they would find that it 
was appreciated as much as the suet, nuts 
and other food — Harriet S. Smith, Ber- 
lin, Conn. 

From Sherman, Conn. 

For three years I have fed an annually 
increasing flock of birds. Last winter, eight 
different kinds came every day for weeks 
and brought brightness into the dreariest 
weather. Suet nailed to the tree-trunks at- 
tracted Nuthatches, Chickadees and Downy 
and Hairy Woodpeckers. Cracked corn 
scattered near the house and under the trees 
brought Tree Sparrows, Juncos and Blue 
Jays. About the middle of February, a flock 
of Snowflakes discovered the feast and came 
many times a day for nearly two weeks, 
settling upon the ground like a cloud and 
devouring the corn. We counted at least 
sixty in the flock, and thought we did not 
count them all. Guests and neighbors, as 
well as ourselves, were fascinated with these 
daintily clad birds, and in the first days 
of their coming we ran from window to 
window to watch them as they flew from one 
feeding plot to another. Our bird-books 
told us that Snowflakes were never known 
to perch upon a tree, but we saw them again 
and again on the branches of fruit trees in 
the yard, and wondered how the books 
could have made such a mistake. 

A shelf under one of the south window- 
sills was convenient in a storm or in deep 
snow early in the morning before the paths 
were made. Withoutgoing outdoors, I could 
spread the table from the open window with 
crumbs, suet, broken nuts, hemp seed and 
corn. All the birds except the Blue Jays, 
Juncos and Hairy Woodpeckers came to the 
window, the Nuthatches being particularly 
fond of the nuts. 

In March, after the spring birds had 
begun to arrive, there came a light snow and 
an ice-storm, and Fox Sparrows and Song 
Sparrows were glad to eat at the winter 
birds' table. 

Late in the winter, two or three English 
Sparrows came uninvited and lifted up their 
wretched little voices among the musical 
notes of the Tree Sparrows, the gentle 
twitter of the Snowflakes, and the merry 
' Spring here ' of the Chickadees. A 
neighbor with a gun was summoned at once, 
and the 'little beasts' were quieted. 

No money I ever spent brought me more 


Bird -Lore 

pleasure than the little I paid last winter 
for the bird guests' supplies. — Ruth 
Rogers, Sherman, Conn. 

From Englewood, N. J. 

Among the various trees whose ripening 
seeds now attract the birds, few can be more 
popular than a certain fine specimen of the 
white magnolia [M. glauca), which, 
though only thirty-five feet from the house, 
has so many other trees in its neighborhood 
that the birds do not fear to visit it freely. 
As the seed-heads were beginning to open, 
exposing the scarlet seeds (the third week in 
September), a large flock of Robins 
appeared about the lawn, and it was not 
long before they discovered this food supply, 
since which time only a small proportion of 
the seeds has gone to waste. Now that 
plenty of the heads are open, the Robins 
come at all times of day, and in numbers 
far exceed all the other birds I have seen 
there. Sometimes a Flicker comes, and for 
several days a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker has 
frequented the tree ; the latter species is a 
common migrant here, but usually a very 

silent one. This bird constantly makes known 
its presence by a call strongly resembling 
the Blue Jay's usual scream, only much 
weaker and more shrill — in fact, just such a 
note as one would expect from a young 
Jay whose voice had not reached its full 
strength . 

The above birds, I am positive, eat the 
seeds, and in addition to these a Wood 
Thrush, a Catbird, and a Downy Wood- 
pecker have been seen in the tree, presuma- 
bly for the same purpose. — Isabel McC. 
Lemmon, Engleiuood, N. J. 

From Middle Haddam, Conn. 

The accompanying group of Crows was 
taken February 19, 1903, by placing the 
camera in a small poultry door in the barn 
fifteen feet distant. 

We made a practice that winter of throw- 
ing refuse food on the frozen ground at a 
particular spot which we took pains to keep 
uncovered when the snowstorms came. 

The Crows were regular visitors in the 
extremely cold weather when the snow was 
deep on the ground. The Jays also came, 

the crows come 

Photographed by Bert F. Case 

Notes on Winter Feeding 


and, of course, the English Sparrow was 
always present. 

Some may question the desirability of 
helping such birds to winter, knowing some- 
thing of the destructive bird-nesting habits 
of the Crows and Jays and the unpraise- 
worthy qualities of the English Sparrow. 

But feelings change in the barren winter 
season. We feel well disposed toward every 
form of outdoor life, and perhaps 
cherish the hope that the mem- 
ory of our bounty will work a 
desirable change in character 
when the milder weather comes. 
Such hopes are, of course, vain, 
— but that is no reason, I take it, 
why we should stop feeding the 
birds that are brave enough to 
spend the long, cold winter with 
us here in the North. 

The photo of the food table 
(Camera, Brownie No. 2), was 
taken from within the kitchen to 
the sill of one window to which 
the table was nailed. The table, so ar- 
ranged, brought the birds to close quarters. 
We could stand close to the window and 
watch the birds feeding. If ice formed on 
the table, a little hot water quickly cleared 
it. We nail the table in place regularly 
with the advent of winter, and it never lacks 

The first season, among our more common 
visitors, we had a pair of Red-breasted 
Nuthatches, the first we had ever seen. 
They stayed with us a number of weeks, 
and that one experience was worth all the 
trouble of keeping the table up, though we 
never thought of "trouble" in that connec- 
tion. It is a great place to study bird 

All Chickadees look alike to us when 
seen in the trees at a little distance, but on 
the table a few feet distant they are just as 
different in appearance and manners as peo- 
ple are. Five Chickadees and a Nuthatch 
were on the tray at one time; again, five 
Chickadees and a Downy Woodpecker; 
again, three Chickadees, a Downy and a 
Nuthatch. One morning five Blue Jays were 
there together. But, with the Jays present, 
the onlv bird that we ever saw come to the 

table was a Chickadee, and he appeared 
rather ill at ease. — Bert F. Case, Middle 
Haddam, Conn. 

From Jacksonville, Illinois 

As you request notes on feeding birds in 
winter, for the October number of Bird- 
Lore, I venture to send in an account of my 
experiences, which, though somewhat com- 

Photographed by Bert F. Case 

monplace, may prove helpful to people 
who are too busy, or otherwise unable to 
plan an elaborate entertainment for their 
bird friends. Ever since I began bird-study, 
six years ago, I have kept a simple winter 
table ; and it has been a never-failing source 
of pleasure and instruction to me, as well as 
a help to my guests during the bad weather. 

We have an acre of ground around our 
home, and fine trees, but there are streets on 
all but the north side, so I chose that side for 
the bird table, as it is the most sheltered, 
and at the same time affords us the best 
chance to watch the birds from the house. I 
began by tying lumps of suet up in some 
small trees near the windows, and very soon 
my guests began to arrive. I generally set 
the table early in October and keep it spread 
until late in the spring. 

After the first winter or two, I devised a 
plan of bringing the suet-eaters within 
closer range. I fastened a rough stick, 
about two or three inches in diameter, to the 
window-shutters, across the window a little 
below the middle sash, and upon this stick 
I tied my lump of suet. From that time on, 
we have had the pleasure, all winter long, of 
watching our bird neighbors at their lunch, 


Bird - Lore 

while sitting at our own dining table. I 
also fastened a wooden tray to the sill, in 
which we put cracked nuts and chopped 

While sitting at breakfast or dinner on a 
wintry day, we will hear a merry ' chickadee- 
dee-dee ' or a loud ' pique,' and looking up 
will see a Chickadee, or a Downy or 
Hairy Woodpecker. We cannot number a 
very great variety among our bird guests, 
but they are all interesting and more than 
welcome. The most constant visitors are 
the Chickadees and Woodpeckers; then Blue 
Jays, Titmice, Juncos and the Nuthatches, 
with once in a great while a Cardinal. Of 
these the Chickadees and Downies are the 
most tame. The Hairy Woodpecker is 
always suspicious, and keeps a sharp eye on 
the window and an ear open for every 

The Chickadees often sit on the sill to eat 
their bit of nut or suet, calling cheeringly 
between whiles. They are so very dainty 
and quick in their movements. The Blue 
Jays are very greedy, and quickly carry 
off a pile of nuts. We are always de- 
lighted when a White-breasted Nuthatch 
visits the window-sill. They have a differ- 
ent note from their usual nasal ' yank-yank ' 
while feeding. However they may fly onto 
the window tray, when they are ready to 
leave it they start head downward, as 
though ready for a coast. We strew fine 
seeds around for the Juncos and such seed- 
eating birds during snowy or icy weather. 

When the spring migrants return, we find 
Black-birds and Catbirds patronizing the 
suet. Almost all of the winter birds are 
fond of both nuts and suet. No one need 
ever waste old or rancid nuts. The birds 
will be glad to get them. 

One June, we had several days of cold 
rain, a steady downpour, and it was well- 
nigh impossible for the birds to forage for 
themselves, not to mention feeding a family. 
There happened to be a left-over piece of 
suet on the stick, and one day we saw a 
Catbird on it, digging at the suet, while just 
below her clung two young ones, shaking 
their wings in their helpless, imploring 
way. The children were about as big as 
the mother, but she thrust the food down 

their throats patiently. After a while, 
however, she grew tired of it and flew away, 
when the young quickly discovered that 
they could feed themselves, if they tried. 

Some people have suggested that such 
birds as the Woodpeckers will not look 
after the trees for us if they can obtain their 
food without labor. But our Woodpeckers 
are So superior to these would-be moralists 
that they go all over the trees in the neigh- 
borhood of the winter table, searching in 
every crevice of the bark. They scorn to 
live without labor and only accept our bounty 
in the way of dessert, or when food is scarce. 
But, after all, it is not bounty, as we are 
always in their debt. — Anne Wakely 
Jackson, Jacksonville, Illinois. 

Froni Curran, Illinois 

Last fall, I hung a bird-food shelf at our 
south study window and early each morning 
put cracked nuts, suet and bird-seed on it. 
Several Tufted Titimice visited it the first 
morning, and, in a day or two, Juncos and 
Chickadees came in flocks. White-breasted 
Nuthatches, Downy, and Hairy Wood- 
peckers, a White-crowned Sparrow and a 
Red-bellied Woodpecker were constant 
visitors all winter, often coming several 
times a day. A Mockingbird came until 
the middle of December, making, in all, 
nine kinds of birds. 

The Tufted Tits were the tamest and 
would eat nuts from my hand. They, and 
the Chickadees, ate shelled nuts and suet 
from the shelf, or, flying away with a 
cracked nut, lighting on a nearby limb, 
would hold it in their claws, picking out 
the kernels. Sometimes the walnuts were so 
heavy they would drop them several times 
before reaching a perch, and would have to 
fly down, get them, and start over. 

The Nuthatches sometimes ate off the 
shelf, but more often carried pieces to the 
tree and buried them under the bark, then 
ate them out. 

The Woodpeckers, besides eating what 
was provided for them, pecked the shelf 
hard with their bills, perhaps looking for 
grubs. These birds all enjoyed the fresh 
fat pork I had nailed to a nearby tree. 

Notes on Winter Feeding 


The Juncos and the Sparrow ate seed 
as Canaries do, ejecting the hulls, and 
they also liked bread crumbs and nuts. 

The Mockingbird ate bread and milk, 
and some of the birds drank from a tin of 
water put there for them. Though not 
singing at this time of year, they all, ex- 
cept the Mockingbird, made themselves 
known by their call-notes, and " Chickadee- 
de-de," "Yank-yank" and the sharp 
"click" of the Woodpeckers, together with 
the warbles of Juncos and Tree Sparrows 
and the occasional certain long-drawn-out 
notes of the Chickadees, made it lively 
around our house — for winter. 

The Tree Sparrows, though numerous, 
coming with the Juncos, always fed on the 

The Tufted Tits were the first to sing, 
and a loudly-whistled " Peto-peto-peto," 
when the snow was still on the ground, was 
a very pleising harbinger of spring. 

I wish to add that I made my shelf after a 
plan seen in Bird-Lore, and thank the in- 
ventor of it, as this shows it was successful. 
The fact that it swings prevents English 
Sparrows from using it. — Abbie Vreden- 
BURGH, Curran, III. [A description and 
cut of the device mentioned above are here 
republished. — Ed.] 

From Campbellsville, Ky. 

Last winter, I cleared in the snow a place 
about six feet square near my sitting-room 
window and scattered in it grains of corn 
and seeds from the barn floor. After the 
snow had been on the ground more than a 
week, I counted sixteen Cardinals at one 
time feeding on the grains of corn. The 
brilliant red of these birds, with the snow for 
a background, made a beautiful scene. The 
birds continued with us as long as the snow 
lasted, being in evidence especially at morn- 
ing until ten o'clock, and afternoon until 
near dark. Seeds fiom the barn floor served 
as food for several kinds of birds other than 
the Cardinal; the Cardinals ate only the 
corn. The first day I noticed a single Card- 
inal and his mate I felt very much elated; 
but, after this pair had fully advertised our 

feast among their starving brothers and 
sisters and they flocked in sixteen strong, I 
felt that I was extremely fortunate. This 
beautiful sight attracted the attention of so 
many persons who passed by our place that 
quite a number of spreads were established 
for our bird friends at other places. The 
Cardinals nearly always came in pairs; the 
day I counted sixteen, eight were males and 
eight females, a strong tribute to their con- 
jugal fidelity. 

As indicative of their appreciation, a pair 
of Cardinals nested in the vines of our front 
porch this summer, only a few feet from their 
winter feeding place.' Very probably this 
was one of the sixteen pairs. — William M. 
Jackson, Campbetls'ville, Ky. 

Liqht sprinc) 



Board fc ' ^^ 

Board loionq byfe'hiqK 

An Anti-Sparrow Food-Shelf 

Mr. W. W. Grant of Summit, N. J., 
sends us the accompanying plan for a win- 
dow food-shelf, to which, he writes, such 
comparatively wild birds as Tanagers, Flick- 
ers and others come, but which the English 
Sparrow will not, after one trial, visit. A 
board is hinged to the window-sill, and from 
the far end (see cut) a string is run to the 
top of the window, with a light spring be- 
tween. When a bird alights on the plat- 
form, the latter will swing up and down, 
the amount of swing depending on the birds 
and the weight of the spring, to which the 
string is attached. 

iloofe J^eto« anD 3^etoieto0 

Fifty Common Birds of Vermont. By 
Carlton D . Howe. Prepared for Teach- 
ers and School Officers. Issued by the 
Department of Education, Montpelier. 12 
mo. Pages 92; numerous half-tones in 

The Department of Education of the State 
of Vermont has set an excellent example in 
providing its teachers with a text-book on 
the commoner birds of the state, while the 
book itself may also serve as a model for 
works of this kind. 

A Prefatory Note contains sections on 
'The Economic Value of Birds,' ' How to 
Attract the Birds,' and ' Instructions to 
Teachers.' About a page is devoted to 
each species, and in nearly every instance 
this descriptive and biographical matter is 
accompanied by an illustration. 

An admirable feature of the book is a 
series of local lists from various parts of the 
state, a nominal list of the birds of the 
state, and an Information Bureau giving the 
names of twenty-three persons who " will 
give infoimation to teachers and pupils in 
regard to the birds of their localities." — 
F. M. C. 

How TO Know the Wild Birds of Illi- 
nois. i6mo. Pages 100. 

How to Know the Wild Birds of Ohio. 
i6mo. Pages 95. 

How to Know the Wild Birds of Mis- 
souri. i6mo. Pages 95. 

How TO Know the Wild Birds of Indiana. 
i6mo. Pages 64. 

By D. Lange. Educational Publish- 
ing Company, Boston, New York, Chi- 
cago, San Francisco. 

The booklets are designed to identify the 
commoner birds of their respective states 
and are evidently intended for school use. 
A simple color key leads one to various 
groups of land-birds, while the water-birds 
are arranged according to their habits. 

Under each species is given a description 
of the plumage, nest, notes and status in 
the state in question. 

The introductory matter should set the 
student on the way to a proper appreciation 
of the rights of birds, and these booklets, 
which will doubtless have a wide circulation, 
should exert a most excellent influence. — 
F. M. C. 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Auk. — The contents of the July 
'Auk' very fairly reflects current activities 
in American ornithology. C. W. G. 
Eifrig writes on the ' Canadian Neptune 
Expedition to Hudson Bay and Northward' ; 
H. C. Oberholser describes a Rocky Moun- 
tain form of Helminthophila celata; Ruth- 
ven Deane publishes some interesting letters 
by Swainson to Audubon; A. F. Clark 
tells of extirpated West Indian birds and 
discusses the Lesser Antillean Macaws and 
West Indian Conures. There are articles 
on ' Warbler Migration in Southeastern 
Louisiana and Southern Mississippi,' by H. 
H. Kopman, and on the ' Winter Ranges 
of Warblers,' by W. W. Cooke. Outram 
Bangs revives the name Urubitinga gund- 
lach'ii (Cabanis) for the Cuban Crab 
Hawk; B. S. Bowdish lists forty species of 
birds, represented by three hundred and 
twenty-eight individuals from St. Paul's 
Churchyard in the heart of lower New York 
City, while in recording the purchase in 
London of a Great Auk skin and three 
eggs, John E. Thayer raises both the num- 
ber of skins and eggs of this bird in this 
country to five. — F. M. C. 

The Condor. — The May and July num- 
bers of ' The Condor ' contain several con- 
tinued articles and may therefore be noticed 
together for the sake of convenience. Of 
special interest to the general reader is a 
series of four letters from eminent authorities 
on 'The Future Problems and Aims of 
Ornithology,' among which letters those of 
Dr. Leonhard Stejneger and Mr. Wm. 
Brewster will well repay careful perusal. 
Dr. Stejneger makes a strong plea for work 


Book News and Review 


on broader lines, and declares that much of 
that already done must be done over more 
thoroughly and with improved methods. Mr. 
Brewster lays emphasis on the importance of 
careful and long-continued study of the birds 
in the immediate vicinity of the observer's 
home as a basis for more exact knowledge 
of geographic distribution. The two con- 
tinued articles entitled 'Midwinter Birds on 
the Mojave desert,' by Mailliard and Grin- 
nell, and ' Summer Birds of the Papago 
Indian Reservation and of the Santa Rita 
Mountains, Arizona,' by Swarth, are im- 
portant contributions to the list of papers on 
desert bird-life. During a stay of less than 
a fortnight (Dec. 21, 1904, to Jan. 2, 1905), 
seventy-two species of birds were observed 
near Victorvilie in the Mojave Desert. On 
December 31, 1904, a single specimen of the 
Bohemian Waxwing was collected, which is 
noted with the remark, "the present record 
is apparently the southernmost (34/^°) for 
North America and even for the world ! " 

The leading article in the May number is 
contributed by Finley on 'Humming-bird 
Studies' and is illustrated by half-tones of 
six excellent photographs. 'In Alaska's 
Rain Belt' is an account by Osgood of some 
of the difficulties of collecting on Prince of 
Wales Island. The number also includes 
portraits of four eminent European ornitholo- 
gists, — Dr. Anton Reichenow of Berlin, 
Mr. H. E. Dresser of London, Count 
Tommaso Salvadori of Turin and Dr. Otto 
Finsch of Brunswick, Germany — and a 
directory of the Cooper Ornithological Club 
showing a total of two honorary, and 231 
active members. 

The July number contains several articles 
on the habits of birds. In 'A Study in Bird 
Confidence,' Finley gives an account of the 
breeding habits of the Bush Tit, illustrated 
by five half-tones; and in 'Scraps from an 
Owl Table,' Bailey describes the bill of fare 
of a pair of Great Horned Owls in the 
Davis Mountains, Texas. Rev. S. H. 
Goodwin describes the habits of the Bohe- 
mian Waxwing in Utah and L. E. Burnett 
those of the Sage Grouse as observed in 
Wyoming. Mention should also be made of 
Kaeding's 'Birds from the West Coast of 
Lower California and Adjacent Islands,' 

as a local list of more than ordinary 
interest. — T. S. P. 

Bulletin Michigan Ornithological 
Club. — The December, 1904, number of this 
Magazine contains the conclusion of Professor 
Barrow's paper on the ' Birds of the Beaver 
Islands, Michigan,' in which, among other 
notes of interest, is one on the breeding of a 
Piping Plover which he "was sure was not 
circumcincta," an interesting point in con- 
nection with the status of this supposed race. 
Frank Smith describes 'An Unusual Flight 
of Sparrow Hawks,' and Prof. C. C. Adams 
gives an outline of the University of Michi- 
gan's expedition to the northern part of the 
state. Notes from the Field and Museum 
and the Audubon Society contain much of 
interest, while an editorial announces that 
Professor Barrow's ' Birds of Michigan ' 
has been prepared for the press. 

Numbers i and 2 of Vol. VI, March-June, 
1905, are issued together. They contain ' A 
Hyperlaken Migration Route,' by P. A. 
Taverner, in which the author discusses the 
irregular distribution of certain species ; 
' The Occurrence of Bewick's Wren( Thryo- 
manes beivickii), at Grand Rapids,' by 
Leon J. Cole, which contains more informa- 
tion than is indicated by the title; 'Nest- 
ing of the Woodcock,' by Gerard Alan 
Abbott, which, were it not for the pictures 
from photographs by Robert Hegner, seems 
to be chiefly a record of eggs collected and 
opportunities lost. Max Minor Peet gives 
some interesting ' Observations on the Nest- 
ing Habits of a Pair of House Wrens,' 
and Norman A. Wood, a list of 'Birds Noted 
en route to Northern Michigan . ' There are a 
number of ' Notes from the Field, ' and per- 
tinent editorial comments. — W. S. 

Journal of the Maine Ornithological 
Society. — The October, 1904, number of 
this 'Journal,' which appeared in January, 
contains a ' Life History of the Water- 
Thrush,' by J. Merton Swain, and a long 
article entitled ' When Birds are Compan- 
ions,' describing the shore light-stations of 
the Maine coast. A record of migration 
for 1902 at eight stations and several notes 
of local interest complete the number. 


Bird- Lore 

Beginning with March, 1905, the Society 
starts Volume VII of the 'Journal' much en- 
larged and improved in typography. The 
Ninth Annual Meeting of the Society is 
treated in full. F. T. Noble discusses the 
question, ' Are the Choicer Varieties of 
Ducks Increasing in Maine Waters, and if 
so, Why?' He inclines to the affirmative, 
and attributes the increase to the spread of 
wild rice. J. Merton Swain writes a 'Life 
History of the Mourning Warbler'; C. H. 
Clark gives some ' Additions to an Eastern 
Maine Collection,' and there are numerous 
notes of local interest. This number is by 
far the most creditable yet published. The 
June number maintains the new standard, 
the leading articles being ' Notes on the 
Birds of the Lower Dead River,' by J. M. 
Swain; 'The Black and White Warbler,' 
by E. E. Johnson, and an account of ' A 
Nest of the Northern Raven,' by C. H. 
Clark. A migration report covering four 
localities for the spring of 1903 is published. 
— W. S. 

The Wilson Bulletin.— The issue of 
this standard journal for June (New Ser. 
XII, No. 2) contains a list of one hundred 
and sixty species of birds seen within the 
limits of Greater New York "during the 
past year" by George E.Hix; 'Birds vs. 
Street Cars,' by Marion E. Sparks; ' Au- 
tumn Birds of Leo Cheneaux Islands,' a 
briefly annotated list of forty-eight species by 
Walter C. Wood ; 'The Spotted Sandpiper, ' 
by Chreswell J. Hunt; ' Bird Horizons from 
Russellville, Ky.,' by G. C. Embody; 
'Winter Notes on the Yellow-bellied Sap- 
sucker,' by C. H. Morris, and nesting of the 
same species by J. Claire Wood. 

In ' All Day With the Birds at Durmid, 
Va.,' W. F. Herninger, records one hun- 
dred and five species, and six hundred 
and four individuals as noted on May 8, 
1905. Under ' Some Further Suggestions 
for Bird Study,' Lynds Jones calls attention 
to the importance of accurate local lists, 
" the need for more extensive and more ex- 
act knowledge of the breeding habits of 
birds," the possibilities of embryological 
studies and of observations on distribution 
and migration. Above all, he emphasizes 

the need of definiteness in planning our 
studies. Do not attempt to do too much. 
"One minor point under one of the minor 
heads is worth earnest effort." 'General 
Notes ' and ' Book Reviews ' conclude the 
number. — F. M. C. 

The Warbler. — The two numbers of 
'The Warbler' (Nos. 2 and 3, New Ser. 
Vol. I) which have appeared since our last 
notice ofthis quarterly contain much interest- 
ing and scientifically valuable matter. In 
Number 2, A. T. Wayne's account of the 
Little Black Rail in South Carolina should 
settle the identity of the bird which, known 
as the Kik-ker, puzzled Cambridge ornitho- 
logists for several seasons; F. B. Spaulding 
writes of 'Bicknell's Thrush'; John Lewis 
Childs presents 'California Notes,' as well 
as a continuation of his ' Birds Breeding 
within the Limits of the City of New York.' 
R. D. Hoyt records the taking of two sets 
of two eggs each of the Ivory-billed Wood- 
pecker, and P. B. Peabody discourses on 
the ' Nesting of the Yellow Rail.' The 
eggs of the two Rails mentioned are figured 
in color, and there are half-tones of Golden 
Eagle and Ivory-bill eggs. Important 
papers in Number 3, are 'Eggs of the 
Ipswich Sparrow' (with colored plate), 
by W. E. Saunders; 'A Night Among 
the Clouds with Bicknell's Thrush,' by 
John Lewis Childs; 'Recollections of the 
Passenger Pigeon,' by John Burroughs, with 
contributions on the same subject by John 
Lewis Childs and W. Otto Emerson; 'The 
Tolmie [-Macgillivray; the common name of 
this bird has not been changed] Warbler in 
Wyoming,' by P. B. Peabody; 'Eggs of the 
Rufous-crowned Sparrow' (colored plate); 
and 'In the Haunts of the White-throated 
Sparrow,' by H. Nehrling. Mr. Childs 
continues his paper on 'Birds Breeding 
Within the Limits of the City of New 
York,' treating here of eight species. Local 
ornithologists, we imagine, would not al- 
ways agree with Mr. Childs' statements, and 
we suggest that a discussion of these papers 
at the Linnaean Society, before publication, 
would result in their more fully reflecting 
our knowledge of the birds nesting in the 
area in question. — F. M. C. 



A Bi-monthly Maeazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 



Vol. VII Published October 1. 1905 No. 5 


Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico 
twenty cents a number, one dollar a year, post- 
age paid. 


Bird-Lore's Motto: 
A Bird in the Bush is IVorth Two in the Hand 

Mr. Edward Howe Forbush, of Ware- 
ham, Mass., ornithologist of the Massachu- 
setts State Board of Agriculture, is prepar- 
ing a volume on useful birds and bird 
protection, which will be published as a 
special report of the Board. He desires 
information on the following subjects: 

The decrease or increase in numbers of 
birds ; the destruction of birds and its causes ; 
devices for protecting, attracting and feeding 
birds; birds feeding on important insect 
pests ; protective laws and their operation ; 
the breeding or migration of the Purple 
Martin in Massachusetts or adjacent terri- 
tory. Correspondence is particularly desired 
with those who have been able to increase 
the number of birds about their homes. 

accept of our bounty and are perhaps de- 
pendent on us for continued existence, is no 
small part of the return we may expect to 
receive from our care for the birds. 

It might be supposed that a discussion 
of this subject would be more timely in 
December than in October, but, as Mr. 
Forbush says, "if you wish to attract the 
birds about the house next winter, do not 
wait until the ground is covered with snow, 
but begin now, when," as he adds, "you 
may hold birds that might otherwise pass 
on to the South." 

Much to our surprise, the figure of the 
female Black-and-White Warbler published 
in the last issue of Bird-Lore (frontispiece) 
appeared with a pronounced yellow mark 
below the eye, a feature not shown in the 
proof of the plate in question. This mishap 
prompts the statement that without experi- 
ence no one can realize the difficulty of se- 
curing accurately colored plates of birds. 
The plate in the present number of Bird- 
Lore, for example, after having been 
shipped from the engraver in New York to 
Bird-Lore's printer in Harrisburg, was 
found not to conform to the standard we have 
tried to establish for this series of plates. 
The whole edition was, therefore, returned 
to New York for alteration, and, after being 
received a second time in Harrisburg, it was 
found essential to go over each plate and 
make additional corrections by hand. 

The Bird - House number of Bird - Lore 
(February, 1905) was so well received that 
it is now virtually out of print, and we are 
trying to secure copies to complete our sets 
of the magazine. 

We trust that this Winter-Feeding number 
will meet with an equally cordial reception. 
Our contributors assuredly invest this sub- 
ject not only with a personal interest but a 
public importance. It is not alone our 
pleasure and privilege to feed the birds at 
our doorstep but our duty to remember those 
of the field. 

It is rather difficult to say who benefits 
most by a practical, sympathetic association 
of this kind — bird or man. The humani- 
zing influence exerted by creatures which 

Within the next two months two meet- 
ings of great interest to bird students will be 
held at the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York. The National Asso- 
ciation of Audubon Societies holds its first 
meeting on October 31, as announced on 
the following page, and the Twenty-third 
Annual Congress of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union convenes on November 14. 
We understand that this Congress will be 
of exceptional Interest and will well warrant 
an unusual effort on the part of bird stu- 
dents to be present. 

Information in regard to membership in 
the Union may be obtained from its treas- 
urer, J. Dwight, Jr , 2 East 34th St., New 
York City. 

" Vou cannot with a scalpel find the poeVs soul. 
Nor yet the ■wild bird's song." 


Communications relating to the work of the Audubon and other Bird Protective Societies should 
be addressed to Mrs. Wright, at Fairfield, Conn. Reports, etc.. designed for this department, should be 
sent at least one month prior to the date of publication. 

Notice of Annual Meeting of the Mem- 
bers of the National Association 

The Annual Meeting of the Members of 
the National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties for the Protection of Wild Birds and 
Animals, for the election of six Directors, 
to take the places of the following Directors, 
Mr. George Bird Grinnell, Mr. Arthur H. 
Norton, Mr. H. P. Attwater, Mrs. Kings- 
mill Marrs, Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright, 
Mr. Walter J. Blakely, whose terms of office 
will then expire, and forthetransactionof such 
other business as ma\' properly come before 
the meeting, will be held at the American 
Museum of Natural History, Columbus 
Avenue and 77th Street, in the Borough of 
Manhattan and Cit}- of New York, on the 
31st day of October, 1905, at 10 o'clock 


Under Article III, of the By-Laws, the 
Directors shall divide themselves into five 
equal classes, one to serve until the first 
annual meeting and the others for one, two, 
three and four years thereafter respectively. 
Thereafter at each annual meeting those 
whose terms of office shall then expire shall 
be succeeded by six directors, to serve the 
full term of five years, who shall be elected 
by a majority vote of the members present. 
T. Gilbert Pe.\rson, Secretary. 

October i, 1905. 

Notice of the Annual Meeting of the 
Board of Directors of the National 

The Annual Meeting of the Board of 
Directors of the National Association of 
Audubon Societies for the Protection of 
Wild Birds and Animals, for the election of 
officers for the ensuing year and for the 
transaction of such other business as may 

properly come before the meeting, will be 
held at the American Museum of Natural 
Historjs Columbus Avenue and 77th 
Street, in the Borough of Manhattan and 
the City of New York, on the 31st day of 
October, 1905, at 11 o'clock a.m. 

After a recess for luncheon, an opportunity 
will be had to see the many beautiful and 
interesting exhibits of birds, animals and 
other natural history objects in the Museum, 
under the escort of the Curators in charge of 
the various departments. 

At 3 P.M. the Association will reconvene 
to hear illustrated addresses by William L. 
Finley on his season's work among the birds 
of the saline lakes of southeastern Oregon, 
where, with H. T., he acted as a 
warden of the Association, and by Frank 
M. Chapman on 'Impressions of English 

The Executive Committee of the Associa- 
tion take this opportunity earnestly to urge 
all members to be present at both the 
business meeting in the forenoon and the 
illustrated talks in the afternoon. The 
latter meeting will be open to the public, who 
are cordially invited to attend; the teachers 
of Greater New York and vicinity are 
specially invited, as a matter of great interest 
to teachers will be announced. 

T. Gilbert Pearson, Secretary. 

October i, 1905. 

Notes and News 

The Bradley Murder. — The murderer 
of Guy M. Bradley is still in jail in Key 
West, having failed to secure bail in the 
amount of $5,000. The Grand Jury of 
Monroe county will not meet until Novem- 
ber, when it is hoped that the murderer, 
Walter Smith, will be indicted. The history 
of the affair, sent to the Association by our 


The Audubon Societies 


attorney. Lewis A. Harris, shows that the 
murder was not only cold-blooded but 
apparently premeditated. Smith, after kill- 
ing his victim, allowed the body to float 
awav in a small boat, and it was not found 
for twenty-four hours after. Bradley was 
shot with a Winchester rifle, the ball strik- 
ing the upper part of the right breast, 
coursing downward through the vitals and 
coming out at the lower portion of the back, 
after having broken the back- bone. 

His death must have been instantaneous, 
although Smith, in his statement at the 
preliminary hearing, said that Bradley, 
after being shot, fell to the bottom of his 
boat, but tried to get on his knees so he 
could shoot again with his revolver. This 
seems phvsicallv impossible; a man with 
such a terrible wound and a severed spinal 
column, if not dead, certainly would be 

The Mrs. Br.adley Fund. — The mem- 
bers of the National Association, the 
readers of Bird-Lore, all ornithologists, as 
well as all bird students and bird protectors, 
are asked to contribute to this fund. The sad 
and shocking death of this \oung woman's 
breadwinner has left her with two young 
children to care for. His death, occurring 
while in the employment of this Society-, and 
while in the discharge of his duties, makes 
the Association morally if not legally obli- 
gated to give the widow and children help. 

A soldier's widow receives a pension from 
the government for whose protection her 
husband's life is sacrificed. Bradley gave 
his life that the cause of bird protection 
should be perpetuated. All who desire to 
have our great movement continued can do 
no less than to see that the wife and children 
of the first mart\r to the cause shall have 
suitable care or at least a home given them 
in a place where the mother can support her 
children. It is proposed to buy a small 
house in Key West, forMrs. Bradley, if a 
sufficient sum can be secured. 

The following subscriptions have alreadv 
been received : 

Brewster. Mr. and Mrs. Wm. . . $25 
Chapman. Mr. and Mrs. F. M. . 10 
Brooks, Mr. FM c 

Freeman. Miss H. E. ... 5io 

Surface, H. A. i 

Latham. Mrs. F. E. B. . i 

Smith. Dr. C. H 5 

Rhoads. Mr. S. N. . i 

Dutcher. Mr. and Mrs. Wm. 20 

If every reader of Bird-Lore will give a 
small sum the desired home can be secured. 
In the tropical climate of Key West, food 
and clothing are not expensive, and a home 
there will afford the children good school 
advantages, and there these two little wards 
of the National Association maj- grow up to 
be good citizens. A prompt response to this 
appeal is hoped for: "He who gives 
quickly, gives twice." 

The Fund. — The Association has 
received several letters urging the importance 
of the punishment of the murderer of Brad- 
ley. Prominent among the writers is Mr. 
Morris K. Jesup, President of the New 
York Audubon Society, who, when sending 
his check for 5ioo. said that it was essen- 
tial that the National Association should do 
all it could to help in the prosecution of this 
case and his contribution was for this pur- 
pose. Justice maj- be defeated if the case is 
left to the count}- officials, and it is therefore 
imperative that this Society- shall employ the 
best legal talent to be found to see that the 
majest}- of the law is upheld and that 
Walter Smith shall receive his just deserts 
for the unnecessary, unwarranted and brutal 
murder of Gu}- M. Bradley. It is believed 
that there are thousands of persons in the 
United States who love the cause of justice 
and right and will wish to see it upheld in 
this case. Legal aid is always expensive; 
this case will necessarily be so, and therefore 
contributions are asked to enable the Society- 
to continue the ser\ices of Attorney Harris, 
who represented it at the preliminan.- hear- 
ing. Readers of this statement and appeal 
can best help in this special case by becom- 
ing sustaining members of the National 
Association and asking that their first annual 
fee of $5, or such part of it as is necessary, 
shall be used in the prosecution of the 
Bradley murderer. 

future capacity- for work by the National 


Bird- Lore 

Association depends solely upon, and will 
be limited by the number of its members. 
Since the incorporation of the Society, a 
little over eight months since, nearly six 
hundred persons have shown their interest in 
bird protection and their willingness to aid 
in the movement to preserve the wild birds 
and animals of the country by joining the 
National Audubon Society ; seventeen of 
these are life members. This is a splendid 
nucleus on which to build, but additional 
members are needed, and that at once. The 
membership should be increased to at least 
two thousand in order that sufficient income 
may be realized to carr}' out all of the plans 
of the Executive Committee. The annual 
fee of the sustaining members has been 
placed at a low figure, $5, that it may 
not be a burden. Every cent of the fees is 
used in carrying on the several branches of 
organized work of the Society. The loyalty 
of the members to the Society, and, in 
many cases, the special personal interest 
displayed in securing new members, is very 
gratifying to the Board of Directors. It will 
be an easy matter to double our present 
membership before the close of the year if 
each member who reads this statement on 
October first will, before the end of 
December, secure one new member. Bear 
in mind the enormous amount of good that 
this additional membership of six hundred 
will permit the Association to accomplish in 
1906. The number of wardens can be 
doubled, and the consequent increase of sea- 
birds during the next breeding season will 
be very large. Preliminary reports from our 
wardens are extremely gratifying, and show 
conclusively that the money expended by 
the Association for their wages could not be 
put to a better use. 

There are still large sections of the coast 
line and also inland waters that are not now 
o-uarded, but should be. Will not every 
reader assist in guarding them by interesting 
some friend in the work of the National 
Association to such an extent that he will 
become a member? In every future issue of 
BtRD-LoRE it is proposed to show the 
increase in membership. Let us remember 
that a large membership, well scattered over 
the country, will make our Society a great 

factor for good, while the influence it may 
exert cannot be overestimated. 

Cage Birds — Recently it was discovered 
that some Mocking-birds and Nonpareils 
were being sent from the South to New 
York, largely from Georgia. The dealers 
were cautioned not to sell them, but it was 
deemed best to ask the cooperation of the 
transportation companies in preventing this 
illegal traffic. The Southern Express Com- 
pany and the Clyde Steamship Company 
were especially vigorous in their help and 
have given valuable aid, the former com- 
pany sending to all of its large number of 
agents two circular letters, one giving the 
game laws and the second the non-game 
bird laws in every state in which they did 
business. The agents were directed not to 
accept for transportation birds or game when 
by doing so the laws of the state in which 
the office was located would be broken. 

Aliens. — The foreign-born part of our 
cosmopolitan population are giving the 
Association a great deal of trouble and some 
hard work. They seem to have an uncon- 
querable desire to kill something, and have 
no respect for the laws. Audubon members 
everywhere should do all they can to sup- 
press the alien gunner and bring him to 

A heavy fine is the best method of 
education ; the influence of a fine is wide- 
spread among the associates of the person 
who pays it. In Massachusetts an alien 
must secure a license, for which he must 
pay $15, before he can hunt. This 
license must be carried on the person while 
hunting and is good only during open 
seasons. An alien who is caught hunting 
without a license is punishable by a fine of 
from $10 to Isc. In New York state an 
alien is not permitted to carry firearms 
in any public place; therefore when one is 
seen hunting he should be arrested at once. 
Any citizen can make a charge. These 
laws will save the lives of thousands of small 
birds. Each of the State Audubon Societies 
should see that the alien license law is 
adopted in their own commonwealth. — 
William Dutcher. 




Order - Passeres - Family - Frtngillida 

Species — Monticola 


Genus — Spizella 

The Tree Sparrow 


President National Association of Audubon Societies 


Adult. — The entire crown and back of head bright chestnut, in winter most of the 
feathers with a very narrow edging of pale buff, which, wearing off by spring, leaves the 
crown uniform chestnut ; line over eye, sides of head and neck gray, this color extending 
upward, forming a narrow collar; back rusty, each feather having a broad central stripe 
of black, giving a decidedly streaked appearance ; lower back and rump brownish gray, 
the upper tail coverts being narrowly edged with white ; under parts, throat and upper 
breast light gray, fading to almost white on lower breast and abdomen, the sides and 
flanks being washed vyith pale brown ; on middle of breast a blackish spot or blotch ; 
wing quills dark brown, the coverts showing a great amount of rusty, each feather with a 
broad central black stripe, similar to pattern on back, all widely margined with white, thus 
forming two conspicuous white wing-bars ; tail dark brown, the two outside feathers much 
lighter, all having very narrow whitish edges ; legs brown ; feet and claws black ; bill, 
upper mandible and tip of lower one nearly black, remaining two-thirds of latter yellow. 

Size. — From tip of bill to end of tail from 5^ to 6 inches. 

The Western Tree Sparrow [Spizella monticola ochracea) differs very slightly from its 
eastern relative, being buffy instead of rusty on the back, and usually with an ashy crown 
patch or streak. The differences, however, are so slight that they would have no value to 
a person studying a strange Sparrow, through an opera glass, in order to identify it. 

J^est. — Is built of fine grasses, rootlets, hair feathers, etc., and is placed on or near 
the ground. 

Eggs. — From three to five in number, pale greenish blue speckled or spotted with 
reddish brown. 

Distribution. — The Tree Sparrows are found during the breeding season north of the 
United States, in Newfoundland, Labrador, and the region about Hudson Bay, while the 
western race breeds from the Valley of Anderson River, westward through Alaska. How 
far south the Tree Sparrows breed is very indefinitely known, therefore data on this point 
are desirable and important. Readers of this leaflet who reside north of the United States 
may be able to contribute valuable scientific facts as the result of a few careful observations. 
If Tree Sparrows are found with you during the months of June and July, they are probably 
breeding, and a note of this fact should be sent to Bird-Lore. After the breeding season 
these birds migrate southward and reach the Carolinas and westward as far as middle 
Texas, Arizona, Utah and Oregon. 

The Tree Sparrow, or Winter Chippy, is presented to the readers of BiRD- 
LORE at this time because it will begin to make its appearance in the United 
States about the date of the issue of the October number of this magazine. 
It is a member of the very widely distributed and numerous family of the 
Fringillidae, which contains over five hundred and fifty species, that are found 
in all portions of the world except the Australian region. Of these, North 
America claims no less than thirty-three genera, and one hundred and eighty- 
nine species and sub-species. This family contains all the Finches, Bunt- 
ings, Grosbeaks, Crossbills, Sparrows, Linnets and Siskins. While many of 
these are dull colored, yet other members of the family are noted for their 


The Tree Sparrow 255 

exceptionally beautiful and striking plumage, as the Rose-breasted and Blue 
Grosbeaks, Goldfinch. Cardinal, Indigo and Painted Buntings, etc. 

This family also includes some of the best of the singing birds, and, with 
few exceptions, its members may be included among the birds that are 
economically of the greatest value to the human race. The bills of the Spar- 
rows, Finches and other members of the family, while widely diversified in 
form, are always stout and strong and adapted to crushing or opening seed 
capsules for the fruit within them. Seeds constitute the largest part of the 
food supply of all the members of this great family. By watching a Canary, 
a prominent and well-known member of the family, one can see how deftly 
and easily a seed is cracked and the meat is extracted. The Tree Sparrow 
is a very common , and should be a well - known winter bird throughout a large 
section of the United States. It associates freely with the Junco and does not 
hesitate to visit dooryards and gardens, gleaning from them weed and other 
seeds, all the while giving voice to contented and happy notes of thanks- 
giving for food and pleasant companions. Among the experiences of every 
bird lover, there are incidents that stand out prominently like landmarks and 
are never effaced from the memory. The name Tree Sparrow always recalls 
to the writer a beautiful winter picture seen many years smce. There had 
been almost a blizzard, such a storm as Whittier describes in ''Snow Bound." 

The morning after the storm the sun was shining with that peculiar 
winter brilliancy when the air seems to sparkle and glisten. Everywhere 
there was a beautiful, unbroken mantle of snow. In a last year's corn-field, 
that had been poorly cultivated and was overrun with that most noxious 
plant known to all farmers as the ragweed {Ambrosia artemisiafolia) , 
there were hundreds of Tree Sparrows clinging to the tops of the weed 
stalks, just showing above the carpet of snow. They were feeding on the 
ripened seeds; a long fast and great hunger had made them very tame ; they 
made a beautiful and animated scene, a joyous picture of happy bird -life; 
everywhere were contentment and voices lifted up in thankfulness for 
nature's bounties. 

What the farmer had neglected to do the previous fall this flock of Tree 
Sparrows was doing for him. The number of seeds destroyed in that one 
field on that day alone must have been beyond computation in figures. The 
owner of the land probably wondered the next season why his field was so 
clear of ragweeds; he little dreamed of the cleansing process that was carried 
on that bright winter day by his friends the Tree Sparrows. 

The relation that the Tree Sparrow bears to agriculture is an important 
question, and one that will naturally interest the farmer more than its song 
or cheerful habits. While this species undoubtedly destroys many insects in 
its summer home, as all Sparrows do, yet it is only resident in the United 
States during the season when insects are not plenty with us, there- 
fore the good it does consists in its destruction of weed seeds. No greater 

256 Bird - Lore 

proof can be given of its value as a seed -destroyer than the follow^ing state- 
ment of Professor Beal, of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
published in 'Farmers' Bulletin' No. 54, 'Some Common Birds in Their 
Relation to Agriculture.' 

" The Tree Sparrow ( Spizella monticola ) fairly sw^arms all over the 
northern states in winter, arriving from the North early in October and 
leaving in April. Examination of many stomachs shows that in winter the 
Tree Sparrow feeds entirely upon seeds of weeds; and probably each bird 
consumes about one-fourth of an ounce a day. In an article contributed to 
the 'New York Tribune,' in 1881, the writer estimated the amount of 
weed seed annually destroyed by these birds in the state of Iowa, upon the 
basis of one-fourth of an ounce of seed eaten daily by each bird, and suppos- 
ing that the birds average ten to each square mile, and that they remain in 
their winter range two hundred days, we shall have a total of i ,750,000 pounds 
or 875 tons, of weed seed consumed by this one species in a single season. 
Large as these figures may seem, they certainly fall far short of the reality. 
The estimate of ten birds to a square mile is much within the truth, for the 
Tree Sparrow is certainly more abundant than this in winter in Massa- 
chusetts, where the food supply is less than in the western states, and I 
have known places in Iowa where several thousand could be seen within the 
space of a few acres." 

Professor Beal's statement refers only to one state; let the farmers of the 
country try to realize the good done by these Sparrows in all the other states 
where they are found during a considerable portion of the year, and the sum 
total seems beyond the comprehension of the human mind. There can be 
no question of the usefulness of the Tree Sparrow and, further, there is 
positively no claim that they ever do any harm. Therefore, they are entitled 
to the fullest protection, especially from agriculturists, and there is no reason 
wrhy a single one of these birds should ever be killed. The wise and progres- 
sive farmer will, when the deep snows of the coming winter cover the 
ground, encourage his little Sparrow friends to remain on his acres by 
scattering for them in protected places the chafi and sweepings from his 
barn. The birds will repay his kindness a hundred fold by destroying the 
seeds of thousands of noxious vi^eeds and to that extent lighten his labors 
dur'ng the following season. 

Study Points for Teachers and Scholars 

Can you identify the Tree Sparrow, and distinguish it from the other Sparrows found in 
your locality? Trace on map of North America where this Sparrow is found in summer. 
Where in winter. When first see them in the fail ? When do they leave in the 
spring ? What seeds have you seen them feed upon ? How large flocks have you seen ? 
What other birds have you seen them associate with ? Have you ever heard them sing ? 
Describe the song. Read "Snow Bound." 




Order — Passeres Famih Hirundinida 

Genus — Progne Species — Subis 

Issued as a Supplement to Bird-Lore, Vol. VII, No. 5, October, 1905 

The Purple Martin 


President National Association of Audubon Societies 

THE Purple Martin and its Pacific coast relative, Progne subis hesperia, 
are too well known to need a detailed description. The adult male 
is a lustrous blue -black, the wings and tail being slightly duller. 
The adult female and the young of both sexes are grayish brown, glossed 
with steel-blue on upper parts, while beneath they are dark gray, shading 
into whitish on the belly. The size of the Martin is about seven and one- 
half inches in length, but the great spread of wings, from fifteen to sixteen 
inches, makes the bird look very much larger than it really is. 

During summer the Martin is a bird of very wide distribution in tem- 
p'erate North America ; in autumn it migrates to the tropics, where it 
spends the winter. There are eight species of this genus of the Swallow 
family, all of them being confined to America. Before the white man dis- 
covered and settled the western world, generations of Martins had made 
their annual journeys from their tropical winter homes to the temperate 
parts of both continents. Their nesting sites were then in hollow trees or in 
caves. While forests and rocky retreats have not been entirely abandoned 
by the Martins, yet many of them now breed in homes provided for them 
by man. The red man, a true lover of nature, invited the cheerful Martins 
to remain about his tepee by erecting a pole on which he hung a hollow 
gourd, for a nesting place. The white successor of the aborigine has 
adopted his red brother's bird friend, often providing a far more elaborate 
home for its use. 

Is there anything in the bird world that represents home life and com- 
munity of interests as well as a colony of Martins ? Contentment, happiness, 
prosperity are here, and the cheerful, social twitter of the Martins and their 
industrious habits are a continual sermon from the air to their brothers of 
the earth. The only note of discord in one of these happy colony houses is 
from the pugnacious English Sparrow, who covets the comfortable homes 
of the Martins and tries to evict the rightful owners and substitute his harsh, 
disagreeable chatter for their pleasant voices. 

The value of the Martin to the human race is very great. The birds 
are so preeminently aerial that their food necessarily consists of flying in- 
sects. Among these may be some of the dreaded Stegomyia. It is a well- 
established fact that this and other species of mosquito convey both 
malarial and yellow fever. Every mosquito, therefore, that is destroyed by a 
Martin, or, in fact, by any bird, lessens so much the chance of the spread 
of fever plagues. Human lives are sacrificed every year; immense sums of 
money are expended for investigation and prevention of yellow fever, yet in 
some localities where this scourge is found the Martin is not understood and 


The Purple Martin 3 

appreciated as it should be. If one human life is saved each year through 
the destruction of fever-bearing mosquitos by the Martins, and other birds, 
it is a sufficient reason why the lives of these valuable birds should be sacred. 

The Martin is also known to feed on other injurious insects. Dr. 
Packard (as quoted by Weed and Dearborn, 'Birds in their Relations to 
Man,' p. 130), found one of the compartments of a Martin box "literally 
packed with the dried remains of a little yellow and black squash beetle"; 
and the same authors state that "ten Nebraska specimens, examined by 
Professor Aughey, had eaten two hundred and sixty-five locusts and one 
hundred and sixty-one other insects." 

In portions of the northern range of the Martin it is undoubtedly de- 
creasing in numbers, and the houses which they once animated by their wel- 
come presence are now deserted or occupied by the omnipresent English 

While their absence may, in some instances, be accounted for by the 
persecutions of this introduced feathered pest, and also to mortality among 
the young birds, occasioned by cold weather or prolonged storms during the 
nesting season, it now seems that their disappearance is in no ?mall measure 
due to their destruction in the South during their migration. 

In a recent issue of the Charleston, South Carolina, ' Post,' the follow- 
ing item appeared: "The sport of shooting Bats [Nighthawksj and Martins 
is practiced every year all over the State, and thousands of these insect- 
destroyers are annually slain." The editor adds: "The officers in many 
counties are looking out for violators of the bird law and intend to stop the 
evil practice." In response to an inquiry, the fact was disclosed that in 
Charleston the Martins were considered something of a nuisance on account 
of their roosting in the trees of the parks at night; an effort was made 
to drive them out by turning the fire-hose on them with little slaughter, but 
effective dispersion. 

Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, the Secretary of this Association, who is a 
resident of North Carolina, contributes the following gruesome story about 
Martins, and truly adds: "This is one of the wild creatures which in- 
creased rapidly with the advance of civilization in the United States until 
recent years, and its present decrease must in a large measure be due to the 
persecution which it is receiving today in many localities in the southern 

"Martins are accustomed to gather in large flocks during the latter part 
of summer for the purpose of roosting in some favored grove. As they 
journey southward, apparently, these flocks increase in size, and the writer 
has on several occasions watched the birds coming to their roosts in the 
evening in astonishing numbers, estimated at 100,000. They seem to prefer 
a grove, near a human habitation, for their nightly rendezvous. They 
create no little comment in the neighborhood because of their numbers, 

4 The Purple Martin 

and by their continuous chatter and fluttering, particularly during the early 
part of the night. There is usually little prejudice against them, but not 
infrequently the people in the neighborhood make excuse that the birds are 
a nuisance and proceed to shoot into the flocks when they come to roost. 

"At Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, a great number of these mi- 
grating birds gathered the past summer (1905), and chose as their nightly 
roosting place the grove of a summer hotel. The proprietor, wishing to 
rid himself of them, invited a number of his neighbors, who, lying wait for 
the birds, fired into the trees and continued to shoot until the ground was 
literally covered with the dead and dying birds, and for days after wounded 
Martins could be found fluttering about the neighboring lawns and road- 
sides. Estimates on the number of birds killed vary from 8,000 to 15,000. 
Upon hearing of this tragic violation of the law, the North Carolina Audu- 
bon Society sent a warden to prosecute the offending parties, twelve of 
whom were convicted and fined in the local court. The warden, to pre- 
vent any further slaughter, arranged a number of tar barrels to the wind- 
ward of the grove, and fired them in the evening, thus creating a dense 
smoke, which drifting over the grove drove the birds away, and they were 
not seen again. A citizen of the place said it had been very noticeable that 
since the appearance of Martins there had been less mosquitoes than for 
many years previous, and he thought that the community would never again 
allow these valuable birds to be slaughtered in that locality." 

The moral of this story is this: You who love the Martin for his cheery 
social nature and his inestimable worth must do something at once to 
educate those who do not yet appreciate and value these birds. This can 
be done by circulating thousands of copies of this leaflet. The National 
Association has the organization to carry on this necessary educational 
work; you are asked to contribute financial aid. A membership in the 
Association costs but $5 annually, and each member can feel assured that 
his dues will be the means of circulating hundreds of leaflets, some of which 
may reach those who are now blind to the beauty and value of these aerial 

"So were we men and women, and should hold 
Our rightful rank in God's great universe, 
Wherein, in heaven and earth, by will or nature, 
Naught lives for self." 

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^Cr Annual Report of the National Association 



COPVniGHT, 1905. BV 


COPIES OF BIRD-LORE WANTED.— We will give 50 cents each for the first 50 
copies of Bird-Lore for February, 1905. Vol. VII, No. 1, returned to us at Harrisbure. 
Ha., in good condition. Mail copies flat under three cents postage. 


November -December, 1905 




The Structure ok Wings. Illusiraied. . . 

The Growth of a Voung Bird. Illusiraieil by the author 


. . Lota's A^s^assiz Fiiertrs . 
William Morton Wheeler . 257 
£. R. Warren . 263 

Some Earlv .\.\ierica.n' ORNirHoi.or:isTS. I\'. .Ai.k.xander Wilson. Illustrated 

H 'timer Slone . 265 

Bl.UR Jays at Home. Illustrated by the autlmr Wilbur T. Smith . 26.S 

The Story of a Tame BoK-WHirK. Illustrated by the author J. M. Graham 271 

A Pair of Flickers and Their Home, lllusiraliun . . ... A. L. Princchom . 

The Feeding Habits of the Niirther.n Phai.aropk. Illusiniled by the author 

J-raiik M. Chapman . 273 

The Migration of Wakblkrs. Thirteenih Paper, llhistraled by Louis Ag-assiz Fnertes and 

Bruce Hors/all . . . . ' II . fl'. Cooke . 275 

Bird-Lore's Colored Plates. 279 

Bird-Lore's Sixth Christmas Bird Ck.nsis 279 


Glli.s Destroy Insects and .Mice. William Dutrlier,- How tuf R'bds Comk, lUiis.. Jennie 
C. Ball: Los Angeles Bird N'isitors, Harriet Williams Myers: rwENTY-THiRD Con- 
gress of the a O. U. 


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«*» Manuscripts intended for publication, books, etc., for rei'iew and exchanges should be 
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Subscribers whose subscription 
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while. Presented to every subscriber to Vol. ^"^J '^\n rCCeiVe, tnC magd^lHC 111 

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Entered as second-class niai! matter in the Post Office at Harrisburg, Pa. 

1. Beldings Yellow-throat, Adult Male. 3. Maryland Yellow throat, Adult Male. 

2. Belding's Yellow-throat, Adult Female. 4. Maryland Yellow-throat, Adult Female. 

5. Maryland Yellow-throat, Young Male. 
(One- naif natural size. J 


Official Ohgan of the Audubon Societies 

Vol, VII November — December, 1905 No. 6 

The Structure of Wings 


OF all the animals that inhabit the surrounding world, none have called 
forth the admiration and envy of man to such a degree as the ani- 
mals that can fly. The bird and the butterfly have become symbols 
of our higher natures — of the hope and the fancy that lighten the burdens 

■of living. Man's admiration of winged things is seen in the multitudinous 
creations of his art — in his angels, victories, sylphs, grifl'ins, demons and 
genii. His envy of flying animals is seen in his unceasing efforts to provide 
himself with wings, in the construction of balloons and flying machines. 
The myth of Daedalus and Icarus and Santos-Dumont's most recent experi- 
ments in aeronautics are only very ancient and very modern expressions of 
this ever-present longing to leave the heavy earth behind and to breathe the 
tenuous air nearer the sun. 

It is very probable that animals have not acquired the power of flight in 
obedience, to any such longing as man experiences. During the long history 
of the animal kingdom on our planet, the ability to rise into the air by means 
of wings, and to move about in it at will, probably first arose in animals that 
leaped or that had taken to dropping from trees to the ground when pursued 
by their enemies. In other words, animals were forced to develop wings as 
a means of escape, and not from any desire to fly. This peculiar power of 
flight appears to have arisen some four or five times during the course of 
animal evolution, and, curiously enough, each time it was developed the 
wings were built on a different plan. There are flying insects, flying fishes, 
flying reptiles, birds and bats — and these five groups of animals represent as 
many different forms of wing. Let us examine them in succession. 

Insects are the only back -boneless animals that can fly, and most in- 
sects have wings. A few species probably never had wings, and some others 
have given up flying, so that their wings have become small and weak and 
useless. If we examine any typical insect, such as a butterfly, a grasshopper 

• or a bee. we observe that the wings consist of two pairs of flat, thin struc- 


Bird -Lore 

tures, stiffened with branching ribs that make them resemble more or less 
closely the leaves of certain plants. They are jointed at their attachment to 
the body and can be moved with greater or less freedom by the insect, the 
tip of each wing describing a figure 8 in flight. A study of the develop- 
ment of insect wings shows that they are really nothing but great flat ex- 
pansions of the sides of two rings of the body, the second and third behind 
the head of the animal. Their shape varies greatly in different insects, and 
on it depends the character of the flight in any particular instance. Insects 
with both pairs of wings broad and of nearly uniform shape and size have a 


Courtesy of F. A. Lutas 

slow, unsteady flight. This is the case with many moths and butterflies. In- 
sects of powerful and rapid flight, like the hawk-moths, often seen hovering 
about flowers in the twilight, have the fore-wings long, narrow and pointed 
and the hind -wings small. In some of these swift -flying insects, like the 
flies, — our common house-fly, for example, — the hind-wings are reduced to 
little rudiments, called balancers, or halteres, which no longer function as 
wings. Finally, insects with a gliding flight, like the grasshoppers, have 
small narrow fore -wings and broad, fan-shaped hind-legs. 

The wings of all back-boned animals differ from those of insects in be- 
ing peculiar modifications of limbs which were originally used for walking, 
or, in the case of the flying fish, for swimming. They are not mere expan- 

The Structure of Wings 259 

sions of the sides of the body, as in insects, although similar expansions may 
be developed in connection with the limbs in the animals we are now to 

In the flying fish, which inhabit the warmer seas of the globe, the pec- 
toral fins are greatly enlarged, and enable the animals to leave the water and 
to fly through the air a short distance when hotly pursued by their enemies. 
The flying fish is not a great master of the art of flight, and can hardly be 
compared in this respect with birds, bats and pterodactyls. 

The pterodactyls were reptiles which, fortunately, perhaps, for us, be- 
came extinct many ages ago — in what is known by geologists as the Mesozoic 
period. Had we been living at that time we should not have feared the 
smaller species, which were only about as large as sparrows, but the large 
pterodactyls, with their long, toothed jaws and wings twenty -five feet across 
when expanded, would have been far more formidable. In the pterodactyl, 
the wing consisted of a large membrane extending from the posterior sur- 
face of the arm and enormously lengthened fourth digit (our ring-finger) of 
the hand to the anterior surface of the thigh and leg. According to some 
authorities, it was the fifth digit (our "little" finger) that became the " big" 
membrane -supporting finger in the pterodactyl. The tail, long in some 
pterodactyls but short in others, was inclosed in another membrane which 
connected the inner surfaces of the thighs and legs. 

At first sight, the wings of pterodactyls would seem to resemble those of 
bats, but this resemblance diminishes on closer examination. In the bat, 
not only is the little finger of the hand enormously lengthened, to support the 
membrane attached to its posterior edge and extending back to the fore sur- 
face of the thigh and leg, but also the fingers of the bat's hand correspond- 
ing to our index- middle and ring-fingers are similarly lengthened, and the 
spaces between them are webbed with membrane as far as their tips. Only 
the clawed thumb remains small and free from the membrane and projects 
forward. Our common, insect-eating bats have an additional membrane be- 
tween the hind legs inclosing the long tail in its middle, but the East Indian 
fruit-bats, some of which are as large as half-grown kittens, are tailless, and 
the membrane between the thighs and legs is very poorly developed. 

Flight reaches its most perfect expression in birds, and some of these are 
the largest flying animals now found upon the globe. All birds' wings — 
from the huge soaring wings of the condor to the little, rapidly vibrating 
wings of the humming-bird — are built on the very same plan, — a plan, how- 
ever, that differs very much from the wing -plan of bats and pterodactyls. 
In existing birds, that portion of the fore-limb which corresponds to our 
hand has only three fingers, corresponding to our thumb, index- and middle 
finger, or, according to some zoologists, to our index-, middle and ring-finger. 
The thumb is short and unimportant, whereas the index- and middle fingers 
are united and considerably elongated. To the hind margin of this peculiar 



hand very long, stiff feathers, the so-called primaries, are attached, while 
other, somewhat shorter feathers, the secondaries, are attached to the hind 
surface of the lower arm. These feathers overlap one another and thus form 

a large expansion, 
which has the same 
function as the large 
skin expansion of 
the bat and the 

Thus far we have 
considered only the 
true flyers. There 
are, however, sev- 
eral arboreal animals 
that might be called 
chute animals, since they are 
'ided with membranes that can 
pread and thus permit a gradual 
FLYING FROG OF JAVA slanting descent through the air. 

Most of these animals are inhabitants of the Old World, some of the most 
remarkable forms occurring in the East Indies. The membranes and 
devices for spreading them present three modifications. In one form, that 
of the flying tree-frogs of the East Indies, the toes of all the feet are greatly 
lengthened and webbed up to their disc-like tips. These tips resemble the 
toe-pads in our common tree-frogs. The figure shows the Javan flying 
frog with its parachute spread in the act of gliding through the air. 

We find a second modification of the parachute in a small group of liz- 
ards of the East Indian genus Draco, which comprises some twenty species. 
These animals have five or six pairs of their ribs elongated and straightened 
out at right angles to the body. The skin envelops the ribs and is spread 
between them as a thin membrane. The Dracos live in the tree-tops, where 
they hunt for insects, often gliding from twenty to sixty feet on a stretch 
through the air in their descent from one branch to another. They rarely, 
if ever, descend to the ground of their own accord. The parachute mem- 
brane is, of course, always expanded and ready for use. Like the expanded 
wings of butterflies, it is often banded and blotched with brilliant colors 

A third method of supporting the parachute is found in three distinct 
and unrelated groups of mammals — the flying phalangers, the flying lemurs 
and the flying squirrels. These animals are all nocturnal and all resemble 
squirrels in size and coloration. They are all provided with a broad fold of 
skin which connects the fore and hind limbs on either side, and which, like 
the skin of the remainder of the body, is covered with fur on its upper and 
under surfaces. The animals leap from the branches of trees, holding their 

The Structure of Wings 


legs out straight and thereby spreading the parachute membrane. They can 
guide the course of their gradual descent by means of the tail, which is long 
and bushy in the fllying phalangers and flying squirrels. 

The flying phalangers are related to the opossums, and, like most of their 
allies, inhabit Australia. The habits of the yellow-bellied flying phalanger 
are described by Mr. Gould as follows: "This animal is common in all the 
brushes of New South Wales, particularly those which stretch along the 
coast from Port Philip to Moreton Bay. In these vast forests trees of one 
kind or another are perpetually flowering, and thus offer a never-failing sup- 
ply of the blossoms upon which it feeds; the flowers of the various kinds of 
gums, some of which are of great magnitude, are the principal favorites. 
Like the rest of the genus, it is nocturnal in its habits, dwelling in holes 
and in the spouts of the larger branches during the day, and displaying the 
greatest activity at night while running over the small, leafy branches, fre- 
quently even to their very extremities, in search of insects and the honey of 
the newly opened blossoms. Its structure being ill -adapted for terrestrial 
habits, it seldom descends to the ground except 
for the purpose of passing to a tree too distant 
to be reached by flight. When chased or 
forced to flight, it ascends to the highest 
branch and performs the most enormous leaps, 
sweeping from tree to tree with wonderful 
address; a slight elevation gives its body an im- 
petus which, with the expansion 
of its membrane, enables it to pass 
to a considerable distance, always 
ascending a little at the extremity 
of the leap ; by this 
ascent the animal 
is prevented from 
receiving the shock 
which it would 
otherwise sustain." 

The flying squir- 
rels very closely 
resemble the fly- 
ing phalangers, al- 
though they are flying lizard (draco) 
really more closely related to the squirrels, rats and rabbits. The larger 
flying squirrels inhabit India, Siberia and eastern Europe. One beauti- 
ful little species, however, occurs in the United States, although we rarely 
see it, because it does not usually leave the hollow tree in which it sleeps till 
after nine o'clock in the evening. Then it begins a very active search for its 

262 Bird- Lore 

food, running along the branches or gliding through the air with outstretched 
parachute, from branch to branch or to the ground. 

The flying lemurs, of which there are only two species, occur in the 
Philippines and neighboring islands. They are rather slender animals, about 
the size of a small cat. Besides the expansion of skin between the fore and 
hind limb, they have a smaller fold extending along the shoulder and front 
surface of the arm as far as the wrist, and another larger fold between the 
hind legs and embracing the tail. The toes of all the feet, too, are enveloped 
in the skin-fold up to their claws. The flying lemurs are said to sleep hang- 
ing to the branches with their heads down, like bats. When climbing about 
in search of the leaves and insects on which they feed, the parachute mem- 
brane is tucked up against the sides of the body. When the membrane is 
expanded the animal resembles a kite, and in this condition it has been 
known to traverse a distance of seventy yards at one glide, with a descent of 
only one yard in five. The flying lemurs are peculiar in many points of their 
structure, so that zoologists have found it difficult to give them a permanent 
place in the classification. 

Photographed by F. M. C. 

This brief study of the wings and parachutes with which different animals 
are provided leads us to an interesting conclusion. We see the same simple 
function, flight, performed by a variety of structures, which have only the 
character of an expansion in common. In most cases the expansion consists 
of the skin of the animal, but in birds it is made up of overlapping feathers. 
The skin expansion, again, may be supported in a variety of ways — by the 
arms and legs in flying squirrels, by elongated fingers in the flying frogs, by 
both elongated fingers and arms and legs in bats and pterodactyls, by elon- 
gated ribs in the flying lizards, and, lastly, by a specially developed branching 
framework in the wings of insects. Nature thus attains the same simple 
end by employing a variety of methods. She never grows monotonous, for 
her ingenuity and resources are alike infinite. 


The Growth of a Young Bird 

By E. R. WARREN. Colorado SprinES, Colo. 

With photographs from life by the author 

IN the spring of 1903 a pair of House Finches {Carpodacus mexicanus 
frontalis) built their nest on the cap of the columns supporting our 
porch roof, and laid four eggs. The nest was watched until the eggs 
hatched, on the 12th of May. Beginning on that day, pictures were taken 
daily of the young, care being taken always to have the camera as nearly as 
possible at the same distance from the birds, and to place the birds on a 
paper ruled into inch squares. The pictures illustrating this article show the 
changes at intervals of several days. 

At first, the birds have nothing but a partial covering of down, and, as 
usual with such young birds, are hideous, half-naked little things. About 



"'^'■"""'" 4 

\ w 

1 ^^F 'Hif 



the fourth day the feathers begin to show on the wings, and by the sixth 
these are well advanced and the tail-feathers are beginning to sprout. The 
eighth day shows still more advance, the web begins to appear at the tips 
of the sheaths of the wing-quills and the body- feathers show a little. In 
ten days the birds are quite well feathered, the primaries are well developed 
and the other wing-feathers are advancing rapidly. The birds begin to 
show more activity, and, while they have not much use of their limbs, they 
can wriggle about in a lively, not to say aggravating, manner when one is 
trying to photograph them. 

When they were twelve days old it was found best to take the pictures 
as side views, instead of placing the camera so as to look directly down upon 
the birds. They were now pretty well covered with feathers but could 
hardly sit up straight. 

As the days went on they began to get the use of their limbs, and could 
sit on a perch if one had the patience to pick them up and replace them a 
dozen or two times. The last picture was taken on the sixteenth day, when 
only a little of the natal down was left, and that on the head. They left 
the nest on the seventeenth day after hatching, but, as I had gone away 
myself the evening before, I got no more pictures. 



Some Early American Ornithologists 



IN 1794 a young Scotchman, Alexander Wilson by name, thoroughly 
disheartened by his surroundings at home, embarke-d for America, like 

many another, who had gone before him, to seek his fortune. He had 
no definite idea as to what he was to find across the water, but was con- 
vinced that no conditions could be worse than those he was leaving behind. 

Wilson was at this time just twenty-eight years of age. He was born 
of poor parents and brought up, like all the family, to the trade of weaving, 
against which his whole nature rebelled. He was different from his plodding 
associates and yearned for something better than the loom. He loved Na- 
ture and delighted in an outdoor life. He possessed also the spirit of the 
poet, and tried hard to emulate Robert Burns. Many of his verses were 
published, but the reception that was accorded them was not very encourag- 
ing, and added to his despondency. 

So impatient was Wilson after his long sea voyage that he landed at 
Wilmington, Delaware, and went on foot to Philadelphia, to which port 
the vessel was bound. He was delighted with the strange flowers and trees, 
overjoyed to be again on land, and charmed with the songs and bright 
plumage of the Cardinals and other birds which he encountered. 

Arrived at Philadelphia, he was confronted with the old necessity of 
making a living. There being no demand for weavers, he sought other oc- 
cupation, and finally became a school teacher — a position which in those 
days demanded but very meager attainments. Wilson's early education had 
been very limited, but he had read extensively, developed a good hand- 
writing, and, by studying in his spare hours, he soon found himself suf- 
ficiently well-equipped for his new vocation. For seven years he taught 
school near Philadelphia and at Bloomfield, New Jersey, and spent his 
leisure in rambling through the woods and fields and in writing verses. 

So far, although possessed of a strong love for Nature and of a studious 
disposition, Wilson seems to have had no thought of a serious study of any 
of the natural sciences, and chance alone shaped his future career. In 1802 
he moved to Gray's Ferry, now within the limits of Philadelphia, to take 
charge of the school there. Near by was the botanic garden of William 
Bartram, and a close friendship immediately sprang up between the venerable 
naturalist and the schoolmaster, which was to alter the whole trend of the 
latter's life. 

In the association and instruction of Bartram, Wilson saw Nature in a 
new light; his interest and enthusiasm were aroused and he longed to add 
to his knowledge in this new field. He studied the library at the botanic 
garden, and was surprised at the lack of information, particularly concerning 



Bird - Lore 

the birds, which were objects of especial interest to him. Of many of them 
he soon possessed more knowledge than the books, and it was not long 
before he had conceived the idea of producing a work which should furnish 
a complete account of all the birds of America. 

Illustrations were, of course, a necessity, but, nothing daunted, he im- 
mediately set about- learning to draw. He had no artistic talent, but after 



From a drawing in the possession of the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, formerly 

the property of George Ord. Courtesy of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club 

school hours and until far into the night he worked with pencil and brush 
until, after many attempts, he was actually able to produce excellent repre- 
sentations of the birds, though his few attempts at backgrounds were 
almost ludicrous. In 1805, his varied studies gained recognition in his ap- 
pointment as assistant editor of Rees' Encyclopaedia, then being published 

Some Early American Ornithologists 267 

by Bradford and Company, which insured him a much better living than 
his precarious school teaching afforded. Now, at last, he was beginning to 
realize his hopes. The production of the ornithology became a thing 
possible; Bradford was to be the publisher, Lawson was to etch the plates, 
and Bartram gave constant aid and encouragement. 

In 1808, with a sample of the first volume under his arm, Wilson set out 
on foot and by stage to secure subscribers, traveling through New York 
and New England as far as Portland, Maine, and later, southward to Sa- 
vannah, Georgia, where he obtained the last of the requisite two hundred 
and fifty subscribers at $120 each. He met with many rebuffs, of course, 
and Governor Tompkins, of New York, told him he would not give him a 
hundred dollars for all the birds he intended to describe, even if he had 
them alive. In spite of all, he returned to Philadelphia, triumphant. The 
publication progressed rapidly, he took a boat trip down the Ohio and went 
on horseback through the Mississippi wilderness to New Orleans in search 
of new birds and additional subscribers, and, by 1813, the eighth volume 
was going through the press. In the summer of that year, however, Wilson, 
who had been wearing out his delicate constitution by his confining work, 
was taken sick and died, after a few days' illness, on August 23. His friend, 
George Ord, completed another volume of the ornithology from the 
materials left by the author, and so was produced the finest work on the 
birds of any country that had appeared up to that time; a work that has 
ever since been a standard and the guide of many a subsequent American 

Wilson, at the time of his death, had just begun to reap the reward of 
his work in the praise that it enlisted, both at home and abroad. Of 
financial reward there appears to have been none, as all the receipts were 
consumed in the cost of publication, and, even at that, the work of the 
engraver was largely a labor of love. 

Of Wilson's personality, we learn from those who knew him best that 
he was honorable and truthful to a degree but of a retiring disposition and 
exceedingly sensitive to criticism, so that he made friends with difficulty. 
His enthusiasm was great, but apparently only exhibited to those with whom 
he was on most intimate terms. 

What would have been the effect upon American ornithology had 
Wilson been allowed to live out his life and publish a popular ornithology 
and other works, which he seems to have planned, it is hard to say. As it 
was, his entire ornithological work was accomplished in eight or nine years, 
and his death came just when he was at his prime. These facts should be 
considered when comparing his work with those of others who rounded out 
their full lives and completed their cherished projects. 

Alexander Wilson has been called the father of American ornithology, 
and he merits the honor. He was an ornithologist in the fullest sense of the 


Bird - Lore 

word, as ardent a bird-lover in the woods as he was a student of the litera- 
ture of his subject; and when once he had entered upon his life's work, it 
occupied his every thought. No one can be said to be familiar with 
American ornithology who has not read ' Wilson,' and through the pages of 
the book made the acquaintance of the author. 

Blue Jays at Home 

By WILBUR F. SMITH. South Norwalk. Conn. 
With photographs from nature by the author 

TO those knowing the Blue Jay only as the wild, shy bird of the tree- 
tops, so hard to approach, or, by reputation, as a thief or a robber of 
other birds' nests, there remains a pleasure like unto finding some 
new and rare bird, to watch a pair of Jays through the nesting season and to 
find them so devoted to their nest and young that they lose much of their 
shyness and allow a familiarity which very few other birds will tolerate. 

One pair of Jays built for several years in a tangle of briers near my 
home, and the female became so tame, through constant visiting, that 1 
could at last spread her wings and tail-feathers without her leaving her nest, 
and even stroke her back with no further sign of disaoproval than a settling 
lower in the nest and a parting of the bill; as six members of the local 
Audubon Society will testify. The nest was in too difficult a position to 
photograph, so I looked forward to the time when I could renew the Jay's 

acquaintance under more favor- 
able circumstances, and was happy 
this spring when, on May 5, I 
found a nest about seven feet 
high, in a clump of dogwood sap- 
lings, containing five fresh eggs. 
Patience is the key to success^ 
with Blue Jays at least, and it 
was needed here, for both birds 
were very wild at first, and, in- 
deed, the male remained so^ 
screaming defiance, so it sounded, 
from a distance, and leaving his 
mate to guard the nest. Lying 
on the ground in plain view^ 
about twenty feet from the nest,. 
I waited for the female to return, 
and this she did, after much flying 
BLUE ]AY SITTING back and forth from tree to tree» 









^^V/ 4 




Blue Jays at Home 


and dropping from limb to limb, until she stepped into her nest. Gradually 
she allowed me to come nearer, until I could sit within eight feet of her 
and walk away without her flying. Now I brought the camera, placing it, 
without concealment, on a home-made stand, on a level with the nest, 
and running a string back to a near-by fence. Strange to say, the bird did 





^ Y^yBjp^r'"^ 

JfT"^ '^^^^B ^ ^ 








/>-»p| ^ 





not seem to have any fear of the camera, and I gradually moved it nearer 
the nest until it was less than three feet from her and she allowed me to 
make bulb exposure of one- half second, change the plate and reset the 
shutter. With one hand against the tree in which the nest was built, I 
made another exposure with the other hand, put back the slide, took down 
the camera and left her still brooding her voung. 

May 15, four eggs hatched, and the next day the fifth egg had disap- 
peared. It would be interesting to know if the Jay carried away any un- 
hatched egg. May 20, the eyes of the young had not yet opened, and 
what ugly-looking babies they were! But they appeared so only to me, for 
the mother-bird would stand on the edge of her nest and look at them, 
this way and that, with apparent admiration before settling down to brooding. 

In all my watching these birds, not once did they bring a bird's egg to 


Bird - Lore 


their nest, nor did they disturb the small birds nesting near, nor would the 
male come near the nest while the camera was in position. 

Perhaps the prettiest thing connected with the life of this nest occurred 
when the young were twelve days old. I had taken three friends to see 
them, and, as we were watching them from behind the fence, the mother- 
bird brought food and fed one hungry youngster and was looking at them 
from the edge of the nest, when the male came, also with food. Alighting 
on the opposite side of the nest, he gave the food to his mate, who in turn 
gave it to the young, a scene so attractive that I y/ished all those who cry 
" thief" and denounce the Jay could have seen it. 

Coming and going, the birds were singularly quiet, giving utterance to 
only a single note, which I associate with their nesting. So marked was their 
silence while I was about the nest that one must attribute it to a desire not 
to draw attention to their home. 

May 30, the young showed the first signs of fear and a disposition to 
leave the nest. They were now well feathered, one being especially large and 
keeping the best position in the now crowded nest. The morning of June 
I they left the nest, and I photographed them on a branch. Now the old 
birds were furious, and the male had gained the courage to join his mate; 
several times they struck me in the face with their wings, even swoop- 

The Story of a Tame Bob-white 


ing down and striking my dog, who was with me. After all mv interference 
I had the satisfaction of leaving the young in the old birds' care, for had 
harm come to them through me, the pleasure with which 1 watched the 
nest, from the eggs to the birds just flown, would have been changed into 
regret. Now I can look forward with anticipation to another spring, hoping 
to renew their acquaintance and perhaps become better friends. 

The Story of a Tame Bob-white 

By J. M. GRAHAM. Pinewood. Tcnn. 

Illustrated by the author 

PEEWEEDIE' is the name of one of eight little Bob-whites hatched 
under a Bantam hen in June, 1904. When first hatched, he was 
about one-third larger than a big bumble-bee, and quite wild. The 
Httle hen was confined in a pen, out of which the little Quail could not 
escape. They were fed on bugs, worms, grasshoppers and crickets, with 
crumbs of egg-bread, until several weeks old, when they were allowed 
on the lawn with their mother, who was very fond of them, and exerted 
all her vocal powers to keep them together. When frightened, they would 
hide in the grass, nor would they reappear for some minutes, although the 
hen would cluck and call and use every artifice known to her to bring them 
from their hiding-places. 

At night they were caught and put in a box, to prevent cats or rats from 
getting them. This soon got to be impracticable, so a hole was cut in the 



Bird- Lore 

box, the hen put under, and she would call the little ones, who would go 
into the hole and be brooded for the night. 

The ducks, turkeys and chickens got to devouring them, so they were 
put in the garden, around which there was a paling too high for the poultry 
to get over, and in this way Peeweedie and one other were raised until half- 
grown, when the cat got one — for which she was sent ofif. 

The little hen soon quit the ground and went to roost with the other 
chickens in an oak that stood within five feet of the kitchen porch. Pee- 
weedie followed her, and continued to roost in the tfee until cold weather 
came on and the chickens went to roost in the hen-house. 

For several nights Peeweedie roosted alone in the grass near the house, 
but. tiring of that, he went with the chickens to the hen-house, where he 
has roosted since, managing to get in between two chickens to keep warm. 

He eats out of our hands, and when not called for his food he comes on 
the porch, flies on a table near the kitchen window and calls until he is fed. 
When we had snow on the ground, he flew from the hen-house to the 
kitchen, a distance of one hundred yards, got his food and flew back. It is 
predicted that he will leave me at mating time, but as there is a covey of 
Quail that frequents the garden and lawn, I trust that he will conduct a 
successful courtship and induce a mate to keep house with him on the lawn, 
and allow us to feed them as we have him. If he should leave, the pleasure 
Avc have derived from having him is worth all the trouble it has cost us. 

The picture shows Peeweedie on a wheelbarrow eating out of my hand. 

Photographed from nature by .\. L. Priiicehoni 

Note the feedin|;-pl3ce juit abandoned at the left 

The Feeding Habits of the Northern Phalarope 


With photojjraph* from nature by the author 

THE discovery of a well-marked trait or habit in bird-life is so unusual 
an experience, that among all the interesting incidents which crowded 
a trip to California, as a member of the American Ornithologists' 
Union excursion of 1902, I recall with most satisfaction several hours passed 
with the Northern Phalaropes at Monterey, on May 27. 

A record-breaking northwest wind had been blowing for over two weeks. 
It had evidently rendered navigation impossible for the Northern, as well as 
Red Phalaropes, and these seafarers among the Snipe, while voyaging to 
their Arctic summer homes, were stranded on the coast in vast numbers. 
A week later we found many wrecks of this feathered fleet ashore on the 
Farallones, their poor, emaciated little bodies floating in the rock-inclosed 
pools left by the tide. 

I had previously known this bird only as an inhabitant of the Atlantic, 
where 1 had seen it in great beds resting in the waters or rising in silvery, 
curling waves before the approach of our steamer, and while I regretted the 
disaster which had befallen the half-starved little waifs, I realized that their 
ill luck was my good fortune, and lost no time in availing myself of this ex- 
ceptional opportunity to make the acquaintance of a bird which but few 
naturalists have met intimately. 

All the quiet bodies of water contained Phalaropes, a large pond in the 
city of Monterey being fairly speckled with them. As, with several members 
of the A. O. U. party, I approached its margin, I was not a little astonished 
to observe that apparently one-half the Phalaropes in it were spinning about 
in the most remarkable manner. They might have been automatic teetotums. 

The sight of this singular action aroused vague memories of a description 
of it as a courtship ceremonial. It will be remembered that marital relations 



Bird -Lore 

among the Phalaropes are somewhat unusual. Not only is the female larger 
and more brightly colored than the male, but she is the male in all but the 
prime essentials of sex. She woos, selects the nesting-site, and, while of 
necessity she lays the eggs, the male, unaided, hatches them and rears the 
resulting family. 

These facts suggest that a careful study of the mating habits of Phala- 
ropes will throw much needed light on, the problem of sexual selection, and, 
exulting at the splendid possibilities of the situation, I concealed myself in 
an overhanging limb which swept the water. The nearest birds were now 
within ten feet. The larger size and brighter plumage of the females was 

strikingly noticeable 
and no difficulty would 
therefore be exper- 
ienced in determining 
the part in the perfor- 
mance taken by both 

At once the alleged 
forwardness of the fe- 
male was discounted 
by seeing quite as many 
males as females pir- 
ouetting; while the 
sight of single birds, 
of either sex, whirling 
around quite alone, 
cast doubt on the sex- 
ual significance of the 

In short, it required 
only a few moments' 


the revolving birds were feeding. The lobed feet were moved alternately in 
such a manner that the bird spun around in the same spot, making a complete 
revolution in about two seconds and from three or four to as many as forty 
turns without stopping. A rotary movement of the shallow water was thus 
created, bringing to the surface small forms of aquatic life which the Phala- 
ropes eagerly devoured, their slender bills darting rapidly two or three times 
during each revolution. It was an interesting and, in my experience, a 
novel method of securing food. 

■«//} ^.i 

1. Cape May Warbler. Adult Male. 4. Palm Warbler, Adult. 

2. Cape May Warbler, Adult Female. 5. Palm Warbler, Young. 

3. Cape May Warblbr, Young Female. 

(One- half natural size.) 

JTor Ceaci)er0 anti ^tutient0 

The Migration of Warblers 


Compiled by Professor W. W. Cooke, Chiefly from Data 
in the Biological Survey 

With drawings by LOUIS Agassiz Fl'ERTes and BRUCE HORSFALL 


No. of years' Average date of 

record spring arrival 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

Atlantic Coast — 

Southern Florida . . 

Northern Florida . . 
Atlanta. Ga. (near) 

Washington. D. C. . . 
Soutneastern New York 
Eastern Massachusetts 

Montreal. Can. . . 

Quebec, Can. . . . . 
Scotch Lake, N. B. 

Mississippi J'' alley — 

Brookville, Ind. . . . 

Chicago, III 

Oberiin, Ohio . . . 

Southern Wisconsin . . 

Southern Michigan . . 

Ottawa, Ont. . . . 

Lanesboro, Minn. . . . 

Elk River, Minn. . . . 

Aneme. Manitoba . . 




April 8 
April 14 
April 25 
May 8 
May 12 
Mav 12 

Mav 18 

May 5 
May 6 
May II 
May II 
May 15 
May 16 
May 16 
Mav 20 

March 3. 1887 
April 3, 1901 
April 18, 1902 
May 2, 1888 
May II, 1893 
May 10, 1897 
May 14. 1890 
May 16, 1902 
May 16, 1903 

May 4, 1899 
April 30, i89< 
May 5. 1895 
May 6, 1888 
May II, 1890 
Mav II, 1 900 
May 8, 1887 
May 17, 1889 
May 14, 1 90c 


PLACE \^°- "' »""■ 
1 record 

Average date of first 
one seen 

Earliest date of first 
one seen 

Aweme, Manitoba 

Chicago, III 

Guelph, Ont 

August 23, 1901 
August 20, 1896 
August 23, 1904 
August 25, 1890 
September 8, 1898 
September 17, 1887 

Washington, D. C 

Mt. Pleasant. S. C 

Southern Florida 



Bird - Lore 

FALL MIGRATION, continued 

Grinnell, Iowa . . . 

Chicago, 111 

Beaver, Pa 

Washington, D. C. . 
French Creek, W. Va. 
Southern Florida . . 

No. of years' 

Average date of last 
one seen 

Latest date of 
last one seen 

September 17, 1886 
September 21, 1896 
September 24, 1889 
October 14. 1888 
October 21, 1891 
November 7, 1891 


The Palm Warbler has been separated into two subspecies, of which 
Dendroica palmarum ranges west of the xA.lleghanies. while Dendroica palma- 
rum hypochrysea, the Yellow Palm Warbler, occurs along the Atlantic slope. 
In the following notes, the localitj- will serve as a general guide to the 
particular form intended. 


Atlantic Coast — 

Raleigh, N. C. . . . 

Washington, D. C. . . 
Germantown, Pa. . . 

Englewood, N. J. . . 
New Providence, N. J. 
Southeastern New York 
East Hartford, Conn. . . 

Boston, Mass 

Southern Maine 

St. John, N. B 

Halifax, N. S 

Pictou, N. S. 

Mississippi Valley — 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, III 

Southern Wisconsin 
Oberlin, Ohio 
Petersburg, Mich. . . . 

Listowel, Ont 

Hillsboro, Iowa 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Lanesboro. Minn 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Elk River, Minn 

Avveme, Manitoba . . . . 
Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca 

No. of years' 

Average date of 
spring arrival 







March 31 
April 6 
April 14 
April 14 
April 17 
^April 18 
April 16 
April 18 
April 23 
April 20 
April 27 
Mav I 

April 15 
April 25 
April 30 
April 30 
April 30 
May 2 
April 22 
April 26 
April 27 
April 30 
May 3 
Mav 7 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

Februarv 13, 1890 
March 31, 1889 
April II, 1889 
April II, 1902 
April 13, 1889 
April 14, 1893 
April 9, 1887 
April 13, 1897 
April 16, 1896 
April 13, 1896 
April 20, 1890 
April 28, 1894 

April 5, 1882 
April 17, 1897 
April 22, 1886 
April 24, 1897 
April 26, 1894 
April 28, 1894 
April 14, 1896 
April 22, 1888 
April 23, 1890 
April 27, 1889 
May I, 1886 
May 3, 1901 
May 23, 1901 

The Migration of Warblers 




No. of years' 




Average date of ' Earliest date of first 
first one seen pne seen 

Northwestern Minnesota 

Lanesboro, Minn 

September 10 September 9, 1896 
September 18 September 17, 1888 
September 15 September 4, 1900 
September 26 September 16. 1898 
September 28 September 19. 1892 
September 13 September 7. 1889 
September 26, 1886 
September 7, 1896 

Chicago, 111 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Southern .Maine 

Beaver, Pa ... 

Englewood. X. J. 

Mount Pleasant, S. C 

No. of years' 

Aweme. Manitoba 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Chicago, 111. ..... 

North River, Prince Edward Island 

St. John, N. B 

Southern Maine 

New Providence. N. J. .... 

Washington, D. C. .... 

Average date of last 
one seen 

September 30 
October i 
October 9 

October 13 
October 13 
October 12 

Latest date of last 
one seen 

October 6, 1901 

October 3, 1890 
October 18, 1896 
September 15, 1887 
October 18, 1896 
October 20, 1892 
October 18, 1894 
October 19, 1890 


The Maryland Yellow -throat has been separated into some six or more 
different subspecies, three of which occur along the Atlantic Coast, two in 
the interior and several on the Pacific slope. It is not possible to apportion 
the migration notes with any degree of accuracy among these various 


No. of years' 

Atlantic Coast — 

Raleigh. N. C 13 

Washington, D. C 9 

Beaver, Pa. 6 

Renovo. Pa. 

Germantown, Pa. . . 5 

Englewood, N.J. ... 

Southeastern New York . . 14 

Jewett City, Conn. 

Boston, Nlass. ... 

Southern New Hampshire 

Southern Maine .... 

Quebec, Can. . . 

St. John, N. B 

Central Nova Scotia . 

North River, Prince Edward Island 

Average date of 
spring arrival 

March 30 
April 21 
May 4 
May 4 
April 29 
VI ay 4 
May 5 
May 4 
May 7 
M ay II 
.VI ay 14 
VI ay 17 
May 18 
May 25 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 

Vlarch 20, 1894 
April 18, 1888 
April 30, 1899 
Vlay 2, 1900 
April 24. 1886 
April 30. 1902 
April 30. 1900 
April 29, 1902 
May 2, 1896 
May 6, 1902 
Vlay 7, 1902 
Vlay 13, 1899 
Vlay II. 1888 
Vlay 18. 1896 
June 6, 1891 


Bird- Lore 

M ississippi I a lln — 

Rodney, Miss 

Helena, Ark 

Eubank, K3' 

St. Louis, Mo 

Brookville, Ind 

Waterloo, Ind. . . . 
Wauseon, Ohio . . 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Chicago, 111 

Petersburg, Mich. . . . 
Southern Ontario ... 
Parrv Sound District, Ont. 

Ottawa, Ont 

Keokuk, Iowa > . . . 

Grinnell, Iowa 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Elk River, Minn 

Aweme, Man 

ffestern United States — 

Onaga, Kans 

Cheyenne, Wyo 

Great Falls, NIont. . . 
Columbia Falls, Mont. . 
Osier, Saskatchewan . . 

Beaverton, Ore 

Southern British Columbia 

No. of years' 

.Aver-ige date of 
spring arrival 

Earliest date of 
spring arrival 








March 28 
April 15 
April 15 
April 18 
April 26 
April 25 
April 30 
April 29 
May I 
May I 
May 8 
May 18 
May 16 
April 27 
April 30 
May 5 
May 12 
May 22 

April 28 
May u 
May 12 
May 10 

April 6 

March 25, 1890 
April 9, 1898 
April 10, 1S92 
April 14, 1887 
April 18, 1896 
April 19, 1891 
April 26, 1891 
April 26, 1899 
April 27, 1902 
April 2+, 1886 
May 3, 1901 
May 13, 1899 
May 4, 1905 
April 23, 1893 
April 22, 1890 
April 30, 1888 
May 9, 1890 
May 18, 1902 

April 23, 1896 
May 9, 18S9 
May 10, 1892 
May 9, 1895 
May 25, 1893 
March 21, 1885 
April 4 1889 


No. of years' 

Columbia Falls, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Central South Dakota 

Lanesboro, Minn 

Ottawa, Ontario 

Chicago, III 

Waterloo, Ind 

North River, Prince Edward Island . . 

St. John, N. B 

Southern Maine 

Eastern Massachusetts 

Southeastern New York 

New Providence, N.J 

Renovo, Pa. 

Germantown, Pa 

Washington, D. C . . 

Averaee date of 
last one seen 

September 11 
September 28 
September 18 
September 28 
October i 
September 4 
September 26 
October 3 
October 3 
October 2 
October 3 
October 4 
October 1 3 

Latest date of 
last one seen 

October 5, 
October 5, 
October 2, 
October 8, 
October 3, 
October 13 
October 11 
October 14 
October 23 
October 6, 
October 30 
October 20 

24, 1896 
15, 1902 

27, 1889 


II, 1887 

, 1901 
. 189s 
, 1891 

, 1888 
, 1890 


A western species, resident in and restricted to Lower California. 

Bird-Lore's Colored Plates 

The series of twenty-four colored plates illustrating North America Warblers will be 
completed in the next volume of Bird-Lore. The responses to the query, sent out last 
year, concerning the most desirable group of birds to figure in color when the Warblers 
were concluded, leaves the choice between the Flycatchers and the Thrushes and we should 
be glad to receive a further expression of opinion in regard to this matter. 

In Bird-Lore for December, 1904 we stated our desire to add colored plates to Mr. 
Dutcher's admirable Educational Leaflets, and, to our no small satisfaction, we find ourselves 
in a position to gratify it. 

Hereafter then, in addition to the Warbler plates, each number of Bird-Lore will 
contain a colored plate of the male and female of some well-known North American bird. 

To teachers who subscribe to Bibd-Lore the Natural Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties makes this generous offer : on application to the Association at 141 Broadway, each 
teacher will receive, without charge, two extra copies of each Educational Leaflet together 
with two colored plates and six facsimile outline drawings of the plate for coloring. 
Additional copies of the Leaflet, plate, and outline may be had at cost. 

Bird-Lore's Sixth Christmas Bird Census 

THE plan of reporting ones observations afield on Christmas Day has 
met with such cordial and practical endorsement b}- bird students 
throughout the country that Bird-Lore's Christmas Bird Census 
may now be considered a fixed event, which increases in interest as the 
accumulating records give additional material for comparison. From a total 
of twenty -five lists received in 1900 it has grown to seventy-nine lists in 
1904, and there is every reason to believe that the returns for the present 
year will exceed in number those of any previous season. 

Reference to the February, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, or 1905 number of 
Bird-Lore will acquaint one with the nature of the report of the day's hunt 
which we desire ; but to those to whom none of these issues is available we 
may explain that such reports should be headed by a brief statement of the 
character of the weather, whether clear, cloudy, rainy, etc., whether the 
ground is bare or snow-covered, the direction and force of the wind, the 
temperature at the time of starting, the hour of starting and of returning. 
Then should be given, in the order of the A. O. U. ' Check-list,' a list of 
the species seen, with exactly, or approximately, the number of individuals of 
each species recorded. A record should read, therefore, somewhat as follows : 

Yonkers, N. Y. Time, 8 A. m. to 12 M. Clear; ground bare; wind west, light; 
temperature 38°. Herring Gull, 75: Total, — species, — individuals. — 
James Gates. 

These records will be published in the February' issue of Bird -Lore, 
and it is particularly requested that they be sent the editor (at the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York City) not later than December 28. 
It will save the editor much clerical labor if the model here given, and the 
order of the A. O. U. Check-list be closely followed. 


jBtote0 from JPteH) anti ^tuDp 

Gulls Destroy Insects and Mice 

It is a well-known fact that Gulls cat a 
great many insects, but it is not generally 
known that they will also eat mice. The 
following letter from John E. Cox, of the Utah 
Board of Agriculture, is of great interest: 
" Gulls go all over the state for insects, the 
greatest number visiting the beet fields, 
where they keep down the crickets, grass- 
hoppers, cutworms, etc. They took a new 
diet this summer. Some alfalfa fields were 
so badly honeycombed with mice holes 
and runs that it was impossible to irrigate 
them, and they were plowed up, mostly for 
beet culture. When the water was turned 
into the irrigation ditches the mice were 
forced out of their holes, and the Gulls then 
caught them ; they became so perfect in 
their work that they kept abreast of the 
head of the water and picked up every 
mouse that appeared. When gorged with 
victims they would vomit them up in piles 
on the ditch bank and recommence their 
feeding. Gulls are sacred in Utah, and are 
so tame that oftentimes they may be caught 
by hand as they follow the plow so closely." 
— Wm Dutcher, Netv York City. 

How the Birds Come 

In reading the winter-feeding number 
of Bird-Lore, I saw no mention of 
Shore Larks, yet these birds have been 
among our winter visitors for four years. 
On February 21 and 22, 1902, there was 
a heavy snow-storm, and on the morn- 
ing of the second day I saw three Shore 
Larks feeding among the Tree Sparrows 
close by the house. In the driving storm 
and bitter cold, they were crouching so 
that they seemed almost to make nests in 
the snow. As I stood watching them, 
softly, like a larger flake of snow, a Snow 
Bunting came fluttering down; and on 
that day eleven Larks and thirty-five 
Snow-Buntings fed on the lawn. Every 
winter since the Larks have visited us, 
coming earlier each season, last year 

appearing in December. Most of them 
are Otocoris aLpestris praticola, but the 
largest flocks, numbering fromfortj'to sixty, 
contained also Otocoris alpestris. 

Last winter, on the 8th of February, 
eighteen Snow Buntings were feeding on 
the lawn; but the number increased con- 
stantly, until, by the 24th, there must have 
been five hundred of them. 

The fourth day of their coming they 
brought one Lapland Longspur with them. 
He would usually be found on the same 
spot a few feet from the house, where a lit- 
tle heap of corn was kept. Our house is at 
the edge of a small village, where the farms 
begin, and there is quite a stretch of lawn 
free from trees. To attract the ground - 
feeding birds, we usually keep the snow 
cleared from a part of the lawn, and scatter 
chaff and hay seed from the barn floor, to 
give the appearance of bare ground ; in 
February when the snow is deep in the 
fields and nature's larder is nearly bare, we 
look for Snow Buntings and larger flocks 
of Larks. 

We have tried various kinds of grain, but 
now use chiefly cracked corn, for the large 
flock last winter scattering twelve or fifteen 
quarts a day. 


W:.f/ -v 





r /^r.K 






'>■',,'' ' 



Notes From Field and Study 


After the Snow Buntings became familiar 
they frequently perched in the trees: some- 
times, as shown in the picture, in a small 
maple near the house, whence they would 
drop, a few at a time, to their feeding 
place, sometimes on the apple trees or on a 
large elm farther away in the pasture. 
There I have seen one or two hundred at a 
time, making the trees look fairly white. 

Another pretty sight was a flock sitting 
on the telegraph wire, after the manner of 
Barn Swallows. 

These birds, with our Chickadees, Downy 
Woodpeckers, Juncos, Blue Jays, Tree 

. .'V^. •• . 


■J ^ 







i/ . _ 



Sparrows, White-breasted Nuthatches, and 
sometimes a Meadowlark, give us a variety 
of winter visitors. 

One beautiful morning last February 
when, with "no cloud above, no earth 
below," as a Snow Bunting sat on the low 
fence and poured out his beautiful song as 
sweetly as a Thrush in June, I thought that 
even a New England winter is not without 
compensations for the bird lover. — Jennie 
C. Ball, Oaki'ille, Conn. 

Los Angeles Bird Visitors 

It was a glorious winter's morning, and I 
sat at my window breathing in the pure air. 

From the end of the garden hose a little 
stream of water trickled, making a shallow 
pool about two feet long, and here the birds 
were taking their morning baths. Hop- 
ping about were several of those handsome 
little fellows — the White-crowned Sparrows. 
There was room for several to bathe at once, 
but not all could get in who wished, and 
those not in the water sometimes showed 
their impatience by making a scolding noise, 
which did not, however, scare or hurry their 

The joll3^ handsome House Finches — 
commonly called Linnets — were also of the 
party, bathing side by side with the Spar- 
rows, but occasionally making an unfriendly 
dive at them. 

Two dear little Arkansas Goldfinches 
came flying down to the little pool and 
with many a friendly, good-natured "Peep, 
peep?" — "May we bathe, too?" hopped in 
and began their ablutions. 

The White-crowns had kept up a con- 
tinuous flying in and out of the water, new 
bathers taking the places of those who were 
fortunate enough to find the pool first. 
A Brown Towhee came hopping along with 
her sociable " Chip, Chip," and, finding a 
deserted corner of the little pool, jumped in 
and ducked and splashed to her heart's 
content, then flew upon the fence and made 
her toilet — not a long process, as she con- 
tented herself with wetting her breast. 

When the pool was about deserted, a 
" tsip, tsip," and a flutter of many plump, 
hurrying little feathered mites, proclaimed 
that a flock of California Bush-tits had 
come for their daily feast of scales and 
small insects. Lighting in one of my pep- 
per trees, I was delighted to see that some 
of the busybodies had discovered the water. 
Down they flew, until there were five of them 
splashing at one time, making a pretty 
picture. More of them hopped about on 
the ground, and would undoubtedly have 
gone in had not the Sparrows driven them 

While the bathing went on beneath my 
window, I glanced out at the vacant lot 
beyond me. There a small flock of Audu- 
bon's Warblers were hopping about on the 
ground or swinging from a tempting weed. 


Bird- Lore 

Hopping or flying about with them were 
several of those handsome birds the Lark 
Sparrows and more of the Linnets, and 
White-crowns were flying about in seem- 
ingly utter abandon, their various call notes 
making a veritable bird -babel. Farther 
away, at the top of an elderberry tree, sat a 
California Shrike — silently and quietly 
minding his own business. " Cha-Cha- 
ChS," in a quick, scolding voice, pro- 
claimed that a Ruby-crowned Kinglet was 
foraging in my trees; a dainty Anna's 
Humming-bird whizzed by my window, 
stopping long enough to sip fearlessly at 
the flowers that grew beside me; while 
above all else rang out the liquid, inspir- 
ing notes of a Mocking-bird. 

Surely here was a gathering which repaid 
a half-hour's stay at my open window. — 
Harriet Williams Myers, Los Angeles, 

Twenty-third Annual Congress of the 
American Ornithologists' Union 

The twenty-third Congress of the Amer- 
ican Ornithologists' Union was held at the 
American Museum of Natural History, New 
York City, November 13-16, 1905. At the 
business meeting of Fellows, on the night 
of the 13th, Charles F. Batchelder was elected 
president of the Union, E. W. Nelson and 
Frank M. Chapman, vice-presidents, John 
H. Sage, secretary, and J. Dwight, Jr., 

The Fellows elected were: Walter K. 
Fisher, Palo Alto, Cal. ; Lynds Jones, Ober- 
iin, Ohio, and Wilfred H. Osgood, Wash- 
ington, D. C. The five Members elected 
were: Austin H. Clark, Boston, Mass.; 
W. Leon Dawson, Seattle, Wash.; J. H. 
Riley, Washington, D. C. ; JohnE. Thayer, 
Lancaster, Mass.; Charles W. Townsend, 
Boston, Mass. Seventy- one Associates were 
elected, making the total membership (in- 
cluding all classes) of the Union about 900. 

The average attendance was greater than 
that at any previous Congress, and, in addition 
to the regular sessions, at which were pre- 
sented the papers in the appended list, there 
was a Union dinner, followed by an informal 
reception at the American Museum, excur- 
sions to the Museum of the Brooklyn Insti- 

tute of Arts and Sciences, the New York 
Aquarium, and New York Zoological Park. 
The twenty-fourth Congress of the Union 
will be held in Washington, D. C, Novem- 
ber 12, 1906. 

LIST OF papers 

Some Unpublished Letters of Wilson and 
some Unstudied Works of Audubon, Wit- 
mer Stone ; The Evolution of Species through 
Climatic Conditions, J. A. Allen; Summer 
Birds of the Mt. Marcy Region in the 
Adirondacks, Elon H. Eaton ; Pelican Island 
Revisited, illustrated by lantern slides, Frank 
M. Chapman; Some Breeding Warblers of 
Demarest, N. J., illustrated by lantern slides. 

B. S. Bowdish ; Notes on Wing Movements 
in Bird Flight, illustrated by lantern slides, 
William L. Finley; The Status of Certain 
Species and Subspecies of North American 
Birds, J. Dwight, Jr. ; Wild-fowl Nurseries 
of Northwest Canada, illustrated by lantern 
slideS) Herbert K. Job; Andreae Hesselius, 
a pioneer Delaware Ornithologist, C.J. Pen- 
nock ; The Probability of Error in Bird 
Migration Records, Witmer Stone; Some 
Observations on the Applicability of the Mu- 
tation Theory to Birds, Witmer Stone; The 
Song of the Hermit Thrush, Henry Oldys; 
Impressions of English Bird-Life, illustrated 
by lantern slides, Frank M. Chapman; Ex- 
hibition of Lantern slides, William L. Baily ; 
A Lapland Longspur Tragedy, illustrated 
by lantern slides, Thomas S.Roberts; Simi- 
larity of the Birds of the Maine Woods and 
the Pocono Mountains, Pa., William L. 
Baily; Discontinuous Breeding Ranges, il- 
lustrated by lantern slides. Wells W. Cooke ; 
The Principles of the Disguising Coloration 
of Animals, illustrated with experiments and 
slides, Abbott H. Thayer; The Collection 
of Birds in the New York Zoological Park, 

C. W. Beebe; A Contribution to the Na- 
tural History of the English Cuckoo, with a 
Review of the Literature on the Subject, 
Dr. Montague R. Leverson ; Plumages and 
Status of the White-winged Gulls of the 
genus Larus, Dr. J, Dwight, Jr.; A Con- 
tribution to the Ornithology of South Caro- 
lina, pertaining chiefly to the Coast Region, 
Arthur T. Wayne; Should Bird Protection 
Laws and their Enforcement be in the hands 
of the National Government? O. Widman. 

Jloofe jBtetos and ^^cijietns 

Two Bird-Lovers in Mexico. By C. " 
William Beebe. Illustrated with photo- 
graphs from life taken by the author. 
Boston and New York. Houghton, 
Mifflin Sc Co. i2mo. xiii+408 pages, 
106 half-tones. Price, $3 net. 

Mr. and Mrs. Beebe went to Mexico, not 
to collect but to study birds, and the results 
of their three months' observations are pre- 
sented in this attractive volume. Beginning 
at Guadalajara, they worked thence to 
the coast, thus encountering widely varying 
climatic and physiographic conditions, with 
corresponding diversity in bird-life. A 
camping outfit not only enabled them to 
make their home where they pleased, but to 
pass twenty-four hours of each day in the 
field ; and every camper knows how much 
more intimate relations can be established 
with one's surroundings under conditions of 
this kind than when one lives in even a 
favorably situated house. 

Without enforced duties of trapping and 
shooting, or specimens to prepare, Mr. 
Beebe could devote his entire time to ob- 
serving and recording; and the outcome of 
his labors, as they are here presented, im- 
pels comparison with the briefly 'An- 
notated List' which so frequently forms the 
only published evidence of months of honest 
endeavor. The comparison, indeed, may 
be made in the volume before us, for Mr. 
Beebe gives an annonated 'List of Birds Ob- 
served' in an appendix, and we may count 
most of 374 pages which precede it as due 
to the employment of the observers', rather 
than the collectors' methods. Some day, 
perhaps, when facts are valued as highly as 
'skins,' we may send expeditions into the 
field solely for the purpose of securing 
information in regard to the habits of the 
animals whose bodily remains now tax our 
storage facilities. 

Mr. Beebe had an eye not only for birds 
but for mammals, reptiles and insects as 
well, while his enthusiastic admiration of 
the remarkable scenery one finds in Mexico 
and his interest in the Mexicans themselves 

find expression in well-worded descriptions. 
His book, therefore, possesses a literary 
charm which will add greatly to its scien- 
tific value, for it will both entertain and 
instruct. The excellent photographs by 
which it is embellished will also aid the 
fulfilment of this desirable end. — F. M. C. 

The Bob-white and Other Quails of the 
United States in Their Economic 
Relations. By Sylvester D. Judd, 
Ass't Biological Survey. Bull. No. 21. 
Bureau Biological Survey, Washington, 

This is, in the best sense, an economic 
paper. Based on broad lines, both in 
research and in conclusion, it shows the 
Bob- white's value as a destroyer of weed seeds 
and noxious insects and as a game-bird in 
whose pursuit hundreds of thousands of 
dollars are annually expended, a large pro- 
portion of which goes to the owner of the 
land on which Bob-white is found. Living 
or dead, therefore. Bob-white is a valuable 
asset, and the problem of maintaining the 
supply of birds in the face of a constantly 
increasing demand is worthy of the most 
serious consideration. That it can be done, 
with favorable climatic conditions, is beyond 
question. Short shooting-seasons, strict 
enforcement of the game-laws, prevention 
of trapping, prohibition of sale as game, 
and winter feeding will go far toward keep- 
ing the numbers of this prolific bird from 
decreasing; and we know of no better 
means to inaugurate a general movement 
toward this end than to distribute widely 
this admirable publication, whicli treats not 
only of Bob-white but of our six other 
species of Quails 

The appearance of this work so shortly 
before the unspeakably sad end of its tal- 
ented young author makes doubly keen our 
regret at the loss of an investigator whose 
accomplishments had won him high rank 
among the real naturalists of this coun- 
try. It will be difficult to fill his place.— 
F.M. C. 



Bird - Lore 

The Ornithological Magazines 

The Auk. — The October number of ' The 
Auk' opens with two papers by A. 
H. Clark on the Parrots and Macaws of 
the Antilles. Digging among the hazv ac- 
counts of early writers, Mr. Clark has pieceil 
together a description of an extinct Parrot 
of Martinique, which he names Amazona 
martinica, Gmelin's name i-iolacea being 
available for another extinct Parrot of 
Guadeloupe. While the practice of nam- 
ing vanished birds from the tales of ancient 
travelers is not new, its usefulness is some- 
what questionable, and we may, perhaps, 
look forward to the day when the Roc of 
' Sinbad the Sailor ' will be furnished 
with an appropriate scientific name. 

A well-annotated list of the birds of the 
Bahamas, by J. H, Riley, next attracts our 
attention; and G. F. Breninger asking 'Are 
the Habits of Birds Changing?" gives ex- 
amples of various Arizona species that have 
adapted their nesting sites to new conditions. 
A journal of ' A Third Trip to the High 
Sierras' near Lake Tahoe is written bv 
M. S. Ray, and we would only criticize his 
comparison of the songs of the Russet-backed 
and Hermit Thrushes of the region. To 
our ear it is the song of the former that is 
"loud and ringing," and the notes of the 
latter "subdued," not the reverse, as Mr. 
Ray puts it, — it would not be difficult, 
though, to confuse the songsters. More 
mountain species will be found in a list of 
the ' Summer Birds of Mt. Pinos, Cal..' by 
J. G. Grinnell. 'The Direction of Flight 
in the Fall Migration at New Haven, 
Conn ,' by L. B. Bishop, is a study of the 
migrants passing a certain hill. Those at 
a higher elevation flv west, and those at a 
lower, north. 

The breeding of Bachman's Warbler in 
South Carolina, with a description of its 
juvenile plumage, is recorded by W^illiam 
Brewster, and there is an article by A. T. 
Wayne on a surprising number of rare birds 
of South Carolina. 

J. A. Allen takes issue with Mr. Ober- 
holser's conclusions regarding Swainson's 
genera, and also reviews, at great length, 
Mr. H. L. Clark's paper on specific and 

subspecific ditferences, but the lay-reader 
will be more ititerested in the many notes 
and items that are published. Among them 
we find that sixteen specimens of the Ruff 
have been taken in North America, and 
that the English Sparrow has at last reached 
Tucson, Arizona. 

An obituary notice of Walter E. Bryant^ 
wlio died May 21, 1905, marks the passing 
of a prominent California ornithologist. — 
J. D. Jr. 

The Condor. — The September number 
of ■ The Condor ' opens w ith the first part 
of Finley's paper entitled 'Among the Sea 
Birds off the Oregon Coast,' and illustrated 
with nine cuts from Bohlman's superb 
photographs. This part deals with the 
birds found on Three Arch Rocks, sixty 
miles south of the mouth of the Columbia 
River. An account of the life and work of 
the late Walter E. Bryant, accompanied by 
a portrait, is contributed by Waller K. 
Fisher, and is followed by a list of Bryant's 
ornithological writings, comprising fort}"-four 
titles, compiled by Joseph Grinnell. These 
two articles give a good idea of Bryant's con- 
tributions to West Coast ornithology. It is 
noticeable, however, that an important 
paper on Cerros Island, published in 1886, 
is omitted. This article, containing the 
first list of birds of the island, with notes on 
twenty-seven species, appeared in 'Forest 
and Stream," Vol. XXVII, pp. 62-64. 

Three faunal papers in this number also 
deser\'e special mention. These are the 
concluding part of Kaeding's 'Birds from 
the West Coast of Lower California and 
Adjacent Islands,' Dixon's 'Dr\- Notes from 
Dry Lake' on San Gorgonio Peak, Cali- 
fornia, and Bishop's 'Notes on a Small 
Collection of California Birds," from San 
Bernardino and San Diego counties. The 
last-mentioned paper contains a description 
of Oberholser"s Vireo. Vireo huttoni ober- 
holseri. based on a specimen collected at 
Witch Creek, in San Diego county, in 
April, 1904. 

The series of portraits of eminent Euro- 
pean ornithologists, begun in March, is 
continued by those of Dr. Alphonse Dubois, 
of Brussels, Prof. Max Fiirbrin^er, of Heidel- 

Book News and Reviews 


berg, and Dr. Rudolf Blasius and Dr. 
Wilhelm Blasius, of Brunswick. — T. S. P. 

Book News 

The Massachusetts Audubon Society 
announces the publication of a new Audu- 
bon Calendar for 1906. The calendar con- 
sists of six new plates of American War- 
blers, printed in Japan in the best style o' 
Japanese color-printing, from blocks made 
expressly for this purpose, and tastefully 
mounted on cards 9^ x 14^ inches, with 
descriptive text on back. These are be- 
lieved to be the first Japanese reproductions 
of American birds ever made, and they have 
the artistic distinction that belongs to the 
finest Japanese workmanship. The birds 
represented are the Black-throated Blue 
Warbler, Canadian Warbler, Yellow- 
throat, Oven-bird, Black-poll Warbler and 
Myrtle Warbler. Price, $1 .50, net, postpaid. 

Orders should be sent at once, as the edi- 
tion is small. 

In 'Science' for September i, 1905, 
W. E. D. Scott states his belief in the 
origin by mutation of certain North Ameri- 
can birds of doubtful status. Mr. Scott's 
argument centers chiefly about Brewster's 
and Lawrence's Warblers, which he regards 
as mutants ; but in a succeeding number of 
'Science,' Dr. J. A. Allen questions Mr. 
Scott's conclusions and supports the gener- 
ally accepted theory of hybridity and 
dichromatism as accounting for these puz- 
zling forms. 

' Farmers' Bulletin ' No. 230, of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, is 
entitled ' Game Laws for 1905. A summary 
of the provisions relating to seasons, ship- 
ment, sale and licenses.' This useful docu- 
ment was prepared by T. S. Palmer, Henry 
Oldys and R. W. Williams, Jr. 

The report for 1904 of the Director of the 
Bernice Pauahi Museum of Honolulu, con- 
tains ' Notes on the Birdsof Waianae Moun- 
tains,' ' Notes on the American Birds Col- 
lected in the Hawaiian Islands by Mr. Gerrit 
Wilder,' and several papers describing the 
nests and eggs of Hawaiian birds, all by 
Wm. Alanson Brvan. 

Publication No. 25 of the Bureau of Gov- 
ernment Laboratories (Manila, P. I., 1905), 
by Richard C. McGregor, contains a paper 
on ' Birds from the Islands of Ramblon, 
Sibuyan and Cresta de Galio,' and ' Further 
Notes on Birds from Ticao, Cuyo, Culion, 
Calayan, Lubang and Luzon.' Several new 
species are described, and there are interest- 
ing observations on the nesting habits of the 
Panay Hornbill (Penelopides panini } and 
Linch's and Whitehead's Swifts f Salangana 
linchi and S. iMhiteheadi), with photographs 
of nests and eggs. 

In ' The Birds of the Genus Cinctus and 
Their Geographical Distribution' (Smith- 
sonian Miscell. Coil. Vol. XLVII, Part 4), 
Dr. Stejneger concludes that these birds of 
marked form and habit originated in "that 
enormous and ancient plateau and mountain 
region north of India, and east of 90° 
east longitude, whence they have radiated 
wherever high enough mountain ranges, or 
otherwise boreal conditions, permitted them 
to push forward their colonies." The paper 
is a suggestive contribution to philosophic 

' The Ostriches and Their Allies,' by C. 
William Beebe * Ninth Annual Report of 
the New York Zoological Society), gives a 
general account of the Apteryx, Emu, 
Cassowary, Rhea and Ostrich, and discusses 
their 'External Structural Adaptations to 
Cursorial Habits.' 

An unusually large collection of the nests 
and eggs of South American birds is de- 
scribed by Dr. J. A. Allen in ' Supplemen- 
tary Notes on Birds Collected in the Santa 
Marta District, Columbia, by Herbert H. 
Smith, with Descriptions of Nests and Eggs' 
I Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxi, pages 

Vernon Bailey (' Birds Known to Eat the 
Boll- Weevil,' Biol. Survey, Bull. No. 22) 
lists twenty-two species of birds which have 
been known to eat the boll-weevil, and says 
that "it is probable that by carefully pro- 
tecting such species and by encouraging 
their increase the good work they now do 
may be greatly augmented." 


Bird - Lore 


A Bi-monthly Magazine 
Devoted to the Study and Protection of Birds 



Vol. VII Published December 1. 1905 No. 6 


Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico 
twenty cents a number, one dollar a year, post- 
age paid. 


Bird-Lore's Motto : 
A Bird in the Bush is Worth Two in the Hand 

An Opportunity for the Local 

During the past year our enterprising 
Pacific coast contemporary, 'The Condor,' 
has been conducting a discussion of the 
opportunities for original work offered to 
the investigator by the study of birds. It is 
encouraging to note that none of the con- 
tributors to this symposium suggests system- 
atic work as the promising field of future 
endeavor, but that they emphasize the im- 
portance of the study of the bird in relation 
to its environment. 

For the greater part, however, their re- 
marks are addressed to those who desire to 
make ornithology their profession ; but the 
probabilities are that in no other branch of 
zoology are the professionals so outnumbered 
by the amateurs; and this fact, it seems to 
us, should be constantly held in mind in 
any consideration of ornithological interests. 

For one person whose official position 
gives him the time and very elaborate 
equipment essential to research in technical 
ornithology, there are hundreds, equally 
ambitious, but handicapped by limited op- 
portunity and indequate material. 

These are the local bird students whose 
daily vocation has perhaps no relation to 
ornithological pursuits, in which, how- 
ever, they take the keenest interest. To 
what problems can they turn their attention? 
How can they gratify tiieir desire to achieve 
distinction by making some noteworthy con- 
tribution to the science of birds ? 

There is that usual outlet to circumscribed 
activity — the 'Local List," a wholly admi- 
rable thing, but it is not necessary that 
ever}' ornithologist publish such a list, 
though he may contribute to it. There is 
that so often fatal undertaking, a collection 
of birds' skins, nests and eggs. Fatal, not to 
the birds, for reasonably limited collecting 
never appreciably affected their abundance, 
but fatal to the ornithological future of the 

Once bow the knee to the collecting fetish, 
and we may as well acknowledge at once 
its power for all time. The formation and 
care of even a small collection is more than 
apt to be the beginning and the end of our 
labors. The means to the end becomes the 
end and the specimens themselves acquire a 
value which makes their acquisition a suffi- 
cient reward for our endeavor. 

It is true that one of the participants in 
the discussion we have mentioned considers 
experience as a collector "essential to suc- 
cess, no matter what department of orni- 
thology the young student may finally decide 
to investigate," but since he adds that "no 
young man is justified in thus taking bird 
life unless he is reasonably sure that his 
interest in ornithology is likely to be last- 
ing, and that his ability to devote his life to 
its pursuit is also assured," we may con- 
clude that he is addressing the professional 
rather than the amateur student of birds. 

In what direction, then, can the latter 
direct his efforts with a hope of making an 
addition to knowledge? In our opinion, his 
object may be accomplished by extreme 
specialization. He should devote himself 
not to the study of birds, but to the study of 
a bird, selecting, preferably, the common- 
est species of his locality. 

Once let him determine to prepare as 
complete a biography of the Robin, Crow, 
Song Sparrow or Blue Jay as circumstances 
will permit, and his studies will assume a 
definiteness, importance and interest which 
they lacked before. Not only will he pur- 
sue his field work with renewed vigor, but 
his researches will extend to publications 
which before had no attraction for him; 
and his search for information will lead to a 
correspondence with fellow students through- 



out the country which will instructively 
widen his horizon. 

It is not to be expected that such a study 
can be concluded in a single season, but so 
long as it is incomplete it will repay our 
attention. Its general features may follow 
one of the several excellent outlines for 
birds' biographies to be found in various 
ornithological text-books, or in Bird-Lore 
for December, 1904; and in this connection 
it would be well to consult Mr. Burns" ad- 
mirable Monograph of the Flicker." issued 
by the Wilson Bulletin, at Oberlin, Ohio. 

The possibilities of publishing extended 
reports of the kind we have in mind remain 
to be considered ; and in this connection 
Bird-Lore will promise its assistance, 
agreeing to print and publish, at its own 
expense, any biographical memoir of a 
North American bird which, in our opinion, 
adequately presents its life-histor>'. 

It would be well, however, for intending 
authors to consult us, and. in order to avoid 
duplication of work, as well as to invite 
assistance, to announce in Bird-Lore the 
subject of their proposed biography. 

The Cat Question 

The exaggerated press reports of the reso- 
lution in regard to cats ( see page 290) 
passed by the National Association of Au- 
dubon Societies at its annual meeting has 
exposed the Societies to much unjust criti- 
cism. The Societies are accused of urging" a 
war of extermination" against all cats, and 
of "interfering with the balance of nature." 
while the cat is said rarely to eat birds, or, 
if its destructiveness be admitted, its natural, 
inherent right to kill in response to instinc- 
tive promptings is maintained. 

Now, we might say a great deal on the 
question of birds" rights vs. cats' rights, but 
we prefer to discuss the question in only its 
humane aspects, with the reasonable hope we 
may induce cat- lovers to believe that thev 
may conscientiously join hands with bird- 
lovers in their efforts to prevent the undue 
increase of the cat population. 

No one, we imagine, would hesitate to 
condemn the introduction of the Mongoose 
into this country, or the stocking of our 

woods with Ferrets; whv, then, should we 
permit the increase of an equally predaceous 
animal in such numbers that we cannot care 
for the fast and ever-multiplying progeny, 
which, homeless, are forced to provide for 
themselves. As a result, millions of virtually 
wild cats are roaming our fields and woods, 
leading, doubtless, a life of ease during the 
season of plenty when birds nest, but faring 
miserably in the star\ation time which 

It is. of course, difficult to get exact data 
in connection with this feral cat life of the 
countn., but word now comes of thousands 
of deserted cats wandering along the beaches 
and dunes of our coast, where they have been 
forsaken by heartless 'summer cottagers." 

A startling index of the magnitude of our 
cat population, and. at the same time, of the 
endless suffering entailed by irresponsible 
ownership, is given by certain figures fur- 
nished by the American Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to animals. 

In the interests of humanity, it is one of 
the duties of this widely known organization 
to "destroy homeless, diseased and injured 
cats," and the need for its activities in this 
direction is eloquently expressed in the 
statement that for the first nine months of the 
present year, it destroyed 53.93S cats in 
New York Cit>-, while the total for nine 
years up to 1903 is given as 465,065! 

Analysis of the figures for the present year 
shows that while in Januan.- when climatic 
conditions would lead one to expect a high, 
even if artificial death rate, the sufferings of 
2,019 cats were humanely ended, in July the 
number had risen to 5.533. and a further 
consideration of the statistics supports the 
conclusion that this surprising increase in 
mortality is occasioned by the same thought- 
lessness — to use no harsher term — which 
leaves thousands of cats to starve on our 
beaches. and the homeless cat. in midsummer, 
is apparently no better off than the poor 
wanderer on the winter coast. 

In the light of these figures, can any real 
lover of cats consistently refuse to aid the 
Audubon Societies in their efforts to secure for 
these much-neglected creatures the attention 
and care we should give to cver>- animal for 
whose existence we are responsible? 

Ci)e Audubon ^ociette^ 

" You cannot with a scalpel find the poet' s soul, 
Sor yet the urild bird's song." 


Communications relating to the work of tbe Audubon and other Bird Protective Societies should 
be addressed to Mrs. Wright, at Fairfield, Conn. Reports, etc., designed for this department, should be 
sent at least one month prior to the date of publication. 


■With names and addresses of their Secretaries 

California W. Scott Way, Pasadena. 

Colorado Mrs. Martha A. Shute, Denver. 

Connecticut Mrs. William Brown Glover, Fairfield. 

Delaware Mrs. Wm S. Hilles. Delamore Place, Wilmington. 

District of Columbia Mrs John Dewhurst Patten, 2212 R street, Washington. 

Florida Mrs. I. Vanderpool, Maitland. 

Georgia Martin V. Calvin. Augusta. 

Illinois Miss Marv Drummond. 208 West street, Wheaton. 

Indiana Florence A. Howe, Hillside Ave., Indianapolis. 

Iowa Mrs. W. F. Parrott, Waterloo. 

Kentucky Miss Juliet O. Alves, Henderson. 

Louisiana Miss Anita Pring, 1682 Peters ave. . New Orleans. 

Maine Mrs. C. B. Tuttle, Fairfield. 

Maryland Miss Anne Weston Whitney, 715 St. Paul street, Baltimore. 

Massachusetts Miss Jessie E. Kimball, care Boston Society of Natural History, Boston. 

Michigan Jefferson Butler, Suite 79, Home Bank Building, Detroit. 

Minnesota Miss Jessie Whitman, 2356 Bayless ave., St. Paul. 

Missouri August Reese, 2516 North Fourteenth street, St. Louis. 

Nebraska Miss Jov Higgins, 544 South 30th street, Omaha. 

New Hampshire Mrs. F. W. Batchelder, Manchester. 

New Jersey Miss Julia Scribner, 510 E. Front street, Plainfield. 

New York Miss Emma H. Lockwood, 243 West Seventy-fifth street. New York City. 

North Carolina T. Gilbert Pearson, Greensboro. 

North Dakota ". Miss Elizabeth L. Abbott. Grand Forks. 

Ohio Mrs. C. M. Temple, Wyoming, Cincinnati. 

Oklahoma Mrs. Adelia Holcomb, Enid. 

Oregon Miss Winifred Hawley, Highland Park, Portland. 

Pennsylvania Mrs. Edward Robins. 114 South Twenty-first street, Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island Mrs. H. T. Grant, 187 Bowen street, Providence. 

South Carolina Miss S. A. Smyth, Legare street, Charleston. 

Tennessee Mrs. C. C. Conner, Ripley. 

Texas • Mr. M. B. Davis, Waco. 

Vermont Miss Delia I. Griffin, St. Johnsbury. 

Virginia Mr. E. C. Hough, Falls Church. 

VVisconsin Mrs. Reuben G. Thwaitf.s. 260 Langdon street, Madison. 

Wyoming Mrs. Cordelia Chivington, Cheyenne. 

. -, meetings, the Treasurer presented his report, 

Notes and News . , « • • ■ • 

vehich snowed the Association to be in a 

Pursuant to the notice given in the August very sound financial condition. The special 
Bird-Lore, the annual meeting of the Na- feature of the report was the purchase of two 
tional Association was held at the American one-thousand-dollar 4% bonds; these corn- 
Museum of Natural History October 31. mence the permanent endowment fund which 
Twenty-seven members were present at the should now grow rapidly. It may here be 
morning session and in the afternoon the noted that all membership fees, except those 
west lecture-room of the Museum was com- paid by anniial members, are placed in the 
pletely filled. Members were present from permanent endowment fund, none of the 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, principal of which can be used. Friends of 
New York, New Jersey, District of Colum- the cause of bird protection now have an 
bia, North Carolina and Oregon. opportunity of adding to a fund of which 

After approving the minutes of previous only the interest is available, thus insuring 


The Audubon Societies 



bird protection in perpetuity. The Audit- 
ing Committee reported that they had 
employed expert accountants to audit the 
accounts of the Treasurer, which were found 
to be correct, and the report was ordered 

The President then gave a resume of the 
work of the past year, dwelling on the prog- 
ress made in the several branches of effort. 
This report was ordered printed in the 
December number of Bird-Lore, and also 
as a separate for general distribution, 

The following directors were 
reelected for the term of five yeais; viz 

George Bird Grinnell, New York ; 
Arthur H. Norton, Maine; H. P. 
Attwater, Texas; Walter J. Blakely, 
Missouri; Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright, 
Connecticut; Mrs. Kingsmill Marrs, 
Florida, and Mr. William L. Finley, 
Oregon, was elected to fill the unex- 
pired term of Mr. Isaac N. Field, in 
whose death the Association had 
sustained a great loss. 

The afternoon session commenced at 
2:30, when discussion on the subject 
of cats was held. Extended remarks 
were made by Dr. George W. Field, 
president of the Massachusetts Fish 
and Game Commission ; Dr. Palmer, 
of Washington; Rev. William Lord, 
of Massachusetts, and Mr. Chapman. 
The consensus of opinion was that if 
cats could be kept at home, and if 
their owners could be made responsi- 
ble for them that the lives of multi- 
tudes of wild birds would be saved 
annually. The following resolution 
was adopted : 

Resolfed, That in the interests of 
humanity and bird protection the 
National Association of Audubon 
Societies endorses the movement to 
make the owners of cats responsible 
for their acts and welfare. 

A meeting of the directors was 
held, when all of the officers of the 
Association were reelected for the 
term of one year. After adjournment 
of the business meeting, Mr William 

account of his experiences among the large 
colonies of water-birds breeding in south- 
eastern Oregon, illustrating his remarks with 
many photographs taken by himself and 
Mr. Bohlman. Mr. Finley stated that the 
Audubon Society was responsible for stop- 
ping the slaughter of Grebes in this locality. 
Mr. Frank M. Chapman followed with a 
delightful talk on English bird-life. 

The annual meeting was a most success- 
ful affair, and the members and visitors 
present were enthusiastic over the bright 
prospects of tlie National Association. 


Six copies of this cut. together with two copies of the Educa- 
tional Leaflet, containing a colored plate of the bird here shown 
in outline, will be sent free to all teachers subscribing to BlRD- 
y T-"* 1 • • Lore, on application to the National .Association of .Audubon 

L. Finley gave an entertaming societies, at 141 Broadway. New York City. 


President National Association of Audubon Societies 

Rational Si00ociation ot auHubon &ocietie0 


The Goldfinch, which is also known as the Yellow Bird, Wild Canary, 
Lettuce Bird and Thistle Bird, has been selected as the first of the series of 
birds to be shown in natural colors. Presentation in this way renders 
unnecessary a detailed description of its plumage. The English name of the 
Goldfinch is well chosen, as the bright yellow of the male when in breeding 
plumage is like burnished gold. The Latin generic name of the Goldfinch 
has reference to prickly plants, while its specific name, tristis, sad, refers to 
its rather plaintive flight note. The female Goldfinch is more modestly 
dressed than her mate. 

The changes in plumage of the male are very interesting and, to the 
novice, somewhat puzzling. Until the student becomes acquainted with 
this bird he may wonder why he sees no males during the winter. The truth 
is at this season the flocks of supposed female Goldfinches are really of 
both sexes, the male bird having assumed in the previous fall, usually by 
the end of October, a plumage closely resembling that of the female and 
young bird of the year. 

The male retains this inconspicuous dress until late in February, when 
one can notice a gradual change taking place in some of the birds. This 
molt, or renewal of feathers is actively continued through March and April, 
and by the first of May our resplendent bird is with us again. The change 
from yellow to brownish and back again to yellow can be noted by the stu- 
dent in the field, who with a good opera-glass will find that the variations 
in plumage between the two extremes are without number. 

The song period with the male Goldfinch continues as long as he wears 
his gold and black livery, for it commences as early as the middle of March 
and ends late in August. 

Goldfinches are wee birds, some four and one half-inches in length, but 
what they lack in size they make up in admirable qualities, one of the chief 
of which is their gregarious mode of life. Except during the short season 
devoted to domestic duties, they associate in flocks and live a happy, no- 
madic existence. Their undulating mode of flight seems to express joy and 


Order — Passer es Family — Fringillida 

Genus — Astragalinus Species — Tristis 



Upper Figure, Male; Lower Figure, Female. 

(One-half natural size.) 

The American Goldfinch 


exaltation, and when they add song, it is the very abandon of happiness. Even 
in winter, when the fields are brown and the trees are bare, a flock of Gold- 
finches adds the charm of life to an otherwise dead outlook. 

The Goldfinch migrates, but not to the extent that the truly migratory 
species do. The Warblers, for instance, desert their summer homes and, after 
making long journeys southward, spend the winter beyond the limits of the 
United States; the Goldfinches, on the contrary, gradually move southward 

Photographed from nature by C. William Beebe 

as far as the Gulf States and in winter are found from the Gulf coast as far 
north as the latitude of central New York. Their breeding range is from 
the Carolinas westward to the Rocky Mountains and northward to the 
British Provinces and southern Labrador; consequently they are permanent 
residents in a large part of the United States where their migratory and 
breeding ranges overlap. There are several closely related forms or sub- 
species of the Goldfinch'^ found in the West and on the Mexican border 

* Pale Goldfinch in Rocky Mountain district; Willow Goldfinch in Pacific coast district. 

292 Bird - Lore 

which are so much like the American Goldfinch that it may be said Gold- 
finches are found in a large part of North America. 

Goldfinches are very cleanly in their habits and indulge in frequent baths ; 
indeed, the border of a shallow pool is an excellent place to study this species, 
as it is not an uncommon sight to see a number of the brightly colored 
males gathered there. During the breeding season the parent birds seem to 
have a well-defined route from the nest to a common watering place. 

The nesting site may be in an evergreen or deciduous bush or tree, and 
the nest may be built only a few feet from the ground or at considerable 
height, where it is saddled on or attached to a forked twig. The nest itself 
is an exquisite piece of bird architecture, compactly built of dried grasses, 
leaves and shreds of bark, the outside being embellished with lichens, which 
Audubon says are attached by saliva. The inside of the nest is lined with 
the softest plant-down. The mother-bird is the builder of this tasteful home, 
her handsome consort, during the nest-building time, devoting most of his 
efiEorts to singing to cheer his industrious mate. After the four to six bluish 
white eggs have been laid the singing partner has more work to do, for he 
has to feed his brooding wife. His frequent visits are always announced 
with a sweet conversational song, which he seems able to give even though 
his bill is filled with seeds. 

These leaflets are published to induce the boys and girls of the country 
to keep their eyes wide open and see things out of doors. One of the things 
we want to know about the Goldfinch is why he begins to nest so late in 
the season, often long after most birds are through with domestic duties for 
the year. August is the time he chooses. Surely it seems a strange month 
for nest -building and the care of young. Does he select it because before that 
date nature has not provided food suited to the needs of the young Gold- 

The Goldfinch belongs to the thick-billed, seed -eating class of birds and 
is extremely fond of the seeds of thistles, a most noxious weed. Does he 
postpone housekeeping until the thistle seeds are ripe enough to eat? 

The agriculturist should be interested in this bird. Every thistle along 
the highway is a prolific source of future trouble, but when you see it orna- 
mented with an animated bit of gold and black, you may know that Nature 
is interposing one of her potent checks to the too rapid increase of weed 
pests. Ever}' Goldfinch saves the farmer much hard work by destroying weed 
seeds, which form the bulk of its food supply, although during the breeding 
season it gives its young considerable animal food, consisting of insects of 
various kinds. 

Questions for Teachers and Students 

What is the local name of the Goldfinch in your locality ? Describe the plumage worn 
by the male bird in summer, also at other seasons; how do the plumages of the male and 

The American Goldfinch 


female bird (iiffer ? When does the male bird begin to asssume the summer or breeding 
dress? when the winter dress ? How long does it take to make the change ? Is there any 
change in the plumage of the female bird ? What is a molt ? Do any birds change the 
color of their plumage without molting ? What is such process called ? Describe the 
plumage of young birds at the time they leave the nest. Descriptions should be based on 
observations made in the field from the living bird, when possible. Wi.en does the song 
period commence ? How long does it continue? Does the female have a song? What is 
the alarm note ? The flight note ? Give size of Goldfinch, shape of body, wings, tail, bill, 
feet. What are the habits during different seasons of the year ? W^hat is meant by gre- 
garious ? By nomadic? Are there any peculiarities of flight? During what portion of 
the year are Goldfinches found in your locality ? Do they breed in your locality ? Describe 
the nest in detail, materials used, size, etc. 

(Note. — If an occupied nest of the Goldfinch is found, the locality should be de- 
scribed in detail in a note-book, the kind of tree, height of nest from ground, etc. After 
the nest is abandoned it should be secured, properly labeled, and kept in the class-room 
for examinarion and comparison.) When do the Goldfinches nest in your locality? What do 
Goldfinches eat? (Note. — This question will be answered best from personal observation.) 
Name and describe trie plants from which seeds are taken. Name and describe the insects 
eaten. Is the bird doing good or harm ? To whom, and how ? 



A portion of an Oregon Colony 

Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 

Annual Report of the National Associa- 
tion of Audubon Societies for 1905 


Report of the President: The Year's Work — Principal Results, Office Work, 
Legislation, Reservations, Warden System, Cage-birds, Foreign Relations. 

Suggestions for the Coming Year — Duty of Members, Legislation for Cats, School 
Bird-clubs, Women's Clubs, Aigrettes, Sale of Game, Spring Shooting. 

State Reports. List of Members and Contributors. Report of the Treasurer. 



IT is with pardonable pride that I present to the directors and members 
of the National Association, at its first annual meeting as an incorpo- 
rated body, a brief outline of the results accomplished during the past 
year. Good results are the measure of success in all corporate bodies, and 
in this respect this Society is no different from any other. 

Your directors and officers are selected from the membership, and to 
them is entrusted the management of affairs of the Association. If their 
management meets your approval and shows that the talents entrusted to 
their keeping for the year are ready to be returned with interest in the 
shape of material good accomplished, your commendation will be expected. 
Our Society may be compared with the ocean tides, which never stand still, 
but ever ebb or flood ; let us so do our work that the movement of our 
Society will always be like the flood-tide, growing broader and deeper day 
by day and year after year. 

The object of this organization is to be a barrier between wild birds and 
animals and a very large unthinking class and a smaller, but more harmful 
class of selfish people. The higher and stronger we build our wall the 
greater our measure of success. The unthinking, or, in plain English, the 
ignorant class, we hope to reach through educational channels, while the 
selfish people we shall control through the enforcement of wise laws, reser- 
vations or bird refuges, and the warden system. How well your officers 
and directors have succeeded in their undertaking will be shown in the 
following report. 


296 Bird - Lore 


Principal Results. — Since the last annual meeting the National Associa- 
tion has been incorporated, and is now in a legal position to accept and 
administer legacies either of cash or realty. Already it is known that the 
Society is mentioned in three testamentary documents, and the directors 
urge upon the members the importance of this means of providing for the 
permanency of the Association. Quite recently one of the state societies 
became a legatee in the amount of $i,ooo, this being the first bequest 
received. It shows that the Audubon Societies are attracting attention, and 
their work will in time become one of the best known of the philanthropic 
movements. The Finance Committee have already invested the fees of 
twenty hfe memberships in two one thousand 4 per cent gold mortgage 
trust bonds, issued by the United States Mortgage and Trust Company. 
This is a beginning on which can be built a great structure of consecrated 
wealth. The eighty dollars earned each year by our present fund means 
that some great colony of birds will always be guarded during the breeding 
season. During 19O-I. we had iio contributors to the working fund. Since 
February 15, last, when a systematic effort was commenced to obtain mem- 
bers for the Association, 490 additional ones have been secured. This is a 
gain of 450 per cent. In 1904 the total receipts from all sources was 
$4,929.58; during the present year the receipts have been $12,498.07. This 
is a gain of 250 per cent. 

Office Work. — The Officers have to devote far too much of their time 
to finances, to the detriment of the more pleasant and legitimate work of 
bird protection. When the National Committee was organized in 1901, no 
office was necessary and clerical assistance was needed only a portion of the 
time. The work of the Society has increased steadily, and for a large part 
of the present year two clerks have been employed. The work outgrew the 
limits of the president's home, and, on October i, an office was established 
at 141 Broadway, New York, which will hereafter be the headquarters, 
instead of the familiar '525 Manhattan Avenue.' From the office may be 
heard from morning until night the clatter of typewriting machines sending 
messages to the public about the protection of wild birds and animals, and 
through the door is continually flowing a stream of educational Hterature. 

Hundreds of thousands of pages of such publications have been mailed 
during the past year. The illustrated educational leaflets of the Association 
now number 16, and, in addition, two special leaflets have been issued, one 
devoted to the Robin and the second to the Martin. Thousands of pages 
of letters have been dictated in reply to the ever-growing correspondence. 

Legislation. — The legislative work of 1905 was very successful. The 
Model Law was adopted in five states, — California, Missouri, Michigan, 
Pennsylvania and South Carolina. There is now only one coast state where 

The Year's Work 




298 Bird - Lore 

our law is not in force; therefore sea-birds can more easily be protected. It 
takes only a second of time to say that five states have adopted the model 
law; few of you realize what a long process of persistent effort, and edu- 
cational work on the part of this Association, the State Audubon Society, in 
some cases the Fish and Game Commission, led up to the final victory. In 
more than one state the bill was passed after having been presented and 
urged before three sessions of the Legislature. 

In other states important legislative action was taken, notably in New 
York, where the repeal of the anti-spring duck shooting law was defeated 
for the second time, largely through the work of the National Association 
and the New 'i?ork Audubon Society. The bill defeated was one of the 
most pernicious pieces of bird legislation considered in 1905, and had it 
passed it would have been so decided a set-back to bird protection that it 
would have taken years for the movement to recover. In Texas, after a long 
and arduous fight, an almost similar bill was killed. This magnificent result 
was obtained largely by the work of the secretary of the Texas Audubon 
Society, aided by some earnest and enthusiastic helpers. The National As- 
sociation could do very little in this fight except to encourage those who 
were in the field by supplying them with funds and literature. Wherever and 
whenever a Legislature is in session, the National Association arranges with 
some reliable person at each capital to forward copies of all bills introduced, 
that relate to wild birds or animals. Good bills are approved and urged ; on 
the contrary, bad bills are combated with all the strength and influence of 
the Association and of the State Audubon Society. 

Reservations. — If the National Association did no other work than to se- 
cure Bird Reservations and to guard them during the breeding season, its 
existence would be fully warranted. There is no more effective method of 
protection than to guard the birds while they are breeding, and, if this can be 
done on an island or group of islands set aside as a bird refuge, it becomes 
doubly valuable. It has recently been discovered that these refuges are occu- 
pied by birds at other seasons of the year, as well as during the season when 
they are rearing their young. Birds soon learn where they are not disturbed, 
and will remain there and become very tame. Even game-birds will be bene- 
fited by the reservations, for on them they may not be disturbed, even in the 
open season. One of our wardens reports that it is a wonderful sight to see 
the thousands of Ducks and Geese that gather on the islands and the reser- 
vation waters in his charge. The birds seem to know that there they can 
escape the shooting going on all about them. The result of this year's work 
is four new reservations made by Executive Order of President Theodore 
Roosevelt, to whom this Association is deeply indebted for his never-failing 
interest in and ready help to our work. 

The orders are as follows: 

The Year's Work 299 

It is hereby ordered that the following described islands in Stiinnp Lake in Township 
151 Nortii, Range 6i West, 5th Principal Meridian, North Dakota, shown on the official 
plat approved February 13, 1905, on file in the General Land Office, be, and they are 
hereby reserved and set apart for the use of the Department of Agriculture as a preserve 
and breeding ground for native birds, viz. : 

Two islands in Section 10, one shown as Lot 3 of the section, containing 12 acres, 
and one shown as Lot 4 of the section, containing 7.64 acres; one island in Section 11, 
shown as Lot 4 of the section, containing 2.22 acres ; also one island in Section 15, shown 
as Lot 2 of the section, containing 5.53, total area 27.39 acres. This reservation to be 
known as the Stump Lake Reservation. 

(Signed) Theodore Roosevelt, 

The White House, March 9, 1905. 

It is hereby ordered that Passage Key, an island near the mouth of Tampa Bay, 
Florida, as shown on the General Land Office map of the State of Florida of date 1893, 
and situated in Section 6, Township 34 south, Range 16 east, as the same appears upon the 
official plat of survey of said township approved March 17, 1877, be, and it is hereby 
reserved and set apart for the use of the Department of Agriculture as a preserve and 
breeding ground for native birds. This reservation to be known as the Passage Key 

(Signed) Theodore Roosevelt. 

The White House, October 10, 1905. 

It is hereby ordered that the unsurveyed islands of the Huron Islands group, lying 
near the south shore of Lake Superior, as shown by the General Land Office map of the 
State of Michigan of date 1904, and situated in Sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, Township 53 
north. Range 29 west, as the same appear in part upon the official plat of survey of said 
township approved Jime 4, 1847, be, and they are hereby reserved and set apart for the 
use of the Department of Agriculture as a preserve and breeding ground for native birds, 
This reservation to be known as the Huron Islands Reservation. 

(Signed) Theodore Roosevelt. 
The White House, October 10, 1905. 

It is hereby ordered that the unsurveyed islands of the Siskiwit or Menagerie group 
of islands, lying near the mouth of Siskiwit bay, on the south side of Isle Royal in Lake 
Superior, Michigan, as shown by the General Land Office map of the state of Michigan 
of date 1904, and situated in Sections 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 33, 34 and 35, Township 64 
north. Range 36 west, as the same appear in part upon the official plat of survey of said 
township, approved June 4, 1847, be and they are hereby reserved and set apart for the 
use of the Department of Agriculture as a preserve and breeding ground for native birds. 
This reservation to be known as the Siskiwit Islands Reservation. 

(Signed) Theodore Roosevelt. 
The White House, October 10, 1905. 

The Stump Lake Reservation is used by Gulls, Terns, Ducks and Snipe. 

The Huron Islands and Siskiwit Reservations are occupied by large 
colonies of Herring Gulls, together w^ith a few Ducks. 

Passage Key Reservation, being so far south, is inhabited by an entirely 
different class of birds in the breeding season, such as Royal, Cabot's, Least 
and Sooty Terns. Thousands of Herons and also several varieties of shore- 

300 Bird - Lore 

birds breed there. All the sea-birds in the locality resort there ever}' night 
to roost, also swarms of Ground Doves. 

The Association has already secured six reserxations, or bird refuges, and 
the directors expect to be able to secure additional ones in the near future. 
Reservations can be secured onh" w^hen the property is still owned by the 
General Government. Where a colony is located on an island or other prop- 
erty owned by a state, corporation or individual, other methods of control 
obtain. An effort is now being made to purchase from a state an island on 
w^hich there is a large colony of Herring Gulls. The Louisiana Audubon 
Society has taken a ten gears' lease of twenty-two islands, each of which is 
the breeding place of large colonies of birds, such as Laughing Gulls, Foster's 
Common, Royal and Cabot's Terns, and Black Skimmers. They are also 
negotiating for the purchase of an island containing over 1,000 acres which 
now belongs to the State of Louisiana. The warden who has charge of 
Breton Island Reser\-ation in Louisiana will also guard the territor\" owned 
or leased by the Louisiana Society. This territory is quite large, and it 
is absolutely necessary that our warden should be supplied with a power- 
ful seagoing launch in order that he may rapidly and safely move from island 
to island during the breeding season so the birds may always be assured of 
protection. Dependence on a sailing craft is too uncertain. During the pres- 
ent winter it is purposed to build on Breton Island a small house of refuge, 
which may be used by the wardens or any seamen or fishermen in distress. 
As there is no drinking-water on the Reservation, it is also purposed to sink 
a weU by the cabin. This will render it unnecessary for our warden to 
travel to the mainland, a distance of 100 miles, for a fresh supply of 

Warden System. — The number of wardens in the employ of the Asso- 
ciation has been larger during the present year than ever before, and the 
number wiU probably increase even- year as new colonies of birds are dis- 
covered. As the Association grows stronger in members, and consequently 
has more money to spend, it is purposed to make special investigations of tne 
bird-life of portions of the coast of which we now have only a superficial 
knowledge. L'ndoubtedly many large breeding places will be discovered. 
The magnificent results that have been obtained on the coasts of Maine, 
Massachusetts, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana 
and Oregon, and, in the interior, in New York, Alichigan and Oregon, 
make the directors of the Association feel fully warranted in enlarging this 
valuable means of bird protection. The members and the public must al- 
ways bear in mind that this Association has grown from the appeal made in 
1900 to bird lovers, by Abbott H. Thayer, for special protection to sea-birds 
during the breeding season, and it is therefore incumbent upon us, as far as 
lies in our power, to carry out the original idea. The coasts of South 
Carolina, Georgia, parts of Florida, and especially the Gulf Coast from west 

The Year's Work 301 

of the mouth of the Mississippi River to the Rio Grande, should have early 

Cage-Birds. — This subject has received special and vigilant attention 
during the present year. New York City is the greatest distributing point 
in the live-bird traffic, and it is, therefore, comparatively easy to control it 
and to see that native birds are not dealt in. There have been a few sporadic 
attempts to bring from the south Mocking-birds and Nonpareils, but they 
were soon stopped. The dealers now understand that the National Asso- 
ciation does not intend to permit any traffic whatever, especially interstate 
traffic, in live North American birds. In this work the Association has had 
the heartiest sympathy and cooperation from the officers of transportation 
companies. Some of them have gone so far as to expend considerable sums 
of money in printing extracts of the state bird and game laws for the use and 
guidance of their thousands of local agents. 

When the officers of transportation companies are so deeply interested in 
the subject as to become members of the Association, it is very evident that 
their influence and support can be obtained at all times. 

Foreign Relations — Germany: Early in the year Baron v. d. Bussche, of 
the Imperial German Embassy in the United States, asked, on behalf of his 
Government, for a complete history of the Audubon movement and its 
method of working. This was furnished in the greatest detail, and the oc- 
casion was taken to call the attention of the German Government to the 
very large number of live wild birds that were shipped annually from Bremen. 
The following note was received in reply : 

''I beg to thank you very much for the valuable information you have 
given me, and for the many reports you have sent. I have not failed to draw 
the attention of my government to the facts mentioned in your letter that 
many wild birds are shipped from this country. I hope that the German 
Government will take steps to stop or hamper this trade. Should the 
Embassy get any information about this question I will not fail to let 
you know." 

Great Britain: The most cordial relations exist between the Royal So- 
ciety for the Protection of Birds and this Association. It is suggested to the 
members of our Association that they subscribe for the Quarterly publication 
of the English Society, and thus keep in touch with bird protection matters 
in Great Britain. 'Bird Notes and News' can be obtained for one shilling 
per year by addressing the Society, 3 Hanover Square, W. London. 

Pacific Islands: In the report for 1904, the subject of bird protection on 
certain islands in the Pacific Ocean was treated of in some detail. This im- 
portant matter has continued to receive attention, and, owing to the cordial 
cooperation of the Japanese and United States Governments, the large, im- 
portant and exceedingly interesting bird colonies are now, it is believed, safe 
from the ravages of plume-hunters. The official correspondence is so inter- 

302 Bird -Lore 

eSting and of such historical value as a record of the work of this Association 
that it is given in full. 

No. 167. United States Legation, Tokio, January 12, 1905. 

To the Honorable John Hay, 
Secretary of State, 

Washington, D. C. 

Sir: — I have the honor to report that, acting in accordance with your instruction No. 
86 of November 11, I have this day had an interview with Baron Komura, the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, in which I asked him if he would take some measures to prevent the 
despatch of expeditions from Japanese ports to destroy sea-fowl on the Midway and other 
American Islands, and also if the Government of Japan would coo{>erate with that of the 
United States in preventing, as far as possible, further destruction of sea-birds on the 
islands of the North Pacific. 

Baron Komura stated in response to my remarks that he would at once cause instruc- 
tions to be issued to have Japanese ship captains warned not to engage in the business of 
destroying sea-birds on any of the American Islands. If, he said, after this warning they 
continue to engage in the business, they do so at their own risk. At the same time, be 
could not guarantee that they would obey the prohibition, as this class of men was com- 
posed largely of lawless adventurers. A special prohibition would be issued to the firm 
of Kametoki and Mijutane, Fujimi-cho yo, Yokahama, who are known to have been 
responsible for several of the ventures. 

In regard to the general question of joining with the United States to protect the sea- 
fowl, the Baron stated that there were ships of other nations engaged in the business, and 
consequently nothing could be accomplished except by international agreement. He was 
decidedly of the opinion that the matter was not of sufficient importance to warrant a 
special international agreement. 

I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Lloyd C. Griscom. 

Department of State, Washington, February 8, 1905. 
The Honorable, The Secretary of the Interior. 

Sir: — Referring to this Department's letter of November 3 last, I have the honor to 
enclose herewith for your information a copy of a despatch from the American Minister to 
Japan, reporting an interview which he has had with the Japanese Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, wherein the latter stated what steps would be taken by his Government to prevent 
the further destruction, by Japanese subjects, of sea-birds on Midway Island and other 
islands of the Hawaiian group. 

I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) John Hay. 


The Minister for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to His Excellency, the 
American Minister, and has the honor to state that the matter of the supervision of preda- 
tory hunters of birds on the Midway Islands and other islands belonging to the United 

The Year's Work 303 

States referred to in a recent interview was immediately brought to the attention of the 
Minister for Home Affairs, from whom a reply has now been received to the effect that 
instructions have been issued to the Superintendent of the Metropolitan Police (Tokio), 
the Governor of Kanagawa Ken and other chief of local officials, and to the Civil Admin- 
istrator of Formosa, to take strict measures to prevent any persons within their respective 
jurisdictions from infringing the regulations prohibiting such expeditions. 

Early in the year our Honolulu representative called attention to the fact 
that certain private local interests were endeavoring to secure a concession 
that would permit them to exploit the birds on a number of Pacific 
Islands for millinery and other purposes. The facts in the case and the final 
result can best be given by making the correspondence a matter of perma- 
nent record. 

His Excei i.ency, The Governor, Honolulu. T. H., December 17, 1904 

Executive Ciiamber, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

5z>.— Again referring to the question of Laysan Island, Lisiansky Island and French 
Frigate Shoals, I beg leave to advise, that, in my opinion, I can make a living on them, 
provided I be granted privileges such that tliey will warrant me in undertaking the work. 

At present the Islands are uninhabited ; and are bringing little or no revenue to the 
Government. They are in the path of navigation. Vessels are liable to be wrecked there; 
and without assistance their crews necessarily would have to take to small boats to save 
their lives. The guano beds are practically exhausted, but there are a few pockets that 
can be profitably worked in a small way. These Islands were formerly the breeding place 
for sea-birds, but, owing to the depredations of the Japanese, the birds are becoming 
scarce; and in a few years' time, unless protected, will be entirely driven away. 

Believing that cocoanuts would grow there, nine years ago I planted two trees and 
they have grown well and are now commencing to fruit. All of these Islands can be 
planted thickly with cocoanut trees which would yield a considerable revenue; and further, 
would attract rain, so that the Islands in time would become productive. I accordingly 
make the following proposition : 

That I be granted a lease of Laysan Island, Lisiansky Island and French Frigate 
Shoals, for ninety-nine years on the following conditions : 

I will agree for ten years to plant each year not less than one thousand cocoanut trees. 

I will agree to pay a royalty of fifty cents per ton on all guano taken from these 

I will agree to protect the birds ; but ask for the privilege of killing annually the 
number stated in my previous letter; the skins of the birds to be turned over to the Terri- 
torial Government for sale, and a royalty of ten per cent of the net realizations from the 

sale of the skins to be retained by the Territory, the balance to be paid to me 

(Signed) Max Schle.mmer. 

" Different kinds of birds of the Islands and the number that could be 

killed : 

Variety. Could be killed as folloivs. 

Number i. Black Widacks S-ooo a season 

Number 2. Blue Widacks 2,000 a season 

Number 3. Large Black Birds 200 a season 

304 Bird-Lore 

Variety. Could be killed as follonus . 

Number 4. Small Black Birds 2CX3 a season 

Number 5. Tropical Birds 200 a season 

Number 6. Love Birds None 

Number 7. Four large kinds of Mutton birds 5,000 a season 

Number 8. Two small kinds of Mutton birds 500 a season 

Number 9. White Albatross 5,000 a season ^ 

Number 10. Black Gunis 1,000 a season 

Number 11. Frigate Birds All there could be killed 

Number 12. Large Bubbies 100 a season 

Number 13. Small Bubbies 500 a season 

Number 14. Wingless Birds 1,000 a season 

Number 15. Canary Birds 1,000 a season 

Number 16. Red Birds 100 a season 

Number 17. Miller Birds or insect killer 100 a season 

This is the estimate for Laysan Island' 

December 23, 1904. 
Captain Max Schlemmer, 
Dear Sir: — Herewith I return the letters received from you on December 19th. 

In reference to your proposition to lease the right to take a reasonable number of birds 
from Lysiansky Island and French Frigate Shoals, you introduce a new element by offering 
to plant not less than 1,000 cocoanut trees each year for ten years. And further, that you 
desire the privilege of taking guano from all these islands, paying a royalty of fifty cents 
a ton. 

I am at a loss to know how many birds it would probably be safe to kill without 
affecting their numbers. I gathered from our conversation that you thought about ten 
thousand a season. Your proposition involves 21,800, exclusive of the French Frigate 
Shoals birds, which I assume are birds of prey. 

One suggestion you make, it seems to me, is not at all practicable — that the Territorial 
Government go into the question of the sale of birds. The policy of the Territory should 
be, I believe, to keep out of this business. 

Naturally, I should refer the whole proposition to Mr. Pratt, the Commissioner of 
Public Lands, and when it is in shape, I should like to forward it to the Interior Depart- 
ment at Washington, for its approval. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) G. R. Carter, Governor. 

Honolulu, December 24, 1904. 
His Excellency, Governor G. R. Carter. 

Dear Sir: — I received your letter of the 23d inst. . . . As far as the bird-kill- 
ing concerns, if the government wishes me to find a market for them, it is up to you or Mr. 
Pratt to set a certain price saying how much the government would want if I undertake 
the matter myself. ... I remain yours 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) Max Schlemmer. 

The Year's Work 305 

February 20, 1905. 
The Honorable The Secretary of the Interior, 
Washington, D. C. 
Sir— The National Association of Audubon Societies (incorporated) has been 
informed by its representative at Honolulu, H. I., that efforts are now being made by pri- 
vate interests to exploit the colonies of Albatrosses and other sea-birds which breed in arge 
numbers upon Neckar and adjacent islands lying toward the western extremity of the 
Hawaiian group. The killing of these beautiful and beneficial sea-birds is to be done in 
the interests of foreign millinery trade; and as an inducement to secure a license from the 
Territorial government for this purpose, the latter is offered a percentage of the receipts 
from the sale of skins. The parties in interest claim that the Territorial government will 
receive several thousand dollars yearly as its share in the nefarious business, although, so 
far as we have heard, no estimate of the length of time the business will probably continue 
has been offered. The plea is also made that only the annual increase of the birds will 

be slaughtered. • r .u^ 

We submit that the killing of these graceful scavengers of the sea at any time, for the 
purpose indicated, is indefensible; that to slaughter them (which must be done during the 
breeding season) with young in the nest necessarily left to starve, is utterly barbarous; 
that the foreign millinery trade in bird skins should not be encouraged by any coopera- 
tion especially official cooperation, in the possessions of the United States; that the 
method suggested for raising territorial revenue is unworthy of the American people; 
that the suggestion of limiting the slaughter to the annual increase is merely an evasion, 
impossible, and unworthy of consideration, and that the entire annihilation of these breed- 
ing colonies of birds would unquestionably follow the action proposed, within three or 
four years We submit, also, that all investigations into the broad subject of economic 
ornithology-the relation of birds in general to human existence-are in favor of protecting 
the birds, and we therefore feel justified in the belief that a wise public policy will not 
only discourage the proposed slaughter but, if possible, devise plans and methods of 

preservation. . . . 1 1 .4 „ 

In case a contract has been considered along the above lines, it is earnestly desired, on 

the part of the directors of the National Association, that the matter be held m abeyance 

until the subject can be taken up personally with your Department and a more detailed 

protest can be filed. , 

We do not know whether, under the Territorial conditions, any of these small islands 
could be protected by being proclaimed bird reservations, as has been done in the case of 
Pelican Island, Florida, and Breton, and other islands near the mouth of the Mississippi 
river Louisiana; but we earnestly ask your advice and co6peration, to the end that early 
action of definite and conclusive character, if possible, may be taken to preserve these 
bij-js Very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) William Dutcher, 


Department of the Interior, Washington, April 15, 1905. 

Mr. William Dutcher, 

President, National Association of Audubon Societies, 
525 Manhattan Avenue, New York City. 
5;>— Your letter has been received stating that you have been advised that private 
interests contemplate the destruction of Albatrosses and other birds upon Neckar and adja- 
cent islands lying toward the western extremity of the Hawaiian group for the foreign 
millinery trade and suggesting that steps be taken looking to the protection of said birds 
rather than their slaughter. 

3o6 Bird - Lore 

In response thereto, I have to state that your complaint in this matter was referred to 
the Governor of Hawaii, and a copy of his report in the premises is herewith transmitted 
for your information. 

It will be seen therefrom that a proposition of the character indicated in your letter 
was submitted by one Captain Max Schlemmer, but upon consideration thereof it was 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) E. A. Hitchcock, Secretary. 

Territory of Hawaii, March 29, 1905 
Application was made by Captain Schlemmer, under date of December 17, 1904, for 
a 99 years' lease of Laysan Island, Lisiansky Island and French Frigate Shoals with the 
option of taking a certain number of birds from Lisiansky and French Frigate Shoals, the 
Territory to be paid a royalty of ten per cent of net realizations. The proposition was not 
accepted, and I enclose copy of the correspondence for the information of the Department 
and of the National Association of Audubon Societies, should the Secretary of the Interior 
deem it advisable to supply it. 

(Signed) G. R Carter, Governor. 

Mexico. — Bird protection in this Republic must be taking some hold of 
the citizens as the result of the steady output of valuable educational litera- 
ture that is being published by the "Comission de Parasitologia Agricola." 

Bahama Islands, W. I. — Very largely through the efforts of our treasurer, 
Mr. Chapman, most of the birds of these Islands now receive legal protec- 
tion during the whole or a portion of the year. 

The bill was prepared by our fellow member at the request of the 
Colonial Governor, and was adopted with some modifications. 


Duty of Members. — At this time, it is pertinent to say something to the 
members of the Association, and to point out to them their part in this 
great undertaking. You should not cease to think and act after you have 
attended an annual meeting and elected managers, or have read the Annual 
Report, or renewed your yearly subscription. It is your duty, by every means 
in your power, to uphold the hands of the officers you have chosen and to be 
loyal to the principles of the Audubon movement. This may mean that you 
will be called a faddist, or perhaps even that more distasteful title, a crank. 
For example, I conceive it to be the fundamental principle of Audubonism to 
eschew the use of all feathers, except those of the Ostrich. While it 
undoubtedly is permissible to wear the plumage of domestic fowls, either in 
the natural or manufactured state, yet the true and consistent member of this 
Society will not use any plumage, either natural or manufactured, that can 
only be obtained by the sacrifice of life. If this stand is taken, there is no 
possibility of the feathers of wild birds being used in manufactured orna- 

Suggestions for the Coming Year 307 

ments. Feathers of wild birds can be dyed and manipulated in such a way 
that even the expert ornithologist can detect the deceit only after the most 
careful examination. How, then, can a layman, under such conditions, know 
what feather ornament to wear ? There is only one thing to do — eschew all 
plumage, except that of the Ostrich, and thus have a clear conscience your- 
self and set a good example to your neighbor. 

Again, it is your duty to do some Association work yourself, and not ex- 
pect it all to be done by your officers and directors. Our members are 
widely scattered over the country, and each one has a local influence that can 
always be exerted in behalf of bird protection and the building up of our 
Society. A gentle word on a fitting occasion, a warning when necessary, a 
suggestion of the importance of Audubon work, directing the attention of the 
agricultural folk to the good birds do, a hint that the Association needs a 
largely increased membership, and that it depends on dues, gifts and legacies 
for its support, are all opportunities for the lay worker to secure good for the 
Society and, by reflex action, for himself. 

A membership card and some of the publications of the Association 
should always be at hand for use at the proper moment, and, above all, the 
merits of our organ, BiRD-LoRE, should be on your mind, and you should 
by every means in your power widen its chance to do good. It is the medium 
of communication between workers in widely separated fields, it contains 
current news of Audubon activities, and the larger its circulation the greater 
will be its influence. 

Legislation for Cats. — The question of the cat as a bird-destroyer is daily 
becoming of more importance and should have attention from this Associa- 
tion. Reference is made to it at this time in order that some expression of 
opinion may be given and placed on file. Many of the ornithologists of the 
country, and others who have made investigations of the habits of the cat, 
run wild, believe that there is no greater cause of bird destruction than a 
feline that is compelled by force of circumstances to procure its own living. 
This Association, being established for the protection of birds and animals, 
cannot consistently advocate the wholesale killing of cats. It should, how- 
ever, advocate a larger degree of responsibility on the part of their owners. 
This class of domestic animals is far too numerous at the present time, and 
some means should be taken at once to prevent an undue and further in- 
crease. This can best be brought about by restrictive legislation similar to 
that applied to dogs. Every person who owns a cat should be compelled by 
statute to pay an annual tax on the same, in the same amount that he pays 
on the dog he owns, and the same care should be exercised to see that the 
cat should be kept confined and not permitted to range at will. No citizen 
in any state is permitted to allow his horses, cattle, sheep, or any other do- 
mestic animals to range at large to become a nuisance to the public, and 
there is no good reason that can be advanced why any exception should be 

3o8 Bird - Lore 

made in the case of the cat. Further, to abandon a cat and thus make it 
homeless is decidedly cruel; therefore, a law compelling those who desire to 
keep a cat or cats as pets should be passed, holding owners to the strictest 
accountability for their welfare and maintenance. In some parts of Europe 
this question is receiving the most earnest and studious consideration, and in 
Germany many of the cities have passed restrictive ordinances. This ques- 
tion is too important in the United States to be passed over lightly, and it is 
hoped that some action will soon be taken to prevent the increase of this 
most potent of bird-destroyers. 

School Bird-Clubs. — Probably one of the most important subjects to be 
considered by the National Association, a subject ranking with legislation, 
reservations, or the warden system, is how to interest the boys and girls of 
the country in the preservation of birds. This subject was mentioned in the 
president's annual address of 1903 (p. 98) and at more length in that of 
1904 (p. 60). Certainly the time has now arrived when this subject should 
be taken up systematically, and means should be adopted to organize the 
miUions of children in the country into Bird Clubs or Junior Audubon So- 
cieties. This, of course, will have to be accomplished through and by the 
aid of teachers. If we can create among the children an interest in wild life, 
this Association will grow immensely in strength and ability to carry out the 
objects for which it was organized. In this issue of BiRD-LoRE, a plan is 
detailed by which the teachers of the country may become auxihary mem- 
bers of the Association, and through their membership receive all the educa- 
tional Hterature that has already been, or will be, published in the future. 

So many requests are received for information regarding the method of 
organizing a Bird Club that it is deemed advisable to publish a leaflet on the 
subject; this will be ready for distribution about January i, 1906. 

Women'' s Clubs. — Organization of the women of the country for mutual 
improvement and sisterly help is going on all the time. The local club which 
influences the village becomes a part of the State Federation, thus enlarg- 
ing its influence ; the State Federation in turn becomes an influential factor 
in the National Federation. Women's Clubs exert an ever-growing influence 
in social purity, village improvement, good civics and other public interests 
of a like character. There is one other subject that should receive their most 
earnest attention and hearty support, — the protection of birds. For women, 
birds were killed, that their plumage might be worn as an ornament, — not a 
necessary article of clothing, but something entirely superfluous. The club 
women of America, with their powerful influence, should take a strong 
stand against the use of wild birds' plumage, and especially against the use of 
the Aigrette. Every club should have its Audubon Committee and should 
always have Audubon literature and BiRD-LoRE in its library and reading- 
room. A close affihation between this Association and the National Feder- 
ation of Women's Clubs will be mutually helpful. 

Suggestions for the Coming Year 309 

Aigrettes. — The sale of these plumes still continues to such an extent 
that the White Herons seem doomed to extinction. This beautiful feather 
is the one that fashion and its votaries will not give up. Almost every show- 
window displays some, although, to their credit be it said, there are wholesale 
and retail milliners who will not sell them. The New York Audubon So- 
ciety had a bill introduced in the Legislature at its last session to prohibit the 
sale of Aigrettes, irrespective of where they were obtained. This was done 
primarily to test the constitutionality of such a law. The bill passed the 
Senate, but, prior to its consideration by the Assembly, a suit was started in 
New York State against a dealer for the sale of foreign game, during the 
closed season. This case will settle finally the constitutionality of the New 
York law which prohibits the sale, during the closed season, of foreign game. 
If this law is pronounced constitutional it will also apply to, and will, by a 
slight amendment to the present plumage law, prevent the sale of imported 
Aigrettes. If such sale cannot be prevented, there is no hope of saving the 
few remaining American White Herons, for there are, and always vv\\\ be, 
some women to whom no appeal is efi^ective. 

Sale of Game. — The prohibition of sale of foreign game during the closed 
season is important, but the non-sale of all game at all times is of greater im- 
portance. There is no other method that will stop the gradual extermination 
of the game-birds of the country. This result will not occur in the lifetime 
of the present adult membership of this Association, but it will surely come to 
pass if sale is not prevented and cold storage is not forbidden by law. Some of 
the game-birds of this country are now dangerously near the fatal line, and all 
legitimate means should be taken to save the remnant for posterity. Stopping 
sale may seem to many to be a radical move to make, but to those who have 
given the subject thoughtful consideration there seems to be no other course 
to take. We do not advocate a perpetual closed season for game, but we do 
urge a short season only in the fall of the year. This will necessitate a uni- 
form law throughout North America to abolish all spring shooting. 

Spring Shooting. — Killing game-birds of any species after January i, and 
until the young of the year are able to care for themselves, is indefensible 
from any point of view. IVIany of the states have taken very advanced 
positions in this highly important matter, but other commonwealths still 
permit this most pernicious and wasteful practice. It is the duty of this 
Association to agitate persistently this subject and, so far as it has influence, 
to exert it in behalf of the total abolition of the killing of birds in the spring 
of the year. 

In concluding, permit me to quote from Bishop Brooks : "If you do your 
work with complete faithfulness and with the most absolute perfectness with 
which it is capable of being done, you are making just as genuine a contri- 
bution to the substance of the universal good as is the most brilliant worker 

310 Bird -Lore 

whom the world contains. You are setting as true a fact here between the 
eternities as he. 

"All our works, even the greatest, are so little in relation to the world's 
need ; all our works, even the least, are so great in relation to the doer's 
faithfulness. There is the secret of self-respect. Oh, go take up your work 
and do it. Do it with cheerfulness and love. So shall you shine with a 
glory which is all your own, — a glory which the great heaven of universal 
life would be poorer for missing." 

"Like as a star, 
That maketh not haste, 
That taketh not rest, 
Be each one fulfilling 
His God-given best." 


The work of the State Audubon Societies during the past year has pro- 
gressed in many instances in a very satisfactory manner; in others there 
seems to be a lack of interest, or, perhaps, of a competent executive body 
which will devote the necessary time and energy to push bird protection in 
the way the importance of the work deserves. The growing interest in the 
subject and its introduction in educational centers will, it is hoped, over- 
come this difficulty in a great measure in the near future. Many interesting 
details and valuable hints are presented in the following pages, which will 
amply repay perusal. 

Alabama. — This Gulf state is now the only coastwise commonwealth that 
has not adopted the Model Law. The next session of the Legislature will 
not be held until 1907; therefore no effort can be made to change the bird 
laws before that date. All that can be done is to try to educate the citizens 
by a liberal distribution of good bird literature, showing how important is the 
relation between birds and agriculture. The fostering care of the National 
Association will be extended to this state, especially in its schools and 
Farmers' Institutes. 

Arizona. — The only word from this state regarding birds or game was 
from an army officer stationed at one of the military posts, who stated that 
Arizona, so far as he could see, had few game laws, none of which was ob- 
served in the slightest degree. While this lack of interest in such an im- 
portant matter is unfortunate, yet it is not so vital as it would be were the 
population more dense. 

State Reports 311 

California. — The essential parts of the Model Law are now in force in 
this commonwealth, having been adopted by the Legislature during the ses- 
sion of 1905. This important change in the law was effected by the active 
work of the Audubon Society, with the hearty cooperation of the Fish and 
Game Commission and several of the most prominent ornithologists and 
bird-lovers of the state. Secretary Way, of the California Audubon Society, 
sends the following interesting report of progress : 

"During the past six months, much of the energy of the Audubon So- 
cieties of California has been devoted to spreading throughout the state in- 
formation regarding the non-game bird law and game law amendments 
passed by the last Legislature. About 5,000 law leaflets have been sent to 
school superintendents, teachers, game wardens, farmers' clubs, and indi- 
viduals interested in bird protection; a second edition will be distributed dur- 
ing the coming school term. Boards of education, superintendents and 
teachers are cheerfully cooperating with the societies in bringing the new 
bird law to the attention of pupils. 

"The societies have also distributed about 3,000 other leaflets, and, 
through their educational influence, and by newspaper articles, obtained in 
five of the seven southern counties ordinances protecting the Mourning Dove 
until the end of its nesting period. Two counties practically gave no open 
season for shooting Doves. This action resulted in an attack on the ordi- 
nances on constitutional grounds in the District Court of Appeals at Los 
Angeles. The Court went no further than to decide that a one-day open 
season for game is not within the intent of the Law, but the decision caused 
much confusion regarding all county game ordinances and thus resulted in a 
great deal of illegal shooting. The matter is now before the State Supreme 
Court, and the right of county supervisors to shorten open seasons will thus 
be finally settled. 

"Two local societies have been recently organized and substantial gains 
have been made in several other localities. There are now seven Audubon 
organizations in the state, having a total senior membership of nearly 800. 
The junior sections number over 500 members. Other organizations, co- 
operating or affiliating with us, and having special Audubon committees, are 
doing splendid work. A state organization and federation of the local so- 
cieties is planned for before the next anniversary of our Audubon movement. 

" The Pasadena Society has given three illustrated bird lectures and held four 
public meetings since the last report. The secretary has delivered a number 
of addresses before farmers' clubs and other organizations, and Mrs. Myers, 
president of the Garvanza local society, has addressed a large number of 
club meetings and educational institutes. 

"About 1,000 warning notices have been sent out, and 'No shooting' 
signs have been furnished free of cost to all landholders who would agree to 
post them. By this means, birds and game are having almost absolute pro- 

312 Bird -Lore 

tection on many large farms, and especially about the environs of towns and 
cities. Public sentiment is strongly in favor of the birds in all but a very few- 
localities of the state, and the new non-game bird law is generally respected. 
The societies have had effective cooperation from the state Fish and Game 
Commission, which is pursuing a commendably conservative course in the 
matter of permits for bird- and egg-collecting, and rendering every reasonable 
aid in the enforcement of the law." 

How intelligent this cooperation to which Mr. Way refers is, may be in- 
ferred from the following, taken from a California paper: "The Fish and 
Game Commission has announced that no permits will be issued for collect- 
ing the California Condor or its eggs for any purpose. This bird, only sur- 
passed in size by its near relation, the Condor of the Andes, was formerly 
abundant throughout the coast range of southern Cahfornia, but is now ex- 
tremely rare. It is feared that, on account of the high price offered for its 
eggs, its total extermination would soon be effected." 

Connecticut. — In the last year's report special attention was called to 
the splendid educational work that was being carried on by the Audubon 
Society of Connecticut in conjunction with the State Board of Education. 
During the present year that work has culminated in 'Connecticut School 
Document No. 4, 1905. — A year with the birds. A guide to the naming of 
100 birds commonly seen in Connecticut.' Compiled by Mabel Osgood 
Wright, president State Audubon Society. In this guide Mrs. Wright says : 
"A word to the teachers. The following pages have been arranged espe- 
cially for the use of teachers in rural districts, where wood, meadow and 
orchard often surround the school-house itself.'^and the daily walk to and 
from school is through bushy lanes and along tree-bordered highways. Every 
possible chance for seeing the birds and wanting to know them lies close at 
hand. If by having this pamphlet to keep in the desk a teacher can help a 
group of children to name even a dozen birds, they will listen more eagerly 
to the many books in the libraries that tell fascinating stories of them." 
Space will not allow a review of this valuable book ; it is only necessary to 
say that were a like volume in use in the schools in every state in the 
country, the cause of bird protection would be advanced more rapidly than 
by any means that has heretofore been used. The greatest hope of the per- 
manency of the Aududon movement is the education of the school children. 
Connecticut is in the van in this respect. 

Delaware. — A substantial increase in new members shows life and 
activity in the Audubon Society of this state. Mrs. Florence Bayard Hilles, 
secretary of the State Society, sends the following brief but valuable report : 

"The Delaware Audubon Society has this year added 1,864 new names 
to its membership list, has secured a charter, and has had passed by the Leg- 

State Reports 313 

islature an important amendment to its laws, by which the Society has 
half of the fines imposed for violation of the Model Law. The increased 
membership is almost wholly due to the illustrated lectures which have been 
most ably given by Prof. A. R. Spaid. One conviction has been obtained so 
far this year." 

District of Columbia. — The District Audubon Society is aggressive and, 
necessarily, progressive, as is shown by the following report of the secretary, 
Mrs. Jeanie Maury Patten : 

''Continued good work in fields already covered and the opening up of 
new channels is to be reported for this season. The annual October excur- 
sion on the beautiful Chesapeake and Ohio Canal opened the season, 
followed by the usual reception at the Washington Club, intended as a 
purely social function. 

"In December began the course of lectures given the first Tuesday in 
each month, except January, from December to May, when the field meet- 
ings begin. The subjects for these lectures were, December 6, Exhibition of 
the Society's new illustrated lecture, Mr. Henry Oldys ; February 7, 
Economic Relations of Birds, Prof. F. E. L. Beal ; March 7, by request, 
Second Exhibition of Society's Lecture, Mr. Henry Oldys; April 4, Tramps 
with a Camera, Dr. C. E. Waters, illustrations with lantern-slides. This 
lecture was mainly to arouse an interest in the Wild Flower Preservation 
Society, but was a delightful combination of both flowers and birds, and well 
illustrated by bird notes as well as flower pictures. 

"For our annual meeting in January, besides the usual report of the 
treasurer and secretary, the Rev. William Rogers Lord gave a most fully 
and delightfully illustrated lecture on the ministry of birds. This was a very 
successful meeting, and added quite a number to our membership. 

"In April and May were given five field meetings. Some were all-day 
trips, and some were arranged so as to cover two half days. Each meeting was 
conducted by a number of well-trained ornithologists, and, as usual, created 
more enthusiasm than anything else we ever do. People who go once nearly 
always go another season, and so each year the number of those who dis- 
cover the charms of the woods and fields increases. 

"In this connection were held the four bird classes indoors, which are 
always well attended by older persons as well as children. For these last 
named, special lectures were arranged and given at the Washington Public 
Library on Saturdays in April and May, at which talks were given by Mrs. 
Geo. Cotton Maynard, Prof. Cook, Hon. Job Barnard, Mrs. Vernon Bailey 
and others. In this connection daily bulletins were posted in the Library re- 
lating to the arrival of birds, and charts were hung so that children and 
others could study them at their convenience. 

"The Society's lecture has been in constant use both in suburban places 

314 Bird -Lore 

and in various schools. Between 2,500 and 3,000 publications have been sent 
out, consisting chiefly of notices of lectures, leaflets of the National Associa- 
tion, publications of the Agricultural Department, and alvi^ays the circulars of 

"The conditions here are particularly advantageous for the study of birds, 
and, besides this, as the area is Hmited and distances are comparatively short, 
the social side of the v^^ork has great charm, many of the members meeting 
frequently in other fields of work, thus creating friendship for each other as 
well as for the birds. Our season closed most delightfully with a reception 
given the Society's members by Mrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, which took the 
form of a garden party at her lovely home 'Twin Oaks,' on the afternoon of 
June 5, when the entire place was thrown open, and every one expressed the 
greatest delight in the beauty of the grounds, the many birds, and lovely 
flowers. The membership is now about 400." 

Florida. — Bird protection in this state is now associated in the mind of 
the public with a tragedy. The death of the young martyr, Guy M. Bradley, 
will always be associated with Audubon work, and years hence his name will 
be as familiar to bird-protectors as it is today. 

No marble shaft marks his resting place on the shores of the gulf, but 
everywhere in the hearts of bird -lovers is sorrow for his loss, and admiration 
for his bravery. 

"And the low-voiced palm tree sighs 

O'er thy bed so lonely. 
All thy life thou lov'dst its shade, 

Underneath it thou art laid 
In an endless shelter ; 

Thou hearest it forever sigh, 
As the vyind's vague longings die 

In its branches dim and high — 
Thou hearest the waters gliding by 

Slumberously welter." 

All of the wardens report a very successful season : Charles Russell was 
stationed on Bird Key, Dry Tortugas, in charge of the large colony of Sooty 
and Noddy Terns; Chas. G. Johnson, keeper of Sand Key Light-house, 
was in charge of several colonies of Terns and Laughing Gulls breeding on 
the Keys near his station, and Paul Kroegel faithfully watched Pelican Island 
Reservation. During the coming year a new and very important Reservation 
will be in charge of an enthusiastic member of the Association. It is not 
often that one of our members is so situated that he can have the pleasure 
of acting as warden, nor is the Society often favored in this way. Mrs. 
Kingsmill Marrs, chairman of the Executive Committee, makes the follow- 
ing splendid report for the Florida Audubon Society: 

State Reports 


"Membership, including all grades, 816; leaflets distributed, 12,000; 
warning notices, for posting, sent out, 900; summary of the State Bird 
Laws sent for posting in hotels, stations, express offices, etc., 500; Massachu- 
setts Audubon Society Charts, for use of schools, 36; local secretaries, 7 ; 
about 700 letters written; teachers enrolled as members of society, 115. 

"Four prizes of books were given this year for ' Bird Compositions.' Al- 
though an invitation was extended to all schools in the state for pupils to 
compete for prizes, only the schools of Orlando sent in essays. 

A scene on Pelican Island 
PhotOEraphed by F. M. C. 

"The Palmetto Club of Daytona, The Rosalind Club of Orlando, and 
the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, have each paid a sustaining 
membership; the Sunshine Society helps us through the press and by circu- 
lating leaflets. 

"These statistics, taken from the report of the secretary, Mrs. Vander- 
pool, show that the general activity of the Society has increased and a more 
wide-spread interest than in any past year has been shown. 

"During the year two 'auxiliary committees' have been formed, one at 
Port Orange in charge of Mrs. Roe, with a membership of twenty, another 
at San Mateo, organized by Miss Crosby. Here, besides about twelve mem- 

3i6 Bird -Lore 

bers, ' The Ladies' Village Improvement Association ' has become a sustain- 
ing member. We encourage this club membership, as it so facilitates our 
distribution of literature. The chairman of the ' Bird Preservation Com- 
mittee of the Federation of Women's Clubs,' Mrs. E. A. Graves, w^rites 
that, tv^^enty-two clubs in Florida which belong to the Federation are most 
of them interested in bird study, and a majority of these have established 
and observe Bird Day each year. 

"The effort to secure the passage of an 'anti-live-pigeon-shooting' bill at 
the last meeting of the Legislature of Florida was, on all sides, warmly sup- 
ported. The defeat of the bill was not only a disappointment in the cause 
of bird protection, but a regret to all right-minded persons, that cruelty and 
frivolity could triumph, in this twentieth century, over humanity and justice. 

"The murder of Warden Guy M. Bradley fills not only our Society in 
Florida, but the people of the United States, with horror. A brave man 
shot at his post, defending the helpless against brutality, and all for what ? 
A feather, to adorn the head of some woman ! ! The picture of the murdered 
man, and above him the woman's face, smiling, as she carries proudly on her 
head the beautiful aigrette plume, would have furnished a Goya or a Hogarth 
a fitting subject for his brush. That the lives of those standing for the 
maintenance of law and order in the state. are in jeopardy, is a matter of 
concern to thinking people. 

"The following extract from a letter from our honorary vice-president, 
Mr. Kirk Munroe, will be interesting : 'During the past winter a number of 
residents along the w^ater front at this place (Cocoanut Grove) have been 
pleasantly interested in watching, feeding and taming a small flock of Wild 
Ducks that finally gave ready response to a whistle, and hurried trustfully to 
the very feet of any person ready to feed them. On the morning of Sunday, 
February 26, not finding any person present at their usual place of feeding, 
six of these tamed Ducks ventured near an unaccustomed wharf, on the end of 
which stood a young man who, when the hungry, trusting birds were about 
five feet away, fired into the bunch, killing four and wounding two. At the 
success of his shot he roared with laughter, and expressed the hope that 
his neighbors would tame more ducks for him to shoot.' Mr. Munroe 
says : 'As soon as the brutal act was reported to me, I determined, if possible, 
to punish it, and accordingly prosecuted the offender, in the name of the 
Audubon Society of Florida, for hunting on Sunday. The case was easily 
won and the fine with costs, amounted to $60. It was the first time the young 
man had ever heard of our Society, and I believe it will be long before he 
forgets the lesson it has taught him.' 

"We would here publicly thank all in Florida who make personal effort 
for the cause of bird protection. We would also thank all newspapers who 
have gratuitously printed articles for us, and the Southern Express Company, 
who have greatly facihated the posting of the State Laws." 

State Reports 


The remarkable tameness of Wild Ducks spoken of by Mr. Munroe, 
was observed by the president of the National Association while at Palm 
Beach in February last. It certainly was novel and interesting to be able to 
call Lesser Scaup Ducks to the shore to feed them. 

Georgia. — Mr. Pearson, secretary of the National Association, has spent 
some time in this state, and is devoting considerable effort to reorganizing 
the Audubon Society. New officers have been elected, and one of the re- 
sults of the new life that has been infused is that the Nations! Association 


PhotoKraplied on Lake Worth, Fla. 

has now among its members quite a number of prominent citizens of this 
state. It is proposed by the Audubon Society to make an effort at the next 
session of the Legislature to secure the passage of a law which will place 
them in charge of game protection. The successful work of the North 
Carolina Audubon Society as the Game Commission of that state already is 
exerting an influence for good beyond their own borders. The National As- 
sociation is a strong advocate of non-political game commissions, supported 
by gun licenses. In this way the very best results for game and bird protec- 
tion are obtained, without a direct tax on the people. 

Illinois. — Audubon work in this state is surely attracting attention. 
This is evident from the fact that Miss Nancy Lawrence, who died in 
August, left a legacy of $1,000 to be used in bird protection work by the 

3i8 Bird -Lore 

Audubon Society. It is good to feel that this work is commending itself to 
the public. This is the first legac}^ that has ever been received by an 
Audubon Society, but the Association feels sure that this one is but the fore- 
runner of many to follovi^ in the future. In these days of philanthropy such 
an important public movement as organized bird protection is sure to be 
recognized. The report of the secretary, Miss Drummond, is given in 
detail : 

"The Audubon Society, at its eighth annual meeting, adopted a change 
in the constitution, increasing the number of directors from fourteen to 
tw^enty. From the various reports read at this meeting the following items 
are taken : 

"The membership has been increased by the addition of 88 adults and 
5,083 juniors, making the number joining since the organization of the so- 
ciety, about 1,100 adults and 20,142 juniors. Of these, about 115 pay 
annual dues of one dollar. The organization of a committee of 28 persons, 
not directors, into a membership committee proved a success, and was partly 
responsible for the increased membership. No semi-annual meeting was held 
last fall, the directors feeling that one public meeting a year was all that 
was needed. 

"Only two leaflets were issued during the year, one being a short letter 
to teachers by our new chairman of the junior work, Miss Ethel E. Hooper ; 
the other, an excellent four-page leaflet on the Study of Birds, prepared by 
Miss AHce Hall Walter. An excellent little pamphlet, 'Bird Study in the 
Rural Schools,' by Thomas L. Hankinson, one of our Illinois teachers, has 
been a help in our work, and a book by Mr. D. Lange on the Birds of 
lUinois' is being published under the auspices of the Illinois Society. Various 
other leaflets have been purchased from the National Association and else- 
where, so that 9,770 have been sent out. Of these, a number have gone to 
teachers, farmers, women's clubs, etc., and a letter from the Junior Chair- 
man, enclosing several leaflets, has been sent to each county superintendent 
of schools in the state. Mr. Charles M. Roe has allowed us to place our 
leaflets in his book -store in Chicago. 

"As a session of the State Legislature was held last winter, our Legal 
Committee took measures by which all proposed changes in laws relating to 
birds were at once reported to the chairman, and, when bills were introduced 
against the interests of the birds, letters were at once written to the proper 
persons urging adverse action. A letter urging the re-appointment of our 
present game commissioner was sent to the governor. 

"Numbers of meetings have been held during the year by teachers, and 
farmers' institutes, women's clubs, etc., and our one illustrated lecture, with 
its fifty-six slides, has done excellent work. For some unknown reason, our 
libraries lead lazy lives, — there is almost no demand for them. Our school 
work is most encouraging, many of the teachers being thoroughly interested 

State Reports 319 

and faithful, and we feel that as far as a knowledge of bird life is concerned 
the children are better informed than their parents. Our farmers, also, are 
learning to know their good friends, the birds, and last year a number of 
them fed the birds during the winter, one case being reported of a farmer 
who drove seven miles with food. 

" Through the kindness of the editor of BiRD-LORE, a list of its subscribers 
in Illinois was sent to the secretary of our Society, when the rather surpris- 
ing fact was discovered that only about one-third of the subscribers were 
members of our Society. It seems as if any one who reads BiRD-LoRE should 
be convinced of the necessity of lending a helping hand to their state 

"The receipts of the Society for the year have been $410.68, — the 
expenses, $345.76." 

President Deane, of the Illinois Society, has just issued an admirable 
letter to the Farmers' Institute of Illinois, a copy of which is herewith pre- 
sented, with the suggestion that every Audubon Society takes the same 
method of urging farmers to join in the movement to protect their best 
friends, the birds: 

"Dear Sir: The directors of the Illinois Audubon Society, appreciating 
the value of bird-life to the farmers of the state, respectfully urge that the 
very important subject of Bird Protection be included in your program of 
lectures to be delivered at the Farmers' Institute meetings in your county 
for the coming season. 

"The farmer is one of the principal personages to instruct as to the use- 
fulness of the birds which live and breed about him, and that are such an im- 
portant adjunct to the successful raising of his crops ; and it is important that 
he should realize that by feeding the birds in winter and protecting them at 
all seasons, he is caring for the best workmen he can employ. While the 
limited number of our directory does not admit of sending speakers through 
the different counties, we feel sure that there are many located throughout 
the state who are competent to speak intelligently on the subject and who 
would gladly ofifer their services." 

Iowa. — This is one of the few densely populated agricultural states 
where the citizens have not yet demanded the adoption of the Model Law. 
An attempt was made to pass it at the Legislative session in 1904, but 
without success. The effort will be repeated at the coming session, which 
commences early in January, igo6. It seems almost incredible that in a 
state where the farming interests are so vast but little interest is taken 
in a matter of such vital importance. Special educational work will be done 
by the National Association before the next Legislature convenes, in order 
to create an interest in bird protection and a consequent demand for the 
passage of the Model Law. Iowa has 34,574,337 acres of farm land, which 

320 Bird - Lore 

produced in 1899 (last census) crops to the value of $263,000,000. Over 
$16,000,000 was paid for labor alone, but not one cenc of this large sum 
was paid to the birds for the labor they freely gave to the agricultural folk 
in the destruction of noxious vermin and insect pests, nor for the thousands 
of tons of weed seeds that they destroyed. Then let the farmers, at least, 
repay the birds by seeing that they are accorded the fullest legal protection. 

The Audubon Society can do a great civic work by agitating this sub- 
ject before every Farmers' Institute in the state. The example of Illinois is 
a good one to follow in this respect. That the Society has not been idle 
during the past year is evident from the following report of the secretary, 
Mrs. William Parrott : 

"During the year 1,000 National leaflets, 1,000 No. i Leaflets, issued 
by the Iowa Society, and several hundred BiRD-LoRE subscription blanks 
have been freely distributed at Farmers' Institutes, district meetings of 
women's clubs, the Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs, the Waterloo 
Chautauqua, teachers' institutes and public schools. One thousand Audu- 
bon pledges are being placed in city and rural schools and public libraries. 
Two warning notices have been given. Sixty new members have been 
added to our membership list, making a total of 331. 

"Several fine addresses have been delivered throughout the state by 
enthusiastic bird lovers. Mrs. Freeman H. Bloodgood, of Waterloo, has 
written several excellent articles for our Iowa papers, and secured many 
new members for the state Society. Prof. Chas. R. Keyes, Mt. Vernon, 
Iowa, has furnished the Society with a list of the common birds of our state, 
which we hope eventually to include in an outline of study for the Iowa 

"Mrs. Alice Fletcher, past president of the Iowa Federation of 
Women's Clubs, rendered valuable service by giving the Audubon Society a 
place on the Federation programme last May, when the needs of our 
Society were brought before the club women of the state. We are encour- 
aged to believe that recognition by the Standing Committee in the Iowa 
Federation of Women's Clubs will be accorded our btate society in the near 
future." , 

Louisiana. — Although the Audubon Society of Louisiana is not great 
in numbers, yet it has boundless energy and, therefore, has secured splendid 
results. No other Society has accomplished more, in the protection of sea- 
birds. The control by lease of thousands of acres of islands, and the actual 
ownership of a large area makes the work of this Society unique. The 
Society has partially developed plans for future work which will add greatly 
to its power for good. President Miller presents the following report for 
the year: 

"Robbing the nests of the wild sea-birds breeding on the coasts of the 

State Reports 


state of Louisiana has been carried on for many years past without protest; 
the result naturally being the extermination of the birds. This undoubtedly 
would have been the result if the National Committee had not come to the 
rescue. With their help, however, the bird-breeding islands have been pro- 
tected during the past year, and now, instead of a very few, thousands upon 
thousands of Laughing Gulls, Louisiana Herons, Black Skimmers, Royal, 
Common, Foster's, and Cabot Terns were raised in 1905. We believe if 

Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 

this help is continued for a few years longer these islands will show the 
most marvelous exhibition of bird -life to be found anywhere in this 


"Our Society has rented, from one of the state boards, twenty-two 
bird-breeding islands, with a probable area of 5,000 acres. In addition to 
that we are buying from the state a celebrated bird -breeding island about 
1,000 acres in extent, and propose to change its name from 'Battledore' to 
'Audubon,' in commemoration of the great naturalist who was born in our 

"Last year we secured the passage of the Model Law, with the result 
that trapping and shipping Mockingbirds, Cardinals and Nonpareils from 
the state of Louisiana has entirely ceased. 

"We are working with the school teachers and the editors of our state 
papers, trying to show them the character and importance of Audubon work, 

322 Bird - Lore 

and in time hope to secure the total abolishment of the killing of non-game 
birds by all classes. 

"We have distributed thousands of warning notices printed on linen. 
Our president has delivered many lectures on bird -life in different parts of 
the state. We have 125 active, 10 life, and 6 associate members, and are 
growing slowly but surely. 

"To protect adequately our own bird -breeding islands we are in sore 
need of a power-boat. With one we could greatly increase the protection 

Maine. — It was only a few years since that the bird -life of the coast of 
Maine was in danger of total extermination; how different the conditions 
are today can hardly be realized by a person who reads the following report : 
To comprehend fully the splendid results of six years' protection by wardens, 
a person should visit some of the colonies of Gulls and Terns that are being 
guarded. It is an imposing sight to see the clouds of birds and their remark- 
able tameness everywhere along the coast. 

The American Eider Duck has for a number of years been on the verge 
of extermination as a breeding bird in the United States, and, to prevent this 
unfortunate result, special attention has been given to this species. There 
is only one island on the Maine coast where it is positively known to breed, 
although a few pairs may breed elsewhere. The warden in charge was given 
explicit directions to guard this island with the utmost care, and to prevent 
the taking of the eggs after they were laid. It is with the greatest satisfac- 
tion that the Association is able to quote the following from the warden's 
report : "May 5, I2 Eider Ducks arrived at the island, which is in plain 
sight of where I live, so I can watch it thoroughly. I saw at one time three 
pairs of the Ducks after the young were hatched. There were 22 of the 
young ones, and I believe that more were hatched that I did not see. I esti- 
mate that 2,400 Gulls were raised on the islands in my charge. The birds 
have had a good season." 

The Legislature of Maine should pass a law making the close season on 
Ducks commence January i. If this is done the Eider will continue to breed 
in that state in increasing numbers. The results of special protection on one 
island this year shows what can be accomplished. 

Warden Cuskley, at Libby Island, reports : "About 2,000 Terns arrived 
May 23, some 1,500 Gulls having come some time before." He estimates 
that some i ,500 young Terns and i ,000 Gulls were raised. The Terns have 
established another colony on a near-by island. 

Capt. O. B. Hall, warden in the vicinity of Crumple Island, gives a de- 
tailed report of a very favorable season for the Gulls, Terns, Sea Pigeons and 
Blue Herons in his charge. At least 1 000 Gulls and i ,500 Terns were raised. 
He also reports the interesting fact that the Black Ducks which formerly 

State Reports 


bred on Great Wass Island all sought a new breeding place. This the war- 
den attributes to the fact that Wass Island was stocked with foxes. 

Warden Cummings, of Wash Island, gives a very excellent reason why 
laws should be passed throughout the country removing the smaller members 
of the order Limicolae or Shore Birds, commonly known as Peeps or Sand- 
peeps, from the game laws. They are too beautiful and interesting, and are 
too much a part of the life of the seashore, sand-bars or salt meadows to be 
slau-ghtered. Their bodies are too small to be of value as food, and shooting 
them for any other purpose is grossly cruel. There is certainly no more 
beautiful sight than to see a flock of these graceful little creatures swirling 
about over the strand or daintily running about on the wet sands or kelp- 
covered rocks. Let the Audubon Societies voice their sentiments in this 
matter ; it will do good work. The warden writes : "There are hundreds 
of little Sandpeeps on this and Cone Island, and they form in flocks and sit 
on the shore. Gunners come here and slaughter them awfully, for it is no 
trick to fire into a big flock of them and kill and wound a large number. 
After the gunners have been here my children bring in very many wounded 
ones, some with broken wings, or legs shot off, or eyes shot out, in all shapes. 
The gunners don't get half they shoot down. It seems a shame to kill 
these poor little things, and I hope some time in the near future there will 
be protection for them, with a heavy fine attached." The warden also 
writes that the Gulls in his charge are very tame, and that the colony, which 
is a small one, is steadily increasing in size. Crows did some damage by eat- 
ing eggs, but effectual means were taken to keep them away. 

One of the largest Herring Gull colonies in the United States is located 
on the Great and Little Duck Islands. They are in charge of Capt. William 
F. Stanley, keeper of the light station. Both Mr. and Mrs Stanley have 
always taken a great interest in the protection of these birds, and the reports 
furnished are of great interest and value. That of this year is as follows : 

Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 


324 Bird - Lore 

"March 9. The first Gulls made their appearance in a snow storm, 
prospects not encouraging, but they stayed on the Island and commenced 
building nests (or tearing old ones to pieces). About May 2 Gulls left the 
shore line and took to the center of the island. May 14, found first egg ; 
first full set, May 19, found first young bird, June 11 ; August 15, no- 
tice some of the old birds are going. A very few birds have been shot 
from boats ; not so many as in form,er years. I have found ii dead birds 
this season that were wounded and came back to the Island to die. The 
cause of the greatest loss of life is when the young birds are half grown and 
about ready to fly and persons walking around the shore when there is a surf 
on, then the young birds are frightened and make for the water, and the sea 
dashes them against the rocks, breaking their wings and drowning them. 
That is now the most trouble to guard against ; it is not done with evil intent. 
The old birds do not fail to provide food for their young, although as the 
birds get large the old ones have to go sometimes many miles to do it, but 
as a general thing there is plenty for them. I have watched them coming 
back at night, appearing very tired, flying very low, one behind the other. 
They would light near where the young should be, and call, and the chicks 
would rush up to the old bird and pick its bill; after the proper time the old 
bird will stretch out his neck and up will come a mess of almost everything 
from bread, sea cucumbers, livers, fish (all the small kind). It is astonish- 
ing sometimes how much they will throw up. If there is anything left after 
the feast the old bird will swallow it again. The only time there is anything 
left is when the birds are very young, then the old bird will throw up the 
same mess two and three times in as many hours, being very careful to pick 
up what is left each time. Woe betide the young bird that belongs to a 
neighbor who tries to fill up at the wrong place. I have seen a young bird 
killed by one blow from the old bird's bill, blinded and scalped, — his head 
torn in two. 

"As the young birds gain in size the old birds bring them larger fish to 
swallow. We have a few old birds this year who know the time we feed the 
hens, and when that time draws near they are on hand to dine with the 
hens. There have not been as many birds on this Island this season, but 
there have been more on Little Duck. I should say we have had about 
3,500 birds and about i ,600 nests, and I think more than double that number 
of young birds. About every nest had three young birds, and if it had not 
been for the surf business the record would be broken. We have about 300 
Sea Pigeons, (Black Guillemots) and the Stormy Petrels number in the 
thousands. One egg is their limit. We have some 200 or 300 Sandpip'ers. 
There have been a large number of field and wood birds' nests on the Island. 

"In Southwest Harbor last month it was a beautiful sight to see hun- 
dreds of Gulls off the fish wharves picking up the floatings. I heard many 
remarks in their favor by the summer people." 


State Reports 325 

Warden Johnson, of Swans Island, says in his report: "I could not dis- 
cover that any Eider Ducks or Sheldrakes bred in this section this year. 
The reason for this, I think, is the great number of fishing boats which are 
in the habit of fishing so close to the breeding places. The Gull colonies 
are in better condition than ever before. At John's Island the young were 
quite plentiful and tame. At Huron Island the Gull colony, has apparently 
more than doubled. The owners complain that the birds are ruining their 
sheep pasture on account of the large amount of bird lime. The old birds 
were very tame, and remained sitting on the tree topswhile we passed within 
thirty or forty feet of them. A conservative estimate of the number of 
young hatched on this island would be i ,200. The Night Herons seem to be 
holding their own, if not gaining. The Blue Heron seem to be slowly going 
down in numbers. 

"The largest colony of Herring Gulls on the Maine coast, if not in the 
United States, is at No-Man's-Land, which is owned by Captain Mark 
Young, who acts as warden. He reports that "from eight to ten thousand 
Gulls returned home the last of March and commenced to nest in April. 
They were not molested, — not a bird shot or egg taken, (^ver 4,000 young 
were raised." 

Captain James E. Hall, warden at Matinicus Rock, reports: "Six 
Puffins were seen here. About 10, OOO Terns returned to the Rock May 18, 
but they have done the poorest this season of any since I have been here. 
They laid as usual, but the week they were hatching there was a rain-storm 
which lasted two days and the young were drowned in their nests. I do not 
think more than 1,000 were raised." 

Mr. McCorrison, of whom Metinic Green Island is leased, reports that 
about 4,000 Medrics (Terns) arrived May 3, and remained until September 2. 
He says : "I think it is a safe estimate that the colony has doubled this year." 

The warden at Eagle Island, which is located well up in Penobscot Bay, 
reports that the "Terns are far more numerous this year than last, in this 
locality." This is very gratifying, as these birds, before protection was given 
them, were well-nigh exterminated. On the Channel Rocks, over 100 nests 
were counted. 

Warden Cushman reports that the Terns of Blufif Island were very tame, 
and that one could walk to within a few feet of them while on the beaches. 
"I never knew the people to protect them as they do this year." 

The Association this year extended the protection service to the Mt. 
Kineo region Warden Harlow makes the following interesting report : 
"My principal work has been protection for the two species of Gulls which 
annually breed in large numbers about the numerous inland lakes of this 
section, but I have also given some attention to Partridges anil song-birds, 
such as Robins, Song Sparrows, Chickadees, Wrens, Crossbills, Woodpeck- 
ers and the sweet -singing Hermit Thrush. 

326 Bird -Lore 

"Less than the usual number of Gulls arrived here this year, but the 
nesting season was very favorable, and, in consequence, a larger average of 
young were raised. Should say So per cent of the young birds reached the 
flying state. Probably 300 large white Gulls, and 200 of the small, black- 
headed Gulls (Terns) nested here this season. 

"Do not think the Gulls were seriously molested, and know of none be- 
ing shot. However, there are occasional cases of nest -robbing on the part 
of visiting sportsmen, to procure specimens of eggs to take home, and I have 
had occasion to call special attention to the law and the notices of warning, 
in order to convince several parties that they would be prosecuted if they 
persisted in such acts. 

"As to our song-birds and the Partridge (RufJed Grouse), their nesting 
season was unusually favorable, owing to the absence of rains throughout 
June and most of July, for cold rains at such times are fatal to very 
young birds. Minks and weasels are the greatest enemies these birds have 
here, but, owing to the high price of furs recently, these deadly animals have 
been very materially reduced in numbers by the numerous trappers of this 
region. There has been absolutely no plume hunting, to my knowledge, 
and all kinds of birds are numerous this year. 

"One interesting case of a nesting Partridge came under my personal ob- 
servation. The bird built her nest early in the season beside a woods road 
much frequented in June by summer visitors to Mt. Kineo. When she was 
about half through sitting, two families of cottagers came to live within a 
few rods of her nest, and each family brought a dog with them. Neverthe- 
less, in spite of the dogs and the noise, and the frequenting of teams and 
hotel guests, the Partridge stuck to her nest and raised thirteen young, 
hatched out every one of her eggs, and got away safely with her brood, for 
my wife saw her depart to the big woods and safety, with her family trailing 
behind her. 

"Better protection to bird -life hereabouts would result if additional warn- 
ing notices could be posted on the actual breeding grounds along the routes 
of the great army of campers who come to the Maine woods yearly. At 
every important camping place warning notices should be posted: also, upon 
the shores and islands of the big lakes in the deep woods along the northern 
borders. While sportsmen are generally inclined to respect bird -life, there 
are quite a number of instances where thoughtlessness leads them to shoot 
at our song-birds merely as targets. Warning notices displayed on their 
camping sites would undoubtedly prevent such practices almost entirely." 

Our director, Mr. Norton, who takes great interest in, and a careful 
oversight of bird -protection matters in IVIaine, writes: "I have visited only 
two colonies this year, — Falmouth Night Herons, and No-Man's-Land and 
Matinicus Rock. The Night Herons did about as usual, and no disturbance 
came, to my knowledge. No-Man"s-Land is in excellent condition. It is a 

State Reports 327 

fact worthy of emphasis that nowhere else in New Enj^land can one enter 
a busy harbor and witness the presence of so many species of sea-birds, or 
ones so fearless. 

"The Egg Rocks, in Muscongus Bay, were visited by Mr. J. Stanley 
Howard, of Franklin, Mass., in June. His report shows that the Terns are 
again numerous there, and that the small flock of laughing Gulls were still 
with them. 

"At Pine Point the Stratton Island Terns came to the sand-bars and 
creeks with large numbers of fearless young. Their season must have been 

"Some of the summer people at Scarborough were incensed at the 
shooting of shore birds after the law was off. With our notices before 
them, and game laws in hand, I am sure that violations would have been 
dealt with." 

Mrs. C. B. Tuttle, secretary of the Maine Audubon Society, re- 
ports that work in Maine the past year has been effective, the interest 
keener and more wide-spread than ever before. The Society has received 
much assistance and encouragement from women's clubs and farmers' 

"We have succeeded in awakening a public sentiment which I hope will 
stimulate rne good work and win many friends for the birds. We have cir- 
culated what literature it was possible for us to procure. At the present 
time we have 1,068 associate members and 350 members. From all parts of 
the state reports have been received showing increased popular interest. In- 
quiries with regard to Audubon work are frequently received from new 
quarters. In addition to other work we have tried to keep in touch with 
the societies of other states. Three new local secretaries have been 
appointed. We believe, with Ella Wheeler Wilcox, that ' there is no 
religion of any value in the uplifting of the world which does not include 
practical efforts to protect the dependent creatures of the earth.' " 

Massachusetts. — Three wardens were employed in this state. Woe- 
pecket Island was in charge of Emanuel Nelson who, reports that the 
Common Terns arrived there the second week in May; he counted 1,320 
nests and 3,483 eggs; 2,000 young were hatched, of which 500 died when 
nearly grown, during the very hot weather in the last week in July. The 
birds or eggs were not disturbed except by Crows, which did considerable 
damage; also, a high tide, June 7 and 8, destroyed about lOO nests. The 
last Tern seen at this station was on September 11. 

Warden Smith, of Edgarton, reports a good season for the Terns on 
Martha's Vineyard. He made daily visits to the beach, and he believes the 
nesting birds were not disturbed. He suggests that the sale of air-guns to 
boys be prohibited as a means of saving song-birds. 


Bird- Lore 

]\Ir. George H. INIackay, whose name is so intimately connected with 
the Terns of ^luskeget, was not able to visit the islands the past season, but 
he quotes a letter from Capt. R. C. Gibbs. of the Life Saving Station: "The 
Terns had a good breeding season, and I don't think I saw as many dead 
ones as in some seasons past." Mr. IMackay also sent a very interesting 
report from Mi. F. A. Homer regarding the Terns of Penikese: "On the 
morning of May 5, in a thick fog, with a chilly wind from the southeast, 
the Terns of Penikese arrived at the island and immediately took possession 
of the prominent points. On May 21, the first egg was observed; on June 
16, young were first seen, and, on July 10, the young were just able to fly. 
On August 2, small flocks assembled and commenced to leave, and by 
September 10 the island was deserted. 

"I\Iv observation of these birds extends back over twenty years, audit 
seems to me I have never seen such large numbers of them as this season. 
I have also observed that they nested nearer the buildings than ever before, 
that their nests were better made, and that they laid their eggs and hatched 
out earlier than in previous seasons. The mortality among the young has 
been less than usual, and there were very many less crippled ones. This 
may be accounted for by the fact that we had but twenty sheep on the 

Mr. Homer writes that the IMassachusetts State Board of Charity con- 
demned the island, by right of eminent domain, for a leper colony, and adds: 
"In taking leave of these harmless birds, I would suggest that you enlist 
the sympathy of the resident physician, and I have no doubt he will do for 
them what I have always tried to do." 

Miss Kimball, secretary of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, makes 
the following excellent report: "This year has been a successful one, with 
a membership of 6,303. We have 119 local secretaries, some of whom are 
school teachers or members of school committees, and interest in our work 
seems to be growing in the schools. 

"Many circulars, including educational and BiRD-LoRE leaflets, cloth 
warning notices, and copies of the laws, have been distributed freely. The 
few complaints of violations of law received, were reported to our efficient 
Fish and Game Commission, the state officers, and were promptly in- 

"Legislation at the State House was closely watched by our protection 
committee, and through our local secretaries the successful passage of a bill 
was helped, which made possible a report of work in the interest of birds, 
done by the state ornithologist. 

"Three traveling lectures and four libraries have been in good demand. 
Also, our bird charts, calendars, and sets of bird plates, a new edition of 
one of the charts being found necessary. The new calendar for 1906 has 
been printed in Japan, in a very beautiful and artistic manner. 

State Reports 329 

"A course of three lectures was given by Mr. Ralph Hoffmann and a 
public meeting was held, the speakers being Mr. Hoffmann and National 
Secretary T. Gilbert Pearson." 

The activity of the Massachusetts Audubon Society and the influence it 
exerts is shown by the following item: Mr. G. H. Noyes, millinery buyer 
for Mr. James A. Houston, of Boston, in a signed article in the ' Millinery 
Trade Review' of October, 1905, page 35, says, regarding the prevailing 
fashions at Boston this season: "Birds do not meet with much favor, on 
account of the strong prejudice aroused by the Audubon Society, which is 
especially active in this state." 

There is one important matter that should receive the earnest attention 
of the Massachusetts public, and especially the members of the Audubon 
Society; in fact, it is of interest to all persons who care for wild life. The 
few remaining Heath Hens on Martha's Vineyard will disappear in a short 
time if a law, making a close season for at least ten years is not passed by 
the next legislature. The fine should be not less than $100 for killing one 
of these birds or taking any eggs, and they should have special protection 
by an efficient warden. The small number left is all that exist anywhere on 
the globe, and when they pass away another race of birds will be extinct. 
This colony is fortunately so situated that it can easily be protected, and the 
experiment of trying to save a species of birds on the verge of extinction 
will be of great scientific interest. The National Association urges upon 
the citizens of Massachusetts immediate action, and pledges its influence 
and help. 

Michigan. — Very important bird protection work was accomplished in 
this state. The Model Law was adopted and two splendid bird reservations 
were secured (see page 299). The State Audubon Society is active and 
growing; the secretary, Mr. Butler, reports as follows: 

"Since the last annual report, the Michigan Audubon Society has, with 
the help of the national president, secured the passage of a Model Law. We 
have defeated those who desired an open season for Robins and Kingfishers; 
have shortened the season for spring shooting of game and birds, and were 
instrumental in amending the game law so as to protect many of the animals 
as well. During the year, 7,000 leaflets, government documents, by-laws, 
reports, etc., were distributed. Warning notices were sent out, local 
branches posting the cards. The state librarian is preparing a traveling 
library for the Audubon Society. The secretary gave fifteen public talks 
during the year, about one-half the number being illustrated. Prof. W. B. 
Barrows also has given a number of lectures. 

"Owing to the impossibility of getting the game wardens to act, no con- 
victions could be secured ; however, we were able to drive three men out of 
the business of killing birds for the milliners by pleading and threats. Two 

330 Bird - Lore 

new branches were established, and another is in the formative period. We 
are now engaged in organizing the commission designated under our new 
law, and will apparently begin the year in a more hopeful spirit than has 
heretofore been vouchsafed us." 

Two wardens were employed, both of them guarding large colonies of 
Herring Gulls, one on what is now the Huron Island Reservation, and the 
other on the rocks near the Passage Island Light Station. Both of these 
colonies had a quiet season, the wardens preventing molestation. 

Minnesota. — The Fish and Game Commission in this state is very active, 
and, with the work done by the Audubon Society in its special lines of eflort, 
has made the game outlook bright. 

Miss Whitman, secretary of the Audubon Society, gives the following 
outline of work: 

"In addition to report made last year, I can report the formation of four 
additional branch societies, and quite a number of school ' bird circles ' at 
different points. Our interior reports are very slow in coming, but I am 
satisfied of more than ordinary progress during 1905. The request for cir- 
culars, bird literature, and instructions for forming societies, shows a very 
decided increase in interest. Quite a strong movement is now being made 
in Minneapolis, where heretofore we have been unable to get much of a 
foothold. Our shortage of funds keeps the work back. Such leaflets as we 
could secure have been sent out, but they have not been numerous. We 
are more than holding our own in the matter of legislation and the enforce- 
ment of the laws which we have secured." 

Missouri. — Secretary Reese tells the story of the splendid results ob- 
tained in 1905 by the Missouri Audubon Society so concisely that no other 
word is necessary. 

"The following is a synopsis of the work performed by the Audubon So- 
ciety of Missouri: 

"Distributions of educational leaflets interesting the farmers and sports- 
men, by a constant supply of pithy articles in the various newspapers and 
magazines; drafting a bird, game and fish bill, including the Model Law, 
having it adopted by the game committee of the Legislature as the 'Audubon 
Bill,' and assisting in its passage. 

"To the energy and untiring efforts of Hon. H. R. Walmsley, honorary 
vice-president of the Audubon Society, and representative from Kansas 
City, is due the passage of this bi'l, after a stormy voyage through both 
branches of the Legislature. We also appreciate the valuable services of the 
National Association, and those Dr. Palmer rendered in this fight. The 
Audubon Society is firmly established, and receives the support of the press 
and those who are battling for the welfare of all wild life." 

State Reports 331 

Nebraska. — The Audubon Society of this state has confined its efforts 
mostly to the juniors, where it has been very successful. Work along this 
line is one of the most beneficial that can be accomplished. Miss Higgins, 
secretary of the Society, sends the following message: 

''There is little to report, 1 am sorry to say, on the work of the Nebraska 
Society, for the past year. I am looking forward to a better new year, as I 
shall have more time to devote to the work. Educational Leaflet No. 3, on 
'The Meadow Lark' was reprinted in the ' Nebraska Farmer,' and special 
mention made of it, thus bringing it to the notice of thousands of farmers. 
Our junior membership is active and increasing. Membership of over 15,000 
reported in 1904." 

New Hampshire. — The State Audubon Society is doing a quiet but 
very effective work. It deserves special commendation for its efforts to save 
from extermination the Wood Duck and Upland Plover. Every Society 
should agitate a ten years' close season on these two species of birds. Mrs. 
Batchelder reports as follows for the Audubon Society: "In general, the 
work has been carried on as hitherto, by the circulation of the Society's 
leaflets, and those of the National Association, of government publications, 
of bird charts and of traveling libraries. The traveling lecture, with stereop- 
ticon, continues in use. ' The Economic Value of Birds to the State ' is 
ready for circulation. 

"With the aid of our energetic Fish and Game Commission, fourteen 
convictions have been obtained. Of these, ten were for killing song-birds, 
three for caging wild birds, and one for killing a Great Blue Heron. 

"In view of the threatened extermination of the Wood Duck in this 
state, the Society, in conjunction with Mr. Abbott H. Thayer, has offered 
a reward of $25 for the conviction of any person killing one of that 
species out of season. Attempts by Mr. Thayer and by the Society to ob- 
tain by legislative action a five years' close season for Wood Duck and 
Upland Plover were unsuccessful. The effort will be renewed at the next 
session of the Legislature." 

New Jersey. — The National Association is always exceedingly glad to 
get in close touch with the Game Commission of a state. Such relations 
have been established with the Commission of this commonwealth, which 
is exceedingly active in game and bird protection. A most intelligent 
knowledge of advanced game-protection methods is shown, and an evident 
desire to join with those states that have already stopped by legislative 
action that most wasteful and pernicious of all methods of game depletion, 
i. e., spring shooting. In many states it is prohibited, and there is a rapidly 
growing sentiment among sportsmen and others, that shooting of all kinds 
must stop on January i, and not be resumed until the fall season opens. 


Bird -Lore 

When such a law is general, there will be no excuse for any one carrying a 
gun during the close season, and when a person is found doing so it will be 
evident that a violation is contemplated. The public, especially the bird- 
loving public of New Jersey, should uphold their Game Commission in all 
their attempts to stop spring shooting. The Audubon Society has had some 
strenuous fights on its hands in the past, and it has, by strong and concerted 
action, always been successful. It is not too soon to commence the cam- 
paign for the abolition of spring shooting in New Jersey. The photograph 


shown of the youth who took pride in killing valuable Hawks in the south- 
ern part of the state shows that a liberal circulation of educational leaflets is 
necessary. The harm done by this lad to the farming interests of his locality 
is beyond estimate, to say nothing of the open and repeated violations of the 
law. If this boy had been taught in school the value of birds, and also to 
respect their rights, he might now be a protector of, and not a menace to 
the birds. 

Two wardens were employed, both of whom report a good year for the 
birds. The Laughing Gulls and Terns seem to be making a slow but steady 
increase, due to rigid protection, and the stopping of the sale of the plumage 
of native birds by milliners. 

Miss Scribner, secretary of the Audubon Society, reports as follows: 

State Reports 333 

"The present membership is 739, an increase of 75 over last year. The 
chief work done by the Society during the past year was the successful 
effort to prevent the passage of a bill allowing an open season for Doves for 
six weeks in the autumn. The same methods were used as in the previous 
year, when the Robin was in danger, and several hundred educational leaf- 
lets on 'The Mourning Dove' were distributed, while the members of the 
Legislature were appealed to by influential persons. The bill was defeated 
by a good majority. 

"Three new local secretaries have been added during the past year, and 
most of our secretaries report increased interest, especially among school 
children. A large colored bird chart and a number of smaller ones have 
been distributed for use in schools. An effort is being made to interest the 
farmers in the protection of Hawks and Owls, and leaflets on these birds 
are to be distributed throughout the state this fall. 

"On a number of occasions, ladies' clubs, which have taken up the study 
of birds, have written to the secretary for information and literature. Such 
aid is always willingly and cheerfully rendered." 

New York.— Audubon Society work in this state is always active, and 
in fact, aggressive. The two wardens who guard the Tern colonies at the 
east end of Long Island, report a normal increase. The fact that these 
birds are protected both by the state authorities and by the Audubon Society 
is now so well known that the wardens have little work to do. The 
increase of Gulls and Terns in the migration period is very marked, thus 
showing the benefit of the warden system along the coast. There are four 
beautiful islands on the New York shore of Lake Champlain, opposite Bur- 
lington, now known as the 'Four Brothers,' but which the Indians used to 
call 'The Islands of the Four Winds.' These are the property of a wealthy 
New York City merchant who has become so much interested in bird pro- 
tection that he placed a special warden on his islands from May to October 
to guard the birds, especially a colony of Herring Gulls, which use the 
islands as a breeding place. It is very gratifying, indeed, to have such a spirit 
of bird protection, and such liberality shown. 

Miss Lockwood, secretary of the Audubon Society, reports : 
"The statistics for the past year show the membership increased to 7,042 ; 
leaflets distributed, over 33,000, including several thousand law posters in 
English and Italian. A new prospectus has been issued; also, verse cards 
for children, and a large edition of Mrs. Mary Riley Smiths 'The Aigrette: 
An Appeal to Women.' 

"The Society was incorporated on November 23, 1904- 
"Through one of the honorary vice-presidents, the sum of S365 was re- 
ceived, which, with other donations amounting to over Sioo, was a ver>' 

334 Bird -Lore 

welcome addition to the funds. As usual, $125 was contributed toward the 
expenses of the National Committee. 

"During the past year the Society was very active in regard to legislation. 
The utmost effort was made to arouse all possible influence in the state to 
prevent the repeal of the anti-spring duck-shooting law, which was 
threatened by the Burr bill; also, to urge the passage of the bill forbidding 
foreigners to carry firearms, and the bill .prohibiting the sale of Aigrettes in 
New York State. The Society was successful in regard to the Duck and 
fire-arms bills, but the Aigrette bill is to be again contested. Our Commit- 
tee on Law was indefatigable in this struggle. It was gratifying to learn that 
Senator Armstrong had said : 'The work of the Audubon Society has been 
very effective.' 

"The fuller recognition accorded this movement is shown by the way 
in which the work is extending in new towns, proving that the public are 
learning the practical, ethical and educational value of this work for the 
child. Throughout the state a great advance has been made in all branches 
of nature study. More concerted action is, however, needed, and would 
make the task of the many individual teachers who are enthusiastically helping 
the Audubon cause much easier. The outlook for the coming year is very 

North Carolina, — The Audubon Society of this state is doing a great 
and unique work in game and bird protection. It usually publishes a detailed 
and interesting report, which can always be obtained by addressing its office 
at Greensboro. Secretary Pearson submits the following resume of results in 
1905 : 

"The Audubon Society, which acts as a State Game Commission in 
this state, makes the following report : During the past year, forty-five 
game wardens have been employed for the whole or part of their time. 
They have made a house-to-house canvass over large areas of the state, 
handing out literature and posting notices regarding the bird and game 
laws. The following literature has been used : 30,000 National Associa- 
tion leaflets, 35,000 state Society publications, and 5,000 Government pub- 

"Wardens have seized eighteen shipments of game which were being il- 
legally sent out of the state to northern markets, the contents of the pack- 
ages being confiscated and sold at auction. Fifty-six convictions have been 
successfully conducted throughout the state for violations of the bird and 
game laws. 

"The Audubon launch, the 'Dutcher' has been completed, at a cost of 
$1,400, and is now patrolling the sounds of Eastern Carolina. By its use, 
the efficiency of the wardens has been largely increased in protecting the 
breeding sea-birds. 

State Reports 335 

"The past summer, there were hatched in the CaroHna colonies, sea-birds 
as follows: Wilson's Terns, 708; Least Tern, 577; Royal Tern, 4.632; 
Black Skimmers, 930; Laughing Gulls, 18, making a total of 6,866. This is 
the third year the birds have received protection. 

"The first year, 1,700 young birds were raised; the second year, about 
2,700. The increase has been very marked, especially in the case of the 
Least Tern, only six eggs being laid two years ago, and about sixty -five last 

"Much attention was paid to legislation the past winter. Some of the 
gains were as follows: Prohibiting export of shore birds, making it illegal to 
kill deer while swimming, close season for game established in many hitherto 
unprotected counties, and an increase of penalty for violations of the Audu- 
bon laws. 

"During the six weeks' period of bitter weather in January and February, 
the wardens and many members of the Society systematically fed the birds. 
Hundreds of bushels of cracked corn, peas and other food were pur- 
chased by the Society for this purpose. The Society pays for sixty copies of 
Bird-Lore. The income of the Society the past year was about $9,500, 
$1,000 of this being for membership fees, the remainder from the sale of 
hunters' licenses to non-residents of the state. The increase of public 
sentiment favoring bird and game protection is very noticeable in North 

North Dakota. — The gain in this state is the Stump Lake Reservation. 
Our warden reports that the following birds bred there this year : Ring-billed 
and California Gulls, Cormorants, Wilson's Terns, Gadwall, Shoveller, Pin- 
tail, Lesser Scaup and White-winged Scoter Ducks, Spotted Sandpipers, 
Piping Plover, and several kinds of land birds, and that he believes that they 
were not molested. 

Miss Abbott, secretary of the Audubon Society, states in a letter that 
the best work of the year has been in creating enthusiasm for branch socie- 
ties, and the exhibition of the lantern-slides of birds. 

Ohio. — This state is a close second to Massachusetts in the efforts that 
are being made by the state authorities to prevent the sale and use of bird 
plumage as millinery ornaments. The Audubon Society is also active, as 
the following report shows: 

"The Audubon Society for the state of Ohio has been greatly en- 
couraged by the addition of new members during the past year. We have 
outgrown our cozy room in the Cuvier Club, and, while loth to leave the 
pleasant environment, deemed it best to hold our meetings in one of the 
rooms of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute, where we have larger accommo- 

336 Bird - Lore 

"The interest in our work continues, as is shown by numerous inquiries 
that have been made, both by residents of Cincinnati and of the surrounding 
to.wns. Our corresponding secretary has had considerable correspondence, 
not only with the Societies throughout the United States, but with the 
British Society. Much literature has been distributed. 

"Our branch Society at Madisonville cheers us with accounts of its in- 
creasing growth and interest, and froqi Dayton comes word of the growth 
of an increasing public sentiment, which is shown by the special care and 
supervision given to the breeding birds in that locality. There is a prospect 
of a branch Society being formed at College Hill. 

"At our regular monthly meetings, which are well attended, many en- 
tertaining and instructive talks have been given, some consisting of personal 
observations of birds in the vicinity of the speakers' homes, and other 
addresses being on birds that are rare, or not common to this locality. 

"Following our custom, Arbor and Bird Day were observed,* speakers 
from the Society being furnished the public schools. We gladly take ad- 
vantage of every opportunity to inspire the children with a love for the 
feathered citizens of the air, and the need of their protection. The Society 
is still urging the passage of the bill for the protection of the Mourning 
Dove, and has had correspondence with the representatives and senators 
relative to the same. 

"We have suffered a great loss in the death of our acting treasurer. Miss 
Cecilia Ritter, who was untiring in her efforts on behalf of the protection of 
the birds. Encouraging reports have been received regarding the growth 
of public sentiment at Dayton and its suburbs." 

Oregon. — In this state considerable warden work was done. George 
W. Phelps had charge of the Arch Rocks (see Report of 1904, BiRD-LoRE, 
February, 1905) on the coast near the entrance to Netarts Bay. The 
thousands of birds in his charge were undisturbed during the entire season. 
Rewrites: "There has not been a person to visit the Rocks this season, 
although several wished to do so, but I notified them of the consequences 
if they did and they remained away." A notice was published in the county 
paper forbidding tugs from taking excursion parties to the Rocks, as had 
been the custom in previous years. Mr. W. L. Finley, a director of this 
association, and his field companion, Mr. Herman T. Bohlman, were ap- 
pointed deputy game wardens by the state authorities, and guarded the 
extensive rookeries in the Klamath Lake region. Their report is such an 
interesting and valuable contribution to bird knowledge that it is given in 
detail. While there they secured hundreds of photographs, a few of which 
illustrate their report. 

"When we crossed the mountains into the lake region of southern 
Oregon, we found it was necessary to decide on one of two plans. The 

State Reports 


country is so extensive that we either had to spend the entire summer in 
continuous traveling and get only a casual glance at the existing conditions 
and a general view of the country, or we had to select a certain portion of 
the country, study it carefully and protect the various bird colonies that 
existed there. We decided upon the latter course. We procured a boat 
that was suitable to carry our equipment and provisions, and set out for 
Tule Lake, a body of water from twenty to thirty miles wide and about 

Photoi;raphed by Finley and Bohlman 

ninety miles around. Its north end was formerly the great Grebe breeding 
ground. We set out directly across the lake and, striking a heavy wind, nar- 
rowly escaped being swamped in the middle. We spent several days cruising 
about, and found two large Cormorant rookeries (probably the Farallone 
Cormorant). A few White Pelicans also nested in this locality. There was 
nothing to disturb these colonies, as only one man and his family live on 
the peninsula. 

"We then had to return for supplies. From information we obtained 
from an old hunter there we again set out to examine a Grebe rookery 
on the lake. We found a large number of the Western Grebe, as well as 
some of the Eared Grebe, nesting here, but from all accounts the colonies 
had greatly decreased. The Grebes at this locality are undoubtedly now on 
the increase, as there is nothing to disturb them. We also found large colo- 
nies of Forster's and Black Terns, American Avocets and Black-necked 
Stilts, all doing well. 

"The locality is the greatest rendezvous for Ducks and Teal we have 
ever seen, and that right in the midst of the breeding season. In a little 
patch of about an acre in extent, we found seven different nests of the Cin- 
namon Teal and the Pintail. The meadows at the mouth of the river are 


Bird -Lore 

a kind of roosting place at this season, and the Ducks come in by the hun- 
dreds in the evening and depart in the morning. We found the people liv- 
ing about this locality, as a rule, very careful about shooting Ducks in the 
nesting season ; but after the young are partly grown they make no bones 
about killing in season or out. There was no hunting in the locality while 
we were there, but later in the season this is the great shooting ground of 
the market hunters. 

"Later we had our boat hauled overland to White Lake, and set out to 
investigate the Lower Klamath Lake. The south end of the Lower 
Klamath was formerly a great breeding ground for the Western Grebe, but 
these colonies were largely destroyed by hunters. We cruised over a large part 
of the lake, and found that the large rookeries of Cormorants, Grebes, 
White Pelicans, Great Blue Herons, California Gulls and Caspian Terns 
form one of the most extensive bird colonies we have ever seen. Doubt- 
less this locality has never been disturbed to any extent by man. This is the 
great breeding ground of that whole region. 

"It would be difficult to say how many birds are breeding about this one 
locality, but, as near as we could estimate, we judged there were about five 


Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 

hundred nests of the Caspian Tern, and this was the only colony. There 
were from fifty to one hundred Great Blue Herons nesting on the tule 
beds. There were three large colonies near by of the California Gull; the 
largest contained about one thousand pairs of birds and the next about six 
hundred. The Western Grebes were nesting all along the edges of the tule 
islands and their nests w^ere only a few feet apart. On one side of a small 

State Reports 


island, about half an acre in extent, we counted over sixty nests containing 
eggs. There were perhaps three thousand five hundred nests about that 
locality. The Cormorants were all hatched and grown; about one thousand 
five hundred were swimming about in the water. The Pelican rookeries 
were scattered along for about 
two miles. There were eight 
or ten, each containing from 
four to six hundred birds, then 
there were twelve or fifteen 
that had all the way from fifty 
to two hundred birds, besides 
a number of smaller ones. 

"I should have said before 
that these colonies are situated 
miles out from the main shore 
of the lake. All the interven- 
ing space is covered by the 
rankest growth of tules, 
through which run innumer- 
able little channels, cutting 
up the whole into hundreds of 
islands. These flat, floating 
tule islands are the nesting 
places of the birds. Most of 
these are buoyant enough to 
hold a man; in fact, they 
were the only camping spots 
we had all the time we were 
on the lake. 

"From some of the old hunters we collected the following facts concern- 
ing the Grebe hunting. They told us that no Grebes were shot last year or 
this year for the market, and investigation about these lakes showed that 
this was true. The last year that Grebes were hunted in this locality was 
in 1903. The two years previous great numbers were shipped from this 
point. One of the hunters told us he saw $30,000 worth of skins piled up 
ready for one shipment from Merrill. At the time there were twelve 
different hunters along the north end of Tule Lake. 

''One of the hunters told us he shot 135 Grebes at one sitting. After 
hunting for two years the professional hunters realized that the birds were 
getting scarcer, and they held a meeting in order to protect the birds during 
the breeding season. The farmers would not agree to this, — they were going 
to shoot at any time; so, after that, the hunters shot whenever they could 
find birds, in nesting season and out. At first the skins brought from sixty 



Photoeraphed by Finley and Bohlman 


Bird - Lore 

to seventy-five cents apiece, then they fell to forty cents and later they were 
bringing only about twenty-five cents. 

"When influence was brought to bear on the Milliners' Association to 
refrain from using the skins of our native birds, Grebe hunting was abruptly 
stopped by sending word to the hunters that no more Grebe skins would be 
bought. This proved to us a good example of what the Audubon Society 
has accomplished by cutting at the roots instead of hacking off the branches. 

"We wish to call attention to a few facts concerning the protection of 
Wild Ducks in this section of the country. 

" The Lake region of Southern Oregon is perhaps the greatest feeding and 
breeding ground for water fowl on the Pacific coast. All the lakes east of 

Photographed by Finley and Bohlman 

Klamath county are fairly well protected, because, as yet, the Ducks and 
Geese that live there are out of reach of the market hunter. This is not the 
case in Klamath county. Although these lakes are about seventy miles 
from the nearest railroad station, yet they are in the hands of market hunt- 
ers, who slaughter the ducks by the thousands for the San Francisco 

"There are from twenty to thirty camps of these professional hunters, 
stationed along the border of Lower Klamath and the north end of Tule 
Lake every winter, and shooting is carried on the entire season. When the 
Ducks are flying, each hunter will bag from lOO to 150 birds a day. These 
hunters keep two wagons at work the entire season. When the weather is 
moderate the wagons visit the camps three times a week and collect the 
Ducks in sacks, which are sent to Montague, California, where they are 
expressed to San Francisco. In colder weather these wagons go only on 
Tuesdays and Fridays. We were told there were 120 tons of Ducks shipped 

State Reports 341 

from this point winter before last (1903.) The hunters receive the follow- 
ing prices per dozen: Teal, from $2.50 to $3; Mallards, $3 to $5; Sprigs, 
$5 to $7; Canvasbacks, $8 to $9.50. One of the hunters said he shipped 
thirty-nine dozen Ducks at one time. 

"The difficulties in securing protection from the market hunters are these : 
All this hunting ground is very near the Oregon and California boundary 
line, yet most all the Ducks are killed in Oregon. The Oregon game law 
allows a hunter fifty birds a week. The California law allows a hunter fifty 
a day. Oregon provides so little for the game warden in this section of the 
country that he is unable to cope with the situation. The hunters keep 
watch of his movements and send out couriers whenever he visits that local- 
ity. The hunters work secretly and ship at night, or, when an Oregon war- 
den appears, all they have to do is sail their scows across the border into 
California. Both states have made some attempts to stop this traffic, but 
they have always left loop-holes. It seems California made a law that pre- 
vented hunters shipping to commission men in San Francisco, whereupon 
the hunters shipped to themselves in care of the Game Transfer Company, 
an organization of commission men. Each hunter shipped under half a 
dozen different names, recognized as one individual by the commission 
people; thus the hunters evaded the bag limit. Oregon has just passed a 
law providing that each hunter must take out a hunter's license. The pro- 
fessional hunters are now taking out a number of licenses under assumed 
names, we were told. These conditions cannot be effectually met until laws 
are made to control the market. A hundred laws might have been made 
preventing the shooting of Grebes, but so long as they were there in thou- 
sands and each skin was worth fifty cents the hunters shot them, and it 
would have taken a large number of game wardens to stop them. A little 
work at the right end put an entire stop to the slaughter. It is largely the 
same with Duck hunting in this locality. 

"In addition to the above, it may be said that among other birds that 
were shot for plumage, Forster's Tern was diminished in numbers till few 
were left. The wings and tail of this bird sold for twenty cents, and great 
numbers were killed and shipped out with the Grebe skins. The following 
well-known habit would soon have led to the extinction of the species in 
this region. As soon as one bird was shot and fell to the water, the other 
Terns, through curiosity or for some other reason, crowded about from all 
directions, and all the hunter had to do was sit and shoot his birds right and 
left. This beautiful Tern was formerly very common about these lakes, but 
we were able to find only two small colonies. So far as we could discover, 
this species is now left undisturbed and will undoubtedly soon increase in 

"For a while the White Pelicans were also shot for their plumage. In 
1901 fifty skins were shipped to New York, and brought one dollar each. A 

342 Bird - Lore 

little later a consignment of five hundred skins was sent, but, not being paid 
for, the further shipments of these skins stopped, as far as we could discover. 
"There are perhaps still some cases of plume hunting in this section of 
the country. We were told of a small colony of White Cranes that were 
nesting at Clear Lake, about thirty-five miles from Merrill. These birds 
were hunted almost to extinction, and from one source we heard that hunters 
were still after them in their breeding haunts. But this was only a report, and 
we could not learn anything more definite." 

Pennsylvania. — In this state the Legislature entirely remodeled the bird 
and game law, which is now in excellent form. 

The Game Commission is enforcing the law intelligently and effectively. 
A large amount of Audubon work is being done in the western portion of 
the state by the Western Pennsylvania Audubon Society and the Burroughs 
Club. At the eastern end of the state, organized work seems to have di- 
minished somewhat, although some splendid individual bird-protection work 
is being done. Miss Reed, secretary of the Western Pennsylvania Audubon 
Society, sends a brief report: 

"This Society enrolls about 800 merrtbers. Meetings are held on the 
second Wednesday of each month, in the burgess' office, Wilkinsburg. In 
educational lines, the Society has distributed about 400 circulars, has inter- 
ested the press of Pittsburg and Wilkinsburg, and has awakened consider- 
able interest in the public schools. One of the Wilkinsburg weekly papers, 
' The Call,' gives half a column to Audubon notes. 

" 'Bird Day ' has been established in some of the schools. Local secre- 
taries are being appointed as rapidly as possible. Our largest auxiliary formed 
is at Sayre, Pa. In law enforcement, 250 warning notices have been posted, 
and nine convictions have been secured through the work of this Society." 

Rhode Island. — The Roger Williams Park Museum, Providence, has 
issued a most helpful pamphlet for teachers and others (Bull. No. 15). 
It is a ' Check-List ' of the birds of the state. On one page are the com- 
mon namfes, and opposite, spaces are arranged to note arrival and departure. 
School-teachers are requested to note on school blackboard all arrivals of 
birds reported by pupils. The pamphlet is an excellent scheme to interest 
both the teacher and the scholar, and it deserves a wide circulation. The 
Audubon Society continues its good work, as is shown by the appended re- 
port from Mrs. Grant, its secretary: 

"The Society, which held its eighth annual meeting, has a total mem- 
bership of 860. There are 19 branches conducted by local secretaries. The 
work done during the past year has been mainly educational. Four traveling 
libraries and a traveling lecture, with lantern and slides, have been in con- 
stant use; a dozen of the Massachusetts bird charts have been given to the 

State Reports 343 

schools; copies of the state laws relating to birds, and 2,000 leaflets have 
been distributed. 

"In February, Mr. Frank M. Chapman delivered a lecture upon Fla- 
mingos, under the auspices of the Society. A very successful feature of the 
year's work was a luncheon, given to the local secretaries by the directors, 
the occasion furnishing opportunity for mutual acquaintances and con- 

"Public sentiment in this state seems to be very favorable to the objects 
of the Society, still but little has been accomplished in the way of legislation. 
The law providing a bounty for Hawks, Owls and Crows has not been 
repealed, but the State Bird Commissioners have been active in enforcing 
existing laws, and report over twenty convictions for shooting song-birds. 

"In February, the Society sustained a severe loss in the death of its dis- 
tinguished president. Dr. Alpheus S. Packard. The vacancy has been filled 
by the election of Dr. Albert Davis Mead." 

South Carolina. — During the year our secretary visited South Carolina, 
and the Audubon Society of that state was reorganized. Senator B. F. 
Tillman was elected president; President H. N. Snyder, of Woflord College, 
vice-president, and State Superintendent of Education O. B. Martin, of 
Columbia, secretary. A strong board of directors was selected. Over two 
hundred dollars in membership fees and gifts were collected, which is being 
used in furthering the organization and distributing educational literature in 
the state. An educational department of the work was also formed, and 
Miss Minnie McFeet, of Rock Hill, is chairman of the committee having 
this branch in charge. Two hundred and twenty-five teachers have been 
enrolled. We expect good results in South Carolina during the coming 

Texas. — One warden was employed on the coast at the Matagorda 
Light-house Station, who reports that the Black Skimmers, Royal, Com- 
mon and Least Terns in his charge were not disturbed, although he was 
compelled to stop the attempts of two parties to egg, and a third from kill- 
ing young birds. He estimates that at least 2,000 Skimmers were raised at 
his station. The immense coast of Texas is practically unknown to the 
Association. Its examination, and the bestowal of such care as is found 
necessary, will be one of the first special works undertaken. 

Vermont. — In this state very excellent educational methods are followed 
by the Audubon Society. The appended report of Miss Griffin, the secretary, 
shows the special efforts made to reach the schools. 

"In May, the headquarters of the Society was transferred to The Fair- 
banks Museum, at St. Johnsbury, and that institution is to cooperate in 

344 Bird - Lore 

Audubon work. The president of the Board of Trustees and the director 
of the Museum are, respectively, president and secretary of the Audubon 
Society. It is hoped that this will result in renewed interest and in an ag- 
gressive line of work, particularly among the young people. 

"There are eleven branch societies in Vermont. Frequent field trips are 
conducted by these branches, lists of birds are made and the school children 
are interested and instructed concerning bird -life. 

"Three traveling libraries have been circulated among the rural schools 
of the state, and Mr. Carlton D. Howe has given five illustrated bird lec- 
tures, the lantern and the slides which he used being the property of the 
state Society. Mr. Howe has also written a pamphlet entitled 'Fifty Com- 
mon Birds of Vermont,' which was issued by the state superintendent of 
schools as a ' Circular of Educational Information ' ; it has been sent to 
each teacher in the state. The gross membership of the Society is 443, of 
which 300 are juniors." 

Virginia. — The secretary reports as follows : " The work of the Virginia 
Audubon Society has been limited during the year to the distribution of 
warning notices for posting, and of copies of a digest of the game law. 
The illustrated bird lecture prepared by the District of Columbia Society 
has been used a number of times in the northern part of the state. " 

Warden work in the state has been continued by the National Associa- 
tion with excellent results. As for the past five years, eight men have been 
employed. Their methods and the good they accomplish have been detailed 
in so many previous reports that it is unnecessary to repeat the details here. 
All the wardens report for 1905 an excellent season for the birds, which 
made a normal increase. Fortunately, no high storm-tides occurred during 
the nesting season. In addition to the protection given by the wardens, a 
series of special advertisements were run in the newspapers, most widely read 
in the coast counties, which called particular attention to the game laws 
and the penalties for violations of the same; rewards were also offered for 
evidence that would secure convictions. 

Wisconsin. — The progress made by the Audubon Society in this state 
in enlisting interest among children is remarkable. These good results are 
probably due to the influence of its magazine 'By the Wayside.' Mrs. 
Thwaites, the secretary, writes: "We have added 3,651 new names to our 
membership, mostly children, of course, making a total of 28,288. 'By the 
Wayside' now has 400 subscribers, but not enough to make it self-support- 
ing. Our slides and lectures have been used at twelve different towns in the 
state; ten public libraries have joined the Societv at fifty cents a year, in 
order to have our publications and Educational Leaflets." 

List of Members 



Bowman, Miss Sarah R. 
Brewster, William . . 
Browning, J. Hull . . . 

Childs, John L 

Clyde, William P. . . 
Crosby, Maunseli S. 
Earle, Miss Eleanor P. . 
Fay, Mrs. Flora W. . . 
Frothingham, Howard P. 
Hunnewell, Henry S. 


. . $ioo CO Lawrence, Samuel C f loo oo 

. . ICO oo N. C. Audubon Society loo oo 

. . . loo oo Pearson, T. Gilbert loo oo 

. . . lOo oo Phillips, John C loo oo 

. . . loo oo Pierrepont, John J. loo oo 

. . . loo oo Pierrepoint, Anna J loo oo 

. . . loo oo Reed, Mrs. William H loo oo 

. . . loo oo Sage, Mrs. Russell loo oo 

. . . loo oo Van Name, Willard G loo oo 

. loo oo Webster, F. G loo oo 

Total $2,000 oo 


American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union )j 
Abbott, C. G. . 
Abbott, G. , 
Achelis, F. 
Adams, Miss E. B. 
Agar, Mrs. J. G. . 
Agassiz, M. . . . 
Agassiz, R. . . . 
Agelasto, P. A. . 
Alexander, J. B. 
Alexander, T. W. 
Allen, C. A. . 
Allen, Miss M. C. 
Almon, Miss M. E 
Amend, B. G. . 
Ames, Miss M. S. 
Ames, Mrs. Cakes 
Ames, Mrs. W. H. 
Amory, W. . . . 
Anderson, Mrs. J. C 
Andrews, Mrs. H. E 
Appleton, J. W. . 
Archibold, J. D. . 
Atkins, Mrs. E. F. 
Auchincloss, J. W. 
Avery, S. P., Jr. 
Bacon, Mrs. F. E. 
Bacon, Miss M. P. 
Baird, Miss L. H. 
Baker, Mrs. C. M. 
Baker, D. . . 
Baker, L. D., Jr. . 
Baldwin, Mrs G. 
Baldwin, Miss H. S 
Baldwin, J., Jr. 
Bancroft, Mrs. W. P 
Banks, The Misses 
Barnes, H. S. 
Barnes, Mrs. H. S. 

Carried forward . 

200 00 

5 00 

50 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

II 00 

30 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

50 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

15 00 

25 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

6 65 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

552 65 

Brought forward . 
Bartlett, J. W. . . 
Bartlett, L. L. 
Beach, Mrs. H.H. A 
Bean, Mrs. H. S. 
Beckwith, Mrs. D. 
Beebe, Miss M. L. 
Behr, E. A. . 
Bemis, Mrs. F. 
Benedict, T. H. 
Benner, C. 
Berckmans, P. J. 
Bergh, H. 
Bertschmann, J. 
Bevin, L. A. 
Bigclow, Mrs. P. 
Bill, N. D. . . 
Bird, A. C. . . 
Bird, C. S. 
Bliss, Mrs. W. P 
Boiler, A. P. . 
Boiling, S. . . 
Bolton, Mrs. S. K 
Borg, Mrs. S. C. 
Borland, W. G. 
Boulton, W. B. 
Bowditch, J. H. 
Bowlker. T. J. 
Boyle, E. J. 
Bradlee, T. S. 
Bradley, Miss A. A 
Bradley, Miss L. . 
Bradley, Mrs. R. . 
Breed, S. A. 
Bridge, Mrs. L. E. 
Brimley, H. H. 
Bristol, J. I. D. . 
Brodie, P. T. 
Brooks, A. ... 
Brooks, A. L. 
Brooks, T. M. . 
Brooks, Mrs. P. C. 

552 65 
25 00 
5 00 
5 00 
5 00 
5 00 
5 00 






5 00 


10 00 
2 00 
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5 00 
10 00 
5 00 
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5 00 
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5 00 
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5 00 
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5 00 
10 00 

Carried forward . $789 65 

Brought forward . 

I789 6s 

Brooks, S. . . 

5 00 

Brown, E. R. . . 

5 00 

Brown, H. W. . . 

5 00 

Brown, Miss I. W. 

5 00 

Brown, S. N. 

5 00 

Browning, W. H. 

5 00 

Buckingham, B. H 

5 00 

Burdett, E. W. . 

5 00 

Burgess, J. K. 

5 00 

Burnett, J. T. . . 

5 00 

Burr, Mrs. L S. . 

5 00 

Burr, L T. . . 

5 00 

Butler, Miss V. . 

10 00 

Cabanis, W. . . 

5 00 

Cabot, G.E. . . . 

5 00 

Cabot, Mrs. J. S. . 

5 00 

Callender, T. O. 

5 00 

Cammann,Miss K.I 

. 10 00 

Carleton, C. . . . 

5 00 

Carnegie, M. . . 

5 00 

Carr, CD... 

5 00 

Carter, H. C. . . 

5 00 

Carter, S. T., Jr. 

5 00 


. 5 00 

Chaffee, Mrs. Z. 

5 00 

Chapman, F. M. 

50 00 

Chamberlain, Rev. L 

5 00 

Chamberlin, E.F.P 

5 00 

Chamberlin, G. N. 

5 00 

Chase, Mrs. A. B. 

5 00 

Chase, S. . 

5 00 

Chase, Mrs. T. . 

25 00 

Chisolm, A. R. . 

5 00 

Christian, Miss E. 

5 00 

Christian, Miss S. 

2 00 

Christy, B. H. . 

10 00 

Chubb, S. H. . 

5 00 

Chubbuck, I. Y. . 

5 00 

Church, F. C, Jr. 

5 00 

Churchill. W. W. 

5 00 

Clapp, H 

5 00 

Carried forward, $1,071 65 


Bird - Lore 


Brought forward, $1,071 65 
Clark, Miss A. . . 
Clark, B. P. . . . 
Clark, C. H. . . . 
Clark, E. L. . . 
Clarke, Miss H. E. 
Clark, I. H. . . 
Clark, Mrs. J. T. 
Clark, Miss Susan E 
Clemens, MissJ. L. 
Clemens, S. L. 
Clemenson, G. N. 
Clinch, H. C. . . 
Cochrane, C. . . . 
Codman, Miss C. A 
Colgate, R. R. . 
CoolidgcJ. R. . . 
Collins, Miss E. . 
Collins, Miss M. . 
Congdon, Mrs. H. L 
Converse, C. C. 
Cooper, F. F. 
Corning, Mrs. M. L 
Cox, G. J., Jr. . 
Cox, J. L. 
Crane, Miss C. L. 
Crehore, F. M. . . 
Crosby, Mrs. E. H. 
Crosby, M. E. . 
Crossman, G. W. 
Cudworth, F. . . 
Cummins, Miss A. M 
Cummins, MissE. I 
Curtis, Misses 
Curtiss, Miss S. 
Dalton, H. R., Jr. 
Dane, Miss A. L. 
Dana, MissE. A. 
Daniel, D.W. . 
Davenport, Mrs. E.B 
Davis, Mrs. E. W. 
Davis, W. R. . . 
Davis, Mrs. W. R. 
Day, F. M. . 

Dean, Chas. A. . 
Dean, R. 
de Coppet, T. 
de Forest, H. W. . 
Degmer, L. F. 
DeHavens, W. B. 
Derry, H.P. . 
Dewrey, Dr. C. A. 
Derby Peabody Clu 
Dexter, G. . . 

Dodd, H. W. 
Dodge, Mrs. C. C. 
Dodge, C. H. 
Dodge, D. S., Rev. 
Dodge, MissG. H. 

• s 


. 10 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 7 


. 10 


• 10 


• S 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


■ 25 


• 5 


. 10 


• 5 


- 5 


• S 


• 5 


• 50 


■ 5 




. 20 


■ 5 






■ S 




^- 3 


• 5 


• 5 


. 10 


• 5 




• 5 




• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• 5 


• S 


• 5 


■ 5 


• 5 


• 5 


. 10 


lb 10 




• 5 




• 50 


. 10 


• 5 




Brought forward, $1 , 
Dommerich, L. F 
Donaldson, J. J. 
Dorr, G. B. . 
Doughty, J. J. . 
Draper, E. S. . 
Drew, H. J. W. 
Drude, Miss L, F. 
Drummond, Miss E 
Drummond, Miss M 
Duncan, A. B. . 
Dubois, Dr. M. B 
Dure, L. S. 
Duryee, J. V. W 
Dutcher, Mrs. C. O 
Dutcher, W. . . 
Dwight, J., Jr. . 
Eastman, G. . . 
Eaton, M. L. 
Eddy, Miss S. J 
Edmunds, S. H. 
Elliot Mrs. M. L 
Ells, G. P. 
Emerson, Miss J. 
Emery, Miss G. 
Emery, Mrs. L. J 
Eno, Dr. H. C. 
Estabrook, A. F. 
Estes, C. . . 
Eustis, F. A. . 
Eustis, W. T. . 
Evans, L. B. 
Fackler, D. P. . 
Fair, H. W. . . 
Fairbanks, Mrs. E 
Fairchild, B. T. 
Fairchild, S. W. 
Farnam, H. W. 
Fay, D. B. ... 
Fish, Mrs. C. P. . 
Fisher, Miss E. W 
Fitz, Mrs. W. S. 
Flower, A. R. 
Fogg, .Miss G. M 
Foster, M. G. . , 
Fox, C. K. 
Francis, G. E. 
Freeman, Miss H. E 
Freeman, Miss C. L 
Freer, C. L. 
French, Miss C. A 
French, Miss E. A 
Frissell, A. S. 
Gannett, L. S. . . 
Gatter, Miss E A. 
Gavitt, W. S. . . 
Geer, Mrs. W. 
Gelpecke, Miss A. C. 

533 65 

5 GO 

5 00 

25 OG 

5 GO 

5 OG 

4 GG 

5 OG 

4 GO 
15 OG 

5 OG 
IG 00 

5 GO 

5 00 

5 GO 

5 OG 

5 GO 

58 94 

10 GG 

5 00 

5 GO 

5 GG 

5 GO 

15 00 

5 GG 

5 OG 

2G GO 

15 GG 

25 GO 

5 00 

5 OG 


5 00 

5 OG 

5 GO 

5 GO 

10 GO 

5 GO 

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5 GG 


5 OG 

S 00 

5 GO 

15 OG 

5 GO 


5 GO 

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2 50 

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10 OG 

Brought forward,f2, 
Gilmore, G. . . 
Glessner, Mrs. J. J 
Goddard, G. A. . 
Goin, J. D. . 
Graton, Mrs. H. C 
Graves, G. B. . . 
Gray, Miss E. 
Gray, Miss I. E. . 
Gray, Mrs. M. . 

Gray, R 

Greene, Miss M. A 
Gregor, E. R. 
Grew, Mrs. H. S. 
Griffin, Mrs S. B 
Grimsley, G. A. 
Guillaudeu, E. . 
Gwynne, E. A. 
Hadden, Dr. A. 
Hagar, E. B. . 
Hale, J. C. . . 
Hall, A. B. . . 
Hanal, Mrs. E. B. 
Hardon, Mrs. H. W 
Hardy, Mrs. R. . 
Harrison, C. G. . 
Hartline, D. S. . 
Hatcher, M. F. . 
Hayward, Mrs. M. S 
Hecker, F. J. . . 
Hemenway, A. 
Hemenway, Mrs. A 
Henbach, Mrs. G. 
Hendrickson, W. F 
Herrick, H. 
Herrmann, Mrs. E 
Hicks, Mrs. B. D. 
Hicks, J. D. . . 
Hill, W. H. . . . 
Hintermeister, Miss 

J. E. . . 
Hittinger, J. 
Hodgin, S. H. 
Hodgman,Mrs W.L 
Hoffman, C. A. 
Holden, Mrs. E. R 
Hollingsworth, Miss 


Holt, Mrs. H. . . 
Holtz, F. L. . . 
Horr, C. W. . . 
Houghton, C. S. 
Howald, Dr. F. E. 
Howe, Mrs. A. . 
Howe, Miss E. 
Howe, Miss E. M. 
Howe, Mrs. J. L. E 
Howes, R. V. 
Howland, Miss E. 
Howland, Miss I. 
Howland, H. . . 








































































Carried forward, |i, 533 65 Carried forward, $2, 115 09 I Carried forward, I2, 616 09 

List of Members 



Brought forward 
Marshall, T. T. 
Marshall, C. C. 
Martin, J. S. . . 
Martin, O. B. . 
Mason, E. F. . . 
Maury, M. F. 
Mayo, Miss A. . . 
McEwen.D.C. . 
McGowan, Mrs.J E 
McGowan, J. F. 
McHatton, Dr. H. 
Mclnnes, Dr. N. 
Mclver, Dr. C. D. 
Mead, F. S. 
Mell, Dr. P. H. . 
Melton, MissM. L. 
Merrill, Miss F. E. 
Merriam, C. 
Merriman, Miss H. 
Merriman,The Misses 
Mershon, Hon.W.B 
Metcalf, M. B. . 
Metcalf, S. O. . . 
Meyer, Miss H. . . 
Meyer, T.C. . . . 
Miller, F. M. . . 
Montgomery, Mary A 
Morrill, Miss F. E. 
Morris, R. O. . 
Morse, Mrs. H. D. 
Morse, Mrs.J. T.,Jr 
Moseley, F. S. . . 
Motley, E. P. . . 
Mott, A.W. . . 
Mott, J. L.,Jr. . . 
Murphey, Dr. E.E. 
Nash, Mrs.C. B. 
Newland, Miss F. E 
Newton, Dr. E. D. 
Nichols. J. W. T. 
Norcross, G. H. . 
Norton, R. ... 
Norton, C. E. 
Noyes, Mrs. H. A. 
Omaha Pub. Lib. . 
Opdycke, L. E. 
Osborne, Mrs. E. W 
Osborne, J. H. . 
Osgood, Miss E. L. 
Owen, Mrs. M. L. 
Paine, Mrs. A. G. 
Paine, Miss E. L. 
Paine, R. T. . . 
Palmer, Miss C. H. 
Palmer, Miss L. S. 
Palmer, Dr. T. S. 
Park, Col. R. E. . 
Parker. E. L. 

Carried forward, $3,167 35 I Carried forward, 113,567 10 

Brought forward, $2 

,616 09 

Hughes, D. H. 

5 00 

Hull, Mrs. A. G. . . 

5 00 

Hunneweil, H. S. . . 

25 00 

Hunnewell, W. . . 

25 00 

Hunt, Dr. E. G. . 

6 00 

Hyde, Mrs. E. F. . 

5 00 

Iselin,, Mrs. C. O. . 

5 00 

Iselin, Mrs. W. E. . 

5 00 

Jackson, Miss M. C. 

25 00 

Jamison, C. A. 

5 GO 

Jaquith, H. J., Jr. . 

5 00 

Jaynes, C. P. . . 

5 GO 

Jennings, G. H. 

3 GO 

Jesup, M. K. . . 

50 GO 

Johnson, E. H. . 


Johnson, Mrs. F. S. 

5 GG 

Johnson, Mrs. F. W. 

5 GG 

Johnson, W. H. 

5 GG 

Johnston, R. W. . . 

5 GO 

Jones, Mrs. C. H. 

5 GG 

Jordon, Miss C. N. 

5 GG 

Kahn, 0. H. 

5 GO 

Kane, Miss L. L. 


Kauflfmann, J. . . 

5 OG 

Kempster, J 

5 GG 

Kendall, Miss G. 

5 GG 

Kennedy, Mrs. J. S. 

3G GG 

King, Miss C. R. . 

5 OG 

King, M. K. . . 

5 00 

Kittredge, S. D. . 

3 00 

Kyle, W. S. 

5 00 

Lagowitz, Miss H. L. 

5 GO 

Lamar, W. D. . . 

5 OG 

Langcloth, J. 

5 GG 

Langmann, Dr. G. 

5 GG 

Lawrence, R. B. . 

5 GG 

Lawrence, T. . . 

5 GG 

Leman, J. H. . . 

5 OG 

Lemmon, Miss I. Mc 

5 OG 

Levcrett, G. V. 

5 GO 

Levy, Mrs. J. 

5 GG 

Lichtenauer, Miss A 

c. ... 

5 GG 

Long, H. V. . . . 

5 GG 

Lord, Miss C. 


Loring, Mrs. W. C 

5 OG 

Loud, S. P. . . . 

5 GG 

Lowell, P. . . 

5 GG 

Lowell, S. V. . . 

2 26 

Luce, M. ... 

5 GG 

Lyman, H. 

5 GO 

MacDougall,G. R. 

5 GO 

MacVeagh,Mrs. C. 


Macy. Mrs. V. E. 

25 00 

Madden, Miss A. T 

5 GG 

Manchester, A L. 

5 GG 

Markoe, Mrs. J. . 

2G GG 

Manning, F. H. . 

5 GO 

Manning, Miss A. A 

5 00 

Marrs, K 

5 GG 





































































Brought forward, I3 
Parlin, A. N. . 
Parsons, Mrs. M. L 
Patten, Mrs.'W. S 
Peabody, Mrs. A. P 
Peabody, G. A. . 
Pell, W. H. 
Peters, F. A. . . . 
Phillips, J. C. . . 
Phillips, Mrs. J. C 
Pickman, Mrs. D. L 
Pierce, H. C. 
Pinchot, Mrs. J. W 
Pitkin, F. C. . 
Piatt, Mrs. C. . 
Pollard, C. L. 
Poor, James R. . 
Pope, Alexander 
Porter, C. M. . 
Post, Abner . . 
Post, George B. 
Post, J. O. . . 
Post, W. S. . . 
Proctor, H. H. . 
Pryer, C. 
Putnam, F. W. 
Putnam, G. L. . 
Putnam, Mrs. S. W 
Raymond, C. H. 
Read, C. S. 
Read, W. A., Jr. 
Redding, R. J. . 
Rees, N. L 
Reinhold, Dr. A. J 
Rembert, A. G. . 
Renwick, E. S. 
Richards, MissA. A 
Ricketts, Miss J. 
Riggs, Prof. W. M 
Riker, J. L. . . . 
Ripley, E. L. 
Robbins, R. C. 
Roberts, Dr. T. 8. 
Robertson , Mrs . F . P 
Robey, A. A. . 
Robinson, Mrs. G 

H. . . 
Robinson, Miss H 

B. . 
Rodman, A. . . . 
Russell, H. E. . 
Russell, Mrs. H. S 
Sage, J. H. . 
Sage, Mrs. S. M. 
Saltonstall, J. L . . 
Sand, Miss I. L. . 
Sargent, Mrs. J. W. 
Satterlee, Mrs. H. L 
Saunders, Mrs M.A 
Saunders, W. E. 

























































5 GO 

3 GO 

5 GO 






8 GO 

5 GO 

5 00 
5 00 

5 GO 
5 GO 

Carried forward, $4,100 60 


Bird -Lore 


Brought forward, $^ 

,100 60 

Schoot, C. M., Jr. 

5 CO 

Schramm, A. 

5 00 

Schwab, Rev. L. H. 

5 00 

Scry mser, Mrs. M. C. 

15 00 

Seamans, C. W. 

25 00 

Sears, F. B. 

5 00 

Sears, Mrs. S. C. . . 

100 00 

Sears, W. R. . . 

5 00 

Seaver, B. F. , , 

5 00 

Seiss, R.W. . . . 

5 00 

Seligman, I. N. . 

5 00 

Seton, E. T. . . 

5 00 

Sharpe, Miss E. D. 

50 00 

Shattuck.Miss G. A 

2 00 

Shattuck, G, C. 

5 00 

Shaw, F. . . 

5 00 

Shaw, Mrs. G. H. 

5 00 

Shaw, Mrs. R. G. . 

25 00 

Shaw, Q. A., Jr. . 

5 00 

Shiras, G. 3d. . . . 

10 00 

Shortall,M.C. . . 

3 00 

Skeel, Mrs. R., Jr. 

10 00 

Slocum, W. H. 

5 00 

Smith, A. W. . . 

5 00 

Smith, C.T. . 

5 00 

Smith, Mrs. E. L. 

10 00 

Smith, L. I. . . . 

5 00 

Smith, Mrs.R.D. 

5 00 

Smith, W. M. . . 

15 00 

Smyth, E. A. . . 

5 00 

Snyder, Dr. H. N. 

5 00 

Snyder, W.V. . 

5 00 

Soren, G. W. . . 

5 00 

Spalding, Miss M.T 

5 CO 

Sparreii, R. E. . . 

5 00 

Speer, Mrs. R. E. 

5 00 

Speyer, Mrs. J. 

5 00 

Spooner, Miss M. T 

5 00 

Sprague, F. P. . 

10 00 

Spragiie, Mrs. I. 

5 00 

Starnes, Prof. H. N 

5 00 

Starnes,V. . . . 

5 00 

Stevenson, Miss A.B 

5 00 

Stevenson, Miss F. G 

5 00 

Stiilman.MissB. W 

3 00 

Stone, Miss E. J. 

50 00 

Stone, H. F. . 

5 00 

Carried forward, 14,593 60 

Broughtforward, $4,593 60 

Storrow, Mrs. J. J. . 10 00 

Storrow, J. J., Jr. . . 5 00 

Stout, A. V 5 00 

Strong, R. A. . . . 5 00 

Strong, S. B. . . 5 00 

Stubbs, J. M 5 00 

Sturgis, J. H. . . . 5 00 

Taber, S. R. . . . 5 00 
Taft, C. A. ^ .5 00 

Talcott, J 5 00 

Tapiey,L 5 00 

Tarbell, Miss K. A. 5 00 
Teachers South Caro- 
lina Schools - 57 25 
Tenney, Mrs. E. P. 5 00 
Thayer, Ezra R. . . 5 00 
Thayer, Mrs. Ethel R. 35 00 
Thayer, Mrs Ezra R. 5 00 
Thayer, Miss H. L. . 5 00 
Thayer, John E. . . 750 00 
Thayer, Mrs. John E. 5 00 
Thayer, John E., Jr. 5 00 
Thayer, Mrs. N. . . 5 00 
Thomas, Mrs. T. 5 00 
Thompson, Mrs. M.C. 5 00 
Thorndike, A. . . . 5 00 

Thorne.S 5 00 

Tinkham, J. R. ■ . 5 00 
Tinsley, T. D. .5 00 

Torrey, Miss J. M, . 5 00 

Townsend,Dr.C.W. 5 00 

Trainer, C.W. ... 5 00 

Trine, R. W. . . . 5 00 

Tudor, F. . 5 GO 

Turles, Mrs. W. . . 5 00 

Tweedy, E. . 5 00 

Vanderbilt, G. W. . 50 00 
Van Orden, Miss M. 

L. . . 5 CO 

Vermilye, Mrs.W.G. 5 00 

Wadsworth, C. S. . 15 00 

Wadsworth, E. 5 00 

Wadsworth, Richard 

C. W. (InMemo- 

riam ) 

Wadsworth, Mrs.W 

A. . . 

5 00 
20 00 

Carried forward, $5,705 85 

Brought forward, I5 
Wainwright, Miss F 


Waldo, C. S. . . 
Wales, E. H. . . 
Walker, Rev. W.B 
Walters, F. . . 
Walton, T.C. 
Ward, M. L. 
Warner, Dr. H. S. 
Warren, B. W. . 
Warren, Miss C. . 
Warren, S. D. . 
Watson, J. S. 
Webster, E. S. . 
Weeks, A. G. 
Weeks, W. B. P. 
Wehrhane, C. 
Weld, Rev. G. F. 
Weld.S. M. 
Wetherill, J. P. 
Wetmore, Mrs. C.W 
Wheeler, S. H. . 
Wheelwright, Mrs. E 
Whipple, Mrs.H.B 
White, Miss H. H. 
White, Dr. J. C. . 
White, Miss R. . 
Whiting, Miss G. 
Widman, O 
Wiley, Col. C. M. 
Willett, G. F. . . 
Williams, Miss B 

W. . 

Willis, Mrs. A. 
Wimberly, W. . . 
Winsor, Mrs. A. 
Winterbotham, Mrs 


Winzer, E. J. 
Wolff, Mrs. L. S. 
Woods, E. F. 
Woodward, Dr. L.F 
Works, W. F. . . 
Wright, J. T. 
Wright, Mrs. M. O 
Yenni, Mrs. Ciem- 


705 85 

5 00 

5 00 
5 00 
5 00 
10 00 
5 00 

5 GO 
5 GO 

5 CO 
25 00 
25 00 
25 00 





5 GO 
5 GG 

5 OG 


5 GO 

5 GO 

10 GO 

5 OG 

5 OG 

5 OG 

5 OG 


5 GG 

5 00 
5 00 

Report of Treasurer 349 

For period from November 1, 1904, to October 20, 1905 (inc.) 

November i, 1904. To balance forward $258 38 

1905. To membership dues and contributions as per preceding list 17,989 85 

Contributions to the Mrs. Bradley Fund 392 00 

Contributions to the Bradley Law Fund 161 co 

Contributions from Audubon Societies to the Clerical 

Fund ... 627 00 

Special Fund, contributed by " Benefactor " for salary 
and traveling expenses of Special Agent to secure 

endowment and members 3i045 S° 

Sales of Educational Leaflets and Reports .... 195 04 

Sales of slides 38 15 

Law expenses in 1904, recovered in 1905 17 50 

New York Audubon Society for circular letters sent to 

New York Legislature 13 77 

Unknown 10 00 

Interest 8 26 12,498 07 

Total 112,756 45 


By postage $775 48 

Audubon buttons 32 51 

Express and cartage 62 80 

Traveling expenses, R. W. Williams, Jr., in law suit in Florida .... 38 05 

Traveling expenses, A. H. Norton, — to Maine Legislature 7 36 

Traveling expenses, W. Dutcher to Michigan and Massachusetts .... 40 94 

Traveling expenses. Dr. L. O. Dart, examining bird colonies in Lake 

Superior ... ... .... 27 50 

Half-tones and electro plates of Educational Leaflets and special circulars 

and maps 

Slides, and coloring same 

Telegrams and telephone service 

Wardens' wages . . 

Press clippings ...... . . . . ... 

Printing Reports, Educational and special leaflets and other circulars and 

advertising matter i.994 96 


Muslin warning notices and advertisements in newspapers 

Office furniture, one typewriter, card cabinets, etc 

Subscriptions to Bird-Lore for members 


Safe Deposit rent 

Detective work 

Rent, oi.e month . 

Legislation — securing bills introduced 

Carried forward 15,867 30 































350 Bird - Lore 


Brought forward Is.867 30 

Launch supplies in Florida ... 29 55 

Fees paid in Bradley case — two lawyers 275 00 

Paper, envelopes, office printing and supplies 197 37 

Salaries of two clerks 93i 24 

Incorporation expenses 43 75 

Salan,- of Special Agent 1,500 00 

Traveling expenses. Special Agent 447 10 

Transfer to investment account used for purchase of $^,000 — 4 per cent 

Gold Mortgage Trust Bonds issued by U. S. Mortgage and Trust Co. 2,000 00 

Total fii.291 31 

Balance in Farmers' Loan and Trust Co 1-465 14 

5i2.75<' 45 

Frank. M. Chapman, Treasurer. 

October 31, 1905. We have this day examined the report of the expert 
accountants, Messrs. Jameson and Hedge, and we pronounce the books of 
the Association to be correct. 

[Signed] H. C. Bumpus. 

J. A. Allewn, 

Auditing Committee. 


:?5.oo paid annually constitutes a person a Sustaining Member. 
Jioo.oo paid at one time constitutes a Life Membership. 
$1,000.00 paid constitutes a person a Patron. 
$5,000.00 paid constitutes a persDn a Founder. 
$25,000.00 paid constitutes a person a Benefactor. 


/ do hereby give and bequeath to The National ASSOCIATION OF AuDU- 
BON Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals, of 

the city of N^ew York, 


The American Sportsman's Library 

FIRST SliR/IiS— Continued 


Illustrated by Carl Rungius ami fjth'jrs 



FIRST SHRITS—In Preparatiun 



With many illustrations by Carl Rungius and others 





By JOSEPH GRAHAM. Fully illustrated from photographs 


By W. Ji. STEPHENS Illustrated from photographs and drawings 


By J PARMLY PARET and DR. W, H MADDREN. Illustrated from photo- 
graphs with over fifty pUtes separately printed 


By HAMILT<JN BUSBEY. With many illusiraii.^us 

SECOND SERIES — In Preparation 

liy CHARLES E. TREVATHE.V PuUy illustrated from photographs 






£<ich, $2, net. Fosta£:e, 15 cents 

Seud for special terms of subscriflion to either or both series 






Mrs. Mabel OsgoodWright'S Stories 

" h'r It grant books that unfailingly quicken one's sense of the 
Joy and fineness of beautiful living . . friendly, savory, 

zvholesome and getiuine." — boston herald. 

AUNT JIMMY'S WILL, illustrated by FLORENCE SCOVEL SHINN. Cloth. $1.50. 

A story for girls, which should spread the gospel of sunshine in an inspiring way. 

DOGTOWN : Being Some Chapters from the Annals of the 

Waddles Family, illustrated from photographs by the author, lamo. 
Cloth, $1.50, net. Postage, 16 cents 

A complete story by itself, but introducing characters already known to the read- 
ers of " Tommy- Anne " and " Wabeno." It is especially a book for dog lovers. 

TOMMY -ANNE AND THE THREE HEARTS. illustrated by albert 

BLASHFIELD. Cloth. $1.50 

"The child who reads will be charmed while he is instructed, and led on 
to make new discoveries for himself."— 7»« Nation. 


Cloth. $1.50 

"A sequel to 'Tommy- Anne,' which created something of a sensation iri lit- 
erature for children a year ago, by reason of its quaint and bright originality." 

— /v. E. Journal of Education. 

THE DREAM FOX STORY BOOK, with so drawings by Oliver herford. 

Small 4to. $1.50, net. Postage, 13 cents 

"Even quainter, queerer and jollier than Mrs. Wright's 'Tommy-Anne,' are 
Billy Button's remarkable, comical, lively adventures, mpst fitly illustrated by 
Oliver Herford."— The Outlook. 

FLOWERS AND FERNS IN THEIR HAUNTS, with illustrations from 

photographs by the author and J. HORACE McFARLAND. lamo, cloth. 
$2.50, net. Postage, 18 cents 

A book about the wild flowers written from a new point of view— their relation to 
the landscape. The illustrations are novel and interesting. 


CHAPMAN. Illustrated by ERNEST THOMPSON SETON. Cloth. $1.50, net. 
Postage, 16 cents 

"Books like this are cups of delight to wide-awake and inquisitive girls and 
boys. Here is a gossipy history of American quadrupeds, bright, entertammg 

and thoroughly instructive."— The independent. 




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