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AlJTHOi; (F "AviAlilKS AMI AviAIO Lll'K," ETC. 



J. H. Hk.nsiock, Tiik "Avian Prep.'^," Mahket Place. 



Title Faoe l.^..hL-f.B^Ak "T. 

Contents 111. 

Alphabetical List of t'ontrihiitors IV. 

List of Plates XI. 

List of Illustrations in Text XII 

Magazine 1 

Index, Titles to Articles HSf) 

fJenera and Species .''/Jl 

,. English Names of Birds 4(lG 

„ I nse t Precedes Inset. 

Inset Green Pages. 

hidp.r to Conlrihutors. 

Index to Contributors. 

Tlie nxter/xL- is atfixftl to thaxe rnn/rihiilnfux u-hirh aijiear in 
Amslek, Dr. M. 

*Hooded Siskin, 93. 
Breeding' of tlie Great-Tit in Captivity, 240. 
Blue-breasted X Crimson -eared Waxbill Hybrid, 2r)n. 

AxxixGSOX, Mrs. C. 

My Parrot House, 336. 
AsTLEY, H. D., M.A., F.Z.S., etc. 

Fairy Blue Bird, 97. 
Baily. W. Shore. 

♦Nesting Results, 1912, 31. 

*Eusty -cheeked Scimitar Babbler, 92. 

♦Alexandrine Pan-akeets and Rusty -cheeked Babblei':-, 1 

♦Nesting of Rusty -cheeked Babbler, 192. 

♦Some Interesting Nests, 192. 

Breeding of Giant Nigerian X Transvaal Weaver.?, 211. 
♦Fertility of Hybrid Quail, 326. 
♦Nesting of Short-winged "Weaver, 327. 
♦Nest of Short-winged Weaver, 360. 
♦Nest of Abyssinian Weaver, 373. 
♦Results— 1913, 376. 
Bainbridge, W. A. 1 

My Aviaries and Birds, 220. 
Bi-eeding of the Grey Waxbill, 283. 
Freely Imported Species, 317. 
Firefinch, The, 317. 
♦An Interesting Episode, 375. 
Baker, Miss M. E. 

Bi-eeding the Lineolated Parrakeet, 309. 
♦Sexing Lineolated Parrakeets, 377. 
Bright, H. 

Early Episodes of 1913, 215. 
Brook, E. J. 

Stray Notes from Hoddam Castle Aviaries, 101. 
♦Brief Notes from Hoddam Castle Aviaries, 193. 
♦Hoddam Castle Aviaries, 227. 
♦Nesting of Occiptal Blue-Pies, 269. 
♦Re Stock Fruit Foods, 326. 
CiiAWNER, Miss E. F. 

Purple Sunbirds, 40. 
British Bird Calendar, 56, 121, 269. 
♦No Pink Birds, 125. 
♦Interest and Disappointment, 226. 
Nesting of the Eagle -Owl, 237. 

Index /o ('t)iil nhutom. 

Ci.AKK. Miss I,,v(li;i. 

*My IMids, -l-M). 

*\«>stiiig ol FirL-liiiclics. :{? I. 
Co 1,1,1 n<;k, W. E., M.Hc... K.L.S., F.K.S. 
The Food of Nestling Birds, l(i. 


*HeHults I'Ji;}, :J72. 
Dawson-Smith, F. 

.British Owls, 108. 

Q'^hree lucominoii Tets, "iHl. 

A Day on tlie Fames in August, 339. 
Dkwak, D(>r<!LAs, T.C.h'., F.Z.S., etc. 

Birds of tlie Hal Forest, H4. 
DuiMMoxD, Miss M. 

*Further Xestiiig of Li rand E/leclus I'arrot, 3 73. 

List of Breeding Species, 27. 

Grenadier Weaver Rec^iti, 2 7. 

Blue Budgerigars, 28. 

New Birds at the Zoo, 28. 

The Nesting Season, 57, 264. 

Breeding Medal Regulations, 57. 

Errata, 60, 89, 265, 287, 357. 

The Endurance of Birds, 88. 

JIanguest Laying" Eggs in Ca])livity, 88. 

Aviaries at Cripples' Hospital and College, 88. 

African Sunbirds, 89. 

Nesting Notes, 119, 151, 187, 225, 285, 322. 

Zoo Notes, 119, 254. 

An Avian Catastrophe, 120. 

Foster Parents, 152, 321. 

Members' Aviaries, 152. 

A Consignment of Australian Finches, 154. 

AnotJier Consignment of Rare Indian Birds, 155. 

Great Tits, 225. 

The Magazine, 225. 

rarrak,©ets at Liberty, 264. 

Obituary, 265. 

Recent Arrivals, 265. 

>Mesting of Spot-billed Toucan, 2 70. 

Rufous-necked Weaver, 2 70. 

North American Suow-Bird, 270. 

Ried -crested Cardinals, 285. 

Cockateels, 285. 

Grey Waxbill, 285. 

Lineolated Parrakeets, 285. 

lied -headed X Ribbon Finch Hybrids, 286, 

vi. Index to Conlrlbulors. 

EuvroHiAi— C onl mued . 

Breeding' Results, 322. 

Heck's Long-tailed Grassfinch, 322. 

Giand Eclectus Parrots, 322. 

Olive Finch, The 323. 

A lletix)spect, 370. 
Elms, E.F.M. 

Notes le J'iL-ui and other Dove.s, 13. 
EusTEK, Miss M. 

British Bird Calendar, 301. 
EiioM All Soukces. 

The Icelandic Falcon, 184. 

New Zealand Pigeons, 185. 

The Fei-n-Bia-d, 186. 

Work of the Birds, 224. 

Birds in Sti-ange Places, 262. 

Eefomied Cuckoos, 263. 

Ileported Orange Bishop X Canaiy Hybrid, 260. 

The Wheatear, 292. 

Mystery of the Swift, 293. 

Eire Caused by a Bird's Nest, 293. 

Nestlings' Home in a Battery, 294. 

Migratory Birds that Prey on Fruit, 324. 

Nesting^ of Chestnut -bellied Nuthatch, 325. 

The Birds of New Zealand, 358. 

Plumage Sales, 359. 
Galloway, P. F. M. 

British Bird Calendai', 121, 122. 

Eedpolls, 294. 

Siskins, 295. 

The Shama, 295. 

Pekin Eobin, 295. 
GooiiCHiLU, H., xM.B.O.U. 

The L.P.O.S. National Show (British Seetion), 71., Dr. P., M.B.O.U. 

iBritish Bird Calendar, 26, 91, 121, 362. 

Bird Mai'king, 252. 
Gkay, H., M.R.C.V.S. 

Post Mortem Reports, 3 2, 63, 125, Ui2, 194,234.270,329,384 

Post Morte'm Reports, (Green pai)er Inset), 2 7, 53, 88. 
Haktley, Mrs. E. A. H. 
*No Pink Birds, 92. 

British Bird Calendar, 232. 
*Menu of Cage Birds, 268. 
*Turquoisine Pai'rakeets, 269. 
^Nesting Results for Season 1913. 327. 

htilc.r to ('i)iil rihiilors. vn, 

Hawkk, Hon. Mary C. 

*Ai! Aviary Cata-stro})!!*', Hid. 

Memories of a. Ti'ii> in Ai-.uciiliiia, -JTy. 
Hawkins L. W. 

The Blue-nnui)i;(l Paiiot, 127. 
Hoi-KixsoN, E., D.S.O., M.A., .\i.I5., etc. 

Birds of Gambia, HT, 7'), 102. 

LKKillTOX, I). K. W. 

3?i-i).isli Hii'd Calendar, 2(i, .")(i, ilO, 122. 
J>iTri,i;i)ALi';, I.,jkit. F. .M . 

J5ird Keeping- liidi'r Ditliciillirs, 2 7;}. 
Lovell-Kevy.s, Dr. L. 

How 1 Staj'ted Avicndture and My I'airakccl Season, ;j Kl. 
Maldkk, Viscor.NTKss E. 

*Ile Menu for Cag-e Birds, 28«. 
Ma.wvell, C. T. 

The Red-breasted Flycatcher, ;](;:]. 
Meakin, H. 

Bi'itish Bird Calendar, 15 7. 


The Breeding of a Hybrid Loiikeet, 275. 
British Bird Calendar, 377. 

M()NT(;()MEKY, W. O. 

*My First Season, 229. 
* Results— 1913, 372. 
Page, WE.SLEY T., F.Z.S., M.B.N.H.S. 

White -eyes (Zosterops), 1. 

Some Interesting Birds, 11, 33, 115, 135, 10.3. 208, 235, 
271, 297. 

Black -Winged Grackle, 11. 

Black-headed Sibia, 33. 

Hybrids which have been Reared in Captivity, 51. 

The L.P.O.S. National Show (Foreign Section), 62, 65. 

Aviai-y Observations, 78. 

Fairy Blue -Birds, 95. 

The Lanceolated Jay, 115. 

The Common Redstart, 117. 

The Lady Amherst's Pheasant, 135. 

The Elliot's Pheasant, 137. 

The Breeding of Grey Finches, 139. 

The Breeding of Guttural Finches, 142. 

British Bird Calendar, 158, 296, 328. 

Great-spotted Woodpecker, 163. 

Visits to Members' Aviaries and Birdrooms, 178, 255, 331. 

Three Pyteliae, 195. 

Silvery -crowned Friar-Bird, 208. 

Superb Tanager, 211. 

y^i^ Index to CuHlrUnilois. 

Lessor Black- back tnl Gull, 235. 
Zoo Nok'.s, 254. 

r-A.iK, Wksj.ey T., F.Z.^., M.B.N.H.S. 'Cr.vlhnu'd. = 

h'exing the Gold -fronted Frii.tsuckers, 206. i 

The Common Tern, 271. 

The Red-breasted Flycatcher, 363. 

The Common Quail, 367. 

L.C.B.A. Show (Foreign J'.ection;, 377. ■ 

Tateiison, Rkv. J. Mai'LetoH'. 
♦Aviary Not^s, 1913, 290. 
FEKREAr, Ma.tou C a., F.Z.S. \ 

■My Indian Consignment, 105, 129, 165, 201. i 


*For the Utmost Happiness of Caged Birds, 29. j 

Puck, Otto. j 

How I became a Lover of Birds, 22. : 

On the Keeping of Soft-bills in Cages, 108, 144. 

PiTiiiK, Miss D. E. 

iBritish Bird Calendar, 157, 158, 233. 


* Nesting of Chattering Lory, etc., 375. 
Uattioan, Ct. E. 

Breeding of Grey-headed X Cape bpurrow, 9. 
Aviary Notes and Episodes— 1912, 43. 
Raynoij, Rev. G. H. 

♦L.C.B.A. Show, 30. 

*Blue Budgerigars and Meadelism, CO. . 

The Current Number of "Bird Notes," 12(). 
British Bird Calendar, 157. 

Mr. Raynor's Aviary at Hazeleigh Rectory, 312. 
List of Species of Psittaci already exhibited, 351. j 

Read, Mks. W. H. i 

*Bmeding Results, 1913, 259. 
Reeve, Cai'taix J. Shekard, F.Z.S. j 

British Bird Calendar, 26, 158, 377. 1 

Leadenham Aviary Notes, 72. ] 

Hybrid Geese, 273. 
♦Latest Results, 290. 
Combined Seed-hopper and Bird Trap, 310. 

A System of Veteiinary Medicine- Edited by E. Wallis Hoare, 

91, 123. ' 

A Dictionary of English and Folk Names of Birds, 159. 
Wild Life— Magazine, Edited by Douglas English, 159, 
Our Vanishing Wild Life— W. T. Hornaday, 159. , 

Ivih'.r fo Cofil rihiifors. ix. 

Y^'ar Book of Aroiias-prio Cliil), l!tO. 
Ornitliolof,nfal Rojiort U]ipiiif,'h;mi ScIimiI, liH. 
In a Ciicsliiro danlori 0. K. Wa; l.uilon. 2fi.1. 

Ho.iEKS. W. T. 

The Cluh Dinner, ICO. 
Members' Mootinfjs at Zoo, '2;31. 
♦NestinfT of Pertoral Finches, 2^1. 

KrnnocK. C. H. 

*A Swallow Hiiiped in .^Uallordsliiiv and i!e:'oveied in Natal, 93. 

PcoTT. Mrs. .1. E. 

*Tho Nestin,? of the Black -headed Nun, 2aG. 

i^ooTT, B. Hamilton. 

British Bird Calendar, 20, 57, ?.()!. 

SiLVEK, Allan. 

British Bird Calendar, 90, 121. 

♦Forthconi'ng Show at Horticultural Hall, 193. 
Smyth, Miss Alfreda B. 

* Stray Notes, 30. 

♦Stray Notes— 1913, 228. 

♦Current Notes, 289. 

SoMERS, F., M.R.C.V.S. 

The Aviaries at Boundhay Park (Leeds), 83. 

Spranklino, Ernest. 

♦Re Breeding of Grey Waxbills, 360. 
Breeding of Turtle Dove Hybrids, 365. 


Breeding of Hy))rid Grey-winged Ouzel X Argentine Black- 
birds, 49. 
♦Odd Birds— Members' Exchanges, 61. 
iBritish Bird Calendar, 90, 122, 158-9, 296, 328, 3(;i, 362. 
Spotted Partridge, The, 299. 

Sttton, O. Peliiam. 

♦Breeding of the _Blue Budgerigar in England, 30. 
Tavistock, The Marquis of. 

♦To Preserve from Extinction, 227. 

♦Parraheets, etc., at Wobui-n Abbey, 287. 
The Breeding of Baniard's PaiTakeets, 301. 
Teschemaker, W. E., B.A. 

Nesting of the Black -headed Grosbeak, 7. 
ToMLiNSON, Malcolm R. 

♦Blood-stained Finch X Canaiy Hylirid. 193. 
Ward, Hon. Mrs. Somerset. 

♦Great Tits in a Garden, 28,S 

X. Index to Coiitribntors. 

Weir, J. 

*Xo Pink Birds, 125. 

Biitish Bird Calendar, 158. 
WiiisTLEii, High, I. P., M.B.O.U. 
♦Indian White -eyes, 61. 

Fairy Blue -Birds, 98—100. 

Bii-d Notes from 'Tiueste to Bombay, 172. 

All Island on the Eiver Jhelum, Punjab, 240. 
*The Collared Piglny Owlet, 289. 
*Bird3 with Pink Plumage, 291. 

Nlesting of Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch, 325. 

The Lammergeier in Captivity, 344. 


Some Interesting- Birds, 11, 33, 11.5, 135, 163, 208, 235, 
271, 297. 
WILLIAM!^, S., F.Z.S. 

Holiday Notes from Eastbourne, 244. 


♦Remarkable Journey of a Swallow, 93. 

♦Swallow Eingied in Staffordshire and Recovered at Natal, 94. 
♦From Scotland to Orang'e Free State, 375. 
Vealland, J. 

Melba Finches, 196. 

Index to PUites. xi. 

Index to Plates. 

"V.v^ (oloun! I 1*1,- te-s. 

*Tho Indian A\'lii;('-ryc fi'j/ifi.-ipircc. 

Hl;wk-win{-T'cl (liarklc ." 12 

IMuk-Tji-owed Jloscfiiicli, catiiig sec'diiig f^Tass' f om the liaiid 2S 

Black -he-aded Sihia and Nest :!3 

Kc'cently Shot Oi-own Bird 40 

Some Interesting' Foreign Species at the National Show ().j 

Some Interesting British Exlnhits at the National Show 71 

The Roundhay Park Aviaries i Leeds) 83 

The Kusty -cheeked Baliblei- ni 

*The Fairy Blue-Bird 95 

l'i,i;niy Woodpeckei', Vellow-iiaped Ixuius, and Black -tliro:ited 

Wren-BaTiMer 10'3 

Tlie Black -throated or Lanceolated Jay 115 

The Common Bedstart 117 

*Blue-niinped Parrot cf 9 127 

Ked-headed Tit, Larger Streaked Spider-Hunter, Larger Bed- 
headed Crow-Tit 129 

Lady Amherst's Bheasant 135 

Elliott's Pheasants, cf, Q 137 

(.; reat Spotted Woofl|i'ecker i 2) 1 {i3 

Some British Owls 1(>S 

At Home in the Aviary: Tengmalm's Owl 172 

Heniprich's Gull 17H 

Nest and E'g'gs of Rusty -cheeked Scimitar BahhI-r 192 

Nest and Eggs of Flame -shouldered Troupial 192 

Xest of Olive Finch in 'g:rowing wheat 193 

Vest of Cuba Finch in Spruce Fir, bu It euliiely of g'ca 's liair 193 

*Melha Finch and Red-faced Finch 195 

Silvery -crowned Friai-Bird 208 

The Superb Tanager 211 

Young Lesser Black-backed Gull 235 

Lesser Black-backed Gull. "Are they all right?" 235 

Lesser Black-backed Gull. ''Who's there?" 235 

I'elican Preening its Plumage 25-1 

Cix'sted Screamers — London Zo3 25 1 

A vooets -Waders' Aviaa-y, London Zoo 255 

Common Tern, Nest and Eggs 271 

Common Tern, Incubating 271 

Ccmmon Teni, Alighting at Nest 272 

(;yr-Falcon 281 

riid)u or Black Vulture 281 

Audubon's Ca:aeara 2S1 

Common Shag Btojding Young 297 

./■//. Illustratio7is m Text. 

The Coinniou Sliag 298 

The ^'potted raitridge 2i;9' 

Ccmbined Feeding Box and Bird Trap ;}10 

Rev. G. H. Eaynor's Aviaries 31. '5 

Mr. Bainbridge's Aviaries, A and B 3.31 

Mrs. Anningson's Parrot House 33(1 

Herring and L.B. Gulls and Guillemots P,'^]8 

Puffins at Holme, Staples Is 3.'!!) 

The Lammergeier taking a Sunbath .34() 

*Red-BrcaHted Flycatcher 3(53 

The Common Quail 3 (j 7 

Peters' Spotted Firefinch • ;'71) 

Black-chinned Yuhina 379 

B'ack-faced Quail Finch 379 

Gamraon Quail Finch 381 

Illustrations in Text. 

Pagie .. 

Aubry's Parrot '"S 

Map, showing distril)ution of Irena jmclla 99 

Lapland Bunting 1:^B 

Ground Plan— Melrose House Aviaries 179 in which Hybrid Weavers were Reared "214 

Ground Plan — Mr. Chiozza Money's Aviaries "iHO 

Gdd-fronted Fruitsucker, cf, 9 -''"^ 

Ground Plan, Rev. Raynor'.s Aviary 313 

Young Firefinch in Nest -t-^*' 

Nest of Clive Finch ■•• ■'- 1 

Ncot of Short-winged Weaver 327 

Ground Plan— Mr. Bainbridge's Aviary, A 332 

Ground Plan— Mr. Bainbridge's Aviary, B 33 1 

Ground Plan -Mrs. Anningson's Parrot House 33H 

Ground Plan— Dr. Lovell-Keays' Parrakeet Aviary 347 

Nest of Short-winged Weaver 3(iO 

Nest of Abyssinian Weaver •*73 

All tiighti< Reserved. January, 1913. 




White-eyes (Zosterops). 

By Wesley T. Pa(;e, F.Z.S., Etc. 
It is quite impossible for me to attempt an article 
on tlie genus Zosterops, as there are over ninety species 
and sub-species, and there are already too many series 
yet to be finished from my pen, and I must not undertake 
another. Possibly, however, a list of species with size and 
range may be useful. The species I am giving in the same 
order, as they appear in Brit. Mus. Cat., Vol. IX., they are 
as follows: 



(cr,.ulesce)i.s 4.(i, N. Zealand, Cliathara Islands. 

alb'guliris 5.8 Noifolk Island. 

ti^nurostri^ 5. Noifolk Island. 

strenua 5.7 Lord Howe's Island. 

westernensis .4.5 Aust., N. Caledonia, N. Hebrides, 

Lord Howe's, and Figi Islands. 

ramsay* 4.4 Palm Island, Torres Straits. 

vatensis 5.3 Vate, New Hebrides. 

inornata 5.3 Loyalty Islands. 

auieifrons 4.5 Flores and Sumbawa. 

pallida 4.7 S. Africa — along the Orange Riv. 

and extending into theTi-ansvaal. 

japonica 4. Japan. 

erythrop^eura .' 3.5 Fi'om S. Amoorlaud, extending 

throughout China to Aloupin. 

gouldi ■ 4.3 Western Austialia. 

grayi 5. Ke Islands, Moluccas. 

aur'eirenfer 3.4 Fiom S. Teaiasserirn down the Mal- 

ayan Pen. to Sumatra, Java and 

eveie'tl, 4.5 Phillipine Islands. 

albiventer, 4.6 Ca|)e Gienville and Islands of 

Torres Straits. 

crissalis 4. South-eastern New Guinea. 

palpebrosa ' 4. India— Himalayas to Ceylon, with 

the Laccadives; Burmese coun- 
tries eastwards, into S. China; 
.Andaman Is. and Nicobars. 

siibrosea 4. Hankow, Central China. 

* Probably identical with westernensis. 

White- eyes (Zosterops) 



citrinella, 3.7 

abyssinica, i. 

poliogaster 4.9 

anjiMiiensis, 4.8 

madagascanenalu 4.2 

capcnais 4.2 

explorator 4.5 

ceylonensis 4.5 

xanlhocliioa 4.3 

griselventer 4.5 

nuvoi guinea 4.2 

aureigula 5.3 

atrifrons 4.2 

atricapUla 4.3 

delicaliila 4. 

clirysolosma 4. 3.7 

liypoxaniha 3.7 

fiava 4. 

meyeni 3.U 

siamensis 4. 

seiiegalensis 3.6 

klrki 3.7 

'Virens 4.7 

eurycricotus 4.75 

lutea 4. 

semperi 3.8 

chloris 4.7 

buruensis 4.4 

intermedia 4.(3 

•gallio i 4.1 

nigrorum 4. 

hypolais , 4. 

oleagina 4.7 


flavifrofis 4.8 

rendouoe J -8 

gul'iveri 4.2 

grisei'incta 4.5 

longiiostris 4. 

brunneicauda 4.75 

uropygialis 4.4 

semifl'iva 4. 



Island of Timor. 

Abyssinia — nortliwards into Bogos 
Laud, and youtii to \\ adla, and 
Tarauta, Is. of .'^'ocotra. 

JSr.E. ."Africa. 

Comoro group: Anjuan and Grand 
Comoro Is. 

i^Iadagasuar and Gloriosa is. 

t5. Afnca. 

Fiji Is. 

Hals of Ceylon. 

New Caledonia. 

Teiiimber Is. 

New Guinea and Aru Is.; Am- 
bonia and Ceram. 

Is. of Jobi, N.W. Xew Guinea. 


Mount iSingalan, Sumatia. 

S.E. New Guinea; Aru Islands. 

Aifak Mountains— N.W. New Guin. 

Aifcik .Mountains— N.W. New Guin. 

New Britain, 

Java, Sumatra and Borneo. 

Luzon, riiilipiue Is. 

Siam, extending lut J Burmese coun- 
tri es . 

All over S. Africa soutli of the 
Sahara, excepting the forett 
country of the W e&t Coast, ana 
the extreme southern portion of 
the continent. 

Grand Comoro Is. 

S.E. Africa, extending north to 
the Zambesi. 

Foot of Maeru Mountn., Messai 
country, E. Africa. 

N . Australia. 

Pelew els., Eastjed-n and Central Car- 

Is. of Banda, Moluccas. 

Is. of Bouru, Moluccas. 

Celebes; Lombock; Ternate. 


Is. of Negros-Philipine Archipel- 

Is. of Uap, Mackenzie group. 

Is. of Uap, Mackenzie group. 

Is. of Guam, Ladrones. 

New Hebrides. 

Is. of liendova, Solomon Group. 

Noiman River, Gu;f of Carpentaria. 

Louisiade Is. 

Heath Is. 

Is. of Ceram, Lant, Choor, and the 
Aru Is. 

Little Ke Is., JMoluccas. 


Is. of Alayotte, 

White- eyes {Zosterops) 3 



cJilorates ■!. Sumatra. 

mimila 1.2 hifii, Loyalty Islands. 

oHvatea 4.5 Is. of Bouiboii or lleunion. 

chloronota 4. AJaurJlius. 

modesta 4.2 Seychelles. 

mauriliana i).8 Mauritius. 

buibonica, 4.5 Is. of lieuiiioii or Bourbon. 

javaiiica 4.7 Java. 

[allax , 5.2 Java and Sumatra. 

/inscli.'i 4.5 J'ulew Is. 

ci/ierea 4.6 Kusliai and Ualan Is. 

'ponapensis Is. of Poiiape. 

mclanops 4.8 Loyalty Is. 

liKjubiis 4.8 \\ . Africa: Is. of St. Thomas in 

the Bight of Benin. 

uiclaiiocephuli 4.7 W. Africa: Cameroons district. 

leucjphoea 5. W. Africa: Gaboon, Piinces Is. 

atriceps 4.7 Is. of Batchian in the Moluccas. 

fiuscifrons 4.25 Is. of Gilolo or Halmahera, in the 


mi/.soriends 4.25 Js. of Misori, N.W. New Guinea. 

Jii/pok'uca, 4. New Guinea. 

muelleri 5.3 Is. of Timor. 

frlglda 4. Sumatra. 

ficciluli/Ki 4.5 Trince's Is., W. Africa. 

The above list u compiled from Vol. IX of the B.M.C., 
;uid the measurements, all probably taken from skins, may 
prove iu many instances, to be a little larger than the living 

The Indian White -eve: Our frontispiece depicts an 
episode in my aviary, in 1911, when the Indian White-eye (Z. 
palpebrosa), reared three young ones, two of which are still 
livmg. The plate is true to life, the branch of the tree 
was drawn on the spot, and Mr. Goodchild has aptly caught 
the position of the birds, as they hopped about, and cared 
for their family, and the plate in my opinion does credit both 
to the artist and the lithographer, and is, I hope, merely the 
forerunner of many others depicting similar scenes. 

The charm and interest of these dainty sprites is beyond 
description, whatever feature one seeks to describe. In gen- 
eral demeanour and deportment they resemble the Gold -crested 
Wren and they are about the same size or very little larger. 
One can watch them almost for hours without tiring, first to 
see them, Creeper-like, examining bark and leaves, then sway- 
hig on a tall grass stem, then swooping (lluttering) to and 
fro, foraging on the wing, and again walking wrong side 
up on roof netting of llight in the eager search for small iij- 

4 White- eyes (Zosterops) 

sect life; except for one short hour at mid-day, and for very 
short intermittent spells, this activity is kept up during the 
live-lon^^ day. When they do, for sbort spells, hop about a 
tree or bush, apparently without an object they are more 
charming still. While engaged in the duties of house building, 
incubating, or caring for a family, they are even more fascin- 
ating and when the little family leave the sheltering walls of 
"White-eye castle," the sight is bewitching indeed, and thus 
one could wander on, but the story has been already told 
(see B.N. Vol. II. N.S., p. 226), though for the benefit of riQ^ 
readers I will recapitulate the main facts, in a few, I fear 
very jerky sentences. 

Nest containing three eggs discovered on the evening of June 
27th (I deduce clutch only completed that day). 

Three chicks hatched early morning July 7th. 

Three fully-fledged birds left the nest July 17th (eveuingK 

Young birds fending for themselves August 1st. 

Callow Young: quite naked, pinkish flesh -colour and very 
minute (a lady visitor likened tliem to caterpillars;. 

Incubation period 10 to 11 days. 

Nestling plumage, similar to adults, but not quite so intense, 
but did not get the white eye -rings till the twenty -fourth day af- 
ter leaving the nest. 

The eyes of the chicks were open on the morning of tlie 
fifth day. 

For the first four days the young were fed entirely on small 
insects (blight, etc.), captured in the aviary; on the fifth day tney 
accepted small mealworms, but killed tliese before feeding their young. 
On the morning of the tenth day they also began to feed with ripe 

The parent birds carried out the fseces of tlie young in their 
bills, only dropping it when obscured by the foliage. 

This species can certainly be wintered out of doors 
in Surrey without difficulty, and I think Miss Hawke has 
so kept one of the African species, but some of the species 
would need careful testing in this respect, some, I consider, 
would need the protection of four walls and a roof during 
the winter, and, unless put out in the early spring, all are 
best brought indoors for their first winter in this country but, 
can go out of doors in late April or early May and appear 
to be quite unharmed by the variations of our English spring. 
They helped themselves to insectile mixture, ripe fruit, 
and milk ^op freely in my aviary, also capturing many insects 

White- ei/ds (Zosterops) 5 

and competed with the larger birds for mealworms, also 
occasionally taking a liltlc seerl, which they swallowed whole. 

While the general plumage of all the species does not 
vary much, the distinctions principally consisting of a varying 
intensity, and placing of the brighter colour areas and lighter 
or warmer hues of the abdominal region, and size, but there 
are a few species which have somewhat striking variations 
from the general pattern, and these I give below : — 


COMMON colouration: viz: 



fuscicapilla Crown of head black, 

hypoxanthn Ear-coverts blackish. 

siamensis Dusky spot in front of eye. 

uropygialis Head dusky, entire undersurface 


hrunneicauda Dusky spot in front of eye; flight 

' ' and tail feathers brown. 

semiflava Washed with reddish-brown on 

lower back and rump; primary- 
coverts, primaries, and tail fea- 
tbers black with yellow margins. 

mayottensis Under surface citron -yellow; flanks 

brownish-red; tail- and wing- 
feathers blackish with jrreenish- 
yellow margins; bill indigo-blue. 

chlorates Very similar, but with dusky spot 

in front of, and a dusky line be- 
low the eye. 

minnta ■ Conspicuous white tuft on the flanks. 

mnnritiana Cheeks, throat and undftrparts white. 

no ring of feathers round the 
eye, dusky spot in fi'ont of eye, 
rump and upper tail covei'ts whitie. 

borbom'ca Slaty-grey above; no white ring 

round the eye. rump white; lar- 
ger wing and tail feathers dusky 

javanica Broad white eye-brow and white 

streak below the eye; otherwise 
similar to fallax. 

fallax Lores and forehead white, larger 

wing- and tail-feathers dusky. 

fhiffchii Mostly ruddy -brown ; cheeks, throat, 

centres of breai^t and abdomen 
dull ashy. • 

cinerea General colour ashy-grey; wings 

and tail brown; lores and nar- 
row ring rouncl eye grey. 

pouapenais Earthy brown above, wings and 

tail umber-brown; eye-ring sil- 
very grey; lores, sides of head 
' and unde;'parts dirty ashy -grey. 

White- ey^s (Zosterops) 


COMMON colouration: vi/.: 



melanops Slaty-g ey above, ashy-c ev below; 

crown of head sooty-b]ack : Icres 
and patch l)elow eye black ; eye 
ring white. 

melanocephala Ci'own of head and nape blackish- 
brown; thro t white; pe e a' 
body coVu'ing dull ashy brown 
above and du^ky ashy brown be- 
: I low. 

leucophoea G ey'sh brown above, g-revish wh't'"- 

be'ow ; lar,£:e:' wing- and taj' 
feathers dark brown; crown of 
held whitish; ea--co -e ts a';d 
cheeks white. 

atriceps DuH ye'lowish-olive al)ove. ashy- 

white le'ow; larre- wing- a'ld 
tail feathe-s du=;ky brown; crown 
of head. nape, hind ne?k, fo-e- 
head and ear-co^ ert" ^ctv brown, 
under tail coverts bright ye'low. 

mysoriensis Above ol'vare^u^, be'ow w^ie; 

sides of reck and cbe-^ks grey- 
ish ; quills and tail fpathe"s black- 
ish : unde- tpil-cove-ts pale yel- 

hypoleuca Dull olive-gree"' above. below 

white: ^a^ce- wi\2:- .■^nd tii'-fea- 
t' e"s f'u ky brown: ^o e^ black, 
me'ging into a bl?ck band be'ow 
the wh'te eye-ring. 

muelleri Above olive -greenish, below yellow- 
ish; quills and tai^ -feathers 
brown ; lores and stripe above 
the eye yellow: eye-riiig white; 
spot in f'^o'^t of eye b^ack. 

frigida Brownish oHvace'us above. dull 

yellowish be^ow: crown yellowish 
spotted with black ; indistinct 
white ring round eye. 

ficedulina Above ol've s::en. below palevel- 

low; quills and tail-feathers dus- 
ky brown ; top of head duskv 
oiive-gieen: forehead with nar- 
row white ftreaks. 
By " general pattern " is meant an arrangement similar 

to the species figured on frontispiece, but this is very vari- 
able as to extent of colour areas, their placing, and the 

intensity of the respective hues. 

White-eyes are equally delightful as cage-pets, if given 

a roomy cage, furnished with twiggy branches, but care must 

be taken that they do not become overfat, for they are little 


Nesting of fJir Blaclc-hmdrd Groshcak. 7 

As ro,£>-ards \ho\r f?'o,Tf?nonf, if siippliorl with a little 
of some ,c:oo(l ins;rc*i'(^ mixliiro, i-ipr^ fruit, milk sop, and 
sovoral liv(^ iiisonts daily will siiTiim^ for thoir wants. 

So fai- as tlio writor is awai'o only Z. paJprhrosa.ha^s 
as yet "been Ivo 1 in captivity, while quite a larj^e number 
of the species have not yet rea'^hed Great Britain alive. 

There are Jio mo^e c'^a^'m-n^ hirds imported than White- 
eyes, they are mo-^tly of minute size, exquisite beauty, and 
attractive demeanour, and above all are not diTicult to keep 
fit, once the critieal period following- importation has been 
passed. The story of their wild life has been told in back 
Vols of "B.N." 

Nesting of the Black-headed Grosbeak. 

{Hcdi'mclcs wpJanncrphalus) . 
By W. E. Teschemakee, B.A. 

This large, distinctive and very handsome species is one 
of th(^ most charming birds that an aviarist could desire. 
Larger than our Hawfinch, it is also far more brightly coloured, 
more reachy and stylish. The glossy black head, rich chest- 
nut breast and the contrasted black and white areas of the 
wings of the male would make him a conspicuous object in 
any company or against any background, and his powerful, 
mellow, flute-like notes, which are heard both in the gloam- 
ing and at rhe dawn of day, are also a great attraction. 
Though a true Hawfinch, and armed with a formidable beak, 
he does not possess the detestable temper of the British repre- 
sentative of that fami'y; also he will, like his near relative — 
Ihe Rose-breasted Grosbeak— readily breed fh cap'tivity whereas 
a good many aviarists have, 1 thmk, come to tTie conclusion 
that our Hawfinch is not a particularly easy species to breed. 
T notic^ that even the remarRafify sanguine aviculturists, who 
frequently write to the weekly press to tell us about the 
Canary-Yellowhammer and other wonderful hybrids, which 
they claim to have bred or are shortly going to breed, are 
discreetly silent on tlie subject of Hawfinch hybrids. Lastly 
let me add that this Grosbeak only comes on the market at 
long intervals and then in very small numbers. 

The Bose-breasted Grosbeak restricts itself chiefly, as 

8 Nesting of the BJaelc-h ended Groshealc. 

a breeding species, to the Eastern States but the present 
species is a bird of Western America and is seen in summer 
in suitable localities from the Plains to the Pacific, wintering 
in Mexico. A friend of mine, who used to live in California, 
has several specimens in his collection, and tells me that it 
used to nest in a swamp near his house. 

My pair built a large, untidy nest early this summer 
in the bare fork of an apple tree and laid two large eggs of 
a pale blue ground colour, boldly spotted with leddish -brown, 
with a few purplish maculations. The male sat quite as 
much, or perhaps more than, the female. All went well 
till a couple of days before the eggs were due to hatch when, 
with the object of discovering the best class of insect food 
for rearing the young, I supplied some mealworms and other 
dainties, with the unfortunate result that the male attacked 
the female most savagely, driving her up and down the aviary. 
During one of these scrimmages the eggs must have beenf. 
kicked out for I picked them up the following day on the 
ground, one partly hatched and the other chipped (incubation 
period 12 days). 

However, they soon made another attempt. This time 
the nest was constructed in an equally conspicuous position, 
on a horizontal bougli of an apple-tree only six inches below 
the roof of netting. One of the charms of aviculture in this 
district is the Tawny Owls: out of a total of 45 birds in 
my breeding aviary this spring they either killed outright 
or maimed no less than fifteen. As showing how closely the 
Grosbeaks sat I may mention that the etcetera Owls snipped 
off the head of a Pipit just two feet from the nest (the exact 
spot being marked by the feathers adhering to the netting) one 
night, and yet the female must have stuck to her post for 
the eggs hatched. Incubation commenced on the 14th May 
(again only two eggs being laid )and the young hatched on 
the 27th. 

They were at first thinly covered with long bluish grey 
down, and looked promising but on the following day one 
vanished or, shall I say, was translated to another sphere for, 
as usual, no trace was left — not even S, short note to say, how, 
or whj or when it departed. On the sixth day the sur- 
vivor was showing flight feathers in the quill, and, as he was 

Nesting of the Black -headed Croshcalc. 

elsewhere (except for ,i little grey down on the back and 
crown )perfeetiy naked, it was not surpiisin,^: to note that he 
seemed shivery and unhappy. On tlie tenth day he looked 
much more respectable, with a decent covering' of dark fea- 
ther,< and showing some bull on the rump and wing coverts. 
On the thirteenth day the nest was empty, but, after a long 
search, I found my young fri(Mid snu^y ennc(!a!ed in the thick- 
est part of an Euonymus. 

He soon began to follow his parents on the wing, and 
his curious mewing food-call (much resembling the distant 
wailing of a Herring Gull) was one of the features of the 
past summer. As showing how necessary it is to consider the 
habits of individual species individually, when awarding medals 
for breeding results, I may mention that the young bird was 
not quite independent in the matter of food jor two months 
after leaving the nest. 

Even wiien he left the nest his plumage was much 
brighter than that of an adult female and at once declared his 
sex. H>' died on the 19th of October, owing to not being 
supplied with insect food during the moult (these foreign 
Grosbeaks are not l.'alf so hardy as they look). 

The following note was made on the 20th of October, 
and compares the young bird with the skin of an adult male 
in summer plumage: — "Breast bright chestnut, O.AT. (old 
"male) muc'i lighter — more orange-red; centre of breast grey- 
" ish, O.M. bright orange; across upper breast zone of black 
"spots, O.M. none; chin buff, O.M. black; crown black with 
"bull' centre stripe, O.M. black; white superciliary stripe, 
"O.M. none; white stripe under lores, O.M. none; back dark 
"rufous with bold black striations, O.M. dull orange with 
"ditto; rump dark rufous, O.M. orange; tail dark rufous- 
" brown, O.M. black with white inner margins to lower half, 
"white bar on primaries and coverts much duller and smaller; 
"feet dark bluish-black, O.M. same." 

The Breeding of Grey-headed x Cape Sparrows 

{Passer diffusus -\- P. arcuatus). 
By Gerald E. Rattig.^n. 
Many keen disappointments as well as triumphs are 
the portion of the aviculturist, the former mostly pre- 

10 The Breddmcf of Grei/ -headed + Cape Sparroios. 

dominating-. Last year (1911) after several failures, owi*ng 
to the intolerance of these 5irds of any interference with 
their nesting arrangements, such notes as I was then 
aore to secure I have unfortunately mislaid. 

Two young were hatched, however, and were fending 
for themselves, when they were hoth murdered by another 
species of Sparrow inhabiting tiie same aviary. 

In the earlier portion of the past season (1912) the 
samp lack of success dogged the efforts of these two birds, 
arising from the same cause, and the net result of repeated 
attempts is one young bird fully reared (now in mature 
plumage), a male. 

I will commence with a description of the plumage 
of this young bird: Ci'own of head Wuish grey; nape and 
mantle washed with olive-brown; wing coverts, lower back, 
rump, and upper tail coverts bright chestnut; flights brown; 
tail-feathers brown with darker margins: underparts greyish - 
white washed Avith brown; beak darkish horn -colour; feet 
light brown; iris brown. 

From the above it will be seen that the young hybrid 
is almost a replica of its male parent and shows none of 
the striking black and white plumage of the Cape Sparrow. 

In size, the young hybrid is a little smaller than its 
male parent. 

Re Breeding operations: I have found it quite im- 
possible to obtain strictly accurate notes as to the period of 
incubation and nestling plumage, for as I have already men- 
tioned, the slightest interference or noticed inquisitiveness on 
my part caused either the devouring, or instant desertion of 
dheir eggs, and in the case of young, unless over four days 
old, close observation resulted in infanticide. 

Thus it was impossible for me to definitely ascertain 
when incubation actually commenced or terminated, the latter 
I could only ascertain by hearing the young call for food, 
and the former by there only being one bird about at a time 
—I can only compute the incubation period by methods as 
above at fourteen days [12 to 13 days is the average period 
for Passer.— Ed]. The young left the nest three weeks after 
they were first heard calling for food. 

The Breddmg of Grcn-hcaded + Cnpe f^parroivs. 11 

In nestliiiu plnniaffo they closely resemble the House 
Sp.iri'ow. but are smaller. 

The young- in every instance were reared on insectile 
xjnixture. mealworms, anfl live ants' .e^p:s, thoug-h probably 
they could be reared entirely on a p^oorl inseetile mixture 
[animal food looms largely in the diet of nedtjeline: Sparrows 
in a state of nature. — Ed.]. 

The old birds like all Sjjarrows were devoted parents 
and watched over their younc: with jealous care, setting furi- 
ously on and putting to ignominious flight any bird, how- 
ever large or powerful, that attempted to approach too closely 
to their nest. 

The nest was a dome-shaped structure of hay, lined 
with feathers and moss — I have written "lined," but pacJcnd 
would be the better term, as the quantity of feathers, etc., they 
managecf to stow away m a comparatively small space was 
afmost uncanny. They have used a coco-nut husk as a nest 
receptacle, also a son of miniature dovecote, and also con- 
structed a nest amVd tfie branches, &ut, wherever praced"tfle 
pattern was invariably the same. 

The chitch varied from three to four but, only two hatched 
out on the first occasion, and one at the last. The colour of 
the eggs is palish green, blotched with large brown and smaller 
lavender spots and streaks. 

The parent birds continued to feed the young one 
for about five weeks after it had left the nest, after which 
period, I caught and caged the young one separately. 

Some Interesting Birds. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S. Illustrated from Life, by 
H. Wtllford, 

The Rlack-wtnCtED Grackle (GrarvJipica virJavop- 
tera). As will be seen from Mr. Willford's most successful 
photograph, this species is a striking and handsome one. It is 
also a bird of some character, and some specimens, ot any rate, 
become very tame and absolutely fearless. It is an inhabitant of 
Java and the Island of Madura, and i-^ about the size of a Starling. 

Dpsrn'pfio?). Adult MaJp : Except for the wind's and tail 
this tine bird is pure silky white, slightly tinted with pale buff on 

12 Some Interesting Birds. 

the crown, rump, thij^hs and under tail-coverts ; bastard primary- 
glossy black ; quill- and tail-feathers flossy greenish-black, the 
latter tipped with white ; bill and feet yellow, as also is a bare 
space round the eye ; iris white. Total leiigth inches, tail 3. 

Female : Similar, but slightly smaller. 

With birds of character, there is much individuality in 
respective pnirs, thus it is difficult to make any definite pronounce- 
ment as to their amiability towards smaller species, but, I saw a 
pair in Mr. Sutcliffe's aviary some two years ago, and they had 
been there for some months, and did no harm in a series consist- 
ing of Flycatchers, Warblers, Waxbills, Finches, Weavers and 
Buntings, also agreeing with a pair of White-throated Laughing- 
Thrushes which were included in the series, and most inter- 
esting birds they were, busy, inquisitivf, yet not annoying the 
other occupants that I could observe, and Mr. Sutcliffe informed 
me they had proved quite harmless — unfortunatly an epidemic 
shortly afterwards decimated this series, thus a lengthened exper- 
ience cannot be given, and so far we have no data at all how they 
would behave in a mixed series when nesting. 

Mr. Willford's pair of birds, I saw several times during the 
past year in their roomy enclosure, and a fine sight they were too, 
especially when seen on the wing, swooping from end to end of 
the flight — their flight was undulating and the rapidity of their 
movements, suddenly sweeping from right to left, or vice i^ersn, 
checking their flight and returning on their track with a dexterity 
little short of marvellous, was most interesting and fascinating 
to me, on the occasions I have had them under observation. 

T had a fairly long acquaintance with a specimen in the 
Western Aviary at the Zoo, which was absolutely without fear, and 
simply used any and every visitor who entered his enclosure as 
some new kind of perching apparatus, inquisitively hopping 
from shoulder to shoulder, hand to hand or arm to arm, inquisit- 
ively poking its sharp bill into pocket or crevice and was not the 
least averse to being handled — this is the bird from which the 
above description of the plumage was taken. This bird was a 
great attraction to thf/se present at our Members' Meetings at the 
Zoo ; alas it is now no more. 

I have not been able in the time at my disposal to glean any 
notes of its wild life. 

As regards treatment in captivity, if caged, its cage must b^ 

Notes re Vicul and other Doves. l'^ 

a roomy one, and as reganls diet, it sliouUl be sui)])lie(l \vitli 
liisectile mixture (soft fooil), ripe Iruit and live insects, uiid iiice 
nearly all the HTUKNID^E it does not ilisdain to lielj) itself to seed 
aiul grain. Unless the aviary be large enougii to |»rovide some 
live prey, live food should be regularly supplied-- beetles, grass- 
iioppers, spiders, worms, smooth caterpillars and smooth larvte and 
pui);e generally, will all help to satisfy its somewhat huge appetite 
and tend to its general well being. 

{To be Contmu,t*i) . 

Notes re Picui and other Doves. 

By E. F. M. Elms. 

The following extracts from my aviary log-book may 
possibly i)rove of interest to some of our members. 

1911. On June 20th, I bought a pair of small doves 
in Covent Garden, the name of which the dealer did not know, 
neither did I. On July 1st I left home for four weeks, 
and soou after I received a letter from my man, stating that 
the smallest Doves in the aviary had two eggs in a hanging 
basket. Since my purchase I procured a copy of Miss Alder - 
son's book on " Foreign Doves," and by its aid I was 
enabled to identify my recent acquisition as Picui Doves {Col- 
iimbula picui). They are quarrelsome birds, and the Zebra and 
Barbary Doves have rather a rough time of it with them. 

On my return I was gratified to find two plump 
young Picuis just ready to leave the nest, which was in the 
worst possible place, the young being very likely to land 
in the duck -pond and sure enough this happened with one of 
them, but fortunately I was there to fish it out. On July 29th 
the hen Picui was again sitting on two eggs and as I was 
afraid that the young birds would not be reared, I cut down 
the nest and put the eggs under a Barbary hen [I have 
found it best to let Picui and Diamond Doves take their own 
course, the young are usually reared, often as many as five 
or six pairs in the one season. — Ed.]; though the eggs have 
been removed I have not been able to detect any inclina.- 
tion on the part of the hen to feed her babies. The parents 
have not been very pleasant to their progeny, for my man, 
Timson, says he saw them turn the young ones out of the 

14 Notes re Picui and other Doves. 

uest and ill the eveninj,' I found them on tlie hard floor, 
and fearing that the Pheasants or Ducks woukl trample on 
them or otherwise maltreat them, I fixed them up in a less 
dangerous place but they would not sta}^ there long. 

August 2: Young Picuis again out of the box— parents 
trying to go to nest again, llan Barbai-y taking kindly toi 
the alien eggs. 

August 3: Young Picuis getting stronger. I have 
again attempted to thwart their notions of nest building by 
removing the nest basket, hoping they would look after their 
youngsters better, but it would seem that once the old Doves 
started nesting again, they think of nothing else, least of all 
their progeny. 

August 4: A somewhat eventful day — the parent Picuis 
again building, the hen dropped an eg^ from a perch. The 
young Picuis, especially one, are very frisky and can fly.. 
I picked them up and put them in a box for the night, later 
they were both out again, one on the floor in the straw and 
the other floating in the glazed sink, but cccpt for a thorough 
wetting, it seemed none the worse, however, it died two days 
later. I have iiow caged them in the small birds' house. 

Aug. 13; The old Picuis have another nest and are in- 
cubating a pair of eggs. The sitting bird does not mind 
one's CiOse approach, but, will not tolerate being handled 
like a Barbary. 

Aug. 15: One of the Picui eggs under the Barbary has 

1912: Practically no caoualdes during the winter, which 
for 10 days was very severe. The Picuis^ four in all. looked 
rather fluti'ed out, but came through the weather well. 

Presumably the two young Picui Doves reaied in 1911 
are both cocks, for one has formed an alliance with a hen 
Barbary, but, though everything went smoothly with them 
and three clutches of eggs were laid in the respective nests, 
all the eggs proved infertile— the strange point being that the 
other Picui proved to be a hen, for she has laid an egg, 
which she incubates intermittently. ytrange these two- 
brother and sister— did not pair. It was rather ludicrous 
to see so small a husband with so large a wife, and it is 

J^oies re Picul and other Doves. 15 

comical to see hiin doing Doves Day Duty sitting on those two 
large eggs in that large basket. 

April 20: My original pair ol" Picuis have begun build- 
ing upci'ations to-day (veiy warm), clioosing a ledge near the 
ruoi. All day the hen has been squatting on the ledge, 
and llu; cuck Ijiiskiy foraging lor materials, which he carries 
up and invaiiably settles on the hen's back or to the rear of 
her, laying the material round her form; iu a lew minutes 
he Hies oil for moi'c, while she works the material into shape, 
and a very good shape, too, especially for a Dove. The 
completed structure, a tidy, lairly well shaped cup and almost 
invariably lined with a few feathers. 

May ist: Had from damage's two pairs of Doves, both 
are new to me; one pair being Cape (jEua capensis) and the 
others called by the seller Bronze -spotted Doves, I could not 
lind them in Miss Alderson's book,* but on looking through 
Dr. Hopkinson's " Birds of Gambia," I am enabled 
to identify them as Rufous -winged Doves {Chalcopelia afro). 
I don't think they are a true pair for I have now (Dec, 
1912) had them six months, they have made no attempt to 
nest, nor yet uttered a single note. They are both in faultless 
condition [The hen is said to be more vinous below, bill dark 
brown, with no yellow tip, and the wing spots not so dark a 
green as those of the male. — Ed.]. 

I have got rid of some of my Barbarys and put in two 
White Javas — this change of course breaking up the union 
of the young Picui, with the hen Barbary. 

The adult Picuis have nested again, only one egg this 
time, a young bird was hatched on the 19th, but it dis- 
appeared on the 26th. 

June 27: The Picuis have gone to nest again, using 
the same nest, only one of their two eggs hatched, and the 
young bird left the nest for the first time to-day (July 20th), 
and on the 21st, it was flying all round the aviary. 

During August the Picuis again nested and hatche'd 
out and fully reared one young bird, making six in all. 

December 14: The White Java Doves have two 
newly hatched young in a box. 

Some of the young Picuis have attempted to nest, but 

*Aliss Aldersoa's book only covers the species she has kept.— Ed, 

16 The Food of Nestling Birds. 

I think the Cardinals amuse themselves by purloining material 
and pulling the nests to pieces. 

1 also have a Zebra and two Senegal Doves (all cocks) 
in the same aviary. I must get mates lor them next year 
and try my luck. 

The Food of Nestling Birds. 

By Walter E. Collinge, M.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

[Reprinted from "The Journal of the Board of Agriculture," 
September, 1912— p. 460, with thanks for kind permission.— Eu.]. 

It is a well-known fact tha' ne.stli.igs consume during 
the first few days of their li^e considerably more than their 
own weight of food per day, making a daily gain in weight 
of from 20 to even 50 per cent. During this period feeding 
commences before sunrise and continues until after sunset. 
The number of meals taken during this period is very large. 
Dr. Clarence M. Weed* records that in the case of the Chip- 
ping Sparrow (Spizella soclalis) the total number of visits 
paid by the parent birds, bringing food, in a day amounted 
to nearly 200. Dr. S. D. Judd,t writing of the House Wren 
{Troglodytes aedon) states " that nestlings are fed very fre- 
quejitly, and consume an enormous quantity of food, is well 
shown by a half -day's observation," made by him on June 
17th, 1899. He watched the feeding of a brood of three. 
" The family was found housed in a cavity in a locust tree, 
and was transferred to a baking-powder can, which was nailed 
to the trunk of the tree four feet above the ground, a con- 
venient height for observation. The young were about three- 
fourths grown." The mother wren made 110 visits in four 
hours and thirty-seven minutes. On the following day simi- 
lar observations were made, and in three hours and live min- 
utes the young were lea (57 times. NewsteadJ has also giVen 
details for the Starlings as follows : — 

*BuIl. No. 55, New Hampshire Agric. Exp. Stat., 1898. 

t -Tho Food of Nestling Birds," Year-book, U.S. Dept. Agric, 1900; 

pubd. 1901. 
5: The Food of Some British Birds, Supplement to the Journal Dec, 

1908. p. 58. 

The Food of Nestling Birds. 17 

During fifty -live consecutive minutes .. 20 visits 

Between 3.;")0 and 7.55 p.m 25 „ 

During six and a-half hours 79 „ 

„ six and a-quarler hours 45 „ 

Thus, "during a total period of 17 hours, representing 
approximately the hours of one day during which food was 
collfcctcd for the young, 1(39 journeys were made to the nest." 
This is in all probability much under the average. 

Our knowledge of the nature and amount of food con- 
suiDcid by nestling l)irds is as yet very meagre. The subject 
is an important one, for many birds that in the 
adult comliiion feed upon both animal and vegetable matter, feed 
their young almost entirely upon insects, worms, and slugs. In- 
deed, from the nature of the structure of the stomach of a 
newly -hatched bird it may be generally concluded that most 
birds (excluding aquatic and raptorial species) feed their 
young on soft food, which largely consists of insects, slugs, 
spiders, and worms. 

The following observations have been made : — 

(i) In the case of the Starling and House Sparrow, 
from behind a curtained window. Many of the birds alighted 
on the window-sill before entering their nest, or lodged upon 
th^j outside projecang beams beneath the roof. With the aid 
of a pair of field glasses (and more often without) the na- 
ture of the food could be quite easily made out; 

(ii) from examination of the fieces of the nestlings; and 

(iii) from an examination of the stomach contents of 
179 nestlings of the Starling, House Sparrow, Song Thrush, 
and Blackbird. 

Starling (Sturnus vulgaris, Limi.). 

Observations were made on May ilth, 12th, 18th, 19th, 
and 26th. On the first four dates the numbers of visits 
were counted for sixty minutes, and were as follows: — 38, 36, 
32, 28; a series of counts made on May 27th gavo the: 
following results:— 28, 28, 27, 26, the average working out 
at 32.2 visits per hour. On May 11th, the first visits com- 
menced soon after 4 a.m., and continued until noon, when they 
became less frequent, and between 12-30 and 2-30 p.m. only 
about 25 visits were made. The number of visits again rose, 

18 The Food of Nestling Birds. 

and visits averaging approximately 26 per hour were made 
until 6' p.m., wften the numbers became gradually less, and 
ceased at 7.50 p.m. Thus, presuming that for 12 hours of 
the day an average number of visits amounting to 25 per 
hour was maintained, and half that number during 4 hours, 
we have the enormous total of 350 vi:=;its paid to the nest by 
the parent birds. 

On May 11th, 12th, 18th, and 26th, careful notes were 
made at different periods of the day of the natui-e of the food, 
and these are given below. 

May 11th, 10.30 to 11.15 a.m.— Fourteen visits were 
made to the nest, food being brought on each occasion. 
This consisted of 5 slugs (3 Arion hortensis, Fer., and 1 Agrio- 
Umax agrestis, Linn.); 3 earthworms; 3 wireworms; 2 larvae 
of the Great Yellow Underwing Moth (Triphaena pronuba, 
Linn.); a number of small beetles, too small to be identified, 
3 larvae of Crane Fly; 2 pieces of bread. 

May 12th, 10-15 to 11-15 a.m.— Thirty -two visits 
were made to the nest by the parent Tj'irds, and food was 
brought on thirty-one occasions. The following Avere identi- 
fied: — 18 larvas of the Great Yellow Underwing Moth (Tri- 
fhaena pronuba, Linn.), 16 slugs (12 Arion hortensis, Fer., 
and 4 Agriolimax agrestis, Linn.); 8 small earthworms; 
several small beetles; 2 spiders, 3 wireworms; a numljer 
of Dipterous larvae. 

May 18th.— At various times of the day fifty -two visits 
were observed, at each of which food was brought to the 
nest. The following were identified:— 4 weevils (Barynotus 
obscurus, Fabr.); 3 "wireworms; 15 larvae of the Great Yellow 
Underwing Moth; many small Geometrid larvae; 4 larvae of 
Crane Fly; 4 earthworms; 10 slugs {Arion Jiortensis, Fer.); 
2 pieces of meat. 

May 26th.— Forty-eight visits were observed The 
following food was identified: — 6 lar^e Noctuid Jarvge; 8 larvae 
of Crane Fly; 4 wireworms; number of small beetles i 11 
slug) (8 Arion hortensis, Fer.; and 3 Ajgriolimax agrestis, 
Linn.); 3 earthworms; 2 spiders; bread and kilclien garb- 
age on 5 occasions. 

Thus on 146 visits the following food was conveyed 
to the nest: — 61 insegt larvae; a large number of small 

The Food of Nestling Birds. 19 

liootles; 18 earthworms; 42 slug's; 4 spiders; and various 
Dipterous larvee, bread, i^c. Tlie whole fairly represents the 
food collected during the period of half a day. 

House vSparrow (Passer dnmesficns, Tann.). 

The numbers of visits wci-o counted for periods of 
sixty minutes on May 12th, 18th, 2Gth, and 27th, and were 
as follows:— 20. 22; 18, 20; 20. 22; 20, 22, the average 
working out at 20.2 visits per hour. The visits on one day 
commenced just after 4 a.m., and continued until 7-30 p.m. 
The number of visits daily is probably something between 
220 and 260. 

Observations were made on various dates of 84 visits 
to the nest, and the following ^Qve iienMfied: — 12 larvse of 
the Winter Moth (Cheimatobia bruma^a, Linn.); 15 beetles 
(Pht/llobius. sp.); 3 ladybird beetles; large number of small 
Dipterous larvge; number of small Dipterous flies; 2 spiders; 
on 23 occasions bread, potato, and other kitchen refuse. 
Song Thrush (Turdiis musiciis, Linn.). 

Observations made on the number of visits paid by the 
parent birds to the nest during four consecutive hours gave 
the following results :— 22, 24, 18, 15. 

Blackbird (Turdiis vierula, Linn.). 

A similar count to the above was made on five differ- 
ent occasions, extending over one hour each. The numbers 
of visits were 26, 24, 20, 22, 20. 

II. — Examination of Faeces of Nestlings. 

Large quantities of the encapsuled fgeces of young 
Starlings were collected and subjected to careful exarnination. 
The results obtained are of interest in that they confirm the 
observations made on the nature of the food brought to the 
nest by the parent birds. 

The faeces collected and examined during the first ten 
days gave but poor results, and would seem to point to the 
fact that worms, slugs, and quite soft food formed the l>ulk 
of the food during that period. The following materials were 
identified :— 5 wing cases of 6eetles; 8 pieces of wings of 
some Dipterous insect; 14 heads of Lepidopterous larvae; 1 
remains of wireworm. 

The feeces collected and examined later showed the 

20 The Food of Nestling Birds. 

following- remains : — 1 wing case of ground beetle (Pterostic- 
hus madidus, Fabr.); 19 legs of various small beetles; 1 wing 
case of ladybird beetle; 23 wing cases of weevils; 27 heads 
of Lepidcpterous larvae; parts of 5 wireworms; half of centi- 
pede (Geophilus longicornis); fragments of plant remains; 

III. — Examination of Stomach Contexts. 
The stomach contents of 179 nestlings have been care- 
fully examined. These consisted of 94 Starlings, 42 Spar- 
rows, 20 Thrushes, and 23 Blackbirds. 

It is unnecessary to set forth in detail the contents of 
each individual stomach, and the contents of eai^h species are 
therefore summarised as follows : — 
Starling.— 94 examples: — 

May 20th. — Twenty specimens received. Tlie food contents 
identified were: 8 larvse of the Great Yellow Underwing- Moth; 8 
larvse of the Winter Moth; 9 small Lepidopterous larvae; parts of 
5 wireworms; wing cases and legs of 3 beetles; few small Dip- 
terous larvae; 3 spiders; remahis of slugs; few pieces of eai'th- 
worms; bread in all cases. 

Marj 23rd.— Fourteen specimens received. The food con- 
tents identified wez'e: 5 larvae of the Great Yellow IJndei'wing 
Moth; 8 small Lepidopterous larvae; many small Dipterous larva;; 
remains of 9 slugs (^Arion hortensis, Fer.) ; few pieces of eartli- 
\rorms; bread and vegetable matter present in 12 cases. 

May 25th.— Sixteen specimens received. The food contents 
identified were: 8 larvae of Great Yellow Underwing Moth; 9 larvae 
of the Winter Moth; 5 wireworms; 7 wing cases of weevils (Bary- 
notus obscurus, Fabr.); few Fungus Gnats; 3 spiders; 2 centi- 
pedes; remains of 5 slugs; few pieces of earthworms; bread, meat, 
and vegetable matter present in 7 cases. 

May 28th.— Twenty-two specimens received. The food con- 
tents identified were: 5 larvae of the Great Yellow Underwing 
Moth; 7 small Lepidopterous larvae; 8 wireworms; 11 wing cases 
of weevils (Barynotiis obscurus, Fabr.) ; various small Dipterous 
flies; 2 spiders; 1 centipede; remains of 11 slugs (Arion^ hor- 
tensis, Fer.) ; 7 partly digested earthworms (Allolobophora cJiloro- 
tica, Sav.); bread, meat and vegetable matter present in 15 cases. 
May 29th.— Twenty -four specimens received. The food 
contents identified were: 6 larvae of the Great Yellow Underwing 
Moth; 10 larvae of the Winter Moth; 9 wireworms; wing cases, 
legs, and other remains of 23 beetles; 3 spiders; 1 slug (Arion 
hortensis, Fer.); 9 earthworms {Allolobophora cldorotlca, Sav,); 
bread, meat and vegetable matter present in 19 cases. 

The Food of Nestling Birds. 21 

Sparrow.— 42 examples. 

21 lai-v,T of the "Winter ^fotIl,• ?• Fmall T^epidopterous larvae: 
19 winff ea-^cs of beetles; 7 wins; cases of ]aclyl)ii(l hectle; .^3 
winffs of small Dipterous fly; 4 spiders; bread, meat, rice grains 
and vegetable matter present in 39 cases. 
TiiRisir.— 20 examples: — 

1 larva of Noctiiid moth; 3 wirewoi-ms ; remains of earth- 
worms and slugs in all cases; 4 spiders; vegetablci matter and 
soil in all cases. 
Br-ACKRiRD. — 23 examples- 
Remains of 17 earth-worms and 9 slu'^s; 3 svireworms; frag- 
ment.'^ of wing cases of beet'es; large amount of vegetable matter 
present in all cases; bread and grain present in 7 cases. 

As has been pointed out by Dr. Jurld, practically 
all birds, excepting Doves and Pigeons, feed their young up- 
on an anima' diet, whatever may be the c"'iaracter of the food 
of the adult. Only continued observation will ultimately place 
us in possession of the nature and amount of food eaten by 
nestlings, and such information must ultimately prove of great 
value to all concerned with the raising of crops, whether fruit, 
general farm, or horticultural. 

In conclusion, " it should be remembered that the nest- 
ling season is also that when the destruction of injurious in- 
sects is most needed, that is, at the period of greatest agri- 
cultural activity and before the parasitic insects can be de- 
pended on to reduce the pests." A knowledge, therefore, 
of the nature of the food, the amount consumed, and the 
relation this bears, from an economic standpoint, to the harm 
done by some species when adult, is no longer a question, 
of interesting curiosity on the part of the bird-lover, but one 
that has a definite bearing on the success or failure of the 
produce of the land. 

[We would point out, that the foregoing is not out of place, 
in our pages, for a careful i^aading of the above should 
prove very helpful to the aviculturist, when having broods of young, 
of any of the genera referred to, in his aviary and prove a useful 
guide as to what to supply, etc. 

We would also point out, that Doves and Pigeons must not 
be excluded from the list of those species which supply an animal 
or partially animal diet to their fledgelings. On many occasions the 
writer has seen Diamond and other Doves, break up and swallofw 
worms, then go and feed their progeny. This applies eq^ually to 
domestic pigeons, we will only cite one case from the writer's per- 
sonal observation— the particular pigeons were let out early in the 

22 llow I became a Lover of Birds. 

morning, as soon as they returned^ they were shut in till the after- 
noon, when, they were allowed a similar period of liberty: after 
these flights the writer has fre^fuently cleansed away from the base 
of the beaks of the squabs portions of slugs and earth-worms, prov- 
ing conclusively that a portion of their meal at least, had consisted 
of animal food — that they can be reared without it is a well-known 
fact, but, I would also clearly state, that the percentage of loss 
among young which got some animal food was almost nil, both while 
under the care of their parents and during the latter stages, before 
full maturity was reached. The writer would further add that some 
hybrid Turtle -\- Barbary Doves frequently pick up and devour a 
mealworm, and that the eating of eartliworms is quite common with 
almost all species of Doves, and Pigeons in captivity. Ed.]. 

How I became a Lover of Birds. 

By Otto Puck. 
I was in my sixth year, when one fine March morn- 
ing (there had been a heavy fall of snow during the night) 
my nurse called out, " Otto, come to the window, quick, 
the Starlings have arrived, they are fighting the Sparrows, 
and have turned them out of the box." "Starlingsl " What 
were Starlings? I had a vague idea that in connection with 
Sparrows it must be a bird, but till then my attention had 
never been drawn to one. Quickly I was at the window, 
and then I beheld on the window-sill a fine cock Starlinig 
in its pristine beauty, the freshly fallen snow setting off 
well its pink feet^ lustrous purple -black plumage and golden 
beak. He did not |seem to mind my presence much, but after a 
while disappeared into the box, hung below the window, followel 
by its more sombre clad mate, whilst the Sparrows got on 
top of the box, chirping out defiance. I may here incident- 
ally remark that the box, a long oblong one with a hole in 
front, and a stick for the birds to perch on, had been hunig 
up by my father, for the express purpose of inducing the 
the Starlings to nest therein. During the winter Sparrows 
made it a sleeping retreat, but in spring they were regularly 
driven out by Starlings — as time went on the heat of the. 
the sun increased, and Aconites, Snowdrops, etc., proclaimed 
the advent of spring, but there were more falls of snow, 
sharp frost, and food scarce, and on some mornings they would 
sit on the snow -covered branches of a Sycamore tree, not far 

TJnw t became a Lover of Birds. 23 

from the house, all in a lump, trying to get some comfort 
from the warming rays of the sun. Plowever, by the end 
of March the gardener became busy among the rose -beds, 
uncovering the dwarfs and standards protected by mattiag' 
against the severity of winter, and deliglitedly I watched the 
Starlings busy among- the litter, securing bountiful supplies 
i)f grubs and worms. The male bird particularly rivette^d. 
my attention, for he would i)ick up a lon^ piece of bass, 
JIutter up to the bo.x;, and disappear with it inside, then he 
would come out and from the top of the box, utter all 
sorts of unmusical notes and calls and dap his wings, etc., to 
attract his mate. She was not responsive, but after a time, 
joined him, but even then, with the inborn shyness of hofr' 
sex, would not immediately follow him into the dark unknown 
of the interior. She would perch at the furthest end of the 
stick, gradually drawing nearer, and then before entering, 
measure carefully with her beak the circumference of the! 
hole to make certain it was just ri^ht, and the box safe 
against intruders. 

Having convinced herself that all seemed safe, and 
approved of the nesting site, chosen by her lord and ma^ster, 
she would follow him into the box, there would be a scramble 
and noise going on inside, then out would dart the hen, the 
male in hot pursuit, they would rise in the air, there would 
be some a^^parent lighting, and they were mated. Now a 
busy time commenced, and both were soon busy in carrying 
nesting material into the box. By the end of April or early 
May the first eg^, of lovely bluish tint, would appear, and by 
the middle of May there would be the first signs — eg'g-shells 
on the ground — of family cares. From morn till night both 
the parents would come and go to fill the gaping mouths 
with caterpillars and worms, and I wondered where they found 
all the supply of insect food. On leaving the box I noticed 
that the old birds carried out something white in their beaks, 
wmch they dropped outside, and my curiosity being aroused, 
I e xamined it and found it to be the excreta of the young — 
one of Nature's sanitary lessons. On being fed, the clamour- 
ing of the youngsters, as they gi'ew, could \x( heard quitej 
a distance oft", and one fine morning, after a fortnight's rearing 
there would appear at the hole the head of a mouse -coloured 

24 How I became a Lover of Birds. 

bird, with a black beak, and eyes. It was a nearly fully- 
fledged youngster, and, when the old birds arrived, with 
beaks full of insects, the youngster would stretch its head 
fully out of the hole for the food, but the old bird would 
brush past him and go inside the box, so that his weaker 
brothers and sisters might also get their share. Some days 
after this the old birds, with beaks filled, would not fly at 
once to the box, but rest in the tree calling to the youngsters 
to come out, and then would come the morning when all was 
still, the box was empty, the youngsters had flown, and the 
adults had taken them to fields and pastures new, teaching 
them how to cater for themselves 

After making these observations, and having added 
a year or two to my experience, my desire was to possess 
such a box to rear Starlings in of my own. The first was. 
a failure, but I kept at it till I was nearly twenty years 
old, giving many away also, that others might enjoy the plea- 
sure of watching the domestic life of such species as used the 

Our home being situated near a large Park and our 
garden well stocked with fruit trees running down to a river, 
it was not Starlings alone that claimed my attention. ,Our 
neighbourhood was a veritable, " Eldorado," of avifauna, and 
abounded in Finches and soft bills. Nightingales used to come 
on to our lawn, from the Park, in search of ants'-eggs. Fly- 
catchers nested in the grape-vine, Jenny Wrens in an oW 
shed, and Chaffinches found nesting places galore in a row 
of young lime-trees in front of our house; then there were 
Blackcaps, White-throats, Garden Warblers, Melodius Warblers, 
etc.. No wonder that in such lovely surroundings I should 
take a keen interest in Nature and become fond of birds,,, 
animals, fishes, and flowers. My father was an ardent gar- 
dener, and I have retained the culture and love of flowers- 
to this day. But this is a digression. To return to the 
birds. I listened with joy to their song, and watched them build 
their nests, and how could he who has ever seen the beauti- 
ful structures of avian architecture, containing suc^ lovely 
eggs forget them. The collecting of eggs was absolutely 
vetced at home, and rightly, too. I must, however, plead 
gv iltv to this hobby, and secreted away a few unknown to 

TIoiv I hrcame a Lover of Birds. 25 

my patents, but can safely say I never robbed birds of a 
vvholo clutch— just one egg only, when I found a nest with 
five - and so learned to distinguish the species by the colour 
of thfir eggs. 

One night in the spring there had been a storm, and 
next morning T found a ChafTinch's ne.^t blown to the ground, 
it was empty, but some c'lii'ping in the grass near by drew 
my attention, and T soon collected together four or five young- 
sters nearly fledgei, put them with the nest into a small cage 
and hung same up against a wall. Soon after I had the 
satisfaction of seeing the old birds fly on top of the cage 
and feed the young. But what was my surprise when I 
found the ground strewn with wings of moths and beetles? 
Not until then was I aware that hardbills used insect-food 
in rearing their brood— first object lesson! 

The young finches grew apace, but one day, to my 
dismay I found the cage door open and the birds gone. An 
"unkind" hand had opened the door; but I was told the 
birds themselves had done it, as it was cruel to keep them 
caged. / 

Notbinjjf daunted, from the park my ramblings extended to 
the forest, and I had then made the acquaintance of an old 
bird-dealer and true lover of birds, who initiated me into the 
mysteries of handrearing; I seldom returned from my wander- 
ings without having made some fresh discovery and carrying 
home some trophy or other might it be young Thrushes, 
Blackbirds, Goldfinches, Nightingales, all of which I learned 
to hand-rear successfully, and I often feel inclined to again 
take up this interesting phase of bird -keeping — but time and 
circumstances do not permit— I must be satisfied to tend 
adult specimens: and what higher award can there l>e to 
man's ambition when the efforts, care and attention bestowed 
upon his feathered pets are crowned by the well-being and 
song of such a bird as the Nightingale, the " King of 

I have kept most of our best songsters (sof thills) 
in cages, and if the experience .gained during nearly forty 
years might interest your readers, I will with pleasure pen 
a few notes on the keeping of softbills in cages. 

We shall be pleased to have some notes on keeping 
softbills in cages. — Ed, 

26 British Bird Calendar. 

British Bird Calendar. 

It is Urgently requested that members from all round the 
coast will note the movement of birds, more especially 
in the Southern and Eastern counties, and regularly (28th 
of each month) send in their notes — on this the ultimate 
success and permanent interest of the Calendar will de- 
pend. — Ed. 

October 2 and 3. Flock of about 30 Bramblefinches 
seen feeding on Beech-mast, quite close to the house, together 
with a large number of Chaffinches. This is rather earlier 
than we usually see them. B.H.S., Ipswich. 

November 4 and subsequently. Have observed Hedge 
Accentor with pure white tail — plumage otherwise normal. 

B.H.S., Ipswich. 
December 28. Saw an enormous flock of Starlings — 
sky quite dark with them and although at a considerable 
distance, the "swish" of their wings was plainly audible. 
There must have been several thousands— they were coming 
from their feeding grounds on the fields to a large plantation 
to rOost. B.H.S., Ipswich. 

Piebald Partridge: While out shooting in mid Nov- 
ember a Piebald French Partridge fell to my gun. Its gen- 
eral plumage was normal, but the hinder portion of crolwn, 
nape and back of neck are almost pure white; wing coverts 
and back profusely speckled with white, and the three inner 
primaries of each wing also white; rump, upper tail coverts 
and centre of tail pure white. It has since been set up by 
Mr. Roland Ward and is a striking looking bird. 

J.S.R., Leadenham, Lines., 23/12/" 12. 
December has been rather a dull month here as regards 
bird movements, but I have noticed the following : 

Redwings : Much more numerous than is usually the case 
in such a mild winter. 

Tits : I have also noticed an increase in the number of 
Long-tailed and Marsh Tits ; while Cole-Tits have apparently de- 

January 1 — 3; Dui-iiig the past three days large flocks of 
Wild Geese have been feeding on the mud banks of the Solent. 

P.G., Beaulieu, 4/l/'13. 

Mitorial. 27 

DoL-omber, 1912. I am wint(M-ing in Devon. This is 
a lovely county, especially for birds which prefer to winter 
here to crossing the Channel. In the fields and hedgerows 
are : Starlings, Magpies, Jackdaws, Rooks, Tits, Robins, 
Chaffinches, Fire -crests. Fieldfares, Thrushes, and Black))irds. 
In the estuaries are : Herons, Bitterns, Herring Gulls, Kitti- 
wakes. Shags, and Coromants. All these I have seen, and 
even a Razor-bill Gull on a jock out at sea; probably one 
waiting for death. D.L., Salcombe, Devon. 

In December "B.N." we omitted to give a list of the 
contributors to this Calendar; they are as follow : — 

E.F.C.— Miss E. F. Chawner. 

F.F.M.G.— P. F. M. Galloway. 

H.G.— H. Goodchild, M.B.O.U. 

I'.G.— Dr. P. Gosse, M.B.O.U. 

W.T. P. —Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S. 

J.S.R. — Captain J. Sherard Reeve, F.Z.S. 

U.S.— R. Suggitt. 


List of Breeding Species : Mr. W. E. Teschemaker 
informs me that we have misquoted him re breeding Paradise 
Whydahs, as he did not succeed in breeding this species. 
Also further research proves that Grenadier Weaver {E. siin- 
devalli: s.p., and E. oryx) are duplicate entries, as these are 
not noM recognised as distinct, therefore two records must be 
struck off our list, viz : — 

Paradise ^^'hydah {Stcganura paradisea) . 

Grenadier Weaver {Euplectes sundevalli-siih. sp.). 

Re the Grenadier Weaver record. The record given in 
our list of Medals awarded in December issue must stand, as 
the previous record by the late Herr Wiener was quite un- 
observed, and unobserved results are not eligible for our list. 
We quote as follows from Cassell's " Canaries and Ca£:e Birds," 
page 406: "A very rare local variety of Grenadier Weavers, 
"viz., the Euplectes siindevalli, bred in my aviary without my 
"knowledge, and I was not aware that they had been incu- 
" bating until two young birds were flying about. How these 
" young birds, almost as large as a Bullfinch, had room with 

28 Editorial. 

" their mother in the nest I have never been able to make 
"out." We do not give medals for unobserved results. Time 
does not permit us to say more in this issue re "Breeding 
Medal Rules, but in our next issue we will explain in detail 
the Regulations published on pages 73 and 74 of green paper 
inset in last volume. 

Blue Buegerigaes : Our member, Mr. W. R. Fasey, 
has a flock of 12 of this variety flying in one of his aviaries, 
beiu.u a comparatively recent acquisition from the Continent, 
and some are already evincing a desire of going to nest. 

New Birds at the Zoo : Arrivals are not usually 
numerous at this season, but among them are two species new to 
the collection, viz., Mahali Weaver Birds f Plocepasser mahali), a 
South African species: from the Orange River to Damara Land on 
the west, and Matabela Land on the east (B.M.C.) Above it is 
light brown, with the lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts 
white ; the wings are variegated with dark brown, blackish, a 
white bar crossing each wing ; the quills are "dark brown with 
light brown margins ; tail feathers, dark brown, with light mar- 
gins and white tips ; crown of head, lores, eye region and cheeks 
black; eye-brow white; throat white ; remainder of under sur- 
face pale huffish brown, lighter on the abdomen and ventral 
region, sides of body and flanks, darker brown. It is a largish 
species, about as large as the Rufous-necked Weaver. Also a Pink- 
browed Rose-finch (Propasset^ rliodochrous), this species, though 
new to the Zoo, has been in the possession of private aviculturists 
at any rate since 1908, if Jiot earlier. In 1908 Capt. Perreau (now 
major), imported some which passed into the possession of Messrs. 
W. E. Teschemtker and W. T. Page, in 1911 a few more were 
brought over by Lieut. G. Kennedy which went to Mr. H. Willford, 
and as the Zoo specimen was presented by Mr. W. H. St. Quintin, 
there have been arrivals from other sources — the species has been 
described in past Vols, of B.N., to which we refer our readers. 

Among other arrivals at the Zoo are :— 2 Black-shouldered 
Tanagers (C melanonota), 2 Sepoy Finches {H. sipahi^. Slaty- 
headed Parrakeet (P. schisticops), all presented by our member 
Mr. A. Ezra.. Another notable arrival is a Nepalese Eagle-Owl 
Huhiut 7i/palfnsis). 

■■ = 

Bird Notes. 

Photo hij E. 0. Page. 
I'iiik--lii-(>\vc(] Hoscfiiicli, eating seeding grass from the 
hand in tlie aviary of W. T. Page. 

Correspondence. ;29 



SiK,— Birds are endowed with superubuiidant energy* vvhieli 
finds expression in Hyiiiy, Hitting, swimming, diving, wading, 
walking, liopping, perching, cliiul)ing, creeping, mimicking, singing, 
or croaking. Those tJiat liave been bred in captivity for generations 
may, in course of time, lose most of the original characteristics of 
tlieir species, and acquire otliers possibly better suited to confinement. 
Fledgelings taken from the nest and made pets of, also become aiti- 
ficial, but pent-up inheient energy must find i.t.eianee. The Canary 
trolls songs unknown to its progenitors; the Par'rot, Mynah and 
Magpie imitate human speech; the Bullfinch whistles human music; 
and the Parroquet brandishes a torch or fires a cannon. In these 
instances confinement has produced denaturalization, generally to the 
extent of hatred of its own species. Conversely, no alienation would 
result without close confinement. 

I do not ignore the numerous examples where the natural 
song' is retained by prisoners either taken from the nest, or captured 
when wild. That is evidence of, at least, a fleeting' happiness. 
Instinct is irrepressible, and the enei-gy of a captive, unless mis- 
directed, protests against the assumption that ' turn whereso'er it 
may by night or day the things which it hath seen it now can see 
no more." 

At the Zoo one finds of course, instances, where the utmost 
happiness hcis resultiod from knowledge of the birds' proclivities, as 
well as cases of apparent misery, arising, presumably, from lack of 
knowledge— thus even with unlimited space the problem is difficult, 
and the question is, whether it can be solved by those who must 
keep pets in cages, or not at all. 

With confessedly limited experience, I postulate that Lories, 
being constitutionally uxorious, should never be left unmated; that 
they should have ample facilities for climbing and playing;, aud 
that wlienever possible their cage should be placed in sunshine. 
Their self-reliance and self -absorption make them pretty well in- 
different to other conditions. 

Celibacy is less lepugnant to the Indian Parroquet, but, unless 
denaturalised, he likes company of his own species; that of others 
ha cannot endure. He de^ighti in bathing, and pines for occupation. 
He is jessentLally a climbe.-, and m,u.t have nuts to crack, or dry wood 
to chew. Ana above all, he appreciates a little change of scene, 
and the alternative of a perch. If he must be kept confined to a 
cage, the ideal form would be cylindrical, but from four to six feet 

Entirely otherwise are the habits of the long-tailed Austra- 

*There are nevertheless species whose energy does not greatly 
exceed their need.— £d. 

30 Correspondence. 

lians iPlatycermiae). They are not climbers, but perchers and flyers; 
untameable, and neve:- reconciled to close confinement. Moreover their 
exquisite colours can only be properly appreciated when they arc 
on the wing. In the tropics 1 have kept Rosellas, Pennants, Kings, 
and Barnards together, in perfect amity, in a flight cage, seven 
feet high and ten feet long, furnished with plenty of boughs and 
twigs, and two pots of a dark leaved shrub, which they did. not 
damage. To keep them either singly or paired, in an ordinary 
parrot-cage, is — well, not humane. PSITTACUS. 


Sir.— In your notes of the lecent bird show at the Horticul- 
tural Hall, you have, 1 th'nk, misquoted me. The specimen of the 
Masked Parrakeat (Pyrrhulopsis personata) was entered correctly 
under its proper name. The bird entered as' "Rare Rosella, cock," 
which some visitors deemed to be a hybrid, but I believe it is 
really an unusually dusky specimen of the Yellow-bellied Parrakeet of 
Tasmania {Platycercus favivevtris) * Also Mr. Ezra's Lutino Ring- 
necked Parrakeet was a,n absentee. (Rev.) G. H. RAYNOR. 
Hazeleigh Rectory, 23/12/' 12. 


Sir.— My hen went to nest on Monday, October 21st, 1912. 
She slept in the log for the first time on October 31st and sat very 
steadily. I did not look in the log but left her entirely alone, as I 
do not believe in interfering with ne ting birds. On November 20th 
I heard young in the nest— (November 29th, temperature in aviary 
32 degrees; November 30th, tempera'.ure 28 degrees). 

I first saw the young on Thursday, December 12th — two fine 
bird.s left the log on December 31st and are now flying. My aviary 
is an outside unheated sti'uctare facing north and east. 
January 6th, 1913. C. PELHAM SUTTON. 


SiK. — It may be of some little interest if I give a few stray facts con- 
cerning my birds. 

My Budgerigars celebrated the season by hatching out a brood about 
11-45 p.m., on December 31st. 

My Black-cheek and Madagascar Lovebirds are busily incubating and 
almost due to hatch. 

My birds in the outside aviary have done very well during the wet, 
windy and muggy weather wp have been experiencing, but I should say 
their aviary is well sheltered, tliough the temparature has fallen as low as 
32 degrees F. in it. The Paradise Whydahs, and Diamond Sparrows are 
very fit and in grand plumage ; the Redstart also did not mind the cold but 
unfortunatly she succumbed to the mice. My Blue, Marsh and Cole Tits 
agree well with the other birds (they have been in the mixed series for 15 

*Mi'. t)- Seth-Smith has kindly sent a postcard confirming- this. 

Correspondence. lil 

months), and are fascinating? creatnies to watch. Great Tits I ca^^ separ- 
atelj- and even a i)air of this species will not sleep together, but, occupy 
opposite corners of the cage. I have six Red-headed Lovebirds, all but one 
very fit, T hoi)e to induce them to nest this coming season. 

Our garden is visited by a goodly number of birds. Tits in variety 
Greenfinches, Yellow Bunting, Linnet, Hedge Sparrows, Chaffinches, Black- 
birds. Thrushes, Robins, Starlings, and last winter, during the short period 
snow was on the (iround, we saw a i)air of Redwings. 

Perhaps the following notes re my sister's birds will also be of interest ; 

Yellow Hammers : were kept in an open wire cajje with 
several other bii'ds ; they lined a bass nest with moss, hair, etc., and laid four 
eggs, one shell-less and another got broken, no attempt at incubation was 
made, so the remaining two eggs were put under a canary, both hatched out 
— one fledgeling lived for five days and tht other only three. 

Madagascar Weavers : In a cage with several other birds, nested- 
result two eggs, with two days between each ; they were disturbed by the 
other birds and the eggs were broken. Two weeks later they nested again, 
laying two eggs, Avith a similar period betweent the first and last ; thig clutch 
wasputunde' a Java Sparrow, but the chicks died in shell. The t)irds 
became quarrelsome and were removed to a box-cage, two feet long ; again 
they nested and laid a clutch of two eggs, with one day only between the 
first and last- both these eggs were infertile. 

Catford, S.E. 


Sir,— A.S promised, 1 mmuI you the following tables of j-esults 
in these aviai-ies during a most unpromising: season from the weather 
point of view. ■ ' 

18 Diamond Doves (Geopelia cuneata), from 3 pairs, 

13 Black -cheeked Lovebirds (Agapornis nigngenis), 'from 2 pairs. 
6 Rosella Parrakeets (Platycercm eximus), from 2 pairs. 

b Cockateels (Calopsittacus novce-ltollandice) . 
10 Calirornian Quail {Lophoriyx calijornicus) . 

14 Californiau -|- Squamata Quail (L. calif ornicus -\~ CalUpepla 

squamafa) . 
4 Brush Bronze-wing Pigeons (Phaps elegans). 

2 Bronze-wing Pigeons (Phaps chalcoptera) . 

1 Violet Dove (L&ptoptila jamaicensis) . 

4 Bicheno's Finches (Sfictopidra bichenovi). 
4 Gouldian Finches (Poephila gouldicp) . 

3 Coi'don Bleus (Esinlda phoenicotis) . 
3 Cuba Finches (Phonipara canora). 

2 Olive Finches (Phonipara letpida) . 

1 Zelwa Finch (Tmicopygia castanotis) . 
40 Budgei'igars (Melo-ysittaciis undulatus) , 

32 t'ost Mortem Reports. 

4 Blue-wing Lovebirds {VsittacuJa passerine). 

1 Mealy Rosella + Rosalia Parrakeet (P. pallidiceps -]- P. erinids). 
1 Indian -]- African Silverbill (Aidemosyne cantans -f- J. mala- 

barica) . 
1 Cinnamon Tree -j- Yiellow Sparrow (Passer cinnamomeus --[- P. 
luteus) . 

Pennant + Rosella Parrakeets (P. elegans -{- P. eximus) . 
Cinnamon Tree Sparrow + Paradise Whydah (P. cinnamomeus -|- 

Steganura paradisea) . 
Golden- breastfed Waxbill (Sporceginthus subflavus). 

Hoping the above lists may prove oi" some little interest. 
Westbury, WUts., January 6, 1913. WM. SHORE BAILY. 

Post Mortem Reports 

See Rules on page iii. of cover. 

Green-wing Dove (cf). (John She.ard Reeves). Cause 
of death, rupture of the liver, consequent haemorrhag-e. 

Common Pheasant. (R. A. Dyott, Lichfield). The base 
of the small feathers sent hal a downy appearance which was 
due to numerous nits or eggs of the Menopon produatus. These 
parasites are very active, and if they get on to people, they 
cause a very disagreeable irritation. They are often found on the head 
and neck of old Pheasants and also on those that have died from 
exliaustion. This louse is somewhat dangerous to young Pheasant? 
reared in aviaries, because it rapidly multiplies, and then spreads 
to the whole of the birds kept in a pen. 

Parson Finch, (A. J. C. Lowe), Bridgeford. Parson 
Pinch. Cause of death, pneumonia, probably from an injury. 

Green Singing-fin h. (Mrs. W. H. Read, Cambridge). 
Cause of death, rupture of one of the chambers of the heart. 

Diamond Sparrow. (W. A. Bainbridge, Surrey). Cause 
of death, pneumonia. 

Cock Jacarini Finch and Cock Firefinch. (W. A. Bain- 
bridge, Surrey). The cause of death of both birds was pneumonia. 

F. W. Bull, Surrey. Rules not adhered oO. 

GouLDiAN Finch (9). (W. A. Bainbridge, Surrey). Cause 
of death, pneumonia. 

Mrs. A. M. Connell, Brockenhurst. Rules not adhered to. 

Budgerigar. (Chas. H. Row, Sufi'olk). Cause of death, en- 
larged fatty liver, which was almost of a pale yellow colour. 

Canary. (P. H. Sellars, Partick). The Canary had an 
enormously enlarged liver, which was very pale and extremely fatty. 

Bullfinch. (R. A. Dyott). Rules not observed. 

Parrot Finch. (Miss E. F. Chawner). Rules not observed. 

Answered by Post: — W. Shore Baily; Hubert D. Astley; Mrs. 
Turner -Turner. H. GRAY, M.R.C.V.S,. 

A!^ rights reserved. February, 1913. 




Some Interesting Birds. 

By ^V. T. Pack. Ili.ustrated From Life by H. \YiLTiFORi). 
{Cont'nucd from page 13). 

Bla( K-HEADED SiBiA {MaJacias capisfrafa) : This is 
a liaiulsome and striking species, whether confined in a cage or 
enjoying senii-libejty in an aviary, but it is under the latter 
conditions that it exhibits its full beauty, graceful contour, 
and interesting deportment: one never wearies of watching 
it disporting amid the living green oi a roomy natural aviary. 
Before proceedhig further, a desc.ipt:on oi' the plumage must 
be given. 

Adult Male: General body colour deep chestnut -red 
(perhaps soft prune would better describe it), paler on the 
napt^ and under surface; middle of back greyish- brown; 
larger wing-leathers slaty -grey; head glisten:ng black, the 
long feathers of the fore -crown To rming a handsome crest, when 
raised during periods of excitement; base of wing coverts white 
forming a conspicuous white bar; tail ruddy -blackish, with 
tlie basal half black, fdiniiiiK a broad l)lack b;ii)d across the 
tail about one inch from the tip, which is grey; bill black; 
legs and feet pale ruddy-brown. Total length dh inches, tail 5. 

Adult female: Similar, but said to be a wee -bit smaller 
(I could not detect any difference in the size of my pair) the 
black on her head is slightly tinged with brown and her 
head plumes not so full as those of the male; her bill is less 
pointed and less hooked at the tip than that of the male. 

Ilabilai and Habiis: According to Jerdon, ranges 
over the whole Himalayas, from Simla to Bootan, and is one 
of the most abundant birds about Darjeeling. It frequents 
the highest trees, climbing on the larger branches, and cling- 
ing round and below the smaller branches almost like a. 

34 Some Interesting Birds. 

Woodpecker or Nuthatch. The nest has been taken, and is 
constructed of coarse grass, moss, wool and rootlets. The 
eggs are pale bluish -white, speckled with rufous. 

Major Perreau states that " he has nevei- found them 
" below 0,000 feet, they seem to be residents at that height, 
"and upwards. In spite of their retiring habits, he cercamly 
"should have noticed them if they, like many liill-birds, came 
" lower in winter. They do not seem to mind heat, and cer- 
" tainly are indifferent to cold." 

From various sources I glean that its chief diet in a 
state of nature is insects, but several gizzards examined by 
P. T. L,. Dodsworth, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., contained berries, 
seeds, and other vegetable matter. 

In iy02 our member Mr. ' E. W. Harper liberated, 
eleven specimens at Wimborne, in Dorsetshire, which he had 
previously imported. Their fate is unknown, excepting two, 
one being shot, the other drowned. 

In Captivity: The accompanying plate is a reproduc- 
tion from a photo by Mr. H. WiUiord and illustrates a most 
interesting episode in his aviary, concerning which he sends 
the following notes: 

" My Sibias built in a small fir, both birds carrying 
" nesting material, which consisted of bents, small twigs, and 
"Lair. The nest was an open cup-shaped structure, lined with 
"'hair. Only one egg was laid, shnilar to a blackbird's, but 
" long and narrow, of a dirty cream ground colour, with dark 
"brown markings, which were lighter at the narrow end. 
" During the time they were nesting, I found endless numbers 
"of eggs destroyed, and finally proved them to be the culprits. 
"The one Qgg hatched in 13 to 14 days, but the chick only 
" lived two days— after its decease I moved the parents to 
" another aviary by themselves, but they made no further 
"attempt at nesting." 

In 1908, in a Bedfordshire aviary this species came 
much nearer to success, and I quote the following notes from 
" Bird Notes." Vol. VII. 

The birds were m perfect condition when put out, 
and had a roomy garden aviary, to themselves, well screened 
from curious eyes, nevertheless complete success — that is, the 

Some Interesting Birds. 35 

rearing oi the young up to the point ol'i being independent 
oi' tiuMi ])arenty — wad noi attained; one only living lor six 
da\s, ilu' clluT d.\iiii^ (Ui ilic iweUtli day. 

Ihe ws\, an opeii -cup -shaped sti'UciUie was connnenced 
on June i2th, and eompleted two days later. It was construc- 
ted oj hay — very deep — in brau'dies against wire-netling faeiiig 
west. Iwo (^'^'^•'^ \v(,'re laid, a liitle shoi'lei' ihan a Blaekbii'd's, 
pale bluL in coiour, with brown niarkhigs. The eggs were 
laid on June 22nd, and 23rd, re-spectiveiy, and on the 2J:th 
uieubation connnenced. Ihe hen sat very steadily and was 
Ted by the cock on the nest. 

Une c^^'^ hatched out on July btii, and the other the 
to 1 lowing day. 

Ihe lledgelings were blind, of a deep red -brown, quite 
naked, no down being visible. 

Une chick uied on July 12th, but tne other throve well, 
and appeared to be very healthy, tne quills appeared on ine 
seventh day, and on the tentn day, the colours of tiie plumage 
were plamly visible; on tne twelfth day, when it died, it 
was in every respect the same in colouring as its parents. 

The parent birds liad access to ripe fruit, mealworms, 
g'entles, live ants' cocoons and insectile mixture. The parent 
birds fed it from tlie crop, and so far as observatiom 
went, on mealworms only, ihe weather was very wet, and 
duruig that time the cock bird mostly sat beside his mate^ 
pfresumably, to assist her to shelter their progeny. 

i'rom 1U08 to lUlO, a pair of this species, imported by 
Major (then Capt.) Perreau, occupied the writer's aviary, 
which, unfortunately, was rather overcrowded, and in cgnse- 
(^uence natural cover was not possible — nevertheless they did 
attempt to buihl, but their structure, similar to that of the 
Grey-winged Ouzel {Meruia buulboui), save tliat it was not 
plastered together with mud, was never thoroughly finished. 
The dismantling of my aviaries in 1910, led to the dispersal 
of most of my collection, and I have not kept the species 
since. I know of no finer spectacle than a pair of these birds 
disporthig themselves within the confines of a roomy aviary — 
unless it be to see them in their native haunts — the rapidity 
of their noiseless bight, graceful wing evolutions, interest- 
ing characteristics, whether at work or when engaged in the 

36 Some Interesting Birds. 

serious pursuit of any wing-ed insect that came within tha 
aviary, many being talcen on the wing thi-ough tlie netting — 
many of their captures being- so miimte, that the only indica- 
tion of a successful capture was the swallowing of the prey. 
Their wing evolutions in a somewhat confined space are simply 
marvellous, especially when the male pursued his mate, when 
the pairing' fever began, how they escaped bashing themselves 
agamst the shell of aviary and internal standards, as they 
whirled and twisted to and fro, one in pursuit of the other, 
finally dashing into some retreat with a speed the eye could 
scarcely follow, was astonishing, yet they never injured them- 
selves, nor collided with any other occupant of their somewhat 
overcrowded enclosure. However, I do not take this to be the 
actual courting display (though it may be part of it), which I 
take to consist of the maie hopping about the branches with drop- 
ped wings and erected tail, his mate sitting stolidly with 
ruffled feathers, awaiting his approach; after sitting together 
for a moment or two, the pei'formance was gone tlirougb 
again, and yet again, followed by a prolonged dance by the 
male in similar attitude, then pairing usually took place. 

They could calch any mealworm or other i.isect thrown in- 
to the air, other birds simply not having a "look in." During 
the two and a half years they lived in my aviary, they 
were out of doors all the year round, and during one of th6 
winters there was a period of exceptionally severe weather, 
lasting several weeks, yet they appeared as fit and cheery as 
they did during the summer. While more fitted for the aviary 
than the cage, they can be kept under the conditions of cage- 
lifCs and soon become tame and confiding under such conditio as, 
but the cage must be a roomy one, and it needs constant 
attention to keep it clean and sweet. But these notes are 
already too lengthy, and I will bring this portion of them 
to a conclusio.i by stating that they must noc be kept with 
small birds. 

Diet: In my aviary they had access to insectile mix- 
ture, milk sop, ripe fruit, live insects, and seed — with the ex- 
ception of seed they partook heartily of the whole range of 
dietary offered, and while with me never had a day's illness 
or even the slightest indisposition that I am aware of. 
To he continued. 

Birds of Gambia. 37 

Birds of Gambia. 

By E. Hoi'KiNsox, D.S.O., M.A., Af.B. 
Conliiiurd from p;ii?e 333, Vol. III. 

Nmmda mclranrif^. COMMON GUTNE.AFOWL.. 

Rancye. West Africa, Scnegambia, through Ashantee to 
Gaboon; C. Verde Ts. ; .\nnobon ; St. Thomas* Island. (O. Grant). 

Guiiieafowl ai-e common in locaUties which suit them. These 
in the Gambia are usually near the banki of the river, where thick 
bush and high trees abound, and if such a place is backed by a 
tract of ironstcne country, it is a sure find for them. As such spots 
are much more frequent in the upper half of our river, and as of 
course the river water, on which they depend so much, is fresh 
there, it follows that Guineafowl are very much more common there 
than lower doA\n nearer the coast. 

During tlie heat of the day they keep to the shelter of the 
busli h\\\ in tlic nio niiigs and evenings sally forth on to the cul- 
tivation round their haunts to feed. They are always found in 
parties, often of large size, and as a rule are most regular in their 
habits, fo: wherever they occur they can usually be found in certain 
particular- spots at certain hours of the day. They always commence 
the daj^ almost before daylight, with a drink, then they move slowly 
on foot to their feeding grounds; by 10 a.m. they; retire to the 
bush, to emerge again about 3 or 4 o'clock (according to the sea- 
son) an 1 re-visit the open, finishing the day by a flight to the river 
for a last drink, after which they retire for the night to the dense 
bush along the river's edge, piassava growth being a most favourite 
roosting-place, as once there they are unapproacliable by man and 
most beasts. 

Guineafowl are so well known domesticated that description 
is unnecessavy, though I may note that in the young all the feathers 
of the upper parts have brown ends, giving these parts an appear- 
ance of be'ni' washed witji l)iown, while the head is the same colour 
marked wi(h two longitudinal black streaks. 

Their native names are Kammo in Mandingo, and Nat in 

In the very upper river one occasionally sees a few Black- 
crested Guineafowl, which I suppose are G. cristata, in captivity. 
Tliis bird is rather smaller than the common species. Its general 
colour is black spotted with pale blue-grey and it has a long tuft 
of culling black feathers on the head and a black collar of similar 
but shorter feathers encircling the back and sides of the neck. The 
chin and throat are red. the other bare parts blue. I have been 
told that these birds are occasionally found wild in a few places in 
the Upper Iliver, but all I have seen have been brought in by peo- 
ple flora Futa Jallon or elsewhere from the south. 

Pterocles guadridnctus. AFRICAN PAINTED SAND -GROUSE 

38 Birds of Gambia. 

Range. Senegambia to Abyssinia. 

These Sand-Grouse aie common here all the year round near- 
ly all over the Protectorate, but at two seasons, December — January 
and again in June, their numbers are enormously increased, and in 
some years too they are much more abundant than in others. Those 
which join our residents in June are, I presume, on their way north 
to the desert and drier parts to breed during- the rains, while those 
which appear in December, always by far the largest immigration, 
are the results of the breeding season on their way to spread them- 
selves over the country to the south. Although the great majority 
leave us to breed, a few must nest with us, as I have once or 
twice found their eggs, laid on the bare ground, in April and May. 

Their favourite haunt is thin bush in the neighbourhood of 
cultivated ground, and they are particularly partial to recently burnt 
patches. In such places one may put up pair after pair one after 
the other in quite a .small area, while in December or January, there 
may be hundreds all collected in one such spot. On the ground they 
are most difficult to see, so well do their blend with their 
surroundings. During the day they lie quiet, moving about .slowlv 
perhaps to feed during the mornings and afternoons, and it is not 
until evening that they become really active and fly off to pools, 
etc., to drink, arriving usually just at dark in small parties, which 
drop noiselessly at the edge of the water, drink their fill and off 
again at once, to scatter over the country to feed, often continuing 
their meal late into the night especially when the moon is up. Dur- 
ing the day they lie very close and only get up when absolutely 
obliged, to zigzag rather heavily away among the bushes and settle 
agai'n at no great distance. Tiieir evening (liglit is quite different, 
rapid and direct, so that in many places they give quite pretty shoot- 
ing as they flight over to water. Their note is a low characteristic 
whistle, uttered both on. the wing and from the ground; it often gives 
one useful warning of their approach or whereabouts. 

By the English here tliey are for some reason nearly always 
called " Barbary Quail," while in Mandingo their names are Pilli- 
Pilleechc (an iini'atinn of their ca'l) or Mbirro, a local name confined 
to the Upper River. 

Descrlpliov. Adult male. General eo'oui- pa'e " game-bird " 
browr- spotted witii black. Foi-eliead and a spot above and in front 
of each eye white, a band bcliinl the white forehead across the front 
of the head and ending on eash side at tlve loral line black, rest of 
the head like the back: eyelids pale yellow; wings black. Breast 
crossed by three cross-bars, cliestnut, buff anl black in that order, 
from above downwards. The female has no breast or head mark- 
ings. The young males don the breast markings some time before 
they assume the full head mai'kings of th'e adult. 

Turnix lepuram. SMITH'S BUSTARD-QUAIL, 

Birds nf Gavihia. 39 

Bano'e. Africa, South of about 1.1 Noith Aden. (Ogil- 
vie Grant). 'I 

I have twice seen small three-toed Quails shot here (one 
ill May, the other in March) which must have been Turnices, and 
almost certainly this species. They are distinctly smaller than the 
commor. (^)uail, an 1 their most noticeable feature is the crescent shape 
as they fly of tiieir wiiiers unl body. They cannot be common here. 

In the Gambia there are three species of BUSTARD, which 
vary in si/.e fiom about 3 to 20 lbs. in weij^ht. These,- T be- 
believe to be Trachclotls scvegnlensis, Lissotis melannqaster and 
Eupodotis arahs. Besides these tSiere is another much rarer and much 
larger bird, which Captain Stanley, for many years Commissioner of 
the Uppei- Kiver Province has once or twice seen, but never been 
able to obtain. He tells me that on each occasion he at first mis- 
took this "bii'd for an antelope standing in the grass, and that its 
marker) whiskers made it easy to di^^tinguish from any other Bustard, 
apart, altogether from its much larger size. This bird is probably 
Neotls denJiami. 

The two first named species are resident here and may be 
founci almost anywliere in the Protectorate, but the larger species 
are only winter visitors and never approach any nearer the coast 
than the country aToout McCarthy Island. 

All are locally known here as "Bush -Turkeys," or Tby their 
native names, " Kunko-Duntung " (=Farm-cock) in Mandingo, and 
" Gemet " in Joloff. They afTord excellent eating, but not being 
really common are only obtainable as an occasional luxury. They 
seem to be very thin-skinned birds and take very little killing; 
as apparently a single pellet at an almost impossible range will 
bring one down stone dead, the fall no doubt finishing the shot's 
work. Ve:/ different in this respect are the Bush-fowl, which must 
be hard hit to be killed and can carry away a lot of shot without 
any sign of faltering. 

Oui four species in order of size are: — 

Trachelotis senegalensis. SENEGAL BUSTARD. 

Eange. Senegambia; north east Africa. (R.L.) 

These Bustards may be met with in suitable localities all over 
the Protectorate. They haunt fairly open countiy, preferably at some 
little elevation above the liverside level. Such places are more usual 
along our boundary and in the neighbouring parts of French territory, 
so thac they are much more frequently met with there than closer to 
the river. The edges of the large cleared cultivated areas and the 
extensive tracts of ironstone upland, where these are clothed with 
grass or thin bush, are their favourite abiding places. This species, 
I believe, breeds with us, while the others do not. They feed mainly 
on insects and the like, but supplement this diet with various seeds 
and berries. The weight of the male is about 41bs, the female 
about. 31bs. 

40 Birds \of Gamhia. 

TJssoHs melanoc/aster. BLACK-BREASTED BUSTARD. 

Bange. Senegambia to Bengiiela; north east Afrioa, east 
Africa; south to Natal. (H.L.) 

This species is considerably larger than the last, weight 6 to 
71bs., and always to be distinguished by the blade in its plumage. 
Their haunts are much the same, but towards the cad of the dry 
season, one may come across them on the dry burnt swamps, where 
I have never yet seen any other spec'es of Bustard. In such places 
one may find half-a-dozen on quite a small area, evidently attracted 
by the amount of insect life to be found there, especially soon after 
the grass has been burnt. Although they occur throughout nur coun- 
try, I think they are rather more common in Niumi and Kombo near 
the Atlantic coast than elsewhere. 

Eupodotis arabs. 

This I believe must be the much lai'ger Bustard of the Upper 
River and McCarthy Island Provinces. I have only seen them in 
these parts and only in the winter months, as they are certainly dis- 
tinctly rare here. In weight they vary from 17 to 20 lbs. 

Neotis denhami. 

The very large extremely rare whiskered bird referred to abo\'0 
is a very occasional visitor. 


Balearica pavonina. CROWNED CRANE. 

Range. West to north-east and Equatorial Africa. (H.L). 

This well-known beautiful bird is the only Gambian represen- 
tative of the family. They ace fairly common throughout our terri- 
tory and breed in the larger swamps, especially those of Niamina on 
the South Bank. Towards the end of the rains one often sees par- 
ties Of six or eight feeding greedily on the growing rice in the rice- 
fields, and on such a diet, that is, young rice eked out with table 
scraps, etc., the three or four young birds I have had; have thrived 
and grown rapidly. Native namei are, Komaro (Mandin;;"o), Jambajob, 
Jamba (JolofT). 

(To be Continued). 

Purple Sunbirds. 

(Arachnechthra asia'ha). 

By Miss S. F. Chawner. 
Towards the end of March, 1912, I received a true 
pair of Purple Sunbirds from Mr. Hamlyn, who had imported 
them the previous summer; thus they were house moulted, 
and well acclimatised when they came into my possession. To 
this, and the fine spring- of 1912, I think much of the success 
I have had in keeping- this species must be attributed. They 

Bjkd Notes. 

Recently sho' Crc-wii- IMrd. 

Purple f^uvhirrff!. 41 

were in very foir pluma.ijo, tho rook poinp: out of colour. For 
the firsl. two o^ three weeks T hai them eageri in the inner 
eompartment oi' my hea'erl aviary, 1>ut they were not very 
happy and spei^t their time ei^hor in tryin.s: 'to q;oi out or in 
quarrelling, so oiio fine f'av T look mv onu-agr' in both hands 
and opened fli-^ rage door. Thoy wove out in a fla^^h and 
two minutes lifoi' wore dispo.-' i'l'r thfmsolvos in tho 'opou 
night. Pi'osoplly tho oook bui'st into song, tho first timo 
I had hoard liiin ;ind tlioui^'li T had road of tho volume of 
sound this tiny oroaturo can pro luce, I was thoroughly as- 
tonished at its power and sweetness. From that moment, the 
Sunhirds made thomselvos thoroughly at homo. They chose 
favourite twig- and porohod on thom and kopt unremitting 
watch for inserts. A largo pear tree and a small apple tree 
are close to tho ond of their flight, and whon in flower 
these attract o largo number of flies, gnats, and other in - 
sects, and vor^- few of those escaped the Sunbirds. Tt was 
most interesting to watch them hawking, hovering and turn- 
inn in the air after their in-ey. and when they hail cani-dit it. 
returning to their chosen twig to watch for another victim. 
Often their caotures were so minute that I could only tell 
that they had been successful by seeing them swallow. The 
staple food provided for them is run honey mi^:ed with Nestle's 
condensed milk, the cheap white grapes sold by grocers, ripe 
pears in season and now-and-then a little sponcre cake. They 
are by no means very particular, and dip their beaks into 
anything that seems promising. They are very fond of the 
'"green fly," vdiich so infested the fruit trees last summer, 
and would (doa- a twig of these pests with wonderful rapidity 
and thoroughness. Tt was a 'grea*^ joy to them when I brought 
my sweeping-net into thoiv aviary and gradually allowed its 
contents to escape: they would perch on a twig close by and 
hawk and snap to their heart's content. Fresh ant's eggs did 
not appeal to thom, but they took very kindly to wasp grubs 
in the comb, treating the luckless grubs as they do grapes, 
viz., piercing the skin and surking up the contents. What 
surprised me more, was to And them fond of young green 
peas; they would quirklv demoMsh a whole pod full leaving 
only the emptv skin. The peas must be quite young or 
their skins are too tough for the Sunbirds to pierce. An- 

42 Purple SunMrds. 

other thing- they liked was to sit on a slice of cucumber and 
suck the juice. 

Of course all these delights are perforce at an end 
during the winter, though they still manage to hawk and 
catch gnats in surprising quantity. It is curious how little 
v^-'eather affects them.— [they have proved equally hardy in ii 
Surrey aviary.— Ed.].— I do not pretend that Ihey do not 
enjoy warm sunshine, but neither wet nor cold seem to i-nffle 
them, and somehow they always looked dry and sleek. The 
cock began to come into colour during October and by the 
end of November was quite perfect. 

They bathe freely, sometimes in a shallow dish, but 
more frequently they flutter alx)ut among wet foliage which 
seems to be their natural method. The cock is a pugnacious 
little rascal and quite holds his own among the Sugar Birds 
and small finches in the aviary, in fact, only his small size 
prevents him from being a decided bully. The little hen goes 
her own way without any fuss, but I have noticed that she 
too can make herself respected by her neighbours. The birds 
show no interest 'm each other, either amicable or otherwise; 
perhaps had there been any hot weather this would have been 
different; I cannot say. 

The avinry in wbicb the Suubirds are, is only n sm;ill 
one alwut 10ft. by 4ft. in the covered part and lOft. by 
8ft. in the fli^jht, 8ft. high throughout: it is heated bty a 
small coil of hot water pipes and the birds are shut in at 
night, but 'during the day go in and out at pleasure unless 
the weather is very severe. The covered part has spruce 
tops packed in places with bundles of beather, which T find 
excellent for shelter and sleeping quarters. The 'flight was 
only added last spring and the shrubs and climbers planted 
there have not had time to make effective shelter, so spruce 
tops and heather are here also. The ground is earth with 
growing turf, but wire netting has be-i^n sunk all round 18ins. 
deep to guard again'=!t rats, and a broad band of zinc at the 
bottom prevents mice from gam-ng a foothold readily, though 
I do not claim that it is impossible; sti'l we are not much 
trmibled with them. The aspect is south and west, witli (com- 
plete shelter from north and east. The flight has a double 
roof, that is to say, it is composed of two layers of jin. wire 

Purple flnnlnrds. 43 

netting with fiins. space Ivctwecn IIk' layers to prevent eats 
or hawk..; from rcaehinii: flie Ivirds. The shelter 'is match- 
lioarded and felted arid c^an be entirely glazed during the 
winter by inserting movable panes in light wooden f fames. 
A( the present tiin(> tliis aviary contains l)Gsides the 
Sunbirds, true paii's of Hoopoes, '\'eIlow-winged (Cmrnha ci/- 
miea) and Blue Sugar Birds (Diciih rni/m/n). Hooded Siskins 
{Chrysomitris cncnllala), Blue-h;easted ^^'ax1rlls (Estrilda an- 
ffolensis), Bichenos (Sfictoptera bichenovi), and Masked Doves 
(^na capoish). Also a Diamond Dove (Geoyprlia cuneata), a 
Parrot Fincdi (Eriithnira pki'tacc'i). a hen Black-headed Gould - 
ian Pinch (P. (p)iil<V(v). and a small yellowish brown Finch 
(most pi'obably some species of Spermophila or Orifzoborus. 
more probably tli<> former. — Ed.) with a beak like a Bullfinch 
whose luune I do not know; it came from Brazil. 

Aviary Notes and Episodes— 1912. 

By Gekat.d E. Rattioan. 

Gkefn Cardinals (Guhcmd i^^ c i-ta^a) : My Green 
Cardinals have auain ]irov('d tli'Mnsclvos to be nsfoundingly 
pO'olific breeders. In spite of the fact that the hen at any 
rate must be six or seven years old at least, for she has' 
been in my own possession nearly five years. Judging 'by 
the appearance of her feet, and general demeanour, she was 
by no means in the first blush of youth when I received 

Tliey commenced to build at th'^ en'1 of Api'il, and on 
the .")th of May the first egg was laid, followed by three 
others on consecutive days. The hen, as is her invariable 
custom, commenced to sit with the laying of the first egg. 

The first egg hatched on May tOth, and two young left 
the nest on the 8rd of June. 'All four eggs hatched out, but 
only two young wei-e fully reared. Tiie young, as T think I 
mentioned before, in some notes on this species, when first 
hatched, are bare, save for a little jet black down. I have 
noticed that the young of this species, though easy enough to 
cater for whilst still in the nest, require, once they leave it, to 
be supplied with an unlimited quantity of insect food, other- 

44 Aviary Notes and Episodes — 1912. 

wise they very soon begin to droop and die. Live ants' eggs 
in themselves do not appear to be enough, but supplied in 
coniunction with wasps' grubs, will keep the young birds 
in th<! finest condition. This is rather surprising in view of 
the fact that before the young loave the nest they appear' 
to thrive quite well, if the old birds are supplied with a 
good insectivorous mi :ture plus a few mealworms. 

The first brood had hardly left the nest, when the hen 
commenced to repair the old nest, and was soon sitting, on 
nnother clutch of four. 

Al! the eggs hatched out, but the chicks were killed 
off almost at once, by the young of the first nest, which still 
insisted on being fed by the old birds though quite capable 
of fending for themselves and used to follow the hen ba^-k 
to her nest, clamouring for food. In one of the scuffles 
which always ensued, the newly hatched chicks were trampled 
upon and killed. The old birds had two more nests after this, 
and would no doubt have had still more had I not checke'd 
their further activities in this direction by catching and' 
ca.uiim them up. 

On each of these subsequent occasions the usual clutch 
of four was laid, and not a single one of the sixteen e^^^ 
laid proved infertile, though only seven birds were actually 
fully reai'O !. 

The reason why so few of the young were fully reared 
was owing chiefly to the lack of a continuous supply of insect 
food and also no c'oubt to the wretched weather we experienced 
practically without an interval all last summer; but I think 
everyone will admit that the record of the birds was a re- 
markable one. 

One rather curious part in connection with these birds 
was that on every occasion a cock Zebra Finch helped to 
feed the young, and could not have been more solicitous 
for the welfare of the nestlings had they been his own. 
The Cardinals at first resented the interference of this well- 
meaning bird, and on more than one occasion nearly termina- 
ted hi- life, but after a time they apparently came to the 
conclusion that he was a well meaning lunatic and took no 
further notice of him. It was most amusing to watch this 

Aviary Notes and Episodes — 1912. 45 

diininuitive bird striving to satisfy tlie demaiicls of four luilf- 
llcdyod Cardinals, about three times his size. 

Pakkot FiNtHKS {Enjthrura psit(acea) : Tliese are 
I'cally charming little birds, and moreover rare on the market, 
and, so far as my experience goes, are easy to breed, which 
two facts should make them appeal still more to most avicul- 
uinsls. iMy birds commenced buiidai,g ui earnest on the 
lirst of May, aiid completed their nest by the sixth. 

The nest was built in a box, really supplied for Can- 
aries, an earthenware cup with covered in and slightly 
proj(.'ctiiig top. Four eggs were laid, pure wdiiie and rather 
oval in shape. The lirst egg was laid on Ttli May, the day 
after the completion of the nest and the oUier three un con- 
secutive days. The young, however, were not hatched till the 
2Uth May! 1 That is nineteen days I This is surely rather 
unusual, as 1 have always seen it stated that tlie eg_gs, of 
this species hatch on the 14th day. 

As a matter of fact, after the sixteenth day had passed, 
and ihc eggs still remained unhatched, I nearly destroyed them 
uoncluduig that either the young were dead in shelter that the 
eggs were not filled. Fortunately, however, I tested them 
on the off-chance, and was very much surprised to find tliat 
the eggs appeared to contain young. I therefore replaced 
them and waited developments, the eggs hatching out as I have 
already mentioned on the nineteenth day. One young bird 
left the nest on June i3th, and the other three the following 

The young were all distinctly marked with red some 
clays before they left the nest, and were rather a darker, 
gri-een than the old birds. 

The young were reared on greenfood and seeding 
grass .together with a good insectivorous mixture, and a few 
mealworms, though a certain amount of millet seed appeared 
to form at any rate a part of their bill of fare. 

The young, from the time they were batched, till quite 
hidependent of their parents, were a very lusty brood, in fact 
the strongest young birds I have ever seen and their crioo. 
for food Avhen still in the nest could be heard at a consider- 
able distance. The old birds went to nest again and had laid 
a clutch of four by August 16th. 

46 Aviary JS'otes and Episodes — 1912. 

I left town soon after ihis date, so am unable to give 
any further details as io duration of incubation, etc. The 
young were umoi'luaaieiy murdered shortly after leaving the 
nest by some other inhabitant of the aviary. 

Cuban Finches {thotiipara canoi a) : I only purchasecl 
the hen of this pair in lieptember and she was far from robust 
on her arrival; however, she soon picked up and to my great 
surprise started llymg around with nesting material about a 
week after her arrival. 

Shortly afterwards with the assistance of the cock she 
constructed, in a thick bush, a very neat dome -shaped nest 
with side entrance and lined within with moss and feathers. 
Three eggs were laid, spotted thickly at the larger end with 
rusty -brownish spots forming a complete ring; the I'emaindcj- 
of the surface having occasional faint spots of a similar col- 
our; ground colour behig greenish blue. The hen sat steadii;y 
some sixteen days when I removed the egg.i and found two 
were infertile, while the third contained a fully developed 
chick which would doubtless have hatched in due course but 
for my interference. 

The birds however went to nest almost ac once in the 
same nest merely contenting themselves with adding a few 
more feathers to the lining. On this occasion only two eggs 
were laid and I rather despaired of their coming to anything 
as the birds did not sit nearly so well, being frequently off 
the nest for long periods. One egg duly hatched however, 
but though I did not keep any accurate record of the length 
of incubation, 1 am absolutely positive that it lasted well over 
the 12th or even 14th day. Yet I have seen it stated on 
good authority that the incubation period of these birds is 12 
days! .(Weather and steadiness of individual pairs cause 
some little variation in the incubation period.— Ed.). It 
would be interesting to have this point cleared up by the evi- 
dence of others who have kept this species, for I have no 
doubt from the appearance of tiie chick in the first clutch that 
it would have liatched out on the next, or 17th day. 

The youngster throve well, being reared chielly ujpon 
insectile mixture and a fair quantity of mealwoiins, and left 
the nest on the 22nd day. 

It is now about y weeks old and is still fed by its 

Aviury .Notes and Episodes — 1912. 17 

parents, thouii:li it can and docs feed itsolf as well. All tlirco 
Ivirds still roost in the nest together. 

\'ii;(;iNi\>; Uaj^dina ls {Card'nialis cardinalis) : These 
C'ardiiials took a Ion;,'- time to settle down to business, merely 
amusing themselves at first by filling various nesting reccj)- 
tacles with odds and ends of hay, string and other rubbish; 
huwfvcr, at last they began to take a more serious view of 
lit\' and their duties to posterity, and on the ord of June 
commenced operations by evicting a l)ulllinch from her nest, 
and incidentally half killing her in the i)rocess. This nest 
they enlarged and converted to their own purposes. Tlire'^ 
eggs were laid of a greenish grey ground colour speckled 
and spotted with brown, two of them being far more finely 
and closely spotted than the other and rather resembled a 
miniature Blackbird's e^g, while the other took more after 
those; of the Missel Thrush. 

The hen sat splendidly and was usually fed by the 
cock on tlie nest, but the eggs failed to hatch and I vq\- 
moved them. Two of them proved infertile while the third 
contained a dead chick. 

This disaster I again ascribe to the awful weather 
we experienced, about this time, more especially as the nest 
in this instance was in a very exposed place. 

The birds made no further attempt at nesting after 
this failure, but I hope to do better with them this year. 

Spotted-backed {Ryphantornis spilonotus) -|-Black- 
CAprEi' Weavers {R. dimidiatus) : I have identified the 
Black -capped as H. diamidiaius, though I can't say that I am 
ahsoluteUj certain that this identification is coriect. 

These birds paired off in May, but I did not, on ac- 
count of their disparity in size, expect nuich to come of 
the union. The cock began several nests, but invariably 
pulled them to pieces again, however, about the end of duly 
he started building in real earnest, and completed a nest al)0ut 
the 1st of August, which the hen proceeded to line willi 
feathers, the cock meanwhile contenting himself with liuilding 
a series of dummy nests near by. 

The nest itself was very similar to the one I des- 
cribed in "Bird Notes," in lUU except that in this instance 

48 Aviary Notes Mid Ejnsodds — 1912. 

there was no bar built across the neck or entrance of the 

On the 1 2th August I thought it would be worth wliile 
having a look inside the nest as the hen appeared to remain 
in it for long intervals, though whenever fresh feathers were 
placed in the aviary she started re-lining again. 

I found two eggs of a greyish -green colour, speckled 
and spotted very closely with rufous brown. 

The young hatched out on 18th August, but three days 
later all trace of them had completely vanished. The hen 
went to nest again almost immediately (so I am informed 
for as I have already mentioned I left town about this time), 
and laid one egg which proved infertile. 

She again went to nest at the latter end of September, 
laying one egg, but this also failed to hatch. The old cock, 
one of the pair which bred in 11)11, has unfortunately just 
succumbed to the effects of the combination of wet, cold, and 
foggy weather we have experienced lately. I have still a fine 
cock Euf us -necked Weaver (H. cucullalus), and hope I may 
prove successful in obtaining a cross with him. The difficulty 
with these birds is to rear the young once they have hatched, 
and no doubt to be successful one must keep the birds Widll 
supplied with a constant and varied insectivorous diet, and 
this to one living in town is not a particularly easy matter, 

I think this comprises my list of the more interesting 
sipecies : 

Other birds which succeeded in rearing young in my 
aviaries were as follows: 

Greenfinches (Ligu)inus chloris): Reared three young 
from one pair. 

Zebra Finches {T . castanotis) : Two pairs reared be- 
■cween them about 12 young. 

Canaries: One pair reared nine in out-door aviai-y, 

Cockateels: {CalojJsittaciis novcB hoUandice) : One pair 
after many failures, succeeded in rearing two young birds. 

Budgeriyars {MelojKisitUicxts undnUitus) : Two pairs only 
succeeded in rearing three. 

Saffron Finches {Sycalis flavcola): one pair had several 
nests, but the young on each occasion met with disaster from 

Breeding of TJ//hn'r7s. 49 

tho hands (or p(Mliai)s it would !);> more correct to say the 
beak), of some other oicupaiit ol" the aviary, on every occa- 
sion after leaving the nest. 

By the way I have not seen it remarked that these 
Ivirds take 18 months to come into full colour, yet this has' 
always been my experience with them. 

The Red-l)illed Weavers {Queloa quflca) : 1 am sorry 
to say proved a fai'ure this year, and made no serious attempt 
at nesting-. I fancy the cold and rain of last summer had 
something to do with this. 

The Rosy Pastor (Pa>for ravens) and Eni^lish Starling 
(SfiiriiHs vulgaris) cross failed to materialise, though four eggs 
w(M'(> laid and closely incul) it 'd, all the eggs proved infertile. 

Another cro -s whiih T hope may materialise, is a cock 
Zebra and hen African Waxbill. They have built a nest 
and the hen is at present incubating a clutch of eggs which 
are due to hatch on the 18th inst. 

Breeding of Hybrids, between the Grey-winged 
Ouzel and Argentine Blackbird 

Mcnila I>oi(1houJ -\- M. fuscater. 
By R. Suggitt. 

There is no reason why the Grey-winged Ouzel should 
not become thoroughly established in our aviaries. I think 
all those who have possessed true pairs have found it eager 
to go to nest under favourable conditions, and mostly with 
success. Of course, unless fresh blood is introduced occasion- 
ally the stock is liable to deteriorate in the course of a 
few generations, and unfortunately fresh specimens will never 
1)e easy to procure, its habitat being the Himalaya mountains. 

The genus Merula has a very wide range; M. fuscater 
the mother of the hybrids coming from the Argentine, about 
as far from the Himalayas, the home of the Grey-winged, 
as could possibly be imagined. 

The genus Merula was separated from the genus Turdus 
on account of the difference of plumage of the sexes, but^ 
fuscater, although an undoubted " Blackbird," is scarcely a 

50 Breedina of Uubrids. 

credit to the genus, as it is one of tiie few species in wliich 
the plumage of the sexes is practically alike. 

,A full account of the successiul bi^eeding of the Grey- 
winged Ouzel was written by our Editor, who was the firsti 
to breed this interesting species, in " Bix'd Notes," Vol. VIII. 
Hybrids between the 3 rey- winged Ouzel -j- Common 
Blackbird, were bred by Dr. A. O. Butler, in 1905, " Avi- 
cullural Magazine," Vol. II., N.S., and in \'ol. I. (Third 
Series) of the same journal Mr. Thorniley gives tlie particu- 
lars of his success with the Argentine Blackbird. 

Mr. W. E. Teschemaker also successfully bred the 
Argentine Blackbird about the same time, and kindly pre- 
sented me with his breeding hen, in 1911, and I determined 
to try my luck at hybrids between her and the Grey -wing. 
She was turned into an aviary for the winter with three males 
and two females of the latter species, and they all agreed well 
together until January, 1912, when she cliose one of the cock 
Grey-wmgs for a mate and commenced to clear the aviary of pos- 
sible rivals m the shape of the hen Grey -wings. She killed 
one of them and would have killed the other if she had not 
been promptly removed. 1 put her and one of the Grey-wings 
into another aviary in Aijril 1912, but, I evidently had not 
given her the mate of her choice, for at iirst she thrashed 
him soundly and he often had to fly for his lifel She after- 
wards appeared to become indifferent, g,nd as the weeks went 
by I gave up hope of any hybrids. It was not until the 
middle of June that she commenced to carry nesting material 
about, finally selecting as a nesting site, a shallow 
open box, nailed on the side of the shelter. A nest, of the 
ordmary Blackbird type, was completed in three days, the 
first egg was laid on June 19th, and with the third and last 
one incubation commenced. The eggs were greenish -blue in 
gjround colour, spotted rather sparingly over the whole sur- 
face with reddish-brown and pale purple. All the eggs proved 
fertile and hatched out on July 3rd; the naked nestlings wei'e 
very similar to those of the Grey-winged Ouzel, having deep 
flesh coloured skins, with yellowish down. The Arj;;entine 
Blackbird proved to be a splendid mother. In spite of the 
fact that she was rather excitable and very jealous of the 
Grey -wing's attention to the nestlings, she herself was most 

■ Breeding of Hybrids. 51 

devoted to them; they grew rapidly, and leJt the nest on the 
IGth July. These youngsters were reared entirely on earth - 
worni.s and gentles, with a few mealworms oeca.sionally. 

Un August 2nd the hen again commenced lo incu- 
bate three <^^q^, bul 1 look two of them away from her; the 
other one hatched on August loth, the lirst three young ones 
at tills thuu being practically independent. 

I'ho plumage of all the hybrids whiU; in the aviary 
appeared to be almost alike, except that two of them were 
hfrowner than the other two, especially in certain lights, and 
these I took to be hens, the two probable cocks which were 
slaty -black in general appearance, I often heard "recording" 
their songs. 

The following is a description of one of the " slaty " 
birds which was killed by Hying at an unprotected window, 
on December 17th last. 

Whole of upper surface, throat, and chest, l)lack, each 
feather broadly edged with ashy olive; chin dull white; breast 
and abdomen ashy with darker centres to the feathers; ventral 
region uniform asliy, upper and under tail coverts and tail 
feathers dull black edged with ashy olive; outer webs of 
secondaries and secondary coverts reddish brown, forming a 
large whig patch; remainder of wing coverts ashy olive; bill 
dusky yellow; feet yellowish horn colour. 

On Jan. 6th, one of the browner coloured plumaged 
birds met with a similar accident, and I sent the body to our 
Editor, the two remaining ones are at present in the best' 
possible health ami plumage, the supposed male has not yet 
sung in earnest, but, I often hear him practisiuj^. 


Hybrids which have been Reared in Captivity, 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

I must preface this list, as I did tliat of tiie speciefe, by 
stating that it can only be made fully complete and correct hy 
the CO -operation of all, which, I trust will be forthcoming, so that 
any errors may be eliminated and omissions made good. With some 
Groups it has been impossible to obtain definite information as to 
whether they have been reared by foster-parents, or other artificia] 
means; such cases must stand unless readers can disprove them. 


Hybrids Bred in Captivity. 

I propose commencing with the Frinf;il'idcT and Ploceidae and 
then following on with other Groups in proper se'iuence, 

Bramblefinch (FringVla montifringilla) -\- Chaffinch (F . coelehs). 
Cardinal, Pope (Paroaria larvata) -\- Red-crested (P. cticuUata). 

„ Eed-crested (Paroaria cuctd^ata) -j- Green (Guhrrnntn'x 

crisiata) . 
„ Eed-crested (Paroaria cuculJata) ~\- Pope (P. Inrvnfa). 
„ Virginian (Cardinalis card'naHs) -\- Green (G . rrislafa). 

Chaffinch (FrinqiVa coelehs) -\- Bramblefinch (F . mmitifring^lU/i). 

„ ( „ >, ) -\- G'.eenfinch (lignrinns chloris). 

Finch, Alario (Alario a^ario) -\- Grey Singin'^ (Se:i'?iis leucofyrpux). 
Bramble- (see Bramblefinch) . 
Chaff- (see Chaffinch). 

Gold- (see Goldfinch). 
Green- (see Greenfinch). 
Green Singing (Serinus 

icterus) -\- Alai'io Finch (Marin 
alario) . 
„ ) + Go'dfnuh (Cardiels 

eljegans) . 
„ ) -|- Siskin CClirj/somitiis 
spinus) . 
tencopygius) -|- Green Singing (8. ?>- 
terns) . 
„ ) -f- Linnet (Linota canna- 
hina) . 
-{- St. Helena Seedeater (Serruus 
flarivenfris) . 
) -\- Pelzeln's SalTron Finch (S. pe^- 
zelni) . 
Serin (Serinus horiulans) -f Green Singing Finch (S. icterus). 
Goldfinch (Carduelis elegan,<) -f Bullfinch (Pyrrlmla europea) . 
„ ( >, >, ) + Greenfinch (Ligurinus chloris). 

.„ ( ., ), ) ~f" Linnet (Linota cannahina). 

„ ( >, >, ) + Bedpoll (Tinota rufescens). 

„ ( >, ., ) + Siskin (Chrysomifris spinus). 

Greenfinch (Ligurinus chloris) '-\- Chaffinch (FringiUa coelehs). 
„ ( ), >, ) + Bullfinch (Pyrrhuln europea). 

„ ( „ ,, ) + Japanese G:eenfinrh (L. Tcawarhihi) 

J, Siberian (TAgnrinus sinicus) -f Greenfinch (L. chloris). 

( -, 

( >, 

Grey Singing (Serinus 

( -, 
Saffron (Sycalis flaveola) 

( „ 

Linnet (Linota, cannahina) 
., ( „ 

-\- Bullfinch (Pyrrhuln europea). 
) -j- Goldfinch (Carduelis clegans). 
) -\- Greenfinch (LJgurinvs chloris). 
) -\- Grey Singing Finch (f-'erivus Icucopy- 

gius) . 
) -(- Twite (Linota flavirostris) , 

tii/hriih Bred in Captivity. . 53 

Jicdpoll inula rcfesvenx) -\- Bullfinch (Vyrrluta europea) . 

(^ , „ ) + Goldfinch {Carduelis elegans). 

{ ,, „ ) + Greenfinch (Ligurinus chloris). 

{ ,, „ ) + Siskin (Chrysomitris spinus). 

,^ ( ,^ „ ) + Twite (Linota flavirostris) . 

ti[. Helena Seedeater {Serinus flaviventris) -\- Grey Singing' Finch 

{Seritmff Icucopi/gius) . 
„ ( •> „ ) -\~ Saffron Finch Sy- 

calis flaveola) . 
Siskin {Chrysomitris spinvs) + Bullfinch (Pyrrhukt europea). 
„ { ,, >,)-{- doldflnch (Carduelis 'elegans). 

,^ ( ,, >, ) + Gieenflnch {Ligurinus chloris). 

„ { „ ,) ) + Linnet {Linota cannahina). 

., C „ ., ) + St. Helena Seedeater (S. flaviven- 

tris) . 
„ { ,, .,,)-{- Sulphuiy Seedeater {S . sulphuratui) . 

,^ ( ^ ,, ,. ) + Twite {Linota flavirostris). 

„ Blackheaded (C*. icterica) -\- Cape Canary {Serinus cani- 

collis) . 
„ ( >, >,•>) + Siskin {C. spimis). 

„ Totta {C. totta) -\- Siskin {C. spimis). 
Song-Sparrow, White-crowned {Zonotrichia leucoplirys) -j-- Pileated 

Song - Si a row (Z . jnl 
eata) . 
Sparrow, Cape {Passer arcuattis) + Yellow Spairow (P. 'lutcus). 

Grey-headed {I'asser diffusus) -f Cape Sparrow (P. arr.u- 

atus) . 
„ Tree {Passer montavus) 4- House Sparrow (P. domesti- 

cus) . 
„ Tree {Passer montanus) -f- Yellow Sparrow (P. luteus). 

„ Yellow {Passer luteus + Tre3 Sparrow (P. montanus). 

Twite {Linota flavirostris) -{- Greenfinch {Ligurinus chloris). 

Bengalese {JJroloncha domestica) + Sharp -tailed Finch {V . .ami- 

ticauda) . 
„ ( ,^ » ) + Spi;e Finch {Munia punclukita) 

{ „ „ ) + Striated Finch {TJ . striata). 

Finch, Bib {Spcrmcstes nana) -\- Indian Silverbill {Aldemosyne mal- 

abarica) . 
„ Bicheno's {tilicloptera biclienovi) + Zebra Finch {Toenio- 

pygia cas'anotis). 
Cherry {Aidemosync modesfa) -\- Masked Grassfinch {Poe- 

phila per sonata. 
„ Chestnut {Munia easlanei'Jiorax) -\- Black -headed Mannikin 

{M. atricapilla) . 
„ ,^ ,^ ., -\- Silver bi'.l {Aide- 

mosync malabarica). 

54 Hjihriils Bred i)) Captivity. 

tinch, Chestnut (Mi<n.'a ra-taiieltJiorax) -f- Rt'iated Finch ((TJro- 

loncha striata) . 
„ ,, „ ., + White-headed Mannikin 

(M. ma fa). 
„ Diamond (Sfer/annpJevra ffvtfnta) -|- Zebra Finch ' (Tcenio- 

pygia castanoti.<i) . 
,, Long-tailed, Grass- (Vocplivn a'n'in-d') -{- Masked Grass- 
finch (Poephita mod- 
esta) . 
„ Parson (PoephiJa cincta) -f Long-tai'el Grassfinch (Poephita 

acuticauda) . 
„ ., -|- Stiia'ed Finch (Urolonrha sfri- 

I ata) . 

„ ,, „ ., -f- Wliite-honded Mannikin (Minna 

maja) . 
Parrot (Eryflirura psUtacea) -\- Tri-co'ouied Parrot Finch (E. 

trichroa) . 
Red-headed (Amadina eri/throcr.<plh'ita -\- Eibbon Finch (-4. 

fasciata) . 
, ,, „ + White Java SpaiTOW 

(Munia oryzivora, var. 
aiha) . 
Spice (Munia punctutatai + BengaVse (Vroloncha dnmcR- 

tica) . 
,, -f- Black-headed Mannikin {}f>uiia 

atrieapina) . 
„ -)- Bronze Mannikin (Spermesfes 

,^ -f Rilverbil Af. {Aideminsynp- 

tans) . 
„ -|- Stiiated Finch (Vroloncha stri- 

ata) . 
Sharp -tailed (VroJoneha actitiranda) -)- Silverbill, A. (Aide- 
mo ynr cantans). 
„ ^, „ „ + Striated Finch (T'. .'.•^v'- 

Striated (Vroloncha ftrinta) -f Ben<jalese (T. ^/om/'sZ/rr/V 

-\- Chestnut Finch (Munia '^aslan- 
eithorax) . 
, ., » + Silvc'bill, A. 'Aideiiinxipie can- 

tans) . 
,^ ,, 4- Spice Finch (Munia punctu- 

+ Sharp -tailed Finch "(17. acu- 
ticauda) . 
„ ,, + White-headed Mannikin (Munia 

maja) ■ 

TJyhrid.s Brer? w Captivity. 


Finch, Z('I)!;i {'rav'npufii casi n-ii^') A- Birhcno's Finch (Sflctoptera 

hichenovi) . 
,, „ ( ,> V ) + long-'ai'el G-iasf-finch (Poe- 

phila acuticnuda) . 
,, ( ,, M ) A" Pilverbill, A. (Aidemosr/ne 

canfans) . 
„ ( „ „ ) + S^ He'ena Waxbill (Estrildn 

asfrilda) . 
Java Ppari-ow (Munin nryzircra) -j- Ril)bon Finch {Am-ndiva fasciain) 
,, ( „ ,' ) + '^^- ^ilveibill (Aidemosyne can- 

tans) . 
Maiiiiikiii, I',l;i<'k-lic;i(hMl (Mir/na afrlniplIJa) + Chestnut Finch (M . 

„ „ ( „ „ ) + White-headed Man- 

nikin (M. mnja). 

Mannikin, Bionzo (SpcrmeHes cucullata) -\- Magpie Mannikin {Am- 

auresthes fringilloides) 
,, „ ( >, ', ) + Eufo'is-backerl Manni- 

kin (il/. vigriceps). 
„ White-headed (Mrinin majfi) -\- Black -headed Mannikin 

(M. atricapWa) . 
„ „ „ (^ „ ,, ) + Chestnut Finch (M. cas- 

taneithorax) . 
„ ,, ,, ( „ „ ) + Cutthroat (Amadina fas- 

ciata) . 
„ „ ( „ ,, ) + Paison Finch (Poephila 

cincta) . 
( „ „ ;) + Striated Finch {Urolon- 

cha striata) . 
Silverbi'l, .^f.ican (AidcmcsiiJie cautanf) -|- Bengalese (ZJrolonrha do- 

mestica) . 


„ ) 


Olive Finch (Vhonipara 
lepida) . 


.., ) + 

Indian Silverbill(.4. mal- 

aharica) . 


St. Helena Waxbill (Es- 
trada astriJda). 


Sharp -tailed Finch (Vr- 
oloncha acuticauda) . 



Spice Finch (Miniia pim- 
tulata) . 


Striated Finch (Vr olon- 
cha striata) . 


"^Tiite-headed "Mannikin 
{Munia mnja) . 



Zebia Finch (TcEnioTpygia 
castanotis) .. 

56 British Bird Calendar. 

Silverbil], Indian {Aidemosyne malabarica) -)- Bib Finch {SpenneMes 

„ ( „ „ ) + Chestnut Finch (Munia 

castaneothorax) . 
Waxbills, Grey^ {E. cinerea) -{- Orange -cheeked {Sporuginthus md- 

podus) . 
„ Orange-breasted (&poraeg\nthuH tuhflavits) A- Avadavat 

(Sporacginfhus aman- 
dava) . 
„ „ J, (Sporaeginthus subflavus) -)- Fireflnch 

(Lagonosticta minima) 
,^ St. Helena (EsfrUda astiilda) ~\- Grey (E. cinerea). 

Weaver, Kufous -necked {Hyphantornis cucuUata) -\- Spotted backed 

(H. spilonotus). 
(To 1)6 continued) . 

British Bird Calendar. 

It is urgently requested that members from all round the 
coast will note the movement of birds, more especially 
ir< the Southern and Ea >tern Counties, and regularly (28th 
of each montlj) sr-ij'i la meir notes — on this the ultimate 
success and peruiU'it'.', /i-/f3^ of the Calendar will de- 
petid. — Ed. 

Ai Grey Phalarope (Phalaropus fidicarius) was picked 
up dead near here on January 21st. W.S., Brighton, 23/1/' 13. 
From December 28th till January 5th, three Siskins 
frequented this garden, feeding close to the house on seeds of 
Cupressus Lawsoniana. They were very tame and allowed 
us to approach quite close to them without taking fright. 

E.F.C., Lyndhurst. 9/1/' 13 
January. Bad weather for observing, but can add the 
following to my 'December list: Moor-hen, Coot, Common Gull, 
Curlew, Wren, Missel -Thrush, Stonechat, Hedge Accentor, 
Long-tailed, Great, and Blue Tits, Pied Wagtail, Tree, Meadow, 
and Rock Pipits, and Greenfinch. Chaffinches are still in 
separate flocks, but a pair were seen on 21st. StonecTiats and 
Tree Pipits now pairing. Cock Robins are excessively numer- 
ous, and in full song. No other songsters. Hen Robins 
scarce. An immense flock of Starlings, flying high, arrived 
on 12th, at -1 p.m., apparently from the south. 

D.L., Salcombe, Devon. 24/1/' 13. 

Editorial. 57 

January 10— Seven Hawfinches seen on Poplar tree 
near house— ratlier unusual Nisitors to our town garden. 

B. 11. S. (Ipswicli). .^)/t>/'i;5. 

January 2'2 ^tarlini^- seen haiig-iny li oni a braneli of 
an apph' tree. On captuiiii.^- it, it was found to have .some 
thin .sti'ing wound seAei'al times round its body and the loose 
end had become securely fastened to the branch. 

The bird had a peculiar malformation of the boak. 
The up])er mamlible. whii h was „- j'nch !ong, was bent sharply 
to the rig'ht alx)ut [ inch from the end. The 1ow(m- mandil)Ie 
was greatly extended, measuring If inches in lenytli. The 
bird was well nourished, which was the more curious as, from 
the appearance of the bill it must have had great dilliculty 
m feeding. B. H. S. (Ipswich). 5/2/' 13. 


The Nesting Seasjn: From a private letter we glean 
that our member Mr. W. A. Bainbridge, has a youn.g 
Diamond Finch (Steganopleura guttata) on the wmg which left 
the nest on January 21st; Diamond Doves ;/ro incubating and 
in the indoor bird -room, Cuban and Fire Finches ai-e ready to 
leave the nest, and Bicheno's Finches are incubating. 

in Dr. Gosse's aviarie, Cutthroats, Zebra Finches, ^Red- 
lump Parrakeets, Madagascar Lovebiids, and Budgerigars, are 
engaged in the duties of incubation. 

Breeding Medal Resulations: When the e regula- 
tions were passed at the November Meeting oi the Council, it 
was understood that at some suitable date ahead of the ne.\t 
bu'eeding season, we should fully explain what was required, 
to qualify for a medal. 

Before proceeding to do this, it would perha])'^, be 
better to state the object that led to the adoption of this 
scheme. It was threefold. 

I. It was to stinmlatc competi ion and rivalry ii 
the breeding of all species of bii'ds under r.a!ural condition:;. 
Mr. W. T. Page giving the first twelve medals to start the 

II. To encourage the methodical taking of notes 
and the publication of these periodically in the Club Joui-nal 

58 Timnrlal. 

(incidentally increasing: its interest by the publication of 
such detailed a'^count) which not only elevates bird-keeping 
to an actual cult, but should add materially to our knowledi^e 
of the life histories (domestic economy, etc.), of the species 
we keep. 

III. To give an object and aim to bird-keeping, in- 
creasing our membership therefrom. 

Up to December 31st, 1911, it was left with the> 
Editor to decide the awards, referring any disputes or difTer- 
ences of opinion to the awards committee. Further than this, 
with the past we have nothing to do — in a measure we have 
achieved our object — emulation has been stimulated — many 
who never published their aviary episodes have done so — 
others have a sustained interest in aviculture they had not 

At a Council Meeting held in October, 1911, it was 
agreed to leave certain sections of the work, including medal 
awards, in the hands of the respective committees, each to 
have a secretary, and a list of these committees was given 
in "B.N.," Feb., 1912. 

The basis on which the awards have been made is 
as follows: 

Unobserved Events — that is events, which occur in all 
aviaries occasionally, whereby the young are reared without 
the even being aware which nest they emanated 
from or knowing anything about how or what birdsi reared 
them — such events are not eligible for medals, and during the 
•past year we are not cognisant of having recognised amAj 
claim, for such. ' "' ' 

That such details must be supplied as shall satisfy the 
committee, that the young birds, for which a medal has been 
awarded, have been in the care of and fully reared by their 
respective parents — that is suflficient data must be supplied 
to show that the aviarist has seen the parent birds go to 
their nest for incubating and feeding purposes, and heard' 
the young calling for food therefrom. Such details have been 
supplied during the past year, though several articles con- 
cerning some 1912 records have yet to appear. 

Editorial. 59 

Tlie-;o aro tho ])i-iiici|)li"s wliif'i I'avo c^ovorno], nnd will 
g-ovni'n, tho 7no!l,-il awai'd- (liiriiii,'- tli" comiiiii^ yoar. For tho 
benoCit of )\ow jiiomhcrs, wn lopi'inl (he regulations l)olow: 

1 . — Spkciks: Tlie young must he reared to bo indo- 
[londoiit of their parents. Whon 1 a'ch'd and reared by arti- 
fioial UK'atis, or by- Tostor-paronts tli" rooord is not eligible 
for the modal; oxcopt in Mio oaso of parasitic species'. 

2.— IIybhids: For any cross not p.-ovfously reared be- 
tweei: any two species; the domoslic Canary as one of the. 
parents alone being excepted. A cross between any two 
species is only once recognised, e.g., Parson Finch + Long- 
tailed Grass-finch and Long-tailed Orassfinch -|- Parson Finch, 
are reckoned a-; tho same hybrid, and whicliever was secured 
first would hold the record. Foster parents barred. 

3. — As detailed an account of tho success as possible 
must be sent foi- publication in " P)ird Notes,"' as soon as 
possilile after the young are fending for themselves. 

It has been suggested that all awards should be made 
at the end of the season and after all the accounts of "the 
respective events have been published in the club journal 
— this course will most probably be followed, as the sugges- 
tion will be submitted to the next Council meeting. 

Wc venture to hope that all our members will aim, 
not merely at securing sufricicnt data to secure the medal, 
but at obtaining the utmost data possible of all the birds they 
keep- with the aid of the' brooding list published in our last 
volume all should know whon tlioy aro probably entitled 
to a modal for broorling a Species or irybi'irl for the first, 
time in Great Britain. 

The foregoing is merely to explain our position with 
respect to the medals, and we sincerely hope members will 
periodically send in records of Aviary Episodes, etc., and 
not merely consider the medal events alone as worthy of a place 
in ou'^ Magazine; there is much of interest yet to record of 
species which have been bred regu'arly for some years past. 
A pregnant question for all is: Do we contribute as many 
new data as we can annually, or is there any attempt 
made to solve questions of ornithological interest, as we might 
(ough*; to) do? 



EiaEata: Page 1, line 5, from top, a''ter ■ ub-: pedes, delete 

„ 27, line 8 from top, for ' Fazy.--liill Gull," reai 
11, line 5 from l^ottom, for "specimens" read 


Razor -bill (Alca tordi). 
28, line 3 from tottom, for '(/'. schiiticops)" 

read (F. schisticeps) . 
28, line 11 from bottom, for "major" reail 




Sir,— 1 am much interested ia tiie Meiideliaii Tlico.y of Here^ 
dity, and am anxious to ijrove wlietJier it will turn out to be 
ti-uo in the case of the B'udgerigar and its yellow variety. I pro- 
pose, therefore, du:ing the coming season, to put up a few pairs in 
separate breeding vlaces (this is very important), ajid record the 
reiults. If the yellow variety (desigaaled Y in the appended table) 
is dominanl over the type (designated G), the results in the first 
geneiation should be. 

t (1) Cf tr + 9 Y=all G of both sexes, the. e leiag called hete - 

* (2) o' ^' + 9 G=all cf ^ (heterozygotes) and all 9 V. 

Lf these results come out true, it wi 1 be possible to ulilise 
ihe hetei ozygotes (H.) in order to prove further that: 

(3) o' H + 9 H=all cf Gt, but 9 half G and half Y. 

(4) cf H + 9 Y=^half G and ha'f Y, of both sexes. 

(5) o' V + 9 H=all cf t> and all 9 Y. 

It will be noticed that the results of tlie two pairings {_2) 
and (5) are identical. 

'I'lie sixth possible combination cf Y -|- 9 ^ should produce 
all V, and as from my rather limited experience 1 dnd this to be 
the case, 1 am quite hopeful that the results of tJie otli.or five pair'- 
/.igs will corroborate the Mendelian Theory. 

Jf airy of my fellow -members feel inclined to carry out col- 
lateral experiments, and publish the results, they would be conferiing 
a favoui- en Mendelians, who are a rapidly increasing sect of scientists. 
It is, of course, of primary importance to start the experiments, 
T cf=male; 9- female. 

* Eoughly speaking, a lieteiozygote is 

yellowness concealed in it. 

g-i'een Budgerigar with 

Correspondence. 61 

with pure greens, i.e., iiol with licterozyg-ote^ and i wouhl sug-^'cst 
liiids imported direct from Auslialia, as npccss.n-ily fuKilliiii," tliis 
condition. The Yellows slionld be of a pu c ydlow tint, rather 
than of a greenish yeUow. (lUOV.i (L H. KAYNOH. 

lia/.ciciiiii Eectoiy, Ma'don. 

Jan. -JVlii. l!)i;5. 


Sir,- -I am mnch [deascd with the ji'alc of Z'tslcrapti jialpi'- 
hrosa in January "B.N." — a bird that I ;.m well acquainted with 
in the wihl state aHhough I have not yet found its nest. The colour- 
ation of the [dale strikes me as very g-ood ])ut unfoi't.unat«ly 1 
cannot at present coinpai'e my skins witli it as they are up in 
Siitrolk. 1 liavc l)een luukinj;' up my notes l)ut find liiat. thei'e is 
notiiing of value in them except that they empha i e the position cf 
the s|iecies as a wintei- vi i'or only to the Punjab and N.W. Front- 
ier Irovince, -whereas I be'ieve, in other parts of India it is resi- 
dent. Tn Rawal I'indi distiid it is a very nume:ous species during 
the cold weather, being found in large parties, which spend; their 
ti)ne in busily seaicliiii.i,'- for fool on trees and bushes, keeping up 
a constant chirping r.o e: on one ccc:uion I saw a party mobbing a 
small Owl (probably Glaucidium radiatum) . In Ferozepore district 
fui'thei- south the species was also common in the cold weathea*; 
there, however, I noted that individua's as well as flocks were to 
be mei: with -a fact that T had not noticed in Rawal Pindi; this 
may, however, have l)cen due to the fa?t that I was then better ac- 
quainted with the species. 

I did not fix the date of arrival of the speciesi, but noted 
that il was already common at the begiiming of December; the last 
flock noted as seen was on Ma'^ch 3rd. These dates would pro- 
bably be extended, as Capt. Whitehead ii his Bi-ds of Kohiat, "Ibis," 
1909, says that the species a-rives there in August but does not 
btocome common until October, leaving about the middle of April. 

On one occasion I saw a pair of these tiny birds resting 
side by side (aftei' the manner so beloved of smaU aviary finches) 
on a twig in the middle of a thi'k bush. Needless to say they 
are extremely ditTiiu't to spot when not on the move. 

Should any foi'eign member of the Society caie to exchange 
foreign eggs, and, more especially, skins for others from the Punjab 
I should be very happy to hear f -om him. At presojiif I\ would 
only exchange the commonei' species. 

Battle, Sussex. (Indian Police). 

2 1th January, 1913. 


Sir. — No doul)t many of our members have sevei'al odd birds 
wliicli they an- desirous of either selling, exchandng, or buying the 
opposite sex. I have at pre.sent about 30 such birds, and I sug- 

62 Correspondence. 

gest oar members having similar stock should advertise same, say in 
our March number, a convenient date to exchange (middle to end of 
Maixh) ; if for disposal only the price should be given. I, for 
one am anxious to pai ■ several of my .birds, as odd ones are a 
nuisance in an aviaiy, an 1 with many such birds, an enclosure where 
tliey can be kept from mischief is necessary where breeding is 
desired. ' " j 

The advertisements could run somewhat so: Co^ks, Indigo ICs., 
Cutthroat, Is. 6d., Zebra-Finch 4s., etc., Hens, Kufous-tailed Grass- 
finch lOs., Magpie Mannikin 5s., e(c. i^airs Red-headed Gouldians 
30s., etc. If those having odd or duplicate pairs • for disp-osaJ 
or exchange will adopt this suggestion, I feel sui'e it will be a 

Cleethorpes, .3/2/ "13. R. SUGGITT. 

We suggested in last volume a Members' Exchange Column 
and offered to commence such under Bird Market, at the nominal 
rate of one penny for each species; this I'ate to i;iclude the adch-ess, 
and this offer still holds good. — Ed. 

The L.P.O.S. National Show. 

By Weslky T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

This event, which practically closes the show season 1012- 
115 took place from February 7th to 11th inclusive, and for once 
was favoured with spring-like weather. The Foreign Section was 
not as large as usual, but some rare and beautiful birds were staged 
by our members, some sending quite large teams. 

Mr. A. Ezra exhibited tlie following, all in exquisite condi- 
tion : Abyssinian Lovebird, Vinaceous Firefinches, Blue Chaf- 
finch {F. teydea), Chilian Siskin, Sepoy Finch, xlmethyst-rumped 
Sunbird, Short-billed Minivet, and Japaiiese and Loo-choo RobiiiS. 

Miss Tiydia Clare exhibited perfect specimens of Queen 
Alexandra's and Hooded Parrakeets. 

Mr. W. Edmunds — Many-colour (one of the best coloured 
l)irds I have ever seen), Barnard's, and a Hyl:)rid Pennant's Parra- 

Rev. G. H. Piaynor exhibited three Pococeplutli, vi^., Sene- 
gal, Meyer's, and Aubry's Parrots, the last named being very rare. 

Miss M. Bousfield exhibited some nice St. Helena Wax- 
bills, H.H. Gouldian Finches, Festive Tanager ( ? ), White-capped 
Tanager, and Yellow -winged Sugarbird. 

Miss A. M. Smyth also exhibited an interesting series of 
birds — Black-cheeked Lovebirds, Virginian Cardinal, Japanese 

The L.P.O.S. National Show. 63 

ILiwfiiichcs. and a IJcd-hi'castcd :\rai-slid)ir(l. 

Mr. Kr..sli(d< liad oiK .i;«'(.d siuH-iincns cf : i:.'d-niii:|)rd 
I'anakrrts. \Mrwiniaii Cardinal, 'I'ri-cdldnrcd 'I'anauci-. and an cx- 
i|uisi((' limiting (Mssa. 

Tlu'i-e wri'c a ni.ndxT of otlicr ht'auiil'ul cxluhiis hy (uir 
nicndxTH and otIuTS :— lJcd-r(,|laivd Wliydali, IJcd-napcd L,„-i- 
kfct, I Jai-ra band's, Kin« and Criinsoii-wing Parrakeets, J^cadUcatci- 
Cockatoo, Ued-vented i'aiTot, l^lack-headed Siskins, IJainliow 
Bunting, Cape Sparrow, Cuban Trogon, Glossy Starlings, and many 
others — a feasi of beauty f()r all. 

We noticed the absence of the names of many well known 
exliil)itors from the catalogue, such as the Hon. Mrs. Pxjurkc, C. T. 
Maxwell, S. M. Townsend (owing to indisposition), F. Howe, R. 
Watts, and others. 

The Foreign Section, though smaller numerically tlian uSu- 
al, containfd many beautiful and rare birds, some of greai interest 
and won much admiration and enquii-y from the visiting public, 
while the catalogue values were a source of wonder -o some and 
amusement to others. 

Tlie date of the show comes too near our date of publication 
to permit a full report in this issue, but in March issue I hope to 
give a few notes of the rare species and a list of prize winners. 
To be Continued. 

Post Mortem Reports 

See Rules on page iii. of cover. 

liLUE Cuban Finch. (W. Shore Baily, Westbury, Wilts.^ Post 
iiiortL'm examination showed a thin breast and an enlarged rather pendulous 
abdomen. There was peritonitis, the exudate of which had glued all the 
coils of the bowels together. The liver was enlarged, blackish and friable. 
Tlie lungs were inflamed. 

3 CoKDON-HLEUS. (The Hon. Mary C. Hawke, Tadcaster). There 
was ])neumonia in every instance. It is frequently set up by a change of 
locality or surroundings. A strange place often weakens the resistance of 
the sj'stem and renders birds liable to develop pneumonia. 

Lavenueh P'lNCH. (Capt. J. S. Reeve, Lincoln). Two poxt cards 
not answered 

Bi..\CKCAP ( <f ). (G. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge.) The bird was ex- 
cessively fat ; all the organs such as liver, heart, etc., were infiltrated with fat 

GoUEDiAN Finch ( i ). (Capt. J. S. Reeve, Lincoln). The cause of 
death was pneumonia. 

()4 Post Mortem Eeports. ' _ 1 

J. Weiv. 1 0:ik Cottage. New Milton, Hants, Botli birds were ex- 
cessively tut. Yon h.ive killed them by feeding them on a too highly nu- 
tritions dietary. 

HAN.;iN(i P.vuKOT (cf.) (W. Shore Bailv. Westbury, Wilts). The 
bird \v IS not a hiMi. The liver was very much enlarged and iniltrated with 
fat. Tiie whole carcase was excessively fat. i 

Zki'.ka FiNrii ( (T ). J. fxoodchild, Suffolk. Death was due to pneu- ■ 

CiMMsoN Finch ( ? i. G. Scott Freelaiid. Tonl)ridge). Cause of 
death. ])nLMiinoiii;i. 

P>ii'. FiN( II (Mrs. A. Storey, Tarporley, Cheshire.) Cause of death, 

Diamond FiN( II ( ? ). CNFiss A. Eccles. Ditton Hill). Cause of 
death, pneumonia. 

Zkhha FiN( II. (Lieut. F.M. Littledale, Lydd). Cause of death, 
pneumoniii. Your letter was not under separate cover ; in future such will i 
not be answered. ' 

C(iKMF.N-i'.i.i;r ( ? ). (Harvey C. Cnrrey, Littlehampton). Cause of 
deaUi. jinennionia. 

Pknnant's PAiiUAKKF/r ( <? ). (Mrs. Connell, Brockenhurst). The J 
lungs were inflamed and the bowels were impacted with material suggesting 
that the bird was constipated. No doubt the cold changeable weather is 
trying to birds in confinement. Sorry I have had at last to enforce the rules ] 
governing the post mortem examinations. j 

Rosslyn Mannering, Southfields. Rules not observed. ^ 

Aiixirered hy 7;o.s<— James Yealland, R. S. de Quincey. Viscountess j 
^laldm, Miss Rosie Alderson. j 



BiED Notes. 

l-'nnu lijP by II. irnnilrluhl. 

Some Interesting Foreign Speeies at the National Show. 

All right ■i reserved. iMARcn, 1913. 



The L.P.O.S. National Show. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 


Continued from page 63. 

Some of the principal birds enumerated in our last issue 
having already been I'ully described in "B.N.," e.g. Vinaceous 
Firelinches, Sepoy Finch, Chilian Siskin, Amethyst-rumped 
Sunbird, Japanese and Loo-choo Robins, and many others — it 
must suffice to say that those not given special notice, for 
above reasons, were perfect specimens of their kind. 

I propose therefore to deal fairly fully with the classes 
in lieu of lengthy descriptions here, excepting the species 
ligured on our frontispiece, viz.: — 

Top (right) figure: Short-billed Minivet (Pericrocotus 

Middle (left) figures: Black-headed Siskins cf, 9 
{Chrysomitris icterica)\. 

Bottom figure: Blue Chaffinch {Fringilla teydea). 

Shokt-billed Minivet {Pericrocotus hreinrostris) : 
This brilliant genus consists of some fifteen species, which 
are conffiied to India and Eastern Asia. They have close 
affinity to the Shrikes, and in the "Cambridge Natural His- 
tory; Birds" they are placed in the Fam. Campcijhagidae (Cuc- 
koo -Shrikes)., with a no,te that they are possibly connectjeid 
with the Muscicapidae oi Corvidue. All the fifteen species 
are of brilliant colouration, except two — sheeny black and scarlet 
— black and orange, — black and yellow, in varying range of 
hues, being the principal colours of the males. The specimen, 
figured by Mr. Goodchild on our frontispiece, has moulted 

e& The L.P.O.S. National Show. ' * 

out a sort of pinkish white, but the natural colour of the light 
areas in drawing, is flaming scarlet. 

Adult male: The upper pa"ts, also the sides of , the head and 
fliroat are mostly sheeny black, including the wings, with a few 
variations, viz.: rump and upper ta-1 coverts c:-imson^coverts and 
flights tipped and blotched with re1; ta'l, the cent a^ feathers glossy 
black, the outer one? entirely red, the othters with the outer webs 
mostly red; the under parts are flaming crimson. Bill and legs 
black; iris ruddy brown; total length 7i inches, tail 4. 

Adult female: Fronta^ band, rump, upper tail coverts, and the 
entire under surface bilght yellow; uppe- pa-ts gi-ey'sh green; wings 
and tail brown, the coverts and quills more or less tipped a-nd 
blotched with yellow, the taU is also mu':'h va-iega'^ed with yellow. 

It breeds in the Himalayas; the nest is cup-shaped, 
constructed of fine twigs and grass and covered with cobwebs 
and lichen (Gates). The clutch* varies from three to five, 
the eggs are whitish with red and purple markings. In 
a state of nature the birds live on insects. 

Mr. A. Ezra kindly supplies the following concerning his 
bird: "The Minivet was one imported by Mr. Frost from India last 
"summer ,and was purchassd as a hen, showing no colour whatso- 
"ever. After the moult he was in his pres-^nt plumage, which shows 
"that the young cocks do not come into full colour till in their 
"second year. I feed him on ants' e'?gs, and dried flies, with a 
"few inealworms cut up and mixed with the food; he will also eat 
"lettuce cut up in small pieces and chickweed. He simply revels 
"in mealworms and fresh ants' eggs. ... He is the nicest 
"pet I have ever had, flying about my room just like a Swallow, 
"and flies round and about the other cag'e(s most skilfully; will 
"follow the mealworm tin a'l over the room, and fly any distance to 
"take one from my Angers. He is not very k©3n on a bath, but 
" likes to be sprayed — has no song, but calls occasionally. 
" He has no fear of any of the other birds, nor does he show any 
"inclination to attack them. He is on qui^^e fnend'y terms with ihe 
" ChUian Siskin. Ho returns to the cage without trouble when he 
"has been out long enough. He is indeel, a most charming pet." 

Blue Chaffinch (FringiUa tej/dca): This lovely species 
also exhibited by Mr. A. Ezra, is confined to the Pine Poi^'estS 
of the Island of Teneriffe and only occurs at a high altitude. 
It is very rare, though it has been known to aviculture since 
1890, or thereabouts, and young were .successfully reared in the 
aviaries of Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo in 1894 or 1895. Ft is 
quite hardy and can be kept out of doors all the year round. 

The Blue or Teydean Chaffinch is larger than our Eng- 

The L.r.O.S. Naf!n/ml Show. 07 


lish spocios (rorh'hs), but ill contour and demeanour, is a 
fypical ^hafTmcli. The inal(> is rich f2:rey-l>lue, with an almost 
complete white rin.i^ roiiiHl tlic eye; the female is greenish- 
hrown, lightly washed with hluish. 

Mr. Ezra has kindly sent me the following notes con- 
eerning the cage life of the specimen, so alily depicted by Mr. 
Goodchild on our frontispiece. 

" Tlio Biii^ CliafTinch, as you know, is a very rare bird, and 
"only to Iic> foinid ii tlio fo:'es!s of tlio Island of TenerifTe. T 
'■feed Iniu like any otlier seed -cater, with seeds, greenfood, and a 
" few moalwoi-ms. also a small piece of spong© cake. He has a 
"song, which is not vcy pretty, hut all the same he makes a nice 
"pet" ' 

Black-headed Siskin {Chrysomitris icferica): A most 
interesting species which has been lired in captivity by our 
member Mr. W. E. Teschemaker,- a detailed account of which 
appeared in Bird Notes, -Vol. III., N.S., page 4. It is a species 
which has never been reaUy common on the English market, 
and much less so of late years. It is a most pleasing cage or 
aviary bird, and in good plumage both sexes are "really 
hnndsome birds. A reference to the figures on our frontis-- 
piece, which I consider exceptionally well drawn, will make 
a 'detailed description unnecessary, if I simply say that the 
light areas are bright yellow; medium, olive green, and the 
others, blackish -green or black; the hues of the female are all a 
trifle greyer and rhe lacks the black -hoad of her mate. It is 
a native of Argentina and Brazil. 

The Parrot and Parrakeet classes were judged by H. 
T. T. Camps, F.Z.S., and the others by W. Swaysland. 

BuDGER'GAKS AM) LovEBiTjDS (4): The 1st prize went to Mr. 
Ezra's rare Abyssin'an Lovebird (Q), 2nd to Miss A. B. Smyth's 
B'ack -cheeked Lovehi-ds. while the 3rd and 4th went to pairs of 
Yellow Budge'i"-ars, S. M. Davis and Colville and Sons — the smallest 
c'ass for many years. 

Pakrakkkts, Lokikkrts, axd Lokies (12): Nothing new, 
lui't a grand 'o^ rf 1 i-ds not an ill conditioned bird among' them. 

1st and two spe'^ias Miss Lydia Cla'-e, Queen Alexandra's 
Parrakeet: 2, same owner's Hooded Parrakeet (P. ciicuUnfua), 
both birds of rich eo'our, and very steady; 3 W. Edmunds, Many 
Colour Parrakeet, one of the best the writer has seen ; 4 Christer 
and Son. R/ed-naped lorikeet: v.h.c. (2) G. Fletcher, Barraband's 
(beautiful colour) and King Parrakeets ; h.c, Miss Wade, Crimson- 


The L.P.O.S. National Show. 

wing Parrakeet; c. W. Baxby, Alexandrine Pai-rakeets, Rp<1- 
rumped, Bai'nard's and a hybrid Pennant's also competed. 

Pakrots, Cockatoos, and Macaws (9j: Nothing really new, 
the rarity of the class, Rev. G. H. Kaynor's Aubry's Parrot 

(PoeocepJiahis auhryanus) hav - 
-V ing previously appeared at the 
L.C.B.A. Show in November 
last; this specimen is quite 
a young one and will show 
the distinctive colouration of 
the species more clearly after 
another moult. Many visi- 
tors took it for a Jardine's 
and one or two were rather 
indignant at being told it was 
not. The accompanying fig. 
I made at the show, complet- 
ing it at Hazeleigh, where 1 had 
Uie pleasure of seeing Mr. 
Eaynor's four representatives 
of roeocephalus viz., meyeri, 
senegalensis, auhryanus and 
robustus, at home, and very 
much "at "home" they were 
too, both with their owner and 
their quarters — the room they 
occupy is never heated at all, 
and on February 21st and 
22nd, they were out of doors 
for an airing, though the ther- 
mometer only registered 32 degrees F. on either day. I never saw a 
group of birds more tit and hard in every way ; but I miis-t not linger 
here, as Aubry's Parrot was fully described in our last vol. The 
Meyer's Parrot was looking as well as ever, while the Senegal was 
one of the best coloured birds I iiave seen. Another exhil^it, a 
Leadbeater's Cockatoo was also very fine, not a feather out of place; 
an uncommon Eed-vented or Blue-headed Parrot (Fionus menstruus) 
was catalogued as a Blue-necked Parrot. 

1, 2, and h.c. Rev. G. H. Raynoi-, Meyer's, Senegal, and 
Aubry's Parrots, in the order given, the latter rather hardly treated; 
3 and v. h.c. J. C. Scliulter, Leadbeater Cockatoo, and Grey Parrot; 
4, L. M. Wade, Red-vented Parrot; v. h.c, J. Ditchfleld, and c. 
G. W. Ballington, Bluie-fronted Amazons. 

Certain Named Species (11): Not a large class, and not 
calling for special comment, save to note the excellent plumage and 
condition of all the exhibits, and most of the unnoticed birds were 
fully equal to those receiving the awards. 

The L.r.O.Fi. National Show. 69 

1 find 2, A. 0. Ynmie:, Diarnninl a'ld Parson Finches; 3 
Miss Bousfic'd, St. irdcia W.ixbjlls; 1 T. J. IIo>e, Gold -breasted 
Waxbills; E. Hatfersley Zeb-a Finches; h.c. G. W. Leavers, 
and c, Mrs. Fi'ostick, Diamon 1 Fiiiciie^. Bib Finches, Wliite- 
headed Maniiikins ,ind G:o(mi .\vail.ivats Avoro also stag'cd. 

Gr.\srfincii- s, Ft(^ (10,: Al well known birds, the pick of 
the <'lass liciii^r Mr. F'.ra's cx|uisite paii' of Vinaceous Fireflnches, 
an uncomnioii Pcd -collared Whyr'ah, riul love'y pairs of Blue-breasted 
AV.ixbi'ls nnil Buficniida Finches. 

1, A. Ezn, Vinaceous Firennchos; 2, .T. Chadwick, ■Red- 
collared AVhyilah; 3, Miss BousHeld, B.H. Gouldian Finches; 4, 
Miss Blnckhouse, Gculd^an Finch; v. h.c, and c, Andrews, Bros., 
Ruficauda and Red-headel Finches (the former might have been 
higher); h.c, Mdme. Fei'=;t Madewell, Red-billed Weavers. Blue- 
breasted Waxlii'ls (very hard'y treated), and a Marsh Bird, which 
should have been " wi'ong cla s^d," also competed. 

GnosBK.VKS, ETC. (11): Best filled class of the Foreign sec- 
tion and containing some beautiful and rare birds. The principal 
birds here have been already noticed, but it was somewhat of a 
mystei-y how Mr. Ezra's rare Chilian Siskin failed to catch the 
judge's eye, and in the winter's opinion the first and second prizes 
should have been t'aisp S'd. Mi--;s Smyt'i's interesting pair of Jap- 
anese Hawfinches we:o a hc-^ndsome pair of birds and very steady. 
1 and 2, A. Ezra, Sepoy Fincli and Blue ChafRnch, both 
rare and interesting birds, but the former lacking* the beautiful 
scarlet of the wild bird, the latter beyond praise; 3, Miss A. 
B. Smyth, Japanese Hawfinches (Eophona personnta), very at- 
tractive and steady; 4, Miss Doo^y, Rainbow Bunting, rich colour 
and perfect condit'on; v. h.c, Mrs. E. Greene, an excellent pair 
of Blaok -headed S'iskins: h.c, J. Frostick, Virginian Nightingale, 
very rich colour and steady; c, L.- J. Arrighi, Cape Sparrow, 
one of the clea est and best markel specimens I have seen. Good 
specimens of Green Cardinal, Chilian Siskin, Red -crested Cardi- 
nals, and other Virginian Cardinals a'so staged. 

Tanageks (5): Some beauti'ul colouration covered these five 
entiles, but all were well known species. 

1 and 2, Miss Bousfield, Festive (9) and White-capped 
Tanagers; 3, Mrs. Thynne, Maroon Tanager; 4, P. Arnott, and 
v. h.c. J. Frostick, Tri-colour Tanagers. 

SrGARBiRDS, HoNEYsrcKERS, ETC. (5): Another .small but 
intei'esting clas^s of exquisite and well known species. 

1, A. Ezra, Amethyst-rumped Sunbird, the condition of 
thio specimen was beyond praise, its tight and glistening plumage 
radiating forth ever changing hues according to the play of light; 
2, P. Arnott, Yellow-winged Sugarbird, beautiful colour and con- 
dition; 3, Miss Bousleld, YeMow-winged Sugarbird; 4, M. Meager, 
Red-eaved Bulbul; v. h.c, J. Yeal'and, good pair of Yellow-winged 

70 The L.P.0.8. National Show. 

All Species, N.O.E. — Small (8): A most interesting class, 
but the remaikable birds have alreaJy been noted several times in our 
pages, though it would be easy to rhapsodise at length re the Mini- 
vet, Japanese and Loo-choo Eobins, etc., but space forbids. 

1, 2j and 3, A. Ezra, Short-billed Minivet, Loo-choo Rob- 
in, and Japanese Redbreast, in the order given^ a rare and beau- 
tiful trio; 4, Miss A. B. Smyth, Red-breasted Marsh Bird { 
gvianensis), an interesting exhibit and very steady for such a 
species; v.h.c, E. Fordred, richly coloured Pekin Robin, appar- 
ently colour fed; h.c, J. Yealland, two uncommon Hangnests, 
probably male and female, but of different species; c, Mrs. Tat- 
ten. Silky Cowbird. A pair of Lesser Hill Mynahs also com- 
peted and should have been marked "wrong class." 

All Species — Large (5): Five interesting exhibits, all prac- 
tically perfect in every way and very attractive. The Cuban Trogon 
was much nearer the full natural colour than any I have seen, but 
was a wee bit soft, probably not quite at home with the prevailing 
atmospheric conditions of the Palace. 

1, J. Frostick, Hunting Cissa, an easy first, beautiful col- 
our and very steady; 2, R. E. Simpson, Cuban Trogon {Prionotelus 
temnurus) ; 3, E. Hattersley, Long-tailed Glossy Starling— perfect; 
4, Hon. C. Agar-Robartes, Greater Hill Mynah— very loquacious; 
v.h.c, Aaidrews, Bros., Green Glossy Starling — exquisite plumage. 
Championship Diploma for Best Foreign Bird. — Mr. Ezra's Short-billed 

Abiahams' Memorial Trophy for Rarest Foreign Bird.— Mr. Ezra's 

Short-billed Minivet. 
Peir Trophy for Best Austialasian Bird. — Miss L. Clare's Queen 

Alexandra's Parrakeet. 
O.P. Stiver Medal for Best Foreign Bird, other tlian winn,eas of 

above. — Mr. Ezra's Amethyst-rumped Sunbird. 
5s. (Mr. Ezra) for best v.h.c. Parrot classes. — Mr. Fletcher's Bar- 

raband's Parrakeet. 
6s. (Ml-. Ezra) for be^t v.h.c, Waxbils and Fniches. — Mrs. Greene's 

Black -headed Siskins. 
5s. (Mr. Ezra) for best v.h.c, Tanagers and Sugarbirds. — Mr. J. 

Frostick's Tri-coloured Tanager. 
5s. (Mr. Ezra) for best v.h.c, All Species. — Messrs. Andrews, Bros.' 

Glossy Starling. 
C.P. Bronze Medal, for best h.c. Parrot Classes. — Rev. G. H. Ray- 

nor's Aubry's Parrot. 
C.P. Bronze Medal, for best h.c, Waxbills and Finches. — Mr. Fros- 
tick's Virginian Nightingale. 
C.P. Bronae Medal, for best h.c, Tanagers and Sugarbirds. — Not 

C.P. Bronze Medal for best h.c, All Species, — Mr. Everett's Lesser 
Hill Mynahs. 

Bird Notes. 

From life by H. Guudchild. 

Some Interesting British Exhibits at the National Show. 

The L.P.O.S. National Show. 71 

By H. GooncuiiiU, M.B.O.U. 

Oil our plate are ligured three most interesting species, viz.: 
Top \h'll) /i(/nrv-^ (JvL'-iit Spotted Woodpecker (9) Dendrocopus majar- 

Liiina'us) , 
Top {light) figuie Wryneck {I ijiix turquilla, Linuouus). 
lUiUom //(y«/(i— Sandpiper {Tolanus liypoleucus, Linnccus). 

The Britisli bh'ds at tlie Palace, numbering all told 5(57 entries, 
euntaine:! as usual, many species, interesting to both aviculturists and 
ornithologists. Most of tlie enti\es, cf course, were of the commonly 
kept seed-eating species; thus Bullfinches numbered 33, Goldfinches 
35, Linmets 25. Chaihnciies 19^ Greenfinches 24, Lesser Redpolls 25, 
Mealy Redpolls or Twites 25, Siskins 26, Bramblefinches 8, Hawi- 
rmchn's 17, Yellowliammei's 20, other Buntings 25, Song Thrushes or 
Blackbirds 17, Starlings 5, Magpie, Jay, or Okough 8, Nightingale 
or Blackcap 6, Skylark 8, Woodlark, Pipit, Tit, etc. 15, Wagtails 
8, Woodpeckers, Shrikes, etc. 12, small insectivorous birds lU, and tlie 
riied, Albino, and other abnormal birds 1(3. 

Taking the most interesting species first, those figured in our 
|i!at(! may well be put foremost. The most " out of the way " bird of 
the lot was undoubtedly the Sandpiper, shown by Mr. J. Lane. This 
little bird was evidently nervous, and though accommodated with a 
cage suitable in type for such a bird, and piovided moreover with turf 
to run about on, seemed somewhat ill at ease. It is open to question 
ir a wading bird is suited to cage life, though as they are naturally 
nimble anc' active and take a coneideiable amount of sxiercise, they un- 
doubtedjv might be less suitable for cage or aviary life than they are. 
Its timidity accounted for its taking fright now and tlien, when closely 
Looked a!, and I was glad to see the veteran attendant providing it 
with suitable animal food. The Great Spotted Woodpecker (3rd), a 
female, shown by Mr. J. Yeallaud, wias a very good specimen, being 
very tame and in perfect condition, also a good colour, the scarlet 
under-tail-ooverts being very brig'ht, land the white generally very 
pure. Our member, Mr. Millsum, came along with mealworms, and 
fed it, and remarked to me that he believed it was a hen bird that 
he had once possessed. Certainly the bird ti-eated him as if it knew 
and remembered him. This species is not so very easy to see, 
around London, as the Green species, at any rate in either Epping* 
Foiest or Richmond Park. 

The last bird on our plate, the Wryneck, shown by Mr. J, 
Jeffrey, was a nice tame bird, and when the electric lights W'ere turned 
on, showed some inclination to display. The owner told me that it "was 
accustomed to display when ai home, and the water made a sketch of 
it, with the tail partly spread, the neck extended, but not quite suffici- 
ently goo<i to be used for our magazine. Unfortunately the bird aban- 
doned its apparent intention of displaying, and tlie sketch for its 
porti-ait had to be made of a comparatively ordinary pose. 

72 The L.P.O.S. National Show. 

jf^EOther Wryneck was entered in this c'ass, but was not look- 
ing' well; four Lesser Whiteth"oa*s a Greater Whitethroat, a Grass- 
hopper Warbler, a Willow Wren, a B'ack Redstart, Ooinmoii Redstart, 
two Tree-creepers, and i Wheatear, make up a g'ood class; a Dartford 
Warbler was an absentee. The same may be sail of Mr. Marley's 
Great Grey Shrike, which was ente ed but not broug'h', on account of 
some difficulty in regard to its feeding- reiui-emsnts. This was a 
decided pity, as a Shrike oT any kind is an inte-esting bird to a 
visitor who knows ."something of ornithology, and M'-. Marley's bird 
was a good specimen and very tame and fearless — Avhat a bird-artist 
might call a "good model." "It srst " to the p-esent writer at the 
Clapham Show, and also at the L and P.O.S. autumn show at the 
Holborn Town Hall. 

The Wagtail class calls for no special mention, but in the Lark, 
Pipit, the Tit c^ass, were four species of Tit: the Great, Blue, Marsh, 
and Long-tailed, and a' so a Hedge Accen^^o", a'l .shown by our member, 
Miss Alfreda B. Smyth, who also showed some very interesting birds 
in the Foreign Section. 

In this class were also: A Shorela"k, shown by Atr. W. A. Loft 
(who or one occasion sent the only Shorelark that was to be seen at 
the Scottish National Show), four Cages of Bearded Tits, a Robin, 
other Long-tailed Tits, and Two Tree Pipits. Skyla ks in plenty, with 
Nightingales, and Blackcaps made la representative f'i^pLiy for B-itish 
Songsters. The ornamental Corvklae were represented by three 
handsom^^ species, the Chough, Ma'^loie, and Jay. The class for hen 
British Finclhes contained one bird of special inte-e^t, a Little Bunting* 
This bird, Mr. Walter Swaysland tel's me, was caught near the south 
coast, and so was a genuine Briti-sh rero"d. 

It was in very good ccndit'on. but not the type of bird to 
catch the eye of a judge. The BunHng c'a^s contai-ied several Girl, 
Gorn, Snow, Reed, and Meadow Buntings. The class in fhe list 
to interest our members contained the Albinos etc ; amongst which, a 
Silver Starling, a Lutino YcPow Bunting White Hedge Accentor, and 
White Goldfinch were the most interesting. Altotrether. a numerous and 
interesting ser-tion. and those of the visitors who studied the birds carei- 
fully found ample interest and pleasure. One regrets that the Grystal 
Palace is so unsuitable for either housing or studying birds. 

*This species has been noticed, by the avia-y attendant, in 
the grounds of the L.M. Trelca- Ciipplos' H-^spi'al and Co'loge. Alton, 
Hants. — Ed. 

Leadenham Aviary Notes, 1912. 

By Capt. J. Sherakd Reeve. 

Photfix,, of the Len'7r)ih>iin Ariar/pn (t])ii'>ar('l hi " li/n! Xntrx." Vol. 
I., N.S., paoes 341—4. E'l. 

April 4. Grexadiee Weaver {Pjiromelana oryx). 

LeacJenham AiHarj/ Nntrs, 1012. 73 

(o") .i'lst honfan lo shoAv r-olnui\ I'avin.i? gono nnl nlvniit Ootobor 
7lh. 1011: by 23r(l (Api-il) lie was in full co'our. 

April 20. I^Kn-cincsTKi) r.\T!T)ivAis (Paroaria curvl- 
lafa) had laiM oiio oy-e:, huf on 2(Sth, \\vo or throo o,ir2:s wrro 
found l)i'okon on tl)(^ i^round undoi'ncatli t'lo nest, and the bi'Tls 
practically never altcmpleil lo nest a,i,'-ain; they hatched one 
younir one soon after lh(\v \ver(> put foLTcther in the la!e suinnirr 
or 1011. hut failed to rear it. 

Afay 8. Pk'Tokai, Ftn'ttks! {Munia pectoral in): T 
put a pair (?) of I his spe'-'cs nu^ whi':".h, at time of writing- 
(February Asi. 101 ;>) ai'c still out and doing- "well: these birds 
.spend much time on the g-round and roost on or very near it. 

Canary (9) having: paired with a Cape Canary (Seri- 
nus camcollis) built, bu^ affe^: the third egg T unfortunately had 
to destroy her. 

May 8. Lo^t a Spicebird after four years out of doors. 

June. Pate Zebr \ Ftn' hits (Trrjiinpiiffia rastanofis): 
This pair during June rea^-el four cTs- On July 24th two 
more young o^s appeared, on September 18th, four more 
young- cT-'^ were on the w'ng. On October 1 7th this indefati- 
gable pair were sitting again, in a p'gcon hole in the sheet, 
and by November 1 8th, had four more cf s and one O on the 
wing, making, I believe, fourteen cfs and one 9 ^^ ^^^"e 

June. Olive Finchi^ (Phonipara lepida): A pair of 
this species in same aviary nearly as prolific! During my 
absence in June they reared three young cfs- and on July 
14th T found they had young in a nest; by 23rd they had begun 
building again in a climbing ro'^e, and oi 24th two young 
left the former nest; they anpear to tear otT the top of the nest 
before the young quit — partly perhaps, to hurry them out and 
partly lo slart their fresh nest with! By August 12 they had 
eggs in a nest in a holly, the cf at same time being busy build- 
ing another nest! By August 22nd they had Tiatched in the 
holly, and on Sept. 4th three young left the nest. September 
20th. the^ had built again in a flowering cur -ant and by 'SOth 
had hatched out, three young leaving the ne-it on Oct. 11th;. 
Thus in four months they had reared eleven young, which were 
also nearly all cfs and so far as I know, except one, all alive 
at present time; this, in spite of their nests and young being 

74 Leadenham Aviary 'Notes, 1912. 

out in the deluging rains of July and August, during which tico 
mo)ilhs we had here over ten inchesl When feeding the young 
they (especially the 9) ^''e never still, catching midges all over 
the wire of the aviary without ceasing, and they appear to rear 
their young on theise entirely at first, using more canary .seed as 
the chiekf; grow older. No '.withstanding all this hard work of 
five or six nests, four broods reared and the weather, they 
■appeared none the worse, in fact are as sprightly as ever, and I 
hope they may do the same this year, but it is almost too 
much to expect of them! Another pair of Olives in the next 
aviary reared two young, but one of these and one of above 
pairs were drowned I bcii^ve by the heavy rains. At the 
next attempt the 9 o^ this latter pair became egg-bound; 
I brought her in and she lejovered. They nested again, but 
did not hatch out any mo/e; on November 29th, the cT died; 
the 9 is still well and lively! 

July 18. Cuba Finches (Phofiipara canora), had 
reared two young and were aga'n sitting on four or five eggs in 
a nest built in a hop; on August 2nd they had hatched, but 
on 4th the nest was empty! 

July 23. Canary (cf) after two other attempts was 
hatching young in pigeon hole in shelter shed, and on 12th 
three Grey Singing-Finch x Canary hybrids left the nest; 
one of these subsequently died, and has b&en described in 
'* B.N." On September 4th the Singing-Finch was still feeding 
them, and on 28th one began to sing. I have now got this 
bird in a cage in the house, and he sings divinely all day. 

September 3rd. Geenadjee Weaver (cT) began to go 
out of colour. I Tound that a supposed 9 Pelzeln's Saffron 
Finch proved to be a cock after the moult. 

October 11th. A Zebea Finch (cT) bred this summer 
by pair described above, having paired with a bought hen, 
had three young in nest, which flew on 26th. 

Madaoascae {Foudia madagascariensis) and Napoleon 
(/'. afro) Weavers (cTs) began to go out of colour on the last 
named date, and both of these have been since murdered— 
the assassin is not yet identified! 

Only one other peculiar happening have I to relate, 
viz., that a Blue-winged Lovebird (cf) and St. Helena Seed- 

Leadenham Avianj Notes, 1012. 75 

tvitcr (cf) struck up a great friendship during the summer 
and I have seen them sitting- together and "kissing" like 

Failukks: The^e inclu le Cutthroats {Anmdina fasciala), 
Z('l)ra Doves {Gcopclia striata), Avadavats {S. am.adava), 
IMai'k-eheeked Lovebirds {Agapornis nigrigenis), and Cordon 
Bleus {Estrilda phoenicotis), all of which had eggs, also St. He- 
lena Waxbills (Esfri'daasrildi) and Red-billed Weavers (Quelca 
qtielea), who built. Biu-h Bronze-wing Pigeons (Phaps ele- 
gans) have been nesting and sitting ever since they were given 
to me in July! Have had many infertile eggs, but some have 
been ready to hatch, which failed from one cause or another; 
these birds are very fond of wo/ms, also lettuce. A pair of 
Painted Quails {Excal,'acloi in chlnoisis) which had been in 
the aviary for three years never attempted to nest! Both 
have died during the year. 

I possess at the present moment just under one liun- 
dreil birds, and hope these few not^s re their doings may be of 
interest to readers of "B.N." 


Birds of Gambia. 

By E. Hoi'KiNSi.N D.S.O., M.A., M.B. 
Conlinucd from page 40. 
Phyllopezus africana. AFRICAN J AC AN A. 
Range. Africa. {R.L.). 

This bird, the Jito-suseo (= water-chicken) of the Maadingos, 
is extremely common everywhere on the swamps, where one may 
often see hundreds on or round a single pool. Their general coluiu' 
is chestnut brown, darker on back, wings and tail; the head and 
neck are white with a leaden-blue frontal shield, blaclc eye-streak 
and yellowish throat patch bordered with black. Tlieir chief char- 
acteristic is the enormous length of the toes, which enables them to 
move easily over the matted grass and other vegetation of their 
favourite haunts. Lengtli 10 inches. Bill and legs leal-blue. 
In the Gambia we have three common Plovers. 

(1) our "Brown Plover " with big yellow face-wattles and 
short strong wing-spurs — 

Lobivavellus scnc(jalensis. SENEGAL WATTLED LAPWING 
Range. West antl North-east Africa. {H.L). 

(2) and (3^ both black and white. 

7(i Birds of GamMa. 

('2) the bird which shouts at one in the marshes and also 
haunts clearings and fields: beak and legs black, no wattles, a long 
black wing -spur, black abdomen = 

Hoplnpfem.'! .'^phwavs. SPUE-WINGED PLOVER. 

Bange. "West and North-east Africa, S.E. Europe. (H.L). 

f3) A field (not a swamp) bird: beak and legs pink, a 
small pink wattle, a nodule instead of a wing-spur, white abdomen= 

Sarewphorus tecftis. HOODED PLOVEH. 

Ranffe. Senegambia: North east Africa. (H.L.) 

These three are all weU known and common throughout the 
Pr'otectorate. They are u.suallv found in pairs but also sometimes 
in small parties. The native name=, Temmi-tenmo in Mandingo and 
Wetawet in .Toloff apply to all three. 

About the occurrence in the Gambia of most of the other 
members of this family T can o-ive but little certain information and 
will therefore only for the sake of completeness ('as earlier) give a 
list of those whose range includes our locality with notes of those 
T feel sure T have seen or shot, and references to the specimlens 
obtained in this country by Kendall Tlbis, 1892, p. 218), and Bud- 
gett (Ibis, 1901. p. 481), both of whom made collections here, the 
former in Bathurst and its neiThbourhood, the latter chiefly up-nver. 

Fiqnafarola helvetica. GBEY PLOVER. 

Bangle. Almost cosmopolitan. 

1 male, October. (Rendall). 

Aecrialifis olrTa-drim.. KENTISH PLOVER. 

Bancfe. Europe and Central Asia to China and Japan. 
Africa, India, and Australia in winter. (H.L.) 

Ae. pecuaria. 

Bancfe. Africa, north to Nile Delta. (H.L.) 

Ae. hmficula. RING-PLOVER. 

Banffe. Europe, east to Lake Baikal. E. North .America 
(casual). Africa and India in winter. (H.L.) 


Range. Europe and North As'a to Japan. "West N. America 
(casual). Africa. India and Malaya in winter. (H.L.) 

Small flocks (4 to 6) of Ring-plover frequently seen near 
Bathurst and the Cape from about December to March ; they are 
probably th's species. Rendall obtained one female in April. 

Oxyerhv.9 forhesi. FORBES' PLOVER. 

Bange. "West Africa, Senegambia to Gaboon. Equatorial 
Africa. (H.L). 

Arenaria infcrprci^. TURNSTONE. 

Bange. Cosmopolitan. 

November 2 (Rendall). T th'nk I saw one at Karawan on 
the North Bank in January, 1904 and am sure I did at Bakau, 
November 14, 1908. 

7'ringa suharquafa. CURLEAV-SANDPIPER. 

Birds of Gambia. 77 

Range. North Siberia. Africa, Iiuiia to Auhtialia in winter. 

Eeudall yot " llircu uuL of an imniouiie ilock " in October. 
Captain Stanley sent me one he Jiad sliot at Boroba in I<'ebruary, 
lyOT, out of a Ilock of about HO. Twelve flocks of 20 to oO birds 
birds came over iiiin, as he was shooting' in the evening on the 
swamp. In January, I'JOt, on a dry swamp at Ivarawan I shot 
several birds wiucli I thought at the timo were Knots, but now I 
believe to have bcon Uiis species. 

T. canulus. KNOT. 

Range. Arctic liegions. Afiica, JniUa to Australia and New 
Zealand in winter. (ILL.),. 

T. minuta. LITTLE STINT. 

Range. North Europe; Nortii Asia to Lake Baikal. Africa, 
India, Ceylon in winter. (H.L.) 

Calidiis arenaria. SANDEliLING. 

Range. Arctic regions. South America, Africa, India to 
Australia. iMarshall Islands in winter. i^H.L.) 

Two October. (Kendall). 

Limosa lappouica. BAIl-TAILED GODWIT. 

Range. Sub-aictic regions fioni Lapland to the Yenesei. 
Mediterranean, Senegambia, Sind in -winter. {H.L.). 

Totanus calidiis. REDSHANK. 

Ranne. Europe and Central Asia to East Siberia. Afiica, 
India, to Malaya in winter. (H.L.) 

Met with occasionally along the river durijig the winter. I 
shot onie in the Upper Eiver in March, I'JO.'). Kendall obtained 
one in September. 

Tl. nebularius. GREENSHANK. 

Range. Korth Europe and North Asia. Africa, India, and 
Australia in winter. (E.L.) 

Rendall gx)t one in September. I shot two at the Cape in 
November, 1908. 

T. stagnalilis. MARbH-GREENsHANK. 

Range, South-east Europe to North-east Asia. Africa, India, 
to Australia in winter. {R.L.). 

T. g'aneola. WOOD-SANDPIPER. 

Range. Europe and Noith Asia. Africa, India to Australia 
in winter. {H.L.), 

One, November. (Rendall;. I saw a bird shot by Captain 
Sangster in Kombo in March, 1907, which I am practically certain 
was this species. 

T. ochropus. GREEN SANDPIPER. 

Range. Europe and North Asia. Africa, India to Malaya 
m winter. (H.L.) 

T. hypoleuciis. COMMON SANDPIPER. 

Range. Europe and Nortli Asia. Africa, India to Austi'alia 
in winter. {E.L.) 

78 Birds of Gambia. 

" Found in every swamp." (Rendall). The oommonest of 
all the small waders, popu'arly known here as " snippets." 

Numenius arcuatus. CURLEW. 

Bancfe. Europe, east to Lake Baikal. Africa, India, South 
China, Malay Peninsula in winter. (H.L.). 

N. plaeopus. WHIMBEEL. 

Banqe. Europe. Africa, India to Malava in winter. 
(H.L). ■ ■ ' ' 

Our " Curlew " are nearly all really AMiimbrels, though among 
tliem one not infrequently sees the larerer longer-billed true Curlew. 
They abound w^herever suitable places occur, and these are common 
■enough. Their favourite haunts perhaps are the low mangrove 
swamps, the " marigots " of the French, w^hich fringe the first forty 
miles or so of the river, before the commencement of the closer 
and more lofty mangrove growth of the next fifty miles. 

In such places one finds them in scores and in places where 
they are not much disturbed may make a fair bag, although always 
at the expense of much labour and tribulation in the black man- 
grove mud. Where, however, tJiey are much shot at they are as 
wary a bird as one can meet anywhere, and the shooting of even 
a single one is a ra'-e and extremely chancy event. Their Mandingo 
name is Kunun-kuko. 

{To he continued). 

Aviary Observations. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 
I may state at once that this article has been prompted 
by correspondence with a friend, and has been somewhat hesi- 
tatingly entered upon, as I do not love the usual avicultural 
controversy and am not disposed to indulge those who do, but 
a statement of methods and their results will be a great gain 
to all concerned. At present there are supposed to be two 
"schools," somewhat fancifully called the "old" and the "new." 
I am not going to give a definition of either, nevertheless there 
are two methods which stand clearly out as forming, shall we 
say, the two extremes, viz.: — 

1. Boldly making a daily observation of a Inrd's nest 

and their progeny, and taking any risk there 
may lie. for the sake of the information gained. 

2. Leaving the birds very much to themselves, glean- 

ing what data is possible by unobtrusively 
observing them from a spy hole, distance, or 
other means not directly apparent to the birds. 

Avmry Observations. 79 

Having thus briefly stated the case, I feel that my 
purpose can be best served by stating: How I Observe My 

First, however, T must emphasize the importance of 
systematic and methodical observation and note-taking, if our 
bird-keeping is to be elevated from a mere hobby to an act- 
ual cult, and also indicate what I consider the main lines 
calling for persistent study. 

Aviculture should solve many points of the life his- 
tories of many species, especially sue"h species as are of a 
retiring demeanour, concerning whose life histories but little 
can be learned by the ordinary process of field observation — 
though much ha«! been done of late years by observers arrang- 
ing some concealment whereby they are able to watch, the 
watched being ignorant of their presence. 

The points most calling for the attention of avicul- 
turists are roughly as follows : — 

1. Character of nest, and do both sexes build? 

2. Period of incubation, and do both sexes incubate? 

3. Colour of egg-s. 

4. Description of callow young. 

5. Description of nestling plumage. 

6. Age young leave the nest. 

7. Manner they are fed and what on. 

8. Demeanour of parent birds during feeding and learing. 

9. Age young are able to fend for themselves. 

10. Age they assume adult plumage and process. 

11. Age. at which the young have their first nest. 

There are many other features which will commend 
themselves to the thoughtful observer, and every interesting 
epi.sode should be entered in a lx)ok kept handy for the purpose. 
The demeanour of each species kept should be observed and 
recorded, and not merely of one individual pair, 'but the re- 
cord should be continuous for comparison purposes: for, the 
records of a single pair or individual, as to amiability and 
other features of their life prove but little. 

Now, how best can we secure this? Observation must 
be made, or we gain but little for the expenditure of time and 
money we lavish upon our birds, save a little personal interest 
and pleasure. When I first began to take up and record the 
doings of the birds in my aviary, 1 read other people's meth- 
ods, as many as I could get hold of, and thought the matter 

so Aviary Observations. 

out for myself, carefully weighing what seemed to me the 
best points of each. Quite early I was called upon to face 
the question of direct interference with nests and examination 
of young, or take tlie other counse of making such observation 
as I could unobtrusively. In other words, should I observe 
them under the most natural conditions possible, or should I by 
active interference and bold curiosity, set up even more arti- 
ficial conditions than the limitations of aviary life enforced? 
For myself I decided on the former course, viz., to practise 
unobtrusive observation as the principal means to reach the 
end I had in view, viz., to secure as much information as 
possible, combined wi;h the most natural conditions my accom- 
modation would permit. 

I will illustrate my point by referring my readers to 
Mr. Willford's beautiful photos of bird life, which have ap- 
peared in recent volumes of Bird Notes — compare these with 
the earlier photos depicting similar scenes; in the latter the 
birds mostly had an alarmed and scared appearance, while in 
the former the birds are quite natural and unconcerned, whe- 
ther engaged in the duties of incubation or feeding their 
young, and so complete has been the success of the hiding- 
tent and other similar means that time exposures are pos- 
sible in some cases— it is idle to ask which photos are the most 
valuable— thus unobtrusively I would glean the life history of 
the birds in my aviary. 

At the same time I have held, and still hold, no hard 
and fast method, but use every means, which the environment of 
the aviary permits, and my ingenuity can contrive, to pry 
as closely into their domestic affairs as is possible without 
destroying the naturalness of their demeanour. 

JSIow before describing the various methods I have 
used, among which has been the direct examination of eggs 
and young, let me state what I have gleaned from this 
practice and when 1 have used it. 

In the first place, when I have once bred a species, I 
never hesitate to examme the eggs and the young in the second 
or following nest.s, to supply any data lacking from the previ- 
ous event. At the samo time I must confess, that with one 
exception (Orange -cheeked ^^'axbill), all the nests I so treated 
this past season (iyi2) were deserted m the end, such as : 

Aviary Observations. 81 

Olive Finches, Mag-pie Mannikins, Zebra Finches, and several 
others — ye^ on hcing away from home for a time and others at- 
tending to the hiids, most of them successfully brought ofT 

A question arises here: What species are there whose 
nests can be examined without fear of their deserting- eggs or 
young? Well, speaking from an experience extending over 
more than thii-ty years, I dare not name a single species, ihat 
one can be safe with, not even Zebra Finches oi Ikidgerigars, 
for though most pairs of these two species will permit al- 
most any amount of familiarity, yet I have lost several nests 
of both species from this cause, and I may add here that I 
have bred over sixty different species in my aviaries, most 
of them for several years in succession. 

There are those, who, persistently examine eggs and 
young for the sake of gaining knowledge as to colour of 
the egg and the callow young in various stages of growth, 
and who have succeeded in breeding many species too, but 
while I admire their boldness in pursuit of the in 
view, I ask myself, how many failures have preceded the 
successful result? Moreover, apart from the points named, 
such persistent interference with the birds sets up an arti- 
ficial condition o'f things, however natural the aviary may be, 
that renders the demeanour of the adult l)ird, anything but tliat 
of the wild bird in its native haunts. 

Now my main object is not to discourage close observa- 
tion, but to encourage it, neither is it to condemn the methods 
of others, but I am seeking to show that much valuable data 
can be secured without direct interference with nests or birds. 
Moreover, moving in and out among our birds in the aviary 
disturbs them but little, and for such species as build open, 
cup -shaped nests at a low elevation, observation is easy in- 
deed; for instance, very many visitors saw the eggs and young 
of the Indian White-eyes and theparent birds feeding their pro- 
geny from a distance of four to isix feet, and the birds were not 
disturbed at all, but would go on foraging for their prey and 
carry it to their young, taking no notice whatever of those in- 
specting them; of course I insisted on visitors standing still 
and not talking (even ladies) while in the aviary 

But as for taking steps or ladder into the aviary and 

<S2 Aviary Ohservatiojis. 

climbing up, or regularly mooching among the bushes, putting) 
my finger into spherical nests, etc., these methods I certainly 
do not practise, and thei-e are few species which I have bred 
that I have not been able to secure pretty full data concerning 
them. More I need not say, as the past six volumes of 
Bird Notes contain many, and I need not recapitulate. TJnfor- 
tunaicly of late years Bird Notes has claimed most of the time 
I used to give to observing my birds. 

Bu^ this paper is getting altogether too long and dis- 
cursive : tliereidre I lad l)etter taliulafe some of the means 
I use in addition to those already implied in the foregoing. 

1. From the outside of the aviary and the use of field- 

2. By persistent watching for and collection of egg- 
shells after hatching has taken place, beneath 
the nests of the birds. 

3. By the aid of a hand mirror on a long tube -jointed 

stick, I have ascertained the colour of the eggs 
of many species, and also secured descriptions 
of the callow young. During the past season 
(1912), I ascertained the contents of a nest at 
an elevation of 11| feet, both as regards eggs 
and the callow young, by this means. 

4. By quietly walking about in the aviary, often several 

times a day, even if only for brief periods, at 
the same time I never go obtrusively near the 
bushes or tall herbage which shelters a nest. 
In conclusion I would like to add, that careful and per- 
sistent observation adds greatly to the zest of aviculture; more- 
over, I personally consider that aviculturists have a responsi- 
bility which they ought not to shirk, viz., to supply all the 
data possible concerning the life histories of the species they 
keep, and which I maintain, may be obtained without undue 
interference with the birds. Personally I have not taken un- 
due risks in observing my birds, except in special cases, and 
then have met with frequent mishaps, and know of many sim- 
ilar mishaps occurring to other aviculturists. This past season 
a nest of Violet -eared Waxbills in a friend's aviary near here 
was lost from this cause. 

The above has been penned during a period of severe 

The Aviaries at l^onndhay Parle. 83 

pressure, but the nesting season is all but upon us and if it 
induces ;uiy lo lake up Hie methodical observation of the birds 
tlicy kci'|., ,111(1 others to record the methods they use, I shall 
be amply repaid for the labour incurred. 

The Aviaries at Roundliay Park (Leeds). 


Some two or three years ago, having- a good collec- 
tion ol various .small Foi'eign and British Birds in an open aviary, 
1 was U'ni|)te(l to oH'cr (hem to the Parks' Committee of the 
Leeds City Council, and they were gladly accepted and a proper 
aviary built for their reception. 

Since I have had the opportunity of guiding the arrange- 
ments for their future, I have guarded their interests from 
time to time, studied their lial)its and customs and have pai'- 
ticularly advised as to the suiiability of their feeding. The birds 
were kept together in one large aviary for more than a year, 
and they were a charming addition to the Park, delighting the 
young people, and greatly interesting the older ones. The 
popularity of the aviary exceeded all expectations, and a 
larger aviary in a more convenient place has since been con- 
structed with a southern aspect. 

The dimensions of the new improved aviary are as 
follows : 

Length 70 feet, width 11 feet, and height varying 
from 8 feet in front to 12 feet. The entire length of the back 
is a brick wall, the front is wire netting, covered by movable 
glass shutters, which protect the birds during the bad and 
inclement weather of the winter season, and can be removed 
during spring and summer. The centre compartment (A) is a 
wooden erection, with glass observation window — for sleeping 
accommodation — a coke fire on the outside wall keeps the 
temperature even and warm. 

The following is a list of the bii-ds that are at present 
in the aviary with contemplated additions. 

Green and Yellow Budgerigars, Cockatiels, Red-crested 
Curdinak' {Paroaria cuculla!a) Lovebirds, Giant Weaver -birds. 
Ground Doves, Java Sparrows (grey and wliite varieties) 

84 The Aviaries at Rowidhay Park. 

Red-billed (Quelea queUa) und Black-faced Weavers, Orange 
Bishops (Pyromelana /yaweisca^a;, Lemon (Napoleon) Bishops 
(F. afra). Bed (Madagascar) Bishops {F . madugascariemis), 
Paradise Whydahs, (6'. paradisea), many varieties of Finches, 
including: Singingfinches, Silverbills, Golden -breasted (S. 
subfiava), Orange-cheeked {S. melpodus), and St. Helena 
Waxbilis {Estrilda astrilda); Cordon Bleu {E. phoenicotis), 
Combasous {Hypochera aeweo), Crimson Ears {E. cinerea), Cut- 
throats, Amumm S. cunadava), Yellow-shouldered Weaver- 
bird (P. cai)ensis^. Canaries of mr.ny varieties, and others. 
The British birds include: Bullfinches, Linnets, Redpolls, and 
other hard -billed species. 

Difficulties have arisen m connection with the delicate 
foreign Finches, and losses have carried off some birds of 
handsome colour, such as Cordon Bleus, Firefinches, &c., that 
were not used to "fogs" and consistently bad weather. Un- 
fortunately birds ^.rriving in this country from tropical climates 
are in such bad condition that it is impossible to have small 
foreign birds without having numbers of deaths, before the 
BtrougesL become acclimatised. 

The left-hand side (B) of the aviaries is kept solely 
for Gold and Silver Pheasants, and Laughing Pigeons from 
the Holy Land. 

I desire to record the valuable help given by Mr, 
AUsopp, the courteous Superintendent of the Park, and his 
assistants, in the construction and management— and in the 
care displayed by attending to the welfare of the birds— and 
lam conscious "that this aviary in the public park at Roundhay, 
has been the means of conveying to the people of Leeds 
and district, a more extensive and accurate knowledge of 
the habits of many different and beautiful species of small 
British and Foreign birds, than previously existed. 

Birds of the Sal Forest 

By Douglas Dewak, I.C.S. 
To my mind the most striking feature of a sal forest 
is the abruptness with which it begins and ends. It does 
not merge gradually into the cultivated land, but rises up, 
like an. immense building, at the margins of the cultivated 

Birds of the "S!aJ" Fordst. 85 

AliiKist as v(Mii;irk:i1iIc as tlio ubrniitness witli wliicli 
tho .S77' fnr(^st lioefiiis and oiuls is its density. 

V\\\ \o\ mc l)(\!j:in at Iho hoijiniiinp:. 

SdJ forests are cfiai-aetci'istic of the sub-Mimalayan 
tracts of the United Provinces. In oMen days the whole of 
this teri'itory appears to have been covered hy dense jung"le. 
Mucli of this has lieeii rcMnoved to make room for cultivation, 
but a considerable part remains and will remain for many 
years to come, because the Government of India now appre- 
ciates tlie enormous value of forestry. 

In the Pilibhit district, whei^e T am serving?, there are 
150 square miles of sal forest. 

This forest is not composed exclusively of sal trees, but 
these constitute about two -thirds of all the trees, and the sals 
are so imposing in appearance that the other trees seem to 
be crowded out of sight 1 

The .<?(■/' (Shnrra rnhxs^a) is characterised by its tall 
straight trunk, and its dark rich green undivided leaves. It 
often happens that some short leafy branches grow out of the 
trunk; this gives the trunks the appearance of being" fest- 
ooned Mn'th leaves. The foliage of the sal tree, like that of the 
palm, does no^ spread very much, hence a large number of sal 
trees can, and in the forest actually do, grow in a very small 
space. ' ' '" 

The ground between the trunks of the trees is over- 
grown Avith grasses, which, when allowed full scope, T3e- 
come large enough to cover completely an elephant and its 
rider. In addition to this there is a good deal of scruT) and 
undergrowth of young trees and luishes. Hence a sal forest 
is very dense, and difTicult to penetrate. However, in the 
Pilibhit district at short intervals there are open glades 
known as chandirs. In these the long grasses run riot— they 
and stunted .'^aJ scrub constitute almost the only vegetation. 

It is not known for certain how these chandars were 
formed. Some think that they are the beds of streams that 
used to run through the forest and have dried up or changed 
their course. The fact that istreams still penetrate the forest 
lends countenance to this view, but the irregular distribution of 
tliese rhanders render its acceptance difficult. 

86 Birds of the "Sal" Forest. 

It is not improlmble that these open glades are parts 
of the forest, that were cleared by man many years ago. They 
never get covered with trees because the sal seedling is very 
sensitive to frost. It is killed by the cold of the Indian av inter 
unless it is surrounded by other trees. This is the reason why 
sal trees can establish themselves neither in these open glades 
nor on the land immediately outside the forest. 

The Forest Department has cut broad straight fii^e- 
lines through these jungles. The main object of these passages 
is to prevent a fire spreading throughout the forest, but they 
also serve as roads. The grass that grows on these during the 
rainy season is Cut in the cold weather and fired, and thus they 
are kept clear. These dense forests are the alwde of many 
wild animals; tigers, leopards, jungle cats, wild boars, sam- 
bur, spotted-deer, swamp-deer, blue antelopes, wild dogs, hy- 
aenas, and porcupines are all found within them. 

They harbour many birds, liut the tract they cover is so 
vast and the foliage is so dense, that the casual observer is 
apt to be surprised at the small number of the fowls of the air 
that he sees. 

The silence of these jungles is very marked in com- 
parison with the noise that prevails in the neighbouring cul- 

As one rides along a fire-line with the s((/ trees rising 
up on either hand like great walls, the birds that most fre- 
quently show themeselves are Bulbuls of the Molpastes and 
Otoco>npsa species. Wonderful birds aie these Bulbuls. Next 
to the Crows, Sparrows, and Doves, they are the most success- 
ful species in India. They are equally at home in the garden, 
the hedgerow, the grove, or the low jungle, dense forest, and 
in the long 'grass of the tarai. 

Nearly as numerous as the Bulbuls are the Doves. The 
spotted species {Turtar surateusis) is the most abundant- 
Ring Doves {Turtur risorius), too, are plentiful, as are the 
beautiful little Bronze -winged Doves (Chalcophaps indica)^ 
but these last keep as a rule to the densest parts of the forest, 
and rarely show themselves in the fire-lines. Occasionally a 
noisy flock of green Parrots {Paloeorms) flies overhead. The 
other birds most often seen are the Black-headed Oriole (Ori- 

Birds of the ".'?rt7" Forrist. 87 

olufi nu'ldiiorriiliiiliix), tli(> T.oiit^-failcil Ti-cc-pic (Deinlmi-i/fti 
nifa) and llie (!ol(lon-l);i(i\(Ml A\'()!)(l|)('ck(^i' ( ninfliz/p/crniis aurm 

Amid tlio lon.i,'- .i^n-iss stems tliat cover (lie opon s'lados 
Urctty little Avadiiva's (Sporrvqivthus hdii mlnni), spi'iulitly 
Rush-chats (1^ rat in cola )i/n'ira). haiu'somo Crested nimtinq-s 
{Melophus mrlanicierus) and several species of Warblers dis- 
port themselves. The recesses of the forests liold many strange 
and beautiful l)irds, especially in winter when a great many 
Flycatchers and Warblers seek refuge in these forests from 
the rigours of the Himalayas. 

Amid the areeu foliaye tlit splendid BJiinirrtJ^' ">v 
Racket-tailed Di-oiigns (Diss',n/ir/'s jinrddiscus) and re- 
splendent P)lne Whistlinu-'riirushes (M n'tophoucux temwinchi). 

Perhaps the most interesting birds in the forest are 
the Pied Hornbills {.\ntln;icnerrox ullnrnah-h). These ureat 
birds are nearly a yard long, and have the casque pretty well 
developed. Their flight is very noisy, and the swish of their 
wings can be heard for a long distance: in contrast to this 
is the absurdly weak voice, which always puts me in mind 
of the squeak of a mechanical toy. 

Other large birds that haunt the sal forests are the 
Pea-fowl (Pavo rrislafns), and the Jungle-fowl (GdlJns frrnt- 
gincufi); the latter is said never to bo found away from sal 
forests. : ! ■' ' '' j '"' { •^ "'i^ 

These two species are most numerous at the edi^(> of 
the forest or near the clearings in which the houses for the 
use of forest officers are built. 

These two species li;' up in t'lc dense jungle. They 
issue forth to feed in the very early morning, and just after- 
sunset. They then betake themselves to the cultivation on 
the fringe of the forest where they feed. At such times a 
field looks very like a farmyard, since in addition to a dozen 
Peafowl p(M-haps twenty or tliirty Jungle cocks and liens 
are pick-ini; up iii-ains in it. If one can manage to ix ^ le'w'cn 
such a nock and the forest, one has good sport w'itli tlie gun, 
when the birds, being startled, fly to cover. BdHi species 
take a lot of lead, and run swiftly. 

I was about to say that the sal forests are the only 

88 Editorial. 

places in India that are not haunted by Crows and Mynahs, 
but this would not be strictly accurate, for these ubiquitous 
birds are invariably to be found in the neiijhbourhood of the 
clearings made for the erection of forest bungalows. In all 
othei" parts, however, the jungle is free from these birds and 
it is the absence of these, quite as much as the presence of 
Pied Hornbills, Racket -tailed Drongos, and Bronze -winged 
Doves, which gives the sal forest its distinctive character. 


The Endurance of Birds: This should prove a useful 
topic, if the members would give details of the Inrds they keep. 
This winter has certainly been mild, but its ever changing 
temperature, cold rains, and furious winds have made it a some- 
what trying time, out of doors, both for man and beast. Yet 
time abundantly proves thnt, given' suitably constructed aviaries 
even the reputably delica+e species, fe.g.. Cordon Bleus, Fire- 
finches. Lavender Finches, etc., can be, and are, so kept in 
almost every county of Great Britain. Lady Dunleath (Co. 
Down), informs us that her birds are all doing well, flying out 
of doors during the daytime, but are shut in the shelter at 
night. She mentions Waxbills (several species). Cordon 
Bleus, Avadavats (full colour)', and Firefinches as looking 
particularly happy and fit. 

Hangnest Laying Egos tn Captivity: Lady Dunleath 
has a common Hangnest (Icterus vulqaris)\ which she ob- 
tained quite young at Pernambuco two and a half years ago. 
It is now quite a pet and accompanies her everywhere : it is also 
(luito an accomplished whistler. Last year it laid three eggs — first 
two in a cage, which were broken — it was then put in an 
aviary with a cock Hangnest of another species, of which it 
would ta'-e no no'i -e; 1 oweve"^ f^e hen huilt a nest, laid another 
egg (infertile)— there the episode ends for the present; but 
Hangnests have so very seldom laid in captivity that w^ 
consider the event wortli putting on record. 

The Aviaries at the Cripples' Hospital and 
College: We have to acknowledge with many thanks the 
following gifts to these aviaries: 

4 Waxbills and a pair of 7ebra Finches from H. L. 
Sich, Esq. 

Editorial. 89 

4 Budgerigars, a Cockateel, and a Riga Jay, from H. 

Siiarey, Esq. 
1 pair Californian Quail, and a Grey-winged Ou/.cl, 

from Wesley T. Page, Esq. 
Gifts of Foreign Fringillidce and Ploceldce, a cock Cock- 
alcel, and a pair of Blue-wing Lovebirds would be highly ap- 
preciated by the Trustees. 

African Sunbikds: Our member, Mr. P. Owen, in- 
forms us that he has successfully imported and has still living 
in his bird -room, specimens of the Malachite Sunbird 
(Seddrinia fmnnsu) and several others including three which 
are new to aviculture, viz: The Cape Long-tailed Sunbird 
{Pronierup.s cajcr), with a tail 14 inches long; Amethyst 
Sunbird {Cinnyria amethijstinus), with a crown of metallic 
emerald-green and a gorgel of shining ro^y li!ac, which is also 
the colour of the upper tail -coverts, remainder of plumage 
black with a rich violet sheen. Orange-breasted Sunbird {Antliro- 
baphes violacca) the principle colouration being metallic green 
above the resplendatit yellow l)ene,ith, with washings of 
orange -red on the chest and upper tail coverts, and two 
yellow tufts at the shoulders. 

We congratulate Mr. Owen on the possession of such 
rare and beautiful species of an exquisite group of birds. 

Page 37, bottom line, for " guadrichictus" read quadricinctus 
„ 47 line 12 from bottom, for '' diamidiatus" read dim- 

„ 53, line 1, for " inola" read Lifiota. 
„ 53, line 1, for " Pyrrlula" read Pyrrhula. 
„ 54, line 8, ^ov " Poephila modesta" read Poep)hila per- 

„ 54, line 30, for " ta7is" read cantans. 
„ 56, line 4, for " casianeoihorax" read castaneithorax. 
„ 56, line 5, for '' Sporuyinthus" read Sporaeginthiis. 
„ 60, transpose line 6 to between lines 3 and 4. 

British Bird Calendar. 

It is urgently requested that members from all round the 
coast will note the movement of birds, more especially 

90 British Bird Calendar. 

ir- the Southern and Eastern Counties, and regularly (28th 
of each month) sf^nl in their notes — on this the ultimate 
success and permanent interest of tJie Calendar will de- 
pend. — Ki). 

January 27: On this exceptionally early date for this 
species, a Chiff-chafT was caught in Ireland. It came into my 
hands, was well nourished, but has since died. 

A.S., Feb. 13th, 1913. 
Owing- to the mild weather there has been very little 
movement of birds during the last two months. Any notes 
I have taken, suca a.i large flocks of Knots moving south, 
have been counterbalanced within a few days by similar move- 
ments in the opposite direction, which can only be attributed 
to a change in the direction of the wind, and consequently were 
local movements. 

Severe weather causes the birds to make longer flights, 
and recently when visiting a Plover -catcher, who has had 
very nian\ years' experience, he informed me that in a season 
like the present he could make a precarious living only, 
wherea- in short sharp periods the Plover moved south when 
the frost set in and always the daj^ berore the break they com- 
mence to move north again, and a week of severe weather 
followed by a mild one was good for the catcher, but, bad 
fur the bird-'y; there will, however, be some real movements 
during March and April, and I sincerely hope many of our 
members will keep a look-out and report their observations. 

K.S. 2 7/2/' 13. 
February. — Besi:le3 many Curlew, Dunlin, and Wigeon, 
I have ide.iliiled a couple of White Stork on the mud- flats. 
The Percaers are mostly in hiding from our miserable weather. 
Single specimens of the Chiffchaft', Corn Bunting and Bull- 
fincli, have been seen, and i)airs as follows : Song Thrush 10th ; 
Blackbird 13tli; Blackcap 4th; Blue Tit 3rd; Wren 10th; 
Linne! 13th; .Jay 28th; Magpie Uth. Small parties of Marsh 
Tits 2nd; and of Goldfinches 27th. Skylarks and Hedge 
Accentors were in full .^ong on 10th; Thrushes and Blackbirds 
warbling on 12th. Rooks and Thrushes are now building. 
The Black-headed Gull lias begun to change his plumage. 
The migrants so far are represented Ly a solitary Lesser 
Whitethroat, D.L. (Salcombe;. 28;2/'13. 


Boole Notices and Revicivs. 91 

February.- In llic lirst week of this month the cock 
Chadinches were in lull xtng, as also the Song Thrushes. On 
the 7th a pair of Starlings wci'c Imsy getting ready a favoui'ite 
nesting hole high up an old elm. They seemed to l)e throwing 
out hits of the old nest. By the end of the month each nest- 
ing h()\ in the garden was in possession of a pair of Starl- 
ings. Several Hocks of I^rent Geese have been seen feeding 
on the shore here all this month, some of the flocks consisting 
of al)0ut one hundred birds. A Shelduck, mirked with a j'ing 
as a ■■ llappcr " m the summer oi' 1912 was shot at Saltash in 
Cornwall on tlu- lOtli of February thi-; year. On the same 
cfay af G a.m. a Song Thrush was found dying at the St. 
CallH'i-iiu'"s Li{,dith()use, which was jninni to be. fnnii ilic num- 
bered ring on one leg, one marked near here on the 25th of 
April, 1912, as a nestling. The lighthouse keeper reported 
that an immigration from the south, of Thrushes, had been 
going on for three days before, and so it seems very likely 
that this Thrush was coming back to the neighbourhood of its 
birth: St. Catherine's light being about 20 miles due south of 
this village. These and other birds, which have since been 
" reported " were marked with aluminium rings, supplied by 
the Aberdeen University Bird Migration Inquiry. 

P.G. (Beaulieu).3/3/'13. 

Book Notices and Reviews. 

A Ststkm ok Vkteki\aj;y AIkdici-xe, by various writers.^ Edited 
by E. Wallis Hoare, P.U.C.V.S. In two vols., £2 2s. net. 
Vol. I. now ready. Price £1 Is. net. London: Bailliere, Tia- 
dall, and Cox, 8, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 

A prospectus of this valuable work has been sent us, ancf 
we note that our Hon. Veterinary Surgeon, H. Gray, j\I. 11. C.V.J''., is 
a large (the laigest) contributor to Vol. I. 

The Editor, in the preface to Vol. I. writes thus of Mr. 
Gray's share in the preparation of the volume: — 

" A largte share of ttie task has fallen to Mr. Henry Gray, wiio has 
" not only written on the subjects on which he has specialised, 
" but also has read the pi'oof-sheets as they passed through the 
"pjiess, and suggested many useful alterations and additions. His 
"wide experience of canine medicine has enabled him to write 
" authioritatively on this subject, and the sections on Canine Disf- 
" temper, Canine Typhus, and other microbial affections of the dog. 

92 Correspondence. 

"cannot but prove of marked value to practitionei'S interested ia 

" thie diseases of this animal." 

Fr,om the prospectus <his work should appeal to medical men, 
sportsmen, stockowners, aviculturists, pisciculturists, dog- and poultry- 
breeders, cattle, sheep, and horse-owners, and county g-entlemen, as 
well as to veterinary surgeons, for whom the work is mainly intended. 
The first volume deals with the microbial or contagious diseases. 


THE RUSTY-CHEEKED SCIMITAR BABBLER {Pomatorhl/uis eii/thioqenys), 

SiK, — In reply to your request for a photo of the nest, which 
my Kusty-cheeked Babblers have just built, I am sorry that I cannot 
manage this for you, as a pair of my hybrid Californian Squamata 
Quail have selected it for a roosting place, and it has now lost all 
shape. I have not tlie least doubt but that the Babblers will soon try 
again; especially if this mild weather lasts. They are very interest- 
ing birds, and the cock has already been figured in "B.N." [Foi the 
benefit of new readers we repeat the plate. — Ed.]. He is very at- 
tached to the hen, and it is amusing to see him with half-a-dozen 
mealworms in his sickle-shaped bill feeding her. The nest they 
made was a very untidy sti^ucture, the material used being mostly the 
leaves and fibrous roots of the Artichoke. It measured about eight- 
een inches across and was six inches deep. It was at first quite open 
at the top jike a Blackbird's nest, but finally they half -domed it, leaving' 
a laige opening on the top side. These birds are great foragers, and 
must find a good deal of their food naturally. 1 nave gi^eat hopes of 
raising young from them this summer. 

Another interesting pair of birds that are now nesting are 
my Black-winged Grackles (Graculipica melmioptera) . They have 
built a nest in one of my Porrot nesting boxes ; straw, small sticks, 
paper, etc., were the materials used. Should they go further with it I 
will let you have particulars. I have also Black -cheeked Lovebirds, 
Cockateels, Bronze-wing and Brush Bronze-wing Pigeons incubating. 
The young birds will probably arrive just when our real winter is com- 
mencir g ! 

Very truly yours, 
Beyers House, fWestbury, WM. SHORE BAILY. 

February 9, 1913. 


Sib,— Has it ever occurred to anyone elsei, I ■wonder! Revel- 
ling in the exquisite colouring one finds in birds, as I do, how rarely 
onie sees pink, or even anything approaching it. 

Correspondence. 93 

O: true pink I can recall indeed but one instance, and that 
i5 a few fcatluMs in the nape of one of the Bower Birds, as seen at the 
Natui'al History Musi'iun, for I have not scon even that in life. There 
i.s the pink in the breast of our old friend the " Tlosey " it is true, 
but even tha' is of I'ather a tauddy description; then thci'e is the pink 
nf sorts in the breast of the Buliruic'i, but beyond that I cannot go. 
Kvory si^ade of red and orans-e is common enough, but only that one 
inslanee of true, I'ji'ar pink tliat I can recall. I maybe mistaken, and 
this may scoin rather nonsense to write about, but any way, it will 
set members thinking if they can enumerate other instances. 
(Mrs.) E. A. H. HARTLEY. 

HOODED SISKIN (Chrnxnmitrh cHrulla/u^) 
Sin, Tlie young Hooded SLskin (cf) is now five months old and 
sliowing til'- male colouration on breast and abdomen. The colour is at 
p)esrnt oi-ange-red, not vermillion, as in the adult male. 

Eton. Windsor, (Dr.) M. AMSLER. 

February 12, 1913. 


Dear Sir. — In sending you the attached which I think cannot 
fail to prov( of interest to your readers, I may mention that the 
leadei-p ofBr/tisJi Birds" Magazine have now placed ovei- .32,000 rings 
on wild birds of many kinds and that this is lea ling to results of great 
interest and importance in connexion with the study of birds. 

Should ringed birds ever come into the hands of your readers 

I hope they will notify me at once, s*^ating the name on the ring and 

the number, as well as the date and p^ace where the bird was found. 

T will then at once inform them when and where the bird was ringed. 

Yours faithfully, 


Editor British Birds. 
Extract from "British B'rds," 'February, 1913. 

The following letter has just reached me : — 

Grand Hotel, 

Utrecht, Natal, 
27th December, 1912. 
" Witherby," 

High Holborn, London. 

Dear Sir. — On December 23rd, a Swallow was caught in 
in the farmhouse of the farm "Roodeyand," 18 miles from this town, 
with a metal label round its leg, with the woi-ds: Witherby, High 
Holboru, London, and on the other side B.830. 

94 Corre'^po7jdence. 

The farmer, Mr. J. Mayer, took the label off and has it in 
his possession. As I am interested in birds of any sort and the mi- 
gratior of same, I shall bo glnd to know if you receive this letter 

Yours truly, 

C. H. ErnnorK, Prnpri^tnr. 

Tlie ring B.8.T0 was put on an adult Swallow by \[r. J. R. B. 
Ma,sefield. at Rosehill, Choalle. Slarrords^iire on May nth, 1011. This 
bird was oiue of a pair (Mr. Masefield thought the female) which 
nested in a porch. Its mate was also caught and ringed. At the 
same time Mr. Masefleld ringed another pair nesting in the same 
porch. In the sumnior of 1912 he ag^ain rausrht the Swallows which 
had come to nest in his porch and found that only one- of them had a 
ring, viz. B.827, which was one of the b-rds nesting there the year 
before. Neither its mate nor the other pair of which the present 
B.830 is one had returned to this particular spot. 

That this Swallow breeding in the far west of Europe should 
have rear.hed so far to the south -p^s^ of Africa as Natal, seems to me 
extraordinary. Unfortunately the few "records we have as yet of ringed 
Swallows recovered during migration do not afford a clue to the routes 
taken, and it seems to me unreasonable to suppose that our birds 
proceed southwards down the east side of Africa, as m!ght be in- 
ferred from this Natal record. 

It is, indeed, quite impossible to theorize on a single recovery 
of this kind and we must be content at present with the bare fact — 
perhaps the most s'artline: fact that the ringing of birds has as yet 

We are most thankful to Mr. Ruddock for reporting this 
extremely interesting recovery and we hope that the details of it will 
become widely known in South .Africa and thus produce further results. 


Post Mortem Reports 

See Rules on page iii. of cover. 

None to hand at time of goincf to presi^, if 
in time ivill be inehufed in Green Page In- 
set. — Ed. 

All rifjhti reserved. ArniL, 1913. 




Fairy Blue-Birds (Trenn). 

By T. Pagk, F.Z.S., ktc. 

All the ,s])ccie,s of Irena are called Fairy Blue Bii'ds, 
aiul I think all should bo given a distinctive name, the title 
"The Fairy Blue Bird," all. I think, will agree should go to 
Irom piielJa, and I have .suggested for general use names 
for the other species in the following notes, which cannot 
bo entirely descriptive. The colouration of Irena is similar 
through all the species, but with one or two exceptions the 
arrangement of the colour areas varies sufficiently to allow 
of the species being picked out fairly readily. The varying 
length of the tail -coverts is also distinctive in most of the 

The genus has a fairly wide range, viz., Ind. Penins., 
Indo-Chinese countries, Malayan Penins.; Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, and the Philippine Islands. 

The " key to species " given below is compiled from 
Vol. III. of the British Museum Catalogue. It should prove 
of general interest to aviculturists, and enable them to place 
any specimens of these exquisites which may reach the English 


'' ri/d/K 111(1 sttra Lliuleriieath dee]i puri)lisli-blue ; mantle same 


'' fiirc'isii \ Underneatli black ; under tail-coverts reaching 

''(■riiin/er I to the lip, or even beyond the tip of the taib 

''])urll<i Under tail coverts not reaching to the tip of 

the tail, falling short by more than the length 

of the tar.^us. Enamelled blue feathers of a 
" purplish shade. 

" iiri'i'diilii Enamelled blue feathers of a dull verditer. 

" r//(iiH'(l ITnder tail-coverts reaching nearly to tip of the 

" tail, not falling short of it by so much as the 

" length of the tarsus. 

( th'w Ihe Ihit. Mux. Cal. Vol. TTI 

f. 265). 

90 Fairy Blue -Birds. 

I n'oiilo hero remark that all the dpscrijitions except iurcom, 
which is from life, ai-e taken from the skins in the British Museum; 
the habitat is taken from the Brit. Mus. Cat., Vol. III. 

Adult Male: Crown of head, nape, upper and under tail- 
coverts, lessei- and me:iium wing-coverts rich cobalt blue; back, 
rump, scapulars, and the whole of the under surface, except the 
throat and chest, deep purplish blue; greater and primaiy wing- 
coverts, quills and tail black; tips of greater coverts and outer 
webs of inner secondaries rich cobalt blue, central tail-feathers 
washed with purplish; throat and chest velvety black: bill and 
legs black; iris led. Total length 10 inches, tail 4|. 

Sexes said to be alike. "Habitat: Philippine Island." 

The Basilian Faiky Blup: Bird (/. melanochlamys) . 
Adult Male: Crown of head, nape, and upper hind -neck 
shining cobalt-blue, with a purplish sheen; lower hind-neck, 
mantle, and scapulars, I'ich velvety fblack; lower back and rump 
dull purplish -co'balt, upper tail -coverts 'brighter "blue; tail black 
with the central feathers and margins of outer ones washed pur- 
plish; wings black, with the lesser and median coverts purplish 
blue; the tips of greater coverts and the outer webs and inner 
eecondaries also purplish -cobalt; lores, sides of face, throat, and 
chest velvety black; remainder of undersurface dull purplish - 
cobalt; bill and legs black; iiis carmine-re 1. Total length IG 
inche-s, tail 4. 

"Habitat: Is. of Basilan, Philippines." (B.M.p.). 
The Javax Fairy Bluebird. (/. turcosa). 

To many of my readers this gorgeous species (the same 
may be said of all) will be fairly familiar from the specimen (cf) 
exhibited by Mons. Pauvvels, at the Horticultural Hall, Nov- 
ember, 1911; from this , bird the studies for our frontispiece 
were made; thus Mr. Goodchild has had ample time to put 
good work into his drawing. In 1910 I had the pleasure of 
seeing this bird and its mate disporting themselves in Mr. 
Astley's aviaries at Benhani Valence, but as Mr. Astley 
himself has written of his birds, I will not occupy space, 
save to say, that it is impossible to exaggerate their great 
beauty, and that they were very restless under observation— 
we essayed to photograph them, but only wasted plates! 

'The diet of the whole genus in a state of nature is 
fruit and insects, and a similar dietary, also insectile mixture, 
should be supplied to it in captivity. 

Adult Male: The whole of the upper plumage and amlcr 
tail-coverts glistening turquoise -blue, tiit crowa of the head paler 

Fairn Til ue- Birds. 97 

and with' a silvoiy sJioon ; foidirad, siilos of face, tail am! enlire- 
lUKln-.-uifacf lirh vi'lvcty h'ack ; hill and le^'s black; iiis iiihy- 
ml. Tdtal Icii-fJi 8' indies, tail 3^ indu's. (Tho inidei- tail- 
oovcit-s cxictid lii'>()iid tip of tail). 

.4.(1 hII Finiiilc: DifTors fiom the liialo, being- dull Prussian 
hlui', )iio-t (if thr I'lMllii'is having du^ky centres, washed with cobalt 
on llii- runij) and upper tail coverts; wings aiul tail dark broAvn, 
the coveits and quills narrowly edged, and the coverts and second - 
ai-ies washed with blue. 

"Hahilaf: .lava" (B.M.C.). 

The title on lioutispiecc should he .lavan Fairy Blue 
Bii'd. This plaic has been in course of preparation for a 
long- period, and tlie i-op/ular designation of the genus "Fairy 
Blue Bird," was then applied to tliis speeies before T had 
looked up the genus. 

Dur meml)er, Mr. }Iul)ert D. Astley, kindly responded 
to my request and sent me the followin.g notes of this exquisite 

"iThe leautiful pair of Fairy Blue-Birds, which were 
"brought over by Mr. Goodfellow some three or four years 
"ago, in a wonderful collection made for Mrs. Johnstone, 
"came into my possession. 

"Tlic fomale unfortunately met with an accident, 
"being disturbed, probably by Owls, at nig-lit; banging- her 
"head; and although she lived for some time, she never 
"really recovered, and finally died." 

''Tn captivity these birds are apt to eat too much 
"and take insufficient exercise, feeding chiefly on banana and 
"other fruits. They passed two summers in an out-door 
"aviarj'. but never attempted to nest, sitting rather sluggishly 
" in the bushes. 

" When the male bird was on the wing, he was a most 
"beautiful sight, the blue of the Kingfisher being dull com- 
" pared with his ujiper parts of brilliant turquoise, wliich 
"locked like silk with underparts of black velvet. A lady, 
"who formerly passed many years in the Malay Archipelago, 
"told me that these birds are known as Coffee Birds, be- 
" cause they always i)ut in an appearance in the 'Coffee 
"plai'taticns, to feed on the I'ipe berries. The Fairy Blue 
"Bird has a melodious twitter, or call note; but I never 
"beard the male give out any marked song-. Their short 

98 Fairy Blue -Birds. 

" legs make them unadapted for hopping on the ground, and 
" if they flew down for mealworms, they never remained there 
"longer than was necessary. — Hubert. D. Astley." 

The Sumatean Fairy Blue Bird. (I c>^inif/pr). ■ 
Adult Male: Top of head, entire upper surface, scanulais, 
lesser and median wing -coverts, upper and under tail -coverts rich 
cobalt-hlue, very bright and pure on the top cf the head; wings 
(with above exceptions), tail, sides of face, sides of neck and entire 
under sui'face black, greater wing'-ooverts tipped with cobalt, 
secondaries, and central tail feathers wa.shed with blue; bill and 
legs black; iris deep red. Total length 9^ inches, tail 3,^-. (The 
upper tail coverts extend nearly and the under coverts right to the 
tip of tail). 

Adult Female: Very similar to 9 turro.'a — dull blue, mottled 
with dusky and brown ; slight'y smaller than the male. Total 
lengtl' 9 inches, tail 3^. 

The Fairy Blue Bird (I. puella). 
Some weeks ago, when I got rough pulls of the 
charming coloured p'ate accompanying the^e notes, I wrote our 
member, Mr. Hugh Whistler, asking if he could tell me any- 
thing about the wild life of the Fairy Blue Bird and he very 
kindly sent one the following letter: 

" I am much obliged to you for your letf^er and the plate 
"of Irena furcofa. I regret that I can tell you nothing about 
" Jrena in a wild state, as it does not occur within 500 miles or S'O' 
"of my province — the Punjab; however as T have observed that 
"you do not appear to use 'The Fauna of British India: Birds,* 
" by Blanford and Gates, I am extracting ce-tain facts from it 
"in ca,se they may contain a detail or two unknown to you. 

" I am only referring to /. p-ueUa, as turcom does not 
" occur in India. 

" The distribution of the species I have indicated on the 
''^ enclosed ropgh sketch map. By way of parenthesis I may 
"note here that so many well-know^n birds that are reg'arded as 
'■ typically Indian do not occiii' in the Punjab, which, as far as my 
"observations extend, tends to be Western Pal<Tarctic rather than 
"tropical in its avifauna. It is very largely affected by the 
"extensive migrations which occur over the N.W. corner of the 
"'Himalayas, migrations which may advantageously be studied in 
" Capt. Whitehead's ' Birds of Kohat and the Kurram Valley,' 
"'Ibis,' 1909). 

"Gates makes the following observations on the plumage 
"changes of Irena and I (suggest you ask avicultui-ists to confirm 
'■ them if possible by actual observation of aviary birds. 

"The young are like the female. The male changes into 
"adult plumage about March, and the change takes place with- 

Fairy Blue-Birds. 


'out a moult; lln' fcalhci-s of the upper parts first become 
' friiigi'd Willi biiulit liluc; llic tail -coverts next become chang'cd; 
"the lower pliima,i,M' (akrs tlir lunucst to cliaiige, and young birds 
'may frcqut'nlly lu' init wiiii liaviii.^- Ilic lower plumage mixed 
' blauk and dull bhu', bul the upper plumage tliar of the adult. 

'■ It would be most interesiing if any member of tiie club 
■;who is fortunate enough to induce this beautiful species to 
Tjrced could trace the progress of the above changes in his 
' young birds, keeping a detailed diaiy of the same. 

''The habits are given as follows: — 'This bird is common 
ill most of the tracts it frequents, going about in small parties 
or in pairs. It feeds principally on fruit, and is generally 
found on the larger forest trees. It breeds from February to 
April, constructing a shal'ow cup-shaped nest, sometimes of most 
and sometimes of small twigs in a sapling or small tree. The 
eggs, which are generally two in number are greenish-white, 
marked with brown, and measure about 1.14 by .22 inches.' 

'' The distribution sti'ikes me as curious and I e.xpect 
'that critical examination of specimens will show that the species 

100 Fairy Blue- Birds. 

"should be divided into two races. — Hugh Whistler." 

I hope, that, if any of our memDbrs obtain this line 
.species, they will carefully note the plumage on arrival and 
at ec,ch subsequent moult, though, of course, only the suc- 
cessful rearing of the young, or capture of birds in nestling 
plumage can satisfactorily clear up the points Mr. Whistler 
refers to. There are, however, more species than is generally 
acknowledged, which assume, or partially assume, the adult 
plumage without a moult. 

Adult Male: Entire upper plumag'e, scapulars lesser and 
median wing -coverts and under tail -coverts glistening- ultramarine - 
blue, with lilacine reflections; wings, tail, sides of the head, and 
entire undersuiface vvelvety black; the greater wing-coverts tip- 
ped and the central tail feathers washed with blue; bill and legs 
black; iris ruby red. Total length 10 inches, tail 4'. (The 
unaor tail-oovcrts are short, compared with the other species, and 
only extend to within 1| inches of tip of tail). 

Adult Female: Entire plumage, dull brownish blue, with 
the margins of the feathers brighter blue, lightly waslied with 
oobalt on the rump and upper taU -coverts and the brown hue less 
distinct on the undersurface. 

Habitat: Ceylon; the westei-^n coast of India from Travan- 
core up to the latitude of Belgaum and Sawant Wari; Sikhim and 
the lower ranges of the> Himalayas to Dibrugarh in Assam; the 
Khasi hills; Cachar; Manipur; Arrakan; Pegu, Tenasserim; the 
Aiidamans and Nioobars. This species is confined entirely to 
the evergreen forests of the hills and plains, and it is found up 
to about 4^000 feet of elevation. It extends some distance down 
the Malay Peninsular and into Siam. — (''Fauna of Brit. India: 
Birds" 0. and B.). 

Thk Twekdale's Faiky Blue Bird. (/. ■UveedalU). 
Adult Male: Crown of head, nape, and entire upper surface^ 
scapulars, lesser and median wing-coverts, and under tail-coverts 
shining turquoise -blue, the top of the head with a silvery sheen; 
sides of head; sides of neck, wings (some of the greater coverts) 
tipped with blue, tail and entim under surface velvety black; 
bill and legs black; iris carmine. Total length 8 inches, tail 
3| inches. 

Adult Female: Above and below dull Prussian blue, more 
or less mottled with dusky -brownish; wings and tail dark brown, 
outer webs washed with blue. 

Habiiat: Island of Balabac, Philippines." (B.M.C.). 
IThe Malaccan Faiky Blue Bikd (/. cyanea). 

Adult Male: Similar to /. criniger, but the under tail- 
coverts do not extend to the tip of the tail — distance between tip 




\ iiicli; 



legs black. 


!■ (liaii t 

hi' J 


; siniiiai' to 

tlic Q 



of tail-coverts and tip of tail 
length 9.' inclios, tail 3^. 

Adnll Fniialr: "snialli 
of /. pari la. 

ILihihil: '•Malacca." 

I''urtli<M' than to cxpix'ss tlic lioix' (hat other species 
of this exciuisiic j^ciius may speedily be introckiecd to Eng- 
lish aviaries, and to express my appreciation of the help of 
the Ei'itish Museinn ollieials, when going through their skins, 
also to aekuowjv'dye my indebtedness to the Museum Cata- 
logue, I need not furthei' lengthen this article; but I ven- 
ture to hope that collectors abroad will endeavour to send 
home sutdi speeies as have not already been seen aUve in 
England. All the species would be more than welcome, as 
up to the, present there has been practically no opportunity 
of studying these species in captivity. 


Stray Notes from Hoddam Castle Aviaries. 

By E. J. BiiuuK, F.Z.S. 

[1 Hiiist preface these notes by stating that they form a letter in 
response to an enquiry, rermissioa was, however, given to use a-s 
we thought fit, and we give them as written, simply adding a 
heading to the respective paragraphs. — Ed.]. 

"Makmite" Soup as a Diet toe Lokibs, etc.: Some 
time since I .stated that my Fair Lories (Charmosynopsis pul- 
chella) were being fed solely on " Marmite " Soup sweetened. 
Well! they are still on this food and looking splendid; more- 
over, they have again nested and for the first time, the egg — 
they never lay more than one— was fertile and nearly hatched. 
1 think tliis is a point for "Marmite" for Lories, On this 
food the birds seem to keep in good condition and do not get 
too fat. All my other Lories get "Marmite" and Horlick's 
Malted Milk mixed, l)ut if the Fair Lories will do on "Mar- 
mite " pui-e, it should be an equally good food for the more 
robust kinds. 

A Sudden Death: My Black-cap Lory .that has been 
in captivity some eight or nine years has just died. Is this 
not very nearly a record for a Lory? [It would be of in- 
terest if members would place on record instances of longevity 
amoni;- Lories and Lorikeets.— Ed.]. The bird was in the 

102 Stray Notes from Hoddam Castle Aviaries. 

most perfect condition till a few minutes before it died, and 
from appearances one would think it had injured its back in 

The Blue Bird or Paradise (Paradisornis rudolphi) : 
It is now in full plumage for the first time and anything more 
magnificent it is difficult to imagine; the different shades of 
blue are so intense. It is rather curious to note how the side 
plumes, which cover the tail like a fan, appear like dull 
gold in one position and in another are intense blue. The 
bird is well worth seeing, and it is a pity it is so far from 

SuKBiRDs: These are all in good order, and with the 
exception of two that were out on a cold windy day and got 
chilled, I have not lost any for over a year. 

White-backed Lory (Eos fuscata) : A specimen which 
came to me as a young bird is going to make a good talker; 
this is the first talking Lory I have had. 

Birds of Gambia. 

By E. Hopkinsun D.S.O., M.A., M.B. 
Continued from page 78. 

Gallinago gallinayo. SNIPE. 

Range. Europe and North Asia. Senegambia and North-east 
Africa, India to Moluccas in winter. (R.L.) 

Certainly not common in tiie Gambia, though one not ia- 
frequently sees them when shootmg- in the swamps, and one or two 
at least are generally obtained every year, usually between Decem- 
ber and Mai'ch, though I am sure that in 1907 I put up (and 
missed) a true Snipe on the Sallikenni swamp as late as May 5. 
In the same year (March) in the Upper River I saw one shot by 
the Commissioner, which I think must have been the melanistic 
variety known as Sabine's Snipe. 

Rostratula capensis. PAINTED SNIPE. 

Range. Africa. India, etc., to Japan. South to Malay 
I'eninsula, etc. (H.L.) 

These lovely bii'ds arrive in the Gambia in largte numbers 
about May or June, and leave again before the end of the rains. 
As soon as the swamps beg'in to fill, one may be sure of finding 
them in the rice fields. Their iiight is quite unlike that of the 
true Snipe, being slow and short, and they prefer to trust to their 
skulking liabits ratlier than to their wings for safety. Little as the 
name Snipe suits their general demeanour, the other half of thein* 

is Ihi' mo 

!■(' hr 

,1,-litly coif 



Avlicll tlll'N 


(• to us 

iiul 1 








I ml wliit.e 


with red 



Birds of Gambia. ]{)',] 

name is well-meritod, for tlieir plumage is indeed beautiful—black 
and while, variegated with a lovely golden bronze mottling. The 
female, contiary to the usual ruU 
of the two. They are very fal 
most tasty additions to ihe menu. 

Himantopus himantopus. 

Bange. Central Europe. 
Asia. India to Western China. 

Tliese long-shanked black 
legs are common with us all the year round and may be found whei-- 
ever shallow fresh -water pools are left, as the swamps dry up. They 
are quite good eating. 

Hacmafopm capensis. BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Range. p]urope; Central As'ia. Mediterranean and Red Seas; 
East Africa to Mozambique; Persian Gulf; Sind in winter. {H.L). 


Range. Africa. Canaries. Ma,deiia. (H.L.) 

I have occasionally seen a black and white Oyster-catcher 
along the river, which must be H. ostralegus, though its range as 
givein in. the Hand List would appear not to include the Gambia. 
The wholly black bird (capensis) I have never yet seen here. 

Pluvianus a&gijplius. BLACK-BACKED COURSER. 

Ran:g'0. West Africa, Senegambia to River Coanza; North- 
east Africa to IMetliterranean.. (H.L.) 

Certainly not common with us; I do not think that I have 
ever come across it in the Gambia. For a most complete and in- 
teresting account of this species I would refer those interested to an 
article (with photo) by Captain Stanley S. Flower, in the Avicul- 
tural Magazine for 1908, page 139. 

Cursorius temmin,cki. SENEGAL COURSER. 

Range. Tropical Africa. (H.L). 

These Coursers, buff -coloured birds, wiih black and white 
markings on the hind-neck and pale pink legs, occur here locally, 
usually three to six together, in open country during the dry season, 
and must breed witli us towards the end of that period, as I have 
a note that at Brufut in June, 1901), there were '"numbers of these 
Coursei's round the camp; several shot, some in juvenile mottled 
plumage, others adult." 

Rhinoptilus chalccptenis. VIOLET-WINGED COURSER. 

Ramc^e. Senegambia to North-east Afiica. (H.L.). 

Bather larger than the preceding; a plain brown bird with 
metallic purple hues on the black primaries, a white post-ocular 
&tre<ik and tJwoat, a distinct white wing-bar (var. albofasoiatifi»), 
and a white belly surmounted by a black chest-band. I have only 
handled two specimens. They are certainly lare here. 

Oedicnemus senegulensis , SENEGAL THICKKNEE. 

104 Birds ol Gambia. 

Range. West Africa, S'enegambia to Gal)oo;i, Xoith East Af- 
rica to Egypt. {H.L } 

This Thickknee, so noticeable with its l)ull-liead and big 
yellow eye, diffei's only from its European relative, the "Norfolk 
Plover " in having one instead of two white wing-bars, and is com- 
mon throughout the Gambia. They are found singly, iu pairs or 
.small parties of about half a do/en, usually on fairly dry ground; 
they are particularly fond of bush -covered uplands where there is 
little or no grass and the bush is sparse, but also haunt the edges 
of the river, especially in its upper parts where the banks are sandy 
and comparatively high. They are usually easily shot and provide 
quite a palatable dish. The Mandigo name is Kuiiag-kuling. 

Glareula pratincola. PltATINCULA. 

R(inyc. Soulli Eurojie to C'ential Asia and India, in Africa 
in winter. (H.L ) 


Range. South East Europe, Africa in winter. (H.L). 

Pratincoles are often seen in immense numbers on the swamps 
during the dry season, but tliey are most erratic in thei'r movements, 
here to-day and gone to-morrow. One year (1907) it i-eally seemed 
as if they had come after locusts, as G. melanoptera does in South 
Africa, but in other years there has appeared no connection, as they 
have been very numerous when no locusts have been about. 

The diagnostic point between the two species is that iu 
piatiucula the axillaries are chestuul, in Dwltuioptcrd black. Nearly 
all our birds are the first named, but i am practically certain lliat 1 
have seen melanuptera here. 

Budgett found G. pratincola in large flocks at Kwinella in 
March, while my notes are as follow : — 

1902. March. ' Very common on the Soma swamp " (Piyce). 

1904. January. '' A large flock of Pratincoles on the Karawan 
swamp." (Pryce). 

1907. February. Thousands on the marsh at Misera. There 
have been a good many locusts this year. These birds probably come 
after them. I do not think I have ever seen them here before. 

iy07. June 20. Aljamadu. A dozen or more Pratincoles 
hawking over the swamp; often alighted on the ground and slowly 
fanned their wings over their backs. Shot one for identification, ( = 
pratincola, axillaries rufous). 

1909. May 5. Silfor. Hundreds of Piatincoles round the pools 
on the swamp. 

1909. May 0. Not one to-day, where there were hundreds 

1909. May 9. A few back again in the same place. 

1912. April 9. Large numbers of Pratincoles on the Kaialf 
swamp . 


Mil Indian Con.sifjnment. 105 

My Indian Consignment. 

Ev Ma.k.i; (i. A. I'i.;i;ki;au, F.Z.S. 

(M;ij(>r rcri'f.-iu li;is kindly coiisciitcd lo ui'Kc us an 
Mccminl of the hirds Ik^. piocurcd, d'apiicd and ix'i'sonally 
lu'ou^'lil u\t'i' last niontli, providing;' ! would write an iii- 
trodui'tioa; tliis task is iudced a [jlcasuic, for the condition of 
the liirds on arrival bespoke that ceaseless care and per-, 
.suual attention, en loalc, which only the amateur importer 

On Saturday, March 22nd, Major Perreau landed a 
consij^Minient of over 2U0 rare Indian soft-bills. On Mai'ch 
3rd he left Bombay with a total of 250, and actually arrived 
at Paris with 240, the Ijulk of which were then in i)ractically 
exhibition trim; l)ut, at Calais the mishap of the journey 
occurred, for while he was engag-ed with the transit offi- 
cials, two of the large cages were sent down the baggage 
shute, swamping the uafortunate inmates with milk sop, etc., 
besides the shock, nevertheless, he actually arrived at Mit- 
cham with 220 birds — all of which were in excellent health, 
and in robust condition, yet they spent the Avhole of the .voyage 
on the open deck, in the form of an open square by day, 
and stacked face to face during the night. With the exception 
of the Laughing-Thrushes, which arrived very fit and healthy, 
but very travel worn, most of the birds were in really good 
feather; such as Niltavas, Nuthatches, Minivets, Babblers, 
Spider-Hunter, Crow-Tit, etc., being, save for slightly frayed 
tails, in exhibition plumage. A perusal of Major Perreau's 
article (a small portion only of wdiich can appear this month) 
will amply indicate what a notable series of birds has been 
landed with almost infinitesimal loss of life en route, and 
fully demonstrates how complete a success Major Perreau's 
undertaking has been. Quite a number of species new to 
aviculture A^ere included in the collection, and I am pleased 
to say that the bulk of not only the rarer species, but of 
the Avhole series, have passed into the possession of members 
of the Foreign Bird Club, and I trust that during the jiresent 
season many of them may reproduce their kind. 

In conclusion, I heartily congratulate our member on 
such a successful termination to his enterprise — an achieve- 
ment of which any importer may well be pi^oud. — P]d,J. 

106 ^y Indian Consignment. 

After writing this article, or a large part of it, in the 
rough, I have been shown our esteemed Editor's most ilat- 
tering introduction. J think this is a good place in which 
to thank him not only for this but for the way in which 
he has given time ^nd trouble to help me in making ar- 
rangements for me on arrival in London and in helping with 
the birds and correspondence, I do not know how I sjiould 
have got on without his assistance and that of my wife. 

L had meant to open with a brief history of my collec- 
tion, but I lind that it is by no means brief, and with our 
energetic Editor almost literally at my elbow as a reminder 
that I promised that this should be in at least two days ago, 
1 had better start with the three birds which are figured in 
this issue. After that the Editor can take as much of the 
"history" as he thinks our members can stand at one dose. 
I would have preferred to write when I had jnore leisure, 
but needs must when the Editor drives— and is close at 
hand— and has done so much for one, 

]VJr. Goodchild has caught the character of each bird 
in a wonderful way. To my mind the Ixulus takes a lot 
of beating but then so does the Wren -Babbler; the more so, 
perhaps, as it has no such distinctive feature as has the Ixulus 
in its crest; and then again the Pigmy Woodpecker is what 
the bird is — a pigmy woodpecker. 

1. The Himalayan Pigmy Woodpecker {Ii/ngipicus 
pygmaeus) is a delightful little bird in the cage. I have never 
seen it wild, so can say nothing about it in that state. Our 
member, Mr. Appleby, of Lahore, kindly got it for me and 
gave it me with many others as I passed through. The ligure 
renders description unnecessary as it is not a "bird of colour 
(browns and white). Its minute size (only 5^ inches), tame- 
uess, and quaint ways give this bird its charm. 

It is very destructive to woodwoi'k, and on the voyage 
had to be changed from one eompaitment to another everj 
thr(!e or four days. It is very ht and in splendid feather, 
apparently doing very well on a good strong insect mixture 
with a few mealworms, of which it is very fond. I gather 
from Blandford that it is a bird of the foothills from Kliat- 
mandu to Mussoorie. The cock has a shoit narrow stripe of 

i;ii;i. Not 

l-rnn, Ihr h>l II. (in.JrInh/. 

Tun Jiilii 

i'imiiy \Vn(Ml,,r,-k 
Ixuliis : llnllnni Jiiinrr. I 

Mnhllr lUjurr. V,.l|,,w-ii:ii).' 
k-llircawM \Vrrn-l';iM>l.T. 

Mil In (7 ion CofLsigt/moff. 107 

scarlet foathoi's on oarli side of the ooriput. My bird is a 

2. Tnio Yellow- NATEn Txtlt^r. (Iniliis flaviroUis) 
is a curious and decidedly pretty little bird of much the same 
haliits in a way as llic ^^'ilife-eve, ri>(|uii'iirir the saine food, 
i.e., sop, fi'uit, inject tiiixlure, Avifli a few meahvornis. I 
found them not utwoinnion near Darjeplin.q-, at 4,000, to G.OOQ 
feet, commoner at the latter elevation. I never saw them 
in parties like AVhite-eyes, but I only saw them just at the 
end of the breedins: s(>a^on, when tiiey were either in pairs or 
small parties of four or five. At the end of August I saw a 
pair feeding barely fledged j^oung. They as a rule frequent 
fairly high trees and were always on the move inspecting 
flowers or the crevices among the orchids, not in bloom when 
T was in Darjeeling. 

The figure in the plate roquii-es little description. The 
collar is chestnut-yellow, upper parts brown and grey, shad- 
ing off into each other and conti^asting strongly with the 
white; of the sides of the face and lower parts, the former with 
a beautiful silvery sheen. Dates gives the distribution as 
the Himalayas from the Gutlej to Assam, the Khasi Hills, 
Manipur. from 5,000 to 8 000 feet. The nest is a deep cup 
of moss and fibre, suspended from one or two twigs of a 
branch. Length of bird about 5 inches. 

I only got home three, all that I started with from 
Bakloh; of these one has gone to our member Mr. Towns- 
end and two to Mr. Weslev Page. Of the latter one had a 
curious and unfoi-tunat^ a^-ciden^^, hanging itself in a fork of 
a myrtle bush growiuLT in o'le of our Editor's exceflent green- 
house flights. T remember losing a Plumbeous Redstart in a 
somewhat similar way some yea'^s ago, and can sympathise 
with him in his loss. 

;>. Thr Plapk-throatrd Babblrr (Starlnirisi niari- 
ar-p-^) is named a Wren-Pabb'er bv Jerdon. probably because 
of its small size, but it has little of the Wren about it. Cer- 
tainly it skulks up low underg>^owth but quite in a different 
way, more like a Siva o^ Liothrix in tliis respect. It is a 
smnrt, viviicious littb^ bird, well nble to look after itself, 
with much larger birds in a mixed aviary. Tt was evidently 

108 I^J-U Indian 'Consig}iment. 

going "down the hill" for the winter, as at about 4,000 feet 
■I found it very rare in early September, whilst at the end 
of that month it wa-; quite the commonest capture made dur- 
ing my brief stay in Darjeeling. I was letting them go 
in fair numbers as I had twelve (my limit for one bird, and 
a limit only reached in one o: two ca^es). I found them not 
too easy to meat off, but doing well when once the critical 
stage was past. I gave four away in Calcutta, a gift I 
rather regretted later, as I lost five chiefly by accident, be- 
fore starting, and two inore in the Pathankot mishap, of 
which, more later. Food as for the Woodpecker, but maggots 
are readily accepted, and in the aviary the sponge -cake and 
milk dish was visited. 

The one 1)ird landed is in beautiful condition and has 
now passed into the hands of our member, Lady Kathleen 
Pilkington. I refuse to attempt the description of this bird 
in full detail. Head black, streaked with white, upper parts 
rich olive brown, lower parts bright fulvous, throat in all 
specimens I have seen black, mottled with white, a white 
ring round the eye, ear coverts rufous brown. Oates 'gives 
distribution as the Himalayas from Nepal to the East of 
Assam and from thence south and earst to Tenasseiim. Found 
up to 10,000 feet in summer. Length about 5| inches. 

[We hope Major Perreau will give us the history, of 
the collection, after desc ibing the species, as the incidents of 
collection, trapping, field notes, etc., also the details of the 
journey to the coast and the voyage to England will, we 
are assured, be of general interest. — Ed]. 

On the Keeping of Soft-Bills in Cages 

By Otto Puck. 

What lover of birds, when taking a walk through hill 
and dale in "Ye Merrie Month of May" has not become en- 
amoured with nature's concert of our various songsters, and 
felt a desire for a closer acquaintance with them, to admire 
their beauty, and listen to their song within four walls ? 

I certainly am among the number, and how could I help 
it. having grown up in one of nature's most lovely spots. 
My wish to possess every kind of native bird could easily 

0)1 Ihr Krrpinfi oj f^ojI-lVilh in Cages. lO'.l 

liavc l)C(Mi salislicd. hul a kiiul iiiollicr slronirly ol.jV'otod to 
my ki'cpiii,-' liii'ds ill ca-vs, as she llinii-lil tlirrc would 1)0 
the dilliculty to piovido tliciii with adc:|uaJc I'ood, and a'tliou,i,''h 
1 diMiiunc'd. I do iiol tliiidx she was alto^ndhcr wi-ouf,^ when 
donyiiiii- iik^ this t'lcasui'c, coiisidctiii.i,'' my tender years. T am 
all-aid that oven to-(hiy many a liiif l)ird's life is saerificed 
owin-i' t<» its k(M']MM' not supplying it with suitablo food. ,My 
advice thorerorc to all Ix'.i^'inncrs is " ^-o slow," study first 
soini^ ,U(iod liird lilei'aturo, liecome a/"(|uainted with tlio habits 
and leedin,i; ol the hird you ai'o desirous of keepinq-, make 
tlie acquaint.anee of some hirddover who keep> the variety 
you a]-<' anxious to cage, and g(»t some preetieal hints; these 
ai-e often more valuable than all theory. Next start your 
experiene(^ with an easily kept soft -bill, and liaving gained 
success, then gradually mount the ladder. The essential points 
to success are cleanliness, wholesome food, and regulai- atten- 
tion. Remember you never come across a dirty bird at large; 
some may develop dirty hab'ts when caged, but they are not 
naturalh inclined to be dirty. Don't blame the bird; the cage 
may be too small, or you do not give a bath freely enough, 
or in the case of fruit -eating birds, you do not provide the 
food in the right kind of vessel. The fault therefore lies 
■Avi/th you, and not the bird, and the remedy is in your hands. 

Some may consider these small matters too trouble- 
some, but I can assure them thev are very important in keep- 
ing birds, especially soft -bills, in good health and condition, 
and no trouble in this respect should be too great, but made 
a " Labour of Love," to make the life of your pets as com- 
foi'table and as near to theii- natural habits as possible. 

Now the first and most important point after you have 
decided what kind of bird to cage, is to know what food to 
keep it on. Soft-Bills, as the name implies, are insectivor- 
ous, and feed moS[tly on live insects. It would therefore be 
out of the question to feed them on seeds, and, again, as human 
beings, w^i'thout detriment to their 'health, could not for a length 
of time exist on one diet alone, neither can Ibirds; there 
must be variation, and also variation according to the seasons. 

Another point, the food should always be of the best 
(luality anfl fresh, best is cheapest in the long run. There 
are excellent preparations of ready-made food in the market 

110 On the Keeping of Soft-Bills in Cages. 

which can be made palatable to the birds without much trouble, 
and I have nothing to say against them, but still prefer to 
mix my own ingredients, as I can then better vary the mix- 
ture according to the particular taste or requirements of each 
inldividual bird. 

Dried ants' eggs should form the staple food, but there 
are ants' eggs and ants' eggs (cocoons is more correct). Be 
sure that they are fresh and have an agreeable smell of 
formic acid; they should be of a uniform flesh colour, and 
each cocoon contains an ant in the njmph state. Those that 
are grey or black are valueless, as the insect is in too ad- 
vanced a state of developement and the birds will not par- 
take of them. 

The next important food is dried flies. There are 
two kinds imported : — 

1. Muska Zeche, from the swamps of Mexico. 

2. Whiteworm, or Day fly, from the swamps of the 

Danube and Elbe. 
The former have a strong flshy smell, and small dried 
up fish are found among them, caught, no douljt, in the meshes 
of the net when skimming the surface of the water in catching 
the flies, and of course the fishes should lie picked out tefore 
using the flies. 

There is no such trouble with the Whiteworm, but in- 
stead, there are found among them small pieces of charcoal 
emanating from the embers of fires lit along the banks of the 
riA'ers to trap the flies by night. 

Other valuable foods are Silkworms (ground) pre- 
served; preserved yolk of c'^g; cream cheese or dried milk 
curds (free from sugar); rusks (ground and free from sugar). 
I do not care for biscuits, as in my opinion they contain 
matter foreign to and indigestible by cage birds. Sponge 
cake (ground); hemp seed (ground small); maw seed; carrot 
(raw and finely grated); and last, but not least, mealworms: 
but in the use of these my advice is "caution," especially 
to the novice. Many feet troubles are due to the too fre- 
quent supply of mealworms. 

The above are the chief foods forming the menu of 
rnost caged insectivorous birds, and in addition, but not of 

On fhr K or ping of f^oft -Bills in Cages. HI 

least iiiipoi'tanei', is judicious admixture of fruil, which sliould 
always li:' full\- i'i|)i', aiui, accordin.i^- to tlic season, the fol- 
low iu.i;- I'i'uits will Ix" relished by most soll-l)ills, viz.: — 

Cherries, Currants (choi)iHMl up), Green Fiqs, Rasp- 
berries, Blackberries, Mountain Ash Berries, Privet Berries, 
Ripe Pears (sleepy), Apple (baked). Banana, and Elderberries. 

Then in spring-, as soon as obtainable, and all the sum- 
mer, while the supply lasts, freshly-gathered ants' -cocoons; 
also w(dl scoured i^nMitles and wasp-grubs. 

These thre(^ latter foods are particularly invaluable 
for "meating off" freshly caught soft-bills in the spring, 
and foi- moulting purposes in the autumn. 

To the novice this may appear a Tormidable ari'ay 
of fcods and almost deter him from embarking upon the keep- 
ing of softbills. but he will soon find in practice that it is 
not so bad, as all the foods are not given at once, but more 
or less in rotation. 

T have often been asked how I succeed in maintaining 
the natural glossy appearance in the plumage of cage-moulted 
birds. "Well, every oi'nithologist knows that all birds have 
a fat gland, from which they extract oily matter to impart 
to their feathers by means of their beaks; no doubt soft- 
bills obtain a supply of oliferous matter from the various 
kinds of live insects they feed on when at large, whereas 
the food substitutes we supply them with, bging dried to pre- 
serve them, are deprived more or less of same. It, therefore, 
struck me, that here was something to make up, and for 
years I have occasionally added to the food a little grated 
Brazil nut or grated pine kernels, with beneficial results. 
In fact all my birds relish their food much more when nut 
is added to same. 

There is a great divergence of opinion as to the cor- 
rect formula for mixing the various foods in riglit proportion. 
I have studied this important point for many years, and culled 
much valuable information not only from our own " Fancy " 
press, Init also from Continental bird literature, and find that 
the following stock mixture for such birds as Blackcaps, 
Garden Warblers, Redstarts, Whitethroats, Nightingales, etc.; 
is hard to beat, viz. : 

At night put the daily supply of dried Ant-Cocoons 

112 On the Kecp'mg of Soft-Bills in Cages. 

in a basin, add one -third of its bulk of finely grated raw 
carroit, mix well with a fork, then press down, and let it stand 
in a cool place over night. During- the nig-ht the Ants' -eggs 
will absorb the moisture from the carrot, and all you have 
to do next morning is to break them up with a fork, add 
some more dried Ant -Cocoons, if too damp (it is safer to 
have the food a little on the dry side than too damn) cream 
cheese or a little milk curd, ground ru^k, or preserved yolk 
of egg, and once or twice a week a little fly scalded first, 
and then dried between linen. 

During cold weather I also add a .little ground hemp, 
and mix the whole again with the hand until it feels crumbly 
and moist, with no lumps or pieces adhering together. 

Some of my birds are also fond of finely ground silk- 
worms, and these may be added occasionally to the food and 
for larger birds, such as Shamas, sometimes a little crissel 
and more fly. 

Blackcaps and the smaller Warblers look daily for 
the small supply of egg-food, and this I prepare as follows: 

1 part ground rusks; 1 part ground sponge cake; 
\ part curds or cream cheese, \ part preserved yolk of Q^g. 
and a little ground Brazil nut, maw seed, moistening the whole 
with grated carrot. Some I know, give also minced lettuce 
or dandelion leaves, but I consider that the carrot supplies 
all the vegetable food necessary for the well-being of even 
dainty Warblers. 

All foods must, of course, be given fresh daily, any 
food left in the vessels from the previous day must be thrown 
away. My food waste, however, as everything is of the best 
quality, amounts to next to nothing, nearly everything is 
eaten, proving the old adage, that " the test of the cake lies 
in the eating." However, should there be any food left over 
])y the more tender Warblers, same always comes in for the 
larger and stronger birds next day. 

Having digested th'S menu, I will noM' take the novice 
back to the starting point, assuming he has decided what kind 
of scft-bill to keep, the next question will be that of a suit- 
able cage, but as my present notes have already run . to such 
length, I am afraid I am transgressing too much upon our 

On Ihr Kcpp'nig of Soft -Bills in Gages. W?^ 

Editor's v;ilua1)lo sjiace, and will theroforo deal with this, 
hnportaiit qucsfion in another article. 

A\'itli icyaid to cages for Soft-liiils, g(>nerally speaking 
tliesc cm never be too large. They should allow the ])irds 
plenty oi' looni for exorcise. 

In my oj)inion a ])ir(l keeps in niudi bettei- hrallh if, 
besides the juni])ing from i)erch to perch he has I'oom to 
make use of his wings, and can indulge in a "flight from side 
t,o side of the cage, and they do. For this reason an of)Iong 
sha])e is best, and to protect the bird against draughts the 
box pattern cage is generally adopted. The top of the cage 
should be made of some soft material to prevent birds from 
damaging their heads, as when freshly caught, and also during 
the migratory periods, they are very apt to Jump up against 
the top during the night, and if the top of the cage is made 
of hard material bad results will follow. 

Feeding vessels should always be inside the cage, and 
had best be made of glass, as such are easily kept clean. 

.4 bath is a sine-qua-non, and this should hang outside 
in front of the cage to prevent the cage from getting wet 

The perches should be placed well apart and be of 
different thicknesses, and of soft wood, either willow, elder-: 
berrj, or lime and be easily removable for cleaning pur- 
poses. Nearly all soft-bills have rather tender feet. I 
•therefore cover the perch they mostly use, and rest on during 
the night, with rubber tubing, so as to rnake same more 

The trail should b.' of ,yood depth and had best be 
made from zinc, and for covering material I prefer leaf mould 
mixed with moss litter or cocoanut fibre, fine soil from the 
garden and a little silver sand. There is always some live 
live food in the leaf-mould or soil, and besides it is soft and 
therefore better for the birds' feet than sand alone. When 
mixing this, I put in a few drops of terebene, which not only 
makes it nice and sweet, but also acts as a sanitary deodoriser. 

As all soft-bills are large feeders, great attention as 
to cleanliness must be paid to the cage bottoms or trays. 
Qnce a week they should be thoroughly cleansed and scalded, 

114 On the lieepivg of Snff-BlJhs hi Cages. 

adding a few drops of Lysol or Cond^'-'s Fluid to the water 
they are washed in, the soil taken away to be re-plenished 
by fresh, and if this is done at the week-end, then on Wednes- 
days the droppings accumulated by 'then should be removed, 
and a little fresh soil put in. 

Food and scoter vessels should bo kept scrupulously 
clean, and especially the latter washed out every day and 

It is quite refreshing to see how birds appreciate 
fresh Avater, and especially how fond they are of their morning 
tub. When they do enjoy it, it is a sign of good health, and 
as a rule you will have little trouble with such birds, their 
feet are always clean. Once leave them without the fresh 
water, and you will find they will rather go without than 
bathe in stale water. 

The sizes of my stock cages are: 

Long. High. Wide. 

For Blackcaps ,18in. x 12in. x 9m. 

„ Warblers 28in. x 15in. x llin. 

„ Nightingales, Thrushes, Shamas— larger in pro- 

But size of cage alone is not everything, the position 
they occupy in the room has a great deal to do with the well- 
being of the occupant. 

The best place is opposite the window, where the 
m-ornrng sun strikes the cage, and hung at a height that when 
you stand in front of the cage the bird on the perch is 
about level with your face. 

For;tunately soft -bills are not so subject to Eed Mites 
as hard -bills, but needless to say you must be on the look- 
out, therefore keep your cages clean, and if you detect the 
slightest sign, paint ends of perches and corners with a 
solution of lysol. 

I do not think that I have any more to say on the 
subject of cages, except that some birds, shy in their nature, 
strongly object to being exposed to full view, and feel more 
happy if part of the open front is covered with lino or some 
light material behind which they can hide from the gaze of 
intruders, even that of their own master. 

Some soft-bills are naturally shy ; much depends upon 

Bird Notes. | 

I'hnin fr„m i;/r h,, II. W >l Ifnrd . 

'lie l'.l;ick-llii'(i;iic.l or Lanceolated .lav. 

Oil /he Kccpinjj ()/ Sojt-li'dl.s in Cages. 115 

luidri' what siiiiouiidiiig.s they grew up, and although they 
scttk- (luw 11 to ca.uc life, and are tame in a way, yet they 
never lose thi'ir shyness and Ijeiomc really confidential. On 
approaching tlu'ir cage, they will not lly mildly about, but 
try tu hide in a corner, and no coaxing in the; world will 
i'l'tch them out oi it ; lease the room, and they are inunediately 
on the pt'rch. Others are as "hold as brass," as the saying 
has it, ami woe betide you if you spoiled them by giving 
them a tit-bit in the shape of a worm too often, you never 
hear the eiul of it. As regards the shy birds, I have a 
case in point at the present moment. 

Three years ago I acquired a Nightingale, first year 
very shy, no song; second year, little more confidential, would 
snap a worm from finger and sang Tor one month — this year I 
thought I would alter the position of his cage, so put same in 
a darker corner of the room, and decorated the front of cage 
with artificial evergreens, result: incessant song, almost too 
loud for room, from early morning, and even at night by 
light, since October 30th. The best bird I ever had as 
regards song, and all brought about through a little. fore- 
thought and no doubt by accidentally bringing the position of 
the cage and surroundings into a line with the natural con- 
ditions under which the bird lived when at large. 

As with human beings, so with birds. There are 
hardly two natures alike in their habits, these you must 
study, and experience gained with patience must be your 

Success depends upon good management, and as there 
is a great deal to be said under this heading, I will devote 
another article to General Management, before giving my 
experiences, and a treatise on the various kinds of Soft- 
bills I iiave kept in cages. 

(To he confinued). 

! Some Interesting Birds. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., Etc. 

Illustrated from Life by H. 
{Continued from page 36). 
The Laxceolated Jay {Garrulus lanceolatus) \ The 

116 Some Interesting Birds. 

range of Jays is world-wide, and their plumage is as diversi- 
fied as their range — ranging from sombre, yet beautiful, ar- 
rangements of black, brown, and white, to the gorgeous col- 
oura,tion of the tropics; but it is not with the latter that this 
short account deals, but with the Black -throated or Lanceo- 
lated Jay of the Himalayas. A glance at Mr. Willford's 
beautiful photo of this striking and handsome species, indi- 
cates fully its bold, fearless, and also mischievous demeanour; 
its plumage is as beautiful as the arrangement of it is striking 
in its contrasts, as the following description will show: 

Description : The upper and lower plumage is principally vinous-grey, 
much brighter on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; the forehead, crown, 
nape, crest, and sides of head rich velvety black ; chin, throat and fore-neck 
black with white sbaft streaks ; upper breast grey; tail, blue, barred and 
banded with black and tipped with white ; primaries and secondaries tipped 
with white, tertiaries grey, banded with black and tipped with white ; 
median and greater wing-covert^ black ; primary-coverts white ; bastard 
wing (winglet) blue barred with white ; bill pinkish, slaty at base and yel- 
lowish at tip ; legs and feet slaty-pink ; iris red. Total length 13 inches, 
tail 6i inches. 

Major Perreau, in his '* Birds of the Station " (Bak- 
loh, Punjab), writes as follows: "The Black-throated Jay, 
sometimes advertised at home as the " Lanceolated Jay*, 
'Ms very common about the station in winter, going but 
"a short way outside to breed. They are cheery noisy chaps, 
"and make excellent pets. They do not seem to descend to 
"the foot of the hills, and I have seen them pretty high up 
"in the winter. The nest is often quite low down. They 
" go about in small parties, and are noisy, except in the breed- 
" ing season, when they go in pairs and are very quiet unless 
"disturbed by intruders." 

Gates in the "Fauna of British India," gives the 
habits, etc., as follows: 

" Breeds from April to June, constructing a shallow 
"nest of twigs and sticks and lined with grass. The nest 
"is built in medium -sized trees in a fork or close to the trunk 
" up to 30 feet in height. The eggs, three or four in number, 
" varj in colour from stone-colour to greenish-white and are 
'marked with sep a b/own; they measure 1.12 by .85." 

Distkibution: The Himalayas from Hazai-a to Nepal 
* Commonly known by this name in England.- Ed, 

Soiiie hiiercsfing Birds. 117 

;iii([ ovfi iicMily till' wliolo o[ K'asliinir. The sijccies appears 
to l)i' [);iitiall\- iiii,i;Tat()i'\ , liciii,!^' louiid in winter as low as 
JJolira. Jn .suinnu'i' it ascends to 8,000 feet (Gates). 

Ij, Captivity: For a large cage this is a grand bird, 
aS; once tame, it is never dull, but cheery, vivacious, fearless 
and confiding, and has a great faculty lor mischief— it makes a 
charming pet. 

It is etjually interesting in a roomy aviary, with other 
inmates of similar size and strength. In such quarters the 
beautiful wing and tail plumage are displayed to great ad- 
vantage, and its forceful, independent character is very 
apparent. A friend once said to me "if bird lovers only 
knew how interesting and quaint Jays are, they would be more 
frequently kept, both as cage pets and in the aviary "—and 
with this statement I certainly agree. They are very fond of 
bathing, and also very knowing and mischievous. 

As regards food they are practically omnivorous and 
nothing comes amiss to them— a coarse insectivorous mixture, 
table leavings, such as vegetables, scraps of meat, rice pud- 
ding, etc., fruit, nuts; but while variety will be easy, animal 
food must be supplied liberally — the best form in which to 
supply this is, all kinds of insects, scarcely any come amiss, 
but we can name, cockroaches, beetles, catei'pillars, meal- 
worms, grasshoppers, small reptiles, and mammals, etc.; fail- 
nig a good supply of live insects, a little finely minced raw 
meat may be given occasionally (I have never supplied this), 
and minced cooked meat and grated cooked liver stirred into 
insectik mixture. 

All the Jays, are beautiful and striking, whether their 
hues are sombre or of gorgeous tropical colouration, and 
certainly not the least striking or beautiful of them all is the 
subject of this brief sketch. 

(Ruticilla phoenicurus, Linn.) 

The Common Redstart is one of our most interesting 
visitors and always attracts the attention, whenever "he is 
caught sight of, on the top of some low wall, stump, or large 
stone, standing erect and flicking his perpetual -motion -tail. 
Usually they are with us from April to September, inclusive, 
though there are earlier and later records. 

118 Some Interesting Birds. 

Mr Willford's fine photo of the m.'ile, illustratiug these 
notes, IS a characteristic portrait of tnis dianning bird, in 
one of its most striking poses. 

Descrittion. Adult Male: Forehead hoaiy- white; 
crown, nape, and upper back slate-grey; wings dark brown, 
with lighter outer margins; rump and tail ruddy-chestnut, 
witli the exception of the two central feathers of the latter, 
which are brown; narrow frontal band, chin, throat, and 
cheeks deep velvety black; breast bright ruddy chestnut; 
abdomen paler than breast; ventral region whitisii; bill black; 
legs and feet deep brown. Total length 5| inches. 

Adult Female: Lighter and generally less brilliant than 
male, she lacks the black on the face and throat, Avhich is 
so striking a feature of her mate. 

Young: Nestlings are much spotted above and below 
and much resemble young Robins, but they have a chestnut 
tail. Birds of the year resemble the adult female. 

'Range: Broadly, it is generally distributed throughout 
the British Isles, though it is less common in the north and 
west. Its summer and winter distribution outside the Brit. 
Isles, includes: Europe, Africa, Madeira, Canaries; Arabia; 
Persia. Eastwards it extends to Lake Baikal. 

BEEEDl^•G: The Common Ecdstart has not yet been bred m 
captivity, but in 1912, Mr. W. E. Teschemaker success- 
fully bred tire Black Redstart {R. titys) in his Devonshire 
aviaries. In a state of nature the Redstart almost invari- 
ably builds his nest in the hole of a tree, crevice of a stone 
wall, or other similar site. It is mostly constructed of dried 
grass, fine rootlets, occasionally a few leaves are used, and 
is lined with liuir or feathers or a combination of both. The 
eggs are bright bluish -green— similar to, but paler and a 
little smaller than those of the Hedge Accentor— without any 
markings of any kind. The nesting season is from May to 
July, inclusive. 

Food: In a state of nature this consists of insects- 
flies, gnats, butterflies, spiders, etc.; and their larvic and 
pupob. In captivity a similar diet must be given, also some 
strong insectile mixture, also soft ripe fruit. 

In Captivity: I have not kept the English species, 
but I have found them altogether charming; birds, and full 

So»/e Intcrcsiiufi Birds. 110 

of interest when watching their deportment in Mr. Willford's 
aviaries, and muucious as the species are which i)e keeps, 
none were inoie attractive or of greater interest than the 
subject of these notes, viz., tlie Common Redstart. I have 
kept tlie Plumbeous Redstart, a native of the Himalayas, and 
during the period (several years) this species was an occu- 
pant of my aviaries, all visitois were attracted to it at once, 
its deportment is exactly similar to that of the Common Red- 
start, and he tlnove ou insectile mixture, the insects he cap- 
tured in a roomy aviary, supplemented with mealworms, 
spiders, etc.; he also was fond of a little fruit; ho also regu- 
larly visited the milk-sop piovided lor Tanagers, etc., con- 
fined in the same aviary. They are well called "•' flick - 
tails," for their caudal appendages are a fair example of per- 
petual motion, with their up and down, and criss-cross move- 
ments; never still save for some -brief moment to snap up 
some passing lly or other insect — They have many of the 
characteristics which makes the Robin so dear to English 
hearts, the luminous eye, fearless demeanour, etc.; short of 
allowing one to pick them up, the individuals I have made 
the acquaintance of, were perfectly fearless, and confiding, 
taking an insect from the fingers, or hopping about one's feet, 
looking askance at the live bait tin — thus one could ramble 
on, but space forbids, and now one species has been bred, 
why not others? Thus the group of birds called Redstarts 
present a wide field for aspiring aviculturists. 

{To he. continued). 

—. ■■ — 


Nksting Notes: From many sources come records of 
young birds out of the nest of such species as: Zebra Finches; 
Long-tailed Grassfinches; Cuba Finches; Diamond Finches; 
Cutthroats; Bicheno Finches; Budgerigars; Black-cheeked and 
Madagascar Lovebirds; and Alexandrine Parrakeets; Grey 
Cardinals; Rusty-cheeked Babblers; and others are busy build- 
ing Of incubating, and there are many signs that the season 
will be an early, and we also hope a successful one. 

Zoo Notes: Among the more recent additions to the 
Loudon Zoological Gardens, are many interesting birds, of 

120 Editorial. 

which the more notable are: Guatemalan Ouzel (Merula in- 
fuscaia)*; Cuban Black Bullfinches {Melopyrrha nigra); Wliite- 
eyebrowed Finches {Spermophila super ciliaris)*; Lesser Scaup 
(Fuligula affinis)*; Einged Duck {F . coUaris)*; Mikado Pheas- 
ant (CalojjJiasis mikado)*; Cinnamon 'Tiriamou {Crypturus cin- 
namomeus)*; and Mantell's Kiwi {Apteryx mantelli). Quite 
recently our member, Major Perreau, has presented the fol- 
lowing species: Two pairs Black-throated Ouzels {Merula atri- 
gularis); one Dark Grey Bush-Chat (Oreicola ferrea)*; one 
9 Plumbeous Eedstart {Bhyacornis fullginosa)*; two AVhite- 
tailed Blue Eobins {Notodela leucura)*; one Eed- flanked Bush- 
Eobin {lanthla rufilata); Large Niltava {Niltava 'grandis)*; 
two Short-billed Minivets (Pericrocotus hrevirostris); one Cin- 
namon-bellied Nuthatch {Sittu cinnamomeiventris); one Lar- 
ger Red-headed Crow-Tit {Schaeorhyncus ruficeps)* ; one Large 
Pied Wagtail {Motacilla maderaspatensis) ; one White -throated 
Laughing Thrush {Garrulus albigularis); one Grey -sided Laugh- 
ing Thrush (Dryotiastes caerulatus)*; four Eufous -necked 
Laughing Thrushes (D. ruficolUs)*: two Silver-eared Mesias 
{Mesia argentauris); one Cinnamon Tree Sparrow (Passer cin- 
7iamomeus); one Warbler {sp. inc); one Great-billed Desert 
Finch (Erythrospiza crassiiostris); one Glossy Calornis (Lam- 
procorax chalybea); two Eain Quail {Coturnix coroniandeUca); 
one Jungle Bush Quail {Perdlcula asiatica); two Eock Bush- 
Quail {P. argoo)idah); one Indian Button Quail {Turnix tamlci), 
and one Little Button Quail (T. dussumieri). 

*ISIew to the collection. 

An Avian Catastrophe: We regret to learn as we go 
to press, that our member, the Hon. Mary C. Hawke, lost the 
whole of her birds and aviaries by fire on Saturday night, 5th 
inst. Details will be given in our next issue. All we are 
assured deeply sympathise with her in the loss of so many 
rare feathered favourites under such distressing circumstances. 

British Bird Calendar. 121 

British Bird Calendar. 

It is urgently I'Ctiucslcd iiicin])('is frf)in all round the 
coast will note the movement of birds, more especially 
ill the Southern and Eastern Counties, and regularly (28th 
ot each month) send in their notes — on this the ultimate 
success and permanent ifiterest of the Calendar will de- 
pend. — Ed. 

March: I heard and saw the ChifT-Chafl on March 
21st; the Wryneck on March 2i)tli; the latter species I did 
not heai till Apiil 2nd last year. 

P.F.M.G., Heading, 31/3/'i;3. 
March 1st. Brent Geese in large Hocks feeding on 
the shore. 

March 3rd. Wrens have built a nest in an old coffee 
tin, placed in the twigs of an elm tree in the garden, 

A Grey Wagtail {R. hoarula) reported in the neigh- 

March 18th. Greater Spotted Woodpecker heard 
"drumming" for the first time this season. 

March 19th. Saw the first Cliilf- Chair to-day; feed- 
ing in some bushes. 

March 27th. Heard and saw three Ohiff-Chaffs. 
March 28th. Watched a Hoopoe feeding on a lawn 
"not 100 miles away." It arrived five days ago, and seems 
very tame. 

March 31st. Every other bush appears to contain a 
nest and eggs now: 'Thrushes and Blackbirds. 

P. G., Beaulieu, Hants, 1/4/' 13. 
My tame garden Eobin has to-day begun to carry 
mealworms to his mate and feed her with them. He pursues 
me everywhere and flies on to my hand for the worms, but 
he will not allow his mate to follow his example, though she 
is desirous of doing so. 

A Blue Tit comes to hand for pine nuts during the 
winter, but leaves me in summer. This is the third year 
he has re -appeared. E. F. C, 14/3/'13. 

You have mis -quoted me re Chiff-ChalT in B.B. 
Calendar. The bird died before it came into my hands.- I 
received it in the llesh, but not living. 

A.S., 23/3/'13. 

122 British Bird Calendar. 

March. Since 16th ult, vast numbers of Pcrchers 
and of ^^'atcrfo\\i have deserted this wind-swept promontory. 
If birds are arrivhig from the Continent, they do not remain. 
I have .seen only a .small party of Lapwing (8th). 

D. L. Salcombe, 29,3 '13. 

March. As to the movements of birds in south Oxon , 
I have noticed just this last fortnight, an unusual num- 
ber of separate flocks of Redwings within a 5 mile ride on 
my bicycle. I passed four large flocks; the last flock I came 
upon in a meadow beside a wood and there must have been 
several hundi'eds of them, the field was covered, and there 
were in addition to these scores flying out of the trees. 

These birds have been collecting together, and have 
been singing in chorus for some time past. Generally this 
takes place towards the end of March, prior to their leaving 
for their northern breeding quarters, but they ai'e much 
earlier in flocks this yeai', and considering what a mild winter 
it has been it is strange to find such a number of them. Haw- 
Ihiches are in good numbers here, and are in song. I have 
only noticed them this last ten days. Peewits are in i)airs on 
the hills, the flocks have broken up, and they have left 
the low lands and are rising and tumbling in the air, uttering 
their peculiar spring note.g, intended for the benefit of their 
mates; this is always one of the first signs of spring. 

On March 11th, at 4 o'clock in the morning, I heard 
strange notes of birds, which seemed to be circling round and 
round over my house. Although I was on my perch, I was wide 
awake, the birds kept up the peculiar notes unfamiliar to 
me, for about twenty minutes, and then as they moved off, 
they grew fainter. The call was of three notes, which sounded 
exactly like someone whistling for a dog in a rather low 
pitched tone. P. F. M. G., Caversham, 12;3;'13. 

AVheatear. The only Spring migrant I have seen 
was a Wheatear, on March 30th. I have heard the passing 
of many Waders on fine nights during the latter portion of 
March; a few days however, should herald the arrival of our 
visitors. R. S. Cleethorpes,3/4/"13. 

Bodh Xtilnrs (ind Uci'iofx. 123 

Book Notices and Reviews. 

A Systkim of \'i;ti;ki\akv Mkdicixk. By v;irious writ9rs; edited, 
by K. Walla/r lloaio. F.ll.O.V.S. In two vols., £2 2s., net. 
Vol 1. now ready, prioo £1 Is., net. London: Baillioro, Tin- 
dall and Cox, 8, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 

A copy of Vol. I. luis now reaelied us, and in eonlinualion of 
our previou;- notice wo would add: 

That the sections dealing with bii'ds are mostly from the pen 
of our Hon. Vet. Surgeo;i (Mr. H. Gray, M.E.C.V.S.), but every 
section of tiie animal world is dealt with, and the work should 
appeal not oiUy to professional men, but to all stock-owners, poultiy- 
keepers, and owners of zoological series of all kinds. The i)ird 
.section will apiu-al mainly to oui' readei-s. The ai'ticles referring 
to the coccidiosis of bii'ds, the aspergillosis of birds, avian cholera, 
avian jdague, bird-fever, bird septicaemia, and psitta-cosis, fiom the 
pen of Mr. H. Gray, should prove of great value to the students 
of aviary diseases, and greatly assist the aviculturist in ^the care of 
the occupants of his aviaries and cages. 

Mr. G. L. Ingram, M.E.C.V.S., of the " Browni " Institution, 
Lonnon, has devoted a chapter to avian tuberculosis, and points out 
Die .special characters of this disease in birds. 

Tlie writer of the articles on avian diphtheria (loup of poultry- 
farmers) and epithelioma conta,giosum (pigeon or fowl-pox) has des- 
cribed them as two distinct diseases. But modern investigators 
have concluded they are due to the same virus, wdiich wall pro- 
duce one or the other, that is to say, some birds, after inoculation, 
will manifest diphtheritic symptoms, others eruptive symptoms or 
both sets of symptoms combined. They aie due to an ult-a visible 
organism, wdiich cannot be seen lay the most powerful microscope. 
Catarrhal roup, which is probably a mild form of avian diphtheria, 
is also ably described by Mr. Gray. The pigeon or fowl -pox is one 
of the oldest known diseases of birds. It was noticed by Pal- 
ladius, A.D., 300; Demetrius described it A.D. 12G1, and De 
Cresentij A.D., 1233—1307, and occurs in every part of the 
woild : but although frequent in the United Kingdom, is particularly, 
common in India, Italy, and other warm countries. We believe 
tlie Italian veterinary surgeons pay the greatest attention to the 
diseases of poultry; the Germans next, then Russians, French, 
Americans, Roumanians, etc., and tlie English the least. 

Several diseases of rabbits and fishes are fully de- 
scribed, and also the bee plague, the silkworm disease, and two 
diseases of mice, liaving an economic value. One mouse disease is 
allied to or identical with that of swine erysipelas, the other supplies 
the haccilus for the mauufactui'e of Danysz Mouse and Rat virus. 
Psittacosis (Parrot disease or plague) is described in its relation 
to public health, as well as from a veterinary point of view. 

124 Correspondence. 

Tjhe diseases are described from a scientific as well as a 
practical point of view, and the work is a fair resume of the 
present knowledg-e of them. All the diseases included in it ha,ve 
been investigated by the g^reatest authorities in medical science. 
The work should appeal to all those requiring the most authoritative 
knowledge on any of the microbial or contagious diseases of the 
economic animals. 

Mr. Gray draws attention to the lack of knowledge of the 
diseases dealt with by the main body of those who advise re the 
treatment of poultry, pigeons, etc., in the public Press; even our 
Board of Agricultui'e takes very little interest in the welfare of the 
poultryi-fai-mer, who in foreign countries is well catered for by his 
respective Government, which investig'ates the diseases of poultry, 
especially the more deadly diseases, and advises as to their treatment. 

In a future issue, with the permission of the publishers:, 
we may qoute from its pages. 

The thoughtful avictilturist (this applies equally to every sec- 
tion of animal life) will gain much practical insti'uction from a 
cai'eful study of the articles on the diseases of birds, and the result 
will be a lessening of the death-rate and the saving of needless suf-" 
fering to many captive birds. 

We cordially commend this work to our readers, and, while 
mainly iwritten for veterinary surgeons, it should appeal strongly 1o 
medical men, aviculturists, pisciculturists, dog and poultry breeders, 
country gentlemen, and the owners of cattle, sheep, and horses. This 
volume deals with the microbial or contagious diseases. 



Sir, — It may interest you to know that my Alexandrine 
Pairakeets (Pala'-tornis nepalensis) have hatched out three young' one^s. 
The hen with much labour excavated a hole in the ground, right in 
the open part of the aviary, and I had to put a cover over her, 
or she would have been drowned in the heavy rains we have had 
here lately. She is feeding them well and I have great Jioipes of 
rearing them.. 

Have they been bred here previously? — [Yes, several times, 
but not fi'equent'y. — Ed.]. 

My Rusty -cheek Babblers are also sitting steadily, and I have 
not seen the hen off the nest yet, since incubation began. If they 
hatch and rear will let you have particulars. — [Details in any case 
will be* of interest, but we wish you full success. — Ed.]. 

Westbuiy, Wilts, WM. SHORE BAILEY. 

April 2, 1913, 

rosi Morlc}}} Rrporfs. 125 


;?ii\- \\'illi rvguid (o Mr^. Haitloy's remarks on tfiL' rarity of 
l>iiik l)ii-ds, is not tlie Rosy Pastor in Indki i)iiik in paiLs ? 
\\\vdi about the Desert Ti-umpeter Bullfiaeh? I liavi." heard of a 
beautiful pink -breasted Kobin or Chat whieli iiiliabits New Zealand 
and is unknown to avienllure. These arc all thai (in in- to me, .ind 
certainly they are not a great number. 


Sir,- Re Pink Piids, do not the following species come under 
this designation? Salmon -crested and Leadbeater's Cockatoos; Rosy- 
fa.eied Lovebird; Rosy Pastor; Roseate Spoonbill and Tern; Flam- 
ingo, Pine Grosbeak; Linnet; Mealy and Lesser Redpolls. 

.1. WEIR. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

See Rules on page iii. of cover. 

Red-Rump Parrakket (cT). (B. Hamilton Seott, Ipswich). 
The lungs were extensively inflamed. I should say the bird was four 
or five years of age. 

Pekin Robin (9). (Mrs. N. Storey, Cheshire). The cause 
of death was pneumo-enteritis. 

Crimson Finch. (Geo. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge). Cause 
of death, pneumonia. 

Hayes Partridge (cf). (W. A. Bainbridge, Surrey). The 
cause of death vms pericarditis, no doubt due to rheumatism, whicii 
you noticed during the bird's life-time. Thanks for your kindly 
expression but am afraid I shall not be able to attend. 

Cutthroat. (Philip Gosse, Beaulieu, Hants.) Death due to 
the so-called egg-binding. The Zebra-finch's trouble was pneu- 

monia. T\\Q changeable and chilly weather is very trying. 

Yellow Budgerigar (F. W. Bull, Sutton, Surrey). Was 
too fat. The liver was extensively infiltrated with fat. The other 
bird died from pneumonia. 

Yellow Haxgnkst. (Wm. Shore Baily, Westbury). The 
cause of death was enteritis. The paralysis of the legs is fre([uently 
associated with several bird diseases. 

Black-headed Sugarbird 9- (M^ss E. P. Chawner, Lynd- 
hurst). The cause of death was pneumonia. 

Grey ^VAXBILL. (A. S. Eccles, Ditton Hill, Surrey). Cause 
of deatli pneumonia. 

'[2C) Post Mortem Rrporfs. 

Mrs Caktwright. The Post Mortem Eules were not ob- 

Ansiccred by Post — Colonel Koutli, Mrs. C. H. William'*, Lady 
Kathleen Pilkington. 


The Current Number of "Bird Notes." 

Th3 sympathy of all our meml ei-s will, I am sure, go out to 
our esteemed Editor, who has just suflTered a sad and very- 
sudden bereavement. He has asked me to see to the re- 
vision of the proof-sheets of this number of our magazine, 
whicli I have done to the best of my ability. Doaotless 
my fellow -members will kindly pardon any imperfections 
they may detect. — G. H. Raynor, April 9th, 1913. 

The Lapland }3untinj 



H.Goodotuia, aeletlith. 


(Psi-btii3u.s incertxis) 

Dra.'wii from, life . 


All right.^ reserved. May, 1018. 


__ THE 


The Blue-rumped Parrot 

(Psif til/us incertus). 
By L. W. Hawkins. 

i\I> first ac(juaintanc(' ^vith this species was in March, 
1904. when a London dealer advertised a male for sale. On 
referring- to my books I found the Parrot menfoned in Mr. 
Seth-Smith"s " Parrakeets," and also in the well known Ger- 
man book by Dr. Karl Russ. From these I gathered that it 
was quite a dwarf Parrot, of beautiful appearance, and very 
rarely to be seen in Euroj)e, its native land being the region 
of the Malay Peninsula. I asked to see the bird and it was 
sent on to me. It proved to be in faultless condition and 
in full colour, but reminded me very much of the Eclectus 
Parrots by its lack of activity in a cage. I noticed also 
that the colour of the beak (the upper mandible, being red 
and the lower one black), and likewise the great patches of 
red under the wings were quite similar to the same parts of 
the male Grand Eclectus. I was not surprised therefore to 
find that Dr. Karl Euss placed the bird as a near relative of 
the Eclectus Parrots, though only a little larger tlian a Love- 

I wrote to say I would keep the little Parrot, and re- 
ceived a letter from the dealer saying that I had the only 
living male in Europe. A female had arrived a few weeks 
previously and was then on deposit at the Zoo. It was only 
by a chance that the male had not also found its way there. 
I was delighted with the bird, and quite expected it would 
live with me for years as it was apparently quite healthy 
iind fairly tame. It would allow me to take it in my hand 
and place it on a finger. But although it made no attempt 
to bite, it would jump off as soon as released. I could not, 
however, get it to eat any other seeds than hemp. It would 
take a large quantity of this, and the effect of it was most 

128 The Blue-tumped Parrot. 

likely injurious, for in a few weeks the little Parrot was ill, 
and soon afterwards it died. T went to the Zoo to see if the 
female still survived, l)ut, failing- to find it there, I eoncluded 
that it also had died. 

I much regretted the loss of this 1)ird and for a long 
time kept a close watch on Parrot arrivals, both here and 
on the Continent, in the hope of obtaining another example, 
Tn 1910 a dealer in the north of England wrote to say he 
had a dwarf Parrot and described its size and colours. I 
took this bird to l)e an adult hen Rlue-runi]-), liut as ne [ixed 
the price at ten pounds T had to leave it. T liad no trace 
of further arrivals till DecemT>er, 1911, when T obtaine(' 
my present pair. Four young birds were then imported by 
Mr. Hamlyn, \vho wrote to say he had two pairs of Pigmy- 
Parrots. On seeing the liirds I recognised the Blue-rumped 
Parrots at once, although they were all out of colour. They 
were chiefly a mixture of grey and sage green, and the beaks 
were horn colour, l)ut the b'ue on the bick, the i^ed patches 
under the wings, and the bordered wing feathers were there. 
All four were in perfect henltb and plnma^e. and two of 
them had decidedly broader heads than the other two, which 
seemed to indicate that they were males, and this supposition 
turned out to be correct. I had doubts at first, however, be- 
cause one of these males had on its neck some tiny patches 
of red-brown which is seen in the adult hen, and the other 
male had a few specks of the same colour on its head. T 
retained one pair, and the O'her pair was promptly secured 
for the Zoo. 

T put my pair in a ca'^e in a warm aviary and was 
glad to see that thov partook freely of all the usual seeds 
such as canary, milh^t, jxiddy rice, wheat, oats, hemp and 
monkey nuts. Tliey would also oat dried fg^ and prunes, and 
later on would eagerly take such ripe fruit as plums, pears, 
cherries, and bananas. T was i-ather sui'prised at this as the 
Blue-rumped Parrots mentioned by Dr. Euss took "chiefly 
hemp, of 'canary seed, millet, and cooked rice only a few grains. 
while fruit they never touched." 

Tn May. 1912, my hen moulted into adult plumage, 
but the male did not do so till July. This year they have 
again moulted and they seem to have grown considerably in 

Bird Notes. 

Top //V///yv— Ht'(l-lit-a(lf(l 'I'ir. 

Middle ji(iare—\A\v\i^\' Streaked Spi.lcr-Hmite 

Bottom figure — Larger Hed-headetl Crow-Tit. 

The Bhic-rumpcd "Parrot. 120 

size. At tinios they aic li\<'ly oMou,i,''h, but tlicy g-enerally 
roniain inolioiilcss and limnp l)ack(Ml. They have quite a plea- 
sant warhh' a'lil occasioiially .yivc a loud rail note. When 
a stranger (Miters the aviary the male will sometimes sus- 
pend himsoir by tlic lirak only on tlio sido of the cage and 
draw up liis |(\us. I'c IIkmi looks a curious object and 1 think 
this attitude; is a sign of fear. T have not seen them 'bathe 
but the water is made (piitc dirty on account of their habit 
of carrying fruit stones, nutshells, etc., to the water tray and 
drooping them in. The only times When they have appeared 
out of sorts were on the iwo occasions when they returned 
home after being exhibited. They then remained somewhat 
thick for a few days but happily quite recovered. 

I recently saw the other pair at the Zoo and was glad 
to find them in such j^erfect condition. The success of these 
four birds shows that they can live well in captivity, but 
it must be remembered that they were imported quite young. 
The record of Blue-rumped Parrots imported in adult plumage 
does not appear so satisfactory. The birds I have men- 
tioned which arrived in 1 904 did not live long, and -our 
Editor speaks of a pair {B.N. iii., p. 5.3), which arrived 
in 1910 and soon died. Moreover I heard that others were 
privately sent over last year, but owing to the difficultj'- 
of getting them to eat the importation was not a success. 
I find in Mr Seth- Smith's book that the Blue-rumped Parrot 
" feeds chiefly on the small gummy flowers of a plant that 
always springs up where forest has been felled and burnt.'" 
r am afraid that sometimes a substitute for these small gummy 
flowers is necessary for recently imported adults of this species 
to thrive. 

[The studies of Mr. Goodchild's beautiful drawing were 
made from. Mr. Hawkins' birds at the C.P. Show]. 

My Indian Consignment, 

By Ma.tor G. a. Perreau, F.Z.S. 
(Cotifnnied from page 108). 
The Red-tteaded Tit {Arcfiihnliscus erythrocephalus) 
is a charming wee mite, very much of the type of our Long- 

130 ^ly Indian Consignment. 

requires little description, and the attitude is very character- 
istic. Eoughly described the top of the head is ruddy chest- 
nut, the light parts about the face are wliite and the dark 
parts black, the upper parts are bluish grey and the lower 
parts are reddish-white. Size a little over four inches, of 
which the tail takes two. The nest is much like that of 
our Long-tailed Tit. 

They form a large proportion of the hunting parties 
that to toy mind form the chief attraction of the deodar forest. 
It is largely distributed, ranging throughout the Himalayas and 
common at any rate in the parts I know. "When trapping 
near Darjeeling, where I got most of my best birds, I found 
it very hard to meat off: the season of the year may account 
for this, but above Bakloh I had little difficulty after the 
first day, but little and often is decidedly their motto as 
regards live food. They took readily to very ripe wild 
medlar (really, I believe, a sma'l round wild pear) 
and mealworms broken into three or four pieces and 
stuck about the crossbars of the wood -fronted cages I meated 
them off in. From this to sponge cake and milk and then 
on to insect food was only a matter of a few days, but I 
never dropped the cut up mealworms or sponge cake. By 
the way, talking of sponge cake, except perhaps for Sun- 
birds and such like I do not believe in giving " sop " too 
wet, nor do I break up the sponge cake. I simply break off 
a chunk large enough to fill the dish almost, then I pour on 
the milk (ov Mellin's mixture) over the sponge cake to do 
little more than cover the bottom. Some birds require more, 
but ] always let the cake stand up out of the milk. To some 
birds, especially Hanging Parrakeets, I often give a dry 
bit as well, and And it much appreciated. 

They ought to stand cold remarkably well as, above 
Bakloh, I have never seen them below about 6,000 feet, even 
in the hardest winter when their relative the Crested Black 
Tit, a much stouter and hardier bird to look at, is easily 
driven down by snow. I only saved two of my Darjeeling 
birds out of more than I care to think, but these birds were 
limed and brought to me ev^en after I had given up trying 
them and had ordered no more to be caught. 1 detest the use 
of lime, but more of that later. I caught ten on a 'four days' 

My Indian Consignment. 131 

trip near Dalhousie, and two of those days were practically 
spoilt hy heavy hail ami wind storms, which almost made 
me regret camping out in a bivouac tent above Bakloh in 
February. The birds, my jjcnsiuncr liii'd orderly and my 
servant were (juitc coniforlalilc in a cowhouse very dirty, 
it is true. By ni.^lit and u:i line days I was all right, but by 
day in bad weather it was trying, and the thought of time being 
wasted did not help to make one take things philosopically. 
I had my two Darjceling Tits as call birds in two oT my own 
p:attern trao cages. I spent most of my timCj wandering about 
with a cage in either hand searching i^r a party. On hear- 
ing or seeing the advanced guard, usually Tree-creepers and 
Crested Tits, 1 huri-iedly put down the traps and took the 
nearest cover, generally within twenty yards. I always got 
one bird at once, but very seldom more than one, though the; 
party would stream by, a thin stream after the first rush, for 
seven or eight minutes, ample time to get more if all be- 
haved like the first comers. But apparently it is a good thing 
to be in front, and stragglers were too much engrossed in 
getting there to pay any attention to my strangers. It is 
surprisingly hard to pick up a party again, and then one seems 
to hit the stragglers. 

I lost a few by accident, but had eight beauties prac- 
tically in show condition on departure from Paris. At Calais 
there was the shute accident and at Charing Cross, the first 
chance I had of really seeing the birds after Calais', I used the 
language of a life -time. Other birds, notably White -eyes. 
Hanging Parrakeets, and Fruitsuckers, were bad enough, but 
the Tits — three were dead, stuck to the floor with condensed 
milk, two were dying, and the other three looked the most 
forlorn creatures one could wish not to see. These three, 
however, pulled round in a marvellous way and soon became 
quite their lively selves, but alas — at the expense of their 
plumage. They are now in the possession of our member, 
the Marquis of Tavistock. I had just the same luck (or want 
of itj with my AVhite- eyes, for only three survived out of eight 
with a similar loss of feathers ; they too were in show con- 
dition. These three are now in the possession of our Editor, 
and are doing very well. Imagine bathing in condensed milk! 
How I hated the stufi" on my hands even, but cleaning had 

132 ^y Indian Consignment. 

to be done, and water was too plentiful on the \0) age. Think 
of it on your hair. 

The Laegeb IStkeaked Spidek-hunter {Arachnothcra 
magna) is admirably figured by Mr. Goodchild. I think it is 
the best portrait of the srx which ihe has done of my birds . This, 
in mj opinion, of course, is as it should be, for this bird was 
a great favourite of mine, quite the first. I was a little dis- 
appomted at the comparatively little enthusiasm he evoked 
;irom visitors in England, but i am very glad to say that he 
gets the appreciation he deserves from nis present owner, 
our member J^ady rvaiLhieen Tilkington. Oi course he is single, 
and not brightly coloured, but he is distinctly handsome and 
very quaiat. 

He was caught m Uarjeeling, one oi my earliest cap- 
tures there. 1 only saw three, and this one was the only one 
1 caught; heavy ' bakshish" was ofieied for others, but without 
result. I rather expected disappointment with him and pro- 
vided him with every luxury, I could tnmk oi in the iood line, 
putting him in a special cage with mosquito netting iront and 
wmdow, so that i could supply •'net-sweepings" and in- 
sects all alive -oh. A very good cage, but quite wasted on 
him. He settled down at once to sponge cake and milk, with 
an occasional taste from tlie insect lOod, and soon got to like 
a suck at a decapitated mealworm. 8piders, at any rate out- 
door "web" ones, he ignored, and i never saw him tackle 
much from amongst the varied collection supplied from the 
"nejt-sweepmgs." 1 soon gave up worrying about him, and 
he's not been sick or sorry a day since. 1 might except that 
that awful tonga (light cart) drive from Bakloh to the rail, 
and even then he was less worried than most birds as he 
circumvented the awiul jolting in an ingenious way. One 
would expect higenuity from so knowing -looking a bird, and 
he is that, though he does look such a fool at times.: Hei 
took a iirm grip oi the iront perch which was low, and rested 
his shoulders on the floor. He gave me an awful shock at 
the nrst halt to change horses, but he seemed all rigut directly 
J put my hand in to move hini. He was on his back again 
at the next halt, and again pericetiy all rignt, so f watched 
him at the start; at nrst there was nothing to see; I could not' 
see him except by walking beside the tonga. Near the end 

My Indian Consignment. 133 

of tln' joLUiicy liL' bueaiuf vi'i\y knowing-, and was on his 
itack aIniDsl hcioro the tonya started yctliny bads, oii Ihe pci'eh 
and iccdiiiy very suun alter tlic lunya stopped. 

Tliu bird in a wild state lias ratiicr an unyaiuly lliylit, 
and is seen at Us best busily bustling about the branches 
()[ dowering trees or peering into the cre\-ices abounding 
in tlie clumps of orchid bullts (I. fancy bulb is not the cor- 
leet term) . My bird was caught in lan Erythrijna ( Coral Tree), 
the gorgeous Howers oi which ai'c most popular witli Sunbirds 
antl such like, and whose thorns ar emost unpopular with a 
would-be t'att;liei'. A\e (my cheery planter Iriend and my- 
seli) to a certain extent beat the thorns by fastening a 
Hue ne' to a split bamboo Irame and hoisting the whole con- 
ce.rn into a suitable place by a rope, throwing a stone at- 
laciieu to a string over a suitable branch, hauling lip -md 
steadying with guy-ropes at the lower corners. The Gur- 
kha coolie simply slices off the thorns, but as these trees are 
all thorns and very iiice trees, we stopped that. It is qiiite 
easy to lix up a line net or nets in suitable positions up a 
tree when one is in the tree, though one may have to be- 
come i'airiy expert in balancing with one toe round a branch 
to leave the hands fi'ee, but hoisting up a frame in a fiullable 
place is really no joke. However it was worth it. 

My bird and his next-door neighbour, the Crow-Tit, 
were quite the most popular birds on board ship; Beaky and 
cstutty they were nick-named. Beaky took some time over his 
mealworm. Stuffy having finished the head used to get very 
impatient ior his I'ind; heads and rinds were his perk, and ihis 
sometnnes put Beaky oft' his feed. The latter seemed not to 
iwiderstand that Stuffy 's stunipy little beak, the curious fea- 
ture hi a Crow Tit, could not possibly harm him through the 
wire. His own long beak was often in one of his neighbour's 
dishes. His bath, too, ^\'as watched with interest; it was 
rather a fraudulent affair, as he would not get into the Avatei, 
(the dish may have been unsuitable) but that didn't matter, 
he did it all with much fuss with his beak, and enjoyed it 
immensely, and what's more kept very clean. I believe he 
could bathe in a thimble if it was deep enough. 

But his great act was making love. Huffing out all his 
leathers and causing them to quiver, drumming slightly, with 

134 My Indian Consignment. 

l^urtly opened wings, turning liis iiead and poking his beak 
through the bars to tickle the heads of his neighbours. The 
Hanging Parrakeets on his other side would have none of it, 
but Stuffy seemed to enjoy it very much, though lie always 
seemed a bit nervous at the start of a bout. This would 
go on sometimes for twenty minutes at a time. According 
to our standard of beauty the bird had no special vanity to 
display. One could have understood it, had he possessed 
axillary plumes; perhaps his ancestors once had them, or his 
descendants will have them. I wish he had a chance of de- 
scendants in captivit5^ People asked if I was going to 
breed from the incongruous pair. I can hardly think of a less 
likely hybrid. 

I should not think he would stand great cold, though 
I had him in an unheated room with a door always open when it 
was snowing outside. I would not tru^t him again with a 
smaller bird; verb. sap. His plumage is greenish, lighter 
below, with Iblack streaks. Sizeji 7 inches, including a tail of two 
and a Ijill of 1.8 inches. Gates states that the nest is an 
open cup of vegetable fibres felted together, mingled with 
dead leaves, and lined with grass. It has a wide range, and 
occurs up to 5,000 feet. I believe it is fairly common in 
some parts, so I hope others will come home. I ought to 
apologise again, but will try to make up for tlie length of 
this by cutting down the writing about the remaining bird 

The Larger Red -headed Grow -Tit {Scacorhynchus 
rujiceps) is the only one of their curious family and my bird 
(now presented to the Zoo) is the only one of his species 
I have seen alive, and that I never saw wild as he, (or may b& 
she) wa3 brought to me, with several Laughing Thrushes, in 
a loosely -woven grass bag. Gur first acquaintance was pain- 
ful as he got first grip; I couldn't see into the bag, and the 
Gurkha coolies thoroughly enjoyed the joke of not telling me 
there was a biter in the bag. Several men had been caught 
with the same joke. I thought it was a Parrot from the feel, 
but concluded it must be a rare one from the size and. hung 
on, though I fancy I 'liad little choice, as the bird was fright- 
ened and in the dark. He did not let go at once even when 

My hiillan Consignment. 135 

loosed into a cage. Since then I've taken good care to get 
first grip. 

He toolv readily to captivity, partalvingof mealworms and 
calvc and millv at once, and very soon took to insect food. 
He likes the cake unbroken and nearly dry. Fiuit he did not 
seem to care for, but he had little choice in this line. Urc^en- 
stuft' was appreciated. I found seed untouched and dropped 
giving it, but he would be very likely to eat it, fading other 
food. Mealworms he places under his foot, in true Tit-style, 
and then proceeds to masticate the worm deliberately; he 
gets through them more quickly now than he did. He is not 
so tame as he was; probably misses his individual attention and 
w'ants Beaky to "bring him out." 

For show he has not points, but he should be most in- 
terestnig to the aviculturist who could give him room to 
himself (this I should advise, remembering that bite). Tl:e figure 
is excellent. Rough description, head chestnut; upper parts 
olive brown, under parts white, eyelids and mouth biue. 
Size 7| inches, tail 3|-, bill from gape .6 inches. It is found 
in the E. Himalayas up to 2,500 feet. 

Mr. Kinnear, of the Bombay Naiuz^al History 
Society, was much struck with the narrow face waen viewed 
from in front. From skins he thought the face wa? full and 
round like a Parrot's. I mention this to show the value of 
drawings from the live bird. "Mr. Goodchiid shows this char- 
acteristic, and I doubt if even lie could have done so from 
a skin and a description. 

{To he continued). 

Some Interesting Birds 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., Etc. 

Illustrated from Life by H. AVillford. 
{Continued from page 119). 
The Lady Amherst's Pheasant {Chnjsolophus am- 
herstiao). A beautiful species of a gorgeously plumaged 
group; some idea of its elegance, and also its exquisitely 
barred and variegated plumage will be gathered from Mr, 
A\'illford's characteristic photograph {see opposite), taken as 

136 Some hiteresling Birds. 

it r^^'andered naturally in one of his roomy wilderness aviaries; 
ol its lull beauty even the brush of the artist must fall far 
short, and the word -picture given below of its plumage is 
poor hideed compared with the glowing beauty of the living 

Adult Male: Top of head rich, sheeny, dai'k bronze-green; 
long crest plumes intense blood -red; cape -like feathers of 
the back of the neck glistening snow-white, margined and 
barred with glossy steel-blue; shoulders, mantle and chest 
sheeny dark green; rump, giossy black, each feather tipped 
with rich buff; throat and lore -neck brownish -black, glossed 
with dark green; remainder of underparts snow-white, 
barred with black on the flanks; tne two central tail-feathers 
are white, barred and lined with black; with the other tail- 
feaithers barred with black ana Dulf; set off by the beautiful 
broad iscarlet- tipped side hangers; naked skin round eye blue; 
eye, white; legs, bluish -green. Length: Fi'oni tip to tip of 
tail 4;i feet, tail 3 feet. 

Adult Female: Head and mantle bx'own, barred with 
black and buff' and variegated with rufous -brown; lower back 
and rump light brown, thickly and finely mottled with black; 
■throat buff'; sides of head and under -parts buff, barred with 
'black except on the middle of abdomen: naked skin round 
eye blue. Length 2^ feet, tail 11 inches. 

Hahiiai: This fine species ranges over the mountains 
of Western Cnma and Eastern Tibet. 

Eggs: Short stubby oval in shape, of a light bull 
colour, with smooth and glossy shells. Average size 1^ x 
Ig inches. 

1)1 CapUcity: To view this line species, as has been 
been mj privilege on many occasions, is to indulge in a feast 
of beauty not easily forgotten, and to make one long for 
spacious ffights to indulge one's appetite, not merely with this 
species, but also Oiher rare species of the PHASIANIN^. It 
is little short of maryelious to see the ease and grace withl 
which the cock carries his 3 feet tail, and also avoids obstruc- 
;tions likely to damage same, so that even in somewhat limited 
quarters, it is kept in good condition for a long period. 

Pheasants are the better for spacious runs, and these 
should not be overcrowded, or the ground soon becomes tainted. 



Some Interesting Birds. 137 

Ther<3 should also be plenty of cover, both m the open (light.?, 
and shelters; in the latter heaps of brushwood lyiny on sand will 
fully meet the case; while as to the former, low giowing and| 
si)rt.';uling evergreen bushi'S, such as ik'rl)(.'iis, Luurel, Rhodo- 
dendron, Gorse, Heather, etc., all make good cover: of course 
such kinds must be chosen as flourish best in respective locali- 
ties; any local nurseryman would suggest others of similar 
character, where many of the above do not flourish. 

Pheasan,ts do well on a general mixture of small 
feereals jand seeds, with game meal, and an abundance of 
greenfood, where the runs are not of sullicicnt extent to furnish 
this it must be liberally supplied. During the winter, when 
greenfood fails, various roots, such as Mangel -Wurzel, may 
be 'given, but they should not be left in the open on frosty 
nigl^ts. In fact, the better plan is to supply what will be 
ea,ten, or to make a practice of taking indoors nightly any 
unconsumed roots during the periods frosts are likely to occur. 
Pheasant chicks in their earlier stages should get plenty 
of live food — ants' cocoons, maggots, etc.— also custard and 

If the runs are at all confined, a frequent gathering up 
of the birds' voidings wUl tend to keep the earth sweet for 
a much longer period, and a light annual top dressing of fresh 
soil, together with an occasional digging and re -sodding, will 
keep theni fresh and sweet for quite long periods. 

The Lady Amherst's Pheasant inhabits rocky regions, 
and their run should be well drained, and, if it can be raised 
above the ordinary ground level, so much the better for the 

Pheasants readily interbreed, and very fine hybrids 
result from crossing this species with the Golden (C pieties) 
and also the Reeves's (Phasianus revesii). 

Thl Elliot's Pheasant (Calophasis ellioti) . Another 
beautiful Pheasant, which like the preceding species is most 
difficult for either pen or brush to adequately depict. It be- 
longs to the group of Barred-back Pheasants, and though very 
dillerent from the Lady Amherst's Pheasant, is equally beautiful; 
in fact their exquisite and contrasty plumage make them even 
more noticeable as they wander about a roomy and natural 
run, as depicted in the fine photograph illustrating these 

138 Some Interesting Birds. 

notes. It is fully as large a bodied bird as the Lady Am- 
herst's, the dLlerence in the length of 'the tail accounting for the 
wide dillei-ence in the measurement of the two species. The fol- 
lowing is little more than a sketchy description of the exquisite 
plumage of this species: 

Adult Male: Head and neck whitish-grey; mantle, 
shoulders, wing and breast fiery bronze -red, glossed with a 
rich golden sheen; the mancic 'is bordered by two white bands, 
and two white bars cross each wing; a band of metallic 
purplish-steel crosses the lesser wing-coverts; throat, fore- 
neck and abdomen white; lower back and rump black, laced 
with white; tail whitish-grey, barred with cinnamon-chestnut. 
Total length 33 inches, tail 19. 

Adult Female: General colour light drab-brown, barred 
and variegated with black above and spotted on the breast; 
abdomen white; back and sides of neck greyish -brown; throat 
and fore-neck black; outer tail-feathei's cinnamon-chestnut 
with black and white tips. Total lengih 20 inches, tail 7|. 

Habitat: It ranges over the mountains of South-eastern 
China; where it was first discovered by Swinhoe in (the 
(province of Che-Kiang. It lives in the wooded mountains, 
moving from place to place, and is not by any means com- 
mon . 

Eggs: Bufilsh-cream colour, shell smooth and glossy. 
Average size, Ij by Ij inches. 

In Captivity: AVhile watching this species amid the 
na,turai environment of one of Mr. Wilhord's numerous aviaries 
I could not avoid the conclusion how well they earned their 
title '■ magnificent species," their contrasty plumage standing 
out grandly against a background of living green. 

The vice of savagery (common in a greater or lesser 
degree to most species of Pheasants; is very noticeable with 
this species, and at pairing time the cock may kill the hens, 
unless careiully watched, ii the run be a small one; in roomy, 
najtural quarters this trait is not so apparent. With a very- 
vicious cock it is a good plan to clip his wings and also 
hobble his legs by tying with a cord, leaving the hen full 
and free use of wings and feet. 

The food and general treatment ^iven for the pre- 

Some Interpsting Birds. 139 

ceding species will fully iiu-i't the needs of this, and need 
not be re -capitulated. 

As the purport of these articles is not merely to de- 
scribe their plumage and characteristics, but also to be inform- 
ative as to how to keep and breed, a few concluding re- 
marks, refen-jiig to ])heasants generally may not be out of 

Their quarters should be a roomy grass run, with a 
sheltei- shed at the back, and should have a south aspect. 

They are mostly hill birds and cannot endure heat, so 
their run should be planted with spreading evergreens and 
other bushes to provide an abundance of shade and cover. 

As already indicated they must be watched at pairing 
time, and the movements of really vicious cocks hampered 
to some extent. 

Pheasant hens do not often show much inclination to 
sit, and the common practice is to collect the eggs and place 
them under Silky or Bantam hens. 

Pheasant chicks need much animal food in their earlier 
stages, but success can usually be attained with custard, ants' 
cocoons, 'gentles, also game meals, canary and millet seed^ 
greenfood, i.e., Idttuce, etc., must he liberally supplied even 
to those occupying grass runs. 

{To he continued). 

The Breeding of Grey Finches 

( SjtrrtH o/)/i ild (jf/.^ra ) , 

and Guttural Finches 

(iS' gutturalis). 
By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., Etc. 

Among the small Grosbeaks, the Spermophilce and their 
near allies have for some years past greatly interested me, 
why, perhaps, it is difficult to say, for as a rule they are 
quietly clad and under some conditions are somewhat lethargic 
in demeanour — they do not ahvays find a ready sale when on 
the market, for, speaking generally of the genus as a whole, 
there is nor much to look at for your money, when you've 
bought them; 'nevertheless, in spite of all this they are in- 

140 The Breeding of Grey Finch&s, etc. 

teresting and pretty birds, very shapely, with some most 
happy combinations of grey, brown, tawny, white and black 
among them, while the Marsh Finch (S. pahistris) is strikingly 
handsome. They certainly call into being all one's powers 
of observation if you are going to know anything about their 
doings, for, in a roomy wilderness aviary, unless looked for, 
they are not seen for weeks at a stretch. Most of them have 
really passable songs; courting disp'ay, so far as I have noted 
it, only consists of the fluttering of the wings and a tremulous 
movement of the whole body, as if every part worked on 
springs, and then a chasing of its mate. Well, I expect my 
readers will consider this as writing in rather a minor key; be 
this as it may, they certainly are favourites of mine. 

Thk Geey Finch {Sper^nophiJa grisea) is rather a hand- 
some species in his garment of various greys, blackish and 
white; and before giving the nesting episode, I had better 
describe the plumage. 

Adii/f Male : Above it is mostly dark ^rey, with a slaty sheen, and 
washed lightly with brown on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; wing- 
coverts blackish, narrowlv edged with ash,\ grey, outer webs of the inner 
primaries are white at the base, forming a small white piitch, which is al- 
most obscured by the coverts ; tail feathers blackish, with dusky grey 
margin, the central feathers with a slight ashy sheen ; lores and base of 
cheeks blackish ; crown, sides of face, ear-coverts, sides of neck and 
throat, sides of body and flanks dark grey with a slaty sheen ; chin whitish ; 
breast, abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; beak yellow ; legs and feet 
brownish grey. Total length, 4s inches, tail H. 

Afhilt Fcmnl.^: Above palish olive brown ; wings dusky brown with 
grey margins : crown dusky ; lores, eye region, ear-coverts, cheeks, thighs, 
and under tail-coverts pale olive ;" centre of breast and abdomen whitish 
brown. Total length IJ inches ; tail H. 

H^h/faf : According to the British Museum Catalogue the dis- 
tribution is from Guiana to Venezuela ; Trinidad and Colombia, extending 
to Panama. 

In 1911 two young Grey Finches were successfully 
reared in my aviary, and lived some time after being able 
to fend for themselves, but as all I knew about these birds 
(Mr. W. E. Teschemaker had a similar happening almost 
concurrently), Avas the increase in "the number of my stock 
and knew nothing about either nest or incubation — certainly 
I did see the old cock feed them on two occasions — the event 
was not claimed as a record and practically no notice taken 

The Brrrdinq of Crrji Fhirhr.f. cfc. 141 

of it. TIk^ only s;at isfaclioii oiio could claim from such an 
occurrence was the kiiowl('ili;<> (liat yoiiii^ liad been reared 
from a species o*" a ,q-onus particularly shy of reproducing" 
their kind in captivity. 

Tlio rollowinT A-ea'- MOI''). tlie '-a^-'in pa^'r repeated their 
succcs- n'" tlic^ )^'•cviou■^ yoiv "'omi": o-"-. p-.f*or, for two broods 
of thi'ce each m'oi-c vci'mmI but fh'^ second brood d'ed about a 
month after l(\av!n!T the nc^t. TTnfortuna'elv for mc. T012 
was a year of continuous hi^rh pressu''e, and the details I 
crathered of the eiii>-o'le are but meaTre more esnecially as 
oAvintT to the a''ore mentioned 1 pre sure T lo-^t my loose notes 
bcfori they 'were cn'ered up. and of cour e under such cir- 
cumstances T '-hall no* ir"ve daVr;. thouTh T promptly entered 
up the facts. M-lien T d'scovced the lo^s. In Anril T noticed 
them n>oth mile and femaV^ take part in nest construction 
and also in the duties of incubation, buihbng- a nest in a 
rambler rose, am'd the thick groAvth and close airainst the 
standard sun'iortincr the ro e: nothing- came of this: they 
deserted, evidently lieing: disturbed by other birds — later a 
pair of Olive Finches altered the nest and successfully broug^ht 
off a brood, so perhaps they were the cause of the Grey 
Finches discomfiture. ^ 

The Grey Finches did not 'ose much time, for I saw 
them carryin.g- material again within a very few davs, and 
soon a nest was completed in a privet bush. A clutch of 
three e^s:s ^\^as duly laid and incubation went steadily for- 
ward. The nest,, a substantial cup-shaped structure of hay and 
ffrass. was avcII she'tered bv a densely foliaged and over- 
hang"in£: branch of a ha-^el bush The bird commenced to sit 
with the second cr-r and incubation lasted thirteen days. The 
voung- birds left the nest when aT)out twenty-one days old. 
They then ro -cmbicl t'^c ahi't ben but were slightly greyer 
and lightlv -treaked on the breast. T regret that my editorial 
duties etc.. le^t m- sca^'cclv anv time to observe mv birds, 
but for the fir4 seven davs th(> vounc birds were fed entirely 
on live food -manv insects wc-e cantured in the aviary, 
in addition mealwo>-ms. e-entle«. ants' cocoons, and wasps' 
srrub. Avere liberallv sunnb'ed • .^t about the t'^nth day T saw 
them £ro ^trai'-ht fi'oni f'c soft-food di^h to the nest and feed 
their i^rog-eny, yet on ordinary occasions they never take soft 

142 The Breeding of Grey Finehes, etc. 

food, simply seed, greenfood, and a few insects. Of this brood 
I can't say definitely how many are still living, certainly 
one, as I saw to-day (April 30th) two cocks together, one 
of which must be a young bird; they were exactly 
alike as to size and plumage-. 

The second nest was placed in the flowering heads of a 
large dock, four feet alwve the ground, and right in the 
centre of the aviary. On this occasion the cup -shaped struc- 
ture was partly roofed in, and I was able to watch the two 
birds busily engaged in their task; the nest could not be called 
a sphere, or yet an oval, the cup was finished first, then round 
alx)ut two-thirds of it a low slight wall wa> built and then a 
thick top put on. The clutch was again three and again all 
hatched out an I t'le three young were fully reared, but they 
only survived their exit from the nest about one month. T 
found the cold wet of last autumn very fatal to young birds, 
and losi many. 

The Guttural Fixch (S. guffuraUs). It is rather 
fortunate I am coupling these two nesting accounts together, 
for one is almost a replica of the other, and this account need 
be but brief. The appearance of this species is certainly not 
brilliant, yet it certainly is pleasing, and the plumage is totally 
different from that of the preceding species, and I had better 
describe it before going on with the nesting episode. 

AihfJt Male: Above dull olive-green; wings dusky with olive-green 
margins : a band of vellowish white at the base of the inner primaries ,• 
tail dusky brown with olive-green margins ; crown, sides of face, ear-coverts, 
cheeks, sides of neck, and fore-neck dusky black ; throat black ; breast, 
abdomen, sides of body, flanks and under tail-coverts pale yellowish white' 
with a greenish tinge: sides of flanks slightly mottled with black; beak 
blackish horn : legs and feet brownish grey. Total length 44 inches, tail 1r. 

Adult Female: Above olive-brown : median and gi'eater coverts 
dusky with olive-brown margins and whitish tips : primaries, flights and 
tail feathers dusky with olive-brown margins : crown, sides of face and 
ear coverts olive-brown, the latter slightly streaked with whitish ; lores, eye 
region, and breast whitish buff : cheeks and under surface of body buffish- 
ochre ; sides and flanks light olive-brown : thighs and under tail-coverts 
pale whitish-ochre. Total length 4 inches, tail \L 

Hahitat : "Brazil. Guiana, Venezuela. Colombia, extending into 
Panama, Ecuador, and Peru." (B,^[.C.) 

There really remains very little to tell of the nesting 
episode, as it is so similar to the details already given of 

Tlie Breeding oj (hen t'^inchcs, etc. 14;') 

the preceding species. They did not show a desire to go to 
nest so eurly as the Circy Finches, and it was not till July that 
their nc-^l was complete, cunningly set in Iho joi'k of a Bay 
bush. The nest wa^ cup-shaped, l)Ut neater and not so l)ulky 
as that constructed by llie Griseas. Three eggs were laid 
on successive days, and incubation lasted thirteen days. Like 
grisea both male and female took part in nest const lud ion and 
also in the care of the young. 

They reared their young on live food, for at least 
seven days, and then began to take soft food and scerl, but 
insects foi'nicd ;i large part of the food of tlic young up 
to the time of leaving its nest; for out of the two hatched 
out oidy one left the nest; it still lives and is now indis- 
tinguishable from its father. When it left the nest it resembled 
the adult female, a little duller perhaps, but even then signs 
of black on the throat proclaimed it to Ije of the male sex. 

Now, in conclusion, just a word on the genus generally. 
They certainly are interesting birds and if not gorgeous in 
plumage are chastely and prettily clad birds, not one among 
them that can be readily termed plain. They haVe a nice little 
song, some a really good one, and very few of the numerous 
.species and sub-species (about 40) have been bred. I have 
possessed at least twelve species of this genus at different 
times, and with the exception of the White -throated P^'inch 
(S. albifjulai is) all have proved themselves safe in a mixed 
series, and as one observes them, with their almost natural 
deportment in a large wilderness aviary, they are most pleas- 
ing and interesting birds. Their wants are very simple; 
the main dietary when not feeding young is canary and millet 
seeds, greenfood, and an occasional mealworm, but in the 
aviary they are not keen on the latter, as they undoubtedly 
capture what live food they require for themselves; they 
are very fond of cuttlefish bone, and bathe daily, even in 
the winter. There is one difficulty in connection with them, 
for though the plumage of male and female is distict, yet the 
femalco of some of the species are so similar, that though 
one certainly has male and female, it is by no means easy 
to ascertain if they are of the same species. However, though 
very annoying and troublesome, such difficulties and their 
accompanying disappointments are the sauce that ^ives zest 
to the pursuit of aviculture. 

IM Keepbig of Soft bills in Cages 

On the Keeping of Soft Bills in Cages 

By Otto Puck. 
Continued from page 115. 

The two golden rules of successful management are 
CLEANLiNKSr^ and KEGULAKiTY in feeding. As "cleanliness 
•comes next to godliness," I could not imagine a good bird 
being kept in a dirty cage. I like to see them kept in stock - 
■cages, as nice and clean as you see them in show -cages on the 
bench, and as a matter of fact always keep mine under such 
conditions so that they make a little show of themselves, 'a 
pleasure to me and I leel sure to them-.elves. As a healthy 
mind goes with a healthy l>ody, so healthy surroundings must 
keep birds healthy. There should be a place for every- 
thing and everything in its place. Leave nothing to chance. 
Malvc sure you have a good stock of all the various foods 
on hand; nothing is more annoying than to run short of a 
■certain food just when you may want it most. By a good 
stock I do not mean that you should lay in sufficient to last 
you, say all winter, that would be a mistake, as some foods 
might deteriorate. Buy enough to last you a month or two, 
then you can make sure of getting the food in a fresh state. 
Always keep your foods in a dry and airy place. Dampness 
is fatal and breeds mites which destroy the food. Ants' -eggs" 
and flies should always be screened to free tliem from dust, 
also silkworm pupas and hempseed. 

Hand in hand with cleanliness goes Hygiene, .\lways 
provide for plenty of fresh air in the Bird-room, and ventilate 
freely without exjiosing the birds to a draught. Draughts 
are very dangerous, and once a bird has caught a cold, it is 
often very difficult to cure it, and here I may give a word 
of caution. "When you buy a new bird, especially in the 
autumn, when the nights get chilly, do not let it indulge 
in a bath on arrival. Allow it to satisfy its thirst, and no 
more; it will be all right next day. If on the other hand 
the bird takes a bath, wliicli naturally a healthy l>ird coming 
from a long Journey is most anxious to do on being liberated 
from Ihe travelling box, in nine cases out of ten, the ]>ird, 
if it arrived in the evening, will not be able to thoroughly 
i\vy its phinra^;e ; some wet themselves through and through. 

• Keepivq of SnflhiJJs in Cages 145 

and noxt inoi'iiiiii^- xdw ItdioM ;iii oltjV^ct of porfect misery, 
suffering' from a had cold, and |nu'uinonia g'oncrally follows, 
with fatal results. 

To ,c:ivc' liirds the honefit of open air treatment, I 
always, during- tlio suniinoi- moiilh-^. fi'om June to September, 
put sonic in tlnn'r r:\'j:('s out of dooi-s in a covered verandah. 
Tare mu-^t l)c takmi, howcvei-. tiiat they are not exposed to 
draughts. M'ith cai-eful feeding they will stand a good deal 
of cold dui'ing tiic night, and as long as the cage is big' 
enougl: foi- thoni for them (o take plenty of exercise, no harm 
will follow. 

Cold veksts AVakm Treatmknt. I am no believer in 
coddling, but if you want to keep tender Soft-bills in cages 
in good health during the winter months, some amount of 
warmth and a regular temperature are necessary. T have 
heard Nightingales singing in Aviaries with the water frozen; 
the comparison between aviary kept and birds kept in 
cages is obvious. In the former they can enjoy plenty of 
exiercise, 'whereas in the latter, room is restricted, and the birds 
not so active; hence they are more susceptible to climatic 
changes. I believe in maintaining during the day-time of the 
winter months an average temperature of 60 degrees F.; 
during the night it may go down to 50 degrees F., and the 
birds wMU l)e all the better foi' it, as, when roosting, they 
tuck their heads under their wing, and their own respiration 
keeps their body warm by circulating warm air round it. It 
is in the day time, Avhen at rest, that they need a comfortable, 
warm room. How to get this even temperature has been a 
vexed question, land a trouble for years with me, and I have 
spent a lot of time and labour on it. Oil stoves, gas stoves, 
and hot -water apparatus are things of the past, they all have 
their disadvantages; either it is the fumes, or when the boiler 
is placed in an adjacent room, not sufTicient heat is developed, 
or the air of the room gets too dry and dries up the food, or 
they fail to act when mostly iieeded, say on a cold day in 
.lanuary. However, I think I have now solved the difficulty, 
and hit upon the right thing, and that is an anthracite stove, 
similar to a greenhouse Tortoise stove. There are no fumes 
and the heat can be regulated to a nicety. It burns night 
and day, requires attention only twice a day, and consumes 

140) Keeping of SofthiJls in Cages 

very little fuel, about 2s. a week, whereas the gas-bil!! 
least said about it the bette". To provide for moisture, a 
small tank filled with water put on top of rhe stove keeps 
evaporating day and night. On very mild days T open the 
window at top and close the door of the room, and during the 
night reverse the order of things, so there is always plenty 
of fresh air, and as my cages are arranged round the room, 
no direct draughts strike on the birds. No bird -room should 
be without a minimum- and maximum -registering thermometer, 
as it is very important to know how much the temperature 
falls during the night. 

My method of feeding is simplicity itself, provided 
you can carry it out regularly and systematically. You cannot 
give soft -bills a supply to 'last them several days, as the food 
would turn bad. You must give them their daily ration at a 
fixed hour in the morning. All the year round T give the 
Stock-mixture, described in a previous article, as a basis, 
for this reason. If you want to keep your birds during the 
summer months till autumn on live foods only, first of all 
you will have to carefully and gradually get them used to 
same, a little at first, increasing the quantity day by day, and 
vice versa fwhen live food is getting scarcer in the autumn, 
to get the birds used again to stock -mixture. Now, although 
you may take precautions for a continuous supply of live 
ants -eggs during the season, it may happen that through stress 
of weather the supply fails for a week, and what happens? 
If your birds have been used to nothing else but live ants- 
eggs for say a month, and you all of a sudden put stock - 
mixture before them, their digestion gets upset, it is all over 
with song, soft-moult may set in, and you will have some 
losses to mourn; therefore take the lesson, never let them be 
without stock -mixture, sprinkle live ants -eggs on top, and 
if they should have to go without them for a short time, there 
is no danger of losing any birds. The above applies to adult 
birds which have been caged some time; freshly caught ones 
must be fed differently, and " meated off " before they get 
used to any prepared food. When at large they feed on nothing 
but live insects, and in the autumn some eat berries; they will 
therefore not touch any but live food, and the process of 
gradually weaning them from live insect food to prepared or 

Krrphjp of f^nffhill'=! hi Cagr.9 147 

inert insect food, is (\-i11p(1 " iii(\itiii,2r ofT." Why "moatinpr off," 
I do not know, luil flio iiaiiH^ iiin.v bo a sui-vivor of byerone 
days, -wlion s()ffl)ills \v(M(> " inoatod-ofT " on hard boiled eg-g 
and scrapod loan boof, oi- miUtoM; honcc "moating." 

Xothinu is .^nsici' tliim to mcat-olT a f]-(>slily-cau«bt 
bird, bul T am afi-aid through the ignorance or thoughtlessness 
of their purchaser many are added to the death roll every year. 
First of all cover the entire front of Stock-cage with calico, 
to keep the freshly-caught bird quiet, put water in the botto'm 
of the cage, and s]>Tinkle some dried ants'-eggs on the top 'of 
the water. On tho bird jnmpiufj about, these will move on 
the surface Ibf the water, and he may eat them, also throw some 
mealworms with heads brui'^ed on the cage bottom, and put 
in a vessel Avith gentles, small mealworms, and a few earth- 
worms (small): put your bird into the cage, and stand same 
in a quiet and light place, and leave well alone. After an 
hour see if the bird has partaken of some food, if it has, the 
battle is won. but if it has not done so, and will not do so, 
after another hour, then you must cram some of the live food 
minced up down its throat, and be sure it swallows it, else 
you will have a corpse next morning. Once a bird has taken 
to feeding itself, it is easy enough to get it on to the stock - 
food. All you have to do is to mix a little of it at first 
with his live food, cut un some mealworms, and as particles 
of the prepared food Avill adhere to same he will soon learn to 
eat the latter. No more than you would like to be kept on 
the same diet all the year round, would same agree with 
the birds: it must be varied and varied according to the 
seasons. During the winter months the stock -mixture answers 
very well, but when the days lengthen, and as spring advances, 
the caged soft-bills require some additional "live" insect 
food to lay in some fresh stamina for the coming season, and 
to assist them in getting well through the moulting period. 
There is nothing better for this purpose than live ants*- 
cocoons, and you should procure these, if possible a fresh 
supply daily, as early as they can be obtained in April or 
ATay. Do not change the birds' diet at once, that would result 
in disaster, as already explained; Init sprinkle a few cocoons 
at once in the morning, but give half then, and the other half 
in the afternoon, otherwise the birds will over -eat themselves 

148 Keep/77 f) of SnffhiJJs in Cages 

on the live-food, and leave the stock-food alone. Another 
splendid adjunct is wasp-gruh, and a few of these might also 
be added with advantage to the food. As these live foods 
are very stimulating, the use of mealworms, if the birds have 
been used to any, must be discontinued during the whole time 
they are fed upon additional live food. As a matter of fact 
I lam rather inclined to discourage the use of mealworms ; at 
any rate they should be given sparingly, and only at a time 
when the birds are actually in song, and then, according to size 
of bird, from 6 to 24 a day will do no harm. On the other 
hand, if birds are largely fed on same, mischief, particularly! 
foot trouble, is sure to follow. Being very stimulative and 
fattening, some birds will get such a craving for mealworms 
as almost to refuse other food, and once a bird has become 
unduly corpulent, it is one of the most difficult problems to 
reduce the bulk and restore the equilibrium. Stout birds 
as a rule do not enjoy good health, and very seldom sing. 
Whilst on this subject I may state my personal experience 
with two birds which are very much given to over feeding 
during the 'winter months, and in consequence not long lived, 
and further how I overcame the difficulty. The two birds 
in question are the Garden "Warbler and Icterine Warbler, and 
the 'guardian angel has been fruit and plenty of exercise. 
Nearly all Warblers will eat fruit in the autumn, so I thought 
I would try it also on the two above mentioned, although none 
of the authorities I consulted made a mention of it. All are 
agreed that both these birds are rather voracious and over- 
feed during the winter months: they eat nearly all day long, 
which makes them very corpulent by January or February, 
amd as that is their time of moulting, either they do not moult 
at all, or die in the attempt. The question therefore was how 
to keep them in a good state of health to get over the moult. 
To this end I first of all put them in a large cage, ktept 
the food vessels far apart, so as to induce exercise, and then 
tried a fruit diet, leaving curds and eggs out of the 
stock-food. Both birds throve well, and the Icterine Warbler 
is now in his third year of captivity, looking as well as ever.' 
All healthy soft -bills should be in song from Becemb-er 
—January, to June— July. They do not break into full song 
at once, but conimence softly at first, increasing their volume 

Keeping of Sollbills in Cages 149 

day by day until tJicy reach tln-ir full climax alxHit April. 
From that time they will •,^raduaily drop oil', and liiuUy «top 
alioiretlKM', and one liiu> morning in July you will find a few 
small Icathei's on tiie cage bottom; are the first signs 
ol' the beginning ol' the moult, and you must take steps ac- 
cordingly to bring this to a successful issue. There is nothhig 
alarming about the moult; it is one of nature's laws that all 
birds shall shed their pjunuige, and renew same once annually. 
All you have to tlo is to keep the biixls quiet, give them 
plenty of light, live anls-eggs, and wasp-grub, and guard 
against draughts. Spiders are very benelieial during the 
moult, and now and again 1 mix a lew drops of sulphite 
of ii'on (1 to lU in water), with the stock-food and also 
some i>owdered cuttle-fish bone. Cages containing freshly- 
caught birds should be gradually uncovered after the bird 
has stopped singing, and when there are the first signs of 
moult, the cage front should be quite uncovered, to allow plenty 
of light and air, which are essential to successful moulting. 

Nearly ail soft -bills will eat fruit during the autumn, 
some all the year round; fruit, therefore, such as cherries, 
elderberries, green-ligs, blackberries, ripe pears, etc., should 
always form part of the menu during the moult, and after; 
when pears run short, a baked appie will do equally well; 
hi fact apple is a splendid aperient, and a preventative 
agahist obesity, and raw apple may be mixed, grated with 
the ants-eggs, instead of eai'rot, and given to such birds as 
are inclined to over -feed themselves. The moult should be 
finished in from four to six weeks, and when your birds 
have again resumed their normal plumage you must examine 
each one as to its state of bodily health — if too thin, feed on 
richer food; if found too stout — feed on plainer food, and 
generally speakhig make the latter a practice after moult 
until December- -January, when the birds begin to start sing- 
ing again. 

During the long winter evenings light a lamp in the 
bird room for two hours, from 8 p.m. to 10 p.m. .so that the 
birds can see to feed, as from -1 p.m. to 8 a.m. is too long 
a time for them to fast. 

I think 1 have very nearly exhausted my subject on 
management; there is only one item left, and not a very 

ioO Reefing of SuftbUls in Cages. 

pl;eiasant one to deal with, and that is aihnents. But if you 
follow out my instructions as to feedhig you need not antieiiiate 
much trouble from ailments— of course, accidents will happen. 

There is no better indicator oi a bird's health than 
its excreta; when normal, this should be comj)act and whitish; 
if greenish, thin, and watery, it shows that the bird has either 
caught a cold or its food has disagreed with it; in that case 
I have always found, if applied immediately on being de- 
tected, that a few drops of sulphite of iron (1 in 10 of water) 
either added to the food, or put into the drhiking water, will 
put matters right. If on the other hand the droppings are 
hard, and the bird has trouble in passing them, then either 
some liquid magnesia or a few drops of sulphate of soda (i 
in 10 of water) will effect a cure. 

Water is often the cause of trouble. It should never 
be given icy cold, but always with the chill olf. Sometimes it 
may be too hard, especially for new arrivals; a few drops of 
magnesia will rectify this. . 

Some trouble may be experienced after moulting 
during the birds natural migratmg period — in August and 
September. Instinct teaches them, as insect food becomes 
scarcer, at the end of the summer, to migrate to southerly, 
climes, where the rainy period has set in, and in consequence 
insect life is abundant. Particularly during their first season 
of caged life the desire to be on the whig and go south is 
very strong in some birds, and although they keep perfectly 
quiet during the day-time, they become restless during the 
night. Migration takes place during the nigiii, and as the 
birds will flutter about their cages at night time, the inside 
of the cage, except for the perches, should be fi'ee from any 
obstacle, and the top of soft material, as already advised, 
so that they cannot hurt themselves. You can do nothing to 
stop this nightly fiuttermg except to keep the room dark, 
and as the unwonted exercise leaves them somewhat ex- 
hausted ha the day-time, supply extra nourishing food to keep 
up their strength. With some birds this nocturnal unrest occurs 
again in spring during March — April, corresponding with their 
migratory flight when returnmg to our shores from the sunny 
south, but then it is ox shorter duration, and requii'es very 
iijttle extra attention, if the birds are strong and healthy. 

Editorial. 151 

Vou should keep only siron^-- ;iii(l licalMiy birds, woakling.s in 
a ca^'' iii'\<'r ili' ucll, and iiisicad of (ryiii,!,'- lo doctor thciii, 
il is licsl lo |Mit thcui oiil oi' thcii' misery. 

Ill coiiclusion' ilii'ic arc (uio or iwo points wliicli (,'vury 
k.vjx-r of birds should take \v(dl lo heart, .\lway8 be kind to 
the l)irds, and never lose your teiiii)er. Approach tliem always in 
the same I'riendly way, and i/ you come across some stubborn 
one> have pat ieiice - your rewai'd will c-ome. Do not handle 
birds more than you c-aii help. They are very sensitive and 
remember I'ouy-h treatment lor a long- time. 11" you want to 
remove a bird Irom its cayo, in order to cleanse the latter, 
drive the bird mentioned into another cage, and let it hop 
back into its own cage when ready. Never introduce a freshly 
acquired bird at once into your bird-room, keep it in 
quarantine in another room for at least a week, it may to all 
ai)pearances look perfectly well, yet be infected with that 
dread disease, septic fever, ajid last but not least, never keep 
more birds than you can conveniently look after, and re- 
member the alpha and omega "cleanliness and regularity." 


The Hon. Kditoi and his Family express sincer'e thanks 
for expressions of kind sympathy, and condolence. Mr. Page 
I'egrets that it is quite impossible to answer them individually 
and asks that one and all will accept this acknowledgment of 
their keen appreciation and thanks. 

Nesting Notes: These notes from all sources cannot 
appear this month, as doubtless a feeling of sympathy has 
checked communications on this topic recently, and probably 
the long continued cold winds and rains, following the early 
mild si)ell have checked nesting operation. However, there 
are young of various Grassflnches, Budgerigars, and Parrakeets 
already on the wing, details of which must be deferred till 
next issue. In the Editor's aviary Olive Finches and one 
or two species of Spermophiloi are either building or incu- 
bating, l)ut a clutch of Grey-wing Ouzel's eggs, all but due 
to hatch, have been deserted owing to too apparent observation 
of their doings. 

152 Mitorial 

Foster Parents: Our member Mr. W. A. Bainbridge 
placed the egg of a Diamond Finch (Steganopleura gutfata) 
under a Beng-alese, the egg duly hatched out and the young 
Diamond Finch (ten days old at the time of penning these 
notes) is thriving, with every appearance of being fully reared. 
Members' Aviaries: We recently visited the aviaries 
Mr. R. S. de Quincy Quincy at Chislehurst. He has a nice 
series of naiturally arranged and roomy flights with suitable 
shelters; the largest of the latter is fitted up as a bird -room, 
having several roomy flights at one end and large flight cages 
at the back, for the winter housing of stock. A photo of these 
aviaries appeared in our last volume, and we need not fur- 
ther enlarge upon them here, save perhaps to state, that 
the cover consisted mainly of rhododendrons, gorse, and one 
or two deciduous shrubs, the gorse being a mass of gold 
on the occasion of our visit. 

Upper Aviaries. A pair of roomy flights with shelters 
a»ttached; one of these contained pairs of Redrumps and 
Cockatiels, 2 young Grenadier Weavers, a Comoro Weaver 
and an Orange Bishop; the other was given up to an exquisit€= 
pair of Red-naped Lorikeets. 

Lower Aviaries. A group of Ave picturesque and prac- 
tical flights and shelters, with occupants, as follows: 

1. Six pairs Gouldian Finches, and ipairs of Ruficauda Finches 

and Blue -winged Sivas. 

2. 11 young Gouldian Finches (1912 reared birds, not yet in 

colour), 1 Long -tailed Grassflnch x Parson Finch 
hybrid, 2 Long -tailed Grassflnches, and 1 Parson Finch, 
and 2 Blue -winged Sivas. 

3. Blue Tanager and Golden -eyed Babbler. 

4. Pair of Silver -eared Mesias. 

5. 1 pair Rufous -bellied Niltavas, 2 pairs Diamond Finches, 

3 Ringed Finches, 1 Yellow -headed Gouldian (9), the cock 
having died on the morning of our visit; and 1 Rufi- 
cauda Finch (cf). 

Bank Aviary, Built on a steep bank over a huge, 
denseclumpof rhododendrons, and given up to a pair of Silver- 
eared Mesias, which have already built a nest in a dense 
portion of the cover. 

We had the pleasure of seeing the nests in which the 

Editorial. I53 

Grenadier Weavers reared their young last year; it will be 
remembered we figured these nests in our last volume to show 
the apparent practice of the parent birds to tear out the front 
of the nest when they considered the young should emerge. 
In nest Ko. 1, practically the whole of the front was torn 
down, and in nest No. 2, the same practice was apparent, only 
a stout fork of the bush to which it was attached prevented' it' 
being carried to the same extent. 

We congratulate our member both on his aviaries 
and also the beautiful and uncommon series of birds he 
possesses, the pair of Rufous -bellied Niltavas is, we ])elieve, 
the first true pair to reach England. We were shown the 
plan of a large bird-room, which is to have a central service 
passage, with five roomy flights on each side of same, those 
on the south side to h^ve roomy out -door flights attached to 
them for summer use. 

We also enjoyed the hospitality of our new member 
Dr. L. Lovell-Keys at East Hoathly for a few days, and had 
the opportunity of seeing his as yet incomplete aviaries and 
also those of Mr. H. L. Sich, and Mrs. A. Bonnick. 

Dr. Lovell-Iveays is erecting a Parrakeet and also a 
Finch aviary; both practical and i^oomy, but details must be 
deferred for the present. The Parrakeet aviary is now com- 
plete, and partly stocked, containing 2 pairs Green Budgeri- 
gars, and 1 pair each Tovi, All-Green, Moustache and Eosella 
Parrakeets, and Yellow Budgerigars. Wa wish our member a 
very successful initial season. 

Ux. Sich's Aviary has already been "described in our 
pages, but it is now well planted and the various bushes, ci'eepers, 
etc., have developed well and provide excellent cover, and, 
combined with the small pond, make a very picturesque 
whole. It was practically unoccupied at the time of our visit, 
as, by an oversight, either a door was left open, or was in- 
securely fastened, and the wind blew it open, and when the 
aviary was visited in the morning, all the birds had escaped 
save two Waders and a Calif ornian Quail. Mr. Sich is also 
extending, and two roomy and well planned aviaries are in 
course of erection. 

Mrs. Bonnick's aviaries are fairly numerous, and con- 
tain Cockatoos, Parrakeets, Doves, Pigeons, Pheasants, Pea- 

154 Editorial. 

fowl, Budgerigars, and small Ornamental Finches; one aviary, 
on the bank of a small lake, contained Gulls and Mandarin 
Ducks; this aviary is to be largely extended and to iiK-lude 
a portion of the lake for a larger series of Waterfowl. AH 
the birds are in excellent condition, and Budgerigars and the 
Finches were already nesting. 

The Rev. G. H. Raynor, has also recently joined the 
ranks of aviculturists, and now possesses both Parrakeet and 
Finch aviaries, which we hope to figure in a future issue. 
In the Parrakeet aviary, there are Mealy Rosellas, 2 pairs 
Cockatiels (both the cocks talk), and Green Budgerigars, the 
. latter of which have young ready to leave the nest, and the 
Mealy Rosellas are mcubating. The Finch aviary has quite 
recently been stocked with Grassfinches, Waxbills, Mannikins, 
and Weavers. 

We refrain from further details re the above aviaries, 
as we hope to have accounts from the respective aviarists 
later on. - 

successfully landed another large consignment of Australian 
Finches (said to be the last) about the middle of April, the 
whole going to Messrs. De Von and Co., and the bulk of them 
have been already distributed. Gouldian Finches, both Red- 
and Black -headed, formed the bulk of the consignment, but 
Crimson, Zebra, and Pectoral Finches, Long -tail and Masked 
Grassfinches; Diamond Doves, and Yellow -rumped Manni- 
kins, and Bicheno's Finches were all included, some only in 
small numbers. As regards the Bicheno's Finches we did not 
see the bulk, but several pairs we have seen in the aviaries 
of purchasers were not Bicheno's but Ringed Finches {Stic- 
topiera annulosa) . The consignment included a pair of the 
rare Yellow -headed Gouldian Finch, probably the first to reac"b 
England alive, these passed into the hands of Mr. Maxwell, 
then to Mr. P. Owen, finally finding a lodgment in Mr. 
R. S. de Q. Quincy's aviary, where the cock has unfortunately 
died, but the hen will probably survive; if so, it will bey 
mated with a Red -headed cock, and an attempt made to breed 
them this season. They were evidently young birds not fully 
in colour, their heads being yellowish-brick-red, with traces 
of bright yellow already apparent. 

I^ditorial. 155 

Another Consignment of Rake Iindian Birds: Mr. 
W. Fro.sit, who has been away in India for .some months 
ooilejcting birds i'or our nicnibcr Major B. R. Hoisl)ru,gh, 
arrived with a lar^^e cuusiyiinient (.mostly soft-ljills) of rare 
species, some of wliich are new to aviculture; the whole of the 
birds, though some of them (are somewhat travel -worn, are 
in very good condition, and should do well when distributed 
among our members and other English aviculturists. Unfor- 
tunately details have only come to hand just as we are going* 
(to press, and we can only give a bare list in this issue, 

Hed-headed Tit (^K(jithuliHcus eri/ihrorerhalas). 

Crested Black Tit (Lopliopfuuies melaiiolophux). 

Yellow cheeked Tit {Macfilolophns u-a/il/ioije>i//s). 

Green-backed Tit (Parun inonticola). 

Indian (xrey Tit {P.atrirepsK 

Rufous-necked Laughing Thrush {Dri/nmstcK riijiroUia). 

Ked-thruated Laughing Thrush ((uurula.r rnficallis). 

Kusty-cheeked Scimitar-Babbler ( I'diuaturli'nniii tnjlliroijeiiysj. 

Golden-eyed Babbler {I'yrtorhh sinensis). 

Black-throated Babbler {iStarhi/rhis )iigrirepg). 

Yellow-breasted Babbler {Mixornis rubricapillus). 

Pied-billed Babbler {Stachyrliidopsis pyrrl(.ij)i^). 

Jungle Babbler {Ci-atenipus canorit^). 
*Black-chinned Yuhina{l'«/j<«a nigri/neiitum). 

Yellow-naped Ixulus [IjcuIus flavicollis). 

Indian White-eye (Zosterops palpebrusa). 

Hardwick's Green Fruitsucker (Chloni^ .sv's Jim-dirichii) 

Gold-fronted Green Fruitsucker (C'. aurlfni/in). 

Silver-eared AJesia {Mesia avgentuuris). 

Blue-winged Siva [Sivu cyanuroptera). 

Brown-eared Bulbuls {Hexlintis flavala). 

Rufous-bellied Bulbuls (//. macdellandi). 
*Velvet-fronted Nuthatch {Sittafrnutalis). 

Cinnamon-bellied Nuthatch (S. ciimatnoiKc/rr/itrix). 
*Large Indian Minivet (Pericrucot/is xpeciosiiaj. 

Short-billed Minivet (F. brerirostrix). 
♦Rosy Minivet (P. ruaeus). 

Small Minivet (P. peregrhtus,). 

Ruby-throat (Calliope camtscliatkenms). 

Verditer Flycatcher (67'<;jaro/a melanops). 

Orange-gorgeted Flycatcher (Siphia strophiafa). 
*White-browed Blue Flycatcher )Cyonils sxperrillarls). 

Rufous-bellied Niltava (Xiltara sioidara). 

White-capped Redstart ( Chiiiiarrhornit< leucoccphtdus). 

Blue-fronted Redstart ( Jiuticllla frontalis), 

Indian Redstart {li. ruficentris) 

156 Editorial. 

Plumbeous Redstart [Rhyacornis fuUg'uiosvs). 
*Golden Bush-Robin {Tarslger ehrynaeua). 
Brown-backed Robin (Tliauunilj/n cainlHiicuxia). 
Shamas and Dhyal-Birds. 
Pied Mynah (Sfuniopastor contra). 

Chestnut- bellied Rock-Thrush (I'rtniiiliila n->/fIiro,jat<lra). 
Blue-headed Rock-Thrush (P. rlnrlnrhnwlin) 
Eastern Blue Rock-Thrush (/'. ^iilihirm) 
White's Thrush (Turdus rariits). 
Orange-headed Ground-Thrush {(xeoflchld rilrintis) 
Beautiful Rosefinches (Projianxer inilrlicrri/i/Hx) 
Large Pied Wagtails (MotarilUi /lauh'raxijaleiiyiii) 
Masked Wagtails {M. personate) 
Blue-headed Wagtail (M.jhiva) 
Indian Tree Pipit (Anthus niariilatns) 
* Yellow-backed Red Sunbird {Aithopyga seheviae) 
*Yellow-backed Black-breasted Sunbird (A'^. salnrataj. 
Purple Sunbird {Arachnechthm axiatlca). 
Amethyst-rumped Sunbird (A. zeylotiiai). 
Tickell's Flower-Pecker {Dicaev.m eriitln-nylniiu-hvs). 
*Green-breasted Pitta (Pitta cacuUata) 

*Pigmy Pied, and Pigmy Woodpeckers • 

*Yellow-fronted, and Golden-backed Woodpeckers 
Coppersmith Barbet {Xantholueind hei/mturcplnilaj 
*Fire Caps {Cephalopyrux jianuincps). 
Brown Bullfinch {Pynhula nepaleiifis*. 
*Red-headed Tailor-Bird (Orthotoinus rnjicepx). 
Persian Nightingale Duiillas yolzi). 
Maroon Oriole KCrlohis traillii). 
Grey-winged, and Tickell's Ouzels. 
Black-winged Lory, and Forsten's Lorikeet. 
Brahminy Kite, and Blue Rollers 
Glossy Calornis, and White-bellied Drongo 
Crow-pheasant, and Plovers 

* New to aviculture. 
Time has not permitted any sy.^tematic arrangement, 
bu^l some of the species will be referred to -again. 
Both Major Horsbrugh and Mr. Frost are to be congratu- 
lated on the extent, rarity, and condition of the consignment.^ 

British Bird Calendar. 

It ix iinjtiitly rfqiK'xted tlmt Memht-rs fnnH all rouiiil the cdasf irill 
note tlie m<iren,eiil!< "/ hinls. more espf-riolly hi the So>ilher/i anil Etistern 
Coiintu's.and re,,nlarl!i{2Sthof rarh luontli) .owl n, tl,e!r im/rs-OU thiS the 

ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend.— 

British Bird Calendar. 157 


Jaiiuiiry >^ — ft FuIiiKirs (il;iily visitors). 

1()-Starliiit;s. Flock of Snow Rmitiiigs. 

11 — Common Twite in flouks ; mornini,' and eveniiii,' ; daily 

visitors. A few Eider l>nck roniid the rock. 
21 — Several Puffins seen on the watci-, unusnally early. 
22 — About 2r) Snow Runtinsjs seen. 
2;J-Glaucous Oull and Flock of lilack (hiillemots. 
24— Several Common (Tuillcmots on the watei'. 
February H — Guillemots and Razorbills. 

5— Flock of Snow Buntings. 
„ 6 - 5 Ravens (.") carrying nesting stuff). 

15_Northern Diver on Loch of Cliff. 

!()— Kittiwakes, several on water. 

20 Peregrine Falcon, hovering above Lighthouse Dome. 
2S —Oyster-Catcher (first of sea.son). 
March 20— Kittiwake on cliffs. 
22— One Skylark 
24—2 Glaucous Gulls 
„ 28 — Lapwing seen. 

28 — Four Arctic Tern 
„ 30 — One Kestrel, inside Courtyard. 
„ 30— Manx Shearwater, caught at Lantern. 

Per D. E. P., April 14th, 1913. 
28— Saw the Ring-Ouzel at Seagrave iNIarsh (near Luton). 
31 — Saw the Chiff-chaff in Luton ; I had heard it several times 
for more than a fortnight. 
April 6 — Starlings nesting. 
20— Heard the Cuckoo. 
,, 22- Saw Swallow flying overhead. 

24— Hear f lom reliable source that Martins are in the neighbourhood. 

H. ]\I. (Luton, Beds.) 
7 —Wryneck at Danbury. 
22 — Wryneck at Hazeleigh. 
16— Cuckoo at Danbury. 
20— Cuckoo at Hazeleigh. 
19— Swallow at Latchingdon, about noon. 
19— First Swallow at Hazeleigh, 4 p.m. 

20— Nightingale in Hazeleigh Wood, 9-30 p.m ; still and warm, 
wind in South ; not heard again till 3 p.m. on 24th. 

22— Tree Pipit, several seen, and heard singing at Hazeleigh at 5 
p.m., temperature 50, wind E. 

24— Chiff-chaff abundant at 3 p.m. in Hazeleigh Wood which con- 
tains about 100 acres, and consists chiefly of oak an<l horn- 

27— Blackcap, singing vigorously in a hedge at Hazeleigh ; tem- 
perature 55 deg. F. ; strong S. wind. 

G. H. R., Hazeleigh, April 28, 1913 

158 British Bird Calendar. 

April 20 — Oae Swallow seen about 5-15 p m. on Front near Clarence Pier, 
Southsea. D. E. P. (Southsea). 

„ 18 — Swallows seen here to-day ; Cuckoo heard. Lons-tailed Tits 
have been engagred in building operations for the past two 
weeks. Gold-crest and Nuthatch building within sight of 
my windows here ; the former are quite numerous. Carrion 
Crows nesting, and some Moorhens just beginning to sit. 

J. S. R.. Leadenham. April 23, 1913. 

„ 22 — I heard two Wrynecks answering each other from opposite 
sides of the open road, but did not see them ; however, others 
have been more fortunate. The Nightingale was heard in 
this district a few days ago. .7. W., Ashley. Hants., Ap'l 27 
19 — During a short stay at East Hoathly, Sussex, I heard the Cuckoo 
calling regularly, but did not sight it, at intervals during the 
days of 19th, 2nth, and 21st. 

„ 20 — Saw the first Swallows arrive in the grounds of our member 
D. Lovell-Keays. who informs me they nest yearly on a beam 
in one of his outhouses. Also saw a Long-tailed Tit carrying 
nesting material. The Nightingale is now singing regularly 
in the district lEast Hoathly and neighbourhood). 
26 — Saw the first Chiff-chaffs and Willow Warblers in my garden ; 
may have occured earlier unnoticed. W. T. P., Mitcham, 

April 30. 

., 23 — There was an abnormal number of Chaffinches in Grimsby, par- 
ticularly on the Fish Docks, an unusual place to see anything 
but sparrows. About 11 a.m. on this day I was informed that 
there were hundreds of Bullfinches on the ships in the docks 
and on the pontoon. I, of, was curious to know some- 
thing definite, and went to the docks. There T found that 
the report was correct, excepting that they were Chaffinches 
not Bullfinches, and on the ships' rigging many were seen 
perching in a dazed condition. From one of the skippers 
(Skipper A. Laye, of the steam trawler Xptrharen), I got the 
following information : at about 5"30 p.m. on April 2nd when 
in lat. 53"58, Ion. 4i5 E., wind blowing 10 miles an hour, 
direction S.E.. about 600 Chaffinches approached the ship from 
the eastward, in an exhausted condition. About 150 came 
aboard, but many failed to reach her, and striking the sides of 
the ship dropped into the water. He picked up nine of the 
best coloured ones,and put them into la basket. Five were 
dead the next morning, and he said, that fully half of those 
aboard were dead the next morning. T am informed that 
there were quite 200 aboard one ship when she came into 
dock on the morning of the 3rd inst., and varying numbers on 
other ships. I presume most of the birds striking outward- 
bound ships would perish, as they appear to have been too 
exhausted the next morning to resume their journey. 

„ 15—1 saw the first Blackcap. 
IT^Whitethroat was iseen, 

IS -Lesser AVIiil. 


it sect 

•_';',- Willow 

IS ha 

,. I,.... 

1 \<-ry iiiiiiu'i-(ni 

ihv2:\u\ is 

my f 

rsl !•(■( 

or,!.' 1 saw up\ 

• II ;n 

(■ no 

yet s 

cell a Swallow 

Wa-tiiils a 

1(1 ri 


(■ now pleiitiriil 

BodIc Xotirrs ((,1(1 /?('ri('/cs. 150 

l)ut, tliey wen-, late ; 
aids of twonty on the 
r .Martin. Wheatears, 
.11 tlie sand liills. 
II. S. (Cleethorpes), 

Book Notices and Reviews. 

.V DicTioNAitv ..I' Knui.isii AMI Fdi.K XA\ir,< Ml- l',i;iiisii KiitDs: By H 
KirkeSwann. Demy Hvo., 10s. net. London: Witherby i^i Co., ItJO. 
High Holhorn. W C. 

A prosjiectus of tliis interesting Dictionary has been sent us. It gives 
tlic vernacular names ot British Birds and their origin and meaning ; also 
the Folk-lore relating to indigenous species. It possesses the following 
s])ecial features : 

(H English Book-names, culled from i>ast authors — 1544 to date. 
(•2) Accejited names of tlie i.resent day, with their history and first 

(3) Provincial, Local, and Dialect names, with their locality and 


(4) AVelsh, Gaelic, Cornish and Irish names. 

(')) Folk-Lore, Weather-Lore, Legends, etc., connected with each 

It should i)rovc of great interest to ornithologists and also to all 
keepers and admirers of our native avifauna. 

WiLO LrKK, An Illustrated Monthly, Edited l)y Douglas English. Dudley 
House, Southami)toii Street, London, W.C. 

We cannot attempt a full review or description in this issue, the con- 
tents, notes and reproduced photographs (the illustrations are from photos 
mill/] are the work of the Zoological Photograjihic Cluli. To all interestep 
in wild creatures in their native haunts and natural surroundings, this 
monthly will strongly appeal, and no one who loves wild life can fail to be 
interested therein. We believe the annual subscription is 30s., and it is most 
e.xcellent value. In the parts already issued birds have been to the fore, in- 
cluding some of our memb'ir's, (Mr. H. Willfordi, whose beautiful i)hotos of 
bird life so frecpiently adorn our pages. Every phase of nature is repre- 
sented, and the reproduced photos present them to us "at home" in the 
midst of their natural sui ronndings. More than this we cannot say. It 
should oe upon the table of every public and i)rivate library, and adorn the 
bookshelves of every ornithologist an<l l.iid-lover who can afford it. We 
strongly commend it to our readei's. 

Among other recent issues, of interest to Bird Lovers is : 
Oil! YANlsiiiNfi Wri.I) LlfE, by William T Hornaday, Director of the 
New Yoi'k Zoological Park, etc. Profusely Illustrated. New York; 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913, 

160 Correspondence. 



Dear Sir-- T feel sure that other avicnlturists will sj'mpathise in the 
loss of all my best birds that I sustained the night of April 5th. I have a 
large cage aviary divided into two parts, all facing south, and in the day the 
glass shutters are down and at night they are put up. It is an ideal aviary; 
the only things wanting are .rxtra large wire runs at each end. As T have 
some birds that like warmth I tried to heat the building from the house by 
pipes and acetylene gas, Init as I thought it unsafe and it gives off fumes, I 
did not try it one day, but took it out and went to the expense of a boiler 
and hot water apparatus. The entrance with double wire doors was at the 
back, and the heating boiler was surrounded by galvanized iron with a large 
air space between it and the aviary. It has been working satisfactorily 
since January. The w^hole building is tarred outside and creosoted inside. 
It was about 50 yards from the house in a line with my bedroom. I awoke 
about 4 a.m. with a light in my room, and my first thought was the 
house was on fire; then I looked and saw enormous flames coming out of the 
aviary. Even from that distance I could see it was hopeless. Xothing 
could be done to save the birds, and the only thing is I hope the fumes of 
creosote overtook them and stupefied them before being burnt. Rain pre- 
vented the surrounding bushes from catching fire, and luckily the wind blew 
the flames away from the house over the lawn. There is not a plank left 
standing. Amongst some of the birds lost were : a Rosy-breasted Grosbeak, 
2 Argentine Thrushes (imported personally), 1 pair Orange-breasted Ground 
Thrushes,* pair Green Cardinals, Blue Budgerigar, Gouldians, pair Parrot 
Finches, Stonechat, Diamond Finches, Long-tailed Grassfinches, and others, 
in all about 40 birds, and some very tame. I cannot think how the aviary 
caught fire. It is very sad to think I put in this apparatus to make the birds 
happy and safe from fire, and now this has occurred. I have used a paraffin 
stove in a lower aviary with great fear some years past during intense frosts. 
I once tried a carbon stove in the aviary that was burnt, but that gave off 
fumes one day and killed 8 bird-*, and I luckily discovered it in time to save 
the lot. ' M. C. HAWKE. 

[The above makes very melancholy reading and Miss Hawke will have 
the sympathy of all aviculturists in her sad loss, and when this is a little less 
grievous we hope an even more perfect structure will arise on the ruins of the 
one burnt out. — Ed.] 

* "White-throated Ground Thrushes.— Ed. 

Club Dinner. 

The Club Dinner was held on the 17th April at the 
Inns of Court Hotel. There was a good number present and 
a most enjoyable evening was spent. A reception was held 
from 6-30 to 7 o'clock, and after the dinner, a conference was 
held, presided over by Rev. G. H. Raynor. 

Club Dinner. lt;i 

'I'lieCountfssur WincliilsiM \V. T. l{..-cis, Ks<|. 

.\ra.ior Pcrrciiu J. C Sclilatcr, Ks.j. 

Ur. Amsler Mrs. Scliliiter. 

W. A. Biviiibridge, Es(i. Allen Silver, Esq. 

Miss L. Clare Mrs. Sirila S|,,n.-y. 

Miss Harris Miss Stmicy. 

(". Harris. Esq. S. .M. 'I'owiisimkI, lOsq. 

.1. S. Marriiior. Ksq. R. J. Watts. Es(|. 

Iv. Montaj^nie, Es(i. Saryeaiit 

Wesley T. Page. Esq. S. Williams, Esti. 

Otto Puck. Es(i. A. Williams, Esij. 

Kev. <;. 11. Raynnr. H. Willfor.l, Ks.,. 
aiil several friemis 

Major Perreau presided at the dinner, supported by the 
Countess of Winchilsea, Wesley T. Page, Esq., and Eev. 
(;. 11. Raynor. The Chairman proposed the toast of "The 
King." whicli was duly honoured. Dr. Amsler proposed "Suc- 
cess to the F.B.C.," coupling with it the Hon. Editor (Mr. 
Wesley T. Page). He urged the necessity of each member 
doing what they could to further the interests of the club, and 
to endeavour to secure its future success by getting, as far as 
possible, new members; stating: "That if each member would 
"do their utmost in this way our numbers would be speedilyi 

" . . . . That all should .support the Illustration Fund, so that 
" tlie number and quality of the illustrations in Bird Notes 
"might be fully maintained." 

" . . . . That all should leel thrir i csix.iisihility io supply 
"copy unsolicited, that the task of the Hon. Editor might be 
"made as light as possible." 

Mr. Wesley T. Page responded on behalf of the Club. 

At the Conference, Rev. G. H. Eaynor presiding, vari- 
ous topics of interest to aviculturists were discussed. The 
Chairman spoke of Parrots and their place in the ornithological 
world. H. Willford, Esq., showed some very fine photos of 
bird life. Major Perreau spoke on his recent importation of 
Indian birds. Mr. W. T. Rogers, spoke on "My .Garden 
Aviary"; Mr. R. J. Watts on "Common Foreign Birds For 
Exhibiition "; Mr. S. Williams on "Foreign Birds Kept 
in Cages"; 'Mr. S. M. Towhsend placed on view the Provincial 
Silver Cup won for the most points secured during the year which 
goes to Mr. Howe. Wesley T. Page, Esq., brought the Conference 

KV'i Post Mortem Reports. 

to a close by a genei-al resume of the speeches of the even- 
ing. A vote of thanks to Mi-. W. T. Rog-ers for the arrang-e- 
meuts that had made it possible for a very happy evening* 
to be spent by those members 'who were present, brought 
the proceedings to a close. 

(Secretarv of the Social Committee of the Council). 

Post Mortem Reports. 

Tail(m; Bii:I) ( i ). (W. A. Bainln-idye, Thorpp, Surrey). Cause of 
death, enteritis. 

BuiH;KRi(i.\H { V ). (Miss R. Alderson, Park Ho., Worksop, Xotts.) 
Cause (.f death, pneumonia which was extensive. 


G. Nicholson, Glenoe, Walton-on-Thames.) Both died from pneumonia. 

Long-Taii.ei) Ghassfinch. fRev. G. H. Kaynor, Maldon. Essex.) 
Cause of death, pneumonia. 

Rni.i.EK { ? ). Miss Maud Maxwell Jackson. Rutland Rd., Harro- 
gate, Yorks.j This hird was apparently young. The cause of death was 

Benciai ESH. (Geo. Scott Freeland, Quarry Hill. Tonbridge.) The 
intestines were inflamed. 

DiA.MOND Spakkow ( s ). (P. H. Sellars. 81 Hyndland St., Partick.) 
Cause of death, pneumonia. 

Gi?EYHEAi)Ki> Love Bird ( 3 ). (Mrs. R. Hollins, Preston, Lanes.) 
Cause of death, inflammation of bowels. 

Olive Finch ( 3 ). (John S. Reeve, Leadenham House, Lincoln.) 
Cause of death, pneumonia. 

Aimrered h), /'r,,s/— Colonel Routh, Miss Johnson, T. W. Bull. Mis. 
Easton Scott. E T. Lewis. 


Photo from lite by H. WUKorc 

Creat Spotted Woodpecker, 


Plioto trom life by H. WUiford. 
Great Spotted Woodpecker. 

AH rifihi.^ reserved. June, 1913. 




Some Interesting Birds. 

Bv Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. Illustrated from TiiFE 

I$Y H. Wir^LFORD. 

Continued from page 139. 

Great-spotted Woodpecker (Dendroeopus major, Lin- 
nipus) : In Mr. Willford's exceptionally fine photos, this bird 
is caught in two characteristic and typical poses, and the skill 
of the photographer is shown, in having secured so natural a 
result, as evidenced by the calm and unruffled expression of 
the bird figured, for the two photos are of the same bird— a 
female. The photos also indicate that in captivity (not a large 
aviary is represented), almost natural conditions may be sup- 
plied, or at any rate sufficient to enable them to take exercise 
in a natural manner. 

The Great -spotted Woodpecker is not a bird that is fre- 
quently seen owing to its retiring demeanour, and usually it is 
only the careful and persistent ob-erver that gets a glimpse at 
this species of the British Wood -hewers. At the same time 
it is not really rare or very uncommon in England, but is less 
common in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. Eecently. I have 
had the pleasure of seeing it in Surrey, Kent, and Sussex, 
though the glimpses were l)ut passing ones, but sufficiently 
long for reliable identification; however, I have never had the 
pleasure of witnessing its skill as a wood -cutter, save in 
captivity. It usually favours the higher branches of lofty 
trees, and mostly scuttles away out of sight immediately it is 
cognisant of being observed, and the watcher must stand al- 
most immovable if he is to get more than a passing glimpse 
of this shy species. Usually it is content with passing round 
to the other side of the branch or trunk, but if followed up 
flies off to some other tree. Its mode of progression is both 
diagonal and spiral. 

The nesting hole is usually cut almost horizontally to 

164 Some Interesting Birds. 

the centre of the trunk or branch, and then turned downwards 
and enlarged to form a suitable domicile for the upbringing 
of a family. Occasionally a hole of the previous year is 
used, also at times a natural cavity in a dead branch is ex- 
tended and enlarged. With this species several holes are by 
no means unfrequently excavated before they secure one to 
their entire satisfaction. The neit cavity is not lined, and the 
eggA are laid on the bare wood amid a few chips left behind 
when excavating. About the middle of May, or later, six or 
seven creamy -white eggs are deposited, barely one inch long 
by three-quarters 6*f an inch through the thickest part. Both 
sexes incubate, and the incubation period is about fourteen 
days. It breeds freely in this country up to Yorkshire, but 
is rare as a breeding species farther north and in Scotland. 
It also breeds in Wales, but I cannot call to mind any in- 
stance of its doing so in Ireland. 

It has a wide range and is found all over temperate 
Europe, extending over Siberia to Japan. 

Description: Adult male: Above it is mostly black; 
forehead pale bufflsh-white; cheeks and ear-coverts white, 
the former tinged with buff; nape crimson; a black band ex- 
tends from the gape under the eye to the back of the neck and 
also down the sides of the throat; a white patch just 
below the ear-coverts adorns each side of the neck; scapulars 
white; wing-feathers barred with white on the outer webs; 
tail-feathers black, with the outer ones edged and tipped 
with white; underparts dull white; vent pale crimson. Total 
length barely 91- inches. 

Adult female : Similar, but slightly smaller and has 
no crimson on the nape. 

Young: Bath sexes have the crown of the head red. 

In Captivity: This species is not very interesting to 
my mind as a cage pet, biit as an aviary bird it 'is most 
interesting, land would, I should say, ultimate'y breed if suitable 
accommodation were given it. On May 19th last, I had 
an opportunity of seeing Major Johnson's fine specimen " Jim " 
in his roomy aviary at Hove; he will not tolerate any other 
Woodpecker in his enclosure, but lives at peace with a 
unique series of British hard- and soft-bills and Waders. The 
aviary attendant informed me that the woodwork of the 

SoniP Tnfrresfing Birds. -[^5 

aviary was watcliod, hut (hat tlio hird usually ronfincd its 
attentions to the branches or trunk provided for the purpose. 
It certainly was most fascinating and interesting to see " Jim " 
rovini,' about at will, with, hut little evidence of his natural 
tiiuidily and also clin.^'ini,'- in typical style to ordinary or (^ork 

Dr. r.oss(\ of B(\auliou, Hants., has also kept this 
species; 'he too founrf it a 'most interesting aviary bird, and that 
if suit^able thick "branches were erected for it, the shell of the 
aviary was fairly safe. 

At the same time, if a /cage (aviary -cage) can be 
provided for it of sufTicicnit ])ulk and height to accommodate a 
thick branch, set almost perpendicularly, tlie bird will soon 
make itself at home, but all said and done, it is scon to best 
advantage in the aviary. 

Food : In a state of nafure this consists of insects and 
their larvae, supplemented in the autumn with mountain ash 
berries, nuts, acorns, etc. In captivity a course of insectile 
mixture, live insects (particularly "beetles and their larvsp), 
nuts, sunflower seed, and in the au^umn,berries, acorns, etc. It 
is 'good for all captive birds to be given some of their na- 
tural Wild diet as opportunity offers. 

The species just described is of great interest whether 
as an aviary bird or studied at home in its native haunts, 
and well repays the expenditure of time and patience in stalk- 
ing and patient observation, but the > observer must remain 
motionless, whether he is fortunate enough to find partial cover 
or must remain in the open, or the Grea*^ -spotted di appears at 

{To he continued). 

My Indian Consignment. 

By Ma.tor G. a. Perkeau, F.Z.S. 
I {Continu&d from page 135). 

Perhaps a brief notice of birds I brought home and 
which were not obtained near Bakloh would not come amiss 
here. These consist chiefly of birds caught in Darjeeling, 
where trapping i; not encouraged, chiefly, becau'^e a good many 
l)irds from England and Kashmir were piit down at some^ 

166 Some Interesting Birds. 

expense a good many years ago, and also, because the author- 
ities rather naturally fear, that a collrctor loose on the district 
would levy such a vast toll on the bird life that the district 
would lose one of it's attractions. As a matter of fact the 
absence of bird life is remarked on by the local "guide." 
The .author was not a Ivird man I fancy, as the birds are there 
all right, but are not in evidence mu^'h, as t'le bulk of them 
prefer the jungle and belong to retiriag species. Even the 
heavy persecution they undergo from the hands of the 
" garden " coolies, who lime them for food, has little effect, I 
believe, on the numbers of the birds of the species which are 
so caught. There may be some effect indirectly on the carniv- 
orous birds and animals. However that may be, I was re- 
stricted to one tea garden and I consider myself lucky to have 
had trapping rights of that, es'pecially as it ranged from 2,000 
feet up to nearly 6,000 and contained a good deal of forest. 
Still, I should have liked to try a bit higher up as well, short 
as my time was. 

One ought to get quite a nice collection of Laughing- 
Thrushes. Even the sober coloured ones are charming aviary 
birds, but, alas, few are safe with smaller fry, hence they are 
not good birds to bring home from a selling point of view. 
Also they are not nice birds on the journey, not over -clean and 
given to sudden uncalled for panics, especially at night. Ex- 
cept perhaps Sibias, I 'know of no birds more given to stripping 
themselves or eacTi other, and, thus they "arrive in a condition 
which spoils the look of a whole consignment, though in reality 
they may be far fitter than their better feathered fellowi 
captives. My first experience of them on a voyage made me 
vow to leave them alone in future, this vow I have already 
broken and shall probably do so again. 

The Eufous-necked Laughing-Thrush CDryonastcs 
rujicollis) reminds me rather of a miniature Jackdaw, though 
the birds are not really at all alike except in being perky. 
Under the tail and sides of the head bright chestnut; top of 
head grey; upper breast and tail and remainder of head black: 
upper plumage and rest of lower plumage olive brown. Bill 
and legs black. Iris red. Length about 10 inches; tail 4-5 
Found in the Eastern Himalayas, prolmbly not above 4,000 
feet (Gates). Jerdon states that it is kept by the natives as 

Some tntercsting Tiirds. \{\1 

a pet on account of its musical notes. I never saw it wild, 
l)ut tlie men wlio brouglit them in seemed very pleased with 
tlieir Captures. 1 riid no trai)i)ing myself below 4,000 feet, and 
fancy these were caught at below 3,000. Ten were brought in 
and 1 got eight home, having given away two in Calcutta. 
Thry did very well in an out -door aviary in<loh in the 
winter on lu'cad and niiil< and leavings of inseclile food, and 
iruit; lettuce were also fieely taken Ivy th^se and other Laugh- 
ing-Thrushes. Though they are not so handsome as some of 
the species with more variegated plumage, I think, this is 
my favourite Laughing -Thrush. 

The Gkey-sided Laugiiixg-Thrush (D. caerulalus) 
conies from Nepal and S,kkim. One only was brought in, from 
about 3,000 feet, I never saw it wild. At first glance it looks: 
much like a small AMiite-breasleJ, a comparatively well-known 
bird in England. General colour rufous brown with a white 
shirt front and some black about the face. Length about 
11 inches. 'My bird was eaii^y induced, by the poorest imi- 
tations, to hidulge in its wild call. A friend on board did the 
imitation almost too well. It is decidedly not safe in a con- 
lined space even with smaller relatives. 

The Black-Goegeted Laughing-Thkush (Garnilax 
pectoraHs) is vcj-y similar to the well-known Chinese Spec- 
tacled J ay -Thrush but is a good deal bigger and lacks the 
white ring round the eye. On the other hand, it is more varie- 
gated and has a black gorget. Ijcngth about 13 inches. The 
only two I got were brought in from about 3,000 feet. They 
looked like nesting in my Bakloh aviary in February in spite 
of there being little inducement to do so, but I hear that they 
have had to be separated into different cages at the Zoo where 
they have been. They shortly go to our member, Mr. Sich, 
in whose spacious aviary I hope the course of true love will 
run smoothly. Ihey were by no means shy in the aviary, but, 
even Tor Laughing -Thrushes, they are perfect beasts in a 

The Westeex Yellow -winged Laughing-Thrttsh 
{TrocJialopterum nigrimcntum) is quite the most handsome 
Laughing -Thrush I have seen. I failed to get or see the 
still more handsome Crimson-winged. These were the com- 
mon ones about Darjeeling, but I only got three, all by driv- 

168 Some Interesting Birds. 

ing into a line of flue nets, they were wonderfully quick at 
slipping under the nets; one really ought to have set the nets 
right on the ground for them but that means a great deal of 
clearing. The third died because he was the third, and the 
pair (now in the possession of 'Our memT^er, Lord Poltimore) 
objected to his presence in the same cage. As a rule this 
class of bird do well enough together, though the pairs do 
keep together in the aviary. In 'the wild state a flock runs 
from a dozen to twenty birds, but I fancy that they keep to 
their pairs. It is a very hard bird to describe briefly. Most 
of the feathers of upper parts and breast have black centres 
of varying sizes and shapes on a background varying from 
chestnut to ruious, and from pinkish to grey. The wings 'and 
tail contain slaty blue with a liberal display of bright golden 
yellow. A very desirable bird. Length about 10 inches. 

All the four above-mentioned are, I believe, new to 
English aviculture, as is also the charming and teautiful 
Eastern Variegated Laughing -Thrush (T. variegatum), a pair 
of which I caught in Bakloh and brought home; these are 
now in the possession of our member Mr. Shore -Baily. I also 
brought home a pair of the Himalayan Streaked Laughing- 
Thrush {T . lineatum), and I rather regret having left a pair 
of the well-known Kui'ous -chinned in Lahore. 
To be continued. 

British Owls. 

By Frank Dawson-Smith. 
The majority of people who go in for aviculture give 
the Owl family " a miss in baulk," owing to the prevalent idea 
^hat these birds are troublesome, uninteresting, and difficult 
to cater for. iMy own personal experience, however, is strongly 
opposed to these ideas. In my opinion an Owl makes a nice 
pet— quaint and interesting, and, provided one lives in the 
country, easy to keep. For obvious reasons it would l>e un- 
wise to attempt keeping an Owl in a town; for one reason, 
one's neighbours might strenuously object to the serenade 
they perform at times 1 It may interest some Bird JS'ofcs 
readers to know my experiences in keeping Owls of difleretit 
species. This article, being on the subject of British Owls, 



Some British Owls. 

British Owls- 169 

I will confine my remarks to those, although I have kept 
others equally interesting. 

No Owl is suited for a cage. An aviary is a sine qua 
7ion, and the larger the better. They are sociable creatures, 
generally speaking. 1 have kept Tawny, Barn, Little, Long- 
eared, and Short -eared Owls in one aviary, and they have lived 
quite amicably. 

The Eagle Owl {Bubo ignacus, Forster), the largest 
of the family, is a powerful bird. In the Hartz Mountains 
these birds are by no means rare and are frequently employed 
by gamekeepers and bird catchers to attract other species. 
When caught young, they soon become tame and affectionate . 
One of mine was very I'ond of having his head scratched, 
blinking with pleasure in an absurd way, while the process 
continued. Eagle Owls will breed in captivity, but I cannot 
atate this from personal experience as I did not have a pair. 
This bird never formed such an attraction for small birds as 
the Little Owls, who were always being mobbed, chiefly by 
Swallows and Missel Thrushes. 

The Little Owl (^Athene noctua, Soopoli), was formerly, 
extremely rare in England, but owing to many importations, 
is now a common variety in North Bucks, and Northants dis- 
tricts. You will meet them at every turn if you walk across 
the fields. They hunt in the day time as well as at night 
and are more des,tructive to bird lire than any other Owl. 
Lideed, 1 will go as far as to say that all English Owls are 
uscfuL with the one exception — the Little Owl, who is rapidly 
becoming a pest in its wild state. I find their nests, usually 
in the hole of an oak tree, containing the usual white eggs. 
It is the fiercest of all for its size, and practically untameabie., 
I have had them before they were fully fledged and brought 
them up by hand, but they always remain wild. It is only 
lair to add that i have heard of some which showed aft'ection 
to their keepers, but my own experience was contrary. I 
consider the Little Owl quite the " lunny man" in the aviary; 
his grotesque "jack-in-the-box" movements compel laughter 
from anyone seeing him for the first time. 

Quite different is the Tawny Owl {Si/rnium aluco, 
Linnaeus)^ perhaps the best known species, which is easily 
tamed when obtained from the nest. It is a common bird in 

170 British Owls. 

in most districts, and the "Hoo-lioo" in woods at night must 
be a familiar sound to most people. " Making night 
hideous " is an expression I have sometimes heard in reier- 
ence to their long-drawn wailing note, but, personally, I like 
to hear them, which is, jjerhaps, iortunate, as my tame birds 
a^ttract their wild kind and practice vocal duets alwut a dozen 
yards from my bedroom window. A pair oi Tawny Owls in 
my aviary, nest regularly every year. The fema'e makes a 
most devoted mother, yet never loses her excessive tameness. 
As a rule. Owls defend their young with great courage, and 
strongly resent anybody approaching the nest, but my bird 
"Flufl"' is ridiculously tame and loving. The moment she 
hears my voice, she calls me in a soi't prolonged trill; if I 
fail to go in response, she positively wails like a child, and 
will not be pacified until I have comforted her by calling her 
all the endearing names I can think of, and stroking and 
scratching her head. To show how extremely gentle she is, I 
may add that she will let me take her feggs up and look at 
them while she '" trills " haj^pily to me. Alter this you will not 
be surprised to hear that Flutf is very much my favourite 
among my Owls. I am fond of them all, but Fiuil is facile 
princeps. The Tawny is not a particularly sleepy Owl. Aline 
always seem fairly aiert in the day-time, and will run up to 
me to get a mouse or sparrow when I ofter these delicacies. 
This species is very ioad of bathing in contradistinction to the 
Little Owl which is noL fond of water. 

One of the sleepiest is the Barn Owl {Strix flammea, 
Linnaeus), who scarcely opens his eyes in the day-time, much 
less eats: Consequently they are not so attractive in confine- 
ment as- the Tawny species, although extremely quaint. The 
appearance of a Barn Owl is more striking than any other 
I know of. Tiie majority of those I have kept have been 
tame and quite gentle, but not very sociable with their 
keeper. If disturbed during the day they reel backwards and 
lorwards on their perches in a most curious way, reminding 
one forcibly of the movements of an intoxicated man. An- 
other habit of a rather wild Barn Owl I had, was to "play 
'possum." If I took himin my hand and put him back after- 
wards, on the aviary floor, he would lie on his side motionless 
with eyes closed, nor would he move from this position until 

Brilish Owls. 171 

ho was lirinly coiivincL'd 1 Iiad j^axic. It. is iiifere.sting to sec 
a Hari! Owl willi a dead rat or mouse. Tlic inouso, if small, 
is swallowed whole, hill a I'at is skiiuicd first. Most Owls 
prel'ei- mice to anything else, hut the Little Owl nmeh prefers 
Spariows and other small birds. 

Long-eared Owl {Asio otus, Linnaeus) also prefers 
hirds to mice. Tliis is a handsome fellow and becomes very 
tame. It is, by no means, as playful as the Barn and Tawny 
Owls, but resembles the Tawny in being fond of bathing. 
All m\ Long -eared Owls go boldly into a large shallow bath 
and llai and splash until they are soaked, following which 
^hey sit on the perches to dry and preen themselves. Young 
Long-eared Owls are some'timcs mistaken for Short-eared, 
but it is dillicult to understand why, for they are totally 

The Short-eared Owl {Asio accipitiinus, Pallas) is a 
much lighter coloured bird than the Long -eared, and far 
more strongly built. 'And the Short -eared does not always 
agree with his Long -eared compatriot as I have discovered to 
my cost, one of the former killing and eating a Long -ear, 
a cannabalistic act, for which there was no excuse, seeing; 
that there was plenty of food in the aviary. The Short-- 
eared Owls agree well with the Tawny Owls, into whose aviary 
I have removed them. They feed in the day as well as at 
nigliit, and are fondest oi mice as a staple article of 'diet. 
1 have only once seen this bird in a wild state, and that one 
was Hushed from some stubble in broad daj^ight. In some 
districts they are known as Hawk-owls, owing to their day- 
time hunting. 

Another interesting member of the Owl family is the 
Scops -eared {Scoips giu, Soopoli) This is an extremely 
prettily marked Horned Owl, common on the continent, but 
rarely seen in England. They soon get very tame, and make 
delightful pets, especially for those who have noL much room 
to spare. Mine were all caught when adult, but were quite 
tame in a fortnight. Their behaviour before settling down 
was very comical. On my approaching their home, they 
would crouch down on the perch, and ruMe out their feathers 
until they were twice their normal size, and snap their beaks 
ferociously. Most owls when frightened or angry will snap 

l72 British Owls. 

their beaks — a short, sharp, vicious snap — they all do it, from 
the Great Eagle Owl down to its small relative, the Scops. 
A Scops resembles an Eagle-owl in everything but size. 
Mine are fond of beetles in addition to birds and mice, and 
they also take full advantage oi their bathing tank. Certain 
species bathe, but others never appear to touch water. 
Among the former are the Eagle, Tawny, Long -eared, and 
Scops Owls, while the Little, the Barn, the Short -eared and 
Tengmalm's Owls are those that eschew water. 

The last named, Tengmalm's {JSyctala tengmalmi, 
Gmelin) is a very rare visitor to England. My si)ecimen — I have 
only one — came "from Austria, and is the most attractive Owl 
I have kept. They are described, by some people, as being 
" like a Little Owl," but on looking at a specimen in an aviary 
[there could be no confusion. The Little Owl has a sinister 
expression, with a hard fixed stare, but the Tengmalm's posi- 
tively radiates benignity and virtue! 

Owls are not at all difficult to cater for. I give them 
" fur and feather " when obtainable and fill up the intermediate 
time with any kind of raw lean meat. A certain amount 
of "fur and feather" is necessary to their well-being; mice, 
small ra,ts, and birds. "Fluff" is very partial to sheep's 
paunch, and fleshy bits of fresh fish. . 

I fear I have encroached too much already on the 
space available in Bird .Notes, otherwise I could enlarge 
a good deal on the subject of Owls. Still, I think I have 
said enough to prove that Owls are extremely interesting and 
beautiful birds, well worth the consideration and attention of 
intending aviculturists. 

Bird Notes from Trieste to Bombay. 

By Hugh Whistleb, I. P., M.B.O.U. 
As there are doubtless many of our members who have 
bad occasion to make a long sea -voyage, it has occurred to 
me that they might find some interest in an account of the 
birds noted in a recent trip from Europe to India; since from 
it some idea may be gained of the material which passes un(ier 
the observation of the traveller and helps to vary the monotony 
of the long days on board. Also, since I know from personal 



Bird Nates from Trieste to Bombay. 173 

experience how dillicult it is to identify the birds seen on one's 
first voyage— many of them, though exiremely common, l>eing 
then met with for the first time. I have inserted short descrip- 
tions of the birds as they appear through field glasses to the 
ma)i on deck. 

1 saiteci in the Austrian J>Ioyd s.s. " Semiramis," from 
Trieste on March l(Jth of this year and landed at Bombay on 
Mai'cli 31st; the result of my daily observations is as follows: 

March IGth. Went on board the "Semiramis" which 
sailed about -4 p.m. Two species of Gull were extremely 
numerous in the harbour and followed us for a time after we 
had started; these were Larus ridihmidus — the Black -headed 
Gull, the majority of which were already in full breeding 
plumage, and Larus cachinnans— the Yellow -legged Herring - 
Gull, to be distinguished from the English bird, Larus argen- 
tatus, by the colour of its feet, which are yehow. Towards 
dusk two distant parties of birds were seen ilying low over 
the sea; they were probably Fhalacrocorax carbo — the Common 

March 17th. (Adriatic Sea). A calm day with but 
little land in sight. No birds seen except Larus cachinnans 
which followed in our wake, often uttering their harsh clucking 
call — somewhat reminiscent of an exaggerated hen. 

March 18th. Passed about breakfast time between 
the mainland of Greece and the islands of Cephalonia and 
Zan,the. Larus cachimians still continues to follow the ship 
in numbers. Some birds seen in the distance which appeared 
to be Shearwaters. Also one or two specimens noted of a bird 
that was probably Stercorarius crepidatus, Richardson's Skua; 
these were flying along close to the sea, going straight and not 
wheeling about like the Shearwaters. One turned suddenly and 
joined the Herring Gulls in the wake, disputing with them for 
fragments of food, which it took from the surface of the water 
in the same manner as the Gulls; but, it did not come close 
enough to the stern to admit of a satisfactory identification. 

March lUth. iS'o land in sight all day but Crete was 
passed in the early morning. A few Larus cachitmans still 
about but nothing like the number when we were in sight 
of land. A dark Shearwater with white underparts was noted 
iu small parties in the morning, but fewer were seen as the 

174 Bird Notes from Trieste to Bombay. 

day wore on— these were most probably either Puffinus hiihli, 
the Mediterranean Sheai'water or Puffinis yeIkoiia>ius — the Lev- 
antine Shearwater. 

March 20th. This morning the Herring Gulls have 
been replaced by Larus fuscus — the Lesser Black -backed 
Gull, only two of the Herring Gulls being noted. Both species 
are very similar, the grey back and wings of the Herring 
Gull becoming dark sooty in the Black-back. About mid- 
day we reached Port Said; the harbour swarms with Larus 
ridibundus the Black-headed Gull, and with them are a few 
L. cachinyians and fuscus. We left Port Said about 6 p.m. 
so consequently the greater part of the canal — where one sees 
so many birds as a rule — was traversed by night. 

March 21st, Passed through the Bitter Lakes about 
5—6 a.m., where Larus ridihwndus was very numerous. Very 
few specimens had fully assumed the breeding plumage. The 
majority being either immature birds or birds that had only 
partially donned their breeding attire. Entering the narrow 
canal again that leads from the Bitter Lakes to Suez we noted 
the following birds: two Ceryle rudis, Pied Kingfisher, many 
Swallows (apparently Hirundo rustica), several large Crows 
or Ravens, one Larus cachinnans, Larus ridibundus, and 
several Wagtails (all oi' the Motacilla alba type), and also 
no,ted a flight oi' six Cormorants, Phalacrocorax alba, some 
of which were in full breeding plumage. When we reached 
Suez I saw thi'ee Herons, Ardea cinerea, fishing in some shallows, 
and a Cormorant sitting on a beacon with his wings out- 
sitretched to catch the sun. 

For a time the ship lay at anchor in the roads off Port 
Tewfik, where great numbers of Gulls surrounded the ship, 
flying round close or settling in flocks on the water. The vari- 
ous buoys also formed favourite resting places. 'I he majority 
were Larus ridibundus but L. cachin?ians and L. fuscus were 
numerous also. While we were here I saw a very hawk-like 
bird flying swiftly across the water, occasionally having skir- 
mishes with the Gulls— this turned out to be Richardson's Skua, 
Stercorarius crepidatus. 

As we steamed out of the roads two big flights of Plover 
or Waders flew swiftly across the bay in front of us, l)ut the 
distance was too great to allow of the species being identified. 

Bird Xofr.'^ from Trieste to Bombay. 17') 

For tho rest of tlio day as wr wiMit aloiii,^ the Onlf of Suez, 
Lams rldibu/ithis coiit iiiiii> 1 abiiiulaiit, and Lams affmis MTls 
fairly common. Only a stray L. cachiyinans or two were 
noted. Port Tewfik was still in sitrht when I noted the first 
Sooty Gull, Lams IrD/jirlcJii, l>ut T did not see another until 
we reached Aden, rn'il daidv a pair of Richardson's Skuas 
followed in our Avakc \\ itli tli(^ (iulls. Tlu^v may bo described 
roughly as dark b'ackisli Itrowii \vifli a Avhito collar and 
underparts; some nnIiIIc also a( tlic base of tho wing quills; 
'the white of tho breast broken l)y a partial dark gorget. 
The tail full and wodge -shaped with tho two central feathers 
fronted "and elongate. Thoy were not on good terms with 
tho Gulls, chasing thorn and being chased. 

March 22nd. (In the Red Sea). No land sighted all 
day. No Gulls scon excep't a few Lams affinis. A small bird 
that looked like a Pipit came on to the ship, but I only caught 
a glimpse of it as it was leaving: another small bird of a 
yellowish colour, probably a Bunting, also seen flying near the 
ship. A swallow turned up and remainecf for some time with 
tho ship, hawking i-ound and about. About sunset a small 
Kestrel arrived and settled on the mast where after doing its 
plumage it prepared to roost. Finally just as it was getting 
dusk I caught a glimpse of a small Swallow or Martin flying 
low over the wave^. After dinner an attempt to catch the 
Kestrel was made Init unsuooo^sfully, tho bird taking alarm 
and flying round about the ship for a long time in the moon- 
light, looking like an enormous bat. 

March 23rd. (Red Sea). No land in sight all day. 
I awoke to hear that the Kestrel had been caught and put 
into a Canary Cage, where 1 took a detailed description of it. 
Roughly speaking, the bird was a small pale washed-out 
looking ediftion of the Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculns 
in immature plumage with tlio upper tail coverts of a delicate 
French grey dully liarro;!. At present I cannot gain access 
to books and skins to d Mo: mine the species accurately from 
my description, but I tliink it was the Lesser Kestrel, Falco 
cenchris—a.n idenjtification sui)ported by the colour of its claws, 
which were flesh colour not black. 

This proved to be another migration day and the fol- 
lowing birds visited the ship, A pair of Thick-knee Plovers— 

176 Bird Nafes from Trieste to Bombay. 

probably (Edimnnns scolopnx — circled once or twice as if 
desirous of settlirg on the ship, and then flew off astern. A 
Whratear came aboird and rested for a time. It was of the 
Saxicola mvan'he type. Then a small bird— not unlike a Reed- 
bunting— was seen flying- along. Next came two Harriers, 
followed by a third, passing from the African to the Arabian 

No Gulls were following the ship, but a few Les.=?er 
Black-backs were seen. In the evening the first Boobies 
Sula leucorjaster were seen, and two white Gannet — but the 
la'itter were too far off for identification. A stray Lams heim- 
prichl or two. 

March '24th. (The Eed Sea). No land in sight until 
about 10 a.m., but the Lesser Black -backed Gulls were a- 
gain following the ship, as well as Sooty Gulls and 
Boobies. The Boobies were very numerous, flying over the 
sea singly and in parties: in the distance they have a spidery 
appearance owing to everything being pointed — bill, wings, and 
tail. Many came clo^e up to the stern and there both took food 
from the surface of the water and plunged for it. They 
may be roughly described as chocolate -brown birds with the 
wing lining and lower parts 'from breast white. The bill 
and naked facial skin being either greenish white or very 
pale flesh colour. 

About 10 a.m. we passed a large rocky island, and 
then, for a time the number of Gulls and Gannets decreased 
until noon, when they returned in force again while the ship 
was passing "the twelve apostles." A white Gannet with 
black quills seen — Sula cyamops? About 6 p.m. we passed 
between a lighthouse rock and a large island, called, I believe, 
Sabel Zukker. 

March 25th. Reached Aden afjout 11 a.m. Before 
we bounded the corner we had only been followed by a few 
immaiture Larus cbffinis, but the harbour was full of Gulls. 
These were all either Larus affinis or Larus hemprichi. 
The Sooty Gull is very strictly protected in Aden harbour and 
is consequently very numerous and fearless. This Gull is 
dusky brown except for the breast, underparts, tail, and rump, 
which arc white; the wing is also edged with white owing to 
the quills being tipped with that colour. In breeding plumage 

r>ii;i. NoTKS. 

llfni|u-icirs (lull {/.urns /,r>n/>rn/, 


Bird No.frs from Tn'rslr to Bnmhay. 177 

— already assumod hy ininy of tlio hirds in Aden harbonr — 
the head becomes a da kcr fliocolato brown and there is a 
white collar. Tlioy flow so close to the ship's rail while we 
were at anchor flia! 1 tried to i hotoirraph them but the resiilts 
are not worth i-ciirnductioii. Many Kites, Milvus rrgifpficxis, 
come out from the shore and mingle with the gulls, and on a 
former voyage I rescued one that had fallen into the sea. 
Several Terns came to the ship attracted by the swarms of 
small fish that always collect round the hull— they were 
all of one species but not in full plumage and I failed to 
identify the species. It was probably the smaller Crested 
Tern Sterna media. Only a single Booby seen to-day and 
that in the harbour. 

Mareh 2()th. (Arabian Sea); no land in sight all day. 
I only saw one bird and that a great distance off — it was ap- 
parently a White Ganret. A "Seagull" was reported to me,* 
but I did not see it. 

Mareh 27th. (Arabian Sea). No land seen. About 
breakfast time several White Tropic -birds Phaethon flavirostris' 
appeared, flying rapidly beh-nd and beside the ship. They are 
curious Tern -like birds with the two middle feathers elongate 
and pointed : white all over except for a "black mark running 
from the eye round the nape, and some black on the wings: 
the bill is yellow and the feet black. I did not see them 
settle or catch anything. The flight resembled that of a 
Sandgrouse. However, they soon left and only an odd one or 
two were seen during the rest of the day. 

A White Gannet with black wing quills and tail came 
near enough for me to note that the facial skin was blackish,, 
]thus identifying it as Sula cyanops the Masked Booby. "During 
the afternoon and evening many Shearwaters were fo be seen 
skimming low over the water in all directions. They "did 
not come near enough for me to attempt an identification, 
but the probability is that they were the Persian Shearwater, 
Puffin is persicus. 

Mareh 28th. No birds, no ships, no land! 

March 29th. Only three birds seen— all White Gannets, 
one in immature plumage, Sula cyanops. 

March 30th. No birds seen during the morning ex- 
cept a small Plover, which visited the ship once or twice. It 

178 Visits to Mcmhcrs Avia?-ies. 

flew so swiftly that I could not get the glasses on to it to 
recognise even the genus. AYe arrived at Bombay in the 
afternoon, the Customs officers coming on board about 3 
p.m bu'; the Gulls did not come out far to meet us, the first — 
an immature Lani^ affinis — being seen only at l-.^O p.m. They 
did not become numerous till we reached the Pilot brig outside 
the harbour. 

The gulls in the harbour were of two species, the 
commonest 'being Tarusbrunnri^epJialus, the Brown -headed Gull. 
The other species was the Dark -backed Herring Gull, Lams 

I must here note that Lams fuscus and Larus affinis 
are in reality two races of one species, only to be determined 
with certainty on a do se e?'amination. Hence my identification 
of the Lesser Black -backed Gulls seen on various occa- 
sions may not always have been correct, but for the purposes 
of this account I have let them stand. 

Visits To Members' Aviaries. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., Etc 
In commencing another series of visits to members' 
aviaries and birdrooms, I am simply responding to a general 
c^ll, and I yenture to hope that other members, after a visit to 
a fellow-member's aviaries, will send an article for publication 
in the club journal. I have been privileged to make several 
visits already, but I am waiting for photos and plans to Illus- 
trate my descriptions; thus I am commencing with a short 
description of Major F. Johnson's Aviaries at Hove; here I 
am to have the pleasure of a second visit and then hope to 
amplify these present notes and make them worthy the unique 
series of British species I am seeking to describe. 

Major Johnson's Aviaries: My visit was unnanounced 
and I did not find Major Johnson at home, ' On a future 
occasion I hope to include many episodes of the birds I saw. 
I really am at a loss how to begin, for the rapid passing before 
one's vision of one dainty species after another was almost 
bewildering, and most certainly entrancing. And I really must 
leave any real attempt at describing the aviaries to a future 
occasion, merely in the present attempting to convey a general 
idea of them— the heated winter aviary I did not see. 

Visits to Momhcrs' Aviaries. 


TnK AviAKiKs: The area covered is lai-ge, the main 
aviary some lOft. square by about 15 to IG feet high. The 
main iiortioii forms one huge aviary, with numerous internal 
standai'ds suppoi'ting the roof; these standards being covered 
with cork and bark, and having ivy and other creeperls. 





6^ft . 



-42/t > 

Ghounb Tl/\n 

A. ^stable filled with trt-s, with windows iit H.TT. 

H. — Enclosure I'oi' s]>cciai liiiils, whit-h nmst he ke])t sei>!uate, with fountain 

C— Main aviary, with f juntain and pond at F, turfed and ])lanted withevcr- 

j^reens and various creepers up internal standards. 
D. — Rustic Arbour in use as observation ])ost. 

K.K.— Doors foi- entrance and to shut off main a\ iary fioui service ])assayc J. 
Dotted areas represent gravel service passa,<j;e and i>aths. 
1. 2. 3. — Compartment enclosures for new arrivals. 
The East End is wood and glass. 
Except wliete otlieiwise designated the structure is of wire netting stretched 

on stout wood IVauung. 

Tlie ground area of this aviary consists of turf, gravel paths. 

180 Visits to Members' Avian e.^. 

a small pond, and a number of evergreen "bushes. The whole 
effect is very pleasing, especially when viewed from the 
rustic arbour, which forms Major Johnson's observation post. 
The other portion is divided off into three smaller enclosures, 
either for pugnacious species, new arrivals, or for species' 
which are too timid for the general crowd; and here for the 
present I must leave my description of the aviaries, simply 
remarking that the well-kept turf and paths formed a fitting 
setting for a unique series of our British birds. 

(The Birds: Here again, my remarks 'can only be 
general and but little more than 'a list. Since my visit I 
have had a most interesting letter from Major Johnson, in 
which he says, as might be expected his breeding results are 
small, though many attempts are made. Speaking of Waders, 
he says. "I am fond of Waders, which do well and give little 
"or no trouble, and I have just obtained a nice pair of Oyster- 
" Catchers (Hemaiopus : ostralegui^) . Once I possessed the 
"Curlew Sandpiper {Tringa suharqua^a), and the Sanderling 
" {Calidris arenaria), but they were killed by an infernal 
" Egyptian Rail and I do not seem able to replace them. Con- 
" sidering the great admixture of birds, you would be surprised 
" how few tragedies there are— one day a cock Corn Bunting 
"ran amok and killed my pet Scarlet Grosbeak (PyrrJiuJa 
" erythrinai), also my Black-headed Bunting (Euspiza melano- 
" cephala); the Corn Bunting has no longer a place in the 
" aviary." ; 

"'Jim' the old Great-Spotted Woodpecker (Dcndroeopus 
" ma}nr) will not tolerate any other Woodpecker near him, and 
" my Common Wren (Troglodytes parvuhts) killed nine or 
" ten other Wrens during the last year, being evidently of the 
" opinion that there is only room for one Wren in that aviary. 
" Nightingales occasionally kill each other, but on the whole 
"get bn well together." 

I have taken the liberty of including the above as it 
conveys a general idea of the demeanour of the birds thus 
associated together — the actual losses from malicious fighting 
being very small, as I gathered from the laviary attendant, while it 
was of great interest to see the number of species that came 
down to the close -clipped grass and picked out the mealworms, 
amiably competing for same as ^hey were scattered by the 

Visits fa 'Mrmhrrs' Avmric,^. ]^] 

aMondaiit ; necdloss to say. that with suoh an array of soft- 
bills, incalworrns wciu^ (•arri(Nl in a pail! 

Bj^ the aid of nioah\(>i'ins tlie l)ulk of the birds were 
made to parade befor(> Dr. 'Piiwaites and myself as we sat 
in the observation siiniinci'-liouse — here I had better give a 
list of th(^ speri(>s T observed, and then make a few remarks 

Fl.Vi'\lVin.-.i;. : S,>.,tt,"il ( .]fa^:,;tnt <,rl.^nf„) '.uul Pied f.IA. a/riraiulla). 

Tiii;rsiii:s, Etc. Redwinir (Tnnlns ///ar/z.s'V Fieldfare (7'. /;/7ar;.s-). Tilackl)ird 
(]rerHhi wrriilii) and Rinsf Onzel (^f. tnrquntiix'' . 

W AiM'.i.KUs, AccKXToits. Cirvis, Ere; Alpine Accentor f Acreiifnr coUdvix'), 
Hedije Spai-i'ow (.1. iih> hilnr/x). Niijlitinwale (Dauliaiflniicinia), Garden 
Warbler fS'v//-/(i //u/Vr/zs/vV Pireater Whitethroat S. chierrn) Lesser 
Whitetlu-oat (S. rnrnirn'^. Blackcap (S. africapilla), Stonechat (Prnf'ni- 
coJa ruhicola'), AVhinchat {P. rnhefra^. Wheatear (Sa.r/roln (P)iaiifhp), 
Redstait f/?M^V///a;j/'H>^«;V'z/)-w.s .T?lack Redstart (R. f/fi/s), Bluethroat 
(Ci/<inecii7<i xiipc/d). Redbreast (Krithncm ruhentla). Gold-crested Wren 
( nr,n,l,i!i rrhfatux]. niifP-Cliaff ( rh//Uo.^ro}w.'i rufui^). 

Tits : Bearded {P.uninn^ irninnhuix). Lon<?-tailed (AcrnhiJa rnn,!„/,t). Great 
iPnru.'^ maji<r\ Cole (P. ater). Marsh (P. palnMrix\ aii.l Blue (P. 

Etcktiias: Nuthateh ^S';//(( rv/^'.sv'^/) Wren (Tnuihi'li/trx panuiJux), Waxwing 
{Ampelist gnrnthiK] Swallow. {JTirimdn rtixt'cn^. Nutcracker (Xncifrdi/a 

WA(;TAri,s : Pied (M.^larilln l>i<juhnx). White (.1/ ,ilhn). Grey (.!/". mrhtnopp), 
aTid Yellow f.lA. ;■((//). 

Pi imis : Tree (.1 nth ux trh-ialh). INTeadow (.1 . prnfp//x/x). and Rock (.1 . :>I>sriini.<f), 

Lai:k« : Shore (O/m-iiri/x aliirxtr/x) Skv (Alaiida arvciixis) and Wood (A. 

Finch i:s : Greenfinch {Liiinvhnix rhlorix^. Hawfinch {Corrofhravxtea viilfjaris), 
Goldfinch (Cardiiplix ehficuix). Siskin (C. spiniis), Serin (Ser/nvs horfu- 
laynix). House Sparrow (Paxxei- (InmexticiisS, Tree Sparrow 'P. mon- 
tanits^. Chaffinch (Frhx/JIIa rnehha), Bramblinsf (P. tno)itifrhir/iIla), 
Linnet {Unota cainiahliia^, Mealy Redpoll (L. Jii/ar/a), Lesser Red- 
poll (L. 7-tifescp>i.<t), Twite (L. flariroxfria). Bullfinch {Pi/ii-Juila eiiro- 
Tia?((), and Crossbill (Lo.ria ninvi-nxfrix). 

BrxriNcs: Corn ( f-^in In' rim mi J iari), Yellow {E. cifriiiella), Cirl (£J. cirhts), 
Ortolan 'A'. hiirtiil<ina"\. Meadow (P. rioides), Reed {E. schoenichix), 
Lapland (P. /uppn/iinix ), and Snow ( Plecfrophenax uival/x). 

Stari.incs : Common (.'^//ir/iiix rtdijarix). Rose-coloured Pastor (Paxlor, 

Wooni'i-XKKRS : Green (r7^r;«i(.s riridix) and Great-Spotted (Dnidrocopm 
major) . 
T noticed the Common Quail {Cnlnrnix comminisi), Land-Rail (Crex 

pratnixix). l\Ioor-Hen {Oalliinda chlornpus), while among a number of Waders 

ptcjl marked the followins,' : Dotterel {Eudromias inorineUux), Rin!,'ed 

132 Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

Plover (^^qkilith h/afiniJa) Golrlen Plover (Chara<lrhis pluvialis), Grey 
Plover (SqiiatnrrAa helvetica), Green Plover (VauelhtH vulgaris). Dunlin 
(TriNi/a alpina), Knot {T. eanufm). Sanderling(Ca//;^Zr/.',- rfrwiar/aj, Sandpiper 
(Tnfaniis hi/poleitcus), Redshank {T.ral/th-ix), Rnff { ^^llt^hp^fis pufpiax), Avocets 
(lienirrh-OHta avoceffa^, Black-tailed Godwit (Liinnm helgica) and Bar- 
tailed Godwit iL. lapponkn). 

All the foregoin.c: with some half-dozen exceptions were 
disporting themselves in the large section of the aviary, and 
if the mixture was astounding, it was equally fascinating. — 
The Common Wren, Redbreast, Wheatear, Redstart, Nightin- 
gales, Blackcap, Stone- and Whin-chat, mingled with the smaller 
Waders on the short grass in friendly competition, 'each seeking 
to obtain their full share of mealworms — from the rustic 
arbour look-out the scene was too charming for words, the 
distinctive characteristics and deportment of the respective 
species 'was most interesting thus brought into comparison, but 
I must leave it for some -other occasion to deal more fully 
with. ' , 

Associated with the above "British birds were some 
few foreign species, I noted the following: 'Gouldian, Long- 
tail, Ruficauda, and Diamond Gra-^s^nches, Mannikins, Waxbills, 
and Californian Quail; while the impudent little Zebra "Finch 
passed almost under our nose to a typical nest woven in the 
creeper climbing over our Rustic look-out post. 

Besides the Zebra Finches, Go'dfinches were also nest- 
ing, (and Nuthatches, Ring Ouzels, and Blackbirds gave evidence 
of T3eing occupied with thoughts of reproducing their kind — 
the attendant named other species as "having nests, but I made 
•bnly mental notes, and I cannot now call to mind the species. 

I find I have said nothing about the common but al- 
together charming Budgerigar, which co- mingles with the 
rest in quite a charming manner, his garment of shining green, 
forming quite a bright spot, among the somewhat dull hues 
of our British species — incidentally our green friends are respon- 
sible for the cut -up appearance of some of the shrubs and 

I am greatly tempted to linger and rhapsodize about the 
Stone-chat and Whin-chat, two of our most charming 'British 
species, charming because of their beauty, and confiding and 
fearless demeanour, but for the present must close by con- 
gratulating Major Johnson on his unique scries of British 

Visits to Members' Aviaries. 183 

species and their condition, for there did not appear to be a 
sorry -looking, ailing, or discontented individual among them, 

I)k. Thwaitks' Aviaries: My visit to Brighton was 
really a call upon Dr. Thwaites, and he 'kindly motored me 
over to Major Johnson's, at Hove. 'Dr. Thwaite.,' residence is 
a corner house, with practically no back premises, where it is a 
caseof making the most of very limited space, and right well he 
has succeeded. His aviary consists of the back area and a 
sjTiall space above it, some 30 x 16 feet, with a varying height 
of from G to 12 feet; around the back wall and one end are 
arranged shelters and two or three smaller enclosures for single 
pairs of birds. Dr. Thwaites has certainly made the most 
of his space; and there are some annual breeding results. 
In the general aviary and separate flights are pairs of J)iamond 
Doves {Gcopelia cuneata), Indigo Buntings {Cyanospiza cya- 
iiea), Nonpareil Buntings (C. ciris), Cuban Finches (Phonipara 
canora), White-throated Sparrow (Spermophila nUngularis), 
Green Avadavats {Sticiospita fonnosa), Common Waxbills 
{Esirilda cinerea), White Java Sparrows (Munia oryzivora, 
var., alba), Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia cast anotis), Goldfinches 
{Carduelis elegans) and Meadow Pipits (Antliu.',' pratensis), 
in all 15 pairs and some odd birds. 

A pair of Shamahs (Cittocincla macrura), in perfect 
feather occupy a small enclosure 16 x 4 ft., in which it is 
hoped thej' may reproduce their kind during the season. 

The day of my visit was certainly cool and showery, 
and the birds, as is usual, looking their worst, but they all 
appeared to be a really fit and contented series. 

As regards indications of what results there may be, 
I will use Dr. Thwaites' own words — the Zebra Finches, Java 
Sparrows, and Goldfinches are incubating, but no young hatched 
up to the present so far as he is aware. The Diamond Doves 
have one youngster on the wing, and arc again incubating. 
The Cuban Finches and Green Avadavats are at present only 
playing at nestmg. 

In this aviary Pea Doves (Zenaida amabilis) nested 
and fully reared three young birds last season, besides other 
small finches, and Dr. Thwaites' aviary is certainly an object 
lesson, that "where there's a will there's a way," and anyone 
may have an aviary no matter how circum-cribed their sur- 

184 From all Sources. 

rounding or unpromising the space to 1>e dealt with may be. 
The house itself is situated at the corner of two fine, wide 
roads, with, as I have said, scarcely any back premises at 
at all and herein lie the limitations, these have been, so far as 
possible, surmounted, and Dr. Thwaites now has an aviary 
which yields him much interest and pleasure in the intervals 
free from professional duties. 

To be continued 

From All Sources. 


" In the long range of cages where the Eagles and Falcons live at the 
Zoological Society's Gardens there is a comparatively new denizen. He is 
the Icelandic Falcon, and if he could think clearly he would look down with 
scorn on the eagles and vultures, and especially on the peregrines who 
usurped his place long ago as sporting hawks. The Peregrine Falcon has 
a great reputation as a hunter and as a friend of man, but it is very doubt- 
ful whether he has deserved anything of the kind. He is not so swift or so 
clever as his brother from the north, and there are many reasons for be- 
lieving that he was not the true heroic falcon of the olden days. 

The fine specimen now at the Zoo is not the first that has ever been 
in the gardens, but he is very lonely, being one of the last of his tribe. 
As his name suggests, his home was in Iceland, and we have records of 
shiploads of the birds having been brought from the northern island to 
Holland, so that they might be transported to the middle of Europe. 

Its grey, swift wings and its quick intuition when hunting ran up 
its value so highly that a ship was specially despatched from Copenhagen 
in 1754 to bi'ing back as many as possible of the birds. It brought 14 
of them, which were no doubt the proger.itors of the finest stocks of hunt- 
ing falcons in Central Europe. 

Not many of the true breed are left, and the Zoo has been without 
a representative for a number of years, So this new one is lonely, and it must 
be owned not very friendly, unless approached in the right spirit. That spirit 
seems to have been better known in bygone days. The keeper of the hawks 
certainly has lost it, and as to the casual visitor, he had better leave 
Hierofalco Idaiulu^ (that is his scientific name) alone, or Hierofalco will 
greet him with a flow of bad language which could not be matched, even 
in the cats' house, where they swear abominably."— From the StandunJ, per 
Rev. G. H. Raynor. 


" Some 450 wild birds have been despatched from Euston, England, 
iov British Columbia. They consist of Skylarks, Robins, Goldfinches, Tits 
and Linnets, and they will, in the phrase on the notice attaclied to the 
special vans in which they were conveyed to Liverpool, "be set free to 

From all Sources. 185 

furnish tlicir a(l()i)tc(I ((Hiiitry w 


enil Wijoks past the Kiids lii\c 


kot ami Fkirmoiidscy. aiiil il \>n>\ 


put tliein iu i'ai,'es 0:1 t)ie iii^lii 


press Coinpaiiv. wlm \\\\\v ana 

accomni()(lati<iii <>ii Ww slcainci- 


as sooM as tin- Mrds have rcaclic 

1 11 

be released. It is intundfd to se 

id < 

English fanner wliu lias t-niii-iaU 

.1 w 

ing on his fiiu-i', and liear tlie 


home." — From the ('//rist/d/i Sc/t 


" Nemo." 


tish stock a 

id nit lody." 1''<H- sev- 
■s in l.radridiali Mar- 

> n 

en seven iio 

u's to caieli Ihem and 


• heir transit 

Tiie Dominion Ivk- 

1 1 

u' journey. 

liave pi'ovided special 


in til.' ti-.- 

in across (^inada, and 

If (' 

n<l of tiieir 

ong journey they will 

nt over 1,01)0 next spring, so that the 
st will sue the English Robin perch- 
sin<;ing ovci-head, as in the fields at 
.l/.-//;/r/y, Hoston. .Mass., U.S.A., per 

NEW ZEALAND PKiKOXS, i{v J. Dimjmmom), F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
"Major J. T. Large, the (Joveinment Resident at Atiu, one of the 
Cook Islands, has sent me the skins of two island pigeons. One, a large 
bi-d. is called Rupe by the natives, one of the Maori names for the New 
Zealand Pigeon ; and the other, a smaller bird, is Kukupa, another name 
for the New Zealand Pigeon. Both are very handsome birds. Neither 
resembles the New Zealand Pigeon. The Kukupa, which Europeans call 
"the island dove," and which is also known as "the Rarotonga Fruit 
Pigeon," is officially recorded a.s- Ptilnpim larnto/it/eitsia. It is less than half 
the size of the New Zealand Pigeon, and does not possess the shining 
coppery green, with coppery reflections, which gives that bird's plumage 
its principal charm. Green is the ])revailing colour in the Kukupa's 
plumage, but it is more grass green than metallic in appearance. Its back 
and the upper parts of its wings are vivid green, and a close inspection 
of the wing feathers shows that they are margined, sometimes narrowly, 
but always distinctly, with either white or yellow. The green tints of 
the wings vary considerably, those on the ))rimary feathers becoming much 
darker and mt-rging almost into blue. The back and sides of the head, 
the neck, anu the upper parts of the breast are a delicate grey ; the chin 
and part of the throat are white, washed with pale yellow ; the under 
parts of the wings are ashy grey ; and tlie tail is dark green, but greyish 
white at the end, the white bearing a narrow mai'gin of pale yellow. 
The tail, ui derneath, like the wings is grey. The breast is yellow ; the 
legs are purple-red, and the crowning beauty patch, perhaps, is a violet- 
red blot, surrounded by a light line of yellow on the top of the head and 
forehead. The relative sizes of this pigeon and the New Zealand Pigeon 
are shown by the following measurements :- Total length .• New Zealand 
Pigeon, 21in. ; Kukniia, 'Jin. Length of wing: New Zealand Pigeon, 10"25 
in. ; Kukupa, ain. Tail : New Zealand Pigeon, SSin ; Kukupa, 3'lin. Tar- 
sus; New Zealand Pigeon, I'ioin. ; Knkn[)a, Oo'iin.".— From the Xea: Zea- 
land Herald, per F. Howe. 

" The other island pigeon, Rui)e ((Hobicera jMic/Jica), is much larger, 
but still falls short of the New Zealand Pigeon, which, by the way, I be 
lieve, is surpassed in size by only one other pigeon, a native of the Mar- 
quesas Islands, another Pacific gn/up, north-east of Tahiti. The Rupe's 

li^6 Fro7n all Sources. 

prevailing colour is^ a vei'^' dark bronze-green, shading into blue. These 
colours are noticeable on tlie back and the upper parts of the wings and 
tail. The head and the back of the neck are grey, and this colour is very 
sharply defined from the dark green, there being a noticeable line of de- 
marcation. The grey neck and green back harmonise with a light red 
colour, best described as vinous, which extends from tin: front of the neck 
to the breast. The sides of the body are grey, and tlie under parts of the 
wings are dark grey, while the under tail coverts afford a striking contrast 
to all the otlier fealhers by being a bright chestnut. The legs are feather- 
ed close down to the feet with grey feathers, tinged witii vinous, and 
are bright red." — From the xX'e^r Zealand Herald per Y. Howe. 
THE FEliN BIRD, By J. Hkummond, F.L.8., FZ.S. 
]\Ir. W. VV. Smith, of New Plymouth, has kindly sent me the nest of a 
Fern-bird which was found by Mr. Hicks, junr., at Tikorangi, Taranaki, on 
October 2U. it has a special value to those who are interested in native birds, 
because the Fern-bird's nest is not easily found. Mr Walter BuUer, in all the 
years he spent in the open, found only one of these nests. 'J'he discovery was 
made many years before he wrote his large work. The nest was on the edge of 
a raupo-swamp, near the old mission station, on the Wairoa River, Hawke's 
Bay. Mr. 'J\ H. Potts found several of this bird's nests in Canterbury, and 
Mr, H. Guthrie-Smith and" Mr. J. (J. McLean have found five, at Tutira, 
Hawke's Bay, the former being fortunate enough to obtain two in one day. 
The nest Mr. Smitli has sent me is a strange little home, loosely built, so 
light that it weighs only three-quarters of an ounce, and so fragile that it 
almost crumbles to pieces when it is lifted by the hand. It is cup-shaped, 
stands four inches and a half high, and measures four inches in diameter from 
one outer wall to the other. Tlie walls and the bottom part are composed 
of grass-bents and dried leaves of the " cutty-grass," with feathers of the 
Kiwi, the Weka, and Tui intermixed. The interior is neat, compact and 
comfortable. It is two inches deep and two inches in diameter, and is thickly 
lined with the feathers of the birds named. Some of the feathers, near the 
top, evidently, have been placed in position in order that they may droop in- 
wards and, to some extent, cover the eggs or the young. Mr. Smith tells me 
that the nest was placed in a compact plant of native rush, the Maoris' Wiwi 
( Scirijus )iud(»ius). interwoven with Koropiu {Lontaria capeiixis^, and a fine 
grass called Patiti (Micivlaua stipoiden). The nest contained three eggs, 
ovoidoconical, measuring ().8in, with a white ground, speckled with violet and 
greyish-red more at the tliick end than ;it the pointed end. 

Mr. Guthrie-Smith, in his "Birds of the Water, Wood, and Waste" 
states that the Fern-bird's nest is planted deep, buried in fact— a foot or (if- 
teen inches in the heart of a bunch of " cutty grass." Usually a clump is 
selected growing in a soft, wet spot, the Fern-bird, like the Pukeko, relying 
on these extra safeguards to fend off vermin and trampling stock. The nests, 
he savs, can be discovered most easily on hoiseb.ick, on account of the extra 
view obtained, and by continuous riding tinougli the swamps, specimens of 
the birds are sure to be put up. If the l>ird. wiieii flushed, flies off horizon- 
tally, probably it has been merely disturbed at feeding or resting or gather- 
in" nest materials. But if it pops straight up out of the centre of the clump 

From all Sources. 187 

the nest, ;if lor put icii( peerini;, will lie foniiil usually (kt;[) sut amongst tiic 
saw-toothed blades. 

I believe tliat in (lie Xo.lli island, it not in the South, tlio Feni bird 
is better known as tlie " riick." a name wliicii IMr. Smith uses in hi.s letter to 
me. it has carneil the name by a jui-uliarly melanelioly little note it utlens, 
reseml)lint^ " n tick, u tick " " When the shades of evening arc closing in," 
Sir Walter linllcr wrote in isss, ■ ihc call is emitted with greater frequency 
and eneigy, and in some dreary solitmles it is almost the only sound that 
breaks the oi)piissive stillness. In the INlanawatu district, where there are 
continuous iau[)o swamps, covering an area of 5l),()U0 acres or more, I have 
l)articidaily remarked this. I'L^eept for the peevish cry of the Pukeko, heard 
occasionally, and the boom of the lonely Bittern, the only animate sound 
that I could detect was the monotonous cry of this little bird calling to its 
fellows as it threaded its way among the tangled growth of reeds." I do not 
know if the Maoris still entertain a predjudice against this, the most harm- 
less and innocent bird in the world, but it certainly was treated harshly in 
former times. Amongst some tribes it was the custom when a party went 
out against a hostile tribe to avenge a murder, but returned the same day 
without having met anybody upon whom vengeance could be wrecked, to 
catch a few Fern-birds and tear them to pieces. Each member of the party 
tied a limb to two fernstalks, which he held in his hands. When the party 
came in sight of the village to which it was returning, the members sat in a 
line, and holding up the sticks, sang in chorus the following invocation to 
the gods : — 

I\laru ! Heal, oli, heal the wound 

Of him who was broken and bruised ! 

1 invoke thy power to strike 

The back of the head of him 

Who caused life's stream to flow ; 

And thou, Tu, strike, oh, strike as he flies. 

From the Netc Zealand Hendd, per F. Howe. 


Nesting Notes: These are always of intei^est, but the 
season is late in many aviaries, as the early spell caused an 
extra early start and most of these earlier nests failed and the 
long continued cold of May has all combined to make the 
season one of the latest for some years; but, there are many 
indications that it will be a good one. Some of the freely 
imported species are doing well: Zebra iFinches in many 
aviaries have their first bi'oods on the wing, and in Capt. 
Ileeve's aviary a second brood has left the shelter oi Zebra 
castle. In the same aviaries Cuba Finches are nesting. 

In Mr. Bainbridge's aviary at Tliorpe Jacariui Finches 

188 Editorial. 

built a charming nest in a bush, about three feet from the 
ground. The clutch of four eggs duly hatched out and the 
young have left the nest. Masked Grassfinches, Cordon Bleus, 
Grey Singingfinches, Euficaudas and Bronze -wing Mannikins 
are building; Firefinches have eggs. A second pair of 
Jacarini Finches are nesting on the ground. 

In Dr. Scott's Aviaries at Wallington during a recent 
visit we noticed nests of Cuba, Euficauda and Gouldian Finches, 
Zebra Waxbills. and Grey- winged Ouzels. 

In Dr. Thwaites' aviaries at Brighton Goldfinches, 
Zebra Finches, Diamond Doves and Java Sparrows are incu- 
bating—one young Diamond Dove being already on the wing. 

In Dr. L. Lovell-Keays' newly erected aviaries, con- 
taining a good assortment of Grassfinches, Waxbills, Buntings, 
Parrakeets, etc., some are already nesting, some incubating, 
including Gouldian and Euficauda Finches. In the Parrakeet 
aviary, pairs, or supposed pairs, of Tovi and All Green Parra- 
keets have cross -mated. 

In Mr. Haggle's aviary, at Oxford, which we recently 
had an opportunity of visiting, young Zebra Finches are "on 
the wing, and Gouldian and Lavender Finches, and Cordon 
Bleus are incubating. 

In Mr. Suggitt's aviaries many of the "Freely Im- 
ported Species " are nesting, some young on the wing. Grey 
Finches XSpermophila grisea) are building; Eed Ground Doves 
have two young on the wing, and two more are being fed in 
the nest; Grey -winged Ouzels have two fine young birds 
on the wing, and are incubating again. A cock Indigo and 
a hen Nonpareil Bunting have cross-mated and are busy con- 
structing a iiest. 

In Eev. G. H. Eaynor's newly erected aviaries, young 
Budgerigars are on the wing, Mealy Eosellas are incubating. 
In the Finch aviary are building or nesting; Eibbon and 
Zebra Finches have young. 

In Mr. De Quincey's aviaries at Chiselhurst, we 
recently saw several nests, Euficauda and Long- tailed Grass- 
finches, Gouldian Finches are also incubating; the Yellow - 
headed Gouldian Finch (9) is still living, and is expected to 
mate with a Eed-headed cock provided for it. The most in- 

Editorial. 189 

l.oresting happenings in aviiii'ie;s, are tae hatching out of 
a .brood of Silver -cared Mesias, wiiich unfortunately did not live 
to leave the nest, and the nesting of Blue -winged Sivas, which 
are now incubating a clutch of eggs, in an open cup-shaped 
nest built in a rhododendron bush. Last season hybrid Parson 
-j- Long-tailed Grasslinches were reared in these aviaries and 
this season one of the young hybrids (cT) has mated up with a 
Long -tailed (Jrassiinch, and a clutch of three eggs (dove- 
coloured) are being incubated, it will be interesting to know 
if the eggs are fertile. The Parson Finch is still faithful to 
his Long -tail wife and six eggs (white) are in process of 
incubation. i 

Many of our members have acquired rare Indian 
species, fi'om the two important consignments which have, 
recently been landed. Miss Clare and Mr. Bainbridge have 
Black-chinned Yuhinas, the latter gentleman also purchased 
Pigmy Woodpeckers, and Chestnut-bellied Nuthatches, but un- 
fortunately both the Woodpeckers, and chestnut-bellied JSTut- 
hatches only lived about three days. Yellow -backed Eed 
Sunbirds passed into the possession of Messrs. E.J. Brook, A- 
Ezra, P. Owen, and H. D. Astley, and other rarities went to 
other Imembers and well known aviculturists, but we must 
refer to these next month. 

On May 2Gth we had the pleasure of seeing' X>r. 
Amsler's new aviaries, at Eton, which are very practical. We 
noticed pairs of Blue -winged Sivas, Gold -fronted Fruitsuckers, 
American Robins, the latter incubating — also newly arrived 
pairs of Yellow -wing and Purple Sugarbirds, many varieties of 
Grasslinches, etc., either building or incubating, but we hope 
to describe the aviaries in a near issue; we also paid a flying! 
visit to Mr. Temple, at Datchet, whom we were fortunate 
enough to catch attending to the birds — he has many fine albino 
and pied specimens of British species, but the aviaries were 
only partially stocked for the season, and we shall refer to 
our Visit again. 

The Editor regrets that owing to pressure u[)on his time 
the usual notes and news cannot appear this month, and that 
several reviews must be held over. 

l90 British Bird Calendar. 

British Bird Calendar. 

Ills iinjtnUn irqm^^in] that Mnnhn:^ j)<,m all ronwl the nm.^f ,nU 
note the nuivcmenl^ of hlnh, u,;n' .^„r]nUti hi tlw Sontheni au,l lui.^trni 
Countiefi,un(l minhirh/ {2Sth <if ciirh imnitli) sn,,/ ii, /heir /„,/<■>>— OV this the 

ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend.— 


April 28— Oil this day one pair of our ruguLir visitors (Martins) reappeared 
and on 
„ 29 - the second pair turned up, l)ut it was not till 
]\Iay 9— that the third pair arrived. Now every morning I pass the three 
nests built by the above trio. Last year the first pair stayed with 
us till the end of October, the second and thnd pairs left for 
more hospitable climes about the middle of October. Martins 
seem far more plentiful than they were last year, at least two 
nests being occupied for the Hrst time for two or three years. 
9_I saw my first Swifts to day. 
24 — During a country walk saw and heard several Whitethroats, also 
young of Starlings, Hedge-Sparrows, and Yellow-Hammers. 

H. M., Luton, Beds. 
l_Pair of Greater Whitethroats, Hazeleigh. 

7 Redstart i cT ) at Hazeleigh ; another seen at Danbury on May 23rd. 

This species is always scarce here 
„ 18— Lesser White throat (a pair,) Hazeleigh . 

23 — Spotted Flycatcher at Hazeleigh, another single specimen seen on 
the 23rd. I suppose the cocks arrive before the hens, as in the 
case with Nightingales. It is so with many of our other 

migrants '? 

0. H. R., Hazeleigh, Essex, May 27, 1913 

— ■■ 

Reviews and Notices of New Books. 

Tfie Yeak Hook ok thk iMenackkik Ci.ii!, Edited t.y U. Tyrwhitt-Drake, 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 200 pages and many excellent photographic repro- 
ductions. 2/6 net, from the Hon. Sec. Cobtree Manor, Maidstone. 
This Year Book is well got up and contains much interesting matter 
regarding the keeping of animals in captivity and is the second Y'ear Book of 
Club. It contains the following articles frjm members : Prejvalysky's 
Horse; Notes on Monkeys ; White-tailed (inu ; Spotted Hyena; Owls in 
Captivity ; Badgers ; Bears ; Trail of the Pigmy Hippo; Some Foreign Birds 
in Captivity ; Park Sheep ; American Bison Bull ; Fossa ; Caracal ; Siberian 
Fox; Fat-tailed Sheep of Afghanistan; INIongoose; andReptilesin Captivity. 
Each article illustrated by one or more photographic reproductions of 
the living creature described, and is comprehensive and informative as to 
description etc., and how to keep. Tt is ,t, book which we cordially commend 
to every animal lover, whether as pets in captivity or at home in their native 

Books Received : Rkpout of the Zooi-ogical Society oe London ; The 
CoNDOK ; Animals Undek British Rule. 

Bool- Kofi CCS and Reviews. 191 

Oi!\irii(ti.(i(;i(\i, I?ki'(ii;t. I'.Hl': ITpju'ii!, 
Rev. AV. J. Constal.k'. 

ham Sri 

ool. X.S.S. P 


This report makes most iiik'restini,' i'( 
cate this will be to i-e])i'ii'.t tlic secretary^ (( 
a fi'W of tlio ol)S('rvati<.!i notes.- 

". A.lloi- 

t the hcst wa.\ 
1, Ks.|.).ivpoi-t 

to iml 
, an.lals 

"In many wavs this has 1)ch'ii a remarkable season, the nnnsual 
"warmth of the weather dniin^f March ami Ajn-il induced the majority of 
"the birds round U])pini/ham to commeneti their nesting operations from 
"a fortnight to :'> weeks earlier than usual, owing to which the number of 
"expeditions of the Ornithological Section were largely curtailed. It 
" seems that this year a change has taken i)lace, as regards the species of 
"birds that usually take up their sum-ner residence in the neighbourhood 
"of Uppingham. Bii-ds which have in former years been comparatively 
"rare, have this year sup|)lanted those which have always been reported 
"as common. This is es])ecially noticeable with regard to White throats. 
•■ \\\ I91II only one nest of the Lesser Whitethioat containing 5 eggs was 
"i'oun.l. This year se\eral birds have b-eii noticed, and their nests and 
"eggs found, though the Greater Whitethroat is still comparatively scarce, 
" There has also been an extraordinary decrease in the Swallows, not only 
" in Uppingham, it seems, but in most places in Enghand. But, on the 
"other hand, many more Nightingales have been heard this year than be 
" fore.- and Fjittle Owls have become so common that 2 or 3 nests have 
"been found on nearly every expedition, and an edict has been issued for 
" their destruction, as it is asscjtcd that they do a great deal of harm by 
" taking young phea.sants and ]),-utiidges, and to them is attributed the 
"marked decrease of small l)ii(ls in the environs of Uppingham. 

" On the whole the results of the expediti(mshave been profitable, and 
"some good nests have been found " 

" Little Owi. {Atlicne uortna) : nest and young, Stockerston, June 4th, C.A. 
H. ; nest, Seaton, H.W.J. ; nest, 4 young, ]\Iay 2(5th, beyond Glaston rail- 
way, T.R. ; nest and 5 eggs. Glaston Hollows. May 12th, A.G.X. ,- nest and 
young. Stoke Wood, T W.I).; 3 young, Stockerstoji, P.G.C. ; nest 1 young 
3 eggs, Wardley, H.N.T." 

"LONGTAILED TiT (Ar,Y.hf/^i nunhil,,] : seen, ]\[arch26th, Wardley, C.A.H.; 
nest, Maynth. (ilast< n, and dune 4th. Wakerley, TR.; nest, Glaston, May 
25th, A.G.N.; nest an.l e-gs. March 17th, Wardley, H.N.I." 

"Me.vdow Pii'ii- (.l//////'.s- /</((/r//.s;,s-) : nest and 6 eggs. Railway bank, INIay 
24th, C.A.H. ; nest and 4 eggs, liailway bank, May 19th, T.R. ; nest and 5 
eggs, Wakerley, P.Cx.C." 

^' Cnivvcnxvv rPln/Uimuipus I'ollnhitaj : seen, March 31st, C.A.H. ; nest, 6 
eggs, Fircroft, May 14th, H.W.J ; nest, 7 eggs. Railway, May 25th, T.R. '. 

"Garden iSi/h-ia horteusis): nest, 5 eggs, June ilth, T.R.; nest 4 
young, Redgate, F.E.M ; nest, 3 eggs, Highfield. P.G.C ; nest near Preston, 
2 eggs, C.B.; nest, 2 eggs, Bisbrooke, H.N.l." 

" Ni(iirilNGAi.E 'i)rn///a.s- /«.srv'///(/) : heard in all gardens and woods round 
Uppingham. Nest, Fairfield, W.J.C. " 

"Lesser Wiiitktiiiioat (Siih-'id r>n-ntn() : nest, 2 eggs. May 11th, Bisbrooke. 

192 Correspondence. 

C.A.H.; nest and 5 eg:srs, May 25th, r.histon, T.R.; nest and 4 eggs, May 

20th, Caldecott, A.G.N." 
"Willow Wren {Fhyllnncopits frnchlluH) : heard and seen, April 10th, C.A 

H.; nest and eggs, Brooklands, May 19th, T.R.; nest, 7 eggs, Glaston 

A.G.X.; nest, 4 eggs. Stoke Wood, T.AV.D ; nest and eggs, Gipsy Lane, 


The species are arranged alphaheticaly nnder headings : (a) Residents 
{h) Summer Visitors. ('•) Winter Visitors, and is entirely the work of boys^ 
the result eertaiiil.y speaks very eloquently of the careful training the pupils 
receive from the principal and his assistants. 


NESTING OF RUSTYCHEEKEDiBABBLER (Ponuitorhluiiser?/fh7-nffe)iyg), etc. 

Sir.- As promised. T am sending yon a photo of the Babblers' nest. It 
was built of sticks and stalks, and was almost as big as an English Wood 
Pigeon's. The eggs were white, two in number, and the size and shape of 
an English Starling's. 

The birds sat very steadily for eighteen days, when I decided to see if 
there were any results. To my disappointment the eggs contained dead 
chicks which should evidently have been hatched some days previously. The 
east winds at the time were probably the cause of the failure. 

The Babblers have again built, but, so far, no eggs have appeared. In 
the next aviary a large Black-faced Yellow Weaver (species unknown) has 
mated up with a Chrome Yellow Weaver hen {species also unknown"), and 
have hung a large nest from the aviary roof; the hen has lined this with 
feathers, and is now sitting on eggs. The Black-faced bird has since built 
another nest, but still drives all birds away from the nest in which the hen is 
sitting, even such large birds as Crested Doves ard Fieldfares. As the cock 
Weaver is larger than the Rufous-necked, and the hen is only the size of the 
Grenadier, the chance of the eggs being fertile is T am afraid small. 

The onl}' other happening in my aviaries of any interest is the nesting 
of the Flame-shouldered Troupial, whose eggs were infertile. Hoping other 
members are meeting with better luck. WM. SHORE-BATLY. 

Westburv, Wilts . lO/.^iflP.. 


Sir. — With reference to your enquiries re the photos sent, the only 
notes I can send at present are as follows : — 

Olive Finch {Phmiipnra lepifla). The nest was built in growing wheat 
suspended more or less from the wheat stalks. The wheat at time of writing 
is quite two feet higher than when photo was taken, and the nest is completely 
hidden. The parents are feeding the young on small flies and seed, and the 
joung will soon be leaving the nest. 

Cuba Finch (Phouipara canora). The nest is built in Spruce Fir and 
is constucted entirely of goat's hair, and is a very warm and waterproof 
structure. A clutch of eggs is being incubated. 

Troupial. The Flame-shouldered Troupials nest Avas a very neat one, 
qonstructcd ofgrass and fibre and quite unlined. Four eggs were laid but all 



Co)-rcspo)}(lnire. lOH 

were infertile. Tliey .\vv MLr.iin nest in;,', witli, I Ikiiic, hcttcr results. 

riulian Larks {AhuNia ,j„l,n,ln . an.l Kastmi Vai-ici,Mtr<l«, 
Thruslies (Tn>,-Jml„pt,'rn,„ nn-),;,ni nw ! ai'e also ncstiiiir. T will s(^ti.l results 


Sir. T senil y^^w llic rolldwiiiL; news U^v what it is woi-tli. I have two 
yonnpr TraiU's foiii- or li\i' (lays <>hl, a cross oetweeii a Sarns cock and a 
Jai)anese Wliite-na]UMl Inn. \ pair of Occipital Bine l^ies are huildint,', and 
a i)air of Pni-ple Snnliiids are shajjini^ to i)nild. 

floddani Castle. 2i )/.">/ 1 :'>. Iv .T. BROOK. 

Sir. — So far as T know the above cross has not been recorded before 
in fact the male i)arent is of a species that seems to be little known. I 
boujrht the bird of an Ivlinbnr^h dealer as a " Red-headed " Finch. It is 
certainly not that, and 1 rely for- my ideiitifieaiion on Dr. Butler's book. I 
think there is no doubt about the bird's species, as the markings and colour 
ai-rangement agree in every respect. 

The single offspring closely resembles the male parent in its shape and 
<iuick jerky movements ; the mai-kings are the same and the colour arrange- 
ment also. There is this ^.xception in the latter case, however, viz.— that the 
dark crimson of the male is replaced in the offspring by the yellow of the 
female parent. The canary-yellow also shows faintly through the dark 
markings of the breast. 

Curiously enough, T knew nothing of what was going on until the 
youngster had oeen flying aljout for some time. There are two hen Can- 
aries in the aviary, and one of them paired with a Twite and brought up two 
nests of Twite x Canary Hybrids. I am forced to the conclusion that the 
Blood-stained Finch impregnated one egg of one of the clutches, the remain- 
der of the broods being undoubted Twite X Canary Hybrids. I suppose 
there is nothing impossible in the idea, though such an occurrence must be 
very rare, and I am almost certain the other Canary never went to nest. I 
could hardly have failed to notice it if she had, and T am waiting with inter- 
est to see what happens this spring. 

Do yon. or any of your rcadeis know of a similar case. 
Tnveresk, Midlothian. INF. R. TOMLTNSOX. 

Sir, —It may interest members of this society to knowthat the Foreign 
Bird Exhibitors League has undertaken to guarantee 28 classes for foreign 
birds at the next London Cage Bird Association's Show to be held on Nov. 
27, 28, 29. The classification is as follows : — 

1 All species of Cockatoos and Macaws. 

2 Grey Parrots and Amazons (i.e., all species Chrysotis). 

3 All species Lovebirds, Passerine, Lineolated, All Green, Canary-wing- 
ed, White-winged, Orange-fronted. Tovi, Golden-fronted, and Tni Parrakeets. 

4 All other species Parrots, including Eclecti. 

5 Green Budgerigars. 

194 Correspondence. 

6 All species Rinijnecks, iiieludinu' Alexandrine, Rin<f-necked, Blossoni- 
Titaded, Rose-headed, Slate-headed, Malahar, Derbyan, Moustache, Javan, 
Nicobar, St. Lucien Parrakeets, etc., common Red Rosellas, Redrumits. 
Quakers, and Cockatiels. 

7 Lories, Lorikeets, and Hanging Parrrots iLnricitJii). 

8 All other species Parrakeets. 

9 Yellow Budgerigars, White Java Sparrows, Bengalese, and White 
Java Doves. 

10 Common Mannikins, including Black-headed, White-headed, Tri- 
coloured, Magpie, Bronze, Spice, Striated, Sha7-p-tailed, Biljfinches, Grey Java 
Sparrows, and Common Combassous. 

1 1 All species Weavers, Whydahs, and Long-tailed Combassous. 

12 Common Ribbon Finches, Zebra and Saffron Finches and Silverbills. 

13 Gouldians, Fire-tailed, Painted, Crimson, Rufous Grassfinches, Parrot 
Finches, Pintailed Nonpariels, Common Nonpariel, and Rainbows Buntings. 

14 All other species Grassfinches including Masked, Long-tailed, White- 
eared, Ringed, Bicheno, Diamond, Parson, Cherry, Quail, and Red-headed 
Finches ; Rhodesian Cutthroats, Pectoral, Yellow-rumped, Chestnut-breasted 
and Rufous-backed Mannikins. 

15 Common African Fire Finches, Cordon Bleus, Zebra Waxbills, and 
Lavender Finches. 

16 Common and Green Avadavats, St. Helena, Grey and Orange-cheeked 

17 AH other species Waxbills. 

18 All species Cardinals. 

19 All species Serins, Wild Canaries, and Siskin, including Alario, Grey 
and Green Singing Finches, Sulphur and St. Helena Seedeaters, etc. 

20 All other species True Fniches, Sparrows, Buntings, Grosbeaks, etc., 
not otherwise mentioned. 

21 All species Doves, Quails. Partridges, and Rails. 

22 All species Sugar and Suiibirds, Flowerpeckers, Quits, Honeyeaters, 
Zosterops, and Fruitsuckers. 

23 Scarlet, Blue. Black, Maroon, Silver-blue, Violet, Olive, Palm, 
Superb, Archbishop, and Tricolored Tanagers. 

24 All other species Tanagers. 

25 All species of True Bull>nls {l'//r„n/i,>fi,ln), Pckin and Bhu; Robins, 
Dayal Birds, and Shamas. 

20 All species Crows, Mynahs, Starlings. Hangnosts, Tronjjials, Cow 
Birds, Cassiques, and Marsh Birds. 

27 Pied, Albino, Lutino, Melanistic, or other abnormally coloured birds, 
Blue Budgerigars and Foreign Bird Hybrids. 

28 All other species not previously mentioned, including Birds of Para- 
dise, Manucodes, Touracos, Toucans, Trogons, Tyrants. Shirkes, Flycatchers 
Woodpeckers, Kingfishers, Barbets, Pittas and Thrush-like Birds, etc. 

It will be seen that there is every opportunity for keepers of common 
as well as rare birds to compete upon fair grounds. Only 402 entries are re- 
(juired to make a complete success of the experiment and I therefore take 
the liliertv of asking members of the Foreign Bird Club to endeavour to make 
it, ])(issibli; to hold a really good show of foreign birds by sending as many 
entries as they possildy can. ALLEN SILVER. " 


H.GoodcKad del. HaLi Litlf londoa. 

ME LB A FINCH (Pytelia. melt a,) 
RED FACED FINCH (P^rteKa. a.-fra,) 

All 7ii(/hfs RrsrrvcJ. July, 1913. 




Three Pyteliae 

By T. Paoe. F.Z.S., Etc. 

So far as I know, noii(> of this l)('autiful j^'omis have 
been bred in Great Rritaiii. It is an African g-oDus. Init the 
only species I propose rofcM'riny to in those notes are: 

The Melba Finch (Pyfrlia melha). 

The Eed -faced Finch (P. afra). 

The Crimson -winged Finch (P. phonenicopfera). 

With Mr. Goodcliild's beautiful drawing as our frontis- 
piece, but little in the way of eulogy will be needed, and 
most bird -lovers, evon if they have not kept them, have made 
their acquaintance on the show bench. 

Melba Finch (Pi/trlia fZonogastrisJ melha). Well as 
■this beautiful species is known not a great deal has been 
written about it, and unfortunately the claims upon my time 
at this juncture, do not permit of any systematic research or 

Captain Shelley states that it fi-ef|uents low Mimosa 
bushes, mostly in pairs. 

Mr, Anderson ("Birds of Damara Land") writes: "This 
"Finch is found sj^aringly in Damara and Great Namaqua 
"Land, and usually occurs in pairs; its favourite resort is 
" low bush and abandonerl village fences, whence the Damaras 
"call it the 'Kraal Bird,' Its food consists of seeds and 
" insects." 

Mr. Anderson calls it the Southern Red-faced Finch. 

M. Heuglin writes: .... "its summer and winter 
"dress hardly differ. Tt is always found singly or among 
"clumps of trees, in thick scrub and bushes, dry sandy districts 
"suit it better than other localities, and it leads a quiet and 
"retired life. We have not observed it at great elevations, 
"and just as little on the grassy levels; though it only flies 
"a few feet at most alwve the ground, it only descends to 

196 Three Tyfeliae. 

" the earth for a second, does not run much here and there 
"upor. it. It has an extremely ijentle disposition, is in no 
"respect timid, moreover its monotonous song is only occasion - 
"aily heard, at the commencement of the rainy f^eason, sound- 
" ing from the bare parts of the thorn bushes. T have been 
"able to learn nothing respecting its nesting habits." 

In response to my enquiry as to the pair of this species 
under his care while aviary attendant to Mr. Willford, Mr. 
J. Yealland sends me the following notes: — 

"The pair of Melba Finches Mr. Willford had, arrived 
"in the spring and were acclimatised Itirds. They wore turned 
" into a small aviary and they soon settled down to nest, 
"nesting in a rush nest, four white eggs were laid, but all 
"were 'infei'tile, we threw them out and another four were laid 
"that season, these also were infertile. No more were laid 
"that season and the birds were sold to Mr. Howe, of Wel- 
" linglwrough, but he lost the hen." 

" As regards their behaviour, they were the only pair 
" in the aviary, so I cannot say how they would treat other 
"birds. In my outdoor aviary here at Binstead, they are 
" inclined to be a bit quarrelsome. There are about 70 birds 
"in the aviary including, Tanagers, Serins, Grassfinches and 
"'Mannikins. The Melbas boss the lot at the seed tray; but 
" I have not seen them actually chase the other birds about 
"the aviary. They sit on the branches and sing a sort of 
"warble. During 'the past twelve months I have had 28 
" Melba Finches, but unfortunately very few hens come over. 
" I find them easy to establish, eating a lot of Indian millet 
"at first, and I have found it necessary to keep a large pot 
"of this in their cage, tliey also eat canary and white millet, 
"and are fond of chewing a mealworm. Are there two species 
"of these? I have one quite different from the others, much 
"darker in colour, and spangled differently: it is the only one 
' I have had like it." [Apparently a Red-faced Finoh (P. 
wfra) — Ed]. 

I have observed this species many times in the aviary 
and have found them somewhat lethargic, not anything like 
so vivacious as the Aurora Finch for instance; still, they 
arenot really dull birds and their great beauty, coupled with the 
difficulty of getting them, cause them to be much sought after, 

Three ri/feJiae. 197 

T must qualify tli«^ alvovo 1>\- sl.itin^- fliaf fliiTf Iiavo boon a 
fair supply on tlio inarkct (Imiii','- flic past fwchc inonflis, but 
juices have ruled lnc:h. 

A description is not r-allod foi- with sufli a frontispiece 
to i-efer'to, save to sfafc that tlio romalc is diillor, A\-ith tlio 
scarlet of the head ie|ila<(vl wilh asliy iri-cy; tliroat pale asliy 
indistinetly harrcd ■\\i1li wliito: no yellow on tlie foi'e-neck and 
lu-east. and the scalinys or liaii'iny's of the undersurfacc less 
distinct. The studies for our plate were made from Mr. 
Howe's specini'^n when (>.\hihito(l at the L.C.B.A. Horticul- 
tural Hall Show. 

Rkd-fac'ed FiNcn (Pi/feh'a afra). The distinctions be- 
tween the two species are clearly shown on the plate, and 
aq-ain description is uncalled for. it Avill suffice to say that the 
female difTei\s from the male in beinff duller coloured and 
havini,' no red on the forehead, face, and throat. 

Even less appears to be recorded about this species 
than the preceding- one. 

The late Herr Wiener possessed four of this species, 
but although they made themselves at home in his aviaries, 
constructing a slovenly kind of nest ' in a box, in which they 
sat for hours during the day, there was no result. They were 
fed on millet and canary seed and millet in the ear. They 
were amiable and lived for years quietly with 'Bicheno's 

There is little doubt Imt that the nesting economy and 
general characteristics of this species w^ould be similar to 
r. meJha\ as also should be theii' treatment in cage or aviary. 

Our illustration is from a skin in the Natural History 

HaHfal: " Loango Coast into Benguela, E. Africa from 
" Nyassaland to Southern Abyssinia," "Shelley's Birds of 

I have left questions of nomenclature and synonyms 
severely alone as the time at my disposal did not permit) 
my going into the matter, thoi-oughly, but I may return to 
the subject in a future issue. 

TuK ritTMSox-wixoKD Fix<ir (Pj/teh'a phoenicoptcra) . 

This "beautiful and somewhat uncommon though well 

198 ' Three PyfeUae. 

known bii-d is more generally spoken of as the Aurora 
Finch. It is a native of Africa, and has (luite an extensive 
range over Senegambia, tlie Upper Nile region, and Equatorial 

Plumage: The general body-colour is bluish-grey, paler 
and whiter on the under parts, and washerl with vinous brown 
on the upper parts; lower back and upj-er tail coverts,. 
rich crimson; lesser wing coverts, red; median and greater 
coverts, brownish-grey edged with red; flights, brown 
partially edged with dull red ; central tail feathers 
rich crimson, with the outer ones blackish edged witli crimson.* 
The whole of the under surface is regularly barred or scaled 
with greyish -white (in some specimens the white is almost 
pure on the abdomen and vent). The barrings vary a good 
deal in individual specimens, as also does the amount of white 
on the lower surface: some bodies that hav(> l>een sent to 
me for identification at various times, have l)een scaled almost 
as regularly and distinctly as a Spice Finch, while in others 
the barrings are only to be discerned when the bird is still 
and fairly close to the observer, and the white of tlie abdomen 
and under tail coverts is replaced by a bufiish-grey, scarcely 
lighter than the other portion of the lower surface; these 
variations have also been present in specimens that have in- 
habited my aviaries at various times. Beak, black; legs and 
feet, light brown; iris, red. Total length, 4^7 to 4i; inches. 

Adult female: Slightly smaller in size, more ashen in 
colour, the red portions of the plumage are duller, and the 
barrings less distinctly defined; also her beak is narrower at 
the base than that of the male, but unless the birds are tame 
enough to permit of comparison in the hand, this is very diffi- 
cult to determine; at the same time the difference is readily 
noted when comparing sexed skins. P. phmiicoptera is the 
type of the genus, which the late Dr. A. C. Stark gives as 
follows; "Bill slender, cone shaped and lengthened; culmen 
"swollen and slightly arched. Nostrils hidden by nasal plumes. 
"Wings rounded, the distance between the tips of the primaries 
" and the tips of the secondaries less than the le.igth of t" e tarsus; 
"the first quill very small. Tail short, graduated. Tarsi 

*Most of the feathers of the upper s^urfage hiiVQ their tips edged with 
either dull red, or ruddy brown, 

" scutollated a 





1 V(> 


" includes 







" bushes 



■rl\ V' 





" sonicwli; 

it nil 






(1 , 

"their h; 








" been ob 

s('r\ I 


build ( 



1 IK 


"aiitl lav 


■;• ( 

>v loiii' 



Ic e 


Tlircc Pi/teliae. 199 

niiill. The genus Pytcliu, 
• liiii'lies. They frequent 
)ii the ground,* have a 
■(■ yentle and conliding in 
whose nesting habits have 
)!' dry grass in bushes, 
I procured a pair of 
these birds in the early suniiuer of IDOCi (having only previ- 
ously possess/d two odd mules), and this article except the 
last paragraph, i-el'crs mostly to this pair; on arrival I found 
them in ralh.'r poor paimagr, Iml, api)arently healthy. They 
were put into owe of my outdoor llights, and in about a month 
were in line condttioii. They at once settled down to nesting 
and built in a ilartz-cage at the top of the flight, which was 
wi'U screened with twigy branches, and were sitting hard, 
wheu by an uiifortunate oversight on my part they escaped 
owing to being cabed away suddenly 1 leit a small flap open, 
and these birds and their companions (six pairs of uncommon 
birds), at once found their liberty in the garden; one pair 
and tAvo odd birds were recaptured, but unfortunately the 
Auroras were not. 

To my mind l/i. lUiss did not exaggerate when he 
described the Aurora- A slrild as one of the most exquisite 
of the Oi'iiamciital Finches. To ,-ee it in the aviary, flitting 
about in the sunlight, and making play to its mate, is certainly 
a sight to be remembered, and 1 do not wonder at his speak- 
ing of it as ravishing; it certainly cannot be fitly described 
in a few tame words. As the male bird makes his play, the 
glancing light bedecks his chaste and lovely garment as 
with jewels. Tlu; love dance itself is both entertaining and 
interesting, as with excited curtseys he hops round the female 
with his tail spread, and erected almost perpendicularly. This 
co/ntmues for some little time, when the female begins to mince 
on her toes, the male's movements become similar, and they 
thus gradually come together a's though drawn magnetically. 
While the lov^e sport goes on, both birds utter a monoton- 
ous but not unpleasant " tsit, tsit." The male's short song is 

*They are strictly arboreal as iiihabit.aiits of the aviary, only stopping 
on the giomid for feeding piu'poses. 

jThis is also their demeanour in the aviary. 

200 Three Pyteliae. 

merely one or two single, and rather mellow flute like sounds. 
Dr. Euss succeeded in breeding these charming birds; 
four eggs were laid and incubation lasted twelve days. Nest- 
ling plumage dull blackish blue -grey, barred on the under 
surface; shoulders, margins of wings, and tail, dull red; beak, 
horn grey; legs blackish. The change to adult plumage is a 
slow and gradual one. While Dr. C. S. Simpson considers 
this bird harmless but uninteresting, the late Erskine AUon 
{Avic. Mag., Ser. 1, Vol. III., page 125), eulogises it as 
follows: "This is my favourite bird and I always keep four 
"or live pairs at least. Confidirig, good-natured, and never 
" ill when once acclimatised, I know no species that nests so 
"readily, so successfully, arid with such regularity. The( 
"pairs generally use coco-riut shells for nesting-boxes, placed 
"side by side, and they are absolutely fearless. I have known 
"a hen continue sitting wiiile the top of the nesting box was 
"being scraped.'' I cannot trace that Mr. AUon ever pub- 
lished any account of young birds actually reared, though the 
above implies this; most aviculturists get no farther than 
eggs. While perhaps not going quite so far as Mr. Allon they 
are certainly most handsome and entertaining birds, and 'should 
be in every collection of Waxbills and Finches. As regards 
diet, my bii'ds bad access to ripe fruit, my usual soft food 
mix;ture, sponge cake, canary, white and spray millet, and they 
took a little of each; were very eager for an occasional meal- 
worm, and nearly went wild with delight over a blighty spray 
of rose foliage. They took a very thorough daily bath. They 
settle down fairly quickly, and soon recognise the one who 
supplies their needs, and if they do not often actually come 
and take an insect from the band, they will soon take a meal- 
worm six inches from your feet when cast on the ground. I 
may be a faddist, but finding they seldom or never picked 
at the cuttlefish, I always kept a supply of the same coarsely 
crushed; this sprinkled on the sand appeared to help them 
considerably in getting through the moult. They were about 
half way through this when they came into my possession. 
They are sun -loving creatures, and only seek shelter for a 
brief space about midday. 

I may say in conclusion that they were kept in my 
greenhouse bird room, in an enclosure 5 feet by 2\ feet by 

Mil hnfian Consifjnmcnt. 201 

7MiH'i lii,-ii. I iiiid llieso ciic-losurcs answer well, Imt I should 
say tlu\v li;i\-.' \vi);' It'll ccilinij^s six inches I)eluw tiie ylass. 

Dui'iiig 1 !M 2 a |aii-, kindly presented to me by Dr. 
llopkinsoii, nested in my ont-door aviary at Mitcham. The 
nest was a Imlky, niitiily, yet substantial dome-sliapcd struc- 
tui'e, with a smalli>li hole at the side, fixed in the foi'l<,' of a 
lar-' elder liiisli al a heiylit of 11 feet alxjve tlie gj'ouiid. 
Three yonny l)irds were duly hatched ont and (lew, but 1 ^\•as 
away from home at the time and cannot say if they lived 
long enouyli to fend for themselves, as they disappeared and the 
parents also died during October. 

The plumay.' of the above nestlings was dark bluish- 
grey with somewhat indistinct barrings on the under surface 
of body. 

My Indian Consignment, 

By JMajok G. A. Pebreau, ^\Z.S. 
{Continued from page 168). 

I find on looking through my list that with the excep- 
tion of fairly commonly imported birds and those that have 
been or will ])e mentioned, in " J3irds about the Station " 
there is little left to say about the birds themselves. 1 
am told an account of the actual collecting will be acceptable 
to our members. Whatever the account may be, I am sure 
that the actual experience would prove so entrancing that he 
would not be satisfied with a single experience, always pro- 
vided he did not mind really hard work, and that he did not 
expect to make the expedition pay. Also, he must be pre- 
pared for numberless worries and disappointments. I should 
have a great admiration for the man who foresaw and took 
precautions against half the worries he would get but I should 
still more envy his luck if half his precautions proved effect- 
ive. Perhaps my " halves " are rather exaggerations as 
naturally unforeseen accidents and disobeyed orders, which may 
mean so very much, are apt to assume undue proportions and 
the hundred and one things which have gone all right are taken 
as a matter of course. 

There really ought to be two to make a good collec- 
tion, as one should remain at headquarters to look after birds 

202 My Indian Consignment. 

already captured. There may be little or no trapping to be 
done, close to headquarters and then one has to trust to luck 
as to what may be brought in and thus loses the most interest- 
ing part of collecting, viz.: the actual trapping. This is the 
reason that as a rule hens are far harder to get at home than 
cocks, even with birds that are fairly well known. In many 
cases the trappers do not know the hens, though frequently 
they will not acknowledge this, and one gets the most ill as- 
sorted birds brought in as a pair, — for some strange reason the 
Sahib wants pairs, and who are we to disappoint him? One 
day a Crow -Tit was brought in as the hen of a "White-headed 
Shrike -Babbler, in spite of the difference in beaks, and the 
former had made its beak noticed. The next day a Eusty- 
cheeked and Slaty-headed Scimitar Babbler were said to be a 
pair. Some m^n are not quite so bad; and at any rate I have 
found the natives better at trapping than at looking after 
their captures, and so I had to forego trapping to a large 
ex^'^nt, and had usually reason to regret it when I did indulge 
myself. This applies chiefly to my Darjeeling trip. My 
bungalow at Bakloh makes an ideal headquarters as trapping 
is good quite close. I seem to be getting on a bit too fast. 
What I wanted to lay stress on was the advisability of collect- 
ing with a companion if possible, though for an attempt like 
this I must confess that it would not be easy for anyone to 
find a really suitable companion, hastily adding that of course 
married couples count as one and cannot be separated at any 
rate in wild and solitary places. AVhen found th.e fortunate 
two would have a most decided advantage over the sinigle 
collector, expenses would not be anything like doubled, results 
would be much more than doubled, and the worries (bar rows) 
would be more than halved. In fact even if the componpnt 
parts were not ideally suitable a combination is strongly to 
be recommended. 

Even in a small amateur venture like mine, where the 
object was to get a varied collection of rarities home, with 
the smallest percentage of deaths possible, it is astonishing 
how much there is of organization and arrangement herefnafter 
to be called "bundobust" (both "us" as in gun more cor- 
rectly spelt with "as" instead of "us"). 

First there is the caging and all that apertains thereto, 

Mjl ]ii(fi(in ('()ii!ii()>nitcnt . 203 

a most, iiiipoi'laiit liraiicli. iiicalinijr olV, what I iiii|,'-|il call stock. 
and travelling cages aii rc(|niio a gix'at iical 'oT tliiiikiiit;- imi, 
especially if one has to pay a good deal of altciifion to culling 
down expenses, luiviiig due regard to eilicieiicy. 'J'lu; birds 
must have sunieicnt i-ooni, yet freightage has to be considered, 
very much so. Tinie spent in one's leisure moments (not 
many nowadays) (.n devising and carrying out little labour- 
saving jims brings its rewai'd later, especially on board shij), 
where one has !(■ do eA'crything oneself. Even one's hirctl men 
appreciate such tilings, when they once have got the hang of 
them. In my travelling cages fo)- small insectivorous birds, 
which have to be carried in separate compartments, ihere ai'e 
six compartments in a row ; to save labour one tin is made 
to serve two compartments. On a journey one cannot be 
always opening doors to put in food and water. A two -inch 
bar of wood runs all along the bottom part of the front of 
the cage, leaving a half -inch gap for trays. In these Cood- 
bars as I call them, arc cut five holes to take the tins, four 
by one and a quarter inches, placed so that each of the six 
compai'tments has half a tin. Each tin has a strip of tin sol- 
dered across the middle, this reaches neither to the top nor 
to the bottom, and does not interfere with cleaning, but does 
stop birds going into another compartment. The outer com- 
partments have smaller holes; two by one and a quarter. 
towards the outer ends. The compartment divisions are of 
wood for two and a half inches from the bottom, leaving a 
half -inch gap necessary for the trays, which for this cage 
run three to a row and are all interchangaable. In these 
division -bars at the front end are cut holes to take the tins, 
which are a trifle und(,'r two and a half inches wide. Along 
these bars through staples or better still between right angle 
screws (men^tioned later) runs a bit of punched Ijar " front " 
one inch wide. The bottom wire is prolonged to go through 
a groove in the food bar and turned up into a convenient 
sort of little handle just in front of the bottom of the food 
itin. When the tin is pulled out, this prevents birds going 
mto other compartments; short strips of punch bar soldered 
at right angles to the slide so as to rest just behind the tin 
prevent the birds getting out. I fear this is not very clear 
and may seem difficult to make, but in these days of punched 

204 My Indio/n Consignment. 

bars and easy soldering it really is better to make, at any 
rate the patterns, one.self, and these slides are very easy if 
a fair number are made at the same time. I hardly fancy it 
would be of general interest, as it is I think I have gone 
into detail too much, or I should be only too glad to go into 
full detail with rough sketches and method of procedure. But 
to get on, the tins are held in place with right angle screws 
or simple turn-down wire. By this method I make seven tins 
do the work of twelve, no mean saving of labour, and my 
sliding jim saves me from anxiety as regards escapes. The 
small holes are covered by a bit of tin soldered to the angle 
screw. These tins provide food and water; for live food 
a small tin is hung inside between the other tins; into this, 
mealworms, etc., are shoved through the wire by means of 
small surgical forceps. The latter are invaluable, especially 
for those with female belongings, who are kind enough to take 
a hand, but who have no special love for mealworms and 
still less for the etceteras. 

The remainder of my fronts and partitions are of punched 
bar front. Each compartment has a small door and I am 
liberal with the punched bar, as coolies are very fond of 
trying (succeeding only in one's absence) to lift cages with 
their Angers through the wire near the side. I lost my dear 
old pair of Hanging Parrakeets in this way on the way down 
out of a cage made in England. This and another which were 
supposed to be made somewhat after an ancient pattern of 
mine were the chief worry on the way home. Weak wiring 
and huge doors opening all the way up accounted for several 
escapes. The catch would have allowed for several more 
had I not wired up the doors only opening them to give 
baths. The perches (made from an ancient jim of mine but 
spoilt out of recognition) came out only too easily but were 
the very mischief to put back till I i fixed them up. The 
trays (beautifully enamelled) stuck and the tins stuck, and 
nothing was interchangeable. The various catches only caught 
when they were not wanted to. Finally the perches were 
splintery and every bird in those cages became afllicted 
more or less with sore feet, the only cases I had. By closing 
up I managed to do without these cages, 'and I gave them"; 
to a steward, I ought really to have thrown them over- 

il/// hidiax ('oiiKi(jn)iient. 205 

boara. Nearly all (ii' we exclude those due to tin; misliap 
at Calais) of the casuulties l>olh (hiriii,i,'' the vuyayc and shortly 
after arrival oceuri'cd ainonyst liiids which had liccii in those 
cag-es, which is cuidoiis as tlicse birds were liy no means the 
must delieate. 

My own perches, two in number, run the wliole length 
of a row. I'he tronl one is al>oul le\el with the tins and 
about half an inch Irojn them. It is round y inch and passes. 
through \ inch holes in the right side and partitions; the 
left end whicii is tapered near the tip is jammed into and 
slightly through a 'juartei' inch hole at the left side of the cage. 
The back perch is a bit lai'ger, rectangular, witli tlie edges 
just rountletl uQ' and is jammed in the same way. Terches 
were frecjuently cleaned; to this and to frequent i)atiis f at- 
tribute my freedom from sore feet. I3ath cages to hang on 
the front were made to "nest" as were the baths themselves. 
1 only had eight but would have been glad of a few more, 
another half dozen would have taken up little more room. 

The wood frame of the cage is made of ■■ inch pine, 
except the side pieces which are | inch. This sounds heavy but 
ordinary cage wood will not stand the knocking about getting 
to the railway, even if it would stand the journey aftei'wards. 
Freight in India is charged by bulk, as indeed it is on the 
ship. Mail trains may refuse to take packages measuring 
over eight cubic feet. Rope handles are fitted near the top 
of each side piece, and they are highly appreciated by the 
coolie when he has been shown what they are there for, and 
after he has been shown firmly and perhaps even forcibly 
that it is not the right thing to carry cages on his head. 
I had light curtains in fi'ont but found that I preferred bird 
with nerves slightly on edge (and they soon get used to being 
stared at from a few inches olf) to cages being 
neatly piled up on their backs or fronts and tore olf these 
dangerous attachments. Since leaving them off, I have had no 
cages damaged by brute force. All my cages are made in 
pairs so that by putting them face to face, practically touching 
at night I can retire with an easy mind as regards cats and 
rats. I spent a good part of my second night on board first 
of all watching the efforts of a rat, and later those of one of 
the ship's cats, and came to the conclusion that there was 
nothing to fear from either of these pests. 

206 ^^y liiiJ^n Consignment. 

My cages take to pieces, being screwed together. When 
screwed, the fronts are lixed; I do not believe in talcing 
risks, and at any rate for a rail journey I fasten the doors 
with tine wire twisted tight with the jjliers, and the twisted 
part cut off fairly close. The wire partitions have a wire 
near each end slightly prolonged at the top to fit into two 
holes at the top of the cage, one wire near the middle is pro- 
longed and is bent a little outwards and then down into a 
longish narrow loop to go over a screw eye in the wood part 
of the partition on the side away from the slide. The wire 
part can be quickly put on or off wlien the perches and the 
tray have been removed. In my latest pattern the partition, 
when not in use, is kept at the back or side by means of 
similar holes and a screw eye. When I have mentioned that 
my tins have flanges at the side and that all parts are inter- 
changeable, J think there is little more to be said about the 
general idea of my travelling cage. P'or certain birds I may 
put a bit of punched bar front over the tray, but otherwise 
for insectivorous birds requiring separate compartments T am 
very well satisfied with it. I mentioned right-angled screws, 
and as I rliink it ({uite likely that the Editor will politely 
l)ut firmly intimate that cages are taboo for a bit, I had 
l)etter explain myself in this instalment and for this I make 
no apology, as many will find it useful, and though it may be 
stale, I lay claim to independent discovery. 

First catch your Nettlefold's patent pointed tinned iron 
sci'ew eye, an inch one can be manipulated, but a half-inch 
or even smaller is the easier and is as likely to prove useful. 
C.'rip the screw part firmly with a large pair of pliers in the 
left hand, then with a smaller pair gripping the metal inside 
n.early at right angles with the screw. The open end of the 
ring with a bold bend back till the near part of the ring is 
nearly at right angles with the screw. The open end of the 
ring can be seen fairly easily. With the large pliers bend 
out any kinks by putting the kink between the pliers and 
squeezing out the kink. Take care not to bend back too far 
as it takes a very slight bend back towards the original posi- 
tion to break the eye. The curled tip may be used as a sort 
of luuulle or it may be straightened out or cut off to taste. 
I like doors to my nest boxes, you probably do not but if 

you <lo .any of youi- 


IV i; 

ry \'n 

a use foe tli("s(> SI 



mil - 

cfTusioii a]K)u( a. sii 

•^h^ . 


, 1 f« 

Ml/ I>i(h'a» Co)>si(j)i))friif . 207 

Oiiii,-- T III ink you will find 
poll, -is.' lor Miis h'ngtliy 
niily ;i lew will he inter- 
ested lu it and tlioso I'ow w il I |.ri)li,ilily be til ink iii.i;- of an old pro- 
verb concerning egg^' and a ,i;ianny. T soniowhaf lonipor my 
apologj' by mentionin,^'- that 1 shall probaMy lot myself go 
on cages again if I gv't lln' change, cxcu-ing niys(df on the 
grounds that I hav(^ had it fhci-oii^iily 1 (irnc in on mo how 
very important good caging is in its i'D'rri on niorlality of 
foreign liii-ds. It i-i not the d.>aloi' or cxi)erionccd colloiMor 
that 1 lla^•o in my mind"s ryo, but rather the man with a 
friend in foreign ])aiis, whc' trii'-; t'l get home small con- 
signments by a ship's butclior. The .fi'iend probably does 
not know too mucfi about birds and the wretched butcher 
gets only an hour or two of pcidiaps not vory clear coaching, 
and he may consider himself lucky to get that, and what hap- 
pens as a rule is, a cat or a rat takes half the first night out 
or a lot get out through a door being h^ft open. The casual- 
ties are directly preventible by good caging. Other and even 
more deadly causes of casualties are soi-e feet and Various dis- 
eases brought on by dirt, and good caging has decidedly an 
indirecf effect of giving time to cloan up. vSuch consignments 
^vould be a lioon, but they can hardly lie looked on as suc- 
cesses as a rule at pi-esont. I am not trying to "get at" 
anyone. Many years ago 1 got out a consignment of hardy 
seed-eaters from home. I happened to look at the cage they 
came in just before my dej^arture from India, and I shuddered, 
and yet that dealer had done his best I know. Thaid<:s to the 
chief officer of the ship I really got a 'fair number. My 
first venture home with Indian birds was miserably 'caged, 
and I had kept birds all my life. P.y dint of real hard work 
I should not have done so badly but for want of live food. 
I was offering a penny apiece for cockroaches without suc- 
cess, but had I had more time I might have got just a few 
daily myself and saved a lew more birds, as I hadonly a small 
consignment. Not that I did so very badly then, but no one 
with other work to do could have landed any except perhaps 
some of the seed -eaters. 

I really must stop now% but caging is a subject I feel 
very strongly about, not altogether from the sentimental point 

208 Some InieresUng Birds. 

of view, because I know what a minute portion of the wastage 
in bird life is due to catching. I must take a grip of myself 
or I shall be off on another of my hobbies. I believe our 
harassed Editor will take most of this, unless it is too late, as 
he tells me he is rather short of copy this month or there 
are others who are also late. "We really treat our energ-etic 
Editor rather badly, and like a good many people who seem 
to like work he gets put upon. 

To he continued. 

Some Interesting Birds. 

By Wesley T. PaCxE, F.Z.8. Illustrated from Life, by 


Continued from page 165. 
SiLVEEY-CRowNED Fetar Btrds (PhUcmon (jrgenfieeps) : 
In April, 1908, Messrs. Payne and Wallace imported of the 
Australian Honey-eaters four of this species and one Dusky 
Mynah or Obscure Honey-eater. All of these came into my 
possession. These specimens I believe to be not merely 
the first imported, but the only specimens ever brought 
to Europe alive. The Friar Birds were first sent to the Zoo- 
one pair presented, and one pair on deposit— where they did 
well and two are still living; they soon improved in appear- 
ance, and throve on their diet of milk sop, banana, soft food 
and mealworms. This species is one of the least beautiful of 
the five species enumerated by Gould in his " Birds of Aus- 
tralia," viz.. The Common, Helmeted, Silvery-crowned, Yellow- 
throated, and Sordid; all of which he places in the genus 
Tropidorhynchus . 

"For the first knowledge of this species of Tnipidorhipichiix, science 
" is indebted to the late Mr. Bynoe, Surgeon of H.M. Surveying ship, 
" " Beagle," who, on my visiting Sydney, placed his specimens at my dis- 
" posal ; after my retnrn other examples were sent to me by Sir George 
"Grey. Bynoe's specimens were all obtained during the Survey of the 
" north-west coast, a portion of Australia, the natural productions of which 
" are but little known ; and Sir George Gre^y's during his expedition into 

" the interior, from the same coast Of its habits and economy 

" nothing is known ; but as it is very nearly allied to the Common Friar Bird 
" (T. coruiviilatuii), we may reasonably conclude that they are very similar. 
" Description : Crown of the head silver;y-grey ; the remainder of the head 

Bird Notes. 

ritntu from life b,/ 11. WiUurd. 

Silvery-crowned Friar- Bird, 

f^owr hitrrcf^f'mq Birds. 200 

" iiiiked, iuid of ;i l)l;i<-kisli liin"ri : lliroiit ami all tlio under surface white; 

"l)ack. win?, and tail hrowii ; liill and foet blackish hrown. Total length 

•■ W, inches : hill 1;! : wint,' ">,', ; tail \\: tarsi 1", (C uih/'x IVnuh of Aus^tralin 

••Vol. 1.)." 

A f;iirly oxtondod ;i('(!u;i iiif;mro with fhi'^ spooios, en- 
;il>h^s i)i(>, aftiM' i'(\uli)iir (louM's acooimt of th(^ Common Friar 
P.ifd, fl);ni which ho states fhci'o aia^ f(n\' hii'ds morn familiarly 
known i)i N-S. A^^■^los, U^ draw the conoliisioti that tho Iiabits 
and oro!iomy of lh(^ Silv(M-y rrownod and Common Friar Birds 
must lie vory similar. Oould duhs thom a remarkable g-enus, 
nnd T am assui'od that all who ci-ct an opportunity of viowin.g' 
those birds in tlio Wes;torn Aviary at the Zoo. will ag'ree with 
him: as T do affi>r havin.c: thom under observation in one of my 
bird-i-oom enclosures, and also in tho aviary. 

Vernacular names: The bare skin areas of the head and 
n'^ck have secured for the ^enus the names of " Friar Bird," 
"Monk," "Leather Head," Avhile yet another very appropriate 
one suggests itself to me, viz., Vulture -headed Honey-eater. 
As regards description, that given by Gould is quite 
accurate, save that I should describe the throat and under 
surface as hoary and not white. 

In a state of nature they frequent the tops of very 
lofty trees, their flight i-^ undu'ating and powerful; they are 
very agile among the branches and can assume almost any 
position with ease. 

" Its food consists of the pollen of the KHCiihn>li, insects, and wild fips 

" and herri(>s. {aovhV!^ Binh of A iiHfraVm, Vol. 1 .)." 

In the aviary its undulating and powerful flight, 
and clinging attitudes are both Tit- and Parrot-like, this strikes 
oiK^ at once: no position seems to come amiss to it, whether on 
tho upi^oi'oi' underside of perch or branch or clinging with ooo or 
both feet. The Friar-Bird shows to great advantage when 
catching moalwoimis on tho wing, the wonderful swallow-like 
flight is then soon to gi-oat advantage, as they rise and fall 
or wheel to and fro to catcli what has been tlirown up, and 
so adept are they, that it is quite an exception for them to 
miss their prey. 

The nest of the Si' verv -crowned does not yet appear to 
have been described or T have overlooked it, but that of the 
Oommcn Friar Gould describes as rudely constructed, cup- 
shaped and of large size; composed outwardly of string bark 

210 Some Iniercsting Birds. 

and wool, to which succeorls a layer of fme twig-s lined with 
grasses and fibrous roots, the whole l)eing- suspended to the 
horizontal 'branch of an apple- (AngopJiora) or gum-tree with- 
out the least regard to secrecy, frequently within a few feet 
of the ground. Eggs, usually thre(^ in number and of a pale 
salmon -colour, with zninute darker spots. Here, again, one 
appears to be fairly safe in assuming that the nest and eggs, 
etc., of the Silvery-crowned would be similar. 

In a state of nature Gould states they are almost gre- 
garious, the nests are so numerous and in such close proximity; 
though in the breeding season they become very animated and 
fierce, readily attacking Crows, Hawks, and Magpies that may 
venture near the nest ■. In the aviary the Silvery -crowned soon 
gave indications that the two pairs would soon have to be 
separated, and I have no he station in saying that it would not 
be possible to keep two adult pairs in the same enclosure in 

I am pleased to say that three of the quartet referred 
to are still alive, two of them (l)oth males) at the London 
Zoo can be regularly seen disporting themselves in the Western 
Aviary, where they delight visitors with their dexterity in 
catching insects on the wing, their beautiful flight and hand- 
some, if s:omewhat sombre, plumage. While a pair of them 
remained in my possession they proved most interesting and 
but for the breaking up of my aviaries in 1910, and the death 
of the hen, while fresh aviaries were going up, I think they would 
have bred, as they gave every indication of doing so. On one 
occasion the cock bird escaped while they were being trans- 
ferred from the birdroom to the outdoor aviary. It at once 
flew away to some distance and I gave it up for lost. It 
was out of sight for longish periods, though its weird and 
strange cries, sounding most un-English, were frequently re- 
peated with about ten to fifteen minutes silent intervals. I 
presume it must have attracted much attention and wonder. 
Fortunately for me, after six hours of liberty, it returned, 
and went into the greenhouse -birdroom, flew into its enclosure, 
the door of M'hich I had left open and quickly settled down 
on a perch, to my very great relief. Though the period of 
its liberty was a most anxious one for me — a commingling of 
much interest and anxietv— was softened in a measure by the 

Bird Xotp:s. 

Phnt<,frn,n life hij II. II V/Z/i/rJ. j 

The Superb Tanager. 

So'}ne tnlercstbif) Birds. 211 

periods (about luilf-hour) of observation I g^ot of it, dis- 
l)ortiiig itself amony the trees of my neiglibours' gardens. 
'I'll is species, though plainly clad, is very handsome 
and striking even in a siinall flight; but jsoeing it thus disporting 
itself at large among tiie tops of my neighbours' fruit trees, 
was the sight of a life-time — It was a bit of Australian wild 
lil'i' enacted in a London suburb — and will ever be green in 
my memory; it certainly was some compensation for the 
anxiety I endured while it was at large. Plain! its beauty 
was simply marvellous, and though it is a large bird its 
deportment was Tit -like, with a beautii'ul Swallow-like Uight. 
Its attitude was also very striking, as it stood on the topmost 
twigs of some high tree, with its head thrown well back, utter- 
ing its loud weird cries, which were answered by the female 
(her's being quite different) and to this fact I attribute its 
return. The cries were also uttered while it indulged in a 
sort of wheeling-flight around the tree tops. 

After losing the hen, I let Mr, Willford have the cock 
by way of exchange — after he had observed it and secured 
several photographs of it, he also parted with it, but I Delieve 
it is still fit and well, and a soui-ce of much injterestj in a 
Chiswick aviary at the present time. In one of Mr. Willford's 
rocmy flights its general demeanour, deportment, etc., was 
most interesting, while its flight was admired by all, though 
the quiet beauty of its plumage did not appeal to all. 

The Australian Honey -eaters are a large and variable 
group of birds, many of them with really brilliant plumage, 
varying in size from a Sparrow to that of a large Thl'ush. 
The Friar -Birds {Philemon) are but a small genus of a most 
interesting group of birds; they improve upon acquaintance, 
and given suitable accommodation, are a source of continuous 

From my experience of the Australian Honey -eaters I 
am convinced that nearly all the species would thrive on milk 
sop, soft food, soft ripe fruit and live insects, such as meal- 
worms, beetles, cockroaches, grasshoppers, etc. Their cage 
or enclosure should be a roomy one. 

The Supkrb Tanagkr {Calliste fastuosa). Tanagers 
are a group of birds, clad almost without exception in irides- 

212 Some Interesting Birds. 

cent, hues of gorgeous tropical colours, and their ijluraa<g<^ 
Mith a surface like silk or satin. 

Not the least beautiful, if one of the most freely im- 
poried and best known, is the subject of Mr. Willford's fine 
{l)hotograph. A ^photograph, however, can never do justice 
to a Tanager, for it is almost impossible to get good colour 
values, or to indicate fully even the beautiful Contrasts of 
light and shade in an unco loured plate. The photograph, how- 
ever, is so good that few would fail 'to recognise the bird, 
I think, even if it were placed before one without any title, 
that those who failed to recognise the species would declare 
it to be a Tanager. 

A Tanager is a fruit -eating Fmch, with a tooth at the 
,tip of the beak, hence Dr. Sclater's term of them-, dentirostral 
Finches; this tooth enables them to scoop out quite huge 
mou^thfuls of fruit, as every observer must have noted who 
has kept or had under study this magnificent group. 

The Superb Tanager well earns the title, gloriously 
coloured, which has been given it, and, though so frequently 
and regularly imported, very little of its wild life has been 
reported by scientific collectors. It is a native of Pernambuco. 
Description : Top of head, sides of face and neck glittering emerald 
green, with a golden sheen ; the upper back rich velvety bluish-black ; lower 
back rump and upper tail-coverts rich cadmium-yellow ; wings black, with 
purplish-blue margins ; least wing coverts (butts), emerald green ; lesser 
wing coverts deep blue, outer webs of secondaries margined with golden- 
orange ; the tail is black with the basal portion of the outer webs margined 
with purplish-blue ; chin and throat velvety black ; upper breast silvery 
lavender passing into violet, then merging into deep purplish-blue on the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; beak and legs black ; iris brown : Total 
length 51 inches. 

The female is similar to the male, but is slightly less brilliant. 

The Superb Tanager is well known to almost every 
bird -lover in this country — there are few bird shows at which 
he does not compete, and he makes such an ideal cage bird, 
that with the keepers of this group he may almost be called 
the common bird. He soon becomes familiar and comes to 
the front with cheerful chirp and Hick of tail, with an expres- 
sion, commonly interpreted as "What is it, fruit or meal- 
worms?" Very soon he learns to take mealworms from the 
hand and like the Fruitsuckers, has the habit of holding one in his 
beak, singing his song, flitting to and fro about the cage,^ 

SInmr hilorCf^finff Birds. 213 in Mio V(M\v height of l), ultimately swallowing 
it, and tlioii if ho gets others, repeating the performance 
again and again. He is very fond of a bath, and should have 
one daily, and in addition to mealworms get ripe fruit (hanana, 
oi-ange, soft apph', ]K>ar etc.), ,nid inseetil(> mixture — most 
Tanagers are i'oiid of milk-so]* and I lu'lieve it to Ijo good| 
for Miem, but they do well without it. The cage should be 
a. roomy one, as th(\v aic large eaters and get over fat, if the 
conditions, of their domieih' is not favoura)>Ic to exercise. 

The charm of the vSup(Mb is not contined to being kept 
in a cage, foi- if he be ideal there, he is glorious in a roomy 
out-door aviary, as lie (lies to and from the sun lighting up his 
glittering garment witii indescribable gorgeous beauty. Pro- 
viding the aviary has a suitable shelter they can be left out 
of door.s all the year round, and are so kept in many aviaries 
in the neighbourhood of London. 

In a state of nature Tanagers frequent the tops of tall 
trees, but descend to feed upon ripe fruit and also to nest. 
The nests of CaJUsle are open cup -shaped structures, but 
very few of them ai^pear to have been described. According^ 
to W. A. Forbes, this species is peculiar to Pernambuco and 
he writes concerning it: 

" It is a species often seen, too, alive in the Zoological (lardens of 
" Europe, though no naturalist seems to have yet met with it in a wild 
" state. It does not appear to be common in Pernambuco, at least I only 
" met with it twice : once near Macua, were I shot a female out of some 
" bush capocira, and again at Quipapa, where I saw what I believed was 
" this species in the virgin forest. The bird, however, was perched at a 
" great height from the ground on the topmost branch of a large tree, and 
"only the brilliant orange of the rump was visible. Whilst staying at 
" Cabo a freshly-shot adult of this bird was brought to me to skin." 

Before closing this somewhat verbose account I had 
better remark that I do not consider too many species o,f! 
Tanagers should be kept together in one aviary, but, in any 
aviary which provides a roomy flight and an almost equally 
roomy shelter, several (three or four) pairs of different species 
could be kept along with seed -eaters, and other insectivoi'ous 
or frugivorous species. Under such conditions they form a 
spectacle of which the eye never wearies. 

{To he Continueit). 


Giwnf Nigerian x Yclhw Transi'nnl Weavprs. 

The Breeding of the Giant Nigerian Yellow 
and Transvaal Weavers. 

By W. Siioee-Baily. 

The most intei'esting event in my aviaries, so far this 
seatcn, is the successful rearing of two young hybrid Weavers. 
The icock came from Nigeria and is aboui; the size of an English 
Thrush. The general body colour is deep yellow; the back 
and wings greenish yellow; barred with a slightly .-deeper 
colour; front of the face dusky; iris of eye white. The hen 
came from the Transvaal, and is the size of a Saffron Finch, 
and very much resembles the cock Saffron Finch in colour. 
Neither bird has had any seasonal change of colour since I have 
had them. The nest, of considerable size, was hung from 

the roof of the aviary, and 
was Tiuilt by the cock, 
pampas grass being the 
material used, into which 
he wove small sprigs 
l)lucked from the various 
conifers growing in the 
aviary. The hen lined the 
nest with feathers, and on 
examining it when the 
young had flown, I found 
it perfectly clean and un- 
soiled. Two eggs were 
laid, white, spotted and 
blotched with purple; the 
markings being principally 
at the larger end. In- 
cubation lasted ten days, 
and the young were in the 
nest twenty -one days. For 
the first ten days the hen 


_'vs were 

ph„t., hii ir. .s7, 

Nest in which H.vlirid We;i' 

alone fed the young, principally upon what flies she could catch 
supplemented with the mealworms I supplied, which she would 
break up. During this period the cock kept vigilant watch 
over the nest, driving away such large birds as Crested Doves 
and Fieldfares. During his spare moments he suspended three 

Early Eviso^rs 0/ 1913. 215 

more nosts from tho aviary roof. Aftei- ten days, tlio cock 
lH>gan to feed his progeny with mealworms, the 'heads of 
which he first bit off. As there were a groat many other 
liirds in the aviary who also appreciated mealworms, it was 
impossible to leave a sufficient supply for the Weavers, so 
I had to arrange to feed them every two or three hours, which 
T did by throwing the mr'alworms to them' one at a time. It 
was astonishing how quickly they learnt to snap them up, 
liofore the other l)ii'(l ; rould got tliom; the cock, especially, 
often catching th(>m in the air. This system of feeding also 
had the effect of making the parents exceedingly tame and 
I think that this always tends to success in rearing. The young 
birds are considerably larger than their mother, and are about 
the colour of a grey Singing Finch. If they do well and 
survive the winter, I hope to be able to report the colour 
change in due season. The hen is again sitting on two eggs 
which are due to hatch on July 8th. 

Early Episodes of 1913. 

By Hkrrert Butght. 

At the Editor's reiiuost I am penning tliese notes and 
trust l^hey may be of some little intere4, to "B.N." readers. 
r am only a comparatively recent adherent to the fascinating 
hobby of Foreign Bird Keeping, and at present the Australian 
Finches are of intense interest to me. 

I have two out-door aviaries, one 33 feet liy 16, the 
other 35 feet x 18, both are from 8 to feet high (photo 
reproductions appeared in last Vol. of "B.N."). Tlie smaller 
aviary has an extra shelter shed, 20 feet x 8, to which the birds 
have continuous access, this shelter is well lighted, but entirely 
covered in, except tlie top jiart of one end, which communi- 
cates with the fliglit. Wo\\\ Tights have plenty of cover, 
lieing planted with trees and siirubs; the flights are fitted with 
movable glazed windows for protection during inclement 
weather, as we get some vei-y severe periods in tliis district 
(Cressington Park, Livei-pool). The aviaries are largely 
stocked with Australian Finches, but other groups are repre- 
sented to some extent. 

Yellow-rumped Finches {Munia flavipri/nma). These 

216 Early Episodes of 1913. 

fij'stbuiltanest ina Hartz-cage, but, evidently were not pleased 
with the same, for they deserted it in favour of a rush nesL, 
which they neatly lined with hay etc., leaving only a very 
small entrance hole. This hole has now got considerably 
larger irom "wear and tear," principally during the operation 
of feeding the young, of which there are several, they have 
not yet left the nest, but may be both seen and heard. At first 
they fed the young entirely on grass seeds (llowering grass), 
and soaked seeds thrown upon the ground, but, recently, since 
the young have become larger a good deal of hard -seed has 
been taken. , ' 

Pkctoual Finches {Munia pcctoraiis). The same re- 
marks apply to this species as to the preceding, save that 
they are very shy, retiring, and dillicult to observe, but one 
pair are feeding young. Tlie pair in the other aviary have 
made no attempt to nest at present. 

Ohestnut-bbbasted Finches {Munia casianeithorax). 
I have two pairs of this species, quite young birds when I 
received them, they are just through the moult, and both pairs 
are a,ttempting to nest — one pair have taken possession of an old 
nest, altering and adding to it, the other pair are Hying about 
with nesting material, and are evidently busily constructing a 

Long -TAILED Guassfinches {Focphila acuticauda). I 
have several pairs of this interesLhig species and all give 
promise of doing well. Tvvu pairs ai-e busily feeding broods, 
the young are making a great noise, but have not yet ilown — 
other pairs are either incubatmg or feeding young. 

Cheury Finches {Aideniosyiie viodesta). This well 
known species is very uncommon on the English market at 
the present time. My pair have built a nest, but I do not think 
they have eggs at time of writing (June 26). 

Diamond Finches (Steganopleura guttata). These have 
fought amongst each other a good deal and results have not 
been good. I found three partly hatched young in one nest; 
this pair have nested again, and may be feeding young this 
time, as they keep closely to the ne^t. Another pair laid again 
but the eggs failed to hatch. 

KuFiCAUDA Finches {Bathilda ruficauda). There are 
two pairs of this species and both are nesting, but I do not 

Early Episodes of 1913. 217 

loiow anything deOnite at present. One pair liave a nest in a 
bank and tlie other at tiie root of a hazel tree; 1 think tiie 
latter pair may have young, that is, judguig from the nsuai 
signs— driving away all birds, eagerly eating of grass seeds 
and promptly returning to the nest. 

Zeuka FiNCUES {Taeniopygia castanotis). All 1 need 
remark of this well known but interesting species is, that a 
number of young are on the wing. 

Bkueno's Finches (Sticloptera bichenovi). These 
eluu-niing birds nested and laid while in the bird-room, but 
the eggs proved infertile. 1 then put them in the out-door 
aviary, since which they have agahi constructed a nest, but 
there are no eggs at present. 

GouLDiAN Finches (Pocphila gouldm). These ai'ejust 
coming through the moult, and one pair have taken possession 
of a box, but they mostly still show traces of the moult on their 
heads. JMy Yellow-headed Gouldian mated with a Red-headed 
hen, and started to nest, but has felt the cold and given up,— - 
he is not looking very tight in feather. 

Mannikins: There are two strong yomig Magpies on 
the wing, and White-heads, Black-heads, Bronze-wings, and 
Bib Finches are all nesting, but I can't say whether any have 
got as far as eggs. 

Melba Finches (Pytelia melha). These went to ncbt 
while still in the birdroom, constructing a nest of hay, lined 
with feathers, in a lir-trce; two eggs were laid, but deserted 
after incubating for two or three days. I then put them 
outside, and they went to nest again at once, building a rather 
larger nest of hay, which they again lined with feathers, in 
the shelter shed. The incubation period is about up I should 
say, and as I saw both birds off the nest eating gentles and 
live ants" eggs, there may be young in the nest, for the birds 
return to the nest immediately after feeding on the live food. 
The cock bird has been on the nest a good deal during the 

BruE-BitKASTED Waxbills {Estrilda angoloisis) . These 
have nested, but there are no eggs up to the present. The 
same applies to a Cordon Bleu mated to a Blue -breasted hen. 

Geey Waxbills (Estrilda cinerea). These have built 

218 Early Episocfcs of 1913. 

a nest in long grass at the bottom of a bank, and I saw one 
of them carrying in a feather last night. While writing of Wax- 
bills I may say that there is a nest in the grass containingisix 
small white eggs, but I have never seen a bii'd entering or 
leaving it, but as they built there last year I think it must he 
the work of the Orange -cheeks. 

NoNTAREiL Buntings (Cyanospiza ciris). Not yet at- 
tempted anything— seem to be moulting. 

Rainbow Buntings (Cyanospiza leclaneheri). Only 
young birds, not moulted out properly yet. 

PiLEATED Finches (Coryphospmgus pUratiis). Have 
not attempted anything so far. 

Eulee's Finch (Spermophila suprrcilians). These built 
a small cup -shaped nest, unlined and evidently not complete, 
close against the stem of a small holly tree, then they built 
another close under the shelter board round the top of fliglit; 
now they are back again at the first one, evidently of Ihe 
mind to complete it — so far it is constructed mostly of the 
outside strips of bark pulled from a creeper. This is all at 
present, but the weather here has been cold and wet and tlie 
season later here than in more southern aviaries. 

Yellow-theoatei) Sparrows (Petronia flavicollifri. 
This pair of birds I acquired from Major Perreau. Since they 
have been turned out they have been moulting, but have now 
begun to chase each other like a pair of Swifts all round the 
place and it is quite apparent the cock desires to nest. Up till 
now they have lived at different ends of the aviary, taking 
no notice of each other, the cock now comes over to the hen 
and worries her till they both dash off round and round the 

Red-headed Buntings {Emherlza luteola). These either 
have a nest or are building one of dried grass roots in a bank!, 
hut, I have not looked, not wishing to disturb them, 
I think it is on the top of the bank amid some long grass. 

Hooded Siskins (Chrysomitris cucnUata)'. These char- 
ming birds have been carrying nesting material about for 
some time, but seem to get no "forrarder." 

;Green (Sticlospiza formosa) and Red .Vvadavats 
(Sporoeginthus amandava). I have several pairs of each 
species, all have nested, but I can't see any results so far. 

Early Episodes of 1913. 219 

Himalayan CIkkkximnciiks {IIj/pacanthKs spinoides). 
Tlu-sc wuic procuicd Irom the coiisigriinent of Tndiaii liirds re- 
cently brought over by Major Perreau are looking lovely, but 
except that they go about together are showing but little in- 
clination to go to newt. 

Maskki) GuAs.sFiN(nES {I'ocpliila personata). I have 
several pairs and one pair is certainly incubating, but the 
other pairs have got no further than nest construction at 

Beakdkd Tits (Paiiuru-s hiarmicus) are pairing, Ijut 
no signs of nests, owing, 1 think, to the lack of reeds and a 
proper place to build in. 8ibeiuan Bullfinches have just 
ht'en put out, and they have promptly cleared oil" the buds 
fi'om brambles, currants, privet, roses, etc., -however there 
is plenty for them in the way of buds, and I hope they, may 

PixK-BiiuWED RosEFiNCH (Pfopasscr ihodochroHs). 
These all arrived out of colour, therefore the males at any 
rate were immature, and no plumatic change has, as yet 
taken place, consequently nesting has not been expected. 
However, for some time they were quite energetic, carrying 
building material into a rush nest, but have now given it up 
for the time being. 

Hybkidisixg. An odd Parrot Finch (cf) and a Cuban 
Finch have mated and built a nest, but there are no eggs at 
time of writing. My odd Red-headed Finch (Amadina erythro- 
cephala) has mated up with a Cutthroat {A. fasciata) hen, but 
I had to remove them from the general aviary as they go and 
lie in other birds' nests. I put them in an extra aviary I 
liave, where they at once went to nest and hatched out three 
young birds, which died for want of proper food~-we were 
not aware they had young and no live food or ants' eggs was 
supplied. They are again incubating another clutch of eggs. 

All the birds eat huge quantities of seeding grass -, we 
put in large bundles three times a day, and it is soon stripped 
though there is plenty in the aviary growing naturally— 
tJicy all cat it. 


.Plumed Ghound Doves {Lophophaps Icucogaster). 
These handsome Doves have laid three clutches of eggs, but, 

220 Early Episoctcs of 1913. 

havo only incubated one, and then only for about four days. 
Only one proper nest was con^truoted, hay. and fwigs were 
gathered together in a hollow, the novt was quite nicely formed 
and a good quantity of material used. Both sexes shared the 
duties of incubation. 

Violet Dovfs (Lrpfopffa jama'>'c^nfis) . These duly 
nested and young squabs were hatched out, but both parents 
would brood the young together and the young birds eventually 
crawled over the sides of the nest and were picked up dead. 
They then started nesting again and one day the hen landed 
right on the top of a Zebra Finch's nest— the hen Zebra Finch 
and her eggs came out through the bot*^om of the nest and the 
Violet Dove remained on the top, apparently well satisfied, for, 
after adding to and re -arranging the nest, a clutch of eggs was 
duly deposited and incubation duties are now steadily going 

Diamond Doves [Geopelia cinra^a). This charming 
and minute species has done fairly well, two nice young 
birds are on the wing, and the parent birds are incubating 
another clutch of eggs. 

Australian Crested Ptoeoxs (Ocyphaps 
Another beautiful species, which have just laid with 
me for the first time, and I hope young birds will follow in 
due course. 

Bar-sholtldered Doves (Geopelia hnmeraJis). These 
have constructed a nest, but at present have not laid. 

Masked or Cape Doves (^Eva capensis) . These are 
now in beautiful condition, and look like nesting. They had 
two clutches of eggs in 1912, but. nothing was hatched out. 

Scaly Dove {ScarrJafeUa squamosa). These, though 
in good condition, have made no attempt to nest so far. 

T can only hope that the above notes may prove as 
interesting in the reading as the happenings have proved to 
me in the course of observing them. 

My Aviaries and Birds. 

By W. a. Bainbridge. 
Our Editor has asked me to write an account of my 
aviaries and birds, and although I am only a beginner T have 
promised to do so. 

My Aviaries and Birds. 221 

Last AuffU'^t T ooinmonrod to huild my first aviary, 
20 feet hy 10 foot, and of coiiiso it liad all tho faults it rould 
have, not sufTioiont shelter from the Avind, and a most inade- 
quate shed, and, in consequence E lost a fair number of birds. 
Profiting by experience, I doubled the size of it, boarded up 
one side and added a new shed, putting in hot water pipes, since 
when all has gone well and T have lost very few birds. 

Not yet satisfied T built another, about 70 feet long by 
1 1 wide, except for a space of 1 5 feet. Avliere it is 20 feet 
wide, and about 15 feet high at top of gable; the sbed being 
finished fiilst T used it as a heated bird-room during the winter. 

As to breeding results, so far they have not been very 
great but look like improving now. 

Last year I had only a short time, but bred one Zebra 
Finch, which was a very welcome addition. 

January 1st saw four nests in the heated bird -room— 
Bicheno's (Stictopfera hiehenovi) , and Cuban Finch (Phonipara 
canora), Firefinch (Lagonosticta seneqaJa), and Gold-breasted 
Waxbill (Sporargi)ifhi(s siihflarus), all had eggs, but that is 
as far as they went. 

On January 22nd a young Diamond Sparrow (Sfrpano- 
plrura gnffafa) appeared, very much to my surprise, in the 
out -door aviary, but it died a week later. 

March 2nd saw the parents again with young and three 
young birds flew on the 24th, fine healthy birds which lived 
all rigbt. The parents and also another pair in the same aviary 
now began to build again, one egg was laid and deserted, and 
this I put under a Bengalese, who hatched and half-reared it, 
when she died and so T lost the young bird. 

The Diamonds then gave up until June 24th or 25th, 
when both pairs began to build feverishly, using seeding 
grasses which I (had supplied that day for the first time, to try 
and save the grass in the aviary, and now botb pairs are, I 
believe, incubating. 

My next young to leave the nest were Silverbills (Aid- 
emosyne malahorica). four young of which flew; the same day 
the heating apparatus caught fire and in consequence had to 
be 'repaired. Although this only took twenty-four hours, all 
the young died. Four eggs were again laid but proved 

222' ^iy Aviaries ami Birds. 

infei-tile; then two more, which duly hatched, and the young 
hav(f MOW ])cen independent of their parents for some time. 
There are again young almost due to leave the nest. 

Jacarini Finches {Volatin'a jacarinl). I have two paii':; 
of this specie;, one in each aviary, and they are easily my 
favourite 1>irdo, the hen of one pair coming to 'my feet for 
spiders and other food. One pair hatched two young on May 
11th, which left the nest on the 21st, but, only lived for six 
days. June Sth saw two more young hatched, which left the 
nest on the 20Lh, and are still living, being fed by the cock; 
the hen began to incubate another clutch of three eggs on 
the IGth. 

The other pair have had two nests, each containing two 
eggs, both infertile. This pair have built on the ground on 
both occasions, whilst the other pair have built in a prive& 
bush, three feet from the ground. 

Bicheno's Finches {Stictoplera hichcnovi) have nested 
four times this year, and at the second attempt hatched out one 
young clii.'k, which d:ei th.e3 days la e ■, but. the fourth attsjupt 
resulted in two young leaving the nest on June 2Gth; they 
were and are very strong on the wing. 

June 27th, saw a young Cuban Finch (PJio/npara 
caiiora) tlying, this being the first young one to be reared, 
although they have previously hatched out young and on two 
other occasions have had eggs. 

June 2 7tli, also saw a young Zebra Finch {Taeniopygia 
castanotls) leave the nest, and the parents ai'c again incubating. 
Anothe]- pair have eggs. Ruflcauda Finches {Bathilda rnfi- 
cauda) hatched out about June Itith (one young bird has 
since floMai, two eggs were infertile), and another i)air haNe 

Gouldian Finches {Poephila guuldice). Of these I have 
four pairs, two pairs of Eed-headed in one aviary; and two 
Red-headed cocks and two Black -headed hens in tiie other 
aviary. The Red-heads are incubating clutclies ot e^;^-.^, one 
of which is almost due to hatch. 

Ihadapairof Haye's Partridges (Ammopcrdix hei/ii), but 
lost the cock, and being unable to obtain another, gave the 
hen a Californian Quail as a mate. They soon started to make 
a nest, and the Partridge laid several eggs, but broke all 

My Aviaries and Birds. 223 

except three, whidi I imt under a bantam, and she promptly 
smashed them; she is now inciiliaiini;- six eg-g-s, and J -am hoping- 
will treat these properly. 

Green Avadavats {Slir/(>sji/.:(t /oni/osit). I have Iwu 
[>airs and liotli arc ncsl iiii;-, hiil, 1 Irar one i»air liaA'c dcsei'tcd; 
the other pair 1 Jiupe may liati'h out and rear. 

Avadavats {Spuracyinthus aniaudava). These have 
nested and have eggs. 

Grey Singing-finches {Scri/ius Icucopygius). I have 
a pair of these in each aviary, one hatched out two young 
chicks, hut the nest collapsed, and the young- fell out and were 
killed. They nested again and are incubating another clutch 
of eggs. The oihei' pair hatched out four chicks, which lived 
to Ije half Hedged, when Ihey too, died. 

Firefinches {Layoiioslicla scneyala). This species have 
got as far as eggs "five or six times, but, that is all. They 
are again sitting and 1 hope for the best! 

Grey ^\'a\bills {Eslrilda cinerea). These have had 
nest after nest with no result 1 

Cordon Bleus (EstriUla plioenicoiis) . This species have, 
I think, young in the nest. 

] have very few Softbills, but those I have -ire looking 
very fit and include: one pair Yellow-winged Sugar-birds 
{Cocreba cyanea), two pairs Indian A\'hite-eyes {Zosterops 
palpehrosa), and a pair and one odd bird of Black- chinned 
Yuhinas {Yuhina iiiyrimentujn), the last named are delightful 
birds, always on the move and are perpetually raising their 
pseudo crests in the most fascinating manner, and although tliey 
do not spend their lives upside-down looking for insects under 
leaves, like the White Eyes, they are perpetually on the look 
out for some hapless midge or spider. 

These notes, although very rough, and record more of 
failure than success, may at the same time, serve to show some 
other beginner, that he must not look for success every lime 
he gees a nest, and, may encourage him by Icnowing that 
others are undergoing similar, or worse experiences, than his 
own, and if such is the case, my object will be achieved. 

224 From all Sources. 

From All Sources. 


" The disastrous effect on farmers that results from the reckless des- 
truction of Inrds for so unworthy a pTirpose as millinery was dealt uith by 
Mr James Buckland in an interesting paper which he read at the Roj'al 
Colonial Institute yesterday. Birds, insects, animals, and plants are, of 
course, constantly striving to increase their numbers, but the creatures that 
feed on them operate continually to check their increase. Were not bii-ds, 
for instance, to eat acorns Great Britain would eventmlly be full of oaks, 
for all other trees would be ci-owded out. If ever}' Robin died a natural 
death in its old age and if its eggs were hatched out, in time every square 
foot of the United Kingdom would be packed with Robins. 

Bird life by reason of its predominating insect diet, is the most indis- 
pensable balancino force in Nature. No one can tell what far-reaching 
results might follow the extermination of a single species of bird, for it is 
probable that the food preference of each species is so distinctive that no 
other could exactly fill its place. But for the trees the insects would perish ; 
but for insects the birds would perish, and but for the birds the trees would 

A great increase of insects and enormous damage by them invariably 
follows wholesale destruction of wild bird life In New Zealand, owing to 
the slaughter of birds, Mr. Buckland has seen countless billions of caterpillars 
move in a solid mass across cultivated land, devouring every green thing in 
their march. Even railway trains were stopped by the immensity of the 
number of these crawling atoms. 

At the last six feather sales in London there have been sold the skins 
of 166,000 Kingfishers. Supposing that each one of these ate— at a very 
conservative estimate —150 noxious insects daily, over 7,600,000,000 insect 
pasts that ought to have been destroyed by birds were saved in one year. 
This estimate does not take into account the unrestricted increase of these 
7,600,000.000 pests. Every one of these Kingfishers was worth its weight in 
gold to the human race. Its skin sold for Sid. ! 

It has been calculated in the United States that the annual loss caused 
there by ravages of insect and rodent pests which the birds would exterminate 
were their working power not reduced, totals a thousand million dollars. 

As long as there is a demand for contraband plumage there will be 
someone ready to supply it. The only remedy is to stop the demand. This 
the Plumage Bill seeks to do. The Bill proposes to prohibit the sale, hire, 
or exchange of plumage or skin of any species of wild bird individuals which 
have had their habitat during the whole or part of the year within any part 
of his Majesty's Dominicuis outside the United Kingdom or in any British 
Protectorate or in the island of Cyprus."— From the Stamlard 14/6/, 13, per 
Rev. G. H. Ray nor. 

■■ ' 

Editorial. 225 


Tlioso notos must 1>(» \(M'y l»ricf owinp: <o tho Editor 
lioinpr v^ory jii'ossod, l)iit there are sevei'al items worthy of \^v\of 

Nesting 'Notes: Very many of these are noted else- 
where in this issue, and need not be repeated here. 

Dr. Ci. T'. TIiwait(\s wi'ites that he has numerous Zebra 
Finches, Diamond DoAes (si^eond round), and a youny Coldfrnch 
that are on the wing-: tliat Cuban Finches liave nested several 
times without tanf^ible result. Meadow Pipits have nested 
and are incubatiufi: a clutch of five eggs. 

T^r. M. Amsler informs us that there have l>een numerous 
attempts, but that so far, the only definite results are Zebra 
and Jacarini Finches, Blue -breasted Waxbills, and Great Tits 
on the wing. 

Mr. W. R. Temple informs us that the pair of Indian 
Grey Tits, which he obtained from Major Horsbrugh's recent 
consignment have nested in his aviary, eight eggs were laid, 
but that only one chick was hatched, which at the time of 
writing (July 7) was nine days old and thriving. This species 
has not been previously bred in Great Britain, and we con- 
gratulate Mr. Temple on the measure of success already at- 
tained, and trust that the young bird may be reared to 

Great Tits {rams major). Dr. M. Amsler has suc- 
cessfully reared a brood of this species in his Eton aviaries 
and a detailed description of his success will shortly appear 
in our pages. We do not know of any previous record of 
this species having been bred in Great Britain — if any member 
knows of a previous record will he please notify either the 
Editor or Business Secretary at once — It would appear that Dr. 
Amsler is entitled to a medal for successfully breeding this 
species. ' 

The Magazine: The Editor asks the indulgence of 
members concerning this issue, it has been issued under excep- 
tional difficulty; he has been away from home anrf his books 
of reference— this also explains its late anpearance. 

Members are urged to send in copy, not only that our 
contento niay be varied, but that the Hon. Editor's task may 

226 Correspondence. 

be made as light as possible, and all the work not crowded 
into the last week, as under such conditions, the quality of 
the contents of the magazine must suffer. 

Donations are also needed to the Illustration Fund if 
Uienumberandqualityof the illustrations are to be maintained. 



Sir.— My Silver-earcKMesias (JA-.s-;,; r.iijfitUuirix) built :i nest in late 
May, laid and steadily incul)ated a clutch of three eggs ; both sexes shared 
the duties of incubation and relieved eacli other at regular intervals, and 
pretty equally bore the Inirden of the work. The nest is rather massive, 
constructed of hay, shavings, and a few dead leaves, very neatly fashioned 
and fastened to the pine branches hammock-wise. It is a deep nest, and the 
birds almost disappear within it when sitting. On June 20th they hatched 
out three chicks, which they fed from the crop on mealworms, I was in 
great hopes of their being reared for all went well for two days, but alas ! 
on the 23rd they were all dead— they were just getting their eyes open and 
the feather tracts were developing. I saw their parents feeding them just 
before going to roost on the 22nd. The cock wants to so to nest again, but 
I rather hope the hen will refuse, she is not very keen on it. As far as I 
coukl see they fed the young entirely on mealworms (just as the Pekin 
Robins did with their brood for the first week) nipping and mashing them 
in their beaks tirst. They would not touch green fly or ants' eggs or soft 

It is very curious how hard they are to rear ; so many aviculturists 
h ive had l)roods, and the old birds are so easily kept in health and beauty. 
The Mesias < ggs are like those of the Greenfinch and tl.e Pekin Robin— blue 
blotched with red. 

Next door to the ]\Iesias, the Blue Sugai'birds [Duciiis caijana) are 
(June 8th) building a very dainty little nest of tow and cotton wool. The 
hen does the work, but the cock follows her everywhere and encourages her 
with ereat fervour. They are building in a thick Cypress bough in the flight 
part of their aviary. These birds are finger tame. Two eggs were laid, enor- 
mously large for the size of the bird: long, white, heavily spotted and blotched 
with red. On the morning of the 19th, I found her dead oji the floor of the 
flight -I suspect apoplexy. Had any young been hatched I meant to try 
green fly, for the adults are very fond of it, audit appeared a likely food for 
the young I shall replace her as soon as opportunity offers, but all hopts 
of breeding the species have gone for this year, and I have lost a charming 
pet. [Mr. Ai-mstein has had youi^g hatched out on several occasions in his 
aviaries, biit up to the present none have lived to leave tlie nest, tliough 
several have been partially fledged.-=-Ed}. 

I have just i)rocined from I\Iajor Horsbrugh's Indian consignment a 
pair of little Black-chinned Yuhinas, and very jolly little folk they arc too, 
though in i)oor feather, having been much i)lucked by Zosterops, which were 

Correspondence. 3'27 

in tlie same ciiijfo. Also a 'PickcH's Flowci- jirckcr, tlic most miimtc and 
greediest littlr 1. in] I have ever seen ; the V\\v]Av Snnhiiil lo,,ks .|iiif(. Iar<;e 
by tlie side of him. 

1 liavc also recently acqniicil a nice pair of Ifaii.l.nw Hnntint,'s {('//n/i- 
o.^p/'jit lt'f/(i)icheri), which seem hc.ilili\- so iai-. 'riuy i)artake freely of 
mealworms, live ants' et;i,'s. s])ray niillcl, canary seed, and tureen food. Tliey 
are indeed lovely creatures. 

Last week I sawsonicthino I coidd scarcely have .■redited liad I not 
seen it. Wi'havc seveial iiaihaiy ])ovcs Hying loose, which conic to lie fed 
evrry ni-,dit an<l mornini.'. 1 saw a cock of these Doves attack and kill a half 
grown Short-taih'il Vole which had come to steal some of the seed scattered 
for the Doves. The Dove pecked it again and again with great furj', and 
when it was dead stood bowing and cooing over the cori)se for several min- 
utes. Has such a thing ever occurred before ? [T do not remend)er a 
similar case applying to Doves, but, some years ago a cock Yellow limiting 
in my aviaiy diovc a full grown SIku I t;iil( d A'olc out of the seed hopper 
pouncing ujjon it with beak and claws, not <lcsisting (ill the affrighted Vole 
ha<l Hed from the aviary. — Ed J. 

The Purple Sunbird is carrying nesting material, and (he Yellow- 
winged Sugarbirds and Red (Hooded) Siskins aie displaying and courting. 

^Miss) p:thel f. chawner. 

Forest Bank, Lyndhurst, Hants., 
June 8th, 2(ltii. and 24th, lOl.'l 


Sir— My Purple Sunbirds are sitting (June loth) ; the Purple Sun- 
biids are incubating steadily (June Itltli). 

IVfy Occijutal Blue-Pies nested and laid, but I found the male was 
eating the eggs and I removed him. The hen laid another egg which proved 
fertile and a chick was hatched out, which she promptly swallowed ! 


i"I have taken the liberty of extracting the above from three letters 
dated June loth, I'.lth, and 'Jlst, which had not been penned for pnldication. 
-Ed J. 


Sir, — I should be very glad to know if any member of the Foreign 
Bird Club is at present in possession of a cock Tuiijuoisine (irass Parrakeet. 
I happen to have a hen of this species in good condition and last autumn I 
saw a cock which may be still alive in this country. 

As this lovely little bird appears to be on the very vergeof extinction, 
it seems a pity that if a cock and hen should still be left in 6i-eat Britain 
some attempt should not lie made to breed from them. If the owner of the 
cock^assnming it to be alive were to communicate with me, I think we 
might possibly be able to make some satisfactory arrangement. In case of 
an^'one being in possession of a Turquoisine without being aware of its 
identity— which of is course, very improbable— I may describe it roughly i,s 
being abouta third less in size than a Cockatiel, green in colour, with the foie- 
head, cheeks and part of the wings blue ,• there is a small chestnut patch on 
the wing-coverts. (LORD) TAVISTOCK. 

Woburn Abbey, Beds. June IGth, l'Ji:5. 

228 Correspondence. 


Sir,- I have young Zeln-a Finches and Budgerigars on the wing, but 
so has nearly everyone else and I only mention them en pasmnt. 

Bullfinches : These went to nest in the out-door aviary and on 
May 24th, the first egg was laid, but they broke it, so I gave her a pot egg; 
on the 25th, 26lh and 27th, other eggs were laid, taken away and replaced by 
pot eggs, the last got broken and 1 then gave her back her own eggs, she sat 
well, tut when she came off to feed on the 2'Jth, other birds broke the eggs. 
She built another nest inside the shelter, but the cock became so vicious 1 
had to take them out of the general aviary and put them into a smaller 
adjoining one; this enclosure contained a pair of Japanese Hawfinches which 
I thought were quite able to look after themselves. The cocks fought and in 
consequence the Hawfinch is now dead and the Bullfinch anything but fit. 
The hen Bullfinch is now (June 22nd.) sitting on eggs and I hope young will 
be reared this tnne. 

BuLHULS : My Red-eared Bulbul mated to a cock Black Bulbul, laid 
her first egg on Alay 12th, in a thrush's nest fixed in a cage. 4^ feet long by 
4 feet high, also containing Shamahs, Cardinals etc She covered in the nest, 
leaving an entrance hole in one side and laid three eggs, one got broken 
almost at once and another the 12th day; on the 14th day she deserted, and 
I gave the remaining egg away. She has since laid three more eggs, but as she 
was sitting very irregularly 1 gave one to the Bulfinch and two to a Greenfinch 
both of which are incubating, but 1 doubt the fertility of the eggs. 

Shamahs and ViiuiiNiAN Cakdinals : These occupied the cage with 
the Bulbuls and both pairs have mated, the cock Shamah has commenced to 
construct a nest, but they disturb each other, and for lack of accommodation 
I cannot separate them, so I doubt there being any result. 

Chaffinch x Canaey : These birds had frequently paired and on 
April 1st, the first egg was laid, followed in due course by four others— a 
Siskin ate two, twj were infertileandone was filled but did not hatch out. On 
May 27th, pairing again took place and in due c(jurse a clutch of four eggs 
was deposited, none of them hatched out, two being infertile and two addled. 
Red-Headed Finch x Cutthroat : On May 3 1st, four chicks of 
this cross were hatched out. On June 4th, one picked up dead in flight and 
the other three doing well. About June 10th, one young hybrid had the Red 
band on the throat and rod on the forehead, the other two are hens. On 
June 20th they left the nest and on the 22nd were quite strong on the wing and 
very pretty birds. 'J'he two hens are not alike, one having scarcely any mark- 
ings on the breast. The red on the head is not very strong as yet in the young 
cock, but the red band on the throat is very rich and deep, and is thick all 
across, not having tapering ends as in the cock Cutthroat ; his breast mark- 
ings are not so distinct as those of the Red-headed Finch, but he may differ 
materially after the moult. I had to supply mealworms liberally, as while 
they were feeding young, the Red-headed Finch would eat more than a dozen 
and then go stridght away and feed its babies by regurgitating the meal- 
worms it had eaten. , ^ , 

Cutthkoats : On June 5th a brood was hatched, but hearmg very 
little noise I examined the nest on the lUth and found only one chick alive 

I Correspondence. 229 

and the nest extremely odorous. Put in fresh luiy and returned the chick, 
its parents fed it almost at once and now (.lune 'J-Jiid) it is feathering fast. 

1 have too many Itinls for my accommodation and fear my liieediii<j 
results nnist he vcr.\ small as I liavu to keep so many kinds totrether. 

Catford. 8.E., June 2"in(l, I'.H:'.. 


Sir.— In response to your enquiry 1 have pleasure in stating that, 
though I have nothing very rare, all my birds are doing well, and that there 
appears prospects of some success. Losses have been very few and the birds 
seem fairly well established. 

At present 1 have in the aviary : pairs of Californian Quail, Zebra 
and Ribbon Finches, Bengalese, White and Grey Java Sparrows, Grey Sing- 
inglinches, Combasous, White- and Black-headed Mannikins, Spice Birds, 
and Red-billed Weavers ; Golden-breasted, Common, and Orange-cheeked 
Waxbills ; and Common and Green Avadavats The above I purchased, 
ai'd below I give a few notes from my log book concerning them, 
April 9 -Opened the aviary by putting in one pair Californian Quail. 
„ 13- Put in pairs of Zebra and Ribbon Finches, and Bengalese. 
„ '20 — Put in pairs of Combasous, Spice Birds, Grey Javas, and dlrey 

„ 23 — Discovered Zebia Finches had two eggs in a lusli nest. 
,, 25 — Bird escaped from aviary but returned. 

„ L'T^Snow storm, followed by gale and thunder storm — all birds well. 
,, 29 — Ribbon Finches have nested and laid two eggs. Zebia Finches 
started incubating five eggs (believed). 
May 2— Observed contrary to what 1 have read that the Zebra Finch cock 
does not sleep in the nest with the hen. 
„ 4— Put in pairs of White- and Black-headed Mannikijis. 
„ 10— Put in pairs of Golden- breasted Waxbills and White Java Sparrows. 
„ 11 — Zebra P'inches hatched out three young ones. Riboon Fuiches 

have commenced to incubate. 
„ 13— Discovered nine Quail eggs at the back of a liay rack. 
„ 20 — Californian Quail commence to incubate. 

„ 23— Although the you; g are only 12 days old the Zebra Finches are 
building again in a rush nest near the old one. Ribbon 
Finches hatched three young. 
„ 26— Zebra Finch hen has deserted the young and laid two eggs in the 

new nest. Cock bird is feeding the young alone. 
„ 30--Three young Zebra Finches flew to-day. 
,, 31 — Discovered Bengalese have a nest with two eggs. 
June 1— Ribbon Finchet^ threw out and killed one nestling. 
,, 2 — Ribbon Finches threw out remaining two nestlings. 
„ 3 — Zebra Finches and Bengalese commenced incubating. 

9— Fifteen Californian Quail chicks hatched off, both birds fiercely 
attacked me when I went to feed them. 
„ 10— The Bengalese eggs have mysteriously disappeared. 

2150 Correspondence. 

15— Zebra Finches hatched out three young (believed three). Noted 
Ribbon Finches had new nest containing three eggs. 
„ 17— Ribbon Finches commenced to incul>ate ngain. 
,, 20— Bengalese have three eggs 
„ 21— Bengalese commenced to incubate. 
,. 22— Spice Birds nesting in rush nest. 

24 — Addidto aviary one pair each Orange-cheeked Wa.xbills, Common 
and Green Avadavats, Common African Wa.xbills, and Red- 
billed Weavers. 
„ 28— Ribbon Finches hatched out five young. Spice Birds have two 
It was the reading of "Aviaries and Aviary Life" which finally 
decided me to start an outside aviary and my anticipations have been more 
than realised. My experience of keeping birds in the house has not been a 
happy one— I bought sixteen birds of various kinds and within two months 
eleven of them were dead ; of the two surviving pairs, the hen of one pair 
laid seven eggs and ate them all, and the hen of the other pair laid twelve 
shell-less eggs, each time all but succumbing to egg-binding. Since putting 
them out both the above pairs have hatched out two broods of young. Fur- 
ther as will be seen from above I have boughtsome of the fragile Waxbills and 
put them straight out of doors (Yorkshire) with no ill effects, in fact I have 
not lost a bird of any kind, though the weather here has been very unfavour- 
able. I may say that I fear I have an egg-eater in the aviary as I have lost 
three clutches of eggs and I suspect a Combasou as it is always peeping into 
nests. Incidentally, neither of my Weavers show any signs of coming into 
colour, isn't it time ? About two weeics ago my Grey Singing Finch, which 
up to then had not sung a note, started to sing magnificently and now sings 
all day on and off. It puts a Canary absolutely in the shade. 

Hornsea, Yoi-ks., June 2S/,1P.. 

Sir, — In answer to your enquiry re my birds, I hope the following will 
be of some general interest. I am faced with a difficulty— How shall I start V 
When I say that I have handled from a Black Cockatoo down to wee Sunbird, 
it gives one some experience of birds and bird life. 

Pakhakeets : When it comes to handling Parrakeets and Lovebirds 
it means many bites and nasty words. "Friars Balsam" is very good for 
bites, but it is better to avoid them, either by a thick cloth or gloves, the for- 
mer is the best. I will commence with the Queen Alexandras (Hpathopteriis 
ulesandrK) : to my mind there is no Parrakeet to compare with this lovely 
species ; by the fuss they are making I have great hopes of the advent of 
young birds a little later. 

RED-Rl'Mi'r^ {Psephdtus haeiiaihirlKius) have nested and incubated a 
clutch of eggs, but the eggs proved infertile ; they are now nesting again 
Peach-faced Lovebirds {Agaporvis roseicoUis), and Black-faced Lovebirds 
(.1. nhjrigenis) are doing their best, but no tangible results so far. 

I have one pair of Blue Budgerigars, also a hen Blue paired with a 

Rfrmhrrs' T\fcrfhiqs nf the. Zoo. 231 

cock Green, the latter l)f(M| fioin Uliic mid (firiui iiarcuts ; tliest; at )(rcseiit 
are very interestcil in cadi other anl llie ii-st Inisks, hut tlu^n; are no e.r.^s 

I also Imve I'asseriiie {/'.-<,;//, ir>,/,, ;,„.« -/v//,*). SiaiUey { P/a/f/rrrrHn 
irlrro/;s),:ini] iMaiiy coloureil f l'^nph„ht>i nntll'imlunr), also ( i re v hea.<h'(| fiove- ( \,i„nnrn)^ -■„//,, ^ in tlie I'arrak.'et aviary. 

Th.' Kineli \viary: lleiv I have Uedan.l 15hick hea.le.l (;oiihlian 
Fiiiolies, Rosefinches. Fii-efinches, and Cordon Hh'iis ; liavender, ("iil)a. and 
Olive Finches; Indian Whito-eyes. and Pekin Rohins ; also Violet car.,!. 
Blue-breasted and 0(ddenhreasted Waxhilis and last hnt not least Zehra 

I mention niy Black-ehinned Yuhinas ( YiiliiiKi >i/i/i-/iiiP)ifinii), for and very like minature cockatoos, when 
startled or excited they raise their crest, they are very (juaint and one wishes 
they might nest. 

Of course losses, annoyint,' and disiiiiitim,' losses, occur, but these one 
must look upon ])hilosophicalIy and treat as the sportive side of the Fancy. 

Gouldian. Culia, Zebra, Olive, Lavender and Fire Finches are all nest- 
ting and I hoi)e there will be good results from their efforts. 

One naturally hopes and longs for good nesting results, often one does 
not get much farther, so I suppose T must do as the boy did who kept 
bantams -Not being satisfied with the size of the eggs he hung up an Ostrich's 
egg in the ])en with the foUowing notice "Keep your eye on this and do 
your best." (MISS) LYDTA CLARE. 

Wimbledon. S.W.. Julv 4. WU?,. 

Members' Meetings at the Zoo. 

A very jilcasaiit niccl intc of nieiubors Avas hold at tlie 
Zoo oil Saturday, June The weather was very line 
which helped to make tlie occasion a mo ;t enjoyable one. The 
various aviaries were vi-ited and a plentiful ^supply of meal- 
worm.T made it possil>le for us to make a close acijuaintance 
with many very interesting birds. The Laughing Jackasses 
joined in chorus at our approach to their aviary, the result 
being rather weird to say the least. The Kagu was per- 
suaded to give its quaint displa5^ The birds in the Western 
Aviary were of great interest and all appeared to be doing 
exceedingly well. Those in the Small Birds' House, hov/ever, 
appeared to be mostly soft in condition and dull in manner, 
and it was generally remarked that the close stuffy atmosphere 
of the house was apparently the cause of this. We felt it a 
relief when we passed out into the open air, the contrast being 
most marked. 

232 Meinhers' Mecthigs at the Zoo. 

The following' were present during the course of the 
day: — 

Lady Webster. Major G. A. Perreau. 

Mrs. E. A. Hartley. Captain J. Sherard Reeve. 

Mrs. E. D. Lee. L. G. Chiozza Money, Esq., IVLP. 

Mrs. Chiozza Money. A, Ezra. Esq. 

Miss Money. Wesley T. Page, Esq. 

Mrs. & Miss Stoney. W. T. Rogers, Esq. 

Miss A. Eccles. S. Williams, Esq. 

Miss M. Knobel. 

Tea was served in the Fellows' Enclosure, and was 
made an occasion for a free interchange of ideas on matters- 
avicultural and ornithological. The meeting was greatly on- 
joyed by all. ■ 


The previous meeting in May was favoured with beauti- 
ful weather, and all present expressed the interest that the 
avicultnnil talk and the " doing" of the biids in company had 
been to them. Among those present were the following : — 
Mrs. E. A. Hartley, Mrs. and Miss Stoney, Miss Knobel, Rev. 
J. Paterson, and Messrs. J. L. Grossmith, N. S. O'Reilly, 
W. T. Page, S. Williams, H. Goodchild, etc.— Ed. 

Fur'ther meetings will be held on : 
Thursday, July 24th, rendezvous Small Birds' House, at 11-15 

a.m. and 2-30 p.m. 
Saturday, August Kith, rendezvous Small Birds' House, at 
2-30 p.m. 

If any intimate a desire to be present during: iha. 
morning of August l(5th, they will be met at the Small Birds' 
House if they notify Mr. W. T. Rogers by August 14th. 
PH - 

British Bird Calendar. 

// is iirgeidhj rciiaextpd that Meiiihers from all niniid the const irill 
n')le Ihf iiiorpiiifuts ol birds, inorf fsp/'i-ia//// in Ihr Smtlheni and Eostera 
(j.Hintit's.ond rCindiirJn (2stli I'f fOcI, iiionlli) send in tlwir notes- Or\ thiS the 

ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend. - 


Tnio Ci'CKOO : Has the Cuckoo deserted everybody as early this year as he 
has me. The Cuckoo is a particular friend of mine, each year I 
look forward to his coming and lament his going. This year for 
the first time in my life I never heard him in June at all. I 

Bri/ish Bird Calendar. 23)) 

went to town on May 2.Slh, and returned on June Hrd, and I 
have never heard him since. I have noticed the hist few years 
he has coninienced later and later, and left off earlier and earlier 
and I wonder if any one else has observed this. Twice iti my 
life I have heard him on April Gth, and that is the earliest, this 
year 1 did not hear him till April 20th. In an old pocket hook 
I came across the other day was the entry.- "July 3rd, Cuckoo 
came to bid me goodbye." I do not think I ever heard him la^er 
than that, but for years past now, not at all during the last fort- 
night in June even. 
Report for the three months ending June .'JUtli. from the North IJnst. 
Lighthouse : 

April 1—1 Robin and Hock of Starlings 
„ 2 — 1 Redwing and 1 Chaffinch. 
„ 4- First Great Skua for season. 

., 18— Razorbills and Guillemot's on Cliffs, also 4 Sparrows. 
„ 19— Puffins landed on Rock. 
„ 10 — 1 Blackbird (female) a rare risl/ar here. 
„ 19—1 Richardson's Skua. 
„ 24—1 Wheatear. 

24—2 Lesser-backed Gulls. 
„ 20—1 Glaucous Gull. 
May 4—1 Swallow and 2 Wheatears. 
„ 4-2 Common Gulls. 

9-1 Redstart (male) seen till 12tli 
„ 11—1 Robin and 2 Whimbrel. 
„ 13—1 Coijimon Sandpiper. 
„ 16— Fulmer commenced incubation. 
„ 17—1 Swallow. 
„ 18 — 6 Turnstones. 
„ 18-Pipers, 

„ 18 — Kittiwakes commenced building. 

„ 18— Great Black-back Gulls nest with three eggs (first for season). 
„ 20-1 Whimbrel and 1 Wheatear. 
22 -1 Swallow. 

25 - Oystorcatchers nest with 1 egg. 
June 14— Chaffinches. 

PerD.E.P., JulvGth, 1913. 

Erratum: In May issue of " B.N.," a similar report 
was given, into wliich crept an uniortunate error: "North 
Hist Lighthouse," should read North Unst Lighthouse. 


234 ^05^ Mortem Reports. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

V;</e /i'«/('.s (See Paijeiii <>/ (Joccr.J 

GoL'i.Di.vN FiNfii. (Mrs. Hartley, Hastings). Cause of de.itli, liajiiiorr- 
hage on the brain. 

Goui.DiAN Finch ( i ), (P. H. Sellars, Edinburgh). Cause of death, 

L.v\ KNDEK Finch ( <? ). ('i'he Hon. Mary Hawke, Tadcasterj. Cause 
of death, a septicaemia. 

Hardwick's CHLOROP8IS. (Mrs. Conuell, Hants.) The bird was too 
fat and no doubt its death arose from heart faihu-e from fatty degeneration 
of the heart muscle. 

Young Budgekicak. (Miss Bainaby, Southampton). Cause of death, 

Blue Sugar-hikd. (Geo. Scott Freeland, Ton bridge). Cause of 
death, a septicaemia. 

Blue Sugar-bird. (Miss E F. Chawner, Lyndhurst'. No doubt 
the cause of death was convulsions. 

Cordon Bleu ( <? ). (G. E. Haggie, Oxford). Cause of death, enteritis. 

Hartz Canary ( J ). (Miss Muriel Maxwell Jackson). Cause of 
death, pneumonia. 

Aiisirered hy jjos/— Mrs. Connell, Mrs. Turner-Turner, G. E. Haggie, 
Miss Eccles. 

H. GRAY, M.R.C.V.S. 


All Rights Resrrvrd. Auoust, 1.9 1 P.. 




Some Interesting Birds. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.vS. Illustrated fiiom Tjfe. ry 
H. Wtllford, 

{Conlhiiicd from par/C 213). 

Tni] Tjesrkk Black -backed Gull (Larus fuscus). The 
four ]i<\iutiful ]Mioto,2:raplis illu'^trating the?e notes were taken 
by Mr. Willford. this season, at Taen, Island of Scilly, and 
figure four episodes in the domestic life of this species. 

Gulls live chiefly over or near the water, they are not 
diving'-hirds, and their food consists of live fish only in part — ' 
in fact they are practically omnivorous — their diet may be said 
to cover small live surface^ fish, dead ftsli Avhich float on the 
water, molluscs, crustaceans, woi'ms, caterpillars, mice, moles, 
etc., wliih> some of the species t'ik(> the eggs and young of 
moorland -game nnd water-fowl; grain also is taken to some 
extent. The indigestible portions of their food are ejected in 
the form of large pellets. 

The Lesser Tilack-hncked Gull is a beautiful hird (the 
same may be said of all Chills) and one of the most attract ivej 
and loveliest scenes of spectacular avifauna is a group of these 
bird^ foraging for their food on their feeding grounds, hovering" 
above the water, or their domestic life on or about their nests. 
How beautiful are the pure hues and the usually spotless con- 
dition of IlKur plumage ! 

J^esrr/plio)/: Tn summer the plumage is pure glisten- 
ing white. exce])t for the mantle and wings, which are blackish - 
grey; the first three primaries have an oval white spot at 
the tip. the secondaries a-id scaim'ars ai'c tipped with white; 
l>ill and feet yellow. Tu Avinter the head and neck are much' 
streaked with brown. 

The nestling is greyisli-white mottled with brown, 
prim.-iries have no white spots, and the bill and feet are dusk.y. 

230 Some Interesting Binh. 

This species is pretty generally distributed around our 
coasts, and also in the Baltic, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, 
the Eed Sea, and the coasts of 'North America. NotaV)lo 
nesting places are the coasts of Devon, Cornwall, Wales, Tsle 
of Man, Scotland, and Ireland. I may specially mention on 
pajsani the settlements on the Scilly Isles (where our illu:"-- 
trations were taken), Parne Islands, the Northern Shetlands and 
the Outer Hebrides. In Ireland this specie? nests both on the 
coasts, and near inland lakes, but the former position is the 
most common. Rocky Islands and steep cliffs are its favourit;' 
nesting sites. 

The nest is rather a large one, constructed of seaweed, 
grass stacks, and a few twigs, with a slight hollow or cup 
for the eggs (see phofo). 

'The eggs, three in number, vary considerably, 'the 
ground colour being mostly buff, blue, or green, and either 
spotted and lined all over, or only at the 'arger end of (he 
egg. Size 2.8 by 1.9 

It has been many years since I visited a Gull -colony, 
but the memory is ever with me and I certainly envy my 
friend, Mr. H. Willford, his experiences in the Scilly Isle^ 
this season. 

As I pen these notes, I live over again the experi- 
ences of the past, and the imp^ressions recalled may well tlnd 
a place here. 

The noisy, busy life of a breeding colony is apparently 
continuous. The apparent oneness of the mated pairs, the 
complete sharing of the duties of domestic life by both sexes, 
and their al>vorption in the one business of life, viz., the 
reproduction of their kind— t!e many pleasing episodes which 
go to make up the above, how they appeal to the bird lover: 
during incubation, when the time comes for relieving each 
other comes round— the mate of the incubating bird is always 
near, for after foraging and feeding it always returns to the 
neighbourhood of the nest, and sits near it— how carefully the 
sitting bird rises and appears to examine the eggs (see 
photos), and with like care the other takes its place, ap- 
parently examining and turning the eggs before settling down 
to incubation. Then again, such scenes are repeated as :hey 
"change guard" while brooding the young; how tender and 

So?ne In foresting Birds. 237 

solirilous appears to he llicii' i-arc^ of their brood; liow in- 
((Mv.sliiii; lo walch the rrluniiii- liird ali-lif near IIm' ih'sI. 
Ilii'ii p.insiiii;- ill I'roiil oF it ^ pri)L;cii\', caliiih- disia^or^' tlu^ 
(•(.tiiciits of its crop on the .^'rouiid before tlicin ;nid as pal iontly 
as a cluckiiii;' licii, teaching them (in the early stages) how to 
pick up and feed. And what apt pupils 'they are; but few lessons 
being needed. Again, how soon the young leai^i (or is it in- 
stinctive?) to crouch on the ground, at any cause for alaini or 
consciousness of danger. They become practically invisible 
as they thus crouch, so perfectly do they harmonise with their 

'Then again, how sedate and peaceable they are (T 
now write of vcspeiM ive jiairs)., how difTei'ent from many other 
species of birds we know, with whom sparring and un- 
classical language is very common, liut Gulls liave a sedate- 
ness and "dignity all their own. 

Even Londoners are acquainted with Gulls, and appre- 
ciate their beauty, as during the winter and early sjiring they 
watch and feed the wheeling crowds at the bridges and in tli(^ 
parks. That they do appreciate their great beauty is ap- 
parent from the hnoivn fact that city business boys and girls 
spend a portion of their meagre lunch allowance in the 
purchase of food for these beautiful, wild creatures of the air. 

Gulls make nice pets and when pinioned, or with the 
featherb of one wing cut after each moult, they can be left to 
wandei at will about any roomy garden or back yard, they 
will eat almost anything, but should get some natural food 
(already stated), and also have a large shallow vessel of some 
kind to wade about in. 

The title at head of these notes is "The Rlack-bncked 
Gull," l)ut I have also written much of Gulls generally; how- 
ever my readers will have no difficulty in distinguishing one 
from the other. 

{To he continued). 

Nesting of the Eagle Owl. 

(Bubo nia.r/imas). 
By Miss E. F. Chawnek. 
The Eagle Owls have succeeded at last! For the last 
^Wi^ yeai's the hen has laid two clutches and incubated them 

238 Nesting of the Eagle OivL 

until spontaneous comliustion romovcd them. Two years ago 
she had a fertile egg. and by la sad mischance it was broken', 
a couple of days before it was due to hatch. Therefore this 
spring-, when I found her again on her nest, I merely remarked 
" poor old lady," and beyond supplying the cook Avith the special 
titliits for his wife which he expects while she is engaged in 
the nursery, I thought no more about her. Time went on, 
the hen had sat her fuU eight weeks and I l>egan to expect 
the usual finale, M'hen my suspicions were aroused by the 
rapidity with which the food disappeared. The birds eat 
next to nothing Avhile breeding and make up for it during the 
moult and autumn, but now the cock never wearied of taking 
in supplies, and the hen frequently uttered the special clucking 
call which means "bring food at once and plenty of it." Could 
it be ? I made up my mind to find out. This was easier said 
than done. Eagle Owls are not lightly coerced, and nothing 
would induce the hen to come off the nest while I was any- 
where within view. At last I hit upon a plan. I kept her 
waiting an hour or two beyond the usual feeding time and only 
brought round her food when she began to cill urgently for 
it. Then instead of giving it to the cock for her I offered 
it myself, dangling it above her head as she squatted. She 
stood up and stretched to reach the dainty (a large field vole): 
and I caught sight of an extremely addled egg and a young 
bird probably two or three days old. Its mother took the vole, 
crunched it, and putting her head down, fed her baby without 
paying any attention to me: afterwards the cock brought her 
a young rabl)it Avith which she busied herself. I did not see 
the young one again for nearly a week, when it had grown 
greatly and was evidently thriving. 

On the 15th of May its mother moved it into the outer 
part of the aviary where the cock had prepared a fresh scrape 
which served as a day nursery. This was particularly inter- 
esting to me, as it explained why the cock had always dug 
this second place alx)ut ten days after the hen had given up 
sitting, and seemed so anxious for her to occupy it. Hitherto 
I supposed that he wanted her to go to nest again, but now 
I see it is part of the routine of bringing up the young. 

Nothing more of importance occurred until the 20th, 
when T saw the owlet very intently watching its mother break. 

Nesting of (he Eafjle Oivl. 239 

up and prcpai-c a yoaiii,'- raMiit, rNiilciitly I'cccivint,'- iiislnic- 
liiiii. il prdlilcd so well 1iy its Ics.o:! that li\'r days lain- wlici. 
slndliiii,- alxMiI the a\ iary, it p;c,kc(i up and ,i;uip<'d down the 
whoh' hind jr- of a youn^ ral)liit. No wonder it ^vrw ! 

its cjuill^ wrro showin.u' thrcra.uli the thick down which 
(■n\ (doped it and il I'oljowcil its mother ahout tin; aviary, but 
dici not lt^•l^•e the yiuiniil until June 10th, when it seranilvleil to 
the to[) of a big stump ami perched there fur several hours. 
r.y th'-' lyth it could lly to the liighest perch and was prac- 
tit-ally itulependent, though its mother still controlled and 
watched over il, and its lather still carried food to them both. 

rp to this time tlie old birds had shown themselves 
unexpectedly amiable and made no objection to my entering the 
aviar\-, liut now the hen became savage. She took to hissing 
and snapping ami ei'ccting her feathers as soon as she heard me 
and if I came in while the young one; was visible she Hew 
at me viciously. The cock never took part in these hostilities, 
but looked on placidly from his perch, and occasionally hooted 
to the enrag^ed lady befow as much as to say, "my dear, pray 
calm yourself." This was fortunate for me, for I should have 
found it diilicult to tackle both birds had they set on me 
together. Of course), I did not intrude more than was unavoid- 
able, but a certain amount of sanitation is necessary especially 
in hot weather, and it would be a mistake to \let ,^th& hen 
think that I a,m afraid of her, so I persevered, choosing as far 
as I could those times when the babe had retired, in order to 
spare ity mothers feelings as much as possible. These tactics 
answered pretty well and as the Owlet is now (July 1st) 
launched into the world and as tall (though not as thick) as 
its father, and furnished with most formidable claws and beak, 
its mother though still guarding it, has somewhat relaxed, and I 
think as she moults will gradually lose her intei'cst in it. She 
has certainly done her work well. 

These splendid birds carry out a strict system of 
labour, when nesting, each t-aking its part and keeping to it. 
The cock digs the " scrape " in a place (usually the same 
every year) approved if not chosen by the hen. Once she 
begins to lay she remains on the nest, only coming off for 
a hurried stretch once in the twenty-four hours, usually alwut 
dusk; sometimes she indulges in a batli, but whatever she 

240 ]S!esthig of the Eagle Owl. 

may be doing she hastens back to her eggs the moment she, 
hears or sees any one approaching. The cock meanwhile 
sits on a high perch, keeping a look out; his business is to 
keep the larder supplied, and he carries everything edible that 
he car collect straight to the nest. If the hen does not want 
it at once he lays it beside her and returns to his post. When 
young are hatched his exertions are redoubled, and one can 
easily see how these great Owls must harry the countryside 
when they are in a state of nature. The hen meanwhile takes 
entire charge of the young and will fight anything in their 
defence. Most formidable she must appear to any prowling 
fox or dog when she stands over her young hissing and 
snapping, all her feathers puffed out and her orange eyes 
glaring, ready to launch herself at the enemy and fix flier 
terrible talons in his flesh. Even in the cramped quarters of an 
aviary with her instincts dulled by captivity, and a never 
failing supply of food, her courage is undeniable and she is not 
to be trifled with. She prepares the food and teaches the 
young how to tear it, she moves them to their day nursery and 
hustlet them back to concealment at the approach of real or 
fancied danger. The young feed themselves and fly well when 
about six weeks old but their parents guard and tend them 
for fully three months, by which time their " down " has given 
way to adult plumage. 


Breeding of the Great-Tit (Pams major j in 

By Dr. Maurice Amslbr. 
Having noticed that none of the genus Par us had 
been bred in captivity, I determined early this year to try my 
luck with the Blue -Tit and Great -Tit. My attempts with the 
former, a cage-moulted prize-winning pair weie not success- 
ful, but I succeeded in rearing the Great-Tit from a freshly 
caught pair of this species. Being unable to buy a {)air of 
Pants major through the usual sources I profited by a few 
days holiday in Hertfordshire, and caught a couple pretty 
quickly in a 'home-made trap. Tliese two birds although a 
pair, were obviously not mated, for when placed together in 
a cage, the hen soon began to make her \voiild-l,xi 'spouse's 

Urcdiiiii oj I hi' drcil-'rH In CaptivUij. 241 

fratlii-i-s lly. The following day (April 18th) I liberated the 
male Itird, and by using the hen as a Uecoy was able to eapture 
the gentleman of her choice, U)v when ]iut together thei-e was 
no sign of disagreement. 

I had always understood that Great-Tits were mucii 
harder to meat oil" than the Blue-Tit, but these bii-ds nevei' 
looketl sick nor sori-y on a diet of sundower seed and meal- 

On I'eturning to Eton on April the 21 si, I turned llu; 
birds out into a small aviary 9ft. x Sft. x Kjl't. higii, and 
and provided them with a Berlepsch nesting log, which I had 
sawn in half, and hinged for purposes of inspection. At \\vA 
my Tits were extraordinarily wild for such impudent ,uid i-ou- 
liding bird.s, bu;t a fortnight later I thought I saAV the lien Ijird 
carrying and on looking into the box I found about a handful 
of moss, at the bottom of the cavity. 

p]ach nigld the hen slept in the lo.u', llic male inoiuiling 
guard in a small travelling cage nailed up a few feet above 
the log. 

On May 10th (3 weeks from their capture), a lu-at 
cup shaped nest had been built, composed enVirely of line, 
and lined with hair or fluff obtained from a piece of coarse, 
felt, and the first Qg^ was laid. Six more eggs were laid on 
successive days, but incubation only started in earnest after 
the second Qgg. , ' , 

As fai' as my olis.-i-variun goes tlie male look no pari 
or interest in the Ijuilding. an.i certainly not in incubaliou. The 
latter lasted 13 days, and not once during this time did I see 
the hen ofl" her nest, though I looked into the log on two occa- 
sions to make sure she was in the land of the living. 

|What food she had was given her bjy the cock, unless per- 
haps she left her eggs in the early hours of the morning. 

On May 28th the hen made her first re -appearance into 
the world, and suspecting that she had hatched I took a <iuick 
look into the box and found five chicks. On the following day 
one more had put in an appearance; the seventh e^^ !uul dis- 
appeared. The young birds were a dark brown colour, with 
black dow^n on head and back. 

And now began what for the cock must have been hard 
labour, from early morn till almost dark he devoted himself to 

242 Breeding of the Great-Tit in Captivity. 

the feeding of his oil -spring. For the first day or two he 
niei'el^ flew to the entrance hole and only lialf disappeared, his 
tail at any rate always being visible; as the log was quilie 
y inches deep it was obvious that he was only "handing" the 
food to his mate, who in her turn fed the young she was brood- 

This order of things, however, gradually changed, for 
as the hen left the nest more and more frequently to help the 
male in collecting food, the latter took the opportunity of 
exploring the depth of the nursery, and feeding the chicks 
himself. During the whole time he did by far the greater 
share of foraging, and was a (model which many a oock of more 
peaceful and better tempered species might well copy. 

I was so struck by his devotion that on June 3rd I 
opened the door of the aviary and stood by with my heart in 
my mouth. He hopped out and then flew straight out of sight. 
" Good-bye," thought 1, kicking myself metaphorically for my 
trustfulness. JMot for long was I kept in suspense, for a few 
minutes later I heard his call note in a neighlx)uring tree, 
and down he swooped on to the roof of the aviary. He had 
a little dilllculty in finding his way in, but once this dilliculty 
was overcome he had no further trouble; his mate soon followed 
him but was not quite so quick in finding the aviary door.. 
After an hour of their liberty 1 took the opportunity of both 
birdc; being in the aviary together, to close the' door for the, 

On several occasions after this I let the birds out to 
forage for themselves, but obviously no insect provided by 
nature is so pleasing as the mealworm; both birds, but 
especially the male, followed me, and other members of the 
household, all over the garden, in the hope of getting the 
longed-for morsel. So insistent did the male become that we 
could call him from the aviary to the house, quite 30 yards, 
and he would come into a roomful of strangers, hop on to a 
chair and help himself to mealworms placed there in a dish. 

1 could never quite persuade him to take food from 
my hand, but he would help himself if I dropped the bait 
at my feet, or even on to my boo,t.. 

On June 9th, the young were well quilled, but still 
showed a good deal of down on heads and back. 

ccts ca 

1 1, 1,^1 It at lihcrty 

. ami 1 

i\c a 11 Is" c^rgs; 

V(Mk c 

iccsc and .suet. 


well ieathereil 

Biccdin;! of flic Great-Tit in Captivity. 24;i 

St Tar I lie food, apart lioni ii 
consisted ciitiiclN of i^ctitles, lucalw oni 
liul iiuw 111.' iiareiil birds hc.i^aii lo usi' 

Oil dune lltli, the ^ouiig lieiu 
1 closed tile aviary for good. 

Un June IGtli, four \ouug had left the nest, and another 
chick followed them on the 17th, the sixth I found dried up 
in the nest many days later. The general colour of the young 
birds was, back olive green, chest and under part, yellowish 
green, head, and i)ecLoral streak dark grey; flights dark grey. 
The while winij-bar so clearly seen in adult birds was visible 
in the nesl at 11 days of age. 

Un June ibth, all live were lusty and strong on the 
wing, but by evening, one had died; on the 19th two more were 
looking seedy and preferred sitting on the ground to perching, 
and by the 28th I was left with one youngster only, 'who 
fortunately was very active and forward. 

By the 25th he could eat suet, Yoj'k cheese, and "'soft- 
food,'' and seemed quite as independent as his parents, whom 
he equalled in size. 

As I wanted the aviary for other birds I liberated 
the birds on June 30th, but left the aviary door open for a 
few days, they often returned but were never so confiding as in 
former days wdien there were six happy youngsters to feed. 

1 have ringed all the birds and shall be interested to 
see whether they are still ajiiongst the birds who come here 
foj" food in the cold days of winter. 

The rearing of these birds, although not a noteworthy 
fact, is instructive, in showing the importance of getting mated 
birds when possible, for I do not think a strange cock and 
hen would have settled down so quickly. It also brings home 
a fact, with which Ave are all familiar, the extreme confidence 
of captive birds when feeding young; perhaps, the fact that all 
three birds returned several times to the aviary after libera- 
tion at a season wdien there is abundance of food outside might 
pacify a few of the less rabid " humanitarians." 

244 Holiddn Xofcfi from Easlhoiime. 

Holiday Notes from Eastbourne. 

By S. Williams, F.Z.S. 

To those of our members who take an interest in the 
avifauna of the district in which they live, or are spending, 
a holiday, as well as the inhabitants of their cages or aviaries, 
the following notes may prove acceptable reading. Having 
recently spent a short holiday in the above town, I will give 
a short account of the birds I met during one of my walks. 
I am not going to classify them genealogically, but will 
mention them as they came before my notice. My host, hav- 
ing kindly lent me a pair of field glasses, I set forth on at 
ramble across Eeachy Head and returned by an inland route. 
Starting from the pier, the first bird to be seen was not oui 
cheery little friend the House Sparrow {Passer domes ticus), 
but the Jackdaw (Corviis monedula)^ half a dozen of which 
at least, were proclaiming their presence on the top of .the 
houses with their not unpleasant caw. Keeping along thej 
beach I walked on the sands to Burling C4ap. I saw some 
Sparrows, Common (Ui'ls, and one Cormoi-anr, uniesi I was 
mistaken, the last mentioned being some distance away. Star- 
iings {Si'nnnis rnlguris) were flying about in large numbers, 
many nests being in the clifi's; some more Jackdaws also with 
nests and some Sand Martins (Cotile riparia)'. Having reached 
Burling Gap, I met a coastguard and had a chat with him, 
and having walked five miles over shingles and boulders under 
a summer sun, I \^'as not long in accepting his ofl'er of some 
bathing "togs." ,1 was soon in the warm briny and feljt 
much refreshed with my bathe. Having rested and enjoyed 
a pipe I made my way to the Gap Hotel and was soon doing 
justice to my lunch— nothing beats good home-made bread and 
cheese and a tankard of good English ale. In the bar were 
a numlier of stufTed birds and animals, most of them 
having lallen lo the gun of the prejirietor. A 
young Black-backed (UiU shot flying with some Wild 
Geese. and a Golden Plover shot on the did', a 
Barn Owl, a Diver, and oilier sea birds; also a line Badger 
taken close by were among the collection. Having lunched 
and refilled my pipe, I went inland, and finding a nice ^hady 
seat by a thicket of brambles spent an hour watt-hiiig the 

]Ioli(/<ti/ Xoh:s from i](hslh()inn<'. :24') 

hird lilV ;ii'(. 1111(1 me. Xol [nv away I soon saw a line MIn.m'I 
Thnish ('liiiuhis ri^cinnns) and also sonic Soii^- 'i'lini>lii's 
('/'. mitfiiGiis). all lorai^iii.i;- lor looil, cn idciil l.v For llii'lr laiiiiiics. 
Tho Blackbird (Mcniin uicniln) was to lie met with iicjc in 
i^Tcat tiuiiiliers and ol'tcn spoilt N'oiir chance ol' ,i;-ettiii^- a (doser 
view of other lurds by his warning- cry. Daintily tripping' 
about the mossy ground were nuiucrous lleiii^c Accentors {Ac- 
cf'Hiur iitudidaris), counuonly known as the Hedge Sparrow; 
tlicsi! birds have a very pleasing little song, i had a nestling 
a year ago and iie sang well in a cage. In the spring a 
liille lady of his sc.ecies, which could always be lonnd near my 
lui'd-housc captured his heart and I gave him his Ireedoni 
and was rewarded liy seeing him a ])i'oud lather. 'I'heJ'e are 
nuuiy now Irequeiitly to bo seen by my aviary. 

On a gorse bush some Linnets (Acanthls ca)ui(ih>)m), 
were singing gaily. \\\m\\ a treat to hear them I'oui'ing lonii 
melody in freedom, and how ditlerent also do they look when 
you see them in a tiny cage behind the glass of a bird sliop 
window! A lloek of (.ireenlincdies {Chloris milgaris) Hew o\er 
and one line male settled and some of his notes were vei-y 
musical, quite good enough to be called a song. Flitting 
about above the ground, some distance away(I now had to 
bring my glasses into use). 1 saw five iStonecliats {i talinvola 
ruhicola), three cocks and two hens. A\'hat bright lively little 
fellows they are. 1 always think it a pity to (^ cage them; 
You must see them at liberty to appreciate their graceful move- 
ments. I now proceed, as our American friends v/ould saj, 
to get a move on me and came (across three Whi\tethroats {Syl- 
via cinerca and S. curruca)], Greater and Lesser, creeping 
about among the brambles in search of insects. A number of 
Chaffinches {Fr'uujUla voclehs\, Yellow Buntings {Eni})cri:a 
citi uiclla), nioi'e fiinnets and Cireeniinches, Rooks, and .Jaek- 
da\vs. Overhead a hawk w'as hovering, liut not being well up 
in these birds I cannot say for certain whicdi it was, probably 
a Sparrow -Hawk or Kestrel. A few yards fi'om me a Spotted 
Flycatcher '{Muscicapa (jrisula) was keeping watch for all 
stray (lies, civ., and incessantly darted lo and fro , candiing 
them. On some freshly ploughed ground were IMed Wagtails 
iMotacilla lugabris) running about, one of the gems of the 
bird world, graceful to the highest degree. Overhead, Swifts, 

24(5 Holiday JS'otes from Eastbourne. 

SAvallows and House Martins, were showing aviators how liying 
should be done, and many Larks could be heard pouring forth 
their delightful song. To some a lark is just a bird, to me 
it is one of the most marvellous of living creatures. Soaring 
almost out of sight, and even with the exertion of flying, it 
pours forth at the same time a flood of melody our greatest 
singers might well envy. Further along the road I ^noticed some 
Warblers, Willow, I think, but something alarmed them, and I 
had not time to identify them, about here a \Yren. {Troglodytes 
parvulus) popped out on to a gate post, a perky little fellow, 
with tail erect, poured forth a challenge, at least so I con- 
strued it, the volume of song this little chap gives forth is 
surprising, quite sufficient sound for a bird six times his size. 
Towards the close of my ramble, I saw creeping topsy turvy 
about some tree branches, Great Tits (Parus major) and also 
Blue Tits, commonly called Tom-Tits (Paruscmiileus); a few 
Coal Tits {Parus ater) I had seen earlier in the day. Being 
about five o'clock I had to hurry along as we dined at 6-30. 
Many of the birds I have mentioned I again saw. Crossing a 
field, on some w^aste, I saw a Moor -hen {GalUnula chloropus)., 
and also a Partridge took flight at my approach. Although 
nothing rare had been seen, a most enjoyable day had been 
spent. I hope that other members will take some notes and 
send along an account of the birds they notice. Surely with 
our membership, nearly every corner of the British Isles must 
be visited, and records would be most interesting reading. 

An Island on the River Jhelum Punjab, 

By High Whistler, I. P., M.B.O.U. 

Not long ago I dismounted from my horse at the edge 
of the River, Jhelum where a boat was waiting for me to 
embark; opposite to the spot, in the middle of the swiftly 
flowing water was a small heavily wooded island, attracting 
attention as being unusual in these parts, where the islands 
are as a rule mere sandbanks, or else flat cultivated stretches 
with scarcely a tree of any size; some three or four hundred 
yards up stream was a similar but smaller and less densely 
wooded island. 

A couple of months earlier I had found some Little 

A)i Island on the Ttlvcr Jhrhim P/injah. 247 

Egrets noai- lioto, and had decided tho island was worth 
searching for tlioir iir>t.s hitoi' on at the proper season, 'i'his 
was why I now entered the boat and gave the 'woid for 
the island. Though the distanee to the island was only ahout 
two hundred yards, it took time for the l)oat to roardi there 
owing to the strength of the eurrent, and I had ample time 
to look around. 

'The island was not above one hundred and fifty 5^ards 
long by souK^ sixty wide; the major ])ortion, which stood some 
eight feet above the water, with steep banks screened by 
brushwood, was covered thickly with trees, forming a mass of 
dark unbroken green which showed up the white plumage of 
a few Egrets that could be seen sitting on the boughs. The 
lower i)art of the island end was covered with stunted tamarisk 
and ended in a pointed spit of sand clothed with " sarpat " 
grasR to within a foot or two of the water's edge. T'^ndf^r 
the trees grew "bhang" — the drug produeing plant, and in 
1h(^ more ojien ]iarts this formed dense undergrowth, reminis- 
cent of an English nettle-bed. 

On neighbouring sandbanks, a few birds were standing 
at the water's edge; here a group of .Spoonbills (FWalea 
Icucorodia) were busy cleaning their plumage; there a few 
Cattle Egrets were wrapped in meditation. Over the shallower 
water, between tho two islands, a number of Black -bellied 
Tern (Sterna mclanoga.sirr) were wheeling backwards and 
rnr\vards, fishing. Now and again a Heron or "E'^M-ot flew pasl, 
to disappear in the trees on the island. 

'As we approached nearer T could see a few Night 
Herons standing on the wet sand in that lumpy fashion, which 
one comes to look on as a chief characteristic of the species. 

Jleaching the island we scrambled up the sandy bank— 
and the spot lost its calm! Every step was greeted by the 
he^vy flapping and harsh grunts that announced the startling 
of an indignant bird from its nest; while a host 'of Crows 
{Corvus spJetnlrns), fluttered and cawed, apparently most in- 
dignant at our intrusion. 

'My expectations were fulfilled; this was indeed the 
nesting place of the Egrets, and it was evident that the only 
obstacle to securing their eggs, would be the difticulty of identi- 
fying tho actual owners of each nest. 

24:Si An Island on the Hiver Jhelum Funjah. 

By dint of cai-oful ohscrvatioii T iiiaiiauo!] to idcntiry 
sufficient nests for my needs, and found that four species wereT 
breeding on the island; these were in order of abundance: the 
Cattle Egret, the Little Egret, the Pond Heron, and the Night 
Heron. A short account of each may not he out of place. 

The Cattle Egret (BuhuJcus coromandus) is in winter 
I)ure white with a yellow hill and black feet; in breeding 
plumage the head and neck and long decomposed dorsal plumes 
become orange buff. Length 20 inches. The bird takes its 
name from the fact that it is a cons'tant attendant on herds' of 
cattle, feeding on the grasshoppers that are disturbed by the 
herd, and the insects that are attracted by it. 

The Little Egret (Herodias garzetta) is pure white at 
all seasons with black bill and tarsus, the toes being a curious 
mixture of black and yellow. In the breeding season a crest 
of two long attenuated feath^^rs is developed and the pectoral 
feathers become lengthened and lanceolate; the dorsal feathers 
become a train of long decomposed plumes, turned up towards 
the end, — these being an inferior variety of the plumes of 
coinmerce. Length 25 inches. 

The Pond Heron or Paddy Bird (Ardrola f/rai/i)--'d 
relative of the European Squacco Heron— is one of the most 
familiar of Indian water birds. In winter it is roughly 
speaking, a mixture of buff, yellow, and various sliades of 
'l>rown, in streaks, with pure white wings and tail. The 
breeding plumage 'is very different. The head and neck are 
light yellowish brown, with an occipital crest of long narrow 
lanceolate white feathers; the feathers of the upper breast 
are long, partly decomposed, ashy brown with narrow whitish 
streaks; the back and inner scapulars are long, decomposed; 
and coloured deep maroon; remainder of plumage pure white; 
bill blue at the base, yellowish in the centre, and black at 
the tip. Feet dull green. Len.gth 18 inches. This little 
Heron frequents every description of pond, marsh, river, and 
pool, and is not (in winter plumage) usually observed, until It 
lakes flight, when by suddenly revealing the pure Avhite wings 
and tail it becomes most conspicuous. 

To return to the colony, the Night Herons had built 
their nests together in one part, but the other three species were 
nesting anywhere with their nests all mixed together. The 

An Islam? on thr THrcr Jhrhiw Pini'iah. 240 

nosis of all wiM'c llx- ordinary st nicliiic ol" s! icks, and tln^ only 
onos that avsto (list in,-:!!! dialdc I'l'om t!io;(' of otlioi' s|)Cfie.s were 
tlio small plal forms of [\\o Pond TTei-ons. 

Tlio noises made l»v tbo Iloi-ons woi-o most (•ui'ioiis-- 
nsually a kind of rather fi-o,i;-lik<^ rroak, or a surglo, which' 
ill tlii^ ('\('il(Mni'iit of an oocasional squabhic were exohanj^ofl for 
liarsli (|uai-ks that mii,'-ht well have been uttered by an a,£ritated 

The o^ix>i of all four species of TTeron nestintr in Ihf 
eolony were of courso of the typical blue-^n'oon co'onr, but bv 
eareful examination T fiMind tint the e,c:,ir^^ nii.tjht usually be 
dist,in,2:uished as follows: 

Horad'a'i rra>-zr/fn and Bi(hulrus rornmmvhin lay e.^ci^s 
rou.ijhly the sanio size, but tho-;e of the latter tend to be 
sliirhMy lar.crer: the colour however is very distinctive (as 
l-.c'woen these two specie for the eg'g's of B . qafri'Ha ■,\r<^ 
a much de -per b'u'^-,e:reen, those of B. coromandns beinj? more 
properly described as white tinged with bluish -green. "Whereas 
71. qarzcffa usually lays 5 or 6 eggs, B. coromanrfvs seldom 
lays more than 4. The eggs of NycUcorax cfrisew^ are dis- 
tinguishable by their larger size from those of Ardenia qrajii 
and Herod ia-i fia>-zr'fa, and usually from those of Bnhulcus 
coromanihc^. but large eggs of the latter approximate to small 
eggs of 'the former ; in such cases the deeper colour would 
-erve to I'dentifv tln^ eggs of .Y. gri'^ens. 

The eggs of Ardeola cfcn/? which are of the deeper 
blue-gi'cen Heron type may be distinguished from those of the 
other three species by their small size. 

The measurements in millimetres, of eggs recorded in 
my notes give the following results: 

Xi/c'icorn.r cjriseus: 6 eggs; length 40-4().r): breadtli 
.T4-.3f5..5; average 48 x 35.5. 

yi/Hicorax griscns: eggs; lencrth J0-4(i.r); l)readth 
;;i-.S4; average 44 x 33. 

Bubidcus coromandns: 22 eggs; length 42-4 7.5; breadtli 
33-35.5; average 44.5 x 34.5 

Ardeola grai/i: 30 eggs; length 30-41. 5: breadth 27 x 
3 1.5; average 39 x 29. 5 . 

I visited the island on several occasions and always 
found Cornis .splo/dcns numerous in the trees. Knowing the 

250 An Island on the River Jhelnm Punjab. 

propensities of the Crow tribe, one suspected that they were 
there to prey on the eggs and young of the Herons, but T 
never saw any thefts taking place, and the Herons appeared not 
to mind the presence of the Crows; and birds generally aro 
ready enough to object to dangerous intruders near their nests. 

The numerous dust and rain storms that occur in this 
part must do a lot of harm to such colonies, for on' one occa- 
sion when I went to the island the day after a ^bad storm^ 
many young birds were lying dead on the ground below the 

or the other inhabitants of the island there is little to 
be said. A very noisy Grey Partridge (FrancoKnus pondiceri- 
auus) inhabits the wilderness of "Bhang" Undergrowth in 
the tamarisk: once, and only once have I seen him — perching 
on the lower bough of a tamarisk; yet he is 'always to be 

Toward-, du k large numb':'rs of Green Parrakeets (Palie- 
or)}i'^ )ri)>alensis) and (torqnafus) arrive to roost in 
the trees, adding their full share of noise to the general 
contribution. Many Green Bee-eaters '(Merops viridis) perch 
on the trees and bushes round the edge of the island, launching 
forth ceaselessly in pursuit of some luckless insect. 

,0n one occasion I saw a tiny Heron sitting on the sand 
by the water's edge, and stalking it found I had secured the^ 
Little Green Heron {Bui or ides javanicus), but i<- • did not 
appear to have a nest. My list of the Island liirds ends with 
the Indian Oriole (Oriolus liindoo), a pair of Ring Doves 
(Turtttr risorius), the Pied Kingfisher (Crri/Je rndis) and the 
Indus Sandlark (AJatiduJa adamsi); but doulitless it has many 
other visitors. 

■ ■ 

Blue -breast x Crimson-eared Waxbill Hybrid. 

By De. Maurice AmSxbk. 

On April 7th of this year I turned out from their winter 
quarters, into my small Finch Aviary, three Blue-hreastod 
Waxbills and a hen Cordon Bleu. The former, I knew, con- 
sisted of two cocks and a hen, and they soon settled down 
amicably, one of the cock Blue-breasts obviously basing 
plighted liis troth to ihc lion Cordon Bleu. 

On June 10th, } found a typical spliei-ical nest in a 

Blur-breast x Crhn.son- cared ^Va.l■}>/I/ Ili/brids. 2")! 

privet liiisli tiid on tli.- 15th, it contained four or five eggs, 
and one ol' (he Hlue-l>rea>;ts wa.s .sitting. It never entered 
my mind, until later, that this bird was the Blue-breast who 
had mated off with the hen Coi'don Bleu. On July oth, I found 
that- three eggs had lialehrd out, tlie young birds b(>ing aljout 
half-fledged. About this time I added to the aviary a cock 
Cordon Bleu, who was the means of my discovering the 
Mii.xcd parentage of the young birds. 

liiiniediately he had got over thesurpri-e of auain seeing 
sunshine, trees, and grass, he made up to the female Cordon 
Bleu, who treated him with absolute contempt, whilst her Blue- 
I)reasted mate knocked his would-l>e rival off his perch, and 
chased him round the aviary. 

I then noticed that the Cordon Bleu hen's tail was bent 
to one side — as occurs with all long -tailed birds of this genus, 
after sitting for a few days. I watched carefully, and soon 
found that she was feeding the three chicks already mentioned. 
Even so she might possibly have been feeding the young of 
a true pair of Blue -breasted Waxbills, but on July 11th, the 
day before the three hylirids flew, I found in another bush a 
similar nest containing eggs, and being incubated by the other 
cock and hen Blue -breasts, their eggs were fertile, and I believe 
have now hatched. The nest is rather high and I cannot ex- 
amine it again without causing a good deal of disturbance. 
The your"- hybrids closely resemble Blue-breasted Waxbiils 
\\-hich I have bred before — they are however perhaps a trifle 
paler in colour. 

Gordon Bleus have the iris of a reddish-brown colour, 
and the beak has a distinct pink tinge; in Blue-breasted Wax- 
bills the iris is dark brown and the bill is horn-coloured. The 
latter species are, moreover, half an inch longer, and of course 
considerably brighter in body colour. 

It will be interesting to note later which parent the 
hybrids, favour, and more especially to find out whether they 
are capable of reproduction. I am hoping to get another 
brood this summer, which will increase my chance of securing 
one or more breeding pairs for next year. 

I have marked the hybrids with numbered rings, and 
shall turn them out in an aviary to themselves so as to avoid 
all chance of confusion with either of their parent species. 

252 Jiird Marking. 

Bird Marking 

By Dk. Philip Gossk, M.B.O.U. 

A year ago there appeared in " Bird Notes " a short 
account of the birds marked here at Beaulieu during the season 
with migrat'on rings. Possibly this year's results may prove 
of a little interest. 

In 1912 we marked in all 822 birds during the first 
six months, and 45 different species. 

The total so far this year (end of July) is 1,279, and 
again 45 different species. 

Among the birds marked here this year for the first 
time are Snipe, Tree Pipit, Lesser White -ihroat, Bullfinch, 
Eing Plover, Stone Chat, Heron, Jay, Herring Gull; Guillemot 
and Land Eail. All the birds in the following list were wild 
ones, except the Rose-coloured Pastor, which had been in my 
aviary for a few weeks, but not settling down with the rest 
of the birds, was given its liberty. 

On the whole it has been a wonderfully good spring for 
birds here, as the weather was perfect for nesting with the 
exception of one violent thunderstorm, which drowned any 
number of nestlings and fledglings.. 

Nearly all the birds were marked as nestlings, though 
some Starlings, Chaffinches, Robins, and Sparrows, were caught 
in a trap and marked in the early part of the year. 

Of tiie "returns " of last years birds, the one of chief in- 
terest was the case of a Song Thrush, No. 22212, which was 
found dying at the St. Catherine's light in the Isle of ^^'ight 
at 5 a.m. on the 10th of February, of this year. In its 
stomach, which was rather empty, only fragments of insects 
were found. The lighthouse -keeper reported that the Thrush 
was killed during an immigration of Song Thrushes and Black- 
birds from the South; so that there is little doubt that it was 
returning to the neighlwurhood of its birth, St. Catherine's 
being about twenty miles due south of this place. I marked 
the bird as a nestling on the 25th, of April, 1912, in a wood 
here. We marked neither Marsh nor Coal Tits this year. 
During the winter these are to be seen everywhere in ;the 
woods, and plantations, but when the spring comes, I think 
they must to a great extent go elsewhere, as I seldom find 

Bird Marlxing. 


ai-c" iiostin.i,'- in every nest- 

a nesi o^ eillier while llic Uliu'- 
Im).\ or otiu'i' suital)le plaee. 

I should like to lake (hi-^ oppoi'tiiiiity to r<Mraet a rash 
slatoinent wliich J made kisf, yoai", that the Uarlford Warbler 
never migrates, in ■" I>iitisii Hirds." vol. v., page 220, is 
an intei'esting account of a Dart ford M'arbler that was caught 
at the Tuskar Li,i,>-hthouse, Co. Wexfoi'd, on October 27th, 1912. 
But thi^. i-^ tlie only example so far that has been obtained' 
in an\' I ii,'-! it house in (Jreat Britain or Ireland. 

Soii^' Thnisli 






Tree Pipit 


Rlue Tit 


liesser Wliitcthroat 
















Ring Plover 




Sjiotted Plycaicher 




















Tree Creeper 


Pied Wagtail 






Wood Pigeon 




Tin-tle Dove 





Long-tail Tit 


Herring (J nil 




Willow Warl.lcr 



.M. ;.<!<. w 





U-ose-coloin-fd Pastor 





Among several fi'iends 
birds or showing me nests, 1 it 

who helped ine by marking 
list particularly thank Edward 

Crouch, who having spent most of his seventeen years in the 
woods and marshes, was of great assistance. 

The rings used are those issued by the Alierdeen Uni- 
versity Bird Migration Iiupiiry. 

2i')4^ Zoo Notes. 

Zoo Notes. 

By the Hox. Edjtob 

At. the Zoo nesting results appear to have been below 
the average, and most aviculturists are telling the same mourn- 
ful story — infertile eggs, or chicks dead in shell seem to have 
been a pretty general experience. Some of the successes 
are as follows : 

\'\'niTi4' Storks {Ciconla alba). These are located in 
Seagulls' Aviary, and have nested and ha'ched out young on 
several occasions but have never reared them. This year they 
have done better and three young birds are now fending for 

Oebsted Screamers {Chaiina cristata). Success has 
again attended these fine birds, three were hatched out, but 
only one still lives, two having been trodden on while brood- 
ing and crushed almost flat. In connection with this interest- 
ing episode, the accompanying photo of the adult birds caress- 
ing ma> be! of interest. 

■Mexican Quail (^aJliprpla sqnamata), Douglas Quatl 
{Lophortyx douglasi)., and Spotted Tixamous (Nothurn nmc- 
ulosa), all have broods. 

Elite Water-hens {Porphyrio porphyria) have suc- 
cessfully hatched out two chicks, which are being brought up 
by Bantams. 

American Red-wtnged Starling (Agclaeus phocni- 
eiis), have three young birds on the wing, which are not yet 
fending for themselves, but thi> is now only a matter of a 
few days. 

Beonze-wing and Crested Pigeons and White- 
fronted Doves are all feeding young. 

Among the failures may be mentioned the Orange - 
headed and White -throated Ground Thrushes, both of which 
successfully reared young last year. 

Among the recent additions are a pair of Australian 
Flower -Peckers (Dicaeum hirundinaceiim); these were much 
admired by the membc^rs, who attended recent Club Afcctings 
at the Zoo. 

Another interesting arrival is a second Kay-u, but unfor- 

Bird Notes. 

Photo hi/ E. 0. Page. 

Pelican Prccniiig its Plumag-e. 

Ti.sifs io Monhcrs' Aviaries and Birdrooms. 25') 

tur.atply, I U^ixw (Iiat this l)ir(l is of the samo sex as the one 
already there. While writing of the Zoo, the Pelican enclosure 
is always of interest, and the plate of one of these hucre 
and atractive birds preening its plumage, taken by my brother 
two years ago, may prove of some little interest. 

For the same reason a photo of part of the Waders' 
Aviary is given, with a group of Avoects in the distance. 
This aA'iai'V always attracts iiiucli adinii'atioii, and its varied 
occupants arc a source of gicat iiitci'cst (it many visitors. 1 
may remark, oi pa.syaHl. that three years ago a young Avocet 
and two Redshanks were successfully reared in this aviary. 

Unfortunately the process of enlargement of the photos 
has been carried too far, and detail has sulTored somewhat 

Visits to Members' Aviaries and Birdrooms 

By Whslky T. PAfiE, F.Z.S., Etc. 
{Continued from page 184). 

Mk Scott-freeland's Aviaries : These Tonl>ridgc 
aviaries are really picturesque and will be more so as they 
develop, for they were not finished (two of them) till quite late 
in the autumn of 1912, and of course natural cover, etc., has 
yet to develop, yet sufficient has been done to give them a 
natural appearance, and the general effect is very pleasing, 
much enhanced by the setting of a most picturesque garden. 
Mr. Freeland is quite a new adherent to aviculture, but he 
certainly has made a most promising beginning, arid evidently 
does not intend to l)c content with the " Freely Imported 
Species," for he already has many uncommon and beautiful 
species occupying the respective aviaries. 

The aviaries, three in number, have been named The 
Terrace, Rockery, and Road Aviaries, according to the position 
whicli they occupy. 

The Terrace Aviary, while containing a certain iuunbor 
of regular occupants, is looked upon as the reception quarters 
for new arrivals to be rested and acclimatized in, before being 
turned intc- permanent quarters in the Rockery or Roa!d 
Aviaries. The shelter of this aviary reminds one of a gigantic 

2!'>C) V/^?7,s to Members' Aviaries and Birdrooms. 

l:iee-hive, foi' the Avails and roof are thatched externally with 
a three-inch tliickness of straw, and ve:'y pleasing the efTect 
is. Canai'ies and Cutthroats have rearetl young to fend for 
themselves. Its occupants at time of my visit were; 

4 Canavips 1 Java Sparrow 

1 Nonpareil Bunting ? 1 Combasou 

2 Lavender Finches "2 Black-headed Nuns 
2 Cordon Bleus 2 Spice Finches 

2 Benealese 2 Cutthroats and Young 

2 Zebra Finches 2 Silverbills 

A^ll being apparently in perfect hoalth and condition. 
From the terrace a flight of steps leads down to the Road 
and Rockery Aviaries. I must really speak of these two as 
one in describing them, for they are practically one structure 
with a wire netting partition down the centre of flight and 
lofty shelters attached to each flight. The framework of flight 
is of iron (semi -circular top), covered with half -inch mesh 
wire netting. The shelters are of wood, with three inches of 
straw between the two courses of boards, and are very lofty 
and light. I rdid not take actual measurements, but the shelters 
are about 10 feet square, and the flights about 40 feet by 10 
feet each. I should say the terrace ground is much higher 
than the aviary site, and as the latter are approached from 
the high ground, the effect as one looks down into the aviaries 
is most pleasing and picturesque. An asphalte path runs 
through the entire length of each flight, and the beds on cither 
side arc planted with various shrubs, evergreens, etc., and 
the whole efTect is very natural. I hope at some future time 
!Mr. Freeland will describe these aviaries and illustrate his 
notes with photographs of the aviaries and their occupants. 
The occupants of these aviaries are as follow : — 
Rockery Aviary: 

2 Tricolour Tanagers 2 Goldfinches 

?> Superb Tanagcrs 2 Siskins (nesting) 

1 Gold-fronted Fruitsucker ] Hooded Siskin 

2 Blue Sugar-Birds 2 Grey Linnets 

4 Yellow-winged Sugar-Birds 1 Ruficauda Finch 

2 Orange-headed Ground Thrushes 2 Tndigo Buntings 

1 Black Redstart ?) Zebra Finches and Young 

4 Gouldian Finches 1 Black-headed Nun 

H Orange-cheek Waxbills 1 Grey Singing Finch 

4 Grey Waxbills 2 Spice Finches 

\ i.sils Id Ml iiilifi.s' Ariarics (iml lllnfroinns. )>')1 

■1 (;.pM-l.lvaslr.l Waxl.ills 2 Sil v,Tl,il Is 

•1 Viul.t TMiia-vrs 2 Wliitr Ik'ihIcI Xuns 

4 ('..III. .11 lil.iis 1 Liiveiidev Kiiicli 

■_' Maskcl (iiMssliii.lus 1 Green Avadavat 

Ju).\i/ .\\i.\i;v: 

•_' SallVoii Kin.-ii.'s 1 I'iiil.iil Wiiy.lali 

1 I'i.'.l Wnulail 1 lilur P.inl V 

1 Vrll..\v Wa-lail ? I V.vvvn Sin-iii-liii.-li 

I llaMJwi.ks iMuilMi.'krr 1 Short-winged Weaver 

1 Vii-iniaii ( ai-.iiiia! 2 lled-billed Weaver 

2 Indigo liunti'igs '?> (various) Weavers 
2 Silver-eared Mesias 1 Niglitingale 

2 Blue Tanagers 1 Redstart i 

1 Scarlet Tanageis d' 1 Bullfinch i 

2 JTagpie Mannikins 1 Goldfinch ? 

3 Paradise Whydahs . -2 Chaffinches 

111 the Road Aviary Blue Tanag-ers and Silver-eared 
Mesias iiave each had three clutches of eg-gs, but all the eyi^'s 
were infertile. J^otli pairs were nesting again and hope had 
taken a new lease of life. Saffron Finches were incubating. 
In the Rockery Aviary Olive and Zebra Finches have young 
on the wing, but not yet fending for themselves. Maskt'd 
Grassfinches have young in the nest which were doing well. 
and Orange -cheeked Waxbills were nesting. There were a 
fair number of nests high up of which Mr. Freeland knew 

The above notice in most inadequate, but my desire is 
that owners should give descriptions of their aviaries and 
birds. jSir. Freeland said that up to the present only Canaries 
and Cutthroats had reared young up to the point of fending 
for themselves, but that there were many other pros])ects of 
success in other directions. 

L.M.T. CRirrrEs' Hospital and College .4viAniEs: 
These aviaries have now develo[ed and are now looking quite 
spectaculai', the Finch aviary in particular looks charming with 
the internal standards wreathed with Dorothy Perkins and 
other Rambler Roses, the door arches covered with clematis, 
ivy, and honeysuckle, while the evergi-eens, privet hedge, 
etc., have all done well and the result is very picturesque. In 
opposite corners brambles thrive and are now producing fruit. 
The occupants of the aviary are thriving also, and two rather 
interesting successes are worth recording-. 

:258 Visits to Memhers Aviaries and Binhonms. 

Red -billed Weavers (Quelea quelea). A pair of this 
species have successfully reared one young bird which was 
(July 30;h) fending for itself. There are very few instances 
of this species rearing young in captivity, and so far nothing 
has been placed on record concerning them save the bare fact 
of success. The nest which I closely examined was built in 
a honeysuckle which was twining round a spar.;e hazel bush. 
It was fairly closely woven, though the aviary attendant in- 
formed me that he could easily see the one e^g through it, 
and was a two chambered construction, a short tul;;e or spout 
led to the first chamber and the other or hind compartment 
formed the incubation chamber; unfortunately when I saw 
it, though nearly intact, it was too much the worse for " wejir 
and tear " to be photographed, the spout or tube having almost 
disappeared. I gleaned the following facts from the attendant 
concerning it. 

Only one a^^ was laid, which duly hatched out. 

The young bird was about sixteen days old when it 
left the nest. 

On July 30th it was fending for itself and had been 
out of the nest about three weeks. 

The nestling plumage is very similar to that of the adult 
female, but greyer and the striations much less distinct; Ix^ak 
light horn -colour. 

An interesting result, as very little live food is sup- 
plied, and the young bird must have been reared on seed and 
greenfood, plus what insects its parents captured in the aviary., 
Adult pair nesting again. 

Hybrid Mannikins: Odd specimens of Indian Siiverbill 
(cf) and Spice Finch (9) crossmated, and after laying a fair 
number of creamy-white eggs, succeeded in hatching out and 
fully rearing two young birds, which were about one week 
out of the nest when 1 saw them. The nest was a domed 
structure built, in a l)Ox, of grass and very compactly woven 
together. The nestlings are about the size- and contour of 
Silverbills, but at present it is impossible to say Avhat they 
will be like when they have moulted; at present they are of 
a nondescript brown, lighter on the underparts. On one of 
them there are slight indications of the scalings of the kSpice 
Finch, They are nesting again. 

I'/.svV.v lo Mcn/hcrfi' Aviaries (ukJ ninlroonis. 25'.l 

Cutthroats {Amaclhin fasciata). Tlicsc li.ivc one ])ro()<l 
of two young males on the wing- and arc rcodiny ;, scconil 
brood in the nest. 

Jiybrid Blackbirds: A Grey-wingrd Ouzel (McrnUi houl- 
buul) x J-.laokbird {Mciula )nriula) have nested thiice and 
art' ncsliiii'- a,i(ain. So I'ai' there has licen no result; om- noui:,'^- 
biru lived to leave the nest, but not to i'end \i>v ilselF. 

I'arrakeet Aviary: Here, though all tlie birds Kosella, 
Ked-runiped, and Ring-necked Parrakeets; Madagascar, Blue- 
wing and Black-cheeked Lovebirds; Oockatiels and Budgeri- 
gars—are in excellent condition and very vigorous. Only 
the Budgerigars have reared young, though the Black-cheeked 
Lovebirds are nesting. 

They have unfortunately lost their hen Gouldian Finch. 
If any of our members has a duplicate hen such would be very 
acceptable and gratefully acknowledged. 

Mk. Chiozza Monky'b Aviakies (Highgate) : On Tues- 
day, August 5th, I availed myself of Mr. Money's kind in- 
vitation to lunch and to see his aviaries and birds. The house 
is barely completed, and it speaks volumes for Mr. Money's 
interest and enthusiasm in his birds, that the aviaries aix; uj) 
before the grounds are touched ! 

While Air. Aioney has provided a fair amount of natural 
cover, he has not so much as is usually found in the garden 
aviary, his desire being to have his birds mostly staged, as it 
were, before him, and he has certainly succeeded in securing 
this and at the sam(! time very pleasing and attractive aviaries; 
the ground plan clearly indicates how he has achieved this. 
Mr. Money also likes to have as varied a series of birds as 
it is possible to keep together, as will be indicated in the lists 
given later. 

The aviaries have only been up about six weeks, and 
were erected on bare, rough ground; yet Mr. Money ha« 
triumphed over difhculties and pushed on one side gardeners' 
and nurserymen's ol)jections that it was impossible to move 
large bushes in July — privet and other bushes, 8 feet high 
have been successfully transplanted, and by the fi-ee use or 
water, both as to the ground and sprayed over the foliage, 
this has been accomplished with scai'cely the loss of a leaf — 

2('i0 Visits to Members' Aviaries and Bird rooms. 

^',s to Me nil) 

Arhulcs (iii(( Ilinlrooi 


cind the iiviary yeiiL' 
e«qu.i appearance. 

A. reference, to the grou 
sistsj of two aviai'ies "A" and 
shelter lliglits 12ft. x 12ft. att 
iiig, has a passage " P " I'uiii 
whieh the shelter flights, " C " 
these the outer (lights are reae 

1 will now give a list of 
aviai'ies : — 

Aviary A.— D. 

1 jiair Sikliim Siskins 
1 i Sliania 

1 Hiudwifks J''ruitsiicker 
1 Indian Grey Tit 
1 Green-backed "^I'it 
1 Laj)win<f 
• 1 Parson Kindi 

1 pail- .\h.skc'd (irassHnrlu'S 

1 pair Scarlet Tanagers 

1 pair Nonpareil Buntings 

1 pair Red-crested Cardinals 

1 pair Cuba Finclies 

1 pair Orange-cheeked Waxliills 

1 pair (k)ld breasted Waxbilis 

Aviary E. 
1 Pennant's Parrakeet 

Aviary B. — C. 
1 ])air Blue Tanagers 
1 ,, Indian White-eyes 
1 ,. Necklace Tanagers 
I „ Pekin Robins 
1 ., Blue Tits 
1 „ Red-collared Lorikeets 
1 ,, Gouldian Finches 
1 „ Long-tailed Grassfinches 
1 ,, Zebra Finches and Young 
1 ,, Avadavats 
1 ., Orange-cheeked Waxliills 
1 ., Grey Waxbills 
1 ., Gold-breasled Waxbills 

Aviary F. 
1 pair Gouldian Finches 

liy has ([Uile an estahiislied and pii-Jiii 

1(1 |)laii will show that it .'on 

" 1!,"' caeli 2.Sft. x KJft., wit! 

lehed. Tlu' shelter, one build 

ing from front to hacdc fi'ou 

and ■' 1)," are entered, and froii 


the occupants of the respective 

2 pairs (Jordon Bleus 

1 i)air (ireeii Avadavats 

1 i)air Bib Finches 

1 |iair Diamond Finches 

1 jiair Crimson-crowned Weaven 

I i)air Bronze Mannikins 

1 i Orange Bishop 

i i Palm Tanager 

1 ? Gouldian Finch 

.'> Lavender Finches 

1 g Napoleon Bislio]) 

1 S Purple Sugar-liii-d 

1 Hoopoe 

1 pair I fart/. Canaries 

1 ,, Cordon Bleus 

1 S Virginian Cardinal 

1 $ (ji-een Cardinal 

1 Tricolour Tanager 

1 i Dhyal Bird 

1 i Redstart 

1 i Whinchat . 

1 t? Rainbow Bunting 

1 3 Pileated Finch 

•1 <J Paradise Whydahs 

1 ? Gold-fronted Fruitsucker 

262 From All Sources. 

AH the birds were in excellent condition and seem- 
ingly already established; the aviary is too young- yet to write 
of breeding re&ults, but one young Zebra Finch is on the wing. 
The above lists should prove of practical utility as indicating 
what birds are kept together in the same aviary. So fai- 
the Red -collared Lorikeets have not attacked the foliage, in 
fact have done no whittling at ail, Ivcing apparently quite con- 
tent with suckiag the privet blossoms. Indian White-eyes have 
built a typical nest in an Acuba bush, but the two Q^^-i are 

I must le^ve other visits for another issue. 
{To he continued). 

From All Sources 

Tlij capture the other day of a Cuckoo in an exhausted 
conditio:: in the churchyard of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, is an 
interesting, although by no means unique, event, there being, 
of course, many instances on record in which members of iho 
bird creation— and, indeed, the zoological world generally—have 
found themselves in unnatural surroundings. 

It is not a little interesting to note that upon the spire 
of the same church, where the Cuckoo has just been found, 
there was to be seen a t one time at regular intervals, a falcon, 
which appeared to have a special predilection for this particular 

Here are a few of the numerous instances which have 
occurred in recent years, in which, so far as the ^ feathered 
creation are coiice.ned, queer p^a es have been telecteJ by some 
of the better known varieties. 

Swan on a railway carriage roof at Luton. 

Woodcock in the Temple. 

Snipe in Marylebone-road. 

Golden -crested Wren on the Big Wheel at Earl's Court,. 

Owl in the Lyric Theatre, London. 

Partridge in a Newcastle Chapel. 

Pheasant in Tottenham Court Road. 

Sparrow-Hawk in a ISlorth-^Vestern train. 

Puffin in Grosvenor Square. 

BooL' Notices and Ifrvictv.s. 2G3 

Peacock among' the I'iiiiliio Chimney pots. 

Pheasant in Old (,)uc(ii Street, AVestminster. 

^'I'lldw il.iiiinicr ill llic llmisc of C'ommons. 

l.aiidi-ail on the lloisr (iiiards' Parade. 

Swan on tllC glass roof ol' Paddiii^ton Statimi. 

Payie in Fleet Street. 

Buzzai'd on tlic roof of the House of Coninions. 

Vulture in liatclilfe Highway. 

"P.M.C;.," 80/7/13, per Rev. G. II. liaynor. 
Kki'okmkd L'rcKoos: On the estate of ('oh)n(d A. M. 
Blake, at A\'e!wyn, Herts, two young Cuckoos haxc heen found 
with th( liart'ut liirds in attendance. Usually tiic (;ggs are laid 
in other iiirds' nests and left to foster -iiarents, but this is the 
third sueeessiVH ycai' that Cuckoos Have brouglit ujj their 
young at Wohvyn.—FruNi the "Daily Express" Jul// 1 .'3th, per 
J. L. Grossiiiilh. 

Reported Orange Bishop x Canary Hybrids: In "Cage 
Birds" for July 19th, a correspondent (F. J. Weaire), claims 
to have two young hybrids as alx)ve, a week old and states 
that the Orange Bishop paired with his mate (Buff and Green 
Norwich) when in undress plumage. In the July 2Gth is.sue 
of the same journal Mr. Weaire asserts that there is no doubt 
about the parentage of the young hybrids, then a fortnight 
old and growing quickly and large enough to bolt out of nest. 
He states that the Orange Bishop had paired with the Canary 
several times during the past three days and that he was 
expecting her to lay again. W.T.P. 

Reviews and Notices of New Books. 

"In a ('iii;siiii;i; (iAKm.s" ( I iliistratfd). I.y (i. I'^gurtoii Wiirl.mtoii ; ll'O 
1).|). Loiuloii : Sherratt and Hughes, 33, Soho Square, W. 2s. 6d. net 

A most interesting booklet of 1:'0 p.p,with seven beautiful photo- 
reproductions. A glossary of contents and illustrations will best indicate 
its interesting character.- Contents: Introduction, Weeds and Alien 
Plants, Hirds— Iln-ushcs ; Chats. Robins, an! Warblers; Tits and Wrens; 
Flycatchers, Swallows, and ollai- Insect-eaters; Sparrows and otiiur 
Finches; Finches, Starling and Crows; Other Birds; Britisli i\laiiuiials ; 
Dogs and Cats ; Index. 

Illustrations: Flower (ianloii, Old Church, 'riK; Old Yew. Tlie Sun- 
dial, A Corner in the Oarden with AUInm ilioxcoriilcs. Two Nests, Tlic 

2(",4 Editorial. 

Tlie hook is ])lcas;iiil iiaiiativf tVoui cover to cover, :iiid scioiitilic 
also ; it does not contain a dull piiye. liirds occupy tlie niijor portion of 
the text ; much 'oird-lore is re ;o anted in a most interestini; manner, and 
ever^' sentence indicates the writer to he a true lover of wild luiture. He 
strikes the true key-note wln'U he writes; "A man who shoots every rare 
" bird he sees, that he nia}' add to liis pri\ate collection, is sacrificing bii-d" 
"' life for his own selfish pleasure and disj'egaiclin<f the sentiments aiul in- 
terests of the great body of nature-lovers and students." 

"The true naturalist does not collect specimens as he would postage 
'■ stamps ; to study the life of a wren in its natural surroundings is more 
'' to him than anything he can do with the skin of a Golden Eagle, They 
''say that there is in Switzerland a law which forbids the shooting of any 
" bird without a licence. If some such law could be enforced here, rare 
"liirds that seek hospitality auipng us would no longer be at the mere j 
■■ of every idle lout who happens to have a gun. And is it impossible that 
" children might be taught to find pleasure in watching, and not. as seems 
" generally the case now, in destroying life?" 

Space forbids further comment, but it is a book that will be read and 
re-read by those who procure it. Such records will have a peculiar value 
when the wilderness of wild nature is laigely replaced by a wilderness 
of bricks and mortar. We cordially commend this little book to every 
nature lover. 


Taukakukts at Liberty: From several communica- 
tions received we gather many specie3 of Psitt.vci enjoy 
liberty at Woburn Abbey Park, and the following species have 
bred there, we believe, during this season, viz.: Stanley Parra- 
keet.3 {Platycercus ieterotis), Adelaide Parrakeets (P. adelaidce), 
Barnard's Parrakeets {Barnardius barnardi), Rosella Par- 
rakeets (Platycercus eximus), and Roseate Coclvatoos iCacaiua 
roseicapilla) . Gang-Gang Cockatoos nested twice, but deserted 
their eggs on both occasions. 

Nesting Season: This has not been a good one. owing 
to weather conditions principally, for never have birds in 
our members' aviaries shown a gi'eater readiness to nest, but 
the cry fi'om all sources has been " infertile eggs " or " chicks 
dead in shell." However, some measure of success has b<^en 
attained, but the season has nevertheless been a co -mingling 
of failure and success, the former we fear predominating with 
many. We quote the following as illustrative of this from a 
members' letter. 

Ediforial. 20') 

"I fouiui vt'i-y little of intcivst \\1i(Mi T prof liack. Tho 
'•Mclliii Fiticli,-s kill. Ml all (lie youiii,^ Vdlow -iuin|:(vl Maiinikiiis. 
"I i'oiiiK", lour liiaiiioud S| ari'ow-s jusl vo:\\\ lo il>-, fully 
■• foallKM'oil, liut (lead, anil the old liiriU sitting again. One 
"young liylifid Finch \ Bi'oiizc-wiiii,'- Nfannikin was on the 
"wing, as wcM'i' also ano'hei' hrood oT Afagpi ' Maniiikins. I 
"also found two Inorc young 'iviainond Dov.'s and ono \'i()lot 
" Dove flying strongly. Me]l)as have built again, and there arc 
"more young T^ib Finehes. There are nests and eggs of all the 
"Masked, Long-tail,- and Ruf(Mis-fail Grassflnches, but no young 
"ones. Young Budgerigars and Corkateels in plenty. I hope 
"there is still time foi' tlu^ (irassfinclies to rear." 

OBiTfAKY: AA'e regrrt to have to record that oui- mem- 
ber Uv Albert Su'elillV has 'o t I'i:; I'a'her, Aldernian.T. Sutclin'e, 
with painful suddenness, from heart failure, on August 7th. 
We tender to Mr. FutclifTe and the family our deepest sympathy 
in their sad and sudden bereavement. 

"Erkata: The ])Iate oT Hemprich's Gull, opposite page 
170 in June issue of "R.X.." is printed vipside down. With 
next issue a loose plate will be included to replace same. 
Page 195. line 0, for phnnenieop^cra read phoenicoptera. 

Pago 226, line 14, for "June 20," read June 16. 

The Hon. Editor regrets that pressure upon his time 
an«l the late arrival of copy, have made it impossible to include 
the usual notes, or to give the proofs the attention they 
should receive and members' indulgence is craved accordingly — 
the a1x)vc is also the reason of the late appearance of this 

liEci-iNT Atmjivai.s: ])i-. Hoj-kin-^on has recently returned 
from S. Africa, with a few Quail Finches, Napoleon Weavers, 
and a ti-ue I'^air of Texto)' or Bufl'alo AA'eaver, oi- Oxbii'd (Tr.rfor 
srncgdlensiH) . Afost have been already distributed among 
members with garden aviaries, so that the Idids miglit have 
opitorlunity to reproduce their kind in captivity. 


266 Srxh)(/ fhr Gold-frorifrd Friiitsiicl'cr. 

Sexing the Gold-fronted Fruitsucker 

(ChJoropsis anrifrojis) . 

In "B.N.," Vol. I., N.S., page 83, tho following 
ai'e sexual distinctions, taken l)y our member Mr. W. E. 
Teschemaker from a pair of living Wrds in his possession. 

1. — "The female is decidedly smaller than the male and 
Ikm' lieak more slender." 

2. — "The golden foreliead is much paler, and liei- upper 
and uiidoi' lai! coverts ai'e also paler th:in tho o of her mate." 
:•). — "The area of black on throat does not extend fur- 
ther back than a line dropped perpendicularly from the eye." 
Since then I Iiave had the opportunity of closely examin- 
ing several true pairs and it would appear that the above dis- 
tmctions are fairly constant., but owing to the variation common 
to all species with an extended range, distinctions Nos. 1 and 
2 are not so reliable as No. 3, which has been constant in .all 
the reliably sexed "birds I have been privileged to examine, 
.some twelve pairs, and very many odd males. In April last 
Major Perreau kindly brought me over a true pair, kindly 
presented to me by our member Mr. Appleby, and these are 
now doing well in my garden aviary, though no attempt has 
been made at nest building up to the present, that T have 
discovered, though the male has been seen with bents in his 
beak on several occasions. As the above reTerred-to distinc- 
tions occur also in this pair I got Mr. Goodchild to make a 
drawing of their heads, which we reproduce herewith. We 
hope members with true pairs will compare their birds with 
the accomi)anying figure, and communicate any variation their 
biixl.; may show from the draAving. WEST.EY T. PAGE. 



Sir,— Tn i-csixiusc to your ciKiiiirifs, w(. know so little .ilioiit the advoiii 
of the little Bhick-heiided Nun that we really .lesired to keep silent al.ont the 
iiiattei-, save giving a bare record of the episode. 

We had kci)t this species so long without their making any attemi)t at 
nesting that they did not interest us greatly and we took hut little note of 
their doings ; this species increase 1 the variety of our series of birds, and I 
fear our interest in them ended there. 

Sca'iff(j iJic 0()/(I-/i()i/(c(l Fnufsnel'cr. 2G7 


U])i:)er Figure— 9 Lower Figure — cf 

Correspondence. 268 

III tlie sunimer of 1912 I found a l)r')\vnish coloured bird, on tlie floor 
of the ;iviary, which looked at first sij^ht like a young Sharp-tailed Finch 
Imt proved to he a Black-headed Nun {.]f^uN.t n/nni,;//,,) from the fad that 
tliey fed it. It was of a nondescript hi-owii, iiiihti'i- helovv. witli a t,'re_vish 
heak autl one white featlier in its wing. The parents were occasionally seen 
to feed it, and we conchide that it tnianated from a coco-nut husk, because 
the parents were observed hopping about a particuhir one. 

I a:n afraid this little strang3r did notiaterest u^ greitly, and we hook 
very little notice of it at the time and we are not sure if it is still living. Of 
course if the parents should go to nest again this year w • will carefully note 
all we can concerning the episode. 

We showed the little bird to our Hon. Editor, as he hnjipened to call 
very soon after the discovery of the fledgeling and he was interested at once. 
He is really responsible for what has appeared in " B.N." concerning it. 

1 am aware this is not very satisfactory and that the episode adds 
nothing to our knowledge of the life history of the species, save the bare 
fact that we do now know of one instance of a young bird of this species 
liaving been reared in captivity. (MRS.) J. EASTON SCOTT. 

[I saw the young bird referred to above on several occasions and saw 
the parent birds (Black-headed Nuns; feeding it more than once, and also 
saw the parents and young bird on the husk together several times, and in 
my opinion there can be no doubt, either as to the parentage of the J'oung 
bii-d or the deductions drawn above from the few details observed.— El).]. 


Sir, -I wonder how many people- not experienced avicultnrists^ 
think of giving their caged foreign Finches anything more than just seed and 
water. If they provided them with more variety there would not be such 
great mortality ]\Iine have every morning, among other things, a little tray 
of dried ants' "eggs," on which boiling water has been i>onred, then well 
drained away; there is never never one left next day. One ijttle Blue- 
breasted Waxbill I watch eating from 12 to 14 without stoi)}>ing, when 
newly placed in the cage ; but a circumstance connected Avith some freshly 
fathered " eggs " from the garden, seems to me worth relating : Yesterday 
morning, July 28th, I counted the said little Blue-breast swallowing 87 
without a i>anse, this morning he partook of '.11, only stopjting once for "a 
drink." n.u.-h nL^Mk-d. omc w.ndd say. I may nay that two,,f nseonnt.'d this 
p,-rf(.rui;inre, liiat n,>r should do s<. uiiglii he too great a t;i.x upon credulity. 
((Jarden ants' eggs are only about half the size of imi)orted on«;s, be it siid). 
liut. does not this show of what immense use our wild insect eating biids 
must be in demolishing garden, orchard, and agricultural pests V They 
deserve a better fate than they ordinarily meet with. To return to the 
"bread and water" diet of the average poor little cage bird, mine always 
have a lump of sugar in a little tin lid, cuttlefish bouc, and last though by no 
means least, a big bunch of flowering grass, i)lanted in a potted-meat vessel, 
and well moistened. When grass in flower is not obtainable, grass without 
the flower does just as well, and the blades are eaten close down, as a salad. 
Is it not worth while to be at the trouble of all this for 'their annisement, to 

Correspondence. 260 

say nothing,' (if tlie liciulit tiic.v .IciivL- t'loni the vaiiod diet ? Some people 
f,Mve mciilwonus. l.ut inv tiny iiiiti.:s ilnn't seL-iii ahio to tackle these. Green 
fly from the roses and otlicr plants they like. If any member can suggest 
a still further e.xtension of nionn loi- the small foreign Finches, I hope they 
will do so. (.AIllS.l E. A. H. HARTLEY. 

Sir, — It would l)e intei-esting to hear if Lord Tavistock succeeded in 
in obtaining a cock Tuniuoisine. A member offered me one last October 
■which I would have purchased had F been able to jirocure a hen, but that I 
regarded as impossible. I understand that coek is now at the Zoo, but should 
be glad to hear it had been transferred to Wolmrn. affording the means of 
breeding that most lovely, and now. alas I almost extinct Parrakeet. IMany 
years ago (too many to reflect upon) wlien 1 was new to aviculture. I chanced 
to breed two broods in one season, seven in all, 1 think, or it may have been 
nine, and when advertised at 50s. pair, I lemember being inundated with 
checpies and telegrams. I gave .£2 for the parents which arrived perfect 
specimens — think of that now I It makes me snd to recall their fate, the 
cock was harassed to death l)y a nesting Blue Robin, the hen went blind, and 
finally died of starvation fioni an oveigiowii beak. T know better how to 
look after my birds now. l>nt one lias to pay dearly for one's experience. 

OIis. E. \ H. HARTLEY. 
July ;'.()th. St. Helen's l.od-e. llastinys 

Sir. — Another ilisa]ipointnieiit Occipital Blue-Pies nested again as I 
think you know. Thei'e were three fertile eggs, one hatched out all right 
and the hen ate the other two. The yor.iig bird did well for a week, the hen 
seeming to be a good mother This moriiing, when I visited the aviaries, I 
found the wretched bird calmly eating the chick. The nest was a very loose 
structure in a birch tree that I cut and fastened into the inner house ; it was 
so loose that the young bird could be plainly seen through the nest from be- 
low. I thiidc the period of incubation was 16 days. The young bird was 
without fluff and covered with a shining brown skin. E. J. BROOK 

Hoddam Castle, Ecclefechan, N.R.. •J4/7/"i:'.. 

British Bird Calendar. 

//<'.•< iinjmlhj rcfjiirMnl that Meinhfrs fimit all I'^iuul the ■ coast will 
note the nuiremeiitx <il hinU. more experUilhj in the SmitheDi mid Eastern 
C'oHKtie^. (tw/ rei/nl.irl// C-'.^/h uf earh i„i:ntli) seiifl in their notes— On thiS the 

ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend.— 


Jtdy 1. — A family of Lesser-spotted Woodjieckers are fre(iuenting this gar- 
den ; the party consists of two old l)irds and four newly fledged 
young. "W'e have heard them calling for some weeks l)ut have not 
seen them until to-day. I imagine that they had their nest in 
an old acacia or high up in a Sjianish Chestnut ; both these 
trees are suitable. Last week a party of (Toldlinches were 

270 Late Neios. 

feeding in our hayfield. The}' -were probably bred in a neigh- 
bouring orchard, where many generations have nested. 
'i7. — A young Cuckoo settled in our Phine tree and was fed by foster- 
parents— Hedge Sparrows? They were so high up and so hidden 
by the leaves that I could not properly distinguish them. 


Late News. 

Nesting of Spot-billed Tou(::an (Selenidera macu- 
lirostris)'. Just at the moment of going to press we learn 
that a young bird of this species has been hatched out, in a 
log nest, in one of the enclosures in the Small Birds' House 
(London Zoo). It is a fortnight old (August 12) and appears 
to be thriving; the parent birds feed it entirely on live -food, 
mealworms, gentles, beetles, etc.. No nest was built and all 
sawdust in the log nest was thrown out. The young bird 
is about half the size of its parents, and quite naked up to 
the present, but the flight feathers are just showing through; 
the whole of its body, beak and legs are flesh colour. 

KuFous-NECKED WEAVER {Rypliantomis cucullatus). 
One young bird of this species has been reared. 

North American Snow-bird (Junoo hymenalis). One 
young bird of this species has also been reared, we think, 
for the first time in Great Britain. — Ed. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

Vule Rnle^ {S?e Pcu^iii of Carer. J 

JSone to hand at time of going to press. — Ed. 

Bird Notes. 

„.s. Photo Uj H. Willford. 

Common Tern {Sterna Huviatills) Nest and Eggs. 

IUri) Notes. 

riwto hi/ H. Wm/ord. 
Common Tern (Sfef/ia fhiviatilis) incubating. 

All Ruflits Reserved. SKViKunvAi, 101 




Some Interesting Birds. 

By Wksley T. Tack, F.Z.S. Ilmistiiatki) krom Tjfr. t?y 

H. WlLLPOUl). 

{Co)}{'niue(l jrow puffc 2:57). 

Thk Common Tern (Slcr/td flu rial Ills). Tf has heon 
well said that Terns are Gulls in ininialuic, but a better des- 
eriptioii would be small, slender and i^^'acefn! (inlls. Tln^y have 
apM\ l>eeii named Sea .Swallows, the rapidity of tlieii' flight, 
vivaeity and graeeful wing evolutions, together with their 
forked tails, make the term most approprhite. ^^'llil'' they 
have many charaeteristies in common with Gulls, yet they 
differ from Ihem in being diving l>irds, although they, 
seldom entirely disappear from view Avhen taking their 
food from the water. 

The length of wing (10.5) and giMoeful form of these 
Swallow.; of the .'^ea is clearly shown in all four of the beauti- 
ful and striking photon, Avhieh Mi-. Willford has secured this 
year at the Scilly Isles- with a total length of 14.25, over 
eight inches of which belongs to the bill (1.7), and tail (G.5), 
thu? with a body Init si.\ inches long, each wing measufres; 
10.5. A glance at our illustrations fully portrays this and 
also the exquisite beauty of form and their contrasty plumage. 
Their beauty and grace is seen to best advantage in the air, 
and is beyond description and always excites admiration, 
whether the spectator be a naturalist, 'Or one who merely, 
takes a passing interest in the wild creatures of the Avorld* 
we live in. j 

Dksckii'tion. Si(i)/mrr Phin/a()c: Head and nape: 
l>ack dark pearl-grey; rump and upper tail coverts, Avhitish 
pearl -grey; tail feathers wdiite, with (he outer webs grey; 
undcr-parts white, tinged with vinous-grey on the breast and 
abdomen; bill q,nd feet red, the former with a black tip. 

272 fiamc Intcrcfifiug Birds. 

Winter Plumage : The forehoarl is imich moftlorl Avith white, the 
underparts almost lun'o white, and the h:ll and feet dusky-red. 

Yoi'ng: Head, streaked hlaekish-b^own; back mottled 
with grey, l)vown and white; tail pale grey, whitish at tip; 
beneath white; bill and feet reddish-yellow. The down of 
the nestling is buff, mottled with black, wh-tish beloAv, with 
black throat. 

Ean(;e: May l)e said to be commo;i over the greater 
part of the British Isles, but is less plentiful in the extreme 
north, where the Arctic Tern (Strrnn macnira) is the more 
plentiful. It arrives in England about the end of April and 
depart.; in the autumn (September, Oc.tol>:M-), and during the 
autumna' migration may be met with on rivers and inland 
waters. The range, covering summer and winter, is very 
extended — besides the British Isles, it frequents the coasts, 
rivers, and lakes of Europe, Africa, Atlantic Islands, Xorth 
America, Asia, India; while in winter it has been taken in 
Bolivia Brazil. 

Breeding: Their b^'eeding range may be roughly des- 
cribed as here and there throughout the British Isles, and 
abroad across Europe to Central Asia and North .4merica. 
They breed in colonies on both sandy and shingly beaches, also 
by fresh water, laying two or three Qg%-^ on sandy shingle, 
with or without a slight bedding of dry grass, or on the ground 
in marshy places. The ground colour of the e^ii, varies from 
pale buff to olive-brown, much mottled ami spotted with black, 
but the size and arrangement of marking is very variable; 
the average measurements are 1 . 7 x 1.1 in. Eggs have been 
found by the middle of May, lint June is usually in before 
incubation is general. 

Their natural diet consists of small fish, sand eels, 
shrimps and crustaceans generally. 

They resent intrusion and become very fierce; feathered 
Intruderc; into the area of the breeding colony are frequcntlj^ 

iThe Common Tern, perha])s of all our coast birds, excites 
the admiration of the beholder most, and to ■ e:^ a number of these 
birds hawking over the water is a sight long to be remembered; 
one ir. held almost spellbound by their graceful flight evolu- 
tions, and the lightning-like rapidity with which they dart 


P^ jfS 

^^^^^^^^Hl ' 

1 <■■ 

1 ^^^^^^^^^^1^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^ ^^^^H 

CoiniiKiu Terns {Stertid fhiridtilix) ali.uhtin.u at nest. 

Plwtos hy H. Will ford. 

Jlyhriil Crcfse. 273 

perpendicularly down on their proy. citlicr from a liigh or 
low o!ovatio!i. Iml in ritlicr ca-^c it i^ not often tlial tlioy are- 
Avholly siibinei-i^ed. Tiiere i- no pi'ettiei' or more inlerostin."' 
si-ht tiiaii to eome a-nxs a -I'oup of Tov\\< so o.-cur-ierl. 
To he r())>fi»iir(J 

Hybrid Geese, 

By OArT.ATx J. Shkkakd Reeve, F.Z.S. 

The fovos- haA-in,!,' taken the la^t of my Chinese Geese 
(Ci/rnnp-is ri/cHoi(h's). the g'anders wore noticed to be mating 
with the Canada Geese (Branta rcmrrlensis). Uvn of wliich 
duly laid eg.i^s; one hatched out one younj^r ono and the otlicr 
three. They were attended to by the old birds and soon joined: 
with the other Canada Geese, a pair of which had previously 
hatched out five goslings, which can now be hardly dis- 
tinguished from the adults. 

I should be interested to hear wheHier sucli a cross has 
been bred before. 

The young Chinese x Canada Geese may at present be 
described as follows :— In all respects like Canadas. except 
the head and neek. these parts being smoky instead of black 
and white: white mark on head dirty, light markings on fea- 
thei-^ of winus and ba-'k ]^racti"ally absent; legs dirty yellow 
(neither black nor orange). From the above it will be 
gathered that the general appearance of these birds is smoky - 
grey: the principal plumatic characte>*istics of both species 
being lost in the cross. 

fTf there should be anv further change in the plumage 
of the hybrids, as they mature, it would l>e of general interest 
if Captain TJeevo will record same. — En.]. 

Bird Keeping under Difficulties and Aviary Notes. 

By Lieut. F. M. Littlepale. 

My first purchase of Foreign Birds was in August, 
1011. I soon caught the craze, though I had only kept one 
oi- two Parrots previou-^ly. and was not very much interested 
in birds. 

Th^ suni7iier of 1911 was very hot, so T made a very 

274 Bn-f? Keeping under Difitnilties. 

favourable start, for those first apquisitions of mine towards 
a collection oi' birds did well; in the course of time I gathered 
together pairs each oT: Avadavat^, Orange-cheeked and Gold- 
breasted Waxbills, Silverbills and a Bill Finch. These all lived 
happilj" together in a medium sized Swis;^ cage. 

Ao time went on I accumulated large uumlicrs of the 
commoner varieties, and now, when I come to think of it, it 
is a marvel that I ever succeeded in keeping them; certainly 
I fed them, in the right way, but I had very little knowledga 
of ho\^" to treat liirds, and I knew nothing of papers such 
as " Cage Birds," or the Foreign Bird Club, and it was only by 
the accidental purchase of a book on Aquaria (Nutshell series) 
that I first understood that there existed books l)y experi- 
enced Foreign Bird experts. I was also handicappe:! by being 
in a perpetual state of moving, and cages wore not good 
domiciles for my birds, as an army officer's quarters are- 
draughty. All through 1912 and tl\e treacherous spring of 
this year I 'had to keep them under most unsuitable conditions, 
and several times I made up my mind to get rid of them. I 
was really overstocked liy this time, but in spite of all 
limitations I managed to establish many acquisitions from 
various consignments of birds, having meanwhile derived 
great benefit through the kindne.s of our Hon. Editor. 

In April, 1913, T made a change in my accommodation, 
buying a ready-made aviary which screws together, and in 
May, having settled down at Cowes, I erec'.el it there. The 
climate being mild, tlic liirds improved wonderfully, luit the 
aviary proved to l^e quite inadequate for my .series of Ini'ds, 
and being constructed on the "save labour" system, it was 
difficult to open the door without the birds slipping out; for- 
tunately most of them relurned though. This aviary was 6 feet 
long, of the lean-to pattern, 6 feet high at back, and 5 feet 
in front. The shelter took up 1^- feet, leaving the flight 
4| feet. Shortly afterwards T visited Binstead, and saw Mr. 
Yealland's aviary and came to the concludon to arrange a 
similar flight over the front of my " I'cady-made " aviary, 
8 feet long, 6 feet deep, and 5 feet high. Tt is not ideal, ])ut, 
my parents being great gardeners, one nni-t keep within limits. 
This was completed in July, and tlie weather ])eing warm, 
the door of the original aviary has been leit open so that the 

Jlird l\i'<ii'i/i/ ii/tili'r I )/llici(Uu's. 275 

hii'ds mi^'-hl liaAt- irci' access to tli,' new ni,t,^lit, and Ihi' aviary 
has since heeii a coniidete success. 

,AI1 the l)ii'.ls have moulted, and most of them are now 
nestini^. Tiie a\iary hejiii;- rather re>ti'i(ded in si/,o, J have 
had no opportunit \ loi' insiiecting the nests. I knew that 
several nests werv' built at the l)e,ij;-i lining of August. Tlie 
only results at present are: 
Aug. 1 4.— ■^'oung Zelira Fintdies ol>served in nests, one in 

covered and one in open flight. 
Aug. 15.— Three young Zebra Pinches flew from nest in oi)en 

Aug. 10.— One Zelira Fimdi left the nest in covered flight. 
Aug. 17. — Two more Zebra Finches left the nest in covered 
flight, at least so I conclude, as they were (lying 
about in covered flight wdien first observed. 

Both the pairs of parent birds are nesting again, and 
arc also still attending to their young (August 18tli). 

The following birds have nests in thick 1)uslies, Init 
results cannot yet be given from these: Common and Ovwn 
Avadavats, Oi'ange-cheeked and Gold-breasled Waxbills, I?u!i- 
cauda and Masked Grassflnches, Cordon Bleus. and Cid)a 

Birds moulting: Couldian Finches, two pairs (one 
Black-headed hen which had lieen laid for iiearly a year is 
producing all its feath(>rs again), and Gold-breastetl Waxbills. 

My (^ueen and Paradi; e ^Vl^ydal^s and Combasous are 
now donning their nu])tial plumage. 

The Breeding of a Hybrid Lorikeet. 

XTrlcltojjlossa^ nthriiui qaca x T. Hiijr'ujularis) . 

I5v 0. MlIil.SUM. 

This record is long delayed. Our worthy Ediloi' has 
done hi.i utmost to urge nu- o;i— I regret veiy much ha\ing 
unheeded his exhortations for so long, but since the above 
event occurred, I have had many things to think of, which 
have kept me fully occupied to the exclusion of all else. True, 
there have been times when I might have written up the 
necessary details, l)ut, all my notes and records were packed 
away previous to leaving Belgium- remained so until two 

27G The Breeding of a Hybrid Lorikeet. 

monthi. ago, since which I aehnit I have given the very little 
spare time at my dis]>ooal to the pleasures usually found at 
a seaside resort, and 1 believe even my friend, the Editor, 
will forgive me, now the obligation is at last fulfilled. 

It was on Nov. 29th, 1911, when my thoughts Avere far 
away from inspecting nests, even with the hopes of linding 
any agreeable surprises, that my Belgian boy informed me that 
two of the Lorikeets in No. 37 aviary were constantly visit- 
ing one of the logs. The occupants of this aviary at that time 
were a true pair of Dark-throated Lorikeets (T. nigrigularis), 
one male T. ricbritorques, and one female T. tiigrigalari-s. 
Keenly interested, I immediately examined the said log, and 
was greatly surprised to find two eggs. The question now arose 
as to which pair of the birds tiiey belonged? Also how long 
had they been incubating? 

Observation during the next few days soon decided the 
first point, but, I had to wait until the 22nd for the elucida- 
tion of the last query, when I found one young bird in the 
log. I was delighted with this find, although I had little hopes 
of rearing it, because the weather was bitteiiy cold and the 
nest of a Lorikeet is not the cosiest cot imaginable. 1 always 
kept a shallow layer of dry sawdust at the bottom of each 
log, and this constituted the whole of the comforts it had, ex-- 
cepting when snugly covered by the parent bird. On the 
26th I found the bird progressing favourably, and according 
to my notes of that day, "nicely covered with down." My 
next entry on the progress of this interesting youngster was 
January 3rd, 1912, "Young Hybrid Lorikeet still bonny, 
but now almost without down, and still no signs of any fea- 
thers." Poor little chap, methinks, weather bitterly cold, nature 
certainly did not endow you with the necessary covering to 
be hatched out in winter in this bleak climate, and my com- 
miserations were well founded, for I found the little fellow 
dead within the next three days.— Thus ended the first chapter 
in the attempt of the parent birds to reproduce their kind— - 
"something attempted, someth'ig done," but not enough for 
me. One needs to be philosophical to be an aviculturist. 

Weeks passed and this particular disappointment had 
been forgotten, when my Belgian boy again informed me the 
old birds were again frequenting the log, and on examination 

The l'.rr,-ii;n<i >>/ a l/t/hri<l Lorikeet. 277 

it wa ■ 101111(1 to contain two cf^^^-!. I ^V(llll(l like, just ht'rc, 
to expreij:; my apprccia' inn oi that Belgian boy— always at- 
tentive, observant and wil'lni;. characteristics not always found 
in village lioys. Two years witli nie and he had learnt to 
speak English very well, and iiad I still been closely as- 
s;ociating niyseli with bird lite upon my return, I should most 
eertainl}' have accei)ted his expressed desire to bring him to 

This latest find was on March 2(ith, 1012, and my 
entry reads, "with iavourable weather ahead we should be 
: ii.ceess.ul in liree ling this unique cross this time." I find 
no iurther entry or notes on this particular event until May 
:)\\\, and, i will (pioie the actual entry as it will more clearly 
express my vi(,'ws and results of inspection at the time when 
I had the birds luider my daily care. It reads: "I looked 
" into tlie nest log and tind the young bird thriving wonder- 
"fully. It is now over two weeks old, and T am somewdiat 
"surprised to And it, though quite a large bird, still covered 
"with greyish down, pen leathers only just showing in wings: 
"on the breast thei'e is just visible the glorious red of the 
" adult plumage, only just visible but it stands out beauti- 
" fully distinct against the grey down." 

May 8th: "I find the wing feathers slightly developed 
"and the crown ([uite full of pen feathers." 

May 10th: "Took young hylirid from log for exam- 
" ination and lind it a l)onnie l)ird — size of liody seems al- 
" most full grown. Its feathers are now beginning to grow 
" beautiiuUy. The crown is a picture, being completely cov- 
" ered with beautiful iiidisoent blue, the breast shining red- 
"dish-ci'ange, and wings beautiful emerald-green." 

.May 18tli: "(i rowing won Ie;fully; tail feathers showing 
"well, crown, lu'east and wings fully and beautifully plumaged. 
"The breast feathers are pa'.e orange, tipped with deep 
" oiange. It is lively and strong, as evidenced liy the Fact that 
"it quickly nipped my finger when I attempted to remove it 
"from the log." 

The bird has now reached an age that too often hand- 
ling would huiry it pr.nnturely fiom the log, and so my next 
entry is when it has wandered out into the world for itself. 

June 13th, 1912: "The bird leaves the nest log for 

278 The Breeding oj a Hybrid Lorikeet. 

" the first time, is very active, in full featlier and of )>eauti- 
" ful plumage. Its black beak appears to bi; just on the change 
"to adult colour, a rosy tip just visible at the end." 

July 3rd: '"The lower mandible now shows a decided 
" rosy tinge, whilst the upper resembles somewhat the bloom 
"upon a ripe peach," 

Readers will gather from my notes that having found 
the eggs in the log on March 2Gth, and the young bird quite, 
a fortnight old on May 3rd, the parent bird had scarcely com- 
menced incubation at time oi discovering the eggs, allowing 
three weeks lor incubation, and, the young bird remained in the 
log eight weeks before it ventured out into the world alone. 

It was a charming bird, showing parentages dis- 
tinctly, and remained in the collection until the whole were, 
dispersed, an occurrence no doubt fresh in the minds of many 
fanciers. The diet consisted of milk sop, i.e., Nestle's con- 
densed milk, sponge cake, or Osborne biscuits, or " Banana 
Crystals " made quite liquid, and sufficient Nestle's added to 
give it a full sweetened flavour. This, and a little fruit, such 
as banana, sweet orange, pear or grape, was the stock diet 
of all the Lories and Lorikeets. As a further inducement to 
the parent birds to feed their young, I placed daily in their 
aviary an additional bowl of food, consisting of, sponge cake, 
honey, and Horlick's Alalted milk, prepared thus: one teaspoon - 
ful of Honey, two teaspoonsful of Horlick's mixed in sufficient 
hot water to thoroughly moisten the sponge cake. Tlie 
quantity of si^onge cake was about the size of four penny 
cakes, and on these foods the birds throve wonderfully, as 
my notes indicate. 

Memories of a Trip in Argentina. 

By the Hox. Mary C. Hawke. 

I promised our Editor some time ago I would try and 
write some notes of the Argentine birds I saw during my 
travels. I hoped to try and classify them on my return to 
England, but I found that there was no chance of obtaining 
a book on the S. American birds, but through the kindness 
of Mr. Page I glanced through Dr. Sclater's " Birds of Argen- 

P)iHi) Notes. 

Fholo by H. Whistler. 
Hemprich"s Gull {Luras liemiiridii). Vide iKige 176. 

Memories nf a 'I' rip in Arueiil inn . 27'.t 

tiiia," ;iii(l crrtaiii vols, of H.M. Cat., at tlif Z()ol().--ical Society's 

At one of tlu' ports on the way to l-.uciios Ayi'i's, a man 
broiiylit oil lioard a tame ('o\v-I)ir(l and a IJangru^st; lu* askr-d 
alK)ul £2 cai'li for theiii! I think he sold the Cow-bird. At 
Buenos Ayrcs I went to the Zoo, and in a very large lliglit 
saw Virginian Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Pope {I'aro- 
aria larvata), and Red-crested (/'. rticallata); also a bird 
similar to an English Thrush, Cow-l)irds, etc. In another 
large aviary there were some very line \'ultuies and other 
birds of prey. 

I went a twenty -four hours journey I)y train north 
of B.A. to Santos, Province of Santa Fe. The most notice- 
able birds are the Little (Burrowing) Owls {Speotyio cut/iei'- 
laria), that are out all day, sitting on posts; they never lake 
their eyes off you, flying up into the air and down again to the 
same perch, uttering their cry; they sit also at the top of theii- 
holes, as they nest in the ground. The other is theCTarancho, a 
species of Vulture, but it is a handsome bird without a Imre neck; 
it is a useful scavenger, and can scent or see a dead animal 
miles away. Then there is the Oven Bird {Funariiis nifu.^). ra- 
ther like a Thrush, only smaller, and more ruddy in colour; 
they build their curious oven -nests of mud, on posts or branches 
of trees. They arc very cheerful birds, and when they meet 
after being separated from each other they put their bills up in 
the air, side by side, and scream. They have most peculiar 
notes, somewhat like a Curlew's call. Riding through the Cximp 
one notices Scissor -birds, "Widow" birds, which are pure 
white and have a little black on their wings, and people say 
they cannot be kept in cages, Jay-Thrushes, Flamingos. Ibises; 
and Storks in the swamps, Woodpeckers, which are all called 
" Carpentarias," a few Green Parrakeets, and once I saw some 
Passerine Parrakeets {Psittacula passerina). There were other 
birds that looked as if they belonged to the Shrikie- tribe. 
A.11 the Peons have an Amazon Parrot hung up outside their 
mud huts, and occasionally one sees a tame Cow-bird: these 
birds sing very well and when really tame can lly loo e round 
a house like a tame Jackdaw in England. One sees lai-ge 
Hocks of these flying aljout and wonders why the natives 
want so much for their tame birds (about £2). In the north 

280 Memories of a Trip in Argentina. 

one saw crested Ijirds, like Larks, and twice I saw what 
I think was a Flycatcher, a most beautiiul bird with a hriyiit 
grey back and a lovely crimson breast; its loi-al nuinc is 
" blood- of- m-ox." There is also a bird with a long- tail, 
similar in its habits to our Magpie, and a pair fly al)out with 
nearly always five young ones with them, and I lielieve are 
called the "Seven Sisters." I have omitted to mention the 
Plover, there are many of them flying gracefully about. 

Then I moved to another place, still up North, called 
Vera, this is all forest country, and I saw beaut i fid ^Vood- 
peckers, lots of Red-crested (Paroaria cucullala) and Green 
Cardinals (Gichernafrix crisiata). I never saw many red in 
either place. The small birds were more difficult to see as one 
rode along. 

T wanted to take some birds to England, and in a small 
town 1 saw two Thrushes in a large cage, one in poor health 
(I think they were fed on bread and milk), and a pair of 
Brown, Black, and White Grosbeaks, size of a Canary; and two 
hen Yellow Siskins, the latter four birds in excellent condi- 
tion; I put the four seed-eaters with two cock Siskins (the 
adult) thalt I bought in a small canary cage; the two Thrushes 
I put in an old cage, open and quite small, with two perches. 
I fed them on eggs and sweet biscuit, and when I arri ^ed 
back in B.A., I bought some dog biscuit and mixed that with 
egg; they recovered their health, on this mixture, and fruit, and 
soon began to record their song. I learn from a friend 
in B.A. that the Thrush with the whitey breast was called 
a "Sorcal" and that they are excellent singers. I made out one 
was the White -bellied Thi'ush {Tiird'is aJhiventris) and the other 
the Ruddy Thrush (T. ru/irenfris). 

At Santos on the way back I Iwught some Sugar - 
birds, and Tanagers that did very well, tnit I regret that 
four out of the six died, of fits, seven months later, when in 
apparenll}'' good condition. I think the cau ;e wa-; over-eating. 

Alas! The Thruslu^s got Inirnt with my aviary! ! 
The "Sorcal" turned out a beautiful singer. The people' 
out there have no idea how to feed soft-bills, and though one 
wants, one cannot bring or obtain the co?oons. This June I 
received six beautiful Yellow and Black Hawflnche-, from the 
Cordoba Hills, and I am glad to say, five are alive (2 p' and 

Bird Kotes. 

\)rvhu orjS/tf^k VuljI/rc^ 

A\jdubor)^s Caracara^. __^ 

Three Vneoiininm I'el.s. 2<Sl 

^■5 v), ill good heallli, and comlil ion, and arc licitiiiiiiiiL,'- to siuy. 
Ill tlifir iiati\(' country they arc calUnl "Kini,'- oT tlic Woods." 
In the Ar^'cnlinc no one sconis to know llic name of 
llie birds, they are called " Cardinals," " Carpenlaries" " Sor- 
cals," etc. I was in the country 'from March to tlie end ol 
May, late summer and autumn, so the 1)irds were not 1)]'ecd- 
iiig. though in May I saw an Oven bird cari'yiiig mud to its 

Three Uncommon Pets. 

TilJ-: CiVH-FALCOX, Till': (HI P,r, AND THE 


By F. JJawson-Smith. 

From the large variety of carnivorous birds which I 
liave kept, three occupy foremoot place^,, by reason of their 
extreinc doi;ilily and sociability. These are tlie Gyr-Falcon,* 
llie L'rubu, or lilack \'ulture and the Audubon's Caracara. The 
lirst named is, without doubt, the noblest of the three, and 
and a king among Falcons. Mine was the Icelandicf variety 
{Faico islandus). I opened her travelling case, when she 
arrived, with extreme caution, expecting a fierce, wild bird; 
and was agreeably surprised to find a gentle creature sitting 
on the perch, which she seemed in no hurry to vacate, merely 
turning her head in order to watch my movements. She was 
rather dirty in her plumage, which did not show to advantage 
at first. For a fortnight I vainly waited for her to bathe 
and cleanse herself, but she evinced no desire to do this, so, 
with the courage, born of desperation, I decided to undei'- 
take the cleansing job myself, (i lancing at her talons made 
me dubiously wonder who would come through the ordeal 
victorious. But I need not have feared. She i)roved most 
obliging. I caught her easily, aiid sponged her with water, 
with the result that she acquired a great liking for it, and, 
afterwai'ds frequently splaslied happily in tiie l)ig shallow 
bath, and developed into a glorious bird. She grew so ex- 
ceedingly tame that she would allow mc to sit With my arm 
round her — (I am, of course, referring to a bird!) — and she 
never attempted to claw or bite. A bird or rat would always 
tempt her, and she would run along the perches on the ground, 
* Gyr-Falcon {/•'. ;////;/((/(v;.) f Icelandic Falcon (F. Ixhuitlnx.) 

282 Three Vncommon Pets. 

to take the dainty morsel Iroiu my head. We allowed her to 
run loose occaisionally, but she never wandered away. In 
my opinion the Gyr-Falcon is the finest, noblest and most 
docile of all the Falcon tribe. 

The Urubu or Black Vulture (Cafhariates abnlns) is 
a South American species, and cannot, by any stretch of the 
imagination be called handsome. But, all the same, he is a 
very fine fellow. He is exceedingly tame, which makes him 
a great favourite. His bare neck and sombre black plumage 
are not calculated to win admirers, but he is very sociable, 
dwelling amicably with my Buzzards and Caracara. He feeds 
on raw flesh, rats or mice, and is especially partial to dead 
lambs. This is not such an expensive diet as you would 
imagine, seeing t hat in the early lambing season, many o£ 
the animals die, and 1 can buy them for a penny each! The 
beak and talons of the Black Vulture are nothing like as 
powerful as those of a true Falcon, and apparently would not 
sulflce to do material damage to a live animal of much size. 
After meals he spreads his wings and remains for a long 
time on the stumps of a tree in that fashion, resembling an 
old black coat hanging up to dry. He always runs up to greet 
anyone he knows, in a most friendly and engaging manner. 
In Peru and Jamaica the Uruba is protected under .severe 
penalties, wiiich can be readily understood, when it is ex- 
plained that these birds perform the whole duty of scavengers 
in the streets. 

The Audulx):i'8 Cara.ara {Polyborus chctiway) is always 
sure of admiration, owing to his attracti'V^ colouring. 
I wondered u-hy he was named " Caracara," and conclude it 
comes from his own peculiar cry. It is both comical and in- 
teresting to watch him when he "calls." The moment I enter 
his aviary with food at meal time, he throws his head right 
back, and, with head and neck bent on his Ixick, he gives 
a kind of prolonged rattling "caracara." He is as tame as 
he is handsome, which is saying a good deal. He comes from 
Central America, and resembles a Vulture in some of his 
habits. Nothing in the way of raw meat comes amiss to him, 
but he prefers dead birds if allowed a choice. He keeps 
himself in excellent condition, bathing and preening, and 
sunning himself. The claws of a Caracara are comparatively 

Brcnliiifj of the arri/ Waxhlll. 283 

shoi-t, and this ciiahlcs him to i-uii loii^' (listaii<-»'s. in tlic 
aviai-y hr spctuls ((uilc half the time (»u the ^'lound, unlike 
the (iyi'-Falcon, wiio was never content until she had ali^iili'd 
on the hi,i,'hest pereii slie eouhl lind. 

Easy to keep, atti'active in apj)earance, and cxcoed- 
:nj,M\ tame, th<'-;c three bifds make (^xeelhMit and (iuai;;f jiel-; 
or anyone wlio can ol)lain a, supply of fresh raw meat, Idrds, 
rats, i^-c. or I'oui'si' su(di liii'ds require j)Ienty bf r-oom, and 
a \iiv<fi(' shallow i)aii of water for Ivathing and di-inkin^''. I 
do no! ad\i-' town (lw(dl(M-s to keep them, but to those who, 
like myself, li\e in the country, the care of these birds ])re- 
soiif.-. no didicullie^, and very little expense. 
— — ■■ — 

Breeding of the Grey Waxbill, 

{Estrilda cinerea). 
By W. A. Bainbridge. 

In the aviary there were three of these 'Waxbills, T lie- 
lieve a cock and two hens, hut, not ex]:>ecting them to breed, T 
never troubled to catch them up and sex them until they had 
be.i,^^! to huild, wlien it se;>med too late, as the catching and intro- 
duction of a Idai-tli might have .-'done more harm than the 
presence of an odd hird. 

Tn Febiuary and March, despite the weather, they be- 
gan to build in a corner on the floor of the shed, but ,a pair 
of cross-mated Key's Partridge and California Quail, taking 
a fancy to the same place, ,the Waxbills had to give way. 
They did not seem to mind much, merely going to the op])osite 
corner and starting again, this, how^ever, they decided was 
too near the door and their (juai'ters were again shifted; thi:; 
time, a jiest was built under a bush, but ;till in a corner of the 
aviary and under cover. 

On March 31st I deeidefl to put some pea stii-ks along 
the liack of the covered flight, the floor of which is .sand, 
about o inches deep. On Aj)ril 1st the Grey Waxbills again 
decided that their (piarters were unsatisfactory, and another 
nest was started l)ehind the pea sticks, but still on the flooi- 
and again in a corner. 

Although the nest in each case was (piite easy to see 
when in the aviary, they were very secretive about their 

284 Breedwg of the Grcij WaxhiU. 

building operations, and, it was some time befoi-e T found 
out to whom the nest belonged, but I think that Ivotli birds, 
if not all three, took part in its construction. 

This nest, the last to be built, seemed to give them 
little satisfaction for they went on adding to it until the ground! 
base of it was about 12in. x fiin. and fiin. high. 

By this time my interest had waned, it seemed to be 
merely a game of which they could not ti'-o, and the fact that 
the nest could only be seen from the inside of the aviary, and, 
that the opening of the door was evidently the signal for 
them to leave it and retire to the other end of the aviary, 
was not calculated to inspire me with hope. 

On July 23rd while paying a visit to the .Tacarinis and 
supplying them with mealworm^, T noticed a "\Ya\i)i]l fly to, 
but not into, the nest with what looked like a crushed up 
mealworm, and, again 7 hoped. 

Two days la^er the question w^as settled, as they were 
seen to enter the ne-t with food; all three adults now became 
much tamer, coming almost to my feet for mealworms and 
spiders; when they had se?ured on'^, they wouhl retire and bite 
it up, and, in about four or five minutes time go to the T^f'?,^. 
and then return for more. 

I left home about this time but heard that two young 
left the nest on August 3rd, four days la.ter they were both 
dead and with them my hopes. 

A surpri^e, however, was in store for me, as on August 
16th. two more young left the nest, one more vigorous than 
the other, but both were strong and vigorous. 

On August 22nd, being at home for one day, T noticed 
the parents feeding both with meaHvorms and seed, but chiefly 
the latter, the favourite being flowering grass, dock, etc., but 
now only two birds seemed to be feeding and not the three as 
before, so I presume that the last couple of youngsters were 
from a different hen to the first, but of this I cannot be sure., 

The period of incubation I cannot give for reasons 
stated above. 

The young left the nest ten days after I first saw them 
feed, but, of course, they may have then been hatched several 

They were seen to feed themselves on Ausrust 2r)t,h. 

Brrcdlmi of the Crrj/ Wa.rhiJJ. 'iS.") 

\vh\v\i is tliii'toon (lays al'l(M- Icaviti,!,- the ik'^I, and \\rrr tluMi 
(akin.i;- \vlii!c inilict. 

Tht^ luiviit liinls always had aooo-s to llic usual s.mmIs, 
and \VvM-(> sciMi to l'<-(>d the youui;- on nicalwoniis, spidiu's, half- 
ri|n- llowiu'in,!;- -I'ass anil dork seeds; ants" cl'-s (alive and 
lu'esei'vcd). \vev,> also thei'e (lniuii,ii- tlie whole peiuod they 
wry • reaiin.i;- tlie young. 

Xc. ;]/).<(; pUnnagc: The youn.i; on h'avini;- the nest 
\iTe ix- foMows: Ivreast and abdomen lii^id ,i;-i'ey, wiii!^> and 
I.aek liu-'it li:-o-\-n-,-i-rcy, tail brown with some black idi feathors 
in it, b.'ik b'aek. throat lii;-ld grey with two darkish lines, 
hke an inveiMed v 'ihns A^ f'-'Un the ba^e of the heak descending 
a shoi-t distance. 


Nrstix(!: Few avieulfuidsts will have i^rodteil to any 
ap]-)rociable extent from thi^ fine Aveathor of the past few 
weeks, as mo^t oT the birds either having just moulted or 
being in thc-monlt (the moult has l)een early this year), are 
mostly not on nestin;.; intent. 

RiOD-f'RESTKT) f'AKiMXAr.s (Pamarla riirNlJala) . Our 
membe.' Mr. B. Hamilton Seott seems to ho very fortunate 
with this species, most seasons, a few are reared in his aviary, 
the past soMso!! hn< b(>en no eve;>pt1on, for, on August 7th, there 
Avere tlir(M- line luU grown young ones, praetieally fending' 
for tlnmisclves. 

<.Vh:-k.\teels: Mr. H. H. Scott's old pair of Cnckateel.s 
have again proved pro'ific, having fu'ly reaicfl thirteen young 
l-.ii'ds from three nests, broods of four, live and four respect - 
iv(d>. and have gone to nest again. 

Grkv Waxbill (Es'rUila cvicrca). Mr. Bainbridge 
has two young of this species on the wing fending for thenV- 
sehcs foi- details see page 283. We know of no nrcAious 
i-ecoi'ti of this, fi'cely imp-:)rte 1 species, having been Iired in 
c;reat Ibilain. If any menibcu- knows of such will they kindly 
send in deiails at oiu'c? Mr. Bainbridge also has one young 
('0;.')dian Finch, and 7)iamond Doves on the wing. 

biM:,)i, \ii;i) P \i:i; AKKETS: Miss M. E. Baker has had 
one young bird of this species reared to fend for itsell', unfor- 

286 ' Editorial. 

tunatelj^ when over three months old, it got accidentally 
drowned. A detailed account will appear in a near issue. We 
cannoi call to mind a previous instance of a young bird of this 
species having "been reared to fend for itself, if any reader 
know.5 of such an instance will they please notify us at once. 
Ekd-Headbd {Amadiva erythrocephala x Ribtjon 
(A. jaseiata) FiNcn Hybrid: Miss A. B. Smyth has kindly 
sent us the preserved specimen, referred to in her letter, 
"Current Notes," in "Correspondence" section of this issue. 
The bird is in partially mature plumage, and with the ex- 
ception of size and the crimson l>and across the throat, favours 
the Red-headed Finch. It is about the same length as the 
Riblxjn Finch, is stouter built, and has a larger head and 
longer tail, which gives it the appearance of being larger. 
It has the white throat, barred with black and crimson band 
across of the Ribbon Finch; the chin is grey-brown; th/e 
head is grey-brown, and red finely barred with dark brown; 
thu> the feathers of the top of the head are grey-brown at 
base, up to about three sixteenths inch from tip, here a dark 
brown line crosses, following by a broad band of reddish -buff, 
merging into the darkish line at tip—thus this specimen had 
iti lived to reach full maturity, would doubtless have had the 
head mottled grey -brown, dark brown and reddish, with a 
broad reddish -crimson band across the throat — the mantle and 
back are dull brown, upper tail coverts pale buflfish -brown wi'th 
a sub-marginal line of dark brown on most of the feathers, 
tail, dark-brown, tipped with pa!e-buff-brown, the two outer 
feathers also having their outer webs margined with the same 
colour; wings, dull biown, with the flights dark brown, the 
latter having lighter margins, the coverts broadly tipped with 
ligh^, brown, succeeded by a dark lirown line al)ove the 
light tip; the breast and abdomen are warm brown, merging 
into pale buff at the ventral region; the former already having 
many of the light spots margined with dark brown of the 
Reddish Finch, but while it is somewhat unsafe to generalise 
on a specimen not yet in fully mature plumage, it 'would 
appear- that the spotting of the undersurface would be neither 
so regular, nor the spots so light as those of A. erylhroccphaln. 
Mr. W. T. Page bred this hybrid in 1907, and a plate and 
description of it appeared on page 281 of Bird Nolr.s, Vol. VI. ^ 

Corrcspondmre. 2^7 

l)iit in his c-iso fhc paivnla-c ua< f faiisposcd, viz, Ribbon x 
Ko(l-hea(l(Mi Finch. II would appear fioiii lln' speoimonsi 
we havi- seen (.i- I'cad ili> ^.-lipl ioiis nl' llial iiidiviilual spoci- 
iiicn^ of llicsc hyhi'ids would \;\r\ coiisiflcralilN' in plumage. 
Ki:i;ata: I\a,i,-t> 2;?(i. ,liii(> ;52, d.dcfc " comos " 

25(5, liiK— ni. n.r "aro as follow," ivad are 
(IS folloii's: 
,. 261. line 12, ior " Sikhim," i-oad Sil-J:wi. 
„ 270, line 21, foi' " Jin/m Ii?/mp7iali.s " re-ad 
Jin/ro Jn'r))i(iJi.s. 



Sir. — T see ili.d tlnTc ;ire one or two sli^'lif errors in <Iie note on the 
hreedins; of Parrakeets, etc., here this season. The Stanleys were hred in 
an aviary, not at bherty. and the Roseate Cockatoos reared younsr in 1012. 
Tliis year I had bad hick with them, the hen dying egcr-bound in February 
— the nsual fate of hen Roseates at bberty, which, in the .svrnw/ season, ab 
ways try to jiest too early, and as a nde pay the penalty in the way referred 
to. I obtained another hen from the Zoological Gardens, but, after stajing 
ahout for a few days, she went clean away, taking the cock with her, and I 
never heard of either again. 

The dang-Oang deserted her nest on account of illness, for we have 
now discovered her to be suffering badly from tuhercidosis, which is most 
unfortunate. On two previous occasions (in 1911 and 1912J she had nested 
and sat full time, but the eggs were infertile as her mate Avas a cripple and 
had lost a leg. This year she was paired to a fine strong bird, and I had 
great hopes of success, not foreseeing the catastrophe which has overtaken 

Tn reply to ^Mis. Hartley's letter. T regret to say T have had no answer 
ahout the cock Turquoisine and fear that he must therefore have succumhed 
during the past winter. I do not think he ever went to the Zoological 
Cardens. Tt is sad that aviculturists both in England and on the Continent 
failed to realize the approaching extinction of this lovely Parrakeet, and 
made no serious attempt to breed sufficient members in captivity to avert 
a catastrophe ; it might so easily have been done. 

The same remark applies, to a certain extent, to the Carolina Con- 
ure, although on account of its destructive habits, unpleasant voice, and 
not particularly attractive plumage, it is perhaps not very surprising that it 
did not find sufficient admirers to save it from its fate. 
Woburn Abbey, Woburn. TAVISTOCK. 

August 2'2nd, 1913. 

288 Correspondence. 

GREAT TITS {Pam^ imijor) IN A GARDEN. 

Sir.— A pair of Great Tits made their nest, tliis f^pring. deep down in 
the cleft of a stump, which had once belonged to a huge Portugal Laurel ; 
it had been cut low, and. close to it (part of the same tree) another trunk, 
supported a couple of climbing roses planted at the base, making a partial 
screen to hide the birds from prying eyes. It was very interesting and 
amusing to watch their mancEuvres before they would venture to dart in 
behind the screen with the food they had brought for their young ones ; 
sometimes hesitating a minute or two on the outskirts, perched on a twig at 
a little distance, or flitting up and down uneasily as if they thought them- 
selves observed. They were generally from live to eight minutes absent 
collecting food, and occasionally both birds returned at the same time. Af- 
ter a week or ten days, to our sorrow and regret, tliey disappeared and have 
not been seen anywhere near the garden since. A cat prowling near is sup- 
posed to have been the cause of their disappearance, and one fears may pre- 
vent them again building in the same spot. 

The Tit family seem very shy and retiring in their habits, and so 
quick and active that it is difficult to follow thair m )veraeats, and one felt 
an additional pleasure in being able to observe them more closely even for a 
few days. 

Carrowden Castle, Aug. 8. 1913. (Hon. Mrs.) W'lRD. 


Sir,— I was very much interested by Mrs. Hartley's letter on the 
above subject. As at present I have an nnheated aviary, with insufficient 
shelter for the more delicate species during the winter months, I am 
obliged to keep them in cages in the house. In addition to the bill of 
fare she mentions I give hay seed, which is much appreciated by the 
birds. There is always a piece of rock salt in the cage, which is eaten 
greedily by Gouldians and Zebra-finches. ([ first gave it to Gouldians 
after seeing it recommended as an article of diet for them in Aviarirx 
and Aviary Life, and they seemed so pleased at its introduction that I 
have never let them be without it since). I also hake all the egg shells 
I can collect in the oven, then break them \^^ fine and scatter them on the 
cage floor. I could never get my birds to eat the dried Ants' "eggs"— 
at least only a few seemed to fancy them, so I only supply these about 
three times a week. Mealworms cut up into quite tiny pieces are greedilly 
eaten ; in this state they are a great treat for even the smallest of Wax- 
bills. In the cage I am also careful to provide baskets and coconut 
shells for the birds to sleep in. They certainly repay all my trouble 
and care by keeping and looking very fit and well. 

If anyone has any fresh ideas or suggestions to ofPer I do hojie 
they will write and do so. It is so interesting to know how people in 
a similar position to oneself (without large aims, etc.) meet and surmount 
their difficulties. 

Great Bookham, Surrey, (Lady) EYI-^LINE MALDEX. 

August 26, 1913. 

Conespoiidciicc. 289 


Sir, — Do any oF our iiH'iiil)f;s posse'ss li\i; si)(jc!iiueiis of tlie Collared 
Pimny Owlet {(Jlaiic'iUinii hroil'ni. Hiiiton) V- a faiil}' common species ex- 
toiulini,' riijlit along the Himalayas fnnii H/ara on the West to Sikkim, 
Assam, Burma, and China on the Kast. Because it would be interesting,' 
to learn from observation of iivinj^ specimens whether I am right in 
supposing the markings on tiie nape to be protective in character. These 
markings are thus described in the Fauna ot British India, Birds, Vol. 
Ill, p 8()S — "a bhick spot on each side of the nape, followed by a rufous 
half-collar formed by dec-)) .bntf feathers with brown borders " ; and again 
in Hume's " Bough Notts '" p. 417 -" A broad, rufous buff, half-collar at the 
base of tilt' neck bcliind, iiichiding in it two large olack or blackish brown 

Yet neither of these two descriptions (probably taken from dry 
skins in which the following chai'acteristic is not noticeable) mention the 
fact that these markings form the clear representation of an Owl-face- 
the dai-k spots becoming eye-disks. I noticed this at once on i)icking up 
the first specimen I met with and saw the owl-face clearly every lime 
that I held the bird at aim's length. 

It seems to me not imjjrobable that such a douljle-faced aspect 
saves the bird from a certain amount of annoyance : for it is a markedly 
diurnal species and as such much worried by small birds, many of which 
may be prevented from swooping at the back of the owl's head under 
the impression that tlie owl is watching it and ready : this theory does 
not seem to me as far fetched as many bearing on protective colouration, 
and observation of live birds in captivity would probably strengthen it. 
Hence 1 bring it to your notice as the optical delusion formed by the 
markings, if noticed, does not appear to have been recorded anywhere. 


Indian Police. 
Jhelum, Punjal), India. August 5th, PJ13. 


Sir,— Re my Red-lieaded x Kil)bon Finch Hybrids, I have been un- 
fortunate enough to lose tiie male when he was ten and a half weeks 
old ; 1 fear he got injured during a night scare which took place in my 
aviary ; he was well and singing the day before, but the morning fol- 
lowing the scare he was looking quite ill, and in spite of all I could do 
for him he died the same day. It was most disappointing as he was 
changing into adult plumage, his head was becoming quite red and the 
si)ots (,)f the undersurface becoming quite distinct. Two hens are doing 
well and are now twelve weeks old. 

Now, August :^Gth, they have another brood, four I think, so 
I hope there may be another male among them ; the parents are ex- 
cellent feeders, so I am counting on them being reared. 

There was a brood of Cordon Bleus, but I found them thrown out 
of the nest, and the parent birds are now nesting again. 

I have now two true pairs of Red-faced Love-birds (Ayapovnis 

290 Correspondence. 

jiullaria), mid as they have picked out their mates and are properly 
paired up I am hoping they may nest soon. 

My Marsh Birds, both the Crimson- and Yellow-bi-easted, have now 
settled down nicely, but they were very wild on arrival. 

Catford, S.E. Aug. 2G, I'JIB. 


Sir. — I have had a l»ad Ineeding season, and all 1 can report is Ijriefly 
as follows : — 

SrsKiN Hybkio : A Hooded Siskin {Chri/miinilrin citcullatas) x Canary 
hybrid is now about eight weeks old, and shows its i)arentage very clearly, 
but has no red about it up to the present. Perhaps it is only a hen bird. 

Hooded Siskins \Chrysomitris ciicuUatm). A pair of this species 
nested in my new aviary, which you so Jiindly planned for me. The hen is 
incubating two eggs which are due to hatch on Septemlier 2nd. 

I have had two nests of Zebra Finches and plenty of Budgerigars. 

Bi.ACK-cilEKKKl) LoVKHlRDS {A</aj)onil.H //i,jriije/iis) are on eggs, as 
also are (Jouldian Finches and Red Avadavats. 

Long-tailed Grasstinches, Cordon Bleus, Green Avadavats, and Dia- 
mond Finches have all built, but no signs of eggs as yet. 

Rked BtlNTiN^r.s {Emherizii sclKeniclan), A pair of this species nested, 
laid and hatched out four eggs, but failed to rear. 

A Himalayan Goldfinch { i ) mated with an English Goldfinch, have 
built a very pretty nest, but there are no eggs up to the present. 

A Green Singingfinch (Serinun }r*frui<) mated with a Grey Singing- 
finch (S. leufopi/ghis), and the Grey ( ? ) built a diminutive nest and laid a 
clutch of three eggs, but deserted them. 

This is all 1 have to report at present. 
St. John's Vicarage, HoUington. (Rev.) JOHN M. PATERSON. 

August 2?.rd, 1913. 


Sir,— In response to your enquiries my latest results are as follow: — 

Black-cheeked Lovebirds {Ayaponiis iilyrigenis) have had one 
or two nests, as usual, and in accordance with precedent (in my aviary), 
there has been no result. 

White Java Sparrows {Munia orz/z/runt, vav. (dlxi). 'Jliese laid 
six eggs and sat for three weeks, when I cleared them all out and found, 
on blowing them, all to be infertile. [Probably your birds are two hens. 

Cuba Finches (Pho/i/jxini canom). One pair at least have young in 
the nest. 

Zebra Finches (Taenioiiiinia ni.'<l(uiiiti.<). This species have reared 
two bi-oods. 

Cutthroats lAmadhtaf' ■ -idld). These have young in the nesl. 

Pei.zeen's Sakeron Finches (,S//c(ills pchclid). have t u-ee or four 
young in the nest barrel, "i'hey have already reared four strapping young- 
sters, which I shall have to part with, but sex cannot be distinguished at 
present, at least I think not. They were reared on ants' eggs, supplied three 

CorrcHpoHilcnce. 291 

times a day and a little seed. Tiicy were contiiiiiaily cattliiiit,' iiisectis and 
took these to their youiiy. 

BKN(". (rriihiiichti (/iiiiicslii-a) have es,'_t,'s, but I l>c,t,'iii to fear they 
are infertile 

I also fancy both the Avadavats {Sponier/ait/ius niiinndurd) aM<l Masked 
Cirasslinches (I'ociihHa persunata) are nesting, 

Leadenham House. Lincoln. J. SHE HARD REEVE. 

August -JGih, r.ii;;. 


8ir,— 111 tlie early part of, July I missed a hen Pectoral Finch and could 
not find her ; as the cock seemed listless and unconcerned, 1 came to the 
conclusion that she was dead, though 1 could not sec hei lying about any- 
where. A few days later however 1 went into the aviary and there was the 
hen, but the cock bird was missing! I immediately suspected that they 
were nesting, but where was the nest ? After hunting about I, at last, found 
that they had constructed a most curious sort of nest. It was placed very 
cunningly just under the top foliage of a box tree and was quite hidden. The 
nest was shaped like a slipper ; there was a platform of woven grass and then 
a covered toe part, which was the nest chamber, for therein i found three 
young birds, apparently two or three days old. These were reared and duly 
left the nest, l»ut one died, and since then I ^have been unfortunate enough 
to lose the hen. The other two young birds are doing well and appear very 
healthy and robust. 

Aviculture has its joys, but no less its disappointments. I have been 
fortunate enough to breed some very good Long-tailed (.Jrasstinches 
{Foephila aculicaiulu), but Zebra Finches seem very shy with me season. 

Brentwood, August "JH, 19 IH. W. T, ROGERS. 


Sir,— Quite by chance, as it were, 1 can add to your list of birds which 
wear pink. For the last week or so there have been some large Storks on 
the river here and as 1 was not quite sure of the species, I called a boat this 
evening and set out to secure a specimen. After some manoeuvering round 
sandbanks and reed patches 1 "spotted " about a dozen large birds on a 
sandbank, and, drawing near was able to make out through the glasses that 
they were the Storks in question. With them were a pair of White Ibis 
{Ibis iiielaiioceplialaj. As they did not seem shy and there was no cover, 
the plan was adopted of getting above them up stream and then punting 
down so as to pass within range ; as this manoeuvre was being carried out 1 
had ample opportunity of watching the curious big birds through the glasses 
and could see a large patch of true pink on the lower part of the folded 
wing which would surely serve to identify the bird if no specimen were ob- 
tained. As we approached some of the Storks took wing to another sand- 
bank lower down, and just as we were nearly in shot the remainder rose, to 
settle again some three hundred yards down the river near the tirst lot. We 
continued to drift with the stream and this time the manoeuvre was crowned 
with success, one of the Storks falling heavily to my first barrel. It proved 
to be— as I suspected- 7^cSCd/(/(;/((///a/«s leucocephalus, Pennant, The Painted 

292 From All Sources. 

Stork or Pflican Il)is, and ill tlif adult the tertiaiiis aiu pink willi wliite 
borders. As I write the bird is being skinned. 
Jhehim, Punjab, India, June 24, 1913 HUGH WHISTLER. 

[The above letter, owing to prolonged absence from home, got covered 
up with a mass of other correspondence and has ouly just "turned u]) ' 
again — it refers to a letter " No Pink Birds" by Mrs. E. A. Hartley on p^oc 
93 of current Vol'^Ed.] 

From All Sources 

THE WHEATEAR {Sa.rlcl.i <>ei,<uithr, Linn.) 

These it would seem, are early days for the departure of our summer guests, 
but already many of the migratory birds are on their way to warmer climes. 
The Cuckoos began to leave us in July, and very soon tlie last of them — the 
young birds of the year — will be gone ; the earlier broods of Swallows have 
been assembling preparatory to their oversea journey for many days past ; 
and the Swifts whose stay is the shortest of all, are now represented only by 
a few solitary pairs who have got behindhand with their family business. 

Each and all of these familiar summer visitors become daily more 
conspicuous by their absence, but there is one other bi)d— the Wheatear— 
whose movements at this season are just as surely governed by that instinct 
which is so unerring in its rule. Only those who wander upon the downs near 
southern-coasts make the the acquaintance of this little sprite of lonely places, 
and even then, were it not for the conspicuous blotch of white \i\)ui\ his back, 
it would be very easy to overlook the " Sussex Ortolan." 

This latter name the Wheatear earned, of course, in the days when his 
flesh was as highly prized as that of the bird from which he took his once 
popular title. In bygone days a dish of Wheatears supplied the ''piece de 
resintaiice" at all important feasts and public banquets, and fashionable folk 
used to journey to Brighton to tickle their palates with this toothsome dainty 
just as in later times they went to Colchester to feast on oysters and to 
Greenwich for whitebait dinners. 

The trapping of Wheatears was, in fact, a regular business among the 
shepherds of the down country, who in a good season made far more by 
following this " side-line" to their regular occupation thai> by tending sheep. 
The tr-ips were formed by cutting shallow trenches in the turf in tlie form 
of a " T," the turves being replaced so as to form a branching tunnel, with 
the daylight showing through at each of the three openings. In the darkest 
part of these tunnels horse-hair nooses were set, and the wheatears, who 
never can resist the temptation to explore any underground passage, were 
caught as they ran through from one end to the other. On some of the liigli 
downs near the coast, notably at Beachy Head, at Birling Gap, near Seaford, 
and about Rottingdean, the shepherds made so many of these "coops," as 
they were called, that the dow:is had the appearance of having been culti- 
vated, but in September, when the season, which began in July, was over, 
the sods of turf were carefully replaced- 

Extraordinary catches of Wheatears were sometimes made, (.specially 

From All Sources. 293 

in (lull woalluM'. wIumi llic l)ii(]s aiu; most apt to rnn into liidint,'. Tho 
slioplicnls iisc',1 to tliiiik tluy liiid iloiie well if they (• takr throi' or four 
dozen l)ir(ls in ;i diiy, hut an old shi^pherd who worked on Westside Farm, 
near Rri^diton, once took as many as thirteen dozen l)et\veen dawn and dusk, 
and as the |)riee was then oi2fhteeni»ence a dozen he equalled his weeks waj^ea 
in a sini,de ilay. This I'ecoi-d however was easily eclipsed by another shep- 
herd, who nrar East Dean durintf a ijreat fli.frht of tho hirds took neaily a 
hundred d >'. "i in thi' spi'-(> of •_' I lioin-s. As tinio went (iii tlic l)irds liccanie 
scarw, as tin' rrsult of this lieavy annual toll on thcii' nuuil.frs, l)ut this was 
not the only reason for the discontinuance of this wholesale slan<,diter. 

The passinjif of the Wild Birds' Protection Act made the capture of 
Whea tears too risky a business in the early part of the season, wlren tho close 
time was still in force-^that is. up to the beginning of August— and later, 
when the law peianitted the shepherds to begin trapping, the farmers decided 
to i)ut ;ui enil to it. i)artly on account of the damage done to tlic pasture of 
the downs, and partly because it was found that the shepheids often neglect- 
ed their pro|K'r work to sn])i)Iement their earnings at the exjiense of the 
Wheatears. It is said that within quite recent years a little trapping still 
continued to be done on tho sly at the instigation of the dealers, but one 
may now walk from one end of the downs to the other and never see so much 
as the scar in the turf left by the shepherd's "coop." — From iho " S,tn)iilai-<1 " 
AiKjuxt 2UI. 1913, per Rev. G JT. Rdt/nor. 

FIRE CAUSED BY A BIRD'S NEST.— The Folkestone fire 
brigade was yesterday called to a fire caused by a bird's nest. The outbreak 
occurred at 2, Priory Gardens, a boarding-house on the sea front, occupied 
by Mr. W. R. Record. The bird's nest had been built just below a wooden 
window-sill, and was ignited by spai'ks from a chimney. In turn the window- 
sill cauglit alight. The fire was, however, subdued before any extensive 
damage was dime. --From tlw " S/,iii<J,iriJ,'' Au;/Hst J3, WIS. per h'cr. G. II- 

MYSTERY OF THE SWIFT {Cypsehi^ apm, Linn.) 

CHAX(iIX(; 11. \ 151 TS. -Just now a special interest attaches to the 
movements of the Swifts, time of departure has airived Usually by 
the end of July there is a perceptible thinning of the ranks of these 
.sombre-looking, yet most merry, of our summer bird -visitors, and by the time 
that the second week of August has run its course nothing more than an 
occasional straggler is to be seen. 

Of late years, however, the habits of the Swifts — like those of a few 
other birds of the migratory kind— appear to be undergoing some sort of 
change. It has ever been a mystery why these birds, which are the latest of 
all of the so-called " swallow tribe," never appear in this country until May 
is almost or actually here ; and ecjually mysterious is their apparent anxiet}' 
to leave our shores while summer is still with us. But two years ago it was 
n)ticed in many parts of the country that while the chimney Swallows and 
H(mse IMartins a]n">eared to be unusual hurry to depart, the Swifts 
seemed to be inclined to linger beyond the usual date of their goiuL'. In the 
third week of August a few pairs of the birds were still to be seen even 
many miles inland, and the last stray members of the tribe did not finally 
disappear until the very end the month. 

294 Gleanings. 

Last j'ear this lingering disposition on the part of the Swift was even 
more marked, for there was none of the usually perceptible decrease in num- 
bers at the end of July, and many flocks of seven or eight were to be observed 
any evening up to August 28. After that only a few stragglers were to be 
seen, and by the first of September the last Swift seemed to have found its 
way out of the country. It may be, of course, that last year nesting was de- 
layed owing to bad weather, or the j'oung birds in so wet and cold a summer 
did not grow at the usual rate, so that their parents were compelled to tarry 
longer than usual. But that cannot have been the case either this year or in 
1911 — at anyrate at the present moment all the young Swifts would seem to be 
out of the nest and fully grown. Some of the birds — possibl}- the bulk of 
them- have already gone, but it will be interesting to see whether any of 
them remain so long with us on this occasion as a year ago. Ten j'ears back 
it would have been deemed a very uncommon circumstance if a single Swift 
had been observed as late as the third or fourth week in August, and one 
would like to discover the reason for this more dilatory behaviour on the 
part of a bird ordinarilj- so punctual in its habit.*. 

So far as temperature and food supply are concerned— and these are 
generally held to be the two moj^t important factors in the movements of 
migratory birds -there seems to be no reason whj' the Swift should not re- 
main in this country up to the middle or end of September. There is plenty 
of insect food available up till then, and neither days nor night are colder 
than they often are in May. On a chilly and blusterous evening in tht latter 
month the Swifts seem just as happy as on a piping afternoon in July. 

Their wonderful evolutions in the air and their joyous screaming in 
high falsetto are pleasant things to see and hear, so that whether they go 
early or late the passing of the Swifts must always be a matter for regret. — 
From the " Standanl,'^ Aui/iiyt 22. 7.97.?. //-'/• Rer. G. H. Rai/uor. 

The Royal Artillery gunners at Cliff End Battery, Totland Bay. Isle 
of Wight, found a nest of four C4oldfinches, and placing it in a cage near 
the spot where they found it, discovered that the parent birds came regular- 
ly to feed their young. The cage has now been removed to the middle of 
the battery, and the old birds come regularly to feed the prisoners, and are 
quite unalarmed by the discharge of the heavy guns. The gunners are now 
aspiring to capture the parents in order to match them with Linnets. — Fiom 
the '' Standard;^ Sepfemhpr r,lh. 7f)13. per lirr G. IT. Na>/)im: 


[Compiled from Xojks ox " (age Birds."] 
Redpolls (Linoia rufesccns): My birds have at last 
succeeded in rearing young. The nest was made in a small 
basket filled with hay. They simply scooped the hay out at one 
end and deposited five eggs in the cavity; the eggs were laid 
on consecutive days, the first Qgg was laid .July 9th, and the 
first egg hatched on July 2 1st, second and third on .July 22nd, 

Gleanings. 295 

and the fuurth uii the 23rd, the latter only lived one dtiy, but 
the other three caiiie on I'upidly, they had their eyes open, when 
live days old, and left the nest on August 3rd, being then 
twelve days old. They were reared on mixed seed, includuig 
a table.spoonlul of poppy seed daily, dry ants' c^^s, and green - 

Siskins {Clirysomilrls spinas): After many failures, I 
succeeded in rearing Siskins fairly freely. First five days 
young were fed entirely on pupiij of gentles; then for some 
days on <i^^; then greenfood — groundsel, etc. ^o hard seed 
allowed in the cage, when they leave the nest for six weeks. 

Siskins in an aviary readily rear their young on seed, 
insectile mixture, greenfood, and what Hies, etc., they capture 
in the aviary. 

The Shama {CUtocincla macroura) : My Shamas iiave 
reared three line youngsters from two nests. They are in a 
cold aviary, which is sheltered on one side by the house and 
ou the otlier by a green -house. The cock bird has been out 
three winters, but tlie hen was only imported in the spring. 
While they were nesting and rearing the young, we were able 
to watch them from the drawing-room window, they were not 
at all shy. 

Pekix KoBix {Liothrix luteus): My Pekin Kobins are 
very interesting, the hen is very busy incubating and the cock 
in teaching an infant to Uy. They are kept in an outdoor 
aviary, which is only used during the summer; hi the winter 
all the birds go into a large flight cage, which stands in the 
conservatory. The back of the aviary is a brick wall, which 
is covered with ivy and Clematis montaiia and partly hlled 
with low thick bushes. It contains besides the Pekins, j)airs of 
\irginiau Nightingales and Blue Robins, also an odd Bulbul and 
two \^'eavers. The spring was very cold, and they went to 
nest very early, constructing a nest of raffia grass in a thick 
bush; two eggs were laid and duly hatched out, but one suc- 
cumlied to the bitter nights. The other was successfuUj" 
reared; it was fed mostly with live ants' Qgg, flies, etc. 
Xow it is out of the nest the father alone feeds it with flies, 
ants' Q§Q^, peas, strawberries, etc. In the same nest Mrs. 
Robin is incubating another clutch of four eggs. I And them 
most fascinating birds. 

296 British Bird Calendar. 

British Bird Calendar. 

It is unjenlly requested that Members from all round the coast irill 
note the ntuveinents of birds, more especiaUi/ in the Southern and Eastern 
Counties, and regularbj {2Sth of each month) send in their notes — on this the 
ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend — 

Aug. 2 — I walked five miles along the shore from Cleethorpes in a 
southerly direction (the gatherings on the east coast of our sum- 
mer visitors usually commences late in July), and saw many 
Pied Wagtails (Motacilla raii). Wheatears {Saxicola wnanthe), 
birds of the year, were in twos and threes all along the sand hills. 
There were very few Gulls on the shore, as they had not yet left 
their breeding quarters. An old disused gravel pit, where I have 
been accustomed to find many Sand Martins' {Cotile nparia) nests 
was quite deserted; not a solitary Martin could be found. Sand- 
pipers (7 o£a«<<Js /!//pw/e«CMs) were not numerous, there were how- 
ever several Redshanks {T. calidris) vnid young Curlews Numenius 
arquata), the latter were very tame. It has been a good season 
for ducks; Mallard (^Iwas boscas) and Teal {Nettion crecca) have 
done very well, and, in cansepuence there was good sport on 
August 16th the first day of the open season. 

^uiT 29 Willow Wrens {Fhylloscopus trochilus), Whitethroats (St/lvia 

cinerea) and Lesser Whitethroats (<S'. cnrritca) (juite numerous at 
r.oon : there were three Willow Wrens, four Lesser Wliitethroats 
and one Whitethroat on my aviaries at one time, and for the past 
ten days they have been in evidience at all hours of the day, A 
brood of Spotted Flycatchers {Muscicapa yrisola), reared in the 
garden, are still here. 

R. S., Cleethorpes, Aug. 29, 1912. 

31 During the past fourteen days theie have been quite large num- 
bers of Willow Wrens {Fhylloscopus trochilus), and Chiff-chaffs 
^F. rufus) to my and neighbouring gardens; both species are with us 
all the season and nest in and about the various gardens, but there 
have been large accessions from the open country recently, a sure 
sign that the time of their departure is getting near at hand, though 
odd birds linger till quite late in the year. Some have already 
gone as numbers have been getting smaller the last few days, but 
today, in spite of almost torrential rain, I observed about a dozen 
on or about the aviary during a short spell of sunshine. The Pied 
Wagtail (Motacilla lutjubris) is (luite common at Mitcham, one 
meets them very frequently when strolling along the roads and 
lanes at all periods of the year, but it is not till late summer that 
they become regular or frequent visitors to our gardens, though 
they are stray visitors all the year. This morning six of them 
were foraging about on the lawn, delighting us with their grace- 
ful deportment as we watched them from shelter. 

W.T.P., Mitcham, August 31st, 1913. 

m "^ 

All nitjhts Ursrrrrd. OcToiiKi;, I '.) 1 


THE — 


Some Interesting Birds. 

Hv \Vii]sLEY T. Page, F.Z.S. Illustrated from ].ife. by 


{Cout'niitcd fr(t))i parjc 2 7,'5). 

TiiK 0()^I^r()^' SirA(; oi' CiuKKN Cormorant {Phahcro- 
Gora.v (ji-dciihis. Linn.): The Shag is well oH' foi' popular 
names, loi' it is known as the Scart, Scarf, and Crested Cor- 
morant, as well as the designations heading this paragraph. 
In general habits and characteristics it resembles the Common 
Cormorant {P. oarho), but is a little smaller and has differently 
hued plumage. In the year 1882, two young P. carhn were 
hatched out at the London Zoo, thus a description of P. 
graculus is not out of place in an avicultural journal. 

Description: Adult. Rich dark green with bronzy 
and purplish reflections, the feathers of the mantle have 
blackish margins; quills and tail feathers black (the Shag 
has only firclrc tail feathers, the Common Conuoranf jonr- 
trni): bill lilack with the base of the lower mandible and inside 
of mouth chroinc-ycllow; legs and feet black; ii'ides green; 
naked skin on sides of face black thickly studded with small 
yellow spots. From January to May a curving forward 
crest adorns the forehead. Total length 27 inches, wing 10^ 

The s(>xes are alike, liut the male is distinctly the 
largei- Ivird. 

YoiiiHj: Above l^rown with a gi'cenish tinge; below 
ashy-brown vaiiegated with bi'own; bill slender with the 
lower mandible yellow. 

Hanfic- Almost world-wide. l>ut very rai-el.v found 
on inland waters and may be ti-rnied an esseiitiall\' marine 
s]HHMes. It is found to a greater oi' lesser dei^Tce all I'ound 
the rocky coasts of Great Britain. It also freipicnts the 
coasts of Iceland, Norway, Germany, Channel Islands, Russia, 
France, Spain, Portugal, and Morocco, etc. 

2'.K"> Some Interesting Birds. \ 

The shoi'cs of the Moditci-ranean are occupied by a ■ 
brighter form (P. desmaresti), but its specific distinctness 
is very doubtful. 

Habits, etc.: Its favourite liauuts are rugged, roclvy 
coasts, and in the hollows and recesses of these it malces its ^ 
nest, and rears its young— such a site is portrayed in Mr. 
Willford's beautiful photograph, showing a brooding Shag, 
which was taken this summer on the Scilly Isles— in such ' 
places the Shag is very numerous, more so than the Common ; 
Cormorant, and is more inclined to be gregarious than the i 
latter species. The nest i^ a conglomeration of sea -weed j 
and grass matted and plastered together, and its vicinity is | 
not pleasant to human olfactory organs, for it gives forth an ' 
atrocious foetid odour. Three to four eggs are laid, mostly 
oblong, but the shape is variable; of rough outside texture; j 
there is an under shell of pale blue with a chalky -white | 
coating. On our south coasts eg^ laying commences in April | 
and young have been found by the middle of May, but the 
season is later in the north. The nestling is bare at flrst and i 
of a purplish -black colour, Init a sparse coat of dark brown | 
down is gradually assumed; its eyes remain closed till about i 
the fourteenth day. The method of feeding is as follows: , 
some little time after the parent bird has fed it mounts the ; 
side of the nest, and opens its mouth to its widest extent, ^ 
which the young bird enters, as far as its flapping wings 
permit and feeds on the macerated food in its parent's crop. 

The Shag is a diving l)ird and in some localities is 
sometimes called " Diver," which designation is also applied 
to r. carho. The action of diving is commenced b-y a sort 
of spring out of the water, it possesses the power to dive to ' 
a good depth, for it has been taken in a cfab-pot fixed at ; 
twentj fathoms below the surface. It feeds on sea fish, in ' 
the capture of which it calls its diving powers into full i)Iay. 
Shags busily engaged, diving for prey, may be observed at ' 
most seaside resorts, where the coast is rocky, by any who j 
care to take the trouble to look for them. 

I cannot lay aside my pen without congi'atulating xMr. | 
Willford on the excellent examples of his ])li()i()grai)hic skill, i 
which illustrate these notes. ' 

(To he Go>itinued). 

lillil) NoTHS. 

The Cdiiunon Slia.y. 

Pholn hn TL WllljonJ, 

TJic Spnffrd Part ridge. ODf) 

The Spotted Partridge 

{()(io)itophon<s gidldlus) . 
By R. Suggitt. 

T liavo had no other means of ideiifilyiuLr liiis species 
tlian Mr O^qlvie-CranCs vtM'v useful liltle liand -liook to the 
(Jame P.irds. in wliieh tlie disf iiii^niisliin,^- eharaelei'istics arc 
i,'-iven of evei'v known sp;>ci(^s of (iame-Rird, allhoni,''li 111" 
whole of th(> phuna.ire is not, in many ca-^c:-, fully desci-ilied. 

Tho c:(nuis Odonlophorus eompri:^es some fourteen .specico 
and sub-species, the ran.trc of which extends from Southern 
Mexico to Bolivia. The sexes arc similar in pluma^'c, or 
with very slii^ht difTcrences. 

Th(> ran,e:e of Odovtophorns guflafus is iriven as 
I'entral America. South Mexico, to Chiriqui. 

T cannot find any record of this species having teen 
jn-eviously imported, before I received my first specimen from 
rarmer Island, off the coast of Campeachy, in June, 1909. 
Two birds, probably a pair, were being brought over for 
me, but they proved to be so wild and unmanageable in their 
ti-a veiling -box on board ship that the larger and brighter- 
roloui'ed one was killed in its mad efforts to escape, and the 
one that reached mc had permanently iniured its wings, and 
in addition always walked with a limp. I released it from its 
travelling box direct into 'the aviary; it gave a wild scream 
and rushed into the bushes, and I never saw it again for a 
week afterwards. This bird never got over its terror of human 
beings, but it became more reasonable in course of time, and 
aflerwaids took possession of three or four Californian Quail 
i.hicks. which it tended and brooded until they needed mother- 
ing no longer. 

T tliink that this incident points to the bird being a 
f(Mnal(\ She lived out of doors, summer and winter, until 
December Gth, 191-2, thrc^ days before I received two more 
rpccimenr from the same source. 

I fully expected, upon opening the travelling box con- 
taining the new arrivals, to see two battered, terror-stricken, 
pieces of birds, but, to my surprise, both stepped calmly 
out of the box into the flight prepared for their reception, 
almost perfect in feather and so tame that they would allow 

300 The Spoffed Partridge. 

tlieir back.s to Ire stroked. Both these birds are exactly 
alike in plumage, luit one i.s slightly larger than the other. 
The larger one had broke:i it < l;'g on hoard the ship; it liad, 
however, been set so ;;kiliLilly thaU when the splints and 
wrapping.- were I'emoved, a slight thickness at the place 
r-: fracture wa , the only remaining evidence of injivi-y. 

A rougli dex-ription ol the plumage is as follows : — 
Crc.^1, dark l)rown; sides of face, paler brown; car r-o verts, 
dark brown, a broad che ;tnut stripe runs from the cai's down 
the sides of the neck; wings, brown heavily mo'tled with 
black and darker shadt^s of brown; mauile l>rown with buf- 
fish -white shaft srreaks to the feathers; i)ack i^-rev, linely 
mottled witli In-own and shading to Ijrown on the upper tail 
coverts; (drin, throat, and lower part of cheeks, l>lack with 
white centres to the feathers; under-surface, brown with nu- 
merou.- huffish- white spots which become larger towards tliC 
abde:i!rn; beak, black; feet, dark grey. 

Mr. Grant deicriljes the hind portion of the crnst of 
the male as brick-red, and the feathers of the mantle with 
no buffish -white shaft -streaks, so that I am afraid that both 
my birds are females. 

I turned them into the largest division of my aviary 
(46 feet by 16 feet) this year (in April). They appeared 
to be afraid of their new surroundings, especially of the long 
grass, and for some days were very wild and would probably 
have injured them elves, if I had not taken the precaution of 
'"dipping the 'flights of one w'ing liefore they were released. 

However, they eventually settled down on a small 
portion of ungrassed ground a few feet in extent, and nothing 
would induce them to leave it, except to perch in the trees 
at night not even the almost irresistable temptainn of meal- 
ft^orms, and I had to place all their food and water there. 
They soon became tame enough to be fed from the hand again, 
but several weeks elapsed before they would cautiously ven- 
ture to explore other poi'tions of the aviary; now that Ihe 
grass has died down, owing to the dry sunitiici', Ihcy waiuler 
a1)oui': more freely, but still very cai'efully. They !ia\(' not 
made the slightest attempt to go to nest this sunmier, but they 
arc on quite afl'ectiona^e ternrs, and caress and j.iccn each 
other's i)lumagc. 'fills heaves me a small liojic thai they may 
yet prove to be a true pair. 

Thr llnuulniii n/ lUinianr.s I'a rruL-rr/s. ;;(![ 

Tlii',r \()(Uiiu',ir\ is an cxIcusiNc oiic, ainl tlii'V ;u'e 
niii-laiuiy ■' lalkiii.i;' " lo lnuIi other in a low innini,^ voicj. 
They arc Ire.' p.-rcihTs and al\\a\s ^-o t > roxi in the (i'l'cs 
in (he e-vruin.^-. tiuitc early, olteii loni; hefor.- ilu.k. Tlioy 
live I'rinclpallN- on niai/,e, out oi' wliieji they (ii'-t eat th ' ,L;!'j'nis 
hciore swallou'in.u'' tlie remainder; in addition they will take 
u litth eanai-y and inillei. Tliex' like a ,;and lia'li, and ,ii'e 
Tuntl ol geatle;, and I lKdie\\' tlie\' would risk tlieii' li\es for 
ci lew meahvoi-ins. 

Altliou,i;di they are railiei' hulky liii'ds and possess a 
powi I'lul l>eak, they l'a\'e i)i'o\i'd to lie luiile harnll;•^s to their 
I'ellow eai'tivcri, whicli cannot lie said ol all the Ani'idcan 
(^)uails, loi some specie^ arc ([uitc dan.i^-'cj-ous in a mixed. 
.-cries. Tlicjse birds arc known in C'ampcachy by the iiame 
of '■ Voloctocs." 

The Breeding of Barnard's Parrakeets 

I'.Y TiiK AIakquis of Tavistock. 

Barnard's Parrakeet {Barnardius h:irj/(in(/) is, perhaps, 
the most beautii'ul meml;er oi the small suli-^-enus oi' Plal//- 
cctcina to which it gives its name. Blues and greeirs of dif- 
ferent shades are the prevailing colours in the adult 
cock's plumage, but there is also a good deal of 
yellow on the lower breast, a yellow collar, a In-own - 
ish V-shaped mark at the back of the head and a liroad 
red band alcove the bas^ of the u])p.'r mandilile. The hen is 
smallei- than her mate, with a much narrower In^ak, and her 
coloui-.- arc usually nioi'c suinlned, there being occasionally 
an cutii-c aii.-cncc of blue except on the checks and in the 
wings and tail. Sometime^ how(u-cr, one seo-; a hen, whose 
plumage is exceptionally bright; a liird of this description 
was .-eat to me, last spring, as a cock, and f was not sui-pj-ised 
that hei- owner, who had won prizes with her on the stiow 
bench, should have been deceived in the matter of her sex. 
Such exceptional brilliance of plumage is not necessaiily a 
sign of infertility— indeed, I believe I am right in saying that 
the lady who achieved the distinction of first breeding Barn- 
ard's in this country had a hen which was so brightly coloured 

302 ^'/'6 Breeding of Barnard's Parrakeets. 

that slic was I'or a time uncertain if she possessed a true pair 
or not. 

Tlie young, on lea\ing- the nest^ liave liitle trace of l)lue 
except on tlieir cheeks, and in tlieir tail and tliglit feathers. 
Otherwise they vary liiic their parents, and have the red 
frontal band fully developed from the first. It would be in- 
teresting to know whether this is also the case with Yellow - 
napeSj Yellow-rumps, and Yeilow- bellies. Some Bauer's x Barn- 
ard's hybrids, to which I shall refer again later, were difl'erent ; 
in their case the red frontal -band was so dull at first that i',s 
outline could only be detected in certain lights, but it after- 
w^ards became much brighter. When about three months old, 
young Barnard's undergo a well-marked moult of the body 
feather^, and a good deal more blue appears on tlie uack 
and wings. . i 

The first Barnard's I ever saw alive came into my 
possession in the sprnig of f'Jll, and were supposed to be 
a pair, altuough I ajn raiher inclined to think that both were 
females. As I wanted to see whether they could not be in- 
duced to breed at complete liberty, I cut their wings, and 
turned them into a large grass enclosure, hoping that by the 
time the autumn moult had restored their powers of ilight 
they would have been sufficiently reconciled to their surround- 
ings to be content to remain near home. One of them was a 
nice bird, and not particularly wild, as she had been kept for 
some time in a cage; her companion, however, though brighter 
in colour, was one of the smallest Barnard's I have ever seen. 
He (or she) never looked really well, and when the nights 
began to grow chilly in autumn, caught cold, and died, just as 
I w^as considering the advisability of taking him indoors. Dur- 
ing the course of the summer a big dealer in the north had 
sent me a third Barnard, which he assured me he had had so 
long that he felt quite sorry to part with it. It was very 
wild, and died of septic fever almost immediately after its 
arrival, the only consolation being that it did not communi- 
cate the disease to anything else! About the same time, I Iiad, 
however, made a more satisfactory purchase in a cock Bauer's 
Parrakeet, which, like the hen Barnard's, had been k-ept for a 
long time in close confinement before I bought him. Birds 
which have been caged generally stay much better when turned 

The Brccdiin) (if Hdiintrd's I'm rakeets. "Jo;^ 

out tiKiii tho:;e vviiich arc newly imported or have been kept in 
a\iarie^. Tlie.y seem le;-;s iiieliiied to stray aiul are usually 
mure (uleraiil ol the preseuee of human beings. 

Tlie liauer's showed i'roiu the lirst a preference for the 
Barnard's sociely, evidently considering tliem more nearly akin 
to himself than any of tlie C'tlier i'lalijcrrcuie Pari-akects which 
occupied the same encdosure. IJy October he and tlie hen 
Carnard'o had moulted and iluwn out into the garden, where 
their i'riendohip continued, and in February it had evidently 
ripened into something warmer, as he was feeding her con- 
stantly a sure sign that a I'arrakeet has accepted the lady 
of his choice for better, oj' worse. About the middle of tlie 
mouth the Barnard's disappeared entirely, and l)y carefully 
watching her mate we found that he was visiting- a small round 
hole in the trunk of a beech tree, in which she had evidently 
made her nest. At the end of about 9 weeks he ceased to 
visit the hole, and as we saw nothing of either the hen or 
young, we began to feel rather anxious. However, towards 
the end of May, two fine young hybrids appeared in the 
garden, to be quickly followed by two more. They were con- 
siderably greener about the head than their father, but much 
darker than their mother. The red frontal band (which i?, 
of course, absent in a true Bauer), was, as I have already 
said, very dull in colour, and hardly visible at a distance. 

The hen Barnard's I did not sec, myself, until the begin- 
ning of August, but I heard that she visited the garden once 
or twice at the end of July. Her regular appearance was 
quickly followed by the arrival of three more young — evidently 
a second brood, whose birthplace we had not discovered. 
These soon became independent of their parents— who were 
now in full moult — and joined their elder brothers and sisters; 
but the whole flock were not often together, five being the 
largest iiuml)er to be seen, as a rule, at one time. 

By the beginning of winter the young birds had grown 
considerably and were much brighter in colour than they had 
been on first leaving the nest; in fact they gave every promise 
of becoming extremely handsome, but as they were inclined to 
quarrel with the other Parrakeets, and as I am, moreover, not 
very fond of hybrids, I caught them up and disposed of them. 

;>,04 The Breeding of Bar-nard's Parrakeets. 

I have often wondered what has become of them and what 
they look like now that they are in full plumage. 

During the autumn of the same year, I succeeded in 
obtaining a new oock Barnard's and two hens. With the hens 
I was unlucky, the best one contracting a fata,l chill after 
she had been only a few days in my possession. The other 
met with an accident ,some weeks later; she was not a great 
loss from a breeding point of view, as she was an old bird 
and suffered from chronic lameness; but she was very tame 
and gentle— a rare quality in a Platycercus — and on that ac- 
couui. 1 wish 1 could have kept her longer. The cock was 
also quite tame and a splendid bird into the bargain, but his 
best friend could not have described him as being of an 
engaging disposition; in fact it was his invariable custom 
to fly at the face of anyone who went near him and a^ttempt 
to intlict a severe bite, and no amount (Si coaxing ever induced 
him to moderate his hostility in the slightest degree. He 
was entirely indifferent to the society of other Parrakeets, and 
ignored the two females of his species above mentioned. After 
he had spent a few weeks in an outdoor aviary, I gave him 
complete freedom, hoping that it would improve his temper. 
He stayed well and Hew about the garden displaying his rain- 
bow colour while his melodious whistle was all in keeping with 
the beauty of his appearance. But his character, alas! re- 
mained unchanged, and when finally he insisted on establishing 
himself at the lodge gates and had nearly amputated the lodge - 
keeper's finger and the gardener's nose, I reluctantly de- 
cided that the time had come when we must part. If he 
is still alive, I hope his owner loves him and is loved in 
return— but I fear it is unlikely. Brilliant, though tasteful 
in colour and markings, inoffensive if not actually attractive 
in voice, the Platyeercl are, with rare exceptions, destitute 
of those affectionate and amiable qualities which are the saving 
grace of the destructive, shrieking Cockatoos and Amazons, and 
the redeeming virtue of the gaudy and even more vociferous 
Macaws . 

Vol some weeks I was again without a cock Barnard's, 
but eventually I obtained a nice acclimatized bird from a 
gentlemai) who sent me at the same time, a very good Blue- 
bonnet and the finest Pennant's I have ever seen. Later, at 

Thr Brrcd/fif/ of IhiDNird's I'arralcrrts. ;',().") 

the di.spersal of M. I*aii\ m'I's <()llection I secured a i)eiTect 
pair of Bai'iuird's so lliat I ai last po.s^essed two o. eac-h ; ex, 
and had a ;,M)od piospcct of .sueces.sful breeding. Tiie lii'st 
step was to catch up Mie cot-k Bauer's, who had dis,t,M-aceil 
tiinioelf by tlie mutilation of my only Yellow -rump and a line 
Mealy Rosella, wlio was just about to nest; in both cases lie 
had bitten the upper mandililes of his victims clean o|] at I be 
base, rendering it absolutely necessary to destroy tlie unfor- 
tunate birds which were naturally quite unable to feed. Bauer's 
Parrakeeto are terribly dangerous fighters and experts at in- 
flicting this particular injury. 

As tlie cock Barnard's of the new pair appeared likely 
to . come into breeding condition sooner than the odd ori". 1 
determined, after the removal of the Bauer, to pair him to my 
oUl hen who was still at liiierty; accordingly I let him out of 
the aviary which he and his male had occupied; and inU'odu(,-od 
the other in his place. Things did not, however, turn out as 
I intended. The newly released Barnard spent his whole time 
trying to get back to his original wife— for which one could 
hardly blame him!— and completely ignored the other hen, 
who, now that the Bauer was gone, showed a decided pre- 
ference for an odd Yellow -nape which was also flying loo:-;e 
in the garden. This was not at all what I wanted, so I took 
the hen Barnard's out of the aviary and removed her out of 
the sight and hearing of her too -faithful spouse. After that, 
matters took a more promising turn. In a very short time 
the cock had joined the old hen and was displaying to her, 
to arouse her admiration and biting her, to inspire her with 
respect— the invariable method of courtship followed by a 
Plalycercus, whilst the Y'ellow-nape, finding that he was not 
wanted, resigned himself once more to a solitary existence. 

After allowing a judicious interval to elapse in which 
the pair at liberty had plenty of time to get used to each 
other, I returned the second hen to the aviary. She was very 
slow in getting friendly with the cock— partly, I think, because 
she occasionally saw her first mate, and would have preferred 
to go back to him if she had been allowed, but in the end 
they seemed to take to one another rather better, and I gave 
the cock his liberty. For a day or two he stayed well enough 
and seemed on reasonably friendly terms with the other birds, 

30() The BreeduKj of Barnard's Parrakeefs. 

iiicludiiig a line pair of Yellow -napes, which had been out .since 
the pi'evioii.-; auiiunn. But just when I bclievcil him to ])o 
settling down nicely, he took it into his head to make a long 
flight to the other side of the country, where he was fortunately 
captured in a brickyard, and returned to me safe and soimd. 
Alter this escapade I kei)t him shut up with the hen for some 
time longer, ana men let the pair out together. At urst all 
u'ent well: the hen showed no desire to return to her first mate, 
as .1 fully e.cpected might happen and the cock stayed with her 
and made no further attem^ to stray. In fact I was just be- 
ginning to contemplate two nests in the near future, when one 
aiLernoon a corpse was brought to me so fearfully mutilated 
that I could hardly recognise it as that of the unfortunate cock* 
Barnard's of the second pair. It appeared that he had most 
unwisely quarrelled with the pair of Yellow -napes, and they 
had literally torn him to shreds, being still engaged in their 
murderous work, when some gardeners had seen them and re- 
covered the remains. This was a sad blow, and the Yellow - 
napes had to depart forthwith. Barnardlus seniitorquutus is a 
handsome bird and some of his call -notes are really quite 
beautiful when heard at a little distance, but he is a fatal 
neighbour for large, quarrelsome Platt/cercines, which will 
insist on putting his all too -undoubted prowess to the test, with 
the most disastrous results to themselves. 

The widowed Barnard's soon showed a strong desire to 
return to her original mate, (and he, for his part, was quite agree- 
able. But the old hen viewed matters in a very different light, 
and lost no opportunity of communicating to her unfortunate 
rival the nature of her views on the subject of bigamy. It 
was only after many painful and stormy domestic scenes that 
peace was restored by her going to nest in the crown of a 
pollard elm, which grew in a very public place, close to the 
high road, where traffic of all kinds was constantly passing. In 
due course her example was followed by the second hen, who 
ejtablished herself in a beech tree about a mile away. T had 
read of cock platycercines successfully rearing two broods at 
one time in an aviary, and therefore hoped for the best, but 
I could not help feeling nervous lest the Barnard should prove 
unequal to the arduous task in store for him, for I know that 
his wives would not begin to forage for themselves and their 

The IhccduKj of Bantard'.s I'urruhccts. iii)? 

youiii;-, uulil tlu! laUci' wi'i'c many days old. For sujiic lime 
nulluiiy was sera ul cilluT ol llu' liriis, b;il ,tU,)ul riyht \V!!e'ks 
aider sIk' liad licyuu to sil i.e., at Iha end oi i\iay.i Tho ro-aj'iH'arud, and 1 iriia^ruied would assist her husband iu 
the eart! oi her childnMi until they were ready to lly. She did 
not, however, behave as i explcted, ior in u ^■ei•y sliOit tiiui- 
she went to nest ayain cdose by, it is true, so that slu' <,lid 
not yreaily tax her male's wings or meniory, but, she gavi' liiiii 
no turlher a^isistance in i'eeding the brood. Tiiis habit of 
leaving- the young of the lirst broou in, the entire charge of the 
cock is probably a natural one, but in this instance it seemed 
most unl'oi'iunate and i I'eared that all three establislunents 
would suilex- by the hen's premature anxiety to lay again. 
However, two tine young bii-ds eventually made their appear- 
ance, and although it is only too lilcely that they were not the 
sole occupants of the nest, and that two others, at least, per- 
ished -bf ^starvation, the result was a great deal better than 
might have been expected. 

For •some time afier leaving the nest the young were fed 
by the e(K'k aiul did not wander far. He would lly to the 
garden nearly a mile away, lill his crop with seed and gi'een- 
footl, and then I'eturn to the spot wdiere lie had last seen." his 
famiU and start his clear w'histlhig "Ivuk-ti, kuk-ti, kuk- 
ti." The young birds would hear him and answer by whistling 
and shaking their taiis,--an action which is usually a sign of 
anger in adults, but is, also employed to attract the attention 
of a passing lloek of their kind which they may hear (iying 
over them. As soon as their father came within sight the 
young Barnard's began to utter a different and moi'c plaintive 
note and Hew up to him, when he would proceed to feed tht-m 
from the crop in the usual Parrakeet fashion. 

In June the secoiid hen emerged from her nest, and 
from her hurried manner of feeding and the quantity of seed 
she consumed, I felt certain that she too, had young. For 
many days I anxiously awaited their appearance: the hen soon 
vanished; having evidently started another nest, l;ut from Ihe 
first one nothing came, and at last it became only too evident 
that a catastrophe had occurred, the over -taxed father having 
j.rotiably forgotten or neglected his third establishment. 

Some weeks later the fli'st hen re -appeared and not long 

30(S The Breeding of Barnard's Parralccets. 

afterwards a fine brood of five followed Iicr to the garden, 
wliero she assisted in feeding tlieni with exemplary energy. 
Both she and her mate wei'c now showing marked traces of the 
heavy family labours they had had to perform, and their worn, 
dull plumage contrasted strongly with the trim sl»'ekness oi 
their young, who had not a single feather about them wliich 
was rough or out oi place. When they could no loiigc)' in- 
duce their long-suffering father to continue feeding them, the 
young Barnard's began to display a disgraceful lack of filial 
affection, driving him spitefully off the feeding tray whenever 
he tried to join them, while they were enjoying a meal. This 
treatment he submitted to with extraordinary meekness and 
never attempted to retaliate; but the old hen, who was growing 
thoroughly tired of her family and spent a good deal of time 
alone, never allowed them to take any liberties with her and 
quickly drove them off if they got in her way. One young 
bird, however, appeared to be the favourite child of loth her 
parents, for she was to be seen, with one or other, long after 
her brothers and sisters had become quite independent. 

The breeding season closed with another disappoint- 
ment. I had great hopes that the second hen would rear hci- 
last brooc' successfully, but when she re -appeared, she was so 
ill and weak that we had little trouble in catching her and 
found her to be an absolute skeleton. No doubt her mate 
had been unable to provide her with suff.cient food, and what 
he had given her she had passed on to her young- henr-e her 
emaciated condition. For some time she remained in a bad 
way, and hardly ate anything, but by keeping lun- at a very 
high temperature -80 to 90 degrees, I managed, in the end, to 
pull her round, and she is now out again, apparently as well 
as ever. Her second brood presumalily shared the fate of 
the first. The moral is obvious: a doul)le establishment is 
too much for a cock Parrakeet at liberty, whatever may 
happer- in confinement, where food is close at hand. It is a 
pity we could not have taken the young belonging to the 
second hen and reared them ourselves, but this was impossible, 
for the first nest was practically inaccessible, and the second 
was never found. 

Still, on the whole, I have not done badly. One ol the 
young Barnard's of the first brood died very suddenly from 

Brecdinn Ihr Liitcolalrd Pdrral'cct. '.]{)[) 

iullamiiKitiuii dl' the luii-'.^. I)iil the ntlici's iviiiaiii in tlir Ix'st of 
lu-allli, and aiv I hope tli • Inundation ol' a Hock, wlii.'li may 
wi'U prove 'a jo\ loi' vvrv." (ioiild I'onsidcrs tliat a Barn- 
ard's piuina.iTc' can oul\ lie properly adinire(l when seen among 
the dark roiia,i,^t' oT an Au-tialian I'oi-est. Hut beautiful as 
tlie lurd no doulit is in his na!u-ai h('.ne, lie is hardly seen to 
less advanta.^-e in lar dillVrent siu'roundin.^-s and under an 
alien sky, esi'-cially when in eaidy sp^/in-^-, he is seeking- a 
ne-ting sile among the lealless oaks: sweeping from tree to 
tree in swilt, undula-ting llight, I'unning up and down the 
branches, dropj)in,L; ,iiracejull\- irom linili lo linih now jiausing 
Willi shoulders thrust foi'ward to utter his whistling eall-note 
and display his lovely plumage to its Ijest advantage*; now, 
his search for a moment ended, clinging with (luivci'ing tail 
outside some promising hollow which needs his mate's inspec- 
tion — turquoise aiul emerald, primrose and violet, he Hashes, 
a living jewel, under the bright March sun. 

Breeding the Lineolated Parrakeets. 

(Bolhorh //)ichiis Jincolat iis) . 
By Miss M. E. Baker. 

I am afi-aid I cannot say a great deal about this event 
as I Avas away fi-om home during the greatei- })art of the 

Jn i!)12 a good attempt to reproduce theii' kind v.-^as 
nuide. but nothing came of it. 

As early as March they gave indications of going to 
n(*st, and in late Api'il a clurch of ("J!:i!:.< was laid, one of 
which hatt'hed out the middk' of May. a^d it lived till August 
2ord, one day pre\-ious to my return home. 

The parents select(*d for their nest a vei'y lai'ge husk. 
I cannot be sure; to a day wlien incul)ation commenced, hut 
I believ( it lasted twenty-one days. Both l)ii'ds shai'ed i'l 
the duties of incubation I think, at any I'ate, both were; con- 
tinually in and out of the husk, and after the first fortnight 
Vvoth sp,ent ni'aidy the whole of tlieii- time in the husk. 

Thi.> pair of liirds wei'e reinai'kalily tame, so nuich 
so. that they did not come off when 1 took down tlie husk 
to look in. 

;U0 Breeding the Lineolated Parrakeet. 

I Ava- only able to get one look at the young l>ird 
before I went away. It was a little larger than a young 
Budgerigar, ''ut very strong and lively. The parent birds were 
V'cry proud of it and chattered away to me Avhile I viewed 
thc-ir baby. 

IvJy friend. Avho took care of my birds while I was 
away, tell; me tltat it was soon covered with soft white down 
and gyeAv very quickly, leaving th'O ne;t when about six week- 
oid. It was fed by the old birds for a sliort time only and 
was soon able to take care of itself. 

On my return, on August 24th, I was shoAvn the dead 
body, the sad tragedy of its death had only occurred the pre- 
vious day, too much water in a too deep bathing vessel having 
brough^ about the catastrophe I 

The body showed it to be nearly as large as its parents, 
• md in beautiful condition and plumage, and save for being of a 
lighter hue/ was similar to its parents. 

I regret that owing to the tragedy this ends my 
stor>, but I hope they may breed again next year, and enable 
me to fill the gaps in above notes. 

[It would be of general interest if Miss Eaker would 
carefully describe any differences in plumage, size, etc., there 
may be between male and female.— Ei)]. 

A Combined Seed-hopper and Bird Trap 

By Capt. Rekve, F.Z.S. 

To the question of having an almost ever-i'eady trap in 
the aviary, to catch any birds as required, I have given nnvh 
attention and consideration. 

The one figured on the plate has been evolved as the 
result Oi several years' experience and testing, Avhich with 
many alterations, etc., is now, I opine, as perfect as a trap 
of this type well can be. 

The top i)ho(o of our plato shows the feeder in nj-dinary 
use as a feeder only. 

The lower plioto figures it, with the front fi'anie fixed 
and door set, ready to catch up any required bird. 

The reason of the wire front being detachable is, that 
Avlieu not in u>e as a trap, it avoids birds being p(Muied up 
and attacked by larger ones, or bullies I 

I In; I) XoTHS. 









.. ^^BH^^I 

^^Hj^^^H r^J^^^^^I 

Cunibiued Fuodiiiy Box and Bir<l T 
I'pper Phi)t() — ln use as Seed Hopi)c 
L,nrrr I'hoto—Set as Trap. 

A Comhhird ScnJ-liojiprr and Bird Trap. 311 

A caroful sliui.v of tli'^ pliolo^ will show Mint it consists 
of a box with o|mmi Front. oxc.>|>t for tho drawor at Iwttom, 
which cat. -lies up lli.> sc<m1 liusk^; at th.' lia-k aiv two r-om- 
parlments witli ^Ha^s fronts one for inilfrt, the othor for 
canary seed: the seed fall;; .low., into a trouirh Cwith a por- 
forated zinc bottom to lot dust thi'outrh) from which the liirds 
feed; a rannry is scm f.M^diii- jn the r'lo'o' Tlio seed 'com- 
partments ai-c lilh^l wli^Mi iK^ressai'y l)y takinir o(T tho top 
of the box: thoy only ro piirc lilliuir pci-liap> once a month, 
according- to the nuniiKT of hied;: Avhonov-M' nni'.ty and before 
re-fillin,i;' it sliould I'C s(M«n that the trou.,Lr!i is clean and free 
from du.->t and husks. 

A loose board rests on the top of the drawer beneath 
the perch, so as to catch any scattered seed, whir-Ii may be 
picked up before min.irlinfr with the hudvs, liut tlie use of this 
board is optional; but the l)oard would probalily be useful for 
birds larger than Finches {e.g. Doves), to stand upon while 
feeding. The top of box slopes off from front to back so 
as to carry off wet. An iron pin is fitted into a block in 
centre of bottom of box the other end of this pin must be' 
let into tli(> top of a larcli oi- other past (see photos), jusit tiglit 
enougli to r(>main in any ])osition it is turned to: by thi;-^ 
means the back of the box can be turned towards the wind 
and driving rain. 

When it is required to catch up any l)i)-d. the wire 
frame, as shown, in bottom photo of plnte, is fixed dm the 
previous day if possible): the platform, which is seen in both 
photos, also acts as a door and is hinged; it is upheld^ by a 
wooden support, Avhich also acts as handle to drawer! Tt is 
well also to attach the string, by which the door is closed, on 
the previous day for the birds to get used to it — this string 
should be carried through wire netting of aviary to about three 
yards off. I usually pull up the door and close the feeding-box 
l>efore attempting "a catch," this makes the birds hungry and 
quite ready to go and feed as soon as the trap is opened and 
makes the capture a simple matter indeed— usually a bird can 
fie captured within the half hour or less, and with no seare to 
the other birds in the aviary. "When the wanted bird has 
entered the trap the string nuist be puller] 'n/.'^lmilaneonsly, care 
being taken that no bird is on the platform or in the gangway 

312 A Combined Seed -hopper and Bird Trap. 

at the moment of pulling! I have never had a mishap yet 
with it. The door allows both hands to l)e inserted together- 
right hand to the left and left hand to the right— this effectually 
Idock.s up the doorway, and gives a double chance of catching. 

The dimensions of the box are: In front 2 fleet 3 inches 
X 1 foot 2 inches, and it is 13 inches from front to ])ack; mine 
are painted dark green. 

The above may be obtained from Mr. R. Ellis (who 
made mine), wood-carver, and cabinet-maker, Leadenham, 
Lincoln, Price 20s. each, but if not less than six are taken, 
15s. each. 

The above is my own invention after two or three years' 
trial and experiment, and I have found it a great time saver 
and the birds are caught up without a general disturbance 
of the aviary. 

I shall be pleased to answer any questions that may be 
put concerning the above — three are in operation in my own 
aviaries, and one or two others elsewhere, and are greatly 
appreciated. I consider it admirable for seed-eaters; and, 
the same type suitably fitted should answer equally well for 
Soft -bills. It can also be made to hang on a wall. 
>- ■■ 

Mr Raynor's Aviary at Hazeleigh Rectory. 

By thp: Rkv. G. H. Raynor. 

I was not until the eaily ixirt of the present year 
(1913) that I found myself in a J^osition to carry out my long- 
3herished scheme of erecting an out-of-door aviary, and, being 
nothing of a carpenter and less of an architect, I determined to 
avail myself of the valuable help of him to whom the Foreign 
Bird Clul; very lai'gely owes its present great prosperity— our 
able Editor, Mr. Wesley T. Page. It has certainly cost 
me quite as much as I intended to lay out, Init I freely 
confess that the pleasure I have derived from it is altogether 
commensurate. I am a very Inisy person, and the little rest 
I can afford to take during the daylight, I now spend for the 
most part (in an arm-chair in front of the aviary) in watching 
the habits and the gambols of the delightful birds, of which 
I am the proud possessor. 

The accompanying photograph will, I think, give 

Mr. ndi/Hor's Ariani at Jhizclc'ujh J?crlort/. 'M?, 

;i ^n)i)(l idea ol' llir st fuctill-c, wliicli is divided jiilo two lli-lils, 
cacli 1:5 IV.-I ■) \uv\u-< loii.i,' \ (llVcf. Thr In'i-ld Jhrrm-lnuit 
is S reel. The two sludlcrs arc cadi (I Icct \ (i I'cct . Tlio 
part oT llic aviary adjoin ini;- tlic Ivrick-wall (wliidi faces 
west I is occupied iiy sonic tlii'cc dozcii loi'id^'-ii Finches, 
and a pair of cntninon Heiistarts, wiiilsl Parrakecis dispoi't 
llicins(d\-cs in the otlier lli-'hl, the shelters, of course,. 
Iveiiiii sepai-atc Foitunatel.w llicrc was aii'cady a plum-tree, 
eovci'iiii;- the northi'i-n end of the wall, whilst some ivy on the 
southern extremity alVords sliel'Ci- and masting arcommoflation 
to the tiny inhabitants. 1 liavo also platdcil on tli<' side of the 
lli.irht niarcst tho wall a broad-lca\('d .lajiaiicsc Kuonynuis, 
and two lanicis, one Portufi^ul and the other oval-leaved. The 
wiic-nettin,i4' all I'ound the aviary is ^ inch mesh, as is also tha 
p.iecc forming the central dividing line of the Finches' flight, 

SMflTffl SHIP 


•«' y 6' ? 

,u:..r „-6\i. 


^ ±"t««* W.'t /V.ftf^ 


"^ %'ncich w.ri Hcn.„^ 

iHiLTirf SHtD ; 


e'). 6' , 

PU<.M^ o'.-r6- 




N S 


GROUND FLAW— -Rev. g.H7?/iYW0B'5 ><vnff r. 

l)ut that of the Parrakeets' flight is ■ inch. I (lid not do 
anything to the floor, as it happened to be gravelled previ- 
ously. At thi' other end of each flight is a concrete bath, with 
plug to let the water out. These are cleaned out with a .sponge, 
and filled with fresh water, every morning. Inside the shelters, 
whicdi face south and are very warm and comfortable, are 
natural branches of trees and an assortment of receptacles for 
nesting purposes, as w^ell as swinging-trays to contain the 
variou.s seeds and foods, although I also put saucers of seeds 
about the flights, to enable me to watch the birds feeding. A 
plentiful supply of green food, such as sods of seeding grass, 
(duckweed in flower, and seed-heads of knap-weed, sow-thistle, 
and caleiulula, Avith green canary seed in the husk, and sprays 
of iudiar. millet complete the ample menu. The floors of the 

314 Mr. B.aynofs Aviary at HazcJHgh J^rcfory. 

shellors and of the flights (where they seem so to require) I 
sprinkle with tlic rough red sand which I always have in stock 
for the bottoms of my Parrot. -cages, eight of which I keep in 
my study. Ta\'o of these appear in the photograph outside the 
aviary. The one nearest th'^ wall contains a pair of Meyer's 
Parrots {Poeocephalus mcjieri), which have lately been pre- 
sented to me by a magnanimous lady residing in the New 
Forest, into whose possession they came some two years since, 
as a gift from Capt. Wilson, who brought them home him- 
self from the Transvaal. They are quite young birds, judging 
from the trightness of their eyes, and arc in beautiful plumage, 
although each ha< a clipped wing, wliich will prevent thorn 
appearing on the show -bench for the 'present: Koko and 
Kosher, as they are called, are delightful little bird-, Avith very 
graceful and winning ways, but the latter is, I regret to say, 
a hen-pecked husband. The female is more- strongly and 
stoutly built, with broader head and beak, but having smaller 
and less vivid patches of yellow on head and shoulder than her 
spouse. Each of them is re]Hited ,to be capable of saying 
"Koko" and "Emily," but neither has said either up till now 
In the other cage lives the very charming Grey Parrot (Vsit- 
tacus enihacus) which I bought at the last Palace Show from 
my fellow -member Mr. Schluter, and which Mr. Allen Silver 
owned before him. He is a male, some six yea^s old, and is 
a very friendly and lively bird, and an accomplished whistler: 
but his vocabulary is not very large, " Doris," wdiich he says 
most freciuently, was, no doulit, the name of a member of the 
family in which he lived: but he also pronounces it Dorris and 
I)ori-y - tlio latter generally with a nasal twang. Among other 
things he can say are " Dorry no -Polly," " Hulloa, Poll!" 
"Hulloa, Poll, Oh!" "Hulloa, young Poll," "What do you 
want?" and "Come on," when he wants his head scratched. 
He also says frequently and most clearly "Hulloa, Po-vell," 
leading me to suppose that he once belonged to a very dis- 
tinguished member of our club, and would fain recall him to 
the ranks of aviculturists, Avho so deeply deplore the absence 
fron our English shows of the many avian jewels which we 
once admired. The other day "Bobby" said most distinctly, 
in a very minor key, "What are you making that row for?" 
evidently in allusion to the noises in which he himself had just 
previously been indulging! He has learnt to say "Hulloa, 

Mr. T?a//>/nr's Ariari/ at TIn:('h'i<ih T?crfnri/. ;]]') 

Koko " from Iic-u'iiii,'- me (litis address my fenialo Meyer's, but 
I have many Imiidrcd Ijini's rcpc^ated to him " Pobhy's a pretty 
luiy." willioul (dicitiiiir any re=!ponse whatcvor. PTe g-onerally 
i,^'^!'!,^ my (Mmnciatioii of this sentonce with a low whistle, twice 
re|i(\'il('il. (>^■idently willi tlic idea o^ iiii]ii'i'ssiim- on mo tliat he 
is " nol takin.i,'- any lo-day." Bui, r(>!ni-nin,q- to tlio sulvjcft of 
my aviary. I will uive a list of all its inmates. Tn the part 
dexdlei! to rar'-ak:M''s ar(> nine g-reen Budgerigars (MrJopsUfa- 
ciis undulaUis), six being young birds bred here, two pairs 
of Oockatiels {Calopsitfacus nova>-hoUmi(Ju(') which have not so 
far reproduced their kind, and a very fin" an T brilliant pair 
of Arealy Rosellas (Plafi/rrrrus pill'dr rp ■). (he I'on of which 
lia> tliricc laid Ihn'.' eggs, but of those one only, of tlie last 
balcli pi'oved fertile, the resulting youngster 1>eing assidu- 
ously lei until it died. 1 extract the fol'owing from my diary: 
"10 July 1!U3. Heard sounds of Young Parrakeets rMealy 
R.osellasj in large barrel in shelter. " 11th Ju'y, 1913, sounds 
louder. Cock goes to barrel to feed hen. Cock is very keen 
on green:food, especially seed-heads of Calendula." '"18th 
July, 1913, hen Mealy off nest a good deal." " li)th July, 
1913. hen off altogether now, so I looked in barrel, and found 
ono young one, plump, but dead and cold. Feathers on wings 
were just showing .blue." As the parents had access to every 
likely food (including. ',' Cecto," which they wouldn't touch), I 
can only suppose that thC; fata,lity was due to the comparatively 
cold \v(>ather then prevailing. Since the last-mentioned date 
(July IDtli), both parents have been moulting, which seems, 
Willi them I'ather a slow process, as they have not finished even 
now, mid -September, and of course, have not gone to nest 

In the Finch Aviary I have two pairs each of: 

Cordon Bleus (Estrilda phoenicoti^), and 

Zebra Finches {Taaniopygia castanotis). 
and pairs of the following: 

Ciouldian Finches (Poephila mirahilis).* 

Ruiicaudas (Eafhilda ruficauda). 

Masked Grasstinches (Poephila personata). 

Green Avadavats (Stictospiza formosa). 

*There isonlv one species vawWy.wi .iionld'Kf. the others are merely 
varieties and not specifically (listiiR't. thouirb tiiey liave erroneously been 
tfiven specific names. — Ed. 

?,]{') Mr. Tlujinor's Ariari/ a1 Hazelrigh Beciory. 

Striated Finches {Vroloncha str'a'a). 

Beiiiralese (Vroloncha domestica). 

Spice Finches (Mimia punctuWa). 

Pla'k-l^exdecl Mannikin-: (Mun'a a*r'c:ip'Ua} . 

Bronze Mannikins (Sp-^rtneste^ cucuVata^. 

Indian Silverbills (Ai'Jemost/ne malaharici). 

Green Singing Finches (S^rinus ictprus). 

Grey Sing'ng Finches (Ser'nus leucopyg'us). 

Eibbon Finches {Amadina jasciata). 

Red-billed Weavers (Quelm qur^ra). 

Eedstnrts (JRu'ifiVa fliocn'oirus). 
and al^o a hen. 

Paradise Whydah (Sfrgamira jaradisca). 
A great many ne ;ts have l)e:'n hult by vari^u;^ species, 
but, so far as I know, only two have reared young succe-JS- 
fully, viz.: Ribbon Finches, and Zebra Finches. However, I 
as this is my first season, and most of the species were unknown ' 
to me before, I have laid myself out rather to study and ^ 
observe the birds than to induce them to breed, which no 
doubl, they would do more freely, were they not somewhat | 
overcrowded. Also, I hope for greater success when I have j 
eliminated the Ribbon Finches — a pair oi' old birds and their i 
two young— which I have often seen interfering with the ; 
nests This was the fault too, of a very fine Cock Madagas- . 
car Weaver {Foiidin madagascariensis) who, besides being a 
nest-wrecker, chased all the little birds about till their life was ■ 
not worth living. I have now transferred him to the Parra- j 
keets' Aviary, where his behaviour is alogether exemplary. 
If I were asked to pick out tlie most charming of the 
smaller birds, I should, I think, put the Gou'.dian Finches , 
first. They are very tame and even confidential, and the cock, i 
being of the red-headed 'variety, is the cynosure o': all my 
visiters' eyes, and is by no means unworthy of his specific ; 
name mirabilis. Next to them I feel inclined to place the ' 
the Redstarts, for though they are still rather shy (having 
been caught as adults in the spring), it is most interesting J 
to watch them dash down for the mealworms that T throw, i 
the Cutthroats and Zebra Finches coming ofT quite second best. | 
Also the zone of the bluish-green colour baneath the black j 
bib of the cock Redstart glisjtens in the sunshine like a living j 
gem. Next in favour come the Ruficaudas and the Green Ava- ! 

Frcclji lni\ifirlrtl Species. ;}17 

(la\ats, wlio (' (IcIiciC ((Tom's aiid iiio-t ,i;ra e ul iiio\(')iicii s 1 
iu'\cr tifi' (if watcliiii.L;-. 

I^iit wlial ikmmI (h lurllnT words o.i so Fascinal iii,^- a 
sulijei-l as an oul -dooi- a\iai'\ y The l.u." ioscr o, birds will 
leani more ol' his ra\-oiiril('s hy tlius watch ll,^• iiicni in lli-ij' 
ahnost natural cuNiionincnl, than iiv cndic s r a ii/i^^ oi liooks 
or li\ kcepiny spccinirns conlin.'il in cii^cs in a sud'y at- 
mosphei'c indooi's. The innia'.cs Oi a sj^acous a^■ial■v s'cni to 
iiK' to appiH'ciai'' 111.' '\nic (Ic r/rrc almool, ii' not quiti', a:> 
keenly as theii' kin>iiien that have iievi'r kii:)wu ci[)tiVity. 


Freely Imported Species. 

Uv \\. A. BAixiijaiMjK. 

PuoLocrE: In eon \ersatiou with oar Editor a sliori 
time ago, ii was mi-ntionel, that when 1 rirst liegan to 
kee]. I);rds, eacli new (to me) speeies was a souree 
ol woi'ry to me-wa-^ it delieate.'' would ii breetl? was it 
I'Ugnaeiou .? how many ejal I keep [n an aviary? 
TliCoO and similai' queotions are the won-y ox a lieginner's 
iiie, and even oi a more experieneed avieulturist when buyiny 
some speeles new to him. 

^^'e talked oi many aspects: most people like to know 
the incubation period, age oi young when t.iey leave the nest, 
and, what special ioods they rc^ when i'ee ling young, etc. 

My suggestion was that various members should widle 
article.;, on different species: giving as much detail as ])ossii)le, 
and that other members should give their experiencco with the 
same species, so as to till any gapj there might be in the lirst 
ai'tielcor ii neeej;5ary, corieet any erro.'s wnich may have aii en. 

A.s it is obvious that someone must begin the series 
— (rather re-start — Ed.)— I am sending an articlaon the Fit(>- 
finc!i, and although my knowledge of this species extends for ivui 
little over a year, 1 have watched it pretty thoroughly and 
others can, and will, I hope, add to or contradict what I havo' 
written and make it complete.— [When widting alsout v^'ry 
familiar species, w^e are apt to forget that, in a gi-owing cult, 
the tyre is always with us, and are not as detailedas we should 
be we trust many will r.'spond to IVIr. Bainbridge's suggestion 
and the remit is sure to 1k' nuilual gain and interest.- Ed.] 

Thi; FiKEFiMir ^Lagonudicla niiuiuia). This .uu.aII 

;nS Freeh/ Imported Speeies. 

blood-red Finch, in reality one of the tiniest and most Ix-autiful 
of the smaller seed-eaters, is always regarded as extremely 
delicate, and this is perfectly true of freshly imported speci- 
ni^ens. Although the price is but 3s. 6d. per pair, one is 
apt to find an acclimatised pair rather expensive, when this 
has only been attained after the loss of several pairs. It is, 
however, possible, to save the majority of one's purchases if 
one only gaes about it the right way; personally I have been 
fairly successful both with Firefinches, and Cordon Eleus, but 
only since 1 adopted the following method of procedure, which,- 
although not infallible, leaves the chances very much in favour 
of the buyer. 

Choosing the Birds: The method I adopt is as follows: 
I go to the dealer's shop and ask for a pair ofFiieflnches, ,an' 
examination of the various cages shows say a dozen in one 
cage, more in another, etc., most of them inclined to be puffy. 
The best are caught, their feet, eyes, and breast bone examined 
and any which are thin are at once discarded, those that pass 
this test are then put into travelling cages, one pair in a cage", 
until we have several cages, each containing a pair of birds; one 
must remember, however, that the absence. of a few feathers is 
of very little consequence as compared with plumpness and clean 
ieei.. These cages are now put on a shelf where the birdS' will 
not be disturbed every few monients, and are left there for, say, 
ten minutes, by which time. , thesy . will have recovered from 
the shock of being caught. On again examining them some are 
seen to be puffy, others quite tight in plumage, and liright 
of eye. The puffy ones are removed, and others take their 
place — ultimately we have a few cages of nice perky looking 
Fireflnches. If you require three pairs, buy four, so as to 
allow foi i)ossible deaths in acclimatisation, as it is most annoy- 
ing to have to start this process over again when a ^iJQe spell 
of fine weather is on us. Others may do as I do, buy .the lot . 
and then sell off any surplus. 

Nursing the New Arrivals: Having chosen your 
birds, put them in a travelling cage with seed and water, wrap 
them up and get them home as quickly as possible. On arrival, 
not before, the paper comes oft" and our purchases having. had 
their nails cut, arc put into a cage, not a very large, one, but 
larg(^ enough for a small Oy from one perch to anothei'. A 

F,,;-l!l lniin,rl,;l Spprlrs. HI 9 

lu'X liiiril Willi hay is put in for s1cc|miii:- (|ii;trlcr~, simvI .md 
watcf nvi i»i'()\i(lc I, luil oi the later, oiilx' a little is j,'-ivcMi, not 
sufficient lor tlieiii to Katiie in and this little made nastj; by 
the aid of a niihl pui'^Mtivc. Sand is ^ivcn w itli great modera- 
tion, as also is euttlelione, ami \viieiie\-er possihle a supply 
oi' live ants' " e,i:,irs " and .liTceii lly. Next nioi'iiing- a 1)atli is 
f,'-i\(Mi them, iHit, the water is wanned and Ljiven early, 
tli(> then have ample tinu' to get dry. iK'foi'O evening eonios 
round, 'i'heir quarters should be warm, yet without draught 
or stufliness. 

Keep them in tlii,> cage i'oi' aliout ten days, and, iheti 
allow tlunn a lai'.iri'r one, still liowe\-er gi\ing them a 'lox lined 
with hay. .Vllei- ten to toufteen days in this they should l)e 
ready I'or the garden aviary, providing the weather is good, 
Irat, in any case, they should not go out till they ariMn Fairly 
good feather, and, "oy their Indglit and Ii^•ely demeanouj' show 
themselves to he apparently pretty fit. When turned out 
they should be kept under observation for the first twenty- 
four hours or so, to see that they are going on all right. So 
much for the purtdiasng and making them fit for theii' ehanc.-e 
of life in the aviary. 

Tiiini; AviAKY Life: In addition to a roomy-flight, 
their a\-iai'.\- will, of course, have a shelter shed to which. I hey 
can retire at night. For two or three days bci'ore finally 
letting them loose 1 p^ut their cage in the shelter-shed; the 
advantage of this is two-fold: First it serves to accustom them 
to the temperature, which is usually lower than that of their 
nursing quarters, and secondly it gi\es them a chance of 
knowing their way aiiout when om e they are let oiil . 

One fine moi'ning, as I came out of the shed. I open 
the dooi of their cage and retire (piickly and ((uietlv, with the 
resub that they make their exit from the cage without hurry 
or scare and find themselves in the shed; the advantage of 
this is that when they leave the cage they know where they 
are, and when later they leave the shed, they have no difficulty 
in finding their way back, and, if in addition a dish of seed is 
placed where they can see it when they come out, they will 
remember it and come back to it later. 

1 always do this with every bii'd I have wlien first 
placing it in the aviary, except in the case of odtl birds put 


Freely Imported Speeies. 

in to make up pairs, for in this case the odd bird invarialjly 
finds its mate and later will be shown where food is to ho 
found, in fact conducted to it. However, all rules have tlicir 
exceptions, and the exception here is the Bunting -tribe, Avho 
appear to take little notice of their mates. 

At present I have four pairs of adult Fireflnehes and 
two young at least, and very nice they look too, when disjiorting 
amid the living greenery of their natural flight, 

There are three of these jolly little chaps, each witii 
his modest little wife in one aviary. At first I tried to breed 
them in a cage, a nesl was soon built and many eggs laid, 
only to be thrown out of the nest. After three or four weeks 
of this, I for one got tired of it, and one morningj I opened! 
the cage door, out they came and without delay started to build 
a nesl once more: this time a cigar box with a hole near the 
top was chosen as the home and nursery for their "brood. 

Into this they carried an accumulation oi' rubbish, hay, 
fealher,->. etc.. till it was almost full; eggs were laid and in- 

cubatei steadily ior 
-ouie days, when, l)e- 
lu'ving them to be ab- 
-ent, I lifted down the 
nest, out came the cock 
-they promptly de- 

AH three pairs 
forowe 1 this by several 
unsuccessful atiempts, 
but one day, on enter- 
ing the aviary, two 
wH'ird little objects met 
in,\' eye: what on earfh 
w ere they ? Father 
l-Miefiiich, with mucli 
excitement, jiromprly 
ir. E, T,xrhe„nder, pho/o. ^^ettled the questiou by 
YOUNG FIREFINCH IN NEST. feeding his progeny, 
Anepisodeof Mr. Teschemaker's Aviary in 1906 and thus two more 
young Fireflnches were, for good or evil, launclu-d into the 
world. This was on July lOtli, and now (Septemi,>er 18th) 

Kditorial. 321 

the young cock is last assuniiiiy tlic rich lines ol llic adult. 
Ill uo:s\.)iiig i)hniia,i;(: llicy ruyciublc lh«; licii, with li aik licakii 
ami sonic red v. a the mini). 

AIkiuI this time more youii.i;' were heard in aiielhcr 
nest, but 1 had to leave hoiii.' and do not know tli d/' iale. 

'I'lic I'ood provided consisted ol the ii-ual sivmIs, li\c ami 
{ire.--er\'cii ants' " e,L;-_^>> " and mealworm-, plus such si;ctl^ and 
insects as could be pick-'d up in tludi' nalnral cmdo-ure, hui, 
1 am not aide to say ui\ wiiai the ,\oinig were i'ed. 

CiijxKKAL J\k.\iai;ks: i'dieliiiche.-, wiien once acclima- 
tised, are deliyhti'ul, till then a trial and worry to everyone, 
but when (nice in j^jo 1 healin 1 lia\e not lound that tli-y 
object to cold; last w intc.', however, 1 kept them in a room 
that wa.-^ Slightly warmed. This year one paii' is going to 
stay out ami 1 ha\e no tloui;! hut that they will sur\-i\-e. 

So niucdi loi' our iin\ irieml; long may he i)rospei' and 
rep'rodui-e his kind; long may he live to delight us with his 
cheery conliding ways and liery garment, as he Hits hej'c and 
there amidst the greenery of his garden home. 


FusTEK Pakkxts: Tiii.^ heading is perhap., scarceiy 
correct, as the, so called, losler parents only rendered paj'tial 
assistance in the up^-ijringing oi the younghirds. ivlissAi.K. 
iiakei' writes: "" In my aviary 1 Have ha-d a young Eed-Ci-esied 
" Cardinal, ted by a Blue liiosbeaR (o') ; the pareni Cardinals 
"did not oliject in the least. Is this not rather unusual?". 

Such instances are scarcely uncommon, at the same lime 
they are not every-day occurrences, ^^'e will quote another in- 
stance: h\. Mr. W. T. Page's aviary, it was noticed tliat while 
the Grey-winged Ouzels were incubating in a small liarrel, 
a hen Black Tanager was causing them a great deal of 
annoyance, but she was very insistent, ioi-, in spite ol' blows, 
she still intruck'd, and the Q^^ci were looked upon as spoiled, 
but, in spite ol all iutenerence two chicks were duly hatched 
out (these are now doing well and nearly in adult i)Iumage), 
the interest of the Black Tanager continued and while si/.e told, 
and she was compelled to clear off whenever the Ouzels went 
up with their bills full of insects, nevertheless to aii extent 

•^22 Editorial. 

she triumphed, i'or as soon as the parent birds emerged she 
went tc the barrel with two or three insects in her beak, which 
she had been patiently reserving for her assumed charges; this 
continued all the time the young were in the nest, both soft- 
food and insects were carried to the young, :ind alter the young 
left the nest, she followed them about and mothered them gene)'- 
ally, taking to them every mealworm or other insect she could 
get hold of. The two young would undoubtedly have been 
reared without the Tanager's assistance, for the parent Ouzels 
have brought up young annually for the past three seasons, 
being themselves the olf- spring of the original pair which first 
bred in 1909. 

Bkkeding Eesults: From a letter in "Cage Birds" we 
giea)i that our meinber, Mr. W. E. Tescliemaker has suc- 
cessfully reared young of : Citril Finches, Scaly-ironted Finches, 
White and Yellow Wagtails, neither of which we think have 
previously been reared in captivity. Good attempts were made 
by Long -tailed and Bearded Tits, Himalayan Linnets, and 
Purple -browed Rosefinches, We trust Mr. Teschemaker will 
send some, details of these successes. 

Heck's Long -TAILED Geass-finch '{PocpJiila hccki). 
Our member Mr. Hoffman, has reared one young bird of this 
species; it is distinguished from P. acuHcaiodu by its coral - 
red beak, so far as we know there is no record of young of 
this species having been previously bred in this country. If 
no notice of any previous success comes to hand, the club medal, 
will be awarded Mr. Hoffman, in due course. A detailciT 
account will appear later. If any reader knows of any pre- 
vious success with this species, it is requested that details be 
sent to the Club Secretary. 

Gkand Ec'lectus Parrot_^ {Eclecfus roratus): Miss 
Drunmiond has met with success again this season with this 
species one young bird, a female, being almost i-eady to leave 
the log; it was hatched out on, or about, July 14th. We hope 
Miss Drummond will send full details, and also tell us wliat 
she can about the progress of last year's young l)irds. A 
photo and description of the nest log would be of interest.* 

Nesting Notes: The season generally has l)een dis- 
appointing, but various members have been getting a few 
late nests during the past month. Mr. W. A. Eainbrirlgo Iiad 
■■'^ue L'oiTus[)Oiideiicu Section. 

Editorial. \V1\\ 

•*•• ♦• 

3 (iukl-l)i-('a.-~l(Ml Waxbills, i' Coiildiaii Fiiicli.'s, 2 Jacariiii 

Finchov -1 Diaiiioii'i I.'ovc^, and :5 '/.r\^r,i r.ii. •;!,■; a I left \\w 

lie -.t (luiiiiu :'c|' (Mill T, and DiatiiDinl l>'iiirii!' <. F,i()ii/,c Maniii- 

kius, Silvi'rliill-, and Culiaii Finrhco, arc all IcMliii-- VDiui.t;. 

Mr. 11. I5ri-lil liad iUh Finches, Bronze Maiiiiikiii'<, ilyluil 

IJili Finch x Hioii/c .\Iannikin, Red-headed x Cuttln'oal, and 

Ma.uinc Mannikiii.-^ all WW the ncsi during', and \vc 

gallier liuil there arv young- ui VcIIow-runiped Maiinikin.s, 

Long- -tail and Masked Ura.ssfinches, and (iuuldian Finches still 

in the nest. Mr. H. L. Sich has late broods (now on the 

wing), of 1 young Cujuldian Finches, from R.H. (o) and B.H. 

(v); o young Olive Finches, 1 Firethich; Avadavats, ,ind 

Long-tailed (irasslindics have young in the lu'st. 

Dr. J. Faston Scott, alter rearing nathuig has 10 young 
Gouldiau Finches, 4 young Cuban Finches, and. Hybrid Sharp - 
tailed Finch x Silverbill as September results. 

Mr. W . Shore Baily lias had 5 young Ciouldians recently 
leave the nest; Diamond and Bronze-wing Doves have young 
in the- nest; and he has a brood of Blue-winged (Pfiiltacula pas- 
serina) x Guiana {Agapornis guianensis) Lovebird hybrids 
about a week old. 'We are rather surprised (ha( the Guiana 
Lovebird ha.s not been bred 'ere this, of course there are few 
true pairs in the country, as Mrs. K. Leslie Miller's paii', 
now in their fifth year of cage-life, have laid quite a number 
of creamy white Q^g^i, four of which Mrs. Miller has kindly 
sent U.-3 for examination, these average .65 x .ooin. Under 
the conditions of aviary-liie, this pair would undouijiedly have 
reared young. 

The Olivk Finch {Phunipara Icpida): The accom- 
panying photo of a nest of this species, is used as figuring a 
nest site, showing by comparison with others which have ap- 
peared, the variability both of height from ground and char- 
acter of cover chosen, illustrating in some measure the ad- 
aptability of species to their environment, and their more 
or less ready acceptance of the best cover available in a 
given aviary; this ti'ait is not in direct opposition to thejr 
behaviour in a state of nature. The site of the nest figured 
is a large seeding (.lock plant with live stout stems, and, the 
nest is secured to all of them, and several severe gales of 
wind have failed to disturb in the least, aiul, it is in almost 
as good a state of preservation now (October oixl) as when 



the young emerged in July, savi^ that it is moi-e exposed owing 
to the lading away of the dock leaves. The nest was built in 
the Editor's aviary. It is so eompaetly woven that it will 



rhoin III E. <). 
probably survive the winter if the dock stems arc left un- 

Eekata: Page 290, line 0, for " MotociJIa inii," read 
" (Motacilla hignhris.'" 


From All Sources 


Just ;it tliis season, wlieii llic laiiuins i\<^ ^'arduiis of 'J'airiiig, ileal' 
Worthing, beyiii to yield their harvest, that tiny little bird known as tlie 

From All Sources. 325 

"Beccafico," or " fiff-eater," makes its appearance in tlie orcliards. T\\v 
bird, as its name imi)lies, is attracted by the i'ipenin<jr fruit, and ils 
presence is naturally a source of great anxiety to tlie fig-sxrowers. Itiilecd, 
wliat witli the l)irds and the wasps, it is necessary to i)rote<-t tlie fruit with 
muslin l)a<,'s directly it l)e{,Mns to soften, and it may he said that tlu; Jk-c- 
calico is not tlu' only hiru that has a wrakness for j,n-een fis,'s. 

Accordintr to tradition, these little lii,' catini,' Beccaficos conic from 
Italy, following the ripening fit,' (;ro]). as it wre, acr(^ss the (,'ontincnt until 
at last they arrive at the most n(n'iherly of tlie tig gardens of Europe, wliicli 
are those in the South of England. Tlie matter-of-fact ornithologist de- 
clares, however, that tlie Beccatico is just an ordinary British bird— a 
summer migrant which comes here every spring just as regularly as the 
Cuckoo or th(! Xightingale. The Beccafico, in fact, is none other than the 
Garden Warbler, which is well known as a fruit-eater, and resorts at the 
season to the fig-gardens because there is little else in the wav of soft fiuit 
that can be obtained at this late date. The idea of the Heccaviio follow- 
ing in the train of the ripening figs right acros? Europe makes a pretty 
story, but that is all. And the fig-grower does not even appreciate the 
picturesqueness of the time-honoured legend. In Italy, by the way, the 
term " beccafico" does not api)ly to a particular species of bird, as it does 
here, but to any that is to be found among the ripening figs.— Fi'om the 
SttnnUtnl. ;5l), viii,, 1913, per Rev. G. H. Raymu'. 


Era Ilk I). 

•'As but little appears to be on record legarding the distribution 
and habits of S/tta castiiin'iretitr/f! in the Punjab, tlie following note may be 
of some interest." 

" On March 4th, I met witli a pair of this s])t'cies in a grove of trees — 
chiefly Ciru-s, P.Iiisham and Kikns liorderiiiL; a road near Eerozepore Can- 
tonments As it was the fii'st occasion on wliieli 1 had met with any Nut- 
hatches in the plains, 1 watched them for a time feeling. On .Alarcli I'Ttli, 
I was passing the same way, and heard a pretr\ rippling whistle, which, on 
investigation proved to be the call of the inali' Xntliaieh. who was alone; 
I suspected the presence of a nest and ac coidingly watched the 
bird, who was suddenly joined by the female; botli birds started feeding, 
visiting the different species <d' trees impartially. A stoim came up and 
drove me home before I had located I lie nest :tliec,oek hird when alone had. 
it is true, i)aid a li.asty visit to the small hole in ;i large wartlike excrt'scenee 
about 10 feet fnmi the ground on the trunk of a huge Cinis. but that iniulit 
have been merely in the course of inscLl hniitiiig." 

"The next day I went to the sjiot and soon fouml the < 
who was again alone, but after watching for a time, lost liim 
up a position opposite to the small hole he had visited on tin 
and waited. The Nuthatch soon appeared Hying in my diice 
delighted to .see him go straight to the liole in the "wait" 
thing in. This .showed that the nest was in the hole and the 
visits seemed to indicate that he was feeding the hen bird wh 



n took 


lis day 


1 1 was 




of his 

s i 


;V2(') Correspondence. 

intf her ; ns if tliere had been young, the visits would Imve l)ecn more 
frequent and both liirds woidd have taken ]):irt in tl)e wnik "" 

•• AccDi-dingly next niornin-,'. Afarch 'iDth. I went to cut out the nest 
and found that the tiny hole on the tr>p of the w.iit was ically the entrance 
to a hvrgish chamber. The entrance h:)le liad been partly i)lastered up with 
mud: and theebiniher wis half filled with fragment-! of Sliisham seed c isos 
which formed a lo)se nest in which the fo. n ile wa^ sittin',' up:):i five half 
incubarciland an addled egg." 

•• The eggs were while, siieckled wiih dull lilac, :ip.d brick-red the mark- 
ings being sonirwliat thicker towaids the larger eml. They measure I'T.'j .\ 
1-35 : l-7l) .\ 1 :0 : 1 -70 .\ 1 30 ; 1-36 x ]-2'> ; 1 70 .\ 1 3l) cniin As this was tlie 
only occasion J met with the sjiecies in the district. I preserved l)oth birds." 

'■ Tlie use of fi-agmeats of seed cases of Shisham is remarkable as 
likely to have some connection with the English Nuthatch's habit of using 
pine bark in the construction of its r.est : at any rate both materials would 
8, 'em to have the same characteristics and presumably the same (unknown) 
advantages." U. WH[STLEIl 

Indian Police. Pnnjab. 
From the 'Journal of the Bombay Xat. Hist. Soc," Vol. .xxii. No. 1. Ed. 
n ■ D 



Sir. — For a long time I have felt the want of a stock fruit food 
for mv aviaries. A fruit that can be stored in cjuantiiies like seed and 
insectivorous food ; not to take the place of fresh fruit such as apples 
oranges and bananas, but to sui)plcment these and eke them out when they 
are scarce and dear. 

I have tried soaked raisins and cunants, but I sonietinies suspected 
that the skins were tough and indigestible. 1 have recently tried passing 
nnsoakcd currants and laisins together with fine biscuit meal through a' 
mincer The biscnit makes the finely minced fruit break up into pellets' 
about the size of large peas, and prevents it becoming too cloggy. After 
mincing th3 mixture is left a few hours for the biscuit to swell 

The birds eat this greedily with the exception of some Tanagers — 
{Cdll'xtae) and 1 give it either by itself or mixed into the insectivorous 
food. 1 think the reason the CnllisUu do not care al)out it is they like to 
champ up their food before swallowing it, and like their fi nit juicy. 

I give all this for what it is woith. 

Hoddam Castle. Ecclefechan, 
September 11th. VMW. 


Sii-. -I have a troop of young Quail from the hybrid Sfpiamata x Cali- 
fornian Quail [CaUipepJa nqiianiatd x Lop/iort;/.'- ntlift riiir-i). I thought this 
would i)ro!)vbly be of general interest, as it proves the fertility of this 

September 3rd, 11U3, 


■St. if lat.T. 1 


[It woiiia Ik- of !,UMioi;il if lat.T. wlicti tlifv .•niii,' int.. a. lull 
ilimmgo. Mr. Sli.)re Maily \v..iil<l .l.sciil..' Ill,' n.'st lin- aii.l adult plimiayes 
tl.nth tlK'..iic;inalliyl.r;.lsan.i tlnir |n <.-<ii v. Ki..| 
NESTING OF SHORT WINGED WEAVER \ll iiplnnilnrni^ hnirlnii,lrrn). 

Sir. I iuii t'Mclos- 
iiii,' a i.h.>t<. of a Short- 
\vi:ii;.il \Vi;aver's nest, I think, may be 
..f intci-fst. As will be 
s.H'u in the photo, the 
bird stripped the leaves 
.itf a tall raspberry cane 
and wove the nest .)n 
the extreme tip. 

'riie nest was 
built liy tile male, but, 
to my regret, he has not 
succeeded in inducing 
the hen to lay ; I am 
lioping that another 
season he may do so. 

Hoyer's House, 

Sept. ;?rd, 1913. 


Sir. Ill nsjioiis.' t.. y..ur r.Miuest I seu.l the toll. .wing : — 

One Bl.ri-. Motniaix {Tri-fni,,lnsH>,s nnnw ln)llanii;ae) x ( "ll.vTTKKix.i 
LoKV (Li.rhi^ f/nn-Nlrs). 

One Oi;am. Fci K. tis (Ki-Ici'lax nnatiix) -o\\\\ the second time 
reared in cai.tivity I 1 I'liew. 

Three \\(i\\ i^i. \( r -CiiKi'.Ks sitting week after week, m.>nth after 
month indeeil. .\' - rrsiil/s up In timr! 

Some y<.uug Cr rTiii;.)ATs. wlii.'li really don't .-..nut f..r anything. 

("oci; ATiKi.s : Sevei'al nests destr.)ye.l bv White eare.l ('..iiur.' 
(P;/rrluini Iriimli',). 
St. Helen's Lodge. Hastings, (Mrs.) E. H, HARTLEY, 

October •2nd, 1913. 

•V2S British Bird Caleyidar. 

British Bird Calendar. 

// ;.v nn/Hii/f/ rc'i'/r^trJ tliat Meiiih('r.-< hum till runiid tlie max/ irill 
iiitelltc iirir.-'iir'itlx <* li'n-h, nt )rp. eiii>:'.c/:tll// hi flu' Sitiitheni and /Ctslf-ni 
Cnnntir^:. ,u,il rninhiilii {•^Slh ,,f r.irh 11,0,1th) s-,/,! hi tlich- iiiil,'H-Or\ thiS the 

ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend — 

Sept. 12 - Our simmer visitoi-.s arc now giMiliially thinning ; the Warblers 
arc l)ul sehlom soon in the garden. Wheatears {S.i.virohi 
upiiniitlir) are still fairly iiiunei'ous. and Pied Wagtails (MolacUhi 
//^ /// /;;-,■>•) are pie it: fill S.nill p irties of hen Chaffinches {Fr'ni- 
(/illii fO'h'h.) ar.-ived t )-d:iy, and another party on the 17th. 

Sept. 20 —A large flouk of Cook Chnffinches arrived, the sexes do not 
appear lo travel together. 

Sept. 2G— Waders are now very nnnicrous. I saw the first flock of 
Knots {TriiKja (■luiiifiin) to-day. Herring Onlls {Larins iiiypnf- 
atiifi) are very plentiful, but the Black-backed (L. murhuii^) 
are very scarce so far and those with us are immature birds. 

Rapt. 29—1 have not noticed anj- movement of Ducks, but saw four 
Swans this morning travelling, with their usual, slow, laborious 
movement, in a Southerly direction. 

R. S., Cleethorpes. 29-9-13. 

Sept. 30 -While the cheerful '' tipink, Hp'nih'' of the Chaffinch is ever with 
us. still the birds are not numerous in the garden during the 
summer months, the family party, pai-ents and young -these 
are a garden familj^ young reared here, but on the 30th there 
was quite an influx of cocks, and they are still here, often a 
dozen or more foraging on the lawn together. With the rearing 
of the last brood connubial bliss is at an end, that is as soon as 
the young are able to look after themselves, for the sexes sep- 
arate, and are no more seen together till mating time comes round 
again. Have not seen a Willow Warliler or a Chiff-chaff since 

\V. T P.. :\Iitcham.3lMt 13. 

Sept. 23-:')0 This note is (nui]>ilod from a cutting from the Simrhtnl, 
27, ix., 13, kindly sent by the Rev O. H. Raynor. Moirhnix 
XcxI (iiifl lirreil in a Lomlnn Sfrpi'f : In Shepherd's Bush, at 
the junction of Askew and (ioldhawk Hoads, there is a small 
piece of fenced watoi' (it used to be open, and was then known 
Starch (Ireen Pond', it has an islet in the middle which is over- 
grown with ivy, and contains a dozen small bushes. Here, amid 
the roar of electric trams, combined with oidinary traffic, with a 
large puldic house and a cinema theatre oidy tlio road's Avidth 
from them, a ]>air of Moorhens ((utlliiiiilii i-lihiniiuis) for 
the past two years at least nested twice in e;ic)i season. The biids 
:uv vory t in.e an,l faniilia- and ha.o subsisted o„ tju. natural food 
thuir feiK-od gaid.ii and oiaiamental water provides, .and bread. 

Post Min'tnn lirporh. '^2'? 

etc., thrown to tlieiii l).v :iii interested pnl)lic. Their life liistory 
has here run its course for all who cared to cull and learn, for 
they have quite lost their natural shyness and timidity. During 
the last week in September the whole clan were much in evidence 
—the senior brood assisting their parents in feeding the downy 
black chicks of the second brood, and, at the same time, still not 
averse themselves to be fed by their parents.—I have only quoted 
the bare facts from the cutting as, for the fifteen or more years 
prior to coming to Mitcham I lived within five minutes walk of 
Starch Green P<Mid, and the above incident is of great personal 
interest to me, and I have written up the environment details 
from personal recollection not yet dim. Since the advent of the 
electric trams, the district is fast losing its pleasant suburban as- 
pect -the private villas, with the pleasant front gardens and trees 
are fast yielding to business premises, and the noise and roar of 
busy, ceaseless traffic replacing comjjarative quietude. Yet this 
shy and retiring sjiecies did not then find the spot suitable ; true 
the enclosure in its ])resent aspect is l)ut some eight years old. 

W.T.P., Mitcham, 3/10/'13. 

Book Notices and Reviews 

Owing ito spare limitations we have liad to hold these over till 
next issue. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

Vide Rules (See Page Hi of.C'orer.J 

In consequence of being out of town during August and the early 
part of September my /(;'•//;/( fei/ei/s did not forward the reports for those 
months to the Editor. I regret if any inconvenience has been caused by the 

Cui?.\ Finch. (("ai)t. J. S. Reeve, Lincoln). Cause of death, acute 

Zebra Finch ( 5 ). lOeo. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge). Cause of 
death, hiemorrhage on the brain. 

Cuban Finch. (Mrs. C. A. Longdon, Guildford). The cause of 
death was enteritis. 

SiLVEKBU.i.. (Henry Meakin. Luton). The bird was a male and 
more than a year old. The cause of death was enteritis. 

Masked GKASS^•I^:CH (<r). (Lieut. F. M. Littledale). Cause of 
death, apoplexy, Many species of birds often peck and even eat the soft 
parts, especially the brain, of dead birds. 

Vioi.ET Tanagek ( 5 ). f Geo. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge). Cause of 
death, pneumonia. 

Parrot Finch. (H. A. Swayne, Dublin). Cause of death, pneu- 

330 Post Mortem Reports. 

Hartz Mountain Canary (cT). (Miss Muriel Maxwell Jackson. 
Harrogate). Cause of death, pneumonia. 

PiNK-iiRowED EosEFiNcii ( <f ). ( W. A. Bainljridge. Thorpe, Surrey). 
Cause of death, enteritis. 

(Species ?). (The Hon. Mary C. Hawke, Tadcaster). Cause of death, 
rupture of a softened liver followed by internal hajniorrhage. 

YouNt; RosKi.LA (c?). (\V. Shore Baily, Westbury, Wilts.) Cause 
of death, enteritis. 

Cordon Bleu ( ? ). (Capt. J. S. Reeve. Lincoln). Cause of death, 

Ooui-DiAN Finch ( ? .). (Mrs. A. Storey, Summerhill, Cheshire). Cause 
of death, fattj^ degeneration of liver with consequent hajmorrhage. 

Lavender Finch. (Geo. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge). Cause of 
death, enteritis. 

Long-tailed Grassfinch ( <? ). (Mrs. A. Storey, Summerhill, 
Cheshire). Cause of death, fatty degeneration of liver. 

Brown's Parrakeet ( s ). (J. L. Grossraith. Bickley. KeutV C.nise 
of death, enteritis. 

Golden-breasted Waxbill. (Lieut. F. I\r. Littledale, Cowes). 
Cause of death, hgemorrhage on the brain, no doubt set up by convulsions. 

Dii.vYAL Robin. (Capt. J. S. Reeve. Lincoln). Cause of death, 

Red-headed Govldian ij). (Rev. J. M. Paterson. HoUington, 
Sussex). Cause of death, enteritis. 

Hardwick's Chloropsis ( ? ). (Mrs. M. O'Connell, Brockenhurst). 
This bird was too fat and no doubt the cause of death was syncope. 

Bengalese and another bird. (H. A Swayne, Dublin). Both died 
from pneumonia. 

pouLDiAN Finch ( ? ). (ilrs. E. Travis, Stourbridge). Cause of 
death, pneumonia. 

Parrot Finch, f Lord Poltimore). Cause of death, luemorrhage on 
the brain no doubt set up by convulsions. 

Green A.madavade. (Geo. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge). Cause of 
death, cerebral apoplexy. 

Amirered by post— V. F. M. Galloway, Lady Kathleen Pilkington (2), 
La Baronne Le Clement de Taintegnier. Mrs Turner-Turner ('2). H. L. 
Sich, P. H. Sellars, Geo. Scott Freeland, A. Ezra, L. Lovell-Keays, Miss 
Mundy, R. A. Dyott. H. GRAY. M.R.C.V.S. 

1/1 TUfihts Bcservcd. NovHMnKi?, 1013. 




Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 
{Continued from, page 2G2). 

Mr. R.\in]}i;ii)Ge's Aviaries : In mid Sopleniher I 
availed iiiysolF ol' Mr. and Mrs. Bainliridirc's kind invitation 
to sixMid a lew days witli them and view the aviaries anrl 
birds. Fortunately I was favoured with fine weather and 
enjoyed a most interesting and pleasant visit: as Mr. Bain- 
bridge has said elsewhere "we talked of many aspects" of 
avieudture, and time passed all too quickly. 

I think I am correct in stating that Mr.; Bain bridge 
only took up aviculture last year, but he is a pronounced en- 
thusiasl and has already gathered together in his aviaries a 
goodly array of beautiful and uncommon species, and, as he 
net only takes aviculture seriously, but is painstaking also, 
and gives the welfare of his birds careful thought and assid- 
uous attention whenever he is at home; quite the average 
amount of success is sure to come his way in the near future. 
He has met with a full share of the losses that are incidental 
to the gathering together of a good collection of birds, and at 
the same time has gained some valuable experience. 

AviARY' A : This is the New Aviary, and is situated 
at the 1 aek of the tennis lawn. It is a Toomy and well arranged 
structure consisting of shelter, open flight, covered flight and 
a second open flight as shown on the ground plan. The shelter 
is roomy and well lighted and is provided with an oil-heated 
hot watei apparatus to give a little warmth during winter's 
cold days. I should say in passing that the only outlets from 
the oil -heated boiler are to atmosphere— no outlet into the 
shelter; it is lighted and all attention given from the exterior. 
Here some of the more fragile species are kept in roomy 
cages during the winter, while the more robust species use 
the shelter as they please and have access to the outdoor 


Visits to Members' Aviaries. 









' (£ 


* Q 
















flights at will. The ground plan gives all details, and T need 
only say regarding the open flights that the natural cover is 
abundant, and that the space between the shrubs and bushes 

T'/,s'//.v to Mritihrr.s' Aviaries. 333 

is covered with various coarse ijrrassos and weeds. In flic 
covered flight, situatcnl IxMwceii the two open ones, arc placed 
food vessels, and i)lenty of percliing accommodation is fixed 
beneath the roof. The whole efTect of the aviary is natural 
and picturesque. Here at the time of my visit many species 
were nesting, some young on the wing and all looking most 
tit and happy. The occupants were as follows : — 

3 pairs Gouldiau Finches (Poepliila gmddiae). 

2 ,, Bicheiio's Finches (Stictoptera hlchenovi). 

2 ,, Ruficauda Finches (Bathilda nificaucJa). 

1 ,, Loiig-lailed Grassfinch [Poepliila acuticauda). 

1 ,, Masked (xrassfincli (P. personata). 

1 ,, Jacariiii Finches (Volatinia jacarini). 

2 ,. V'lVi'w Availavats (Stktospiza- fcrmara). 

2 „ Ihnl Avadavats (Sporaeginihus amandnva). 
1 ,, Green Singingfinches (Serinus icterus). 

1 ,, Cuban Finches (Phonipara canora). 

3 ,, Cordon Bleus (Esfrilda phoenicotis) . 

2 ,, Grey Waxbihs (E. cinerea). 

2 .. Gold-breasted Wn-Jb Ih ■ (Sp-.ra^ginihus f.iujlarus). 

1 ,, Orange -cheeked Waxbills («S. melpodus). 

2 „ Zebra Finches {Taeniopygia castanotis). 

1 ,, Lavender Finches {Lagotwsiicta caerulescens). 

2 ,, Fire Finches (L. minima). 

1 ., Aurora Finches (Tiitel'a phoenicGpiem). 

1 ,, ril(>aled Finches (Con/pJwspingus pilpalus). 

1 ,, Pink-browed Eosafinches {Proparser rhodofJinmn) 

1 ,, Paradise Whydahs (Steganura paradisen) . 

1 ,, Bib Finches (Spermesies nana). 

1 ,, Bengalese (VroloncJia domestica) . 

1 ,, White Java SpaiTOWS (Miinia orizivora v. albn). 

1 ,, Diamond Doves (Geopelia cuneata). 

1 ,, Yellow-winged Sugarbirds (Coereha rymirn). 

1 cf Melba Finch {Pytelia melha) . 

?> Black -chinned Yuhinas (Yulrina nigrimcntvm). 

1 9 Brown-backed Robin {Thamnohia cambaiensis). 

1 9 Key's Partridge (Ammoperdix heyi). 

I d Californian Quail iLnphortyx calif ornica). 

Also several odd birds of Uie above species. 

The following young have been fully reared during the 
seasor : — 

;'. Firefinclies. 2 Diamond Doves 

;'. Cul)a Fiuchea. 2 Hicliciio's Fiuclies. 

2 Gouldiau Finches. -j Grey Singii.g ir.ches. 

3 Zebra Finches. 3 Gold-breasted Waxbills. 

33 1 

Visits to Members' Ainaries. 


Young hatched but not reared : — 
Ficheiio's Finches. Orey Singingnnclies. 

Eu'icauda Finches. Zebra Finches. 

Had clutches of eggs but failed to hatch out : — 
Bicheiio's Finches. Masked Grassfn hes. 

Jacarini Finches. Cordon Bleiis. 

Firefinches Re;l Avadivnts, 

Bronze Mannikins. (ircen Avad.ivats. 


Aviary B : This is situated to the left of the houso, 
the rose garden between it and the road. The ground 

plan indicates the general arrangement, and it is only aeces- 

AM H.W.'h taftr . 3- 3v ?aA.SfSr^ 
C. l^^cTrrl . -p. Gravel T^ry^ 
Sca(t-.PMW /7 I'mtV ? fg fqfs 6fC. rtdoc^d -3. 

sary to further add that the open flighi is well grassed be- 
tween the bushes, and that along the backs of shelter and 
covered flights, thick hedges have been formed with twigy 
branches, and that the general effect is both natural and spec- 
tacular. Only the top and front of open flight i^ wive netting. 

It contained the following : — 

1 Pair Brown -backed Robins (Thamnohia (amhaieniis). 

1 , Chestnut-bellied Nuthatches (Sitta casianeiventris). 

I'/.s-Z/.v Id Mcnihcr,s' Aviaries-. 3vi5 

1 I'liii' ( (,)ii;iil ^ L,.'i.'h<.rl ji.v nili/nr/tini). 

•2 ,, (iouMiail iMIlclirs J',,rj>li:i,i ,;<ri(l(l:„r). 

1 ,, Diaiuoiid Kiiichcs {StefjatioplcKra (/iillatu). 

2 ,, !SilvL'rl)ill.s i canlans). 

\ ,, Bi-oiiZL' Maiiiiikiiis [ISpermesteH cucniln'a). 

2 ,. Tri-colour Mannikins (Munia malaccn). 
1 „ Bengalese (Uroloncha domestica) . 

1 ,, Cuba Finches (Plionipara canora). 
1 ,, Jacarini Finches (Volatinia jacarini). 

3 ,. Zebra Finches (Taeniopi/gia castanotis). 

1 ,, Paiadisc Whydahs (Slecfanura paradi&en). 

1 ,, Grey Singingfinches (Serinus leucopi/gius). 

1 ,. Grey Waxbills (Estrilda cinerea). 

1 ,, Gold-breasted Waxb'lls (Sporaeglnlhns siihflacu.s). 

1 ,, Orange -cheeked Waxbills (S. meliiodi(s). 

1 o" Firefinch {Lagonosticia minima). 

1 9 Pink-browed Rosefinch (Vropasscr rhodochrciis). 

3 Scaly -headed Finches (Sporopipes squamifrons). 

The following- young- bird.s have been fully reared thl; 
season : — 

5 Jacarini Finchos. 2 Grey Waxbills. 

;■) Diamond Finches. 2 Bronze Mannikins. 

G Silvcrbills. 3 Cutthroats. 

1 Ruficauda Finch. 

Hatched but not reared : — 
Di.imond Finches \^ broods). Grey Singingfinches. 

Jacarini Finches (2 b-oods). Zebra Finches, 

Grey AVaxbills (2 broods). Ruficauda Pinches. 

Had clutches of eggs but nothing hatched out : — 
Cordon Bleus. Zebra Finches. 

Cuba Finches. Ruacauda Finches. 

Diamond Eove. 

Tricolour Mannikin x Bengalese. 
Hey's Parti'idge X Californian Quail. 

T was alile to examine ra'dny nests and to note not only 
the varying position of sites chosen by the different species, 
but also the same as to an individual pair of birds, e.g., Jac- 
arini Finches, one pair of which have nested five or six times 
this season, and at the time of my visit were feeding young 
in a nest amid the long grass on the ground; on a former visit 

1 saw a beautifully constructed nest in a privet bush about 

2 feet from the ground. I 'also saw the huge heap of hay, etc 
(described by Mr. Bainbridge in September issue) which 
formed the domicile in which the Grey Waxbills were roared, 
while as we sat in front of Aviary "A" there came to our 


Visits to Members' Aviaries. 

ears the pleasant sound of young Gouldian Finches shouting 
for food. But space will not permit one to ramble on, and I 
must conclude with the remark that the lists of birds, given 
for respective aviaries, are as the birds were located at the 
time of my visit and that where successes, etc., do not agree 
witl) the lists it indicates that the birds had been changed 
abou: a little earlier in the year. 

Mrs. Anningson's Aviaries and Bi7?ds: On Satur- 
day, October 11th, I left for Cambridge to pay a long deferred 
week end visit to Dr. and Mrs. Anningson, and to have the 
privilege once more of seeing her fine series or Parrots, Cocka- 
too ;. and Macaws. Much avicultural talk and an all -day motor 
drive around the environs of Cambridge brought an eventful 
and interesting visit to a close. 

Mrs. Anningson's Aviaries and Birds have Deen des- 
cribed and the Finch aviary figured on more than one occasion 
in "B.N.," and I also described the palatial quarters of the 
Parrot-house, but on the present occasion I am happy to 
be able to give a description of it in Mrs. Anningson's own 
words, as follows : — 

"My Paruot House: The House is constiaicted of oue-iiicli 
" longued and grooved matcliing, lined with teak, with an iiUeiliniiig 
"of thick felt; the roof is of corrugated iron, lined with felt and 
"matching; the floor-boards are of oak. There are two large (4ft. 
"square) push-out windows opening out on to the back lawn. All 

r . .. . ^ - ■ 

': P ' 
?V> i 



rrr — ' 


! VAc.r- •^on.T -P;«.^s. ; ^ 

! ^ '■ 

G « n C) u- c- .3 

the windows are on the S.E. side, and gla/.ed with rolled glass and 
fitted with Venetian blinds inside, and outside wiih s'.i'ii)ed blinds 
which assist in keeping out winter's cold and summer's heat. The 
house stands upon eight brick and cement pillars, 12in. square 

r/,v//.s to Mciiihcrs' Aviaries. '.V.\7 

" liy ISiii. liiy!!; llic s[)aces between the pillars are lUlcil with ror- 
■• 1 iiuatril iioii sli.liui;- sliuttcrs as protection for tiui iiol -water pipes. 
"Till' House i> healeil liy means of a 'Leicester' boiler witli iiin. 
"How aim reluru pipi's )umiiiiy along the centre of the house; 
"tile lire is maiie up twice daily— 10 a.m. and 10 p.m., and coke is 
"Ihe fuel used. The dimensions are given on ground-plan, and 
" it onl\ remains to state that the height is 10ft. to plate and 1.5ft. 
"to ridge. Other details are cleai ly shown on the photo illustrating 
"these notes. A lath-work staging runs along the two sides and 
" one end of tlu' house, and also another along the centre, on which 
"the cages are arranged, it may interest my bird friends to know 
"that a I at has been trained to live in the house with' the Ijiixls so 
"as In keep down mice. Tlie photo of the exterior of the House 
" was kindly taken by my fi'iend, F. liunnett, Esq., but we failed 
" lo gel one of the inteiaor owing to the poor (quality of Ihe light at 
" this time of the year, but I hope at some future date lo supply 
" this and also some photos of the birds. I have omitted to staUi 
" that the House is painted with asbestos paint, pale gi-een outside 
"and egg-shell blue inside." — Claudine Anningson, Oct. 2.'], 1913. 
Fiu'tluM' comment is unnecessary, save to state that 
Mrs. Aiiningson's description barely does the structure justice, 
luit a photo of the interior at some future date will remedy 
this. I cannot, however, pass on without expressing my ad- 
niiratioi- ol' th(; roomy and massive cages in which the birds 
are housed; incidentally I gleaned these had cost 100s. and 
200s. each according to size. 

T have a request from several who have seen and heard 
of Mrs. Anningson's unique collection that I would fully write 
up the respective species as well as describing the indi- 
viduals; this would prove altogether too lengthy for this 
notice, but I propose (D.V.) to meet this request by an 
article "Mrs. Anningson's Parrots," in the early i)art of 
next vol., and here must content myself with a list and a few 
concluding remarks. 

1 pair Severe Macaws (Ara severa). 

1 pair Blue and Yellow Macaws (A. ararauna). 

1 cf Glaucous Macaws {Anodorhynclms glaucus). 

1 cf I^ed and Blue Macaw {Ara macao). 

1 9 Banksian Cockatoo {Calyptorhynchus banksii). 

1 cf Gauga Cockatoo (Callocephalo?} galentum) . 

1 cf Slender-billed Cockatoo (Licmciis nasica). 

1 pair Goffln's Cockatoos {Cacatua gofjiyri). 

2 cf Salmon-crested Cockatoos (C. molucccnsis). 
i Lesser Lemon -crested Cockatoo (C. sulfhurea). 
1 Bare-eyed Cockatoo (C. opthalmica) . 

338 Visits to Mothers' Aviaries. 

1 Red-vented Parrot (Pionus mevsinms). 

1 Senegal Pari-ot (Poeocephalus senegalensix). 

1 Bottled Parrot. 

1 Gold-fronted Amazon {Chiysolis ochroeepliahi) . 

1 Diademed Amazon (C. diademnia). 

1 Cuban Amazon (C. lexicocephala) . 

1 Cashmere Iling-iiecked Pariakeot {I'altaornin hidobiirviatui)- 

In other outside aviai'ies were: One pair each Burmo>e 
Blossom -headed Parrakeets, Brazilian Conures, Tiidian fiing- 
Parrakeets and Blue Mountain Jjorikeets. 

While some of the above had not yet completed the 
moult, all were veiy fit and in the best of health — the hues 
and beautiful bloom of their plumage fully indicated this. 
The 7nenu consisted of such large seed mixture as hemp, oats, 
sunfiower, paddy rice, dari, etc., also giant canary seed and 
millet; fruit, nuts (various), but for the lai'gcr Cockatoos 
and Macaws Brazil nuts are supplied all the year round, irre- 
spective of cost. A large l>owl of chips of wood — really, 
thick natural branches, broken up— goes in daily as pai-t of the 
menu. All the birds were very tame, though some resented 
the intrusion of strangers, but Mrs. Anningson and the maid 
who assists in tending them and supplying their wants can do 
almost anything. with them. I can only quote one instance, 
The maid took the huge Glaucous Macaw out of its cage, 
caressed it, and held it in her arms as if it -wqyo an infant, to 
the great satisfaction of the Macaw, but such instances and 
also questions of rarity etc., I must leave to the subseiiuent 

Tnio Finch Aviaky: This was already fitted with its 
glazed shutters and all its occupants wei'e in excellent con- 
dition. Among th(>m I noted the following species: 
JiOVRBiRDs: Peacli-faced, Black-cheeked, Bed-lieaded, niiil JNIadag- 

ascar; also Gioen and Yellow Budgerigars*. 
Finches: Ribbon,* Zebra,* Spice, Ruficauda, Fire, Paison, Diamond 

and Biclieno's. Also Grey and Green Singiiigfinches. 
Manmk]NS: Black-hoaded, Bronze, Tii-colour, \Vhit(>-lieadei1, Silver- 
bills, Grey and Wliite Java Sparrows. 
Waxbills: Grey,* Oi'ange-cheeked- and Gold-breasted; Connnoa* and 

WnYDAH^- AND WioAVEUs: YclIow -colLired, Paradiso, Red -shouldered, 

Pint.ailed and Queeu Wliydalis. Red-billed Weavers,* and 


'Indicates have reared young this season. 

Bird Notes. 


h^^^Rf^lfV&^lfSse/z ^LAct^S/jCK^j} Gull r. 5 (5 uii.l$ nOTS. 

Bird Notes. 

A P<i// ()// lite Fdnics in .\ii(fii,s(. ;',;>,;) 

Etce'IF.kas: Cape Doves, ^'il■y■illi;lu and lled-cresloil ('.iiiliiial aiul 
Glossy Starlings. 

Thickets of i)raii('lics supplied al);iii(laiit eoN-er, and 
lu'rehiui;' aeeoniniodat inn : while almost all sorts of !iestiii.g 
receptacles were suspended from the roof, hung upon the walls 
or fastened amid the b;anche3. The 7nenii consisted of canary, 
white and Indian Millet, millet sprays, mixed seeds, insecttile 
mixture, milk sop, fruit, and greenfood, so that the needs of 
all were fully met and the demeanour and general fitness of 
the birds were abundant proof 01" the care and attention ihey 
continually received, and a sufficient reward foi- it. Alueh 
more might be profitably written, but space for])i(ls. 

A Day on the Faicnes in August. 

By F. Dawson -Smith. 

I have always felt a great desire to visit a large bird 
colony, and in August this year I persuaded a friend to join 
me in an exploring expedition to the Fames, off the North- 
umberland coast, believing this to be one of the finest resorts 
of sea-birds to be found in the British Isles. 

Obviously the first matter to arrange was — how to 
get there. After prolonged discussion we decided that a 
motor-bike and side-car was a pleasant and convenient mode 
of transit. We started on our adventures on August 5111, 
from the South Midlands, my friend acting as chauffeur, and 
I packed (literally) in the side-car, which I occupied in com- 
mon with all our travelling impedimenta. Naturally our per- 
sonal luggage was of trifling moment, but we had to carry 
our tent and camping outfit, chief among which was our photo- 
graphic paraphernalia. This meant careful consideration .in 
packing, having to utilize a minimum 61 space with a minimum 
of packages. I Avas jammed into my seat nursing a camera, 
with sundry hard i)arcels finding my joints, and a can of petrol 
between my feet; and feeling that nothing short of an earth- 
quake could dislodge me! However, these were trifles when 
one set forth in search of adventure. The first day's run of 
210 miles was not particularly interesting, but we reached 
Darlington which was well on the way to our destination. 
The next day we passed through Durham, where we stayed 

;-^40 -4 Day on the Fames in Aiifjast. 

a couple 01 liours to look at the umgiiificont cathedral, (hen 
on through Newcastle, where the roada were atrocious, and 
nearly jerked us to pieces. However, the weather kept 
fine, which was all -important, and without mishap we reached 
Bamburgh in the early ai'ternoon. For a time we imagined 
we had reached the end of the journej^ by land, but a little 
later we discovered the small and rather primitive fishing vil- 
lage of Seahouses, whei^e we were directed to obtain a boat 
to convey us to the Islands. We were greeted by numbers 
of Herring Gulls {Larus argentatiis), with which the harbour 
waj Ci'owded. Some Terns {Sterna ftamatilis), also, were 
gracc'iuUy winging their w^ay above us, but apart from the 
Uulis. From here we had our first glimpse of the Fames, 
which apparently were about a mile away; but "appear- 
ances are deceptive," as we learned that, in reality, the Islands 
were about three or four miles distant. We employed some 
time in exploring the quaint old village, and walching the 
trawlers bringing in the herrings, and then we began our 
search for a boat. We had little trouble in obtaining one, 
and arranged to start at nine o'clock the next morning. The 
night was fine and mild, and we decided to pitch our tent on 
the sand dunes outside Seahouses. The sky being perfectly 
clear we burrowed in the sand, and slept outside the tent, with 
the mingled song of the sea-birds and the unceasing murmur 
of the waves lulling us to rest. We slept soundly until the 
early morning, when a sudden heavy shower of rain com- 
pelled us to rise, "take up our bed and walk," inside the 
tent, where we resumed our interrupted slumbers and slept 
peacefully, and awoke to find the rain had ceased and that 
we were blessed with a perfect ideal day, with a clear at- 
mosphere and brilliant sunshine, the Fames showing up in bold 
relief. Along the shore, close to our tent, crowds of Red- 
shanks were running about uttering their soft whistling cries, 
and with the sun dancing and sparkling on the water, and 
the sand-dunes making a perfect and entrancing picture to 
the eye of an artist. With difficulty we tore ourselves from 
the fascination of it all, but breakfast, and the boat at Sea- 
houses were calling imperatively. On reaching the boat we 
found our man and two boys ready for us; the former being 
a rugged, weather-beaten old fisherman, who evidently knew 

.1 Ihti/ on the Fames in Aiifiiisl. ;>,.| 1 

his woik thoroughly well. The journey a,cro:s-; t!ie wuler look 
alwmt iort\'-live minutes hut it did not seem lialf that lime, a.s 
there was so nuieh to see and interest. Porpoises in the water, 
and Ciullo, solitary GannetS, Cormorants and Puffins (lying 
overhead and aeting aa our advance guard to the islands. Our 
lirst destinaiion was the Staples. The sight here was amaz- 
ing. Myriads oi' birds filled tlie aii-, roeks, and sea. 1 had 
never seen such a thing beioi'e, and Telt all the keen d(;light 
thai ever} bird-lover must i'eel on his first visit to a breeding 
colony. We scrambled up the rocks with our cameras, with 
crowds oi slu'ieking (_;ulls. t'hieliy the J^esser Black-back'ed 
{Lu/U6 fuscus) variety, whirling all about us. Oui' fir;sct 
ol>jective was a bank which was covered with Puffins (Fra- 
tercula arctica) standing outside their nesting burrows. Many 
more w^ere standing in a long row on the top. Very few of 
the burrows contained young, as it was late in the season, 
but we caught sight of a few in their black fluffy nest down. 
Tlie old Puffins, like gruAC and solemn sentinels, looked very 
quaint, with their black and white plumage, curiously col- 
oured, powerful beaks, and rather squat appearance. They 
seemed quite tame, and did not fear our approach, conse- 
quent!} it was an easy task to photograph them. We lingered 
long at this particular spot, but presently realized that time 
was pressing, and then turned toward the Pinnacles. These 
are precipitous rocks at the end of the Staples, swarming 
with Guillemots (JJria troile). Some Gulls were feeding 
young on jutting ledges on the steep sides. It was impos- 
sible to get on to the rocks with the birds, as we were 
separated from them by a precipice, but we took photographs 
of them from where we found foothold on the opposite side. 
The top of the Pinnacles was a seething mass of Guillemots, 
and yet we were told by one of the watchers who reside on 
the island during the breeding season, that there were "nothing 
like so many as in June." The marvel to us w^as how suc;h 
a vast, number of birds obtain food for themselves and their 
young. Fresli birds were continually arriving and othurs 
leaving. We could see some of the Guillemots fighting, — per- 
haps objecting to the squash. Across the precipice came 
their incessant cries, but as regards noise, nothing came up 
to the gulls! Several young ivittiwakes were nestling in. 

'.\-\2 A Day on the Fames In August. 

the side of deep chasms, while the old birds fed tliem. These 
were, perhaps, the prettiest of the Gulls, and very interest- 
in^'- to watch. The other Gulls — Herring, and Lesser Black - 
backed out-numbered the Kittiwakes (Larus tridactylus) — Their 
young, in all stages of growth, v^eiQ sporting about at our 
feel. They usually relied on their protective colouration 
and corisequently did not attempt to run until they fully real- 
ized that they were seen. Their dark markings harmonized 
so well with the rocks that it was difficult to distinguish 
them in the crevices where they hid. The old gulls Hew 
around us. shrieking and making a greater hullabaloo than 
all the other birds put together. They attempted to buffet' 
us ixh we approached their young, but never actually did- 
so, rising, instead, above our heads. The cry of the Gulls was 
similar to the barking of dogs. 

Amongst the Gulls, and all over the Staplco, were num- 
bers of Puffins. At one place a large flock of them were sit- 
ting floating on the sea; others were flying backwards and 
forwards to the rocks. The Puffins were, perhaps, the most 
interesting of all the birds on the Staples. On another part of 
this Island was a small colony of Arctic Terns. Several 
young ones, in various stages of growth, were standing about, 
waiting to be fed. These birds, also, were coloured like the 
ground, and, were obviously consciouj of the fact, as they 
preferred to squat and rely upon their natural protection, in- 
stead 3f running when we approached. We had not half 
exhaisted the beauties and interest of the place but time was 
flying, and there were still other points of interest to 'visit. 
Accordingly we clambered over the slippery seaweed and 
down the rocks to our boat. Our next destination was the 
Knoxes a flatter island than the Staples. This island is chiefly 
occupied by .Terns— Arctic and Sandwich. There were thou- 
thousands of them, the former greatly in excess of the latter. 
It was easy to distinguish them as they flew around, the Sand- 
wich Terns {Sterna c^ntica) being of a considerably larger 
size. They were not so tame as the birds on 'the Staples, 
all hough the young, of which there were numbers, were easy 
to catch and examine. I only saw one young Sandwich Tern, 
and that was nearly full grown. On picking it up to examine, 
it ejected a sand-eel about li inches long— rather a large 

A Dni/ 0)1 fJir Farf/rs i/> August. ?A'.) 

iiKMltliful for a bii'd of that size! It would he didiciilt to 
iina^iiic a prctticT si.^-hl tiiaii tlicsc Tci'iis on the win;,'-. 'I'hoir 
H-racciul ('\()!utions, sU'iidor slia|c, loiko(l tail, and rapid flight 
I'oniindinf; one oi swallows. On this Island wcic four placers, 
tdose tog'echer, where Kider Duok.; {Soti/a'crfu nioUi^-.s'nud) had 
lu'sted bu^ we were, uirfortunatel.V too lato to see tlieni, jujthiag 
hciui;- hd't to show they had nested there, save some of their 
down. Wliile we were engaged in viewing these nesis we 
liean' the sharp scream of an Oyster Ca'cher (Hnemafopus o.s- 
fr(il('(,us) and looked up to se? W flyins: overhead. A few of 
these hird.- ne^l on the Nlaiids. hut a'l tlio younu' liad Mown. 
as had the Corinoraiits, wlijch neU on another ])art called Iho 

We spent the afternoon among the Terns, watching 
tlMMr haliit-, and the okl birds feeding their young. But 
" Time and tide wait for no man," and we had perforce, to 
leave the fascinating occupation. 

Regretfully we clambered back, and got into our boat, 
which was rowed out of the small, rocky bay, and the sail 
hoisted. We had a final glimpse of the Puffms as we rounded 
th(^ headland. A large flock were resting on the water. They 
took flight as we drew near, and very quaint they looked fly- 
ing luck to the Staples. We could only see their black backs 
and their two little yellowish feet stuck out h?hind. 

We passed round the Islands, getting a close view of 
tlie lighthouse, but we did not land again as it was getting 
late And thus we made our way back to Seahouses, with 
our gaze ever riveted on the wild grandeur of the islands. 
And so ended oui" day on the Fames; a day ever toliiere- 
mcmhei-ed, spent with Nature in her happiest mood. The 
rooky, rugged, beauty of the scenery, alive with sea -fowl, 
and set in a sunlit sea, had provided a vision to gladden the 
heart of artist or bird lover alike. It was my first experi- 
ence. Init it will not be my fault if it is my last— for J have 
registered a mental vow to visit a similar colony at the first 
opportunity. Then, if the Editor will allow me. I shall lie 
pleased to tell Bird Notes readers of my furtlier adventures 
in search of birds and V)ird life. 


344 The Lamnicrgcirr in Capfiviti/. 

The Lammergeier in Captivity. 

(Gi/paefiis harhatus, Linn). 
By H. Whistlee, I. P., M.B.O.U. 

It so chanced that in February, 1911, T \va,s .shoolin.i;: in 
that i^ortion of the Punjab Salt Range whicli abuts on the 
River Indus, and cros-^ed over to the Kohat Hills, on the 
other side oi the river. The primary object of pursuit was 
the Oorial or Punjab Wild Sheep, but I was also on the look 
out for anything of ornithological interest. 

Hence I was interested to note that the liammergeier 
was extremely common in these hills— in fact on occasion it 
was to be seen flying low round villages in the manner of 
Common Kite Milvus govinda— and 1 thought it Avould be 
a good opportunity to try for eggs. 

My friend and host, the Malik of Kalahagh, kindly 
offered to secure a nest for me and sent out Avord round the 
hills that any nests found were to be reported. This order 
produced news of two eyries which (as I had by then returned 
to my district) were examined by the Malik's "Shikaris." 
One nest was found to contain eggs, but although the eggs 
were visible from a neighbouring crag, the nest itself wa« 
unapproachable. The second nest was in an accessible posi- 
tion, and a man climbed up to find it contained a young bird 
which was taken and sent to me. 

This young bird reached me in Rawal Pindi, on March 
.Srd, and I determined to try and rear it— as a bird somewhat 
rare in the annals of aviculture! 

When received, the nestling was about the size of a 
young Goose, clothed in dirty brownish -grey down, with young 
feathers b-r-eaking through the down, most notably the quills 
and scapulars. There was as yet no trace of the well-known 
blood red colour of the sclerotic membrane. He was very 
voracious and noisy, giving vent to a ciirious shrill squeak. 
I kept him. in a large basket and fed him on butcher's meat 
and fresh or shi'e birds, but he Avas ahvays "asking for more." 
Once, indeed, I did give the young brute a real gorge — as 
much as he Avantcd— and he l^ecame so uneasy in consequence I tried to administer an emetic; but such things ap- 

77/r Lamwrrg^-icr In Capf/r/fi/. ;',!') 

parcntlN" makf no iini)ros8ioii on a \"u!tm'in<' stoiiiai'li, and tlic 
tlu- troulilr svtiled itself. 

Tlu'iT is no need to enter here into ili<' plunia.g-e 
assumed liy tlie tiird as it l),'eaine lleducd. It has already 
been (h'scrilied at leui^-'th. {Jniirnal, i^oinbay N.M.S., xxi., 
p. (i(;4). 

^\'llen the hii-d was safely fledged I attacdiod jesse:? 
and a long leash to its feet and fastened him by a largo stump 
in my eompound: here ho lived for some lime in apparent 
(■ont(Mit, hut sufTerod l>adly from the heat which he seemed to 
feel vei'y inueh. This 1 Iiave notired in other (•ai)tive Rap- 
toi-iai liirds kept during tlio hot weatlier in the pUiins. 

Once when a l>ig snake, some 4 feet hiiig, was killed in 
the compound. 1 p-ut it hefore tlu^ Lammergeier to see whether 
h(^ had an> use for it: Ivo had! The snake was swallowed, 
head lii'st, imdi hy inch, without any her.itation. 

In .Iul>- I was transferred from Eawal Pindi to Fero- 
zejiorc and it was rather a problem how the bird was to be 
taken on the journey. The matter was solved by the con- 
struction of a sort of wooden bicycle crate, which went in 
the van. 

1 was nuich anuised by the interest shown at various 
-tation. in iun' uoacI baggage: amongst other inci lents I heard 
one "knowing" man giving a couple of friends a lecture on 
the habits of "the Black Eagle." 

At Ferozepore it so chanced that there was a vacant 
room in my bungalow which was set aside for the bird, which 
wan let loose in it. This room had a smooth cement floor, 
so it was kept perfectly clean by a daily washing with 
phenol and water: the bird, of course, was fed on tVei-.h clean 
food — either birds or goat entrails; so the room could be kept 
quite sweet. 

The man who (deanod the room out suddenly Ix^came 
an objec^ of the most violent hatred on the part of " Om Sloper- 
gas " (a£. someone christened the bird — rather a good name as 
expressing his clumsy way). Prol}ab!y a sly dig with the 
broom or some similar insult was responsible for this, but 
whatever the cause, the result was that I had always to l>e 
present to keep the i;eace while th(> room was being washed. 
The bird used to beconu' perfectly furious, his ft>athers stood on 

;U() The Lammergcier in Captivity. 

end. and he would try to charge squealing at the sweeper, 
who was very frightened of him. Yet he made no attempt 
to hurt me. although I used to hold him liai'k hy main force. 

During the whole time that I had " Om Slopergas," 
it wa-; remarkable that he would allow me to handle him 
most freely, picking him up and doing anything with liim. 
Strangers, of course,- were not at all keen to lay hands on 

Like Autolycus he was a picker up of unconsidered 
trifles: one morning I was sitting talking to him when the 
great mouth opened, after sundry contortions of the gullet, and 
a Keating's Powder tin was solemnly laid in front of me; on 
another occasion I found an iron door-);olt on the floor, which 
had apparently come from the same source. 

The accompanying photo was taken with sundry others 
one morning when the Vulture was brought out from his room 
into the sun: the sudden entrance into the warm sunlight. 
made him open his wings to enjoy the warmth— a habit ■■om- 
mon to many large birds. 

After the bird had been in my pos.session for 7 months 
he was shipped on board the "City of Athens," at Ivarachi, 
on the 9th October for transmission to Regents Park, whore 
I thought he would be of more use than in my possession. For 
the sea journey his old "crate" was strengthened and covered 
with small mesh wire -netting. 

He reached the Zoological Gardens safely and last year 
I went and saw Ws new abode — one of the large Birds of 
Prey Avia^ie3, which he was then sharing with an adult speci- 
men from Turkestan. The keeper allowed me to enter the 
cage and I picked up and handled the bird as of old: but il 
was clear that he objected and had clean forgotten me, which 
was sad, as we had been such good friends. 

He is still there if any of our members care to look foi- 

How I Started Aviculture and My First Season 
with Parrakeets. 

By Dr Lovkll Kkays. 
Aviculture to me centres round the letter "P." If 
avicultui'e is a sin, the recording angel would be constantly 

mm!i"'iw iniii^l'mm 

How I Started Aviculture. 

turning- up "P" and I'ocordiiig all sorts of odds and ends, such 
as Page, Perreau, Psi'fdci, I'la't/cercmae, Flnccidaf. Tarra- 
keots, and so on. In the early spring our genial Editor wrote 
and asked me if lie could bi'ing his friend Major Perreau down 
to see \\\s aviaries. In those days there were but two on the 
place, \\7..: Mr. Sieh's splendid Waders' Aviary and a nf)ii(U'- 
.-■(•rii)t ttlVair, consisting of a nice, 30 feet x 20 feet by S feet 
llight, with ft small shelter, 8 feet x 4 feet x 8 feet high. In 
this resided a pair of wandering Peafowl. But, "this" 
also was the Adam oF all my future aviaries. This, my first 
aviary, was very roughly constructed by myself and my man, 
and cost with subsequent embellishments, about .CIO. Although 
roughly constructed it is in reality a. very fine aviary and liirds 
do exceedingly well there. 

Mr. Page and Major Perreau reviewed the land, and 
decided on Parrakeets or Vsitiaci. My aviary was quite rec- 
tangular, and faced nearly south. It had no furnishing and no 

|)r()tec(i()n from the W., N. 
W., or N.E., so I boarded 
about 10 feet of the western 
side up. the whole of the 
north ^ide and at a subse- 
(lut'ut (la'.e al'out 15 feet cm 
the east side was boarded up 
too I divided the interior 
liart nuiLilily into four areas; 
and ill each I planted a 
vouii.l; oak sapliii.t;, l)ut, in 
the S.W. coiiH'r I i)lanted a 
standard apple tret', which, 
with is aiiller-like branches 
makes the finest perching 
and (iispla\ ing place inia.yin- 
able. 'JMiere is nothing in 
tree line to eipial it. I 
need hardly say that 
the trees were all 
speedily rendered non 



J) LcnJl-l(aiiisl^mkiifJ \mTu 

B = franyt ^rat^dardi 

r,t a 

> far as growth 


rn\ down from a 

was concerned. The oak 

I neighbouring Avood. and cost nothing 

IU8 How I Started Aviculture. 

In tlic far or South end I have fixed a lon.e perch al>out 
15 inches from the top, and pi'ojecting about 10 mches out. 
The birds simply delight in this and I consider thks one of 
the features of my aviary. The netting used wa'^ ^ inch mesh 
and I got Messrs. Boulton and Paul to weave one CO yards 
by 8 feet in width. I thus obviated all Joins in th? si;les, as 
my gardener simply wrapped the netting round the posts, be- 
ginning at one door-post and ending at the other. But 8-foel 
netting is not easy to handle for the roof, and ] do not recom- 
mend it for that. The local carpenter made me a shelter 
8ft. X 4ft. X 8ft. high at the ridge; walls felted inside and roof 
outside. The cost of which was 30s. I fitted the entire 
shelters with coco -nut husks and nesting barrels, but the 
smaller Parrakeets seem to much prefer the husks. I now 
had a roomy aviary, and to see such magnificent creatures as 
Parrakeets, Rosellas, and Barnard's flying from end to end 
is a never-to-be-forgotten sight. The Broad-tails must have 
room, or they cannot possil>ly thrive, and one loses half tlieir 
charm if they only have room to flit from branch to branch. 
As I have said, the to::al cost of a really excellent aviary was 
well under £10, so the question of cost need deter no one from 
becoming an enthusiast for Parrakeets. My next task was to 
stock this somewhat vacant looking space, for with an absence 
of "cover" the aviary looks very large. Our Editor helped 
me, and we quickly olitained the favourite Budgerigar — two 
pairs of green and one yellow, and a pair of All Green Parra- 
keets (Brotogerps tirica). I quickly began to feel my feet 
and very soon I had Rosellas, To vis, and Moustache Parra- 
keets, and, that most charming of all Parrakeets the modest 
gentle little Cockatiel. 

I was started in aviculture. Soon my doubts and 
uncertainties commenced. I believed my two Rose" las were 
cocks. I was not sure of my All Greens. I at once set to 
and made up my mind I (would find out and in that way began 
my s^wrfi/of Parrakeets, especially as regards sexing Iheni. The 
result of my studies was that I was positive my Ro. ellas were 
both cocks, and hearing one day of an odd Rosella, I motored 
24 mile.^. to see it. It answered to my preconceived notion 
of a hen Rosella. I brought it home and as soon as I intro- 
duced it into the aviary the erstwhile friends l>egan to quarrel 

Tlnir I Sfar/rd Arirulttirc. 34(1 

ami linall\' our cock drove o!l' the other aiul took possession of 
the lien. Later on I paired o!T the other cock and again 
proved my tlieories to D3 correct. Since these days I have 
had pass tlirough my hands foi- longer or shorter periods Barn- 
ard's, Many-coloured, Adelaide, Red-rumps, Blue Bonnets, and 
Brown's among the Broad-tails, besides other Parrakeets, most 
of which I still possess. I rapidly added to my series such 
species as Black-cheeked (Agapornis nigrigenis), Blue-winged 
(Psiltacula passerina), Grey-headed {Agapornis cana), Rosy- 
faced (,4. roseicolUs), and Red-faced {A. pullaria) Lovebirds. 
(I am aware that the Blue-winged Love)>ird is not a true Love- 
bird), and lately I have been very foi'lunate in ol)taining a 
true pair of (iiiiana Lovebirds {A. <jiii<nic)isi-;), but have 
lost my Red-faced. Besides these I added Blossom -headed 
Parrakeets (Palaeornis cyanocephala), and Indian Ring-neck 
Parrakeets {P. torquaia). By this time I realised my aviary 
was greatly overstocked, and, although every bird looked 
the picture of health, I knew that breeding results must 
sutler. But I had made up my mind to get in a stock of 
birds, and then weed out the undesirables, and have constructed 
a fresh series of aviaries. I may say that I no longer possess 
Many -coloured, Brown's, or Blue Bonnets, for one 
reason or the other, but that all the others are 
living together in perfect amity at the present mo- 
ment. At the same time I am feeling anxious about so 
many Broadtails, and should they commence to breed there 
would probably be troub'.e. My losses have been practically 
nil, and I have lost nothing costing more than 7s. (id. a l)ird. 
Parrakeets are, as far as my experience goes, hardy, interest- 
in,i4', and easy to keep and feed. The brightness of their 
phuiiage, tli(> (quickness of mov-emeiit, rapidity of flight, and 
their almost human intelligence nuike them most fascinating. 
But the ordei must be room, room, room! My aviary has a 
carpet of beautiful grasses, and I ascribe the good health of Parrakeets largely to this. For they are all largely 
grou.nd birds, and eat quantities of grass. Besides Parrakeets 
I have a few odd birds in this aviary— birds in disgrace more 
or less, such as Pekin Robins (4), Red-crested Cardinals {2), 
Quail (2), and a pair oT Green Singing-finches (Serinus ict- 
erus). The latter built, laid, and hatched out, and I think, 

350 How I Started Aviculture. 

given another week would have successfully brought oIT their 
broo:!, but a mischievous Tovi dashed all one's hopes to the 
ground, and incidentally several frail young fledglings. These 
Green fcinging finches like many of the series were trouble- 
some in my Finch aviary, and had to be banished. My Grey 
Singing -finches (S. leucopyguis) are most amiable, and have 
built a most perfect cup-shapsd nest in some perennial 
asters (Michaelmas Daisies), and deposited therein one egg so 
far. If I may venture on a few words of advice on know- 
ledge bought and gained by experience I would say, Firstly: 
never buy cheap birds, especially Parrakocts. Parrakeets 
are long-lived birds, and it is folly to buy, say, Rosellas for 
£2 fa pair, and then to lose them both rather than pay £3 for 
an acclimatised pair. Secondly: never buy if you can possibly 
avoid it Parrakeets with their wings cut. They are liable 
to all kinds of accidents and never seem to thrive like the 
flying birds. If you must keep such birds, arrange ;some rough 
boughs for them to climb up into the shelters and to the food 
shelf. The only birds I have lost have had one wing clipped. 
Thirdly: never buy birds in any way malformed, especially 
about the beak. You will only regret it if you do. 

In conclusion, let me say that Parrakeets are a good 
investment if bought wisely. .One need never lose money over 
them, but, one should always insist on having the birds on 
approval or seeing them before paying for them. It is the 
experience of aviculturists that many treed readily in captivity, 
and for general interest and beauty they are impossible to beat. 
Their diet, too, is extremely simple, viz.: plenty of millet and 
canary in equal parts, and a small quantity of oats, hemp, rape, 
paddy rice, dari, and sunflower seeds. Most, if not all, are 
extremely fond of fruit, such as bananas, and apples, bufi 
oranges must be given sparingly. Cuttle-bone and grit are 
a sine qua non, and, I need hardly say an abundance of 
green food, as well as plenty of fresh clean water to drink, 
and for some of them at any rate to bathe in. Others will 
*,ake a dew bath in the long grass. 

One last word— don't imagine Parrakeets will dash off 
and lay eggs the moment you let them out of their travelling 
cage. They are shy birds and need time more than any other 
class of birds to settle down befoi^e they nest, and for the 

List of Spcfic.s „j l'sln„ei .ilrr„,lf/ F.rhihilr'f . ;>.-, | 

lu'st r(\siilts one should keep otily otic piir of c'loh gonUo 
ill (Mi\i aviai'v, Imt if yon would suci-ccd widi Parrakccts 
riMiKunlyiM- the i)ass-\v(ii-d is "Jiooin." 


List of Species of Psittaci Already Exhibited 

I5v Rkv. (i. II. Haynoh, M.A. 

During tlie winlcr (■\('iiiiiy',s of last year and (his 1 haA'o 
spent a considerable amount of time in compiling the appended 
lisf ol' Parrot species which have appeared from time to time 
oil the show-bench in this country, and I foel much ,ii:catified 
at our Editor consenting' to insci't it in extenso in our interest- 
ing CUub Magazine, wIkm'c it will always be available for 
reference. 1 am gi'eatly indebted to him (Mr. Page), .Air. 
Tyson, Mr. Frostick, and Mr. Townisend for th(^ loan of 
various show -catalogues, and have consequently been enabled 
to collate all the L.O.B.A. catalogues from 1893 to 191'^, and 
those of the L.P.O.S. from 1892 to 1913, and a few of other 
societies. Should any fellow-member possess other catalogues, 
would he kindly examine them with a view to adding other 
species to the list. 

I trust Mr. Allen Silver will pardon me for having 
filched a few Parrot names from the list he lately published 
in Bird Life of all species of foreign birds exhibited so far. 
After mature consideration I have determined to ar- 
range; my list in alphabetical order so far as the English names 
are concerned, in:erting two or more names, when synonymous, 
in thcii- proper places. For instance Barnardius zo7iarii(s will 
be found as Bauer's Parrakeet under B, and as the Port Lincoln 
Farrakeet und/r P. I am not oj)timistic enough to claim 
finality or unimpeachable accuracy for the list. 

Hazeleigh Eectory, October lOth, 1913. 

Aliys.siiiian Lovebird ( A<japorius Inmnta). 

Adelaide Parrakeet {Plalycercim adelaidae). 

Alexandrine Parrakeet ( I'alaenni/s iile.niiidri and /'. n/'pa/fiis/s). 

All-green Parrakeet (Bvoiofieryu t/r/cn'. 

Ashy-fronted Amazon ( Chriixotix (ir/irop/pni) 

Aubry"s Parrot (Pi)e<irrph(il hx (uilir/// or luiliri/aiii 8 . 

Banded Parrakeet (I'a/aeoniix tiisc/ahi). 

352 Liml of Species of Fsittac! Already Exhibited. 

Banksiai'. Cockatoo {Cali/ptorhi/jirluis h.uiLs;;). 

Bare-eyed Cockatoo 'Cnnilini ;///:iiii<)Ji'k). 

Barnard's Parrakeet {liiiriiardinx hinnndi). 

Barraband's Parrakeet {Poh/feJ/.s harralxiwJi'. 

Bauer's Parrakeet {Bani tnli'i< ~ nKirius . 

Bengal Parrakeet {Falaeonii>> tovquata). 

Blaf.k-capped Lory {Lorius lor//). 

Black-cheeked Lovebird (Agnponiis niiiiiijenis). 

Black-crowned Lory [Lorinx lor//). 

Black-headed Caique [Caira iiu'luiiocephulu). 

Black-headed Conure ^CnuuruH uendaij). 

Black-headed Parrot {Fujocephalus seiiei/aleiis/n*. 

Black-hooded Parrakeet (Fsephofus (llnK/iu/I/.sy. 

Black-masked Parrakeet (Ff/rr/in/o/i^ls }wr.<nnal(i). 

Black-tailed Parrakeet {Foli/telis meliuinrn). 

Black throated Lorikeet [Trichoijloi^xii^ iii;/ri;jiiI(ir/)>). 

Black Lory (ChalcopsHtacm uier). 

Black Parrot {Caracopsis nigra). 

Black-winged Lory (Eos cyanogenys) 

Blood-stained Cockatoo ' Cacutua saiigitiiiea). 

Blood-winged Parrakeet (Ftisfes erythroptena*) ; 

Blossom-headed Parrakeet {Falaeornis cyaiinccplndu). ' 

Blue and Yellow Macaw {Ara ararauna). \ 

Blue-crowned Conure {Coiiurus haemorrhous). 

Blue-crt)wned Hanging Parakeet (Lor/ctdu.s gdlgtilits). 

Blue-eyed Cockatoo {Cacafiia ophthalinica). ^ 

Blue-faced Amazon {Chryautis versicolor). 

Blue-fronted Amazon [Chrysotisa estiva). \ 

Blue-headed Parrot (Fioiius inenstnius) 

Blue-mountain Lory {Trichoglossas norae-liollaudiacJ j 

Blue-rump Parrakeet (PsittiiniH iticertasj. \ 

Blue-streaked Lory (Eos reticulata). : 

Blue-winged Grass Parrakeet (Xeophema rcnunta) 

Blue winged Lovebird or Parrotlet (Fsdtacnla pas^eriin). ' 

Bourke's Grass Parrakeet (Neopheina bonrkei). 

Bronze-winged Parrot (l^iotnis chalcopferiis). 

Brown-cheek Conuve [Conurus cactor/nii). ' 

Brown-throated Conure {C'oimrus uenig'uiosn>i) 

Brown-throated Lorikeet (Trichoglossits in'tcl'eUi). 

Brown's Parrakeet (Flatycercus broin.d). j 

Budgerigar (Green. Yellow. Bhie), f.Meh>psittnriis uwhilatu.'ij 

Bulla-Bulla Parakeet 'Jiarwtrdi>i.i hamardi). 

c. . ; 

Cactus Conure { cactorum). \ 

Caroline Conure (Conurupsis carolineusis). i 

Canary-winged Parrakeet (Brotogerys rhiriri). 

Cerara Lory (Lorius llavopalliat us). 

Ceylontsa Hanging Parrot [Loriculus iudicus). .' (>l Sprrirs oj r.,l/h,cu Ahra^h/ KrJi ilufn! . ;ir,3 

( li itteriiiff Lory ' Loriim ijurntl us). 
Citron-crested Cockatoo ((Afitn.t ritrim.rrlxtalu). 
Cockiitiel ((J.ilopilttiiriiH u()i-ae-/iiil!'U/(/iif). 
Corilla 'or Covillal Cockatoo ( '.;'-///r/;.w,<,.sv;70. 
Crimson-fronted Lorikctt (TriclKHilnssux scintilliitun). 
Crimson Iiory (Eon nthnt). 

Crinison-\vin;j;od Parnikcct [Plixlc.^ < riillnoiitci u:^). 
Cuban Parrot (Chn/soth /rNmrrp/mlu). 

Dampier Cockiitoo {l^irmclis pts/iwitm). 
Derhyan Pai-akect (/\il,tn,n,iy i/n />f/,UHi . 
Diademed Amazon {C/'r//.-i<>fi.< (liailcuKitu). 
])oul)le-fr.)nted Amazon (Chrn.^ntls Irral/I inf>.^ 
Uucorps' Cockatoo {('ncitlint din'nypxi •. 
Dufresne's Amazon (Cliri/sn/ia (IhJickiiihiki . 
Dusky Parrot (riniiii>< Jiixrin^). 

Hleyant (irass Panakcet {Xfipln'ma ciiiidii^). 
^JVerott'^^ Pai'rot iTninpiiinthiis <'r<ri'lt'/). 

Festive Amazon {C'liri/fio/i-s I'fsliru). 
Fiji Hooded Parrakeet (/'t/rr/mhipsis jierso/iK/a). 
Fiji Parrakeet (P. tnhm-usix). 
Forstein's Lorikeet (Tric]tn,ihixxiix jnrxfmi). 


Ganga (or (iang-tJangi Cockatoo {Cidlocejihahin i/dleutmii). 

Goffin's Cockatoo [Carat lui ijntfiid). 

Golden-crowned Parrakeet (L'liaiKirliaiiiiilni (t/irlcepx). 

Golden -crowned Conure {Co/unitx <uii;iis). 

Golden-faced Parrakeet. 

Golden-faced New Zealand I'arrot {Cijanorh-amplins iinrir.aps). 

Golden -fronted Parrakeet (Brotvgerys tidpara). 

Golden -headed Conure (Cot^unis auricapillus). 

Golden -headed Parrakeet (C. jendaya). 

Golden-shouldered Parrakest (Psepliotu.s chrrs .pfirifg'Hs). 

(iold-naped Amazon (Chrysotis auripalliata) . 

Grand Eclectus (Ecleclus roratus). 

Greater Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacalua galeriin). 

Greater Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis vasa). 

Greater White-crested Cockatoo {Cacatna alba). 

Gr(;ai -billed Black Cockatoo {Calytorhynchus macrorliyncliwi). 

Great-billed Parrakeet iTanygnaihus megalorhynchus) . 

(Jreat Salmon -crested Cockatoo 

Green (? -cheeked) Amazon {Chrysotis vindigeua). 

Green Conure (Conurus leucapthalmiis) . 

Green -naped Lorikeet (Trichoglossus cyanogrammus). 

Grey -headed Lovebird (Agapornis cana). , 

354 List of Species of Psiffaci Ahea'hj E.rJiihifed. 

Grey -breasted Parrakeet (Myopsitlacm monachus). 
Grey Parrot (Pslttacus erilhacuK). 
Guiana Lovebird (Agapornis guianensis) . 
Guianan Parrotlet {Fsiliacula guianensis). 

Half -moon Parrakeet (Conurus aureus). 
Hawk-headed Parrot {Deroptvus accipitrinus) . 
Hooded Parrakeet (Psephoius dissimilis) . 
Horned Parrakeet (Npnvphicns cornmtiis). 
HyacnUlune Macaw {Anodorlvjnclrus lu/acintliiuu^). 

Illiger's Macaw (Ara mnracwna). 
Indian Bearded Parrakeet (? Palaeornis fasciala). 

Jardine's Parrot (Poeocephalus gulielmi). 
Javan Parrakeet (Palaeornis alexamlri). 
Jendaya Conure (^Conurus jendaya). 

Kea Parrot (Nestor nolahilis). 
King Amazon (Chri/soiis aesiiva). 
King Parrakeet (Aprosmictus ci/anopygius) . 

Large Indian Eock Parrot {^Palaeornis nspalensis) . 
Lavender -breasted Parrakeet (Myopsittacus monacJia). 
Lfadb.'.-ater's Cockatoo (Cacaiua Icadheateri) . 
Lemon -crested Cockatoo (Cacatua citrino-cristata). 
Lesser Patagonian Conure (Cyanolyseus patagonus). 
Lesser Sulphur -crested Cockatoo (Caca'ua suJphurea). 
Lesser Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis nigra). 
Levaillaut's Amazon {Clirysotis levai'lanti). 
Lineolated Pariakeet (Bolhorhynclius lineolatus). 
Long-tailed Parrakeet- (Palaeornis longicauda). 
Lucian Parrakeet (Palaeornis modesta). 

Madagascar Lovebird (Agapornis cana). 
Malabar Parrakeet (Palaeornis peristerodes) . 
Malaccan Parrakeet (Palaeor7iis longicauda). 
Many-coloured Parrakeet (Psephotus multicolor). 
Masked Parrakeet (PyrrJiulopsis personata). 
Maximilian's Amazon (Pionus maxitniliani) . 
Mealy Amazon (Chrysotis farinosa). 
Mealy Rosella Parrakeet (Platycercus pollidiceps). 
Meyer's Parrot (Poeocephalus meyeri). 
Military Macaw (Ara militaris). 
Mitchell's Lorikeet (T richoglossus mitchclli). 
Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacaiua molucccnsis) . 
Mountain Ka-ka (Nestor notabilis). 
Moustache Parrakeet (Palaeornis fasciatus). of Sprrlr.s nf Psillaci Ahead n F.rJi ihilcL Ur,.', 

Mrs. Joliii>toin.''.s liOi'ikcel {Trlclirtylossns johnshinidc). 
Mueller's Parrakcet {Tanygnalhus mueJU'i-i) . 
Mill 'i''s lvl:';'iu; tTainifpuilhus mw.'Ueri). 
.Mu.-.k\ Lorikeet ((Hossopsiltticun conciiuiKs) . 

Xaiuiv or Xeiulay Parrakeet {Conurus ncndaij). 
New Zi'alaiid Parrakeel {(J ijanorhamphiis novae-zenlandiae. 


( )iaiii;-e-iirea;stecl Pai'rakeet (Nfaphciiui cliri/.'iogaslra) . 
Oraiigi'-erested Co.-kaloo {Cacalici ■)n(iiuccetisi.s) . 
Orange-ilaiikecl rarrakeet {Biologerijs pi/rrhopferus). 
Oraiige-slioukiered' ranakcei [Pyephoius cliri/soplerpglus) . 
Oniaiueiital (_Or)iale) LoiikccL {TridioglossiDi oinalus). 

Paradise rari'akect {Vncphoins cliri/snplrri/g'us) . 
Passerine Parrollet (Fsit'actda passcrina). 
Pavouane Parrakeet {Conurns pavua). 
Peach-faced Lovebird {Agaportiis roseicolUs). 
Pennant's Parrakeet (Platycercus elrgans). 
Pigmy Parrot {Islasiterna pymaea). 
Pileated Pariakeet (JPorpliyrocephalus spurius). 
Pink-cheeked Parrakest (FaJaecrnis longicauda) . 
Plain -coloured Amazon (Chrysctis wornafa). 
Plumhead Pari'akeet (Palaeomis cyanoceplmla) . 
I'orphyry -crowned (Puri)le-ci owned) Lorikeet {(llossopt^lUacus 

I'ort Lincoln Parrakeet (Bartiardins ::(!nariu.s). 
Princess of A\'ales Parrakeet (Spafhopterus alcxandrac) . 
Purple -breasted Lorikeet {Eos ricin'a'a). 
Pui'ple -breasted Parrot (Triclaria cynnogastcr) . 
Purple-capped Loiy (Lorius domicella) . 


Quaker Pariakeet {MyopsiitacHs monaclms). 

Queen Alexandra Parrakeet (Spaihoptenis alexandiae). 

Ped and lihn' Macaw ( Ara macao). 

Ped and Yellow MacaM^ (Ara chloroplcra) . 

Ke!d-banded (^ Red -collared) Lorikeet (Truhoglosstts nihii!nrqKc--i. 

Red-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura vittata). 

Red-capped Parrakeet (Porphyrocephalus spurius). 

Red-capped Parrot {Pio7iopsittacus pileatus). 

Red-crowned Lorikeet (Ptilosclera versicolor). 

Red-faced Lov'ebii'd (Agapornis pullaria). 

Red-fronted Amazon (Chrysotis vitfata). 

Red-fronted Lory (Chalcopsit'acus scindllains) . 

Red -headed Conure {Conurus rnbrolarvnfus). 

Red-headed Hanging Parrakeet (Loriculiis indicus). 

Red Lory {Eos rubra). 

35l) List of Species of I'sittaci Alremhf EdhihUch 

Ecd-mantled Pai'rakeet {Plat yce reus erylhropeplun). 
Kcd-naped Lorikeet (Trichoglossus ruhritorques). \ 

Red-rumped Parrakeet (Psepholus haematonotus) . " 

Eed-sided Eclectus {Eclectus pectoralis). \ 

Rfd-star New- Zealand Parrakeet (Cyanorhaviphus nova:':- \ 

zealandiae) . j 

Eed-vented Blue Bonnet (Psephotus haemaf'^rrhcuSi . ' 

Red-vented Parrot (Pionus menstruus). 
Red-winged Parrakeet (Ptistes eri/thropterus). 

Ring-necked Parrakeet (Palaeornis torquala). ] 

Rock Australian Parrot (Neophenm petrcphila) . 

Rock Grass Parrakeet (Neophema petrophila). \ 

Rock Pebbler (PeiDler) (Polytelis melanura). ^ 

Rose (Rosy -headed) Parrakeet {Palaeornis rosa). 
Rose -breasted Cockatoo {Cacahia roselcapilla) . 

Rose -crested Cockatoo (Cacattw, moluccensis) , I 

Rosella Parrakeet (Plaiycercus eximius). \ 

Rosy-faced Lovebird (Agapor^iis roseicollis). j 

Ruby Lorikeet (Eos rubra). \ 

Russ' Parrakeet. | 

S. I 

St. Thomas' Conure (Conurus periinax). \ 

Salmon -crested Cockatoo {Cacatua moluccensis). 
vSalvin's Amazon (Chrysotis salvini). 
Scaly -breasted Lorikeet (Psitleuteles chlorolcpidotas). 
Scarlet Eclectus {Eclectus pectoralis). 
Scarlet Lorikeet {Eos rubra). 

Senegal Parrot {Poeocephalus senegalensis) . ) 

Shining Parrakeet {Pyrrlmlopsis splendens). 
Slaty -headed Parrakeet {Palaeornis schistieeps) . 
Slender-billed Cockatoo {Licmetis nasica). 
South Sea Island Cockatoo. 
Spectacled Amazon {Chrysotis albifrons). 

Spix's Macaw {Cyanopsittacus spixi) . i 

Stanley Parrakeet {Plaiycercus icterotis). 

Stella's Lory {Charmosyne stellae) . j 

Sulphur -crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita). i 

Sun Conure (Conurus solstiti^ifls). : 

Swainson's Lorikeet (Trichoglossus 71 orae -holla ndiae) . 

'^- . I 

Tabuan Parrakeet {Pyrrlmlopsis tabucnsis) . I 

Three-coloured Lory {Lorius lory). 

Tovi PaiTakeet {Brotogerys jugularis). X 

Tui Parrakeet {Brotogerys tui). ' 

Turquoisinc Grass Parrakeet {Neophema pulchella). * 

Uvaean Parrakeet {Nymphicus uvacensis). 1 

Editorial. 357 

Vai'it'd LorikcH't ( I'd loach' ra vrr-si color). 
Viiiaroous Amazon (ChriiKoti^ rinacea). 
Violet -bellied Parrot (Triclaria cijanogaster). 
Violel -headed Amazon (Piomis menstruus). 
Violet -necked Lory (Eos riciniata). 
Violet Pari'ot (T/o?/m.s fM.<icus). 


AVestermann's Eclectus (Eclectus weslermanni) . 
AVliitc -browed Amazon {ChrysoUs albifroiift) . 
White-cared Conure (Pi/rrliura leucotis). 
White-fi'onted Amazon (('liri/sotis leiicoceplialu) . 
White-headed Parrot (Piomis sanilis). 
White -winged Parrakeet (Brotogerys virescerifi). 

Ye]low-l)acked Loi'y (Lorius flavopalHntus) . 
Yellow-bellied Parrakeet (PUlyeercns fjariroilris). 
Yellow -cheeked Amazon (Ciirysofis aiitnmnalis). 
Yellow Conure (Conunis solslit talis). 
Yellow -fronted Amazon (ChrysoUs ochrocephala). 
Yellow -headed Conure (Conurus jendaya). 
Yellow -mantled Parrakeet (Plaiycercus splcndichis) . 
Yellow -naped Amazon (Chryy.otis auripalUata) . 
Yellow -naped Parrakeet (Barnardius semitorquaiiis) . 
Yellow Bing'-neeked Parrakeet (Palaeornis torqiiata v. lutca). 
Yellow -rumped Parrakeet (Platycercus flaveolus). 
Yellow^ -shouldered Amazon (Clirys'itis ochroptera). 
Yellow-vented Blue Bonnet (P.<sephofus xantJiorrJiGUs). 

[It shoiikl be noted tliat the above list was commenced 
long before Mr. Silver's list appeared in "Bird Life," and 
lieing alphabetical is more convenient for purposes of refer- 
ence. — Ed.] 


In consequence of the claims of several articles to our space, 
these notes are omitted entirely this month, and in consequence, 
of there l>eing rather a lai^ge number of Half-tone plates, the 
coloured plate is held over till December issue. 

Errata: Ee L.C.B.A. Show: Owing to a printer's 
error this was announced as taking place at the " Roval Agri- 
cultural Hall." It will be held at the usual renu Royal 
HoKTicuLTURAi- Hall, Westminster. 

'.]')><, From All Sources. 

Page 302, line 5, "vary" should read ore rer//. 
Page 306, line 4, " country ". should rea:l C9»w/v. 
Page 312, The opening of Mr. Raynor's article should 
read: // was not. 


From All Sources 


The Hon. Thomas Mackenzie, Hig-ji Commissioner for Xew 
Zealand, lecturing before the United Empire Circle of the Lyceum 
Club, London, on the Birds of IsTew Zealand, in describing- the 
geological history of New Zealand, stated that the islands comprising 
the Dominion were but the remnant of what was at one time a 
gTeat continent. Evidence in supj^ort of that was for hcoming both 
within and without New Zealand, and Professors Huxljy and Owen had 
enlarged on that subject. 

In Xew Zealand, there was, he said, an entii-e absence of 
mammals, but Lfe was represented by huge birds of the struthious 
orders, ajid remains of many species of Dinornis had been found. 
Profc'ssor Owen had from a fragment of femur bone reconstructed 
the type of bird formerly in existence in the Dominion, and many 
other remains had been found showing that these gigantic birds 
had been 15 feet high. Living .specimens, represented by the 
A.pieryx family, were still to be found in the oountiy. Discussion 
had been carried on fiom time to time as to the period when these: 
gigantic birds ceased to exist; but from Mr. Mackenzie's own in- 
vestigations, when on exploring expeditions, and fiOm tlie legends 
of the natives, it was evident that the Maori and the Moa had been 

The lecturer described the Kiwi and its singular habits — how 
the male bird performed the act of incubation. He dealt upon the 
habits and customs of other wingless birds peculiar to New Zealand, 
and described the Tui, the Huia, the Kea, the Notornis, Mantelli, &c. 

Eeferring to the question of the vanishing species, the High 
Commissioner described what had been done by the New Zealand 
Government towards their preservation. Sanctuaries had been set 
aside on the mainland, and islands were also being used for that pur- 
l)ose. He stated that legislation had been placed on the statute 
book during a number of years. Speaking generally on the dis- 
appearance of many species throughout the world, Mr. Mackenzie 
said that future generations would regard in one respect the work 
of the Twentieth Centun,^ with abhorrence, inasmiich as that century 
witnessed the disappearance of many of the most bcau'iful creatures 
with which the Almighty had adorned the earth. Destruction was 
carried on wantonly and cruelly and almost exclusively for millinery 
purposes. The Nineteenth Century had done much in the process 

From All Sources. 251) 

of exicniiiiiatioii. luil llu- 'I'wciilictli wouM in tlial i-cspoct. mai'k 
a ( cix.cli. 

Al Ihc cldsr or hi. l,';-tinv a miiiilici- oT vciy licaiitifui "ol()Ui'(;<l 
picluivv (;f I'inis were ihn.wii upon the ^nvcii. 

\\\\ liavr iiiurli |.l 'aMiiv ill iv-ipoiuliii^' to ;i i(> |iirst lo Miililisli 
llir alioxt and aNn Imp:' lliat it will aoc^oiniilisli .soiu'-tliiii.i; towards 
alioHslini- lli • <lrt.'si;,h],. la-^iiioii of wearins- wild l)irds' p'liiiia-c. Kd.j 


Tlu- followin,i;- ciiltiiii;- s])caks lor i .s;'lf. and coiKin 'ii; is 
siip.'i'lliums. Ki). 

Pic'i'ruKsi.irK Fi;.\Tiii;i;s i\ the Londox IMatikmt. 

••Any one willi a. taslc for tiii- rcronditc in l)irds' jtluiua.^'c 
c'onid havf jiifkcd u). a coinpivlinisivc a^sortmcnl al !iic Ortolior 
fancy Iralhrr sah's al Ihc London ( 'uniuci'cial Sa:c h'ooni^, j.arlji'ulai's 
of which have liccn scnl ih hy Mr. Jaaics lUi/klaud, of Ihc Hoya! 
Coloiiia! lu.stitute. 

TIh' list of prices were as follows:— Ospreys, ll.OflOoz., frnm 
i^o to nil OS. i)er ounce for sliort selected, and from Co 17s. Od. 
to C7 lOs. for long; Birds of Paradise, dark plumes from £0 to 
€11 -is. Gd., light plumes from 25s. to £9 17s. 6d. In all 320;} 
bird.-; of paradise were sold. Crowned Pigeons' heads and Crests 
from 2s. 3d. to 7s.; Parrots from 9^-d. to IJd. each; Kingfishers 
2\d. ; 232 pairs of Macaw wing's realised from 7d. to Is. Id. per 
pair; .Tapaiiese Long Tail Pheasants, 2s. Id.; Golden Pheasants Is. 
10(1.. Rhea fc-athers 12s. 6d. per pound; Condor of the Andes 12s. 
eacli: lied Ibis 7d. ; Emu .skins (of which 297 were sold), from 9s. 
to 12s., white 'Crane wing quill feathers, IH.; Eagle wing quill 
feathers U.\ Jays -Jd. each."— From the Standard, 28 10/'13. (Per 
Rev. 0. H. Raynor). 




8iii, — You ask for results, and the following are Die doings of 
my smali series of l)irds: — 

RKD-itUMT Pauijakekts [Psepliotus haefnatonoius) . Only two 
have ijeen reared this season, three young cocks wei'e I'eare i to the 
point of leaving the nest, but one died .shortly aftei'wards. 

CocKA'riEi,s {Calopsillacus novae -hcllandiae) . My Cocka'icls 
liaxe had three nests, and seven young birds have been fully reared. 
'I'lie broods were, three, three, and one respectively. 

Yazvaix FixcHK.'^ iTa"?nopij(,!a castanntls'). These have had 
I wo nests, but the young have not left the last nest at present. 
The lirst nest yielded four young birds, two cocks and two hens. 

WniTK Java Sparhows {Munia oryzivora, var. aiha). Only 
one nesl and onlj' one chick hatched out, which has been fully I'cai'ed. 



BuDrncRiG'Aus {MelopsUtacus undulatus). These liave all dono 
well, )»ot]t Ihc Green and Yellow varieties. The birds from uliidi 
I have had no results are: Three-coloured Mannikins (Mv)ihi niaJri'-rn, 
Grey Singing-finches (Serinus leucopygMs), not a true pair I Ihink 
Rosella Tarrakeets (Plafi/cerms eximms). 

(Mrs.) W. H. READ. 
NEST OF SHORT- WINGED WEAVER {Il!iph,u,t,n-ui. hmrhnptrra). 

Sri;. — Enclosed is an- 
other photo of the nest of 
the Short-winged Weaver. 
Tt is a better photo than the 
one fignred in last issue, and 
is placed in a different situa- 
tion, which has to some ex- 
tent modified the shape: this 
time ihe site chosen was the 
fork of a Spruce Fir. I am 
afraid it is too late to breed 
them this season, but. quite 
expect to do so ?iext. I have 
just acquired four other 
species of Weavers, viz. : 
{Fl/rninehuia melanocephala)^ 
The TJIacklieaded Weaver ; 
{Pi/riiiiiehiiia ii})>isfiuiicn) the 
Abyssinian Weaver ; {Pi/ro- 
.mhtiia taha) the Taha Wea- 
wv ■ {Sihi.jni iii(tt<(l:i) the 
S|)()tted Weaver. 

The breeding season 
;M>i)e;irs to be nearly over 



Sept. 2tith, 19i:5 


S IK, —Being interested in Mr. Bainbrige's article re above 
in last issue of "Bird Notes," I should like to add that in 1912 
a pair liuilt foui' nf^sts during the season, July to Septombei', and 
on each. OL-ivision laid three sm.all white eggs and brooded f.u' a few 
days only and then forsook them. Unfortunately I lost the hen on 
Septenilx'i- 7tli, fill 2, and the male at the end of December, so :ny 
cliances ended and I have not since replaced the species. I found 
them very sliy in their movements when building, but inanaL;c(l to 
obsci'vc that the male cut oil gi-een c-rasses and cairicd tlicm to 

Brifish Bird Calendar. ;^(',1 

llic fi'inalf who .slaycil on tlic iicstiiii^- site and liL'lpcil (o ai-i'aii!,^o 
llifin. Tlic iifsl ill each tvisc was on tlic i;rouii(l in tiie midst of 
.uiowin.i;- planis, and wlicn coinplrlcd looivrd lilvc a clnini) of yroen 
i;rast;es rounded or domed on llie npi)e'r pari, willi entrauee liole 
al side. The i;-rasses used in linin-' llie nesls Wi-vr liner liian th.i;e 
en 111." on, side, hul oid.v in one viv-ic were feaUici's inlrodueed and then 
iiu: liiree o; four, not enough to call it a liiiiiig- of featliers. 

i liave jusi ('omo aeios.s llie following,' in " IMid Notes," \'ol II., 
No, '.), Deeemher, lUOM, pa.q'e L'lS, hy J.ady Duniealli: 

■'Tlie Common Afi-iean Waxbiils liuiit a nest like a lonnd 
■■ ball of ,!;rass, on tin; ground, and reared tlu'ee young ones, etc." 

Antl again, a more amplified version of tlie above in the 
" Avieullnral Maga/.ine," Vol. 11., New Series, No. ;'., January, HlOl, 
I.age li;!. 

1 am wondering whether the above reeord has been overlooked. 

r.8. -My sneeessfnl results iij) to the present arc about 
a dozen young Zebra Finches, 1 Long-tailed Grassfintjhes, and ;] 
young tJuldr:nehe.s. I have also at present 3 young in IIk; ik's!. 
neaily ii'ady to conic out, also Green Budgerigai's, and Loiig-tai!(;il 
CIras clinches a few days old. 

□ B- 

British Bird Calendar. 

October 1. — Three Siskins (Cliri/somHris spinus) were seen on the 
top of one of the aviai'ies. This is the fust lime thi.'y iiave 
been observed here for years; evidently being altraetcd 
by a pair of tlieii- fellows within the aviary. 

B.H.S., Ipswich, (i-.x.-'l3. 

')utober 2.— Two ^^ liimbrel t Nuni •iht(s pliaeopus) were s(,'cn here; 
one, a male, was shot. T bcdieve tliis lo be the first in- 
stance of one being shot in this disliict, but 1 have no 
means of finding out. Dueks ai'e not numerous, weather 
too warm. Two or three Mallard have been seen, but 
these wei'e home reared birds. 

M.F., Huntingdon, 20-X.-VU5. 

October Ki.— Several AA'igeon (Marcca penclopc), a I'ochard (Ni/rocn 

feri/ia), a Teal {Ncltium crecca), several flocks of Green 

Plovei- i\'a>H'lli(s crisfatns), and a few Mallard (Aniif 

bosras) were seen at Holywell, which is just below St. fvcs. 

At.F., Huntingdon, 20-\.-'lM. 

Octoljcr 7 and 8.— October is the month in which most <.f our 
winter migrants arrive. During the first few days I did 
not notice any movement in numbers but on the 7lli and 
Sih, there were simply liundreds of Gold-ei-ests. On one 
tree in the garden i counted eleven on the 7th, iind on 
the 8th another big batch arrived. I am .satislicd ihev 


Brifish Bird Calendar. 

were not the arrivals of the previous day, because, you 
could catch them with a hand-net, and, several were 
caught by children in the streets. 

October !().— Saw an unusual number of Blue-, and Great-Tits. 

R.S. Cleethorpes. 30/10,"13. 

Ocicb:'r 11 -21. — Larks commenced to arrive about tl'.e 11th, and, 
straggling pai'ties could be seen any day, but en the 21st, 
about 11 a.m., there was a continuous line of them, and 
you could see them for miles each way ; this is the only 
day I have seen them in .•^ueh numbers. 

E.S., Cleethorpes, 30/10/' 13. 

Oclober 2 7.— Saw a solitai'y Hooded Crow. 

1?.S. Cleethorpos, 30' 10/' 13. 

Cctobei- 29. Saw a luge flock cf Starlings, making land, they 
were flying fast and not more than six feet above the 
water. R.S., Cleethorpes, 30 '10/' 13. 

October 1.— Saw 6 Swallows flying south. 

Octoher 2. — „ 10 (about) Swallows flying south. 

October 3.— „ 40 (about) Swallows flying south. 

October 4. — „ a faw Swallows flying south. 

October 6. — ,, Several small parties going south. 

October 9. — ,, four or Ave hawking flies at 4-30 p.m. 

October 12. — ,, one only. 

October 13. — Three seen at 4 p.m., leaving the coa-t in a southerly 

October 7. — Two Cliifl'-chafi's seen, none since. 

P.G., Beaulieu, 

3 '11/' 13. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

Vli/r Iluirs (Srfi /'a;/eii! of Cirrer.) 

Nour to hand at time of fjoinfj to Press; if in tin/r ivill 
he inserted in (jreeit paper Inset. 





J 5 

HutkLitli^ London. 

Muscicapa. pa.rva., E^echsteirv. 

J II riijJils rrsm-ed. TfFAKMnKr., 1913. 




The Red-breasted Flycatcher. 

(Muscicapa parva). 
Ih A\i.;sr,KY T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 

'I'lic coloiircil |)l;il(\ ai'oiiiKl which thcso notes arr" 
writU'ii, is a \voi-th>' wind n.p to another \'oliune of the Club 
Journal and as I'e.^ards tho lurds is l)eyond ei'itieisni; in fact, 
the only point open to remai'k i-; that there is a little too much 
(lower in the liack.^-rovind for a beautiful, but, not gorgeously 
ai)p'arelk'd l;ird; howevei-, the ])late is a credit both to ar-tist 
and lithographer. 

All Flycatchers, Robins, Redstarts, and their near rela- 
tives make most interesting cage and aviary pets, all have the 
mannerisms of our familiar Redbreast; attributes which endear 
him alike to the dweller in town or country, and qualities, the 
feath(M'ed j)o>sesso-^s of which may be sure of a welcome any- 
whei'c; for this reason the subject of these notes will always- 
receive more than pas-ing notice from the keepers of soft- bills 
—moreover he possesses the additional attraction of being an 
occasional visitor to tb(> l^itish Tsles, for he has been taken at 
Scarborough; Scilly Is.; P.erwick-on-Tweed; Norfolk; North 
Uist Light, Scotland, and from several lights off the coast 
of Ireland. 

The specie ^ is quite a wanderer, for it has been taken 
in Holland. Denmark, and Sweden; is an occasional visitor to 
Southern France and S.W. Spain; it is common but local 
in centi-al Europe generally during the summer months. It is 
only a migrant to Italy, Mediterranean Is., and Southern 
Europe— it breeds in N.E. Germany, S. Russia, Caucasus, N. 
Persia, and also very probably in Turkestan and Siberia. In 
winter it ranges over N.W. India and N. Africa. 

Howard Saunders states in his "Manual of British 
Birds'" regarding its habits : — 

"The Red-breasted Flycatcher arrives in Northern Germany 
"in May (generally leaving early in September); and it appears 

;^G4 The Red-breasted Flyeaicher. 

" to be partial to tlie woods of beech and hornbeam, or those Avhere 
'beecl. and fir are mixed. The nest, built early in June, is 
■'rather deep and cup-shaped, neatly formed of moss and a few 
"lichens, with a lining of dry grass and liair. It is usually placed 
" in a hole in the trunk oi- some rotten branch of a beech tree, 
"but occasionally in a fork against the stem, from six to seven 
'■ feet fiom the giound. In appearance the eggs, 5 — 7 in numbei', 
"are intei-mediate between those of the Eedbreast and tlie Spotted 
" Flycateher, having a very pale greenish 'gl^ound-colour, with 
'' mottJings of rusty -bi'own: measurements .63 by .5in. The young 
"are hatched towards the end of June, and their food, like that of 
"till- adults, consists of insects, in scaixdi of wliich the birds soon 
"leave tlicir breeding-grounds in the forests for gardens an(i 
"oi'chards in the vicinity. The habits of this species are lively 
" and active, and in pugnacity, as in plumage, the male resembles 
" onr Redbreast. It has a pleasant song, resembling the syllables 
" iivi several times repeated, while the alarm note is a clear 
" finlv, fink." 

Bescripiion. AduU Male: Above, mostly ashy-brown, 
with the crown and nape browner; sides of face and car- 
coverts grey, which merges into the grey -brown of the sides of 
the neck; lores hoary; round the eye a narrow idng of Avhite 
feathers; quills dark brown, the primaries edged narrowly with 
ashy -brown; upper tail-coverts and tail dark brown, the latter 
consists of twelve feathers, of which the outer four pairs have 
very conspicuous white bases; chin, throat, and upper breast 
ruddy-orange; remainder of under surface dull white, sides of 
body pale buflflsh and thighs ashy; bill and legs brown; iris 
brown. Total length 5|in., tail 2. 

Adult female: Above brown, which is also the colour 
of the sides of face and ear-coverts; wings brown, the coverts 
and flights edged with lightish brown; throat, upper-breast 
and sides of body tinged with fulvous; abdomen and under 
tail-coverts wdiite. Total length 4|in., tail 2. 

Young: According to Howard Saunders the nestling 
plumage is spotted, and later the wing-coverts and secondaries 
become tipped with buflf; otherwise it resembles the female. 
The young male pairs in the immature plumage of the first 
year; the orange-red on the throat does not extend to the 
breast til! the third year. 

Mr. Goodchild's drawing was made from the liird ex- 
hibited by Mr. C. T. Maxwell at the L.C.B.A. Show of 1911, 
where it was awarded second prize, the premier honours of 

The Frd-hrrnsfnJ FI//ra/chrr. nr,;, 

tli(^ class n^oiii- to a pair n[ Wall ( 'ivi^pcrs. Tli(> (lillir-ully of 
.uctliii-' ilii- capalvlc liini-kccpcr Id wrilc abniil liis Mrds is, 
I think, lu-clty well known, ami I liavo only succeeded in 
ycltiny a \ei'y bricl' account I'i'oin liiin, as follows :—- 

Mv BED-imKAsrion Fia-(At< iiioi; : "I am afi'aid (hat 
"T liavo almnst for-otten wliat liffle 1 knew about tlie 
■ l\e(i-lireaste(| l-'lycatclier, wliicji occupies the place of lion- 
"<iur, and is so akly poi'ti'aycd liy Mr. (ioodcliild in this 
"jiioiith's jua^-azine. It was in my possession six iuonlhs, 
".;in(l was a most dcdiirhtful liird in a c;m-e (unforlunaiidy 
"I liave no aviari(>s), it lieing very tame and fearU\ss; l)ut 
"1 found it somewhat (hdicato, as when T could .ii'ct no in- 
"sect-lifc liut mealworms, it soon sickenerl and died. Tliis 
" U rather st'-ange, as I liave since kept a hen of this species 
"for nearly a year, which I did not take any trouble with 
"at all, for it simply shared a small flight with some other 
'■ J'lycatchers, White-eyes, etc., and where it got nothing 
"special in the way of food, but just an ordinary mixture 
":and mealworms cut in halves."— C. T. Maxwell. 

The above experience speaks for itself: personally 
I have not found Flycatchers difficult to keep, once they have 
been nursed over the prostration, which usually follows im- 
portation. I find these, and the Redstarts and Robins take insect- 
ivorous mixture, insects, and a fcAv sips of the milk-sop 
occasionally, but, my l)irds have been kept either in indoor- 
flights or a garden aviary, M'^here, in addition to the mealworms, 
etc. supplied, they captured endless midges and other insects, 
even during any genial autumn or winter day. 

I strongly recommend the Mnscicapidnc to any mem- 
hov i-equiring birds of character, and, capable of being made 
pets of, whether kept in cage or aviary. 

Breeding of Turtle Dove Hybrids, etc. 

By Ehnkst Spkankling. 
I believe it is well known that the hybrids between 
the Avild Turtle Dove (Turtur turtur) and the common Barbary 
Uove {Turtur risorius) are fertile, but a few remarks thei'eon 
may not be out of place. In tlic autumn of the year 1911 a 
pair of young. Hand-reared Wild Turtle Doves in immature 

■5t)t) Breeding of Turtle Do re Hi/hri'Js, etc. 

plumago were brought to me, and, as they appeared very 
tamo I purchased them. They had l>een kept, and wen^ in a 
rather small wire-fronted bo v, consequently were not in the 
best of plumage, but could be ear-ily handled. 

My first thought was to give them more room, so 1 
took the box into my wild planted aviary and quietly opened 
the door, but no sooner did they find themselves out of the box 
than they flew violently about in all directions, banging fhem- 
selves l>adly; however, I left them, hoping they would settle 
down, but I found that whenever I appea^'ed on the scene they 
bc!haved very madly and further damaged themselves, so I 
transferred them to a small covered aviary some 6 feet square. 
Whenever I fed them they were almost as had, so, knowing 
a friend that wanted a pair, 1 transferred them to his rare. 
My friend put these Doves into box cap:e^, about 2ft. fiin. 
X 1ft. Gin., and these appeared to suit them, for they soon 
settled down and became fairly tame, though very shy of 

These two Turtles turned out to be males, and in the 
spring one mated to a hen Common Barliary Dove, and later 
the other cock to a hen White Java Dove. The I'osult from 
the Turtle and Barbary mating was four youngsters fully 
reared, and, from the Turtle and hen White .Tava Dove, one 
youngster fully reared. The four young from the first-named 
were practically all alike, resembling in colour (perhaps 
greyer) the male parent but of a more even tone, the neck ring 
being more like the Rarbary but wider. The one youngster 
from the Turtle and White Java Dove does not vary much 
from the other four hybrids except, that all the upper feathers 
are much browner and more like the brown bordering of the 
scapular feathers of the male parent, showing that the potency 
of the male is greater with the white crossing than with the 
common Barbary. All these young partake of the wild nature 
of the male pai^ent and are all males. From the foregoing it 
will be seen that the net result for 1912 was five young fully 
reared. During the following winter my friend exchanged one 
of the cock Turtles for a hen of the same species, as hewi-<hed 
to try his hand at breeding these birds. 

I acquired the four young hybrids of the Turtle and 
Barbary cross, and, during the last spring mated one of them to 

: ' :.^: 



V iQclAJ'^*^^^^^^^^^^ 

Ml^tJ' ^^^M)| 







-^^^r -•; ^ 


( ^11 


I>f<:c(//t/fj of Tio/lc Dorr lliihrlds, etc. IJf)? 

a coimiioii hen l!ai'lKir,v, flic net result l)eiijg tlirce youngsters 
i'lilix' rtMifd, |.\() alinosl iiulisi iiij^uishable from the Barbary 
nidtlirr ami the oihc/ ahiioist exactly like the hybrid fatlier, 
till" ()iil\ (lisiiiii^uishiii.i;- mark being an extremely slight one in 
tlif licak oT all the youngsters. P^'urther the youngsters like 
the female parent in i)luniagc are females, and the one with 
j'lunutge reseml>ling tlie fathei' is a very forwai'd male. 

My friend retained the hyhi-id hred fi'om tlui Turtle 
and White Java hen and mated liim to his white parent, the 
result b?ing one white j)ink-cyed youngster, a hen; this bird 
also has the slight distinguishing mark on beak as mentioned 
alu)vc. All tlle^e I'Jl,-} bred young are ds tame as the Common 
Harl)ary. so it seems that their wild nature has l)eeii ])red out. 

Two other eggs wei-e laid and one youngster hatched, 
1 ut probably owing to my fi'iend's interference in placing a 
Turtle Dove's egg under the sitting white hen no more hybrids 
were reared; she however, reared the young Turtle instead. 

The pair of Turtles before mentioned were mated and 
had several lots of eggs, but owing to the male bird's aggres- 
sive action to the hen in refusing to let her sit for any length 
of time, all the other eggs were spoilt, except in the case 
of the one mendoned above. All these birds except the 
old AA'hite Java hen (which ni}' friend still retains) are in my 
possession, and I hope to carry the breeding further in the 
coming year. 

[It would be of interest if Mr. Sprankling ^lescribed 
the "slighl distinguishing mark on b'ak " of the young hybrids. 


The Common or Migratory Quail 

{Coiunilx colurnix). 
13 Y Wksley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc. 
SvxoNY.MS: Teirao coiuinix, Linn.; Perdix coturnix, Lath.; 
Coiurnix communis, Bonn.; Coturnix dactylisoyians, 
Temm.; Coturnix vulgaris, Bout.; Coturnix coturnix, 

To prevent confusion, I have commenced with a list of 
scientific synonyms, and am penning these few notes in res- 
ponse to many requests for something about the Common Quail 

;}0S The CoriDuoit or Migralor// (^iiail. 

and the reason it does not breed freely in our avi;iries, ac- 
companying them with a photo -illustration of one of a pair 
presented to me by my predecessor in oilicv?, Dr. Cieorg<' (;;res- 
well. For several years this pair had a place in my aviary 
at Shepherd's Bush, but neicher laid nor gave any indications 
of nesting, which is scarcely to be wondered at, as, owing to 
the number and kind kept in a limited space, not a blade of 
grass was permitted to grow. 

First, a few general I'emarks. Of ail liAlng lurds I 
suppose these are the most pi'olidc of any, for iii spitc of the 
vast slaughter for edible purposes, the annual migration crowds 
are not sensibly diminished, though they vary somewhat in 
respective years. The cognomen of migratory is very appro- 
priate, for the countless hosts of this species move their quar- 
ters in September and October — vast quantities wintering both 
in India and Africa. As regards their movements 1 will quote 
Col. C. H. Smith as follows : — 

'' Enormous fliglits ai-e aamually observed at the spring and 
" fall, after crossing- au hnmense surface of sea, to take a Urief 
" repose in islands of Malta, Sicdy, Sardinia, Crete, in the kingdom' 
"of Naples, and about Constantinople, where, on these occasions, 
" there is a general shooting match, which lasts two or three 
■' days. This occurs always in the autumn. The birds, starting 
" from the Crimea about seven at night, and with a northerly wind 
"before dawn accomplish a passage of above sixty leagues in 
"breadth, and alight on the southern sliore to feed and repose.- 
■■ in the vernal season the direction of the flight is reversed, and 
"they arrive in similar condition on the Eussian coast. The same 
"phenomena occur in Malta, etc." 

The following quotation fully indicates that many are 
lost while crossing the sea when nearing the eiul of their 
journey : — 

" Being at a small town on the coast, I saw some boats 
" come in containing ten or a dozen sharks. They were all opened 
" before me, and there was not one which had not from eight to 
"twelve Quails in its body." — M. Pellicot. 

Tickell remarks as to their numbers in India, that on 
suitable ground they were like locusts in number, and that: 

" A furtive scratch of the head, or a wipe of the heated 
" l)row, dismissed a whole bevy into the next field .... 
"^Quails at times abound to such a degree that sliooting them is 
"mere slaughter." 

A sketchy description of my pair is as follows : — 

Brecilinii of Tar/lc lUirc Iff/hri.'/.s, clc. adO 

Male: sandy - iu'owii , willi tlir shall -tripe |)alo 
ImlV aii:l v;u-ii'-al('(l with hla'-l< hats a-id iiiarkiii,i^s ; .'liiii and 
thi'(tat white, with a lilaik mark (anchoi-sliaped) down tiie 
middle, terminating witii an ann i'a<-ii siih' ciifvins" upwards to 
the ear-coverts (see i)h()l()); chc-t rudd\-l;uir, with pale shatt- 
streaks; remainder ot under sui'tacc similar, liut paler and 
lackiii,!;- liir ruddy tiii,L;c. 'I'otal ii'n,','-|li (i;ins., tail \\. 

Fciiiiilc: Similai- in i^enci'ai I'luma.^v, hut lias no hlack 
mai'k down tiic throat, and iuis the (diest ratiicr thickly spotted 
with black. 

There is consideiahle Aariation in coloui'ation, uid uii- 
doiditedly the s])ecies and local races treiiucntly overlap. 

The ('ommon (^)uail l)rceds not uncommonly in Great 
Britain, thouyh it is not commonly met with; they aie mostly 
spring visitors and usually leave in October, but in suitable 
winters a lew remain with us. It is best known to us by the 
huge supplies in the season at the various poultry markets, 
when living birds nuiy be pi'ocured lor about two shillings, 
or less, per pair. 

Probably because of its cheapness it is not often given 
suitalile aviary accommodation, l)ut placed in a grassy 
enclosure it: should certainly prove even more ])rolilit; than 
the Californian Quail. The most promising aviary for them 
would be one that had growing grasses, tall and ciwarf, with 
patches of bare earth at intervals and some low -growing 
bushes, or tall bushes with branches to the ground, under 
which the Quail could take cover at will. I did ntj.t lind them 
so hardy as either the Californian or Chinese Quail. It any of 
our members have bred this species, I hope they will send 
in details. 

The nest is merely a hollow in the ground with a few- 
bents gathered together round the sides; the eggs, 15 to IS in 
numl)er, are yellowish-white speckled with ruddy-brown. Their 
food is leaves, grass, seeds and insects, sought principally in 
the more open areas. 

In captiv-ity they take seed, insectivorous mixture, levy 
a heavy toll on the growing herbage, and secure wiiat they 
can when live food is distributed. When they have a brood, 
live and dried ants' eggs and gentles should be freely sup- 

370 Editorial. 

plied during- tlie first week or more, in faet till you see them 
eating heartily of the ordinary aviary foods. 

I Tiave purposely kept these notes to a limited space 
as I desire that others who have kept and po:-isil>ly bred them 
will give their experience. 



A Retrospe t: This i>sue brings us to the idose of 
another volume of our Club Journal, which, as we think, all 
will agree, in variety and practical interest fully equals any 
of its predecessors. 

It contains five coloured plates, viz.: .Indian White-eye; 
Fairy Blue-bird; Blue-rumped Parrot; Melba and Red-faced 
Finches; and Red-breasted Flycatcher, all by Mr. Goodchild. 
Our half-tone and line illustrations have been very numerous, 
and wl.iilc some photos do not reproduce as well as otlyers, yet 
the quality has been good all round. They have depicted Wild 
Bird Life — Aviaries and Plans — Aviary Nesting Episodes, and 
other features of aviculture. We have again to acknowledge 
our indebtedness to H. Willford, Esq., for allowing us to repro- 
duce many of his beautiful photos of wild bird-life and to 
many others for interesting pholos of nests and other features 
of bird-life in the aviary. In our text we are assured that 
there has been matter for both the aviculturist and the orni- 
thologist, while topics or elementary aviculture have not been 
wanting — the tyro is ever with us and he has not been neg- 
lected. To all contributors of copy and illustration we tender 
our best thanks. 

A number of species have been bred for the first time 
in Great Bri ain Ivy our membersj but as the 114 is not complete, 
we shall refer to this matter in our next issue. While on this 
topic wc again strongly urge our members to secure the fullest 
possible data concerning all nesting and other episodes that 
i^ake place in our aviaries, so that no possible data will be 
lacking. We venture to think more might have been done 
in this direction and trust our members will take fullest iws- 
sible notes dui'ing 1914. Copy of this kind is most valuable 
and tends to greatly enhance the value of your Journal. 

ExHJBiTioNAL SECTION: Changes have taken place dur- 



\\\'j; the yr;u', ami a new Society 

Foivi-n llird KxhiUilors' 

League/' lias Ix'cii siaiti'd, not coiuicc 

ted with F. !!.('., nor yet 

in opposition to it, haviiii^ lor it^ olijo 

■t liie e.\,en,ion of classi- 

fication, etc. Their iiiaiii^mal attei 

ipt will !);■ a in;ittei' of 

history when those notes apjiear; w 

• hop.' succ,\>s will havi! 

attended tlieii' venlui'e. As in the p, 

tst, we give {xitroiuii^n^ f(> 

all Societies who a])pl\' lor it, according- to our regulations, ano 
offer medals and cups for conipetitiou among our meinlvers at 
Open Shows. It is yet too early to speak of this season. 
Exhibitors can only secui'e an increased clas.sitication by 
supporting what is given, li facts point to a demand for an 
increase, tliis will always Iw forthcomin,g, as it is a mere ease 
of supplj' and demand. 

OuK Progkess: Again this has been steady and it will 
be seen in January next that the revised roll will total 100 
bona-fide members; Ijut in this respect we must not " i'e.-,t 
on our oars," for there is always a larger or smaller annual 
leakage in every society, and again we ask the assistance of 
every member to seek new members, and to make the Foreiga 
Bird Club and its Journal known to all wlio are interested m 
bird-life, so that in the shortest possible time we may reach 
a total of at least 500. There is no time like the commence- 
ment of a fresh volume and another year's work to gather in 
new members. 

To accomplish what has lieen done, on a small mem- 
bership, has entailed a hea\y burden u] on all, and a I'onstant 
drain upon our funds, making it necessary for us to ask for 
your generous help to the Deficit and Illustration I'\uuU; given 
this, by the end of another year (nir didiculties will be past. 

W"e desire specially to thank the Kev. U. U. Raynor 
for valued assistance in proof correction, and .Mi'. ^^'. A. 
Bainbridge for compiling the index of English Names of l>irds 
for the current vohune. 

We congratulate our Members on a successful year's 
work and take the past as a happy augury for the future. 

372 Correspondence. 


RESULTS 1913. 

Sir.— Here is a baix- fsuinmary for this year, which may 

probably p.ove of some comparative i iterest to other members : — 

Whitp: Java Sparrows (Mun'.a cryzlvora v. alba) : These have had 
three clutches (five each time; of egg's, all infertile, yet they 
are an undoubted pair, and the cock quite a songster. 

Bexgalesk (Urolonelia domestica) ; First clutch, three infertile e^gs 
Second clutch, four eggs, oi which one hatched out, but the 
hen died when the nestJing was two weeks old, and the cock 
did not rear it. 

Bexcalesk X Silvekujll: One young bird of this cross was 
hatched and reared up to the point of boing fidly fledged, but 
did not fend for itself. 

ZiJCKA FjNJHEj {Taeniop'/yia ca-'^taNoti.s) : Twelve young have Deen 
reared by one pair. 

Cai.ii-oknian Quail {LcpJioiti/.v californica): Twenty-two reared by 
one pair, the second brood of which are now fast getting adult 

BiH Finches (Spermesies nana): These have nested late, and, there now (Nov. 4th) four young ready to leave the nest. 

SiLVERiuLLS {Aidemosyne canians) : Five young in nest, just about 
fully grown. 

Gkev Singing-Finches (Serlnus leucopi/gfius) : These nested, but 
the nest was knocked out of the bush by the young Quail. It 
contained three eg-gs, all fertile, evidently all but due to hatch. 

RiiusON Fjnjhes {Amadina fasciata): These have had five broods of 
varying numbers, of which none I'.ive been fully reared, they 
all seem to be murdered by their i)arents, and thrown out just 
ao they are fully feathered. 

Wax bills: These seem to take too much interest in each other's 
affairs to achieve success, but, tlie following have all nested 
and had eg'-gs, but none have hatched out. Orange -cheeks, Gold- 
breasts, Green and Common Avadavats, and, though not "Waxbdls, 
Spice Finches (Munia pv,nciulaia) , have the same record. 

None of my other birds have attempted to breed. 

Hornsea^ Yorks, 

November, 4, 1913. 

Sir.— In my small aviary, which I only put up this year, I 
have had young of Zebra, Long-tailed Grass, Ringed and Firefinches 
reared to maturity. Gouldian and Cuba Finches, also Cordon Bleus 
nested and had clutches of eggs, but did not hatch out. 
\Villowbrae Road, Edinburgh. J. CURRIE, 

November 21st, 1913, 

Co ryes 1)0 tide nee. ',\1',\ 

NEST OF ABYSSINIAN WEAVERS. {I'n.nnr'h,,, , ahusxhun, ). 

Sii-. I ,1111 .M'lidin- vnii yrt .iiioIIkm- plio'.o of a W.^avcr's iicst, 

hiiilt, l)y my newly iiiiportcd Abyssinian Weaver. Tliis siKvios is tlie 

most handsoni ■ nf liic Yelknv-Wfavci-s i have yet seen. Tlie neat 

is peifectl,\- idiinl. not p •ir-slianctl, the (iju'iiiui;- liclni;' on tlu" under- 

.side. It is the size of a larg"o Florida Gra23e-Fruit, and was built 
of grass interwoven with currant leaves; it differs from any other 
Weaver's nest I have had built this year, by having- a division in 

the middle. Both Ijirds took 
So far no o,£;,<;s have 1 
in the season to e.xpect theu 
Westbury, Wilts., 

October 28th, 1913. 


d ] am all 

lil it is too late 



Sir,— In reply to your request for fresh details re my second 
succesj with the GraJid Eclectus Parrot, I am afraid I can add but 

374 Correspondence. 

littk-. to tlie account 1 t;ave of their initial .success, when they reared 
two young- birds, which aio still living, for there seemed to he no 
cliangc in their methods. 

The male fed llie female almost entirely during the incubation 
period, and also for about three w^eks after the chick was hutclieil. 
The female alone fed the young bird till it left the log, when it< 
it was about three months old. As soon as it left the log, its 
care was left entirely to the mals, who still continues to be very' 
fond if it; the hen takes no notice whatever, but is not cross, as 
she was to her two young ones last year. 

Wli'Ae the young biixl was in the l:g, she was as devoted 
and careful as with her previous brood, hardly ever leaving it, and 
always returning from any distance if she thought it was being in- 
spected, either by myself or the cock. 

This young one is a female and a fine bird. There were 
two nests before— two eggs each time, but unfortunately tlie eggs 
were clear. 

Except for this Eclectus I have had nothing in the breeding 
line to chronicle, save a, few Finches. 

Diamond Finches have had nest afier nest, yet have only 
fuJly reared four, very tine, young birds. Saffron Finches luive 
also liaci many nests, but with no result. 

My Bi-own's Parrakeets, after three years, still show no si^ns 
of going to nest, yet- they are as healthy and brisk as possible. 

Cockatiels have as usual been most prolific. 

(Miss) M. DRUMMOND. 
Mains of ]\Iegginch, Errol. 

November 17th, 1913. 


Sir,— Mr. Bainbridge's account of these " wee mites " was 
most interesting and piactical. 

Early last year I saw a really good pair in a West-end 
dealer's, bought them, and at once turned them into a garden -aviary. 
They went to nest almost at once, and three young were reared; one 
died later, the other two were disposed of. I brought the adults 
indoors last autumn, and they nested several times without any result. 
In the early jjart of this summer I put them into the aviary ag'ain, 
and they soon went to nest, with the result that three young* oirds 
were turned out into the world. After a week one soon tired of life, 
tor I found it hanging by a bit of thread in the aviary and quite 

A'ery scon they went to nest again, in fact the time was very 
short, for I really did not miss the hen, but one morning last week 
(October) three more young birds turned out into the cold world and 
are doing well. They are funny little mites, they make one think 
of the Wagtail and Nightingale by the way they raise tlie tail up and 
down. For better or for worse they ai'e to stay out in the garden- 

CorrrspoiiiJrnre. 375 

aviary all the wiiilci', luit llicy will l>i' vciy suwj: in tli(^ shfltor. It 
is a fjival i>ity tliai iinw tl:c .lays aiv cdI.I.'I- ami sliortcr most ol' tliQ. 
birds seem to be vc;y kiTii mi lln- liaiMinu di' iic-^ts nf cnui'se lii^'ir 
propier nesting sca-oii, ami one caiin it alter ii. 

(Miss) LYDIA CLVKl!]. 
Wiml.ledon. S.W. 

Oetoliei' ;!1. lOl.'S. 

Sir,- In tlie I'ojlimore Park Aviai-ies we have succeeded 
in liivediu,-- a Cliatleriii-- Lory i Lun'iis f/irnilns), and an Orange 
W'eavei' {l'iin.nirl<iii:i j nnicl.^ (■■nni \ liotli (d \vlii:di an' now flying 
sti'ongly ill tlie aviaiy. 

'\^■e have ahi, liivd two liyl);id Conures -Y(dlow-headed \Cnn- 
nni.-< i('n'ia;/in ■: Cu)lden-<'ro\viied (". f//(/7'7^s■|- these are also doing 

We have bixnl a gootl number of Finches of sevei'al kinds, 
I'ut what interests ih most is a nest-full of Eed-billed Weavers 
{(.hirica qnelea). (Lord) POLTIMORE. 

[Detailed accounts of tlie above successes will a])]iear in 
our next issue. — En]. 


Sir, — 1 have a nest in my a\iary in Avhich Tia-cnlour Maiini- 
kins and Bengalesc have been sitting for some lime, and only last 
Wednesday, when, hearing young birds calling for Icod were we 
made aware that eggs had been laid. The young are now growing 
fast, have no feathers as yet, but seem quite strong and iiealthy. 

There are cocks and hens of both species in the aviary, 
so the young may not turn out h.ybrids, on the other hand they may, 
and T mention the incident for what it is worth. 

CJordon Bleus and Fire(inches are incubating, and Zebi-a 
Finches have just reared anotlier lirood (three on the wing and two 
still in the nest. f'" 

Gold-breasted AVaxl)ills a!>o have anotlier bi-ood in the nest. 

My latest acquisition.s are Pintail Parrot Finches (^^ Nonpareils), 
Blue-breasted and Violet-earetl Waxhills, which I hope I shall succeed 
in saving. W. A. BAINBRIDGE. 

Thorpe, Surrey, 

November 17, 101:5. 

Dear Sir,— In sending you the attached which I think cannot 
fail to prove of interest to your readers, I may mention that the 
readers of "British Birds" Magazine have now placed over 82,000 
rings on wild birds of many kinds, and that this is leading to re- 
sults of great interest and imporlance in connexion with the study 
of birds. 

Should ringed birds ever come into the hands of your reade|-s 

37G Corn'.y)()})fJr}icp. 

I liope they will notify me at once, stating the name on the ring 
and tlie nuinhei-. as well as the date ami place where the bird was 
found. I will thiMi at once inform them when and whei'e the bird 
was ringed. Yours faithfully, H. F. WITHEKBV, Editor •'British 

In August I receive:! a letter from Mr. A. C. Theron dated from " Reit Vallei 
District Linclley, O.F.S." stating that a Swallow had heen cantured bearing a ring with 
my name and address. As Mr. Theron gave neither the number of the ling nor the 
date of capture I asked him for these particulars and have just received his reply and 
the ring itself. The >ing is number E937, and Mr. Theron informs me that the bird 
was captured at Reit Vallei on March 16th, 1913, and adds "I do not know when it 
arrived." This ring was placed on a nestling Swallow by Mr. R. O. Blyth at Skelmorlie, 
Ayrshire, on July 27th, 1912. 

A few months ago an alult Swallow ringed in Staffordshire was recorded as 
having been captured near Utrecht, Natal, in December, and the present record is 
from about one hundred and fifty miles west of that place, which is not far in com. 
parison with the totil length of the journey. 

In writing of the Natal record I expressed surprise that a Swallow breeding in the 
far west of Europe should migrate so far east in South Africa, but now that Dr. Hart- 
ert has shown by his observations in the middle of the Sahara that deserts are not 
necessarily a bar to the passage of migrating birds, as was formerly supposed, it may 
perhaps be presumed that these Swallows take a more direct line than one would 
previously have thought possible. 

This second record, taken in conjunction with the first, is extremely valuable, and 
we are most grateful both to Mr. Blyth who ringed the Swallow and to Mr. Theron 
who reported it. 
Extract from "British Birds," November, 191J. H. F. Witheeby. 

REStLrS, 1913 

Sir, — The following young birds have been fully reared in 
ftiy aviaries this season: 

5 Bronze-wing Pigeons. (i Black-cheeked Lovebirds. 

8 Diamond Doves. -1 Californian Quail. 

5 Rosella Parrakeets. .5 Gouldian Pinches. 

2 Hybrid Weavers. r» Olive Finches. 

1. Hybrid Silverbill. 5 Cuban Finches. 

3 Cordon Bleus. 

Hyisiud Calii( kn an X Squamata Quail: It will be remem- 
bered 'that a numTier of this cross were reai'od in my aviaries in 
1912. This year a paii- of these hybrids have nested and reared 
three young ones, thus proving the fertility of the fit will 
be of general interest if Air. Shore-Baily will kindly describe the 
plumage of the original hybrids, also that of their progeny, as .soon 
as the latter are in adult plumage. — Ed.] 

The following species ha'che:! out young but did not rear the 
young to fend for themselves. 
Alexandrine Pan-akeets. 
Brush Bronze -wing Pigeons. 
Guiana X Blue -winged Lovebirds. 
The following nested but did not hatch 'jut: 
Bicheno's Finches. 
Grey Singing Finches, 
llusty -cheeked Scimitar Babblers, 

Jh'llixh Ilinl Calnuhir. 377 

Only a v^ry niodcrafo focorcl, I regret to say. 

Wcsthiuy, Wilts, 

Nov. 28, 1913. 
[Many Aviculturists have fared wois(\— Kn.| 


Sir,— In rri)ly (u your fo:)t-ii()l(' us to colour distinctions of 
the sexes of my Lineolated Tarrakeets. I am afraid T am not g^ood 
at descriptions, but I find it easy to distinguish which is which in 
my pail-: tlie hen is a little stouter liuilt tlian iier mat(s and she is 
olivx'-gfeeu Willi black spots; the coi k is altogether a lig'hter and 
richer coloured bird, almost emerald -green, and his spottings and 
linings are very distinct and clear. (Miss) MARY E. BAKER. 


British Bird Calendar. 

// ix uriji-uthj rfqii€)^tfi} tlint Memhrrs finm all nit(ii<l the coast w!// 
note the imn-i'ini'nix ct Itinls, m irp i'.'<i)f'r/ii//// in thr Sunt/ipr/i airJ Ettsti'ni 
CiiKiit/fs, (IikI irij/i!(ir/// {2,St/i of Pitrh moitlli) snid hi their notes OW this the 

ultimate success and permanent interest of the Calendar will depend 

July — I heard a Quail liere in July, and another was seen last 
month. J.S., Leadenham, 7/9/'i;5. 

Se])t. 1, t), and 7. — Dotterel were seen about five mile? from here 
at the beginning of the month, and, the farmer shot two 
of them and sent them to me — they were excellent! They 
■appsared to be both femajes: the farmer tells me he has 
ne\'er seen them at this time before, but, always a few 
on the spring migration in May. My father us(>(l to slioot 
them about here in the old days. 

J.S., Leadenham, 7/9/' 13. 

Nov. 23. — While on a cycle-run frc'm Margate to Broa/.ist lirs i;n 
the return journey, when near KinJgfsgate Castle, I saw a 
Swallow, and spent some time watching its graceful and 
btautiful flight — so interested was I, that I drew the 
attention of ottiers to the bird — it was apparently strong' 
and vigorous and in good plumagte. 

O. M., Margate, 25/ll/'13. 

The L.C B A Show at the Horticultural Hall, 

By Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., etc 
The 25th Annual Show of the L.C.B.A. was held from 
Noveml>er 27th — 29th, and was an alround success, but, it is 
with the Foreign Bird section that we are principally con- 
cerned, and this contained a record entry of 450. 

378 The L.C.B.A. Show. 

Most of my readers are aware that shortly after the 
C.P. Show in February last, the "Foreign Bird Exhibitors' 
League" was started, having for its object a more extended 
classification; in the end thi^ society guaranteed thirty'' classes, 
and. it is with nmcb pleisiire tliat the writer has to record 
that the initial venture has proved a great success, and, Mr. 
A. Silver, the secretary of the League and also a member of 
the F.B.C., is to bo sincerely congratulated of the result of 
his untii-ing efl'orts. The writer also notes with equal plea- 
sure that the major portion of the support given to the League, 
financial and otherwise, comes from members of the F.B.C., 
while considerably more than eighty per cent, of the total 
entries were also from members of the F.B.T., and that nearly 
all our exhibiting members gave liberal support to the gener- 
ous classification pi'ovided. which was planned and made pos- 
sible by the F.B.E.L. 

The classes for the common or freely imported species 
were well filled, one class (Common Firefinches, Cordon Bleus, 
etc.) totalled 41 entries, abundantly testifying to the popular- 
ity of these charming pigmies of the bird-world. The rarer 
Finch and Waxbill classes were also filled witli a goodly array 
of beautiful birds. Even more so comjilete was the success 
of the honey-eating, fruit-eating, and insectivorous groups; 
here M^ere gathered together. Sun birds, Flycatchers, Redstarts, 
Babblers, Kingfishers, and many others, of such rarity and 
dazzling beauty that beggars description. In the Hybrid and 
Albino Class were gathered together some birds of more than 
usual interest, including Mr. A. Ezra's renowned Lutino Parra- 
keets. The Parrot^^ classes were perhaps the least notable, 
here nothing really new appeared, the rarest probably being 
the Eev. Eaynor's Poeocephali, Aubry's and Levaillant's 
Parrots, while the palm for exquisite beauty must go to Miss 
Clare's Hooded and Queen Alexandra Parrakeets. 

In this issue, owing to the exigency of completing 
indices, it is impossible to review the classes separately, this 
must be left till our January issue; in this issue we can but 
briefly pass in review the more notable birds. At the head of 
these we must place Mr. A. Ezra's Sunbirds; giving a brief 
description of each. 

Southern Malachite Stjnbird {Xcrfarinia faiimsft). 

Bird Notes. 

Avian Press Process. From Lite. 

Upper Figure — Black-chinned Ynhina. 
Middle Figure — Peter's Spotted Firefinch. 
Lower Figure — Black-faced Quail Finches 3 (right) and 2 . 

The L.n.B.A. SJww. 379 

This ii5 ono of I ho Kargest of the African Sunhirds, and also one 
of the most lieatitiful, possessing not only a brilliant and 
metallic f^ai'iiicnt and charming song, but also a contour that 
for elegance ami grai^c i, not exceerled by any other member 
of the lid world. Tl is also known as jhc Capo Long-tailed 
Sunbird. ("oloui': Kidi metallic grcon ; (juills black; pectoral 
tufts golden -yellow; the two slender central tail feathers fully 
5in. long, the ou^or pairs being the shortest, about one inch, the 
others alioul l.lii. long; the beak is slender and curved, about 
lin. long. TIi(> molallic hue^ are only worn during the breed- 
ing season. This l)ird ^vas ver-y ta?ne and steady and not at all 
disturbed by (ho close scrutiny to Avhich it was subjected by 
an everehanging Huong of obserA'cM-s and sightseers; this, I 
may say. Avas er(!ially true of the species described below. 
Thii biid deciModlv tnoli premier honours. 

OuEATEK Su.\r.Ti!D (Cin'ri;ris amefhystina). 
This sp ■cios. in criaiii li-Ii(s. looks aliiinsf all black, in others it 
is a flasIiinL: jewel scintilluitii; forth tn-fallic purplish reiiections ; 
the ci'own is glistening emoi-ald-groon. The song is loud and 
clear. It is ahon' the size of a Siskin, but of slender and 
graceful form A most fascn'nating cago-hird, beautiful and 
rare, of a lively and vivacious demeanour. Fit to win any- 
where, lni( all could not bo fii'st so had to bo content with 
second honours. 

Lesser i)oiii!i.K-roi,i..\RKr) SuNBiTtn (Cinnyris cJialy- 
hfiis). Anothei- o.\(piisite gem, Avhich had to be content with 
third j)lac(\ I'enlly one could riglilly term all these equal firsts. 
It is a smallish species about the size of our Lesser Redpoll, 
but of gi-accful and elegant form, a fairy sprite would be 
a very fitting designation for it. Sketchy descriptions not 
eas>- with these living jewels of the bird-world, as light refrac- 
tion plays so large a part in the changing hues of their metallic 
garments. In a sub.dued light C. chalyheus is metallic bronzy 
green on Hie lu-ad, neck, chin and throat; a broad pectoral 
liand of metallic bronzy-red crosses the breast, separated from 
the green of the throat by a narrow band of glistening blue, 
lias a lair song and is very tame and lively. 

Mr. Ezra informed me that he kept all his Sunbirds 
in sei)arate cages, in his bird -room, which is large, and well 
lighted and kept at an even temperature of about 60c p. 

380 The L.C.B.A. Show. 

He finds them ea<^.y to keep and the African species apparently- 
quite; hardy, and states that all are more or less good songsters, 
very tame, and lively, and are delightful pets. They are 
fed on syrup— teaspoonful each of Mel'in's Foo 1, Nestle's milk, 
and honey in a teacupful of l:oiling wa'er; they also get grapes 
and blight (green fly). 

Black-beeasted Yelt/!\v-backed Sunbikf) (Aolhopj/ga 
s^ifiirafa). This, the only specimen of its kind in Great 
Britain, is an r?idian species, smaller linn (he well-known 
Amethyst-j'umpcd, Init is a more elegant bird and its de- 
meanour is very dainty, gentle, yet confiding and vivacious. 
Its colouration is not easy to describe, principally black; 
back maroon-red with a yellow jiatch near the tail-coverts; 
croM'n of head and moustachial streaks vivid metallic violet- 
blue; the tail is sleel-blue with the two central feathers much 
elongated; beak black, slender and much curved. 

YuccATAx Jay (LaJoeiffa yuccatensis): A rare and 
interesting bird, new to the show-bench, and scouring premier 
honour? in its class. This bird was privately imported by 
Major Horsbrugh, and is a beautiful and interesting bird, 
uncannily tame from having been hand i eared: it is still in 
immature plumage, blue and black, with yellow bill, legs and 
feet : these latter cliange to l)lack and the blue becomes 
much brighter when fully adult. A handsome and mischievous 

Black-chinned Yuhtna (Yuhina nigrhnrntum) . These 
were introduced to English aviculture by Major Horsbrugh last 
May, being collected for him by Mr. Frost. These are charm- 
ing mites — wee Babblers — very tame and confiding, and 
make ideal pets either for cage or aviary. While their coloura- 
tion is not gorgeous— mostly grey, grey -brown, and whitish- 
grey— they are handsome and stiiking bii'ds, the pink margins 
and base of the mandibles, light up the soft colouration of the 
plumage. Mr. Goodchild's characteristic drawing makes 
further description superfluous. Character and mannerisms 
fully discount their somewhat sombre plumage and make 
them most desirable cage birds. Their quaint vivacious antics, 
combined with the perky upraising of the crest (in a ditferent 
position almost for every emotion), are distinctly fetching. 
They were awarded premier honours in their class. 

Peters' Spotted Firefinch La(j()nostict<( nirei- 



The L.C.B.A. Shoto. 381 

gnlfafa). This hcautifiil Finch lias only been represented on 
tho show-lHMi(ii l»y a s\u<j^]c iiKJividual, exhibited by Mr, L. 
W. Hawl^ins, I think in 1 <)()."., al tlio O.P. Show, where it 
appeared lliiee limes in tho same year if my memory serves 
conoelly. Tlii.s beaulifiil species in foim is more like a 
Mellva than a FircCuich, and it is prohably more flost^Iy allied 
to Piihliii than to tlx' typicul Kiivtinclu'S {ri(h' Jiird Xolcx, Vol 
IIT., ))a«(" I!*]). The present specimen owned l.y Mr. C 
T. Maxwell i^ evidently a new acfjuisition as the feathering'is 
not yel i)erfe(:t on the toji of the head, but otherwise is in 
t;ood i'oini and a licautiful biid. I do not know of any other 
specimen having appeared in the interim, thus it has taken 
nine years for the second specimen to appear — it is a pity this 
beautiful Finch is not more freely brought over. Mr. Good- 
child's fine draAving gives the plumage pattern very clearly 
and ii, will suffice to state that the forehead, top of the head, 
winus, and hack, are warm olive-brown : lores, sides of face, 
sides of neck, chin, throat, up))er breast and tail, fiery, 
crimson; remainder of underparts dark brown and black, 
thickly spotted with round white spots; beak silvern -black; 
legs and feet grejash. The female is brown, spotted with 
V. hilo h(d()w; tail nml Mpprir hroasl red, rdiiii fulvous. Its 
piinciple range is E. and Cent. Africa. This bird took premier 
lionours in its class. 

Black-faced Quail Finch {Ortijgospiza a/rirolh'.s). 
This species is new to aviculture this year, l)eing introduced 
by oni- nienibei'. Dr. F. Hopkinson, in May last, it is perhaps 
not so pretty as the Common Quail Finch (0. volyzonci), 
is certainly a handsome species. Description is uncalled for 
witli Mr. (Toodchild's cai'eful drawing' o)i onr plate, I have also 
reprinted a plate of 0. polyzona which appeared in last 
vol. of " B.N.," foi- comparison purposes. Dr. Hopkinson 
kindly i)resented mo with a pair, which have been in ]nv 
gai'deii aviary since thoii- arrival, and are doing well, but I 
have b.'cn at home but little this year and have had little time 
to observe them. They are essentially ground birds, and in 
addition to seed and greenfood, scramble with the other birds 
at mealwoi-ni time, very keen foragers. The pair figured \verc 
exhibited by Mr. R. .J. A^'atts, took second prize and were in 
excellent form. 

382 The L.C.B.A. Show. 

Pigmy Wot-DiT 'KEr! {Ii/Nfjip'riis pjifinHiois): This iii- 
tcreslin,G: dwju'f makes an ideal cajj:e pet, it is a hen, but a 
typical "Woodpecker, the pattern of the brown, hlack, and 
white plumage b?ing of the orthodox pattern. Thi^ l;ird Avas 
brought over by Major Perreau, in May la'^t, A\dien it wa*^ now 
to aviculture T believe. It soon passed into ^Av. Townsend's 
posssesion and v/a.s fouidh in a very strong class. It is only 
about .oins. loiiti'. but I nmst i-efer i-.-adeis to M;i;or Pcri-eau's 
notef, and Mr. Goodehild's illustration of this species on page 
ion of current volume. 

T^DTAN Wh'te-kebastet) KINGFISHER (Halcyon sm,yr- 
ncnsis). This rare and beautiful Kingfisher was exhibited 
by Mr. ToAvnsend, I think, tAvo years ago,, and it certainly 
looks none the worse iO'; its two yearri of captivity. Colour: 
head, nape and abdomen rich chocolate-brown; back, wings, 
and tail iilisleiiiny bine : (diin, throat and b;ii across winas. pnro 
white; bill dark red, feet brighter red. 

Tt does not take all its food from the vicinity of Avater, 
b.ut is a land feeder, also, and levys a hea\'y toll upon ground 
insects and small reptiles. It was sixth in a strong class. 

I purpose at this point leaving the othe- ra""" specios 
till onr next issue and to note a fcAA' of the exhibits in the 
Idybrid Class. 

TjUTixo BLossoM-nEAD pAnRAKEET: This rarity Avas 
exhibited by Mr. A. Ezra, and is a clear yelloAV, but the head 
is fairly tinged Avitli pink — a most interesting colour variety, 
gaining second prize, having to yield the premier position to 
the same oAvner's Avell knoAvn Lutino Ring-neck. 

Grey Sjxgixgfinch X Canary. This interesting hybrid 
Avas bred and exhibited by our member Capt. Eeeve. Though 
failing to catch the judge's eye (certainly it Avas rather wild, 
having been caught up out of the aviary and forthAvith des- 
patched to the ShoAv), to me it Avas one of the most interesting 
birds in the class. Ii AA^as about the size of a Eedpoll, slender 
and shapely. Colour: pure white, with the sides of face and 
Avinijs broAvn, most of the feathers being margined with 
lighter broAvn; the edges of the outer Avebs of flight and outer 
tyil -feathers Avere slightly stained Avith yelloAv; a small spot 
of yelloAA' on each shoulder; beak i)inki'-h horn-colour; legs and 

Tlic L.CB.A. Show. as;V 

Ici'i llc^h-i'Dloiir. I iilc>> \-,M'\- cIo^cIn- :'\;iinilii'(l il ;ii)|!;mi'v-(1 
ihcitIn a whili- ami lirowii hird. It had a sweet sdw^ and 
('apt. J\er\n- iiiienii.^ iiic it is an iueossaut in the 

I>t;i)-iit:.\i)i;i) I'INcii [AhkkIIiki /■>!illii<ic<'iihiil<() \ Cvv- 
TllltoAT (.l.,/;^^r/,//rr): '{'h.' .Miss A. W. Sin\ih, lias I. ml 
IK. h'ss ihau rnuii.Tii of liyla-ids this season. In si/e ami 
phunayc lhr\ air alH)Ui iiitci-mediate helwct'ii their respe(;live 
liaieiits. ilic niak' l.einy perliajjs the inorv' dcMiiinant. In the 
niah' hybrids the roicluad and toir-eiown arc sull'nsed with 
viA, and the (•■inisoii iK'rioral l;.t!id i-^ niai'.^incd lii'(.)adiy wiih 
reil and tlie saiue eoloiii' ex.eiids i)ariialiy ovei' th.e eai'-eovi'rts; 
throughout the markings and barrings of the Cutthroat arc 
easily disthiguished, but both in male and female the creamy 
spots on the undersurfaee are very distinct. The hybrids are 
errtainiN handsome, i;old looking birds. They should be fer- 
tik', and 1. hope our member will attempt to breed from them 
next season. I believe Mr. H. Bright has also bred several 
this season, and an exchange should enable a double attempt 
to be made with unrelated birds — 4th prize. 

Faksox X Loxo-TAiLKi) Geassfinch: These wore an 
interesting pair, bred and shown by our member, Mr. R. S. 
de Q. Quincey, but In almost every phase they wex'e inter- 
mediate between their parents; beaks tlusky red, feet red, 
— 3rd prize. 

HooDKi) SisKix (ChfjiHoniilriH ci(ctiUala) ^^ (^avakv: 
This hybrid, presumably a hen, was bred and shown !)y llie 
Rev. J. Paterson. It was somewhat nondesciipt as to colour, 
the only trace of the bery red of the male parent being in tlie 
rnddy b-rown niai'gins to the fealhefs oJ' the upper surface, in 
form the Siskin was the moi'e dominaid, in size it was inter- 
mediate. — (ith prize. 

Greexfinch X Mexican Rosefinch: Exhibited and 
presumably bred by our member, Mr. L. M. Wade. h\ ap- 
pearance and form this byl.rid stronuly resembles a hen Green- 
linch, but alx)ve the deep brown of the male parent {Carpodacus 
m-xicctiiiis) was intermingled with the colour and markings of the 
Greenfinch; on the forehead, fore-crown, sides of face, chin and 
throat, the ruddy hues of the Roselinch were replaced ivy pah? 
ruddy -buff. 

384 The L.C.B.A. Show. 

Blood-stained Finch {Carpodacus mexicanus) X Can- 
ary: Another unusual cross, bred and shown by our meni- 
bor, Mr. R. Tomlinson. It resenil)led a large green Canary, 
but had much of the K'oscluichltrown on the upper surface and 
the forehead, chin and sides of face wei'e slightly rudd.w giv- 
ing a hue similar to ohl gold with a greenish tinge. With 
the last three of these hyludds tlieir interest was greater than 
their personal attractions. 

In this class was a most interesting Albino Magpie, 
unfortunately in its wrong-class; it is a British species and 
shoukl have been entered in the British section. 

I have now used up all the time and space at iny dis- 
posal and must leave notes of such rarities as Small Minivet, 
Large Niltava, Red-tailed Minla, Indian Fire-caps, the rarer 
Weavers and Whydahs, and the Pai'rot section, together with 
the awards to our next issue. 

To be continued. 

Post Mortem Reports. 

\'i<l,' Ihilr. (.SVr /'((./.•;;; of(J„i;'r.) 

Diamond Spakiiow. (Mrs. E. Travis, Stourbiidge.) Cause of 
death, pneumonia- 

BiKD ? (The Hon. Mary C, Hawke, Tadcaster.) Cause of death, 
heart failure consequent on convulsions. 

Rkd-hhadkd Goui.dian Fi.nch ( i) AND Bencai.ksk. (Harvey 
C. Curry, Littlehamoton.) Both died from pneumonia. 

Yi:m.ow-win(:i:i) Sug.ak Bird. (R. E. Simpson, Tjeeds.) No doubt 
died from exhaustion followin^j on excitment. 

RUFICAUDA Finch. ( S ). (Rev. G. H. Raynor, Hazeleigh Rectory 
Maldon.) I found no evidence of phosphorus, Init the cause of death was 

(W. A. Bainbridge, Thorpe, Surrey.) The four birds died from 
pneumonia. Excitement during the time birds are being caught or travelling 
in the train often, in inclement weather lower their vitahty that the}' 
develop pneumonia. I have observed this frequently in my own birds. 

Wkavku. (G. Scott Freeland, Tonbridge.) Cause of death, 

H. GRAY, M.U.C.V.S. 

Judc.r i(, Tillis of Arfirtr.s. :>„S') j 

Index to Titles of Articles, i 

* Ih'iiolcx Con 

( n'loiit 'e: 



A l:ay in tlir 

I''arii('s ill Aviyust, '.io 


ATiii-aii Siuilii 

■iIn '^^i'. 

Ali'xaiiilriiic 1 

aiTai«'cls, 1-24. 

All Avian Ca 

lastiDpiii', l-JO, llK). 

All Aviary Ui 

Iaslr(>|ilii', Kid. 

An Jsluiul on 

the Uivci- .nicluin, 



Aviaries and 

Hir<ls, Mis. .Vnniii.iis 

)irs, ;5: 



.Mr. Bainljri(l-t''.s, -i-JO, ;5;il. 
„ ,, Cripples' Hospital and College, HH, 257. 

„ „ Mr. Freeland's, 255. 

„ „ Major Johnson's, 178. 

„ ,, Dr. Lovell-Keays', 346. 

„ ,, Mr. de Q. Quincey's, 152. 

„ ,, 'Sir. Chiozza Money's, 25'J. 

„ „ Eev. G. H. Eaynor's, 312. 

„ ,, Koundliay Paik (Lee<:ls), 83. 

Dr. Thwaites', 183. 
Aviary Notes— 1911-13, 273. 
„ —1912, 43-9. 

* „ „ —1913, 290. 

„ ,, Deadenhani Aviaries, 72-5. 

Aviary Observations, 78-83. 

Bird Keeping under Diflieulties, 273. 
Bird Marking, 252-3. 
Bird Xotes, Trieste to Bombay, 172-8. 
Birds of Gambia, 37-40, 75-8, 102-4. 
Birds of Xew Zealand, 358. 
Birds of the Sal Forest, 84-8. 

* Birds with Pink Plumage. 291. 
Black-head Sibia, The, 33. 

Black -winged Crackle, The, 11-13. 

* Blood-stained Finch X Canary Hylnil, 193. 

Blue -breasted X Crimson-eared Waxlull Hyoiid, 250-1. 

P.lue Budgerigars, 28, 30. 

Blue-rumped Parrot, The, 127-9. 

I5()ok Notices, and Eeviews, 91, 123, 159, 190, 2U.3, 329. 

Breeding-Medal Kegulations, 57-9. 

386 Index to Titles of Artielea. 

Breeding of Barnard's Parrakeets, 30L-'J. 
„ ,, Blue Budgerigars, 30. 

„ ,, Giant Nigerian X Transvaal ^^■eavcr Hybiids, -214-0. 

„ Great Tit in Captivity, 240-3. 
„ Grey -Finches, 13U-142. 
„ ,, Grey-headed X Cape ^'j ariow Hybiids, I)- 11. 

„ Grey Waxbills, 283-5, 3(iO. 
„ Guttural Finches, 142-3. 

,, Hybrid G.W. Uuzel X Argrutiiie Hhickl.i!il, 4l)-r)l. 
„ Hybrid Lorikeets, 275-8. 
„ Hybrid Lineolated Parrakeets, 30'J-310. 
„ Turtle Dove Hybrids, 365-7. 
Breeding Results, 322. 
*Breeding Eesults— 1913, 359. 
*Brief Notes from Hoddam Castle Aviaries, 193. 
British Bird Calendar, 26, 56, 89, 121, 156, 190, 232, 269, 296, 

328, 361, 377. 
British Bird S-ection, L.P.O.S. Sho^v, 71-2. 
British Owls, 168-172. 
*Budgi3rigars and Mendelism, 60. 
Cages for eoftbills, 113. 
Club Dinner, 160. 
Cockateels, 285. 
*Collared Piginy Owlet, 289. 
Combined Seed-Hopper and Bird Trap, 310-2. 
Comlmon Eedstart, The, 117-9. 
Common Shag, The, 279. 
Common Tern, The, 271. 
Common or Migi'atory Quail, Th,?, 367. 
Consignment of Australian Finches, A., 154. 
Consignment of rare Indian Birds, AnoUier, 155. 
Consignment of Eare Indian Birds, My, 105, 129, 165, 201. 
Correspondence, 29, 60, 92, 124, 160, 192, 226,' 266, 287, 326, 
359, 372. 
*Current Notes, 289. 
Current Number of ''B.N.," 126. 
Day on the Fames in August, A., 339-343. 
(Dr. Thwaites' Aviaries and Birds, 183. 

Early Episodes of, 1913, 215-220. 

Editorial, 27, 57, 88, 119, 151, 187, 225, 264, 285; 321; 357; 370. 
Elliott's Pheasant, The, 137-9. 
Endurance of Birds, The, 88. 
English Wild Birds, for Brit. Cohmib.a, 184. 
Errata, 60, 89, 265, 287, 324, 357. 

Index lo Tillr.s of Ar/irlr.s. 387 

Kaiiy IJlur, '.i:)-l()l. 

I'.Tii I'.n-d, 'I'll,'. ISC. 
*lMMnlil.\ of \\\\nu\ (,)uail, ;i2(;. 

Fiivrni.-li, Til.', .•!17-;!-.M. 

File Causcl by a, lUid's Nc,-^(, L".);!. 

Food or Xcslliii- lUids, Tlu', \i\-22. 

Fnrci.mi lUi-d S.vlioii, L.l'.O.S. Show, (io-TO. 
*Im.i llii ltnui>l ilapj iiirss or Ca-.'d F.irds, -Jl). 
*Fuithc(imiiiy L.C.B.A. Shuw, I'.i;!. 

Foster I'amits, 152, 321. 

Fively Imported S]:'ecii\s, ;! 1 7-.">21 . 

From All !-'ources, 184, 22 1, 2(i2, 2'.)2, :!2 4, :'.:)S. 
*Fi-oiu Kii.nland to \at,al A S\\all(i\v"s .1 miiicy, i):!. 
*FurtlR'i- Xesting' of Eeiectus Tairotis, 373. 


Gleanings, 294. 

Grand Eclectus Farrots, 322, 373. 
Great Tit, 225. Tit, Breeding in Cap:ivi!y of, 240-3. 
Great Tit in a Garden, 288. 
Greater -spotted Woodpecker, The, 163-5. 
Grey Waxbill, The, 285. 
Gull, The Lesser Black -backed, 325-7. 


♦Hangiiest Laying in Captivity, 88. 

Heck's L. T. Grassfinch, 322. 
*Hoddam Castle Aviaries, 327. 

Holiday Notes from Eiastbourne, 24 4- (5. 
*Hootled Siskin, 93. 

How 1 became a Lover of Birds, 22-5. 

How I Started Aviculture, and My First Season, 3 46-351. 

Hybrid Geese, 273. 

Hybrids Which Have Been Beared in Captivity, 51-7. 

Iceland Falcon, The, 184. 
*indian White -eye, 61. 
*lnterest and Disappointment, 226. 

Keeping Softbills in Cages, 108-115, 144-151. 

Lady Amherst's Pheasant, The, 135-7. 

Lam'mergeier in Captivity, The, 344-6. 

Lanceolated Jay, The, 115-7. 

Late News, 270. 
♦Latest Kesults, 290. 

L.C.B.A, Show at the Horticultural Hall, 377-384, 

•5g,S Index to Tifles of Articles. 

*L.C.B.A. Show, ao. 

Leadeuham Aviaiy Notes 1!)12, 72-5. 

Lesser Black -backed Gull, The, 235-7. 

Lineolated Parrakeets, 2Hb. 

Liiieolated Parrakeets, Breeding- cf, 301), 310. 

List of Hvlirids Bred in Captivity, 51-7. 

List of Psitldci ( Pairots; Already Exhibited, 351.-7. 

L.M.T. Cripides" Hospital and CoUeg-e Aviaries, 259. 

Magazine, The, 225. 

Major Johnson's Aviaries and Birds, 178-183. 

Members' Aviaries, 152-4. 

Members' Exchanges, 61. 

Members' Meetings at Zoo, 231. 

Memories of a Trip in Argentina, 278-281. 
*Menii of Case Birds. 268. 288. 

Migratory Birds that Prey on Fruit, 324. 

Migratory Quail, The, 367-370. 

Mrs. Anningson's Aviaries, 336-9 

Mr. Bainbridge's Aviaries, 220-3, 331-6. 

Mr. Freeland's Aviaries, 255-7. 

Mr. Money's Aviaries, 259-262. 

My Aviaries and Birds, 220-3. 
*My Birds, 230. 
*My First Season, 229. 

My^ First Season with Parrakeets, '346-351. 

My Indian Consignment, 105, 129, 165, 201. 

My^ Parrot-House, 339. 

Mystery of the Swift, 293-4. 

*Nest of Abyssinian Weaver, 373. 
*Nest of Short-winged Weaver, 360. 

Nesting of Black -headed Grosbeaks, 7-9. 

* ^ ,, Black -headed Nun, 266-8. 

* „ „ Chattering Loiy, 375. 

„ ,, Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch, 325-6. 

„ Eagle Owl, 237-240. 

* „ „ Firetinchcs, 374. 

* „ „ Grand Eclectus, 373. 

„ N. Am. Snow-Bird, 270. 

* „ „ Occipital Blue Pie, 269. 

* „ .,, Orange Weaver, 375. 

* „ ,, Pectoral Finches, 291. , 

* „ „ Eed-billed Weaver, 375. 

„ ,, Rufous-necked Weaver, 270. 

* ,. o Rusty -cheeketi Scimitar Babbler, 192, 

* .. .. Short-winged Weaver, 227. 

„ Spot -billed Toucan, 270. 

Jinlr.r lu Tlllcs of Arlirlrs. 1^89 

\.->liii.i; Xotfs, 11 '.I, l.")!, IS7, -l-i:-!, 270, 3l'2. 

*Xc>iiii- Xdics i;ti;!. 

*Nrstiiii;- K.'sulls l'.ir_>. ;'. 1 . 

Nesting t-'t-ason, 'I'lic, T)?, -Ji;!. 

Nestlings' Homr iii a. I'.atUT.v, -21)1. 

New Birds at tlic Z<>.), 2.s. 

New Zealand Birds, HaH. 

New Zealand I'i,i;roiis, ISf). 

Notes re Pinii and oilier Kovcs, l.'Mi;. 
*X<)tx-s, b'ti'ay, ;i(». 
*Xu riidv iiirds, 1)2, 12."). 


lOliiliiary, 2(;:). 

^^Udd Birds and Exclum.nli's, (51. 
Olive Finch, The, 32:5-1. 

On the Keeping of ^"oltbills in (^a.-cs, Kiy-llf), 11]-1.")1. 
Orangxj Bishop and Canaiy Hybrids, 2li;!. 


Paa-rakeets at Liberty, 2U4. 

Paj-rakeets, etc., at Woburn, Abbey, 287. 

Paj-tridge, The Spotted, 299. 

Pekin Robin, 295. 

Pliunagc Sales, 259. 

Po«t Mortem Reports, 32, (53, 94, 125, l(i2, 234, 270, .329, 3(i2. 

Post Mortem Reports, (, Green Paper Inset), 2 7, 53, 88. 

PsittfOci (Parrots) Ali-eady Exhibitcil, 351-7. 

Purple Sunbirds, 40-3. 

Quail, Common or Migratory, 3G7-370. 


*Ro Breeding of Grey Waxbills, 360. 
*Ro Menu for Cage Birds, 288. 
*Re Sexing Linoolated Parrakeets, 377. 
*Iie Stock Fruit Foods, 32G. 

Recent Arrivals, 265. 

Red-breasted Flycatcher, The, 3G3-5. 

Red-crested Cardinals, 285. 

Red-headed X Rililmn Findi nyl)rids, 28(;. 

Redpolls, 294. 
*Renuirkable Journey of a Swallow, 93, 3 75. 
*l{esults— 1913, 372, 37(5. 

Retrospect, A., 370. 

Rev. G. H. Raynor's Aviaries, 312-7. 

Reviews and Notices of New Books, 91, 123, 159, 190, 2G3, 329, 
*Rusty -cheeked Scimitar Babbler, The, 92, 124, 

890 Index to Titles of Articles. 

Seed-HopixM- uiul lUid Tiap, A C.)iiil)iii("(l, ?,\()--l. 

Sexing the Gold-fioiitcd Fniilsuc-hi'r, 2()(j-7. 

Shag, Tlie Common, 2'J7-8. 

Shama, The, 295. 
*Shows, L.C.B.A., 30. 

Shows, L.C.B.A., Foreign Sectioi, 377-384. 

Shows, L.P.O.S., British Section, ()2-5, 71.-2. 

Shows, L.P.O.S., Foreign Section, Ub-lO. 

Silvery -crowned Fi'ar-Bi d, 1h', 208-211. 

Siskins, 295. 

Some Interesting Birds, 11, 33, 115, 135, 1(;3, 208, 235, 271, 297. 
*Some Interesting Nest-;, '192. 

Spotted Partridge, The, 299-301. 
*Stock Fruit Foods, 32(J. 

* Stray Notes, 30. 

* Stray Notes— 1913, 228. 

Stray Notes, from Hoddam C.istle, 101-2. 

Sunbirds, Purpk-, 40-3. 

Suparb Tanager, The. 211-3. 


Tern, The Common, 271-3. 

Three Pyteliae, 195-201. 

Threo Uncommon Pets, 281. 
*To Preserve from Extinction, 22 7. 
*Tui'quoisine Parrakeets, 269. 


Visits to Memb.-rs", 178-184, 255-202, 331-9. 

Wbeatear, The, 292-3. 

White-eyes, 1-7, 61. 

White-eyes, Indian, 3-5, 61. 

Wild Life, 159. 
*Wondcrful Flight of a Swallow, 375. 


Yuhina, The Black-cluune4, 380. 
Zoo Notes, 119, 254. 

hxlr.r to (Irnrra rnnl f^prrirs. 


Index to Genera and Species. 

Z., 2. 

.\((i)ithis c(Uiii:ihhi.i, 24;"). 
[rr,'„l,r <';r(ir,s, ISl. 

nr:(},:l(ii.s, ISl, 2 Uk 
rt,-,7>7/-,'/;y,'.s-, I., 171. 

/'.. yr)4. 

Arrr,h'la r,:;mta, 189, 191. 
a.nUn-.iitl,,, P., 51, 55, 2l(:, 291, 
322, 333. 

v.. 53, i)', 55. 
adr.insi. A., 250. 
iidddiiiiic. /'., 35 1 . 
ach://, 7'., Hi. 

Acqilhaiiscis (■nilJirnn'phnlns, 129, 
Acf]inlills iilc.fonilri.'hi, ?(>. 

diibia. 7(i. 

hialicnla, 7(i, ISi'. 

pmiari.a, 7l!. 
mgnplinifi, M., 17 V. 
lu-gyplius, P., 103. 
.l('/?a capensis, 15, !3. 
a.wra, f/., 84. 
,i,'n'(;hirs-iiy, (\, 35j. 
f7"^//^r/, T'., 352, 354. 
Aelhrpnip, suliinih!, 15r,, 380. 

scJicriac, 15(i. 
,v//?»/,s, /-;., 120. 
'///////.v. /.., 175, I7(i, 178. 

0//V/, r., 15. 

/'.. 195. I9l., 197. 
ajrif' P., 75. 
Ar/ap mis, ci/ri, ■.!3l, .'i!'.), .")5 ', 
3;) 4] 
(/•'y, ■>.'.'■>, 3)4 9, 


iil(jriq('iiis. 31, 75, 230. 

290, 3 19, 352', 

pvV,}r:,i, 2 19, 2 90, .3 '9 

Aiaitdiild iuicmsi, 250. 

.//./;.7, r'., 254. 

,, Car., 353. 

„ .1/., 17 1, 181. 

„ /'., 175. 

"//, /n;//.v, ,'., 35(., 357. 

■ ilbi(/iili;r/s, (,'., i-20. 

.S'., 1 4 3, 1,S.3. 

Z., 1. 

,t!bir.nlri., A., 87. 

alb: vr >,,'<■,, Z., 1. 

alb'.vniii s. 'I'., •J3)(). 

.•1/(a / /•,/,,■, (W). 

rc.:inidr,ic, .s'., 230, 35 


'/<' ;/^'/v, /'., .■!51, 35 1 

■(/('. ■cndriiia, Ac, 7() 

alpeslris, ()., 181. 

alpiiia, T., 182. 

c<//«rv;, .S'., 1()9. 

ani'ibilis, Z., 183. 

Am-idiiKi cfi/IJinc'pJui],!, 



28(i, 383. 

Ias,-iaiii, 54, 55, 


2 1 9 

2.S(;, 290, 

il (i, 



cm i/idiini, ,S'., 5(5 75 

8 1, 


218,' 233,' 



--'/» nrrrslhr:: f rl„,^:ib idrs 

5 5 

■nir'lhiixi'nn,, /'., ,S9, 379. 

.:inh('i.sliti(\ ('., 135. 

.-immf pcrdix heyii, 222, 


-(dl}y, 230, 3 11 


I a rnnl a, 351. 
\<irl„,u-^ phr.r/H'-rus, 254. 
. l.'./,'.»i j.s/,/m, 32, 5 1, 55 

,, maldJ'iiiirii. ;)2, 53, 

55, 5(1, :^21 31(;. 
virdr.-la. 5.3, 2 Hi. 
,l/,n;<, al,n-in. 52. 
.4/r//(r/r/ arborrn. ISl. 
r//rr//.s7V. ISl. 
qahinhi, 193. 

.mpelis garrulvs, 181. 
--]//a.s boscafi, 29fi, 361. 
-(;/.r/ /r».v/.v, K., 4 3, 217. 
iU/ir.D/cnsi.s Z., 2. 

Alr-di'llnjiiihii < fildiirity, 'A'.',!, 
h'lacitilni .us. 
\lllhl(,< , rt'ii S (tlbira.-illi.s, 87. 
\iilhn b.ipli 's violacea, S\). 
lii/lii's iDiriilnhif!, 15(). 
ib^ni.nis. 181. 
/,/-,7/ry/.v;.v, ISl, 1S.3, 
Irir.'ali.s. ISl. 
. I ;/)■,, .s'»r.7».,- ci/.iiioi i/f/'iis, 3.5 
4/./<'r//,r, 358. 

hxuilrUi, 120. 
7/;/rx. '•.. 293. 
4/7/ (ii(ir.iit,ri, :V.M, ;!52. 
., rbl,;r<.ph>r<i, 355. 
marao, 33 7, 355. 
maracana, 354. 
,, mUiUnis, 354. 
scrcrti. 3.3 7. 
r//7/i<.v, /<;., 39, 4 0. 


Index to Genera and Species. 

Arachnechthra asiatica, 40, 156 

„ zeylcnica, 150. 

Araehnothera migna, 132. 
ararautm. A., 337, 352. 
arh-.rca, A., 181. 
arclica, F ., 341. 
arcitahis, y., 78. 

P., 9, 53. 
Ardea einerm, 174. 
Ardeola grayi, 248, 249. 
nrcnnria, C, 11, 182. 
Arrnnria interfres, 76. 
nrgclaius L., 173, 328, 340. 
(irqe)ilauris, M., 120, 155, 
niqoiliccps, P., 208. 
ttrqnniulah, P., 120. 
an,nala, M., 296. 
arpe)isi.<^, A., 181. 
asiafica, A., 40, 150. 

P., 120. 
,/4sio acciptrimis, 171. 

„ OiMS, 171. 
as/n/f^a, E., 55, 56, 75 81. 
aier, <C., 352. 

„ P., 181, 246. 
Athene nociua, 169, 191- 
atraius, 'C, 352. 
atricapilla, Munia. 53, 54, 55. 

M«s., 181, 310. 

.S-., 181. 

Z., 2. 
alriceps, P., 185. 
^., 3, 6. 
alrirolli.^, 0., 381. 
olri/nu,., Z., 2. 
alviniihiris, M., 120. ^ 
niibn/niins, P., 08, 351. 
rt//Z>;7//, P., 68, 351. 
(mrniilrinfi, B., 87. 
aiire'ifrcns, Z., 1. 
nnrcifjula, Z., 2. 
anrcii-enfer, Z., 1. 
ffMre«.s, C, 353, .35 1, 3 75. 
auricapilhis, C, 353. 
aiirivcpM, C, 353. 
aiirifrans. P., 155. 
auripaUiiliu C, 353, 35 7. 
aaliinii/nlis, f'., 357. 
avorella, R., 182. 


?)a;^, C. 337, 352. 
harhaluff, G., 344. 
harunrdi, B., 301, 352. 
Jlariiardins harndrni, 30], 35 3. 

Kcmilnrqualtts, 300, 35 7. 

zonarii's. 352, 355. 
larrahamU, P., 352. 

BalhUda rnficanda, 210, 222, 315, 

Beh'aric pavonimi, 40. 
belgira, L., 182. 
biarm'riis. P., 155, 189, 219. 
luclH'iHiri. Sa 31, 43, 53, 55,217. 

221 222 333. 
BolJx.rhynchns Hneolatus, 309^354. 
hcrhoinca, Z., 3, 5. 
/n:,s77/,v, ^., 296, 361. 
hr.nlhouJ, M., 35, 49. 
bciu-l-ei, iV., 352. 
brarhyplera, Hy., 327, 360. 
Bracliypferus aurmiUus, 87. 
Branta canadensis, 273. 
brevlrostris, P., 65, 120, ISf:. 
&m//e?-, (?., 289. 
Brologerys cJuriri, 352. 
,, jugular is, 356. 

pyrrhofierus, 355. 

^mea, 348, 351. 

/Mi, 360. 
„ fuipara, 353. 

,, virescens, 357. 

brownii, P., 352. 
brunneicauda, Z., 2, 5. 
briuuieiccphalus, L., 178. 
PkZjo igiiavits, 169. 
,, "maanmus, 237. 
Bnhidcus coromandus. 248, 249. 
buntensis, Z., 2. 
H/ih rides jaranicus, ^50. 

'^'arnlna alba, 353. 

citrino-cristata, 352, 354. 
ducorpsi, 353. 
galerita, 353, 350. 
.9r//ww, 337, 353. 
,, gymnopis, 352. 
,, fcndbeaferi. 354. 
,, "mnlufrensis, 337, 354, 355 
rpUmlmlra, 337. 352. 
rrsrirnpilhi, 356. 
„ sanguinea, 352. 

sulphur ea, 337, 354. 
^achinnans, L., 173, 174, 175. 
cactGrum, €., 352. 
mendalus, D., 120, 167. 
'■■aendescens, L., 333. 

^., 1. 
racruleus. P., 181, 240. 
^-amfl, ST., 181. 
rY,/r/-, P., 89. 

^^Vz/Vv/, m"bin»rppJinhi, 352. 
ralidris, T., 11, 182, 190. 
('(didris areihiria, 11, 182. 

Index to Orffrra and Sprries. 


callfornica, L., 31, 32G, :53;5, 3:<5. 

'Calliope camlfirJidlkcii.yi-i. 1')'). 
Calliprphi sinirni'ihi. '.',]. iT, |, :',-i(i. 
rr///;x/<' fasliiMsa. -ill. 

■mrld/KDtohi. 2N. 
■C'nlU:ceph(il(,ii cjalenlum. 337, '>r).'5. 
Calnphiifiis cllioli, 157. 
mikado, 120. 
('(ih.psilldcii.^ ))ovn('-li'.II.ij/(litic, 3 1 , 

48. 31;-), ;ir);i. 

C'liii/ph rlii//iflii(.s hnil':ii. .")^>7, .'i.Vi. 
,, maci '.ih i/h'vfi lis, 

cambaicnsis, T., \')C\ 3"..'!, 3.") I. 
cam'fichalJxOi^is, ('., lo."). 
ra«rt, .'!., 231, 3 11), ;',.■).•;, .".f)!. 
cn)iiul(')isis, li., 2 7'). 
catiicollis, S., ■-)3, 73. 
cainiahiiiii, A., 2-15. 

L., 52, 53. 181. 
frt«ojY7, P., 31, 46, 74, 183, 1<)2. 
221, 222, 2;)(i 3"j" 
cancrits, C, 155. 

caiilntis. A., 32, 54, 55, 335, 372. 
caxlica, S., 342. 
cauul^ts, 2\, 77, 182. 
capciisis, Ac, 15, 4 3, 220. 
H., 103. 
P., 84. 
/?., 102. 
Z., 2. 
capislrnta, M., 33. 
rrt/-/^,j, Z^, 173, 297, 208. 
('nrdi)iaUs caraiiiali^, 4 7, 52, 2 7'.). 
rardm'Us elegans, 52, 53, 181, 18;5. 
carGlinensi.s, 'C, 352. 
Carpodaciis nf.xicanu.^, 383, 381. 
caryocatactes, N., 181. 
cas't-aneifhcrax, M., 53, 54, 55, 50. 

eafitaiioirr]itris, >S'., 325, 334. 
ra.^hniolis, T ., 31, 48, 53, 51, 55. 
73, 183, 217, 223, 
290, 315, 333, 335, 
359, 372. 
Cnlharish-s ntrafns, 282. 
ruiuhila. A.. 181, 191. 
caipiiut. IK. 4:'., 22(5. 
rrmliris, F ., 175. 
('(']il((il(,j,i/nis llammicrps, 156. 
('rr>ilr rxdif!, 174. 250. 

r-r///,;/H.«.S-/.s% Z., 2. 


o/ra, In 

('lidli-i.jilnt js indica, 86. 
fliiih opsin, iriifi ntcr, 352. 

,, sri))tillaliif^. 3." 

chalcnplvra, PI,., 31. 

(■Iialrnplcru.<t, P., 352. 
/^, 103. 
rll,ll,/j„ui, L.. 120. 
rluiliihrns, <V., 379. 
."Iinnidi iiii/ic, 75. 
rA.//v/r///x plnri„lis. 182. 

'"Iiil ni>iisl///<;ps/s j,l( li'licllil, 101. 

Cinuui,, 'rrishihi, 25 1. 

<'lii)ii'inli(/ Icucoceplidlu-'^, 155. 

r//r/7-/r,/V, P., 282. 

r///;-//-,. 'y>'., 352. 

rhh.rnlca, Z., 3, 5. 

•f'l.laris vulgari.'i, 24 5. 

r///r;/;,s, L., '48, 52, 53, 181. 

r/Wr^/.v, Z., 2. 

rhh.i-nU'pidn'.Hs, /'.. 35(1. 

rhJ,.r<,H(>Ul. Z., 3. 

('Iil(.r<>psis ,nui/r(j)is, 155, 266. 

Inirdnickii, 155. 
i-Iih,rnpl<'ra, A., 355. 
rl,h:ynp„s. G., 18 i, 24 6. 328. 
rA/-V.s7/,'/rv, 7'., 156.' 
rlin/si;,,,,sf,-a, N., 355. 
,-hr>is,>l,n:nii, Z., 2. 
('Iiriisi:l(,phu.'t amher, 'iliac, 135. 
!'li nisi mi Iris cucullala, 43, 93, 218. 
290, 383. 
icf erica, 53, 65, G7. 
,, spinus, 52, '^3, r^^l, 

295, 361. 
/o//a, 53. 
chryscpterygixis. P., 353, 355. 
Chrysotis aestiva, 352, 354. 
alhifrons, 356, 357. 
inn-ipiilliiihi, 353, 357. 
r//^//o;///r//;.v, 357. 

didihmilo. 338, 353. 
,, dufrciuiaiia, 353. 

farincsa, 354. 
feslira, 353. 
,, inornata, 355. 

,, leiicocepliala, 338, 353, 

levaillanti, 353, 354. 
,, cchrocephala, 338, 351. 

,, saJrini, 356. 

,, versicolor, 352. 

rinarea, 35V. 
,, riridigena, 353. 

,, vitlnln, 355. 

Cicmiia alba, 254. 
r«(r'/ar, P., 54, 55. 
einelorhyncha. P., 156. 
■dncrea,' A ., 174. 

E., 56, 84, 183, 217, 223, 

283, 285, 333. 
.S\, 181, 245, 296, 333. 
Z., 3, 5. 
civnamowcivenlris, S., 120, 155. 


Index io Genera and Species. 

ciiinamomeus, C, 120. 
P., 120. 
Cinnyris amethyttinius, 89, 379. 

chalyh'eiis, 3V9. 
cioides, E., 181. 
clris, ■C, 183, 218. 
cirlus, E., 181. 
citrinella, E., 181, 245. 

Z., 2. 
cililno-crislaiiif!, C, 353, 354. 
citrina, G ., 156. 
Cittccincla macrura, 183, 295. 
CoccothraAisten vulgaris, 181. 
coeZe&s, E., 52, 181, 245, 328. 
Coereba cyanea^ 43, 223, 333. 
coUans, A., 181. 
E., 120. 
coUi/biia, P., 191. 
Columhula picu'., 13. 
communis, 'C, 181, 3 65. 
concinn-us, G., 355. 
conspicillata, Z., 2. 
contra, S., 156. 
'Coniiropsis carolinensis, 352. 
Comirus aeruginosus, 352. 

a«<m<s, 353, 354, 375. 
,, anricapiUus, 353. 

,, cacicrum, 352. 

,, haeimorrhous, 352. 

jendaya, 353, 354, STr 
,, li'Mcr.phihaJnius, 353. 

„ nonlay, 352, 355. 

,, pavna, 355. 

„ per (max, 350. 

„ rnhrolai f>atus, 35!). 

„ scUHiialiH, 356. 

Coraeopsis nigra, 352, 354. 

„ rasa, 353. 

coiniciil i/i(S, y , i!Of» 
rGrmdns, A'., 3.) I . 
roromandciica, '('., 120. 
^^?•^r?^_^»f/v^v, 7^., 2 18, 2 It). 
f^nrrKft mniinhdn, 244. 

spiciKhvs, 24 7, 2U* 
'''iri/pliC'Sj/Dupis iiilrdlns, 218, 3'):! 
."o-zJ/r- r:i)arl'i, 24 1, 2 7 6. 
'r'o/H/-«/.r r-w;jw/;,/v, 181, 3(i5. 
r, n H(./;/r/r/'-r", llO. 
r,7/(,/-;;;:r, 367. 
('itcll/lis' ):, ■//■ . :>"5. 
riihjnri.s. 3('5. 
P.," 365. 
r., 365. 
crassiroslris, E., 120. 
•Crater cpn catinni: , 155. 
rrecca, iV., 29(). 
rrepidatuf!, S., 17'!, 174. 
crhiigcr, /., 95, 9S ion, 
r;v.c prateiisis, ISL 

crissall.-, Z., 1. 
rrislala, !'., 254. 

r;?«?>., 43, 52, 280. 
f/H/., 37. 
rrls'alii..'<, V ., 87. 
A., 181. 
I ., 361. 
Criiphirus einnamomewi, 120. 
rH;»//rtto, 'C, 43, 93, 218, 290, 
Z'ar., 52, 73, S3, 279, 

280, 285. 
P«7/,a, 156. 
S., 54, 55, 316, 333. 
rucullatus, H., 48, 56, 270. 

Ps., 67. 
cnneata, G., 31, 43, 183, 220, 333. 
funiciilaria, S., 279. 
(•»/nu7^ «., 181, 191, ;24.5, 296. 
Cursorius temmenclxi, 103. 
liurvirosfris, L., 181. 
ewa«0rt, Cc, 43, 223, 333. 
€y., 183. 
/., 95, 100. 
CyanecuJa miecia, 181. 
cijanocephala, P., 349, 352, 355. 
^yaiioqastra, I., 95. 
' „ T., 355, 357. 

cyanogenys, E., 352. 
i^ya7ingra'nimus, T ., 353. 
'jyanoJi/sP7i,f; paiagomis, 354. 
■yancps, S., 176', 177. 
L'yarx.pfiitlaciiA,, 35(). 
■//(7,// r,y;//(y /?« .S-, .fl . , 35 4. 
'Jyaiiorhiiviplins miriceps, 353. 

noi^z-zculanJix, 355, 
^.:Jyaif(:.'<pi.:n ciri.--, 183, 218. 
■ „ (7/a?;(',a, 183. 

I'.'flafirhcrl, 218. 
7.7rr,/-/,n,, N., 155. 

•;,n/V/,'.v, r'., '27:5. 

psi:: ry 
■s s:ipc 

„r;drs, 2 

rr;i;iiii ■, 



h(.s (ii'it. 

, 293. 

', 4;!. 2 


/ «-'/■ 

■s (til:;, 


rill. 181, 



lain, Z. 
■' cilia 1 
■I rnpn.s 

ml, N., 

'i:ia. P., 

iihl\ 8 7^ 
mn'cr. 71 
39, 10 

, ic,", 



irsi;, P 
n'llii, V 

cipliinn , 
., 298. 
, 338, 35 

25 1. 

Index io Genera and Species. 


Dicaeum erythrorhiimhus, 15(!. 

,, hiru)i(li)ioccnm, 254. 

(ll/Jnsu.«, P., 9, 53. 
iliyn/diatiis, H., 4 7. 
niss('7n>in(s pamdiscus, 87. 
illsshnilis^, P., 352, 354. 
dcjncstica, U., 53, 54, 55, 291, 
316, 33.3, 335, 372. 
(J'..,ov.'<tirus, P., 17, 53, 181, 24 4. 
domiccUa, L., 355., L., 254. 
Dn/otmsfes carrulafu'^, 120, 1(57. 

ruficnlli.s; 120. 155, 166 
f?((?i?a, ^c, 76. 
d/icorpsi, 'C, 353. 
dufresniana, 'C, 353. 
dussumieri, T., 120. 

Eclecfus pectorali.f, 356. 

rora/MS, 322, 327, 353. 
rvestermnnni, 357. 
eleqans, ^C, 52. 53, 181, 183. 
iV., 353. 
P/i., 31. 75. 
P?a.. 32, 355. 
elHofi, iC, 137. 
Emheriza cioides, 181. 
„ cirhis. 181. 

cifrinrUa, 181, 24 5. 
,, hnrtulaiia. 181. 

,, lappnnica. 181. 

„ miliaria, 181. 

„ lutp.ola. 218. 

„ "miliaria, 181. 

schocniriduf^. 181, 290. 
Koplwna, pcrHO)iula. 69. 
Eos eyanoqenuft, 352 
„ fuscata, 102. 
,, reficulafa, 352. 
., riciniata. 355. 357. 
„ r?<&/a. 353, 355. 356. 
rritharns. P., 314, 354. 
Erlflianis rnhecida, 181. 
er>/l]>rort'phak,, Am., 54. 219, 383. 
erythrocephaJus. Ae.. 129, 155. 
erylhrngastra, P., 156. 
erylhrogenys. P., 92. 155. 192. 
erylhroppftlxis, P., 356. 
pn/lJiropleura, Z., 1. 
cryfhropfenis. P.. 352. 353. 356. 
erynirorhynchua, D., 156. 
Krylhrospiza crassiroslrin. 120. 
Erylhrura psittacea, 43, 54. 

trichroa, 54. 

Efilrilda angolensi!^. 43. 45. 217. 

astrUda, 55, 56, 75, 84. 

ci?ierea. 56, 84. 183, 

217, 223, 283, 285. 

333, 335. 

/•;.s7y;/,/,/ ph,„>,ur.>tii^. 75. 84, 22.3. 

315, 333. 
Emlnnnnt^ morhirl/lx. 181. 
Euplecles oryx, 27. 

,, sundevalli, 27. 

Eupodltis arahs, 39, 40. 
p.uropea, P., 52, 53, 181. 
Piirycrocoius, Z., 2. 
everplti, T., 353. 

-2^., 1. 
Excalfactoria c]d}ie?isis, 75. 
eximius, P., 31, 32, 356, 360. 
p.xplorator, Z., 2. 

Falco cenchris, lib. 

gyrjalco, 281. 
„ islandus, 281. 

t'nuiinir.iihiti, 175. 
/aMa.T, Z., 8, 5. 
famosa, N ., 89. 378. 
farinosa, 'C, 354. 
fasciala, A., 54, 55, 7.5. 219, 316, 
372, 383. 
P., 354. 
fastuom, 1(7., 211. 
/era?a, iV., 361. 
/er?Ta„ 0., 120. 
ferriiqineus, G.. 87. 
/'(?.s-///'rt, IC, 353. 
flreduJina, Z., 3, 6. 
finschii, Z., 3, 5. 
flammpa, S., 170. 
ffammiceps, "?., 156. 
^aua, A/., 156. 

^ o 

/7aw?^, jr., 'l55. 
flaveoh, S., 48, 52, 53. 
fiavpohis, P., 357. 
flavicolUs, I., 106, 107, 155. 

P., 218. 
flavifrons, Z., 2. 
flaviprymna, M., 215. 
flamrosfris, L., 52. 53, 181. 

P., 177. 
flavivenfris, P., 30, 357. 

<§., 52, 53. 
flavo-palliatns, L., 352, 357. 
nuv.iaHli.9. S.. 271, 340. 
/■or^^, O., 76. 
formosa, S., 183, 315, 333. 
forsfptii, T., 353. 
Foudla madaqriKparienfiif^, 74, 84 

' 316. 
francisea7m. P., 84, 375. 
FrancoJinus pondicerianuf^, 250. 
FrafrrcuJu arctica, 341. 
friqida, Z., 3, 6. 

FrinqiUa coelehs. 52, 181, 245, 


Index to Genera and Slpeeies. 

Friiiijdla miiiitit'riiKjilla. ij'i. b^l. 

,, teydea, 62, 65, (iii. 

Frill gilUdae, 52, 89. 
fringillcides, A., 55. 
fronfalis, R., 155. 
S., 155. 
fulicarhis, P., 5H. 
fidigincsa, R., 120, 15G. 
FuUgtda affinis, 120. 

„ ccdaris, 120. 

Funarms rufus, 279. 
//KSta/«, E., 102. 
/».srrt/.r/. p., 351. 
fHsrah.r, M.. v.). 
I'n.srirajiilhi, Z.. 2. 
fHscifrnns, Z., 3. 
//«..r*^v, L., 174, 17,S, -2 35, 3 11 

„ P., 353, 357. 

galealum, C, 337, 353. 
galerifa, C, 353, 356. 
qalanla, A., 193. 
gafgnlxs, L., 352. 
Gallinago naUinngn, 102. 
(.•allimiln .-hlnrc^ms, 181, 

.ga??i'o^ Z., 2. 
Gallufi ferniginen-s, 87. 
Garrulax pectcralis, 16 7. 

„ ruficoWs,, 15."). 

garndns A., 181. 

L.. 32 7, 353, 3 75. 
Garruhis nlbigiihin'.:, 120. 
lanccal'ihts, 115. 
garzeita, H., 2-18, 249. 
Geockhla eifrm'j, 156. 
Geciniis viridis, 181. 
GeopeUa cnnenta, 31, 43, 183, 

„ humeralis, 220. 

,, striata, 75. 

.gm, S., 171. 
Glareola melanoptern, 104. 

„ pratincola, 104. 

glareola, T., 77. 
GlareoUdac, 104. 
Glaucidiiim brndi'i, 289. 
,-, radiatum, (il. 

glaucus,, A., 337. 
Glossopsittacux concinmts, 355 
fcrphyrcc p'r I;'- 

goffini, C, 337, 353. 

goiddi, Z., 1. 

'gouldiae, P., 31. 43, 217, 

333, 335. 
govinda, M., 344. 



.(70/^/, D., 156. 

Gracnlipicn melanojttera, 11, 92. 

graculits, P., 297. 

grandi.s, N., 120. 

,9rav/, '-1-. '-^^8, 249. 

; Z., 1. 
f/mra, S., 139, 140. 
(jriHcilincta, Z., 2. 
'ijri.^eirnifpr, Z., 2. 
9;-/.s7-«.v, iV., 249. 
(y/-/.so/,fl, 3/.. 181, 245, 296. 
Griiidae, 40. 

Guhernatrix eristata, 43, 52, 280. 
y»;rt«rH.S7.s-, -4., 323, 349, 354. 

L., 70. 

P., 354. 
yiiliidmi, P., 354. 
guUiveri, Z., 2. 
guttata, Sit, 360. 

67«., 54, 57, 216, 335. 
guttatns 0., 299. 
Giittera eristata, 37. 
gntturaUs, S., 139, 142. 
Gi/paetus barbatus, 344. 
gymnopis, 'C, 352. 
gyrfaJcn, F., 281. 


Jiacvi'itorcpJidla X., 155. 
hacmatonotus P., 356, 359. 
Haeniatopus eapensis, 103. 

„ ^moqtdni, 103. 

„ ostralegeus, 343. 

haematGrrhous, P., 230, 356. 
Haematospiza sip^ahi, 28. 
haemorrhcus, 'C, 352. 
Halyecn smyrne^nsis, 382. 
/;erA-/. P. 322. • 

Hedymeles melunoceplmla, 2. 
lielveiica, S., 76, 182. 
hemprichi, L., 175, 176. 
Herodias garzetta, 248, 249. 
Uenvixus flavala, 155. 

„ 'macclellandi, 155. 

,/iet/ii, ^., 222, 333. ' 

hiaticula, Ae., 76, 182. 
hirmalis. ./., 270. 
IJ/ii.'i/ili.iiii.s himantojMis, 103. 
Jiinunlnnu-cnm, D., 254. 
Hirniidn rustica, 174, 181. 
HapJnpierus spinosus, 76. 
hortensis, 8., 181, 191. 
Iicrtulana, E., 181. 
hortulamis, S., 181. 
Hiduia nip<ilensis, 28. 
////)«. v7//;.s-, G., 220. 
h;/,irinlhiiiiis, A., 356. 
liypacdnlJms sjnnoides,, 219. 

Index to Getirra and Species. 


Ili/plianloniis hrarhi/jt Ta, 327, 3 HO 

i-uc-idfa'us^ 4,s, ;-)(;, -no 

(liiiiididliis^ 4 7. 
,, spilovoius^ 4 7, 5(). 

Ht/pochera aenea, 84. 
hypolals, Z., 2. 
h'l/polcHca, Z., 3. n. 
]ii/p(>l('i(ci(f<, T ., 71, 77, 182, 296 
hi/po.iantJia, Z., 2, 5. 

lanthia ritfilafa, 120. 
ict erica, 'C, 53, 65, 67. 
icterotis, P., 231, 356. 
icterus, S., 52, 290, 316, 333. 
Ictferus mdffaris, 88. 
ignaviiis, B., 169. 
i7iaci/s, T., 181. 
incertus, P., 127, 352. 
indica, 'C, 86. 
indicus, L., 352, 355. 
indo -hurmava , P., 338. 
infuscata, M., 120. 
inornata, 'C, 355. 

-^., 1- 
islandus, F., 281. 
intermedia, Z., 2. 
interpres, A.. 76 
/rew<i criniger, 95, 9S, 100. 
„ eyan&a, 95, 100. 
„ cyanogastra, 95. 
„ melanochlamys, 96. 

?me/Za., 95, 98, 99. 

tiircosa, 95, 96, 98. 

iweedalii, 95, 100. 
Zari//?<s flanicolKs, 106, 107, 155, 
lyngipicus pygniae-ns, 106, 382. 
Zt/wx torquilla, 71. 

jacarini, V., 222. 333, 335. 

jamaicensis, L., 31, 220. 

mponica, Z., 1. 

javanica, Z., 3, 5. 

javanicus, B., 250. 

lendaya, <C., 353. 354, 357, 375. 

iohns'toniae, T., 355 
jngularis, B., 356. 
Jtinco hiemalis, 270 


l-awarltiha, L 
kirki, Z., 2. 
kuhli. P., 174. 
Txundoo, 0., 250 



J.ago>iostl{'ta rnrritlcsceris, 333. 

Diiiima. 5:;, 31 7, 333, 

vivciqullatn, 380-1. 
scncgala, 221, 223. 
Lalocitta yucoatensis, 380-1. 
TMmprocom'v chalyhea, 120. 
Im^ceolatus, G., 115. 
Japponica, L., 11, 182. 
tappnnicufi , E., 181. 
r.r7/-/rs' r///7///.v, 175, 176, 178. 

aravnldlHS, 173, 328, 340. 
,, tir)ni7)cicephalvs, 178. 

rarhiimans, 173, 174, 175. 
^^sYv^s■, 174, 178, 235, 341. 
hrviprirJii, 175, 176. 
,, wan'Niis, 328. 

ridilmmivs, 173, 174, 175. 
„ Iridacfylus, 342. 
larvata, P., 52, 279. 
leadheateri, 'C, 354. 
leclancheri, 'C, 218. 
Leistes quianensin, 70. 
/ep«Wa, r>., 31, 55, 73, 192, 323. 
Lepfoffila jamaicensis, 31, 220. 
lepurana, T., 38. 

leucocephala, ^Chr., 338, 353, 367. 
Inimccplialus, 'Chi., 155. 
h'Hroqa.ster, L., 219. 
U'lirogastra, 8., 176. 
leucophaea, Z., 3. 6. 
leucophrys, Z., 53. 
Ipiucophthahmts., 353. 
lencopygius, S., 52, 223, 290, 316, 
335, 349, 360, 372. 
leucorodia. P., 247. 
leucotis, P., 327, 357. 
leucura, N., 120. 
levaillanti, iC, 353, 354. 
Licmetis nasiea, 337, 353, 356. 

,, pasfinnfnr, .353. 

Liquriinis rj, Juris, IS, 52, 53, 181. 
l:,nnirliih„, 52. 

Limosa bcli/ica,, 1 S2. 

lappotiira, 11, 182. 
linaria, L., 181. 
lineatnm, T., 168. 
lineolatus, B., 309, 354. 
Linota cannahina, 52, 53, 181. 

flarirnstris, 52, 53, 181. 

?/>/r7W/, 181. 

rufcscens, 52, 53, 181,294 
Liothrix Inteus, 295. 
Lissotis, m.elanogaster, 39, 40. 
LobivaneUus senegalentis, 75. 
Imigicauda, P., 354, 355. 
Imigirostris, Z., 2, 


Index to Genera and Speeies. 

LophophnneK /iiphijinlpli im. loo. 
Lophoj^haps, leucogaster, 219. 
Lophortyx calijornioa, 31, 326, 
333,334, 372. 
„ douqlasi, 354. 

lophotcs, ()., 220. 
Lurkuhis indiciis, S'i2, 355. 

,, gnlgnJus, 352. 

Lorius (htmiccUa, 355. 

flaro-paUiaius, 352, 357. 
garruhs, 327, 353, 375. 
'lory, 352, 35H. 
/ors/, L., 352, 356. 
Loxia curvirostris, 181. 
iMgvbri.'i, 3/., 181, 245, 296, 32 J 
^., 3. 
luscinia, D., 181, 191. 
^M/ea, Z.. 2. 
luteola, B., 218. 
/h/('».s, L., 295. 

P., 32, 53. 


macao A., 3^1. 355. 
macclellana'i, H., 155. 
Machetes piignax, 182. 
Ma(]i!( hipJiKS xanilwqem,^,, loo 

//('/r,./.,//,,,v, ,4 , 156. 
V*(,/r,(/;n.v///.S S., 270. 

maculosa, N., 254. 
macrorhynchiis, 'C, 353. 
macrurd, C, 183, 295. 

S., 272. 
madaqascariensis. F., 74, 84. 316. 

-^., 2. 
mader.aspatensis, M., 120, 156. 
magna, A., 132. 
mfl7;fl/?. P., 28. 
ma;fl, M., 54, 55. 
'maior, D., 71, 163, 181. 

P., 181, 225, 240, 2 46, 

malnharica. A., 32. 53 55, 21' 1 

'maJacea, M., 335. 
Malacia^s capistrnla, 33. 
manteUi, A., 120. 
maracana. A., 354. 
Mareca penelope, 361 
marinellns, E., 181. 
marinus, L., 328. 
maura, P., 87. 
nifnirill'uni, Z., 3. 
///T^ .■//-;/;<,/,«. P., 354. 
///'/,/ (;-/rs-. 7^., 23 7. 
mayoltensis, Z., 2, 5. 
mer/alorhy7U-Jius' T., 35^' 
mr-f//a, S', 177. 

melariicteruSy M., 87. 
me}anocephal<i, 'C, 352. 
„ P., 360. 

Z., 3^ 6. 
melanoceplialns, H., 7. 
meJanochlamys., /., 96. 
meJarioqaster, L., 39, 40. 

^.. 247. 
nu-Janoiicia, 'C., 28. 
mi'tanope, M.., 181. 
melanolophus, L., 155. 
melancps, S., 155. 
Z., 3, 6. 
mc'.ancptera, Gla., 101. 

6Vfl., 11, 9^ 
melanura, P., 352, 356. 
WP?&a, P., 195. ;217, 333. 
meleagns, A., 37. 
Meloplms melanictems, 87. 
MelupsUtacv.k nndnlalus, 3' 18, 

315, 352, 360. 
Melopyrrha nigra, 120. 
melpodus, .S., 56, 84, 33^, 3.5.^. 
mensirvvs, P., 68, 338, 352, 35. i, 

Meicps firidis, 250. 
??^Yr?^'a, M., 181, 245. 

T., 19. 
Menila atricmloris, 120. 
hnnlhnul, 35, 49. 
fuscafor. 49. 
ii.fuscata, 120. 
m"n</fl. 181, 245. 
lorqnala, 181. 
Rjcsia arge7itauiis,. 120, 155 
:hb;i.'ca)iiis, '6., 383, 384 
■mevem, Z., 2 
nieyert P. 68 "314, 35 L 
mJA-ado, C\, 120. 
miliaria, E., 181. 
militaris, A., 354. 
Milvus aegypticns, 177. 

„ ^ovikfia, 344. 
minima, L., 56, 317, 333, 335 
minuta, T., 77. 

-^., 3, 5. 
mirahiUs, P., 315, 316. 
milchelU, r., 352, 354. 
Mixarnis ruhricapillus, 155 
mod est a, A., 53, 216. 
Pa?., 354. 
Poe, 54, 89. 
^ 3 
modnlaris, \A., .181, 246. 
vtnJliss'iin>a, S., 343. 
mo/»r.-,'/^s-/,s-, C, 337, 35 K 355 

mnnachus, M., 354, 355. 
vuwedula, <€., 244. 
mnnfamis. P., 19, 53, 181. 

hnirr In (, 

(I ml N, 


monticola. P., 155. 
moiii;fiiti(/illa, F., 52, 181. 
Mofarilla alba, 174, 181. 
„ /lava, 15(>. 

liiyubn.s. 181, 2-ir), 2h{) 
324, 328. 
„ maderaspaUnt-is. 120, 

meJanr.jift. 181. 
■pci-s(:)i.ala, 15(;. 
/■«;■;. 181 ,2'Jti, 321. 
mneileri, T., 355. 

i?., 3, G. 
V'llfiiolnr, P., 231, 354. 
.1/*f/,/'j atricapilki, 53, 54, 55. 316 
caslaneHlicrax, 53, 54, 55 

56, 31(i. 
fia V iprym-n a, 215. 
niaja, 54, 55. 
, malaccn, 335. 
„ nigriceps, 55. 
, oryzivoia, bo. 
., oryzivom v. oZt.'/, 54, 18-5, 
290, 333, .^5!). :i7- 
pecloraUs, 73, 216, 290. 
punclulata, 53, 54. 55, 316, 
Muscicapa atncajdUa, 181. 

f7mo?a, 181, 245, 21)6. 
„ parva, 363. 

musicus, T., 19, 245. 
Myiophoneus temmencki, 87, 
Myopsitiacus monachus, 354, 355 
myaoriensis, Z., 3, 6. 

na«a, S., 53, 56, 333, 372. 
??a«Vo, L., 337, 353, 356. 
\asiterna pygmaea, 355. 
nehidosa. T., 77. 
Necfaniiia famom, 89, 378-9. 
n en day, 'C, 352, 355. 
Xeopliema hniiil<ci, 352. 

,, chry.^ngaslrd, 355. 

„ elcf/anji, 353. 

., jiciropJiiki. 35(). 

pi'lrliclla, 35(). 
ve.nusta, 352. 
Neoiis denhami, 39, 40. 
ne pale?} sis, Pal., 124, 250, 351 
P|/r., 156. 
Nesior notahilis, 354. 
Neition crecca. 296, 361. 
/%r«. C, 352, 354. 

3/., 120. 
nigriceps, M., 55. 

„ >S,, 107, 155, 

ni<jri<jciiis, A., 31, 75, 230, 290, 

349, 352. 
nigrioiilaiis, T., 21b, 276, 352. 
NigriDifiilinii, T ., 167, 

Y., 155, 223, 231, 
333, 380. 

lli(jini 11)11, Z., 2. 
X 111(1 ra grandifi, 120. 
■^luuiard, 155. 
Hipalrn.^is, II., 28. 
////■r//^^■, /'.. ISl. 
iiirciyvl/ala, L., 380-1. 
»ot/Ma, .4., 169, 191. 
notahilis, N., 354. 
NotJiiira mant.Ut.^i), 254. 
Notodelii lri(rur,i, 120. 
ncrae-rjiUHCdc, Z., 2. 

„ -linlluiidiai', 'C, 31, 48, 315, 
353, 359. 

„ -hidUuuliac, T., 327, 352, 356 

,, -zealaiidiae, C, 356. 

,, -ze-alandiae, G., 355. 
Nueifraga caryocatacies, 181. 
Numenius arcuatun, 78. 
,, arquata, 296. 

phaeopws, 78, 361. 
X/')nid(i. )ii('lcfii;ri.^, 37. 
Xyrlaki tr/n/iU'ihii,. 172. 
XyDipliiois ronriiliis, 354. 

,, uvaeensis, 356. 

Nyroca ferina, 361. 


ohscunis, A., 181. 
ochrocephala, C, 338, 357. 
ochropiera, C, 351, 357. 
ochropvs, T., 11. 
Ocypli aps lopJi ute.s, 220. 
Odont(/]j]iorus gtittalus, 299. 
Oedicnemus scolopax, 176. 

,, se^negalenais, 103. 

oenanthe, S., 176, 181, 292, 296, 

oli'agina, Z., 2. 
()livace,a, Z., 3. 
opihahnica, <J., 337, 352. 
Oreicola feirea, 120. 
Oiiclas h-undon, 250. 

//7f////;, i5(). 

ontahtx, 7'., .')55. 
OrlliGtoini(,s nificeps, 156. 
Oriygospiza, atncolli.^, 381. 
„ pclyzona, 381. 

o;-wj', E., 27. 

„ P.. 72. 
oriizironi, M., bb. 

r. alba, M .. 54, 183, 
290, 333, 359, 3 72. 
Uiyzohoius, 43. 


hidex to Genera and Species. 

osiraleffus, H., 348. 
Otidid^e, 39. 
Otocurys alpestiis, 181. 
oius, ^.,171. 
Oxyechus f orbed, 76. 

Palaeornis alexandri, 351, 354. 

,, cyanocephala, 349, 352, 

„ derbyana, 353. 

„ fnsfiiifii. 351, 354. 

„ iii(Jii-h;i niuma, 338. 

/ i,,jn<i>,ii, 354, 355. 
, iUGdcsla, 354. 

nepalensin, 124, 350, 

351, 354. 

, peristerodes, 354. 

„ rosa, 356. 

,, schisticeps, 28, 60, 356. 

„ torquata v. lut&a, 357 

torquata, 250, 349. 

352, 356. 
pallida, Z., 1. 

palUdicep^% P., 32, 315, 354. 
paJpebrosa, Z., 1, 3, 7, 61, 155 

palustris, P., 181, 
S'., 181. 
Tanurus biarmicus, 181, 219. 
paradism, S., 27, 32, 84, 316, 

333, 335. 
paradiseus, D., 87. 
Paradisortvis rudolphi, 102. 
Paroaria cucullaki, 52, 73, 83, 278, 
280, 285. 
larvaia, 52, 279. 
Parridae, lb. 
Pams ater, 181, 246. 
„ atriceps, 155. 
„ caeruletus, 181, 246. 

»^a/or, 181, 225, 240, 246, 
„ moniicola, 155. 
„ palustris, 181. 
parva, M., 363. 
parimlns, T., 181, 246. 
Passer arcioatus, 9, 13. 

„ cinnamomeus, 32, 120 

difhisus, 9, 53. 

dcnieslicus, 19, 53, 181, 244 

;»/eHS. 32, 53. 

,, moniamis, 53, 181. 

ms.N-er»w, P., 32, 231, 279, 323, 

349, 352, 355. 
pasiinutor, L., 353. 
Pastor roseus, 49, 181. 
paiagomis, 'C., 354, 

Payo crisiatus, 87. 
pavanina, B., 40. 
pavua, iC, 355. 
pectoral is, E., 356. 
G'., 167. 

ill., 73, 216, 291. 
peeuaria, Ae., 76. 
pelzelm, 8., 52, 53, 290. 
penelope, M., 361. 
Perdicula argoandah, 120. 

„ asiatica, 120. 

Perdix coturnix, 365. 
peregrinus. P., 155. 
Pericrocotus brevirostris, 65, 120, 
,, peregrimis, 155. 

„ rosexis, 155. 

„ speciosus, 155. 

peristerodes, P., 354. 
persicus. P., 177. 
per sonata, E., 69. 
M., 156. 
Poe., 30, 53, 54,89, 219, 

291, 315, 333. 
Py//-., 29, 352, 354. 
perlinax, 'C, 356. 
Peironia flavicollis, 218. 
Peirophila cinclorhyncha, 156. 
„ erylhrogastra, 156. 

,, solitaria, 156. 

peirophila N., 356. 
phaeopus iV., 78, 361. > 

Phaeton flavirostris, 177. 
Phalacrocornx alba, 174. 

car&o, 173, 297, 298 
,, desmaresli^ 298. 

,, gracul^us, 297. 

Phalaropus fulicarius, 56. 
Ph-aps chalcaidera, 31. 
,, elegans, 31, 75. 
Phasianinae, 136. 
Philemmi, 211. 

,, argeniiceps, 208. 

plioemcoptera. P., 195, 197, 198, 

phoenicoiis, E., 84,' 223, 315, 333. 
phoenicurus, R., 117, 181, 316. 
phoenicus, A., 254. 
Phonipara, canora, 31, 46, 74, 183, 
192, 221, 222, 290, 
330, 335. 
Zep?rfa, 31, 55, 73, 192, 
PhyVopezus, afiicana, lb. 
Phylloscopus colliibita, 191. 
' „ ?-»/ms, 181, 296. 

trochilus, 192, 296, 
pictt/, 'C 13. 
mtom, r., 181. 
■ , Z., 53. 

Index to Genera and Species. 


pileatas, C, -Jl.s, :j;5:j. 
P., 355. 

PioHop.s'iUacHs pik'iiitus, 3o5. 
P/o««.s- cliahciilcnis, ?>b2. 

„ /.^,,,^, ;]r,;i, ;i^7. 

„ 'mii.rniiilidiii, 354. 

,, men.slnin.'<, (>H, 3bH 352^ 

35(i, 35 7. 
„ aeniliti, 357. 
P»7/a cucullala, ]5(). 
Plaialea leucorodiu, 24 7. 
Plat peer cime, 30, 347. 
PialycercKn adeluidae, 351. 
„ hrGunii, 352. 

„ elegans, 32, 355. 

,, eryihrcpeplus, 356. 

„ eximiufi, 31, 32, 35o, 

„ flaveoln.'i, 357. 

„ flaviventris, 30, 35 7. 

„ icier of is, 231, 356. 

„ paUidiceps, 32, 315, 

splendidus, 357. 
Plcch-(,pln'iuix nivalis, 181. 
Plorcvhic, 52, 53, 89, 34 7. 
Ploccipasscr 'malinli, 28. 
plucialis, v., 182. 
Pluvia)iH.s aeqijpl'ius, 103. 
Poeocephuli, Oil, 378. 
Poecephalus aubryanus, 68, 351. 
„ ouhryi, 68, 351. 

„ gulielmi, 354. 

„ w,eyeri, 68, 314, 35 4. 

„ robiislus, 68. 

„ senegaletisis, 68, 33S 

352, 356. 
Pocpliild (icidicauda, 54, 55, 217, 
291, 322, 333. 
,, cincta, 54, 55. 

gouldiae, 31, 43, 217, 

222, 33.3, 335. 
/(<v7,/. 322. 
mi ra hi lis, ;i ! 5, ;51(i. 
iiir.dc.sld, 54. 81). 
,, personata, 30, 53, 54, 8;), 
219, 291, 315, 333. 
poUogaslcr. Z., 2. 
Pnhih(,nis rlu-riiraif, 283. 
Pulyh'lis han-'iiatidi, 352. 

,, iiicldiiura, 3.52, 356. 

mlyzo?ia, 0., 381. 
Pomalorhimis erylJirogott/s, 92, 155 

poiMpensis, Z., 3, 5. 
pondicerianus, F., 250. 
rorphyrio porjihyri/j, 254. 
Porphyrorcj/haiius sp^irius, 355. 
porpJiyrocephalus, G., 355. 

pnilcHsis, A., 181, 183. 
.'.'., 181, 191. 
l'i(ilu,ri,l,i maura, 87. 

„ rubetra, 181. 

,, ntbicola, 181, 245. 

pralincoh, G., 104. 
Pri(;)iulc'lu.s teinnunis, 70. 
Prv.mcrops cafer, 89. 
Propasi<er pa'lcJwrrimus, 156. 

rliodurlnous, 28, 219, 
333, 335. 
Pseph(,lv.': chrysofU'rygius, 353, .355 
„ cucullaliis, 6 7. 

„ dissimilis, 352, 354. 

iiacniatonotus. 356, 359. 
haemuiorrhous, 230. 356. 
,, multicolor, 231, 354 

xcuniliorrhGUS. 357. 
psiilacca. E.. 43= 45. 54. 
Psittaci, 347. 
Psitiaculu gmmnensis, 354. 

„ p^sserina, 32, 231. 279 

323. 349. 352. 355. 
P.sillai ir- erilhacus, 314, 354. 
I'.siii, III, Ic.-. clilorolepidoliis, 35(j. 
I'sillniiis ijirer!u.s, l'j:l, 352. 
Plertwirs ,inad ihliirlus, 37. 
Plilopiis r<>nU..i,</r,isis, 185. 
Plilosccra oer^iiDior, 35,5, 357. 
PtistcH erylhroplciu-s, 353, 356. 
pitc^//a, /., 95, 98. 99. 
Puff inns kuii li, 174. 
,, pcrsicus, 177. 

„ ycih'(,ua7iH.s, 174. 

puqnar, M., 182. 
mdcheUa, €., 101. 
iV., 356. 
puh'herrimus, P., 156. 
pullaria. A., 289, 290, 349, 355. 
punctulata, M., 53, 54. 55, 316, 

Pyciorhis sinensis, 155. 
pygmaea, N., 355. 
pygmaeus, I., 106, 382. 
Pyromelana abyssinica, 360, 372. 
„ capensis, 84. 

fraucisrcuHi, 84, 375. 
mela/ioccplrilii. 360. 
(//•^.x, 72. 
/a/(a, 360. 
pyrrhops, 8., 155. 
pyrrJioptcnis. B., 355. 
Pyrrhuld cuinpca, 52, 53, 181. 

itci-alcnsis, 156. 
Pyrrimlov.sis persotmta, 29, 352, 
35,3, 354. 
r.plendens, 356. 
,, tabuensis, 353, 356. 

Pynhura leucotis, 327, 357. 
„ vittata, 353. 


index to Genera and Species. 

Fytelia, 381. 

afm, 195, 196, 197. 
„ melba, 195, 217, 333. 
, phoenicoptera, 195, 197, 
198, 333. 


qiMdricinct(Us, P., 37, 89. 

quelea quelea, 49, 75, 84, 316, 375 


radiatuni, O., 61. 
rail, M., 181, 296, 324. 
ramsay, Z., 1. i 

Recur virostris avocetta, 182. 
Eeffulvs crisiatus, 181. 
r&ndovae, Z., 2. 
reliouiala, J5J., 352. 
MhinoptUus chaLcopterus, 103. 
rhodochrous, P., 28, 219, 333, 335, 

EJiyacornis fvbliginosa, 120. 
ricmiatu E., 35o, 357. 
ridibunckis, L., 1^3, 174, 175. 
riparia, C, 244, 296. 
ribonus, T., 86, 250, 365. 
robastus, F., 68. 
roratufi, E., 322, 327, 353. 
rorolongensis, P. 18&. 
rosa. P., 356. 
roseicapdia, <C.., 356. 
roseicoUis, A., 230, 349, 355, 356. 
roseus, Pas., 49, 181. 

„ Per., 15o. 
Rostratula capensis, 102. 
rubecuia, E., 181. 
rubetra, P., 181. 
rulncola, P., 181, 245. 
rubra, E., 353, 355, 356. 
rubricapiilMS, M., 155. 
rubritorques, 1 ., 275, 276, 355^ 

ruhrolarvaius, 'C, 355. 
mdi5, 'C, 174, 250. 
rudolphi. P., 102. 
rw/a, />., 87. 

rulescens, L., 52, 53, 181, 294 
ruficavda, B., 216, 222, 315, 333 
ruliceps, 0., 156. 

6'., 120, 134. 
ruficoUis, D., 120, 155, 166. 

(;., 155. 
rufilata, I., 120. 
rufiventris, R., 155. 
T., 280. 
rw/Mi-, F., 279. 

P., 181, 296. 
rws^ica, H., 174, 181. 

Ruticilla frontalis, 155. 

„ plwenicunis, 117, 181, 

„ rufiventris, 155. 

^i<2/5, 118, 181. 

salvini, 'C, 356. 
sunguin&a, 'C, 352. 
Sarciophortis techis, 76. 
satiirata, Ae., 156, 380. 
8\axicol-a, oetwnthe, 176, 181, 292, 

296, 328. 
Scaeorhynciis, mficeps, 120, 134. 
8card<ifelLa squamosa, 220. 
schisticeps, Pal., 28, 60, 356. 
schoemclus, E., 181, 290. 
scintillatus, C, 355. 
r., 353. 
scolopax, Oe., 176. 
Scops giu, 171. 
seheriae, Ae., 156. 
tSelenidera maculirostris, 270. 
semi f lava, Z., 2, 5. 
semitorqualtts, B., 306, 357. 
semper I, Z., 2. 
se-negala, L., 221, 223. 
senegalensis. Lob., 75. 
0., 103. 

P., 68, 338, 352, 356 
T., 39. 
Z., 2. 
senilis. P., 359. 
aerirms canicoliis, 53, 73. 
„ fluviventris, 52, 53. 
„ hortulanus, 52, 181. 

iciems, 52, 290, 316, 333. 
„ leucopygitis, 52, 53, 223, 
^90, 316, 335, 349, 
360, 372. 
„ sulphuratus, 53. 
sever/d, A. 337. 
siamensis Z., 2, 5. 
sinensis. P., 155. 
Aniens, L., 52. 
sipalii, H., 28. 
Siphia strophiata, 155. 
SiUbgra guttata; 360. 
Si<<a caesi-a, 181. 
„ castaneiventris, 325, 333. 
„ cituiamomeiventris, 120, 156. 
„ frontalis, 155. 
6tu<i cyanuroptera, 155. 
smyrnensis, H., 382. 
socialis, 8., 16. 
solitaria. P., 156. 

solstitialis, C, 356, 357. : 

Somatera mollissima, 343. 

Index to' Genera and Species. 


SpaiJiopterus alexaiidiae, 230, 355. 
specios^Hs, 155. 
tipeotyto cimictilaria, 279. 
tSpernu'sles cticniUata, 54, 55, 3L0, 
^, nfina, 53, 56, 333, 372. 

SpermapJill^a, 43. 

,, alhigularis^ 143, 183. 

„ grisea, 139, 140. 

gutturalia, 139, 142. 
„ palu><tns, 140. 

„ supercilmris, 120, 218 

Spennophilae, 139. 
spilonotus, H., 47, 56. 
spinoides, H., 219. 
spinosus H., 76. 

spinws iC. 52, 53, 181, 295, 361. 
spixi, iC, 356. 
iSpizella socialis, 16. 
splendens, <€., 247, 249. 

P., 356. 
splendidus, P., 357. 
Sporaeginthus amandava, 56, 75, 
84, 87, 218, 223,i 
291, 333. 
„ 'melpodus, 56, 84, 

333, 33o. 
„ s^ibflavus, 56, 84, 

221, 333, 335. 
Sporopipes squamifrons, 335. 
spurius, P., 355. 
sqiiamata, €., 31, 254, 326. 
sqioamifrons, 8., 335. 
squamosa, S., 220. 
Squataroia helvetica, 76, 182. 
Stachyrhidopsis pyrrhops, 155. 
Stachyria mgriceps, 107, 155. 
stagnatalis, T., 77. 
Steganoplev^ra guttata, 54, 57, 216, 

221, 335. 
Stegarmm paradisea, 27, 32, 84, 

316, 333, 335. 
sieZtoe, iC, 356. 

Sterconarius crepidatus, 173, 174. 
Sterna cantioa, 342. 

fluviatilis, 271, 340. 
J, macrura, 271. 
„ media. 177. 

melariogaster, 247. 
Stictoptera annulosa, 154. 

„ bichenovt, 81, 43, 53. 

55, 217, 221, 222, 
Sticiospiza formosa, 183, 218, 223, 

315, 333. 
Stoparola melanops, 155. 
strenua, Z., 1. 
striata, G., lb. 

v., 53, 54, 55, 316. 
/S/rix flammea, 170. 

slrophiata, S., 155. 

Sturnidac, 13. 

SlMrnopa-stor coiilrn, 156. 

Slurmis vulgaris, 17, 49, 181, 244 

Ktibarquata, T., 76. 

aubflavns, S., 56, 84, 221, 333, 

■Knhrose-fi, Z., 1. 
fiiiecia, '6'., 181. 
6'Mte cyanops, 176, 177. 
leucoga^tra, 176. 
Kulphuratus, S., 53. 
fiulph'urea, €., 337, 354. 
simdara, N., 155. 
siondevalli, E., 27. 
super ciliaris, 'C, 155. 

)S'., 120, 218. 
s.uratensis, T., 86. 
ISycalis fiaveola, 48, 52, 53. 
pelzclni,b2, 53, 290. 
Sylvia atricapilla, 181. 

„ cincrea, 181, 245, 296. 

„ curnuca, 181, 191, 245, 

„ hortensis, 181, 191. 
Syrnium aluco, 169. 


tabuetisis P., 352, 356. 

Taeniopygia caManotis, 31, 48, 53, 
54, 55, 73, 183, 
217, 222, 290, 315, 
333, 335, 359, 372. 

/a/ta, P., 360. 

ia.;»fci, T., 120. 

Taiiygnathus everetti, 353, 

„ iticgalorhynchus, 353. 

„ muelleri, 355. 

taranta A., 351. 

Tarsiger chrysaens, 156. 

iec/M^, 6\,76. 

ternmencM, iC, 103. 
M., 87. 

tcmrmms, P., 70. 

t&ngmalmi, N., 172. 

tenuirostris, Z., '1. 

Tetrao coturnix, 365. 

teydea, F., 62, 65, 66|. 

Thantnobia camiaiensis, lob, 333, 

^*;«2 wnculu s, F ., 175. 

/mc<i, B., 348, 351. 

<i/?/5, P., 118, 181. 

^orda, 4., 60. 

torquata v. lut&a., P., 357, 

torqimtus, M., 181. 

P., 250, 349, 352, 356, 

torqiiilla, I., 71. 


Index to Genera and Species. 

Totanus calidris, 77, 182, 296. , 
„ glareola, 11. I 

J, hy-poleucus, 7l, 7 7, 182,1 

„ nebularis, 11. 
,. ochropu.s, 11. 
„ slagnatali.-i, 77. 
/o/te, C, 53. 

TracheloUs senegalensis, 39. 
traillii, 0., 156. 

Trichoglossus cyanograitinrmf), 353. 
„ forsfcni. 353. 

„ iohnsioniae, 355. 

„ mitchelli, 352, 354. 

nigrig'ularis, 275, 

276, 352. 
novae -hoUandiae, 

327, 352, 356. 
., ornatus, 355. 

„ rubritorques, 275, 

276, 355, 356. 
„ scintillatus, 853. 

trichroa, E., 54. 

Tridaria cyanogasler, 355, 357. 
tridactylus, L., 342. 
Tringa alpina, 182. 
„ carmius, 11, 182. 
„ Tmrmta, 11. 
„ mharquaia, 76. 
trivialis, J., 181. 
Trochalopierum lineafu})i, 168. 

, , m grime nium, 167. 

varieaaium, 168, 
trochilus, P., 191, 296. 
Troglodytes aedon, 16. 

„ parvulus, 181, 246. 

fro*/e, [/., 341. 
Tropidorhynchu^, 208. 

„ corniculaiu^ , 

tui, B., 356. 
tuipara, B., 353. 
tureosa, I., 95, 96, 98. 
Turd'us, 49. 

„ alhiv&niris, 280. 

„ ilmciis, 181. 

„ merula, 19. 

„ musicus, 19, 244. 

„ pilaris, 181. 

„ rufiventris, 280. 

varius, 156. 
„ viscinonis, 244. 

Turnicidae, 38. 
Tumix dussumieri, 120. 
„ I e pur ana, 38. 
/.fl«/a', 120. 
Turiur rimrius, 86, 250, 365. 
„ suratensifi 86. 
„ turtur, 365. 
ticieedalii, /., '95, 100. 



nndiUatn.s, M.. 31, 48, 315, 352, 

r-//a /,o//r', 341. 

Urolo)ulia acaticduda, 53, 54, 55. 
dame.sfica, 53, 54, 55, 
291, 316, 333, 335. 
.s///a<f7, 53, 54, 55,316 
uropyyiaUs, Z., 2, 5. 
uvai'-cnsis, N., 356. 

VaHellKS, cri-siafus, 361. 
,, vulgaris, 182. 

variegatum, T., 168, 193. 
varius, T., 156. 
uo^a, 'C, 353. 
vatensis, Z., 1. 
venust-a, N., 352. 
versicolor, €., 352. 

P., 355, 357. 
vmncea, 'C., 357. 
violacea, .4., 89. 
virens, Z., 2. 
virescens, B., 357. 
viridigena, 'C, 353. 
tv:nrfis, G., 181. 

M., 250. 
oiscivorus, T., 245. 
«j«,ate, i<7., 355. 

P., 355. 
vulgaris, \Ch., 245. 

Coc, 181. 

Co/., 365. 

/., 88. 

5., 17, 49, 181, 244. 

T'., 182. 
Volaiinia jacarini, 222, 333, 335. 


ivestermanni, Ec, 357, 
westernensis, Z., 1. 


xanthochroa, Z., 2. 
xanthogenys, iW., 155. 
Xanfliolaema hematocephala, 156. 
xa7ithorrhaus, P., 357. 

yelkoua)ms, P., 174. 
yuccatensis., L., 380. 
YM/ii«« mgrimentum 



231, 333, 380, 

hidex to (loicni anA !<peeies. 


Zeiiaida amah'tlia, 183. 
zeylonica, A., 15 G. 
Zonoyasiris, 195. 
zonarlus. B., 352, 355. 
Zonal ricliia U'ncoplirijs, 53. 

„ pilcalo, 53. 

Zosierups abi/ssiiiica, 2. 

albicfularis, 1. 

alhivcntrifi, 1. 

an'juaiwnsix, "2. 

atricainlla, 2. 

a1 rice pit, 3, G. 

afrifro/is, 2. 

aiircifroi/.s, i. 

ui(rci(iidit, 2. 

a/^/vi'rr///,---, 1. 

Z>r);7.o//7V,/, 3, 5. 

hnunicicaiKia, 2, 

burucnsis, 2. 

caerulescens, 1. 

capensis, 2. 

ceylo7iensis, 2. 

chlorates, 3, 5. 

chloris, 2. 

cliloronoia, 3. 

chrysolaema, 2. 

cinerea, 3, 5. 

ciirinella, 2. 

conspicillafa, 2. 

crismlis, 1. 

delicalula, 2. 

erythropleura, 1. 

eurycrocoins, 2. 

evereiti, 1. 

exploraior,, 2. 

fallnx,, 3, 5. 

ficeduUna, 3, (i. 

finsrliii, 3, 5. 

flava, 2. 

flavifrons, 2. 

fuscicapiU-a, 2, 5. 

fiiscifrons, 3. 

frigida, 3, (i. 

ya,///o, 2. 

gouldl, 1. 

Srra^i, 1. 

Zoslenips, iirisrlllfutii, 2. 

nrisrirrnler, 2. 
(,ullirrri„ 2. 
h/ipolais, 2. 
Iiypoleiicii, 3, (). 
lii/po.riiNlJiti, 2, 5. 
i/ioniala, 1. 
iiilermed'ki, 2. 
jaranica,, 3, 5. 
japcjiica, 1. 
A-irt«, 2. 
leiicophaea, 3, 6. 
loiKjiroKlris, 2. 
tiif/^uhris, 3. 
hi tea, 2. 

mculagascariends, 2. 
nmuritiann, 3, 5. 
'}ii(n/(>lt('/i.sis, 2, 5. 
)ttclnti(i<('j)lialn, 3, 6., 3, G. 
■meyeni, 2. 
miiiuta, 3, 5. 
■Dtode.sUi, 3. 
vnirllrri, 3, G. 
iiii/.sorloi.^is, 3, (J. 

novae -g'uineae, 2. 
oleaginifl, 2. 
olivacea, 3. 
pallida, 1 . 
palpehrosa, 1, 3, 7, (il, 

155, 223. 
poliogaster, 2. 
ponap'ensis. 3, 5. 
ramsay, 1. 
rendovae, 2. 
se\miflavu, 2, 5. 
seinperi, 2. 
si-nc(l(tlcil.sis, 2. 
■•iiaineiisis, 2, 5. 
strenua, 1. 
subrosea, 1. 
tenuirostris, 1. 
•uropygialis, 2, 5. 
valensis, 1. 
virens, 1. 
tvesternensifi, 1. 
xanihochroa, 2. 

4()() Index to English Xamcs of Birds. 

Index to English Names Birds 

Accentor, Alpiue, 181. 

,, Hedge, 2G, 5G, 

White Hedge, 

-Parrot, 27 


A.shy-fronted. u51. 

Blue-laced, 352. 

Blue-fronted, 68, 352. 

Cuban, 338. 

Diademed, 338, 353. 

Double-fronted, 353. 

Dufresne's, 353. 

Festive, 353. 

Gold-naped, 338, 353. 

Green, 353. 

King, 354. 

Levaillant's, 351. 

Maximilian's, 351. 

Mealy, 354. 

Plain-coloured, 355. 

jted-fronted, 355. 

Salvin's, 356. 

Spectacled, 356. 

Vinaceous, . 357. 

Violet-lieaded, 357. 

White-browed, 357. 

White-fronted, 357. 

Yellow-cheeked, 357. 

Yellow-fronted, 357. 

Yellow-naped, 357. 

Yellow-shouldered, 357. 
Aurora Astrild, 199. 

Avadavat (Common), 56, 75, 84, 87, 88, 
261, 274, 275. 290. 
291, 323, 338, 3:2. 
Green, 69, 183, 218, 223, 229, 
230, 257, 261, 275, 
290, 315, 316, 330, 
333, 334, 372. 
Red, 218, 223, 229, 230, 290, 
333, 334. 
Avocets, 182, 255. 

Babblers, 105, 378. 

Black-throated Wren-. 107, 155. 
,, Golden-eyed, 152, 155. 
„ Jungle, 155. 

Pied-billed, 155. 
„ Rusty-cheeked Scimitar. 376. 

Scimitar- (vide Scimitar-Babblers 

Shrike- (vide Shrike-Babblers— 
., Yellow-breasted, 155. 
Barbet, Coppersmith, 156. 
Beccafico, 325. 
Bee-Eater, Green. 250. 
Bengalese, 53, 54, 55, 152, 162, 229. 
230, 256, 291, 316. 
330, 333, 334, 335, 
372, 375. 
Bird of Paradise, Blue, lOi (vide Wea^ 
Bitterns, 27, 187. 
Blackbird, 19, 20, 


25, 27, 31, 35, 50, 
71. 90, 121, 181, 182, 
233, 245, 252, 253, 
Argentine, 49, 51. 
Hybrids, 51, 249. 
Blackcap. 24, 63, 71, 72, 90, HI, 112, 
114, 157, 158, 181, 182. 
Black-headed Sibia, 33-6. 
Rlood-of-an-Ox, 280. 
Blue-Bird, Brazilian Fairy, 96. 
Fairy, 95, 97, 98. 
Javan Fairy, 96, 97. 
,, ,, Malaccan Fairy, 100. 
,, Summatran Fairy, 98. 

Tweedale's Fairy, 100. 
Blue-throat, 181. 
Boobies. 176, 177. 
Booby, Masked, 177. 
Bower-Birds, 93. 
Braniblefinch, 26, 71. 
Brambling, 181. 

Budgerigar, 30, 31, 32, 48, 57, 60, 81, 
89, 119, 151, 154, 162, 
182, 188, 228, 234, 
259, 265, 290, 315, 
Blue, 28, 30, 160, 230, 231, 


Green, 60, 83, 153, 154, 231, 

338, 348, 360, 361. 

Yellow, 60, 67, 83, 125, 153, 

338, 348, 352, 368. 

Bulbuls, 86, 228. 

Black, 228. 

Green (vide I'ruitsucker-F.) 
Brown-eared, 155. 
Red-eared, 69, 228. 
Rufous-bellied, 155. 
lUilllinch. 32, 52, 53, 84, 90, 158, 
181, 228, 252, 253, 257. 
Black Cuban, 120. 
Brown, 156. 
Desert-trumpeter, 125. 
Bunting, 12, 71, 175, 188. 
Black-headed, 180. 
Cirl, 72. 181. 
Corn, 72, 90, 180, 181. 
Crested, 87. 

Indigo. 183. 188, 256, 257, 
Lapland, 181. 
Little, 72. 
., Lutino, 72. 

Meadow, 72, 181. 

Nonpareil, 183, 188, 218, 256, 

Ortolan, 181. 

Rainbow, 63, 69, 218, 261. 
Red-headed, 218. 
Reed, 72, 176, 181, 290. 
Snow, 72, 157, 181. 
Yellow, 31, 181, 227, 245, 

hirlr.r in English Namrs of Birds. 


Rush Chats, 87. 
r.iush-Turkev, 39. 
I'.iistard, 39. 

Black-broastcd. ^0. 

Deubain's. 10. 

Senegal, 39. 
Kuslanl-Quail, Smith'.s, 3>i. 
I'.nz/ard. 2(;3, 2S2. 

Caiciuf. lUack-licadcd. 3,-,2. 
Calornis. Glossv. 120. 15G. 
Caiiaiv. 32, 48, 73, 71. 193. 228. 231. 
25G, 257, 2(13. 290. 
Cape. 53, 73. 
Hartz., 261, 330. 
Caracara, Audubon's, 2^1. 282. 
Cardinal, 16, 228. 

Green. 43, 52. 69. 100, 261. 

Grev, 119. 
Pope, 52, 279. 

Rod-crested, 52, 69. 73, 261, 

279, 280, 285, 321. 

339. 349. 

Virginian, 47, 52, 62, 63, 69, 

228, 257, 261, 279, 

Carpentaries, 279. 

Chaffinch, 24, 25. 26, 27, 31, 52, 56, 
91, 158. 181, 228, 
245, 252, 253, 
Blue, 62, 65, 66, 67, 69. 
Chat, Bush-, 87. 

„ Dark Grey Bush-. 120. 
„ Stone-, .56, 160. 181, 182, 245, 
Whin-. 181, 182. 
Chiff-chaff. 90. 121, 157. 1.58, 181, 

328, 362. 
Chloropsis, Hard\vick"s, 234. 
Chough, 71, 72. 

Cockateel, 31, 48, 83, 89, 92. 152, 
259, 265. 285, 
327, 348, 353. 
Cockatoos, 153, 304, 338. 
Cockatoo, Banksian, 337, 352. 
Bare-eyed. 337. 352. 
Black. 230. 
,. Blood-stained. 352. 

,, Blue-eyed, 352. 

Citron-crested. 353. 
Corilla, 353, 
Covilla, 353. 
Dampier, 353. 
,, Ducorps' 353. 

Ganga, 337, 353. 
Gang-gang. 264. 287. 353. 
Goffin's, 337, 353. 
Great-billed Black, 353. 
Great Salmon-crested. 353. 
Great White-crested, 353. 
Greater Sulphur-crested. 
Leadbeater's, 63, 68, 125. 
,, Lemon-crested, 354. 

Co.k^il.n. I,,.sscr Leninn-crested. 337. 

Lesser Siil|)hur-:T( s' ed. 354. 

Moluccan. 354. 

Orange-crested, 355. 

lioseate, 264, 2^7. 

Hose-breasted, 356. 

liose-cresled, 356. 

Salmon-crested, 125. 337. 35i 

Slender-billed, 337, 356. 

South Sea Island. 356. 

Sulphur-crested. 356. 
Coffee Birds, 97. 

Combasou, 84. 229, 256, 275. 338. 
Connre. Black-headed, 352, 
Blue-crowned, 352. 
Brazilian, 338. 
Brown-cheeked, 352. 
^ „ Brown-lhroated. 352. 
, „ Cactus, 352. 

Caroline, 287. 352. 

Golden-crowned, 353, 375. 

Golden-headed, 353. 

Green, 353. 

Jendaya, 354. 

Lesser Patagonian. 354. 

Red-bellied, 355, 

Red-headed, 35,5. 

St. Thomas' 356. 

Sun, 356. 

White-eared, 327. 357. 

Yellow, 357. 


Yellow-headed. 357, 375. 


Coot, 56. 


Cordon Bleu, 63. 64. 75, 84, 88, 188 


234, 250, 251, 


257, 261, 289, 


315, 318, 330, 

33 3, 

334, 335, 372, 



376, 378. 

Corm..rant. 27, 173, 174, 244, 341, 


Common, 297. 


Green. 297. 
Courser, l:lack-backod. 103. 
Senegal. 103. 
Violet-winged. 103. 


Cow-Bird, 279. 


„ „ Silky, 70. 


Crane, Crowned. 40. 

., Jap. White-necked. 193. 
Sarus, 193. 
Crossbill, 181. 
Crows, 88, 174. 210. 
Crow, Carrion. 15«. 
.. Hooded. 362. 
.. Indian House. 217. 
Crow-Tit. 105. 133. 202. 

.. Larger Red-headed, 120, 


Cucko.,. 157. 1.58. 232. 262. 


270, 292. 325. 

Curlew. 56. 78. 90. 296. 55. 57. 7.5. 84. 119, 12,5, 


228. 256. 257, 


290, 316, 323. 





35 1 . 

Dhyal Bird, 1.56, 261, 3.30, 


Index to English Names of Birds. 

Diver, 298. 

„ Northern. 157. 
Dotterel. 181. 
Doves. 13. 21. 22. 153. 
Dove. Barbarv. 13. 14, 15. 22. 227, 365; 
,, Bar-shouldered, 220. 
., Bronze-spotted, 15. 
;, Bronz:-wng d, 86, 88 323. 
„ Cape, 15, 220, 339. 
„ Crested, 1S2. 214. 
„ Diamond, 13, 31, 43. 154, 183, 
188, 220, 225, 265 
323. 333. 335. 
„ Green-winged, 32. 

Ground, 83. 
„ Hybrid, 22. 
„ Island, 185. 
„ Masked, 43. 220. 
„ Pea, 183. 
„ Picui, 13-15. 

Plumed Ground. 219. 
„ Red Ground. 188. 
„ Ring, 86. 250. 
„ Rufous-winged, 15. 
Scaly, 220. 
Senegal. 16. 

Turtle, 22, 253, 365, 366, 367. 
„ Violet, 31, 220, 265. 

White-fronted, 254. 
„ White Java. 15. 366. 367. 
Zebra. 13, 16, 75. 
Drongo, Racket-tailed, 87, 88. 

White-bellied, 156. 
Ducks, 14. 328. 
Duck, Eider, 157, 343. 

Mallard, 253, 296. 361. 
Mandarin. 154. 
Pochard, 361. 
., Ringed, 120. 
„ Shell, 91. 

Teal (see under T.) 
Wigeon (see under W.) 
Dunlin. 90. 182. 

Eagle, 184, 263. 

Black, 345. 
Eagle-Owl, Nepalese, 28. 
Eclectus-Parrot, 127. 

Grand, 127, 322. 327 

353, 373. 
Muller's. 355. 
Red-sided, 356. 
Scarlet, 356. 
,, ,, Westermann's. 357. 


Little, 247. 248. 


Falcon, 184. 

Gyr-, 281, 282, 283. 

Icelandic, 184, 281. 

Peregrine. 157, 184. 
Fern-Bird, 186. 187. 
Fieldfare, 27, 181, 192, 214. 

Alario, 52. 

Aurora. 196. 198, 199, 333. 

Bib, 53, 56. 64, 69, 217, 261, 

265, 274, 323, 333, 

Bicheno's, 31, 43, 53, 55, 57, 

119, 154, 162, 217, 

221, 222, 333, 334, 

338, 376. 
Beautiful Rose, 156. 
Black-faced Quail, 381. 
Blood-stained, 193. 
Blue ChafT-. 62. 65, 66, 67, 69. 
Bramble-, 26, 71. 
Brown Bull-, 156. 
Bull-, 32. 52. 53, 84, 99, 158, 

181, 228, 252, 253, 

ChaflF-, 24, 25, 26. 27, 31, 52, 

56, 71. 181, 228, 233, 

245, 252. 253, 257. 
Cherry, 53, 216. 

Chestnut. 52, 53, 54, 55, 56. 
Chestnut-breasted, 217. 
Citril, 322. 

Crimson, 64, 125, 154. 
Crimson-winged. 195, 197. 
Cuba, 376. 
Desert Trumpeter Bull-, 125. 


md, 54, 57, 64, 


152, 160, 162, 


216, 221, 261, 


290, 323, 335, 



Euler's, 2 


Fire-. 32, 

56. 57, 84, 88, 



223, 231.317, 321, 



334 335 338, 372, 



378, 381. 

Gold-. 25 

52, 53, 71, 90, 


182, 183, 184, 


256, 290, 294, 



31. 32, 43, 63 


152, 154, 169, 


188, 217, 222, 


234, 256, 261, 


288, 290, 315, 316, 

323, 330, 333, 335, 

336, 372, 376. 
Gouldian (B.H.), 43, 62, 69, 154, 

231, 275. 
Gouldian (R.H.), 154, 231, 333. 
Gouldian (Yeo. H.). 154, 188. 
Grass-, 151, 154, 188, 189, 196, 
Great-billed Desert, 120. 
Green, 45, 52, 53, 56, 71, 181, 

226, 245, 253. 
Green Singing, 32. 52, 257, 290, 

316, 333, 338, 349, 

Grey, 139-143, 188. 
Grev Singing, 52, 53. 73, 188, 215, 
223. 229, 230, 256, 290, 316, 
333, 334, 335, 338, 350, 360, 
372, 376. 
Guttural, 139-143. 
Haw-. 71, 181, 280. 
Heck's Grass-, 322, 330. 

hnh'.r fn EtigllsJi Na»irs of Birds. 


Himalayan Green-, 219. 

1 hi. rid, 52, 53, 54, 55, 180, 19:5, 

228, 286, 28"), -.VIA. 
.lai-arini, 187, 188, 222, 225. 

281, 323, 333. 334, 335. 
.Tapan so Haw-, 62, 69, 228. 
Lavender, 63. 88. 188. 231. 231. 

256, 2.")7. -'1.1. :':!(). 

1 oiig-tailed Grn.s -. 54, 55, 119, 152 

154, 160. 162. 182. 

188. 189, 216. 261. 

265. 2;H). 291. 323. 

333. :!61. 372. 
Lnno-tailed Grass- (jlcrk's). 322. 

:\larsli. 110. 
.Mask.Hl Grass-. 53. 51. 151. 188. 

219. 257, 261. 275. 

291, 31,5, 323, 329, 

333. 334. 
Melba. 195. 196. 217. 26.5. 333, 

Olive. 31. 55. 73. 81. 141. 151. 

162, 192, 231. 257, 

323, 376. 
Ornamental, 199. 
Parrot, 32, 43. 45. 54. 160. 219. 

329, 330. 
Parson, 32, 54. 55, 69. 152. 189. 

261, 338. 
Peale's Parrot, 
Pectoral, 73, 154, 216, 291. 
Pelzeln's Saffron. 52, 290. 
Peter's Spotted-Fire-, 380-1. 
Pileated, 218. 261, 333. 
Pink browed Eose- 23, 219. 330. 

333, 335. 
Pin-tailed Parrot, 375. 
Purpie-browed, Eose-. 322. 
Quail, 265. 

Quail, Black-faced. 381. 
Common, 381. 
Eed-faced. 195. 196, 197. 
Eed-headed, 54. 69, 219. 228. 

285, 287, 289, 323. 
Eibbon. 54. 55. 188. 229, 230. 
286, 287, 289, 316. 338. 372. 
Ringed, 152. 154, 372., 28, 231. 

Euficauda 69. 152. 182. 188, 
216. 222, 256. 265. 275, 315 
333, 334, 33.5, 338. 
Saffron. 48, 52. 5.3, 214. 257. 
Soaly-fronted, 322. 
Scaly-headed. 335. 
Sepoy, 28, 62, 65. 69. 
Serin. 52. 181. 
Singing. 32. 52, 53, 7,3. 84. 188. 

215, 223, 229, 230. 

256, 257, 290, 316. 

333, 334. 335, 338. 

349. 3.50. 360. 372. 
Sharp-tailed. 53, 54, 55. 268. 

Souihern Red-faced. 195. 

230, 256, 258, 
338, 372. 
Striated. 53, 54. 55, 316. 
'!"ri-coloured Parrot, 54. 
Viriaceous Fire-, 62. 65. 69. 
White-eyebrowed. 120. 
\Vhile-throaled, 143. 
y. :i:ow rumped. 215. 
Z-^bra. 31. 44, 48. 53. 54. 55 
64. 69, 73, 74. 81, 
119. 154, 182. 183, 187, 
217, 221, 222. 225, 228, 
2.30. 231. 256. 257. 261. 
275. 288. 290. 291, 315, 
323. 329, 333, 334, 335. 
.■{59. 3(;i, 372. 375. 
Kinclies, 12. 24, i;>l, 378. 
Fire-caps, 156. 

.. Indian. 
Fire-crests (see under Wr',;i). 
Firefinch, 378. 381. 
Flamingo, 125, 179. 
Flower-pecker, Australian, 254. 

Tickell'.s. 156. 227. 
Flycatchers, 12, 24, 280, 363, 365, 
Flycatcher. Orange-gorgeted, 155. 
Pied. 184. 

Eed-breasted, 363, 365 
Spotted, 181, 190, 245, 
296, 364. 
,. Verditer, 155. 

White-browed, Blue, 
Friar. Bird, 209, 211. 

Common. 208, 209. 
Helmeted, 248. 
Silverv-crowned, 208, 

Sordid. 208. 
VuUure-headed. 209. . 
YelIow-throat(!d, 209. 
Fruit sucker. 131. 212. 

Gold-fronted, 155, 189,, 

261, 266. 
Ilardwick's, 155. 234. 
261. 330. 
Fulmers. 157. 233. 





Gannets, 176, 341. 
Gannet, White, 176, 177. 
Garancho. 279. 
Geese. Chinese, 273. 
Canada. 273. 
Hybrid. 273. 
Wild. 26. 
Godwit. Bar-tailed, 77, 182. 
Black-tailed, 182. 
Gold-crests (see under Wren). 
Goldfinch. 25, 52, 53, 71, 90, 181, 182, 
183, 184, 188, 256. 
290, 294, 350. 
Himalayan, 290. 
White, 72. Brent. 91. 121. 
Canada. 273. 
., Chinese, 273, 


hidex to English Names of Birds. 

Goose, Hybrids, 273. 

Wild, 26. 
Giackle, Black-winged, 11-13. 92. 
Grassfinch, Heck's Long-tailed, 322, 330. 
Hvbrid. 383. 

Long-tailed. .54, 55. 119, 152, 
154, 160, 162, 182, 
188. 189, 216, 261, 
265, 290, 291, 323, 
333, 361. 372. 
Ma-k-d. 53, 54, 151, 188, 219. 

257, 261. 
Rnficaada, 69, 152, 182, 188. 
216, 222, 256, 265, 275, 315. 
333, 334, 335„ 338. 
Grassfinches, 151. 154, 188. 189, 196. 
Greenfinch, 48, 52, 53, 56, 71, 245, 253. 
„ Himalayan, 219. 

,, Japanese, 52. 

Greenshank, 77. 

,, Marsh, 77. 

Grosbeak, 280. 

Black-headed, 7-9. 
Blue, 321. 
Pine, 125. 

Eose-breasted. 7, 160. 
Scarlet, 180. 
Ground-Thrush, Orange-breasted, 160. 

Orange-headed, 156. 254, 

White-throated, 100.254 
Grouse, Af. Painted Sand-, 37. 

Sand-. 38. 
Guillemot, 157, 233, 252. 253, 341. 
Black. 157. 
Common, 157. 
Guinea-fowl. Black-crested, 37. 

Common, 37. 

Gull. Black-headed. 90, 173. 174. 

Brown-headed, 177. 

Common. 233. 244. 

Dark-backed. 177. 

,. Glaucous, 157. 233. 

Great Black-backed, 233. 
„ Hemprich's, 176. 
„ Herring, 9, 27, 173, 174, 252, 
253, 328, 340, 342. 
„ Lesser Black-backed. 174. 176, 177, 
233, 235, 341, 342. 
„ Sooty, 175, 176. 

Yellow-legged Herring. 173. 
Gulls, 154, 176, 235, 271, 296, 341. 


Hanging-Parrakeet, 204. 

,, Blue-crowned, 352. 

„ ., Cevlonese, 352. 

Red-headed, 352. 
Hangnest, Yellow. 125. 
Hangnests, 70, 88, 279. 
Harriers, 176. 
Hawfinch, 7, 56, 71, 181. 

Japanese, 62. 69. 228. 
Yellow and Black, 280. 
Hawk, 210. 

Common Kestrel, 175. 
„ Kestrel, 157, 175, 245, 

Hawk, Lesser Kesterel, 175. 

,, Sparrow. 245. 
Heron, Little Green, 250. 
Night, 247, 248. 
Pond, 248, 249. 
Herons. 27, 174, 247. 252, 253. 
Honey-eater. Aust., 211. 

Obscure, 208. 
Hoopoes, 43, 121, 261. 
HornbiU. Pied. 87, 88. 
Huia. 358. 

Hunting Cissa. 63. 70. 
Hybrid. Bengalcse, 53. 

Blackbirds. 49-51. 259. 
,, Bramblefinch, 52. 

Cardinals, 52. 
Chaffinch, 52. 
Doves, 22. 

Finches, 52, 53, 54, 55, 189, 
193, 228, 286, 289, 
Geese, 273. 
Goldfinch, 52. 
,, Greenfinch, 52. 

,, Java Sparrows, 55. 

Linnets, 55. 
Lories, 327. 

Lorikeet. 275, 276, 327. 
Lovebirds, 323. 
Mannikins, 55, 258, 265, 323. 
Ouzels, 49-51, 259. 
Parrakeet, 62. 
Quails. 31. 92, 326. 
Redpolls, 53. 
„ Seed-eaters, 53, 

Silverbills. 55, 56, 372. 
Siskins, 53. 
Song-Sparrows, 53. 
Sparrows. 9-11, 53. 
Twite. 53. 
Waxbills, 56. 
,, Weavers, 56. 

Kvbrids. 9-11, 22. 31, 49-51, 52-56, 62, 
189, 193, 228, 258, 
259, 265, 273, 275, 
276, 286, 289, 323. 
., Bred in Captivity, 52-56. 

Ibia, Pelican-, 292. 

„ White, 291. 
Ibises, 279. 
[xulus. Yellow-naped, 107, 155, 

Ta«ana, African, 75. 
Jackdaws, 27. 244, 245, 279. 
u%v, 71. 72. 117, 252. 2.53. 

„ Black-throated. 116. 

„ Lanceolated, 115, 116. 

„ Riga, 89. 

„ Yuccatan, 380. 
Jay -Thrushes, 279. 
Jungle-fowl, 87. 

Index to Enqlish Names of Birds. 


Kngu, 231, Co-l. 
Kea. 358. 
Kuigfishpr, Indian W)iite-brcasled, 381. 

Piod, 174. 250. 
Kincrfi.shors. 378. 
Kite. Brahminy, 15G. 
Kites. 173, 344. 

Kittiwakes. 27, 1,57. 233. 341, 312 
Kiwi. 186, 358. 

.. Mant ell's. 120. 
Knot. 77. 90, 182 
Kukupa, 185. 

I.,ammergcier. 344. 345. 
Lapwine, 122, 157, 253, 2G1. 

Senegal Wattled, 75. 
Lavk. Indian, 193. 

Indian. Sand-. 250. 

Shore. 72. 181. 

Sky. 71, 72. 90. 157. 181. 184. 

Wood. 71. 181. 
Larks, 72, 246, 280, 362. 
Lauehins: Jackass, 231. 
Laughing-Thrush, Black-gorgeted, 167. 

Eastn. Variegated, 168. 

Grey-sided. 120, 167. 
Him. Streaked, 168. 
Sed-throated, 155. 
Kufous-chinned, 168. 
Rufous-necked, 120, 

155, 1G6. 
Westorji Yen.-win.Tcd, 
White-throated, 120. 
Laughing-Thrushes. 105, 166, 167. 
Leather-head. 209. 

Linnet. 31. 52, 53, 71, 84, 99, 125. 181 
184, 245, 253. 
Grey, 256. 
Himalayan. 322. 
Lorikeet. Black-throated. 352. 

Blue Mountain. 327, 338. 
Brown-throated, 352. 
Crimson-fronted. 353. 
Dark-throated, 276. 
Forsten's, 156. 353. 
Green-naped. 353. 
Hybrids, 275. 276, 327. 
Mitchell's. 354. 
Mrs. Johnstone's. 355. 
Musky, 355. 
,, Ornamental. 355. 

Ornate. 355. 
,, Porphry-crowned, 355. 

Purple-breasted, 355. 
,, Purple-crowned, 355. 

Red-banded. 355. 
Red-collarcd. 261, 262. 355, 
Rcd-crowncd, 355. 
Red-naped. 63. 67, 152. 356. 
Ruby. 356. 
Scaly-brcnstod, 356. 
Scarlet, 356. 
„ Swainson's. 356. 

Varied, 357. 


, 101. 

Black. 352. 

Black-cnpped. 101, 352. 

Black-crowned. .352. 

Black-winged, 156, 352. 

Blue-Mountain, 352. 

Blue-Streaked, 352. 

Coram, 352. 

Chattering, 327, 353, 375. 

Crimson, 353. 

Fair. 101. 

Hybrid, 327. 

Purple-capped. 355. 

Red, 355. 

Red-fronted. 355. 

Stella's 35T5. 

Three-coloured, 356. 

Violet-necked. 357. 

White-backed. 102. 

Yellow-backed, 357. 

rd. Abyssinian. 62. 67. 351. 

Black-cheeked, 30. 31, 62. 67. 
75, 92. 119. 230, 259, 
290, 327, 338, 352, 

Blue-winged, 32, 74. 89, 259, 
323, 319, 352, 376. 

Grey-headed, 162. 231, 349, 

Guiana, 323, 349, 354, 376. 

Hybrid, 323, 376. 

Madagascar, 30. 67. 119. 2.59, 
338, 354. 

Peach-facea, 280, S;-!", 35.5. 

Red-faced. 289, 349. 355. 

Red-headed, 31. 338. 

Rosy-faced. 125. 349. 356. 
rds, 83. 

Macaw, Blue and Yellow, 337, 352. 
Glaucous, 337, 338. 
Hvacinthine. 354. 
Iliiger's, 354. 
Military, 354. 
Red and Blue. 35.5, 357. 
Red and Yellow, 355. 
Severe, 337. 
Spix's. 356. 
Macaws, 304, 338. 
Magpies. 27. 71. 72. 90, 210. 
Albino. 384. 
White. 384. 
Mallard, 253, 296, 361. 
Mannikin, Black-headed, 53. 54. 55, 217, 
229. 256, 266, 268, 
316, 338. 
Bronze, 54, 55, 188, 217, 261, 
265, 316, 323, 334, 
335. 338. 
Hybriei, 55, 258, 265, 323. 
Magpie, 55, 81, 217, 257, 323. 
„ Rufous-backed, 55. 

Tri-coloured, 335, 338, 360, 375, 
Yeo.-rumpcd, 154, 215, 323. 
Jlannikins, 154, 182, 196. 217. 
Mantelli, 358. 


Index to Euglish Karnes of Birds. 

Marsh-Bird, 69. 
., Crimson. 2S0. 

Red-breasted. 63. TO. 
Yeo.-breasted, 290. 
Martin. 157. 1.59, 17.5. 190. 24G. 
House. 293. 
Sand, 244, 296. 
Mesia. Silver-eared, 120. 152. 155. 189. 

226, 257. 
Minivet, 105. 

„ Large Indian, 155. 
,, Rosy, 155. 

,; Short-billed. 62, 65, 70, 120. 
Small, 155. 
Minla, Red-tailed, 384. • 
Monk, 209. 

Moorhen. 56. 158. 181, 24G, 253. 328. 
Mvnah, 88, 

„ Dusky. 208. 

Greater-hill. 70. 
„ Lesser-hill. 70. 
Pied. 156. 


Nightingale, 24. 25, 71. 72, 111, 114, 
115, 157, 158, 180, 
181, 182, 190, 191, 
253. 257, 325. 
,, Persian. 156. 

Nightjar, 253. 
Niltava, 105. 

„ Large, 120. 384. 
„ Rufous-bellied. 152. 153. 155. 
„ Small, 384. 
Notornis, 358, 
Nutcracker, 181, 

Nuthatches, 105, 158, 181, 182, 253, 
Nuthatch, Chestnut-bellied. 189, 325, 334. 
Cinnamon-bellied. 120. 155. 
„ English. 325. 

„ Velvet-fronted. 155. 

Oriole, Black-headed, 86. 
„ Indian, 250. 
„ Maroon, 156. 
Ouzel, Black-throated. 120. 

Grey-winged 35, 49. 51. 89. 151. 

156, 188, 259, 321. 
Guatemalan, 120. 
„ Hybrid, 49-51, 259. 
„ Ring, 157, 181, 182, 
Tickell's, 156. 
Oven-Bird, 279. 
Owl, Barn, 169, 170. 171, 172. 
,, Burrowing. 279. 
„ Eagle-, 169. 172. 237-240. 
„ Great Eagle-. 172. 
„ Little, 169, 170. 171. 172. 191. 279. 
„ Long-eared. 169, 171. 172. 
„ Nepalese. Eagle-, 28. 
„ Scops, 171, 172. 
„ Short-eared, 169. 171. 172. 
„ Small, 61. 

„ Ta\\-ny, 8, 169. 170, 171. 172. 
„ Tengmalm's, 172. 

Owlet, Collared-pigmy, 289. 

Owls. 262. 

Ox-bird. 265. 

Ovstcr-Catcher, 157. 180, 233, 343 
Black, 103, 
Mnuquin's, 103. 

Paddy-Bird, 248. 

Parrakeet, Adelaide, 264. 349. 351. 

Alexandrine. 68, 119. 351, 376. 

All Grepu, 1R3, 168, 348, 351. 

Banded, 351. 

Barnard's, 30, 62, 68, 264, 
301-9. 348. 349, 352. 

carrabaud's. 63. 67, 70. 352. 

Bauer's. 302. 303, 305, 352, 

Benoai. 352. 

Black-hooJed. 352. 

Black-masked, 352. 

Black-tailed. 352. 

Blood-winged, 352. 

Blossom-headed, 349. 352, 

Blue-bonnet. 304, 349. 

Blue-crowned. Hanging, 352, 

Blue-rumped, 352. 

Blue-winged, Grass, 352, 

Bourke's Grass. 352. 

Brown's. 330, 349, 352, 374, 

Bulla-Bulla. 352. 

Burmese Bloss.-Hd., 338. 
,, Canary-winged, 352. 

„ Cashmere Ring-necked, 338. 

,, Crimson-winged, 63, 67, 353, 

,, Derbyan, 353. 

„ Elegant Grass, 353, 

Fiji. 353, 

Fiji, Hooded, 353, 

Golden-crowned. 353. 

Golden-faced. 353. 

Golden-fronted, 353, 

Golden-headed, 353. 
,, Golden-shouldered, 353. 

Great-billed, 353, 

Green, 250, 279. 

Grey-breasted. 354. 

Half-moon, 354. 

Hanging, 204. 

Hooded, 62. 67, 354, 378. 

Horned, 354. 

Hybrid, 62. 
., Indian Bearded, 354. 

,, Javan, 354. 

King, 30, 63, 67, 354. 
„ Lavender-breasted. 354. 

Lineolated. 285, 309, 354, 377. 

Long-tailed. 354, 
,, Lucian, 354, 

Lutino, 378, 

Lutino Blossom-headed, 382. 

Lutino Ring-necked, 357, 382. 

Malabar, 354, 

Malaccan, 354, 

Many-coloured, 62, 67, 231, 
319, 354. 
. .. Masked. 30. 354. 

Moustache. 153, 348, 354, 

Indc.r to F.inji'hsh Xfi/Ncs of Birdfi. 

4 113 


Taki'Ll, MLielle'i'.s. doo. 

Naiidy or ^lieiiday, 'Soo. 
Now Zealand, 355. 
Oraiiije-breastcd, 355. 
,, Oiaiige-llanked, 355. 

,, praiige-shouldcred, 355. 

,, I'aradise, 355. 

,, I'asseriue, 231, liT'J, 355 

,, I'avouane, 355. 

,, remiaul's, 30, 3'J, 02, 

68, 301, 355. 
,, rileated, 355. 

,, rink-cheeked, 355. 

,, rium-head, 355. 

,, i'ort-Lincoln, 355. 

,, Princess of Wales, 355. 

,, Quaker, 355. 

,, Queen Alexandra, i>'2. 07, TO, 

230, 355, 37!S. 
„ Red-capped, 355. 

,, Ked-headed Hanging, 355. 

,, Ked-niantled, 356. 

Ked-rumped, 57, 63, 68, 125, 
152, 230, 259, 319, 
I 356, 360. 
Red-star, N.Z., 356. 
„ lled-winged, 356. 

liing-uecked, 259, 338, 3i9, 
I . 350. 

„ Rock Grass, 350. 

Rock Peplar, 356. 
,, Rosa's, 356. 

Rosella, 376. 

Rosella (Red), 30, 31, 32, 153, 
259, 264, 330, 348, 
350, 356, 360. 
Rosella (Mealy), 32, 154, 188, 
305, 315, 354. 
„ Rosy-headed, 356. 

Russ', 356. 
Shining, 356. 
Slaty-lieaded, 28, 356. 
Stanley, 231, 264, 287, 356. 
,, Tabuan, 356. 

Tovi, 153, 188, 318, 361. 
Tui, 356. 
„ Turquoisine Grass, 227, 269, 

; • 287, 356. 
,, Uvaeen, 356. 

,, White-winged, 357. 

Yellow-bellied, 30, 302, 357. 
,, Yelluw-iuaullcd, 357. 

Yellow-naped, 302, 305, 306, 
[ 357. 
„ Ring-necked, 357. • 

,, Yellow-rumpcd., 302, 305, 357. 

akeels, 151, 153. 188. 264, 313, 347. 
ot. Amazon (sec under Amazon 
Aubry's, 62, 68, 70, 351, 378. 
, Black, 352, 

Black-headed, 352. 
Blue-headed, 68, 352. 
Blue-necked, 68. 
Blue-rumped. 127-129, 352. 
Bottled, 338. 
, Bronze-winged, 352. 
, Ceylouese Uauging, 353. 

I'arnil. Cuban. 353. 
Dusky, 353. 
I'Jcleclus (see under lOcleetus- 

( Parrot). 
Everett's, 353. 
., Golden-faced, (N.Z.), 353. 
Greater Vasa, 353. 
(irey, tJ8, 314, 351. 
Hanging, 64, 130. 131, 134. 
,, Hawk-headed, 354,. 

Jardine's, 354. 
„ Kea, 354. 

., Large Ind. Rock, 354. 
,, liBsser Vasa, 354. 
., Levaillant's 378. 
„ Meyer's, 62, 68, 314, 354. 
., Mountain Ka-Ka, 354. 
Pigmy, 128, 355. 
Purple-breasted, 355. 
,, Red-capped, 355. 

Red- vented, 63, 68, 338, 356. 
,, Red-venttd Blue-bonnet, 356. 

Rock (Aust.), 356. 
„ Rock Pebbler, 356. 
Rock Pepler, 356. 
Senegal, 62, 68, 338, 356. 
Violet, 357. 
Violet-bellied, 357. 
White-headed, 357. 
,, Yeo. -vented Blue-bouuet, 357. 
Parrots, 86. 

Parrot-Finch, Common, 32, 43, 45, 54, 
160, 219, 329, 330. 
,, „ Peale's. 

Pin-tailed, 375. 
Tri-oolour, 54. 
Parrotlet, Blue-winged, 352. 
„ Guianan, 354. 
,, Passerine, 355. 
Partridge, 246, 253, 262. 3 
Grev, 250. 
Key's, 125, 222, 283, 333, 

Piebald Finch, 26. 
Spotted, 299, 300. 
Pastor, Rosy, 49, 125, 252, 253. 
Peacock, 263. 
Pea-i'owi, 87, 153. 
Peewit. 122. 
Pelican, 255. 

Ibis, 292. 
Perchers, 90. 
Phalarope, Grey, 56. 
Pheasant, C.nuinon, 32. 

Crow. 156. f 

KUioU's. 137. 
Gold, 84. 

Lady Amherst's, 135. 
Mikado, 120. 
Silver, 84. 
Pheasants, 14, 153, 262, 263. 
Pie, Long-tailed, Tree., 87. 
„ Occiptal Blue, 193,^227, 269. 
,, Wandering Tree, 87. 
Pied Birds. 71. 
Pigeons. Australian Crasted, 220. 

,, Bronze-wing, 31, 75, 253, 376. 
„ Brush Brouze-wing, 31, 92, 376. 

Index to English JXames of Birds. 

Pigeons, Crested, 254. 
Laughing, 84. 
,, New Zealand, 185. 

Earotonga Fruit, 185. 
Wood, 254. 
Pigeons, 21, 153. 
Pintailed Nonpareil, 375. 
Pipers, 233. 

Pipit, 8, 71, 72, 159, 175. 
,, Indian Tree. 156. 
„ Meadow, 56,' 181, 183, 191, 225. 

„ Rock, 56, 181. 

„ Tree, 56, 72, 157, 181, 252, 253. 
Pitta, Golden-breasted, 156. 
Plover, 90, 156, 174, 177. 
,, Brown, 75. 
Forbes', 76. 
Golden, 182. 
Green, 182, 361. 
Grey, 7(5, 182. 
Hooded, 76. 
Kentish, 76. 
Little Ring, 76. 
Ring, 76, 181, 252, 253. 
„ Spur-winged, 76. 

„ Thick-knee, 175. 
Pochard, 361. 
Pratincole, 104. 

Nordmann's, 104. 
Puffins, 157, 233, 262, 341, 312, 343. 

Quail, American, 301. 
,, Barbary, 38. 
„ Bush-, 120. 

Bustard-, 38. 

Californian, 31, 89, 92, 153, 182, 
222, 2^9, 283,299, 326, 333, 
335, 369, 372, 376. 

Chinese, 369, 

Common, 181, 349, 367, 369. 

Douglas, 254. 

Hybrid, 31, 92, 326, 376. 

Indian, Button, 120. 

Jungle Bush, 120. 

Little Button, 120. 

Mexican, 254. 

Migratory, 867. 

Painted, 75. 

Rain, 120. 

Rock Bush, 120. 

Smith's Bustard, 38. 

Squamata, 31, 92, 326, 376. 


Rail, Egyptian, 180. 

„ Land, 181, 252, 253, 203. 
Raven, 157, 174. 
Razor-bill, 27, 60, 157, 233. 
Redbreast, 181, 182, 363, 364. 
Redpoll, 52, 53, 84, 294. 

Lesser, 71, 125, 181. 

Mealy, 71, 125, 181. 


231, 261, 

Redshank, 77, 182, 255, 296. 
Redstart, Black, 72, 181. 
Blue-fronted, 155. 
Common, 72, 117, 118, 119. 
,, Indian, 155. 

Plumbeous, 107, 119, 120, 156. 
,, White-capped, 155. 
Redstarts, 111, 117, 118, 119, 181, 182, 
190, 233, 256, 
261, 313, 316, 
365, 378. 
Redwings, 26, 31, 122, 181, 233. 
Robin, American, 189. 
„ Blue, 269. 

Brown-backed, 156, 333, 334. 
,, Golden Bush, 156. 

Japanese, 62, 65, 70. 
„ Loo-choo, 62, 65, 70. 
„ Pekin, 70, 125, 226 
295, 349. 
., Red-flanked Bush, 120. 
White-tailed Blue, 120. 
Robins, 27, 56, 72, 119, 121, 184, 233, 
252, 253, 363, 365. 
Rock-Thrush, Blue-headed, 156. 

Chestnut-bellied, 156. 
Eastern Blue, 156. 
Roller, 162. 

Blue, 156. 
Rooks, 27, 90, 245. 
Rosefinch, 28, 231. 

„ Beautiful, 156. 

Pink-browed, 23. 219, 330, 333, 

Purple-browed, 322. 
Rosy Pastor, 49, 125, 252, 253. 
Ruby-throat, 155. 
Rupe, 185. 

Sanderling, 77, 180, 182. 
Sand-grouse, 38, 177. 

Af. Painted, 37. 
Sand Martin, 244. 
Sandpiper, 71, 182, 296. 

Common, 77, 233. 
Curlew, 76, 180. 
Green, 77. 
Wood, 77. 
Scaup, Lesser, 120. 

Scimitar-Babbler (see under Babbler). 
Scissor-Birds, 279. 
Screamer, Crested, 254. 
Seed-eater, St. Helena, 52, 53, 74. 

Sulphury, 53. 
Serins, 196. 
Shag, 27, 297, 298. 

„ Common, 297, 298. 
Shama, 114, 156, 183, 228, 261, 295. 
Shearwater, 173, 177. 

,, Levantine, 174. 

Manx, 157. 
,, Mediterranean, 174. 

Persian, 174. 
Shore-Lark, 72. 
Shrike, 71, 72. 

Great Grey, 72. 
Shrike-Babbler (see under Bal.'ble'r). 
Sibia, Black-headed, 33-G. 

Index to English Names of Birds. 


Silvcrbill, 81, li21, 2.5G, 258, 271, 
i{23, 329, 335, 338, 372. 
Air, 32, 54, 55. 
,, Hybrid, 55, ^^, 372, 37G. 

liidiun, 32, 53, 55, 56, 31G. 
Siskin, 52, 53, 56, 71, 181, 218, 256, 
295, 361. 
Black-headed, 53, 63, 65, 67, 69, 

Chilian, 62, 65, 69. 
„ Hooded, 43, 93, 227, 256, 230. 

Hybrid, 53, 290. 
„ Red, 227. 
Sikkim, 261. 
Totta, 53. 
Yellow, 280. 
Siva, Blue-wiugid, 151, 155, 189. 
Skua, Great, 233. 

„ Kichardsons, 173, 174. 175, 233. 
Skylark, 71, 72. 
Snipe, 102, 252, 253, 262. 

Painted, 102. 
Snow-Bird, North American, 276. 
bong-SpHrrow, I'iieated, 5a. 

,, ,, 'While-crow Qed, 53. 

Sorcal, 280. 

Sparrow, Cape, 9-11, 53, 63, 69, 158. 
„ Chipping, 16. 

„ Cinnamon Tree, 32, 120. 

„ Diamond, 30, 32 (see Diamond 

,, Grey-headed, 9-11, 53. 

Grey Java, 229, 338. 
Hedge, 31, 181, 190, 252. 
House, 11, 19, 53, 181, 244, 253 
Hybrid, 9-11, 53. 
Java, 31, 55, 83, 183, 188, 229, 

256, 338. 
Tree, 53, 181. 

White Java. 54, 83, 183, 229. 
290, 333, 338, 359. 
White-throated, 183. 
Yellow, 32, 53. 
Yellow-throated, 218. 
Sparrows, 20, 22, 233, -162. 
Spider-Hunter, 105. 

„ „ Larger Streaked, 132. 

Spoonbill, 247. 

Eoseate, 125. 
Starling, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24, 

26, 27, 31, 56, 57, 
71, 91, 157, 190, 233, 
244, 252, 253, 362. 
,, Am. Red-Wiuged, 254. 

,, Common, 181. 

English, 49. 
Glossy, 63, 339. 
„ Green Glossy, 70. 

Long -tailed Glosgy, 70. 
„ Kose-coloured, 181. 

Silver, 72. 
Stilt, 102. 
Stint, Little, 77. 
Stork, 279, 291. 

„ White, 90, 254. 
„ Painted, 291. 

Sugar-bird, Black-headed, 125. 

Blue, 43, 226, 234, 256. 
Purple, 189, 261. 
Yeo-winged, 43, 62, 69, l.?9, 
223, 22i', 256, 333. 
Sugar-birds, 42, 2o0. 
Sunbird, Amethyst, 89. 

,, Amethyst-rump;:d, 62, 65, 63, 

70, 156. 
„ Black-breasled Yeo. -backed, SoiO 
Cape Lesser D'ole-col.ared, 379. 
Cape Long-tailed, 89, 379. 
,, Greater Ametliyst, 379. 

Malachite, 89. 
„ Orange-breasted, 89. 

Purple, 40-3, 156, 193, 227. 
Southern Malachite, 378-9. 
Yeo.-backed Black-breasted, 156, 

Yeo.-backed Ked, 156, 189. 
Suubirds, 102, 133, 230, 378, 380. 
Sussex Ortolan, 292. 
Swallow, 93, 94, 157, 158, 159, 174, 
175, 181, 233, 246, 
253, 292, 362, 375, 
376, 377. 
Chimney, 293. 
Sea, 271. 
Swan, 262, 263, 328. 
Swift, 190, 245, 293, 294. 

Tailor-bird, 162. 

„ Ked-headed, 156. 
Tanager, Black, 321. 

Blue, 152, 257, 261. 
Festive, 62, 69. 
,, Maroon, 69. 

,, Necklace, 261. 

Palm, 261. 
Scarlet, 257, 261. 
Superb, 211, 212, 256. 
Tri-colour, 63, 69, 70, 256, 261 
Violet, 257, 329. 
White-capped, 62, 69. 
Tanagers, 119, 196, 212, 213, 280, 326 
Teal, 253, 296, 361. 
Tern, 125, 177, 340, 342, 343. 
„ Arctic, 157, 272. 

Black-bellied, 247. 
„ Common, 271, 272. 
Crested, 177. 
Sandwich, 142. 
Thicknee, Senegal, 103. 
Thrush, Argentine, 160. 

Blue-headed Rock, 156. 
Blue Whistling, 87. 
Chestnut-bellied Rock, 156. 
Eastern Blue Rock, 156. 
Fieldfare, 27. 

Laughing- (see under L.) 
Missel, (Mistle), 56, 245, 253. 
Orange-breasted Ground, 160. 
Orange-headed Ground, 156, 254, 

Redwing, 26, 31. 
Ruddy, 280. 


Index to English jXames of Birds. 

■ilirusli. Song, 19, 71. 90. 91. -245. 
„ White-bellied, 280. 

White-tiiroated Ground. IGO. 
Tlnushes, 20. 25, 27, 31. 90, 91, 

121, 230. 
i'inamou, Cinnamon, 120. 

Spotted, 254. 
Tit, Bearded. 72, 181, 219, 322. 
„ Blue, 30, 56, 72, 90, 121, 181, 
246, 253, 261, 361 
Cole, 26, 30, 181, 246, 252. 
Crested, 131. 
Crested Black, 130, 155. 
Crow-, 1C5, 133, 202. 
Great, 31, 56, 72, 181, 225, 
\ 246, 253, 288, 
Green-backed, 155, 2Jl. 
Indian Grey, 155, 225, 261. 
Larger E.H. Crow-, 120, 134. 
Long-tailed, 26, 56, 72. 130, 

181, 191, 
Marsh, 26, 30, 72, 9C 
Red-headed, 129, 155. 
Tom-, 246. 
Yellow-cheeked, 155. 

Tits, 27, 71, 72, 131, 184. 

Toucan, Spot-billed, 270. 

Tree-Creeper, 72, 131, 253. 

Trogan, Cuban, 63, 70. 

Tropic-Bird, White, 177. 

Troupial, Flame-shouldered, 192. 

Tui, 186, 358. 

Turkey, Bush, 39. 

Turnstone, 76, 233. 

Twite, 52, 53, 71, 157, 193. 



Umbre, 281, 282. 

Vulture,, 263. 

Black, 281, 282. 


Waders, 122, 174, 180, 181, 182. 
Wagtail, Blue-headed, 156. 
Grey, 121, 181. 
Large Pied, 120, 156. 
Masked, 156. 
Pied, 56, 181, 245, 253, 

! 296, 328. 

White, 181, 322. 
Yellow, 181, 257, 322. 
Wagtails. 71, 72, 159, 174. 
Warbler. Blackcap, 24, 63, 71, 72, 90, 
111, 112, 114, 157, 
158, 182. 
Dartford, 72. 

Garden, 24, 111, I8l, 191,325, 
Grasshopper, 72. 
Melodius, 24. 

Willow, 158, 246, 253, 328, 
Warblers, 12, 87, 112, 114, 328. 
Water-fowl, 122. 


W'ater-lien, Blue, 254. 
Wa.Kbill, Alrican, 49. 

Blue-breasted. 43. 69. 217, 
231, 250. 251, 
„ Common, 361. 

Crimson-eared, 84. 
Gold-breasted, 69, 84, 

257, 261, 



333, 335 
Grey, 56, 125, 183, 217, 

229, 230, 256, 
283-5, 333, 
338, 360, 361. 

„ Orange-breasted, 66. 

Orange-cheeked, 56, 80, 84, 

230, 256, 257, 
274, 275, 333, 
338, 372. 

St. Helena, 55, 56, 62, 

75, 84. 
Violet-eared, 82, 231, 375. 
Zebra, 49. 
Waxbills, 12, 88, 156, 182, 188, 

Waxwing. 181. 

Weaver, Abyssinian, 360, 373. 
., Black-capped, 47. 
;, Black-faced, 84. 

Black-faced Yellow, 192. 
Black-headed, 360. 
Buffalo, 265. 
,, Chrome-yellow, 192. 
,, Comoro, 152. 
„ Crimson-crowned, 261. 

Giamt, 83. 
„ Giant Nigerian, 214. 

Grenadier, 21, 72, 73. 152, 

Hybrid, 376. 
,, Lemon Bishop, 84. 

Madagascar, 31, 73, 316. 
Mahali, 28. 

Napoleon, 73, 84, 265. 
Orange Bishop, 84, 152, 

263, 375. 
Red-billed, 49, 69, 75, 84, 
230, 257, 258, 
338, 372. 
Red Bishop, 84. 
Rufous-necked, 28, 48, 56, 

■x 270. 
Short -winged, 257, 327, 360 
Spotted, 360. 
Spotted-backed, 47, 56. 
Taha, 360. 
Texlor, 265. 
Transvaal, 214. 
Yellow, 373. 
„ Yellow-shouldered, 84. 
Weavers, 12, 154, 257, 384. 
Weka, 186. 

Wheat-ear, 72, 122. 159, 176. 181. 
233. 292, 293, 2 
Whimbrel, 78, 361. 
Whinchat, 261. 






Index tn English Xomrs of Birds. 


1-7, 81, 131, 231. 
Indian, 3, 61. 107, 15.'"). 
'261. 262. 

mn. 24.-). 

it. 24. 111. 

rat I 

72 \> 

;)(). i.-.i. is;). 


2r)3, 296. 
Wlndali. I' 27, 30, 32. 84 

261, 275. 316. 333. | 
Pintail, 257, 338. 
Queen, 275, 338. 
Red-col-arcd, C3. (",9. 
Red-shouldereti, 33S. 
Yellow-collared, 33S'. 
Whvdahs, 384. 
Widow-Birds. 279. 
Wigreon. 361. 
Woodfock. 262. 
Woodlark, 71. 
Woodpeckers, 71, 279, 2='0. 

Golden-backed, 87. l.)<i. 
Greater-spotted. 71. 121. 
180. 181, 



Wryneck, 71 


iiTkrrs. Green, 181. 

llimal. PiRmy. 106. 108. 
I.csser-spotted. 269. 
I'iymy. 1.56, 189, 382. 
Plsmy-Picd, 156. 
VcUow-fronted, 156. 
5(;. 90, 121. 181. 246, 253. 
Common, 180, 182. 
Fire-crested, 156. 

Gold-crested, 3. 158, 181. 262. 361. 
House, 16. 
72. I.V.). 192. 296. 
72. 121. 1.57. 158. 

31. 71, 190, 25.3, 263. 

hinned, 155, 189, 223, 

226, 231, 333, 380. 

Zost crops. 



418 Index to Inset. 

Index to Inset (G.een Pages). 

Associates' EoU, 14. 

Bird Market, 18, 22, .30, .38, 47, 55, fiS, 68, 75; 8.3: 91; 90. 

Change? and Corrections of Address, 22, 30, 38, 46, 54, 61, 67, 73, 

81, 89, 95. 
Committees, 27. 

Donations, 17, 21, 29, 37, 46, 54, 61, 67, 73; 89; 96. 
Errata re Roll, 22, 46, 73. 

Illustration Pund, 17, 21, 29, 37, 46, 54, 61, 67, 73; 89; 96. 
List of Exhibition Medal Winners, 30. 
Members' Eoll, 2-13. 
New Members, 17, 18, 22, 29, 38, 46, 54, 61, 62; 67;, 73; 74; 

81, 82, 89, 90, 95. 
Notices to Members, 16, 21, 28, 37, 45, 5.3, 61, 67, 73; 81; 87; 

Officers of the Club, 1, 27. 
PostlMortem Examinations, 27, 28, 53, 54, 88. 
Provincial Cup, 45, 54. 
Rules, 14-16, 74. 
Show Notices and Reports, 18, 75. 
Show Reglilations and Rules, 74. 
Show Season, 75, 82, 90, 96. 



The Foreign Bird Club. 

President : 

TiiK Lady Dunleath. 

Vice-Presidents : 

H R. FiLLMER. E. HoPKiNsoN, D.S.O, M.A., M.B. 
E. J. Beook, F.Z.S. 

Council : 

TiiK Countess oe Wincuilsea. Dr. H. Hetley. 

Mrs. C. Anningson, Dr. J. E. R. McDonagh. 

Miss M. E. Baker. W. T. Rogers. 

Mrs. E. a. H. Hartley. A. Silver. 

Miss Rosa C. Little. R. Suggitt. 

W. Bamford, a. Sutcliffe. 

E. W. Chaplin. W. R. Temple. 

Dr. J. Easton-Scott. H. Willford. 

Dk. Philip Gosse. M.B.O.U. Hon. W. B. Wrottesley, F.Z.S. 

J. H. Harrison. 

Hon. Editor : 

Wesley T. Page, F.Z.S., M.B.N.H.S., Glenfield, Graham Avenue, 
Mitcham, Surrey, 

Hon. Secretaries : 

Hon. Treasurer ami Busutess Secretary : Sidney Williams, F.Z.S., 
Holland Lodge, Edmonton, London, N. 

Hon. E.chlhitio)ial Secretary: Stanley M. Townsend, 3, Swift Street, 
Fulham, London, S.W. 

Hon. Veterinary Surgeon : 

Henry Gray, M.R.C.Y.S., 23, Upper Phillimore Place, Kensington, 
London, W. 

Hon. Solicitor : 


Hon. Photographer.- 

H. Willford, Upland View, Havenstreet, Ryde. 

Roll of Members. 


FiLLMEK, H. R. {Founder), Brendon, 22, Harrington Road, Brighton. 

Adams, A. W., 118 Northampton Road, Market Harborough. (May, 

Aldeeson, Miss R., Pajrk House, Worksop. (Mai'ch, 1909). 
Allan, J. W., Bondgate, Alnwick. (April, 1911). 
Almond, The Rev. F., Branxholme House, Lincoln Road, Peter- 
borough. (Feb., 1906). 
Amslee, Dr. Maurice, High Street, Eton, Windsor. (March, 1909). 
Andeews, F. J., Gordon House, Woodbridge. (Dec., 1911). 
Anningson. Mrs., Walt-ham-sal, Barton Road, Cambridge. Dec., 

Appleby. K. A., Post Office of India, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 

(Oct., 1910). 
Akmstein, Mark, 30, Grand Parade, Cork. (March, 1906). 
Aeeighi, L. J., Harrison View, Watson Crescent, Edinburgh. (Mar., 

Astley, H. D., M.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Benham Valence, Speen, 

Newbury, Berks. (Dec, 1909). 
Attwell, Harold E., Cassia Grove, Halfway Tree, P.O., Kingston, 

Jamaica, B.W.I. (March, 1910). 
Austin, W. E., Wandsworth Public Libraries, Allfai thing Lane, 

Wandsworth, London, S.W. (April, 1909). 
Baddeley, a., 21 Derby Street, Hulme, Manchester. (July, 1912). 
Baily, W. Shore, Boyers House, Westbury, Wilts. (June, 1909). 
Bainbeidge, W. a., Hazlewood, Thorpe, Chertsey. (Sept., 1912). 
Bakee, Miss M. E., The Elms, Mount Sorrel, Loughborough. (Sept., 

Bamfoed, Wm., The Coppice, Werneth, Oldham. (June, 1904). 
Sampfylde, The Hon. Mrs., Court Hall, North Molton, North 

Devon. (July, 1911). 
Barlow.-Massicks, Mrs. C, The Mount, Rotherham, (Nov., 1911), 
Baenaby Miss Alison, Oak Lodge, Bitterne, Southampton. (Aug., 

Baeeos Ameeico de, 63 rua Victoria, Sao-Paulo, Brazil. (June, 

Baxby, William, 6, Chesterfiield Road, Dronfield, Sheffield. (June, 

Beaty, S., Strathnarn, Elm Grove, Alderley Edge, Manchestelr". 

(March, 1908). 


Bbazor, Eev. J. T. A., Lovell, GO Upgate, Louth, Lines. (April^ 

Bki'Jbb. C. W., Curator of Ornithology, iSiew York Zoological Park, 

New York City, U.S.A. (July, 1911). 
Bliss, H. E., c/o T. Estcourt, liosemead, Cape Colony, S. Africa. 

(Jan. , 1903). 
BoscAWKN, The Hon. Vere D., 2, St. James' Square, London, S.W. 

(January, 1911). 
BoNNiCK, Mrs., Belmont, East Hoathly, Hallaud, Sussex. (Nov., 

BoTTiNG, H., Alountside, Harrow Koad, Doiking. (Dec., 1908). 
BouRKE, Hon. GwKNDOLEN, Hltcliam \'ale, Taplow, Maidenhead, and 

75 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London, W. (Dec, 1909). 
BousFiELU, Miss M., Avon Court, SoutJiborno Koad, Bournemouth. 

(Jan. , 1908). 
Boyd, Harold, Bo.x 374, Thelowna, Brit. Columbia, Canada. (April^ 

Bu.iNFOOT. B., 41, Cromwell Road, Grimsby. (Nov., 1912). 
BuiGHT, R. E., Sunnybank, Coggeshall, Essex. (March, 1910). 
Bkigut Heubkrt, Lynton, Eaton Road, Cressington Park, Liver- 
pool. (Oct., 1911). 
Bkomwich, Miss Vera. (Present address unknown). 
BuooK, E. J., F.Z.S., Hoddam Castle, Ecclefechan. (Mar., 1908). 
BiiOTHEKSTON, G. W., 23, Jeffrey Street, Edinburgh. (August, 1909;. 
Brown, Mrs. C, Seton Lodge, Beacon Road, Henleaze, Westbury- 

on-Trym., Bristol. (May, 1910). 
Browning, W. H., 16, Cooper Square, New Y'ork, U.S.A. (Febru- 
ary , 1910). 
Browne Capt., A. E., Imperial Hotel, Rawal Pindi, Punjab, India. 

(March, 1912). 
Bruce, Miss A., 42, Hill Street, Berkeley Squai'e, LondofUi, <W. 

(Mar.. 1909). 
BuFTON, Reginald P., Caer-hyn, Llandrindod Wells. (January, 

Bull, F.W., Bide, Stratliearn Road, Sutton, Surrey, (June, 1912). 
Brsn, W., The Art Schools, Dock Street, Newpoa-t, Mou. Ma^y,, 

Camps, H. T. T., F.Z.S., Linden House, Haddenham, Ely. (Orig. 

Capern, F., Avenue House, Gotham Park, Bristol. (October, 1907). 
Carr, J. T., Blythewood, Deramere Drive, Malone Road, Belfast 

(Sept., 1912). 
Cartwrigut, Mrs. E., Bretton Lodge, Wakefield. (January, 1912). 
Cecil, Lord William, 23, Queen's Gate Gardens, London, S.W. 

(November, 1909), , 

Chaplin E. W., The Firs, Great Amwell, Ware. (Sept., 1903). 
Chawner, Miss E. F., Forest Bank, Lyndliurst, Hants. (July, 1910). 
Cheetham J., The Hawthorns, Brighouse. (October, 1908), 

Chbistib, Mrs. G., Newton House, Elgin. (January, 1913). 
Clare, Miss Lydia, The Hollies, 194, Coombe Lane, Wimbledon, Lon- 
don, S.W. (March, 1910). 
Clarke, S., Inces, Scaynes Hill, Hayward's Heath. (August, 1911). 
Clarke, Leigh, Tower Hirst, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. (Feb., 1911). 
Clifton. Lord, Cobham Hall, Gravesend. (October, 1905). 
Cochrane, Thos., Linden Lea, Xewtown St. Boswells, Roxburgh- 
shire. (August, 1909). 
Connell, Mrs. Knatchbull, The Orchard, Brockenhurst, Hants. (July, 

CoNWAY;-GoEDON, Miss V., Longley House, Rochester. (October, 190fi). 
Constable, Rev. W. J., Uppingham. (February, 1912). 
Cook, W., 24, Hyde Park Gardens, London, W. (March, 1909). 
Corbet, Sir E. J., Bt., Acton Reynold, Shrewsbury. (April, 1911). 
Crisp, R. L., 50, Elm Park Road, Chelsea, London, S.W. rFeb., 

Croker, Chas. E., Burrow Inche, Lower Bourne, Farnham. (Oct., 

Cronkshaw, J., 193, Manchester Street, Accrington. (November, 

Croysdale, Mrs. B., Hawke House, Sunbury- on -Thames. fJan., 

Curry, H. L., Lambolle Lodge, Littlehampton. (July, 1912). 
CuRzoN, J. W., Temperance Hotel, opp. Central Station. Lowestoft. 

(February, 1912). 
CusHNY, Charles, c.o. Messrs. Neish, Howell and Haldane, 47, 

Watling Street, St. Paul's, E.C. (Orig. Mem.). 
Dabbell, Dr. H. W., Adelaide House, All Saints Green, Norwich. 

(September, 1908). 
Davidson. Mrs., Yew Tree Cottage, Bitterne, Southampton. (April, 

1911). f : 

Dean, H. S., The Limes, Clifton Street, Wolverhampton. (March, 

1911). ' 

Db LissA, S., Bittacy House, Mill Hill, London, N.W. CJuly, 1912). 
Dennis, Mrs. Harold, St. Leonard's Park, Horsham. (Jan., 190 0- 
Dewar. D., I.C.S., F.Z.S., Pilibhit, U.P., India. 
Dewar. J. F., 2, St. Patrick's Square, Edinburgh. (Orig. Mem.) 
De Yarburgh-Bateson, The Hon. Lilla, Heslington, York. (June 

DoBBiE, J., Waverley Works, Leith, Edinburgh. (April, 1906). 
DoHERTY, Mrs. B., Vernon House, Weston, Bath. (October, 1909). 
DoNNELL, O. O., Hyntle Place, Hintlesham, Ipswich. (Aug., 19120. 
Drummond, Miss, Mains of Megginch, 'Errol, Perthshire. (Nov., 

DuNLEATH, The Lady, Bally waiter Park, Bally waiter, co. Down. 

(November, 1901). 

DuTTON, The Hon. and Kev. Canon, Bibuiy Vicarage, Fairford, Glos. 

(May. 190G). 
Dyott, R. a., Freulonl, Liclilield. (Nov., 1912). 
Ebiull. Win., 14, \ ictoria Terrace, Limerick. (April, 1906). 
EccLES, Miss A. S., The Glade, Ditton Hill, iSurbiton, Surrey. 

(Jan., 1912). 
Edmunds, W., Coombe Farm, Laugton Matravers, Wareham. (Nov. 

Elms, E. F. M., Rosebank Cottage, Carshalton Road, Sutton, Surrey, 

(June, 1910). 
EzKA,, A., 110, Alount Sti'eet, Grosveaior Square, London. (Jan. 

EzKA, D., 3, Kyd Street, Calcutta, India. (Aug., 1912). 
Fasey, William, R., The Oaks, Holly Bush Hill, Snaresbrook, N.E. 

(Jan., 1903). 
Faux, E R., Colmer, Cator Road, Sydenham, London, S. E. (Oct., 

Ferrak, B.B., M.D., F.Z.S., Superintendeait, The Royal Zoological 

Society's Gardens, Phoenix Park, Dublin. (Dec,, 1912). 
Fisher, W. H., The Bush Hotel, "Fai-nham. (May, 1908). 
FisuER-RowE, H. M., St. Leonard's Grange, Beaulieu, Bj-ockenhurst, 

Hants., (Jan., 1911). 
Flanxery, M. J., Barrack Street, Nenagh. (Jan., 1909). 
Fletcher, Geo, 19 Peveral Road, Sheffield. (April, 1911). 
Flower, Capt., S. S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Keedah House, Zoological 

Gardens, Gizeh, Egypt. (March, 1909). 
Flower, Mrs. Stanley, Longlield, Tring, Herts. ^(July, 1910). 
FocKELMANN, Hcrr August, Handels-Tierpark, Hamburg -Grossborstel, 

Niendorferweg. (Dec, 1912). 
FoRDRED, Ernest E., Wychmont, Olton, Acocks Green, Birmingham. 

(Jan., 1913). 
Foster, Miss E. M., 35, High Street, Huntingdon, (Jan., 1909). 
Foster, William Hill, 1G4, Portland Street, i Southport.' (Nov., 

Fkeeland, G. Scott, Hill Rise, Quarry Hill, Tonbridge, (July, 

Frostigk J., 137 Endlesham Road, Balham, London, S.W. (Dec, 

Gailloway, Airs. E., Fernville, Fortis Green Road, East Finchley, 

London, N. (Jan., 1908). 
Galloway, P. F. M., Durban, St. Peter's Avenue, Caversham, 

Reading. (Nov., 1907). 
Gardixek, Mrs. Stanley, Whitethorn, Barton Roacl^ Cambridge. (Jan., 

1913). , 

Gerrard, John, M.B.O.U., Worsley, Manchester. (June, 1905). 
Gloy:\S, Horace, R., Kew Cottage, Holmcsdale Road, Hampton W^ick, 

Kingston -on -Tlhames, ^Oct., 1912). 


GoDEY, Edouard, LeCoteau, Lantheuil par Creully (Calvados), France. 

(Jan., 1912). 
Good ACRE, Hugh, UUesthorpe, Lutterworth. (May, 1912). 
GooDCHiLD, H., M.B.O.U., 66, Gloucester Road, Rejg-ent's Park, 

London, N.W. (July, 1903). 
GooDCHiLD, J. Clare, Suffolk. (Jan., 1913). 
GooDFELLOW, "W., The Poplars, Kettering. (October, 1908). 
GoRRiNGE, The Rev. Reginald, Manston Rectory, Sturminster New- 
ton, Dorset. (Dec, .1902). 
GossE, Dr. Philip, M.B.O.U., Curtlemead, Beaulieu, Brockenhurst, 

Hants. (April, 1910). 
GoTT, Mrs., P., Meetwood Garth, Leeds. (Nov., 1912). 
GouRLAY, H., Kempshott Park, Basingstoke. (November, 1907). 
Graham. John, Rainbow Hotel, Kendal (February, 1911). 
Gray. H., M.R.C.V.S.,. {Eon. Veterinary Surgeon), 23, Upper Phill?- 

more Place, Kensington, London, W. (May, 1906). 
Gkeeven, Miss M., 29 Queensborough Terrace, Hyde Park, London, 

W. (October, 1907). 
Grossmith, J. L., The Grange, Bickley, Kent. (Jan., 1913). 
Haggib G. E., Bruncombe, Foxcombe Hill, Oxford. (Feb., 1910). 
Hahn, Countess, C. V., 192, Walpole Road, Wimbfedon, London; S.AY. 

(Aug., 1910). 
Hall, Miss A. F., 2 Park Place Villas, Paddington, London, W., 

and Denholme, Hayling Island, Havant. (Sept., 1911). 
Hall Chilton B., Pedrogosa and Laguna, North West Corner, 

Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. (April, 1911). 
Hansell, Frank, Bank House, Granton Road, Edinburgh. (Nov., 

Harper, E. W., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Government Road, Nairobi, Brit. 

E. Africa. (October, 1907). 
Harris, Chas., 114, Bethnal Green Road, London, N.E. (April, 

Harrison, J. H., The Crescent, Hastings Place, Lytham. (Dec.„ 

Hartley, Mrs. E. A., St. Helen's Lodge, Hastings. (Sept., 1907). 
Harvey, Lady, Langley Park, Slough. (June, 1908). 
Hatchell, D. Cr., Grosvenor Club, Piccadilly, Lonrlon, W. (Dec, 

Hawke. The Hon. M. C, Wighill Park, Tadcaster. CNov., 1902). 
Hawkins, L. W., Estrilda, New Olive Road, West Dulwich. (Orig. 

Hebb, T., Brooklea, The Downs, Luton, (Aug., 1912). 
Henderson, Mrs. W. F., Moorfield, Upper Claremont, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. (Nov., 1908). 
Henstock, J. H., Market Place, Ashbourne, (March, 1907). 
Hetley, Dr. Henry, Beaufort House, 114, Church Ro