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The Birds of Arislophanes has always been regarded aa 
one of his morit delightful pieces. Like the Clouds, it ia 
comparatively free from the objectionable license of thought 
and language, which deforms pevei-al of hia plaja (o such a 
degree that they cannot be used in schools or colleges. It is 
true there are some passages in this play also loo freely exe- 
cuted: but it haa been decided, on mature reflection, to let 
them stand, so as to oSer the drama entire, on the principles 
which guided my decision in editing the Clouds. 

The tert of this edition is reprinted irom ihe Poetae 
Scenici of Dindorf. In the preparation of the notes, I have 
naed Commentaries of Christian Daniel Beck, together with 
the notes and Scholia edited by Invcrnizius ; the notes of 
Bothe, to whose valuable edition I am under great obliga- 
tions ; and the brief, but excellent, annotations of Blaydes. 
Credit ia always given for what haa been taken from the 
labors of these distinguished scholars. 

ta addition to the critical apparatus juat mentioned, I 
have endeavored to explain fi-om other sources a branch 
<rf the subject to which leas attention haa heretofore been 
given ; — I mean the natural history of the birds, which are 
YCry enterlaining figures among Ihe persons of the play, 
I have carefiilly examined Ariatotle'a Hiatoiy of Animals, 



fxosa which I hnve drawn illustrative descriptions. But it u 
well known that a considerable portion of the birds of Aris- 
tophanes ai'e not niiiuLioued in Aristotle's work, and some of 
them are thonght lo be unknown. Sevei'al branches of the 
natural history of Greece has been almost entirely neglected 
sinee the researches of the philosopher of Stagim; and here 
ia an opportunity for a naturalist, who ii ut Ihe same time a 
good classicHl acholar, to make valuable contributions both to 
Hcience and philology. Sibthorp'a magnificent work, the 
" Flora Hellenica," is ample on the Botany of Greece ; but 
comparatively little has been done in the departments of or- 
nithol*^ and ichthyology. 

I suspected that the poet's selection of birds was not made 
at random, hut thaJ, in every instance, they were chosen with 
a epecial meaning, and to effect a particular purpose, in point 
of arL In considering the play from this point of view, I 
have been much indebted to my fi-iend and colleague, Profes- 
gorAgassiz, of whose profound and comprehensive knowl- 
edge of ornithology I have been permitted to avail myself 
in attempting to determine tho species of some of the birds 
not hitherto identified; and I have come to the coacluaion, 
that, in all cases, the character and habits of the birds are 
exactly and curiously adapted to the parts ihey perform in 
the comedy, showing Aristophanes to have been a careful 
observer of nature, as well as a consummate poeL I have 
also used with profit a httle work, entitled " Beitraege zur 
Omithologic Griechenlands, von Heinrich Graf von der 
MUhle," or, Contributions to the Ornithology of Greece, by 
Benrjf Count von der MUhle r a work of interest and impor- 
tance, though written without any reference to the classical 
bearings of the subject. 

Great care has been taken to illustrate the political al- 
lusions, and the application of judicial expressions, in the 
course of tlie piece. For this purpose the excellent writings 
of Hermann, Smith, and Boeckh have been freely cited. St. 


John's flSmirable work on llie Manners and Customs of lie 
Hellenes ha? also been consulted. 

It is probably impossible, at present, to feel the full force 
of the \vit ftnd gayety of Aristophanes, much of which 
turned upon temporary and local relations. Still, a careful 
study of contemporary history, political and judicial institu- 
tions, popular prejudices and delusions, and the influence of 
oracles and other means of working upon ignorant or even 
cultivated credulity, will make all the material points of the 
comedy of Aristophartes sufficiently clear. 

The satire of the Birds is more playful, comprehensive, 
and genial than that of any other of the poet's comedies. 
The spirit of parody and burlesque, which is a general trwt 
of the AristopLanic drama, here displays ilself most freely 
and amusingly. Even the solemn genius of Pindar does 
not escape entirely the poet's whimsical perversions. The. 
dithyranibic poeta in general are unsparingly ridiculed ; the 
philosophers and men of science are not allowed to pass 
untouched ; while profligates and impostors of every class 
and description are here, as well as in the Clouds, held 
up to scorn and contempt. 

Much discussion has been held upon the question as to the 
specific object the poet aimed at in his plan. Some have en- 
deavored to show that the main drill of the piece is to expose 
the foliy of the Athenians in their dreams of universal em- 
pire, at the time of the Sicilian Expedilion ; and these critics 
have fancied they could identiiy, not only the political parties 
in the Peloponnesian War, hut individual characters in the 
history of the times. This is pressing matters of fact too 
far in judging of a poetical wort. No donbt Aristojihanes 
sought to lay the foundation of all his pieces in the actual 
life, public and private, of his age. Bui hia genius could 
not so completely hind itself to the prosaic realities around 
him. His Pegasus trod the firm earth, but never bowed his 
the yoke. Some of the leading ideaa were unqnes- 


tionably suggested by the popular mndne^s which the v 
tile and profligate genius of Alt-ibiades had done si 
kindle among the Alhenians of liis time ; but (he ground- 
work only of the play was laid in political passions and his- 
torical events. That epiabliahed, the poet gave free scope to 
his brilliant fancy, boundless wit. and unsurpassed powers of 
invention, and produced a poem, not only fitted to amuse and 
delight his countrymen, bat to interest the lovers of litera- 
ture in future ages, hy the richest union of sportive Ratire and 
creative imtigination that the comic theatre of Athena ever 

The following Argument is somewhat condensed from the 
works of the poet Gray, It is prefixed to the spirited trans- 
lation of the Rev. Henry Francis Gary. 

This new edition has been carefully revised, not only by 
. myself, but by my friend Professor Goodwin, who has added 
valuable notes and illustrations. His excellent work on 
the Greek Moods ami Ti^nsea has been constantly used, as 
the student will find by numerous references, indicated by 
the letter G., scattci'ed tlirougb the commentary. 

C. C. Fi^LTON. 

CAUBiLimiB, Mia-ch 1, 

In pieiiarui^ the tliird edition for the jres many i,or- 
it.Lt unA ImvL, beta made lu the Greek text cluefly of typo- 
graphical error-i m iccents and punctuation be^lde= a 
great number of iim lar changes in the notes, correctioiia 
more or li-as iffeLtiiig tlie sense (ind m some ca^tis addi- 
tions) have been made in the note-, on the following ver es: 
63, 133, 4'ia-4a0, 4j3, 47G 489, 507, 694, 760-761, 
853-860, 1107, 1210, I215-I216, 1228-1229, 1605, 
1620, 1721. 


Caubkidoe, Maii-li 10, IBGB, 


"EuELPiDEa and Pisthetaerua, two ancient . 
thoroughly weary of the tolly, injustice, and litigious tem- 
per of their countrymen, determine lo leave Attica for 
good and ail ; and having heard much of the fame of 
Epopa, king of the birds, who was once a man under the 
name of Tereua, and had married an Athenian lady, they 
pack up a few necessary utensils, and set out for the court 
that prince, under the conduct of a jay and a raven, 
' hirda of great distinction in augury, without whose di- 
reclJon the Greeks never undertook anything of con- 
sequence. Their errand is to inquire of the birds, who 
r are the greatest travellers of any nation, where they may 
^ meet with a quiet, easy settlement, far from all prosecu- 
■ tioaa, lawsuits, and sycophant informers, to pass the re- 
mainder of their lives in peace and liberty. 

" The' scene is a wild, unfrequented country, which 
I terminates in mouiitaina ; there the old men are seen, 
[(accompanied by two slaves, who cairy their httle hag- 
r gage,) fatigued and fretting at the carelcj^ncss ot their 
r guides, who, though they cost them a matter of a groat 
f in tlie market, are good for nothing but lo bite them by 
I the fingers and lead (hem out of the nay They travel 

* TVorki of Gray, edited bj MaChins, Vol II pp ISl-160 



on, however, till Ihey coine lo the foot of the rooks, i 
stop up their passage, and put them to their wils' end. 
Here the raven croaks, and the jiij chatters and looks 
up into the air, as much as to sa.y tliat this is the plac 
upon which they knock with a stone and with their heels 
(as though it were ^ttiDst a door) against the side of the 

"Trochilus, a bird that waits upon Epops, appears 
aboTC ; he is frightened at the sight of two men, and 
they are much more so at the length of his beak and 
the fierceness of his aspeeL He takes them for fowlers ; 
and they insist upon it, that tliey are not men, but birds. 
In their confusion, their guides, whom they held in a 
string, escape and fly away. Epops, during this, is aaleep 
within, afler having dined upon a dish of beetles and ber- 
ries : their noise awakens him, and he comes out of the 

" At the strangeness of his figure, they are divided be- 
tween fear and laughing. They tell him their errand,- 
and he giveS them the choice of several cities fit for their 
purpose, oiie parlieularly on the coa^t of the Red Sea, 
all which Ihoy refuse, for many comical reasons. He 
teUs them the happiness of living among the birds ; they 
are much pleased with the liberty and simplicity of il ; 
and Pistbetaerus, a shrewd old fellow, proposes a scheme 
to improve it, and make them a far more powerful and 
considerable nation. Epops is struck with the project, and 
calls up bis consort, the nightingale, to summon all his 
people together with her voice. They sing a fine ode. 

" The birds come flying down, at first one by one, and 
perch here and there about the scene ; and at last the 
Chorus, in a whole body, come hopping and fluttering 
and twittering in. At the sight of the two men they ai'u 
in great (umult, and think that tlicir king has helrayed 


They determine lo tear the two old 
, draw ttieniselTes up in baitle aiTuy, and 
xe giving the word to fall on. Euelpides and Pistheiaeriis, 
in all the terrors of death, aft«r upbraiding eacli the otiier 
for bringing him into puch distrese, and trying in vain 
to escape, assume courage from mere despair, seize upon 
the kitchen furniture which they had brought with them, 
and, armed with pipkins for helmets, and with spits for 
lances, they present a resolute front to the enemy's pha- 
lanx. On the point of battle, Epops interposes, pleads 
hard for his two guests, who ojk, he says, his wife's re- 
lations, and people of wonderful abilities, and well affected 
to their commonwealth. Hia eloquence has its effect: the 
birds grow less violent, they enier into a truce with the 
old men, and both sides lay down their arms. Pisthetae- 
rus, upon the authority of Aesop's fables, proves to them 
the great antiquity of their nation ; ihal they were bora 
before the creation of the earth, and before the god?, and 
once reigned over all countries, as he shows from iieveral 
testimonies and monuments of different nations ; that the 
cock wears his Jiara erect, like the Persian king, and that 
all mankind start out of their beds at his command; that 
when the kite makes his tiret appearance in the spring, 
eveiy one prostrates himself on the gi'ound before it ; that 
the Egyptians and Phoenicians set about their harvest bb 
soon as the cuckoo is heard ; that all kings bear an eagle 
on their sceptre, and many of the gods carry a bird on 
■ head ; that many great men swear by the goose, 
&c. When he has revived in them the memory of 
their ancient empire, he laments their present despicable 
E'COndition, and the affiants put upon them by mankind. 
■ They are coniineed of what he says, applaud his oration, 
land desire his advice. I^Ie proposes (hat they shall unite, 
land build a city in the mid-air, whereby all < 



will effectually be stopped between heaven and earth : 
the gods will no longer be able lo viait at ease their Seme- 
lea and Alemenas below, nor feast on the fume of sacri- 
fices daily sent up to them, nor men enjoy the benefit 
of the seasons, nor the froita of Ihe eai-th, without per- 
mission from those winged deities of the middle region. 
He Bhowa how mankind will lose nothing by this change 
of government ; tliiit the liirds may he worshipped at a 
far ess expense, nothing more than a few berries or a 
handful of corn ; that ttey will need no sumptuous tem- 
ples ; that, by their great knowledge of futurity, they will 
direct their good votaries in all their expeditions, so as 
they can never fail of success ; that the ravens, famed for 
the length of their lives, may make a present of a century 
or two to iheir worshippers ; and, besides, the birds will 
ever be within call, wlien invoked, and not ait pouting 
in the cloud*, and keeping their stale so many miles otT. 
The scheme is highly admired, and the two old men are 
lo be made free of the city, and each of them is to be 
adorned with a pair of wings at the public charge. Epops 
invites them to his nest-royal, and entertains them nobly. 
The nightingale in the mean time joins the Chorus without, 
and the parabasis begins. 

" They sing their own nobility and ancient grandeur, 
their prophetic skill, the bc-nefits they do mankind already, 
and all the good which they design ihem ; lliey descant 
upon the power of music, in which they are such great 
masters, and intermix many strokes of satire ; they show 
the advantages of flying, and apply it to several whimsi- 
cal cases ; and they invite all such as would be free ^m 
the heavy tyranny of hunaan laws to live among them, 
where it is no sin to beat one's father, &c., &c 

" The old men. now become birds, and magnificently 
fledged, after laughing awhile at the new and awkward 



figure thej make, consult about the name which they 
flhall give to their rising city, and fix upon that of Ne- 
phelococcygia, or Cudtoncloudlaad ; and while one goes 
to auperinlend the worltmcn, the otlier prepares to sacri- 
flce for the prosperity of the city, which ia growing apace. 

" They begin a solemn prayer to all the birda of Olym- 
pus, putting the Bwaa in the place of Apollo, the cock in 
that of Mars, and the ostrich in that of the great mother 
Cybele, &c. 

"A miserable poet having already heard of the new 
settlement, comes with some lyric poetry, which he has 
composed on this great occasion. Pisthetaerus knows his 
errand from his. looks, and makes ihem give him an old 
coat i but, not conienled with that, he begs to have the 
waistcoat to it, in -the elevated style of Pindar: tliey com- 
ply, and get rid of him. 

"Tlie sacrifice is again interrupted by a begging proph- 
et, who brings a cargo of oracles, partly relating lo the 
prosperity of the city of Nephelococcygia, and partly to 
a new pair of shoes, of which he is in extreme want. 
Pisthetaerus loses patience, and cul^s him and his rclig- 
iona trumpery off the stage. 

" Meto, Ihe famous geometrician, comes next, and offers 
a plan which he has drawn for the new buildings, with 
much imporlance and impertinence : he meets with as had 
a reception as the prophet. 

"An ambassador, or IJccnaed spy, from Athens arrives, 
and a legislator, with a body of new laws. They ore 
used with abundance of indignity, and go off, threatening 
everybody with a prosecution. The sacred rites lieing so 
often interrupted, they are forced lo remove their altar, and 
finish them behind the scenes. 

"The Chorus rpjoice in their own increasing power; 
and (as about the time of the Dionysia it was usual to 



mate proclamation against the enemies of ihe republic) 
Ihey set a price upon llie hpad of a famous poulterer, 
wbo lias exertijed infinite cruellies upon their friends and 
brethren ; then they turn lliemselvea to the judges and 
epectatora, and promise, if this drama obtain the victory, 
how propitious they will be to tiiera. 

" Pislhelaerus returns, and reports, that the sacrifice ap- 
pears auspicious to their undertaking : a messenger then 
enter.^^ with an account how quick the works adPance, 
and whimsically describes the employments allotted to the 
several birds, in different parts of the building. 

"Another messenger airives in a violent huny, to tell 
how somebody from heaven has deceived the vigilance 
of the jackdaws, wlio were upon guard, and passed through 
tlie gates down into the lower air ; but that a whole squad- 
ron of light-winged forces were in pur£.nit of this insolent 
person, and hoped to fetch him batk again. The birds 
are in great perturbation, and all in a flutter about it, 

" This proves to be Iris, who in her return is stopped 
ebort, and seized by order of Pisthelaerus. He examines 
her, Where is her passport? Whether she had leave 
from the watch? What is her business? Who is she? 
— in short, he treats her with great authority. She tells 
her name, and that she was sent by Jove with orders to 
mankind, that they should keep holiday, and pei-form a 
grand sacrifice ( she wonders at their sauciness and mad- 
ness, and threatens them with all her father's thunder. 
The governor of Nepbelococcygia returns it with higher 
menaces, and with language very indecent indeed for a 
goddess and a maid lo bear. 

'■The herald, who had been despatched to the lower 
world, relums with an account that all Athens was gone 
hh-d-mad i that it was grown a fashion to imitate them 
in their names and maimers; and that shortly they might 


' expect to see a whole conroy arrive, in order to settle 
among them. The Chorus run to fetch a vast cargo of 
featliers and wings to equip their new citizens, when they 

" The first who appears is a profligate young fellow, 
who hopes to enjoy a liherty which he could not enjoy 
BO well at home, the liberty of beating his father. Piathe- 
laerua allows it, indeed, to he the custom of bis people j 
but at the same time informs him of an ancient law pre- 
served among the storks, that they shall maintain their 
parents in their old age. This is not at all agreeable to 
the youth : however, in consideration of his affection for 
the Nephelococcygians, Pisthetaerus furnishes him with a 
feather for his helmet, and a cock's spur for a weapon, 
and advises him, as he seems to be of a military turn, to 
go into the army in Thrace. 

I "The next ia Cinesias, the dithyrambic writer, who is 
deUghted with the thought of living among the clouds, 
amidst those airy regions whence all his poetical flights 
are derived ; hut Pisthetaerus will have no such animal 
among his birds ; he drives him back to Athena with greaC 

" He then drives away also (but not without a severe 
whipping) an informer, who (or the better despatch of 
business comes to beg a pair of wings to carry him round 
the islands and cities subject to Athens, whose inhabitants 
he is used to swear against for an honest hvelihood, aa 
did, he says, his fathers before him. The birds, in the 
ensumg chorus, relate their travels, and describe the strange 
things and strange men they have seen in them. 

" A peraon in disguise, with all the appearance of cau- 
tion and fear, cornea to inquire for Pisthetaerus, to whom 
he discovers himself to be Prometheus, and tells him (but 
first he makes them hold a large umbrella over his head 


for fear Jupiter should spy him) that the gods are all 
in a starving, miserable conJition [ and, is worse, 
that bai'bftrian gods (who live no one knows where, in a 
part of lieaveu fur beyond the gods of Greece) threaten 
to make war upon them, unless they wilt open the ports, 
and renew the intercourse between mankind and them, 
as of old. lie advises Piathetaerus to make the moat of 
this intelligence, and to reject all offers boldly which 
Jupiter may make him, uoless he will consent to restore 
to the hirds their ancient power, ajid give him in mar- 
riage his favorite attendant, Basilea. This said, he slips 
back again to heaven, as lie came. The Chorus continue 
an account of their travels. 

" An embassy arrives from heaven, consisting of Her- 
cules, Neptune, and a ceriain Triballian god. As they 
approach the city walls, Neptune is dressing and scold- 
ing at the outlandish divinity, and teaching him how to 
carry himself a little decently. They find Piathetaerua 
busy in giving orders about a dish of wild fowl, (i. e. of 
birds which had been guilty of high misdemeanors, and 
condemned to die by the public,) which are dressing for 
his dinner. Hercules, who before was for bringing off 
the head of this audacious mortal without further con- 
ference, finds himself insensibly relent, as he snuffs the 
savory steam. He salutes Pisthetaerus, who receives them 
very coldly, and is more attentive to his kitchen than to 
tbeir compliment. Neptune opens his commission ; owns 
that his nation (the gods) are not the belter for this war, 
and on reasonable terms would be glad of a peace. Pis- 
thetaerus, according to the advice of Promelheua, pro- 
poses (as if to try them) the first condition, namely, that 
of Jupiter's restoring to the hirds their ancient power; 
and, if this should be agreed to, ho says that he hopes 
to entertain my lords the ambassadors at dinner. Hei^ 


cules, pleiised with this last comptlmeiit, so agreeable to 
his appetite, comes readily inlo all he aska ; but is severe- 
ly reproved by Neptuao for bis gluttony. Piaihctaerua 
argues the point, and shows how much it would be for 
the mutual iaterest of both nations ; and Neptune is hun- 
gry enough to be glad of some reasonable pretence to 
give the thing up. The Triballian god is asked his opin- 
ion for form ; he mutters somewhat, wliich nobody un- 
derstands, and so it passes for his consent. Here they 
are going in to dinner, and all is well ; when Plsthetaerus 
bethinks himself of the match with Basilea. This makes 
Neptune fly out again: he will not hear of it; he will 
return home instantly ; but Hercules cannot think of leav- 
iDg a good meal so; lie is ready to acquiesce in any con- 
ditions. His colleague attempts lo show him that he is 
giving np his patrimony for a dinner ; and what will he- 
i of him after Jupiter's death, if the birds are lo have 

Beverything during his lifetime, Pisthetaerus clearly proves 
to Hercules tiiat this is a mere imposition ; that by the 
laws of Solon a bastard has no inheritance ; that if Jove 

ydied without legitimate issue, his brothers would succeed 

■ to his estate, and that he speaks only out of interest. 

■ JTow the TrihaUian god is again to determine the matter ; 
I they interpret his jargon as favorable to them ; so Neptune 

ia forced to give up the point, and Pisthetaerus goes with 
1 lum and the barbarian to heaven to fetch his bride, while 
Hercules stays behind to take care Uiat the roast meat 
is not spoiled. 

"A messenger returns with the news of the approach 
of Pisthetaerus and his bride ; and accordingly they ap- 
pear in the air in a splendid machine, he with Jove's 
thunderbolt In his hand, and by his side Basilea, magnifi- 
cently adorned : the birds break out in loud songs of ■^ 
tation, and conclude the drama with their hymeneal." 


The play was performed in the Archonship of Chabrias, 
B. C. 414. Ameipsias was first, with the Revellers ; Aris- 
tophanes second, with the Birds ; Phrynichus third, with the 
Monotropos, or Recluse. (See the first vnoOcatSy page 3.) 






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*Hfuv ye irapa OaXarrav, lv ava4cin^eT(u 

EXTjrfjp (vyova etoOev ^ XcCKxifUvla, 

EWrjviKTjv Se TToTuv e^ei^ rj/uv ^paatu ; 


Tl ov Tov ^Hketov Aeirpeov oIki^€tov 


^^ *OTVq Vfj T0U9 ^€0^9* 9$^0VK IScDV 160 

JBSeXtnTO/uu tov Aeirpeov am MeXavOiov. 

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AXK €urtv erepoi, rfj^ AoKplZo^ ^Oirowruiif 
Iva ')(pri /caroc/eeiv, 


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OvK tbv yevolfj/qv hri niKo^q^ypvaiov, ^ 
05to9 Se hri t/? eaO* o /act* opplOtov ^to^ / 155 

^t; f^ap otadl cucpifiih* ' 

OvK a')(apL^ €9 Tifp Tpifirjv • 
Ov irpSara fiev Sel ^v avev fioKavriov, >{. 

IloWrp; y a^rXe9 tov fiiov KifiSrjXiav. \^ ^ ^ 

Eno*". ^ 

N€fu)fie<r0a S' ev icrproifi tol \evKa arjorafia \^^ 

Kcujivpra kcu fii^Koova /cat (navfifipuu'f :.■ /< ' 160 



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^€V <f}€V • 

H fiey €Pop& fiov\€Vfi ev opviOaov yeve^, 
Kac Svvafjbiv rj yevoiT av, et iriOoiarOe fwu 



*^0 Tl TTiOrjaOe ; irpSna fjiu , 165 
Mi; irepvirireaBe iravrayri Ke)(rivcfTe^ '4 

O P N I e £ £. 

51, 'ill tout' an/iov rovpfov etnlv. Avriiea v 
Eieel irap ij/uv tou? trero/tevov^ fjv epn, n 
TfS opvi^ 0VTO9 ; o TeXeas epei raSt * 
AvdpwTrm opVK otnaBu^tK veroftevo^, ^ 

. ^ AreKpapTiK, ovSep ovS^ot ei> ravr^ /ieveav. 

N^ Tov AioovtTov, eS ye 

Tl OT^ ojJw TTOtdwef ; 1^ ^ ^"V 

X OueuraTe fuav iroiuv. 
Hotav S* ttv Mxliraiitev opvi^e^ wotMr ; 

- .;. nEi^eETAiPox. 
A.\i]0e^, a aKoioraTov etpr)KWi ctto!, X 
SKe^v Kara. 

Kat Sr} ffXefjrea, 

B\e!re vvv cwm. 

■^ Hepia/ye tov rpaj^Xov, 

N^ Jul, 
*AiroKavm>fuU ri &', el Ztaarpa^/^^iuu. 




Ava> Ti ^pd^€i. 


O ^^a)^-feo\ou)<: ovroai, 60 

Av(o KC'Xfjvep oxrirepei, ZeCKvv^ Tt fioc • 
KovK eau (yiro)^ ov/c eoTiv emavd opvea, 
EurofieOa S avrifc , rjv irovriarcofiep '^o^ov. 


AXK otarO^ o Spacrov ; t^ arxeXec 0ev€ r^v irerpav. 

^i; Se T^ Ke^tCK^ y , iv rf hiirkaaio^ 6 's^o<l>o^, 55 


Sv S ow XtOtp fcoy^ov Xafifov. 


ndw «y*, el SofceL 
lieu ireu. 


Ti \€y€i9, oxjTOf; ; rov eiroira *rra2 KoXel^ ; 
Ovtc ami, Tov ircuBo^ a €)(pfjv eiroirol xaKeiv ; 


EiroTTol, Hoi^Tiaei^ rol /le /cowreiv avOis; aS ; 


Tive^ ovTov ; Ti9 fio&v rov Setnronpf ; 60 


A'lroXKov arn'OTpoircue^ rov ^(aa'pnfifiaTo^m 

oPNieES. 9 

Obfioi raXa9i opviOoOripa tovtcou 


OvTOf^ TV Zeofov ovSe koXXiov Xeyeiv ; 




AXK ovfc earfiev avOponrto* 




TiroSeSuo^ eycoye, Al^vkov opveov. €F 


OvSev \ey€t^. 


Kxu fiTjv epoyra 7rpo9 iroS&v. 


Oot 06 &rj T49 eoT^i' opi/A9 ; ovk epec^ ; 


^Arap av rl Oijpiov ttot el irpo^ r&v Oe&v ; 


"Opvi^ ?ya)«ye SoiJXo?. 


*AXeKTpvovo^ ; 


10 API2T0*AN0YS 


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Eiroyft eyevero, tot€ yeviadai jjl rjv^aro 
Upviv, LV aKoXovuov oiaKOVov r ej^jy. 

jdelrai yap opvi<; Kai Blukovov tuvo^ ; 

Oi>T09 y 9 ar , otfiav, irporepov avOpcoiro^f wot cjv, 75 

Tore fi€v €pa ipayelv a(j>va<; ^aXrjpvfca^ • 

Tpej(<a} TT a<l>va^ eyo) Tul^cov'to Tpv^wv, 

Ervov^i S ejnOv/j^l, Bel ropvvrj^ koI '^urpa^ • 

Tpo')(bi,o^ opvL^ ovrocrL 
Olad* ovv o Spaaov, & rpo'^ike ; tov SeawoTrjv 80 

Hfilv KoXeaov, 

Aw apTLco^ vrj tov Ala 

EvSei Kara^ayoov fivpra kol a^p^ov^ nva^. 

' Ofuo^i eireyeipov avrov, 


On aj(0€a'€T(Uj a^^v S avrov ovvck eireyepH, 


£a/ca)9 av y uttoXjoi, &<; fi wiriiCTewa^ Sdei, 85 

0PNieE2. 11 


ObjjLOi /eateoiatiuboi>v, ^^ tcdXoio^ /m oX')((st(u 
Ttto tov Beov^, 

fl SeiKorarov <ru 0r)piov, 

AcLtrm a^Kw; tov koXoiov ; 


Elire fioi, 
Sif Se TTjv KopcDvrjy ov/c axf^TJKa^ Karanreacov ; 

Ma Ai, ovic eya)y6. 


Hov yap eoTtv ; 

^A'treirraro. 90 


OvK ap a^Ka^ * &yd0*, w dvSpelo^ el. 

EHO*. ' ' ' 

Avoiye Tqv vXrjv, %v €^€\0(o Trore' 


li HpaxXei^, Tourl tI ttot earl 07)piov ; 

Tiv^ eiai, fJL oi' ^firovvre^ ; 


Ol SciSexa 0€ol 9b 

Ev^aa-ip €!nTpu\^ai ae. 



\ Eno*. 

M&Jl.fl€ &Ka)7rT€T0P 

*Op&VT€ TTjiif 'TTTepaxriv ; r) yapt « few*, 


Ov crov KarayeX&jJuev* 


*AXKa rod ; 


T% pdfi^o^ fiiuv <Tov yikoLov ^aiverau 

E n o ^. 
Tocavra iidvroi Xo^otcKir)^ XvfJbaivercu • 00 

^Ev Ta2^ Tp(vyq>Blaunv e/x-e rov Tripea. 


Tr)p€v^ yap el av ; iroTcpov opvi^ ri tclw^ ; 

Opvi^ er/aaye, 


Ktjvra aoi ttov ra rrrepa ; 



HSrepov VTTO votrov rivo^ ; 


OvK, oKKa TOP yet^fi&va iravra r&pvea 105 

^ Hrepoppvel re KavOt^ erepa ^uofiev. . 
AW €L7raTov fioi, atpco rev earov ; 

0PNI6E2. 13 



Hohairto TO ffevo^ S* ; 


M&v fjKuurrd ; 


•v * = MdXKa Barepov rpoTTOv, 

"J^ iS'JreiQeriU yap rovr exei 110 

To (nrepfL ; 

Okiyov ^ifr&v av cf arfpov \aj3oi^» 

Eno*. ."^ 
Upar/oxf^ Se Srj rov Seofievoo Sevp rjKOerov ; 


Sot ^tryjevecrOcu jSovTsxtfieva. 


Tlvo^ irepi ; 

JJtri irpSrra fiev riaO avdpcoiro^, tacnrep voo, irore, 

Kapyvpiov m^eikrfa-a^, &<nr€p vco, irore, 115 

KovK am'oSiBov^ e^atpe^:, oxnrep vco, irore • 

Etr aZ6i^ opvl0<ov fieraXKa^as ^vatv, 


/ I ^ t. 


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TavT ovv iK€Tai vco irpo^ ae Sevp cujiLyfieOa, 130 

El TLva TToTuv ^pda-eca^ rj/uv €V€pov,> -j^ • 
^ilairep accrvpav eyKaraKkLvfjvcu ^laXOaKriv* 

EireiTa iiei^co t&v Kpava&v ^riTe!^ ttoKlv ; 

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' " '/ . ''''^' '/ 'Eyco; 125 

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■* • 
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Ottov ra fieytara irpayfiar etrj rocaSi • 
^EttI ttiv Ovpav fiov irpat tl^ €K0a)v r&v <I>iXmv 
AeyoL ToSi • 7r/309 rod Aio^ TovXvpmuov, 130 

Ottco^ irapeaei fiov kol av kcu ra Trachea 
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Kcu fj/rjSafiS)^: aWo>9 Tron^ay^ • el he /i1^, 
Mri fwi Tore y eXOryi, orav eycD irparTto KaK&^. 

Nrf Ata TCLXxuTTcopedV ye irpa/yfAaroDV epqi^. ' tX 

Ti hoti av ; 

O P N I e £ 2. 16 


TotouTfov ip& Kcvyw. \ 


Tlvcov ; 

, .. -^ ' nEISeETAIPt)2. 

Oirov ^uvavT&v jmi toZl ti^ iicfiyfrerai 

SloTrep aScKr)0€t^ 7raiBo<i aypaiov irarrip • X 
KakSy^ ye fiov tov t;Ioi/;%S StOh^covIStj, 
Evpa)v airiovT amo yvyavcSftbv Xekovfievov 140 

4 OvK eKvaa^, ov irpoa-ehrax;, ov Trpoaijyayov, >^ 
OvK apyyiri^a'a^i av cfiol irarpiKO^ ^/\.09. 


SI ieCKaKpvcov crv t&v kuk&v olcov epa^. 
Arap eoTi, y oirouiv Xeyerov eviaifioiv iroXi^ 
\<IIapa Ttjv epvOpav OaKarrav, ^ 


OtfJbOl, iJ/qhafJb&^ 145 

^Hfuv ye irapa OdXarrav, Iv avcucw^ertu " . 

EXrjrrjp ayova ecoOev f) SaKajuvta. 

EWrjvi/cqv Se iroXuv e)(ei^ rjfuv <f)pa<rcu ; 

Tb ov TOV HXelov Aeirpeov of,Kl^€Tov 

E\6ov0 ; 

EYEAniAHs. * ;::: 

"^ ^Oriri vfi Tov^ 0€ov<i, 9<$^ovk iBav 160 

BBekvTTOfJUU TOP Aeirpeov airo MekavOlov. 






AXX eurlv etepot rf}^ AoKpiBo^ Oirowrioh 

J(prj KOTOlKeLV. 



OvK cLv yevolp/qv hri ToKa^^ypi 

OvTo^ Se Btj rk €cr0 6 fier opi^av )8to9 ; 15b 

Sv yap dt(r$l cucpv/SA^. v 

Ov/e ayapi^ €9 nyy rpifirjif • 
Ov irpSna fiep Sel ^v avev ^aXcarriov. ^ 


IIoWr}v y a^€6\€9 tov jSiov Ki^Sr)\tca^. ^ ^ 




NcfidfiecrOa 8' hf /crproc^ ra Xevxa aria-afia O 
Kcujwpra kcu firjKcova kcu atcrvfi/Spuui- ■, r. 160 



T/^?9 yiiGv apa ^re wfi^uov ^lov. f 


H fiey €Pop& ^ovXev/i ep opviOcov y€V€t, 
Kal Svvaficv rj yivovr av, el TriBourOe fiou 

Tl aoi 7ri0(Ofi€cr0^ ; 


^O Tl 7rl07fa0e ; irp&ra /lep , 165 

O P N I e E s. 

ifi? TovT arrifiop Tovpyqp etrro'. AvriKa y 
Exel Trap rifuv tous vero/ievovi fp> epn, x 
T(s opvK o5to? ; 6 TeXe'as epet ToSt • 
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^ ATeKp,apToi, ovSev ouSeVoT ev tcwt^ /tepwv. 

Njj top Aidvvapv, eu ye I 

,^ n E I s eOTWi'rtl. ^^ 

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E n 1>. 
Hotav S' ^ mKuratfiev opviBen -jroKiv ; 
,;. nEi?eETAiP02. 

BXe^ov /carta. 



£X^e m> JEwo. 

■^ Uepiofe rov rpdj^Xov. 

^AwoKavtroiial rt 3', el Buurrpmfi^avfuu. 

ElBe'i T 


Ta^ ve^iktK ye tccu toi' ovpavavi 


^^ iITP^se'tTAiPoz. 

fltnrep eitroi tk rmroi. 
'Otmj Se TToXeiTM, tovto kcu Biepxercu 
"AiravTo, Sia TOvToifft^KaXelTOt vOv woX^ • 
By 8* ohcitrtjTe rovro km ^pa^d' S/ira^, \ 
Ek tou ttoKov tovtov iceicX-^a-eTai iro^s. 
Hot ap^er dvdpavwv p,ev aatrep irapvoTrav, ^ 
Totfi S aZ BeoxK wjroKetre \ifi^ MtiXttp, ^ 

Jlik ; 

'Ep (ietri^ BrprovOev aijp eari f^. '■. - 
Et6' mmrep ripxli;, ^p tepai ^ovXa/ieBa 
IIvffCiBe, BoioiTavv SIo^p airavp.eda, '; 
OwTftis, Stop Quamatx avdpanrot deolt, 
*Hv p-rj <pdpop tfiepaxTiv vptv ol deoi, 
Aia TTJi iToKeias t^ aXKoT£la<; Ktu tov voow 
TSiv fMipuav rrjv KPitrav ov Sia^prjireTe, -a 

O P N I e E s. 

Iw WW' 

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Ml) 'yto imtyia KOfL-^orepov ijicova-d •jrtti • "V 

fi<TT av KaToiKi^oifJ.1 fiera a-ou t^p ttoXip, 

Eyta yap ainw? ^apfiapov^ ovtok irpo tov 
ESiSa^a t^v ^toi^v, fwwi' wo\w j(popov. 

27w9 S^' fiv aiirout ^vyicaXea-euK ; >. 

EireiT aveyeipav •njv tfi^v aijBova, 
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EafiTtp eiTOKOvaaat, Oeuffovrat Bpofi^. 

H ^iKraT opviBav <rv, fit) vuv etrraffi ' 

Ea^atve Koveyeipe t^v a^&ova. 
Aye avwofie fioi, vawrai fikv vjtvov, 
Avfoii Se vo^v^ lepS>v vp-indi!, * 



Ou9 Slcl Oeiov aTOfiaro^ Oprji 

1%v ifwv Koi avv irokvhaKpvy Irw^ 

EXeTu^ofievrj Bv€po2<; jneXea-vv 215 

y Kadapa yjaapel Sia ^vWofcofiov 

\ Mt7<4ifco^ Tjyju) Trpo^ Aio^ ^pa<;, \ J 

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EiVfi<l>a)vo^ ofiov 

0€ui fULKofoDV oKoXvyi^. 225 

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fl Zev ^aacXev, rod ^Oey/juaro^ rovpvidiov • 
^ Oiov KaTefieKiTcoae ttjv \o')Qir}v oXr)v, 




r/ V 

Ti eoTiv ; 

Ov cruawriaei ; 



,/ OvTToyfr fieX^Setv av irapcuTKevd^ertu. 230 



r \s ift) t<», 4TCi) iTG) tTG) *TG> 

ItG> T*9 wSe tS)V €fJL&V 6flO7rT€p€0V ' . *" 

Oa-oc T €v<nr6pov^ arfpoitccov yva^ " . ' " 

Ne/ieaOe, <j>vka fivpla KptOoTpaytav A 235 

AirepfioKjoyoiV re yei^T^ 1^ 

Ta')(y Trerofjueva, fiaXOaKrjv levra ^piM* 

Oaa T €P dkofci Oatia "" 
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HBofieva iJHova * 240 

HK^^ T^O T40 TAO TU) no TIO TiO * "^ 

Oora fl"' vfi&v Kara Krfirou*; hri kut^ov A 
KXoBeav vojiov e^ec, y 

Ta T€ Kar opea, ra re Korivorpar/a, ra re KOfmpo~ 

Amjaare Trerofjueva irpo^ Cfiav aoiSav • 245 

Ot ekeiwi Trap avKwvw; o^varofiov^ 
jL^miowi Kaineu , oa-a t evqpocrov^ yrj^ tottov^ 

E'Xjsre \€Lfi&pa t epoevra MapaO&vo^, 

Opvt^ T€C7rf€po7roLKiXo<; , . . 250 ^ 

^ATTor/a*; oTTaya^' '^^ 

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iv\a fier dXicvoveaa-L TroraTai, 
Aevp ire irev aojie voi ra vedrepa, 
llama yap evOdie <j>v>J dOpol^ofiev 255 

22 API2T0*AN0yS 

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Kaivo^ yvQ}fir}v, 

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Aw LT €9 \oyov^ airavra, 260 


KcKKa^av KtKKapkv, 


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Toporl^ Topori^, 

if2ya0\ dXXa '^ovroa-i koI Sr} tc<: opvi^ ep^ercu. 270 

Nt] Al * opvi^ hfjra, Tk iror* cotIv ; Ov Stj^ov Ta&^ ; 

OvTO^ avTO^ vaiv <j>pa<r€i • rl^ earvv opviM ovToat ; 

Oirro9 ov tS)v 7j0qZa>v r&vB^ (ov opaO vfi€l<s aei, 

AXKa Xifiifalo^, 

OPNieES. 23 


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EIkoto)^ • KCU yap ovo/m cwt^ y earl ^wiKoirrepo^, 275 


Oirro9, w <Te to*. 

Ti fieooTpeU ; 




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Nri AC h-epo^ Sfjra j(pvTO^ e^ehpov X(opav e)(cov. 
^ T/9 TTOT* eaOA o /JbovaofiavTi^' aroiro^ opvc^ opc^drr]^ ; 

Ovo/ia rovT^ MfjBo^ eari. 


MrjSo^ ; flva^ ^HpcucXei^ • 

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^Erepos av \o<f>ov KoreCKriifxo^ rt? opvi/i ouroau 


j^ It TO repa^; tovti ttot eariv ; Uu av fiovo^ ap ^atf 

'AKKa j^oirro9 irepo^ ; 


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JBf environ, &y(o he rovrqv Trdinro^, &<rrrep ei Xeyoi^ 

24 APIST0«AN0Y2 

ImroviKO^; KaXKiov Ka^ 'ImrovLKov KaKKm^. 285 


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T49 ovofia^eral iroO^ ovro^ ; 

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AXKa fievToi tl^ ttoO^ tj Xd^€oaL<; rj t&v opveayv ; 
^ H ttI top BiavXov rjkdov ; 


■' > 



'^fla-irep ol Kape^ fiev ovv 
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il UoaeiZov, ov^ opa^ oaov avveiXeiCTCU kcucov 
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flva^ AttoWov, tov v€^ov^, Iov lov • | 

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o p N I e E 2. 25 

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pc^, - 305 

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lov uov rS>v K(nlnj((ov • 

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Ap dnreCKova-iv ye v^v ; Otfwi, Ke^vaaiv ye toi 310 
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26 API2T0«AN0Y2 



A. u r u A. 

TIoTrtm oTroTroTroirov fi ifh S9 eKoKea-e ; riva roirov apa 

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TL TiTiTtTiriTiTi rlva \oyov apa irore irpo^ €fj,e ^tSjov 

Kocvdv, aai^dXfj, Blxaiov, ffivv, (o^eXrjacfiov, 315 

"Avhpe jap XcTTTO) Xoyurra Bevp affn'^Oov ©9 €/*€. 


f Hov ; Ha ; HSy; ^179 ; 1 


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Hkctov 8' cxpine irpefwov irpcvyp4iT0<i ireKonpiov* 

SI fiiyujTov e^afjbapTODV ef otov Wpa^v cyo), 

" lTft>9 Xeyec^ ; 

MrjTTO) ^ofirjO^^ Tov Xoyov* 


V|((^ Tip:€tpydamt 
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|^[''q Km BeSpaxa^ tovto rovpyov ; 

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Kcu BeSpaKQ)'; y* rjSofiau 

\^ KdoTOV rjSi] TTOV irap rifilv ; 


jLl Trap v/MLV ei/M eyo). 


"Ea ea, 385 

IlpoSeSo/ieO avoaiar eirado/JLep • 
*09 yap <f>i\jo<: r^v, OfWTpot^d 6* '^fuv 
Evefiero ireiuL irap rjfilv 
Iiap€07j fi€v 0€<Tfiov^ ap')(alov^f 

ItapepT) S opKOv^ opviOtbv • 330 

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i €V09 avoaioVi oirep ef or eyever enr €/xo* 
IloXefuov erpcufyrj, 

AX\a irpo^ TovTOv /i€v rifuv cotlv varepo^ Xoyo9 • 

To) Se Trpea^vra Sokcl fwi reode Sovvat rrp/ Bi/C7}v 335 

Aia^priOrjvai 6 VKJ) rjfiSyv. 


tl<; aTTfoXofieaO apa, 


Altio^ fj,€VToi av v^v el tS)v kclk&v tovtodv fiovo<;* 
Eiri Ti yap fi eKeWei/ ^ye? ; 


'^Iv aKO\oV0OL7)^ €flOU 



Ta? vetf>e>ui<; ye km tov ovpetvovi 

Otr^ oiTO! ovv STpra^Jlt^^oviOcov iroKo^ ; 

IIo\q'; ; ^M T| 

^i^ iJ^KM^A I P O 2. 

"ilairep et-jroi T« tottos. 
'Otit) Be TToKelTOi tovto km ZUp^erai 
"AtravTOiZia TOVToifft^KaXelrai vvv ttoXot • 

Hv S' olKltTJ/Te TOVTO KM tfipo^O ttTTOf, \ 

Ek tov vdX/^u TovTou K£icKriaeT(U irokiv. 
/2ot' ap^er dvOpatrmv /iev rixnrep •jYupvcnrwv, r- 
Tovv S' av Beoiri; dm-oXfiTe XifJ^ MifsJip, ^ 

Ev fie<T^ Brfrrovdev arjp etm frp. ■■ 
Etd' viairep rjfieii;, ^v ievai ^ouXa/j^a 
HvdoiSe, Boiatrov^ BiqBov m,Tovfteda, ': 
OwTiBs, oTav 6vca<Ttv avOpairoi BeoK, 
Hv fiT) if)opov ^eposaiv v/mv ot Seoi, 
4ia TTft "TToKefiK T^ aXKoT£uii km tov yaov^ 
XiBK fMjpuav T7JP Kvltrav ov Suupptjtrere. -i 

O P N I e E 2. 


Ma y^f, fia irayiSa^, fia. veipeKa^, fia. Surrvo, ' 
Hot av KarotKi^oi/ii fiera (Tou tijv ttoKiv, 

Tk av o 

'Eyta yap ovtou? ^ap^apowt ovraxt trpo tov 
.ESi&a^a T)]!' <f>a3vr]v, furwi/ iroXvu j(povov. 



Aevpi yap ep^wt avrtKa /xd)C es tjjv Xoy(/J/>]V, 
Ew€iT aveyeipa^ tjji' e/iiji' aijSovo, 
KaXovfiev avrov'i • ol Se v^ tov tfiOeyparw ' 
'Edvjrep hroKOvffwat, deiiirovrak Zpop^. 


'/2 ^iKrtvr opvldiov <tv, /tij vw earaSt • 
y '^XX' avTi^oKm a, afj a><! to^wtt' e? tiji- 'Koj(jiip> 
Efffiatve Kcweyetpe Trjv a']Bova, 
"Aje ffvwofit fwi, vavtroi p.ev vnpov, 
Avfov £e vo/iow Upwv SfiVav, 

» ^ :■■■ 



Ov9 Slcl 0€iDV aTofiaro^ 6p7}veh 

l^v ifwv Koi GOV irokuhaicpirv Itw, 

*E\e\t^ofievrj StepoZ? fiikeaiv 215 

y KaOapa 'Xjaypel Sia <f>vXKoKOfwv 
Iv 6 'XpvaoKop^^gKj^jtt^qiiHOV 

^' 'toTTja't 'xppov^ • 
Aia S aOavartov oTOfuiTODV ycopei 
UvfJuf>a>vo^ ofjLou 

OeuL fjutfcdfoov oXoXvyrj, SS5 

(AvXei,) ^ 


J2 Zev PaaCKev, rov <f>0eyfiaTO^ Tovpvt0lov • 



Tl eoTtv ; 


Ov <ruDTnfi<r€i ; 






V*. id) tO), 4Tft) ITtO LTtO IT(0 

Ira) Tt9 G)Se toz/ e/icSv ofwinepwv • 

0<ro4 T €V(T7ropov<; (vypoLfccov yva^ ^ . ' 

Nefi€a0€, ^vXa /Mvpla KpiOorpar^ajv >^ 285 

S7r€pfw\oya)v re yei/Ty 


Ta^u irerofieva, /jLaXOaKTjv lima yfjp 

Oaa T ev cCKoki Bajia ^ 
Ba)\oi/ afjL^iTLTTufii^ed^ wSe XeTrroy 
HBofieva ^a>va * 240 


Oaa 9* vfi&v Kara KYprou^ hri Kia^ov A 
KXaZeaL vofwv €j^€«, y 

Ta T€ Kar opea, ra re KorivoTpar/a, ra re KO/iapo^ 
' / ^dya, 

Awaare Trerofieva 7rpo<; e/juav aotSav • 245 

Ot €\eta9 7ra/o auXwi/a? o^oto/iov^ 
EfjL TnS af; KairreO , oca t evBpoaov^; yrj^ tottou? 

Ej(€T€ XevjM&ya t epoevra Mdpad&vo^t 

Opvt^ refTrrepoTTbiKiXo^ / ' 250 > 

^ATTo/ya^ aTToya^' ""'^'^ 

/2j/ t €7r* TTovTiov olBuct OaXoorcnj^ 
^vXa fjL€T aXKVoveaai Trorarai, 
Aevp $T€ 7r€v aofi€ voL ra vecorepa, 
Jlavra yap evdaZe (f>v7C dOpol^ofieu 255 


Ouopcov TavaoBecpayv. V . . 
Hk€l yap Tt9 Spt^u? irp4qfiv<;, 
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Kaiv&v eprycDV r eyj^ejgjn/^.V 
Aw LT 69 \oyov^ airavra, 260 


KLKKa/3av KtKKaptiv. 



Upa9 nv opviv ; 


Ma Tov ^AiroXKoD jto fiev ov • 265 
KaiTov Keyrjva y' €t9 tov ovpavov ^errwv, ^ 
f^- ^ ' -4X\g)9 ap' ovTToyjr, co9 eot«', €9 r^i/ \o')(/Jir)v 
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Toporl^ TOpOTL^. 

S2ya6\ aWa ^ouroav Kai Srj Tt9 oppc^ ep^ercu. 870 

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OvTO^ auT09 P^v <f>paa'€i • rk eariv opvt<; ovTO<rt ; 

UvTO^ OV Tcov 7iu(WG)v TQ)po wv opau vfi€t^ aci, 

AWa Xifivaio^* 


OPNieES. 23 


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EiKOTG)^ • KCU yap ovofi avr^ y eari (f>oivitco7n'€po^, 275 


Ti ^GycTTpeif; ; 


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Nri AC trepo^ Sfjra ypvTO<s e^eBpov %G)/oai/ e^wp. 
^ T/i? TTOT* elxftl o fjLovaoiiavTLs;' aroiro^ opvi<; opi^drrj^ ; 

Ovofia rovTtp M7JS69 eari, 


MtJSo? ; J2va^ ^RpdtcKeb^ • 
fftra TToi^ avev KaixriKov M1JS09 wi/ ei^enraTO ; 280 , j * 

Er€po<i av \o^ov KaretXTj^to^ rt? opvL^ oirroaL 


k i * TO T€/oa9 TOUTt TTOT €<rr4i/ / Uu <7V fiovo^ ap rjaa 

AXXa ypvTo^ €T€j009 ; 


ilXX* 0UT09 /Ltey €<rT4 iCKoKkdov^ 
JEf eTTOTTo?, cyft) Se tovtov TraTnro^, (atnrep et Xeyoi^ 


24 API2T0«AN0Y2 

IinroviKO^ KaXKiov ko^ 'Ittttovikov KaWta^, 285 


Ka\XLa<; ap ovto^ ovpvt^ eoTLV ©9 irrepoppvei, 


''Are yap &v yewalo^i vtto t&v avKo^avr&v riXXerctig >- 
f^ Al t€ 07j\§ffai 7rpoa€/cri\\ov(nv avrov ra irrepcu 


SI ndaeiBov, ^repo? av rt? ^wirrof; opvc<s ouroai* r 
Ti<; ovofia^erai iroO oirro? ; 

Eno*. , 

OvToat KaTG)^aya^. 290 


EoTi yap KaTO)^aya<; Tt9 aWo9 ^ KXecow/M)^ ; 


Urn av ovv K\eQ)Pv/jLo<; y (ov ovk aire^aXe rov \o<l>ov y 


^A\\a fievTov tU iro6^ rj Xo^coai^ 7} t&v opveeov ; 
^ H iri rov SiavXov ri\6ov ; ,, . 


^tlairep ol Kape^ fjuev ow 
^Eiri Xo^oDV oiKovacv, coyaO , aa^fxtKeta^ ox/veKO* 

•^ J2 Hoaeihov, ov^ opas; oaov axjveiXf€/CT(U kokov 
OpveoDV ; 


flva^ AttoXKov, tov ve<f>ov^. lov lov * 
vo tO€ty €T €(r& xnr aurcov irerofievcov Tqv etaooov 

ov. J 



IlapaKecirofJbevTjv inr efirj^; ^pevo^ a^i/verov • 

t) Sv Se TOV0* ^?V ^^y €1^ KOIVOV. 

U yap av av Tir)(r)f; fiot 
AyaOov iropura^, tovto kolvov earai. 

AXK €(f> OTqyirep irpar/fiarL rrjv crqv tjkcc^ yvay/j/rjv 

avaTTCcaa^, 460 

Aeye dapprja-a^ • ©9 to? (nrovSa^ ov firj irporepov irapa" 


Kcu fJLTjv opyS) vrj top Aia kcu irpoire^vpaTCU Xoyo9 eU 

Ov ScafjuiTTecv ov KtoKvei • <f>ipe ircu arT€<j>avop • /cara- 

Kara %€yo9 vScop ^epera) Tayv t49. 

AetTnnjaeip fjueXKo/nep, ^ t/ ; 


Ma At 9 aXKa Xdyecv ^tjtco ti TrdXat fieya kcu Xapivov 

erro^ tc, 465 

O ri Tfiv TOVTcov Opavaci y{ru)(riv' oi/ro)^ vfi&v \nrep* 

Oirive^ ovT€^ irporepov ^aac\f]<; . 


^Hfjuel^ ^aarCKrjf; ; Tivo<; ; 




' 1 

24 API2T0«AN0Y2 

ImrovbKO^ KaKKiov ko^ ^Ittttovikov KaWca^;. 286 


KaXXia^ ap oirro<: ovpvi^ earlv • ©9 irrepoppvet. 

"Are yap a>v y€wa2o<s vtto t&v avKO^avr&v riXXerai, ^ 

f^ At T€ dri)i£i4XL irpoaeicrbCKovaLV avrov ra irrepcu 


^iQ ndaeiSov, erepo^ av Tt9 jSaTrro? opvi^^ ovroaL i^ 
Ta? ovofia^erai, iroO* oirro? ; 

Eno^. , 

OvToat KOTOD^aya^. 290 


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IT&>9 av ovp K\€Q)Wfi6<^ y cov ovk aire^aXe top "Ko^ov ,* 


AXKa /juevToc T49 tto^' ^ \o<f>(oaL<; ?; t&v opvecov ; 
■\.II ttI tov SiavXov rjKdov ; 



Slairep ol Kape^ fjuev ow 
Eiri Xo^oDV oifKovaiv, (oyad , a^ifxiKeua^ ouveKO, 


*A J2 HoaeihoVf ov^ opa^ oaov awet\f€/CT(u kcucov 
Opvecov ; 


Slva^ "AiroKKov, tov vi<f>ov^. lov tov • 
Uvo toea/ €T ecu vtt axn(ov irerofjuevcov Tqv clcooov. 

o p N I e E 2. 25 

OvToai Treg^fcf, eKeivoai Se vrj AC drTaya^;, 

OvToai Be 7rr}ve\oy^, €K€ivoal Be y' aXjcvdv. / 300 
i 49 ya/) e<TU ovinauev aurt]^ ; » 


"OcTTt? cot/ ; KetpvX o^. ^ ^ ./. 
KeipvXo^ yap eariv opvL^ ; 


Ov yap eoTL ^iropytko^ ; 

Xawql ye y\av^» 



Tl (fyp^ ; TU yXavK ^ AQr\va\^ ffyaye ; 

nEI2eETAIP0 2. 

KiTTa, Tpxjyoiv, KopvBo^, €kea<;, inroOv/jil^, Trepiarepd, 
NepTO^, lepa^, (jxlrra, kokkv^, €pv6poirov<;, Ke^rjirv^ 

pi^, 305 

IIop<f>vpk, Kep'^vp^, KoXvfifik, apjTre\L<;, (fyrjvrj, Bpvoylr. 


lov iov TQ)v opvecov, 
lov u}v tS)V K(yy^L')((ov * 

Ola Trimrl^ova-i, kcu rpexovai, BuuceKpayorc';, 
Ap direCKovalv ye v^v ; Ol[iol, Ke)(r\vaaLV ye roc 310 
Bicu /Skeirovaiv €l<; ae Kafie. 




TovTo fiev Kafwi Boxei, 
8 D 

26 APIST0*AN0Y2 

'• .. nWo7ro7ro7ro7rowo5 fi ifh 09 ixaKeae ; rlva tottov apa 

vefiera^ ; 

OvToai irdXav irapeLfic kovk aTroararS) <f>tk(ov, 

X0P0 2. 

TiTtTiTiTLTiTiTi /rlva \dyov apa ttotc irpo^ Cfie <f>£Kov 

€X(ov ; 

Koivov, a4T<f>aX7J, Slxaiov, rjSvv, Q)^€Xrj<Tifiov, 315 

"AvBpe yap Xeirra) Xoyiara Bevp a^l')(6ov ©9 ffte. 

Hov ; Ha ; Ila)^ <f>rj<; ; 


#y//A' aTr' avOpoDTTcov acfnj^dai Sevpo irpeafiura Svo* 
Hkctov S' e)(pVTe irpefivov 7rpayfiaT0<; ireXtdpiov, 


^. - J2 fieyujTov e^afiaprcDP e^ orov Wpa^v eyco, 

* ila)9 \€*ye49 ; 

Mifirto (f>o^r)6^<; tov Xoyov, 


m^ (^ Ti fjL dpycure^ ; 

Avhp^ eBe^d/jurjv epaara r^aSe t^ ^wovauK^ 


VJJ/q Km BeSpaxa^ tovto rovpyov ; 




Kcu SeSpaKQ)<; y^ rjSofiau 

^^ KdoTOV TjSrj irov irap i\ylv ; 



Ea ea, 3S5 

IIpoBeBo/jLeO avoaia r eiraOofiev • 
*^09 7a/> (f>t\jO^ riv, ofidrpo^d 6^ Tjplv 

Eve/i€TO ireSia irap rjfuv 
Ilape^r) fjuev Oeapbov^ apj(aioxj<f, 
HapepTj S' opKov^ opviOoav • 330 

JS9 8e Zd^jov CKaXea-e, irape^aXe t €fi€ irapa 
i €1^09 avoa-vov, OTrep e^oT eyever enr efioi 
IIoXefjLiov erpcufyrj. 

AWa irpo^ TovTov fiev rj/uv eartv voTcpo^ \oyo^ • 

T(o Se irpea^vTa Bokcl fwi roiSe Sovvac rrjv Siktiv 335 

^uupoprjOfjvai vij) rjfi&v. 


if29 aircoXofieaO apa, 

AiTio^ fiepTOi av v^v el tcjv kclk&v tovtcdv fiovo^. 
E*ni Ti yap fi eKuOei/ ^ye? ; 




28 API2T0*AN0YS 


Iva fiep ovv Kkaocfit fieyaXa. 


TovTO fiev Xrjpeii; €)(cov 
Kapra* wo)? icKavaeL yap, rjp aira^ ye TQ}<fi0a\/jLci} 

KK07ry<i ; 340 

<— . X0P02. 

T ■ , 
I . i - ^JL^ ^AvTiarpocbTi. 

10) ICO, 

Eiray , emO , eirl^epe iroXefiiov 
'Opfiav ^ovtav, Trrepvya re iravra 
HepL^dKe irepi re /cvKkcoaat * / i 

'ifi? See tcjB oc/Jbo)^€iv a/Jb<j>a) 'I " 345 

iCai Sovvac pvy'XjSi <j>op^ap. 
OvT€ yap opo^ aKtepov ovre v€(f>o<$ aiOipiov 
Ovre ttoXlov ireKayo^ earnv b rt Several 
1 0)0 aTToqyvyovre fie. 

■ AXXa fir) fiekXayfiev ^Brt rcoBe tlXKcip kcu Sdicpeiv. 350 

^ IIov ^cr0^ 6 Ta^lap'xpf; ;iiE7rayeTco to Se^tov K€pa^, 

— •- —m ' 

*^'^ ^ EYEAHIAHS. 


Toxn eKetvo • ttoI (j>vya} Bvarrjvo^ ; 


05to9, ov fiepei^ ; 

Iv inro Tovrmv SLa<f>op7j6a> ; 


ITo)9 yap av TovTOV^ Bo/eei^ 
E/c^vyelv ; 

O P N I W E 2. 29 

Ov/c olS* oirco^ av, 


AXK cyo) TOL croc Xeyay 

Oti fiepovT€ Sec fiw^earOac Xafi^dveiv re t&v 'xyrp&v. 355 


Tt Se ^yrpa vcd y Q}<j>€\7}a-€i ; 


TXav^ fiev ov irpoaetai, v^v. 



Tov o^ekioTKOP dpiraaa^ 

Ecra KaraTrrj^ov irpch avre^. c" 


Tolcri S o^OaXfioiai tc ; 


*0^v^a^v €VT€v6evl irpoaOov XaySo)!/ ^ rpvjSkiov. 


Si ao(f>Ci)TaT , eu y avevpe^ avro /cac aTparrjycK&s ' 360 
^TirepaKOVTiXei^ av y rjSrj Nifciav ral^ firj'^apac^, 

'JEIXeXeXev, %a)/)€ft, /ca^e? to pvyyof; • ov fieveiv e^rjv, 

"EXxe, TiKKje, irate, ^etpe, Koirre TrpcoTrjv t7}v yvrpav* 


Etire fiot TV /ndTCKer , co iravrmv KUKiara 6ripL<ov, 

'AiroXeacu, iraOovre^ ovBev, avSpe /ecu SuKnraaat 365 



Tip; e/jbfp; yvvaiKO^ ome ^vy^evrj fccu ^vKera ; 

y X0P02. 

^etaofLcarOa yap tl T&pSe fiSXKov fjfjLU^ ^ Xvko^v ; 
H TLPa^ Turalfi€0 aXKov^ t&pB^ av e^Oiov^ ert / 


El Se T^v (j>v(nv fiev e^Opoi, top Be vovp eunv <f>t\oi, 
Kat BiSa^opref; ti Bevp rjKov<nv vfia^ '^riai/MV ; 370 


ii 0)9 o ap 010 rjfia^ tl '^^prjatfwp oioa^euip irore, 
H ^paaeiap, optcs c^Opol Tolat Trainroc^; to2^ efuns ; 

AXK air e')(j9p53P Brjra jroWa fjuipOapovatP oi aof^oL 

'H yap evXd^eca ato^ei irdpra, Uapa fiep ovp <l>i\jov / 

Ov /JLa0oL<; av tov6 , 6 B €^9po<; ev6v^ e^va/yKOO'ep, 375 

AvTi^ at 7roA,et9 Trap avopcov y cfiauov exypcov kov 

Eiciropeip 6 mjrrjXa reiyr] vav^ re /cefcrrja-dac fiaKpa^. 
To Be /jui9i]iia tovto aoa^i iralBa^, oIkop, ^-qfiara. 

EoTC fiep Xoycop aKovcai irpoorop, co9 rj/up Bo/cet, 

XpTjaLfiop • fiaOot, yap ap tl^ Kairo t&p e^dp&v crO" 

^op. 380 

L0€ T»;9 opyrj^ '^aKap ev^aaip. Apay ein axexo^. 

Kat BtKatop y eart, fcafiot Bet pe/ietp vfia^ '^aptp, 

AXKa /xr)v ovB aXko aoi irco Trpay/j, ej^prtcojJteOa, 


O P N I e £ 2. 31 


MaXKov elprp/rjv ayovcriv rifily * wcrre Trp; jQ/rpav 

T(o T€ TpvjSkla) KaOUi • 385 


TlepiiraTeiv e)(pVTa^ rjfia^; 

i (OV OTTAjOOV 6I/T09, iTap aVTTJV 

Trjv ^(VTpav cucpav op&vras 

Eyyv^* G)9 ov <j>€VfCTeop vSiV, 390 

Et€ov, r}v h ap airo6av(Ofiev, 

KaTopv^rj&ofJL€a0a irov yrj^ ; 


*0 Kepa/iecKo^ Be^ercu vco. 

ArjfioaLa yap tva Taff>S)fiev, 

^riaofiev irpo^ tov<; oTparrjyov^ 395 

Ma^ofievco roi^ TroXefiioiatv 

^AwoOaveiv ev ^Opveak, 


Ava^ €9 To^cv iraXiv €9 ravrov, 
Kcu Tov 0vfwv KardOov icw^a^ 

Hapa rrjv opyrjv oxnrep ottTuttj^ • 400 

KavaTTvOwfieOa rovarBe, rive^ Trore, 
KcbL^irOiOev cfiiXov, 
^Eirl^Tci/a T hrlvouiv. 
1(0 erroY, ae tov koKjci}, 

KcCKje!^ te tov k\v€iv OeKcov ; 405. 

82 APIST0«AN0Y2 



Sei/o) ao(fy!}^ a<f> EWaZo^. 


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vi0a^ ekOelv (V) ; 


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(I f > . 

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re Xe/n-oj/ oure inarov, W9 

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rtTsS.,,,:,^ „:„,«.-. 

To Sevpo irpoa^i^a. Xeyav. 



Uorepa /mtvofievo^ ; 


'AiftaTov (Bij tftpdvifiof. 


"Evi a-o(fiop Ti <l>pevi ; 



So^iajJ-a, Kvpfm, rpififia, iraitroKijfL Skov. 




Aiyeiv \eyeiv xeKeve fioi. 


KXviav yap Siv <tv hoi Xe'yet? 


Av^wv avetneprofiai. 




'Aye tiJt ail kcu a-ii t^c -TravowXlav p.}v irakLV 


TavTTjV Xa^dvre Kpep-dcraTov Tuya/yaSy 

- 1 

Eh Tov l-miov eta-M, TrXijtrt'oi' TowrMmiToo • 


Sv Se Tovah'' e^ olmrep toU XdyoK aweXe^' eym. 


^pdffov, Uha^ov. 



Ma rav 'ATrdXKto 'ya fihr ov. 

*Rv IJ.T] BiddcavTai y oiBe ZtaO^icriv efioi 

'HvTTtp 6 ■n-lBi^KO'i T^ ywaiKi Ste'lSero, 


'0 fiayaipo'iroi.o'i, fi-rp-e BaKvetv Tovrovt e/ie 


M^T opj^iTreh' ekKsiv p,T\T opvrTeiv 


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84 API2T0«AN0Y2 


Ov ri TTov 
Top ; OvBa/io^. 


Ovfc, aWa TQ)<f>0a\fi(o X€ya>. 


Karofioarov vxw ravra fjLOU 

Ofiw/i cttI TOVTOi^jiraa-i vlkclv toI^ KpLTCU^ 445 

Ka4, Toi<; Oearai^ iraariv. 


Earai ravTO^L. 


El Be irapa^aiTjv, epi Kpirff vlkclv /jlovov, 

[kHPY^ ETlOTf^. 

\\Akov€T€ Xe© yrov^ oifkLra^ vvvfievi 
Av€Xofi€vov<; OcdttX awLcvaL ttcCKlv OLfcaScy 
Skottclv B b tl av 7rpoypd<f>cofi€v €V toU inva/ciot^. 450 

X o P o 2. 

AoXepov /lev aeL Kara iravra S^ rponrov 

IIe<l>vKev avOpcoTTo^ • cru S' SfKO^ Xeye fiou 

Tw^cL yap TVXpL^ av 

XprjoTov c^ctwfav o tl /llol irapopa^, fj T (**-<^ - 

AvvafiLV TLva fieL^co 455 


0PNieE2. 35 

TlapaKenrofiivriv inr efirjs <}>p€vo^ a^i/verov • 

JiV 0€ TOVP opa^/ AJl,€y €t9 KOIVOV. 

U yap av av Ti^iy? fJi^i 
Ayadov irDpitra^, tovto kolvov earac. 

Aw, €<f> orfpirep irpayfjuari ttjv <rrjv i]K€i,^ yvwp/qv 

avaireLaa^, 460 

-4 eye 0appri<Ta<i • ©9 ra^ airovha^ ov /irj irporepov irapa" 


Kcu fiTjv opyS> VT] TOP Ala fccu irpOTre^vparcu 7^yo<$ eh 


Ov SutfiaTTecv ov KcciXvei • (j>€p€ iral ari^avov • KaTa" 
Kara yet,po^ vScop <f>€p€T<0 Twyy re?. 

AeLTTUTio'ecv fieXKo/iev, rj t/ ; 


Ma Ai t dXXa Xcyecv ^7]t& ti irdXat fieya koa \aptvov 

e7ro9 TC, 465 

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Oiraf€^ ovr€^ irpoTepov ^aacKfy; , 


*H)Lte69 l3a<TiX7]<; ; Tlvos ; 


36 APIST0*AN0Y2 

HavTcov Diroa etrnv, efiov irp&Tov, rovBc, kcu rov Aio% 

Ap'XcuoTepoi, irpoTepoL re Kpovov kcu Tiraimv €y€V€ade 


Kcu jf}^ ; 

Ntj top AttoWo), 


Touri fia Ai ovk eirenvaii/riv* 470 

AfidOTj^ yap e^v^ kov TroXinrparffKov, ovS Aia-ayirov 

O9 €<l>cL(rK€ Xeycop KopvSov iravrcov irptorriv opviOai^ '. 

yeveauai^ ^ 

IIpoTepav T^ <y^9, KOTrevra voatp. rov irarep axrrrj^ 

aTToOvrja-KCCv • 
Trjv S' OVK etvai, rov Se irpOKelaOcu Trefiirraiov • rrjv 8* 

Tir ajj/ifxavia^ rov irar^p amrfi ev ry K€(f>cLK^ koto- 

pv^ai. 475 


*0 iranip apa 7^9 KopvZov wvi, xeircu reOveo)^ Ke^Ki'* 
OvKOxw iffr €c irpdrepoc fiev yrj^, irpoTepoi, Se 6e&v 



O P N I e E 2. 37 

Sl^ TTpeffSuraTQitf avraiv oCTWf opd<iK to-fi ij ^aaiKeia ; 


Ni) TOP 'AttoKXm • Tram tolwv f(prj pvyj^pi; ^odKetv ffe 

TO XoiTTOI' ■ 

^q Ov» dTToSwo-ei TO^g'ws o Zev; to aicrprTpov rai SpvKO- 
"KaTrTTj. 4 BO 


SI'S ou^i 6eoL Toivvv f}pxov T^v avBpoiwmv to iroKaiov, 
'A\K' oputde^, Ka^arriKevov, iroKX' eaTi TSKfiripta toutidv. 
AvTuca S V/J.IV TvpmT eiriSei^o) top oKeKTpvov , oi? erv- 
JTp^e' Te Ufprraiv trpar^ -rravrmv, Aapeiov Kat Meya- 

Siare icaKeLTai HeptnKO'i opvi'i airo Trji tcpxv^ ^"^ 


^(a TavT ap e^wii Kai vvv iitmrep ^aaiKev; o p.eya'; 

'EttI ttJ? Ke<f>aX'y}^ t^v Kvp0a<Tiav tcov opvWav p.avo<i 


Ovra 8' iff^ua re icai p.4ya<i rpr rare /cat iroXu?, wot 

'Ttto ■7T75 /Jw/iijs T^ tot' ixelvT/^, oirorav fiovov opdpiop y c^mhI 

'u^waTriiSwcrtjj TTMin'e? eV epyov, y^dkmi<;, Kepap-rj^i, aicv- 


Xkvttj^, ^oKxivfj^, d\<l>cTafioc^ol, ropvevToXvpcunriSo" 

^ '^ 01 Se ^aZiyova irrroSrigrd/jbevoL vvfcrayp. 


>E1^ «/>>/ 

Jiifie TOVTO y €p(OTCU 

XXalvav yap airaXea 6 fioydr^po^ ^pvytcov epcayv Sea 


£9 BeKorrjv yap irore TracSaplou /cX-jy^ei? wremvov hf 

KapTC KaOevhov • Kai irpiv BeiTrvetv tov9 aXXov^, ovro^ 

ap Xl(T€, 495 

Ka/yo) vofiiaa^ opOpop c'^copovv ^AXcfiovirraSe, Kaprc 

jEfft) rei'Xpv^, koI XtoTToBurrj^; iralei poiraKc^ fie to 

vcorop • 
Kayo) irLwrco, fieXKxo re ^oav 6 S' aTre/SXure Oolfior- 


IktIpo^ S ' ovv tS>v ^EXK7\v(ov Tjp'^ev rdre Ka/SaatKeve. 


T&v ^EXKtjvcov ; 



Km KareBec^ev y ovto<; 7rpS>T0<; ^aaCKevwv 500 
npo/cvKivSela-Oai rol^ lktlvol^. 


Nt} tov Aiovvaov, eyco yovv 
EkvTuvBov/itjv ucrlvov iBcov • Ka0 ' inmo^ cov ava'^acKcov 


o p N I e E s. 39 

^08o\ov Kare^po'xOcaa • Kara xevov tov OvKokov olkoZ ' 



AcyvTTTOV S ' av xal ^oivlkt]^ Tracriy? fcofCfcv^ ^aaiXev^i ^v • 

XcBTTO^' KOKKV^ ellTOL KOKKV, TOTC J ol ^oiviK€<; f 

airavre^ 505 » 

Toxri irupov^ av Kat ra^ Kpc6a<; ev Toi<; TreScot^ eOepc^ov, 


Tout ap eK^lv ^v tovtto^ aXnjOax;' ^KOKKVf'^^toXjoi ire^ 

Up^ov o ovTft) (r<poopa rrjp (ipxWf ^^^ ^* ''"^^ '^^ 

^Ev Tat9 iroXeatv tS)v ^EXKriv(ov, ^Ayafie/ivcop ^ Meve- 

'Btt^ rSr a-KTprrpayv eKaBrjr opvc^, fiere'^wv o tl Smpo- 

SoKOtT), 510 


Tovrt Tolvw ovfc rfhr) 'yci • kcu Srjrd fi ekdfi^ave OavfiOf 

*OiroT e^eXOot IIpia/jLo<: ri^ ^'^cov opviv ev rolai rparftp' 

BoU • 
8 ap^ elarriKec tov AvaiKparrj rrfp&v o ri ScopoSo-^ 



*0 he Beivorardv y eariv aTravTcov, 6 Zev^ yap 6 vvv 

^Aerov opvcv tanrjicev e)((ov- eiri t^9 K€<j>aXr]<;, ^aaCKev^ 

•^ :- > 

40 API2T0*AN0YS 

^H 8^ av Svydrrfp yXaCj^ ', o S ' ^AttoWodv &air€p Oepa^ 

7rQ)v lepcuca. 


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ap eypvaiv ; 

^Ip^ Srav 6v(ov rt? erreir avToi^ et9 Tr]v X^V* ®^ vofio^ 

Ta <nr\ayyya StS^, tov Aio^ avroc irpoTepoi tcl 

Slfiw T ovSec^ TOT av dpOpwireov 0€op, aXK oppiffas 

airapTe^, 680 

ddfiirayp S' ofipva en kcu wpI tov yr\p\ oTav cfa- 

iruTa Tb • 

OvT(»9 vfJMS irdpTe^ irpoTepov p^yaXov^ a/yiov^ r €Po^ 


Nvv S' apSpa7roS\ rj\i,6i,ov^, Mava<:. 

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BdWova vfm^, kup toU lepoU 625 

ITa9 Tt9 60' viuv^oppi6euTri<; 

' I(rTr}arv ^pcxpu^, irayiBa^, pa^Bov^, 

"Epicq, ve^eXa^, BlfCTva, irqrcTw; • 

Elra Xa^opTe^ irocikova aOpoov^ • 

Ol B ' aypovvTat /Skifia^oirre^ • 630 

ovo ovp, eiTTcp Tama ooKet opav, 
^OirTTja-afievoc irapeOevO ' viia<;, 
^AKs! eiriKpSxTLV Tvpov, ekaujv, 

oPNieES. 4x 

Kara'xya'/i^ erepov jXvkv kcu \virapov, 635 

KaTrevra KaTeaKeSaaav depfwv 
TovTO KaO^ vfi&v 
AvT&v cjoTTCp Keve^pecfov. 


IIoKv St] iroKv Srj ^aXeTTwrarou? Xoyov^ 

HvejKa^, apOpo)^^ • 0)9 eSaKpvaa y efi&v 540 

JJaTepcov KaKt]Vt oi 

TacrSe ra? Tifia^; irpoyovcov irapaZomayv, 
^Ett efJLOv KareKvaav. 
Sv Se fiot Kara Baifwva xac Kara axwrvyiav 

AyaOrjv i]fC€L<; ejiol acoTrjp, 545 

^Ava0€L^ yap er/oijTOt, 

Ta re vorrca fcafiavrov oi/crjcrco, 

ATO^ o Ti 'xprj Bpav, av BcBaa-xe irapoav • ©9 ^rjv ov/e 

a^iop rjfjLLV, 
El /jLTj KOfiLov/jbeOa iravri rpoirw rrjv rjfierepav ^aaCkeiav. 


Ka4, Btj tolvw irpSira SiSaaKO) fiiav opviOcav iroKtv 

elvai, 550 

Kairevra top aepa iravra KvicK(p Kai irav roxni to 


Hept/rei/xi^evv fieyaXac^; TrXlvdot^ oTrraU (oairep Ba^v 


42 API2T0*AN0YS 


tl KefipLova kcu Uop^fivpUov, (»9 cfLepSaXeov to iro" 

KaweLT tjv toiJt' hraveaTr\Krf, ttjv ap^v top At^ airai* 

reiv • 

K.av fiev fjuq <f>y firjS' eOeXTjcrt) p/qZ^ €v0v^ yveoatfia-' 

lepov iroXepMV irptovZav avrSt, kcu Tol<n Oeolaiv aweir' 


Aia T^9 X&)/>a9 T^9 vp^eripas eaTVKotn pi/q Suupocrav, 
ilairep irporepov poi'^evarovre^ ra^ AXx/iriva^ Kore* 

Kal Ta9 '-4\o7ra9 koI Ta9 ^ep^eka^ \ rjinrep B ' eiricdcr ', 

A<ppa^LO avToc<: ein ttjv yttJATyi/, cva firj ptvaxr er 

€fC€cva<;, 560 

ToU S' avOptoTTot^ opvLV erepov irep^'^^ai KTjpvKa xeXevto, 
'/29 opPcOcov ^aatXevovTCDV Oveiv opviai to 'hjnirov • 
KairetTa Oeol^ varepov av6i^ • Trpoavecp^aa-dtu 8e irpe^ 

Tolai Oeolaiv t&v opviOtov 09 olv dpp^^rj xaO ' Ikootov • 
Hv ^A^pohlrri dinj, mvpov^; opvidi (fyaXrjpcBt Oueiv • 565 
Hv Be TIoaeiBSyvL tc^ olv Oirp, vrfrrrj wvpov^ KaOayl^eiv 
Hv S' ^HpafcKeei Ovq Tt9 ^ovVy Xapcp vcurrov^ fieXi 

TOVTTa^ • 

Kav All Ovrj /Saa-cKei Kpiov, ^aaCKev^ eaT op^lXo^ opvi^. 

O P N I e E 2. 43 

Hi irpoTep^p Bel/Tov Aio^i avrov aep^op evop^v a^a- 



Hadrjv a'ep<f>ep a^a/yia^ofievip. Bpovrarco vvv 6 fieya^ 

Zap. 570 

i Eno*. ' y* -' ^ 
Kat 7ro)9 97/<ta9 vofitovat 6eov<; av6po)iroi Koxr^i koXocov^, 

0% ireroiieaOa 7rrepvyd<; r e'^pfiev ; 


N >> A n ff y ( 

Arfpelf; • xac vrj At o y Eppjfj^ 
IleTerat 0eo9 (ov irrepvyas; re (f>op€2, KaWoi ye Beol 

iravv iroXKot, 
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EpQ)<; ye • 
Iptv Se y OfJbfjpo^ €(f>aa/c iKekrjv etvat rprjpavt Tre- 

XcLTj, 575 

'O Zev<; S rj/uv ov PpovT7]aa^ nreiMirei irrepoevra ^e- 

pawov ; 

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TovTOij^ Se 0€ov<; tov<; ev OXv/j/irtp, Tore 'XPV orpovO&v 

i/e^09 apOev 
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Kaylrai • 
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44 API2T0*AN0VS 


OvK iOeX-qaei fia Al\ aXlC o^Jrei 7rpo<f)aa'€i<; avrqv ira^ 



Ol S* av KopaK€<; rSw ^evyaployv, oiatv rrjv yfjp Kara" 

Km T&v TTpo^aTcov Tov<; o^0a\fiov<; eKK(y^avT(ov eir\ 

nrevpa • 
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Mr], TTpLV y av eyco rco ^ocSaptco rcofico irpcoTUJT airo^ 

Bcjfiai. 585 

^Hv S' 7}yS)VTai, <re deov, ae ^cov, ae Se rijv, ae Kpovov, 

ae jJoaeioco, 
Aya6 avTolaiv iravra irapearai,, 


Aeye Br] fioL tS)v ar/aJB&v &. 


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AWa y7uivK&v \o^o^ 6t9 avrov^ Kai, KepjQnfBmf eirir' 

El0 ol Kvlire^ Kai i|r^i/e9 ae^ ra^ avKci^ ov KareBoV" 

rai, 590 

AXK avaXe^eo iravra^; Ka6apS>^ avrov^ ayekr) /jLia 



O P N I e E 2. 45 



ItXjovrelv he iroOev hoaaofiev axnol^ ; kcu yap tovtov 

• /?» » » « 
(Tfpoop epcoai, 


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^.^ '^rjcrra 

Ta/; T efiiropta^ ra? K€pBa\ea<; irpo^ top [lavTiv Kart- 

ilar airokeirat tcjv vavic\r]pwv ovhet^. 


1159 ovK airoKeira^, ; 595 


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irXov • 
Nwl firj ifkei, j(€tfia)v earai • vwl TrXet, Kepho^ eirearai. 

TavXjov kt£/juu koI vavKXrjpoo, kovk av fiecvaifMi irap 


Tov^ Orjaavpov^ r avTol^ Bec^ova ou9 oi irporepov kw* 

T£v apyvpccov • ovTOt yap icaa-t • Xeyovai Be to^ rdSe 

7raz/T69, 600 

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ITa>XcS yavkoVi /crAfiav afiLvvr}v, kcu ra^ vSpia^ avo' 


46 API2T0*AN0Y2 

11(39 3 vyi>euLV Scoaoua avrol^y ovaav irapa touti 

Beolatv ; 

tiv ev wpaTTQxr , ov^ vyieta fieyaXfj tout €<m ; ^rt^ 

*/29 avOpcoTTo^ y€ KaKw<; irpaTTODv aTej^co? ovheU: vyiaL- 

pel. 605 

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ev ^OXvpjirtp ' , 

H TTCuSapi ovT airo6vri(rK€iv Sel ; 


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Ert TTpoaOrjaovo' opviOe^ errj, 


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p($)V7j ; 

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Xeveiv. QO- 

Ov yap TToXX^ ; 

Km irpSyra fiev ov^ vea><i TJfia^ 


O P N I e E 2. 59 

Ottov Beo^y jvvr} .fy&yowla, TravoTrTuav 
EarrjK e^ovaa, KkeurOevTjf; he KcpxlSa ; 

T/9 Soi KoBi^ei Try; ircikeco^ to HekapyiKov ; 

Opvi<; a(f> 7}im5)v tov yevov^; tov UepaiKOv, ' 835 

Oairep Xeyerai SecvoTaro^ etvai 'iravra^ov 
Apeo)^ veoTTo^, 


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tl^ B 0€o<; eirtTqheio^ ocxelv em, irerp&v. 


Ay€ wv, (TV fiev ^ciBi^e 7rpo9 tov aepa, 
Kiu ToUri T^vyjXpvtTi irapaZiaKovu^ ^ 840 

Xa\£#ca9 irapa<f}op6i, irrpsjov airoZv^ opyaaov, 
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fvKaKw; KaTaoTrjaaL, to irvp eyKpinrr act, 
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KrjpvKa Se nrefi'^^ov tov fiev ei^ 0€ov<; avo), 845 

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KwceWev av6i^ nrap e/ne. 


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OofMD^e Trap cfi . 


la , (oyaU , ol Tre/iTT® a eyo). 


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Uaa 06 yvwfirj bet, povXeueip, ein aot raoe Train ava^ 


Kac firfv fia rov Al ov^l vva-ra^eiv y en o40 

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*^\\* (09 ra^cara Bel to hpav • irpSnov he re 
Elaekder el^ veomav ye rrjv efirjv 
Kac Tafia Kap(fyrj Kat Ta irapoirra (f)piryapa, 
Kac rovvofi rj/uv ^paaaTOV, 


^AXKa paScov. 646 

Efioc fiev ovofia HeurOeTaipo^, 


T^ZeU ; 


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*A\\a ^acperov 



Aevpo TOLVW ecacTOP. 


lofMev • ec<rqyov <rv Tuifitov rjfm^. 

O P N I e E 2. 49 

E n o *. 


Arap TO helva Sevp eiravaKpovaeu irdTuv. 650 

$6/} ^So), ^paaop vS>Vy ttw? eyco re 'xpvroab 
WtVveaofieO vjmv irerofievoi^ ov irerojueva) ; 



Opa vvv «9 o' AtacoTTov XoyoL^; 
EoTLV Xeyo/ievov Srj tl, ttiv aXwTre^ , 0)9 
$Xai;/)G)9 CKOivcovrjaev aerSi iroTe. 655 

MrjBep ^o^rj6^<; • ecrt yap ta pc^cop, 

O Scarpa/yopT eaeadop eirTepcj/iepo), 


OvT(D [lep eco-toD/Mep, Aye Srj, Uap0la 
Kcu MapoBa>p€, Xafi^apere ra aTpto/iaTa. 

yJV X0P0 2. 

* OvTO^, ae kcCKS) ae kclKS), 

Tv KoXel^ ; 

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KaraKet^ r^iup Sevp eK^i^daa^;, Ipa 7rai<ra)/i€P /jl€T 


5 o 

50 API2T0*AN0Y2 


SI TovTo fjLevToi VT] Al avTol<TLV itlOov • 
^EfcBl^aaov €k tov ^ovrofiov rovoviOcov, 
^EK^i^aaov airrov 7rpo9 deojv avTTjV, Iva 665 

Kal vco Oeaacofieo'da tt^v arjSova. 

Aw et, So/cel a^a>v, ravra '^^prj Bpav. H Ilpo/cvrf 
EK^acve, kcu aavrrjv eiriheiKW T0Z9 ^evot^. 

12 Zev TTokvTOfirjO , (09 koXov TOVpVlduiV, 

Sl<; S anrobKjoVy (»9 Se \evKov, 


Apa y oI(tO^ OTi 670 

JLyG) ocafirjpc^ocfi av avTrjv rjoeco<; ; 

Oaov B €'X€t TOV ')(pvaov, (oairep wapOevo^. 


Eyo) fiev avTTjv Kay (j^tKijaai p.OL BokS>, 


Aw, 0) KaKoBavfiov, pvy^o^; o^eXcaKocv 6p^€t. 


Aw axnrep tpov vr] Al airoXeyfravra 'XpV ^^ 

Atto t^9 /c€<f)a\fj<; to Xe/ifia Ka0^ ovto) ^ikelv. 



±lyov or] (TV vfpv Tv^ayavrj, 


o p N i u t: ':. 51 

xopos. ASjJ 

/2 (fyiXrarov opveoov, 

Uamoav ^vvvofJie t(ov efiSv 680 

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.< - 

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AX)Cf & KdX\tp6dv Kp^Kova 

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Ap'Xpv roov avairaLOircov, v. 

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*^ aofjiOLOi, 

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eovat, 690 

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' Iv aKovaavre^ iravra ,7rap rjfi&v opBS)^ irepi t&v fie- 


^vaiv oi(ovS)V yeveacv re Oecov irorafi&v r Epe^ou^ re 

Xaov<; T€ 
EiBoT€^ opOSy; irap €fwv UpohtKtp icKaeiv ecTrrjre to 


Xao9 fjp Kcu Nv^ Ep€^6<; re fieKaj/- irpSyrov kcll Tap-' 

Tapo<; €vpv<; • 695 

rij 8 ovS arjp ovB ovpavo^ rjv • Ep€^ov<; B ev airei^ 

poat koXttol^ 


52 API2T0*AN0Y2 

Tcfcret irpoDTLo-Tov v7rr)V€fitov Nv^ t] fi€\avo7rT€po<; a>ov, 
E^ ov irepLTeXKoiievaL^ copac^ e/SXaarev Kpco^ o iroOei" 

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OvTO<; Se Xaei irrepoevrt fXLyel^ vxryitp Kara Taprapov 

evpvv 700 

EveoTTevaev yepo^ rjfierepop, Kai irpSnov avrfforfev €? 

Tlporepov h ovk rjv y€vo<; aOavarwVj irptv Epoi><; f wc- 

fiL^€v airavra • 
Uvfifiiyvvfievcov B erepwv erepoi^ yever ovpavo^ coKea" 

1/09 re 

Kac yrj iravrwv re 6eS)v /iia/capa)v yevo^ a<f>9tTov, USe 

fJiiv €CrfJL€V 

IIoXv irpea^vraroL iravTcov fMafCapcov, ^HfieU S <»9 

eafiev EpcoTO^ 705 

TIoWo2<: S^Xoi/ • irerofJLeada re yap kHu Totaw epSxn 

avpea-fJLev • 

JToWof 9 Se KoXovf; airoficofiOKOTaf; TratBa^ irpo^ repfui-* 

aiP iopaf; 

A La rrfv la^vp rrjv rjfierepap Boefirfptaav avSp€<; epaarcU, 
U fiev oprvya 001/9, oe iropipvpccop , 0€ yrp; , o 06 
— Tlepa-CKOV oppip. 

apra oe uprjTOL<; eaTtp a<p tj/jlcop todp opvLuoDV ra fie^ 

yiara, 710 

IIpS)Ta fjLev o)pa^ (ffacpofiev rjfieU '^po<;, ')(€iiiSivo^i ottqi" 'A 

pa^' W 

O P N I G E 2. 53 

S'TTCcpeip fiev, oTav yepapo<; Kpco^ova e? rrjv Ai^vrjv 

fieraxcop^ • 
Kat irrjBaXiov Tore vavK\r}pa) (jypa^ec KpefiaaavTi xaOev- 

Elra 8' OpeaTrj ')(\alvav v^aiveiv, Iva fixj ptya>v airo- 

IktIvo^ S av fi€Ta ^avra (f)avec<; erepav topav airo- 

<f>aipec, 715 

^Hvlxa we/cretv &pa Trpo^ciTCJv ttokov rjpivov • ^ra j^e- 

Ore '^rj y\aivav TrcoXelv rjSr) Kat, X'qZapLov tl irpuiaOai, 
Eafiep S vplv AfifMcov, Aek^oi, Aod^eovr], $of/8o9 AttoX" 

E\6oVT€^ yap TTpSiTOV €17 OpVL^, 0VT(O TTpO^ CLTTaVTa 

TIpo<; T efxriropiav kcu irpo^ ^lotov fcrrjo-iv fcal 7rpo9 

jafJLOV avBpo^ • 720 

OpvLV re pofjLi^€T€ irdvO^ borairep irepi fULvreia^ Bia- 

Kpivev • 
^VI^V 7 ^H'^^ opvi^ ecTTc, TTTapfiov r opviOa KaXeire, 
Svfi^oXov opvLV, (jxovrjv opviy, depairovr opviv, ovov 


Ap ov <f)av€pS><; r)fjL€2<; vfiiv eafiev fuiVTeio^ ^AttoXKoop ; 

Up ovv r)fjLa(; vofjLiar)T€ deov^, 725 

E^€T€ j(priG6ai fiavreac^ MovaaL<;, 

\Avpai.^, copac^, ^e^/xwi/t, Oepeij 

sMerpi^ irpiyet • kov/c aTrohpdvre^ 
\ 5* 

54 API2T0*AN0Y2 

KaOeZovfieO avco aefivuvofievoi 

Hap a Toi^ ve<f>eXaif; fooTrep j^o) Zev^ • 730 

AXKa irapovre^ Scoaofiev vfuv, 
AvTol^, iracaLP, TracBeov Traiaiv, 
EvBatfioviav, ^tov, ecpriVTjv, 

Neorrjra, yeXcora, '^ppovf;, OaXta^, 735 

TaXa T opvidcov. 
flare irapeaTat /cottcclv v/uv 
Tiro tS)v wyaOwv * 
OvT(o TrXoirrrjaeTe iraine^. 

Movaa XojQiaia, 740 

Tlo tlo no no no tlo nony^, 
IIoLKiXrf, fieO^ ^9 eyw 
Na7rat(ri Koi Kopv<f>a2<; ev opeiai^, 
iLo no no noTiy^, 

I^ofi€VO<; /leXcaf; eirl <J)vWoko/m)V, 745 

Tco no no nony^, 
Al €fJLrj(; yevvo<; ^ovOrj^ fieXecov 
HavL vofiovf; lepov^ ava(j)acvco 
Scfiva re firjrpc j(opevfiar opeta, 

Torororororororororcy^, 750 

EvOev (ooTrep r) fieXtrra 
^pvvfxp^ afi^poaccov fieXeoov dire^oaKero Kapwov, aei 

(jye- > 

poDV yXvKelav foBdv. I 





Tlotlo ru) TCOTiy^, ^^ 

El fier ^ opvUSoyv rt? vfi&v, & Okaral, ^ovKerav 755 "t/ '< ' 

AtaTfKeKeLV ^S)V rjBe(o<; to XoviroVi ©9 'Q/ia^ ctco. 

Oca yap eariv €v6aB aia')(pa tcS vofi^ Kparovfjueva, 
Tavra iravr e<mv irap tj/mv Toiaiv opviatv KoXd, 
El yap evOaS earcv aia")(pov rov irarepa rvTrrecv vofctp^ \^ 
TovT CKCc KcCKov Trap rjfuv eariv, rjv ta9 tw irarpi 760 
TIpoaBpaficov etirr) Trard^a^, " alpe irXrjKTpov, ei /zaj^eJ."^. 
El Be rtfy^avev ri^ vfM&p hpaireTr]^ eariyiMevo^, 
Arraya^; oxrro^ irap rjfuv iroiKiXo^ KCKXTjaerai. 
El Be Ttjy)(avev tl<; cov ^pv^ ^TjBev rjTTOv S'lrivOapov, 
oc ^pvyCko^ opvt<; cv0a>B earac, rov ^t\r}/jLovo<; yevov^. 765 
Ev Be'Bovko<; e<m kol Kap ixTTrep E^KeariBr]^, 
^vaarco'iraTnTou^ irap rjfuv, xac ^avovvrai ^parope^. 
El B 6 Uiaiov irpoBovvai rol^ aTifJLOi<; Ta<; TrvXa? 
BovXerat, nrepBi^ yeveaOwy rod nrarpo^ veoTTiov • 
'/29 Trap r}p!iv ovBev aia'xpov eariv eKirepBuciaai, 770 

h f I : = (1 ■ C I "£• '^vTtoTpoijyfi, 

1 TotdSe KVfcvoi, 


Svfifuy^ ^ofjv ofiov 
IlTepoi<; KpeKome^ laj^pv AiroWo), 

Tio TIO TIO TiOTiy^, ^ 775 

0')(6(p e<f)e^ofjLevoi Trap E^pov TroTa/iop, 


Aia B a^Oepiop ve^o^ ?j\6e ^oa • 
Unrfj^e Be iroiKiXa (j>v\a re dijp&Vs 

56 API2T0*AN0Y2 

Kufiara r ea^eae vriv€/jLO<; cuOfyrj, 780 


JTa9 S €7r€/CTV7rr]<r OXv^iro^ • 

Etke he 6dfifio<; avaicrd^ • 'OXu/^TrtaSe? he fieko^ Xa- 

aal T eirooXoXv^ap. 

Tlo TLO TIO TLOTiy^. " 785t 

i;o€i/ eoT afieivov ovo rjovov ^ (pvaat irrepa. /• . . , /J/'. 

^i;t6^ vfi(ov tS)V OeaTcov el ti<; tjv VTroirrepo^, 

Evra iretv&v toU '^opolcn tS>v rpaytph&v rjf)(6€T0f 

^EKTTTOfievof; av ovto<; rjplar'qaev ekOcov ocKaSe, 

Kar av efiifkrja-del^; e^ rjfia^ av0i^ av KaTenraro. 790 

Eb re UarpoKkeLhr}^ tl^ vfiS>v Txrf)(avei '^e^r)TC&Vs 

Ovfc av e^iSco'ev €9 OoLfiarcov, a\X aveirraTO, 

KairoTrapBcov Kavairvevaa^ av6t<; av KareTrraTo • 

Et, re fjLOCxevcov Tt9 vficov earcv octtl^ rvy^avet, 

Kad opa Tov avhpa t^9 yvvaiKo<; ev ^ovXevriKco, 795 

OvTO<; av irdKiv irap v^cov TTTepvyta-af; aveirraTO, 

Elra ^iinqaa<; etceWev av6i<; av Kade^ero. 

Ap inroTTTepov yeveaOat iravTo<; earcv a^cov ; 
'/29 AuTpecj)7j^ ye irvrivala fjuovov e'X^cov irrepa 
^Hcpedf) <}>v\ap'xp(;, eW iTnrap^o^;, etr e^ ovhevo^ 800 
MeyaXa irpaTret, Kaari vvvi, ^ov0o<; iirrraKeicrpvcov. 


Tavrl TOULVTL' fia Al^ eyco fjuev wpayfia ttco 
TeXoiorepov ovk ecBov ovBeiruiTroTe, 

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' K'TTL T^ y€Xa9 ; 



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Our0 ^ fJLaXurr €oiKa<; errrepwiMevo^ ; 
E)^ evriXeiav j^w avyyeypafifiev^, 


Sv Se Koyfri'^tp ye (TKa^iov a7roT€TckfjLevq>. 


TavTt fiev yKaa-fieaOa Kara top Aia'j(y\ov • 
^ lad ovj( xnr aKK(0Vy aXKa tol(; avrcov irrepou^. 

Aye ori tl 'xprj opav ; 


np&Tov ovofia ry TroXet 
OeaOcu Tt fJLeya koI k\€cvov, etra to2<; Oeol^ 
Ovacu fbera rouro. 


-.1 »• 


Tavra Ka/nol (rwSoKei. 

EHO*. "j^^l^*^ 
^ep ^ocoy T* rjfjuLV rovvofi earcu Tji TroXet ; 


BovKeaOe to /[teya tovto tou/c AaKehaifwvo^ 
Siraprrjv ovofia Ka\£/jL€P avrrfv ; 


X'fFapiTriv yap &v 6eip/qv eyo) r^fi^ irdXet ; 




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58 API2T0*AN0Y2 

OuS' av '^afievvr) iravv ye Keipuav y e^cov. 



Tt, Sfyr^ ovofi avrri ffrjaofieaO ; 


^Ek toov ve^eKwv Kai twv fiereoypcov ')((^l(ov 
Xavvcv 71 iravv, 9«^' 


BovXei Ne^eKoKOKKvyuiv ; 830 


loV LOV • 

KaTijov yap arc'^voo^ Kai fiey evpe^ rovvofia, 


Ap eariv avrrjyi, N€(f)€\oKOKKvyia, 

Iva K(u ra Geoyevov^ ra TroWa 'xprifuna 

Ta T Aia'X^ivov y airavra ; 


Kai, X^OTOV /Jb€V oxw 825 

To ^Xeypa<; irehlov, iv' ol Oeol tou? TTjyevei^ 

^AXa^ovevofievoL KaOvTreprjKovTCO'av. 


Aiirapov TO XPV/^^ '^V'^ TroXeci)?. Tt? Sal 6eo<; 
UoXlov'^o'; earaL ; tg) ^avov/juev top TreirXov ; 

Tl h ovK A07}vaLav ewfiev iroXiaSa ; 830 


Kat, 7rcS9 av €tl ydvovT av evTaKTO^ irokt^, 


Oirov 0€o<;, yvvT) yeyowla, iravoifKiav 
EaTTjK e^ovaa, KXeLaOivrj^i Se KCpKcSa ; 


Ti<; Sal KoOe^ec rrp; ttoXcg)? to HcKapyiKov ; 

Opvi^ a^ Tjfiwv Tov yevov<; rov UepaiKov, ' 835 

Oairep Xeyerao heivorarof; elvat Travra'^ov 
Ape(o<; veoTTo^, 


II veorre ZeairoTa • 
Sl<; S ^609 eTriTrjSeto? oiKeiv eiri irerp&v. 



Aye vw, av fiev paoi^e irpo^ tov aepa, 
Kac Toiav T€(/)(LJ^ov(n irapahiaicovei, ^^ 840 

XaKiKa<i *n'apa(j)op€t, irrfKov airoiv^ opyaaov, 
AcKavrjv aveveyKC, KaraTrea- airo rry; KKifMaxo^, ' 
^vXaxa^ KaracrTrja-ac, to irvp eyicpvTrr aec, 
KQ}S(ovo(f)opS)v irepLTpc'^e, Kat KadevZ e/cet* 
KrjpvKa Se ire/jbyfrov tov fiev et9 0€ov<; avco, 845 

^ET€pov S' av(o6ev av trap avOpcoTrov^ Ko/rco, 
KcuceWev avdi<: Trap e/jue. 


2iv 0€ y avTov fievoov 
Uvfiayye irap efi . 


lu , coydU , OL TrejjbTTQ) a eyco* 


60 API2T0*AN0YS 

OvBev yap avev aov r&vB a Xeyo) ireirpa^erau 

Eyo) B Iva Bvcra) roiai, Kaivoiaiv Oeot^, 850 

Top cepea ire/juyfrovra ttiv Trofi'Trrjv kcCKS), 

Ual TTol, TO Kavovv cupeaOe km tt^i/ j(€pvt/3a. 

X0P0 2. 

OjMoppodS), ovvdeKco, 
Sv/M'7rapaiv€(ra<: e^o> 

npoaoBta fieyaXa 855 

Se/xva irpoaievav Oeoicrcv • 

Afia Be TTpoaeri 'x^aptro^ evexa 
npojSaTLov Ti Oveiv. 

Itco ctq), lt(o Be HvOuk; ^oa* 
SwaBeTOD Be Xa2pi<; wBav. 8G0 

Havaat av ^va&v. ^HpaicKeL^;^ rovri tv ?[V ; 
TovTC fia Al eyoj troWa Brj Kai Beiv iZcaVi 
OvTTG) Kopaic eiBov e/nre^op^KOfMevov, 
'lepev, (tOv epyov, 6ve roh Kacvoi<: Oeoh. 

ApacTG) TaB * aXKa irov crriv 6 to Kavovv ey((ov ; 866 
ev^eaOe ttj EaTia Tjj opviOeicp, Kac t^ VKTivtp t^ 
ecmov^tp, Kai opvicriv 0\viiirLoi<; kcu ^ 0\vfiiriij(n 
Traai Kai iraarjaLV, 



II SowiepaKC, XOLip ava^ UeXapyiKe. 

O P N I e E 2. 61 


"Kdl KVKV(p HvOlrp Koi Arjkltp, koL Arjroi Oprv- 870 
fyofiriTpa, kcu Afxre/JutSi AKoXavOihi, 


Ovfcerv KoKaivU, aW' ^AKdXavffl^ ApT€fiv<:. 

. Kcu <j>pvyi\^ Sa^a^to), kcu arpovOm /leydKrf 

fjbr}TpL Oe&v KUL av0pQ)7rQ)v, 

^eoTTOLva KvdeXrj, crrpovOe, jjLrJTep KXeoKpcrov. 875 


AiZovav N€(f>€\oKOKKvyi€v<rtv vyieiav kcu o-coti]- 
piav, avTolai kcu Xioiai, 

Xloutlv ricOrjv irama'^pv 7rpO(rK€ifi€vot^, 

Kcu Yipeoai ^noj, opVLaL\ Kai, rjpcoayp iraiac, irop' 

<f>vpcQ)vi3 KCU ireKeKavTL, kcu ireXeKivtp, Kai ^Xeft- 880 

St, KCU TCTpuKL, KCU TCL&vt, KCU cKea, KCU fioaKa, 

KCU eKcura, kcu epcoSt^, kcu KarapaKTi], Kai, fie-' 

Xa/yKOpv^tp, Kai acycffaWtp • 

Uav €9 KopaKO^ • irava-ai Ka\(ov, lov vovf 

E'TTC TTolov, CO KaKoBaifiov, lepeiov KdXei<; 885 

^Akiaerov^ kcu yinra<; ; Ov^ opa<; OTt 

Ikt7vo<; e(.9 av tovto y oi'^ocB ' dpTraaa^ ; 

AirekO cuj) rjfiwv Kai av Kai ra crre/Mfuvra • 



Ey(o yap avro^ Touroyt dvaca fiovo^* 

IEPEY2. • ' ■ 

s EIt av6i<: av rapa aoi 890 

Ael fi€ Bevrepov /Ji€\o<; 
XepvijSc 0€O(Te^6<;. 
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MaKUpa*:, kva riva fiovov, enrep 

^Ikovov e^er oi/roi^. 896 

Ta yap irapovra Ovfjuar ovBep aXKo irXrjv 
reveiop ecm kclL Kepara, 


6vovT€^ ev^oDfieada lol^ irrepivoL^; Oeot^;, 


\i- nOIHTHS. 


€<j>€XoKOKKvylav rav evBalfWva 
^K\r}(TOV, S) Movaa^ 900 

i 6a^9 €v vfivcov aoioat<;. 

TovTL TO TTpajfia TToBanrov ; Ehri fioi, rk ct ; 

Eyo) fiekiyXaxra-Qyv CTreayv leh aoiBav, 
Movaamv OepaTrcov oTp7}po<i, 
Kara roP Op,rjpov. 905 

Eireira Brjra BovT^^ (ov KOfir^v e^ei^ ; 


Ovfc, aXKa irav7e<; ecfiev ol BtBaaxaXov 

O P N I e E 2. 63 

Movaaoyv Oepairovre^ orprjpoL, 
Kara rov ' Ofirjpov. 


OvK €T09 OTprjpov Kai TO XyBapiov 6j^et9. 910 

Arap, ft) irot/qra, Kara ri Bevp av€(f)6ap7j<; ; 

MeXrj TreTTOcrjK €9 Ta9 NecpeXoKOfCKvyca^ 

Ta<; vjJb6T€pa<i KVickia re TroWa Kat Koka, 

KaL irapOeveia, Kat Kara ra ScficovcSov, 


TavTi (TV WOT €7rocr]a'a<; airo irotov "^povov ; 915 

n O I H T H 2. 
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OvK apTL 0VQ) TTJV S€KaT7}V TavT7j<; ejo), 

Kai Tovvofi (oairep iraihicp vvv Srj Oefirjp ; 

AWa Tt9 coKela Mova-acov ^tv^ 

Oiairep LTnrcov afiapvya. 920 

Sv Be irarep KTiarop Atrva^, 
ZaOecov tepSv oficovvfie, 
-J 09 cficv o re irep 
Tea K€(f>a\a 0e\€i(; 
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OvT09, (TV fievTOL a-iToKaZa xac yyrSiV ej^et^, 
AttoZvQi Kai 809 Tc5 irot/rjTy t^ (ro<j>^. 
E^e rrp; airoXaha • Travrco^; Se jmoi piywv BoK€i<$* 930 


ToSe fiev ovk a^Kovaa ^tXa 
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Tv Se Tea ^pevc fiaOe 
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AkX€7]<; S €^a airoKa^ avev ^t,Ta)PO(;, 

Sf 2^69 TOL Xeyo), 940 


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^ A'Trep'XPfiai, 

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EX^aov, ft) 'XpvG'oOoove, rav 945 

Tpofiepav, Kpvepav • 
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Nt] tov Al , aW' rfhrj Tre^evya^; ratrraryc 

Ta Kpvepa TOvSi tov ^vTcovta-fCov Xa^cov, 950 

i ovT(, lUL At, eyco to Katcov ovoeiroT rfKircaa, 

OvTco ra'^eoD^ tovtov ireTrva-Oat ttjv ttoXlv. 

Av6l<; av irepijfcopei Xafioov tt]v '^epvi^a. 



Mrj Karap^T) tov Tpayov, 


Xv S' et t/? ; 


Ogti^ ; XprjctfioXoyo^, 


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. /2 Baifiovce, Ta Oela jjlt} ^auXo)? (jyepe • 
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£9 Ta9 N€(f)€\oKOKKvyca<;, 



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Aw orav oiicT]a(0(n \vkol iroXiai t€ KOp&vcu 
Ev ravTm TO fiera^v KopcvBov xal Scku&po^, 


Tl ovv 7rpO(r7]Kec Btjt c/jlol KopcpBccov ; 


HcvL^aO 6 BaKL^ TovTO.TTpo^ Tov a€pa, 965 

npcjTOv UavSeopa Ovaai \evKorpL')((OL Kpiov • 

O? Se K ejjbwv eTreoov eXOi) irpwrLara irpo^rjrrjs, 

Tft) Bofiev IfiaTcov KaOapbv Koi /catva TreBiXa, 


Eveart kul ra ireSiXa ; * 


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Aa0k TO fii/Sxlov, 
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Ai€T09 €P P€(f)€\7ja'L yeprjceat • eu Be k€ fi7] B^, 
OvK eaei ov Tpvycop ovB^ av€T09, ov BpvKoKaimfi. 

hju TavT epecT epravva ; 

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Aa/3€ TO l3il3\lov. 975 


voev ap ofjLoco^ eau o XPV^f^^ Toxntpv, 
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Axnr^ BvovTOf; Koi (rifka^yy^vuv €7ri6v/JL^, 

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Mt}t rjp Aapnrtdv rj fiifr rjp 6 fieya^ AioireiOrj^, 


fiat TOUT €P€crT epTavva ; 


Aa^€ TO ^i^lov. 
OvK el Ovpa^ €9 KopaKU^ ; 


Otfioi BeiKato^. 985 


OvKovp eripcoae ^xprja-fioXoyrjaet^; €KTp€j((i>v ; 


xiKdD Trap vfm^ 


68 API2T0*AN0Y2 

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T/9 7} ^TTlVOia t/? 6 KoOopVO^ TT^ 6S0V / 

Te(Ofi€TprjaaL ^ovKofiat, tov aepa • 990 

'T/MV, SieXelt/ re Kara yva<;, 


npo^ tS)v 6eS>v, 
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' Oa-TL^ eofjb eyo) ; Meroov, 
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Taxrn Se <tol tl eari ; 


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Tov Kavov avwdev tovtovl tov KayirnvKov^ 
EvOelf; Sca^rjTTjv — /juavOavec^; ; 


Ov fiavOavdo. 

Op0a> fJLeTpr^(Tco Kavovi TrpoartdeL^, Lva 

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Ayopa, ^epovaat S coacv €t9 avTrjv oSol 

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OiaO OTLT] <^CkS) a eyo) ; 1005 

Kafwi TTiOofievo^; inrairoKLvei t^9 ohov. 


Ti S eoTc hetvov ; 


Slairep ev AaKeSaifiovc 
SevrfKarovprac Kao KeKcvrjvTal rive; 
UXrf/cu av^pac Kar aarv. 


M&v araaui^ere ; 


Ma TOP Ai* ov S?7T . 


AWa 7ra)9 ; 


' OfioBvfiaSop 101 

XiroZeip airapra^ tov<; aXafoW? Bokcl. 


Tira/yoifii rap ap. 



JSrj Al , 0)9 ovK OLO ap ei, 

^6aL7}<; av eiriKeivrai yap eyyvs axnau. 

OijMil KaKoSaLficov, 


OvK eXeyov eyo) iraXcu ; 
OvK ava/i€Tp7](reL<; aaurov airtcov aWw^v ; 1015 

IIov TTpo^evot, ; 


T/? SapSavdiraXKo^ ovrotn ; 

E'TTiaKOTTO^ f)KQ) BcVpO Tft) KVap,(p 'ka')(COV 

£9 Ta9 Ne^eKoKOKKvyLa<i, 


EiTLaKoiro^ ; 
Eircfi'ylre Se rk ce Sevpo ; 



Tl ; fiovXec ^rjra rov /Jii(r0ov Xafioov 1020 

Mrj irparffuiT e^^eiv, aW' aiTLivai ; 


EKtcXria-iaaai h ovv eSeofjLrjv olkol jievtov. 

O P N I e E S. 71 

"EoTLV yap a Sv cfiov TreirpaicraL ^apva/cp. 


AttlOl \a^(ov • €(rrtv S 6 fiLa6o<; ovroau 

Toxnt t/ rjv ; 


^EKickqala nrepL ^apvaxov* 1025 

MapTvpofia^ Tvirrofjievo^; cov eirLa-Koiro^i, 

OvK airoao^riaevf; ; Ov/c airoLaei^ to> koZco ; 

Ov heiva ; Kcu ire^irovaLV r^Brj TriaKoirov^ 

£9 T^I' IToXlV, TTpLV KCU TcOvaOai T0t9 ^€049. 

Eav B* 6 N€(f)e\oKOKfcvyiev<$ top ^AOrjvaiov 1030 


Tot/TC tI eoTiv av KaKov^ro ^t/SXiov ; 


W7j(f)urfiaT0Tr(oXrj<$ ecfii, kcu vofiov*: veovs 
Hkco Trap vfuis Bevpo irooiKrja'oiv* 


To Ti; 


Xprjcrdcu Nei\>eKoKOKKvyLa^ rourBe Tot9 p^erpoKn 1035 
KCU araOfiolcTi Kai ylrrjcjyca'fJLaa't, KaOairep OXo- 

72 API2T0*AN0Yi 

Su Se y oKTirep wtotv^lol 'Xpr\(T€i Ta'^a, 

OvTO^i Ti, 7rao-^€t9 ; 


OvK aTTOia-ec^ tov^ vofiov^ ; 

UiKpov^ eyo) aot rrjfjLepov Bei^co vofiov^. 1040 


KaXovfiai HeLGOeraipov v^pecDs €9 rov fiowv 


A\7jde<;, OVT09 ; ''Etc yap evravO ^cOa av ; 

Eav Se TA9 e^eKavvT} rov^ ap')(pvTa<;, koX fir) 
heyrirai Kara rrjv arriXrjv, 1045 


Ovfwt KOKoSatfJuov, Kai av yap evravO ' ^a0 ert ; 


AttoKS) ae, Kai, ypacjxo ae fivpca<; hpajQiof;. 

Eyco he (Tov ye tq) koZg) BcaaxeBZ. 

]gni8Koiio2. 11/mH(^ 

Mefim^a ore t^9 arriKT}^ KaTertkas; eairepa^ ; 


Al^ol • Xa^eTco Tt9 avrdv. Ovto^, ov fieveU ; 1050 


AirLco/jLei/ fjiiei^i ©9 Touxiar einevOevi 

P N 1 Q E 2. 


&va-ovT€^ eto-d) T0i5 Beoiai tov rpdyoi'. 




"HS^ fioi TM ■n-amo-rrra 

Kai TraVTaaya Svijroi navTet; 

Qvaaua evKTaian; ev^ali. 


Ilaaav fiev yap yav OTTTeuto, 

Xwfu 8' evOaXeU Kapwov% 

KTeivaiv irafitbvXii)!' yevvtw 

QtjpSiv, «*■ ■jrain iv yala ' '^ 

'Eic KaXvKOV av^apofi€v\ yevwffiv -jroXvipayoK, 


Aiuhpetrl T etpefSf^eva Kap-jiov aTTO^oaKerat • 

KTsivco B' o'i Ki'iTTovi euoiSci? 

idelpovatv XufiaK e-)(6li7Tai<i • 

Epirera re icai. SiiKera. wu.uO oaaTrep 

Eanv w' ifia'i irrepvyo^ ev ipovati oWvrai. 


T^Se fiivroi drifiepa fioKiur eiravayopeverai. 

*Hv diroKTeivri rt? vfio>v Auvyopav tov M-qXiov, 

Aafi^aveiv ToKaVTOv, rjv Te twu rvpunvav rk Tiva 

Twp TsdvTjKOTiDV iliroxTelvTj, TuXavTov Xap^aveiv. 

BovKofiead' oiv vvv avemelv ravTa xVf^^^'^ evSdhe 

• 1070 

"Hv aTTOKTeiinj tk vpaiv ^iKoKpaTt) top ^Tpov6tOt 

A^erai TaXamov ' *;c he ^iovrd y 0711717, Tirrapa, 

"Qjt trweipfuv TOW airlvovi ttiuKeI «a6' en-ra tov06\ov, 

Elra ^vaS>v rui Ki^Xas BeiKKVcri mai Xvp-alverat, 

^L Toi<: re Koflxoia-iv eh tw [fiirac; ey^el to Trrepd, 


^B To? Trepiar€pd<; 9' opolai'; ^vXXa^av eip^ai e^ei. 

ML ' 


74 API2T0*AN0Y2 

KaTrava/yKa^et irdXeveiv SeSe/ici/a? ev iucrvtp. 

Tavra ^ovXofiead^ avetirelv • Kei, ti<: opvida^ Tp€<f>€i 

Elpyfiepov^ vfiojv ev av\y, (fypa^ofiev fieffievcu. 

^Hv he fMTj ireidTjaOe, av\\rf<f>0evT€<; inro r&v opvecov 1080 

AvOi^ vfiec^ av irap rjfiiv BeSefievoi irdKevaere* 

EvBacfiov (f>vKov ttttjvcov 

OlcOP&V, dl ')(€LflS)VO^ fl6P 

XXaiva^ ovK afiTrio'^ovvTat • 

OvS av OepfiTj Tnnyov^ i]fia<; 1065 

Afcn<: T7j\ax/yri<: BaXireL • 
AXK av07jpS)v \€LfiQ)va>v 
$yXX<»i/ ev KoXiroif; ,vai(o, 
±ivcK av uea-ireaLo^ o^v /ieXo? ay(^eTa^ 
OaXireo-L fiearj^^pivol^ rjXiofiavrj^: jSoa, 1990 

Xeifia^Q) S ev kolXoi^ avTpoi<;, 
. Nvficf>ai,<: ovpeiai^ ^vfiirai^cov • 
HpLva re ^oaKOfieOa irapOevia ' ; • ' 

Aeu/coTpo<l>a fiv^ra, Xapircov re KTyrrevfutra* \ « .' 
To?9 Kpiral^ enrelv n ^ov\o[iea6a Trff; vLKrj^ irepi^ 1095 
Oa ayaO , 7)v KpLvcoaiv rjfia<:, Traacv avrol^ Baxrofiev, 
flare KpecTTco Bcopa ttoXXq) t&v ^AXe^dvSpov Tuifiecp, 
npwTa fiev yap ov fiaXiara ira^ Kpcrr)^ e<f>i€Ta4,f 
rXavKC^ v/jLCL^ ovTTOT einXeiy^ovai Aavpuorucal • 
AXX evoiKTjaovaLv eySov, ev re rol^ /3aXavTiot/9 HOD 

EvveoTTCvaovac KaKXeylrovai /ncKpa Kep/jutra, 
Eira irpo^ rovroiaw iyairep ev lepol<; olfcrjaere. 

O P N 1 e E 2. 

Ta<; yap vfi&v OLKca<; epe'y^o^ev irpo^ aerov 
Kap Xa^ovT€<; ap^cSwv elO dpira&ai ^ovX/qaOe tc, 
O^ vv LepaK caKOV €9 ra? 'x/lpa^ vpuv Bcoao^ev. 1105 

Hv Se TTOV SeLTTvrjre, Trprjyopojvaf; vjuv Trefi'yjrofiev. 
Hv Se fJLTj Kptvr)T€f '^aXfceifeaOe firjvta-KOV^ (^opelv 
flairep avBpiavTe<; • &)9 vficoi^ 09 av fi7] ^rjv e^T}, 
Orav e^iyre y^KxivtSa Xevicriv, tot€ fiaXiaO oifTO) Bc/crfv^ 
Awaed^ Tjfuv, iracL roh opvcac KaraTcXcofievot,. 1110 


nEI20ETAIPO2. *^ 

i a fiev lep rjfuv ea-nv, eopviue^, KoKa • 
Aw G)9 airo Tov t€i^ov<; irapecmv ayyeXo^ 
OvBei^ OTOV TrevaofieOa raKel Trpay^ara, — 
AXX ovToat Tpe^€L ri^ AX<f>€iov irvecov, 


Hov TTOV art, ttov ttov ttov ^oti, ^ov irov irov '<7t«, 

TTOV ■ 1115 

IIov JleiaOeraLpo^ eariv ap^cov ; 




E^<p/CoSo/JL7)TaL (TOb TO T€i)(p^. 


Ev Xe^et^. 

KaXTuoTOV epyov Kai /neyaXoTrpejreaTarov * 

Hot av erravo} jiev IIpo^€VtBr)<; 6 Kofrrracev^ 
Km 0€oy€tn)^ cvavrio) Sy' ap/xare, 1120 


76 API2T0*AN0Y2 

Ittttcov uTTomcov fi€ye0o<: oa-av 6 Bovpio<:, 
Tiro Tov 7rXaTOi/9 av TrapeXaaaiTqv. 




06 /jLwco^ eoTi, K(u jup €jiieTp7)a avT eyco, 


12 Iloa-eihov, tov ficucpov^* 
Tipe^ fpKoSofiTjaav auro ttjXckovtovi ; <^ 1185 


OpviOe^, ovBei^ aX\o9, ov/c ALyvimo^ 
II\iv0o(f)opo^, ov \t0ovpyof:, ov refcrayv irapfjvt 

Aw avToj(€ip€<;, woT€ Oavfia^eiv e/xe. 

Efc fiev ye Ac^urj^ rjfcov ci? rpiafivpuu 

Tepavoi, defieXcov^ KaraTreTreofcvlaL \i0ov<;, 1130 

TovTov^ S ervKL^ov al KpeK€<: Tolf; pvy^eaiv, 

Erepoi S €7r\iv0o7rotovv ireXapyou fivptot • 

TBayp 8 €<l>opovv KaT(o0ev 69 tov aepa 
Ol '^apoBpLoi Kac TaXka TroTafic opvecu 


E7rrj\o<f>opoxn^ B airrocai tlv€^ ; 


*EpQ}Su)l 1135 



Tov Be TrrflCbv eve/3aXXovTO ttS^ ; 

oPNieES. 77 

i ptrr , G)yac7 , e^evpTjro Kav aocpcorara • 
Ol XV^^^ UTroTVTTTOVTef; lixnrep rai^ afiai^; 
JE9 Ta9 \€^ai/a9 eve^aXKov avrov roLv iroSolv, 


Koi vrj Ai at, prJTTac ye irepie^cocTfievai, 

ETfKLvdo<f)6povv • av(o he tov inraycoyea 

EirerovT €y(pvaac KaroTrtv, oxrirep iraijSia, 

Tov irrfkov ev rol^ aTOfiaaip ul ^tXiBove^;, 

n E 1 2 e E T A I P O 2. 
T^ Sfjra fjLia0o}TOv<; av ert fiiaOoiro tc<; ; 1145 

$e/}' IhcDy tI Sal ; Ta ^vKiva rou Tei)(pv^ rive^ 
ATretpyaaapT ; 

\ \ f ArrEA02 A. 

\ \ "" '^OpvL6e<i,rj(Tav refcrope^; 

. So(f)ct)TaT0t, irekeKCLvre^, 61 rol^ pvyy(eaLV 

AireTreXeKrjaav ra^ TruXa? • ^r S ' ktvtto^ 

AvT&v 7re\eK(t)VT(ov coairep ev vaviTr\yi(^, 1150 

Kai vvv airavT eKelva TreTrvX/orai irvKai^, 

Kav ^e^aXavcorai Kai (^vKaTrerai /cvKXtp, 

E(f>oBeveTat,, KQ)ScovoJ>opetTai, wavrayrj 

^vkaKav Ka6eGTT]KaaL fcai (jypvKrapiat 

Ev TOL<TL TTupyot^, AW cy(o fiev uTTorpe'^cov 1155 

AirovLy^ojiai • av S avro^ jjSi] raWa SpcL 


78 API2T0*AN0Y2 

Oinro9, TL TTOiel^ ; Apa ffavfia^cL^ on, 

OifTQ) TO Tel')(p^ £KT€T€L')(LaTav Tayv ; 

Nrj Tov^ Oeoxj^ eycoye • Koi yap a^iov • 

laa yap aXrjdco^; ^aiverai fioi. yfrevBecLV. 1160 

Aw oSe <f>v\a^ yap rcov eKeWev ayyeko^ . . 

EaOei 7rpo<; 7;/^a9 Seupo, Trvpot^riv pKeircov. 

ArrEAOS B. y 
lOV LOV, lOV lOVy lOV lOV. ^ 


Ti TO TTpayfia tovtl ; 

ArrEAOS B. ^ 

AeivoTaTa ireirovOa^ev* 

TS)V yap 6ewv tl<; apTi tcov irapa tou Ato^ 1165 

Aia TCOV TTvkwp eL(T€7rTaT 6i9 Tov aepa, 

AaOcov KoXoLOv^ <l>v\aKa^ rijiepoaKoirovs* 

fl Beivov epyov koI a")(4T\Lov etpyaa/jbevo^, 

Tc<; TCOV 0eS>v ; 


OvK lafiev • OTL B ' €t)(€ irrepa, 

1 OVT Ca-/JL€V, 

OvKovv SrJTa irepiiroXov^i eyg^^ 1170 

llefJLyjraL xaT avTOV evuv^ ; i i 

o p N I e E s. 81 

lTpo9 TOv<; Ko\oiapy(pv^ irpoarjkOe^ ; Ov Xeyet^ ; 
X(f>paylS ej^et? Trapa tS)v ireKapy&v ; 


li TO KaKov ; 


OvK eXafie^ ; 


^TycaLV€i<; fiev ; 


OvBe avfi/SciXov 
EirefioKev opvi0ap^o<; ovSei^ coi irapcjv ; 

IPI2. J^ 

Ma Al* OVK eiwLy eirefiaXev ovSek, & /ie\€. 1305 


Kxnreira Sijd orrrco accoir^ BiaTrerei 

Ala T^9 TToXeox; rrj^ dXKorpia^ kcu rod ^dov<; ; 

Hoia yap oKKt) ')(p7] irereadai tov^ 0€ov^ ; 


UvK OLoa fia nc eytoye • rrjoe fiev yap ov. 
^ABtKcU Be Kal vvv. Apa y oXaOa rovO , orb 1210 

AiKacoTar av Xq^Oelaa iraaSyv IpiBtov 
AireOave^, el t^9 a^ia^ eTvyy((Obve^ ; 

AKK auavaro^ et/M, 


'-4W' 6fb03s av air^Ottv^* 

80 API2T0*AN0YS 


Ilapa T&v 0€&v eycoye tS)v OXv/j/tticov* 

Ovofut he. coc Ti eari ; ifKolov, ^ Kwri ; 


ndpdXo^, 7] SdKafMivla ; [/ ^ ca^ /O 1, ^ 

Ti, Be TovTo ; 


TavTTjvt Tt9 ov ^u\"^ '>;'\/reTa* 
Avairrafievo^ rpiop^o<; ; 


^EfMe avXKrp^erai ; 1195 

i I, irOT €<m TOVTL TO KUKOP ,' 



Atottov y€ Toirn irpayfia, 


KaTa iroia<; irvXa^ 
Ei(r!jjk0e9 et? to tcc^os, w fiiapcoTaTf} ; 

OvK ovha fia Ac eycoye KaTa 7roca<; TrvXa?. 

HKovaa^ avT7)<; oJop elpcjvsverfii ; 1200 

O P N I e E 2. 81 

IT/0O9 T0U9 KoXoiap'^ov^ irpoafjXde^ ; Ov Xeyei^; ; 
S(l>paylS ej^ei? Trapa t&v ireXapy&v ; 


It TO KaKov ; 


OvK eXa^69 ; 


*Tycaiv€t<: fiev ; 


OvSe avfijSoTi^v 
EirefiaXev opviOap^o^ ovSec^ aoi wapoyv ; 

IPI2. J^ 

Ma Ai* OVK Gfioiy hri^aXev ovSek, & fieXe. 1205 


Kaireira SrjO ovtco atonr^ Bunreret 

Aia TTj^ iro\e(o<; t^9 aWoTpca^ kcu rov 'X,fiov<: ; 


Hoia yap aXKr) ypr} irereadaL rov^ Beov^ ; 


vfc oioa fJLa At eywye • rrjoe fiev yap ov. 
ASiKcl^ Be Koi vvv. Apa y oXaOa tov0 , OTt 1210 

AiKatorar av \ri<^6elaa iraa&v IptBav 
^AirdOave^, el t^ a^ia<; ervy^ave^ ; 

AXK aOavaro^ etfjL . 


Aw bfJUo<; av aweOave^. 


Aeivorara ^ap Tot ireKrofieaO , cfiol BokcI, 

El T&v fjLCV aWa)v apj(p/JL€v, v/jl€c<; 8 o.t 0€oi 1216 

AKoXaoTavecre, KovSeira) yvcocea'O on 

AKpoareov v/uv €v jiepei r&v Kpeirrovcov. 
^pcuTOV Se TOb fioi, TO) irrepvye irol vavardkei^; ; 

IPI2. ' 
EycD ; Upo^ avOpwirov^ Trerofiat irapa rov irarpo^ 

^pcuTOvaa Oveiv tol^ ^OXv/jlttcoi^ Oeol^ 1220 

JiIrj\oa<f)ayeLV re ^ov6vtoi<; eir e(r)(apai<i 

Kviaav r a/yvia^, 


Tl (TV Xiyei^ ; ttoloi^; Oeol^ ; 

IIoioLaiv ; ^Hfuv, to2<; ev ovpav^ Oeol^, 


OeoL yap vfi€c<; ; 

Ti9 yap ear dKko^ 6eo<i ; 

Opvi6e^ avOpaiirouTL vvv elcrtv deol, 1225 

O49 Oureov auTov^;, aWa fia Ai* ov TfiS Au» 


12 fiS>p€ /jL&pe, fiT] 6eS)v Kivei <l>p€va<s 
AeLva<;, ottco^ /jlt] aov ydvo<; iravdaXeOpov 
Alo^ fxaKeXXr) irav avaarpeyfrr) Ackij, 
Aiyvv^ Be acofia kcll So/jlcov TreptirTvy^a^; 1230 

KaTaiOaXaxTT) aov AiKvjuvlai^ ^o\a2<;. 

O P N I e E s. 



'Akovo-ov auTTj ■ -jrave ra>v -TraifAaa-fidTiov • 


"E-^ arpefia, Up thru, ■n-OTepa AvBov *; ^puya 

TauTi Xeyova-a jMtpfwiii^TreaOat BoKeii ; 

Ap otrrO' Sti Zeiif el p.€ Kmr^irei -jripa. 


MeXaOpa, /j.ev avrov koI Bofiovv 'AfKpiovoi 

KaTaiOaXwrrai trup^dpoimv aeroii, 


UeiJ-T^m fie Tropipvpiiiiva'; eV top ovpavov 

"OpvK! or' avTov, ■jrapSaXS.'i hfi)fi.p.evovi. 

TtKeiv i^oKotriovi rov dpifffiov ; Kai S^ irore 


£i? IIopAvpiwv avToi ■napta'ye Trpa/ypMTO,. 

2iV o ei, fie \i/7rj|(re(? ti, t^ Smkovov 

UpiiiTtj'; dvaTeii/OM TO} aKtXri St.a//.Tjpi.a) 

T^v Ipiv av-rrp/, wtrre Savfid^eiir OTrra^ 

OiJto) yepmv ttv aTvap.aL rpie'fiffoKov. 



Aiappayelii'i, w /J.e^C, avTol'; pi'/fj^aip. 


Ova aTroa-o^i^a-eK ; Oii raxe'ci}'; ; Evpa^ irara^. 

I PI 2. 

H fii'iV (TE -n-ava-et t^5 v0pebi'i ov/io'i iraT7\p. ' 



OXp.01, TuXa':. Ovicovv erepwae TrerofievJ} 

KaTai$aXiia-eK Tmv veare'pajv Tivd ; 





'ATroK€K\f/Kafiev Cioysj'a^ Beov^ 


f^i AP12TO*ANOY2 

lifrjSe Tiv lepodvTOV ava BaireBov^L 
T^Be /3poTov Oeolat ire/juTrecv Kain/ov. 


Aevvov ye top /cripvKa rov irapa tou9 PpoTOV^ U ^^ 1255 'i'^l^ 
Ol-^dfievoVy €1 fiTjBeTrore voarriaei irdXcv* ./".v>-*^ 

fl HeLaOeraip , co fiaKapt , w a'o<})coTaT€, 

II KXeivorar , co <ro<f>coraT , w y\a<f>vpa}TaT€, 
fl rpuTfuucapi, (o /caraKeXevaov, 


^T€<})av^ ae 'xpva^ ToJSe 0*0^019 oweKa I960 

ST€<f>avovai Kat rtfi&atv ol iravre^ Xeo). 

A€y(pfiaC, Tt, S ' 0VTG)9 ol \6ft) TLflSxri jJLC / 


ifl KkeivoraT'qv aiOepiov oiKiaa^ woKiv, 
Ovfc otaO o(Tr)v rifirjv Trap av6p(0'irov<; <f>ep€i, 
' Oaov^ T epaara^ TrjaSe t^9 X^P^^ ^X^^^' ^^^ 

npcv fiev yap oiKKrav ae Tr}vB€ rrjv iroTav, 
EXaxcovofiavouv airavre^ avOpcoiroi rore, 
^Eko/jlcov, hreivtov, eppirircov, eacoKparcav, 
^KxrraXi ^^opovv ' vvvc B vTroa-TpeyjravTe^ av 

Opvcffofjuavova-c, iravra B inro rrj^ rjBovr]^ 1270 

IIoLovaLV airep opviOe^ eKfitfiovjievoi, 

O P N I e E 2, > 

UpwTov fieir euflv5 Trarre? ef evin}^ ajj,a 
'EirerovB^ etoQep acnrep rj/ifi'i hrl pofiov ■ 
KaireiT av afia icarypav e? Tit ^ipKia • 
EIt airevefUiVT ei rrav &a to, 'yjfrnjjta-fiara. 
fipvi6o/j.avow 8 ovTti} TTfpi^avSi^ wtrre teat 
HoXKoiaiv opvlOaiv ovofiar iju Ksifieva. 
TlepBi^ p,ev et? jtaTTijXo? oipofj-a^ero 
XwXo'i, MeviTTTro) S' ^v ■^eXi.Saii/ Tovi'ojia, 
''O'KovvTiip S otjiOaXfiov ovK e^aiv Kopa^, 
KopvBo^ ^t\oK\eei, '^rjvaXoiirTi^ &eoyei/ei, 
I^ts AuKovpy<p, Xaipet^a>ifTi vVKTepi<i, 
XvpaKoaiip Se Kirra- MetSta? B' exel 
OpTV^ eKaXeiTO ■ /cat yap -gKeii oprvyt 
Tiro aTixpOKOTTov t>)v KSi^aKtjv TrenX-riyfiev^. 
HiBov 8 inra <f>tXopviOia'i Travre^ f^^Vi 
Ottou j^eXiBrnv ^v tk efi-Trerroi.'r^fi.tvri 
H irrjveXoT^ t; ^jjjj tk r) Trepiirrepa 
H TTTepvye^, ^ inepov ri icai crfwcphv irpotnji'. 
Toiavra fiep riucei6Ev, "Ec Se aot \eya • 
H^utT eK€tOeii Beijpo wXeip ^ fivpioi 
UTep&v Seofiepoi Koi Tpairwi yafixfravvymv ■ 
Hare vrepoiv troi tow eiroiictiK Bel -iroBev. 

HE 12 BETA IPO 5. 

OvK apa fxa At ii/uv ct epyov etrravai. 
AKK as raj^urra av p,ev iiov ra? appty(pvs 
Kat Tovr Ko^tvov^ a-n-avra'i e/iTTWrXi; Trrepay • 
Mavifi Be (pspCTO) fioi Ovpa^e Tit ■jmpn- 

8f» API2T0*AN0Y2 

Eyco i' €K€iva)v tov^ irpoaLovrci^ Be^ofuu. 



Ta^fv S' av iroXvdvopa rav ttoKlv 

KaXol Tt9 avOpfOTTGiv, 1300 

HEISeETAIPOS. \^op (j S 
Tvyr} fMovov TTpoaeiT). 


X P s. 

Kare'xpva'c S epcare*; €fJLa<; TroXeo)?. 


QaTTOV <f>ep€CV K€Xj6VQ). 



It yap ov/c evt ravry 

Kd)sJov dvSpl fieroiKecv ; 


So^ia, TIo6o<;, afi^poacat Xapcre^, 

To T€ T^9 ayavo(j)povo^ HaxrxjLa^ 
Evafiepov TTpoacoirov, ' 



*ir29 ^XaKLK&^ hiaKovel^ • 

• ■ 


Ov OoLTTOv 6yKovy](Teis ; 





^epeTQ) KoKaOov ta'^Qj ti<; irrepcov, 

Sv B avOis e^opfia, 

TuTTTcov ye tovtov o)Sc. 

Haw yap /3paBv^ ea-rl rc^ coGirep ovo^. 


Mav7J(; yap laii BecXd^;, ^^^^ 

P N 1 e E s. 



SiJ Be Ta TTTspa Trpanov 

/iidSeii TaBe Kocrfitp ■ 

Ta Te iMval-)l o/iov ra re jxavriica kcu 

Ta SaXarri. 'Evetra 8' ott&js ^povlfiav 

I7p09 avSp' opSsv -TTTepasaem. 



Ov Toi (1,(1. Tuv Kep-)(yriBa<i en aov a-;(/]irofiai. 


OoTfO! opwv ae SetXou oma koI /SpaBuv. 


T'evoifi.a.v aeros ir^i'jveTa'i, 

'Sl<i av ■n-OTaBeii}v imep aTpuyerov fXav- 

m<; en-' olB/j.a Xtfivm. 



"Eaucev ov ^^evBayyeX^i elv ayyeXo?. 

'AiBwv yap oBe t« d^ra!)^ Trpoaep'^eTai. 



OvK eoTH' ovBev tov irereaffai yKvKvrepov • 


'EpS> S' eyaye tSiv ep opvitjiv vo/j.aiv. 


'OpvidofiavSi yap «al 'Trero/uii, Koi ffou\ofiat 


^ ■ 

OiKetv (led ufiav, Ka-mOvfita t&v vofuov. 


Iloiav vopo>v ; IIoXKol yap opvlBtav vo/iol. 


UJvTcov • fioKurra B' Bri icaKov pofxi^erai 

Tov irarepa toIs opvitrip ay^HP Koi Bukpsip. 



88 API2T0*AN0Y2 

Kcu V7} Al avZpelov ye iravv vo^i^o/jsv, 

O9 av ireirXryyri tov Trarepa i/eorro? cov, 

Aca ravra fievrot Bevp avoiKiaOel^; eyco 

Ay^etv eTTtOvfJLO) tov Trarepa Koi iravr e)(eiv, 

AXK eoTLV rjfuv Tolaiv opviaiv vofio<; 1340 

IIaXaio<; ep Tai<; rmv irekapycov Kup/Seacv • 

Etttiv 6 TraTTjp 6 ireXapyo^ e/CTrerrja-tfiov^ 

ITaz/Ta? TTOtrjar) tou<; Treka^yiSTj^ rpeipeov, 

A el Tou^ veoTTov^ tov iraTepa iraXiv Tpe^eiv. 

ATreKavad Tap av vtj Al* e\6cov evOaSl, 1345 

Eiirep ye fioi kai tov iraTepa ^o<t/c7jt€ov,) 

OvSevjy, ^ EireihiYTrep yap ^\0e<;, Z fieke, 

Evvov^y iTTepwaco a oxrirep opviv op<f)avov* 

XoL S J ft) veavca-fc , ov KaKco^ vTrodrjaofiai, 

Aw oiairep avro^ efiaOov OTe iral^ rj^ Sv yap 1256 

Tov fiev iraTepa fjurj Tvirre • TavrrjvBc Xa^cov 

T7)v irrepvya, Kac tovtl to TrXrjfcrpov Oarepa, 

Nofitaa<; dkeicrpvovo^ ^'^ecv T,^vht/}<.o<f)ov, 

^povpev, <rrpaT€vov, fiKrOo^opwv aauTOV rpe^e, 

Tov iraTep ea ^v • aW eireiZrj fia'^ifw^ el, 1355 

Et9 TttTT* 0pa/crj<; airoireTOV, Kaxel fia'^pv. 


O P N I Q E 2. 

89 . 


N-q TOP Ampvctov, ev ye fioi BoKels Xe'yeiv, 

Kal Treia-ofiai a-oi. 


Novf ap e^ei? j;^ jiia. 


'AvaTrdrofuu Bii Trpoii "OXv^nrov Tr-repvyefftyt la 

w^aii • , \ 


IliTOficu S oBov aXkoT ctt aWav fieXiwP 



Tovrt TO Tj-pay/ia i^oprlou BeWai TrrepiSc. 


I I ^ 'A<f>dff^ if>pevi awiMtTi re veav eipeTrmp \ J 


AuTraXofieada tptkvpivov Kmrjeriav. 

Tl Sevpo irdBa au kvXKov ava, kvk\ov icvsKel^ ; 


"OpvK yeveiBai, ^avXo/iai 



Atyv^Boyyo^ di]Bd>v. 




Tlavaai fieXwSav, uXTC o Ti JLeyeif etTTfi fwi. 





'Two tyov ■n-TepoiOeh ^ouXo/ /ierdpaioi 



AvaTrrd/ievo'i Ik rav iie</)eXiipi' Katvd^ Xa^tiv 


w ' AipoBovriTovi Kal VLtfjo^oXov; ava^oXwi. 





'Ek to>v vei^ieXuiv yap av tk tivaffuXti'i Xd.^01 ; 

8' L 





Kpe/Jbarat fjuev ovv evrevOev rjiicov rj T€)(yrj. 

TS)v Bcdvpafi^cov yap ra XafiTrpa yiyverat 

Aepia Tiva Kac CKOTia Kau Kvcwavyea 

Kat 7rT€poSovr}Ta • av Be kXvoov eiaev Ta')(a, 


Ov BrJT eytwye. 


Nrj Tov 'HpaKXea av ye, 
Airavra yap BieifJUL <tol tov aepa 
EiSccXa irereivSiv 
Ol(ovS)v ravaoSecpGDv • 



Tov dXa^pofiov d\d/JL€vo^ 

AjJL av€/JbQ)v irvoalai /3at7jv, 

Nrj TOV Al rj yoa aov KaTaTravaco ra? irvoa^. 

ToTe fiev voTcav (rT€L'^G)v~'7rpo^ oSov, 

ToT€ S av /3op€a acjfia Treka^cov 

AXcfjuevov aiOepo^ avXaKa Tefivav. 

apcevja y, co irpeapvT , eaoqaato Kai <ro(pa. 

Ov yap (TV '^ciipeL^; TrrepoBovrjTO^ yevofievo^ ; 




/ . 

ft ' 


TavTL TreirocTjKa^ rov KVK\ioStSa<TKa\ov, 

^ O9 Tal<Ti ^v\at9 7r€pL/Jba'X7]T0^ eifju aei ; 1390 


BovXjei BtSa<TK€LV koI irap rjfuv ovv fievcov 
AecoTpo^ihrj 'xppov irerofievcov opvecov 
KefcpoTTtSa ^v\r]v ; 


KaTayeXa^: /jlov, 8^X09 el. 
AW ovv eyooy ov iravaofiai, tovt cau ori,, 
Hpiv av 7rT€pQ)6€c<i SLaBpajnQ) tov aepa, 139S 


OpvL0e<; TLve^ oiS ovhev ej^ovre^; inepoirotKCKoL • 
TavuaiTTTepe irocKiXa ^eXtSol • 


TovTt TO KaKov OV ^avXov e^ejprf/opev. 
Oh av /JLLVvpi^a)v Sevpo Tt^ Trpoaep^erai, 

TavvatTTTepe irovKLka fidx' av6i<;» 1400 

' nEI2eETAIP02. 

AelaOau S' colkcv ovk oXiycov 'xeXcSovcov. 


Ta9 irrepSiv Bevp eari tov^ a(f)tKvovfi€vov^ ; 


UoL irapeoTLV • aXK otov oei y^prj Xeyecv, 

Ilrep&v TTTCpcov Set* arj irvOri to 8€UT6pov. W^^ 




\ MJov ev6u Il€\\7]prj<i TrereaOat hiavoei ; 

Ma At , aXKa /c\7)T7}p eifiL vrjatcoriKO^; 

Kai (ruK0(f>avT7j^, 





il Liaica 

jjbaKapie Trj<; Tej(vr}(;, 


Kat irpayfiaToSi(l)7)<;, Elra Beofjuat irrepa Xa^cov 
KvKKxp TrepuTo^eiv Ta<; iroXei^ KaXovfievof;. 1410 


Ttto TrT€pvy(ov rl irpoa-KaXel ao<j}(OT€pov ; ij^-^^"^ 

Ma Al y dSX Iv ov XrjaTat ye fir] XmraxTL fie, 

Mera t&v yepavcov r eiceWev ai/a'^cjpct) iraXcv, 

Av6 €pfiaTO<; TToWa'^ KaraTrerrwicoi^ Sifca^, 

TovtI yap epya^ec av rovpyov ; Ecire fioi, 1415 

Neavca<; cop avKO<f>avTel<i tov<; ^evov<; ; 


Tl yap iraQw ; SfcaTrretp yap ovk eTTtoTafuu. 

Aw eariv erepa vrj Ai epya (TCMppova, 

A(p (OV Sta^rjv avSpa XPV^ toctovtopI 
Ek tov ScKatou fiaXkop rj ScKOppa^elp, 14S20 


Si Baijiopce, fit) povOerec fju, dWa inipov. 

nEIS6ETAlP0 2. 

Nvv Toi Xeyav Tnepai ce. 

■ 2YK0*ANTHS. 

Kai TTW? av Xoyots 
AvSpa Trreptaaeia'i av ; 


nEI26ETAlP0 2. 

S Y K O * A N T H 2. 


OuK ajci}iCoa<i, 
Orav Xeyaxriv oi 'Trarepes SKiunoTe 
To2<i p,£i.paKtoi'; ev ralaL /covpeiot^ ra^i ■ 
Aei,vai<i ye fiov to fieipaKiov jduTpfpi/'i 
Aiyani aj/eTrrepw/cec t3a6 nnrrjKaTeiv. 
Se TK Tov avTou <jii}iTiv eiTL Tpay^Sia 
Av€TrTepwff$at xat •n-eTroTrjo'Sai ra^ tppeva';, 

2 Y K O * A N T H 2. 

Aoyotai Tapa Kai impovvrat ; 


Tiro yap 'Kaymv o vov^ re fieTewpi^erai 
Eiraiperai t avOpanrO';. Ovrw Kat a eyto 
Apa-mepaiTcvi ^ovKofuu ■}(priuToi<i Xoyow 
Tpei^ai •Trpo'i epyov vofti/irji/. 


AW av |3ouKoii.ivi 

94 A P I 2 T O * A'N O Y 2 



To yevo^ ou KardLa^vvoj. 

IlaTnrato^ o y8t09 avKO^avTelv eari fioc, 

AXka TTTcpov fie Tw^aai koI kov^ol^ Trrepol^ 

lepaKO^j 7] K€p'xyySo<;, co^ av tov<; ^evov^ 

KaXeaafievo^;, /car eyK€K\r)K(o<; evOaSi, 1440 

KaT av ireroyfjiai, iraXiv eKelae, 


HBc \ey6t9 • o7ro)9 av (ii)<f)XT]Kri hiicqv 
EvOaBe Trpiv rjKeiv o ^evo^, 


^ Haw fiav0av6i^. 


airecu o fiev TrXet oevpo, av o eKeia av irerei 
ApTraaofJuevo^ ra XRV/^^"^ avrov, 


TlavT e)^et9. 1445 

B€fi/3LKo^ ovBev Bcaxf)€p€Lv Bel, 


MavOavfo ' 
Befi^cKa • Kat firjv earc fwc vrj tov Ata 
KaXXtara Kop/cvpala rotavTC irrepa, 

Oi/JLOi TaXa<: • fiaany e^6t9. 




Hrepco /lev ovv, 
Oiai <T€ TTOLTjcra) rrjfiepov ^e/i^iKcav, 

2YK0*ANTH2. "* 
Oi/JLOC Ta\a9. 


Ov TTTejOvyte?? eyrevOevL ; 
OvK aTToXt^a^et^, w KaKKTT airokov/ievo^ ; 
UcKpap ra'^ oyjret aTpeylroBiKOTravovpyiav. 
^irceofjuev rj/jbec^ ^vXKa^ovref; ra TrrepcL 


UoWa Brj Kai Kaiva kcu 6av' 

aaa-T eireTrTOfieada, kuc 
Aeiva irpay/iaT eihofiev. 
EoTL yap BepSpov ire^vjco^ 
Ektottov Ti, JdipBiaf; a- 
TTCOTepOD, KXecovvfiof^f 
Ji^prjaifjiov /Ji€V ovoev, aX- 

Xa)9 Be BeiXov xac /leya, 
TovTO Tov [lev Yipo^ aei 
BXaaraveL Kac avKo^avTel, 
Tov Be 'xetfi&vof; iraXiv to^ 
AaircBat; (jyvWoppoel, 

* KvTt,arpo^. 
MiO'TL o av )((opa Trpo^ avT(o 

ft) <rKOT€fi iroppto Tt9 ev 








T^ Xv')(y(ov eprjfjbia, 

W.MM y^ ^ mS %/ /^ 

Evua Tot9 r]p<M)<nv avupco' 
TTOL ^vvapLa-Toxrt kcu ^uv 
eiat, ttXtjv t?}^ eairepa^. 
IrjviKavTa o ovk€t rjv 

El yap evrv^ot ri<; rjp<p 
Tcov jSpoTcov vvtCTcop Opearrj, 
Tvfivo^ rjv 7r\riy€c<; inr aurov 
Havra rairiBe^ut. 

> \ 

5 •- \ 


IIov TleLaOiTOtpo^ eariv ; 


iLa, TOVTL TC ffV 

Tk ovy/caXv/JL/Md^ ; 



TS>v Oewv 6pa<; rtva 


T/9 S' el (TV ; 


a At eyo) /mcp 9^ 

IlrjviK eoTLV apa rr}^ rjfiepa^ ; 


OirqviKa ; SfJLiKpop tl libera fJLea-rjfjbjSpuiP* 
AWa av tl^ el ; 







O P N I E 2. 


BovkvTo<;, 7} irepacTepoD ; 


Oifjb 6)9 ^BeXvTTOfiat ore. 


Tl yap 6 Zev^ iroiei ; 
A7rac0pta^€c ra? pe<p6Xa<;y 7/ ^vvv€(f)e2 ; 


OvTCO fi€v eKKeKoXif^ofiau 


Si (l>ik€ UpofirjOev, 


Have irave, firj ^oa. 

Tl fiat 


yap can ; 

Scyay fir) KiiXec jjlov rovvofxa • 

^TTO yap o\€L jx , ei fji evoao o Zi€u<; OYerai, 

Aw Iva (f>paa-(o aoL iravra ravco irpaypuTa, 

ToVTl 7uil3cOV flOU TO (TKUlheLOV V7r€p€^6 

Apcouev, 0)9 av firj /jl opcoacv ol ueoc, 

>x ^ ' ' 


V I ^ 

9 » > 

Eu y eireporjaa^ avro Kai TrpofJLTj&iKayf;. 

TiroSvdt Ta-xv S/,, Kara 6app7}ara<; Xeye, 






98 API2T0«AN0Y2 


*A/cov€ Srf vw. 


'•f29 aKovovTO<; Xeye* 


*A7ro\a)\€P 6 Zev^, 


llrjvifc UTT airfoKero ; 


jCE^ oinrep v/mci^ ^Kiaare rov aepa* 1500 

fyv€L yap ovoet,^ ovoev avupo^Trayv en 

Oeoia-tv, ovBe fcvla-a fiTjpitDV airo 

AvrjkOev <»9 t]fMa<i cl't aceivov rov j(povov. 

Aw waTrepec Oecr/JLo^opioi^ vrjarevofiev 

Avev OvffXcov • ol Be /3ap/3apoc Oeot 1505 

HeLvcoine^ coairep IWvpLot KeKptyore^ 

ETnarparevaeiv (f>aa avcoOev tcS Au, 


El u7} irape^ec rafiTropi avecpyp^eva, 
Iv eiaayoLTO (TifKay^va KaTaT€r/JL7jp,epa. 


Evalv yap erepoi /3ap^apot, Oeoi rive^ 1510 

AvcoOep v/JL&v ; 

Ov yap ecai ^apfiapoi, 

OOev 6 irarpcpo^ eaTCV E^KearcSr) ; 


Ovofia he TovroL^i roi^ Oeoi^ rol^ ^ap^dpois: 
Ti iariv ; 

o p N I e E 2. C^'' ' 99 

/ . 


O TL eariv ; Tpi^aWoi, 


EvT€v0€v apa " TOvirtTpifiecTj^; " eyevero. 1515 


MaXLcra iravrcov, '' Ev Se aoc Xeyco aa(f>e^ • 
H^ovaL 7rp€a^et<; Sevpo Trepi BcaWaycop 
Hapa Tov Alo^ kui twv Tpt^aWcov tS>p avco • 
'Tfxel^ Be fi7] aTrevBead , eav fir] 7rapaBiB(^ 
To (TKTjTTTpov 6 Zev^ Toi(nv opptauf ttoKxv, 1520 

Kai TTiv BaacXetav aoc yxwal/c ej^etv BcBq}» 

HEISeETAIPOS. j^ ^'-.t^c ^x. ■ 

Tt<i eariv rj BaaiXeLa ; 


K.dXKtoT'q Koprj, 
''Hirep Tajxievei tov Kepavvov tov Ato<: 
Kac TaW dira^aTravTa, tt]v ev^ovXiaVy 
Tt]v evvoficav, tijv aQ}(f)po(TVP7}v, Ta vewpia, * ' 1525 
Ttiv XotBopiav, TOP KcoXaKpeT7)v, Ta Tpico^oXcu 

Airavra Tap avTot Tapuievei, 


^TjfjL eyo). 
Hv y Tjv (TV Trap' ckcivov irapaXa^r)^, iravr ^€49. 
TovTcov €P€Ka Bevp rjXOop, iva (ftpaaaLfiL (tou 
Aec iroT avupcairoi^ yap €vpov<; etfi eyay. Io30 

100 API2T0*AN0Y2 

n Else ETA IPO 2. 
Movov Oecov yap Sia a aTravdpaKc^ofiev* 

n P O iM H e E Y 2. 
Mi(ra> B airama^ tou<; 6eov<;, ci? olaOa au, 

Nr] Tov Al aei Sr^ra Oeoinar]^ €<j)v<;. 

I. ^ 

n P O M H e E Y 2. 
Tificov Ka6apo<;. AW' ci? av uTroTpe^a) iraTuv, 

$€joe TO aKiaheioVy iva fjL€ fcav 6 Zev^ i,Br) 1535 

ApcoOev, aicoXovOelv Bokco Kav7)<f)op^. 


Kcu TOV Sc(j>pov y€ Bi<f>po^opeL tovBl Xa^oav. 

^7T/309 Se T0fc9 XKidiroatv Xi- 
fiVT] Tt9 €(7t , aKovTO<; ov 
Wv^cvycoyel S(OfcpaTrj<; • .540 

EvOa Kac Ueiaavhpo^ rjkOe 
Aeofievof; '^v'x^rjv oSelp, rj 
Zcjpt e/celvop TrpovXiire, 
S(f>ayi' c^cov Ku/JbrjXov a- 

fJLVOP TLV , 979 XaijJLOV^ T€fJb(OV, 54S 

ilairep ovSv(ra€v<; aTrrjkOe, 
Kar avrjkO avTip fCUTcodev 
JJpo<i TO XalfJia Trjq KafirjXov 

Xacp€(f>cJi)P T] VVKT€pC^, 


O P N I e E 2. 101 

n02EIAQN. V ' ' 
TTo iiev TToXtafjia T779 Ne^ekoKOKKvyia<; 1550 

Opav Tohi irapeartVy ol irpea^evoiiev. , 

UvTo<;, TL opa^ ; Mitt apLcnep oifro)^ a/ATrej^e* ; u 

Ov fjuera^aXel^ 0OLfi(iTLOv wS ' eirc Se^tav ; 
T^, ft) fcaKoBatfiov ; AaiaTroBia^ el rrjv <f>v<Tiv» 
* il hrjiiOKparta, irol irpo^i^a'^ rj/j,a<; iroTe, 1555 

El, TOVTOVL y e-^etpOTovrjaav ol OeoL ; 

Mi^ei^ arpe/jua^ ; 

ULfio)^€* TToXv yap orj a eyo} 

Eopaxa iravTWV ^ap^apcorarov Oecjv, 

Aye Srj tl Spcofiev, HpuKXet^ ; 


EjjLov y OTt Tov avOpcoirov ay^eiv ^ovKofiaij 1560 

0<TTC<; TTOT eaO 6 Tov<i deov^ a7roTet')(Laa^. 

AXK , (oyaO , rjpTjfjueada irepl BcaXXay&v 


AnrKaaiot)^ /laXKov ay^eiv fioi, Sokcl, 

TqP TVpOKPrjO'TlV flOi SoTCO • <f)€p€ <Tik<^LOV * 

Tvpov (fyepereo Tfc9 • irvpiroKei rov^ avdpcuca^;, 1565 



HPAKAH2. F ^^ ' ' 

Tov avSpa 'XfiipeLV oc 6eoi Kekevofiev 

Tpels ovre^ rjfielf;, 


u4W' ejTLKvSi TO acXtpiov. 


la be /cpea tov tuvt eariv ; 


"OpViOd^ TLV^ 

EiravLo-TafJuevoL toIs Srj/jLOTCKolatv opveoi^ 
EBo^av ahiKelv, 

ElTa hryra atkt^LOV 1570 

*EinKva<; irporepov amolaiv ; y^<^^ 


SI xcblp , ^Hpcuekei^. 

Upea^evovre^ rujbel^ rjfcofiev 

Hapa T&v Oecov irepi iroXe/iov KaTaXXayrj^;* 

> niKETHS. 

EXaiOV OVK €V€<TTLV €P TTf \7)KV0€fi, 


Kac fjLTjv Ta y opviOeia Xnrap etvat Trpeireu 1573 

Hfi€2<; T€ yap iroXefiovme^ ov xepBatvofJuev, 

l/jL€c^ T av TifiLv T049 ueoi^ oi/T€9 tpCkoi, 



'0/J.^puiv vBwp Sc etj;6T' ev tow TeXfiaa-tv, 

'AXxvoyiSa^ t hv ^ed' rjfiepa!; dei. 

TovToiv Trepl Trai^uc avroKpaTope's ^KOfiev. 



'AXK! ovts irpoTepov TrwTrofl' rifieh ^p^afieu 

TloXeiiov ■n-po'i v/^-;, vvv t' iffeXofiev, el Boxei, 

'Eav TO BiKaiov aXXa vvv iffekrjTe Bpav, 

SirovSa'i TTOiela-dai. Ta Be Biicai lariv ToZi • 

To aie^irrpov ^filv tdIo-iv opvKTiv wdXiv 


T^v A" d-TToBoOvaL • KM BiaWaTTafieda. 

'E-iri Tola-Se tow wpe'tr^ei? hr' apitrrov Koka. 


'Efiol fiev d-rro^T} ravra, kcu i^^t^ofitu. 


Tl, w KOKoBcup^v ; 'H\16lo^ km ydtrrpii «!. 

'AwoirrepEl'; tov Trarepa t^? TvpawlBo^ ; 



^IiTyyaeT, rjv opviBe'i ap^aatv Karen ; 


Tivif p.dv y vTTo Ttiw veifieKoio-iv eyKeKpufifieuot 


Kv'^avrei e-n-iopKova-tP v/iai ol ffpoToi • 

'Eiiv Be Tovi oppK ej^J/re trvfifLiixpvi;, 


"Ortw opvvT} T(5 TOV KopaKa Koi tov Ala, 


'0 Kopa^ TrmpeXdayv TOvmopKOvpTO^ Xddpa 


JIpooTTrdfi.evo'; e/cxdyjfet rov oi^SaXfiov Bevdsv. 




Nil Toi' HoueiBm, ravTo. ye to( KaXw<s Xe'ycw, 


104 API2T0*AN0Y2 


JS^aflOL OOK€l. 


NajSata-arpev. 160C 

*Opa^ ; ^Eiraivei j^outo9. * Erepov vvv er* 

AicovaaO oaov vfia<; aya0ov irocrjo'Ofiev, 

Eav Ti9 avOpcoTTCov lepeiov t^ 6eS)V 
Ev^afi€vo<;, elra .Bia<ro<}>L^7jTai Xeycop 
" MeveroL BeoL^ xac fiairoBiBa} fiiarjriap, 1605 

Avairpa^ofiep Kai ravra, 

n O S E I A Q N. 

^ep lBg), t^ rpdir^ ; . 

Orav SiapiOficov apyvplBcov tujj^i; . ^ ; ,..^i-2 

AvBpcoiro^ ovTo^, T) KaOrp-ai Xoviievo^, ^. .^ *'-• 

Kara^rafievo^; lktIvo^, dpira(ra<; Xd0pa, 

TLpo^aroiv hvolv ti/jltjv avoiaei tw dea>. 1610 

To aKrJTTTpov airohovvai ttoXlv '\frr)<f>l^ofiav 
TovTOL<; eyo). 

Kac Tov Tpi^aXKov vvv epov* 

O TpL^oKKo^, OL/jLco^eiv. Soxel aoi ; 


O P N I e E 2. 






iPijcriv ev Xeyeiv iraw. 


El TOt ZoKeX ai^mv TaCra, xd/iol avvZoKei 



OEtos', SoKet Zpav ravra tov irK^Trrpov irepi. 


Kai tni A" erepav y ea-rtv ov '/iir^i70T]V erfa. 

Tijv p.ev yap "Hpav TrapaSiBap-i tw AU, 

T^v Be Boffikeiav r^v Kopijv yvvtuK e/iol 

'EKBoreov &7tIv. 


Oil BiaXXayaip ep^. 


'Afria>p.ev otJeoS' aZda. 


■'OXiyov fiot fiekei, ' 


Ma/yeipe, TO Kard')(y<Tp.a. j(pTi -ttouIv yXviev. 




'H/ieli ■rrepi ywaiicoi; /ttSs -roXefi^ffo/iev ; 



Tt Sat iroiS>p,ei> ; 

, ^ 



'0 T( ; AuiXKaTTwp^Ba. 

.» 1 



106 API2T0*AN0YS 

Tt, €p^vp ; OvK ota6^ e^airarmfievo^ irdXcu ; 

B\a7rTet9 Se roi av aaurov, Hv yap airoOavy 

O Zev^, irapoBov^ tovtokti ttjv rvpavviha, 

Ilevr)^ €<r€i av. Hod yap airavra yiyverai 

Ta XRVf^f^^ 9 OCT av 6 Zev^ airoOvria-Ktov KaToKimrf* 1630 

Oifioi Ta\a<;, olov ae 7r€piao<f>L^€raL, 

Aevp 0)9 eyLfc airo'xjuyp'na-ov, Iva ti aoi ^paato. 

Aia^aKKeral a 6 0€lo<;, a> irovrjpe av. LiyvvOu^ , 

Ta>v yap irarpaxov ovB a/capr) fieTeart aov 

Kara rov^ vofiov^ • vo6o^ yap el kov yvrjcio^. 1635 

Eyco vo6o^ ; Tl Xiyei^ ; 


Sv fiemoi vrj AiO, 
Hv y€ ^evr)(; yirvacKo^, H •7ra>9 av ttotc 
ETTiKXrjpov eivac T7)V AOrjvaiav SokcI^, (tv.""^^^ 

Ovaav Qvyarip , ovreov aSe\<}>a)iT yvrjacayv ; 

Tl B , rjv 6 iraTTjp cfiol BvS^ va yprifuna 1640 

No0(p ^airodvrjO'Kcov ; 


U VOflO^ aVTOV OVK 6ft. 

O1/T09 TIoa€ihS)V irpSiTo^, 09 eiraipei <re vvv, 
AvOe^erai aov tcov rrarpaycov '^rjfiarcov 
^aaxcov aSeX^o^ axno^ elvai yvriaco^. 




Epat oe or} KOL rav XoXiovo'i uoi vofutv ' 


" Nd0<p Be /lit eh<u dyxit^Teiav, TralBatv ovrtav 

'^injaltav. *Eav Se wotSer /i^ Stai yvrjo-ioi, Tol'i 

eyyuTaTa fepovi fierelvai to>v y(p7]tidTasv.^^ 


'Ettoi 8' dp^ ovBen tSjv Trarp^av -^p-qfidraiv 

Meremtv ; 



Ov fiePTOt fia Ala, Ae^ov Se fioi. 


'HBtj a 6 iraTTjp ua-ff^arf es Tou9 (fypiirapai ; 


Ov B^T ifie ye. Kat Bijt eSavfia^ov irdXai. 


Tt Bt}t' dvo3 Ke'^'rivat aiKiav ^eirav ; 

'AX>J V /**^ ' V/^^v J'>' KaraiTT^aai er' eyo) 

Tvpavvov, hpvidwv -rrapi^a a-vi ydka. 



AUtu ep.oiye Koi ■jraktv Sokcw Xeyeiv 






Ti Bal ,7V <f>ri? ; 




Tdmvrla ^<^lKof^t. 


'Ev T&) Tpi^aXKai irdv to -irpay/ia. Ti au Xeyei^ , 


KaKavi icdpatJi/a icai /leyd'Affi ^acrCKtvav 


^K "OpviTo wapaBlBaipi. 


106 API2T04AN0Y2 


HapaZovvcu, \ey€^ 


Ma Tov A[* ov^ ovTo^ ye TrapaSovvcu Xeye^, 

El fifj /3aBl^€ip &<nr€p al yeXiBove;, (^t- ^- c<^'^> 


OvKovv irapaZovvai Tal^; yeKihoaiv \eyeu 

^^o) vvv Sui\\aTT€<r0e koI ^vfi^aivere • 1665 

*jByft) S*, eiretZri a^^v hoKet, acyrja'Ofiai. 

*Hfuv a Xeyec^ av iravra avy^mpecv Soxel. 

*A\\^ 101 fi€0 ' '^fi&v avTo^ €9 TOP ovpavop, 

"Ipa T^p Baatkeuip zeal ra irapr &cel \aprp. 

E9 xacpop apa Kare/coirrja'ap oirrou 1670 

jBv tov^ yajiov^. 

Tiovke<T0e hryr eym reco^ 

C/TTTft) ra Kpea ravTi fiepcap ; Tfiei^ o tre, 


Oirra^ ra /cpea ; TLoKKrip ye T€P0elap \eyet9* 
OvK et fie0 rifi&p ; 


Ev ye fiep rap Si€re0f)p» 



AWa yafu/crjp y^KaplSa Sotg) Tt9 Bevpo fiou 1676 

o p N I e E I. 109 

X o p o z. 

Eirri B' ev ^avalfft tt^os t^ 
KXe^vhpa iravovpyov ey- 

yKarroyaa-ropasv yevo-;, 
01. eepi^ova-iv Te Kal trrrei- 

povffi KOI Tpvy^fTi rats yXaiT- 1680 

raia-t avKa^outri re • 
Sap0apai S ei,aiv yevot;, 
Fopyuu re xeu ^tKiirrroi. 
Kaivo TO>v eyyXmTToyauTO- 

ptov eKetvasv raiv ^iXnnra>P US6 

navraxov t^9 'A-mKjji rj 
VKcyrra yeapii Tep-verai, 

il tram' tvyada irparrovTe^, a> ftei^ra Xoyov, 

fl Tpiafiaxapiov Tntji/ov opvtOmv yevo^, 
^e'XfiSe TOV Tvpawov oX0iOK Sop^K, 1690 

HpQirep-^eTai yap oto-i ovre •jra/nparj'i. 

AcyTfjp l&elv e\ap.-ip-e j^vtravyel Sop,^, 
Ov6 rjXiov TJ}kavyf<i aKTtvoiv (7eXos 
ToiovTov e^eXapylrev, otov epj^erat, 

E^eov yuvaiKO'; KaXKai ov cparov Xeyetv, 169S 

IlaXXaiv Kepawov, Trrepotftdpov Jws ^e\os* 

Otrpj} S avavo/Macrro'! e^ 0a$o^ kvkXov 
Xoipei, KcCXov 6eafta ■ Ovp.iap.aTav S 
Atpai Bia^aipova-t. -TrXe/cravtiv Katrvo'v. 




*OSt Se Kairro^ earcv. AX\a j(prj 0€a^ 
Mov(rr]<; avoiyeiv lepov €V<}>r)fiov oTOfitu 

, ^^^( "Avaye, S/ej^e, irapaye, 7rdp€)(€, 


MaKupa fiaKUpL <rvv Tv^a, 

fl <}>€V ^€v Trj<; (ji)pa<;, tov /caXXov^, 

^fl lULKapioTov av yafiov ryhe iroXec yrffia^, 

MeyaXai fieyaXat KaTe')(pva'i rv^ai, 

Tevo^ opvl0cov 

Aia TovSe top avhp. AXS^ vfievatot^ 

Kac wfKfyiSioca-c Se;)^6<r^' ^a?? 

Airrov kol Tr]v Baatkeiav, 


T&v rjXi^arcov Opoveov 

Ap')(pvTa 0€Oi^ fieyav 
Mocpai ^vv€KOLfiia<w 

MiV Toccpo vfievaiep, 

Tfirjv ft), ^Tfjbevai co. 

O B afi<}>c0aX7j<; Epto^ 
X pvaoirrepo^ 7jvia<: 


Z7}vo<; irapo')(p^ yayjov 
T^9 t' evBaifiovo^ Hpa^. 
Tfirjv CO, ^Tfjbivai S>, ; ' • 



I >■ 

^E^aprjv vfivoc^, e^aprjv ^aU • 




OPNieES. Ill 

Ayafiai Be Xoycov. Aye vvv avrov 1725 

Kai Ta^ '^(OovLa^ KXrjaare fipovra^, 
Ta9 re 7ri»/>6)Sei9 -J to? aaiepoira^f 
Aeivov T apyrjra Kepavvov. 

^^' X0P02. 

fl fieya ypvaeov aa-repoirrji; <f>ao<;, 

il Al6<; afi^poTov eyxp^ 7rvp<f>dpov, - 1730 

fl 'x^Sovtai ^apva'^ee^; 

Oa^po<f>opoL 0^ afia fipovTac, 
Al<; oBe vvv '^Bova aeiei, 
Aia (re ra iravra KpaTr}<ra<;, "^ 

Kal TrapeSpov Baatkecav e^et Ai,6^. 1735 

[Tfif/v &, 'Tfievac oj c'^^KT 

"EireaOe vvv ya/iOLO'tv, & 

^v\a iravra avwofKov 

Hrepo^op , €7rt TreSov Aco^ 

Kal Xe^o^ yafirjkLOV. 1740 

Ope^ov,- ft) fiaxaipaj (rrjv 

Xeipa, Kai irrep&v efi&v 

AajSovo'a crvyxppevaov • £M- 

p(ov Be Kov<}>cS> <r eyo). 

A^KoCKcCSjiLi vt\ IIa4,G)V, 1745 

TrjveWa xaWiviKo^, & 
Aac/jLovwv threpTare. 



In the opening scene, two old Athenians appear, named 
Euelpides and Peisthetairo?. Wearied with tJie annoyances 
to which they have been subjected in their native city, they 
li^ave it lo search for Epops, the king of the birds, who waa 
connected with the Attic traditions, under the mythical name 
of Tereus. They have taken with them, as guides of their 
journey, a raven and a jackdaw, which have led them up 
and down over a rough and rocky country, until the fugi- 
tives are jaded out by the fatigues of the way, and begin to 
acold about the cheating poulterer who has sold them, for an 
obol and a three-ohol piece, a. pair of birds good for nothing 
but to bite. At length they reach the forest and the steep 
rocks, which shut them from all farther progress. 

Line J. 'OpS^v. This agrees ivith oSoi-, to he constructed 
with iivat, or some similar verb. Dost thou hid me go 
ttraight upf — addressed to the jactdaw. For the ellipsis 
of the substantive, see Klihner, § 263. 

2. Aiappayilrit. G. § 82. This is addressed, as a sort of 
humorous imprecation, to Euelpides. The word occurs fre- 
quently in the orators, especially Demosthenes, to express a 
Tiolent passion or effort of the person to whom it ia applied ; 
as, for instance, ovff Sv Sioppay^s ^Irfviofitrtit, ." not even if 
yiou split with lying." Translute here. Mat/ you split. — ijtu, 

116 NOTES. 

i. e. Kopavrj, but this raven. — ndkivy back, in the opposite 

3. irXavhTTOfiev. A Scholiast speaks of this .word as At- 
tic for 7r> acw/ic^a ; and Suidas, cited by Bothe, considers it 
as a comic usage ; perhaps it may be rendered, JVht/ are we 
tramping f 

4.. aXXa>f = fidrrju, to no purpose 

5, 6. To ... . irepiekduu. For the construction of the 
infinitive in sentences ex})ressing exclamation, see G. § 104. 
For the force of the Aorist, see G. § 23, 1, N. 1. See also 
Clouds, 268, note. 

10. hv i^tvpois, G. § 52, 2. 

11. Ovd* hv , , , , *E^riKf(rTidr]9, Not even Exehestides 
could perceive the country hence, G. § , 42, 3, N. 2 ; § 53, 
N. 3. The name of this person occurs in two other places 
of the play, lines 766 and 1512. He was often introduced 
by the comic writers, and satirized as a person of barbarian 
origin, who had by fraudulent means got himself enrolled 
among the Athenian citizens. The meaning of the answer 
of Peisthetairos, then, is, " We are farther off than Exeke- 
stides: even he could not discern Athens from this spot." 
" It would puzzle Exekestides himself to make out Athens 
from here." 

13. ovK rS>v opveav, he of the birds ; i. e. the bird-seller 
or poulterer. The expression is like that applied to Hyper- 
bolus in the Clouds (1065), ovk t&v Xixvonv^ the dealer in 
lamps. There is also an allusion here, and in line 16, to the 
town of Omeae, in Argolis, which was destroyed by a com- 
bined force of Argives and Athenians, aft«r a siege of one 
day, in 416 B. C. (two years before the exhibition of the 
Birds). See Thucyd., VI. 7, where the expression l#c t«v 
*Opv€S>v occurs. The memory of this recent event made the 
allusion particularly applicable. The explanation given h^ 
the Scholiast — that the two Athenians are made to suffei 

NOTES. 117 

It tag ipiriai/, because 'Oprtal is- in Laconia (?), and the 
Athenians bad recently suffered a losa at Manlinea^is 
impossible, from the circumstance tbat tlie people of 'Opvtal 
assisted the Athenians at the liattle of Mantinea. See 
Thueyd., V. 67, and Amold'a note. 

14. 'O . . , . fiiXayxo^aiv, 'Hie poulterer Philocrates, being 
mad. Philocrates would seem to have been well known as 
a dealer in birds in the Aihenian market He is again in- 
troduced by the Chorus (v. 1070), where a reward of one 
talent is offered for any one who will kill him ; for any one 
who will take him alive, four talents ; — his various offences 
against the race of biids being enumerated. 

15. r<^a7« .... 0paV»>-. G. g 73, 1 ; § 27. 

16. Sr . . . . ipvlav. This refers, of course, to the fable 
of the metamorphosis of Tereus into the Epops, or Hoopoo, 
for which see Ovid, Metam., VI. 423, seq. With regard to 
the Hoopoo, or Huppoo, Gary (Preface to Translation of the 
Birds). has the following note. " Aa this bird acta a princi- 
pal part in the play, the reader may not be displeased to see 
the following description of it : 'At Penyrbiw, the farm to 
which this wild, uncultivated tract is a aheep-walk, waa 
lately shot a Huppoo, a solitary bird, two being seldom seen 
together, and in this kingdom very uncommon ; even in 
Egypt, where common, not very gregarions. Bewick's de- 
scription of it is very correct. Upupa of Linnaens, la Hupe 
of Buffbn. This bird is of the order of Picae ; its length 
twelve inches, breadth nineteen ; bill above two inchea long, 
black, slender, and somewhat curved; eyes hazel; tongue 
very short and triangular ; head ornamented with a crest, 
coo^sting of a double row of feathers of pale orange color, 
tipped with black ; highest about two inchea long ; neck 
pale reddish brown, breast and belly white ; hack, scapulars, 
and wings crossed with broad bars of black and white ; 
lesser coverts of the wings light brown, ramp white ; the 

118 NOTES. 

tail consists of ten feathers, each marked with white, Vhicli, 
when closed, assumes Itie form of a crescent, the horns 
pointing downwm'ds ; legs short and black. Crest usually' 
falls behind on its neck, except when surprised, and then 
erect, agreeing exaeily with Pliny's character of it. " Crfeta 
visenda plicatili, contrahena eam subrigensque per longi- 
tudinem capitis," whose annotalor, Daleeampius, meDlioos 
another curious particular of tliis bird ; " Nidmn ex stercore 
Lnniano praecipue eonficit." Bewick, Vol. I. 262 ; Flin. 
Variorum, 688. In Sweden, the appearance of this bird b 
vulgarly considered as a presage of war, and it f 
merly deemed in our eountry a forerunner of some calam- 
ity.' — Iltstorical Tour through Pembroieshire, by Bichai-d 
Penton, Esq., p. 17. London, 4to, 1810. The particular 
mentioned by Daiecampiua is observed by ArisioUe also, 
who adds that the bird changes iia appeajance si 
winter, as most of the other wild birds do," Von der MUhle 
(Beitrage zur Omilhologie Griei'henlands, p. 34) says c 
the Epops, that it is found in great numbers in Greece, in < 
the month of September, but more seldom in spring ; that 
it is fond of the oleanders near the coast, &c. 

What is the point of the phrase it t&v opviav, 
place, has been a question. The Scholiast explains 
irnSvoiav ' eS(( yhp It rav avApanav ; i, c. instead of saying lie 
was changed fiwrn a man to a bird, the poet gives an unej 
pected turn to tlie words and says, who became a bird/rot 
— the liirds.' Bergler's opinion is, "Videtur voce Spw 
metapborice signiflcare homines superbos aut hvei el incott- 
tlanlet; hoc sensu: ex homine superbo, aut levi < 
slante, factoa est alea snperbus, aut levia et inconstana," 
Perhaps the explanation of the Scholiast, and that of Bei^- 
ler combined with the remark of Gary, that " tliis is intend- 
ed as a stroke of satire on the levity of the Athenians," 
■ may euggest the true meaning of the poet, especially as the 

general beamg of the play ia to be explained bj the cir- 
cumstances and relations of Athenian affaira. See note to 
V. 13. 

17. Oa^^iktiSov, i. 6. vliv, tkt'a son of Tkarreleides. The 
jackdiiw 18 called the son of TliarreleideP, according lo 
aome, hecanse of the loquacity of that individual, whose 
sfune was Aaopodoros ; according to others, ffom bis small 
statui-e, or some other point in which a resemblance might 
he found or fancied. 

18. i^oKoi .... Tpiffl^oXou. Genitive of price. 

19. Sp. For the eoaclusJTe signification of dpa, see the 
exact analysis of Harlung, '■ De ParticuUs," Vol, I, pp. 448, 
449. See al=o KUhner, § 324, 3. In this place it implies 
a sort of consequence of the preceding statement ; as if he 
intended to say that the vicious tricks of the birds were 
nothing more than might have been expected from the char- 
acter of the man who sold them. Translate the whole line. 
And theif accordingly were nothing but hittng. 

20. . Kixi'ac, addressed to Ihe jackdaw. — Kara ran jitTpav, 
down ihe rocks. 

22. drpaTTos, a track, or palh ; 6&6s is a road, way, or 

28. "Et K&patot tkeiiv. There is a pun npqn tho double 
meaning of the phrase, which is commonly used as a jocoso 
imprecation, Go lo Ihe crows, but here (dludes also to the 
intention of the two old men to visit the city of the birds. 

29. 'EiTfira. For the use of this particle in questions of 
astonishmfcnf, see KUhner, § 344, 5 (e). 

80. isvSfitt .... "iioyif. The expression is said to be 
borrowed from debates in the political assemblies ; bnt it 
was as well applied to listeners to any discussion whalover, 
and is here familiarly transferred to the spectators of the 
comic representation. 

31. Notroi- voaoZp,«. Tlio common Greek ( 

120 NOTES. 

of the accusative of kindred signilication. — Sue;. A com' 

nioQ Dame for slaves and serrunts of barbarian origin, poiv 
ticutarly Tbracians ; liere applied lo a tragic pocL named 
Akestor, on account of his being f foreigner. In the Cyro^ 
paedia il, is the name of the cupbearer of ICng Astyagea. 

32. ilafiia^erni, is forcing himself in ; i. e. is conslanlly 
trju^ to tlinist himself into llie number of legul citizens. 
For an account of l!ie care with which the rights and priv- 
ileges of citizenship were guarded at Athens, see, besides 
other works, Smith's Diet, of Gr.and Eom, Antiq., art. 

33. ^Xp Kui yi'm. For the pohlical meaning of these 
terms, see Hermann's Slaatsalterthiimer (Political Antiqui- 
ties), § 94, and §§ 37, 98 ; and Grofe, Vol. III. Chap. 10. 

34. ao^cninTos. This parlieiple applies particularly to the 
scaring away of birds, though used metajihorically to ex- 
press the act of frightening ofi', in general. 'Annro^itrfo, in 
the following line, is also used in a similar way ; and afupnv 
uihIoii' is a comic inconsistency with the previous expression. 
He could say, naing language metaphorically, We flew away 
Jrom t/iB eauntry, hut instead of adding wilh both wings, he 
was obliged to substitute mth both feet, they having not yet 
been accommodated with the wings. 

36. tKiinriv, emphatically, " t/iaf great city." 

37. fi^ oil. For the use of this double negative, see G. 
§ 95, 3 ; I 95, 2, N. 1 (i). 

38. Kal . . . . innorlrrai. And common to aU — to pay 
away their money in ; i. e, to waste money in lawsuits, 
which is the more specific meaning of dnoTiWw. G. § 97, 
or § 93, 2. The poet ingeniously and wittily combiues in 
the ridicule of this hne one of the great boasts of the Athe- 
nians namelj, the hbeiihly with which the city's resources 
for inslruction and oraosement wei'e opened In all I'omera 
(lor 1 particular detml of nhith see the funeral oration of 

NOTES. 121 

Pericles in Thucydidea, II. 35-46; and the Panegyiieua 
of Ifoci'ates, pp. 15, 16, Felton's edition, and notes), and 
the notorious love of lifigation for which the Athenians 
^erc so oAen reproached, and which Aristophanes exposed 
with infinite spirit and drollery in the " Wasps." 

39. rtVnyct. The chirping of the cicadae or »-(rTiy« is 
a Bobject of frequent allusion in the Greek poets, from Ho- 
mer down. See Iliad, III. 151, and note upon the passage. 
For a description of the insect, and the ancient, though er- 
Toncouj, idea, of ita habits, see Aristotle, Hisf. An., Lib. 
IV. 7. Particularly, he speaks of it as lining on dew, — 
Tp dptfo^ Tpitptrai, — on which compare the Anacrooiilic ode, 

No. S2 (43), — <3Xfy7>' ip6^a,' ireiru<c<^c, ^a^iXtts &7u>s itlSiis. 

See also the note of Strack, pp. 182 and 183 of his German 
transhLtion of Aristotle. The manner in- which the sound 
called singing by Aristotle and the poets is produced, ia 
explained Lib. IV. e. 9. Swammerdiim has the following 
statement : " Cicada duobus gaudet exiguis tympanis pecn- 
liaribus, nostro auris tympano similibus, quae duarum ope 
cartilagisum lunatarum percussa, acrem ita vibrant ut soni- 
tus inde rcddatur." Bibl. Nat., p. SOi ; cited by Camus, 
Vol. U. p. 230. 

40. 'Em rav Kpaiav 9801)0-1. Aristotle, Lib. V. 30, says 

of the cicadae, " Ou ylvovTai it rimyit oirav [i^ ilvipa lariu " ; 

he adds, "Thei'e are none in the plain of Cyrene, but there 
are many round the city, and chiefly inhere there are olive- 

4,1. rwf SiKui'. See note to line 38. 

44. earpoynom, free from trouble, particularly vCsatioua 

45. KaSiSpvScvTt iiayivoliiiBa. For the participle express- 
ing a condition, see G, § 1 09, 6 ; § 52, 1 . Dawes proposed 
the present tiayaniiuSa ; but when we consider tliat the idea 
of the verb may he conceived either i 

122 NOTES. 

momentary, there seems no necessity for any change, unle<2S 
upon the authority of some good manuscript. 

46, 47. rbv . . . , rov. The repetition of the article, 
before both the name and the further designation, empha- 
sizes them, the Tereus ; that ancient Tereus, well known to 
the Atlienian people, who was changed into the Epops. 

48. ^, used adverbially, where he has flown ; i. e. if he 
has ever seen such a city in all his travels. 

49, 50. iToKai .... </>pafet. By a common idiom, the 
present is used with an adverb of the past to mean has been 
doi7ig and is still doing ; here, ha>s been this long time talk- 
ing up, G. § 10, 1, N. 3. 

51. a)(77r€p6t bfLKvvs^ as if he were showing ^= &tnr€p di^ 
fxatv€v, €l ibeUpv), G. § 109, N. 3 (b). Sometimes the more 
complete form &(rrr€p hv ci is used in such expressions ; but 
generally we find only aairep. G. § 53, N. 3. 

52. KovK .... ovK, The combination of particles in- 
tensifies the expression, There is not how there are not ; i. e. 
It must be that there are. 

53. 7roifi<raifi€v, G. § 50, 1. Observe the force of the 
aorist in the subjunctive to express a single act. The present 
here would imply a repetition. See G., Rem. before § 12. 

54. ola-d* b hpaa-ov ; For an explanation of this idiom, 
see G. § 84, N. 3. It occurs frequently in the Attic writ- 
ers, especially the tragic poets. See Soph. Oed. Tyr., 543 ; 
Eurip. Med., 605, &c. There seems to be a combination 
of two phrases in one : oio-d' 6 Set bpaa-ai ; bpatrov. The third 
person of the imperative is also used in the same way. See 
the same expression, v. 80. — trKeXei .... nirpap. The 
Scholiast, cited by Bothe, says there was a proverbial ex- 
pression among the boys, Ahs to a-K€\os rfj rrtrpq, Koi vta-ovvrcu 
TO opvea, Give your leg to the rock and the birds will faU ; 
not unlike the modem notion of catching birds by sprinkling 
salt on their tails. 

NOTES. ]23 

oBror; What do you say-^feUowf — iroi, 
I form of addressing a aervant, aiid therefore 
considered as disrespectlul to lilpupa. 

38. ixP'l'' ■ ■ ■ ■ itAtiv. Ought you not to call htm, 
&c. ? A proia-iis is implied, tf you were respectful, or the 
like. See G. § 49, 2, N. 3. 

. 61. ToS ^aff/iflfiuTDi, what a yawn ! For genitive of ex- 
clamation, see K. § 274, c. Comp. also Cloudd, y. 153, and 
note to tLe passage. 

63. Outas . ■ , Xf'yeii' ■ Eothe punctuates the line with- 
out the interrogation — Ouht KaW at or \fyt c n ourai Sfiv6i; 
Aliquid tam lerriJ/tle ne no n aare q tide i decel ; " ' T were 
better not even to ment ou so ten ble a thug." But the 
position of the words and the natural construction ai' ii in 
oiif conflicts with the inlerpretat on Settral other exjila- 
nacions are given. Tt e S hula t aajs Ourititrt rt bfivov 
ou&i Ka)i\lov yiiytLt, tou etrr v ouTa &i viv tjfo^tv tx ti/s oyjffaiSj 
&{TTt 6pvi6o6ripai yo^ ^foBa Offie Xcyc ¥ trt tdvtu irrn xaXXioVf 
oTi (crj.iV 0^1-1^037^01 " ; i. e. We have something so fearful tii 
our loot CM lo he thought bird-hitnters ; htt it is not very 
handsome for you to say that ice are bird-hunters. Taking 
the present punctuation, which is upon the whole more suit- 
able lo tlie connection, we must refer the words lo tlie alarm 
manifested and expressed hx &e Trm^liilos, and we ma;' 
transliite, Is there anything so drendful (I. e, in our appenr- 
ance), and (have you) nothing handsomer to say? i. e. Are 
we so fi'iglitfUl that j'ou have nothing better to say to us 
than (hat ? 

64. iwo-Xc-iaOoy. Fut. Indie See G. S 25, 1, N. 5. 

63. 'YhoB(3ioi[. a fictitious name for a bird; furlhftf 
designated as a stfange fowl by the following epitliei, Ai- 

66. oMp \iyti!, Tou say nothing to the purpose. Tott 
talk nonsense. For this scn^e of the phrase, see Cloiida, 



V. G44. — ffinu , , , , noiSiv. " Soga ilia quae videg t 
erurilius nieis, quae te-tiiliuntui' me esse aveio timidam," 
Bergler, Tin; Sclioliast SBja : " Aiyii Se in wri toB St'ovs 

68. 'Ejraix"Sac. Another name, simik,rly formed. "Kol 

TOVTo ill SpBidm firaift jrapa ri if>atna6ai airou ri oKap," Scb. 
"Qui insuper eliam cacauil prae timore, Ut prior ille." 

09. iri. Euelpidea turns upon the bird, ri is emphatic^ 

70, 71. 'Htt^Aje .... 'AXeerpoduM ; It is fltated by Vosa, 
thut after the Persian wars cock-fighting was introduced 
ialo Athens, and ihat the birds were hrouglit, as an article 
of commerce, from Ionia. The conquered bird was tailed 
the amXof. Vo38, cited by Bothe. Becker (Chariclea, p. 64, 
note 6, English translation) touches upon the subject, and 
gires the authorities. See also St John's Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Greeks, Vol, I. p. 190, and the ref- 
erences in the note, ib. The conatrucliou of the genitive is 
the same as after the comparative ^mridi', which is implied 
by the verb. The St^holiast says: " tuo-uEdv rotira h mic 

o-o/i^oXnlr Tar aXftrpuivaii, Toic TjTniSiiiTas IntirBai Toir Hvuc^ 

73. til' ... . txB- For the Subjunctive after a aecondary 
tensfr, sec G. § ii, 2. 

74. yap. The particle implies the eUipsis of some 
expression intimating surprise on the pai't of the speaker- 
Here the spirit' of it may be rendered by What/ does a 
bird, &c. 

75. ft is here an emphasizing particle, implying that, 
whatever may he the case with others, Epops certainly, as 
having once been a man, cannot do without a servant. — £v 
is an Imperfect Participle. G. g 16, 2. For Sn, see Q. 
§ 109, N. 3 (o). 

NOTES. 125 

76. n^uai. This name embraces several small species 
of fish, such as anchovies and aardines. For an acconnt of. 
them, see Arislotle, Hist, An., VI. 14, 2 and 3. According to 
Ari^hestralos, in Athcnaeus, those produced in ihe neighbor- 
hood of Athens were most highly prized. ChryuippQH, cited 
by the same author, says that they were used as articles of 
food only by the poorer classes of the Athenians, though id 
other cities those of aa inferior quality were greatly ad- 
mired. Athen. VII. 

79. Tpo^ftor. There is here a play upon the name, in 
reference to Tpi^a in the preceding Iidcs, — the running 

80. o:<,e' oZv h Bpao-of. See note to hue 54. 

84. 'Oti .... ijtiytpa. Afler Uttering these words, 
the Trochilos disappears in the woods to wake up Epopa, 
and the dialogue continues between the two friends. 

85. KoKuc .... bill. Addressed to the Trochilos as 
he goes away. The /ear, in this and in the reply of Euel- 
pides, is caused by the tremendous opening of the beak of 
Trochilos. For MXmo, see G. § 82. (Compare v. 2.) 

86' fi oixFToij 1. e. fioi olx*Taij unless, indeed, otj^d^imay, 
like ^wvyoo, be conslnicted with an accusative of tlie pewon. 
The latter is the view adopted by KUhiier (Jelf's Tr.), 
§ 548, Obs. 1. 

88. S,lrac= wri roi! iSmis, V. 87. G. § 109, 4. 

90. yap. For this partiHe in questions, see K. § 324, 2. 
Here it is equivalent to then ; aa, Where then is he ? 

91. £p' is to be understood as spoken in an ironical tone. 
— WE .... ei, what a brave feSow you are ! 

92. 'Kmiyt .... WOT.'. The voice of Epopa is heard, 
giving orders, in a tone of ludicrous importance, to open, not 
the door, hut t/ie woods, that he, the king of the birds, may 

95, 96. Oi . , . . at. TJic usual formula of introducing 




NO TE8. 

the twelve gods (by which are meant the twelve principal 
goda in the Attic worship) ts in the invocation of bleseings ; 
bnt here, as the commenlators remark, the tone ia suddenly 
changed, and llie Indicrous appearance of Epops, witll his 
enormous crest and liis feathers moulted, extorts from Enel- 
pides the exclamation, that the twelve goda must have been 
afoul of him. ElEoo-iw = ialnnirtv. See Clouds, 341. For 
the Aorist Infinitive referring to the paal, see G, § 23, 2. 

97. yap. The particle here introduces an explanation 
of some idea to be mentally supplied, such as, " Dun't laugh, 

99. Ti piiii<tios. The jest consists in saying, ""We are 
not laughing at you ; your beat seems to ut ridiculoiil." 

100, 101. TohiEtq .... Tijpfa. The subject of the meta- 
morphosis of Toreus and Procnc appears to have been treats 
ed by the tragic poeta more than once. A Schohast saya 
that Sophocles employed it first, and Philocles, who is al- 
luded to in the present play (v. 280), handled it afterwards. 
There are remaining ten or a dozen fragments of the play 
of Sophocles, the largest of which contains twelve lines. 
See Dinflorf's Poelae Scenici, Fragmenfa 511-526. The 
poet, who waa an ardent admirer of Aeaehjlus and Sopho- 
cles, yet lakes occasion to make a good-humored hit at both 
of them. 

102. Spvis tj rait ( The first means cither iird in gen- 
eral, or specifically cock or Aen, Something like the spirit 
of the question may bo given by rendering it. Are you a 
eoci or a peacock ? but the reply of Epopa takes the word 
iu its general sense. 

105. iravra. " Mentitur," says Eolhe, " sed coram homi- 
nibua urbanis, quibiis quidvis ejuamodi videtur pet^uaderi 
poase." "With regard to the plumage of Epops, tlie Scholi- 
ast says, " nap' Strati SvSpimrot iftX^Xufle, /iq txav irrrpi ir\ri» 

tSjs mijw^^t f-nTipaptinic SpvtSot" referring lo the mrniner in 
which the actor personated Epops. 

NOTES. 127 

108. 'oScv .... Ka'\ai. The allusion is to the lioaat 
and pride of the Atlieniuns, — llicir a.ival power. It Las a 
Bpecial point here, because the splendid armament equipped 
for il)e Sicilian Expedition hud so recently sailed from the 

lOO, 110. ^Xiaard, 'AjcqXiam-d. The Ueliastic court was 
the most important among the judicial institutions of Ath- 
ens. For a particular account of it, see Hermann's Political 
Antiquities, g 134, seqq. ; Meier and Schumann's AttiiiCher 
Process, Book 11. Chap. 1 ; Schoraann's Griech. Alter- 
thiimer, V. pp. 477, seqq. Clouds, 803, note; Champlia'a 
Demosthenes de Corona, Notefl, pp. 109, 110; Schomann's 
Assemblies of the Athenians, g 92. Epops, as soon as he 
ha^ heard that his visitors are Athenians, immediatelj- thinks 
of the most prominent characteristic of an Athenian citizen j 
namely, his quality of member of a court. Tlie word dm;- 
JiiiurT^E expressea the opposite of qXianr^E, and seems to have 
been made for the occasion, — one who it averse to the courts. 
The point of the reply cannot be given briefly in English. 
Something like it would bo this : " Are you jurymen ? " 
"No; but, on the other tack, anti-jurymen." — MoXXa = 
fih . . . . a>,\d. The elliptical use of (ta occurs generally 
with the article. Another reading here is Mi ^la • Saripou 

110. yap, in the question here, though strictly used in an 
elliptical way, is equivalent lo the expression of surprise, 

111. t4 tncipfi. The language ascribed to Epops refera 
to Lis cliaracler of bii'd, though the word also means race, 
— as teed is often used in the Bible for race or descend- 
ants. — frjToif (= ti fijToit) forma the Protasis to tv Xo^Soii. 
G. § 109,6; §52,1. 

115 — 118. ii^iiXi)<rat, f^aiptr, iimiTov. Observe the 
clumge from the aorist, expressing the completed fact, to 
tt» imperfect, indicating (he habit or general fact. 




instruction ^ Sia tout 
Cloud?, 310. 

121. ti nva ^puofias, in case you should have t 
to tell 113 of. G. § 53, N. 2. 

122. iyKaraKkiMJfoi liuXSaKiju, toft to Ttpose in. G. § 98, S. 

The idiom of tlie Greek here corresponds exactly with the 

123. YLpaJaav. The epithet here applied to Athens has 
been variously explained : 1. As derived from the antnent 
mythical king, Kranaos. 2. Aa referring to the rocky s 
fece of Attica. The latter ia clearly its meaning in uiany 
places ; here it is a jesting antithesis to jioKSaKljv. 

125, 126. 'LpiOTOiparkiadai .... ffitXtlTToiiai. There 

are two points intended to be made here. First, tlie impu- 
tation of aristocracy, which at Athens, aa well as in republi- 
can France, was an efficient means of terror; and, second, 
a pun on the name of AI^stoc^a^es, the son of Skelliaa. ■ 
This person was a man of much distinction at Athens, who 
passed through many vicissitudes in his life, for which his 
name is used as an illustration by Socralea in the Gorgias 
of Plato, p. 472, A. (See "Woolsey's note to the passage.) 
He was a member of the oligarchical party, and belonged 
to the government of the Four Hundred. In B. C. 407 he 
was associated wilh Alcibiades as one of Ihe commanders 
■ of the Athenian land forces. The next year, lie wan one of 
tlie generals who were brought lo trial and pnt death after 
the battle of Arginou^ae. He la mentioned by Demosthe- 
nes, in Theoerin., p. 1343, 4; by Xenophon, Hellenica, L 
4, 6 - 7 i and by many others. For S^\os ti Crrrur, see G. 
§113, N.l. 

127. llDiai' Tiv. The inten'ogative and indefinite thus 
combined mean. What sort of a city, &c. 

128. DODu . . . . (ii; is a protasis, with the preceding line 
understood as the apodosis. G. § Gl, 4. 

NOTES. 129 

129. 7tp4, early. 

131. 'Ojrut jrapfo-fi. For the elliptical Hse of onoit with 
the future indie, in exliorlations, see G. § 45, N. 7. See 
Cloudji, V. 257. Bothe remarks: "Hac formula vel simili 
apud Graecos utebaiiCur illi, qui aliquem invitabant ad cod- 
Tivium quo aensu Laiini quoque dicere solcbant hodte apud 
me «j» voh, vel una stmns." 

132. piWa .... yajious, to give a marriage-feast, the 
construction being the cognate aecoealive. For an account 
of marriage-feasts, see St. John, Ancient Greeks, Vol. II. 
pp. 19, 174. For the marriage eeremonies in general, see 
Becker's Charicle.^, Scene XII., and Kxeui-siis to the same. 
Isaeus, De Ciron. Hered., § 9, has the expressioni " Kol yd- 

;iov[ tl BiTToit imip Taiin(s f'vrrlamv fl fi^," in Speaking of the 

proofs of a marriage. See Schomann's notes to § 9, and 
fog 18. 

• 133. ^7Sa/,m( ffoiijn-st. G. § 86. tlhipii. G.§52,1,N.2. 

134. M^ ■ . . . mucfflt. The Scholiast saya this line is a 
witty perversion of the proverb against those who do not 
visit their friends in time of trouble ; the proverb being 
Mq /KM TOT IXBijt, oTae lyii jrpdrru «Q>fflr, " Do not come to 
me then, when I am doing well." G. § 61, 3. 

133. TaKam^paVf miserable, ironically applje<l. 

136. Bai. For the force of this particle, see Kiihner, 
5 315,7. — ToiovTiDV, such ; not referring, according to the 
general usage, to the preeedinji, but to iho following, enu- 
meration of objecla to be desired. See K. § 303, K. I. 

137-142. The Scholiast, in speaking of the wishes of 
the two old Athenians, says : " 'O ^iv rdi Tfjs yotrrpJt rpv^ir 
{j3oiiX«Tfp, i Si TQt ataxP°' ^Sowir." It is sufficient to say of 
the passage, that it is one of many in Aristophanes founded 
upon the unnatural vices which (unknown to Homer) marked 
the social morals of the historical ancients, and the increase 
of which, in progress of time, accelerated the downfall of 




both Greece aud Gome. The subject is partinllj- illustrated 
in Becker's Churiule^. It is aUo diacussifd in itd buaririj^j 
upou the population of the ancient slater by Zum^t, iii 
able essay entitled, " Ubcr den Stand der Beviilkemng und 
die Voliflverinehrung im AJterlhum," pp. 13—17. See 
also, in the Classical Studies, pp. 314—354, Frederick 
Jacobs on the " Mai's! Education of the Greekg," and not^ 
pp. ill-413. 

143. ran jcaiuv. Genitive of exclamation. 

145. IlDpa .... Sa\aTTov. There is probably here some 
allusion to the proflig:itc niaiinci's ol' the Oricniak, like those 
of Sodom and Gomorral], Bolhe cites, in illustration of 
this view, Herod. HI. lOL, and adds: "Id quidem eerte 
eignificare valiiit(i. e. Aristophanes), amores istos nefandoa 
barbaiis digniorea esse quam Graeeis." 

146, 147. 'Sfux .... StAa^ivia. The Athenians had 
t^vo sacred triremes, called the Pnralos and the Salarainia, . 
which were used on a variety of public occasiont!, and their 
crews were paid high wagea at the public expense, (See 
Boeckh's Public Economy of ihe Athenians, Book II. 
Chap. 16.) Tiioy were sent on the theoria, and sometiniea 
carried ambassadors to their place of destination. The 
Salaminia was employed, as it would appear from this pas- 
sage and from the remarks of a Scholiast on it, to bring to 
Athens persons ordered thither for trial. The Paraloa was 
sometimes used for Ihe same purpose. There is also here a 
special allusion to the recall of Alcibiades on a chai^ of 
having mutilated the stalues of Hermes, he having already 
departed with the armament for, the Sicilian Expedition. 
Thncyd. VI. 53: Kni jtuj-aXo^i^awiucri r^ii SaXa/iinar vaiv tK 
TtSv 'Kdrivav jJKoviTov tiri Tt "AXii^iaBijn, ae ttKiiiaovrat oTtcmXtui 
Is ajin\oyiair Jiir ^ noXw iviraXti, ». t. X. See also TiiirlwaU'a 
History of Greece, Vol. III. pp. 390, seq. ; and Grole, Vol. 
VU. Chap. 58. — icXijT^p'. This term was commonly ap- 

NOTES. 181 

piled to th<we who acted as witnesses to the fact, that the 
prosecutor had p«rsonallj summoned his opponent lo appear 
in court on a certain day. (See Meier and Schomann, Attic 
Process, B. IV. Cap. 2.) If, however, the defendant was 
out of the country, so that the plaintiff could not summon 
him in person, a special summons was sent by one of the 
public triremes, and the serYants of the court who served 
such a summons were also called xXiji^per. This happened 
in the case of Alcibiades ; and it is in this sense that *:Xi]ti;|i 
is used here. For the ordinary process of summoning 
(wpoirAw^ °i' iX^'tit), see Clouds, 495, 496, note; also 
Hermann's PoUtical Antiquities, § 140, 

149. 'HXt'iov Afirpfov. This cily is mentioned in Pauaa- 
nias, Eliacft, I. c. 6. Four years before this comedy was 
brouglit upon the stage, the town was occupied by the Lace- 
daemonians, who established some of their manumitted He- 
lots there. The old Alheniani^, fleeing from the oppression 
of the Aitic democracy, are advised to take refuge in a city 
inhabited by hberated slaves. The name gives an oppor- 
tunity for a pun in the following lines. 

150. OS oiK !Si.v SSfXvrTojiac G. § 59, N. 2. The sen- 
tence begun with Sntj, because, is not finished, 

151. rill Acirprov .... MAaiSiov. Melanthios, the tra^c 
poet, is said by the Scholiast lo have been ridiculed hy the 
comic writers for his vices and for being afflicted with lep- 
rosy {Xcnpot). He is also said lo have been a native of the 
Elean city. 

152. 153. 'OnaivTioi, 'Owoilirioc. The name of the Lo- 
erian Opuntians appears to have been selected merely for 
the opportunity of a puiming sarcasm upon a man bearing 
the name of Opountios, said by the Scholiast to have been a 
Btnpid fellow with only one eye, * 

154. im TaXoM-o), at ike rale of a takrd. See Mtt, 
§ 585, h.j3. G. § 52, 1. 




157, 158. PaUvrtov ....«, 
without a purse, thnt i?, willimil 
gesta the other ideii of iiiUficai 
Did a^SiXia 

fSijUav. The idea of lining 
money, immediately sng- 

on or HilulteratJon of the 
naturally used in a meta- 

phorical sense for fraud or dishonesty. 

159-161. NtfuifitiTAi . . . .^lov. For .an account of 
the festivities and rejoicings in celehration of marriage, see 
St John's work above cited, Vol. II. pp. 18, seq. Bothe 
quotes, in illustration, from Ovid, Fasti, IV. 869, "Oumque 
tua dominae date grata Sisymbria myrto." 

164. ir'i6ouj6i. Observe the particular force of the aoriat. 
If you listen to my advice; not generally, but in the partio- 
uiar case now lo he considered. The same specific limita- 
tion is to be noted in the repetitions of the word in the 
following line. 

165. t; mSii^i^ff; G. § 88. S r. wWijofl. (pc. tpt^aTi); 
ia the same question in an indirect form, " G. 5 71. 

16G. M^ ^tpt,rir.„8.. G. § 86. (See v. 133.) 

AuWkh, just for example. " oXov tiBlair," says the 


IDS. Ekh Tinp iifu 

have just fled) among 

there (i. 

E. at Athens, whence we 
I, or Atlienians. — ■ toiis tmto/x*- 
with jTtpl ; illustrated by the 

Scholiast, who cites a similar construction from Homer. 

The phrase is used in apphcation iofiighly persons. 

169. TtUac. According to the Scholiast, he was a per- 
son much ridiculed for his inconHtant character and his 
infamous vices. 

170. 'Afflpwirot opus, according to Bollie ^ opyiSnot iu- 
Spumos, a mim-liird. 

173. Ti &v iroiot;.™ ; G. § 52, 2, N. 

17*. 'AXpjflft, Ila ! saj/est tfiou so * See Clouds, 841. 
176. Kai a^. For tlic various senses m wtiich these two 
particles are used in coimection, see Ilartung, Vol. I. pp. 253, 

NOTES. 133 

254. The Bpirit of the expression maj' be rendered here 
by Well then. 

- 178. tl Bia(TTpa^^iTOfiai, if I shaH get a twist; either a 
twisted neck or a i^quinting eye. G. § 50, I, N. I. 

160. n-oXai. This word is used in various senses as a 
scientific term. Hei-e, it has its popular meaning of shy, 
heauens, vault of the heavens. It is introduced partly for 
the punning alliteration between noAor, iroXit, and jiokiiaSat, 
in this and the following lines, 

181. *Q.r,r.p.I™. G. §50, 2,N. 1. 

184. G. § 50, 1. 

186. vapvBirav, lomsts. This refers to them in the chai^ 
act^r of birds, which would naturally give them dominion 
over the insects. 

187. 'Ki/i^ MijAi'y. For the particulars of the tran.=action 
here alluded to, see Thucydide?, Lib. V. 84 - 116. It took 
place B. C. 416, See Isocrales, Fanegyricus, p. 32 (Fel- 
ton's edition), and note. 

189. ^v pov\i.ii.ea. G. §51. 

100. Bouaroii ahoifiiSa. The principal route fi'om 

Attica to the northern parts of Greece lay through Boeotia. 
"Without the permission of the Boeotian?, the Athenians 
could not easily consult the oraCle of the Pythian Apollo. 

193. Tov x^ovt. The word ehaos is used here, aa in the 
Clouds several times, in the sense of t/ie air or the sky; 
properly, the swrroaitding void; but not in the modem 
sense of the term ehaos. See Clauds, 424, 627. 

196, 197, Mi .... ne. Epopa,-in his Indicrous delight 
at the proposal and its immense benefits to the race of the 
birds, breaks into exclamations and oatha which have a 
comical relation to his position as a bird. Observe the use 
of the negative fia, followed by a sentence which also implies 
a negative; for which see Ktihner, § 317, 4. — vtipiias, 
According to a SclioliasI, a very light species of net waa so 



called. — M^ . . . . ifianiiTa. There 13 something very un- 
usual in tl;e hypollieticul negative in this place. The 
commenlalors have not generally noticed it, with the ex- 
ception of Bothe, who sayg, "Ellipsis verb! i$tjr\ayrtr vel 
cujusdam similia, vereor vt unquam caSidius commentum 
aadiverim." But the meaning, with this winstruclion, would 
be the opposite to that given by Bothe and required by the 
sense, — lam afrnidUU I have heard {s-e audiverim, noi 
tiT audiverini) ; whereas Epops tlearly wishes to say, with 
more or less directness, that he Mmcr heard a better scheme. 
This would seem to require fii) otic ^jtowTo. G. § 46, N. 5. 
The grammarinna also seem generally to have overlooked 
the peculiarity of the coDslmction. The editors of (he new 
edition of Passow's Lexicon, however, refer to this and to 
other Nimilar passages as examples of a rare uae of ^17 in 
independent sentences containing a prolestalion or oadi ; /iij 
in independent sentences being regularly confined to prohi- 
bitions and expressions of a wish. The following examples 
(besides the present one) nre cited in Passow, s. v. /nj' r — 
'loTio wSn Z*uc atiTos, fpiySoxmos wpcrit "Hp7s', 
Wlj fiev roil ijriroiiTiv dyijp liroij(7i(TtTai aXXot 
Tpia,*, iWi m ^7f» biapwiph iy\m,'i^eai. — H. X. 330. 
'itrrii) niv riSf yiiia koI oipaii6i, .... 
Mj7 Si' «/Ji)i' lof^Tu naatiSaotu isoirixSiav 
n^poi-wL Tpide T. KaVEKTopa.^W. XV. 36-4.2. 
Ma 'AiroXXto fi^ a lyii kqtimXijiu X'V''"'- Ariatoph. 

Lysiatr. 917. 

Ma TTjir 'A<fipo&iT7ji^, 7 fi f^axe Kkripovpeinj, ^^ *yu u* atfi^uat, 

Arisioph. Eceliia. 1000. 

It would be difficult to explain all These passages con- 
sistently by as.=aming the ellipsis of a leading verb. 

199. El gu»So«o.'7 .... ipyio.s, If the other Hrdi tkould 
agree to it. Note the force oi' $Ct in compoaition. 

NOTES. 135 

201. ffap^povt, harhan'an ; i. e. without articulate f^peech. 
The Greeks regarded hU who spoke in unknown languages 
as baihariana, and compared iheir Bounds to the voices of 
bu-di. Comp. Aesch. Ag. 974, 975, where Clytaemne^tra 
likens an unknown speech to the twittering of the swallow. 

205. T^f ffjqi- di)8owi, my (wife) the nightingale. Brocne, 
who waa metamorphosed into the nightingale, according to 
the poets and mytliographera, 

206. KaXoC/«i', We wiU calL The number changea from 
the singular to Uie pluviil, hy a construction sufficiently ex- 
plained by Mtt,, Gr. Gr., § 562, 1, The acta expressed by 
the participles in^ac and afeytipac are those of Epops alone ; 
but in Ihe subject of KokoSiitr, Epops is included, together 
with the nightingale. 

207. G. § 50, 1. Cf. V. t&9. 

215. 'EXfXiCoiiii'Tj. "Exprimit aonum gemenlis lusci- 
niae." B. — 3ifpoit. The Sehohast explains, " Aaypau t* 
™» iuKpiav I " Does it not ratiicr express the general char- 
acter of the notes of the nightingale ? with iii\tair, liquid 
notes, like the Latin liquidae voces. 

227. roii (^iypBTot. Genitive of explanation, — What a 
voice ! — referring probably to the music of the flute {aVKti, 
L e. Tii), by which the song of the nightingale^ according to 
the statement of the Scholiast, ia represented. 

229. ah (TiMTJo-E.; G. § 25, 1, N. 5 (4). 

233. T«. Used indefinitely for ma-ny a one, or every one, 
who ia present or witliin hearing. For this sense, see Mtt. 
§487, •2. — &iio,rripai>,birdi of afeaiher, of the same feather 
with myself; my companions or kindred. 

239. ofii^iriTni^ifffl', luntter about. It ia an imitative 
word, expressing particularly the twittering of swallows, but 
also the voices of other birds ; Xtirroi' qualifies it. 

245. 'AvucraT* niToiitya. The imperative and the parti- 
ciple of dreti) are often constructed with the participle and 


imperative of other verbs in the adverbial sense of doing 
gaieklff what the other verb* signify. Here,_y7y quickly. 
For the opposiie conslraction of the participle of anua with 
the imperative of another verb, see G. § 109, M. 8 j and 
Liddell and Scott, s. v. i»i«. 

247, o^oTofums. This epithet of the iiat'Ats is expired 
by the Scholiast =^ o^uaJobiraf, sharply tinging; but it ia 
much more naiaral to refer it, with Bergler, to the sharp 
proboscis. The insect is found by travellers in Attica as 
annoying now as it was in the days of Arblophanea, The 
reader will remember the problem of the singing of the 
empis, ill the Clouds, 157, seq. The bile of ihe empis ia 
very troublesome and painful, in the beautiful summer nights 
of Athens. A piiir of thick woollen stockings worn over 
the hands and wrists, I found 1i good defence. Their sing- 
ing must be patiently borne. T!ie insect ia mentioned seT- 
eral times in Aristotle's Hist. An. 

251. 'ATToyw. Aristotle, Hist. An., IX. 19, alludea to 
the plumage of this bird, which is probably the moor-hen 
or haxd-ken. St, John (Hellenes, Vol.11, p, 152) says: 
" Among Ihe favorite game of ihe Athenian gourmands was 
the attag-.ts, or francolin, a little larger than the partridge, 
variegated with numerous spots, and of common tile color, 
Bomewhat inclining to red. It ia said to have been intro- 
duced from Lydia into Greece, and was found in extraordi- 
nary abundance in the Megaris." See also note to the 
place, with references to the authorities for various opinions. 

257. ^«i, as Perfect. G. § 10, 1, N. 4. — 8pi;iu't, jAn»y, 
crafty. It is used in a comic sense, 

267,268. ifi" . . . . ^^ai\iiws. The particle is slightly 
inferential, — then; i.*, since I have been gaping up into 
the sky, and can see none. The charadrios is mentioned 
by Aristotle several times. It appears to have been a spe- 
cies of plover called the gold plover. The voice of the bird is 

harsh nnd digagreeable, and perlmps the imilaling nienlioncd 
by Euelpides is a back-handed compliment to the singing of 
Epops ; thia is also supported by the word (VtSfr, which. 
doe^ not describe a melodious gound. 

270. nXXi . . , , ipxiToi. The accumulafion of particles 
is expressiye of the comic asloniehment of Peisihetairos at 
the flaming appearance of the bird just ai-rived, — Sure 
enough, Iiere is a bird coming now ! But the ^ihoenicopte- 
roa excited astonishment not only by his brilliant plumage, 
lie was a rare bird, hardly ever eecD in the latitude of 
Greece. "Fuit inter rarissiinas Athenis aves." Bothe. 
Von der Miihle (in his monograph, cited above, upon the 
birds of Greece, p. 118) states that he was unable to learn 
anything of the existence of tlie phoenicopteros in Greece, 
but thought it impossible the bird should be wanting there, 
since it was found on the Adriatic coast, in Asia Minor, on 
the Caspian Sea, and on the Wolga, between which regions 
Greece is situated. lie adds, that be saw some which were 
brought from Smyrna. This passage in Aristophanes shows 
that the above-mentioned writer was correct in including the 
phoenicopteros among the birds of Greece. Heliodorus 
(Aethiopica, Lib. VI. c 3) introduces one of Ibe personages 
in the story carrying, by command of Isias, his mistress, 
a phoenicopteros of the Nile {ifmv toA roOroi', bt 6pas, Nti- 
\^oe (jmivtiiotrrtpoii). 

271. OJ . . . . rafflt; /( is not stire!y a peacock ? The 
whole tone of the dialogue shows how unusual a sight the 
bird~was to the Athenians; and the reply of Epops is in the 
spirit of one who is determined to make the most of a great 

272. o!roc ahot, i. e. Epops, this one himself; pointing 
to the bird. 

274. XifiraioF. Applied to bii-ds, this epithet signifies, 
not water-fowl, as it is incorrectly translated by Liddell 




and Scott, ftnd generally in llie vereionB, bnt those birda 
which liaunt the wafer's edge and are known by the generic 
name of waders. 

274, 275, ^irufiovs .... ^oiw*oiir»pot. The pun hci-e 
mHy bR preseiTed by rendering tfioiintajntpo! fiamingo, Ihe 
name of' the family to which he belongs: — How handsome 
and Jlaming, — tiaturalli/, Jbr his name is Jlamtngo. 

276. at TBI. Constructed with koXu, or some such word, 
to be supplied. 

277, 278. Ni . . . . ip^nisi The first line is said, by 
the Scholiast, to be a parody on Sophocles (the beginning of 
the Tyro), and the second from a passage in Aesehylna. 
The M^3os i^ the same as tlie nf/winot opva in v. 485. — (|t- 
Spoil yiipaii ();d)*, a bird from foreign parts. — itovaoitavru. 
" 'O KOfiiriSlt ■ ToioOroi -yap oi fiiimit Ka\ o\ Troli/Tai." Sch. 

The description, originally applied to a character in Aos- 
chylu?, is here transferred lo ihe strutting cock. 

280. Sftu Kaiii,\m. The Scholiast says': "'Hi rav Mij- 

fiuii us (irt rh itoKii tnl KO^^X(i»> oj(oviitv<iir tni T^ Tav jioXt/iaai 
iiiS^:- — ,lai^<,ro,Jhw in. 

281. 'Erepoe .... oirroo-i. The pun here lams upon 
the military meaning of \i(jioii narfiXiiipiir, having occupied a 
hill; and here, having got a cresC. See note to v. 295, 

283 - 285. "AXX' .... KoXXioc. In answer to the qaea- 
tion of Peisthetairoii, whether there is another Epops, — 
the question being put in a tone of some surprise, — tbe poet 
takes occasion to make a hit at several persons. Fbiloclea, 
the poet, wTio imitated Sophocles in hia play of Tereus, has 
already been mentioned. Epops means to say that the 
present bird is not (he genuine Epops, but only an imitation, 
like that in Phdoclc^ , and ai he himself is, jis it were, the 
falher of the Epops m Sophocles, so lie may he said lo be, 
in the same way, the graiidlalher of lliis one. And this 
suggests the Afhenian mode of naming children, upon which 

St. John (Ancient GreekH, Vol. I. p. 131) says: "The 
right of imporfng the name belonged, as hinted above, to the 
futher, who likewise appeals to have posaesFed the power 
afterwards to after it, if he thought proper. They were com- 
pelled to follow no exact precedent ; but the general rule 
resembled one appareatly observed by nature, which, neg- 
lecting the likeness in the first generation, aometimea repro- 
duces it with extraordinary fidelity in the second. Thus the 
grandson, inheriting often the features, inherited also very 
generally the name of hia grandfather ; and precisely the 
same rule applied to women, the granddaughter nearly al- 
ways receiving her grandmodier'n name. Thus Andocides, 
son of Leagoraa, bore the name of liis grandfather ; the father 
and son of Miltiades were named Cimon ; the father and 
son of Hipponicos, Callias." These particular names are 
probably selected by the poet, not only berause the family 
to whom they belong present a remarkable' instance of this 
cnatomary alternation through many generations, but be- 
cause the last Callias, the individual especially alluded to, 
was notorious for his prodigahty and profligacy, and ruined 
the fortune? of the family. The first Hipponicos known to 
Athenian history was a contemporary of Solon, about six 
hundred years before Christ ; and the last Callias, the third 
of the name, flourished about two hundred years later. He 
held in the course of his life many high ofBces in the state, 
in spite of hia folly and profligacy, which eaily fastened upon 
him the name of the aXiT^pmt,* or evil genius of his fam- 
ily. His portrait is drawn by Andocides in very forbidding 
colors." Plato also gives some traits of his character. See 

• Andocides, p. 277. 'ijririi'iKoc ip rg oIkI^ dXiT^pioii rpiipti, 
vlor Tiifipri!', dXir^fiioi' airri^ Irptifuii, fit omTETpo^di iiriiicni TOii 

140 NOTES. 

thR Profagoras, the scene of winch is laid at the houf« of 
Callias ; and the Apology (p. 20 A), where Callias is spoken 

of as dript, lit TeriXiKf }(pijjiaTa (rrKpioTais irXti'iu ^ Jii)i7rQwrtr el 

SWm. lie is eaid to have heen rcdiiceJ to great deatitution, 
and finally to have died a heggar. The particulars of the 
history, and all the important facts respecting their wealth, 
have been carefully collected by Boeckh {Public Economy 
of the Athenians, Book IV, Chap. 3). Si^e also Xenophon's 
Hellenics, IV. 5, 13; Amtotle'a Bhet. III. 2. In mauy 
respects the family was one of the most famous, as well as 
one of the oldest, in Athene — Hinrip el. We might have 
had S^jirtp Av tl G. S 53, N. 3. 

28G. wrepop^vii, he U moulting; and in this respect re- 
sembles Callias, or is a Callia.3. The next two lines con- 
tinue the allusions in the same vein. 

287, 288. °Ati .... jTTrpl. The ayeophaotg at Athens 
were the pest of society. No age or character or pubUo 
services shielded a man of wealth from their attacks. Aris- 
tophanes holds them up to ridicule and reprobation in sev- 
eral of his pieces, and the otber comic -writers lost no oppor- 
Uinity of exposing their priictices. They figure largely in 
the remains of iJie Attic orators. On account of his noble 
birth, hia high rank, and his wealth, Callias was an inviting 
object (o these miscreants, and his vices facilitated the suc- 
cess of their maclii nations. — SliXciai. The allusion here is 
to the licentiousness which notoriously marked the life of 
Callias (see above). — For Srt S,o, see G. § 109, N. 3 (a). 

In the following passage, all the birds which constitute the 
chorus make their appearance. Many of them it ia not 
possible to identify with existing species. Catophagas, for 
instance, the glutton, is said not to have been the Epecifio 
name of any bird at all, though ihat does not seem quite 
probable. The Cleonymos, to whom this bird is compared, 
a similar wuv in the Clouds (see 

NOTES. 141 

V. 353 and note) as a ghidd-dropper, and elsewhere as a 
coward and sensualist. It is in reference to tiie former that 
Euelpidea aska why he did not cast off his crest (v. 292), 

292, £y = ,1 5*. G. § 109, 6 j § 52, 1. 

293, 294. 'AWi .... ^XSor; Peisthetairos wonders at the 
wests of the birds, and iiamediuteiy calls to mind the practice 
fashionable among the young Athenians of entering the Bi'ov- 
Xot, or double course, armed with crested heknets. A great " 
variety of races were run over the SimXov. The armed races, 
of which that alluded to by Aristophanes in this place waa 
one, formed a part of several panegyrical feativitiea. For a 
full account of them, see Krause, Gymiiastik und Agonislik 
der Helleiien, pp. 777, seq. In. a note to that work (p. 905), 
the author remarks tliat the armed race appears hut seldom 
on the antique monuments of art. There is one beautiful 
representation of it found in the Berlin collection of vases, 
of which the following is in part a description. "On the 
inner side appears a runner, taking vigorous stridea, having 
a large round shield in liis left hand ; the right is in violent 
motion, as are both liaads of the runners in other works of 
art ; the head is covered with a helmet. On the shield is 
a racer figured in the same mnancr, except that he holda 
the shield in his right band," &c. See also the plate. Tab.- 
Vn. b, Fig. 14, b, c, d, of tlie same work, 

294, 295. 'aairtp oi Ko(ne .... litaiaiv. "'H 5ti h iri- J 
rpaK ^Kovv virip dcr^aXfint, tj ori loi^oi' t}(ovxrtv inX tSiv Kpavar." I 

SchoL The pun here, as iu v. 281, turns upon the double | 

meaning of Xoi^e, a MB, or a cr^t. The Carians are said 
to have been the first to use the crest ; whence Alcaeus, 
\6ipov T( atiav Koptifiji'. (Strab. XIV. p. 661.) Slrabo and 
Herodotus (I. 171) attnbule to them two other inventions, 
that of device)! 'on shields {ajijxfZa, l-nimiita). and that of ban- 
dies {oj(hm) Io shields. The question whether the Cariaus 
originated on the conlinent of Asia or on the islands of the 

142 NOTES. 

Aegaean was disputed in antiquity ; the Carians maintain- 
ing tlie former, and the Cretans and most others the latter. 
(Herod. I. 171.) But the ancient authorities are hopelessly 
confused and inconsistent : Herodotus, who gives what he 
calls the Cretan version, disagrees entirely with Thucydides 
(I. 4) ; and both disagree with Strabo (XIV. p. 661), who 
gives what he calls the most current version (6 fiakiaO* ofio" 
Xoyov/tevos). Diodorus Siculus and Pausanias, on the other 
hand, seem to have followed the Carian account : they dis- 
agree, of course, entirely with the former authorities, and 
they are not perfectly consistent with each other. (See Diod. 
V. 84 and o3 ;. Pausan. VII. 2-4 ; Conon. Narrat. 47.) In 
the historic times, we find the Carians only on the Continent ; 
and in their various wars with the Persians and the Greeks, 
they seem to have been famous for eluding their enemies by 
occupying the hills (\6(t>oi) of their mountainous country, 
and for harassing invaders who ventured into the interior. 
See Thucyd. HI. 19, who says (speaking of an attempt 
made by Lysikles with an Athenian army to collect money 
in this region in 418 B. C.) : Kal rrjs Knpias U Mvovvto£ dpo^as 
dia roC Maiavdpov ircblov fJ-expt tov SaifSlov \6(l>ov, iinOcficvtop 
tS>v KapSv Kal *AvaiiToii/ avTos re dtu^^ftperai jcal t^s oXXi;; crrpa- 
Tias TToXXoi. In fact, the Athenians appear to have never 
been masters of more than the coast of Caria, if we may 
judge from the mention of Kapia rj inl BaXdaajj among their 
tributaries at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. (See 
Thucyd. H. 9.) 

296, 297. oaov .... opv^v; Of the use of kokov here 
Bbthe says it is " comice dictum pro irkriBos " ; i. e. instead 
of saying how great a multitude of birds, he says how great 
an evil of birds, — equivalent to some such expression as 
What a pother of birds ! What a plaguy lot of birds I 

298. rr)v ftaobov, the entrance ; i. e. through which the 
personages of the chorus entered the orchestra. See Clouds, 
326, and note, pp. 136, 137. 


299, Gcqq. Feisthetairos now points out, one after the 
other, the Iwenlj-f'oar birds who constitute the choiiis prop- 
er, each of course appropriately represented by the comic 
ma^k^ expressly prepaitd tor tiiem. On this pa-'sage, Bode 
(Gew^hichte dor Hellenischen Diohtkunst, B. III. Th. II. 
pp. '283, 284) says ; " The chorus of the birds, perliaps the 
most comical ever introduced hy Aristophanes, comes in, 
after (he call of the Hoopoo, in the spoixtdic manner. Dif- 
ferent birds at first appear, one after another, at IJie arched 
entrance of the orthestra, and after they have passed one 
by one across the orchestra they disappear. They form, as 
it were, the van of the proper chorus. First comes ruDning 
in a flamingo, with outspread purple winga ; th t t- ' 
cock ; then li'ips along a hoopoo, somewhat fl k d h n 
waddles through the orchestra a bright-eoiored g 11 h 

grotesque mimicry. They are all four precisely d i^, ated 
The proper chorus, then, of twenty-four, pres h h h 
entrance of sirangers in compact groups of many 1 so 
that the passage is scarcely visible for their fluttering. They 
are likened to clouds. Even around the Thymele they seem 
to be gathering in groups, and, with Iheir beaks wide open, 
to be peering upon the stage. By degrees they then divide 
themselves into Heraicboria, so that, according to the gram- 
marians, twelve male birds of different species take their 
position on one side of the Thymele, and twelve females on 
the other. The males are the cock-partridge, the hazel-cock, 
the duck, the kingfisher, the tufted lark, the horned owl, the 
heron, the falcon, the cuckoo, the red-foot, the hawk,- and the 
woodpecker ; the females are, the halcyon (wliich with the 
keirjlos or kingtisher forms the only pair), then the night- 
owl, jay, turtle-dove, falcon, the pigeon, the ring-dove, the 
brant-goose, the purple-cap, diver, ousel, osprey. As here 
the gentle doves appear along with the fiereest birds of prey, 
BO tlie males, mentioned above sejiai'mely, enter, in thf aetiial 

Farodos of An'slophar 
irregular haste, tbiry ri 
Bluge, to that Eutlpidt 

ivith iLe ffjnales. Tn 
1 pipping and chiilteriag towards the 
;, full of ajtonifliment, exdaima : — 

Ota miTTrifairfri Kai Tptj(pv<Ti £u£ 

A manifest proof that the Porodos wa 

The male birds, according lo this i 

fltf. drrayar, TtfifCKo^^ KJipvKot* KOpv^s, 

rrangemcnt, are nr/^ 
•ipTvs, 'upa£. Kit- 

, Spia^ ; the females. dXtwiv, y^av^. 

ivf, ipvOpmovs, Kipxi^s, 
Ktnaf TpiiytiB, vjroBvfiU^ iri 

303. Ti't y\aiK' 'A$^raC i^ayf ; The Sclioliast saya : na- 

poifna iiri TOiii fianjif trritroipfvoi^oir ntti tni tals Trpomrapx^vtriv' 
oloi/ ft' Tis fv Afyi/iTTf iriToif tjiayayot, ^ ff KAttfa Kporw. -yo 

in English, to carry coals to Newciulle. The poet alludes 
alfo to ihe owl upon ihe Attic coins, whence the expreasjcm 

ykaim AavpiaTiiait. See V. 1099, and n0l«. 

308. Tim Ko^tx^t. Genitire of exclamation. This bird 
is singled out in the exclamntion on account of its damorous 

312. noKojrommojmnn. The chirping of llie birds is in- 
tended to be espresfed bj this ^tatumering pronunciation ; 
and so In the next line but one. 

313.' n^^at n6p„i». G. § 10, 1, N. 3. 

316. Xfirru Xoyitrra, two acute reasonert. There is also 
a reference lo the board of Xoyurral at Athens, lo whom the 
magistrates on leaving office must render their accounts. On 
the duties of the 'Koyarrai and their relations to the similar 
board of tSBtimt, see Boeckli's Public Economy of the Athe- 
nians, Book II. Chap. 8 ; Hermann's Pohtical Antiquitiee 
of Greece, § 154; Schomann's Assemblies of the Alhuii- 
ans, p. 279. 

317. noB ; The questions of the chorus, and indeed the 

NOTES. 143 

whole tone of the dialogue, will remind the reader of tho 
opening scenes in the Oedipu;! at CqIoeids of Sophocles. 
Fei'hapa the poet intended a shglit raillery upon tlie some- 
what nielodramatii! mannfrism of the tragic choruses on 
their first appearance in a piece, of which that of the Oedi- 
pus at Coloaos was a Bpecimen. 

S19. 'Hkctdv .... jrt\ap!ov. A ecmic imitation of tragic 
pomp of expression. — irpi/ivov, the bottom, or the root. 

320. *Q . , , . i^a/iapTav. Observe the construction of 
the [larticiple after an exclamation, — thou who hcul doTte 
wrong! — trpaipiiv. Bothe pays; "Dixit significanter et ridi- 
cule, quia viia avium et animantium nihil aliud esee videtur 
quam Dutrltus." The word, however, is applied in the same 
waj where no ridicule i& lo be supposed. 

321. 0o^i)fl5t. The aorist with the prohibitive negative 
fii limila the act to the single case. G. § 8G. 

S22. T^crSe .... (vvovirlac, this society here ; the society 
of the hirda. 

323. y has an emphasizing force. 

S2G. UpoSfSofKB' .... iiriSofitv, Observe the intercliange 
of the lenses, passing in the same construction from the per- 
fect to the aorist, according as the act or state is- lo be more 
or less precisely limited. 

329. 6ciTiious apxaiavs. The Scholiast says : " 'at rouniu 

vtvaiioBtTijtitiiov ayroir ro /i^ o-imTvai lu^/iiiiTrotc." But^di cieemS 

to have been an older cxfiression than vaiioi, hence it is gen- 
erally applied to the laws of Draco : even these, however, 
are sometimes called ho/hm. The chorim give a mock grav- 
ity to their charge against Epops by employing a word 
aasociated with the ancient traditions of the Athenian 

334. nitin))', thti one ; i. e. Epops. 

335. Boufai. The aoriat infinitive here refers to the 
future, and not lo the past ; ai* Sond luii means it pleases me. 


146 NOTES. 

and not it seems to me. See G. § 23, 2, N. 4. (Compare 
Clouds, V. 1141 ; and G. § 23, 2, N. 3.) 

336. ^1^ thei-efore,; expressing the logical inference 
from the threatening language of the birds. We are dead 
men, then, 

338. €K€W€v, thence; i. e. from Athens. — dKokovBoiTjs. 
The present here implies, not the single act of following 
from Athens, but the permanent condition of an attendant. 

339. KkaoLfii, The idiomatic use of this specific word, 
in a general sense, gives occasion to the joke in the next 
line.— .Xi7p«y Ixttv. See G. § 109, N. 8. 

340. TaKt}6a\fjLa> 'icicoTr^ff. The accusative construction 
here is the same as in the Clouds, 24 : l^Ktmri rov 6<l)Bakfi6v, 

342. "Enay, &c. Expressions borrowed from military 
language in drawing out an armj for attack. 

345, 346. ot/ia>^€ij/, bohpai* Observe the change of tense 
in the infinitives ; the present indicating the continued or 
repeated act, the aorist limiting the signification to the sin- 
gle thing. The groaning is naturally continuous and re- 
peated ; the giving food to the beak is. viewed as a single 
and finished transaction. 

351. Uov .... Kipas. The taxiarchs, in the military 
system of the Athenians, were of the next grade to the arpa- 
TTjyol, being ten in number, one for each tribe. Each tribe 
furnished a rd^is of infantry, and the ra^cis were severally 
under the command of these officers ; the right wing — r6 
d€$i6v K€pag — was the post of honor in battle (see Herod, 
VI. Ill), and as such originally it was the right of the 
polemarch to hold it. For the general discussion of the 
subject, see Schomann, Antiquitatis Juris Public! Graeco- 
rum, pp. 251 - 256. — nod <^vya> ; G. § 88. 

353. yap implies an answer to the previous question ; 
here, yes, for how, &c. — For &v cjci^vyciv, see G. § 42, 2, 
Note ; § 41, 3 ; § 73, 1. 

NOTES. 147 

354. 3v qualifies some word to be meatally supplied, — 
I don't know hov! lean escape. 

355. Xuft^acdir .... jfyrpau, to take hold of the pots. 
Genitive of the tiling laid liold of. 

356. rXaJJ. The ow!, Pels the tairos tLiukp, will not at- 
tack them, because it is, like them, Athenian. 

357. Tuit. The dative is to be constructed with an ex- 
pression to be supplied, — What ikaU. uie protect ourselves 
with agaimt these crooked claws ? 

3r)8. jrpor ai/Tov. The reading and inlerpretalion are 
uncertain here. Bothe says : " Vei-u arrepto alites iilos con- 
fige, quemadmodum B-ijynJrai n txi novrol et similia dicunlur," 
And the Scholiast, cited by Bothe, gives an explanation 
which seems to imply the reading uirqi', instead of uSj-di', 
TJz. Seize the spit andjix it by the pot, to make asit were a 
palisade. Taking the present reading, it may be translated, 
Takt the spit andjix it near yourself. This agrees substan- 
tially with the interpretation of Blaydes, who adopts the 
reading irpi aavrav : Sthi ut hastam praetendere. I think 
the explanation of Bollie and the translation of Gary — 
"Take a spit and have at them" — are scarcely consistent 
with the connection. The old men are not meditating an 
assault ; they are taking measures of defence, and their 
engines consist of the pots, the spits, and a few other arti- 
cles which tiiey packed up and brought away with them 
from Athena. With these they prepare to make the stoutest 
defencp they can ; but they scarcely think of offensive 
measures, — o^/daKfidiai, and for our eyes, wkat^ i. e. what 
shall we do for the protection of our eyea ? Construction, 
dative of indirect object, 

359. 'O^vfln^ni', vinegar-cup. " Among (he various ways 
in which the Greeks and Romans made use of vinegar in 
their cookery and at their meals, it appears that it was <;u3- 
tomary to have uoon ihe table a cup con taming vinegar, 


148 NOTES. 

into which the guests might dip their bread, lettuce, fish, or 
other viands before eating them." See Smith's Diet, of Gr. 
and Rom. Antiq., Art. Acetabulum, where there is a figure 
of the cup. See also Athenaeus, 11. p. 67 : " t6 btx&fi^vov 
aifTo (i. e. TO 6$os) dyyeiou o^v^acpov" The vinegar-cup was 
to be used as a sort of shield for the eyes. 

360, 361. 'O . . . . firjxauals- Aristophanes never loses 
an opportunity to make a jest at the expense of Nicias. 
According to Thucydides (Lib. III. c. 51) Nicias was sent 
against the island of Minoa, near Megara, to cut oflF the Pel- 
oponnesians from the use of this port. He accomplished 
the object by the skilful application of military engines. In 
the siege of Melos he is said also to have resorted to similar 
measures. He thus became famous more for this species 
of strategy than for boldness of conduct in the field. — 
^YmpaKovTiCfis, you overshoot, surpass; by the same figure 
of speech which we constantly use in English. 

362. 'EAeXeXfv .... ^xP^v. The first word the Scholiast 
calls iirlctiBtyiia itoKc^ikov, a warlike shout. — kAOcs, lower or 
present beak ; i. e. like a spear. — ov fupciv exprjv* G. § 49, 2, 
N. 3. ' 

366. TTJs yvpaiKos, i. e. Procne, or the nightingale, daugh- 
ter of the mythical Pandion, king of Athens. — <l>v\€Tay 
tribesmen.. The division of the Athenians into tribes, 
phratriae, and gentes is familiar to all. It was common to 
designate individuals by words expressive of their relations, 
both for the purpose of identification, and because the rights 
of citizenship were legally certified to by the registers. 

367. XvKav, According to Petit, there was an ancient 
law providing for the killing of wolves ; much like modem 
laws in new countries, offering bounties for scalps and skins 
of wild beasts, and sometimes of men. St. John. (Vol. I. 
p. 227) says : " The wolf, though a sacred animal in Attica, 
had by the laws a price set upon his head, at which Menage 


wonders, though thp Egrptians alao slaughtered their sacred 
crocodiles when they exceeded a certain size ' 

370. BiSaJoBTEt. Future expressing purpose G § 109, 5. 

372. wdinrow, grandfathers. For tlie akc of <«miG ef- 
fect, put for ancestors in general, as m senous discourse 
fathers is used. — i^paatun- (sc av). G S ^2. * 

373-378. 'AXA' .... xp^iiara. Epops, hke a wise hird, 
quotes the maxims of the philosophers. "Fas est et ab 
hoste doceri," is the Laiin commonplace to the same point, 
— yap introduces the general reflection, which contains tiie 
juatiflcalion of the previous remark, in the ahstract ; and 
then the principle involved is shown practically by the in- 
stances. — i^7)vayitatrtv. For the idiomatic use of the aorist, 
see Clouds, 520, note, in the new edition. 'G. § 30, 1. — 
Airlx, for example. See v. 167. — 'EKitovfiv. " Exerapla 
sunt ex hiatoria Atheniensium petita, apud quos, Xerxe 
fiigato, Themistocles elfecit, ut urbs muris cingeretur, aedifl- 
caretur Peiraeus, et quotannia vigiuti tiiremea construeren- 
tur." Bothe. — wivs [lOKpis, naves longas ; i. e. ships of 
war. — fiiBijiia toCto, t/n't lesson. 

379. d«o£(7oi. The aorist infinitive is property used here 
on account of the action intended to be expressed being a 
single one, i. e. limited to the hearing in the present case. 

381. x"*""' '" ^ yielding, the proper meaning of the 
present infinitive, — 'Amy' (Vl o-mXob = ^irl iroBa, retreat, 
faU back. 

385, Kofliei, foww ; there being no longer any need of 
such defences. 

386. o^tXlnKBr. In apposition with &6pv. 

388. SirXav cn-Di, within tJie arms ; i. e. the pot and the 
bowk, being placed on the groimd, form aa it were a cainp, 
within the line of which Peistbetairos deems it expedient 
tliFtt tbey ^lionld still keep themselves. This he thinks will 
be a sufficient security, provided ihey slil! keep a. sharp eye 


upon the troops of the birds by ivatcliing c 
the pot. 

390. ci ip^Ktiw r^v. G. § 114, 2. 

he edge of | 

Spa here is a slightly infer- 
in consequence of what you 

391. !jvS- Sp, and if then 
ential particle, ^ Oien, i. e. 

3!)3. K<po/i«iiot. Tlioae who feC in battle were buried 
with public honors, and at the public expense, in the bury' 
ing-ground called the KtpaptiKos, without the city. It was 
customary to appoint some distinguished citizen to pro- 
nounce a eulogy. The well-known example of the dia- 
courae pronounced by Pericles, on the Athenians who fell 
in the first campaign of the Peloponneeian war, will occur 
to the reader. See Thucydides, Lib. TI. cc. 34- 46, where 
all the ceremonies are carefully dcBcribed. 

395. npot Toit orpanjyoit. For the general duties of the 
board of generals (ten in number), see Schomann, Griech. 
Alterthumer, I. 422 ; Hermann, Pol. Antiq., §§ 152, 153. 
Besides the civil and military duties there enumerated, it 
belonged to ihem lo make and superintend the arrangemenls 
for the public bnriab. The reader will remember Xeno- 
phon's account of the trial of the generals after the battle 
of Arginousae, on the chai^ of neglecting to bury those 
who had perished in the engagement, and of leaving those 
who remained upon the wrecks to perish. See Hellenica, 
Lib. I. c. 7. See alfo Grote, Vol. VIIL Chap. 64. 

397. 'Opnais, at Omeoe. The jest turns upon the name 
of an ancient town in ArgoliB, which had suffered in the 
Pelopoanesian war (Bird-town). See v. 1 3, and note. The 
name is mentioned by Ilojner, H. IL 571. — ayroBartip. G, 
§ 23, 2. 


language i 
f command ; 'Amy' « rafo'i 

Tadtnr. lai/ duwn i/ovr wratk, 

NOTES. 151 

instead of spear ; napa t^b opyriv, beside your anger, instead 
of shield. 

403. 'Ewi rlva t tiripoiav, And for what purpose, or on 
what gchetne ? 

405. ™C = Ti'™?. 

412. SoE. " Tai ipsifis, non solum tuae, i. e. avium, 
vitae sub dio et in silvia campisque, qucmadmodum vivunt 
etiam veaatores, paatores, milites ; sed hi senes Atheniensea 
ipaai'um avium commerciuQi et societatem expetunt." Bothe. 

416. 'An-ioTo . . . . kKviiv, Incredible, and more, to hear : 
wtpa Tuv airiirrtay. The infinitive depends on an-ioro, and not 
on nipa, as the Scholiast constructs it. 

417, 'Opj, Although the two have been spoken of be- 
fore, the chorus here uses the siagular, referring to one only 
of the old Athenians. 

419. -KpaTilv .... Ix6p6v. Kpart:!' with the accusative 
means to conquer by force ; with the genitive, to be mat- 
ter of , — ILpaTtlv 3v represents Kparoii} iv, and l)(tiv (sc. ar) 
represents (;^ai av, of the direct discourse. G. § 73, 1 ; 
§ 41, 1. 

421, 422. Aiyti .... oflre \nir6r. Observe the comic ex- 
aggeration, running into something not unUke an Irish bull. 

429, 430. For a similar series of words implying all 
kinds of crafl and r<^ery, see Clouds, 260, and note. 

433. dftirrlpoipai. The Scholiast says : " OUtiov Sfmtn 
jh anjrripaiiat, olov pFriiipiajuii" 

435, 436. Kptp^aarav .... rovirurtarav. Bothe says : 
" Haec ex communi Atheniensium vita sunt explicanda, qui 
finito bello arma suspendere solebant ad fumum vel cami- 
num." The St^holiast describes the iwuTTOnir as a xi^'out 
Tpiaovt, jfurpoTrnfiot (KrfXaJi' XP"'""; ""d he adds: " Oi &f, 
jr^XiTOi- "H^iOToi- jipor rat ca-Tias ibpuiliuov, uc (i^pov tov 
jrupo't, ivioi Si Kn! ^C\ov (iri/iiK»e nmairaaKaiuvai', oSev tfap- 

Tffloi Tn pnytipith oKtvT)." It seems plain, from the kind of 


152 NOTES. 

armor with which the Athenians had equipped themselves, 
that these allusions to the kitchen are not wholly to be ex* 
plained bj the usages of common life. The expressions 
contain rather jocose references to the pots, the bowls, and 
the skewers which constituted their luggage and means of 
defence. The Invos is the chimney, but here put for the 
fire-place or oven, or perhaps it may be called the chimney- 
place; as the Scholiast says: "'iTrvoy ixlv 6 kq/xiposj Kara- 
XprivTiKm hk ^ €(rxapaJ' Of the iTrtoraTT^r, Boeckh, Corpus 
Inscriptionum, Vol. I. p. 20, says : " lidem Attici, eodem 
sensu [i. e. the same with wroaTdTta and xmoa-Tdrrf] iiritrrarov 

sive imfrrdTTiVy dixerint Aristophanes, Av. 436, rem 

conficit, licet ibi, quid sit 6 trrurrdTris, sive t6 liritrrarov 
dubitetur. Tria enim Scholiastae proponunt, Vulcanum ex 
luto Jlctum, qui quasi Lar familiaris sit : ... . trahem vel 
asserem ad caminum, unde ex clavis vasa culinaria suspen- 
dantur ; .... postremo basin sive tripodem^ in quo oUae 
et lehetes igni apponanturJ* He prefers the last, remarking : 
" Nihil enim in illo loco hac significatione aptius : nam 
Upupa jubet arma suspendi els tou Ittvov 6to-ca rrXrjaiop Tovm- 
frrdrov, hoc est in camino, non prope trahem, ex qua suspen- 
dentur vasa, sed in ipsa irabe, prope tripodem ibidem sus- 
pensum, ut etiam nunc mulierculae tripodes ibi suspendunt.'* 

439, 441. *Hv .... €fjL€. The person here designated 
as the monkey sword-maker is said to have been one 
Panaetius, who, according to the Scholiast, was also satiri 
ized in the piece called The Islands. The Scholiast adds : 
" MiKpo(l>v^s ^v • bta^dWei be avTOP a>s Kardka^ovra rriv yvvmKa 
eavTov /xoixfvofjLevrjv • eSyuaaTeveTO yap vn aifTfjs /AryaAiyr ov<rrjt 
fiiKpo<f)vrjs avTos &vP " Duxerat uxorem, cum qua quum sae- 
pius rixaretur, tandem convenit, ut se invicem nee morde- 
rent, nee plagis afficerent." Bothe. 

443. Tdv; The broken sentence, according to the Scho- 
liast, is to be filled out by a gesture, — You don't mean 

NOTES. 153 

the No, eurelff; — Btriking the part of the body alluded 

lo, irpatToi' StiKfv! <j>Tiaiv oBti jtou. " Videtur ipse Panaetius 
adultero adulterorum pijenam dedisse ^tpanSaatas, eodem- 
que modo ne itei'um plecteretur cftTisse." Bothe. 

445-447. 'Ofiwn' .... itomv. Tiie allusion here la 
to the mode of deciding in competitions for the dramatic 
prize. In tragic representations, the number of judges ap- 
pointed was ten, one for each tribe. It aeema thai, in the 
contests of the comedians, only five were called upon to 
judge. See Bode, Geach. d. Hellen. Dichtkunst, III. pp. 
147, 148. See also Schneider, Das Attische Theaterwesen, 
pp. 169 — 1 74. noD-i Toir s/jiratr hiSb signifies, " to gain the 
dramatic victory by a unanimous vote of the judges," and 
ivi KpiTJi inKaii fiovov is " lo guin the victory by only one 
Tote " ; giving a turn to his expression from what might 
naturally have been expected, namely, to be conquered, to a 
mere diminution of the nutnber of voices, being victorious 
Btill. — 'Eiri toiItoic, on these terms. — tl napa^al-ijr. G. § 54, 

448-450. G. S 103. The herald now, in solemn form, 
procteima the truce, and orders the heavy-armed to depart 
to their several homes. This appears lo have been the cus- 
tomary rite on the conclusion .of a treaty of peace. It is 
here apphed in the spirit of parody. 

430. irpoypa^aiuv jriwueioit. G. S 61, 3. This refers 

to the mode of giving notice of the subjects to be discu'^aed 
in a political assembly, namely, by exposing in public 
places, streets, and squares tablets fastened on columns, 
with the matters inscribed upon which tlie assembly was 
summoned to debate. 

453. To;(a yip tCxoic Sv l^nwmv, for perhaps ymt might 
chance to speak of (not, to have spoken). G. § 112, 2 ; for 
the Aori^t Participle, g 24, N. 1. 

454. jioi irapopfc, ynu see in rap, or in my ca 





G. §e 

See note on v. iSS. 

461. i.s Di^ ^t, ^apa0S,,x,«. G. % 89, 1, with N. 1. 

462, 463. wpmifitiuparai, Sia/idrTtt>- Tlie language is bor- 
rowed from ihe baker's art ; both words, however, are trans- 
lated in the lexicons as if they were neai'ly synonymous, 
and as if both meant to knead. But they probably refer to 
different Etagea in the proceaa of bread-making. The first 
obviously describes the putting together of the materials, and 
mixing ihem iip ; the second, the careful and elaborate 
kneading of the dough. For a curious account of the whole 
matter, see St. John, Vol. III. pp. 109, seq. It may be 
added, that Alhenian bakers had a high reputation! for, 
as Si. Jobn saya (1. c), " The bread sold in the market- 
place of Athens was esteemed the whitest and most delicious 
in Greece ; for the Ehodian?, speaking partially of the pro- 
duce of their own ovens, supposed they were bestowing on it 
the highest compliment when thfey said it was not inferior te 
that of Athens," It was, therefore, quite natural for the 
old Athenian, in announcing his excellent schemes, to bor- 
row a figure from the bakehouse. — ofi kuKvii. The doubts 
of Dindorf and the suggestion of a various reading by Bothe 
are unnecessary here. iiaXvti is used impersonally, hinder! 
not. The same usage occurs in Thueydides, Lib. I, c. 144 : 

" OSn yap iKUva laaKici iv rait atioviai! olJTt riif, — For in 
the truce there hinders not (there is no hindrance lo) either 
that or this." See note on the pa.?sage'in Owen's Thueyd- 
ides, p. 432, For the various constructions with the Infin- 
itive allowed after oS moXvei, see G. § 95, 2v with N. I ; and 
§ 95, 3. — trri^avov. It was customary to wear a chaplet at 
feasts, and before reclining at the table to have water poured 
over the hands. For the particulars, see Becker's Chari- 
cles. Excursus lo Scene VI. 

465. \aptr6r firor, a fat Word. The epithet is sng; 
by the allusions to feasting. 


4eS. Sn epaC-7i,. G. § G5,l. 

467. jSinrtX^t. The speech of Peisthelairos is here in- 
termpfed by the ciionis, who, astonished to hear of their 
former dignity, cannot wait until the sentence U completed. 

471. noKvjrpdyiunv. This generally ia used in a bad 
sense, — a busy-body^ — but here only knowing many things ; 

obaervant and experienced in many things jreB-dnjmir. 

The fables of Aesop, in some form, were as familiar to 
the Athenians of Ajnstophanea'a age ea similar composi- 
tions are to the children of modem times. Wliat they 
were precisely, and whether they were written or not, aJ"e 
questions among the learned ; but it is certain that the cur- 
rent jestp, drolleries, and odd stories at Athens were gen- 
erally palmed upon the old fabulist. Aristophanes has sev- 
eral other allusions to him ; Socrates Tersjfled some of his 
apologues, and, afterwards, Demetrius Phalercus ; but none 
of these metrical essays are preserved. At a much later 
period, Bahrius versified them in choliambics. Some of 
these are extant, and have high merit. But the collections 
of prose fables now in exiatence under the name of Aesop 
were proved by Bentley to be foro;erieg ; and no person 
at all accustomed to diocriminnte between the styles of dif- 
ferent ^es in Greek literature can deubt the justness of his 
decision. The phrase used in the cited line, you have not 
trodden, ia a comic equivalent to you are not familiar with ; 
perhaps selected here in alhision to the birda, who would be 
obliged \o use their claws in the place of hands, for holding 
B book. The same expression is cited by Blaydca, from 

Plato's Fhaedo : " 'aXXo (i^k tob yt Tialav jrtjraTTjiat inpi- 

473, 471. anoSiniaiitiv and jTpoKtl(r6ai arc in the Imper- 
fect Infinitive, representing the Imperfect Indicative of the 
direct discourse ; as ytyitrBai (v. 472) and Korop^gci (v. 475) 
represent the Aorisl.* G. § 15, 3 ; § 28, 2 ; J 73, 1.— 




wpettiaSai jw^Trroioi", teat lying Oirf Jbr the ffth day. In 
Greece, the body of ihe deaci, aHer having been wa-hed 
and anointed, was laid out in the vestibule of the bouse, 
witb the feet towards the door, as a sjmbolical intimation 
that it was about to take itit lost jourtiey. 

476. Kf^X^iru-. A pun on Kr^oXaf, the name of one 
of the 37*101 of the tribe AcamaDtis. Karopf^. " 'Eird Xd^w 
txti I) KdpuBo't." Scbol. 

478. "Qt — . oiTiiiu. For it with a cansal Partidple, 
see G. § 109, N. 4. 

480, JpuJtoXonTff. The reason why Zeua would be Blow 
to restore the »iceptre to this bird is, that the oak is sacred 
to him. 

481. litrxof, were rulert. G. S 19, Notes 1 and 2. 

484. Darius and Megabazos are named here as repre^ 
seating Ihe Persians, because their names were notorious 
from their connection with the first Persian invasion of 
Greece. See Herod., V. 

487. Kvp^iriar .... ipfiS^t. " Eegea Persarum gesta- 
bant, etiom serioribus temporibus, tiaram reclam, ut ceteri 
Persae retro flexam .... atque ea op$>i ■napa dicebatur pro- 
prie Kvp^iria." Bofhe. This npright head-dress of the 
Persian monarchs may be seen in the mosaic of the battle 
of Issus, found in one of the houses of Pompeii, and en- 
graved in most of the works upon the ruins of that city. 
See particularly the German work, Hercuhmum und Pom- 
peii, Vol. IV. pi. 3. 

489. 6n6Tav SpOpiov ^Iotj, wheneetr ke iingt kit meming 
long. G. § 62, With ap6piov understand mfioi-, soar}: Por- 
Eon indeed reads (by conjecture) air&na vofioy opB^uat ^ag. 
So Bleineke. For an account of tlie handieraftj enumer- 
ated in the following lines, and for a valuable sumoiiirj of 
Athenian industry in general, see St. John, VoL III. pp. 

NOTES. 157 

492. IncoBiiirafLtvai. This word origiDally described the 
tying on of rhe simple snndd, such as is seen in many 
ancient statues. But in the progress of luxury, a great 
variety of shoes and boots, some richly adorned (see Hope's 
Costumes), came into use, and the same word was still em- 
ployed to describe the act of putting them on, tlgugh its 
etymological signification was partly lost sight of. See St 
John, Vol. n. pp. 64, seq. 

493. tpvylav ipiar. The fine wool of Phry^a is men- 
tioned among the' exports of that country. The Phrygian 
dyers were parlicularly skilful in the practice of (he art of 
coloring wool. 

i94. iitarriv. Upon this word it is worth while to 
read the following passage : " "While the poor, as we have 
seen, were driven by despair to imbrue their hands in the 
blood of their offspring, their more wealthy neighbors cele- 
brated the birth of a child with a succession of banquets 
and rejoicings. Of these, the first was held on the fifth day 
from the birth, when took place the ceremony called Am- 
phidromia, confounded by soniR ancient authors with the fes- 
tival of the tealh day. On tliis occasion the accouciieusc, 
or the nurse, to whose care the child was now defini- 
tively consigned, having purified her hands with water, ran 
naked with the infant in her arras, and accompanied by all 
the other females of the family, in the same state, round the 
heanh, which was regarded as the altar of Hestia, the Veafa 
of the Romans. By this ceremony the child was initiated 
in. the rites of religion, and placed under the protection of 
the fire-goddess, probably with the same view that infants 
are baptized among us. 

" Meanwhile the passer-by was informed that a fifth-day 

feast was celebrating within, by symbols suspended from the 

Btreet-door, which, in case of a boy, consisted in an olive 

crown ; and of a lock of wool, alluding to her future oecu- 


158 NOTES. 

pations, when it was a girl. Athenaeus, apropos of cabbage, 
which was eaten on this occasion, as well as by ladies * in 
the straw/ as conducing to create milk, quotes a comic de- 
scription of the Amphidromia from a drama of Ephippos, 
which proves they were well acquainted with the arts of 

How is it 
No wreathed garland decks the festive door, 
No savory odor creeps into the nostrils 
Since *t is a birth-feast ? Custom, sooth, requires 
Slices of rich cheese from the Chersonese, 
Toasted and hissing ; cabbage too in oil, 
Fried brown and crisp, with smothered breast of Iamb. 
Chaffinches, turtle-doves, and good fat thrushes 
Should now be feathered ; rows of merry guests 
Pick clean the bones of cuttle-fish together. 
Gnaw the delicious foot of polypi. 
And drink large drafts of scarcely mingled wine.* 

" A sacrifice was likewise this day offered up for the life 
of the child, probably to the god Amphidromos, first men- 
tioned, and therefore supposed to have been invented by 
Aeschylus. It has moreover been imagined that the name 
was now imposed, and gifts were presented by the friends 
and household slaves. 

" But it was on the seventh day that the child generally 
received its name, amid the festivities of another banquet ; 
though sometimes this was deferred till the tenth. The 
reason is supplied by Aristotle. They delayed the naming 
thus long, he says, because most children that perish in 
extreme infancy die before the seventh day, which being 
passed, they considered their lives more secure. The eighth 
day was chosen by other persons for bestowing the name, 
and this, considered the natal day, was solemnized annually 
as the anniversary of its birth, on which occasion it was 
customary for the friends of the family to assemble together^ 

NOTES. 159' 

and present gifts to the child, consisting Bometimes of the 
polypi and' cultle-fi^h to be eaten at ihe feast. However, 
the tenth day appears to have been very cominoaly ob- 
served. Thus Euripides : — 

' Soy, who dclighling in a, mother's claim 
'Mid tentliJlay foasts bcatowed the aiiceBtral name! 
" Aristophanes, too, on the occasion of naming his Bird- 
city, which a hungry poet pretends to liave long ago cele- 
brated, introduces Peisthetairos saying, — 
' What ! have I not hut now the saeriflca 
Of the tenth day completed and beslowea 
A name aa oa n cfiild ! ' " 

St. John, Vol. I. pp. 128-130. 
— utriirivov, I was taking a drop, " Simili euphemismo La- 
tini subbibere, Germaoi dicunt aieh eia JRaiischchen trinken" 
Bolbe. — fp aoTn, in town. He bad come in from the coun- 
try on the occafioa of BoIemniziDg the naming of a friend's 

495. KipTi KoBivieai, and teas just dropping asleep. — 
trplv bitirrtii, jtp\i' usually lakes (he Infinitive in Attic 
Greek when the leading verb is afflrmative. G. § 67 ; 

406. oSroe Sj!, this fellow then; the cock. — ixapom 'aXi- 
lausToit, I set out for Halimta, Observe the force of the 
imperfect ten?e. HalimuB waa a demt of ihe tribe of Leon- 
tis, particularly famous aa bfiing (he birthplace of Thiicy- 
didea,. the historian, whose epitaph is said to have been, 

emxvti&ris'0)y6pov 'fiKijioiaim ivSaSr Ktirai. 

499. For the Imperfects, ece v. 481. 

501. nponkii^flirBai toIs isTinoit. The allusion is to the 
custom of prostrating when lie kite first 'appeared in spring, 
eigoifying joy at tlie relurn of that season. "'E^' if T/Sotuvoi 

KukiirSoimu ii M yfi™. Dai'fni our iis ffairikti ^7i« ri KvXiv- 
Cftirfiai inro avSpimiiiv." Schohust. 


im WOTKS. 

502, 503. "EcwXiitsvfBT* , . . . •^(XmL EadfBdes mdctt 
m i); alliuion lo ihe caii-« of bU rolling over, in ibe oath bj 
lyKitijta; trliii'h if ([uite in keeping wiih the story of Uw 
frolic in tovn, relaKd a few lini^ back- Tlteo be ijoee not 
My thai lie bowed forward, wpoitukadtiro ; on the ctmtnuj, 
be wa< on hia bark. — 'OjSoXiv <uzrt^p6x0uia, I gulped down 
on oholM, Tbe custom of carrying coins in tbe mouth is 
Kveral time» alluded to in Aristophanes, aa Exiles. 817, 
S18: — 

" HuXur yap ^orpat 

Kthrtil^ ij^&povr tit ayopav en ahf^iTa. 

'EiTdiT iiri/^Di^os apn ftoa Tor BuXaKor" etc 

Sec also Veiip. 790, seq, 

60a. iitirt ,Xi,<H. G. § G2. 

50S. ieipt^o, &-. G. g 30, 2. 

507. itauv. Tlie rile of circumcision was practised by 
many Oriental nations, as the Egyptians, PlioeoicianB, and 
JeWR i and as the cry of the cuckoo was the signal to begin 
harvonting among the peo^ile of these countries, the prorerb 
enrol! into use, — Cuckoo! Afield, ye circumcited ! 

50S. (' r.i |9ainX<uo.. G. § 51. 

510. 'Eirl . ■ ■ ■ ipns. They placed upon the head of the 
kingly sceptre the figure of some bird. This is often alluded 
to hy llu! popts. and may be seen on coins, medals, and other 
works of art. See Quatremere de Quincy'a Jupiter Olym- 
pion, pp. .106, scq. 8co also Pindar, Pylh. 1. 9. — For flaipo- 
Sarai'i), sno G. § G2 ; abo for tbe optatives in t. 513 and 513. 

512. i^ikSot, here, is a word belonging to the vocabularj 
of thi! stttgu i came forth, i. e. entered the scene through 
th« royal gate, or central entrance at the back of the stage. 
— iv nln r^YfSati, at the traffic rcpresenlalioHS ; Hterally, 
IN (A« trngediam ; the person being put for the time or the 
n of their appearance. This interpretation is more 

NOTES. 161" 

accordant with Jhe Greek idiom than that of Eotlie, — 
" Inter aetorea tragicos." 

513. Abo-iK/KiTTj, Of tliia individual the Scboliast says; 

" OItde rrrpoTiiyot iyiPiTo 'ASiyniav itXfjrnjt rt kqI iravovpyai. 
fl«^aA.To Si (i.t) So,pob6K-s." 

515. 'Atrav Kt^oX^t. The words here used apply 

to the statue of Zeu=, (otjjkh' being constantly thus used by 
the Attic writers. According to a Scholiast, the head-js put 
for the sceptre ; or, he adds, because they were accustomed 
to place on the heads of the statues of the gods the images 
of the birds consecrated to them. 

516. Suyarrip, i. e. Athena, the patron goddess of the 
dty to whom the owl was consecrated. All this passage is 
in ridicule of the Athenian superstition, which consecrated 
to each god some particular bird, 

520. 'C)ini . . . . ai-. For this use of Sv with the indica- 
tive, see G. § 30, 2. The Scholiast cites from Socrates, the 
historian, the following passage : " 'PaSdnni^ut Bowl 9iod*Ja- 

fitvos Ttjv ^airiKtiitp SixatoTiiTos yrynftjirdai Trnin-Qii' ai'dpanTotv. 
Aeytrai fte, avT&v irparov oi'Slva iaif opKovs tToittffSnt KarA roti' 

Socrates, according to Plato and Xenophon, used to swear 
by the dog, or by tJie goose, and sometimes simply by " the 
." See Plato's Gorgias, cap. 23, and Woolsey'a note. 

521. Ad/ijraii'. This is tlie same Lampon — a sooth- 
sayer, juggler, and impostor — who is often mentioned 
elsewhere, and who, according to the Scholiast, obtained 
the honor of being entertained in the Prytaneum. See 
Clouds, 331 -334, and note upon the passage. It is said 
that he used to swear by the goose because that bird was 
of a prophetic chararler. — Smi' i^irara. G. § 51. 

522. fp6[iiiav, used to think. 

523. Manic. " OSrca yap JKoXavv Tovt atHfVcu iroXXamc." 



162 NOTES. 

525. icpoff. ^ Nam in templis tofae debebant esse aves, 
tanquam diis supplices ; ne&s aatem Tiolare snpplioes. 
Hinc cum Aristodieus Cumaeus in templo apud Branchi- 
das nidos avium detraxisset et pullos exemisset, ex adjto 
talis vox audita fertur : *ApofnMT€n'€ aW9/M»ir»y, ft robe roX^c^ 
wouetp; Tour iccVar ftov cic tov tnjov iccpatj^rir. Ut est ap. 
Herodotum I. 159 ; ap. Euripidem tamen Ion aeditans 
ApoUinis Delphici pellit aves e templo in cognomini dra- 
mate 106, etc" Bergler. 

530. ^ifAa(opr€s* ^B\ifid(€ip KvpUnt to tov vmyaarpiom 
ml TOV aT^6ovs SirreoBcu * onep inoiovp oi rous opPtBas t^vovfieptH^ 
K. T. X." Scholiast 

532. irap€0€vff. The frequentative aorist. For a fbll 
discussion of this usage, see Clouds, v. 520, note in Felton's 
edition. Kar€<r«ccda<rav, V. 536, is another example of the 
same idiom. G. § 30, 1. 

541. KoicriP = KaKiav* 

542. irpoyopcou irapadovrtfv, genitive absolute, ancestors 
hamng handed them down, 

543. 'Ett' ipov, in my case, L e. here, to my harm, 

547. o(ic^(ra>, / will dwell. Upon this expression, Gary 
remarks : " The word dwell, in our language, according to 
the old use of it, answers precisely to otKri<r<a, * do good,, and 
dwell for evermore,' Psalm xxxvii. 27, meaning simply to 
abide, or liveJ* 

549. el fi^ KoifuovfieBa. § 50, 1, N. 1. 

552. Bafiv\&va. For a full account of Babylon, seQ 
Herod. I. 

553. *Q , , , , fr6\i<rfia. The names here are those of 
two of the giants. The second is also the name of a bird, 
which offers an occasion for a jest below (1241). They 
are brought in here on account of the designed hostilities 
against the gods, as if another giants' war should disturb 
the peace of Olympus. 

NOTES. 163 

556. 'itpJir TTiSXr/toi' irpmuSap, (o proclaim a sacred war ; 
like lie wars against ihe Phocians for violating the sacred 
precincts and the leunile of PytliiaD ApoUo. Tlie following 
lines give a ludicrous and ^tincal Uifitoty of the mythical 
amoura of the goda, and show, with many otlier passages, 
the freedom with wliich tlie poet dealt with the Hellenic re- 
ligion, as well as wiih the politics of the time. 

563 — 570. ispoTvriiiaaBat, to distribute or assiffti. T\\b 
meaning of the passage is, to apportion the birds individ- 
ually to the goda, neeording to some fanciful analogy, bo 
tliat, whenever a sacrifloe ia offered to a god, the corre- 
sponding bird may receive ala-o an appropriate gift. The 
Scholiast and commentators have taken great pains to ^ve 
the reasons why the parlicular selections and aduptations of 
gods, hirds, and articles of food were adopted by the poet. 
Thus the name i^aXijpif contains an allusion to ihe ^dXXor, 
and of Kvpoi the Scholiast says : " 'En-d oi i<p6ol Trvpoi np&r 
ovrouaiaK iytpnxel." The sheep is one of the victims sacri- 
ficed to Poseidon in the Odysaej, and the duck is connected 
with Poseidon, because he is a water bird. The \apvt is 
assigned to Hercules, on account of his gluttonous propen- 
eitiee. Tlie tatrrol were a large species of cake, oaten at 
Athens with honey. With regard to Zeua and Ihe wren, 
the Scholiast says : " 'Ejrti irarui^rpijt i Ztvr koI /ioix"fi "li 
rouTO opxt^av iraj»'Xa|3r, iii rait 5i>x"f- Ti 3c aiptfiav ivep- 
X'V as cpiic luopxt'-" 

570. iitrBif. G. §19, N. 5. — Bpowdra, Zax. These 

words are probably quoted from some old lyric poet. Botha 
cites from the epigrams: "'O Z«it irpit Tov'EpioTa- Bt'Xq 
ri irk ndiT alptKaSiiai. Xu irraiios • Bpii^a, xal na\( Kutvoc 

572 — S73. Several of the deities were represented with 
wings. Hermes, as mentioned here, thus appears. The 
more ancient forms of the goddess Nike, or Victory, were 


164 NOTES. 

without wing?. To her a temple was dedicated, standings 
according to Pausania^, near the entrance to the Acropolis. 
The ruins of this temple of Ni/o; ^Am-cpos were discov- 
ered in excavating, in the year 1836, on the spot indicated 
hy Pausanias, and it has been almost entirely restored. 
But Nike was generally represented, in works of art, with 
wings, and sometimes with golden or gilded ones ; a figure 
of this kind was held in the right hand of the Olympian 
Zeus. (See Quatremere de Quincy, Jupiter Olympien ; 
also Boetticher's Schriften, B. II. pp. 173, seq.) Especially 
was Eros, or Cupid, so represented. In alluding to Homer, 
the poet's memory failed him, the comparison to the timid 
dove being in a description of the flight of Hera and Athena 
(IL V. 778), or there has been a change in the text, i. e. the 
substitution of *Ipti' for^Hpaif. 

577. t6 iifihev. The article gives emphasis to the expres- 
sion, and probably refers it to the phraseology of the philos- 
ophers. The subject of the preceding verb is men, apUpwtf 
to be supplied. Miydcv (not ovficy) is used, because the In- 
finitive depends on a Protasis. The Infinitive after vofii(» 
usually takes ov as its negative, since it stands in indirect dis- 

580. KajTciT .... fi€Tp€iTa>. The importation of com was 
one of the most important public interests at Athens, and 
was carefully superintended by the municipal authorities. 
At certain times, distributions of com (o-iTodoo-Zat) took place 
among the people, — particularly, of course, in periods of 
scarcity, — each citizen receiving a certain measure. For 
a minute examination of this subject, see Boeckh's Public 
Economy of Athens, Book I. cap. 15. The language of 
Peisthetairos, in the present passage, doubtless alludes to 
this practice. Connected with the administration of the 
market, there were public officers called Mcrpovofun and npo- 
fttTprjraL The poet ludicrously makes Demeter the raea»- 



1 iLe famme, 

nrer, and represents her aa flnding { 
for her inability to distribute com. 

583. ■ (V( trtip^. The Scholiast saya: "'Eirl ;SXd/3,7, ^ u^ 
triipadatriv q|iuv, tl 6foi lajiiv." The latter is doubtless cor- 
rect ; the idea being, that Ihe birds shall peck out the eyes 
of the cattle to give a proof of what they can do if their 
power 13 called in qucslioi:!. 

584. Apollo was the god of medicine, as well aa of po- 
etry. "With regard to tlie word lutrSoipoptl, the Scholia? 

Bays: "ToSio Si itirtv, Iwti AaoiiiSotTa t^s Tfij^oBojjia! tutrSoi 

§Tiiatv." But there is also an allusion to the support of cer 
tain physiciana at the public charge, for an account of wlion 
Bee Boeckb, Book I. cap. SI. Hippocrates held this posi- 
tion at Athens. 

585. M^. Supply iKKo<frain-aii. For vpa/ Sk, see G. 
§ 67. 

586. <re &i rijv. The particle is uaed here to sir 
the clause. 

589. X6xoi lit. In the Athenian army, the Xdjt- 
amall subdivision of soldiers, consisting of twenty-four be- 
wdea the officer, or one fourth of a rd^n. The smallneaa of 
the number makes the expresaion more emphatic. 

591. dy/Xij. Perhapa the word here refers to the aylXai, 
or bands into which the youth were divided in Crete and 
Sparta, is aho used in a general sense of a flock of 
birds. See Manso's Sparla. 

592. v\ovTtlw is the object of fltlcro^.^. G. § 93, 1. 

593. fiavrnioiiirait, contitUing auguriet. 

595. KHicXi^fKuv. Thi> valKkiipoi at Athens were the own- 
ers of shipa, and their business was with the shipping inter- 
est. The word was alao applied to the owners of houses. 
In this passage the former meaning is the true one. The 
taiArjpiit sometimes went jiimself upon the Toyage, but not 
necessarily bo, — Sort. G. § 65, 3. 


166 NOTES. 

598. This mast be nnderstood to be an (uide of Eoel- 
pides. Upon yaCXor the Scholiast says : ^ ^oumcucop dc rov 
ayyciov ofvrovor. KaXXifiaxos' Kvifp60€ 'Sibopios fi€ icar^ 
yayev ivddbt yavXos. ^AXXa»r. Favkot^ ^Xoiop ri (fiopTUcow 
&g Ktu (TKoxfn) (aica^cr) ano rap aK€vap. "Ofujpos ' Fai/Xoc re 
a'ica<fiili€s re. *Qs alpmaripav de optos koi dtupdvpov rap ctX- 

\»p vapTwp rovTo (Pfjtri.** And Bothe: ^TaZXos dicebatnr 
navis rotundior, mercibus vehendis apta, qualem Phoeniees 
primi construxisse leguntur." — Ovk hw fuipaifu. G. § 53, 

599-601. The Athenians were as credulous about 
buried treasures as the modems, and made use of supersti- 
tious means in the search for them. The language in the 
last line refers to the proverb, ** Ovb^is fie 6f<op€i nXrip 6 iro- 
parraiuvos oppts»" " Tovto eXcyero im tS>p dypaxrrap.** Sch. 

602. vbpias. Literally, water-vesseU, but also any urn or 
vessel such as might be used to hold the coins which were 
to be concealed in the earth. 

603. vylfiap. Upon this word Bothe has the following 
note : — " Haec est ilia likovBvyUia, quam infra dicit 698, 
item Equ. 1100, et Vesp. 647, h. e. quasi wXovrow vyUia^ 
non opes et sanitas, ut Br. reddidit Equ. v. 1, siquidem sa- 
nitatem donare nemo potest, divitias omnisque generis opes 
potest, quas complectitur 7 TrXov^ieca, ut pulcre intelligitur 
e Vesparum v. 1, vyUpra oKfiop serio dixit Pindarus, OL V. 
55." It may be remarked in addition, that health was more 
sedulously studied by the ancient Greeks than by any of the 
modems. Their gymnastic system formed an important and 
integral part of their education, and vigorous muscular exer- 
cise was not given up at any period of life. The national 
games also tended to keep alive a high, perhaps an exag- 
gerated, idea of the importance of bodily health and strength. 
See the Panegyricus of Isocrates. 

609. Ovk .... Kop&vri; The saying quoted by Plu- 

NOTES. 167 

larch (De Orac Def.) from Hesiod was, Ihat the crow livea 
nine generations of man. The epithet XaitipvCa occurs in 
Hesiod's Works and Days, 747. 

613. Xifltmut, stone, i. e. marble, tliat heing the principal 
material used in Athens for temples and other public build- 

614. 6vpw>7ai .... Svpaii, to furnish the temples with 
golden doors. 

616. iTftivols ^ Tois Tifiiots. Sch. 

618, 619. Aek^oit .... 'A^^t<or', i. e. to the oracle of 
Apollo at Delphi, and of Zeus in Libya. 

636. irpo&akotiaii', having thrown out to them. A bur- 
lesque upon the popular notion that the gods were to be 
conciliated only by gifts, The argument is, that it will he 
much more economical to liave the birds for gods than to 
worship tlie gods tlieniselves. 

627. *0 . . . . ficrairiirnuv. iikraT \s the masculine ad- 
jective in the yocative. It is constructed with the participle, 
expressing the result of /israjri'wren', changing from the niogt 
hated to the most beloved. In this respect it resembles the 
construction in Aesch. Ag. 628, 'BmKpavtp St ydnaa mKpac 

629. 'Eirauxqcnif, having confidence in. 

638. Tfrn|<!p(fl", iCe will take our poit. 

641. luWoviKiav. A pun upon the name of Nikios, the 
general in the Scicilian Expedition whose hesitancy of eon- 
duct was more than once ridiculed by the poet. Tlie Scho- 
liast Bays: "MfXXonmai-, ro ffpaiiHm jtnl ava^dWtirBai. 
N«{at yap vloc yturjpaTov, is avrffaXXtTO dTrfXdfii' (ft StufXiai'" 

Ppabis yip Ji- rh .'fdSoi/t." See Thucyd. VI. 2.5. 
647. KpiaSiv. Tlie Sctioliast explains : " Kpiii i^^as r^t 

'AvTioxiioe ^uXi7C. a-ni Kpuiii rivoc uifo^ao-^ivoc. VpaiptTai ii 
ml Opt^Stv, otov ajri S^jiov r^r OJmjiBoi ifivXijs. 

650. 'Arnp .... niiXii., But bless mil soul.' here, hold 

168 NOTES. 

iMck again, 'to dcua, sajs Fape (Lexicon in verb.), is 
from the language of the people, n^ed when one immedi- 
ately utters a sudden thought, in order not to forget it, atat I 
— or when one cannot immediatelj recall something. In 
this passage it has suddenly occurred to Peisthetairos thai 
there will be some practical difficulty in two men without 
ndngs holding intercourse with winged birds ; and this sad- 
den idea is intimated by to .delra. *£iraMUEpoiNrai is thus 
explained by the Scholiast : *" 'H fieraifiopa dvo tw ras ^wias 
dvaKpovo^uvav^ ^ ras vavs. AXXor. Yvoarpe^op, iwopaStiOu 
^EirapaKpovais dc iari nvpttas to ivurx^iP Tqp Intpxof^evriv pmp uu 
fuBopfiiacu €ls TOP opfiop, Tpq pji irpoaeXBovaa 0pava6g" 

653 - 655. Alaamov .... frorc. The fable here referred 
to is probably the same as that of which we find the first 
few lines in a fragment of Archilochus (No. 86, Bergk) : 
AIp6s Tis dp6pam<op ode, a>s 2p* dXawrj^ tuileros (yP€MWfP ^fu^nr. 

It must be remembered, that the ancients were accostomed 
to attribute to Aesop all fables that were composed in his 
manner. See note to v. 471. 

658, 659. ZavB'uL, Map6da»p€. Names of servants. 

672. &<rir€p irapBevos, like a maid. An imitation of 
Homer, II. II. 872. For an account of the ornaments worn 
by Grecian ladies, see St. John, Vol. 11. pp. 50, seq. 

673. ftoi boKO), I have a fancy, 

674. pvyx^^ .... cx^(, she has a beak with two points, or 
literally, two spits. The actor representing this character 
wore a mask in imitation of the beak of a bird. 

676. Xfpfia, the shell, 

686. ^Apxov .... dpairaiarap, lead off' the anapaests, 

687-689. This description of the life of man is an 
imitation of the noble passage in Homer, II. VI. 146. ' See 
also Aeschyl. Prom. 549, seq. 

692 - 694. Upon this passage, Bothe has the following 
note : ^' Bidet poetas, qui de rerum originibus cednerant 

NOTES. 169 

(nt Hesiodus), et philosophoa (ut lonicos, Empedoclem), 
qui de deorura remmque omiiiuiu ortu temere multa etatu- 
erant ; etiam Sophistas, inter quos fuit Prodicua Ceus 
fquera lauditt Cliorus Nubiuin Nub. 360, o-oiiiat xdi yra/iTjs 
oEmm]. Iliiiic missuni fieri ¥ult. — Ulxaiptii' thiiv aliquem 
dicuntur, qui bono et amico animo ab eo diceduni, sic kkaUai 
riirru- eat male animalorum. Vide Plut. 62, Ach. 1064, B. 
de Prcidico v. Hindenburgium et interpp. Xenophontia 
Memorab, Socr. 2, 1, 21, alio^que, Sextus Empir. adv. 

Matliero. p. 311 ; npd8ilC0I 6 Ktlos- 'HXioi-, ipijai, xal irtX^i^i', 
■oi waranoisi Kid Kprjvac, tui naff oXou ndvra ra oi^fXoDiTa riv 
jSioi- ^/iBv o! irnXniPi Btoiic (W/jHrav Bia T^i' dir' aiiToiv airpiXnav, 
KaBaiTtp Aiyujrnoi tdj' NfiXoi' ■ Ka\ &ia ToVTo Tof )i.iv Sjitov A^pj;- 

&i jrSp 'H^ICTTO^, «ai ^fiij tLv fiixpltrroivray imiirroi', Quam 

rationem ii-rideus Cic. de Nat. Deor. I. 42 : Prodicus Ceus, 
inquit, qui ea, quae prodessent kmnimim vitae, deorum in 
numero halnla esse dixit, guam tandem religionem reliquitf" 
694. •Aiio' tiviiTt. G. §15, 2, N. 3. Etirov seldom takes 
the Iniinitive, unless it has (he force of a. verb of command- 
ing, as here. In its ordinary senae, introduting indirect 
quotations, it takes on or it. iiiil- on the other hand, takes 
only the Infinitive, while Xi'yco, to say, takes either ori, ir, or 
the Infinitive. tJya may also mean to fell, to command. 

697. vm)«^iot .... uJv. The Scholiast says: "'Ytti;- 

rijiia (utXtiroi rk Sixa mpovirlas xal pi'ffinc. — tIktii, G. 

S 10, 2. 

698. TrtpiTtXXoii^iraic. Tliis is an Homeric word, often 
applied to the revolutions of the seasons. See II. II. 551 ; 
Od. XI. 295. 

699. tiJiit .... iivaK. " Tats ToG dvi/iou JuMiau avirrpo- 

^I[ ioitut, oXoy Toxit" Sch. "Elitit Atticia idem quod 
louuc. (Vide Moer. p. 148.) AiWi proprie sunt vortices 
agiiarum (Callim. in Del. 149), hinc, quaecunque ia orbem 


170 NOTES. 

aguntur (interpp. Thomae Mag. p. 241), hoc loco turbines. 
Ovid. Am. 2, 9, 49, De Amore : Tu levis es mtdtoque tuis 
ventosior cdis. B. Voss. : Der am Riicken mil zwei GoLdjU" 
tigen gldnzt, von Natur wie die wirhelnde Windshratur 
Bothe. See ante, note to v. 574. 

701. *Ei/€c5tt€vo'€I', hatched. 

702. irpiV. G. § 67, 1. 

705, 70 G. 'H/iciff . . . brjKov, And that we are children of 
Eros is plain by many proofs. They proceed to enumerate 
the aids they render to lovers, in a way that shows what 
sort of presents were considered by the Greeks the most 
acceptable to the objects of passion, namely, quailsy geese^ 
poultry, and the like. 

709. bovg explains fiw iVxw. G. § 109, 2. 

711. &pas, the seasons, of which mention is made here 
according to the earliest and simplest division of the year 
into three portions. 

712. apeipfw, orav, jc r. X., i. e. in each yeoTy when^ &c 
G. § 62. 

713. Kai .... Ka$€vb€w. The radder was taken fix>m 
the ship in winter. See Hesiod, Works and Days, 45 : — 

-_ w 

^ Ajy^d K€ TTTibdkiov fUv virep Kairvov icarodcib. 

714. 'OpcoTi;. ^''OpioTTjs paviav \moKpiv6pxvos €V t^ (TKcS- 
rei Toifs dvOpanovQ dtrtdvev, Sch. Gf. infra 1476, et Ach. 
1092. XXali/a crassior vestis superior fuit, hiemi apta. Vide 
Hesych. h. v. piy&v, prae frigore horrens. Vide Thorn. 
Mag. p. 782, et Bos. Obss. Crit. p. 48. 'Ajroduciv est aU^ 
quern spoliare vestibus, ut Eccl. 864, 866." Bothe. 

716. x^aivai', \ij8dpiov. The former was a thick outside 
garment, the eecond a light summer garment. For a mi- 
nute explanation of Grecian dress, see Becker's Charicles, 
Scene XL Excursus I., and St. John, VoL II. cap. 25 ; also 
Hope's Costumes. — ^vlxa, G. § 59. — Trc^r^v. G. § 92, 1, 
N. 2. 

NOTES, 171 

721. 'Opof, Here and in the following lines, there ia a 
play on the word 6pns, bird, which is ollen used for any 
omen whateTer. Tiiu things or acta mentioned were all 
signitiiaint to the mind of the Gretk, — a teord, a sneeze, an 
accidental meeting, a sound, a servant suddenly appearing, 
an ass. Upon tlie la=I a Scholiast says : " Aiytrai yap n 

Svoc t>v dctO'TiJ. 'O 8( f<p1- 'O voaan avaa-rriirtTal." 

725-738. The oracles of the gods could not be con- 
Butted at all seasons of Ihe year ; hut substiluling the birds 
for Ihe god^ men will have the advanlage of heing able to 
consult ihera nt all seasons alike. 

729. atiivuvopivoi. pvtiinff on haugldy airs, 
736. rdXa r' opviBav. and milk of birds ; a proverbial 
expression. '''Ev irupm^ia S( tWi toiii Xiuv iviaipovoinnaiv icaX 
wivra KftTTjfiinov^ Sch. 

752. ipivixps- "'Or iiri pihoTTottats ieavpai^tTO IIutT- 

T^t ^Sit (V Tolt pi^tai." Sell. See Darley'a Grecian Drama, 
Ch. II. The comparison of the poet to a bee gathering 
sweets from every flower is a very common one. 

759. (I t^l-. G. § 49, 1. 

760, 761. ^i, .'iirji. G. § 50, l. — ,l paxi!, if you want to 
fghl. G. § 49, 1, N. 3 (not § 50, 1, N. 1). 

7G1. aipi lih^xTpav, lift the spur. The expression ia 
borrowed from cock-fighting, 

762. ipatriTi)s lirriyiiivos, a branded runaway ; in allusion 
to the custom of burning upon the persons of fagitive slaTea 
a mark which designated them as imy^iiTini, a common term 
of abuse in the popular lanfjiinge of Athens. 

76i. S^ii/flJp™. "SjTivfl. ap. Demostli. p. 1259 et 1358, 
ed. Reisk. Spiiithari memorantur. B. — Compar Spinlhari 
PliUemon, homo obscurus ; cave eiilm cognomiuem iutelligai 
Comieum, Menandri aequalem." Bothe. 


765. *pirf!kot. " Propter ^militudinem cum voce I^rjpe, 
Pitri/git, signifiiari putaiur _/r(HjpiIa [der Fittkt), ^./rut- 
ffillaia cardueUm Lina., le rkardotmtrtU den Slieglilz, inlet', 
ligebat Wieland. Tom,: Fryguclier (?) Jiothfini wird 
kier tein, von FiUmom VetUnchafl." BoiJie. 

766. Kap. " Cares, cz quibu^ plurimi serriebant, bai* 
baroj atqae agrcstes, mitiiiaeque luurcenariae. qoae despecta 
erat, auctore^, babiloa fui-se, nioDuere Spanbetn. ad Baa. 
1231, HfDiiierb. ad argum. Plull, Arisloph- Beck. 3, p. 7, 
aliiqiiG. Cf. supra, t, 29o, et de Eseceatide 11." Bothe. 

767. «uraru tranrovi. According to Eupbronius, hs 
quoted bj Aelian, a certain specie* of bml wus called waw 
woc. There j$, therefore, a pun upon the expre^ion, besides 
ibe ludicraus ioTerfion of the order of natare wliicb tbe lit- 
eral meaning implies. In Ibe rest of tbe line, tbe tenos 
refer to the distribution of the Atbenian?. according lo which 
the ^parfiia wat a third part of one of tbe foar Ionic Iribes, 
and the members of itiis divisioo were called ^para^Kt. Theae 
divi^ons hod their re^ter^ in which the names and families 
of the individuals composing them were required to be en- 
tered. Bothe says: ^tZirai vamroix est facere, ul aibi avi 
sinl, adsciacere avos ; qui enim Athenis peregriniutis acca- 
sabantur, avos et tribules nominare debebant, ut apparereti 

768. i IlMriDV. " Oiiifi' aaipic ixofttv, Tit o Hicriov. aSn 
jrtpi T^r ^pn&oirlae • an Jli TUf \lav voviif>ap i^ri, ftfjXoT Kparlper 
IrXtlpoai, nvXalas,'OpaK,~'AWais. Oi fuy, tov ZIktioI' ira ru>> 
ipliOKOjniav iivai, oi Si Tor viiiy airoi. "EnjpouiTO Si oJroi. mat 
in ioitv rqt Tripitmnjc Tijiapioii. El our, ipijiriv, i vlic avrou ro£ 
Ilio-iou D/ioiDi iSouXfrai (iKii ra iroTpi, ymaffa nipSs^ ma-olpyot" 

Scbol.— "Toll dripois. The force of ttiis term is tiot adequate- 
ly expressed bj- oiir word disAonored or by disfranchiltd. 
An Athenian citizen in full possession of all his rights (nfuu) 
was called iniriiios ; and so soon as he lost all of these rigbts 

NOTES. 173 

or any one or more of them, he became A-i/im, and was said 
to be under dTi/ila, 'Aniila could therefore be either partial 
or complete. 1. Partial ari/ila deprived a citizen of some 
particular right or tijiij, and was quite common aa a punish- 
ment for abusing a right or privilege. For example, any 
prosecutor who, in a public suit, did not receive one fifth of 
the TOtes of the judges (usually 300 out of 50i), was fined a 
thousand drachmas and prohibited from bringing a similar 
public suit for the future. This prohibidon was called dri- 
fila. Others were prohibited from entering temples or the 
market-place; others from speaking in the public assembly; 
others from being members of the Senate or from holding 
ofiice ; others again from visiting certain places in the Athe- 
nian domunons. All these were □ri/ioi ; but their drifxia was 
partial, and their other rights were not afiected. 2. C!oni- 
plete drifila, on the other hand, deprived a man of all the 
rights and privileges which he had enjoyed as a citizen of 
Athens, xnd left him in a sort of negative condition, in which 
the state simply re/used to recognize him as a part of itself. 
As Lysias says, it made men di^i iraXirmv attSXttat. Demos- 
theneB (in Mid. p. 544, 10) speaks of it as xoi viS/uuv xal Skuv 
itoi B-oiTMii uripijo-it. It left him like a foreigner, without 
civic rights, dependent entirely upon the good-will or mercy 
of his neighbors for protection to his life and property. He 
could enter no public temple, and of course could sue or he 
sued in no court of law. See the striking description given 
by Demosthenes (in Mid. p. 544, 545), who calls a man 
who is under nn^iio before the court, while he narrates his 
Btory ; the man, however, must stand speechless. This kind 
of ariiila was inflicted as a punishment by law for various 
offences, such as corruption, embezzlement, cowardice or de- 
sertion in war, perjury, neglect or abuse of parents, prosti- 
tution {(TuiptitTit), insult to officers of the state, abuse of con- 
fidence {as in the ease of an arbitrator), and similar offences. 


174 NOTES. 

Public debtors of all kinds were under complete aniila until 
their debts were paid. 'An/ita in iUel/'mchiAcA neither con- 
fiacation of property nor a deacent of the father's di?gra(re by 
inheritance to the children : either or both of these could, 
towever, be added lo an/da in Bpecial cases. Those guilty 
of murder, treason, or gross sncrilege, if ihey Ipft the country 
before actual conviction, were condemned to perpetual ban- 
iahment and confiscalion of property. (Demosth. in Mid. 
p. 628, 7 ; Xen. Hell. I. 7, 22.) So for the offence men- 
tioned by Demoath. in Neaer. p. 1S63, 6. See also Dem. 
in Lept- p. 504, 22. In other cases the ari/ila is to descend 
to poslerity, as Li provided in the laws quoted by Demosth. 
in Aristocr. p. 040, I ; in Mid. p. 551, 25 : here the confis- 
cation of property seems always to have been included. 
Public debtors, ahhougli they were wholly orifioi so long as 
they remained debtors, could yet regain their rights by pay- 
ment of the debt ; on the other hand, if they died indebted to 
the state, their drifii'a descended with the debt, as vpart of 
the inheritance, to the children. Those who sufiered 111-1^110 
as a punishment for a crime remained Stiiuu tlu^ugh life ; 
they could be reinstated only by an extraordinary act of 
grace, which was always looked upon as exceptional and 
illegal. Such reinstatements occurred only when the Klate 
■waa in extreme danger, as, for example, after the battle of 
Chaeronea. (See Grote, Vol. XI. p. 694.) See Hermann, 
StaatsalterlhUmer, §§ 1 24 and 52 ; Privatalterth. § 70 ; with 
the authorities quoted in the notes : also Meier, De Bonis 
Darnnatorum, pastim. An important classical passage is 
found in Andocides, De Mysler. §§ 73-76." Goodwin. 

770. tKvtpSitlaai. Thia word alludes to the shy habits 
of the partridge, and the dexterity of tiie bird in avoiding 
pursuit I'o dodge like a. partridge would express, in a 
roundabout way, the meaning of the Greek. The Scholi- 
ast remarks further : " ^laffiiKKn Si in tariyvaaufvay taX •Poyj 

NOTES. 175 

fijj 11 mflfn-n. Oi &( mpSiKtt jroiwupyoi Smtt eijjfpSc SiaBtSpd- 
rreoiiai Toit Sij/jturat, TTpXXdmi un-rioi yfv6fifi»>i Kai tnt^aWoi^rs 
iai/Toit Kapipij. fijuXu oif, DTI itoi nap ^piv ywo'^tmt SieaTai 
jraXiv iptiyriv." 

783. ufnicTot, tin^s, i. e. here, according to tlie Homeric 
nsi^, the god?. 

787. fiLrix',JHStfor example. 

788-790. E?ra .... Karhnara. Tbc?e lines, and the 
freer ones which follow, must le considered in reference lo 
the mode of dramatic representation at Athens, for a partic- 
ular account of which, see Donaldson's Theatre of the 
Greeks. We may say here, in geiieral, that these repre- 
Bentations were limiled to a few successive days, several 
dramas being brought out, one after the other, beginning 
early in the morning. The long exhibitions of the tragedians 
could not fail to be banlered by the license of the comedians. 
Botha thinks it probable that the tragedies were act«d in the 
morning, having the precedence on account of their superior 
dignity, and the comedies in the afternoon ; " cum para- 
tiores ad jocos essent animi spectatorum ; quo pertinere 
dicaa, quod avolantem ilium a choris tragicis post prandium 
rediro posse ait i^ ' ^pSs, ad nos, comoedos, ni faUor." It 
'may be presumed that the arrangements differed at different 

735. (9ou^eurwip. The theatre was divided, and some of 
the aeala were set apart for the several official bodies of the 
Btate, for the t^rj^ot, for foreign miniRlers, Sue. The por- 
tion here aUudcd to was that which was occupied by the 
members of the Senate of Five Hundred. As the Scholiast 

says : " Olror roiror toS eidrpoo uMi/itVor, roit (SouXtuxnit, 
is tat 6 Tois irji^&ait i<p<iPiK6s. Uap' vpSur Si dvrl dn-o roS 

799-801. The Di it rephes mentioned here is said by the 
Scholiast lo have acquired wealth by the manufacture of 




willow wicker-baakels for wine-flasks. Hiring accom- 
plished tliua muuh, it Heems he aspired to the higli offices 
of slate. The ^iXapxoi ivere ten offiprere of cavalry, elected 
one from each trihe, hut in the general asEembliea of the 
people. They" were suborilinate to the imrop^oi, who were 
two in number, also chosen to exercise the general com- 
mand in the cavalry service ; so that Diitrephes, in passing 
from one office to the other, rose a grade in mihtary dignity. 
— t'S otflevit (jt-ydXa vpaTTit, from nothing (or noiody) he ia 
ftouruhing greatly. — 'nrniiktKTpviiv. " Bou^nn-ijt. 'O ykp 
aKticrpuav ir roit Spuai nfuuTtpot. Navis hoc insigne fuissCj 
ex Ran. 883, intelhgitur. Praeterea monnit B., ficlae avja 
nomcn uaurpari, quo signtGcetur, Diilrephcm istum auperbe 
et cum faslu quodam incedere, itaque manere Comicum in 
metaphora de avibu^ et volatu. Fo^e etiam hnia\tiiTpvira 
ease magnum gallinaceum secundum Sch., quae via est roS 
nnror in multis compositia ; qua de re laudat Fiacheri annott. 
ad Weller. in. 1, p. 237." Bolhe. 

802. Tain-1 Toiavrt. A colloquial expression = Well, ihii 
wilt do. Peisthetairos and Euelpidea come out of the house 
of Epopa, having partaken of (he root which should furniah 
them with a growth of wings. They cannot help laughing 
at each other's ridiculous appearance. 

806. E« . . . . eruyytypappfvtf. to a cheaply (or badly) 
painted goose. " Conlnuium tit ndXAoi. Aeneas Soph., 

Epist. 25 ; Ml) Tnuriv iradol/io', &aTrfp an ft Tic ^<irfpa<fios tIjw 
'Ekfvi]!' fit KahXot (cleganter) ypa^nv r^t iitijHiXljE iisiKa6ovTa." 

809. TdS' ffT.po7t. This refers to a pass!^ found 

in the frajjmenla of the Myrmidons ol' Aeschylus. (No. 123, 
Dind. ; No. 1 33, Nauck.) The Scholiast says : ■' 'EwiMt yip 
ti^vmuc^B aiiTTiv KcAiinapnifiiaf 

' 'Qt 8" (irri /iilfloiv ™i; Ai^uot-ijcuip Xoynt, 
n\i7y(W arpaKTif Tofwip toj- arrov 

Tda' avx !nr' oXXui., dXAi toIv avTuv irripdls 

Hmoiijur yap 6 Aia)(v\os airav rpaii'irifuvBv Ka\ %iyotn-a ravTO, 
fundfj eiBt To ^eAor firttpap^vov Kai IpTTtirapfAtvov auTa. Kcrl 
ijlitis oZ», (^irlv, oix '"' SXtiav traaxonev Taura, aWi 

Tfl iavTav ynifijj." The idea was made use of by Waller, 

as quoted by Poraon and Wlieelwright : — 
" That eagle's (ate and mine are one, 
Who on the shaft that made him die 
Espied a ftather of hia own, 
Wherewith he wont to soar so high." 

And by Byron, also, in his " Engliah Bards and Scotch 
Eeviewers," in the beautiful lines on Kirke Wtite: — 

" So the Blnick Cagle, stretched apoo the plain, 
So more tLrough rolling clonds to soar again, 
Viewed his own feather on the fatal dart. 
And winged the ehtift that qnivcrcd in bis heart ; 
Keen were bis pangs, but keener far to teel 
He noned the pinion that impelled the steel ; 

. Wbile the same plumage that bad warmed bie nest 
Drank the last lifo-drop of his tileading breast." 

ei5. jcdXiS/icv. G. § 88. 

816, 817. SirapTTip .... Ktiplav. It ia not easy to give 
an Etiglisb equivalent for Ibe pun in this passage. Besides 
being the name of the city, SwdprT/ meant a rope made of 
spartum, or broom, and used for bed-cords, while utipia was 
also the cord, stouter than the other, for a bedstead. The 
whole i."*, probably, kn expression of llie Athenian dish'ko 
of Sparia, conveyed in a joke. It is likely the words had 
some association, now lost, which gave a pungency to the 
allusioQ that we are unable to feel. Thi.i passage is referred 
to by Eustathiua in the commentary on II. I, — alS &!• xoptiyn 
(sc SilpTin), I would not put one even on my bedstead. — iKmr 
— A fxo'F"- G- S 109, G; § 52, 1. 

178 NOTES. 

820. Xnvvar Ti vanr, tirmetfiing very grand, or pompotUi 
— Vt^^otatarflaii. Cloud-caekoofoten. LHcian, in his amus- 
ing work, Verae Ilislorlae (tiie original of GolliTer's Tra«> 
dIs), refers to liiis pliicc. 

824, 823. e((ry(wivi, Aiirxivn'. Of tlie former of t 
peraonages, tiotli of whom were boastera of wealth vrhidt 
they did not possess, ihe Scholiast sujs: "Arym 

yoXfjinropac ric I'/So^XcTO cuvt, TttpJiirit a^iAr, i^niSArXovrtw 
'EtaKi'iTo if KmFHit. on iroXXa mrnrjT'OH/iti'or oiiiv iri^a, 
EBrroXit tr A^jioit"; — and of the latter: ''OJtm virifs, t 
Itiros nai airit (itl jrXoi™." 

82G, 827. The bragging U impuled jestingly, and in 9 
humorous shifting of cbe constmclion, to ll: 
of to the giants. The plain of Phlegra was in Thrace, wher« 
the poets laid the scene of the mythical conflict between tl 
gods and giants. According to HerodotUa (VH. 12J 
gra was (he ancient name of Pallene, with which the a 
mcnt of Straho (VII. frag. 27} agrees. 

829. llo\ioSxoi- Patron deity of the city, as Atbena was 
at Athens. — n-tnXov. This was the sacred shawl, or mantle,' 
borne in the Panathcnuic procession to the Acropolis, and' 
placed on the statue of Athena. It was wrought by the 
Athenian maidens, and covered with figures representing 
incidents in the mythical accounts connected ^ 
history of the goddess herself. Bepresentationa of thei, 
procession still exist in the remains of the frleKea of th 
Parthenon, which have ijeen oiien published. There i 
a figure of Athena in the Dresden Museum, wearing ft, 
peplus wliicb represents the Olympic gods conquering the 
giants. (See Mailer's Denkmaler der alten Kunst, PI. X, 
Mo. 3C.) The allusion to the peplua in such close ( 
nection with this fable makes it prohahle that the poet h 
Been tliis very repreaentalion of tlie subject. 

830. s-oXidia. Tlie epithet of Athena as the goddess 
of the dty. 

NOTES. 179 

832, 833. nawnrklav .... EXficrfiiin;!. The circumslance 
that Athena Polias was represented with a complete suit of 
armor gave the poet an opportunity for a sarcasm upon the 
effemiaacy of this noted profligate. 

83i. n*Xo/3yittdc. There was a portion of the ancient 
wall of the Acropolis, called the Pdasgic wall, which the 
Athenians helieved to have been built by a wandering band 
of Pelasgians, who were said to have appeared in Athens 
about 1100 B.C. (Herod. VI.137iPausan.I.28,23.) The 
poet hci'e seems fo allude to a fanciful derivation of the 
name Ui>.a<Tyni from irtXopyoi, storks, to which Strabo refers 
(V. p. 221J, speaking of the compiler of the 'AtSU as nar- 
rating, in regard to the Pelosgian race, 3ia t4 nXavlfrac tlnai 
Kol 8Ut)v opveav iwi<j>oiTai' tji o6c Frux' TiHrout ni\apyo!it 
4tr4 Tiiv 'Attkuip jiXi;S^kii, See also Dion. Hal, Ant. I. 28. 
At any rate, he has a chance, seldom neglected, of punning 
npon the resemblance of the name to the word nAapyit, 
stork; a name, therefore, well suited to tlie walls of Bird- 

837. 'Aptas kottJi, the chicken of Area. 

838. .V.r^fl™i ol<«^. G. § 93, 1, N. 2 (i).— ™i ,rn-p£... 
The Pelasgic wall was on the precipitous side of the rocky 
Acropolis. The Scholiast saya ; " Ai'Su/idt ^ijo-i ri IliXaoyi- 
jeAv Tt'ixos bn mrpav «((iTflat." Here the Persian bird, the 
cock, as being martial and pugnacious, was to dwell and 
defend the citadel. 

839-847. Peisthetairos now bids his companion to 
mount the air, and help the bnildera. He is to carry the 
rubble-stone {x^^"")' '"^ ^^rip himself and mix the mortar 
(btjXoh inobic tpyntiov), to carry Up Ihe hod {Xttarriv), and, 
for the sake of a little variety, to tumble down the ladder. 
"Quia," says Blaydea, "aliqunndo id aedificantibus in aa- 
cendcndo earn (i. e. sealam) et descendeudo accidit," Then 
he is to see to having tlie sentries s-tationed ; to take care 


180 NOTES. 

Etnd eorei the embers, so that the workmen may shnqra 
ba.Te fire wilhin reach ; to run rouni], with a liltle bell, to 
keep the scDtinels alert. This was the duty of the officers. 
See Thacjd. IV. 135. Then, by way of relief, he is lold fo 
get a nap whenever he can. He is also to despatch a herald 
up to the godii, and another down to men ; and, having at- 
tended to these various orders, he is to come back for fresh 

848. Ol/uaCt nop' ?^i'. Euelpides ia vexed at these orders. 
He gives utterance to his vexation jocosely, by repeating 
the last words of Pels the tairos, nap' t/ti, in a different sense; 
and instead of the usaal form of jiolile leave-laking, jcaipt, 
the grumhlea out, Oifiufi, groan, -= Detiil take you, wap ifi, 
for all I care. 

851. Triiy^arra T^u Tro^irqv, w/to »haU conduct the proeet- 
sion, i. e. the religious ceremonies connected with the 
organization of the commonwealth, and its consecration to 
the gods. 

852. Jiat .... x'pw^"- The servants are directed to 
take up the basket and the ewer. Says Bothe : " Monuit 
B. secundum Ahresch. Anim. ad Aesehylum t, 1, p. 503, 
eeq., et Dawes. Misc. Crit., p. 235, aXpeiv ««£<- esse aferr* 
camstrum, sed a^ioBai k. idportaiidum in pompa tvseiptre, 

et irai, (Toi, etc., dici pro lioc £ iniiJfr (servi), ifxitv o pin 
alpiada TP ™™Ci', o Si tTtpos r^v x'P t-"- ~~ Sch. : Trir X'P'^1- 
To vSmp. — B. ; t^i- x'P"'^" "P' Horn, esse nquam ad ablu- 
endaa manus, ^'pn^ov aulem vas, quo aqua ilia continelur, 
docuerunt interpp. Pollucis, p. 1292, hoc taraen loco xh"^ 
pro x'p"!^ poni videtur (per Bynecdoehen)." 

853-860. According to the Scholiast, these Unes of the 
chorus are a parody upon a passage in the Pelcus of Soph- 
ocles. (See Naiick. Frgm. No. 446, 447.)— ni; pmi, 
the Pythian cry; that is, the Paean. — Xnlpir. This was a 
poor Theban piper. The Scholiast says ; " 'fii avrapirus 

■ViiWdc ovroij rale ((iu^i'aic. 'He 5( o Xaiplt oirot KlSopi^Sil, 
Ka't ■yiyowi' aiXFjT^t. Mi-idiovtufj S( oSrnO Ka) ^tpfKpaTTjs iv 
'hypioif *<p' iSo), KiSitpaiBop t/f Knitio-Tot iytviTo; 
— *0 OftiTiou Mf'Xrjt. — Mtrd Be M^Xijra Ti'c; — 'Ex' 

854. r™^>n■apalWD■at r^*. G, § 112, N. 7. 

863. Kopaa:' .... iiart^op^tapirar. The piper was a 

crow, i. e, the aclor repreaenled a crow by decking himself 
with a crow's h^ad. He also wore a mouthpiece, like any 
olher piper, and so astouished Peiathetaii-os by the oddity of 
the combinalion. 

The scene that follows is a daring burlesque upon the 
eacrifleial ceremonies of the Athenians in building the foun- 
dation of a new city. The priest lays the offerings upon 
the altar, and then invokes the new gods, beginning, accord- 
ing to cuslora, with 'EffTi'a (Bird- Vesta), and applying to the 
birds epithets parodied from the solemn designations of the 
deities. The comic poets were allowed to use great free- 
dom in dealing with the popular religion. 

869. imivupuKt. This is taken from ZaainApanr, an epi- 
thet of Poseidon. See Aristoph. Eq. 560, and ^ovviaparot in 
Liddell and Scott. 

870. nufli'y. " Epitheta Apollinis tribuit cycno, qui Apol- 
lini aacer eat. Latona autem in Ortygia insula, quae aVi 
T&v opriiyiav, a eotuniicibus dicta est, Apollinem peperit et 
Dianam." Bergler. To which Blaydes adds : " Latona 
igitur, quoad roolier est, iprvyo/i^Tpa dicitur, ut quae in 
Ortygia insula pepererit ; quoad avis eat, quia cotumii 

872. KoXaivi'r- A name under which Artemis was wor- 
shipped by the inhabitants of Myrrhinus, an Athenian deme 
of the tribe PandionLs. Pausanias ppeaks of a wooden 
efatue of llie goddess, under this appellation, which existed 
in ihe district of Myrrhinus in his day. The joke upon the 

182 NOTES. 

paronomaaia between KoXmn't and 'AiaXardit, a goMJinck, is 
not very poinled. 

873. (piiuyOt^ 2a^u(itf. Sabazius was the name of the 
Fhiygian Boechus. tpvyiKas, a chaffinch, is a punning allti- 
Eion to tbe Phrygians. 

875. KXtcwpiVoL. Tius indiridaal ia mentioned in the 
Frogs (1437) as a large, heavy person, and this is the rea- 
son why Peisthetairos makes tbe ostrich rootber Cybele and 
mother of Cleocritus. 

877. ouioio-i Kol X/owi. Tbe Chians were usefiil allies 
to the Athenians at tlie beginning of the Peloponnesian war, 
and at other thnes. Wherefore, according to the statement 
of the historian Theopompus, quoled by the Scholiast, they 
were accustomed lo pray (o the gods, Xfow -re SiSdmu ayaSi 
nai aipltriv qirroU, tO hegtow hiessinga on the Chiav» and on 
themselves. See Thucyd. IV. 51. Eopolia, also quoted by 
the Scholiast, has the following lines : — 

" Kvrr) Xi'of, naKfi Triftie ■ 
TliftTtft yap vftly pavs ^taKpds, □I'dpae & oTav ^^(tjj 
Kui r^XXa nti6ap\ti KoXur, aii\r]KTas Staiitp 'mros" 

878, Xloiaiv .... jrpo(r«£i,£;™«. The manner in which 
Peialbetairos speaks of l)ie cnstom of always adding the 
Chians in public prayers shows, as the commentalotB well 
remark, that their fidelity was a subject of ironical com- 
mendfttioQ. And, in point of fact, immediately after the 
disasters of the Sicilian expedition, the Chians, together with 
the Erythraenns, went over to tbe Lacedaemonians. See 
Thucyd. VIII. 4. 

879-883. Tbe birds joined as heroes in the invocation 
are: — Trep^plan, the porphyrion (purple water-fowl). — »<- 
XiiiafTi, pelican, still called in Greece nikitan (tbe Pdeea- 
nits cnspus ; see Von der MUhle, p. 132, who says this was 
the only pelican known to the ancient Greeks, and that it is 
very common in Greece through (be whole year, frequenling 

especially the lukoa and swamps). — itiXtKivif, the spoon or 
shovel-bill {Platalea lericerodius, Vod der Muhle, p. 118). 

— ^X«|i8i. This is considered an unknown bird. The name 
does not occur in Aristotle, From ita elymology, however, 
it must have been bright-colored. I venture to suggest that 
it may be one of the hloodfinches, and probably the Pi/r- 
rhiila serinvs, of which Von der Miihie says : " It is very 
common in Greece, wherever there are fruit-trees. It as- 
sumes there an external jJery" (^X(|it) "or intense color- 
ing. In autumn and winter, it wanders about the solitary 
fielda in company with Iinneta and greenfinches." (p. 46.) 

— TtTpnKi, the keathcock. — rawfi, the peacock. — Ata, a bird 
mentioned by Aristotle, Hist. An. IX. 16. 2, as having a 
pleasant voice. lis habits, as described by him, correspond 
with those of the dipper, or water-ouael, which it probably is. 
— ^anKif, the teal; probably the Anas crecca, described by 
Von der Miihie aa being found pretty frequently in Greece, 
in the winter. — iXaag, another unknown bird; but from the 
company which he keeps here, he must hare aifiniiies with the 
teat The name would seem to mean the marcher, or driver, 
from fXaupoi. Probably it is the bittern (Ardea stelUtris), 
which, according to Von der Miilile (p. 116), ia found in 
Greece all the year round. Its attitudes and movements 
are stiff, like those of a soldier on the march. — ipabi^, the 
heron. — Karap&mji, a bird described by Aristotle, Hist. An. 
IX. 12, 1, as living on the sea, and diring and remaining 
long under water ; commonly, but incorrectly, translated ga- 
net. It is a diver, and should be called shear-water, or storm- 
petrel. — fieXayjtopu'^y, the black-headed learbler, or black-cap 
{St/lvia melanocephala), whose habits are described by Vou 
der Muhle (p. 71), and mentioned several times by Aris- 
totle ; sometimes called the monk. — alyiOa^\<f, Oie titmouse, 
of wliich Aristotle mentions three species (Hist. An. VIII. 
5,3), probably Aegithallus venduUnus. See Von der Miihie, 
p. 48. 



884. Hav', irnwrai. Observe that the active and middle 
forma are uped apparently wiihout distinction. — xakar. G. 
§ 112, 1. — (c tapiiK'ic, a ludicrous introduction of a coramoa 
imprecation, suggested here by the invocation of bo maQ^ 

883. Itptiov, the victim which the priest la about to sacri- 
fice ; the eame aa the irpodaTiaf in V. 858. 


'. the T 

890. The priest, ordered awaj by Peisthetairos, changes 
his tune, and promiaea to invoke only one of the gods. 
" Sollicitua niniirum," says Bljtydes, " ne, cura sacri pera- 
gendi Fbthetnero raandatn, ipse nullam extorum partem ha- 
Liturus sit. Saccrdolj enim victimac reliquiae ut et peUia 
Bolebant dari." 

894, 895. t'vfp ?f(«, at least, if you are to have, &c G. 
§ 49, 1, N. 3. (See above, v. 761, and note.) 

897. viuttor Kik Kipara, Like the EngUsh sh'n and 

899. In the entertaining scene whi<i follows, the poet 
indulges in a pleasant vein of eatire at the expense of the 
lyric and dithyrambic poets. The reader of the Clouds will 
remember several passages in the same spirit in that play. 
Before the consecrating cereraonies are fairly completed, 
one of these ballad-mongers arrives, with dithyrambic verses 
cut and dried in honor of the new city. The reader will 
note the amusing mockery by which the poet introduces the 
Doric peculiarities of style, and, in general, the lyrical move- 
ments even of Pindar himself. Peisthetairos meets him 
with astonishment and contempt. 

904. MouD-aoii' Brpairuv oTpTip6r. The poet perhaps alludes 
to such passages in Homer as Odys. IV. 23 : — 

Orptipit SipOTsai' MiMXaou KaiMpoto. 
Perhaps he had also in mind the lines preserved from the 

NOTES. 185 

*Sk6i T(c fZc KoXaftSnia ylpajv (at Si'ios aoiSos, 

Co.'liparc also Arcliiiochus, Frag. I (52) : — 

Eiitl 3* iyi> dipairae /uc 'EmAioio aimin-of, 
Kol Movofatmjipatbf dupov (n-ioTa/itvoc. 

906. itrf/iii' ?x'"' It ""8 tlie fashion among the yoang 
gentlemen at Afliena to wear long hair. See Clouds, v, 348. 
Bui, of course, the slaves could not be allowed to imitate 
them. The poet calls himself " the busy slaTe of the honey- 
Urngued Muses." 

907. Siiaatakoi, teachert. In dramatic affairs, the Siftd- 
tTKoKas was properly (he one who trained the chorus and the 
actors, and, as this was done mostly by the poet himself, it 
also meant the poet. 

910. drpijpoy XijBa/How. Brunck says: " Poetae aroiculuia 
orpTjpiJip jocoi^e Toeat, quia erat ttTpTjuivov." Gary translates 
the line, " Troth, and thy jacket has seen service, too." It 
is aa if the poet liad called himself the holy servant of the 
Mates, and Peislhetairos had replied, " Thou hast a holy 
jacket, too." 

911. KQTJ .... avttfiBapJtt ; A jocose perversion, instead 
of aviim}!, equivaletit to " What the devil brought you up 
here ? " Bolhe, however, shows that i^SilpiirSai is also used, 
though in a .=omewhat different Gcni?e, where no snch play 
upon the word is intended. He cites from Demosthenes, in 
Mid. p. 560, 8: 'AXXa Btiiwi riwr do-ii', S 3i^ptt 'Aftj^aioi, <p8tl- 
pia-Sai wpis Tour liKovaiaus, i. a. in joining iheimelvei to the 
rich to their own hurt. 

912-914. Mrti;, Ki/iXin, mpStvtia, tiixaviSov. Cyclic songs, 

that is, songs sung by circular choruses round the altars of 

the gods, generally in honor of Dionyaos ; and songs sung in 

the fame manner by choruses of maidens, in the composition 


186 NOTES. 

of which Simonides excelled. For an excellent account oi 
the different species of Greek lyrical composition, see Mul- 
ler*s History of Greek Literature, Chapters XIV., XV. 

916. TrdXai /cAiJfo). G. § 10, 1, N. 3. 

917. dtKarrjv, See note to 494. 

91 9 -925. This poetical flight is in imitation of one of Pin- 
dar's Hyporchemes. See Donaldqllfs Pindar, pp. 356, 357. 
The words are also alluded to byrfato, Phaedrus, p. 236 D. 

924. Tea KtifxiK^, ^^ nutu tut capitis^ Blaydes. 

925. €yXv Tttv. Says Blaydes : " Mtki ttbi. Dorice pro 
c/ioi, aoi. Dithyrambicos irridet, et praecipue Pindanun, 
qui hujusmodi Dorismos ingerebant. Apud Pindarum t6 
ifiiu frequens est in petitionibus, ut monet Scholiasta. Ri- 
dicule hie igitur rctv post ifiiv infert dithyrambicus, quasi 
poetam donando aliquo munere sibimet benefacturus sit 
Pisthetaerus, propter eximia carmina, quibus eum celebrans 
poeta gratiam relaturus sit.'* 

926. n-a/>c^fi .... TTpdyfiara, Will give US trouble, 

927. £(.... a7ro<^fvfov/A€^a, Unless we shall get rid of 
him by giving him something. G. § 50, 1, N. 1. 

928. OuTOff. Addressed to an attendant.— cnroXada. This 
was an outside garment made of skin. 

931-940. The words of the poet are still a parody 
upon Pindar. See Donaldson's Pindar, p. 357. 

^^ 'Sofidbeao't yap iv ^kvBols dXarai ^rpdnovy 
Os dfjM^ocfiopriTOP oiKOP ov irinaTCLL * 
'AicXf^; S' €^a. 

" This fragment is part of the same Hyporcheme as the 
preceding, and is derived from the same source (Schol. 
Aristoph. Av. 925). It is stated that Hiero had given the 
mules, with which he had won the Pythian victory in ques- 
tion, to his charioteer, who seems to have been one Straton, 
itnd Pindar here begs, in a roundabout way, that he will 

NOTES. 187 

give Stralon the chariot also : ' Stralon is like a person 
wandering among the Scythians with horses only, and no 
chariot to live in.' " The point of the application and the 
parody is evidenf. As the Scholiast says: " A^Xoii ^ti 
Xit£™ ahfl jTpir Tg oTioXdBi." Blaydes adds : " De Seythis, 
qui hiberno tempore propter frigoria in clem en tiara bona 
Eua in plaustra conferentes in a)iam regionem migrabanl. 
Vid.Herodot. IV. 11-19; Aeschyi. pMm. 710; Diod. Sic. 

II. 43. SchoL ; 'O ni) Ixi"* fi« ixturt aiia(av Srifiot irap' aVToU 

943-948. The poet, grateful for the douhle gift he has 
just received, promises to celebrate the "fearful," "cliill- 

949, 950. Ttairayl ri upviph .... \a^i>v, But you've 
escaped these chills now you 've got a coat. 

95 1, 952. oUsinoT fXjrioTi roiirov ittiriaSai, Inever dreamed 
of this, thai this fellow had heard, &c. Here jrtjreo-flat rep- 
resents oBroe irtnuDTQi in the oratio recta, G. S 73, I. 

953. ail. Addressed lo the priest, who is now to resume 
the ceremonies. But before he has had time to get fairly 
started again, another speculator, a dealer in oracles, ap- 
pears. " Dicit haec sacerdoli, qui jam sacra denuo auspi- 
caturus silentium imperat ((v^ijfifa tma ; vide Ran. 352, et 
a B. laudatum Spanh, ad Callim. h. in Apoll. 17), aqnam 
lustralem dispergit et aram circumit i affertur hircus immo- 
landus, cum oraculorum interpres, epularum cupidus, accurrit 
per medias aves, et eum maclari vetat." Bothe. 

954. Korap^n is a religious word, used of the preliminary 
ceremonies of sacrifices, particularly of plucking the hair 
from the head of the victim, and burning it upon the altar. 
Compare fiij Karap^Tj with n^ i^pt Jn v, 95B. G. § 8G. 

957. BiciBos xP^fF^'i **" oracle of Bads. Eacis was an 
ancient Boeotian prophet, supposed to have given oracles at 
Heleon in Boeolia, under the inspiration of the Corycian 



war. But the d 
Scarcely a day paasea 

njmpba. Ilia oroelea, Bome of which are preserved by 
Herodotus aud Pausanias, wore in hexameter verse. See, 
for example, Hdt, VIII. 20, 77. He is meniioned also in 
the Knights and Peace of Aristophanes, There waa a col- 
lection of hijj oracles, like the Sibylline books at Kome. 
These oracles ore here burlesqued, as well as tlie supersti- 
tion of consulting soothsayers, like Lamjion, for instance, 
before engaging in any enterprise of moment. The temper 
of mind wiiich led the Athenians to find some ancient oracle 
applicable to any remarkable event which happened may be 
illustrated from Thucydides, in his account of the com- 
mencement of the Peloponnes 
exists everywhere among in 
vithout some ancient prediction appearing in the newspa- 
pers, by which present events have been foretold. But the 
whole race of soothsayers, and their tricks and evasions, are 
mercilessly dealt with more than once by Aristophanes. 

959, 960. For wph oUlaai sjler a negative sentence, see 
G. S 106, N. 2. 

962, 963. >6,Bu Eeferring to the XuH»^''=. *^^ ^off- 
friendskip, and intended as a hit at the two Athenians, who 
are designated by the wolves, that have founded a city with 
the crows (see ante, opvcai. Bird-town, which was placed 
between Corinth and Sicyon), /Krofii, &c. 

966. IIiui!ffl;ia, Pandora, i. e. the all-giver. The purpose 
of the soothsayer being to extort gifts from the founders of 
the new city, he significantly repeats an oracle commanding 
tbem to sacrifice to the aU-gieer. This is pleasantly brought 
out in the following lines. 

967. 8e 8( Ki. G. § 61, 3. Notice the Epic forma «' and 
it^tv (v, 968), as well as the dactylic hexameter. 

969. ^^Xlov, the book, i. e. the book containing the ora- 
cles of Baci:^. 

970. cmXayx"'"', ^he entrails, \. e. of the viclim about to 
be offered. 

NOTES. ,59 

977. i^eypa^aiirjii, I hare had copied. Observe the force 
of tLe middle voice. 

983. Aainrav, AioirtiS'js. Both noted soothsajera. The 
former is mentioned in the Clouds, 

987, geq. A new character now arrives in the city. 
Meton, the celebrated observer and astronomer, who de- 
vised the cycle of nineteen years. See Diet of Antiq., 
under Calendar. Gr. ; also, Fasti Ilcllcnici, p. 301. Meton 
is also the subject of the jests of Aristophanes elsewhere. 
See Clouds, 615, seq., and note. The Scholiast Bays: 

" KtTiiiv Spiaros oorpowifiot Kal ytapirptjs, Touiou irTriw A 
fviauris 6 Xiy6firi'ot MfVoirai. *i)oi Si KoXXiVifKlTDt iv KoXoji^ 
dfaOi/ta Tl iwat avT-ot am-pokoyiKoe. Eii(pp6nos Se, oti toiu 
S^ficoi. ^1/ U KoXoiw>D.'' 

088. rl apcioffi.' (sc. fiKia) ; G. § 109, 5. 

993. 'EXXdt X" KoXuwiE. Besides the explanation of the 
reference to Coloaos, given \>j the Scholiast, the jest in- 
tended is much the ?ame as if, ia speaking of some famous 
personage, we should say of him that he was " known to 
America and to Hull." 

996. jryiyta. The sky is compared to a uTiyevt, or extin- 
guisher, in the Clouds. See Clouds, 96, and note, with the 
references there given. The whole passage is made pur- 
poFCly nonsensical. 

1000. 'O nilxXot .... TCTpaytami, that the Circle may be 

1004. 'AvBpa^ot eoX^t, Thefellorn is a Thales. 

1007. Siv^XoToun-ai. Strangers were sometimes driven 
out in a body from Sparla. The general inhospitality of 
Sparta is touched upon by Isocrates (Panegyricus), and 
contrasted with the liberality of Athens. 

1009. irraamiiTts are you. at feud i 

1010, 1011. '0p^6,^p.ahhv ao«4 We are of one mind, 

to thrOsh all the rascals. 

td, J 


190 NOTES. 

1012, 1013. imayoifu rap* ap, G. § 52, 2. — N^ • • • • S»j 
Yes, by Zeus, you had better ; for I donH know whether you 
could he too quick, — avraU, they, i. e. the blows. 

1015. dpafierpriaeii. The word is used, of course, in 
allusion to Melon's offer to survey and lay out the town. 
He now orders him to make tracks {obovs) in another sense. 

1016. wpo^evoi. Boeckh, Public Economy of the Athe- 
nians (Book I. Chap. 9), says : " The Greeks tolerated a 
species of consul in the person of the Proxenus of each 
state, who was considered as the representative of his coun- 
try, and was bound to protect the citizens who traded at the 
place. If, for example, an inhabitant of Heraclea died at 
any place, the Proxenus of Heraclea was, by virtue of his 
office, obliged to make inquiries concerning the property 
which he left behind him. On one occasion, when an inhab- 
itant of Heraclea died at Argos, the Proxenus of Heraclea 
received his property." Upon the inia-KOTroi, the same writer 
says : " As the Spartans had their Harmosts, so had the 
Athenians officers named Episcopi (eVto-iroTroc, ^vXaxfr), as 
inspectors in the tributary states ; Antiphon had mentioned 
them in his oration concerning the tribute of the Lindians, 
but we are not informed whether they were in any way 
concerned with the collection of the tributes." He after- 
wards adds, that the Episcopi, who were sent to subject 
states, received a salary, probably at the cost of the cities 
over which they presided. See also Diet of Antiq., Upo^^vog 

and 'ETTlO-KOTTOt. 

1017. Kvdfui^, hy the heart. Alluding to the mode of ap- 
pointing certain officers at Athens, beans being used in 
drawing the lots. For the various modes of election, see 
Hermann's Political Antiquities, § 148 (formerly § 149). 
The Episcopus was doubtless represented as an effeminate 
young fellow, like many individuals employed in diplomacy 


1019. iaZXav fii^lnv. Tlie 0tffKtov is the credentials, or 
commission, — the eei'tificate of hie appoiatroent, or perhaps 
his official inatnicliona. Teleas, the person menlioaetl under 
that name in v. 1139, ia here repreaented as the arcbon, or 
magiatrate in whoae department fell the public busmeaa of 
the Birdit. imrXor is applied to the document, because it 
sent bim away from the city, where be might made a 
figure in the courts and Ibe asserabij. 

1021. M^ irpayfiaT fX"*' ""' '" ?*' '"'" t^OuUe. 

1023. iapraaji. A satirical allusion to the intrigues 
frequently carried on between the Greek states and the 
Persian court. Pharuacea waa the name of a Persian 
satrap. The kind of intrigues here alluded lo is described 
in Xenophon's Hellenica, and referred to in the discourses 
of Isocrates. 

102i. o'uToai, this, giving bim a blow. 

1027. Tffl liWia, Ihe two umi ; i. e. the urns used in the 
courts and iissembUes for casting the TOtea for and against 
a person or a measure. The Episcopua bag come provided 
with ibe apparatus necessary for organizing judicial and 
political proceedings on the Athenian model ; but on re- 
ceiving the sort of pay which Peistbetairoa. gives bim, he 
makes off. 

The next character who appears npon the scene ia a 
Tender of decrees and rosolutions. He comes in reading 
one of them, dressed out in all the formalities of Athenian 

1034 ^aKritr<av,foT the purpose of seUinff. G. § 109, 5; 
The object of the psephism is lo require the Nepheloeoccy- 
gians, as being an Athenian colony, founded by two Athe- 
nian citizens, to use the same -weights and measures wilh 
the Athenians. But, instead of mentioning the name of 
Athena, he inserts the Olophyxiana, an insignificant depen- 
dency of Athens in Thrace. 


H O T K 8 . 

1038. A™nl|u)i, i. e. ol aronSfi 
formed from oToriiai, to lament, u 
tlie Olopiiyxians. As if the decree 
ehall use tlie eame weights and 

A ludiw«ius name, 
of Ihc namo of 
All CnlifoniJAnB 
wif/i the Green- 
landers ; " and Peisthetairos replied, " Bui jou si 
epeedily use llie same with the Groanlanders." 

1041, KaXoi>(u, &c., I summon Peisthelairos for 
month Muni/chion, to answer for ovirage. For the fbnns 
of bummoniug, see Clouds, v. 495, aixl note. The Tpa4>4 
Capiat was an action specifically provided for in Attic 
law. .See Meier and Sciiiimann'a Attic Process, Book 
III. 1, Chap. 2, § 5. The month Mimychion (April) was 
the month in wlncli cases between Athenians and foreign- 
era came up for trial, that being the time when stnmgCTa, 
and pai-ticularly deputies from the tributary stafea, were 
present in Athens to pay the annual tax. 

1045. irrijXiji'. A irT^X?7 was a column set up in bo 
public place, on which were engraved laws, treaties, decrees, 
and other documents of public concern. According to the 
column h, then, according to law. 

1047. yparpa .... Bpajyiar, I lay the damages at ten 
thousand drackmai. The y/M^^ ujSpfist was one of the 
actions technically called ayuwi Ti/iijro/, i. e. cases in which 
the court had to decide the penalty. But, in so doing, the 
prosecutor was required lo fix his estimate of the crime, s 
the other parly, when found guilty, also was called upon to 
do the same. The question to be decided by the court was, 
which of the two eslimutea should be adopted as a legal ei 
tence. See Notes to Kennedy's Demosthenes ; Meier and 
Schctmann, Book HI., Inlrod. § 2. 

1049. T^s DT^Xjjt KartTtKat. " Quod nefarium erat, Sio 
KararAav rav 'EKaTalioi' in Ran. 3G4. Videtur respicera 
poeta ad Alcibiadis accusationem de Hermis mutilandia, 
quod eliam noctu evenisse testatur Thucyd. VI. 27," Blay- 

NOTES. 193 

1050, OJnw. The priest, apparently out of patience 
willi tiie numerous delays, is starting to go away and offer 
his fiaeritice in some more quiet place. This ia addressed 
to liim as he turns to depart. Feisthetairos and the others 
follow him, leaving the Chorus alone. Bergler, however, 
remarks : " Excu&itioncm liane fadunt intus sacriflcandi, 
ue hircua immoletur. In Pac. 1021, Trygaeus ingenue id 
fatiilur : — 

Oitras T& flpi' «£«^^"' diujf cK<jiipf 
XbStu rh jrpo^arou T(f j;opi)yQJ irAfsTai." 

Upon this, the Chorus sings a song of exultation in the 
pride of their new-found dignities, looking forward to the 
honors which their exalted position and great services are 
to bring them. While they are thus employed, the sac- 
rificial ritea are elsewhere performing ; and at the close 
of the chorus, the official per^nages return, announcing that 
all the auspices are favorable. 

1053. marrinTf. In this and the following lines, the 
birds now assume the dignity, attributes, and epithets of the 

1059-1061. dI . . . . ino06,T«Tai. The construction 
is this ; the relative ot refers to eijpui', and has for its verb 
Bjropou-icojTcu, to be supplied from mro^oirKiTai ; (0(fojii*Ki ap- 
plies to the insects which consume the fruits of the trees, 
and which arc devoured by the birds. 

1067. &iay6pav. Diagoras, the Melian, ia often alluded 
to aa an atheist. Lysias, in the oration against Ando- 
cides, mention? a price having been set upon his head, on 
account of his having thrown ridicule upon the religion of 
the Athenians. In the Clouds, Socrates is called the Melian, 
for the purpose of casting reproach or ridicule upon him, 
by connecting his name with the doctrines of the Melian 
unbeUever. For an excellent and candid account of this 


194 NOTES. 

person, see the article in Smith's Diet of Greek and Roman 

1068, 1069. This is intended as a pleasant satire upon 
the Athenian exaggerations in expressing their hatred of 
tyranny, and the affectation of the orators of excessive zeal 
for the democracy. Here is an offer of a talent for any one 
who shall kill any of the dead tyrants. Blaydes thinks the 
poet alludes indirectly to the mutilators of the Hermae, the 
Hermocopidae^ who were regarded by the Athenians in the 
light of tyrants, and for killing whom a reiyard was offered. 
(See Thucydides, VL 61.) In imitation of these Attic 
proclamations, the Chorus proceeds forthwith to offer re- 
wards for slaying certain pei'sons who may be considered 
the natural enemies of the republic of the birds. Philoo- 
rates is the poulterer mentioned early in the play. ^rpwBum 
is formed, in imitation of gentile names, from arpavBotj a 

1073. (nrlvovs. Probably a species of ortolan, a small 
bird sold in the market of Athens. Perhaps the Emberoza 
caesta. See Von der Miihle, p. 40. 

1074. Kixkas, thrushes. The Tardus miLsicus probably; 
it is still called in Greece TCrjx^a, 

1075. Ko^ixoKTiv. See vv. 308 and 806. Usually c^ed 
the blackbird, but very different from the English or 
American bird known under that name. It is the Tardus 
merula, still called in Greece KOTCi(f>6s. See Von der Muhle, 
p. 63. 

1076. €tpias rx«. G. § 1 1 2, N. 7. 

1077. iraK(V€iv, to decoy. The Scholiast says :" e7pep€ii>, 
TrpoKCLKtiarBai. 'ElcaOaariv €KTv(l>kovvT€s riva rmv opvieav iardvcn Iv 
diKTvt^, OTTCDS Trj (fxov^ fTpoaKcCKoiTo TO. 6fjLotoy€vj." Dccoy-birds 
were called by the Greeks wdktvTpuu. 

In the antistrophe, other privileges of the birds are very 
poetically set forth. 

XOTES. 195 

1080. dxiTar, the chirper, is the r/rrif, or cica'k, wliich 
ielights in the, sunsliine iJiKmnoviit, sun-mad). 

1093, 1094 -napBina .... Kjjnfv^OTO, delicate, rich, wMte 
myrtle-berriet, and /mils that grow in the gardeni of the 
Graces, i. e. Ihe sweetest and most delicious, Tlie Sciioli- 
ast thinks tlie epitiiet jra/jflriita was applied to myrtle -berries 
because mmdens were fond of eating Iliem. 

The lines that follow form a parabasis, or addresa to the 
audience, in which the poet makes the Chorua his mouth- 
piece, and communicates through it hia opinions, wishes, op 
feelings to the public The judges are those appointed to de- 
cide upon the merits of the rival pieces. See Clouda, vv. 518, 
seq. For the peculiarities of a porabasis, see Munk'a Metres, 
p. 336, lo which may be added the following extract from 
Miiller's History of Gfeek Literature ; — "It was not origi- 
nally a constituent part of comedy, but improred and worked 
out according to rules of art. The chorus, which up to that 
point had kept its place between the thymele and the stage, 
and had tstood with its face to the stage, made an evolution, 
and proceeded in flies towards the theaiTe, in the narrower 
sense of the word ; that is, towards Ihe place of the spec- 
tators. This is the proper parabasig, which usually con- 
siafed of anapaestic tetrnmeiers, occasionally mixed up with 
other long verses; it began with a short opening song (in 
anapaestic or trochaic verse), which was called kommation, 
and ended with a very long and protracted anapaestic sys- 
tem, which, from its trial of tho breath, was called pnigot 
(also mah-on). In this parabasis the poet makes his chorus 
Bpeak of !iis own poetical affairs, of the object and end of 
his productions, of Lis services lo the ?tate, of liis relation to 
his rivals, and so forth. If the parabasis is complete, in the 
wider sense of the word, this is followed by a second piece, 
which is properly the ma,in point, and to which the anapaests 
only serve as an introduction. The chorus, namely, sings a 

Dnor of smM 

lyrical poem, generally a song of praise in lionor 
god, and tlien recitfe', in trocliaJc versea (of which 
eliould, regulnrlj, be sixteen), some joking (.-omplaint, 
reproach against the cily, some wiity sally agaSaat 1 
people, with more or leas reference (o llie leading subji 
of the play ; this is called the epirrkema, or ' what is si 
in adilition.' Both pieces, the lyrical strophe and the epip- 
rhema, are repeated antistrophically. It is clear that tha 
lyrical piece, with its aiitistrophe, aroae from the phalli? 
Eong ; and the epirrhema, with its antepirrhema, Irom (ho 
gibes with which the chorus of revellers assailed the first 
persons they met. It was natural, as llie pavabasia 
the middle of the whole comedy, that, instead of these jesta 
directed against individuals, a conception more sigoificaitt 
and more interesting to the public at large should be eub* 
stituled for th m h he gibes agninst individuals, suit- 
able to the on na na f comedy, though without any 
reference to h n the piec«, might be put 
mouth of tlie w ben r occasion served. 

" As the pa ba mp ely interrupts the action 

comic drama, d n y be introduced at some espedal' 

pause ; we find that Aristophanes Is fond of introducing it 
at the point where the action, after all sorts of hindrance^' 
and delays, has got so far that the crisis must ensue, and it^ 
must be determined whether the end desired will be attained 
or not. Such, however, is the laxity with which comedy 
treats all these forms, that the parabasis may even be divided 
into Iwo parts, and the anapnestical introduction be sep^ 
rated from tlie elioral song ; there may even be a second, 
parabasis (but without the anapaestic march), in order 
mark a second transition in the action of the piece." 

1096. Kfiiyaaiv ijfior, adjudge ui victort. Supply imtaw 

1097. 'AXt^iiBpov, Paris ; who, being appointed jndgq 
of beauty between the rival goddesses, received frooi 



Aphrodite, to whnm he had adjudged the palm, tlie gift of 

1099. rXouKcc AavpioTiKat, Laurian owls, i. e. coins bear- 
ing the figure of an owh See note to t. 303. Laurian, 
because the Attic coinage vaa supplied from the silver 
mines of Laurion, for an account of which see Boeckh'a 
Public Economy of the Athenians, Book III, Chap, 3. See 
also Herodotus, VII. 144; Thucyd. in. 65, The Laurian 
owls are to make their neats in the purgea of the judges, 
and hatch small change. 

1103. ipe^oiitv sphs dii-ov. There* is a play Dpon the 
word oFTov, which, besides aignifyiiig an eagh, is also an 
architectural term, like diViu/ia, the pediment. 

1104. ipxiifv, apeltff office. 



! crescent- 

1107. t/v Si fi7 npivTjTt (sc. fiftas I'uai'). 

)(akiititii6t ia Imperative middle. — Miji^iV™ 
shaped coverings, to protect the statues from being soiled by 
the birds. The rainbow, or glory, encircling the heads of 
stunts in Christian statuary and paintmg, was boi-rowed from 
the custom of the Greek artists of placing these crescents 
over their statues. — (frnptiv. G. § 97. The chorus tells 
them that they had better make themselves bronze p-iviaan 

1103. hs &v (iij ixB ^ •'"' '■"■ fh M''' *X5' G. § 60 ; 


Peislhetairos, having completed the sacrifices, reappears 
upon the scene, and at the same moment a messenger hur- 
ries in, out of breath, to announce the completion of the city 

1113. Stov muirdpffla. G. § 65, 1. 

1114. 'AX^dii- TTMui-. breqlhini/ Alpheus. Tlie allusion 
is to the races at Olympia, near the bauks of the Alpheiia. 

1116. &px'"'^ ° apx-»'. 


1119. IIpo£iirliis i Kofiinnrfv'i, Froxentdes of Bragti 
The person here referred to as a braggart is spoken of aUo 
in the Wosp^. Koiatatrtts, formed from tp/in-oc, as if there 
were a deme bearing ihat name. Carey iranslates it of 
Bragland, For Theagenei", see ante, t. 824. For &, see 
G. § 42, 3. 

1120-1122. SpftaTi .- .. iropfXaa^iT^v, might drive two 
charioU past each other, v:ith hones hamesstd as large as 
the Wooden ; alluding to the ioipios or iovpdnos anrot, in the 
capture of Troj. The allusion wm the more amusing to 
the audience, from thh cireumstanee that a brazen statue r^ 
the Trojiin horse stood on the Acropolis, perhaps in full 
aght of the lliealre. 

1124. Tov lidnpovs, genitive of exclamation. 

1126. Aiyii-HTios. ^^HXivOotpipas. 01 Aiywrroi •«!»- 
^i^ovmi Bit d^fflo^Dpoi. Kal iv Barpaxois (1332). oti o£> 
Spaivr' &>■ [if Spai^i-'] oif Unr6« Alyin-r«,<. — Sch. 

notam est ex Hi-rodoti Euterpe, ut plerique regea assidue 
coegerint eos eaementa portare ad exstruendaa praecipue 
pjramides." Bergler. The labora of the Egyptians in 
building the Pyramids are referred to, a full account of 
■which is given by Ilerodotus, Lib. II. 124, seqq. The 
reader will also remember the tasks imposed Dpon the 
Israelites during their enslavement in Egypt. 

1130. XWoM. Perhaps the common notion, that the cranes 
carried in their beaks, or swallowed, stones, to steady theni' 
selves in their flight, — a notion which Aiistotle remarks 
npon in his History of Animals, — may have arisen from 
observing that some birds swallow gravel as a kind of 
digester. It appears in several forms in llie Scholiasts, 
One story is, that the cranes caiTy stones, so that, wlien 
wearied with flying, they may ascertain hy dropping onsi 
whether they are over Innd or water. At any rate, thia 
popular error is veiy happily employed by the poet in the 

NOTES. 199 

1131. Kplxti, the raib. The species lierc mteoded is 
the HaSus aguaticus, described by Von der Mulile as beiog 
very abundant in the moors of Greece, pp. 91, 92. The 
other birds here mentioned buve already occurred. 

1138- ImoTvirTovTit, spading ; i. e. the geese used their 
web-feet aa spades lo shovel the cement into the hoda of the 

1141. (rtpitfWfifwu. "Praecincias eas esse facete fingit 
Gomicua, quia hujus avis pliumirum dispositio albae zonae 
spociem refert." Blaydes. The Schohast makes a similar 

Zemark : ^^Tfwr t^v vrjirirav tx^vtrtv as itavfjv tv Kixka \r\jKiiv" 

Probably the Anm koschas. (See Von der Muhle, p. 126.) 
Bothe quotes from Wilmsen part of a description of this 
wild duck : " In front, on (he under part of its neck, there 
is a white somicircie," 

The scene described by the messenger I conceive to be 
this, — and the humor of it consists is the ingenious adapta^ 
tion to the habits of the birds O'f the parts they perform in 
the building of the new city. The herons, geese, and ducks, 
not being good flyers, are the diggers and carriers. The 
gi'ese, with thejr web-feet, remain in tlie mud, shovelling it 
upon the broad bilLi of the herons, wliicli are the hods (Ar- 
doTOi). The herons do not carry it to the city, for llieir 
haunts are in muddy places, but hand it over to the swal' 
lows, who are the best and swiftest of all upon the wing, and 
wlio carry it up to the city in their beaks, and then work it 
over as described in the following note. The additional fact 
that the swallow, when building its own nest, picks up mud 
only after rains, makes the divii^iuu of labor natural and 
necessary. In this way the busy builders readily and easily 
accomplish their work. 

1142 - 1144. Hvtc .... xf^ifioHt, and the tisaUows jlew 
up with the trowel behind them, like little boyi, and carrying 
the cement in their mouths. The swallows are selected for 



office on ttccoDntof their skill in lining ihcir nests villi 
mud. The trowel is Uie swallow's lail, which bears some 
resemblance to the broad, fiat trowel used by the ancieot 

ona. Besides this, the poet had observed that the swal- 
low uses its lail for the very purpose that a 
troweL It also carries the mud in its beak, as here repre- 
Beuted; Itie little boi/t, -utpuendi" as explained by Blaydes, 
" qui gnudent aliquid a tei^ trabercf ct baculo ligneo equi 
inatar inaidentes cruribus diraricatia currere." Somelbing 
is wanting to make the grammatical construction of the test 
complete; as it stands Dow, there .is aa axyndeton. 

1156. 'Airmi'^ofiai, I'll wath myst}/. He had come in 
great haste, and was still covered with dirt. 

1157. ofroc. Addressed to Peisthetairos, who stands in 
silent amazement at wlutt he has just heard. 

11G2. Tnippixt* BK^vrnv. The allusion ia to a war-dance, 
called the pyrrhie, — looking full of fight ; like ^hp j3X«ra>v, 
Ae^h. Sept. 478, and 'Kpij dedopnoruv. Id. 53. 

The second messenger now comea ranning in, out of 
breath. Some one has passed through the gates without 
permission of the autlioritiea. 

1170. oHicovi' Ijcp^v Trrfi-^ai; ovffht (Aq/ not to have tent f 
G. 5 49, 2, N. 3. A protasis ia implied, if they had done 
Vieir duty, or something similar. mpntoXmc. The young 
men of Athens were classed under the designation of (^ij^oi, 
when they reached the age of eighteen. The two following 
years they were sent to the frontiers to guard the strong- 
holds and military posts, and for the general protection of 
the Attic territory. During this period they, were called 
wtphsoKoi, or roamen. The allusion and application here are 
obvious. See Hermann, Polit. Antiq. § 121 (formerly 123). 

1171 - 1174. The mphaXoi, who are sent in pu^Bui^ are 
the swiftest and strongest of the birds of prey ; all with 
crooked talons, — the hawks, falcons, vultures, carrion-crows, 

NOTES. 201 

ana eagles. All the bJrcU here meotioned are described hj 
Yon der Miihle. The tumult in tha air is doubtless a 
parody on a passage in some play; very likely one of 

After a few Btrains of lyric verse, Iris, the messenger of 
the gods, is brought. She is the interloper, who, being sent 
on an embassy to the eai'tli, has rashly entered the city, and 
now appeal^ in the august presence of Peisthetairos. 

1173,1180. xV'"«- G. §84, N. 2. 

1100. \iytiv ixpn", you ovght to tell. (See v. 1170.) 
G. § 49, 2, N. 3. 

1192, trkdior, }) Kvi^ ; Blaydcs has the following note: 
"Navis an pelasus f Navem. esse earn putat, aut quia 
Testis ejus impetu volandi veli instar einuosa facta erat. 
But propter alas quas habehat ; habent epim et nares quasi 
alas quasdam reinos ; petasum earn pufat propter alas vel 
pinnas." But perhaps the best illustration of the text is 
the passage in Milton's Samson Agonistes, where the 
appearance of DaUlah is described ; — 

" But who is this ! wiiat thing of sea or land J 

Thai BO bedecked, omat«, and gay, 

Comes tills waj sailing, 

Like a stetelj ship 

Of TarsoB, bound for the isles 

Of Javan or Gadire, 

Wilh all her bravery on, and tackle trim, 

Sails filled, and EtrettineM waving." 

1195. UdpdKos, ^ SaXa/iipla ; For an account of these 
fast^aihng public vessels of the Atlienians, gee note to 
TV. US, 147. 

1196. oliii.^fi. G. § 25, N. 5. 

1201. KoXoidpxovs. '^ Proefeelos excvhiarum. KdXomiii enim 
custodia novae urbis commissa erat." Bkydea. See v. 1167. 

1202. Stppayiff. Lit. the Seal, 1. P. the passport, which, it 


202 NOTES- 

seems, was empkijed in aniaent times, stamped with the 
official seal of the proper authorities. See Becker's Cbari- 
cles, Note lo lo Scene I., and the authorities theve quoted. 

1201. "EniSaktr, tendered. 

1210. 'A3iii(ir<)( ml nil, and enen now yon are a tregpatter. 

1211^ V*"". genitive after 8«oioVflr*. 

121o, 1216. «i belong'' to Spxofur, and also to anoKavra- 
piiTc anil ywaatuSt, &s IS shown by the use of ^'v and ii. G. 
5 54, Remark. 

1217. 'AitpoaTtor .... iiptirri>w, Toit have got to obej/ 
yow betters in turn. G. § 114, 2. (See v. 1226.) 

1218. rawrroKia. Ttie idea of the ship is still kept up. 
1220. tpaiiavaa Bvtiv, to bid them sacrifice. Fut part. 

expresstug purpose. The sacrificial Torms, in the following 
lines, are borrowed from the religious rites of the Athe- 

1224- Qtoiyap. The use of the particle here is elHp- 

lical, and it may be rendered, WhtU! are you , and, In 

the next clause, To be sure., for , 

1226. Svriov auTov!. The verbal in reoi* is equivalent ia 
seDSe to the infinitive with Stl ; here, then, ^ B(i Bitm aurovE, 
It u their duty to saerijice. The construction is ad sensum, 
since verbals usually take the dative of the agent (See 
V. 1217.) G. S 114, 2. 

1228, 1229. The language here is a parody upon Aeschj- 
lus, Agam. 525, 526: — 

AiAr ^ciKcXXij, T^ KoTtipyaarat nthov. 

1231. h.iKv^viai7 fioXair, with Lih/mnian _ bolu. The 
allusion is to a lost play of Euripides, called Likymnios, 
in which oue of (he personages was struck by a thunder> 
bolt. Tlie wliole speech of Iris is an amusing parody on 
the obligato loftiness of the tragic style. 

1233. \vi6v, tpiya. Here is a parody upon some lines 

NOTES. 203 

in the Alcestis of Euripides, v. 675. See Woolsej'a note 
to the passage. 

12§6, 1237. ftdfioti 'Afujiiouas .... otroit. This passage 
is borrowed from the Niube of AcbcLjIus. See Nauck, 
Frag. No. 155. 

1238. ,Top4,vplavas. See ante, vv. 553, 709. 

1239. irapiuXas, panlhersking ; in allusioQ to llie color- 
ing of their plumage. 

12-11. E'l Uop^ivpiaiv, one Porphyrion ; referring to the 
giant of that name. 

1246. hiappaycirjs. See note to v. 2. 

1250. rttoTtpav T(™, lome of the younger ones. I am too 
old to be fi'ightened by such stuff. 

1257, seq. The herald who had been despatched to earth 
now returan, exulting at the brilliant success Birdiown has 
^ had among mortals. 

1259. KaraKiKtvaov. According to the Scholiast, this raeana 
order silence. Gary renders it, " 0, bid all here ^ve hear- 
ing." Properly, it is used of the xiXtvar^s, " whose business 
it was," says Arnold (Thucyd. II. 84, noie), " to maie the 
rowers keep time by singing to tliem a tune or boat-song ; 
and also to cheer them to their work, and encourage them 
by speaking to them." " It was also," according to a Scho- 
liast on the Achamians, " the business of the Kf^tvar^s to 
see that the men baked tbeii- bread, and contributed their 
fair share to the mess, that none of the rations issued to 
each man might be disposed of improperly." The word 
is doubtless used here in allusion to these fiinctiona of the 
(wXo/onjt. The fashions of Birdtown are ail tlie rage at 
Athens, and multitudes are on the point of migrating 
thilher. Under these circums-tances, it will be necessary 
that some one sfiould exert himself to keep order among 
Buch a miscellaneous crew, and that one must be Peisthe- 
tairoa. Translate, then, itstte ordert. 


1360, 1261. Zn^ovy xp^f- ^^ '^ *^® ™<^ noted 

among the honors bestowed I'or eminent pnblie services was 
the conferring of a golden crown. Perhaps *)ii^ is the best 
known from the fact, thai the great contest of oratory be- 
tween Demostlienea and Aescbines grew out of a propo^doQ 
to crown the former. 

1264. <pJpti, 2d pers. mid., thou reeeivesf for ibyself. 

1267, teq. 'EXiuuiv/iaiwr, teere Sparian-mad, This af- 
feelalion of imitating the Lacedaemonian modea of life, 
ways of speaking, and mannere, seems at times lo have 
been pretty extensively prevalent at Athens, and ia often 
Bpoken of the ancients. See Flutarcb, Life of Alcibiudes, 
Chap. 33, TB JltaiT^ XoKaiviC'av ; Demosthenes agmnst Gtnon, 

p. 1367, 32, iatMSparnoKam. in't Xaicaviita iparrl ; and Plato, 

Protag. 342 B, Gorg. 615 E. The particular modea in 
wtiicb the affecliilion manifested itself are descrihed in the 
lines which follow. Willi respect to the whims charged 
npon Socrates, see the Clouds, passim. 

12(1!). SutirrdXi' Itpopovr, carried Spartan canes. The 
alliision here is to the gcytah, by means of which the gov- 
ernment of Sparta corresponded with the generals or kings 
when absent on some foreign enterprise. Smith (DicL of 
Gr. and Kom. AnL) thus briefly describes it: — "When a 
king or general left Sparta, the ephora gave to him a staff 
of a definite length and thickness, and retained for them- 
Bclves another of precisely the same size. When they had 
any communications lo make to him, they cut the material 
ujion which they intended' to write into the shape of a nar-- 
row ribbon, wound it round their staff, and then wrote npon 
it the message whicli they had to send to him. When tlie 
atrip of writing material waa taken from the staff, nothing 
but iingle letters appeareil, and in this state the strip was 
sent lo tlic general, who, afler having wound it round hie 
staff, was able to read the c 



1273. w^6 

Tl e "b 8 plaj u 

it, pastt a 

nd fio aw 

a plaj upon tli louble meaning 

1274^, Ka TIP a |3 3X a H e ag^ n IS a play upon 

the word |3 ;SX h ch ni urally sUngeat he RiffKos, or 

papyrus plant Ka ap v to ome a»ho e o land; tranB- 
Iftte, (Aey w uld land o al gl po he I aves, meaning, 
ikeyjUiB at once to the taw cases. For Korripav Sr, see G. 
S SO, 2. " T!ie whole of this," as Gary remarks : " is in- 
tended to represent the eagerness of the Athenians for 
legislation and law disputes ; a never-failing topic of ridicule 
with Aristophanes," 

The reasons why the poet attaches names of birds to cer- 
tain individuals cannot, in all these ca^a, be certainly made 
out. Doubtless there were personal peculiarities belonging 
to all these individuals, which gave the application a point 
highly amusing lo the audience who were familiar with 

1278. n4pSi^. According to the ScholiasI, this was the 
name of a lame inukecpci' ; but the poet pretends it was 
given him on account of his craft and dishonesty. 

1279. MfHTDT^. Menippus, of whom nothing is known, 
was called the swallow, probably on account of some imper- 
fection of speech ; since the Greeks compared such defects 
to the twittering of swallows. See Agamemnon of Aeschy- 
lus, V. 974, Tlie Scholiast has another explanation, quite 
too far-fetclied. 

1280. «!pa|. The one-eyed Opuntius was called the 
crow, according to the Scholiast, because he had a largo, 
beak-shaped nose. 

1281. KopvSor. Philoclcs was called the taftedlark, on ' 
account of the peculiar shape of his head, as the Scholiast 
eays. He is elsewhere mentioned as deformed (see Thesm. 
168), "Aiffxpit Af oiirx/ioit troul." Probably there is also 
some allusion to the debauched eliaracter of Philoclea. — ■ 


206^ NOTES. 

}(tpKA&ir^^ The niclcDame of ffooie-fox is given to Thea- 
genes on account of his rogueries. The same person has 
been mentioned before. 

1282. *i^K. Lycurgus (not the orator of that name) is 
said to liave been called the Ibis, either on acconnt of his 
having been bom in Egypt, or because he had lived there. 
Fberecrates, aa quoted by the Scholiast, called the Egyptians 
the countrymen of Lycurgua. It is quite as likely, how- 
ever, to have been some peculiarly of his personal appear- 
ance, — as the length and small. size of hia legs, — which 
suggested the nit^name. This is the view adopted bj 
Blaydes. — minpU. Chaireplion is the well-known disciple 
of Socrates, mentioned olien by Plato and Xenophon, and 
ridiculed in the Clouds. He was called the Bat, on ac- 
count of his dark color, melancholy temperament, and thin 

1283. Kbra. Syracusius is said to have been a prating 
orator, hanging about the bema, and seizing every oppor- 
tmiity to harangue the people. So he is compared to the 
pigeon, sitting and cooing upon the roof-tree. 

1284. '0/iTu|. Meidias was called the Ortux. or qoail, 
because he was like a quail struck in the head by a game- 
ster. The allusion here is to a play called iprvyommia, or 
guail-strikiiiff, which is described by Pollux. The game- 
sters themselves were called o/3Ti;yoitd?roi, or urv^mroi. 
The sport consisted in throwing or striking at a quail, set 
up as a mark, and perhaps was not unlike the shoodng- 
matches of our day. See Becker's Charicles, Scene V., 
note 6 ; Julius Pollux, VII. 136 ; Menrsius, De Ludis Grae- 
comm, opTvyoKonia, Meidias is supposed by Blaydes to 
have heen called a quail because be was a gamester and 
cock-lighter. But it is more likely. I think, from the turn 
of the plirase here, that the point of rescmblimce was some 
singularity in the shape of the head. The Scholiast, how- 

NOTES. 207 

ever, quotes from Plato the Comedian, " Xptiniv /t^ Kard 
KtMav opTvyoKojiov," wluch confirms the interpretation of 

1287. ;(t\i3ii' (/nr(iro«;/i(w;, a swallow introduced into 
poetry, as' in the swallow-song of Simonides. 

1294. Oue .... ioTBvat, It it not, then, our busineie 
longer to stand, ipyoa is used here just as &pa is in other 
places. Feistbetairos, bearing that so many emigrants are 
to come to his new city, orders that Manes, a servant, shall 
bring baskets and boxes full of all kindb of wings, with 
which to fiimish the new-comers. A short dialogue between 
Peistbetairos and the Chorus sets forth the blessings that be- 
long to the Nephelococcygians. 

ISOl. ^pou./,. G. § 82. 

1305. iirrotKtiv, to live Of a liiroiKoi or resident foreigner. 
The ftiroiKoi at Athens formed a large class, chiefly of trades- 
people, who enjoyed certain rights in return for their furoi- 
mor, or annual fee to the stale of twelve drachmas. Accord- 
ing to Boeekh (Public Economy of the Athenians, Book I. 
Chap. VII.) the /jt-romoi with their families amounted to 
about 45,000, or to nearly half the number of the free Athe- 

1312. Si. Addressed to Peistbetairos. 

1313. ToiJTov. Pointing to Manes, the slave, who forth- 
with brings out the wings. 

1316. 2u 8'. Again addressed to Peistbetairos. 

1317-1320. Aidfltr .... ^tpixTtic, Arrange them (the 
wings) in order ; the n-nging ones by themselves, and the pro- 
phetic, and aquatic. Then, see that you wing each man, 
wisely looking to his character. Blaydes says : " iiovavtA, ut 
cycni, lusciniae, &c. ; /lovrwci, ut corvi, aquilae et reliquarum 
aviam, es quibus omina capiuntur ; duXdma, ut mergi, lari, 

1321. trot', you, i. e. Manes. 




The sceoe that follows is amusing, and closely related, as 
are all the Bcenc^ in Arislopbanes, to the peculiarities of 
Hellenic society- The llirce personages, Parricide, Kine- 
Bias, and Sycophant, who arrive in succession, each with 
his characteristic purposes, and all singing in loft; dithy- 
rainbic strains, at once embody the deepest satii'e on the 
prirate and political vices of the times, and throw the gayest 
ridicule upon the empty yerbo^^ of the popular poets. 

1323. yt^l^au. G. § 82. 

1324. it Su. G. § 44, 1, N. 3 (i). 
1327. 'AiBui' amvr, iinying ofeagUs. 
1329. Tov TiirtuSat. G. S 05, 1. 
1337. Sc &> n-«rXiyD- G. § 18, 1. 

1340, seq. Peisthelairos quotes to the Parricide the law 
of the storks, because, says Bbydes, " inter cicoaiaa et pulloa 
earum summus esislit amor." 

1341. KBpfffaui. The Kopfftit were columns on which laws 
were published, especially those which contained the laws 
of Solon, and which were also called S^ms. See Plut, 
Sol. 25. See Clouds, v. 448, and note. 

1344. iroXif, (II turn. 

1345, 1346. 'AneXavaa .... ffoaxifnov, it wovld be a 
deal of good, h) Zeus, that I got bij coming here, if I mutt 
feed my father, too. 

1348. £pn* ofj^avoi', " Tanquam avtm orhara, quae noH 
patrem alendum habeat." Blaydea,' 

1349. oh ... . MTo6liao/iai, I 'U snggeii a good thing, ou 
KaKSii is used exactly like the French pas mdL 

1350-1356. The plan of Peisthetairos is to arm the 
Parricide like a fighting bird, with wing, and spur, and crest, 
and send him off to Thrace, bidding him to enlist in that ser- 
■vice, to support himself by hia pay, and let his father IJTe. 
The sending him to Thrace is an allusion to the numerous 
expeditions which the Athenians sent for a series of years 

NOTES. . 209 

into the Norlb, to act against the Macedoniana and the 
Lacedaemonians. See Thirlwall's History of Greece, Vols. 
III. and IV. ; Thucyd. IV. 75, seq. ; Grote, Vol. IV. 

1359. The poet Kinesias, who is satirized in the Clouds 
also, now makes his appearance, singing appropriate strains. 
He was a dithyramhic poet, of no great ahihty, but one of 
the corrupters of the poetical and musical style of the time. 
Besides this, according to Athenaeus, he was so (all and 
thin, that he was obliged to wear slays made of linden-wood. 
To this the epithet <t,ikipivov, v. 1363, refers. Ilis life was 
dishonored by gross irapiely and low vices. 

1364. Ti . . . . kvkXiU; kuxXcu' itoSk is a tragic expres- 
sion, occurrmg in Euripides, Crest. 682. Kinesiaa is said to 
have been lame. in!«Xoi' also refers to his Cyclic compositions. 
Translate, Why dost thou turn thy halting foot hithennardf 

1367. Uavcai .... lioi, Cease your tinginff, and tell me 
what you mean. Give up poetry, and let us have prose and 
decency. G. § 112, 1. 

1370. amffoKat, preludes. All this is in ridicule of the 
frigid bombast of the dithyrambic poets, 

1375. K\i.oy. § 109, 6; §52, 1. 

1376. Oi S^r ryayf, Ml I, infatth. To which Kinesias 
replies, Yes, you shall too, by Hercules. 

1381, "Omr. The Scholiast explmns this as a cry to stop 
the rowing of the oarr^men. But it is elsewhere used to 
encourage and stimulate them. — dXaSpofioi' Skaiitms, having 
leaped the sea-course. Blaydea very justly remarks of thia 
and what follows : " Obscuritalem dithyrambicorum irridet 
poela, qui constructionibua verborum obscuris et figuris ex- 
quisitis gaudent." 

1386. 'AXififHii' .... Tiftwuii, cutting the harborless fiir- 
TOV> of the air. " Mira et audaciaaima metaphorarum con- 
junctio, more dilhyranibicorura." Blaydes. 

1389, 1390. ToiTi .... atit These Unes refer to the 

210 XOTES. 

arnn^eiiieiits for the poedeal and muacal fethitie& The 
tribes riralled each ocLer m the splendor of thor prepsni- 
doiis for the ditfaTrambic tr&^Ic. and comie cootests. Kine- 
sxas repneseots Limself as an object of oootentiQii to the 
tribes, as a trainer of the Ct^ic choroSb 


1392. Acwrpo^tZy. far LniropAiileSf L e. as cAoregMM. 
The choregDs was the individoal whose tnm h was to for- 
nish the entertainment. He is said to hare been a person 
of a Terr slight %iiie. for whidi leKon the poet makes him 
a citizen of Nepfaelocoocrgia. He is mentioned in a fra^ 
ment of the comic poet Hermippos, fR^eserred by Athe- 
naeos. Bothe gives a different interpretation, — Wiii yom 
ttay here with uf, and train a chorut oflirdsj Kgkt as Ijco- 

1393. Kf^mnSa ^vXip. Blajdes discusses the question 
wbj the poet names the tribe KcKporu. He thinks it is 
partly becaose Leotrophides belonged to that tribe, and 
partly in the waj of a panning allasion to the bird cpeni, as 
if he had said Kp€Ktn»ida ^vXip, and suggests that this may 
be the true reading. There is a question of construction 
which the commentators have not touched, namely, that of 
the accusative ^Xi^r. It seems to me to be in apposition 
with x^P^'' 9 ^^ Chorus then is the Cecropid tnbe. And 
why the Cecropid tribe? First, one of the tribes of Athens 
bore this name; and secondly, there is a play on the word, 
BS the Athenians themselves were called Cecropians, finom 
King Cecrops. The chorus of flying birds, then, is nothing 
more than a satirical description of the Athenians, who are 
elsewhere ridiculed for their levity and fickleness by similar 
comparisons to birds. 

1395. irpiv hv iialipdficii. G. § 67, 1. 

1396. The Sycophant now makes his appearance, com- 
plaining that the winged birds have nothing. ^ Sujco^yn/r," 
says Smith (Diet, of Antiq.), ^ in the time of Aristophanes 

NOTES. 211 

and Demoslhenes, designated a. person of a peculiar class, 
not capable of being described by any single word in our 
language, but well understood and appreciated by an Athe- 
nian. He had not much in common with our sycophant, 
but was a happy compound of the common barretor, inform- 
er, jpetUfogger, busyhody, Togue^ liar, and slanderer. Tlie 
Athenian law permitted any citizen (toi' ^ovkoimiav) to give 
information against public offenders, and prosecute them in 
courts of justice. It was the policy of the legislature to 
encourage the detection of crime, and a reward (such aa 
half the penalty) was frequently given to the successful 
accuser. Such a power, with such a temptation, was likely 
to be abuaed, unless checked by the force of public opinion, 
or the vigilance of the judicial tribunals. Unfortunately, 
the cliaracter of the Athenian democracy, and the temper 
of the judges, furnished additional incentives to the inform- 
er. Eminent statesmen, orators, generals, magistrates, and 
all persons of wealth and influence, were regarded with 
jealousy by the people. The more causes came into court, 
the more fees accrued to the judges, and fines and confisca- 
tion enriched the pubUe treaaiuy. The prosecutor, there- 
fore, in public causes, as well as the plaintiff in civil, was 
looked on with a more favorable eye than the defendant, and 
the chances of success made the employment a lucrative 

1397, seq. The Sycophant addresses himself especially 
to the swallow, perhaps in allusion to the swallow-song of 
Simonides ; but as he repeats the salutation, Feisthetairos 
irnagiues he is singing a song to his old and worn-out robe, 
which stands in need of many swallows, that is, of the com- 
ing of spring ; according to the proverb, " Mi'a x'^^'^' •"/> 
oi irowi," One swallow does not mate a spring. 

1405. TtTtpav nTcpAv til, Hapi tA Aitrxu^ou Ik MvpfiiSomf, 
"Sv\av StrXap Sti." Schol. See fragments of the .^^r- 
tnidima of Aeschylus, No. 136 (Nauck). 


140C. UtiXir^it. A oij of 
peculiar exreOenct: vere nuciubctined. Tfae 
U PcUene b Higge^ted bjr the Aalbbj g^naeata 

1407. sXtt^ i^Hnuat, OR iaiamd wwrnmrnmrr. Ua^ 
da«Be« of Uwcniis tlie inhabStaiils of Ibe JshmJ* ^id Ik 
confederated dties were <ibli«ed to brne np fiir adf 
cation ui tlie coorls of Athena. For difr^ see BoCe on 
V. I4S. 

1409. wpayiLoioil^ttt. a hunler-'up o/tairruiti. 

1410. takoifitfot, tummoning to court. 

1411. "X-ri rrtpvyMW .... avlpirtpm; Like ibe expns- 
dion tn* otXTt^fwi. eiled by ihe Scholiit^t from Archiloclias. 
^'q ffoa tent rumaiomet aag aiur on aetxnatt ofteingt f 

1414. (pfittTM, ballast. Tiiis aUudes to the noticni, tha 
the crane* swullow bIodcs to steady themselrea in t])eir 
flight. See antt. — i'vtat, late catet. He compares hinuel^ 
returning from a tour among the islands and cities nilh a 
long liKt of ca^s to be tried at Athens, to the cranes taden 
whh a bathwt of clones. 

1417. rlira0it; Yes. to be sar^. /or what tuovldbtcctw 
of me ? G. I 88, N. 2. — anajmat eit rsloraiiat, I IbtOtO 

not /iota to dig. Blajdes appropriately quoles Lnc. Evang, 

xvi. 3: "iKotrria ovk Itx<'«i itratrt^v attrxiroiioi^ I caiiTU^ 

dig, to beg I am ashamed. 

1418. tpya irai<ppova, konest eaUing$. 

1419. aripa ratrouToiii, a man of suck an age. 

1432. \iyuv. Participle expre^ng the means. Gr. 
I 100, 2. 

1426. Kovpilots, the harbert' thopg, which were the lotmg- 
ing-placeB of tlie iflle and gosciping. calleil by Theophra 
tug "syinponia without wine." See Becker's Cliariclea, \ 
Excursus III. to Scene XI. 

1427, 1 428. A(i^<5c JjnnjXnTri.', Diilrephes has dread- 

UOTES. 213 

fully set my boy fM the winy for horse-driving, by his taik. 
The pcrBou here mcDtioncd has already bcun alluded to as 
Laving made a jbrtuuc. The passiou fur horses nalumlly 
led to extravagant expenditure among the fastuonahle joung 
fellows at Athens. See Clouds, v. 74. 

1429, 1430. 'O Be ... . ippcvas. And another says, that 
his son is set on the wing and is aU of a fiuWer in his mind 
for tragedy. 

1436. Aai always expresses surprise or indignation, in a 
questiun. What the deuce mill you do ? — oi Karaiax*"^: I 
teiU not dishonor my race, as the money-changer says in the 
Cloud,?. Tlie phrase seema lo have grown so Irile, that it 
had become slang. 

1439. it 5... G. M4, 1,N. 2. 

1440. KdKtadiitvas, (yjciicXi;icb>[. The former means hav- 
ing summoned to appear in cortrt on a certain day; xhe ialter 
here means having brought a suit against. According to Meier 
and Schomann (Attic Process, Book IV, Cap. 2), tymXtiv 
means strictly to eaU upon one's opponent for restitution or 
satisfaction in tkepresence of witnesses, and refers to a cere- 
mony which usually preceded the formal summons (irpoo~ 
nXqiric) ; the term eeems, however, to be used also in a gen- 
eral sense (as here), meaning simply lo bring a suiL See 
note to V. 147. 

1442, 1443. oiriu£ .... fiivf, that the stranger may have 
lost his suit before arriving here, i. e. by his failure to ap- 
pear on the appointed day, the suit would go against him by 
default. '£^^/iijv SiKiji' i^Xtiv (or simply tp^itrjii d4iX(ii>) was 
the phrase in Attic law, signifying lo lose a suit h/ default ; 
while ip<i\«\v ixKrjv t\f\v (or tp'iii'jv {ktiv') meant to gain a 
case through the absence of one's opponent. The advantage 
which the Sycophant expects to gain by his wings is, tliat 
the unfortunate party against whom the suit is commenced 
will be unable to equal his rapid mode of doing business. — 




V. 143a.— For the Perfect Subjunctire 1 

Smn 3r. See ur < 

supX^Kti, spi; G. S 18, 1. 

1446, BtfiSwar, a vhirliifif/, or lop. 

1448. KopKupnia wrtpd. The Coreyrean rnngs are whips 
from Corcyra, or Ruub as were osed in Corcyra, which are 
mentioned in a, passage ol' Phrjnicbus eited by the Scholiast. 
See also Thui:ydide=, IV. 47. 

1452. DUX arriAt^a^tit (from XI^aI, a drop), will you not 
drop off? 

1453. oTpti^oliutniavovpyliai, jtigtice-twittinff rascality. 
145S — 1466. Tlie Chorus now describe the wondrous 

things Ihcy have seen in flying over Ihe earth. The poet, 
by ingenious turns, makes it the occasion of sly and amusing 
Batire. — ^v&pov. .They describe Cleonymus, the Sycophant 
and Sbield^dropper, a^ a strange tree. " Apie aniem ar- 
boris mentionem faoiunt aves." Blaydes. — napBiar oirwrtpoh 
There is here a play upon the words, the phrase meaning 
without heart, \, e. coicardly, or, looking upon Cleonymua 
aa a tree, — and the Scholiast saya he ia so called, either 
because he was tall or stupid as a stick, ^ remote fiom 
Cardia. — roD ^cv ijpoc, in spring it shoots forth and playt 
tkt informer ; alluding lo the fact, that in the month Muny- 
chion the cases of foreigners were adjudged, aa the Sclioli- 
ast explains it. But Blaydes thinks sprinij is used here for 
the time of peace, as winter is applied (v. 1465) metaphori- 
cally to war. This tree, the sycophant, puts forih in spring, 
and in winter sheds the shields ; that is, in time of peace 
Cleonymus busies himself as aa informer, and in time of 
war he runs away from the enemy, and drops his shield in 
his flight. This is our old acquaintance, the shield-dropper 
of the Clouds. - 

1467-1478. These lines are occupied with Orestes, tha 
robber, who is also mentioned before, and whom he dassea 
with the heroes, on account of his name. According to the 

NOTES. 215 

Scholiast, aome of the heroes were supposed to walk by 
night, and to strike with blindness or apoplexy those whom 
they met. The haunt of Orestes is described as a place 
hard by darkness ilidf in ike solitude of lamps. — el yap 
fiinx°i- Gr. § 51. — ndn-Q TajTiSffio, aU ilw noble parts. 
The language ia double-meaning, applying either to the 
being struck with apoplexy in the nobler parts, i. e. the 
head and right side, or to being stripped by Orestes of the 
moat valuable articles of dreea. 

The scene that follows la one of the most humorous in 
the play. Prometheua, the natural friend of man, and still 
more the natural enemy of Zeus, comes hurrying in, to give - 
secret information to Peisthetairos and the birds of the sad 
condition to which the gods have been reduced, and to 
advise Peisthetairos to accept no propositions (hat will be 
offered' by the ambassadors already on their way, unless 
Zeus shall surrender the sceptre, and give Basiieia, or 
Royalty, in marriage to Peisthetairos. The ambassadors 
are Poseidon, Heracles, and Triballoa, a barbarian god. 
Heracles is gained over to assent to the demands of the 
birds by the prospect of a good dinner, which is to be made 
of certain rebellious birds who have paid the penally of 
their treason, and are now cooking in the kitchen. To a 
Greek, accustomed to this representation of Heracles, — as, 
for instance, in (he Alcestis of Euripides, ^ — ^no small part 
of the amusement of the piece would flow from the manner 
in which the scruples of (he doughty hero are overcome. 
A legal view of his rights of inheritance, as affected by the 
illegitimacy of his birth, has some weight, but not so much 
as the smell of the roasting birds. 

1479. Sttui ,4 (elliptica!), I fear that Zens will see me. 
G. § ■IG, N. 4. 

1 48.1. UiinK .... tiiiipas i What lime o' du'j is it ? 



1485. BovkvTot, ( mpairipi! The time expressed tij 

fiavXuTos, according to its et^'mology, is that of unjoking- the 
catile ; ihurefore, afier llie agricultural work of the day n 
over ; towards evening. 

148G. ffSt^imiuu. Peialhetairoa is out of all patieDce 
with Prometheus, whose mind, intent upon his ( 
lion, payano heed to what the other says: — Sow Ikatt 

1488. Ouroi iiiv. Bla^des has the following note upon 
this expression : — "Sch.: at io nai^ahta, iis itaKAv ; 
tA ol/iuff, dnDimXvirTCTai ^aiicpir avrhr httiarit. Festive, qua^ 
dicat : Sic qnidem, henigna tua compeilatione victus, qui me 
in malum rem abirejubeas, omnem animo luo dubilattones 
cximam et caput meum delegam." But 1 am inclined b 
think that Prometheus, still inattentive to what Pcisthetairos 
is saying, refet^ m these words to his question, Jt Zeut 
cleai-ing the clouds away, or gathering them ? or, Is it fair 
weather or fold? because, if it is foul, I'U uncover. Upon 
which he throws off his disguise, and stands revealed as 

. 1493. tra^aay, parasol. He has come provided v 
this shelter, under cover of which he may safely unfold hk 

1494. it a-. G. §44, 1, N. 2. (See v. 1439.) 

1498. 'as ixoio^oc Xiyt. G. S 109, N. 4; S 110, 
N. I. dKoioPTOB is the ordinnij causal Participle (G. § 109, 
4), modified in its force by m, and put in the genitive abao- 
lule with piu understood. 

1499. IIiji'iii" Stt I dbovi what time f oim ^ tuwi. 

1504. enriunt>oploit- The ceremonies of the Thesmopho- 
ria lasted five days, one of which was spent in fasting. See I 
Smith's Diet, of Or. and Bom. Antiq. ; also Aristophanes, 
Thesmophori az u sae. 

1505, ffap$apoi Stol, the barbarian gods, who, living far- 

NOTES. 217 

ther off from men fhan the Olymiiian, are also sufferers from 
the stoppage of sacrificial suppliea, and threaten war upon 
Zeua unless he will thtow open tlie ports, so that the entraila 
of the victinis may he imported. 

1507. SiviaBfr., from above, or beyond. 

1509. h' «< G. § 44, 2, N. 2 (6). The Optative 
depends on llie idea implied in the leading sentence, that 
the gods threatened vim; 

1512. mrrpaos. The Exekestidea here mentioned ia the 
SEime person who has been already satirized as an intrusive 
citizen. (See note to v. 11.). The constitution of AlhenH 
required a scrutiny to be made into the birth of tiny citizen 
before he could assume the functions of office. He must be 
able lo rIidw that Apollo was his irorpuDt, or patrial deity, 
and that he was legally under the protection of Zeua Her- 
keioi ; that he was an Alhenian on both sides, and from tlie 
third generation. See Demosth. in Eubul. p. 1315, 15; 

utrrptiou ^ypi", ih ToKKa iipd. So p. 1.SI9, 26, ihe speaker 
alludes to the members of his yirat as 'AirriXXaii^e itarpifov tal 
Aiit IpKtlov ytvvTJTat. Blaydes, giving the substance of 
Brunei's note, says: "Execeslidem igitur, qui, ut pere- 
grina origine et aervili, ApoUinem ilium Ilcrrp^oi' Atlieni- 
enaium vindicare sibi non poterat, ridicule fingit comicus 
habere, ut barbarum, narp^ov seu Tutehrem deum aJiquem 
ex bnrbaria illis, de quibiia nunc agilur." 

1614. Tpi^aXXoi. The TribaUi were a Moesian tribe. 

1515. ToiwiTpi^tii]T. There ia a playupon the resera- 
blanee in sound between (VirpijSd'ijt and Tpt^aWol. Cary 
gives 03 an equivaleni, "Trouble" ; " Tribulation " would 
be nearer. We might, perhaps, make something like it out 
of the Choetaws! — "Ah, yea! I3iat'a where Tow i« choked 
came from." 

J526. jiojXa«p(Ti|ip. This waa Ihe officer who paid out the 




judieiid fim, S<-e Smith's Vxi. oS Gr. axA Rom-Andq.; 
ako Uennura's Political Antk|aitie3. — rpiajSoXa. rptafia- 
Xs> was the ft« or sam paid daily to each dicast. 

1531. aica*0paiu.^oiM. wt fotut, u e.coo£',' referring to 
tbe myth according (o which Prometheus bestowed fire ap<Hi 
iKirlals, haring stolen it froia the gods. 

1534. Tifiur uAifMc. a pure (mere) TVmon. Timon the 
misanthrope b here meant. This personage wa 
temporary of Alcibiades, with whom he continued his inti- ' 
macy after having secluded himself from the rest of tiie 
world. He is mentioned in another place hy AristophaE 
(Lyfi^trata. 808), and Antiphanes made him the subject of 
a comedy. The student will remember Shahespeare'a 
Timon of Athens, and the manner in which the great Eng- 
lish dramatist has worked out the hints of the antdents re- 
specting this eccentric character. 

1535. i>,iw. Sec V. 1439. 

1536. jEQtij^pdd. The KOprjiJMpoi were high-bom Athe- 
nian maidens, who carried ott their heads baskets contun- 
ing the materials and implements of sacriBce at the great 
festivab, such as the Panalhenaic, Dionysiac, Sea. Ihej 
were usually attended by persons holding sun-shades over 
their heads. 

1538 - 1549. The Xntdwoitt, or Shadc-feei, were a fab- 
ulous tribe in Lybia, mentioned by Strabo, and by Ktesias 
(according to Harpoeralion), who compares the feet to the 
web-feet of geese. They are described as walking TrrpawaS^ 
ISav, or on all fours ; or rather on all llirees, using one foiA, 
spread out like an umbrella, to protect themselTCS from the 
heat of an African sun. In this place the poet designates 
the philosophers, jmd especially, as is shown by v. 1540, the 
disciples of Socrates. The spirit of the passage is like that 
of the ludicrous scene in the Clouds, where the disciples of 
the phrontiitery are represented in a variety of absurd atti- 

NOTES. 219 

tudes and posilions. — tiixaYayft sigiiifiea either to conduct 
loiils, as Hermes guided tLe spirits of Ihe departed ; or to 
evoke spiritt, as was done at Lake AyemuB ; or to allare the 
mind, as Socrates was accused of doing to tlie young men of 
Atlenf, corrupting them by liis new doctrines. Here it is 
used ambiguously. Socrates evokes spirits at llie !ake of 
the Shade-feet. He is thfl neci-oiaancer of thiit marvelloufl 
tribe. — n£i(rai>!poi. This is the person mentioned in Thu- 
cjdides (VIII. 65,seq.) aa having been active in subverting 
the democracy, in the time of the Peloponnesian war. On 
account of his cowardice, he \s represented as coming to 
Socrates in eearch of his sodl, which has lefl him during 
his life. He brings with him for a victim a camel-lamb, 
either a young camel or a huge sheep. Tiie precise mean- 
ing is uncertain. Doubtless there was some sarcastic aHu- 
sion, readily talcen by the audience, but now lost. At any 
rate, the whole scene is a parody upon the Nekyomanteia, in 
Odyssey XI. — oir^Xfle, went off; i. e, like Odysseus in the 
Bcene above i-eferred to, withdrew from the sacrifice that the 
shades of the dead might not be disturbed. — q ymtrtpU, ihe 
bat. See ante, y. 1282. He is said have come up from 
Hades, on account of his ghoatly appearance. 

The god.'i now arrive. Poseidon ia giving lessons in man- 
ners to the barbarian god, who has never before been in 
good society. 

155'i. 'Ett .... aiiwix'i 1 Do you wear your dress »o 
awkwardly i Literally, to weasr it awry, wpon the left; to 
put it, therefore, on the wrong side. The cloak, when 
properly put on, was so arranged as to leave the right arm 
at liberty. At least, that was originally the case when the 
garment was worn in its simplest form. " In nothing," aaj^ 
Hope (Costume of the Ancients, Vol. I. p. 24), "do we see 
more ingenuity exerted, or more fancy displ.iyed, than in 


220 NOTES. 

the various mo'le.? of making the peptuni fonn grand and 
contrasted draperies. Indeed, the different degrees in sim- 
plicity or of grace oliservable in the ilirow of tlie pepliun 
were regarded as indieating the different degrees of mstieity 
or of refinemenl inherent io the dispositioa of the wearer." 

1554. haunroliiia. L«spoJias was a genera), mentioned 
in Thu(7diJes (VI. 105). He Ifiid a defect in the legs, 
wliich he concealed bj the length of his garmenls. 

1555. SiiiiotpaTta. " Ludit quasi etiain apnd de<» sit 
democratia, ut Alhenis," Blaydes. Other democraciea be- 
ades that of the Grecian gods are open to the ridicule of 
Bending incompetent barbariana on foreign embassies. 

1559. ri' ipit^tv. G. § 8S. 

1563, Aarkmr'iBe. Ileracles, as Bergler remarks, is made 
at the outset so tieree for vengeance on the audacious mor- 
tal who has intercepted the facrifices from the gods, where- 
by they hve, in order to heighten the comic effect of his 
sudden conversion by the appetizing smell of the roasting 
birds. Pels ihef aires, at this laoment, b heard giving di- 
rections to the cook, as if unaware of the presence of 

1570. 'ESofoF dSudv, have been adjudged gmUjf. A 
technical expression in Attic law. 

1571. 'n . . . . 'HpaAtis. Peisthetairos pretends to eee 
Heracles nuw for the first time : Ah ! how do yoa do, 
fferacles f 

1574. 'eXoiov .... 'KjixiBif, There it no oil in the erueL 
The servant comes running in with tiiia message from the 

1577. Srm ^Oloi, if yoti were friendli/ tout. 6.5 52,1. 
See also S 42, 3, N. 1. 

1578, 1579. 'Ofiffpiov . . . . ati, Tou wotild have rain- 
water alwayi in your marthet (inslead of tankt^ "nt ad 
aves " 1 thi? Greeks ordinarily used either spring-water 


NOTES. 221 

directly from the .fouDtains, or ram-water caught in the 
tanks), and you would always pass halcyon days. Halcyon 
days are the supposed seven fair daya in winter iu which 
the halcyon was acciislomed io make hia appearance. 

1530. avroffiaTapc!, plenipotentiary. 

1583. aXXa vvt is ulliptjcal. Supply " though not be- 
fore," yet now, \. e. if yow are at last willing to do what is 

1^87. 'Eirt .... KiA£, On these conditiont, I trill invite 
the ministers to dinner. 

1592. a^fiuirii', gain the power. The force of the aoriet 
ia to express the action as single and momentary, not fre- 
quent or coniinuous. Therefore, here, not ruk, but gel 
poteer. G. § 19, Notes 1 and 2, 

159S. Stop i^n^. G. § 61, 3. 

1597. jiaptKOi^v, coming up. Or passing along. The ad- 
vantage promised to the gods is, that, if any mortal swear 
&lse]y by them, the crow will pounce upon iiim and pluck 
out his eyes. 

1600. The barbarian god, unable to speak Greek, uttera 
some unintelligible sounds, which Peisthelairos interprets 
into giving his consent. 

1605. M«;fToi .... /iio-ijTi'aj', Saying, " The gods can watt," 
and shall not repay in fall. ^airoSiS^ ^ /i^ ii?ro£idu. fiHnjTui 
b luxury, lusl, &c. ; ^Ipo abundance, wastefulness; here, 
perhaps, used adverbially by synecdoche, 

IG06. 'AvaiTpa^ofiiv, we will exact. 

1610. ri/iiiii, the value. 

1613, olfiuCfm ioxti 1701; have youa fancy for a beating? 
Intimating thai, unless he is willing to yield the point, he 
must expect a beating. " Hercules," says Gary, " trusting 
that Tiibalius will not understand, says this for the sake of 
raising a laugh at the barbarian god." lie translates: 
"Triballua, what think you — of being cursed?" 
19 • 


222 N-OTES. 

1614. ^rjaip .... ir6w, He says that I talk quite right. 
The subject of X/yf «i^ must be gathered from the context ; 
otherwise it would be the same as that of the finite verb. 
Again he construes the unintelligible sounds of the barbsr 
rian god into an assent to the demand. 

1618. irapadi'dcD/xt, I offer to give up, G. § 10, 1, N. 2. 

1620. iKboriov (sc. t© At«). Gk § 114, 2. — Ov .... ^p^iy 
So you dorCt want a reconciliation ; your demands are so 
extravagant, that there is no hope of coming to terms with 

1621, 1622. •oX/yov .... yXuJcv, / care hut little. Cooky 
you must niake the sauce sweet, - Peisthetairos puts on an 
indifferent look, but counts with certainty upon the effect of 
the order to the cook upon Heracles. 

1623. bcuyiovC dvOpaytrciv, my dearest feUow, The comic 
force of the phrase is heightened by addressing a familiar 
form of speech among men to a god. 

1624. 'H/i€(ff .... iroXffi^a'ofKv ; There is an allusion to 
Helen and the war of Troy : Shall we wage a war for one 
woman f 

1626. i^anaroiyLtvos irakai, G. § 10, 1, N. 3; § 73, 2. 

1631. olov ae nfpi(ro(t>iC€Taty how he is tricking you, Pei- 
sthetairos now expounds the Athenian law of inheritance, 
according to which Heracles, being the son of Zeus by a 
foreign woman {&v yt ^tvrjg), cannot become his heir, 

1634 o^d* aKaprj, not a penny, 

1 638. fmKkrjpov. " A technical term, signifying a dough" 
ter who, having no brother, succeeds as heiress to her fathei't 
estate. The Attic law made all the legitimate sons equally 
heirs to their father's estate, not allowing a man with such 
sons to dispose of his property by will. The daughters in 
this case had a right only to their dowry (irpoi^), and were 
called on that account kirlirpoiKOL, Where there were no sons 
at the time of the father's death, the whole estate (Kkrjpot) 

NOTES. 223 

descended to the daughters, if there were any, — each of 
whom was cnlled an fiiiK\i)pos. The law, however, looked 
upoa such an ijiutkr/pot rather ad a means of transmitting tbe 
property to the proper male heir, than as au actual heiress 
in iier own right. The father was allowed, if he left no 
Bona, to dispose of his property by will ; but he was obliged 
to adopt as sons those whom he made his hell's, and the 
latter assumed with tiieir inheritance all the rights which 
would have belonged to them if they had been bom in the 
testator's family. If now the testator left a daughter (fVi- 
«Xijpo»), he could leave his property to such an adopted heir 
only on condition of his parrying the daughter, and thus 
assuming tbe property. If he left several daughters, he 
could dispose of each, with her portion of bis estate, in the 
same way. If the father of an iirliAjipos died without a 
wiU, the nearest male relative had a ri^ht to claim her in 
marriage with her property ; and if she was poor, he was 
oUiged by law either to marry her himself or to give her a 
dowry beiu-ing a certain proportion to Iiis oivn estate. (See 
tlie law relating to poor ivUXttpoi, quofed in Demosth. in 
Macart p. 1067, 27.) The father could dispose of an iwl- 
KXijpor in marriage before his death, by adopting her liu^band 
as his son. If a daughter had married while her brothers 
were t-till living, and aftenvards by the dealh of her brothers 
found herself an iiTiKkj]pos at the time of her father's death, 
the person who could have claimed her in marriage, had she 
been still single, could even then oblige her to desert her 
husband and to marry him j and even if he had a wife 
himself, he could divorce her for that purpose. This illus- 
trates the position which women held in the political system 
of Athens. Tiie speaker in Demosth. in Eubulid. (p. 1311, 
17) describes a p]ea.sant little family scene from hia molhor'a 

history ; '0 Upmripaxoc irivis fv- ij!iK\r)pov 3c KXijpovaii^' 



Bavdjxntv liv inrripa riv (/lov. Sura taVTtm ynb/»fU)v, I. C- PrOtO- 

mnchos (Llie iripcakcr's mother's huitbiuidj vat a poor man ; 
and on iaheriting a rick iiricXijpac, jeithiny to dispose oftnf/ 
mullivr, lie induces T/iuerilus, my fatiitr, who wat an ae- 
quninlance of his, to late her in marriage. (See the law 
quoted iu Demosth. in Macart. p. 1067, 27.) See Meier 
and Scihomann, Attic Process, Book III. 2, Chap. 2, § 2 
(|ip. 468-470); Hermann, Slaafsalierth. §§ 119, 120{ 
Ti'ivatallerth. § 03 ; with the passages qaoled in the notes. 
PeialheUiroB here &sks Ileradea how Alhcna could be an 
heiress of Zeus in her own right (as everybody knew her 
to be), if -Zeus had any legitimate children. He seems to 
imply that the independent position of Atheoa, as protect- 
ing goddess of Atbens, entitles her to the raiik of iwlAiipot 
of Zeus," — Goodwin. 

163!). SvTau .... yviirUv, if there were Ugitinuae hrotk- 
tri. G. S 52, 1. 

1 641. i roixos ofc ('a. Heracles nsks why Zens coald not 
heqiieath his estate to him. He is reminded of ibc law 
which prohibited woffoi from succeeding to an inheritaace. 
A wflot at Athens was the child of an Athenian father and 
a foreign mother: auch a child was illtigitimate in the eye of 
the law, that is, he was excluded from the rights of an Athe- 
nian citizen. Heracles is jestingly called a coSor, or illegit- 

imate God, being the 
Aletnene, wlio stands i 
A vsdoc, not being a cil 
and therefore c 
. 1638.) 

I of Zeus and a mortal 
Ihe relation of a ffwj fo the Goda. 
itizen, could not be adopted as a son, 
•t inherit property by will. (See note 
1st be content witli the shore of hie 
father's property which the law allowed him ; this waa 
called radtia, and could not exceed 1000 drachmas. See 
Harpocration, s. v. toBt'ia ; and Hermann, Polit. Antiq. 
g J 18. with the notes. 

1643. avSi^rral trou .... fjnituiriiv, wiU take precedmes 

NOTES. 225 

of you as an heir to the paternal property. Whereupon he 
proceeds to quote to Heracles a law of Soloa, showing that, 
even if Athena were not in hia ivay, hia unclea, and espe- 
cially Poseidon, would have the next clMm. This law of 
Solon was renewed in the archonship of Euoleides (403 
B. C), and b quoted by Isaeue, de Hered. Philoct. § 47. 
The whole law which regulated the succession to property 
■where there were no sons ia quoted (at least in substance) 
in Dcmosth. in Macart. p. 10G7, 1 : it contains a clause at 
the end similar to the one quoted by Peisthelairos. 

1646. iyxiTrflat', rights by nearness of relationship. — 
.fro.. G. § 103. 

leSl, 'nil] .... Kpparopai; IXd your father ever intro- 
duce you to your kith and kin 9 It was required by law 
that all legitimate sons should be enrolled in the registers 
of the tribe, dcme, and phratria; those of the same ^parpia 
were called ^pon-apts. See rotes on v. 767 and 1512. See 
also Hermann's Political Antiquities, §§ 98, 99. 

1653. alKi'af S^iiciov, hohing assault, like Shakespeare's 
speaking daggers. 

1659. 'Bv .... irpay/ia, The whole thing now depends on 
. Trihailos. He haa the casting vote. 

1660. 1661. KoXui wapahihaju. Triballos tries to 

give his decision in Greek. The eSect of his barbarous 
pronunciation is conveyed by Cary thus : — 

" De beautiful gran damsel Baailau 
Me give up to de fool." 

1661. wapalovveu Uyti. G. § 23, 2, N. 4. Xc'yi here 
means he commands, he teUs us ; otherwise the sentence 
would mean, he sags that he once gave up, (G. § 23, 2.) 

1663. £i . . - . xf^'AoMc, unless to go as the swallows do ; 
i. e. unless he means to bid her become a bird. Swallows 
are singled out for birds in general, hecaose the Greeks 




always compared the speech of barbarians to that of ewal- 

1670, IG71. 'Et . . . . yiiiavT, In good time, then, tfuM 
feUoiM (the rebel birds) have betn put to death for tha nuf 
tiaU. — nax, in ike mean time. 

1672. ffoSKftrSt OUTS, do you leiih that I should roast, Jtc. 
G. § 88. 

1G73. TirBitmr. The expression is in reference to the 
tasterx, vporivBai, imd means ravenoTisness. 

1674. nSan SutIBtiv, I should be KeU disposed of, indeed! 
G. § 49, 2, N. 5. 

1676- 1687. In Ihis antistrophe the tribe of sycophaDts 
(aee above) is again satirized. — ♦nualo-t, at Phanae. There 
was a promontory of that name in Chios; but here it is 
the pretended residence of the syeophants, or informers, in 
allusion to the lagal action called <paatt. The KXc\frCdpa was 
the water-clock used to measure time in the courts ; also ths 
name of a hidden spring at the Aeropotia. The poet makes 
it a stream in Phanae. — Ti'/iwroi. In allusion to the cus- 
tom of culling out llie tongue of the victim. Here Attica ia 
the viciim of this race of beltyAon^d, — the Phiiippoi and 
Gorgiai, — who by the arta of speech obtained a subsistence. 

1688. 'O irairr, i&c. A messenger comes in to herald the 
arrival of Feisthetairos, who is on his way, in regal state 
accompanied by his bride Basileia, whom he has received 
from the hand of Zeus. He makoa his proclamation in the 
lofty etyle of sublime lyric and tragic poetry. 

1692. wa^^^ali« ixrrtip ISuo. G. § 9S, 2. — rXo/if* 

iojMf, shone upon the golden-heaming house. 

1695. ou . . .. X^riv, unutterable to describe. G. § 93, 2. 
1699, ir\ncTavt)v KomwG, a wreath of smote. 
1702. A parody on Eurijiides, Troades, 308, seqq., 
translated by Gary : — 

" Above, below, beside, Rraiind, 
Let joOT ■^eodou ff\i^x\»-flOTTOd." 

NOTES, 227 

1704. Mdnapa, the happy one, Peisfhetairos. 

1705. 'Q . , . , KoXXoiit, the grace, attd the heavty/ 
Genitive of exclamatioD. 

1712. 'Hpj. The Chorus, is enthusiastic straina, com- 
pares the marriage of Peisthelairos with that of Zeus and 

1718. d/i^ifloX^t 'E/jott, Mooming Eros. 
* 1720. TidkaToimit, drawn bad, or tightened. 

1721. iiapoxDs, compa/nion in the chariot, groomsman ; 
— not to be confounded with iropojjot (parochvs), from wa- 

1725. 'Ay*. Peisfhetairoa, aaauming the attributes of 
Zetis, caUa upon them now to celebrate the thunder, the 
lightning, and the blazing bolt. 

1735. irdpfBpoi', side Judge, assessor. One who abarea 
with another the judicial seat. 

1741. & ixoKatpa, blessed one. Addreaaed to Basileia. 

1742, 1743. TTripwr .... &a0Duira, having taken hold of 
my wings. 

1745, seq. These lines, according to the Scholiast, are a 
parody upon Archilochus, — a strain of victory, with which 
thia gayest and most entertaining of the comedies of Aris- 
tophanes enda. 


[In the following Table, the letter M. Btanas for Munk'a Me- 
tres, American edition, translated from the German by Beck 
and Felt«n.] 

PEOLOGU8,VT, 1-264. 
Tersea 1 -210. Iambic trimeter acatalectic, with comic 
license. See Munk, pp. 76, 162, 171, aeq. 
211-225. Anapaests. 

211—215. Anapaestic dimeteT acatalectic. M. 100. 
216. Anapaestic monometer. M. 99. 
217 - 221. Anapaestic dimeter acatalectic. 

222. Anapaesdc monometer. 

223. Anapaestic dimeter acatalectic. 

224. Anapaestic monometer. 

225. Anap, dimeter catal., paroemiac close. M, 100. 
226- 230. Iwnbic trimeter acatalectic. 

231, 241, 246, 2C2 - 264, are not intended to be rhyth- 
mical, as they are only imitations of the notes of birds. 

232, 233. Iambic trimeter acatalectic. 
234. Dochmiac dim. M. 11, 225, ^ j. ± ^ _,^ ^ j. ^ _. 
234. Iambic tripody, anapaestic monometer. H. 78 (3). 

236. Dactylic. 

237. Trochee trimeter acatalectic. Longs of the first 
metre resolved. 

238. Dochmiac monometer, „ ::n; ds - C:;- 

239. Trochaic trimeter acatalectic. 

240. Choriambic dimeter catalectic. M. 141 (2). 



242. lonici a nimore, trimeter acat., i. -l, l j-t 

_„i^. M. 151 (3). 

243. Dochmiac monometer, _ ;^ ;^ . 

244. Proceleusmatici, 

245. Iambic beiameter calalectic. M. 80 (6). 

247. Cretic telrameler. M. 114(4). 

248. " " with the last long of aecond foot 
resolved, j. „ ;^. 

249. Cretic tetram. cat^ ^ , j. _ c:^, ± ^ ix:, _ — . 

250. Dactylic 

251. Crelic dimeter acatakclic. M. Ill (2). 
252 - 255, Dactylic tetrameter. 

256. Tliis verse is marked by Dindorf a^ a paroemiac, 

_ _L , ^ _• But the first syllable of ramuAtlpaw is 

never long. The proper noiotion, perhaps, is ^ _, _; , 

j_ _, spondee, paeon primus spondee. 

257 - 259. Spondnic anapaests, 

260, 261, Troclmic dimeter. 

265 - 2G8. Iambic trimeter. 

270 - 306. Trochaic tetrameter cstalectic. M. 68 (d). 

307, 308. Iambic dimeter. 

309-324, Trochee tetrameter catalectie, except 312 and 
314, which may be read as dochmiac dimetera. 

SiTophe, 325-333 =Anti3trophe, 341-349. 

326-330. Anapaests, with spondees and proceleusmaticL 

331 - 333. Cretics, with longs resolved. 

334-340. Trochaic tetrameter catalectie. 

350 — 384. Trochaic tetrameter catalectie. 

385-397. Trochaic dimeter. , 

398-403. Anapaestic. 

404-407. Iambic dimeter. 

408-413. Cretics, with anacrusis in 408 and ill. 

414-425. Iambic systems. 


42G-429. Trochaic, dacljlic, d:^ ^, -L ^ ^ ^. 

i31 - 433. Iambic. 

434 — 450. Iambic trimeter. 

Strophe, 451-459 = Antbtropbe, 539-547. 

451. Logaoedic anapaests, ! l • L^;^:. 

452. Iamb. anap. or iambelegus, „ j , j • . 

453. Anapaestic, iambic, penthemim, • i _. 

454. Trochaic monometflr, dactylic trimeter, 

455. Anapaestic. 

456. Anapaestic. 

457. Anapaestic, iambic, anti^past. In the antistrophe, 
the corresponding verse consists of an anapaestic dimeter and 

458. Anapaestic. 

469. Anap., trochaic dipody, : , j. ,w-w. 

But the verse is defective. The corresponding line in the 
strophe is an anapaest and antiapast, , j_ ,„j . 

460-S22, Aaapa^H lie tetrameter catalee tic. M. 101. 

523-538. Anapaestic system. 

548- 610. Anapaestic tetrameter caUJectic 

611-626. Anapaestic system. 

627, 628. Anapaestic tetrameter catalectic. 

629, 630, Basis, iambic dimeter, i_,__L„__j.__. 

631, Dochmiac, _ d; :i; ., ci; 3- 

632, Trocliaic, ^ ,i . 

633, Anapaestic. 

634, Dochmiac, _ C^ -^ _ _• 

635, 636. Iambic, 

637. Ithyphallic, j. _____ . 

638, 639. Anapaestic tetrameter catalectic. 
640-659. Iambic trimeter. 
660 - 662, Anapaestic tetrameter. 
66a- 667, Iambic trimeter. 


678. Choriambic, j_ ^ ^ _, . 

679. Glyconic, j_, j. ^ ^ _, ^ _. 

680. " 1»,2.^^-,^-. 

681. « 1.,.^^.,-. 

682. Ithyphallic, j. ^ ^. 

683 - 685. Glyconic, I _, .l ^ ^ », ^ -. 

686. Glyconic, j_ «, j_ ^ , , _. 

687 - 724. Anapaestic tetrameter catalectic 
725 - 739. Anapaestic systems. 

Strophe, 740 - 754 = Antistrophe, 771-782. 

740. DactyKc. 

741. Not metrical. loiitation of the notes of birds. 

742. Trochaic 

743. Amphibrach, dactylic^ wJLw>J-ww-ww • 

744. Birds' notes. 

745. Dactylic. 

746. Birds' notes. 

747. Anapaestic dimeter. 

748. Dactylic. 

749. Dactylic. 

750. Birds' notes. 

751. Trochaic. 

752. Dactylic heptameter catalectic in dissyllabum. 

753. Ithyphallic. 

750 - 770. Trochaic tetrameter catalectic. 
786-801. Trochaic tetrameter catalectic 
802 - 852. Iambic trimeter. 

Strophe, 853 - 860 = Antistrophe, 890 - 897. 

853. Anacrusis, cretics, ^, j» ^ _, j_ ^ «. 

854. Trochaic. 

855. Dochmiac, ^ '^ -^ ^ —• 

856. 857. Trochaic dimeter catalectic, longs resolved. 


859. Iambic trimeter. 

860. Iambic. 

861-889. Iambic trimeter acatalectic, excepting the fi 
mulae uttered by llic priest, which are not rbjthniicaL 

898. Iambic trimeter acatalectic 

899. Baaia, dochmiacs, ,„J.J , _J.J.„=. 

900. Cretic, trochaic, J , J 

901. Iambic, two Bacchii, „ j., _ ^ _, „ j. _. 

902. Iiimbic trimeter. 

903. Anacrusis, chor., iam., l i ,„J.^_ 

904 Dactylic, trochaic, j • i „. 

905.. Iambic, _ ds ■ 

906, 907. Iambic trimeter. 

908. DactyUc. 

909. Iambic. 
910-918. Iambic trimeter. 

919. Dactylic, trochaic, ^ j , i w =■ 

920. Choriambic, j ,-L„„_. 

921. Cretic, cii - -. -!- 

922. Anapaestic, iambic. 

923. Trochaic, longs resolved, 

924. Iambic, anapaestic. Iambic, 

925. Iambic, trochaic, l, i^ ■ 

926 - 930. Iambic trimeter. 

9S1. Trochaic, dactylic, ;:^_jl. L . 

932, Troch., anap., choriambic, _l_, j_ ± ^ . 

933, Fourth paeon, ± j.. 

93i. Trochaic, dactylic, x „, x ■ 

935. Iambic trimetei'. 

936. Anapaestic, iambic, ± ; L- 

937. Iambic. 

938. Anapaestic, iambic, i ,x_J • 

939. Iambic, trochaic, l , i _. 

940. Trochaic penthciniin, :^ . 



941 - 944. Iambic trimeter. 

945. Trochaic, dactylic, j_^ 9 1- ^ 

946. Anapaestic. 

947. Procel., dactylic ; probably ^ww^Xw^wJ-ww 

948. Dactylic, anapaestic. 
949-961. Iambic trimeter. 
962, 963. Dactylic hexameter. 
964, 965. Iambic trimeter. 

9 6 6 - 9 68. Dactyhc hexameter. 

969. Iambic trimeter. 

970. Dactylic hexameter. 

971. Iambic trimeter. 

972 - 974. Dactylic hexameter. 
975 - 977. Iambic trimeter. 
978 - 980. Dactylic hexameter. 

981. Iambic trimeter. 

982, 983. Dactyhc hexameter. 

984- 1052. Iambic trimeter, excepting 1030, 1031, 1035- 
1037, 1041, 1042, 1044, and 1045, which, being imitations 
of legislative and legal procedures, are not rhythmical. 

Strophe, 1053-1081 =Antistrophe, 1082-1110. 
1053-1059. Spondaic, anapaestic. 

1060. Two paeon es primi, and two paeones quarti, 

— «^ ^^ «,^ J — >^ V^ ««» J «.^ N^ S^ J ^^ V.» ««^ — 

1061. Paeons, .L^^^J-^ww-L^w^-f.^^. 

1062. 1063. Spondaic, anapaestic. 

1064. Paeons, _l^^^j_^^w-Lwww. 

1065. Paeons, cretics, jL^ww-Lwww-Lw--Lw_* 
1066-1081. Trochaic tetrameter catalectic. 

1111 - 1180. Iambic trimeter. 

Strophe, 1181-1184 = Antistrophe, 1251-1254. 
1181 - 1184. Dochmiac dimeter with lonj's resolved. 


1 1 85 - 1 250. Iambic trimeter. 
1 255 - 1298. Iambic trimeter. 

Strophe, 1299 - 1308 = Antistrophe, 1311 - 1320. 

1299. Anapaestic, iambic 

1300. Iambic, antispast, ^ j_ ^ . 

1301. Iambic. 

1302. Anapaestic. 

1303. Iambic. 
1304-1307. Anapaestic. 

1308. Iambic. 

1309, 1310. Iambic. 

1321, 1322. Iambic trimeter. 

1323. Iambic, dactylic, ^j__,-Lww-Lww-« 

1324. Anacrusis, troch., dact, »,jLw-w-i-ww-i.ww-L-« 

1325. J. ^ ^. 

1326 - 1358. Iambic trimeter. 

1359. Choriambic, ^ ^^_,j.^^«, _Lww-w-L-.. 

1360. Anap., choriamb., ^^±^^jl^^mj-^^^» 

1361. Iambic trimeter. 

1362. Basis, two dactyls, two anap., ^w-L^w-' ww> 

1363. 1364. Iambic trimeter. 

1365. Iambic. 

1366. Glyconic, ^ _l, _l ^ ^ • 

1367-1377. Iambic trimeter. 

1378. Dactylic, _, ^ ^ ^ « .. 

1379. Iambic, _^^.. 

1380. Spondee paeon primus, spondee, j Lwww-L-« 

1381. Iambic. 

1382. Trochaic, ci-^-^.^ 

1383. Iambic trimeter. 

1384 - 1386. Anapaests, with proceleusmatici. 
1387 - 1454. Iambic trimeter. 


1396. Basis, choriambic, I _, x ^ ^ _, i. ^ ^ _> -L 

1397. Anapaestic, iambic, ^^.l^w-L^-Lw • 

Strophe, 1455 - 1466 = Antistrophe, 1467 - 1478. 

Trochaic system. 
1479-1537. Iambic trimeter. 

Strophe, 1538-1549 = Antistrophe, 1676-1687. 
Trochaic systems. 
1550-1675. Iambic trimeter. 
1 688 - 1701. Iambic trimeter. 
1702 - 1704. Trochaic, with longs resolved. 

/ . / 

> •- 9 

1705. Molossus trimeter, 

1706. Choriambic 

1707 — 1711. Anapaestic system. 
1717-1722. Glyconic system. M. 258 and 263. 
The forms are 


— 3> w w — J w — > 


1724-1728. Anapaests. 
1729-1735. DactyUc. 

1736. Glyconic. 

1737. Iambic 
1738-1740. Trochaic 

1741. Iambic 

1742. Trochaic 

1743. Iambic 

1744. Trochaic •> 

1745. 1746. Iambic. 
1747. Trochaic 


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