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BIOLOGY 
, . LIBRARY 

G 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORD. 



BIRD S -Vol. I. 

BY 

EUGENE W. GATES. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA: I BOMBAY: 

THACKEE, SPI.NK, & CO. THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BEELIN: 

B. FRIEDLAXDER & SOHX, 11 CARLSTRA.S3E. 

1889. 



BIOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

G 



FLAMMAM. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COUBT 3 FLEET STKEET. 



. 



PJIEFACE. 



THIS volume is the third of the series belonging to the 
' Fauna of British India ' that has been published in the 
course of the present year. Of the two preceding volumes, 
containing the ' Fishes/ the first appeared in July and the 
second in September. 

Birds, which form the subject of the present volume, and 
which it is proposed to complete in two more, are not only 
the most familiar and, in many respects, the most interesting 
class of the Vertebrata, but they are in India represented by 
the largest number of known species. 

The hope expressed, in the Introduction to the ' Mammalia ' 
of the present series, that Mr. Gates would undertake the 
' Birds/ has been fulfilled, and I think that Indian orni- 
thologists are to be congratulated on the fact. Had not 
Mr. Gates come from India and devoted his furlough to the 
task, much delay would have been caused and the work, 
in all likelihood, much less completely executed,, as I should 

a2 



5b2 



IV PREFACE. 

probably have been compelled to write the greater part, if 
not the whole, myself. 

The number of species of birds to be described in the three 
volumes, of which this is the first, exceeds those enumerated 
in Jerdon's ' Birds of India ' by more than one-half, chiefly 
because Jerdon omitted the species inhabiting Ceylon, Sind 
west of the Indus, the Western Punj ab, Hazara, the Upper 
Indus valley north and north-west of Kashmir, Assam, Burma 
and the intermediate countries (such as the Garo, Khasi, 
and Naga hills, Chittagong, Sylhet, Cachar, and Manipur), 
together with the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, all of which 
are comprised within the limits of British India as accepted 
in the present publication. A large number of additional 
species have also been recorded, since Jerdon' s work was 
published, from Sind, the Punjab, the North-western Pro- 
vinces, Rajputana, and the Western Himalayas, the fauna 
of all of which has become better known within the last 
25 years. The additional species from the Peninsula are 
far less numerous. 

No branch of Zoology has, in India, attracted so much 
attention or enlisted the services of so many observers as 
Ornithology ; and there is probably no division of Indian 
biological science, not even Botany, on which so much has 
been written and of which our present knowledge is so far 
advanced. Far more is known about the nomenclature, 
distribution, and habits of birds than about those of mammals, 
reptiles, or fishes. Within the last ten years some good local 
faunas have been written, foremost amongst these being 
Legge's ' Birds of Ceylon ' and Oates's ' Birds of Burmah.' 
A periodical work with the somewhat eccentric title of 
' Stray Feathers/ devoted entirely to Ornithology, flourished 
for several years under the energetic guidance of Mr. Allan 
Hume, and within the last 18 months a valuable addition has 



PREFACE. V 

been made to the volumes already published. But, above all, 
Mr. Hume brought together, chiefly in about ten years (from 
1872 to 1882), a collection of Indian birds from all parts of 
the country far superior to any ever before accumulated ; 
indeed it is doubtful whether an equally complete collection 
has ever before been made, from a similar area, in any branch 
of Zoology or Botany. The whole of this collection, 
amounting to 60,000 skins, besides a very large number 
of nests and eggs, has now been presented by Mr. Hume 
to the British Museum ; and as the same building contains 
the collections of Colonel Sykes, the Marquis of Tweeddale 
(Viscount Walden), Mr. Gould, and, above all, of Mr. 
Hodgson, the opportunities now offered for the study of 
Indian birds in London are far superior to those that have 
ever been presented to students in India. Every facility has 
been afforded to Mr. Gates by the officers of the British 
Museum for studying the superb series of Indian birds now 
in the National Collection. 

It must be left to naturalists in India to judge how far 
Mr. Gates has succeeded in accomplishing the task that he 
has undertaken. This task, though greatly facilitated by 
the collected specimens and information, is still far from easy ; 
for, in works like the present, it is not sufficient to have 
access to the necessary data, the facts known require to be 
so arranged as to be easily understood and available for 
ready reference. If the present work complies with these 
conditions, it is to be hoped that the study of Ornithology 
not only in India, but throughout the Oriental Regiou, may 
benefit as much as it unquestionably did by the appearance 
of Jerdon's ( Birds of India/ 

In one respect the volume now published falls short of the 
work just named. The limits assigned to the number and 
size of the volumes in the ' Fauna of British India/ limits 



yi PEEFACE. 

in the necessity for which, much as I regret their existence, 
I am obliged to concur have precluded the addition of any 
save the very briefest notes on habits, migration, folk-lore, 
and other interesting points, the inclusion of which in Jerdon's 
work added so greatly to its attraction. 

On the other hand, the classification adopted by Jerdon 
was obsolete even when he wrote, and was in many respects 
inferior to that employed by Blyth, thirteen years previously, 
in his ' Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Asiatic 
Society ' (Calcutta) . Unfortunately this faulty classification 
of Jerdon's has become so closely associated with the Indian 
Ornithology of the last quarter of a century, partly from the 
general use of Jerdon's work as a text-book, partly from the 
employment of his serial numbers, with interpolated additions, 
in all Mr. Hume's writings, that many Indian ornithologists 
are probably unacquainted with the important additions to 
our knowledge of bird-classification made by Huxley, Garrod, 
Forbes, and other writers, and, it may be feared, will not 
welcome the changes that have become necessary. It may be 
hoped that the facilities for the determination of specimens 
afforded in the present work by the generic and specific keys 
and by the woodcuts will serve to mitigate the regrets of 
those who are attached to the old system of classification. 

The arrangement of the families of Acromyodian Passeres 
proposed in this volume is new, and partly based on a charac- 
ter of unquestionable value as evidence of relationship the 
plumage of the young birds. The subdivision of the Passeres 
has long been one of the great difficulties of ornithologists, 
and one who had devoted much time and thought to the 
subject, the late W. A. Forbes, was accustomed to say that 
the whole order consisted of a single family. In all proba- 
bility the difficulty of subdividing the order will never be 
completely solved, the fact being that the Passeres are a 



PREFACE. yii 

group of animals of comparatively recent geological origin, 
still in course of development, and that in the Passerine 
series no breaks have yet been established by the dying out 
of intermediate forms, as has taken place in orders that have 
survived greater geological changes. 

In one respect a difference may perhaps be traced between 
the classification employed in this volume for birds and that 
applied in the e Fauna of British India ' to other classes of 
Vertebrata. The number of genera accepted or proposed by 
Mr. Gates is larger in proportion than that adopted in the 
Mammals, Reptiles, and Fishes. Personally I should have 
preferred a reduction in the generic divisions of birds; 
but, at the same time, I regard the question as one of con- 
venience, there being, so far as I can see, no essential 
distinction between generic and specific characters. Many 
of the so-called " structural distinctions " in birds, such as 
the arrangement of the feathers at the base of the bill and 
the development of a crest, are probably purely ornamental, 
and, like the colours of the plumage, connected with sexual 
selection ; and I cannot see why the differences mentioned are 
of higher importance than colour. It is, however, only fair 
to say that many of the best ornithologists hold the same 
views as Mr. Gates. It is also only just to add that I believe 
this is the only detail of classification in which I see any 
reason for differing with him. 

An account of the chief writers on Indian birds up to 1862 
was given by Dr. Jerdon in the Introduction to the first 
volume of the s Birds of India ' the principal authors enume- 
rated, besides Jerdon himself, were Franklin, Tickell, Sykes, 
McClelland, Burgess, Adams, Tytler, Kelaart, Layard, Hut- 
ton, Theobald, and, above all, Hodgson and Blyth, to whom, 
with Jerdon, may fairly be attributed the foundation of 
Indian ornithology. A general notice of those who had 



Vlll PKEFACE. 

principally been engaged in working out the birds of the 
Asiatic continent and islands was included by Mr. R. B. 
Sharpe in his Introduction to Gould's ' Birds of Asia/ 
This " Introduction " was reprinted in < The Ibis ' for 1884, 
p. 49. Amongst the contributions to the ornithology of 
India since the appearance of Jerdon's ' Birds of India ' 
some of the principal are: (1) Blyth's commentary on 
Jerdon in 'The Ibis' for 1866 and 1867, his ornithology 
of Ceylon (Ibis, 1867), and his posthumous list of the 
Birds of Burma, published, with additions by Viscount 
Walden, as an extra number to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal for 1875 ; (2) Jerdon's supplementary 
notes (Ibis, 1871 and 1872); (3) papers by the Marquis 
of Tweeddale (Viscount Walden), Major Wardlaw Bamsay, 
Colonel J. Biddulph, and Messrs. A. Anderson, H. J. Elwes, 
R. C. Beavan, J. Scully, and R. B. Sharpe in < The Ibis ' 
and the 'Proceedings' of the Zoological Society; (4) 
contributions by F. Stoliczka, H. H. Godwin- Austen, 
W. E. Brooks, V. Ball, G. King, 'A. C. McMaster, and 
the present writer to the Journal and Proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal ; (5) Hume's ' Scrap Book,' ' Nests 
and Eggs,' ' Lahore to Yarkand ' (in part by Dr. Henderson), 
and 'Game Birds' (written in conjunction with Colonels 
C. H. T. and G. F. L. Marshall); (6) Legge's 'Birds of 
Ceylon,' Oates's ' Birds of Burmah/ J. Anderson's ' Zoological 
Results of the Yunnan Expeditions/ Barnes's ' Birds of Bom- 
bay/ Murray's ' Vertebrate Zoology of Sind ' and ' Avifauna 
of British India ;' and above all (7) the eleven volumes of 
< Stray Feathers.' Of all the pages in the latter the larger 
number are by Mr. Hume himself, the other more important 
Indian contributors being Messrs. R. M. Adam, J. Aitkeii, 
A. Anderson, J. Armstrong, V. Ball, H. E. Barnes, C. T. 
Bingham, W. E. Brooks, E. A. Butler, Cock, J. R. Cripps, 
J. Davidson and Wenden, W. Davison, S. B. Doig, S. B. 
Fairbank, J. A. Gammie, J. Inglis, W. V. Legge, C. H. T. 



PREFACE. IX 

and G. F. L. Marshall, E. W. Gates, G. Reid, J. Scully, 
and G. W. Vidal ; there are also some papers from European 
ornithologists, especially Messrs. R. B. Sharpe and J. H. 
Gurney. An important aid to ornithology in general has 
been furnished by the British Museum Catalogue of Birds, 
written by Messrs. R. B. Sharpe, by whom the greater part has 
been contributed, H. Seebohm, H. Gadow, and P. L. Sclater. 
Some valuable contributions to the ornithology of Burma, 
founded on the collections made by Mr. Fea, have lately been 
published by Count T. Salvadori in the ' Annali del Museo 
Civico, Genoa/ 

Hitherto the progress of Indian ornithology may be divided 
into two periods ; the first of which, ending with the publi- 
cation of Jerdon's work, was especially signalized by the 
labours of Hodgson, Jerdon, and Blyth, whilst in the more 
recent period the dominant figure has been Mr. Hume. 

The addition to the present work of any anatomical details 
beyond those that are essential for classification would involve 
too great a demand upon the limited space available. An 
excellent sketch by Prof. W. K. Parker will be found in the 
last (ninth) edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica/ under 
the article " Birds" (vol. iii, p. 699). A general account 
of the osteology by Mr. R. Lydekker was published at the 
beginning of the eighth volume of ' Stray Feathers/ For 
more complete descriptions the student may turn to Bronn's 
1 Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-reichs ; Aves/ by Selenka 
and Gadow. Numerous details will also be found in papers 
by Garrod and Forbes in the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological 
Society ; and a work in two large quarto volumes, by 
M. Fiirbringer, has recently been published in Amsterdam. 
A diagram showing the terms applied to parts of the plumage 
will be found on page xi. 

The division of the class Aves into orders will be discussed 



X PREFACE. 

by Mr. Gates in the third volume,, and a list of the works 
referred to in the synonymy will be added at the same time. 
The author will defer to the same opportunity any general 
remarks which he may find necessary. 

With the present volume half o the proposed work on the 
Vertebrate Fauna of British India is completed, three and a 
half volumes having now appeared out of seven. Of the 
remaining volumes, one on Reptilia and Batrachia, by Mr. G. 
A. Boulenger, is ready for the press, and will be the next 
for publication, and it is hoped that a second volume of Birds 
and perhaps the remaining half-volume of Mammals will 
also be published in the course of 1890. 

W. T. BLANFORD. 

December, 1889. 



11 8 



10 




DIAGRAM OP A BIRD, to illustrate the terminology of the plumage and lirnbs. 



1. Forehead. 

2. Crown. 

3. Nape or occiput. 

4. Lores (space in front of eye). 

5. Supercilium. 

6. Cheeks. 

7. Ear-coverts. 

8. Upper mandible or maxilla. 

9. Lower mandible. 

10. Culmen or upper profile of 

maxilla. 

11. Commissure or line of junction 

of the two mandibles. 

12. Eictal bristles or vibrissje. 

13. Chin. 

14. Throat. 

15. Breast. 

16. Abdomen. 

17. Back. 

18. Rump. 



19. Scapulars. 

20. Primaries (the earlier or outer- 

most 9 or 10 quills of the wing). 

21. Secondaries (wing-quills springing 

from the radius and ulna). 

22. Terfciaries. 

23. Lesser wing-coverts. 

24. Median wing-coverts. 

25. Greater wing-coverts. 

26. Primary wing-coverts. 

27. Winglet or bastard -wing. 

28. Upper tail-coverts. 

29. Tail-feathers or rectrices. 

30. Under tail-coverts. 

31. Tarsus. 

32. Hind toe or first toe or hallux. 

33. Inner or second toe. 

34. Middle or third toe. 

35. Outer or fourth toe. 



XU TERMINOLOGY. 

Flanks or sides of body are the parts approximately covered 
by the closed wing. 

Axillaries are the lengthened feathers springing from the 
axilla or region beneath the base of the wing. 

Supplementary bristles or hairs are those springing from the 
side of the forehead in front of the rictal bristles. 

Naral bristles or hairs are those springing from the front of 
the forehead and covering the nostrils. 



The measurements in this work are invariably in English 

inches and decimals, and are taken thus : 
Length. The distance from the tip of the bill to the tip of 

the longest tail-feather, unless otherwise stated. 
Tail. The distance from the root of the tail, generally 

indicated both in the fresh and dried state by the 

presence of a piece of flesh on the underside, to the 

tip of the longest feather. 
Wing. The greatest distance from the bend of the wing 

to the tip of the longest primary, measured straight. 

When the wing is curved, it is flattened out for the 

purpose of measurement. 
Tarsus. The distance from the centre of articulation of 

the tarsus with the tibia to the base of the middle toe. 
Bill. The distance from the angle of the gape to the tip, 

measured straight. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Order PASSERES ........ 2 

Fam. COBVID^ ............ 10 



Subfam. Cormnce .......... 11 

1. Corvus, Linn ........... 12 

1. corax, Linn ........... 14 

2. umbrinus, Hederib ..... 15 

3. corone, Linn ......... 16 

4. macrorhynchus, Wagl. . 17 

5. frugilegus, Linn ....... 18 

6. cornix, Linn ......... 19 

capellanus ............ 20 

sharpii .............. 20 

7. splendens, Vieill ....... 20 

8. insolens, Hume ...... 21 

9. monedula, Linn ....... 22 

2. Pica, Briss ............. 23 

1. rustica (Scop.) ........ 24 

2. bottanensis/ Deless ..... 25 

3. Urocissa, Cab ........... 25 

1. occipitalis (Blyth) ____ 26 

2. flavirostris (Blyth) ____ 27 

4. Cissa, Bole ............ 28 

1. chinensis (Bodd.) ...... 28 

2. ornata ( Wagl.) ...... 29 

5. Dendrocitta, Gould ____ 30 

1. rufa (Scop.) .......... 30 

2. leucogastra, Gould .... 31 

3. liimalayensis, Blyth . . 32 

4. frontalis, McClell ..... 33 

5. bayleyi, Tytier ........ 34 

6. Crypsirkina, Vieill ....... 34 

1. varians (Lath.) ...... 35 

2. cucullata, Jerd ....... 35 

7. Platysmurus, Reich ..... 36 
1. leucopterus (Temm) . . 37 



Page 

8. Garrulus, Briss 37 

1. lanceolatus, Vig 38 

2. leucotis, Hume 39 

3. bispecularis, Vig 39 

9. Nucifraga, Briss 40 

1. hemispila, Vig 41 

2. multipunctata, Gould . . 41 

10. -Graculus, Koch 42 

1. eremita (Linn.) 43 

11. Pyrrhocorax, Vieill 44 

1. alpinus, Vieill 44 

Subfam. Pariwz 45 

1. Parus, Linn 46 

1. atriceps, Horsf. 46 

2. minor, Temm. fy Schleg. 48 

3. nuchalis, Jerd. 49 

4. monticola, Vig 49 

2. JEgithaliscus, Cab 50 

1. erythrocephalus (Vig.) . 50 

2. rnanipurensis, Hume . . 51 

3. leucogenys (Moore) .... 51 

4. niveigularis (Gould) . . 52 

5. ioschistus (Hodgs.) .... 52 

3. Sylviparus, Burton 53 

1. modestus, Burton .... 53 

4. Machlolopus, Cab 54 

1. spilonotus (Blyth) .... 54 

2. xanthogenys ( Vig.) .... 55 

3. haplonotus (Blyth) 56 

griffithii (Blyth) 56 

5. Lophophanes, Kaup .... 57 

1. melanolophus (Vig.) . . 57 

2. aemodius (Hodgs.) 58 

3. rubidiventris (Blyth) . . 58 

4. rufinuchalis (Blyth) . . 58 

5. beavani, Blyth 59 

6. dichrous (Hodgs.) 59 



XIV 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Subfam. Paradoxornithince . . 60 

1. Conostoma, Hodgs 60 

1. semodium, Hodgs 61 

2. Paradoxornis, Gould .... 61 

1. flavirostris, Gould 62 

2. guttaticollis, A. David . 62 

3. Suthora, Hodgs 63 

1. unicolor (Hodgs.) 64 

2. humii, Sharpe 64 

3. nepalensis, Hodgs 65 

4. poliotis, Blyth 65 

feae, Salvad. 66 

5. fulvifrous, Hodgs 66 

6. ruficeps (Blyth} 67 

7. atrisuperciliaris (Godiv.- 

Aust.) 67 

brunnea, Anders 68 

4. Scseorhynchus, Oates .... 68 

1. ruficeps (Blyth) 68 

2. gularis (Horsf.) 69 

Fam. CBATEBOPODIDJE .... 70 

Subfam. Crateropodince 71 

1. Dryonastes, Sharpe 72 

1. ruficollis (Jard. fy Selby) 73 

2. nuchalis (Gochv.-Aust.) . 74 

3. chinensis (Scop.) 74 

4. cagrulatus (Hodgs.} .... 75 

5. subcserulatus (Hume) . . 76 

6. sannio (Swinh.) 76 

7. galbanus (Godiv.-Aust.) 76 

2. Garrulax, Less 77 

1. leucolophus (Hardw.) . . 77 

2. belangeri, Less 79 

3. diardi (Less.) 79 

4. pectoralis (Gould) 80 

5. moniliger (Hodgs.} .... 81 

6. gularis (McClell.) 81 

7. delesserti (Jerd.) 82 

8. albigularis (Gould) 82 

9. strepitans, Blyth 83 

3. lanthocincla, Gould .... 84 

1. ocellata ( Vig.) 84 

2. cineracea (Godw.-Aust.} 85 

3. rufi gularis, Gould 86 

cinereiceps, Styan .... 86 

4. austeni (Jerd.} 87 

4. Troehalopterum, Hodgs. . . 87 

1. erythrocephalum ( Vig.}. 89 

2. erythroleema, Hume . . 90 

3. chrysopterum (Gould) . . 90 

4. nigrimentum, Hodgs. . . 91 
t). melanostigma (Blyth} . . 92 



Page 

6. phceniceum (Gould) . . 93 

7. subunicolor, Hodgs 94 

8. affine, Hodgs 94 

9. variegatum ( Vig.) .... 95 

10. simile, Hume 96 

11. squamatum (Gould} . . 96 
melanurus 97 

12. cachinnans (Jerd.) .... 97 

13. cmnamomeum, Dav. . . 98 

14. jerdoni (Blyth) 99 

15. fairbanki, Blanf. 99 

16. meridionale, Blanf. 100 

17. virgatum, Godw.-Aust. 100 

18. lineatum ( Vig} 101 

19. imbricatum (Blyth) 102 

5. Grammatoptila, JReichenb. 102 

1. striata ( Vig.} 103 

2. austeni, Oates 104 

6. Stactocichla, Sharpe 104 

1. merulina (Blyth) 104 

7. Argya, Less 105 

1. earlii (Blyth) 105 

2. caudata (Dum.) 100 

3. gularis (Blyth} 107 

4. malcolmi (Sykes) 108 

5. subrufa (Jerd.) , . . 109 

6. longirostris (Hodgs.) . . 109 

8. Crateropus, Swains 110 

1. canorus (Linn.) 110 

2. griseus (Gm.) 112 

3. striatus (Swains.) .... 112 

4. somervillii (Sykes) 113 

5. rufescens (Blyth) 114 

6. cinereifrons (Blyth) .... 114 

9. Pomatorhinus, Horsf.. . . . 115 

1. schisticeps, Hodgs 116 

2. nuchalis, Tweed. 117 

3. olivaceus, Blyth 118 

4. melanurus, Blyth 118 

5. horsfieldii, Sykes 119 

6. obscurus, Hume 120 

7. ferruginosus, Blyth .... 120 

8. albigularis, Blyth 121 

9. phayrii, Blyth 121 

10. ruficollis, Hodgs 122 

11. ochraceiceps, Wald. . . 123 

12. austeni, Hume 123 

13. stenorhynchus, Godw.- 

Aust 124 

14. erythrogenys, Vig 124 

iniberbis, Salvad 125 

15. macclellandi, Jerd 125 

16. hypoleucus (Blyth) 126 

17. tickelli, Blyth 127 

10. Xiphorhamphus, Blyth . . 128 

1. superciliaris (Blyth) . . 128 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XV 



Page 

Subfam. Timeliina 129 

1. Timelia, Horsf. 131 

1. pileata, Horsf. 132 

2. Dumetia, Blyth 133 

1. hyperythra (Frankl.) . . 133 

2. albigularis (Myth) 134 

3. Gampsorhynchus, Blyth. . 134 

1. rufulus, Blyth 135 

2. torquatus, Hume 136 

4. Pyctorhis, Hodgs 137 

1. sinensis (Gin.) 137 

2. nasalis, Legqe 138 

3. altirostris (Jerd.) 139 

5. Pellorneum, Sicains 139 

1. mandellii, Blanf. 140 

2. minus, Hume 141 

3. ruficeps, Swains 141 

4. subochraceum, Swinh.. . 142 

5. palustre, Jerd. 143 

6. fuscicapillum (Blyth} . . 143 

7. ignotum, Hume 144 

6. Drymocataphus, Blyth . . 144 

1. nigricapitatus (Eyton} . . 145 

2. rubiginosus ( Wald.) , . 146 

3. tickelli (Blyth} 146 

4. assamensis, Sharpe .... 147 

7. Corythocichla, Sharpe . . 148 
l.brevicaudata(^a) .. 148 
2. striata ( Wald.) 148 

8. Gypsophila, Oates 149 

1. crispifrons (Blyth} 149 

9. Malacopterum, Eyton. . . . 150 

1. magnum, Eyton 151 

2. magnirostre (Moore} . . 151 

10. Erythrocichla, Sharpe . . 152 
1. bicolor (Less.} 152 

11. Trichostoma, Blyth 153 

1. rostratum, Blyth 153 

12. Turdinus, Blyth 153 

1. abbotti (Blyth} 154 

13. Thringorhina, Oates .... 155 

1. guttata (Blyth} 155 

2. oglii (Godw.-Aust.} 156 

14. Alcippe, Blyth 156 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.} .... 157 

2. phaeocephala (Jerd.} . . 158 

3. phayrii, Blijth 158 

15. lihopocichla, Oates 159 

1. atriceps (Jerd.} 160 

2. nigrifrons (Blyth} 160 

3. bourdilloni (Hume) 161 

16. Stachyrhis, Hodgs 161 

1. nigriceps, Hodgs 162 

2. ehryssea, Hodys 163 

3. assimilis, Wald 163 



17. Stachyrhidopsis, 

1. ruficeps (Blyth} ..".... 164 

2. rutifrons (Hume} 165 

3. pyrrhops (Hodgs.} .... 165 

18. Cyanoderma, Salvad 166 

1. erythropterum (Blyth) . 166 

19. Mixornis, Hodgs 166 

1. rubricapillus (Tick.) . . 167 

2. gularis (Raffl.) 168 

20. Schceniparus, Hume .... 168 

1. dubius (Hume} 168 

2. mandellii (Godw.-Aust.) 169 

3. rufigularis (Mand.) 170 

21. Sittiparus, Oates 171 

1. cinereus (Blyth) 171 

2. castaneiceps (Hodgs.} . . 172 

22. Proparus, Hodgs. 173 

1. vinipectus (Hodgs.) .... 173 

23. Lioparus, Oates 174 

1. chrysaeus (Hodgs.) .... 174 

24. Rimator, Blyth 175 

1. rnalacoptilus, Blyth .... 175 

25. Turdinulus, Hume 176 

1. roberti (Godw.-Aust. fy 

Wald.) 176 

Subfam. Brachypterygince . . 177 

1. Myiophoneus, Temm 178 

1. temmincki, Vig 178 

2. eugenii, Hume 179 

3. horsfieldi, Vig 180 

2. Larvivora, Hodgs 181 

1. cyanea (Pall.) 181 

2. brunnea, Hodgs 181 

3. Arrenga, Less 183 

1. blighi, Holdsw 183 

4. Brachypteryx, Horsf. .... 184 

1. albiventns (Fairb.) 185 

2. rufiventris (Blyth) .... 185 

5. Drymochares, Gould .... 186 

1. stellatus (Gaidd) 187 

2. hyperythra (Jerd. fy 

Blyth} 187 

3. cruralis (Blyth} 188 

4. nepalensis (Hodgs.) .... 188 

6. Hodgsonius, Bonap. .... 189 
1. phcenicuroides (Hodgs.}. 190 

7. Elaphrornis, Legge 190 

1. palliseri (Blyth) 191 

8. Tesia, Hodgs 191 

1. cyaniventris, Hodgs. . . 192 

9. Oligura, Hodgs 193 

1. castaneicoronata (Bur- 
ton} 193 



XVI 



SYSTEMATIC IJSTDEX. 



Subfam. Sibiince 



1. Sibia, Hodgs 195 

1. picaoides, Hodgs 195 

2. Lioptila, $lyth 195 

1. capistrata ( Viq.} 196 

2. gracilis (McClelL) 197 

3., melanoleuca (Blyth) . . 198 

4. castanoptera (Salvad.} . . 199 

5. annecteus, Blyth 199 

6. davisoiii, Hume 200 

7. pulchella (Gochv.-Aust.) 200 

3. Actinodura, Gould '. 201 

1. egertoni, Gould 201 

2. ramsayi ( Wald} 202 

4. Ixops, Hodgs 203 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.} .... 203 
2.A&Ra,ens'$(Godw.-Aust.) 204 
3..waldeni (Godw.-Aust.} . 204 

5. Staphidia, Swinh 205 

1. castaneiceps (Moore] . . 205 

2. rufigenis (Hume) 206 

3. striata (Blyth) 206 

6. Siva, Hodgs 207 

1. strigula, Hodgs 208 

2. castaneicauda, Hume . . 209 

3. cyanuroptera, Hodgs. . . 209 

4. sordida, Hume 210 

7. Yuhina, Hodgs 211 

1. gularis, Hodgs 211 

2. occipitalis, Hodgs. . . : . 212 

3. nigrimentum (Hodgs.} . . 212 

8. Zosterops, Vig. $ Horsf. . . 213 

1. palpebrosa (Temm.) .... 214 

2. aureiventris, Hume .... 215 

3. simplex, Swinh 215 

4. ceylonensis, Holdsw. . . 215 

5. siamensis, Blyth 216 

9. Ixulus, Hodgs 216 

1. -occipitalis (Blyth) 217 

2. -flavicollis (Hodgs} 218 

3. humilis, Hume 218 

10. Herpomis, Hodgs 219 

1. xantholeuca, Hodgs. . . 219 

Subfam. Liotrieliince 220 

1. Liothrix, Swains 221 

1. lutea (Scop.} 221 

2. Cutia, Hodgs 222 

1. nepalensis, Hodgs 222 

3. Pteruthius, Swains 223 

1. erythropterus (Vig.} .. 224 

2. seralatus, Tick 225 

3. melanotis, Hodgs 226 

4. intermedius (Hume) . . 227 

5. xanthochloris, Hodgs. . . 227 



4. Aetnorhynchus, Sundev. . 
1. lafresnayii (Hartl.} . . . 

5. JEgithina, Vieill. 

1. tiphia (Linn.} , 

2. viridissima (Horsf} . . . 
3."nigrilutea (Marsh} . . . 

6. Myzornis, Hodgs 

1. pyrrhura, Hodgs , 

7. Chloropsis, Jard. $ Selby 

1. aurifrons (Temm.) 

2. malabarica (Gm.) . . . . 

3. hardwickii, J. fy S. . . . . 

4. cklorocephala ( Wald.) 

5. zo&teropSj Vig 

6. jejdoni (Blyth) 

. 7. cyariopogon ( Temm} . . 

8. Irena, 'Horsf. 

1. puella (Lath.} 

9. Melanochlora, Less 

1. sultanea (Hodgs.) 

10. Hilarocichla, Oates 

1. rufiventris (Blyth} 

11. Mesia, Hodgs 

1. argentauris, Hodgs 

12. Minla, Hodgs 

1. igneitincta, Hodgs 

13. Leptopcecile, Severtz 

1. sopnise, Severtz 

14. Cephalopyrus, Bonap. . . 
1. flammiceps (Burt.} 

15. Psaroglossa, Hodgs 

1. spiloptera ( Vig.) 

16. Hypocolius, Bonap 

1. ampelinus, Bonap 



228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
233 
234 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
238 
239 
239 
240 
241 
241 
243 
243 
244 
244 
245 
245 
246 
246 
247 
247 
248 
249 
250 
250 



Subfam. Brachypodince 252 



1. Oriniger, Temm 

1. flaveolus (Gould) 

2. burmanicus, Oates . . . 

3. gutturalis (Mull.} 

4. griseiceps, Hume 

2. Tricholestes, Salvad. . . . 
1. criniger (Hay} 

3. Alophoixus, Oates 

1. phseocephalus (Hartl}, 

4. Hypsipetes, Vig 

1. psaroides, Vig 

2. con color, Blyth 

3. ganepsa, Sykes 

5. Hemh , Hodgs 

1. flu , Hodgs 

2. r l a\'' jni, Hume 

3. iuxdebrandi, Hume . . . 

4. macclellandi (Horsf.) . 

5. tickelli (Blyth} 



254 
255 

256 
256 
257 
257 
258 
259 
259 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
263 
264 
264 
265 
265 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XV11 



Page 

6. Alcurus, Hodgs 26(> 

1. striatus (BMk) ; . . 266 

7. Molpastes, Hume 267 

U hasmorrhous (Gm.) ... 268 

2. burmanicus (Sharpe) . 269 

3. nigripileus (Blyth) ... 270 

4. atricapillus (Vieill.) . 270 

5. bengalensis (Blyth) ... 271 
(3. intermedius (Hay} . . . 272 

7. leucogenys (Gray] . . . 272 

8. leucotis (Gould) 273 

9. humii, Gates 274 

8. Xanthixus, Gates 274 

1. flavescens (BlytJi) .... 275 

9. Otocompsa, Cab 275 

1. emeria (Linn.) 276 

2. fuscicaudata, Gould 277 

3. flaviventris (Tick.) 278 

10. Pinarocichla, Sharpe 279 

1. euptilosa ( Jard. % Selby) 279 

11. Spizixus, Blyth 280 

1. canifrons, Blyth 280 

12. Trachycomus, Cab 281 

1. ochrocephalus (GmeL). . 281 

13. lole, Blyth 282 

1. malaccensis (Blyth) . . 283 

2. icterica (Strickl.) 283 

3. virescens, Blyth 284 

4. nicobariensis (Moore). . 285 

14. Pycnonotus, Kulil 285 

1. xanthorrhous, Anders. . 286 

2. analis (Horsf.) 287 

3. finlaysoni, Strickl 287 

4. davisoni (Hume) 288 

5. melanicterus (Gm.). . . . 288 

6. xantholaemus (Jerri.) . . 289 

7. gularis (Gould) 289 

8. cyaniventris, Blyth 290 

9. luteolus (Less.) 290 

10. blanfordi, Jerd 291 

11. plumosus, Blyth 292 

12. simplex, Less 292 

13. pusillus, Salvad. 293 

15. Micropus, Swains 294 

1. melauocephalus (Gm.} 294 

2. cinereiventris (Blyth) . . 295 

3. fusciflavescens (Hume) 295 

4. phseocephalus (Jerd.} . . 296 

16. Kelaartia, Blyth 296 

1. penicillata (BlytJ^ 297 

Fara. SITTID^E 298 

1. Sitta,Zm/z '.' . 299 

1. himalayensis, Jard. fy 

Selby * . 300 

VOL. I. 



Page 

2. cinnaraomeiventris, 

Blyth .............. 301 

3. neglecta, Wald ....... 301 

4. nagaensis, Godw.-Aust. 302 

5. magna, Wardl. Ramsay 303 

6. kashmirensis, Brooks . . 303 

7. castaneiventris, Frankl. 304 

8. tephronota, Sharpe ---- 305 

9. leucopsis, Gould ...... 306 

10. formosa, Blyth ........ 306 

11. frontalis, Horsf. ...... 307 



Fam. 



308 



321 

322 
322 
322 



1. Dicrurus, Vieill. ........ 310 

1. annectens (Hodgs.).... 312 

2. ater(-Hcm.) .......... 312 

3. longicaudatus, Hay. . . . 314 

4. nigrescens, Gates ...... 315 

5. crerulescens (Linn.) .... 316 

6. leucopygialis, Blyth. . . . 316 

7. leucogenys ( Wald} ____ 317 

8. cineraceus (Horsf.) .... 318 

2. Chaptia, Hodgs ......... 318 

1. szneo, (Vieill.) ........ 318 

3. Chibia, Hodgs.'. ......... 320 

1. hottentotta (Linn} ____ 320 

4. Dissemuroides, Hume. . . . 321 

1. andamanensis (Tytler} 

2. dicruriformis, Hume . 

5. Dissemurulus, Gates . . . 
1. lophorhinus ( Vieill.) . . . 

6. Bhringa, Hodgs ......... 323 

1. remifer (Temm.) ...... 324 

7. Dissemurus, Gloger ...... 325 

1. paradiseus (Linn} .... 325 



Fam. CEBTHIIDJE 327 

1. Certhia, Linn 328 

1. himalayana, Viy 329 

2. hodgsoni, Brooks 329 

3. nepalensis, Hodgs 330 

4. discolor, Blyth 331 

5. mampurensis, Hume . . 331 

6. stoliczkse, Brooks 332 

2. Salporais, Gray 332 

1. spilonota (Frankl.) 333 

3. Tichodroma, Illiger 334 

1. muraria (Linn.} 334 

4. Sphenocichla. Godw.-Aust. 

8f Wald 3, r 5 

1. huinii (Mand.) 336 

2. roberti, Godw.-Aust. $ 

Wald. 3i6 

b 



xvm 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

5. Anorthura, Rennie ...... 337 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.) .... 337 

2 neo-lecta (Brooks) ____ 338 

6. Elackura, Oates ........ 339 

1. punctata (Blyth) ...... 339 

7. Urocichla, Sharpe ...... 340 

1. longicaudata (Moore) . . 340 

2. caudata (Blyth) ...... 341 

8. Pnoepyga, Hodgs ....... 342 

1. squamata (Gould) ---- 342 

343 



Fam. REGULIDJE .......... 344 

1. Kegulus, Cuv ........... 344 

1. cristatus, Koch ........ 344 

Fam. SYLVIIDJE ............ 346 



1. Aedon, Boie , . 

1. familiaris (Menetr.). . . . 

2. Locustella, Kaup 

1. certhiola (Pall.) 

2. lanceolata (Temm). . . . 

3. Acrocephalus, Naum 

1. stentoreus (Hempr. fy 

Ehr.) 

2. orientalis (Temm. fy 

Schleg.) 

3. bistrigiceps, Swinh 

4. dumetorum, Blyth .... 

5. agricola (Jerd.) 

6. macrorhynchus (Hume) 

4. Tribura, Hodgs 

1. major (Brooks) 

2. intermedia (Oates) . . . . 

3. thoracica (Blyth) 

4. luteiventris, Hodgs 

5. mandellii (Brooks) 

5. Orthotomus, Horsf. 

1. sutorius (For st.) 

2. atrigularis, Temm 

3. ruficeps (Less.) 

6. Lusciniola, Gray 

1. melanopogon (Temm.). , 

7. Oisticola, Kaup , 

1. erythrocephala, Jerd.. . 

2. tytleri, Blyth , 

3. volitans (Siuinh.) 

4. cursitans (Frankl.) . . . 

8. Franklinia, Blyth 

1. gracilis (Frankl.) . . . 

2. ruf escens (Blyth) 

3. buchanani (Blyth) . . . 

4. ciuereicapilla (Hodgs.) 



350 
351 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 

356 

357 
358 
359 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
363 
364 
365 
366 
366 
368 
368 
369 
369 
370 
371 
372 
373 
, 374 
, 375 
. 376 
. 377 
. 378 
379 



Page 

9. Laticilla, Blyth 379 

1. burnesi (Blyth) 380 

2. cinerascens (Wold.) .. 381 

10. Graminicola, Jerd 381 

1. bengalensis, Jerd 381 

11. Megalurus, Horsf. 382 

1. palustris, Horsf. 383 

12. Schoenicola, Blyth 384 

1. platyura (Jerd.) 384 

13. Acantlioptila, Blyth 385 

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 386 

14. Chsetornis, Gray 387 

1. locustelloides (Blyth).. 388 

15. Arundinax, Blyth 389 

1. aedon (Pall.). 390 

16. Hypolais. Brehm 390 

1. rama (Sykes) 391 

2. pallida (Hempr. 8f 

Ehr.) 392 

3. caligata (Licht.) 393 

4. languida, Hempr. fy 

Ehr 391 

5. obsoleta (Sever tz.) 393 

17. Sylvia. Scop 394 

1. cinerea, Bechst 395 

2. jerdoni (Blyth) 395 

3. nana (Hempr. fyEhr.) . . 396 

4. altheea, Hume 397 

5. affinis (Blyth) 397 

6. minuscula, Hume 398 

18. Herbivocula, Swinh 399 

1. schwarzi (Radde) 399 

19. Phylloscopus, Boie 400 

1. affinis (Tick.) 401 

2. tytleri, Brooks 402 

3. tristis, Blyth 403 

4. indicus (Jerd.) 404 

5. fuliginiventris (Hodgs.) 404 

6. fuscatus (Blyth) 405 

7. neglectus, Hume 406 

8. sindianus, Brooks .... 406 

9. maculipeunis (Blyth) . . 406 

10. pulcher (Hodgs.) 407 

11. proregulus (Pali.) 408 

12. subviridis (Brooks) 409 

13. superciliosus (Grn.). . . . 409 

14. humii (Brooks) 4] 

15. mandellii (Brooks) 411 

20. Acanthopneuste, Bias. . . 411 

1. borealis (Bias.) 412 

2. nitidus (Blyth) 413 

3. viridanus (Blyth) .... 414 

4. plumbeitarsus (Swinh.) 414 

5. magnirostris (Blyth) . . 415 

6. tenellipes (Swinh.) 416 

7. lugubris (Blyth) 417 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XIX 



Page 

8. coronatus (Temm. fy 

Schleg.) 417 

9. occipitalis (Jerd.) 418 

10. trochiloides (Stindev.).. 419 

vll. davisoni, Oates 420 

21. Cryptolopha, Swains 421 

1. affinis (Hodgs} 422 

2. tephrocephala (Anders?) 423 

3. burkii (Burton) 424 

4. xanthoschista (Hodgs} 425 

5. jerdoni (Brooks) 425 

6. poliogenys (Blyth) 426 

7. castaneiceps (Hodgs.}. . 427 

8. cantator (Tick.) 427 

9. fulviventris (Godw.- 

Aust} 428 

22. Abrornis, Hodgs 428 

1. superciliaris, Tick 429 

2. schisticeps (Hodgs?) . . 430 

3. albigularis, Hodgs 430 

4. Havigularis, Godw.- 

Aust 431 

23. Tickellia, Jerd. $ Blyth . . 431 
1. hodgsoni (Moore) 432 

24. Scotocerca, Sundev 432 

1. inquieta (Cretzschm.} . . 432 

25. Neornis, Hodgs 433 

l.flavolivacens, Hodgs. . . 433 

26. Horornis, Hodgs 434 

1. brunnescens (Hume) . . 435 

2. fortipes, Hodgs 435 

3. albiventris (Godio.- 

Aust.} 436 

4. pallidus (Brooks) 436 

5. pallidipes (Blanf.) 437 

6. major (Hodgs.} 438 

7. canturiens (Swinh.} .. 438 

27. Phyllergates, Sharpe 439 

1. coronatus (Jerd. 8f 

Blyth) 439 

28. Horeites, Hodgs 440 

1. brunneifrons (Hodgs.}. 440 

29. Cettia, Bonap 441 

1. orientalis, Trist 441 

30. TJrosphena, Swinh 442 

1. squamiceps (Swinh.) . . 442 

31. Suya, Hodgs 443 

1. crinigera, Hodgs 444 

2. atrigularis, Moore .... 445 

3. khasiana, Godic.-Aust. 446 

4. superciliaris, Anders. . . 447 

32. Prinia, Horsf. 447 

1. lepida, Blyth 448 

2. flaviventris (Deless.) . . 449 

3. socialis (Sykes} 450 

4. sylvatica, Jerd. 451 



Page 
5. inornata, Sykes 452 

0. jerdoni (Blyth) 453 

7. blanfordi ( WaU^ 454 

Fam. LANIID^E 455 

Subf am. Lamina 456 

1. Lanius, Linn 457 

1. lahtora, Sykes 459 

2. assimilis, Brehm 460 

3. fallax, Finsch 460 

4. hoineyeri, Cab 461 

5. vittatus, Val 462 

6. collurioides Less 462 

7. nigriceps (Frankl.). . . . 463 

8. erythronotus ( Vig.} . . 464 

9. tephronotus ( Vig.) 465 

10. collurio, Linn 466 

11. auriculatus, Mutt. 467 

12. isabellinus, Ehr 467 

13. phoenicuroides, Severtz. 468 

14. cristatus, Linn 468 

15. lucionensis, Linn 469 

16. tigrinus, Drop 470 

2. Hemipus, Hodgs 471 

1. picatus (Sykes) 471 

2. capitalis (McClell.) 472 

3. obscurus, Horsf. 473 

3. Tephrodornis, Sioains. . . 473 

1. pelvicus (Hodgs.} 473 

2. sylvicola, Jerd. 474 

3. pondicerianua ( Gmel.) . . 475 

4. Platylopkus, Swains 476 

I. ardesiacus (Cab.) 477 

5. Pericrocotus, Boie 477 

1. speciosus (Lath} 479 

2. fraterculus, Swinh 481 

3. andamanensis, Tytl 481 

4. flanimifer, Hume 482 

5. flammeus (Forst.} .... 482 

6. brevirostris (Vig.) .... 483 

7. neglectus, Hume 484 

8. igneus, Blyth 484 

9. Solaris, Blyth 485 

10. roseus ( Vieill.) 486 

II. peregrinus (Linn} 487 

12. erythropygius (Jerd.} . . 488 

13. albifrons, Jerd. 489 

14. cinereus, Lafr 489 

15. cantonensis, Swinh 490 

6. Campophaga, Vieill 491 

1. melanoschista (Hodgs.) 491 

2. melanoptera (Rilpp.) . . 492 

3. neglecta (Hume) 493 

4. sykesi (Strickl} 493 

5. terat (Bodd.) 495 



XX 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

7. Graucalus, Cuv 496 

1. macii, Less 496 

2, dobsoni, Ball 497 

Subfam. Artamince 498 

1. Artamus, VieUl 498 

1. fuscus, Vieill 498 

2. leuc6gaster(Fa/.) .... 499 

Fam. ORIOLIDJE 500 

1. Oriolus, Linn 500 

1. indie us, Jerd 502 

2. tenuirostris, Blyth 503 

3. inacrurus, Blyth 503 

4. andamanensis, Tytl. . , 504 

5. kundoo, Sykes 504 

6. galbula, Linn 505 

7. xanthonotus, Horsf. . . 505 

8. melanocephalus, Linn. 506 

9. troiffii F. 508 



Fam. EULABETIDJE 



509 



1. Eulabes, Cuv 5G9 

1. religiosa (Linn.} 510 

2. intermedia (Hay} .... 511 

3. javanensis (Osbeck) .... 512 

4. ptilogenys (Blyth) 513 

2. Calornis, Gray 514 

1. chalybeius (Horsf.} 514 

Fam. STUBNIDJE 516 

1. Pastor, Temm 518 

1. roseus (Linn.} 518 

2. Sturnus, Linn 519 

1. humii, Brooks 528 



Page 

2. porphyronotus, Sharpe 521 

3. minor, Hume 522 

. menzbieri, Sharpe .... 522 

5. poltaratzskii, Fintch . . 523 

6, purpurascens, Gould . . 524 

3. Spodiopsar, Sharpe 524 

1. eineraceus (Temm.}. . . . 524 

4. Sturnia, Less 525 

1. sinensis (Gm.} 526 

2. blythii (Jerd.} 526 

3. malabarica (Gm.} 527 

4. nemoricola, Jerd 528 

5. andamanensis (Tytl.} . . 529 

6. erythropygia, Blyth. . . . 529 

5. Agropsar, Gates 530 

1. sturninus (Pall.} 530 

6. Ampeliccps, Blyth 531 

1. coronatus, Blyth 531 

7. Temenuclms, Cab 532 

1. pagodarum (Gm.) .... 533 

8. Sturnornis, Legge 533 

1. senex (Temm.} 534 

9. Graculipica, Less 534 

1. nigricollis (Payk.} 534 

2. burmanica (Jerd.) .... 535 

3. leucocephala (Giyl. fy 

Salv.} 536 

10. Acridotheres, Vieill 537 

1. tristis (Linn.) 537 

2. melanosternus, Legge . . 538 

3. ginginianus (Lath.}. . . . 538 

11. ^Ethiopsar, Sharpe 539 

1. fuscus ( Wagl.) 539 

2. grandis (Moore) 541 

3. albicinctus (Godiv.- 

Aust.} 541 

12. Sturnopastor, Hodgs 542 

1. contra (Linn.} 542 

2. superciliaris, Blyth .... 543 



, ' 



AVES. 



BIRDS are warm-blooded vertebrate animals, oviparous, and covered 
with feathers. The anterior limbs are modified into wings. The 
skull articulates with the vertebral column by a single occipital 
condyle, and the jaw is connected with the skull by the interven- 
tion of a quadrate bone. The heart consists of four chambers, 
two auricles and two ventricles, and the right and left sides are 
completely separated from one another. There is only one aortic 
arch, the right. 

It is usual to divide all living birds into two great subclasses, 
which are diagnosed from each other by the shape of the sternum. 
In one subclass, the Carinatce, the sternum is typically provided 
with a keel ; in the other, the Ratitce, the keel of the sternum is 
absent. 

Although this primary division of birds is convenient in many 
ways, yet there are exceptions to its application which render a 
classification based on the shape of the sternum of doubtful utility. 
Some birds which from other points of view are undoubtedly 
Carinatce have the keel of the sternum little, if at all, developed. 

I prefer therefore to divide birds at once into groups which I 
shall term Orders, and in doing so I shall avail myself of the recent 
studies of Mr. Seebohm. This gentleman, partly by independent 
osteological investigations of his own, and partly by utilizing the 
discoveries of other workers in the same or similar fields, has, with- 
out disturbing the usually accepted classification of birds to any 
great degree, arrived at an arrangement which possesses the merit 
of being precise and clear, so far as the materials at his disposal 
have enabled him to be so. He has, moreover, diagnosed the 
different Orders by characters which the least skilful can easily 
investigate and discover for themselves. 

Mr. Seebohm divides birds into several large groups which he 
terms Orders, and these again into suborders which are equal to 
the groups which I, in accordance with the usual practice, prefer to 
call Orders. I do not propose to treat of the distinctions between 
the different Orders here, but to deal with them at the end of this 
work, as I gather from Mr. Seebohm that he contemplates a revi- 
sion of them. The period of two years which, moreover, must 
elapse before the present work is completed cannot fail to be pro- 
ductive of much additional information and improvement with 
respect to the classification of birds. 

YOL. I. B 



Order I. PASSERES. 



The deep plantar tendons passerine ; palate a?githognathous. 

The above two characters in combination suffice to separate a 
passerine bird from all others. 

The deep plantar tendons are the muscles which run down the 
leg of a bird and move the toes. There are several types or forms 
of these muscles. The late Professor G-arrod thus writes about 
them : 

" In birds generally, whatever the number of their toes, there 
are two muscles whose fleshy bellies are situated in the leg proper 
(that is, between the knee and the ankle), deep, and just behind 
the tibia. These muscles arise, one from almost the whole of the 
posterior surface of the tibia and from the fibula, in a bipenniform 
manner, and the other from the inferior surface of the horizontal 
femur just behind the outer genual articular condyle. The former 
is termed the flexor perforans digitorum pedis, because its terminal 
tendons perforate those of the more superficial flexors on their 
way to the ungual phalanges of their respective toes ; and the latter 
is termed the flexor longus hallucis, because there is generally a 
shorter muscle to the same digit. 

" These two muscles descend to the ankle (the joint between 
the tibio-tarsus and the tarso-metatarsus) side by side ; they run 
behind it, in the fibro-cartilagmous or osseous mass which, in 
birds, is always found at the posterior part of the upper end of 
the tarso-metatarse, in two canals, deeper than any of the other 
flexor tendons ; and in these canals there is always a definite 
relation between them. Sometimes the tendons are side by side ; 
and then it is always that of the flexor longus hallucis which is the 
external of the two, the osseous vertical ridge, which is nearly 
always seen in the dry bone, separating them. Sometimes, how- 
ever, one is superficial or, in other words, posterior to the other. 
When this is the case, it is always the flexor perforans digitorum 
which is the deeper. In the Swifts, for instance, ihe, flexor longus 
hallucis quite covers the flexor perforans digitorum ; but in most 
Parrots, as may be seen by the disposition of the osseous canals in 
the dry tarso-metatarse, that for the former muscle is external as 
well as superficial, only partially covering it. 

" These relations are constant, and must be always borne in 
mind in all attempts to identify the muscles. From these it can 



PASSERES. 



3 



be inferred, as is verified by dissection, that the tendon of the 
flexor longns liallucis crosses its companion superficially on its way 
from the ankle to its insertion in the hallux. 

" Just before, or just at the commencement of, the sole of the 
bird's foot (near the joint between the metatarsus and the 
phalanges) these two tendons generally split up to supply the 
toes." 

The manner in which these tendons serve the toes and their 
relation to each other, when combined with other characters, are 
of the greatest service in diagnosing the various orders of birds. 

The deep plantar tendons are said to be passerine when the 
flexor perforans digitorum serves the three front toes and the 
flexor longus liallucis serves the hind toe, both tendons being 
perfectly disconnected in such a manner that the hind toe is 
separately movable from the front toes. This formation is shown 
in the accompanying sketch : 



hallux 




ankle. 



. ... tarso-metatarsus. 



digits... 



Sketch showing the arrangement of the deep plantar tendons in a 
passerine bird. (From P. Z. S. 1875, p. 347.) 



The determination of the character of the deep plantar tendons 
in a freshly-killed bird is very easy. In a dried state the tarsus 
and toes must be macerated in water until soft, when the tendons 
can be dissected without difficulty. 

B2 



4 PASSEBES. 

The palate of a bird is termed segithognathous when the vomer 
is broad and blunt and disconnected from, the maxillo-palatines, 
which are separated from each other by a considerable interval. 
The principal bones in the palate of a bird are shown in the 
accompanying sketch of the skull of a Raven, which has the palate 
segithognathous. 



may. 




Under view of the skull of a Raven, vo, vouier; r/ixp, roaxillo-palatine 
process ; pa, palatine ; ptff, pterygoid ; q, quadrate ; b.sph, basi-sphenoid ; 
sph.r, sphenoidal rostrum. 



The determination of a passerine bird, as before stated, rests on 
the association together of the above two characters. 



PASSE-RES. 5 

The order Passeres contains about half the total number of 
living birds, or somewhat more than 6000 species. Of these nearly 
1000, or one sixth of the number, are found within the limits of 
the Indian Empire, either as residents or as seasonal visitors. 

The primary division of the Passeres into two large groups is 
based -on the mode of attachment of the muscles of the syrinx, 
and may be thus expressed : 

Birds in which the intrinsic muscles of the syrinx 
are fixed to the ends of the bronchial semi- 
rings Acromyodi. 

Birds in which the intrinsic muscles of the syrinx 
are fixed to the middle of the bronchial semi- 
rings Mesomyodi. 

The Acromyodi have the muscles of the syrinx complex and 
consisting of numerous pairs. The Mesomyodi have the muscles 
simple, consisting in many cases of only one pair. 





T.i, 



Syrinx of a Magpie*, showing the Acroinyodian attachment of the intrinsic 
muscles at the ends of the bronchial semi-rings. The left-hand figure is a side 
view and the right-hand figure a dorsal view of the syrinx. The membranous 
parts between the bronchial semi-rings and the internal tympaniform mem- 
brane are dotted ; n, in are the second and third bronchial semi-rings ; T.i, the 
internal tympaniform membrane; st, the muscle from the side of the trachea 
to the upper end of the clavicle ; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 the syringeal muscles; there 
is a 7th. which is hidden by the fith ; the 4th is hidden below and between 
the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. 



* 1 am indebted to my friend Dr. Hans Gadow for this original drawing of 
the syrinx of a Magpie. 






Syrinx of Pitta angolensis (after (lavrod, P. Z. S. 1876, pi. liii), showing the 
Mesomyodiau o,ttaclunent of the intrinsic muscles at the middle of tbe bron- 
chial semi-rings. There is only a single pair of bronchial muscles, continued 
down from the sides of the windpipe, insignificant in size, quite lateral, and 
terminating by being inserted into the middle of the outer surface of the 
second bronchial semi-ring. 

All the Passeres of the Old World belong to the Acromyodian 
group with the exception of three small families, viz. the Phile- 
pittidcK from Madagascar, the Xenicidce from New Zealand, and 
the Pittidoi from India, the Oriental, ./Ethiopian, and Australian 
regions. The Eurylcemidce, frequently associated with these Meso- 
myodian Passeres, I propose to elevate to the. rank of an Order. 

It follows from the above that all the Indian Passeres, with the 
exception of the Pittidce, belong to the Acromyodian group. 

The Mesomyodi may therefore be dismissed from further con- 
sideration with the remark that they are divided info I wo Croups: 
the Oliyomyodce, with the lower eud of the trachea unmodified ; 
and the Tracheophonce, with the lower end of the trachea modified 
to form an organ of voice. The Pittidce fall into the first group, 
as do also the Philepittidce and Xenicidce. The remainder of the 
OligomyodcB and the whole of the Tracheophonce occur only in the 
New World. 

No success has attended the efforts of anatomists to subdivide 
the Acromyodi into two or more groups by internal characters, 
and no two naturalists agree in the arrangement and extent of the 
families of this difficult group. In drawing up ihe annexed 
scheme of the families that occur in India I have endeavoured to 
avail myself of those characters which appear to be constant and 
easy of examination. 

A very useful character to be employed in determining the 
position of a bird is the number of primaries in the wing; but 
before this can be used with absolute precision, it is necessary to 
eliminate by other characters those families some of the members 
of which possess nine primaries and others ten. Such families 
are the Dicasidw and Alaudidas. 



PASSERES. 7 

.The l)'n<i'nl<i, \\ilhout :i single except ion, possess serrat ions on 
the margins of both mandibles for about a third ul' their length 
from the tip. These serrations arc seldom visible \\ithout a lens 
and a white background, hut with these aids they are plainly 

discernible. 

TbfA2audida differ from all the other . \erom\odi in having the 
hinder part of the tarsus scsitelhited or divided transversely into 
shields or scales. The ordinary bilaininuted (longitudinally ) and 
smooth condition of the hind tarsus is shown in fig. 5, p. 18, the 
tarsus of a (/row: the tarsus of a Lark will be figured in its 
proper place. 

Having eliminated these (wo families, all (ho other Acromyodi 
may he divided into two groups, the one possessing nine pri- 
maries and the other ten. There is Borne difficulty in counting 
the number of primaries, or quill-feathers attached to the inanus, 
in the wing of a bird; but this can be overcome by the student 
bearing in mind that, in the Acromyodi, there are ten primaries 
when the first is rudimentary or notably small and nine when 
the first is fully formed and reaches nearly, if not quite, to the 
tip of the wing. 

The nine-primaried Passeres of India form three families which 
are well differentiated. 

The ten-primaried Passeres constitute a large assemblage of: 
birds. The Nectariniidce may be divided off by the tubular tongue 
and the Ploceidce by the position of the nostrils ; but the remain- 
ing birds form a group which is so homogeneous that it seems 
impossible to divide them into families by structural characters. 

Under these circumstances my attention was drawn to the 
characteristic plumage of the nestling, and I have found the use 
of this character highly satisfactory. In the magnificent collection 
of birds now contained in the British Museum young birds and 
nestlings are sufficiently represented to render a classification on 
this basis feasible. The young of some species, however, are 
\\an1ing in the collection, and these species may not in every case 
have been relegated to their proper families, but such birds 
are few. 

The nestling plumage of the teu-primaried Passeres seems to be 
of five types. In the first the nestling resembles the adult female ; 
in the second the nestling resembles the adult female, but is more 
brightly coloured and generally euffused with yellow ; in the third 
the nestling is cross-barred ; in the fourth it is streaked, and in 
the fifth and last mottled or squamated *. 

Before it is possible, therefore, to make use of the annexed scheme 
of the classification of the families of the Passeres and to place a 
bird in its proper family, a knowledge of the plumage of the nest- 

* Mr. Seebolmi, in the fifth volume of the British Museum Catalogue, made 
use of the character of the plumage in the nestling to separate the Sylviincs 
from Ilic I'urdhia, but restricted the application of this character to the more 
typical genera. 



O PASSERES. 

ling is necessary. This is not so difficult as might at first sight 
appear. A series of a dozen skins of a species will generally 
contain a specimen which will furnish some hint as to the plumage 
of the immature hird. If, in such a series, all the specimens be 
absolutely alike, sex for sex, then it may be inferred that the young 
bird resembles the adult. If, on the other hand, one specimen 
differs from the others in possessing characteristic marks, such as 
bars, streaks, or mottlings, or in being more brightly coloured than 
the others, whilst preserving the same pattern of colour, a conclu- 
sion may be drawn from such a circumstance sufficient to allow of 
the species being placed in its appropriate place. It is to be hoped 
that the student in India when collecting specimens will recognize 
the importance of securing young birds and thus work out for 
himself the position and affinities of every species he meets with. 



Scheme of Indian Passerine Families. 

a. (Acromyodi.} The intrinsic muscles of the 
syrinx fixed to the ends of the bronchial 
semi-rings. 

'. The edges of both the mandibles perfectly 
smooth, except for the presence of a single 
notch in many species. 
a". The hinder part of the tarsus longitu- 
dinally bilaminated, the laminae entire 
and smooth. 
a". Wing with ten primaries ; the first 

notably small. 
a 4 . Tongue non-tubular. 

ft 5 . Nostrils always clear of the line 
of the forehead ; the space be- 
tween the nostril and the edge 
of the mandible less than the 
space between the nostril and 
culmen. 

6 , Plumage of the nestling re- 
sembling that of the adult 
female, but paler. 
7 . Nostrils completely hidden 

by feathers and bristles . . Corvidse, vol. i. 
b~ '. Nostrils bare or merely over- 
hung by a few hairs or 
plumelets. 
8 . Rictal bristles always 

present. 

a 9 . With 12 rectrices. 
a 10 . Inner and hind toe 

equal Crateropodidae, vol. i. 

b 10 . Inner and hind toe 

very unequal Sittidae, vol. i. 

b g . With 10 rectrices .... Dicruridse, vol. i. 
b*, Rictal bristles absent . . Certhiidae, vol. i. 



PASSERES. 9 

c 7 . Each nostril covered by a 

single stiff feather Regulidae, vol. i. 

b G . Plumage of the nestling re- 
sembling that of the adult 

female but brighter . Sylviidae, vol. i. 

c 6 . Plumage of the nestling cross- 
barred Laniidae, vol. i. 

d '. Plumage of the nestling- 
streaked. 
d 7 . With rictal bristles. 

c 8 . First primary quite half 

the length of second . . Oriolidae, vol. i. 
d s . First primary much less 
than half the length of 

second Eulabetidae, vol. i. 

e\ Without rictal bristles .... Sturnidae, vol. i. 
e. Plumage of the nestling mot- 
tled or squamated. 
f '. Nostrils more or less covered 

by hairs Muscicapidae, vol. ii. 

g 7 . Nostrils not covered by any 

hairs Turdidae, vol. ii. 

b 5 . Nostrils pierced partly within the 
line of the forehead ; the space 
between the nostril and the edge 
of the mandible greater than the 
space between the nostril and 

the culnaen Ploceidas, vol. ii. 

b 4 . Tongue tubular Nectariniidae, vol. ii. 

b'". AVing with nine primaries, first and 

second nearly equal. 
c 1 . Bill flat, broad, and notched; the 
longest secondaries reaching to 

the middle of the wing Hirundinidae, vol. ii. 

d*. Bill conical, pointed, and entire ; 
the longest secondaries reaching 
to a point midway between the 
middle of the wing and the tip . . Fringillidae, vol. ii. 
e l . Bill long, slender, and notched; 
the longest secondaries reaching 
nearly, or quite, to the tip of the 

wing Motacillidae, vol. ii. 

b". The hinder part of the tarsus trans- 
versely scutellated Alaudidas, vol. ii. 

b'. Both mandibles finely and evenly serrated 

on the terminal third of their edges .... Dicaeidae, vol. ii. 

b. (Mesomyodi.) The intrinsic muscles of the 
syrinx fixed at or near the middle of the 
bronchial semi-rings Pittidae, vol. ii. 



10 




Fig. 1. Urocissa occipital it. 



Family 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings. The edges of both mandibles smooth, or the 
upper one simply notched ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, com- 
posed of two entire longitudinal laminae ; wing with ten primaries ; 
tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of forehead, the 
lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure than the upper 
edge is to the culmeu ; plumage of the nestling like that of the 
adult female, but paler ; nostrils hidden by feathers and bristles ; 
rectrices twelve ; sexes absolutely alike ; an autumn moult only. 



11 

The Crows are divided into three subfamilies by the following 
characters : 

The first primary much exceeding half the 

Jength of the second ; plumage more or 
ess glossy and firm ; length of the bill 
considerably more than its depth ...... Corvince, p. 11. 

The first primary never exceeding half the 
length of the second and usually much 
less than half ; plumage firm ; length 
of bill considerably more than its depth . Paring p. 45. 
The first primary much exceeding half the 
length of the second ; plumage very lax 
and copious ; length of bill usually equal 
to, or less than, its depth, only very occa- 
sionally slightly longer .............. 

[p. 60. 

Subfamily CORVINE. 

This subfamily contains the Crows, Magpies, Jays, Nutcrackers, 
and Choughs. All species occurring in India are resident in the 
Empire except the Book and the Hooded Crow, which are winter 
visitors to the North-west. Their summer-quarters are, however, 
not far off and their migrations are only partial and local. The 
members of the genus Corvus, or the true Crows, are birds of wide 
distribution, but most of the members of the other genera are 
restricted to small areas. 

The Corvince vary a good deal inter se in structure and habits. 
In one or two genera the nostrils are not so completely hidden by 
bristles as in the typical Crows. The majority feed habitually on 
the ground, others are strictly arboreal. They all agree in laying 
four or five spotted eggs ; but their mode of nidification varies ex- 
tremely, some species breeding in holes of trees and cliffs, and 
others, the majority, constructing large nests of sticks and twigs. 
Most of them are omnivorous, but some of the smaller tropical 
species appear to confine their diet to insects. 

The Corvince, as a subfamily, have few characters in common, 
and yet there is no group of birds which is more easily recog- 
nized. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Nostrils distant from forehead about one 
third length of bill j naral bristles rigid and 
straight, reaching to about middle of bill ; or 
rictal bristles and feathers on front of face 



altogether absent. 
a'. Tail much short 
b'. Tail much longer than wing ............ PICA, p 



Tail much shorter than wing .......... CORVUS, p. 12. 

. 23. 



12 CORVIDJ!. 

b. Nostrils distant from forehead less than quar- 
ter length of bill ; naral bristles or plumes 
short, never reaching to middle of bill. 
c'. Tail greatly graduated, the outer feathers 

much less than half length of tail. 
a' 1 . Middle tail-feathers of uniform width 
throughout or widening gradually to- 
wards the tip. 

"'. Naral bristles spare, curly, and barely 
concealing nostrils bill red or yel- 
low. 
4 . Tail more than twice length of 

wing ; eyelids not wattled .:.... UROCISSA, p. 25. 
> 4 . Tail less than twice length of wing ; 

eyelids wattled CISSA, p. 28. 

b'". Naral bristles thick, straight and quite 

concealing the nostrils ; bill black . . DEXDROCITTA, p. 30. 
b". Middle tail-feathers suddenly broader 

near the tip CRYPSIRHINA, p. 34. 

d' '. Tail not much graduated; outer feather 

more than half length of tail. 
c". Graduation of closed tail more than 
length of tarsus ; rictal bristles ex- 
tremely long PLATYSMTJRUS, p. 36. 

d". Graduation of closed tail less than 
length of tarsus ; rictal bristles mode- 
rate or obsolete. 
c'". Tarsus very distinctly and coarsely 

scutellated. 
c 4 . Bill about half length of head, deep 

and notched GARRULUS, p. 37. 

d 4 . Bill about as long as head, slender, 

not notched NUCIFRAGA, p. 40, 

d'". Tarsus smooth or with indistinct 

scutellations. 
e 4 . Both mandibles feathered to same 

extent at base GRACULUS, p. 42. 

/*. Lower mandible much less feathered 

at base than upper PYRRHOCORAX, p. 44. 



Genus CORVUS, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Corvus contains the Havens, Crows, Eooks, and Jack- 
daws. Nine species are found in India, some of them widely 
distributed and well known to all, others confined to the Hima- 
layas and the north-west portion of the Empire. 

Corvus has the plumage black throughout or nearly throughout, 
and may be recognized by the position of the nostrils, which are 
placed far forward, about one third the length of the bill from 
the forehead, and are entirely concealed from view by a multitude 
of very stiff, straight bristles that reach the middle of the bill. In 
these characters this genus agrees with the Magpies ; but the latter 
may be separated by the length of the tail, which is very much 



COEVUS. 13 

longer than the wing, aiid by the shape of the first primary, which 
is figured 011 p. 23. 

The Crows are as a rule resident, but two species visit India 
only in the winter. 

The Rook forms a partial exception to the general characters 
given above for determining Corvus. Up to nine months of age it 
has the ordinary stiff bristles over the nostrils, but at that age it 
casts them all off, as well as the feathers on the front part of the 
head. Its appearance in this state is well depicted in the figure 
of the head given on p. 19. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Of larger size ; wing always over 15 inches. 
a'. Hackles of throat long and distinct; 

entire plumage glossy black C. coraz, p. 14. 

V. Hackles of throat short and not distinct 
or prominent ; head, mantle, and lower 
plumage brown C. umbrinus, p. 15. 

b. Of smaller size : wing rarely reaching or 

exceeding 14 inches. 
c'. Hind neck black like crown. 

a". Lower plumage with little gloss, 

and this blue or green; bill deeper ; 

face always feathered. 

a'". Plumage intensely black ; the 

feathers of the hind neck firm and 

glossy, with distinct, glistening 

shafts C. corone, p. 16. 

b'". Plumage not intensely black; 
feathers of the hind neck soft 
and decomposed, almost gloss- 
less, and their shafts not dis- 
tinguishable from the webs .... C. macrorhynchus, p. 17. 
b". Lower plumage brilliantly glossy at 
all ages, the gloss purple and lilac ; 
bill slender ; face bare in adults . . C. fruyilegus, p. 18. 
d'. Hind neck grey or ashy, contrasting 

with the black crown. 

c 1 '. Of larger size ; wing over 12 inches. C. comix, p. 19. 
d". Of smaller size ; wing rarely exceed- 
ing 11 inches. 

c'". Chin and throat deep black in 

contrast with breast ; culmen 

more than 1'6 in. in length and 

well curved. 

a 1 . Hind neck and sides of neck 

typically light grey C. splendens, p. 20. 

b 4 . Hind neck and sides of neck 

typically dark grey C. insolens, p. 21. 

d'". Chin and throat of much the same 
colour as breast ; culmen under 
1-3 in., and straight C. monedula, p. 22. 



14 



CORVIDJE. 



1. Corvus corax. The Raven. 




no. 657 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 1. 
Corvus thibetanus, Hodgs. A. M. N. H. (2) iii, p. 203 ( 1849) ; Horsf. 

$ M. Cat. ii, p. 553 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 294 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 54 ; Hume, Cat. no. 658. 
Oorvus lawrencii, Hume, Lah. to Yark. p. 235 (1873) ; id. S. F. i, 

p. 205 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 385 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 408 ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. iii, p. 15 note ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 63 ; id. Cat. no. 

657 bis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 250. 

The European Raven, The Tibet Raven, Jerd. j Domkak, Doda, Hind, 
in the N.W. ; Kargh, Candahar. 









Fig. 2. A throat-hackle of the Eaveu of Sikhiin (a) and of the 
Raven of the Punjab (b). 



Coloration. Entirely black, glossed with steel-blue, purple, and 
likic ; ihe throat-hackles long and conspicuous. 

Iris brown; bill and legs shining black (Hume Coll.). 

The following are the dimensions of the larger race found in 
the Himalayas: length 28 inches; tail 11*5; wing up to 19-3; 
tarsus 2*7 ; bill from gape 3*2. The smaller race from the plains 
measures: length about 24; tail 9'5 ; wing 16 '3 to 17*4; tar- 
sus 2'3 ; bill from gape 2-8. 

The Eaven of Tibet, Sikhiin, Nepal, and the higher portions of 
the Himalayas is recognizably distinct from the Raven which is 
found as a permanent resident in Sind, Eajputana, and the Punjab. 
The Alpine race, a dweller in a cold bracing climate, has developed 
into an immense bird somewhat larger than any I have been able 
to pick out from a series of more than 50 Ravens from all parts 



COEYUS. 15 

of the northern hemisphere. The race from the plains of India, on 
the other hand, a dweller in an enervating tropical atmosphere, has 
dwindled down to a size which it is hard to match from the same 
series. Yet between the immense bird of Sikhim and the smallest 
bird qf the plains it is by no means difficult to interpolate others 
from- Europe and Africa which serve to bridge the difference of 
size. It therefore seems impossible to separate the Ravens of 
the whole world into two or more species. 

If the Ravens of India alone are examined, it is not difficult to 
assign differential characters to two species. Not only is size suffi- 
cient, but the character and shape of the hackles of the throat, which 
I now figure, would suffice to diagnose them. As the matter 
stands, however, I unite them into one species, although I do so 
with considerable hesitation. 

Distribution. The Raven is found throughout the Himalayas at 
altitudes generally of above 14,000 feet. It does not appear to be 
found below this level till the plains of the north-west are reached. 
Here a smaller and dull-coloured race occurs. This race is found 
throughout Sind, the Punjab, Bahawalpur, Bickaneer, the northern 
portions of Jodhpore and Jeypore, extending as far as Sambhar, 
where it appears to be common. In some portions of the above 
area it is said to be migratory and a winter visitor, but in the greater 
portion of the tract it remains to breed. 

The Raven is found in nearly every part of the northern hemi- 
sphere. 

Habits <$fc. The Raven of the Himalayas and the Raven of Europe 
are shy, wary birds, seldom approaching civilized surroundings. 
The Raven of, the North-west of India, on the other hand, appears 
to have all the habits of the Common Crow, attending camps and 
villages and going about without fear, but with the usual wariness 
of his tribe. Hume has noticed how a large number of Ravens die 
annually in the autumn on their first arrival in Sind from no 
apparent cause. Blanford informs me that the Sind Raven 
utters a most peculiar bell-like note besides the usual guttural 
cry. 

The Raven of the North-west breeds from December to March. 
It constructs a large nest of sticks near the top of a tree standing 
in a field or in open jungle. The eggs are usually five in number 
and are greenish or pale blue, marked with blackish brown, olive, 
and pale purple. They measure 1-94 by T31. 

Mandelli obtained the nest of the Sikhim bird high up towards 
the snows, containing four eggs. The date on which the nest was 
found is not stated. 

2. Corvus umbrinus. The Brown-necked Raven. 

Corvus umbrinus, Hedenb. Sundev. (Efv. k. Vet.-Akad. Forh. Stockh. 
1838, p. 199; Sharpe, Cat, B. M. iii, p. 17; Hume, S. F. vii, 
p. 120; id. Cat. no. 660 bis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 251. 



16 

Coloration. Forehead and crown umber-brown, partially glossed 
with purple ; nape, hind neck and mantle, sides of the head and 
sides of the neck umber-brown, almost glossless ; remaining upper 
plumage glossy black ; the whole lower plumage blackish brown, 
most of the feathers with umber-brown edges and .with a very 
small amount of gloss. 

Bill black ; legs black, with a brownish tinge ; iris dark brown 
(Dresser). 

Length about 22 ; tail 9 ; wing 15*5 ; tarsus 2'5 ; bill from gape 
2-5. 



Fig. 3. A throat-hackle of G. umbrinus. 

Distribution. This Eaven is a bird of the desert. It has occurred 
a few times within our limits, and I have seen specimens in the 
Hume Collection procured at Jacobabad and Larkhana in Sind in 
January and February. It is probably more common in Mekran. 
Apart from its coloration it is very distinct from 0. cor ax of the 
Punjab, being very much smaller and having the hackles of the 
throat very much shorter. It extends eastwards to Egypt. 



3. Corvus cor one. The Carrion-Crow. 

Corvus corone, Zmw. Syst. Nat. i, p. 155(1766) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

ii, p. 553 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 295; Hume, N. fy E. p. 410 ; id. Cat. 

no. 659 j Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 570 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 4. 

Corvus pseudocorone, Hume, N. E. p. 410 (1873). 
Corone corone (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 36. 

Coloration. The entire plumage intense glossy black, the feathers 
of the hind neck firm and with glistening shafts. 

Bill and legs shining black ; iris brown (Dresser). 

Length about 19 ; tail 8 ; wing 12'6 to 14 ; tarsus 2*3 ; bill from 
gape 2-25. 

Distribution. I cannot discover any difference between the only 
two Indian-killed specimens of this species I have seen and 
numerous others from various parts of the world. The Carrion- 
Crow appears to be a resident in Kashmir, where it breeds. It is 
no doubt common enough, but frequently overlooked as a common 
crow. It has not yet been found in any other part of India. 
The proper home of this bird is the eastern half of Siberia, from 



CORYUS. 17 

the Yenesay river to the Pacific, but it is also found in greater 
or less abundance southwards in Turkestan and Kashmir, extend- 
ing into Europe as far as England. 

Habits, $c. The Carrion-Crow, like the Eaven, is found in the 
wildest parts of the countries it inhabits. It is generally solitary 
and but seldom seen in flocks. Brooks found the nest in Kashmir, 
at Sonamurg, on the 30th May, but he gives no particulars of the 
occurrence. The eggs, which are pale green, spotted and otherwise 
marked with greenish or olive-brown and pale sepia, measure 1'67 
by 1-16. 

4. Corvus macrorhynchus. The Jungle-Crow. 

Corvus macrorhynchus, Waqler, Syst. Av., Corvus, sp. 3 (1827) ; 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 461 ; Hume, Cat. no. G60 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 397; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 250 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 4. 

Corvus levaillantii, Less. Traite, p. 328 (1831); Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 411 ; id. S. F. ii, p. 243 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped. Aves, p. 589. 

Corvus culnimatus, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 96 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 553; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 295; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 20. 
Corvus interniedius, Adams, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 171 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 
p. 297; Hume Offenders. Lah. to Yark.y. 237; Hume, Cat. no. 661. 
Corvus tenuirostris, Moore, apud Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 297. 
Corvus andainaiiensis, Tytler, Beai-an, Ibis, 1866, p. 420. 
Corone macrorhvncha ( Wayl.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 38 ; Leyge, 

Birds Ceyl. p/346. 

Corone levaillanti (Less.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 39. 
Corvus enca, H&rsf. apud Hume, Cat. no. 662. 

The Indian Corby, the Black Hill-Crow, the Slender-billed Crow, Jerd.; 
Dhar or Dhal koiva,Hmd. in the North; Dheri-kowa, Hind, in the South; 
Karrial, Hind. ; Dad-kag, Beng. ; Kaki, Tel. ; Kaka, Tarn. ; Ulak-pho, 
Lepch. ; Ulak, Bhut. ; Goyegamma-Kaka, Ceyl. 




Fig. 4. Head of C. macrorhynchus. 

Coloration. Upper plumage glossy black except the hind neck 
and sides of neck, which are almost glossless, and of which the 
feathers are disintegrated and silky, not of the intense black of the 
other parts, and with the shafts not distinguishable from the webs. 

Iris dark brown ; legs, feet, and bill black. 

Length about 19 ; tail 7 to 9 ; wing 11 to 14 ; tarsus about 2-2 ; 
bill from forehead to tip 2-2 to 2-5. 

TOL. I. C 



18 COflVIDJE. 

In the British Museum there are about 300 specimens of the 
Jungle-Crow from all parts of India and Burma. An examination 
of this series makes it evident, as Hume has already shown, that 
there is but one species of this large Crow in the Empire. Neither 
by size, structure, nor coloration is it possible to separate the series 
into two or more species. The smallest birds occur in the North- 
west Himalayas and the largest in the Andamans and Burma, and 
between the two extremes there is a connected chain of intermediate 
specimens. 




Fig. 5. Foot of C. macrorhynchus. 

Distribution. The Jungle-Crow occurs in every portion of the 
Empire and Ceylon, except the higher parts of the Himalayas, and 
is a resident species. It extends in the same or a modified form 
down to the islands of South-eastern Asia and to China. 

Habits, fyc. This Crow is not only found in forests and the re- 
moter parts of the jungle, but it also frequents towns and villages 
in considerable nuirfbers. It associates with the ordinary House- 
Crow ; and the two species have precisely the same habits. 

The nesting- season commences in the middle of January, and 
lasts throughout February. The nest, a large structure made of 
twigs and lined with some soft material such as hair or grass, is 
placed near the summit of a tolerably large tree well away from 
human habitations. The eggs, four or five in number, are green 
marked with various shades of brown, and measure about 1-7 by 1*2. 

5. Corvus frugilegus. The Rook. 

Corvus frugilegus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 156 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 90; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 557 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 302; Hume, Cat. no. 664; 

JBiddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 77, 1882, p. 28i ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 571 ; 

Hume, S. F. x, p. 518. 
Trypanocorax frugilegus (Linn.}, Sharps, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 9. 



CORTUS. 10 

Coloration. The whole plumage black ; the head, Deck, and lower 
plumage richly glossed with purplish blue, the upper plumage 
with violet-purple. 

Bill and feet black ; iris blackish brown (Hume Coll.}. 

Lengfti about 19; tail 6'5 to 8 ; wing 12 to 13; tarsus about 
2-2 ; bill from gape 2-5 to 2-8. 

The nestling is without any gloss at first but quickly assumes it. 
About January, or when the young bird is about nine months old, 
the naral bristles are cast, and by March the front part of the head 
has become entirely denuded of feathers. 




Fig. 6. Head of C. frugilegus. 

Distribution. The Eook occurs in Kashmir, the Hazara country 
and the extreme north-west portion of the Punjab in the winter 
The Hume Collection contains birds killed at Abbottabad from Oc- 
tober to February, and Scully states that this -species is common in 
Gilgit from the third week in October to the third week in April. 

The Kook is found in Central Asia and in Europe, but to the 
east it is replaced by C. pastinator, which has a smaller extent of 
the face denuded of feathers. 

Habits, <$fc. The Eook frequents the better cultivated parts of the 
country in large flocks, feeding in meadows and ploughed land on 
worms, snails and grubs. It does not breed in India. In Europe 
it breeds in large societies, building a nest similar to the Crow's 
on large trees. 

6. Corvns cornix. The Hooded Crow. 

Corvus cornix, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 156 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. i, p. 89 ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 553 ; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 406, 517 ; id. 

Cat. no. 659 bis ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 77. 
Corone cornix (ZiYw.), Sharpe, Cat. U. M. iii, p. 31. 

Coloration. Entire head and neck, the central part of the upper 
breast, the wings, tail, and thighs glossy black ; remainder of the 
plumage drab-grey, the shafts of the upper parts black, those of 
the lower brown. 

c2 



20 COEYID^E. 

Iris brown ; legs, bill, and feet black (Johnson}. 

Length 19 ; tail 7'5 ; wing 12-5 ; tarsus 2-2 ; bill from gape 2 
to 2-2. 

Varieties. Three races of Hooded Cro\v can readily be dis- 
tinguished, and I have seen no specimens showing that any inter- 
breeding takes place between them. The true G. comix is found 
in Europe and eastwards as far as the Persian Gulf. The light 
parts of the plumage of this bird are ashy grey. C. capellanus is 
found round the Persian Gulf and in Mesopotamia. In this the 
light parts of the plumage are white with black shafts. The third 
race, which for convenience I shall term C. sliarpii, inhabits Siberia, 
Turkestan, Afghanistan, and a portion of India. In this the light 
parts of the plumage are drab-grey. The three races are so distinct 
that any one could separate them at once. 

Distribution. Occurs in winter in the extreme north-west portion 
of the Punjab, in the Hazara country, and in Gilgit. Biddulph 
observed this species in the last-mentioned place in December, 
January, and February. It extends westward to the head of the 
Persian Gulf and northwards to Siberia, where it appears to inter- 
breed to a considerable extent with C. corone. 

Habits, tyc. The Hooded Crow has much the same habits as the 
Carrion-Crow, being shy and frequenting the more barren parts of 
the countries it inhabits. In addition to eating the usual food of 
its ally, it is said to feed on grain and to be found in fields searching 
the ground like the Book. It does not breed in India. 

7. Corvus splendens. The Indian House-Crow. 

Corvus splendens, Vieill. N. Diet. cCHist. Nat. viii, p. 44 (1817); Blyth, 
Cat. p. 90 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 559 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 298 ; Hume, 




Corvus 

Anomalocorax impudicus, Hodys., Gray, Hand-list, ii, p. 14 (1870) ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 413. 
Corone splendens ( Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 33 ; Ley ye, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 349. 

The Common Indian Crow, Jerd ; Koioa, Pati-Koiva, Desi-Kowa, Hind, 
in various districts ; Kay or Kak, Beng. ; Manchi Kaki, Tel. ; Nalla 
Kdka, Tarn. ; Karavi-Kaka, Kakum, Ceyl. ; Graya, Port, in Ceylon ; 
Myan-Kwak, Mauipur. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, lores, cheeks, chin, and throat deep 
glossy black ; nape, ear-coverts, the whole neck, upper back, and 
breast light ashy brown ; wings, tail, and remainder of upper plu- 
mage glossy black ; lower plumage from the breast dull brownish 
black. The feathers of the throat are lanceolate ; and the whole 
of the black portions of the plumage are highly resplendent with 
purple-blue and greenish reflexions. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and bill black. 

Length l7'5 ; tail 7 ; wing up to 11 ; tarsus 1*9 ; bill from gape 2. 



CORYUS. -J 1 

The Common Crow of India varies considerably in its coloration 
according to climate. The light parts of the plumage of birds from 
Sind and the dry portions of India are nearly white, whereas birds 
from Ceylon and the more humid portions of the peninsula have 
these partis very dark, nearly as dark as the Burmese species. 

Distribution. Occurs as a resident throughout the whole of India 
from Sind and the Punjab to Assam, ascending the Himalayas to 
about 4000 feet, and down to Ceylon. From Assam this Crow 
extends southwards to Manipur and Northern Arrakan, and some- 
where about these parts it mus't meet the next species. 

Habits, $c. The Indian House-Crow is the most familiar of all 
Indian birds, being found in every part of the country, but more 
especially in towns and villages, where its numbers are very great 
and its habits obtrusive. It has in a great measure become domes- 
ticated while retaining its wariness. It is eminently sociable, and 
even in wild districts a solitary bird is seldom seen. It breeds 
from May to July in clumps of trees near villages, constructing a 
rough nest of sticks lined with grass and other soft materials. The 
number of eggs varies from four to six, four, however, being the 
usual number. The colour is some shade or other of green or pale 
blue, and the eggs are marked in various ways with sepia, olive- 
brown, and sometimes purple. They measure on the average from 
1-44 to 1-06. 

8. Corvns insolens. The Burmese House-Crow. 

Corvus insolens, Hume, 8. F. ii, p. 480 (1874), iii, p. 144 ; Wald. in 
Blyth, Birth Burm. p. 87 ; Oates, S. F. v, p. 159 ; Wardlaw Ram- 
say, Ibis, 1877, p. 459 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 589 ; 
Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 380 ; Hume, Cat. no. 663 bis ; Oates, 
B. B. i, p. 399; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 12. 

Corone insolens (Hume), Sharps, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 34. 
Kyeegan, Burm. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, chin, and throat glossy black; 
back of the neck and its sides dull brown ; ear-coverts and the whole 
lower plumage from the throat dull brownish black ; wings and 
tail and remainder of the plumage deep glossy black. The feathers 
of the throat are lanceolate ; and the whole of the black portions 
of the plumage are highly glossed with purple, blue, and green, 
varying according to the light thrown on them. 

The dimensions are the same as those of C. splendens. The 
iris is dark brown ; the legs and bill black. 

Distribution. The whole of Burma except perhaps the northern 
parts of Arrakau and the northern portion of Upper Burma bor- 
dering on Assam and Manipur. To the south the limit appears to 
be Mergui. This species extends into Siain and Cochin China. 

Habits. &fc. The House-Crow of Burma, like its congener in India, 
is extremely abundant in all towns and villages ; and even an 
isolated house in the jungle will usually be found to attract a few 
of these birds. 



22 COKYID.E. 

The breed ing- season commences about the middle of March and 
lasts till the beginning of the rains. These birds almost always breed 
in societies, selecting a group of trees in a compound or near a 
monastery. The nest, made of twigs and lined with hair, grass or 
other soft substances, is placed high up in rather tall trees, and 
the eggs, usually four in number, resemble closely those of the 
preceding species. 

9. Corvus monedula. The Jaclcdaiv. 

Gorvus monedula, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 156 (1766); Blyth, Cat. 
p. DO ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 414 ; id. Cat. no. 665 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 77 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 12. 

Corvus collaris, Drummond, A. M. N. H. xviii, p. 11 (1846). 

Colseus mouedula (Linn.}, Ilorsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 562 ; Jerd. B. I. \\, 
p. 302; Hume $ Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 239 ; Scully, S. F. iv, 
p. 158; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 26; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 572. 

Colseus collaris (Drummond), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 27 ; Scully, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 572. 




Fig. 7. Head of C. monedula. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown glossy black; nape and hind 
neck dusky grey ; sides of the head and neck light grey, almost 
white, and forming a half-collar on the posterior portion of the 
side of the neck ; lores blackish ; upper plumage, wings, and tail 
bluish black with a considerable amount of gloss ; chin and cheeks 
black with grey shaft-streaks ; throat and fore neck entirely black ; 
remainder of lower plumage slaty black with a very small amount 
of gloss. 

Legs and bill black ; iris nearly white (Dresser). 

Length about 13 ; tail 5'2 ; wing 9*2 ; tarsus 1*7 ; bill from gape 
1-5. 

Jackdaws vary much inter se in the amount and purity of the 
white on the sides of the neck, and I cannot distinguish the race 
which has been separated under the title of C. collaris. A certain 
number of birds can be picked out of a series with the half-collar 
very white and distinct, but others from the same localities are 
typical C. monedula, and there are intermediate specimens. The 
majority of Indian birds incline towards G. collaris, and that is 
all that can be said in favour of the retention of the name. 



PICA. 



23 



Distribution. Kashmir and the north-west Punjab. According 
to Hume the Jackdaw is in winter numerous near the foot of the 
hills and has been found as far east as TJmballa and south to 
Ferozepore, Jhelum, and Kalabdgh, and it extends into the Dera 
GluizMvhan District. It appears to be a resident in Kashmir and as 
far east as the valley of the Beas, throughout which tract it breeds 
freely. 

It extends into Europe. 

Habits, tyc. The Jackdaw is most frequently observed in the 
vicinity of cliffs and old buildings, in the holes of which, as well as 
in holes of trees, it breeds, constructing a nest of sticks lined 
with soft substances, and laying four to six eggs, which are green 
marked with various shades of brown and purple, and measure 1*4 
by -98. 

Genus PICA, Brisson, 1760. 

Two species of Pica occur in India, one identical with the Eng- 
lish Magpie, the other peculiar to some of the higher parts of the 
Himalavas. 




Fig. 8. Head of P. rustica. 




Fig. 9. First primary of P. rustica. 

Pica differs from Corvus in having a long graduated tail and 
a first primary of very peculiar shape. In habits the two genera 
are not very dissimilar. The Magpies are, however, more addicted 
to well-wooded districts ; they are equally wary and they are almost 



24 

omnivorous. They build large nests of sticks, domed and placed 
in trees or large bushes. 

The two Indian species of: Magpies are very distinct from each 
other. The large local Himalayan species has no allies. But the 
smaller Magpie, which is the same as the Euglish one, varies con- 
siderably over the extensive tract of country it inhabits, chiefly in 
the amount of white on the quills of the wing. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing always under 9 inches ; a white or 

ashy band across the rump P. rustica, p. 24. 

b. Wing always over 10 inches ; the rump 

entirely black P. bottanensis, p. 25. 

10. Pica rustica. The Magpie. 

Corvus pica. Linn. Syst. Nat. \, p. 157 (1766). 

Corvus rusticus, Scop. Ann. i, p. 38 (1768). 

Pica media, Ulyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 393 (1844) ; id. Cat. p. 91 ; 

Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 551. 

Pica caudata (Ray], Blyth, Cat. p. 91 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 550. 
Pica tibetana, Hodgs. A. M. N. H. (2) iii, p. 203 (1849). 
Pica bactriana, Bonap. Consp. i, p. 383 (1850); Horsf fy M. Cat. ii, 

p. 550 ; Hume fy Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 240 ; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 416 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 158. 
Pica leucoptera, Gould, Birds Asia, v, pi. 55 (1862). 
Pica pica (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 62. 
Pica rustica (Scop.), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 407 ; Anders. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves, p. 590; Hume, Cat. no. 668 bis; Uiddulph, Ibis, 

1881, p.^78 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 572 ; Oatcs in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 13. 
Akha, Cabul. 

Coloration. The entire head and neck, the upper plumage, breast, 
thighs, vent, and under tail-coverts black, the rump with a whitish 
or greyish band across ; scapulars, abdomen, and the greater portion 
of the primaries white ; wings brilliantly glossed with blue, and 
the tail with green, lilac and purple. 

Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 

Length about 20 ; tail up to 12'5 ; wing 7*5 to 8'5 ; tarsus 1-8 
to 2; bill at front 1-3. 

With the exception of the amount of white on the primaries I 
cannot find that the Magpies of Asia differ in any respect from 
those of Europe. The amount of white is very variable and forms 
no character, in my opinion, by which two or more species may be 
recognized. 

Distribution. The Magpie is a permanent resident over a consider- 
able portion of Kashmir, coming down in winter to 5000 feet and 
ascending in summer to about 8000 feet. It occurs, so far as is 
known, in no other part of the Himalayas, but it reappears within 
our limits around Khelat in Baluchistan and also at Bhamo in 
Upper Burma, where both Anderson and my collector procured it 
in the cold weather. 



TJROCISSA. 25 

This species is spread over a considerable portion of the Northern 
hemisphere. 

//<(}>its, $c. The Magpie is found in well-wooded parts of the 
country and near cultivation, and is said by Biddulph to be at 
all times common in Kashmir. He found two nests in May in that- 
country. The nest is a large domed structure of sticks built in a 
tree or bush, and the eggs, usually five in number, are greenish 
marked with umber and sepia-brown and measure 1*25 by '97. 

11. Pica bottanensis. The Black-rumped Magpie. 

Pica bottanensis, Deless. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 100 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 91 ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 551 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 305 ; Hume, S. F. v. 

p. 281 ; id. Cat. no. 068 ; id. S. F. ix, p. 293. 
Pica megaloptera, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 193 (1842). 
Pica tibetana, Hodys. A. M. N. H. (2) in. p. 203 (1849). 
The Himalayan Magpie, Jerd. 

Coloration. Eesembles P. rustica, but is much larger with a longer 
wing and shorter tail and with the rump entirely black. 

Length about 21; tail 11-5; wing 10 to 10*5; tarsus 2'1 ; 
bill at front 1-4 to 1'6. 

All the species of Pica have a band of white or grey across the 
rump except the present form and P. mauritanica t which is found 
in Spain and N. Africa. Of P. bottanensis there are some thirty 
specimens in the British Museum and they all agree in having 
the rump entirely black, in their large size, short tail, and long 
wing. 

Distribution. The higher parts of Bhutan, Native Sikhim, and 
Chinese Tibet. There is no evidence that P. bottanensis occurs in 
Nepal. There is a skin in the British Museum said to have been 
collected in Kumaon, but I doubt the correctness of this locality. 

Genus UROCISSA, Cabauis, 1850. 




. 10. Head of U. occipitalis. 



The genus Urocissa contains a few brightly plumaged Magpies 
which are found in India and China. They differ from the true 
Magpies in having the nostrils, which are covered by rather soft 
plumes, not by stiff bristles, situated near the base of the bill, in 



26 CORVJD--E. 

having a longer tail and a bill which is either red or yellow, 
never black. 

The Blue Magpies frequent forest districts, and are not found 
so often near villages and cultivation as the common Magpie. 
They feed a great deal on the ground, chiefly on large insects. 
They differ remarkably from the species of Pica in not constructing a 
dome over their nests ; otherwise their nesting-habits appear to be 
much the same. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill red ; nuchal white patch large, reaching 

to the end of the black on the hind neck. ... U. occipitalis, p. 26. 

b. Bill yellow ; nuchal white patch small, not 

reaching to the margin of the black on the 

hind neck U. flavirostris, p. 27. 

12. Urocissa occipitalis. The Red-billed Blue Magpie. 

Psilorhinus occipitalis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 27 (1846) ; id. Cat. 

p. 93. 
Psilorhinus magnirostris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 27 (1846) ; id. Cat. 

p. 93. 
Urocissa sinensis (Linn.), apud Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 577 ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 309. 
Urocissa occipitalis (BL), Jerd. B. I. App. p. 873 ; Hume, N. fy E. 

p. 419; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 70 ; Hume, Cat. no. 671 ; Scully, 

S. F. viii,p. 327 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 400 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 258 ; 

Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 618 ; Gates in Hume's N. 

$E. 2nded. i, p. 14. 
Urocissa magnirostris (Bl.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 144 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 

M. iii, p. 71 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 385 ; Anders. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves, p. 592 j Hume, Cat. no. 671 bis ; Binyham, S. F. ix, 

p. 191. 
Nil-Khant, at Mussoorie ; Diyg-dall, at Simla. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and breast black ; a large patch on the 
nape, continued down the back of the neck, white ; some of the 
feathers of the crown also tipped with white ; lower plumage 
white tinged .with purple ; tail blue, broadly tipped with white, 
and all but the central pair of feathers with a band of black next 
the white tips : wings brown ; the first two primaries edged with 
blue, the next five edged with blue above the margination and with 
bluish white below ; the other primaries and secondaries almost 
entirely blue on the outer web ; the tertiaries blue on both webs ; 
the whole of the quills tipped with white, at first on the outer 
web only and gradually extending to both webs ; back, scapulars, 
and rump purplish blue, the wing-coverts brighter ; upper tail- 
coverts blue tipped with black, and with a band of bluish white 
next the black tips. 

Iris brown, probably turning to red in very old birds ; bill and 
legs varying from red to crimson ; eyelids greyish white ; claws 
horn-colour ; mouth flesh-colour. 



UROC1SSA. Z< 

Length up to 28 ; tail up to 19 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 1-9 ; bill from 
gape 1-8. 

In the 4 Birds of Burmah ' I entered fully into the question of the 
identity of U. maynirostris with U. occipitalis, and it is not neces- 
sary no\v to discuss the subject again. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Nepal. 
I can find no evidence of this bird's occurrence in Sikhim, Bhutan, or 
Assam; but it reappears in the Naga hills, about Bhamo, in Arrakan 
and generally throughout Burma in suitable localities down to Te- 
nasserim. It also extends into SUm. In the Himalayas and the 
hill-ranges of Eastern Bengal it is found at an elevation of 5000 feet 
and higher, but in Burma it occurs at the level of the sea or not 
much above it. It is a permanent resident throughout its range. 

Habits, $c. This Magpie is found in small parties of from three 
to six individuals. It breeds from March to July according to locality, 
constructing a solid cup- shaped nest of twigs and branches in trees 
at all heights from the ground. The eggs, three to five in number, 
are like those of Pica rustica in colour and they measure about 
1-3 by -95. 

In Burma this Magpie affects the dry forests which occupy large 
tracts of country in the plains, and not the moister or evergreen 
forests of the hills. 



13. Urocissa flavirostris. The Yellow-billed Blue Magpie. 

Psilorhinus flavirostris, Blyfh, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 28 (1846) j id. Cat. 

p. 93. 
Urocissa flavirostris (Bl.), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 578 ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 310 j Hume $ Renders. Lah. to York. p. 242 j Hume, N. $ 

E. p. 419 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 72 ; Hume, Cat. no. 672 ; 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 328 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 16. 
Urocissa cucullata, Gould, B. Asia, v, pi. 51 (1861). 
Tying -jongring, Lepch. ; Pianging-jabbriny, Bhut. 

Coloration. Head, neck, and breast black, the nape white and the 
feathers of the crown tipped white ; back, scapulars, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts purplish ashy, the last tipped black and with 
a narrow pale band in front of the black; wing-coverts, the 
outer web of the primaries and secondaries and the whole of the 
tertiaries purplish blue ; all the quills tipped white, the earlier 
primaries whitish on the terminal half of the outer web ; tail blue, 
with a broad white tip and all but the central pair of feathers with 
a subterminal black band ; lower plumage, from the breast down- 
wards, white tinged with purple. 

Bill pale waxy yellow ; iris (in male only) bright yellow ; feet 
bright orange-yellow (Scully}. 

Length about 26 ; tail up to 18 ; wing 7*4 ; tarsus 1'8 ; bill from 
gape I'd. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Ladak and Hazara to Bhutan 
at elevations of from 6000 to 10,000 feet. 



28 

Habits, fyc. This Magpie, which has the same habits as the last, 
breeds from April to August, building a large nest of twigs and 
roots most commonly in oak trees, up to 30 feet or more from the 
ground. The eggs, usually four in number, are of the Magpie type 
and measure 1-3 by -92. 

There are two Chinese species of Blue Magpies, neither of which, 
however, is likely to occur within the limits of India. 



Genus CISSA, Boie, 1826. 

The genus Cissa contains, among others, two Indian Magpies of 
very beautiful plumage. They differ from the Magpies of the genus 
Urocissa in having a much shorter tail and the eyelids wattled at 
the edges, a feature which is very distinct in life and generally 
visible in some degree in dry skins. 

Jerdon, very properly I think, places this bird between Urocissa and 
Dendrocitta, but wrongly calls it a Jay. I think it may be better 
termed a Magpie, in view of its long tail and bright coloration. 

The Magpies of this genus are forest birds of shy habits, feeding 
a good deal on the ground. In the construction of their nests they 
resemble Urocissa and not Pica. They have red bills. 

Davison has mentioned (S. F. vi, p. 385) how closely the habits 
of these Magpies accord with those of Oarrulax. They are more- 
over closely allied to that genus in structure and form a link between 
the Corvidce and the Crateropodidce. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Head and neck green C. chinensis, p. 28. 

b. Head and neck chestnut C. ornata, p. 29. 

14. Cissa chinensis. The Green Magpie. 

Coracias chinensis, Bodd. Tabl. PL Enl. p. 38 (1783). 

Corvus speciosus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vii, p. 364 (1809). 

Kitta venatorius, Gray in Hardiv. 111. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 24 (1832). 

Cissa venatoria, Gray, Blyth, Cat. p. 92. 

Cissa sinensis (JSriss.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 575; Jerd. B. 1. ii, 

p. 312 j Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109. 
Cissa speciosa (Shaw), Hume, N. $ E. p. 421 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 145, 

iv, p. 509 ; Bingham, S. F. v, p. 85. 
Cissa chinensis (Bodd.), Sharps t Cat. B. M. iii, p. 85 ; Hume fy Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 385 ; Hume, Cat. no. 673 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 406 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 258 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 17. 

The Green Jay, Jerd. ; Siraana, Beng. ; Chap-ling-pho, Lepch. ; Rab- 
ling-chapu, Bhut. ; Pilitel, Dafla Hills. 

Coloration. Head and neck greenish yellow ; general body- 
plumage green ; the lores and a band through each eye, the two 
meeting behind on the nape, black ; the cheeks, sides of neck, and 
lower plumage paler green ; tail green, the central feathers tipped 
with white, the others tipped with white and with a subterminal 



CTSSA. 29 

band of black ; lesser wing-coverts green, the other coverts red ; 
wings brown on the inner webs, red on the outer ones ; the tertiaries 
and some of the secondaries tipped with pale blue and with a band 
of black in front of the tips. 

.pill red ; eyelids yellowish brown, the edges red ; legs coral- 
red; iris blood- red ; claws dull red; inside of the mouth reddish 
flesh-colour. 

Length 15; tail 8; wing 5-9 ; tarsus 17; bill from gape 1-6. 

The plumage of this bird changes after death and also in cap- 
tivity from green to dull blue ; and the red on the wings also 
undergoes a change under the same circumstances, becoming much 
duller. C. minor, a subspecies from Sumatra, is rather smaller. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Jumna valley to Bhutan 
and Assam ; thence through the hill-ranges of Eastern Bengal and 
Burma to Tenasserim, where this bird has been observed as far 
south as Mergui and the Thoungyeen valley. It is found from the 
base of the hills up to about 5000 feet. 

Habits, $c. This Magpie is found in all descriptions of jungle, but 
personally I have only observed it in the evergreen forests. It is 
as a rule shy and difficult to observe, keeping to the ground or to 
dense undergrowth. It breeds principally in April, constructing 
a cup-shaped nest of twigs, roots, and bamboo-leaves in a tree or 
bamboo-bush at no great height from the ground. The eggs, three 
in number, are dull white freckled with yellowish and brown, and 
measure 1'21 by *92. 



15. Cissa ornata. The Ceylonese Magpie. 

Pica ornata, Wayler, Isis, 1829, p. 749. 

Cissa puella, Blyth, Cat. p. 93 (1849). 

Cissa pyrrhocyanea, Lichtenstein, Gould, S. Asia, v, pi. 53 (1850). 

Cissa ornata ( Wuql. ), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 87 ; Legye, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 353, pi. 15 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 408 j id. Cat. no.' 073 bis; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 19. 

Kahibella, Ceyl. 

Coloration. "Whole head, neck, upper back, and upper breast rich 
chestnut ; remainder of the body-plumage bright blue, suffused 
with cobalt next the chestnut of the neck; tail blue, tipped with 
white and subterminally with black ; wing-coverts brown, more or 
less margined and suffused with blue : quills chestnut on the outer 
webs, black on the inner, changing to blue on the tertiaries ; thighs 
dusky purple. 

Iris light brown ; eyelid deep red ; orbital skin somewhat paler ; 
bill, legs, and feet coral-red; claws reddish yellow at base, dusky at 
tip (Legye). 

Length about 17; tail up to 10; wing 6-5; tarsus 1*7 j bill 
from gape 1'6. 

Distribution. The forests of Ceylon only. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in Ceylon during the cool season or from 



30 COKVIDJE. 

December to February. The nest appears to be similar to that of 
the last. One egg recorded by Legge was bluish green marked with 
umber-brown and bluish grey, and measured about 1-3 by 1. 

Genus DENDROCITTA, Gould, 1833. 

In the Tree-pies we have a collection of birds which are closer 
to Pica than to either Urocissa or Cissa, inasmuch as they have 
black bills and very numerous stiff, but somewhat short, bristles 
completely concealing the nostrils. The bill, however, is short with 
the commissure greatly curved, and in one species, D. bayleyi, the 
tail approaches the next genus in structure, the central feathers 
being gradually enlarged throughout their length, not suddenly at 
the tip as in Crypsirhina. 

The Tree-pies are sociable, associating in small bands, and they 
are aboreal, seldom descending to the ground. They have a series 
of clear metallic notes, which sound very pleasantly in the jungle. 
They construct large nests in trees, and lay eggs which are less 
Corvine in appearance than those of the true Magpies. Their food 
consists of both fruit and insects. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail ashy and black. 

a'. Crown and hind neck uniform smoky 

brown ; abdomen rufous D. rufa, p. 30. 

b'. Crown black; hind neck and abdomen 

white -D. leucoyastra, p. 31. 

c'. Crown black; hind neck and ahdoraen 

uniform ashy D. himalayensis, p. 32. 

b. Tail entirely black. 

d '. Without a white wing-spot D. frontalis, p. 33. 

e'. With a white winpr-spot D. bayleyi, p. 34. 




Fig. 11. Head of D. rufa. 

16. Dendrocitta rufa. The Indian Tree-pie. 

Lanius rufus, Scop. Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr. ii, p. 86 (1786). 
Coracias vagabunda, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 171 (1700). 
Crypsirhina pallida, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 30 (1846). 
Dendrocitta rufa (Scop.), Blyth, Cat. p. 92 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 565 
Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 314; Hume, N. E. p. 421 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 



DENDROC1TTA. 31 

iii, p. 76; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Avcs, p. 591 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 074 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 402 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 252 ; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 259 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 19. 
Dendrocitta pallida ( /?/.), Myth, Cat. p. 336; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 
p. 568 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 3l5 ; Hume, Cat. no. 675. 

The* Common Indian Magpie, Jerd. ; Maha-lat, Hind., Kotri, Hind, in 
Bengal ; Takka-chor, Handi-chacha, Beng. ; Mahtab and Chand, Sind ; 
Gokurayi, Konda-Kati-yadu, Tel. ; Mootri, Lucknow ; Kashkussi, Cachar ; 
Kola Khoa, Assam. 

Coloration. The whole head and neck with the breast sooty 
brown ; remainder of the body-plumage bright fulvous, darker on 
the back and scapulars ; wing-coverts greyish white ; wings dark 
brown, the outer webs of the tertiaries and later secondaries grey ; 
tail ashy grey, broadly tipped with black. 

The young are duller in colour than the adults, the head is 
lighter brown, and the tail-feathers are tipped with light buff. 

Iris reddish brown ; bill slaty horn-colour, albescent at the base ; 
mouth flesh-colour ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs dark brown ; claws 
horn-colour. 

Length up to about 18 ; tail up to 12'5 ; wing up to 6'7 ; tarsus 
1-3 ; bill from gape 1*3. Himalayan birds are much larger than 
those from other parts. 

Distribution. The whole of India and Burma from Kashmir to 
Travancore and from Assam to Tenasserim as far as Mergui. 
This bird ascends the Himalayas and hill-ranges up to 7000 feet, 
and it inhabits the plains at the level of the sea. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from April to July and probably later in the 
year, constructing a cup-shaped nest, near the top of a large tree, 
of thorny twigs lined with grass. The eggs, usually five in num- 
ber, vary much in colour, being salmon-colour or pale greenish 
white marked with bright red, brownish red, purple or olive- 
brown ; they measure 1'17 by *87. 

1 7. Dendrocitta leucogastra. The Southern Tree-pie. 

Dendrocitta leucogastra, Gould, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 57 ; id. Trans. Z. S. 
i, p. 89, pi. 12 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 91 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 570 ; Jerd. 
B. I. ii, p. 317 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 424 ; id. S. F. iv, p. 402 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. iii, p. 79; Hume, Cat. no. 678; Davison, S. F. x, 
p. 400 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 22. 

Coloration. Forehead, anterior half of crown, sides of the head, 
chin, throat, upper breast and thighs black ; hinder part of crown, 
nape, hind neck, lower breast, abdomen, and upper tail-coverts white ; 
back, scapulars and rump chestnut-bay ; under tail-coverts chest- 
nut ; wings black, the primaries with a large patch of white at their 
base; central tail-feathers grey, broadly tipped black; the next 
pair half grey and half black ; the remainder nearly entirely black. 

Bill black ; legs and feet dull black ; iris deep brown (Davison}. 

Length about 19; tail 12; wing 5'6; tarsus 1*2; bill from 
gape 1-1. 



32 COEVID.E. 

The young resemble the adult very closely. 

Distribution. Southern India, chiefly along the western coast. 
The southernmost point from which I have seen a specimen is 
Mynall in Travancore, and the most northern, the Wynaad ; but 
McMaster (J. A.S. B. 1871, pt. ii, p. 214) states that he procured 
a specimen in May at Chikalda in the Gawilgurh hills. He is 
hardly likely to have made a mistake about so well-marked a 
form as this, but the occurrence of this bird so far north is extra- 
ordinary. 

Habits, $c. According to Davison this Tree-pie is found only in 
evergreen forest below about 5000 feet. On the Assambu hills it is 
found from 1500 to 3000 feet. Bourdillou, in the latter locality, 
found two nests, composed of twigs roughly put together, and 
built in a bush or sapling. One nest was found in March with 
eggs, and one in April with young birds. The only egg preserved 
measured 1*13 by *86. 

18. Dendrocitta himalayensis. The Himalayan Tree-pie. 

Dendrocitta sinensis (Lath.} apud Blyth, Cat. p. 92 ; Horsf.tyM. 

Cat. ii, p. 568 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 316. 
Dendrocitta himalayensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1805, p. 45 ; Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 423; Sharpe, 'Cat. B. M. iii, p. 79; Hume $ Dai). 8. F. vi, 

p. 386 ; Hume, Cat. no. 676 j Scully, S. F. viii, p. 329 ; Oates, B. 

B. i, p. 403 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 259 ; Oates in Humes N. Sf E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 23. 
Dendrocitta assimilis, Hume, 8. F. v, p. 117 ; id. 8f Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 386 ; id. S. F. vii, p. 519 ; id. Cat. 676 bis. 

The Himalayan Magpie, Jerd. ; Kokia-Kak, at Mussoorie ; Karrio-pho, 
Lepch. ; Earnak-ban, Bhut. ; Kvk-lony-ah, Assam. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores and feathers above the eye black ; 
sides of the head, chin and throat dark sooty brown, fading and 
overspreading the sides of the neck and breast ; crown of the head, 
nape, and upper back ashy: back and scapulars clear brownish 
buff; rump and upper tail-coverts ashy; wings and their coverts 
black, all the primaries but the first two with a patch of white at 
their base, forming a conspicuous spot; central pair of tail-feathers 
ashy for two thirds of their length, then black ; the others all 
black, except the extreme bases, which are ashy ; abdomen and 
flanks cinereous ; thighs brown ; vent and under tail-coverts 
chestnut. 

The young do not differ much from the adult ; the colours are 
paler, the feathers of the upper plumage are tipped with buff, and 
the under tail-coverts and vent are reddish brown. 

Bill black ; irides reddish brown ; feet brownish black, in young 
birds leaden black ; claws dusky (Scully}. 

Length 16; tail 9 ; wing 5'5 ; tarsus 1*1; bill from gape 1*3. 

Tenasseriin birds have the cheeks, ear-coverts, and throat paler, 
and the sides of the neck and the upper back tinged with brown 
They are, however, hardly separable from some Himalayan birds. 



DENDEOCITTA. 33 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from the Sutlej valley 
to Sadiya, and theuce through the Assam hill-tracts to Tenasserim, 
where it has been procured as far south as Muleyit mountain. 
In the Tweeddale collection there is a specimen labelled as having 
been obtained at Murree, and Blyth records the species from 
Arrakau, whence, however, I have not seen a specimen. It is 
found in hilly tracts at elevations from 2000 to 6000 or 7000 feefc, 
and does not appear to occur in the plains. 

Habits, $'C. According to Jerdon, this species is found in the 
more open parts of the forest and near cultivation and villages. It 
breeds from May to August. The nest is usually a shallow, flimsy 
saucer of twigs built in a small tree. The eggs, which are marked 
with olive-brown, measure 1*14 by *85. 

A closely allied species is D. sinen-sis, with which the present 
species was long confounded. D. sinensis occurs throughout 
China, is of smaller size, has the tail-coverts whiter and the central 
tail-feathers entirely white. 

19. Dendrocitta frontalis. The Black-br<xved Tree-pie. 

Dendrocitta frontalis, McC'lell. P. Z. S. 1839, p. 163 ; Horsf. $ M. 
Cat. ii, p. 569 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 317 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. IS. B. xlv, 
pt. ii, p. 83 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 78 ; Hume, Cat. no. 677 ; 
id. S. F. xi, p. 260. 

Crypsirhina altirostris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 932 (1843). 

Dendrocitta altirostris (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 92. 

The Black-broived Magpie, Jerd. ; Hamshi-bon, Lepch. ; Kolio-Ko, 
Bhut. 




Fig. 12. Head of D. jrontalis. 

Coloration. Forehead, the greater part of the crown, sides of the 
head, chin, throat, fore neck, tail, wing -quills, and the primary- 
coverts black; the remainder of the wing ash-grey; nape, hind 
neck, upper back, sides of the neck, breast, and upper abdomen 
pale grey ; lower back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, lower 
abdomen, thighs, and under tail-coverts chestnut, the thighs tinged 
with brown. 

The colour of the bill, &c., does not appear to have been 
recorded. 

YOL. i. D 



34 COETID^E. 

Length 15 ; tail up to 10 ; wing 5'3 ; tarsus 1*15 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the extreme east of 
Assam. Jerdon found it in Sikhim at from 3000 to 5000 feet of 
elevation. Little or nothing is on record about this bird. 

20. Dendrocitta bayleyi. The Andamanese Tree-pie. 




Cat. B. M. iii, p. 82 ; Hume, Cat. no. 678 bis. 

Coloration. The feathers round the base of the bill black ; the 
remainder of the head, neck, upper back, and upper breast dark 
bluish ashy ; lower back, scapulars, and rump pale rufous-olive ; 
upper tail-coverts bluish ashy : lower breast rufescent ashy ; abdo- 
men, vent, and under tail-coverts chestnut ; tail and wing black, 
the latter with a large white patch on the primaries and secon- 
daries. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; the soles plumbeous grey ; iris 
bright yellow, in some rich golden yellow (Hume). 

Length up to 14 ; tail up to 8'5 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1'05 ; bill from 
gape 1-05. 

Distribution. The Andaman Islands. This Tree-pie was obtained 
by Davison near Port Blair, where it was not uncommon ; but he 
found it most numerous at Mount Harriet and Aberdeen. He 
observes that it is a forest bird and never ventures away from the 
cover of large trees ; also that it never descends to the ground. 
I did not observe it on the Great Cocos nor on Table Island. 

Genus CRYPSIRHINA, Vieill., 1816. 

With this genus we come to the end of the Magpies or long- 
tailed Crows. The members of the present genus are small and 
are characterized by a tail of peculiar structure, the central pair of 
feathers being spatulate at the ends. The bill is small and the 
nostrils are concealed by a mass of velvety fine plumes, which also 
surround the base of the bill. 

The Racket-tailed Magpies are quite arboreal, and in the course 
of many years' observation of them 1 have never on any occasion seen 
one on the ground. They cling to the outer branches of trees and 
search the leaves for insects ; they also feed on fruit. They have 
a not unpleasant metallic note. The nest is more skilfully con- 
structed than that of other Magpies, being firmly secured by tendrils 
of creeping plants and presenting a compact appearance. The 
eggs are quite Corvine in their character. 

Key to the Species. 

a. The whole head and body metallic green C. varians, p. 3-5. 

b. The head black ; the body grey C. cuaullata, p. 35. 



35 

21. Crypsirhina varians. The Blade Racket-tailed Maypie. 

COITUS varians, Lai It, Ltd. Oni. Suppl.-p. xxvi (1801). 

Crypsirhina varians (Lath.), Myth, Cat. p. 92; Ilorsf. <$ M. Cat. ii, 

p. 504 ; Wald. P. Z. S. 1800, p. 552 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 146 ; 

SJmrpe, Cat. X. M. iii, p. 83 ; Wardlaw Itamxay, Ibis, 1877, p. 459 ; 

Qttttx, *V. F. v, p. 109; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 380; Hume, 

Cat. no. 078 quat. ; Oates, B. Ii. i, p. 404 ; ?W. in Humes N. Sf E. 

2nd ed. \, p. 25. 




Fig. 13. Head of C. varians. 

Coloration. The whole plumage metallic bronze-green, tinged 
with bluish on the head ; wings brown, the outer webs of the 
primaries greenish, the other quills more or less entirely suffused 
with green ; tail black, more or less overspread with a metallic- 
green lustre ; forehead, round the eye and about the gape dull 
black, the feathers of a velvety texture. 

Iris blue ; mouth flesh-colour ; bill, legs, and claws black. 

Length 13 ; tail 8 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus 1*1; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. This fine little Magpie has its headquarters in 
Lower Pegu, whence it extends sparingly up the valleys of the 
Irrawaddy and of the Sittouug to Thayetmyo and Toungngoo. To 
the west it extends to Bassein. To the south it occurs throughout 
Tenasserim as far as Mergui. 

It is found in Siam, Cochin China, Sumatra, Borneo and Java. 

Habits, 6fc. This bird is found in all parts of the country except 
heavy forest. It breeds in June or July, constructing a neat cup- 
shaped nest, of fine twigs lined with tendrils of creepers, in thorny 
bushes and branches of bamboo, at no great height from the ground. 
The eggs are usually three in number, greyish white covered with 
spots and dashes of ash and yellowish brown ; they measure '98 
by '72. 

22. Crypsirhina cucullata. The Hooded Racket-tailed Magpie. 

Crypsirhina cucullata, Jerdon, Ibis, ] 862, p. 20 ; Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. 147 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 88 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 84 j 
Wardlaw Ramsaij, Ibis, 1877, p. 459 ; Hume, Cat. no. 678 ter. ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 405. 

Coloration. The whole head, chin, and throat black ; round the 
neck, next to the black, a collar of ashy white ; the whole upper 
plumage, wing-coverts, and tertiaries vinaceous grey ; lower plumage 

D2 



36 

the same, but rather more rufous ; central tail-feathers black, the 
others the same colour as the back ; primaries and their coverts 
black ; secondaries black, broadly edged with ashy white. 

The young have the head brown ; the central tail-feathers and 
wings are blackish brown, and the general colour of the body- 
plumage is less ashy and more vinaceous. 

The young have the bill orange at the gape and black on the 
remainder ; the eyelids pale blue with the edges orange ; the inside 
of the mouth orange. 

The adult has the iris blue ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill black ; legs 
and claws dark brown ; inside of the mouth flesh-colour. 

Length 12'5; tail 7*8 ; wing 4-1 : tarsus 1*05 ; bill from gape 
85. 

This Magpie has the central tail-feathers narrower than in 
C. varians, and more abruptly spatulate at their ends. 

Distribution. The Hooded Racket-tailed Magpie was discovered 
by Jerdon at Thayetmyo, and I found it very common in the neigh- 
bourhood of that station. It extends to the east about 20 miles to 
Tamagan, and on the south about 10 miles to Palow. It probably 
extends some way to the west of the Irrawaddy river, and to the 
north it ranges into Upper Burma for some distance. Colonel 
Lloyd appears to have sent it from Toungngoo ; but Wardlaw 
Ramsay expresses doubts as to its occurrence in that district, and 
I feel pretty sure it does not range so far to the east. 

Habits, <$fc. This species is very similar in habits to C. varians ; 
but is found almost entirely in bamboo-jungle. 



Genus PLATYSMURUS, Reich., 1850. 

The genus Platysmurus contains two species, one of which is a 
resident in the southern portion of Tenasserim and the other in- 
habits Borneo. They seem to connect the Magpies with the Jays. 

The bill is very much curved and shorter than the head, and 
the bristles covering the nostrils are numerous and stiff but short. 
The feathers of the crown of the head are very harsh. The tail is 
of no great length but well graduated. The sexes are alike and 
the young appear to resemble the adults. 

Davison, who observed these birds in life, says : " This species 
keeps entirely to the forests, going about usually in parties of 
from four to six. They have a deep, rolling metallic note, which 
they continually utter as they move from tree to tree. I have 
never seen them on the ground ; they probably get their food, 
which consists of insects, and occasionally, at any rate, of fruit, 
amongst the trees. They are excessively restless and always on 
the move, flying from tree to tree, generally at a considerable 
height, and continually uttering their harsh metallic call. They 
restrict themselves to the evergreen forests, never, that I am aware, 
coming into gardens or open ground." 



GARRULUS. 37 

23. Platysmurus leucopterus. The White-winged Jay. 

Glaucopis leucopterus, Temm. PI. Col no. 265 (1824). 

Temnurus leucopterus (Temm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 92; Wald. in Blyth, 

Birds Burm. p. 88. 
Platysmurus leucopterus (Temm.), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 564; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. iii, p. 90; Tweedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 318 ; Hume fy Dav. 

8. F. vi, p. 387 ; Hume, Cat. no. 678 quint. ; Gates, B. B. i. p. 409 ; 

id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 26. 




Fig. 14. Head of P. leucopterus. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black ; the terminal halves of 
the larger upper wing-coverts and a large patch on the exterior 
webs of some of the secondaries white ; the forehead crested and 
the feathers stiff. 

In some specimens the smaller wing-coverts are narrowly mar- 
gined with white, and this probably indicates immaturity. 

Bill, legs, feet and claws black ; irides lake-red to crimson 
(Davison). 

Length 16 ; tail 8 ; wing 7'5 ; tarsus 1'55 ; bill from gape 1*7. 

Distribution. Throughout Southern Tenasserim from a little above 
Tavoy down to Malawun, also down the Malay peninsula to Singa- 
pore and Sumatra. 

Habits, &fc. Davison found the nest on the 8th April with two 
young birds. It was constructed most coarsely of twigs &c., and 
was placed on the frond of a large reed which rested against a 
bush. 

Genus GARRULUS, Briss., 1760. 

The genus Garrulus contains the True Jays, of which there are 
numerous species in Europe and Asia, three being found within 
the limits of the Indian Empire. These Indian Jays are resident 
species, but one or perhaps two of them may be partially migra- 
tory, to the extent of moving up and down the slopes of the 
Himalayas according to season. 

The Jays are birds of bright plumage, the wing especially being 
marked with vivid blue. They inhabit woods, have harsh cries, 
are rather shy, and live on all kinds of food, both animal and 
vegetable. They construct large open nests of twigs and lay eggs 
marked with brown. 



38 CORVID7E. 

In the Jays the bill is strong, about three-quarters the length 
of the head, and the commissure is straight. The naral bristles 
are short and numerous, completely covering the nostrils. The 
tail is of medium length and slightly graduated. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Forehead and crown black ; tail blue barred 

with black G. lanceolatus, p. 38. 

1. Forehead white ; crowu black ; tail black. G. leucotis, p. 39. 
c. Forehead and crown vinaceous like the 

back ; tail black G. lispecularis, p. 39. 

24. Garrnlus lanceolatus. The Bleak-throated Jay. 

Garrulus lanceolatus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 7; Gould, Cent. 

pis. 39, 40 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 579 ; Jerd. S. I. ii, p. 308 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 55 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 417 ; 

Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 253 ; Hume, Cat. no. 670 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

iii, p. 101 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 2d 
Garrulus gularis, J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 23, 

fig. 1 (1832) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 94. 

Garrulus vigorsii, J. E. Gray in Hardio. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 22 (1832). 
Ban-sarrah of the Hillnien at Simla. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, crest, and sides of head black; 
remainder of upper plumage vinous-grey, brigh'ter on the rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; chin, throat, and fore neck black with 
white shaft-streaks, the black terminating in a patch of iron-grey 
on the upper breast ; remainder of lower plumage and the sides of 
the neck vinous-grey, brighter than the back ; tail blue, barred 
with black, tipped with white and with a broad subterminal black 
band; primaries and secondaries black, barred with blue on the 
outer web ; the primaries narrowly, the secondaries broadly tipped 
white; the tertiaries grey, with a subterminal black band and a 
white tip ; lesser coverts vinous, the median and greater black ; 
primary-coverts almost entirely white ; winglet barred with blue 
and tipped white. 

Legs and feet pinkish slaty ; bill pinkish slaty at base, yellowish 
at tip ; iris reddish {King}. 

Length about 13; tail 6-5; wing 6; tarsus 1 '3; bill from gape 1-1. 

Many birds, apparently adult, have no white tips to the secon- 
daries and tertiaries. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Hazara to Nepal and 
over nearly the whole of Kashmir. The species appears to be 
partially migratory, being found in winter as low as Dehra. In 
summer it ascends to 8000 feet. 

Habits, Sj'c. Breeds from April to June, constructing a shallow nest 
of twigs and sticks lined with grass. The nest is built in medium- 
sized trees in a fork or close to the trunk up to 30 feet in height. 
The eggs, three or four in number, vary in colour from stone- 
colour to greenish white and are marked with sepia-brown ; they 
measure 1 12 by '85. 



(J.VU HULL'S. 

25. Garrulus leucotis. The Burmese Jay. 




Fig. 15. Head of G. leucotis. 

Coloration. Forehead and front of crown white, with brown 
shaft-streaks ; lores, feathers under the eyes, ear-coverts, chiu, 
throat, and front of neck white ; a broad moustachial stripe black ; 
back, rump, and scapulars vinous brown, paler on the rump ; 
breast the same as the back ; abdomen and flanks paler vinous 
brown ; upper arid under tail-coverts and vent white ; tail black, 
barred with ashy towards the base ; wing precisely as in G. li- 
specularis. 

The young bird does not differ in any particular from the adult. 

The legs and feet are whitish horny or flesh-colour; bill blackish 
horny or dull black, whitish at tip ; 'irides lighter or darker wood- 
brown (Davisoti). 

Length 12-8 ; tail 5 ; wing 6*8 ; tarsus 1*7 ; bill from gape 1'5. 

Distribution. Tenasseriui to the east of the Sittoung river from 
Toungngoo down to Muleyit mountain and the Thoungyeen valley. 
This Jay also occurs in Karennee and probably in the hills between 
the Irrawaddy and the Sittang rivers. 

Habits, $c. Found in pine-forests and the other dry forests of the 
country, never apparently in evergreen forests. This is a resident 
species and breeds in Burma, but its nest has not yet been found. 

26. Garrulus bispecularis, The Himalayan Jay. 

Garrulus bispecularis, Vigors, P. Z. 8. 1830, p. 7 ; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 38 ; Royle, Himalaya, pi. ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. ii, p. 579 j Jerd. 
B. I. ii, p. 307 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 55 ; Hume, 
Hf Renders. Lah. to Turk. p. 242 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 416 ; Brook*, 
tf. F. iii, p. 253 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 100 j Godw.-Aust. 



40 COEVID^E. 

J. A. S. 3. xlvii, pt. ii,p. 21 ; Hume, Cat. no. 669 ; Scully, S. F. 
viii, p. 327 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 257 j Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 
2nd ed. i, p. 28. 
Garrulus ornatus. J. E. Gray in Hardw. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. 23. 

fig. 2 (1832) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 94. 
Lho-Karrio-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. A broad black moustachial band; lower part of rump, 
upper and under tail-coverts, vent and thighs white ; with these 
exceptions the whole plumage of the head, neck, and body is a rich 
vinaceous fawn-colour ; tail black, with some interrupted ashy bars 
near the base of the central pair of feathers ; lesser and median 
wing-coverts like the back; winglet, primary-coverts, the outer 
greater coverts and the outer webs of most of the secondaries, on 
their basal half, bright blue banded with black ; remainder of the 
greater coverts, and quills black, the primaries with some portion 
of the outer web grey ; the innermost tertiary partially chestnut. 

Bill dusky; margins of eyelids dull brick-red; iris reddish 
brown ; tarsi and toes pale pinkish fleshy ; claws livid {Scully). 

Length about 12 ; tail 6 ; wing 6'5 ; tarsus 1-4 ; bill from gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Throughout the lower ranges of the Himalayas 
from Eastern Kashmir to Bhutan and also in the Khasi hills : 
apparently ranging up to 7000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to June, constructing a cup- 
shaped nest of twigs and grass, lined with finer grass, in a fork of 
a tree and laying from four to six eggs. These are like those of 
the last species and measure 1*15 by *85. 

Genus NUCIFRAGA, Briss., 1760. 

The genus Nucifraga contains the Nutcrackers, birds of well- 
marked form and colour, two of which are found within Indian 
limits inhabiting the higher parts of the Himalayas, where they are 
resident. 

In the Nutcrackers the plumage is more or less spotted ; the 
bill is straight, pointed, and about as long as the head ; the naral 
bristles are short and stiff and completely cover the nostrils ; the 
wings are strong, but the tail is short and very little rounded. 

The Nutcrackers are chiefly arboreal in their habits and they 
prefer forests of pine and cedar trees, on the seeds of which they 
largely subsist ; but they also eat other seeds and fruits and also 
insects. Their notes are harsh and loud. They build large nests, like 
those of crows, high up in trees, and their eggs are spotted with brown. 

Near this genus should come Podoces, a genus of birds found in 
Tibet and Central Asia. Hume inserts one species in his Cata- 
logue ; but it does not occur within strict Indian limits. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Hump and upper tail-coverts not marked 

with white t N. hemispila, p. 41. 

b. Rump and upper tail-coverts marked 

with white N, multipunctata, p. 41. 



NUCIFRAGA. 41 

27. Nucifraga hemispila. The Himalayan Nutcracker. 

Nucifraga hemispila, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 8; Gould, Cent. pi. 36; 
lyth t Cat. p. 90 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 563 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 304 ; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 54 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 69 j Hume, N. 8f E. p. 415 ; id. Cat. no. 666 ; Brooks, 
8. F. iii, p. 253 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 54 ; Oates in Humes 

N. $E. Snded. i, p. 30. 

Nucifraga immaculate, Blijth, Ibis, 1867, p. 36. 
Lho-Kariyo-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Naral bristles, forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, and 
upper tail-coverts chocolate-brown; with these exceptions the 
whole of the plumage is umber-brown, the sides of the head and 
neck streaked with white ; chin and throat with a few small white 
shaft-streaks ; the back, breast, and upper abdomen with oval 
white drops; under tail- coverts pure white; wings glossy black, 
the lesser and median coverts with triangular white tips ; central 
tail-feathers black, the others very broadly tipped white, the 
amount of white decreasing inwardly ; a few of the inner primaries 
with a large oval white mark on the inner web, probably dis- 
appearing with age, as it is absent in some birds. 

Some birds have the spots on the breast rufous ; this may be 
accidental and due to staining ; it is not the plumage of the young, 
in which the rufous is of a different character. 

The young are pale brown with rufescent drops which speedily 
turn white ; the head soon turns to the adult colour. 

Legs and feet black; iris reddish to deep brown (Hume). 

Length about 15 ; tail 6 ; wing 8*5 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from 
gape 1-9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Bhutan. 
Stoliczka states that this bird is common in the N.W. Himalayas 
from low elevations to the limit of trees. Blanford found it rare 
on the outer ranges of Sikhim, but common in the pine-forests of 
the interior, and Hume remarks that it is very common in the hills 
north of Simla. 

Habits, fyc. A nest described by Hume was situated on a tree near 
the trunk and about 50 feet from the ground. The nest was like 
a Crow's, a platform of sticks mixed up with twigs and moss, and 
lined with grass and fir-needles. On the llth May this nest 
contained four young birds. 

28. Nucifraga multipunctata. The Larger Spotted Nutcracker. 

Nucifraga multipunctata, Gould, P. Z. S. 1849, p. 23 ; Hume $ 

Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 239 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 55 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 667; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 78; Scully, Ibis, 

1881, p. 572. 
Nucifraga multimaculata, Gould, laps, cal., Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 304 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 54. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck dark chocolate- 
brown ; naral bristles mottled black and white ; with these excep- 
tions the whole plumage of the head and body is dark chocolate- 



42 CORVIILE. 

brown or blackish, each feather with a large and lengthened drop 
of white occupying the greater portion of it, and causing the lower 
plumage to look almost white ; wings glossy black ; the lesser 
coverts with large white spots, the median with triangular white 
marks, the greater and primary-coverts with the primaries slightly 
tipped with white ; the secondaries and tertiaries with oval white 
drops near the tip ; tail black, broadly tipped white on the outer 
feathers, less so on the centrals ; under tail-coverts pure white. 




Fig. 16. Head of N. multipunctata. 

The young have the head and hind neck pale brown ; the head 
becomes dark almost as soon as the nestling is fully fledged. 

Bill horny brown ; legs black (Jerdon). 

Length about 15 ; tail 6*5 ; wing 8 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from gape 
1-9. 

Distribution. Kashmir and the Himalayas to Kumaon. Stoliczka 
found this species tolerably common in the pine- and cedar-forests 
near Kistwar and Budrawar. Biddulph remarks that it is common 
at all times in Gilgit above 8000 feet, and there are specimens 
in the British Museum from various localities from Murree to 
Kumaon. 

Genus GRACULUS, Koch, 1816. 

The Chough, the sole representative of the genus Graculus, 
resembles the true Crows in shape and colour, but differs from all 
of them in having the bill and feet brilliantly coloured. It inhabits 
Europe, Northern Africa, and a considerable portion of Asia. 

The Chough is found principally in mountainous districts, and 
delights in cliffs, in holes of which it usually breeds ; but in Tibet 
it also affects buildings for the purpose of nesting. The Chough is 
more or less gregarious, and it feeds on the ground after the 
manner of the Eook, and upon much the same substances. 

In Graculus the bill is very slender and curved and as long as 
the head, or even longer; the naral plumes are very short and 
dense, and the lower mandible is feathered to the same extent as 
the upper. This bird differs markedly from the true Crows in 
possessing a smooth tarsus, but it differs in no other important 
particular. 



GBACULUS. 



43 



29. Graculus eremita. The Rnl-Ulled Chouyh. 

Corvus graculus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 158 (17C6). 
COITUS eremita, Linn. >SV/,>Y. Ndt. i, p. 159 (17(36). 
Fregilus graculus (Linn.), Blijth, Oaf. p. 91; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, 

p. 549 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 69 j Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 278 ; 

Hume $ Hinders. Lah. to Turk. p. 243. 
Fregilus himalayanus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1862, p. 125 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 319; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 55. 
Graculus graculus (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 146. 
Graculus eremita (Linn.), Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 149, 521; id. Cat. 

no. 079; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 31. 

The Himalayan Chouah, Jerd. ; Taar/h, Kandahar. 




Fig. 17. Head of G. eremita. 




Fig. 18. Foot of G. eremita. 

Coloration. The whole plumage glossy black. 
Legs and feet vermilion-red ; claws black ; iris brown (Seebotim). 
Length about 17'5; tail 6'5 ; wing 11-1 to 12'5 ; tarsus 2-2; 
bill at front 2-1. 

The Himalayan bird cannot be separated from the European one 



44 CORVID.E. 

on the score of size, and I believe that no one now considers them 
separable. 

Distribution. Kashmir and the whole of the Himalayas as far as 
Bhutan. The range extends to Europe and Abyssinia on one side, 
and to China on the other. 

In Kashmir Biddulph informs us that Choughs are common at 
low elevations in winter, but in summer they keep entirely to the 
mountains. StoKczka states that in Chini the Chough in summer 
is found only at elevations above 11,000 feet, and in Spiti above 
13,000 feet. Blanford observed it in Sikhim from 9000 to 
16,000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Mandelli obtained the eggs of this bird from Chumbi in 
Tibet. They were taken on the 8th May from a nest under the 
eaves of a high wooden house. Hume describes them as white, 
spotted and streaked with yellowish brown and purplish grey. One 
egg measured 1-74 by 1*2. 

Genus PYRRHOCORAX, Vieill., 1816. 

Pyrrhocorax differs from Graculus in having a much shorter and 
a much stouter bill, and the lower mandible not nearly so much 
feathered at the base as the upper one. The structure of the two 
genera is otherwise quite the same, and they do not differ in habits, 
except that the Yellow-billed Chough appears to be a tame and 
fearless bird, taking the place of the Common Crow in parts of 
Kashmir. 




Fig. 19. Head of P. alpinus. 

30. Pyrrhocorax alpinus. The Yellow-billed Chough. 

Corvus pyrrhocorax, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 158. 

Pyrrhocorax alpinus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vi, p. 568 (1816) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 90 ; Horsf. 8? M. Cat. ii, p. 549 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 319; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 56 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 162 j 

Sharpe, Cat. S. M. iii, p. 148 : Hume, Cat. no. 680 j Biddulph, Ibis, 

1881, p. 78. 

Fregilus pyrrhocorax (Linn.}, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 70. 
Pyrrhocorax forsythi, Stoliczka, S. F. ii, p. 462 (1874). 

The Alpine Chough, Jerd. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black with a slight gloss ; the 
wings and tail very glossy. 



PARING. 45 

Iris brown ; bill yellow ; feet red (Blanford). 

Length about 16 ; tail 6*3 to 7'5 ; wing 1O3 to 11-5 ; tarsus 1-6 ; 
bill 1-4. 

Distribution. The whole of the Himalayas from Kashmir to 
Bhutan. This Chough appears to move locally according to season, 
being found low down in winter and up to 15,000 feet or even 
higher in summer. 

Habits, fyc. According to Stoliczka this species is very social, and 
frequently visits the camp of the traveller in Spiti and Ladak ; it 
is here quite as familiar and quite as noisy in the neighbourhood of 
villages and camping-grounds as Corvus splendens throughout India. 

This bird breeds in holes of cliffs, but the finding of the nest has 
not yet been recorded from Indian localities. 



Subfamily PARING. 

This subfamily contains the Tits, the affinities of which with the 
Crows are recognized by all writers on ornithology. 

Some species of Tits, like the Crows, are found over a very large 
portion of the surface of the globe. All the Indian species are 
resident. 

The Parince bear a close resemblance to each other, the different 
genera being characterized by the absence or presence of a crest 
and the shape of the tail. 

The Tits live chiefly on insects, but they also eat seeds, and in 
hard weather no sort of food comes amiss to them. They all lay 
spotted eggs, but while some are content with a hole of a tree as a 
nesting-place, others construct elaborate rounded structures in trees, 
and the eggs in many cases are numerous. The young are con- 
siderably paler than the adult, but the pattern of colour is well 
preserved in all the species. 

The Tits have a short, conical and entire bill about one-third the 
length of the head ; the rictal bristles are short, and the bristles 
over the nostrils, though short, are very dense and straight. The 
wing is rounded and weak, and the tarsus scutellated. 

In habits they are arboreal, seldom descending to the ground, 
and they are in some degree gregarious, being found frequently in 
parties of four or more. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Head not crested. 
a'. Tail rounded. 

a". Outer tail-feather falling short of tail- 
tip by length of hind claw PARUS, p. 46. 

b". Outer tail-feather falling short of tail- 
tip by length of hind toe and claw . . ^EGITHALISCUS, p. 50. 
b'. Tail square or slightly forked SYLVIPARUS, p. 53. 

b. Head furnished with a full crest. 

c'. Tail rounded MACHLOLOPHUS, p. 54. 

d'. Tail square or slightly forked .......... LOPHOPHANES, p. 57, 



46 CORVIDJE. 

Genus PARUS, Linn., 1766. 

The genus Parus, of which the Great Tit of England may be 
considered the type, contains those Tits which are not crested and 
in which the tail is slightly rounded. They have a broad, black, 
longitudinal, ventral band, and in this character agree with Machlo- 
lophus, which, however, possesses a long pointed crest. 

The True Tits are found over a considerable portion of the world. 
Pour species inhabit the Indian Empire, one being extremely 
common over the whole of the plains ; another is found as a com- 
paratively rare visitor from China and the East, and" two others are 
local, being confined to certain portions of the Empire only. 

In Parus the feathers of the crown are very slightly lengthened, but 
do not form a crest ; the tail is considerably shorter than the wing, 
and the outer feather falls short of the tip of the tail by about the 
length of the hind claw. 

Of the Titmice which occur in Asia, and may hereafter be found 
within the limits of this work, may be mentioned : P. persicus, a 
Persian race of the European P. cceruleus ; P. cyanus, which has 
been found in Yarkand ; and P. Jt-.ivijjectus, which occurs in 
Turkestan. 

P. semilarvatus, which at one time was supposed to occur in the 
Himalayas, is now known to come from the Philippine Islands. 
There is no evidence to show that it has ever been found in India, 
and I therefore omit it. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower plumage white. 

a'. Back and rump ashy grey P. atriceps, p. 46. 

b'. Back yellow ; rump ashy grey P. minor, p. 48. 

c'. Back and rump black P. nuchalis, p. 49. 

b. Lower plumage yellow P. monticola, p. 49. 




Fig. 20. Head of P. atriceps. 

31. Parus atriceps. The Indian Grey Tit. 

Parus atriceps, Hprsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 160 (1822) ; Legge, 
Birds Ceyl. pt. ii, p. 557 ; Oates, B. B. i ; p. 125 ; id. in Humes N. 
$ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 31. 

Parus cinereus, Vieill. Tdbl. Enc. et Method, ii, p. 506 (1823) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 103; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 370; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 278; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 52 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 
pt. ii, p. 181 ; Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 230 ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. viii p. 16. 



PAULS. 47 



Parus nipnlensis, Jfod;/*. Intl. 7iYr. ls:{S, p. <51 Anders. Yunnan 
Ri-/>('d., vhvx, ]>. ('-)i > ; Hume, Cat. no. (5-40; Biddulfth, Ibis, 1881, 
p. 73; Barnes, Birds l><>m. p. ^48; ILuinc, >S. F. xi, p. 255. 

Parus caesius, Tick, fide Jerri. B. I. ii, p. i!78; 7/ww?, 2V. # 7 p. 405. 

Iiain-f/anyra, Beng. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, crown, nape, chin, throat, breast, a 
band on either side the neck connecting the nape with the breast, 
and a band down the middle of the abdomen black ; cheeks and 
ear-coverts white ; the upper part of the back next the black of the 
nape white ; remainder of back, ramp, scapulars, and lesser and 
median coverts ashy grey ; wiuglet and greater coverts black, 
edged with ashy grey, and the latter broadly tipped white ; 
quills dark brown, the earlier primaries and the tertiaries edged 
white, the other quills with ashy grey ; upper tail-coverts deep 
ashy blue ; tail black, the four median pairs of feathers edged with 
ashy grey on the outer webs and all but the middle two pairs 
tipped white ; fifth pair white, with the shaft black and a band of 
black on the inner web ; outer pair nearly entirely white with a 
black shaft ; sides of the breast and abdomen white tinged with 
vinaceous ; under tail-coverts black in the centre, white at the sides. 

Bill black; iris brown; legs and feet plumbeous. 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2' 6 ; wing 2- 6 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

The young have the upper plumage suffused with yellow and the 
lower with buff, and are not readily separable from the young of 
P. minor. 

Towards the East, in Burma and China, the amount of white on 
the fifth pair of tail-feathers diminishes, and frequently the outer 
web is almost entirely black. 

The middle pair of rectrices is occasionally blue, with black 
shafts. I cannot discover that this peculiarity is due to any cause 
or occurs in any distinct method, but it may indicate a race. The 
character is neither sexual nor seasonal so far as the materials at 
my disposal afford evidence. 

This and the next species have been generally supposed to inter- 
breed in Southern China, and to have produced an intermediate 
race, which has been named P. commixtus. I cannot discover 
any grounds for the supposition that interbreeding of the two 
species takes place. Every specimen from Southern China that I 
have been able to examine is referable either to P. minor or to 
P. atriceps. The former is found as far west as Karennee and the 
Sal ween district of Tenasserim in a form almost as typical as 
Japanese specimens, and the latter in Amoy as typical as Southern- 
Indian birds or those from Java. 

In size both species are exactly similar, and they are only to be 
separated by the coloration of the back and the tail. In P. minor 
the back in newly-moulted birds is a clear yellowish green, and the 
penultimate tail-feather on each side is entirely black with the 
exception of a \\ hite tip ; in P. atriceps the back is ashy grey like 



48 

the rump, and the penultimate tail-feather on each side is white 
with a black shaft and a band of black on the inner web. Small 
variations in the colour of the tail occur, but they are never so 
great as to cause any doubt in the identification of the species, 
especially when supported by the colour of the back. 

The young of both species are very similar, and have a great 
amount of yellowish green on the upper plumage, and it is not easy 
to separate them. 

Distribution. Throughout the whole of India alike in the hills 
and plains, but more commonly in the elevated and well-wooded 
parts. In the Himalayas this Tit is found at all altitudes up to 
9000 feet or more, from Hazara and Grilgit to Assam. It extends 
through the peninsula down to Cape Comorin and into Ceylon, the 
only portion from which it appears to be absent being Sind and 
Cutch. From Assam its range extends down to Tenasserim, 
where, however, it is noted by Davison as being rare. On the 
eastern borders of Burma the next species is found ; but a bird pro- 
cured near Bhamo by my collector was P. atriceps, and so appa- 
rently is a young bird obtained by Anderson near the same locality 
and now in the British Museum. 

Outside of Indian limits proper it occurs on the west in Balu- 
chistan and Afghanistan, and on the north in Turkestan, where it 
is found as a paler race (P. boccharensis), and it passes up the 
Sutlej valley into Little Tibet. To the east it extends through 
Southern China, and to the south down the Malay peninsula to the 
islands. 

Habits, <$fc. Breeds from March to June, laying five or six eggs on 
a pad of moss, grass, and hair in a hole of a tree or wall. The eggs 
are pinkish white, with a ring of red spots and blotches round the 
larger end and a few small spots elsewhere, and they measure '71 
by -54. 

32. Parus minor. The Japanese Grey Tit. 

Parus minor, Temm. $ Schleg. Faun. Jap., Aves, p. 70, pi. 33 (1842) ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 15. 
Parus cominixtus, Swinh. Ibis, 1868, p. 63 ; Wald. in Bl. Birds Bunn. 

p. Ill j Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 376 ; Hume, Cat. no. 645 bis. 

Coloration. E-esembles P. atriceps. Differs in having the back 
and scapulars yellowish green instead of ashy grey and in having 
the fifth pair of tail-feathers black with a small white tip. 

Iris hair-brown ; bill black ; legs plumbeous ( Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Of the same size as P. atriceps. 

The amount of black in the fifth pair of tail-feathers is 
reduced towards the extreme south-western limit of the range, as 
on the Burmese frontier. No other variation occurs, the back 
being as green in Karennee examples as in typical Japanese ones. 

The specimen procured by Davison in the Salween district has 
the fifth pair of rectrices white, with a broad black band on the 
inner webs reaching nearly to the tip. In two Karennee examples 
one has these feathers black with a white tip about half an inch 



PARUS. 49 

long, and the other resembles the Salween specimen. All three 
can be nearly matched by Japanese birds. 

The tail of P. minor varies a good deal in length, but the average 
length of the tail of ten Japanese birds is exactly the same as that 
of ten Indian specimens of P. atriceps selected at random. 

Distribution. Karennee and the (Salween district of Tenasserim, 
extending through China to Japan. 

33. Parus nuchalis. The White-winged Black Tit. 

Parus nuchalis, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, p. 131 (1844) ; id. HI. 
2nd. Orn. pi. 46 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 279 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 245 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 385 ; Butler fy Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. 492 ; Butler, S. F. v, p. 221 ; Hume, Cat. no. 646 ; Gadow, Cat. 
B. M. viii, p. 88 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 248. 
Nalla patsa jitta, Tel. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage, wing-coverts, lores, sides 
of the crown, chin, throat, centre of breast, and a broad ventral 
band black ; a large nape-patch, the cheeks, ear-coverts, and those 
parts of the lower plumage not already mentioned white ; the 
under tail-coverts streaked with black; quills with the outer webs 
white at base and a partial narrow edging of white elsewhere ; 
the later secondaries broadly edged with white, and the last tertiary 
or two entirely white ; the two outer tail-feathers white, the next 
with the outer web white, the inner web black with a white tip, the 
other feathers black with white tips. The amount of white on the 
tail is liable to variation. 

Iris dark brown ; bill black ; legs and feet slaty-plumbeous 
(Butler}. 

Length about 5-5 ; tai!2'l; wing 2*6; tarsus *7; bill from gape 45. 

Distribution. From the country round the Sambhar Lake through 
Ajmere to Deesa and on to Cutch. Jerdon, however, procured it 
in quite another part of India, namely the Eastern Ghats w r est of 
.Nellore, and he states that Dr. Stewart obtained it near Bangalore. 
I have not been able to examine any specimen from these southern 
localities. The southern birds may probably, as Hume opines, 
prove to be distinct from the northern. As at present known the 
distribution of this bird is most extraordinary. A specimen in the 
British Museum is marked Bhutan ! 

34. Parus monticola. The Green-backed Tit. 

Parus monticolus, Viy. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 22 ; Goidd, Cent. pi. 29, fig. 2 ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 103 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 369 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 277 ; 
Hume 8f Henders. Lah.^to Yark. p. 229; Hume, N. $ E. p. 404; 
id. Cat. no. 644 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 323 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, 
p. 20 ; Hume, IS. F. xi, p. 254 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 35. 

Sarak-chak-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Cheeks and ear-coverts white ; the whole head, nape, 
breast, and a broad band down the middle of the abdomen black ; 
a whitish patch on the nape ; back and scapulars greenish yellow ; 

YOL. i. E 



50 CORYID^E. 

rump slaty ; upper tail-coverts black ; tail black, the outer webs 
suffused with blue, all the feathers tipped with white, the outer 
web of the outermost pair of feathers entirely white ; lesser wing- 
coverts black, edged with slaty ; the other coverts and the winglet 
black, edged with blue and tipped with white, forming two wing- 
bars ; the earlier primaries edged with white at base and below the 
emargiuations ; the others, with the secondaries, edged with blue 
and tipped with white ; tertiaries black, edged and tipped with 
white ; abdomen, sides of breast, and axillaries deep yellow ; under 
tail-coverts black tipped with white. 

The young are very similar to the adult. 

Bill black"; iris brown; legs dark plumbeous ; claws dusky (Scully}. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2'3 ; wing 2-7 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from gape -5. 

This Tit is of the same type of plumage as P. major of Europe 
and Northern Asia, but is more brightly coloured, has two wing- 
bars and more white on the tertiaries. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhu- 
tan. P. monticola also occurs in the Khasi and Naga Hills, and 
Hume obtained it at Matchi on the Eastern Hills of Manipur. 
It appears to be found chiefly from 4000 to 8000 feet of elevation. 

Habits, $c. This species breeds from March to June, constructing 
a loose nest of moss and feathers in a hole of a tree, wall, or bank. 
It lays five to eight eggs, which are very similar to those of P. atriceps 
in colour, and measure '72 by '52. 

Genus JEGITHALISCUS, Gab., 1850. 

Similar to Parus but with a more graduated tail and the feathers 
of the crown longer and more copious : no ventral band ; of dimi- 
nutive size. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Chin white ; throat black. 

'. Eyebrow pure white &. eryt-hrocepluilus, p. 50. 

b'. Eyebrow black, streaked with white . . AL. manqmrensis, p. 51. 

b. Chin and throat black ^. leucoc/enys, p. 51. 

c. Chin and throat white &. niveiyularis, p. 52. 

d. Chin and throat silvery white JE. ioschistus, p. 52. 

35. JEgithaliscus erythrocephalus. The Red-headed Tit. 

Parus erythrocephalus, Viy. P. Z. S. 1831 ; p. 23 ; Gould, Cent pi. 30, 

fig. 1. 
JEgithaliacufl erythrocephalus ( Viy.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 270 ; Hume, 

N. # JE. p. 401 ; id. Cat. no. C34 ; Sadly, S. F. viii, p. 3:22 ; Gates 

in Hvm/t N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 36. 
Orites erythrocephalus (Vig.^iSlytk, Cat. p. 104; Ilorsf. 8f M. Cat. i, 

p. 374. 
Acredula erythrocephala ( Vig.}, Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. G. 

Pyiong-samyi, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape chestnut ; a broad eye- 
brow from the eye to the nape white; lores, round the eye, ear- 



-SGITHALISCUS. 51 

coverts, a band under the eyebrow and a large round patch on the 
throat black ; chin and a inoustachial streak white ; remainder of 
the lower plumage ferruginous, with a paler band across the breast 
next to the black of the throat ; upper plumage and wing-coverts 
bluish grey ; primary wing-coverts and winglet dark brown ; quills 
brown, narrowly edged with bluish grey ; tail dark brown suffused 
with bluish grey, the outer web of the outermost feather white, the 
inner tipped white ; the next two feathers tipped with white. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy ; iris pale yellow or yellowish creamy ; 
feet buffy yellow ; claws livid (Scully}. 

Length about 4-2 ; tail 2 ; wing 2 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape '35. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Hazara to Bhutan, 
generally at elevations of from 6000 to 10,000 feet. South of 
the Bramaputra River this species is replaced by the next. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from March to May, constructing a roundish 
ball of a nest of moss, lichen, and roots in the branch of an oak 
or a deodar and occasionally in tufts of grass and low bushes. 
The eggs, four to eight in number, are pinkish, dotted with reddish 
in a zone round the larger end ; they measure *56 by '45. 

36. 2Egithaliscus manipurensis. Hume's Red-headed Tit. 

^Egithaliscus erythrocephalus (Vic/.}, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, 
pt. ii,p. 169 : Wald. inBlyttts Birds Burm. p. 112; Hume $ Dav. 
S. F. yi, p. ^76; Oates, B. B. i, p. 127. 

us manipurensis, Hume, S. F. xi, p. 254 (1888). 



Coloration. Resembles 2E. erythrocephalus. Differs in having the 
eyebrow black, streaked with white ; the pectoral band, next the 
black throat, very white and distinct; and the lower plumage chest- 
nut, the portion next the pectoral band being a brighter chestnut. 

The male has the legs and feet warm reddish-mahogany brown ; 
claws darker ; bill black ; iris bright yellowish white. The female 
has the legs and feet very pale orange-brown ; bill black ; iris 
creamy-white. (Hume.} 

Length about 4-2 ; tail 2 ; wing 2 ; tarsus *35 ; bill from gape '3. 

Distribution. Shillong; the Naga Hills; the Limatol range in 
the western hills of Manipur ; Karennee at 3000 feet. 

37. JEgithaliscus leucogenys. The White-cheeked Tit. 

Orites leucogenys, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 1S9 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 374. 
^Egithaliscus leucogenys (Moore}, Hume, Cat. no. 634 bis ; Bid- 

did ph, Ibis, 1881, p. 71, 1882, p. 281 ; SctiUy, Ibis^ 1881, p. 567. 
Acredula leucogenys (Moore}, Gadoiv, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 59. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape pale reddish brown ; lores, 
a very broad band through the eye to the nape, chin and throat 
black ; cheeks and ear-coverts white ; upper plumage, a band over 
the ear-coverts, wing-coverts, and the edges of the wing-feathers 
olive-grey : winglet and primary-coverts dark brown ; tail brown, 

E2 



52 CORVID2E. 

the outermost feather with the outer web white and the inner 
tipped white, the next feather obliquely, and the next very 
narrowly tipped white ; lower plumage reddish fawn, the portion 
immediately next the black throat deep rusty red. 

Bill black ; iris pale creamy or white ; feet pale orange ; claws 
dusky or brown (Scully). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2'2 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape *35. 

The young have the black chin and throat of the adult faintly 
indicated and the colours duller. 

Distribution. Confined apparently to the north-west portion of 
Kashmir. Biddulph obtained this bird about fifteen miles above 
Gilgit, and Scully states that it is a permanent resident along the 
course of the main valley above Gilgit from Bargo to Singal at 
elevations from 5500 to 7000 feet. It extends into the adjoining 
parts of Afghanistan. 

38. JEgithaliscus niveigularis. The White-throated Tit. 

Orites niveogularis, Gould, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 140. 
^Egithaliscus niveogularis (Gould), Jerd. B. I. 11, p. 272 j Hume, 

Cat. no. G36. 
Acredula niveogularis (Gould), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 58. 

Coloration. Forehead and front of crown, cheeks, chin, throat, 
and sides of neck white ; lores and a very broad eye-band black, 
the two bands partially blending on the nape ; ear-coverts hair- 
brown slightly streaked with whitish ; hind crown and nape buffy 
brown ; upper plumage, wing-coverts, and edges of the wing-feathers 
ashy grey, all but the latter tinged with isabelline ; tail brown, the 
outermost feather with the outer web white, the next two white 
along the shaft and at the tip ; lower plumage pinkish buff, divided 
from the white of the throat by a broad brown band. 

The young have the chin and throat pinkish ; otherwise they 
resemble the adult. 

Bill in the dry state black ; legs reddish brown. 

Length about 4'3 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens obtained at Simla ; at 
Gulmurg in Kashmir ; and at another place in the same State at 
10,000 feet of elevation, but with no precise locality. The species 
is also contained in the Pin will Collection from the N.W. Hima- 
layas. I can find no information about the distribution of this 
rare bird beyond what the above-noted specimens afford. Gould 
received it from N. India. 



39. JEgithaliscus ioschistns. The Rufous-fronted Tit. 

Parus iouschistos, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 943 (1844) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 104. 
Orites (?) jouschistos (Hodys.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 375. 



SYLYIl'AIUS. 53 

. !:- it litiliscus iouschistos (Ilodgs.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 271 ; Blanf. J. A. 

S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 58 ; Hume, Cat. no. 6 '!">. 
Acredula jouachistos (JEfodgs.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 58. 

Coloration. Forehead, a broad band on the middle of the head, 
the sides of tbe neck, and a broad collar on the upper back fawn- 
colour ; lores, under the eye, and a broad band on the side of the 
crown extending to the upper back and there blending with the 
baud on the other side, black ; ear-coverts blackish in front, rufous 
behind ; upper plumage, wing-coverts, and the edges to the wings 
and tail ashy olive ; primary-coverts and winglet dark brown ; tail 
brown, the outer web of the outermost feather white, the next two 
with some white at the tip ; chin and throat silvery white with 
the black bases of the feathers showing through, the chin and a 
stripe under the cheek blacker than the other parts ; cheeks and 
entire lower plumage dark ferruginous. 

The young have the lower plumage pale rufous, and the black 
and silvery feathers on the chin and throat are absent. 

Bill black ; legs yellow-brown ; iris brown (Jerdon) ; iris yellow 
(Blanf.}. 

Length about 4 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*2 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape 
35. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan. Blanford remarks 
that it is probably found only in pine-forests. He observed it in 
Sikhim at elevations of 9000 and 10,000 feet. 



Genus SYLVIPARUS, Burton, 1835. 

Resembles Parus, but has a proportionately smaller bill and 
a square or slightly-forked tail ; plumage greenish ; no ventral 
band. 

40. Sylviparus modestus. The Ydlow-browed Tit. 

Sylviparus modestus, Burton, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 154; Blyth, Cat.?. 104; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 373 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 267 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. 
7?.xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 51 ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 169 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 632 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 322 ; Marsh. Ibis, 1884, 
p. 418 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 253. 

Parus seriophrys, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 942 (1844). 
Parus modestus (JBwt.) t Gadow, Cat. B, M. viii, p. 33. 
The Yellow-browed Flower-pecker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, sides of neck, and the wings and 
tail olive-green, the feathers of the crown centred with brown ; 
sides of the head yellowish green slightly mottled with brown ; a 
ring of feathers round the eye arid a short eyebrow yellow : lower 
plumage yellow tinged with ochraceous ; edge of wing and the 
under wing-coverts bright yellow. 

Bill dark plumbeous, palest along the commissure and at base of 
the lower mandible ; legs and feet plumbeous ; iris very dark 
brown (Davison). 



54 CORVID^E. 

Length about 4 ; tail 1*4 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape *4. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Kashmir to 
Bhutan. Stoliczka observed this Tit about Panji and Chini in the 
Sutlej Valley in summer, and subsequently at Leh on the Indus in 
Kashmir. Marshall notes it from Chamba. Scully states that it 
is common on the hills round the valley of Nepal at 6000 to 8000 
feet. It is found in Sikhim and also in Bhutan. Crossing the 
Bramaputra River we find it recorded by Godwin-Austen from the 
Eastern Barail range just under the peaks of Japvo and Khunho. 

Jerdon states that this bird extends to the plains and that he 
procured it at Ajanta at the edge of the hills south of Khandesh. 
I have not been able to find any other locality in the plains from 
which it has been obtained. 



Genus MACHLOLOPHUS, Cab., 1850. 

Similar to Parus, but with a long pointed crest ; a broad ventral 
band. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Forehead bright yellow M. spilonotus, p. 54. 

b. Forehead black. 

a'. Of smaller size ; tips of wing-coverts 

yellow M. xanthoyenys, p. 55. 

b'. Of larger size ; tips of wing-coverts white. M. haplonotut, p. 56. 

41. Machlolophus spilonotus. The Blade -spotted Yellow Tit. 

Parus spilonotus, Blyth, Cat. p. 103 (1849) ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 371 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 26. 
Machlolophus spilonotus (Bl.\ Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 281 ; Wald. in Bl. 

Birds Burm. p. 112 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 377; Hume, Cat. 

no. 649 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 128 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 255 ; Gates in 

Hume's N. 8, E. 2nd ed. i, p. 37. 
Parus subviridis, Tick., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 267 (1855) ; Blyth 

$ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 112. 

Muchetirik-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, a broad supercilium, a nape-patch, 
sides of the head and neck bright yellow ; crown, crest, a streak 
behind the eye, a patch on either side the nape, chin, throat, and a 
broad mesial baud down to the vent black ; the longer feathers of 
the crest tipped with yellow ; sides of the breast yellow ; remainder 
of the lower plumage olive-yellow, purer next the black band; 
under tail-coverts mingled grey and white ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries yellowish white ; back and scapulars yellow, each 
feather laterally margined with black ; rump yellowish green ; 
upper tail-coverts deep bluish grey ; tail black, broadly edged with 
bluish grey and tipped white, the outer web of the outermost 
feather entirely white ; lesser wing-coverts black, tipped with 
bluish grey ; median and greater coverts and tertiaries black with 
broad white tips ; primaries white at base, the outer ones edged 



M \rill.Ol.OlMll S. ;").") 

with white, the others and the secondaries edged with Lluish grey 
and the latter narrowly tipped white. 

The young at first want the black margins to the feathers of the 
back, and the throat, breast, and ventral band are greenish. 

Legs and feet deep plumbeous blue, the claws similar; gape 
white.; bill black; iris deep brown (Hume cf- Davison). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3-1 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Assam at elevations of from 
3000 feet to 0000 ft, or more. Also the Khasi Hills, Manipur, 
Karennee, and Muleyit Mountain in Tenasserim. 

Habits, <J-c. Mandelli found the nest at Lebong in Sikhim on the 
15th June in a hole in a dead tree close to the ground. The nest 
was composed of fur, fern-stems, and moss, and contained three eggs, 
one of which only appears to have been preserved. It was white, 
marked, spotted, and speckled with pale reddish brown and with 
underlying spots of pale purple, and measured *78 by '55. 

42. Machlolophus xanthogenys. The Yellow -cheeked Tit. 

Parus xanthogenys, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23; Gould, Cent. pi. 20, 
fig. 1 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 103 (part.) ; Horsf. & M. Cat. \, p. 371 ; 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 24. 

Machlolophus xanthogenys ( Viff.}, Jerd. E. I. ii, p. 279 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 52 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B xli, pt. ii, 
p. 167; Hume, N. fy E. p. 407 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 253; Hume, 
S. F. iii, p. 492 ; Hume, Cat. no. 647 ; ? Swinhoe fy Barnes, Ibis, 
1885, p. 127 ; ? Barnes, Juurn. Bom. N. II. Soc. i, p. 62; ? Littledale, 
Joiirn. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 199: ? Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 249 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. i, p. 38. 

Coloration. Lores, forehead, crown, crest, sides of the nape, a 
bar on the side of the neck, a broad streak behind the eye, chin, 
throat, centre of the breast, and a broad band down the middle of 
the abdomen black, the longer feathers of the crest tipped yellow ; 
a distinct supercilium over the eye and ear-coverts, a nape-patch, 
the cheeks, ear-coverts, sides of the breast and of the upper abdo- 
men bright yellow ; remainder of the lower surface olive-yellow ; 
under tail-coverts white; back and rump olive-green; upper tail- 
coverts slaty ; scapulars and lesser wing-coverts black, broadly edged 
with olive-green ; the other coverts black tipped with yellow ; 
primary-coverts dark brown; primaries white at base, and the 
outer ones edged with white below the emargi nations; secondaries 
edged with bluish and tipped with white ; tertiaries broadly tipped 
with white ; tail dark brown, suffused with ashy blue on the outer 
webs, all the feathers tipped white, and the outer web of the outer- 
most pair entirely white. 

Bill black ; legs, feet, and claws lavender-blue ; iris very dark 
brown (Davison). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2- 3 ; wing2'8; tarsus '7; bill from gape 
55. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Murree to Eastern 



56 

Nepal at elevations of from 4000 to 7000 ft. This Tit is stated to 
occur also at various localities in the plains ; at Dungarpur in Mey- 
war and Jhalod in the Panch Mahals by Littledale ; at Neemuch by 
Barnes ; and at Mhovv in Central India by Swinhoe and Barnes. 
There is no doubt, however, that some mistake has been made 
about its occurrence in these places, M. haplonotus having been 
confounded with it. A specimen procured by Swinhoe at Mhow 
and now in the British Museum, labelled M. xanthoyenys, is un- 
mistakably M. haplonotus with pure white tips to the wing-coverts. 
Habits, fyc. Breeds in April and May, constructing a pad-like 
nest of hair and fur in holes in trees and walls. It lays either four 
or five eggs, which are white or reddish white, speckled and spotted 
with brick-dust red. They measure -74 by '54.* 

43. Machlolophus haplonotus. The Southern Yellow Tit. 

Parusaplonotus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 444 (1847) ; Gadow, Cat. B. 

M. viii. p. 25. 

Parus jerdoni, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxv, p. 445 (1856). 
Machlolophus iordoni (Bl.}, Jerd. B. I. ii. p. 280; Hume. 8. F. iii, 

p. 492. 
Machlolophus aplonotus (Bl.\ Hume, S. F. vii, p. 405 ; id. Cat. no. 

648; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 249; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 39. 

Coloration. Resembles M. xanthoyenys. Differs in being larger 
in all its dimensions ; in having the wing-coverts tipped with white 
instead of yellow ; and in having the green and yellow portions of 
the plumage dull instead of bright. The second character is the 
most trustworthy. In addition to the above there is another 
character which is more or less constant : in M. haplonotus the eye- 
brow extends over the ear-coverts only, and not over the eye. 

The young have the throat, breast, and ventral band greenish 
brown, and the crown of the same colour as the back with brown 
shaft-streaks. 

Iris deep brown ; legs and feet bluish lead-colour ; bill black 
(Butler). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2*4 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape -6. 

Distribution. Throughout the peninsula of India south of a line 
drawn from Abu to Pareshnath in Behar, up to elevations of 6000 
feet or so. The species does not appear to be found west of Abu 
nor east of Pareshnath. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from May to September, making a small nest 
of moss and hair in holes of trees and laying five eggs, which are 
white spotted all over with red ; the dimensions of the eggs are not 
recorded. 

* PARUS GRIFFITHII, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 445, described from a drawing, 
has never yet been identified. Its origin is so obscure and its existence so 
doubtful that it may well be omitted from this work. Its description is repro- 
duced in ' Stray Feathers,' vol.yii, p. 445. 



LOPHOlMI.VNKs. 57 

Genus LOPHOPHANES, Kaup, 1829. 

Similar to Parus, but crested and with the tail square or slightly 
forked ; no ventral band. From Machlolophus the present genus 
is distinguished by the square or slightly forked tail and by the 
absence of a ventral band. 

Key to the Species. 

a. With a double row of spots on the wing- 

coverts. 

a'. Abdomen iron-grey L. melanolophiis , p. 57. 

b'. Abdomen ferruginous L. cemodius, p. 58. 

b. With no spots on the wing-coverts. 
c'. Chin and throat black or blackish. 

a". Breast and abdomen ferruginous. ... L. rubidiventris, p. 58. 

b". Breast black, abdomen ashy olive . . L. rufinuchalis, p. 58. 
c". Upper breast only black, lower breast 

and abdomen ashy olive L. beavani, p. 59. 

d '. Chin and throat fulvous-grey L. dichrous, p. 59. 

44. Lophophanes melanolophus. The Crested Black Tit. 

Parus melanolophus, Viyors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23 ; Gould, Cent. pi. 30, 
fig. 2 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 104 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. p. 372 ; Biddidph, Ibis, 
1881, p. 72 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 568 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, 
p. 28. 

Lophophanes melanolophus ( Vig.}, Jerd. B. L ii, p. 273 ; Hume, N. 
| E. p. 403; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 253 ; Hume, Cat. no. 638 ; Wardlaw 
Ramsay, Ibis, 1880, p. 61 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 
p. 40. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, crest, hind neck, lores, chin, throat, 
and breast deep black ; a large patch on the nape white ; the ear- 
coverts, extending down the sides of the neck, the cheeks, and 
under the eye white ; upper plumage iron-grey, the exposed parts 
of the wings and tail paler ; the middle and lower series of the 
wing-coverts, the tertiaries, and some of the secondaries tipped 
with white, the tips of the coverts more or less tinged with rufous ; 
lower plumage from the breast downwards iron-grey, the under 
wing-coverts, axillaries, and a portion of the sides of the body 
chestnut ; under tail-coverts chiefly chestnut. 

The young have the head brown ; the upper plumage greyish 
brown ; the wing-spots very rufous ; the chin, throat, and breast 
brown ; the remainder of the lower plumage fulvous-brown with 
the axillaries pale chestnut. 

Bill black ; legs, feet, and claws dark bluish grey ; iris brown 
(Davison). 

Length about 4'3 ; tail 1'7 ; wing 2-5 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape '4. 
Distribution. The Himalayas from Kumaon to Murree and 
Gilgit at elevations of from 6000 to 12,000 feet, extending into 
Afghanistan. 

Habits, <$>*c. Breeds at 6000 to 8000 feet from March to June, 
constructing a nest of fur and wool, resting on a foundatibn of moss, 
in a hole in a tree, wall, or rock. The eggs, six to eight in number, 
are pinkish white, blotched and spotted with bright brownish red ; 
they measure about '61 by '47. 



58 CORYID.E. 

45. Lophophanes aemodius. The Himalayan Cole-Tit 

Parus semodius, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiii, p. 943 (184-1) ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 276; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 41. 
Lophophanes aemodius (Hodys.}, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii. p. 57 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 642. 
Lophophanes humii ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xlii, p. 57 (1873). 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, crest, lores, sides of the head and 
nape, chin, throat, and sides of the neck black; cheeks, ear-coverts, 
and a nape-patch white ; upper plumage and exposed parts of wings 
and tail bluish ashy ; the rump tinged with ferruginous, the median 
and greater coverts tipp.ed with white, forming two wing-bars, the 
'tertiaries and later secondaries minutely tipped with white ; lower 
plumage, axillaries, and under wing-coverts ferruginous. 

Iris dark brown ; legs leaden-grey ; bill black (Blanf ord). 

Length about 4-2; tail 17; wing 2-4; tarsus -65; bill from 
gape -4. 

Distribution. Sikhim and Nepal, from which latter State there 
are some of Hodgson's specimens in the British Museum. It is 
apparently found at high elevations only. 

46. Lophophanes rubidiventris. The Rufous-bellied Crested Tit. 

Parus rubidiventris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 445 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 104 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. \, p. 372 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 30. 
Lophophanes rubidiventris (Blyth), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 274 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 639. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, lores, chin, and 
throat dark brown or blackish, but never the deep black of L. melano- 
lophus, L. rujinuchalis, and L. beavani; cheeks, ear-coverts, the sides 
of the neck, and a large nuchal spot white ; upper plumage olive- 
brown ; the wings and tail brown with bluish-ashy edges, and the 
upper tail-coverts tipped with fulvous ; lower plumage and under 
wing-coverts ferruginous. 

In the dry state the bill is black and the legs dark brown. 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1*9 ; wing 2-5 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape '5. 

Distribution. Nepal, where procured by Hodgson. In the Pin- 
will Collection there are specimens from the N.W. Himalayas, 
which locality probably refers to Kumaon. 

47. Lophophanes rufinuchalis. The Simla Blade Tit. 

Parus rufonuchalis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 810 (1849) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 103 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 72 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 568 j 
Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 29. 

Lophophanes rufonuchalis (Blyth), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 274 ; Hume 8f 
Headers. Lah. to Yark. p. 229 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 25-']; Hume, Cat. 
no. 640 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1880, p. 62 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, 
p. 281 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 42. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, crest, hind neck, lores, base of bill, 
chin, throat, breast, and upper part of the abdomen, produced on 
to the lower part of the abdomen as a broad band, black ; a large 



LOPIIOPHA.NES. 59 

spot on the nape white, tinged with ferruginous posteriorly ; wings 
;uul tail bluish ashy ; under the eye, ear-coverts, and a band down 
the neck white; back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
olive-green ; lower abdomen and sides of body ashy olive ; under 
tail-coverts and axillaries chestnut; under wing-coverts pale fulvous. 

The young are dark brown where the adult is black and the 
axillaries and under tail-coverts are paler rufous. 

Legs, feet, and bill black; iris brown (G. Henderson). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2*2; wing 3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Grurwhal to Grilgit, at eleva- 
tions of from 7000 to 10,000 or 12,000 feet, occasionally in winter 
descending to 5000 feet. 

Habits, $-c. Brooks found the nest containing newly-hatched 
young near Derali in the valley of the Bhagirati river under a large 
stone in the middle of May. This Tit also breeds in the pine-forests 
of Grilgit. 

48. Lophophanes beavani. - The Sikhim Cole- Tit. 

Lophophanes beavani, Blyth, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 275 (1863) ; Blanf. J. 

A. S. B. xli, pt. ii. p. 57 : id. S. F. viii, p. 183 ; Hume, Cat. no. 641 ; 

id. S. F. viii, p. 189. 

Parus atkinsoni, Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 276 (1863) ; Hume, Cat. no. 643. 
Parus beavani (Bl.), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 29. 
The Sikhim Cole-Tit ; the Sikhim Black Tit, Jerd. ; Lho Tasso, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, crest, hind neck, lores, chin, throat, 
and upper breast deep black ; ear-coverts, the sides of the neck, and 
under the eye white tinged with fulvous ; a large nape-spot white ; 
upper plumage and wing-coverts iron-grey ; the wings and tail 
narrowly edged with paler grey ; lower plumage ashy olive, tinged 
more strongly with ashy near the margin of the breast ; axillaries, 
under wing- and tail-coverts chestnut. 

The young have the black of the adult replaced by dark brown ; 
the upper plumage is brown and the lower tinged with fulvous. 

Iris brown ; legs leaden grey ; bill black (Blanf ord). 

Length nearly 5 ; tail 1-9; wing 2-4 to 2'8 ; tarsus '75; bill 
from gape *5. 

Distribution. Sikhim at considerable elevations. Also Nepal, 
where both Hodgson and Maudelli procured this species. 

49. Lophophanes dichrous. The Brown Crested Tit. 

Parus dichrous, Hodys., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 943 (1844) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 104 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 372 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, 
p. 33. 

Lophophanes dichrous (Hodgs.*), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 273 ; Blanf. J. A. 
8. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 56 ; Hume, Cat. no. 637. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brownish grey ; the wings very 
narrowly margined with hoary grey ; forehead and sides of the 
head pale fulvous mottled with brown ; a half-collar round the 
hind neck, interrupted at the nape, cream-colour ; chin and throat 
fulvous grey ; lower plumage ochraceous. 



60 CORVJD.T. 

Bill dusky bluish ; feet plumbeous ; iris brick-red (Jerdon). 

Length about 4-5; tail 1-9; wing 2-7; tarsus '75; bill from 
gape '45. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Sikhim to Dharmsala. I have 
seen no specimen from any place north of this latter and can find 
no grounds for believing that the species occurs in Kashmir as 
suggested by Jerdon on the evidence afforded by Adams. Blanford 
found it in Sikhim at elevations of from 8000 to 13,000 feet. It 
extends into the mountainous parts of China. 

Subfamily PARADOXORNITHIN^E. 

The Crow-Tits have undoubted close affinities with the Tits and 
through them with the Crows, but they form a very isolated group 
in some respects, all of them being restricted to the mountains 
and hills of Northern and Eastern India and some of the mountain- 
ranges of China. 

The position of these birds has been much disputed, but looking 
to the facts that they have ten primaries, that the young are iden- 
tical in plumage with the adult, and that the nostrils are completely 
hidden by stiff bristles, their location with the Crows and Tits seems 
the proper course to adopt. 

The three species regarding the nidification of which anything 
is known construct cup-shaped nests in trees and lay eggs which 
are marked with yellowish brown and purple. 

The plumage of all the species is copious and soft, and they have 
a very ample crest, not of great length, but very thick. With one 
exception the bills of all the genera are extremely deep, the depth 
being greater than the length of the bill. The culinen is very 
rounded transversely, and the margins of the mandibles in most of 
the species are curiously sinuated. 

Their food, judging from what Mr. Gammie tells us, is not grain 
and seeds but insects, and consequently there is nothing anomalous 
in their habits in this respect as was at one time thought to be the 
case. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail longer than wing. 

'. Tail less graduated ; the outermost pair of 

feathers fully three quarters length of tail. CONOSTOMA, p. 60. 
b'. Tail more graduated j the outermost pair 
of feathers not exceeding two thirds 
length of tail. 

a". Height of -bill greater than its length ; 

commissure with deep sigmoid curve . . PARADOXORNIS, p. 61. 

b" . Height of bill not greater than its 
length ; commissure with a slight sig- 
moid curve SUTHORA, p. 63. 

b. Tail equal to or shorter than wing SCJEOBHYNCHUS, p. 68. 

Genus CONOSTOMA, Hodgs., 1841. 
The genus Conostoma contains only one species, the largest 



CONOSTOMA. PARADOXORNIS. Gl 

member of the subfamily. It is characterized by a tail longer 1 ban 
the wing, and the tail-feathers are considerably less graduated than 
in the next two genera. It is found at very high elevations. 




Fig. 21. Head of C. amodium. 

50. Conostoma SBmodium. The Red-Ulled Crow-Tit. 

Conostoma aemodius, Hodys. J. A. S. B. x, p. 857, pi. (1841) ; Blytk, 

Cat. p. 101. 
Conostoma aemodium, Hodys., Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, pp. 213, 377 ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 10 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt, ii, p. 46 j Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 237 ; id. Cat. no. 381 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 485 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 42. 

TJie Red-billed Jay-Thrush, Jerd.; Lho-rannio-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Lores and feathers in front of the eyes dark brown ; 
forehead greyish white ; upper plumage olive-brown with a rufous 
tinge ; outer edges of primaries ashy, of the secondaries rufous, 
and the tertiaries, with the tips of the secondaries, ashy ; tail ashy 
grey, more or less washed with rufous along the middle of the 
feathers ; chin, throat, and sides of head brown, with a vinous 
tinge, becoming paler on the rest of the lower plumage. 

Bill dull orange ; legs slaty grey ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 12 ; tail 5-5 ; wing 5'2 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Nepal arid Sikhim, apparently at very high eleva- 
tions. Blanford met with it at 11,000 feet on the Chola range, 
and the nest has been found on two occasions at 10,000 feet in 
Sikhiin. This bird extends to the high mountains on the frontier 
of China and Tibet. 

Habits, <$fc. Constructs a hemispherical nest of stems and blades 
of grass and bamboo-leaves on a branch of a bamboo in May. The 
eggs, probably three in number, are dull white, blotched and streaked 
with yellowish brown and spotted about the larger end with inky 
purple ; size I'll by -8. 

Genus PARADOXORNIS, Gould, 1836. 

The genus Paradovornis, as I restrict it, contains two species 
found in India. It differs from the last germs by its more graduated 
tail and by its very deep bill. Very little is known of the habits 
and nothing whatever of the mode of nidification of either species. 



62 

Jerdon remarks of P. flavirostris that he procured it in a pine 
wood and that it had partaken of seeds. It does not, however, 
appear to be the usual habit of these birds to eat seeds or to be 
found in forests. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat barred with black and white, bordered 

below by a black band P. Jlavirostris, p. 62. 

b. Throat pale fulvous, with a few delicate arrow- 

head-shaped marks and no band below .... P. yuttaticollis, p. 62. 

51. Paradoxornis flavirostris. The Yellow-bitted Croiu-Tit. 

Paradoxornis flavirostris, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 17 ; Horsf. # M. 
Cat. i, p. 376 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 4 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 268, xlv, pt. ii, p. 72 ; Hume, S. F. ii. p. 457, v, p. 30; Cat. 
no. 373 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 496 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 134. 

Bathyrhynchus brevirostris, McClell. Ind. Ren. 1838, p. 513, fig. 

The Yellow-billed Finch-Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crest, nape, sides of neck, and hinder part 
of ear-coverts dull chestnut ; ]ores black ; feathers round the eye 
and a patch under it white, the bases of the feathers more or less 
black ; anterior two thirds of ear-coverts and the point of the chin 
black ; cheeks and chin white barred with black ; throat black ; 




Fig. 22. Head of P. flavirostris. 

upper plumage fulvous-brown, rufous on the tail and visible por- 
tions of wings ; lower plumage fulvous. 

Bill bright yellow ; legs plumbeous ; iris red-brown (Jerdon}. 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 4-2 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Distributed throughout the Terais of Nepal, Sikhim, 
and Bhutan, and ranging as far as Dibrugarh in Assam. Found 
also in the Khasi hills, Sylhet and Cachar in suitable localities, 
which appear to be thickets of reeds. 

t>2. Paradoxornis guttaticollis. Austen's Crow-Tit. 

Paradoxornis guttaticollis, A. Daricl, N. Arch. Mus. vii, Bull. p. 14 
(1871) ; SJiarpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 497. 



63 



Paradoxornis austoui, Ci'miM, B. As. pt. xxiv, pi. 7o (18"4) ; Codio.- 
Anst. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 159 ; Hume, IS. F. iii. p. ;jOi> ; 
CW. no. 373 bis. 

Coloration. Resembles P. flavirostris. Differs in having the 
clieel\s, chin, throat, and upper part of breast pale fulvous-whitf, 
\\iili numerous delicate arrowhead-shaped marks of black, and 
the remainder of the lower plumage of the same colour but with- 
out the marks ; the head and crest of a paler chestnut ; the bill of 
about half the size and the legs much feebler. 

Bill yellow; iris brown or hazel; legs and claws green (Cock- 



Length about 7'5 ; tail 4 ; wing 3*2 ; tarsus I'Oo ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. Occurs in Sylhet, and on the Khasi and Naga Hills, 
in which last locality Godwin-Austen obtained this species at 
6000 feet elevation. It extends into Western China. 



Genus SUTHORA, Hodgs., 1838. 

The genus Suthora contains seven Indian birds which with one 
exception are of very small size. Jerdon and others have assigned 
these seven birds to three genera, Hcteromorpha, Chlsuasicus and 
Suthora. I consider them absolutely congeneric and have failed 
to tind a single structural character by which to separate them. 

This genus differs from the last in its relatively smaller bill 
(which is also of less depth as compared with its length) and in 
the commissure being much less curved. From the next genus it 
may be separated by its much longer tail. 

Many of these birds are very prettily coloured, and they appear 
to resemble the Tits in their habits, feeding on insects, for winch 
they search the branches and leaves of trees. Nothing whatever is 
known about their nidificatiou. 



Key to the Species. 

a. A well-defined large black or brown super- 

cilium. 

a Upper plumage olive-brown S. imicolor, p. 64. 

b'. Upper plumage orange-brown. 

a . Ear-coverts orange-brown S. humii, p. 64. 

b . Ear-coverts slaty-blue. 

a'". Lower plumage orange-fulvous . . S. nepalensis, p. C5. 
b'". Lower plumage bluish-grey >S'. poliotis, p. 65. 

b. Supercilium very small or absent. 

c'. Wings edged with blight chestnut .... S. fulvifrons, p. 66. 
d'. AVings edged with colour of back. 

c". No supercilium whatever S. nificeps, p. 67. 

d". A short black supercilium S. atrisupo'ciliaris, p. 67 



64 COKYID.E. 

53. Suthora unicolor. The Brown Croiv-Tit. 

Heteromorpha unicolor, Hodgs. J.A. S. B. xii, p. 448 (1843) ; Jerd. B. 
L ii, p. 6 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 45 ; Hume, Cat. no. 376. 
Paradoxornis unicolor (Hodgs.}, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 376. 
Suthora unicolor (Hodgs.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 493. 
The Brown Finch-Thrush, Jerd. ; Lho-ramnio-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest brown tinged with rufous ; lores 
and a supercilium reaching to the nape black ; chin and sides of 
head vinous-brown ; throat and sides of neck greyish brown ; 
upper plumage olive-brown, strongly tinged with rufous on tail and 
visible portions of wings ; breast and lower plumage dull fulvous. 




Fig. 23. Head of 8. unicolor. 

Iris hoary grey ; legs and feet greenish grey ; bill fleshy 
yellowish (Hume, MS.). 

Bill orange-yellow ; legs slaty grey ; iris brown (Jerdoii). 

Length about 8; tail 4*2; wing 3*3; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The higher regions of Nepal and Sikhim. Jerdon 
met with this species near Darjiling at 10,000 feet, and Elanford 
in the Lachung Valley between 7000 and 8000 feet of elevation. 
It extends to the mountains which lie between China and Tibet. 

54. Suthora liumii. The Black-fronted Grow -Tit. 

Suthora nipalensis, Hodgs. apud Blyth, Cat. p. 102 j Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 8 ; Hume, Cat. no. 378. 

Suthora poliotis, Blyth, apud Horsf. # M. Cat. i, p. 379. 
Suthora liumii, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 487 (1883). 
The Black-fronted Tit-Thrush, Jerd. j Suthora, Nepal. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, ear-coverts, back, wing-coverts, and 
rump orange-brown ; upper tail-coverts orange-red; tail orange - 
rufous, broadly terminated with black ; primary-coverts black ; 
quills bright orange-red at base, the earlier primaries white exter- 
nally, the others black with some white near the tips ; secondaries 
margined with orange on the outer webs and tipped white ; a broad 
supercilium from the bill to the nape black ; lores, cheeks, above 



SUTH011A. 65 

and below the eye and a small indistinct eyebrow white ; sides of 
the neck slaty-blue ; chin and upper throat black margined with 
white ; lower throat, breast, and centre of abdomen white ; sides 
of body, vent, and under tail-coverts orange-fulvous. 

Length about 4-5; tail 2 - 4 ; wing 1-9; tarsus "65; bill from 
gape $. 

This is the bird described by Jerdon under the name of 8. 
nipalensis, Hodgs., " with ear-coverts fulvous." It is, however, a 
very different bird to true S. nepalensis described below. The 
present species was known to Hodgson and was figured by him 
from Darjiling specimens. He appears, however, to have re- 
garded it as identical with S. poliotis, a species described by Blyth 
a short time previously from Cherra Poonjee, and he consequently 
published no description of it, merely writing under the drawing 
Temnoris v. Suthora pictifrons. As this name was never published, 
Sharpe has very properly renamed the bird in his ' Catalogue.' 

Distribution. Sikhim, where this species appears to be common 
at and above Darjiling. 

55. Suthora nepalensis. The Ash-eared Crow-Tit. 

Suthora nipalensis, Hodys. 2nd, Rev. ii, p. 32 (1838) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 378 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 488. 
Temnoris atrifrons, Hodys. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 31. 
Suthora poliotis, BL apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 9 j Hume, Cat. no. 379. 
The Ash-eared Tit- Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape smoky-grey ; a very broad 
black supercilium from forehead to nape ; lores, round the eye, and 
a short broad eyebrow white ; remainder of the side of the head 
slaty-blue ; upper plumage and wing-coverts orange-brown ; pri- 
mary-coverts black ; primaries with hoary outer webs, tinged with 
chestnut at base ; the other quills chiefly chestnut on the outer 
webs and tipped white on both webs ; tail chestnut, broadly tipped 
blackish ; point of the chin black ; throat rusty, with black bars 
showing through ; lower plumage orange-fulvous. 

Length about 4'3 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 1-9 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from 
gape -25. 

This is the bird described by Jerdon under the name of S. poliotis, 
Blyth, with the lower plumage uniform rusty and the chin barred 
with black and rust colour. It is figured by Hodgson. The true 
S. poliotis is a distinct bird, differing among other things in having 
the lower plumage grey and the throat entirely black. 

Distribution. Nepal, where this Crow-Tit appears to have been 
very little observed, the only specimens of it that I have been able to 
examine being four skins in the Hodgson Collection in the British 
Museum. 

56. Suthora poliotis. The Ashy -breasted Crow-Tit. 

Suthora poliotis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 522 (1851) ; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 487. 
YOL. I. F 



66 

Suthora munipurensis, Godw.-Aust. 8f Wald. Ibis, 1875, p. 250 ; 

S. F. iv, p. 216 ; id. Cat. no. 380 bis ; Gould, B. As. iii, pi. 69 ; Hume 

iff Dav. S. F. vi, p. 258. 
Suthora daflaensis, Godw.-Aust. A. M. N. H. (4) xyii, p. 32 (1876) ; 

Hume, S. F. iv, p. 489, v, p. 138. 

Coloration. Upper plumage bright orange-brown ; a broad black 
supercilium extending to the nape and a narrow white line below it ; 
lores, cheeks, and under the eye white ; ear-coverts and sides of 
the neck slaty-blue ; a streak of fulvous behind the eye and over 
the front part of the ear-coverts ; chin and throat black ; lower 
plumage bluish grey, becoming whitish on the abdomen and under 
tail-coverts; primary-coverts black; primaries with hoary outer webs 
tinged with chestnut at base, the other quills chiefly chestnut on the 
outer webs and tipped white ; tail chestnut, broadly tipped blackish. 

Length about 4 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 1*8 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape '3. 

This species was not known to Jerdon. He was under the 
impression that the Nepal and Cherra Poonjee birds were identical, 
but under the name of S.poliotis he described the true S. nepalensis 
only. The two birds are of course very distinct and cannot be 
confounded together. 

Distribution. Blyth described this species from a specimen pro- 
cured at Cherra Poonjee, and my description is taken from two 
birds obtained by Godwin -Austen at Samina in the Eastern Naga 
hills. The species does not appear, as yet, to have been discovered 
in any other part of the Empire *. 

57. Suthora fulvifrons. The Fulvous-fronted Crow-Tit. 

Suthora fulvifrons, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 579 (1845) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 102 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 378 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 9 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 380. 

Temnoris fulvifrons, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 31. 
Chleuasicus fulvifrons (Hodgs.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 494. 
Fulvous-fronted Tit-Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, middle portion of the crown, a very short 
supercilium, cheeks, chin, throat, breast, sides of the neck, and the 

* As this was going to press Count Salvador! kindly sent me a specimen of 
a Suthora from Karennee for examination. It has the abdomen and under 
tail-coverts rather bright fulvous, but I cannot discover that it differs from 
S. poliotis in any other respect. In justice, however, to Count Sahadori, who 
has named this species S. fees, I am bound to say that the two specimens of 
8. poliotis in the British Museum, the only two specimens available for com- 
parison, are by no means good skins, and the various minute mai'kings on the 
head are not very clear. 8. fece may therefore be an excellent species. Count 
Salvador! thus describes it: 

SUTHORA FE^E, nov. sp. 

Suthora S. manipurensi, Godw.-Aust. et Wald., similis, scd t&nia supraoculari 
rufa, minime alba, regione suboculari postica minime alba et rufo maryinata, 
lateribus et snbcaudalibus late ru/cscentibus facile distingurnda. 

Long. tot. O m ,110; al O m , 0-15 ; can d. O m ,Q53 ; rostri 0"',007 ; tarsi O m ,020. 
(Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii (xxvii) p. 364, 1 Luglio, 1889.) 



SUTHOBA. 67 

under tail-coverts bright fulvous ; a broad band from the lores over 
the eye to the nape, the back, rump, and lesser wing-coverts olive- 
yellow ; upper tail-coverts fulvous ; greater wing-coverts edged 
with chestnut ; quills with the outer webs chestnut, except the 
basal halves of those of the primaries, which are hoary ; rail black- 
ish, the outer webs, except near the tips, more or less bright chest- 
nut ; abdomen deep grey. 

Bill pale ; legs light brown (Jerdon). 

Length nearly 5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2-2; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -3. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim. Very little is known about 
this bird, and it is very rare in collections. 

58. Suthora ruficeps, The Smaller Red-headed Crow-Tit. 

Chleuasicus ruficeps, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 578 (1845) ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 7 ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 196 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 377 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 494. 
Suthora ruficeps (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 102; Horsf.fyM. Cat. i,p. 380. 

The Red-headed Tit-Thrush, Jerd. ; Chongto-phep-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crest, and nape with the hind neck bright 
chestnut : sides of the head and of the neck paler ; lower plumage 
white, tinged with pink on the breast ; upper plumage rufous- 
brown, deeper on the tail and exposed parts of the wings ; shafts 
of chin-feathers distinctly black. 

Bill whitish horny ; legs greenish plumbeous ; iris red-brown 
(Jerdon). 

Length about 6 ; tail 3'2; wing 3 ; tarsus *95 ; bill from gape *55. 

This bird is almost an exact counterpart of Scceorhynchus ruficeps, 
differing from it chiefly in its blunter bill and more graduated tail. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; and Godwin-Austen notes the species from 
Baladhan in Cachar. It appears to be a very rare bird. 

59. Suthora atrisuperciliaris, The Black-browed Crow-Tit. 

Chleuasicus ruficeps, var. atrosuperciliaris, Godw.-Aust. P. A. S. B. 

1H77, p. 147 j Hume, S. F. v, p. 499 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 

pt. ii, p. 15. 
Chleuasicus ruficeps, Bl. apud Anders. Yunnan Krped., Avcs, p. 638, 

pi. xlvii, fig. 2. 

Coloration. " Bright ferruginous on the head, same colour, paler, 
on the nape and ear-coverts ; back and wings pale olive-brown ; 
quills tinged rufous ; tail brown ; a narrow black streak over the 
eye ; beneath dull white with an earthy tinge. Legs dark plum- 
beous. 

"Length about 6; wing 2-85; tail 3-3; tarsus 0'90; bill at 
front 0-43 inches. 

" Larger than Ch. ruficeps and not so white below." (Godwin- 
Austen.) 

Distribution. Discovered at Sadiya, Upper Assam ; and procured 
at Ponsee, on the borders of Western China, by Anderson. 

F2 



68 COE.VID.E. 

This species appears to me to be fairly distinct from S. ruficeps, 
and to be its eastern representative. I have examined four speci- 
mens of the Sikhim bird and find that in. none of them is there 
more than a faint duskiness over the eye ; in no case is there 
anything approaching the black shown on Anderson's plate of 
S. atri super ciUaris. Hume's suggestion that this latter is the male 
and S. rufaeps the female is, I think, untenable in the face of the 
fact that all the other species of this family have the two sexes 
alike.* 

Genus SOEORHYNCHTJS, n. gen. 

The two birds which I propose to place in this genus (with S. rufi- 
ceps as the type) are not congeneric with any of the birds previously 
xloticed. Jerdon and others have placed them in Paradoocornis, 
but in my opinion wrongly so. They are characterized by a very 
short tail, in fact they are the only Crow-Tits in which the tail 
is not longer than the wing. The tail is, moreover, very slightly 
graduated, the outer feather being quite five sixths the whole length 
of the tail. 

The birds of this genus appear to frequent reeds and tall grass. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown of head rufous ; chin white S. mificeps, p. G8. 

b. Crown of head grey ; chin black S. gularis, p. 69. 

60. Scaeorhynchus ruficeps. The Larger Red-headed Crow-Tit. 
Paradoxornis ruficeps, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 177 (1842), xii, p. 947, 
pi. (1843) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 377 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 5 ; Blyth, 
B. Burm. p. 117 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 196 ; Hume 
$ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 257 ; Hume , Cat. no. 375 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 130. 
Heteromorpha ruficeps (Blyth}, Blijth, Cat. p. 102. 
Suthora ruficeps (BlytJi), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 491. 
Scieorhynchus ruficeps (Blyth], Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed, i, 

p. 43. 

The Red-headed Finch- Thrush, Jerd. ; Chonyto-phep-pho, Lepch. 
Coloraiion. Head, nape, upper back, lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts 
chestnut ; upper plumage, tail, and exposed parts of wings olive- 
brown, tinged with rufous ; the whole lower plumage white, tinged 
with brou u on the sides of the body, vent, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts. 

Iris reddish brown; upper mandible brown; lower mandible flesh- 

* SUTHORA BRUNNEA, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 211, was procured by Dr. John 
Anderson at Momein in Chinese Territory at an elevation of 6000 feet. It will 
doubtless be found in the mountains of Upper Burma near Bharno, and I 
append a description of the bird. 

The whole head and neck all round with the breast chestnut-brown, suffused 
with vinaceous below ; the upper plumage, wing-coverts, tail, and exposed parts 
of closed wing olive-brown ; lower plumage yellowish brown. Bill in dry skin 
yellowish, with the culmen intense black ; legs brown. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 2'1 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape '4. 



SC^OEIIYNCIIUS. 69 

colour ; eyelids and mouth bluish ; legs plumbeous ; claws horn.- 
colour. 

Length about 7'5 inches; tail 3'5; wing 3'5; tarsus 1-15; bill 
from gape *6. 

Specimens from Assam, Karennee, and Tenasseriin have the 
lower plumage suffused with fulvous. 

Distribution. Sikhim and Bhutan, extending through Assam to 
Dibrugarh. This bird has also been procured at Shillong ; on the 
Hemeo Peak, N. Cachar, and in Karennee at 2500 ft. Blyth 
received it from Arrakan. Davison met with it at Pahpoon in 
Tenasserim, and there is a specimen in the Hume Collection col- 
lected at Thoungyah, much further south. Jerdon states that this 
species occurs in Nepal, but on what authority is not known. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Sikhim in May, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest of grass-stalks coated externally with a few cobwebs and lined 
inside with strips of bamboo-stems. The eggs, three in number, 
are white, spotted and blotched with yellowish brown, with some 
purplish-grey shell-marks; size -83 by -63. 



61. Scaeorhynchus gularis. The Hoary-headed Crow-Tit. 

Pavacloxornis gularis, Horsf., Gray, Gen. B. ii, p. 389, pi. xciv, f. 2 

(1849) ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 377 ; Jerd. B.I. ii, p. 5 ; Godw.-Autt. 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 103 ; Wald. in Blyth, B. Burm. p. 117 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 374 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 131. 
Paradoxornis (Heteroinorpha) caniceps. Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii. 

p. 810 (1849). 

Ileteromorpha (? Paradoxornis) caniceps (BlytJi), Blyth, Cat. p. 102. 
Suthora gularis (Blyth}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 492. 
Scaeorhynchus gularis (Horsf.), Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 44. 
The Hoary-headed Finch- Thrush, Jerd. ; Chongto-pliep-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, nasal plumes, a supercilium from the fore- 
head to the nape and the chin black ; lores and round the eye, 
cheeks and lower plumage white, the sides of the breast and abdo- 
men washed with fulvous ; ear-coverts pale grey ; crown and nape 
dark grey ; upper plumage, tail, and visible portions of wings 
rufous-brown. 

Bill dark yellow; legs slaty-brown (Godwin- Austen). 

Length about 6 ; tail 3*1 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape *6. 

Distribution. Occurs in Sikhina and Bhutan at elevations of from 
3000 to 8000 feet. It has also been obtained at Asalu in the 
Khasi Hills by G-od win-Austen, and in Karennee at 5GOO feet by 
AVardlaw Ramsay. It extends into China. 

Habits, Sfc. The nest and eggs of this species, judging from what 
little is on record about them, closely resemble those of Sc. ruficeps. 
The eggs measure -82 by -61. 



70 



CKATEROPODID^;. 







Fig. 24. Garrulax Icucolophus. 



Family CRATEROPODID.E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth or the 
upper one with a notch ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, bilaminated ; 
wing with ten primaries; tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the 
line of the forehead, the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the com- 
missure than the upper edge is to the culnien ; plumage of the 
nestling like that of the adult female, but paler ; nostrils never 
entirely concealed from view although frequently covered by hairs 
or bristles ; rictal bristles present ; rectrices twelve ; the inner and 
hind toes equal. 

The Crateropodidce form an enormous family of tropical and 
subtropical species which I find it convenient to divide into six 
subfamilies or natural groups. 



CRATEllOPODIN.E. 71 

Sexes alike ; gregarious ; extremely noisy ; legs 

and feet large ; wiug short and rounded ; 

habits partly terrestrial, partly arboreal ; 

colour of egg, with few exceptions, un- 
spotted white or blue CrateropodvMe, 

s, \. > alike ; solitary or occurring in very small [p. 71. 

troops ; not noisy ; legs and feet strong ; 

wing short and rounded ; habits, skulking 

in bushes or on the ground, evading obser- 
vation ; colour of egg, with few exceptions, 

spotted Timeli'mce, p. 129. 

Sexes usually dissimilar; solitary; tarsus usually 

very long and smooth ; wing usually rounded 

and short ; habits strictly terrestrial ; colour 

of egg usually spotted Bracliypterygince, 

Sexes alike; solitary or occurring in small [p. 177. 

troops ; not noisy ; habits entirely arboreal, 

never descending to the ground ; colour of 

egg, with few exceptions, spotted Sibiince, p. 194. 

Sexes invariably dissimilar ; solitary or occur- 

ing in small troops ; colours brilliant ; 

habits entirely arboreal; colour of egg 

usually spotted Liotrichince, p. 220. 

Sexes alike ; solitary or occurring in small 

troops ; habits entirely arboreal ; tarsi 

very short, never exceeding in length the 

middle toe or claw ; wing rounded and 

moderately long ; nape usually furnished 

with some hairs ; colour of egg, so far as is 

known, spotted Braehypoditice, 

[ P 252. 



Subfamily CRATEROPODIN^E. 

The first subfamily of the Crateropodidce comprises a number of 
birds, which form a natural group, without, however, possessing 
structural characters of marked importance. 

The Crateropodince agree in being gregarious, extremely noisy, 
cautious but inquisitive and frequently bold. No birds can hide 
themselves better, but on the whole they do not shun observation 
as the Timeliince do. 

The chief feature of this group, however, is the colour of their 
eggs. With few exceptions the eggs are either blue or white, per- 
fectly unspotted. The few exceptions occur in the genus Troclia- 
lopterum and one or two others. These birds will ultimately find 
a place among the Timeliince and Sibiince ; but until the colour of 
the eggs of all the species is known and their habits better under- 
stood, an accurate arrangement of these birds is not possible. 

The Crateropodince all teed on the ground like Thrushes. They 



72 CEATEKOPODID.E. 

pass a good deal of their time on trees, but they probably derive 
no portion of their food directly from trees, the fruit they occa- 
sionally eat being picked off the ground as they forage for insects. 

The head in all the Crateropodince is crested or subcrested. 
Their tarsi, toes and claws are remarkably strong and their wings 
are very rounded and weak. They are all non-migratory. 

The sexes are invariably alike, and the young resemble the 
adults very closely. 

The subfamily is represented in India by 10 genera and 72 
species. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Bill shorter than head, stout and not strikingly 

curved. 
a'. Covering membrane of nostril bare ; frontal 

feathers with shafts or webs lengthened. 
". Nostrils nearly hidden by a profusion 
of bristles and hairs springing from 

forehead DRYONASTF.S, p. 7'2 . 

b". Nostrils clearly visible, but overhung by 

numerous bristles GARRULAX, p. 77. 

c". Nostrils not overhung by bristles, but 

merely by a few long and fine hairs. 
a'". Bill slender ; length from forehead to 
tip more than twice the depth at 
forehead. 
a 1 . Tail markedly longer than wing. . . . lANTnociNCLA,p.84. 

b*. Tail and wing equal in length STACTOCICHLA, 

b'". Bill stout; length from forehead to [p. 104. 

tip much less than twice depth at 

forehead GRAMMATOPTILA, 

d". Nostrils perfectly free and exposed, not [p. 102. 

overhung by either bristles or hairs. . . . TROCHALOPTERUM, 
b'. Posterior half of covering membrane of [p. 87. 

nostril clothed with plumelets continued 
back to the forehead, the feathers of which 
are short and rounded. 

e". Tail very much longer than wing ARGYA, p. 105. 

/". Tail and wing of about equal length .... CRATEROPUS, p. 110. 

b. Bill as long as head or much longer ; slender 

and much curved. 
c. Bill from one to one-and-a-half times length [p. llo. 

of head POMATORHINUS, 

d'. Bill three times length of head XIPHORHAMPHUS, 

[p. 128. 



Genus DRYONASTES, Sharpe, 1883. 

The genus Dryonastes, of which D. rujicottis is the type, contains 
those Laughing-Thrushes which have the nostrils almost com- 
pletely hidden by bristles. They are very closely allied to some of 



DlttONASTES. 73 

the Corvidte in structure and they might almost be placed in the 
same family. They differ, however, in laying spotless eggs and 
in their hubits. 

The habits of all the birds of this and the following five genera 
are so similar that they may be disposed of now once for all. 
All are without exception gregarious, and are found in troops of 
from six to twenty or more individuals. They feed principally on 
the ground, their strong feet and bills enabling them to turn over 
leaves, and they are also found on trees, on which they take refuge 
when disturbed. On being alarmed, or frequently without any 
apparent cause, they break out into a chorus of notes resembling 
laughter or loud chatter. They are also in the habit of going 
through various amusing performances on the ground, erecting 
their crests, drooping their wings, and expanding their tails, 
dancing and capering about all the time. They are all found in 
forest or amongst trees and bushes, and although cautious and 
sometimes very shy, yet on some occasions they seem careless of 
observation, and they are difficult to get rid of when once their 
curiosity has been excited. 

They eat almost every sort of insect and the smaller reptiles, 
and they no doubt partake also of fruit. They construct large 
cup-shaped nests in trees and lay eggs which, with the exception of 
those of some species of Trockalopterum, are spotless white or blue. 
In Dryonastes the eggs, so far as is known, are pale blue. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and throat black 

a. Ear-coverts black D. ruficollis, p. 73. 

b'. Ear-coverts white. 

a". Back chestnut D. nuchalis, p. 74. 

b' '. Back olive-brown D. chinensis, p. 74. 

b. Chin and throat white. 

c'. Tail plain D. c&ndatus, p. 75. 

d'. Tail tipped with white D. subccerulatiis, p. 76. 

c. Chin and throat chestnut-brown D. sannio, p. 76. 

d. Chin black, throat yellow D. galbanus, p. 76. 

62. Dryonastes ruficollis. The Rufous-necked Laughing-Thrush. 

Tanthocincla ruficoliis, Jard. $ Selby, III, Orn. 2nd ser. pi. 21 (1838). 

Garrulax ruficollis (J. $ S.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 97; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 205; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 38 ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 

p. 269 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 254 ; Inglis, 8. F. v, p. 34 j Hume. Cat. 

no. 410; id. S. F. xi, p. 158. 

Dryonastes ruficollis (J. Sf S.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 454; Oates 

in Humes N. Sf E. 2nd ed. i, p. 45. 

Pvbduya, Beng. ; Rapchen-pho, Lepch. ; Doopooleeka, Assam. 
Coloration. Lores, sides of the head, cheeks, chin, throat, and 
centre of the uppermost portion of the breast black : sides of neck 
bright chestnut, continued upwards to the middle of the upper 



74 CEATEEOPODID^. 

edge of the ear-coverts ; crown and nape slaty-grey ; upper plumage 
and wings olive-brown, the outer webs of the primaries ashy ; tail 
black, the base suffused with olive-green ; breast, upper abdomen, 
sides of the body, and thighs olive-brown ; centre of lower abdo- 
men and under tail-coverts bright chestnut. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris red (Hume). 

Length about 10; tail 4'5 ; wing 4; tarsus 1'4; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Sadiya ; the Khasi 
hills ; Sylhet, Cachar, Manipur, Tipperah ; Bhamo. This bird is 
found at low elevations probably not above 4000 feet and mostly 
at the foot of the hills. 

Habits, fyc. This species appears to be addicted to grass- and reed- 
jungle. It breeds in Sikhim from April to June, constructing its 
nest in bushes within a few feet of the ground. The eggs, three or 
four in number, are pale bluish green and measure 1/02 by -75. 

63. Dryonastes nuchalis. Ogle's Laughing-Thrush. 

Garrulax nuchalis, Godwin- Austen, A. M. N. H. (4) xviii, p. 411 
(1876); Hume, 8. F. v, p. 58; id. Cat. no. 408 quat. ; Godiv.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, p. 17, pi. x; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 154. 

Dryonastes nuchalis (Godw.-Aust.), Sharpe, Cat. S. M. vii, p. 456. 

Coloration. Forehead, the upper portion of the cheeks, and the 
feathers round the eye black ; crown and nape slaty-grey ; a few 
pointed white feathers in front of the crown ; hind neck and upper 
back chestnut ; upper plumage olive-brown, the outer webs of the 
quills tinged with grey ; tail olive-brown, with the ends broadly 
black ; lower part of cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of neck white ; 
chin and throat black ; breast light ashy ; remainder of lower plumage 
olive-brown. 

Iris dark red ; legs and feet fleshy-grey (Chennell). 

Bill black ; legs and feet ivory-white ; iris brick-red (Cripps). 

Length about 10; tail 4*4; wing 4'3 ; tarsus 1-5; bill from 
gape 1*35. 

Distribution. The Dibrugarh district of Assam ; the Lhota-Naga 
hills ; Kamlangpani ; probably Manipur. 

64. Dryonastes chinensis. The Blade-throated Laughing-Thrush. 

Lanius chinensis, Scop. Del. Fl. et Faun. Insubr. ii, p. 86 (1786). 

Garrulax chinensis (Scop.), Blyth, Cat. p. 95 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 
p. 202 : Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 549 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 107 ; 
Hume'8? Dav. S.F. vi, p. 289; Hume, Cat. no. 408 ter ; Bincjham, 
S. F. ix, p. 181 ; Gates, S. F. x, p. 208 ; id. B. B. \, p. 38. 

Dryonastes chiuensis (Scop.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 455. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, round the eye, a line over the ear- 
coverts, the upper part of the cheeks, chin, throat, and the central 
portion of the upper breast black ; cheeks and ear-coverts white ; 



DHVOXASTES. 75 

crown and nape slaty-blue, anterior part of crown streaked with 
white ; upper plumage and exposed part of wings rich olive-brown, 
except the outer webs of the iirst few primaries, which are silvery- 
grey ; tail olive-brown with the last quarter black ; breast, sides of 
neckj and upper portion of abdomen ashy grey ; remainder of 
lower surface olive-brown. 

Iris red ; bill black ; mouth and eyelids plumbeous ; legs fleshy 
brown ; claws horn-colour. 

Length about 11'5; tail 4-7; wing 4'5 ; tarsus 1*6; bill from, 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Tenasseriin from Toungngoo down to Meetan and 
the Thoungyeen valley ; the southern half of Pegu. The range 
extends into China. 

65. Dryonastes caerulatus. The Grey -sided Lauyhiny -Thrush. 

Cinclosoma cserulatus, Hodys. As. Res. xix, p. 147 (1836). 
Garrulax caerulatus (Hodgs.*), Blytli, Cat. p. 96 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 205; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 36; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 302; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 160; Hume, N. $ E. p. 254; id. Cat. 

no. 408. 
Dryonastes cserulatus (Hbdgs.). Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 461; Gates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 46. 

Tarmol-pho, Lepch. ; Piang-kam, Bhut. 




Fig. '25. Head of JD. ccerulatus. 

Coloration. Forehead, the upper part of the cheeks, and round 
the eye black ; ear-coverts black above, whitish tipped with rufous 
below ; upper plumage and sides of neck rufous -brown, brighter 
on the greater coverts, the outer webs of the quills, and on the 
head, the feathers of which are terminally margined very narrowly 
with black ; rump tinged with ashy ; tail chestnut-brown ; lower 
part of cheeks rufous-brown ; extreme point of chin black ; re- 
mainder of chin, throat, the middle of the breast, and abdomen and 
the under tail-coverts white ; sides of breast and abdomen ashy. 

Bill dusky, livid at the base ; legs fleshy-white ; iris red-brown ; 
orbital skin livid (Jerdon}. 

Length about 11; tail 4'8; wing 4'2 ; tarsus 1*4; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim. Godwin- Austen procured this 
species in the hills of Northern Manipur. His specimens are all 
typical D. cwrulatus, and not the next species. 



76 CRATEKOPODID.E. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Sikhim in May and June, constructing its 
nest in trees at from six to twelve feet from the ground, and laying 
two or three eggs, which are greenish-blue arid measure 1'18 by "82. 

66. Dryonastes subcaerulatus. The Shillony Laughing -Thrush. 

Garrulax subcaerulatus, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 140 (1878) ; id. Cat. 

no. 408 A. 
Dryonastes subcaerulatus (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 462. 

Coloration. Eesembles D. ccerulatus. Differs in having the ear- 
coverts, lower part of cheeks, and feathers above the ear-coverts 
white, slightly tipped with black here and there ; the three exterior 
pairs of tail-feathers broadly tipped with white, and the whole 
upper plumage of a paler rufous. Some of the feathers of the nape 
are sometimes white in the middle. 

Nude space round the eye dark grey (Godwin- Austen). 

Length nearly 11; tail 4-8; wing 4*2; tarsus 1'4; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Shillong in the Khasi hills. 

67. Dryonastes sannio. The White-broived Laughing -Thrush. 

Garrulax sannio, Sivinhoe, Ibis, 1867, p. 403; id. P.Z.S. 1871, 

p. 371 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 627 ; Hume, Cat. no. 409 

quint. ; id. S. F. xi, p. 157. 
Garrulax albosuperciliaris, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. 8. 1874, p. 45 ; id. 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 161, pi. vi ; id. A. M. N. H. (4) xvii, 

p. 34 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 393, iv. p. 502. 
Dryonastes sannio (Sivinh.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 459. 

Coloration. Lores, cheeks, lower part of the ear-coverts, aud a 
supercilium to the nape yellowish white ; remainder of the ear- 
coverts, forehead, crown, nape, sides of the neck, chin, and throat 
chestnut-brown ; upper plumage and exposed parts of wings olive- 
brown ; tail rufous-brown ; centre of breast and abdomen pale 
ochraceous; sides of breast and abdomen rufous olive-brown; 
under tail-coverts bright ochraceous. 

Legs and feet pale brown with a faint purplish-fleshy tinge ; 
claws darker ; bill blackish ; orbital skin pale fleshy-grey ; iris dull 
brownish maroon, liver-brown, light brown (Hume). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus 1*4 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Manipur above 4500 feet; the Muangla Sanda 
valley, east of Bhamo ; extending into China. 

68. Dryonastes galbanus. Austen's Laughing- Thrush. 

Garrulax galbanus, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 44, pi. 10 ; id. 
J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 161 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 394 ; id. Cat. 
no. 409 quat. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 445 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 155. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, tipper part of the cheeks, round the 



GAERULAX. 77 

eye, ear-coverts, and chin black ; crown and nape ashy brown, 
separated from the black of the forehead by a narrow ashy-\vhite 
line ; upper plumage, wing-coverts, and the outer webs of the 
secondaries and tertiaries ochraceous brown ; the outer webs of 
primaries ashy olive; inner webs of all the quills brown; tail 
greenish ashy, the four middle feathers broadly terminated with 
black and slightly tipped with whitish, the others broadly tipped 
with white preceded by a black portion ; lower plumage yellow, 
washed with olive on the sides ; under tail-coverts white. 

Bill black; legs ash-grey; iris red-brown (Godwin- Austen"). 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4'2 ; wing 37 ; tarsus T4 ; bill from 
gape 1*1. 

Distribution. The hills of Manipur up to 4000 feet. 



Genus GARRULAX, Lesson, 1831. 

The genus Garrulax differs from Dryonastes in having fewer 
bristles and hairs covering the nostrils, the number being 
so reduced that the nostrils are clearly visible. The species of 
Garrulax are on the whole much larger birds, and some of them 
have very ample crests. 

The colour of the egg is known in five Indian species of Garrulax 
out of a total of nine. Of these five, three lay blue eggs and two 
white. I cannot, however, discover any external structural cha- 
racter by which those laying blue eggs may be separated from those 
laying white ones. Some better distribution of the birds may 
become possible when the eggs of the remaining four species are 
known. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown and crest white. 

a'. Breast white, distinctly defined from the 

rufous of the abdomen G. hucolophus, p. 77. 

I'. Breast white, blending with the rufous of 

the abdomen G. belangeri, p. 79. 

c'. Breast and entire abdomen white G. diardi, p. 79. 

b. No white in the crown and crest. 
d'. A black pectoral band. 

a". A black cheek-stripe G. pectoralis, p. 80. 

b". No black cheek-stripe G. moniliger^ p. 81. 

e'. No pectoral band. 

c". Chin and throat yellow G. yularis, p. 81. 

d". Chin and throat white. 

"'. Tail entirely black . . . ; G. delesserti, p. 82. 

b'". Tail tippedVith white G. albiyularis, p. 82. 

e". Chin and throat chocolate-brown .... G. strepitans, p. 83. 

69. Garrulax leucolophus. The Himalayan White-crested 
La ugh iny- Th rush . 

Corvus leucolophus, Hardw. Trans. Linn. Sue. xi, p. 208, pi. 15 (1815). 
Garrulus leucolophus (Hardw.), Gould, Cent. pi. 18. 



/ 8 CBATEROPODID^l. 

Garrulax leucolophus (Hardw.), Bh/th, Cat. p. 95 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 
i, p. 201 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 35 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 253 ; 'Blyth, Birds 
Burm. p. 107 ; Hume, Cat. no. 407 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 289 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 34 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 435 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 153 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 47. 
The White-crested Lauyhing- Thrush, Jerd. ; llawil-Kahy ', Hind, in 
N. W. P. ; Karrio-pho, Lepch. ; Karria-goka, Bhut. ; Naaa-dhoopooleka 
Assam. 




Fig. 26. Head of G. leucolophus. 

Coloration. Lores, ear-coverts, and round the eye black ; the 
whole head and crest, sides of the neck, cheeks, chin, throat, and 
breast pure white, the hindmost feathers of the crest dark ashy, 
forming a small collar on the nape ; the white of the head and breast- 
abruptly denned all round by a ferruginous collar which gradually 
merges posteriorly into the olive-brown of the remaining upper and 
lower plumage ; wings brown, with the outer webs of the colour 
of the back; tail brown, washed with olive-brown; the lower 
plumage with a decided tinge of rufous throughout. 

Bill horny-black ; iris red-brown ; orbital skin slaty ; feet livid 
plumbeous ; claws dusky grey (Scully). 

Length about 11 ; tail 5-2 ; wing 5-3 ; tarsus 1-8 ; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

This species, which does not vary at all, may be distinguished 
from the next two by the abrupt definition of the white of the 
breast and by the olive-brown upper plumage. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gurwhal to the extreme east 
of Assam ; thence down through the hill-tracts of Eastern Bengal 
to Bhamo on the one hand and to Arrakan on the other. A specimen 
procured by Blanford at Bassein proves to belong to this species. 
It is found from the plains to an elevation of about 6000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. This species and indeed all of the genus have remark- 
ably loud cries and they are, if anything, rather more gregarious than 
the Laughing-Thrushes of the other genera. The present species 
breeds from April to June, constructing its nest in shrubs and 
bushes within reach of the hand, and laying from two to five eggs, 
which are pure white and measure 1*1 by '9. 



GARRULAX. 79 

70. Garrulax belangeri. The Burmese White-crested 
Laughing- Thrush. 

Garrulax belangeri, Less. Tr. cTOrn. p. 648 (1831) ; id. in Belang. 
Voy. Indes. Or. p. 258, pi. 4 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 95 ; Ilorsf. & M. Cut. 

: om . Ttr~u D ff o i or?/? _ z *a . TJ-.J? r> T n -> /^~ 




vi, p. 2o; mane, cat. no. 4U/ bis; Utngnam, ff. /*'. ix, p. 181; Oates, 
S. F. x, p. 208 ; id. B. B. i, p. 33 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 436 ; 
Gates in Hume's N. fy .E. 2nd ed. i, p. 48. 



Wa-youn-hnct, Burin. 

Coloration. Lores, ear-coverts, and round the eye black ; the 
whole head and crest, sides of neck, chin, throat, breast, and upper 
abdomen, continued narrowly down the middle of the latter, white ; 
hinder part of crest deep ashy ; upper plumage bright ferruginous ; 
lower plumage the same, becoming duller on the thighs, vent, and 
under tail-coverts ; wings brown, edged on the outer webs with 
rufous-brown ; tail dark brown, washed with rufous-brown on the 
outer webs. 

Bill black ; gape yellow ; mouth flesh-colour ; iris pinkish hazel ; 
legs plumbeous; claws pale horn-colour; eyelids purplish grey. 

Length about 11-5; tail 4-8; wing 5; tarsus 1-7; bill from 
gape 1-4. 

This species may be distinguished from the last by the white of 
the breast running into the abdomen and by the upper and lower 
plumage, except the white portions, being of a bright ferruginous. 
From the next it may be known by the ashy portion of the crest 
abruptly meeting the ferruginous of the upper plumage, and by 
the white of the lower parts extending only over a small portion of 
the abdomen. 

Distribution. The whole of Pegu in the better-wooded parts ; 
Tenasserim from Touugngoo down to Tavoy and the Thoungyeen 
valley. 

Habits. Breeds from March to July precisely in the same manner 
as the last species. The eggs, however, are almost invariably three 
in number, and measure 1*13 by '88 ; they are pure white. 

71. Garrulax diardi. The Siamese White-crested Laughing -Thrush. 

Turdus diardi, Less. Tr. ffOrn. p. 408 (1831). 

Garrulax leucogaster, Wold. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 549; id. Ibis, 1867, p. 381. 
Garrulax diardi (Less.), Hume, S. F. ix, p. 292 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 34 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 437. 

Coloration. Lores, ear-coverts, and round the eye black ; the 
whole head and crest, cheeks, chin, throat, breast, and the whole 
abdomen white, the hinder part of the crest pale ashy, spreading 
over the whole hind neck and encroaching on to the sides also ; 
entire upper plumage bright ferruginous ; sides of the body, thighs, 
and under tail-coverts rufous olive-brown ; wings brown, with the 
outer webs rufous-brown ; tail dark brown washed with olive. 

In the dry skin the bill is black and the legs plumbeous. 

Length about 11 ; tail 5; wing 5-5 ; tarsus 1-6; bill from gape 1-3. 



80 CRATEROPODID^E. 

This species may be readily separated from the two preceding 
by the ashy hind neck and by the entirely white abdomen. 

Distribution. The only specimens procured within my limits are 
two which were obtained by Captain Hill's Survey party on the 
hills of Tenasserim, apparently between Tavoy and the Siamese 
frontier. They passed, through Mandelli, into the Hume Collection 
and are now in the British Museum. There are other specimens 
from Siam, Cambodia, and Saigon in the same collection and all of 
them are alike in plumage. 

72. Garrulax pectoralis. The Black-goryeted Lauyhiny- Thrush. 
lanthocincla pectoralis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 186. 
Cinclosorua grisaure, Hodys. As. lies, xix, p. 146 (1836). 
Garrulax melanotis, Bh/th, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 949 (1843). 
Garrulax pectoralis (Gould), Bli/th, Cat p. 95 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 204; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 39 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 256 ; Hume, S. F. iii, 
p. 122 j Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 463 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 291 ; Hume, Cat. no. 412 ; id. S. F. viii, p. 1C9; Bingham, S. F. ix, 
p. 181 ; Oates, 8. F. x, p. 208; id. B. B. i, p. 36; Sharpe, Cat. 
B. M. vii, p. 441 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 159 j Oates in Hume's N. # 
E. 2nd ed. i, p. 49. 
Garrulax uropygialis, Cab. in Ersch fy Gruber, Ally. Encycl. Band 55, 

p. 62 (1852) ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 40. 
Ol-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, wing-coverts, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts olive-brown, with a fulvous tinge throughout ; 
a broad collar on the hind neck bright fulvous : middle tail-feathers 
like the back, the next two similar but with some black near 
the tip ; the remaining four pahs olive-brown at base, then black 
and broadly tipped with white ; primary-coverts black, edged with 
hoary ; exposed parts of quills olive-brown, the earlier primaries 
more or less hoary ; lores and a narrow supercilium white ; ear- 
coverts white, streaked with black, sometimes entirely black; a 
cheek-stripe from the gape continued round the ear- coverts to the 
upper part of the eye, and a broad pectoral band, black ; chin and 
throat whitish ; remainder of lower surface fulvous, the middle of 
the abdomen whitish. 

Upper mandible dark horn-colour ; the lower bluish-horn at the 
base and tip, dark brown in the middle ; mouth bluish ; iris orange- 
brown ; eyelids and orbital skin dusky blue ; edges of the eyelids 
orange-yellow ; legs light plumbeous ; claws pale horn. 

Length about 13; tail 5-1 ; wing 5*7; tarsus 1*9; bill from 
gape 1*5. 

Birds from the Himalayas down to Bassein and further east 
down to Toungngoo have the tips of the tail-feathers white. At 
Thayetmyo both buff- and white-tailed birds occur. Throughout 
Tenasserim none but buff-tailed birds are to be found. The ear- 
coverts vary in colour and present every combination of black and 
white. The black cheek-stripe is always a feature in this bird and 
serves to distinguish it at once from the next species, which it 
otherwise much resembles. 



GABBULAX. 81 

In Himalayan birds the flanks are chestnut, in those from 
Tenasserim buff; and in birds from the latter locality the rufous 
nuchal collar is also less clearly indicated. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Assam and thence 
through the hill-tracts south of the Brahmaputra to Burma, where 
it is found in Arrakan, Pegu, Karennee, and a considerable portion 
of Tenasserim down to the foot of Muleyit mountain and the 
Thoungyeen valley. To the east it is replaced by G. picticollis and 
other allied species. 

Habits, <Sfc. Breeds from April to July, building its nest in small 
trees or in a bamboo clump not far above the ground. The eggs 
are pale greenish blue and measure T31 by -98. 

73. G-arrulax moniliger. The Necklaced Laughing-Thrush. 

Cinclosoma moniligera, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 147 (1836). 

Garrulax macclellandi, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 949 (1843). 

Garrulax moniliger (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 96 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 
p. 204 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 40 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 257 ; id. S. F. iii, 
p. 123 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aces, p. 627 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 
vi, pp. 291, 515 ; Hume, Cat. no. 413 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 181 ; 
Gates, S. F. x, p. 208; id. B. B. i, p. 35; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 442 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 160 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
f, p. 50. 
Ol-pho, Lepch. ; Piang-kam, Bhut. ; Poreri or Purirhi, Daphla. 

Coloration. Resembles G. pectoralis. Differs in wanting the black 
cheek-stripe and in having the primary-coverts of the same colour 
as the other wing-coverts. The ear-coverts vary from pure white 
to black with a white patch in the middle. The former type prevails 
throughout Burma and the latter in the Himalayas. The tail is 
tipped with white in all specimens procured north of a line drawn 
from Thayetmyo to Toungngoo ; south of this line the tips are almost 
invariably buff, and the only exception I have met with is a bird 
shot at Kollidoo in Tenasserim. 

Iris bright yellow ; eyelids dull purple ; bill dark horn, the tip 
and margins pale brown ; legs light plumbeous ; claws pale horn- 
colour. In young birds the iris appears to be greenish yellow. 

Length about 12 ; tail 4-9 ; wing 5 ; tarsus 1'7 ; bill from 
gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Nearly the same as that of G. pectoralis, but found 
in Tenasserim as far south as Tavoy, and apparently absent from 
Karennee. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from March to June, constructing a nest in 
bushes and seedling bamboos within easy reach of the hand, and 
laying from three to five blue eggs, which measure 1*07 by '85. 

74. Garrulax gularis. McClelland' s Laughing-Thrush. 

lanthocincla gularis. McClett. P. Z. S. 1839, p. 159. 
Garrulax gularis (McClell.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 337; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 203 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt, ii, p. 269 ; Jerd. Ibis, 
VOL. I. G 



82 CRATEROPODID.E. 

1872, p. 303 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 412 ; Godw.-AusL J. A. S. B. xlv, 
pt. ii, p. 76 j Hume, Cat. no. 409 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 445. 

Coloration. Lores, ear-coverts, and under the eyes black ; fore- 
head, crown, nape, mantle, and sides of neck slaty grey ; back, 
rump, and visible portions of wings deep chestnut-brown, except 
the outer webs of the first few primaries, which are duller ; upper 
tail- co verts deeper chestnut ; the central four tail-feathers rufous- 
brown on the basal two-thirds of their length, then black ; the 
others all pale chestnut, the fourth pair from the outside partially 
black on the inner web ; extreme point of the chin black ; remainder 
of chin, cheeks, throat, fore neck, centre of breast, and abdomen 
yellow ; sides of breast and upper abdomen dark ashy grey ; lower 
part of flanks, thighs, vent, and under tail-coverts deep chestnut. 

Length about 10; tail 3-8; wing 3'8 ; tarsus 1-5; bill from 
gape 1-3. 

Distribution. The Dibrugarh district of Assam ; Borpani in the 
Dekrang Dhun of the Daphla hills ; Lukhipur near Cachar : the 
Khasi hills. 

75. Garrulax delesserti. The Wynaad Laughing-Thrush. 

Crateropus delesserti, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. x, p. 250 (1839) ; 

id. III. Ind. Orn. pi. xiii. 

Turdus (Crateropus) griseiceps, Deless., Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 101. 
Garrulax delesserti (Jerd.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 37 ; Hume 8f Bourd. S. 

F. iv, p. 399; Hume, Cat. no. 409; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 377; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 446. 

Coloration. Lores, ear-coverts, and round the eye black ; forehead, 
crown, mantle, and sides of neck deep slaty grey, the forehead 
mottled with grey ; back, rump, and visible portion of wings chest- 
nut-brown except the outer webs of the first few primaries, which 
are duller ; upper tail-coverts brighter chestnut ; tail black, tinged 
with rufous at the base ; extreme point of chin black ; remainder 
of chin, cheeks and throat white ; breast and upper part of abdomen 
ashy grey ; lower part of abdomen, vent, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts deep chestnut. 

Iris crimson ; lower mandible, legs, feet and claws fleshy-white ; 
upper mandible blackish brown (Davison). 

Length 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus 1-5 ; bill from gape 1'3. 

This species is allied to the preceding, but differs in the colour 
of the tail and lower plumage. 

Distribution. The hills of Southern India from the Wynaad 
south to the Asambu hills. This bird appears to be found at all 
elevations. 

76. Garrulax albigularis. The White-throated Laughing-Thrush. 

lanthocincla alhogularis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 187. ^ 
Cinclosoma albigula, Hodqs. As. Res. xix, p. 146 (1836). 
Garrulax albogularis (Gould}, Blijth, Cat. p. 95; Ho?-sf. $ M. Cat i, 
p. 202 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 38 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 



GARRULA V. 83 



; ,7m/. 7&M, 1 *?:.', p. :!():! ; ('<,<-k ,y M/ /*//. ,V. /'. i. p. :;r>l; 
//', ^V. .y E. p. L'-Vi: y/ww, CV. no. 411 ; &?i*//y f & F. viii, 
]>. -?s ( .); S/uti-pe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 430; Ottfe* m Hume's N. Sf E. 
'2nd cd. i, p. 52. 

Karreum-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead fulvous ; lores and feathers over and 
beneath the eye black ; cheeks, chin, and throat white ; upper 
plumage rich olive-brown, tinged with fulvous on the crown and 
ear-coverts and with rusty on the upper tail-coverts ; wings brown, 
edged with the colour of the back ; tail olive- brown, the four outer 
pairs of feathers very broadly tipped white ; sides of neck aud a 
broad pectoral band olive-brown ; remainder of lower plumage 
bright ferruginous. 

Bill dull black ; legs, feet, and claws pale livid plumbeous ; iris 
greyish blue ; inside of mouth yellow (Hume}. 

Length about 12 ; tail 5*7 ; wing 5-3; tarsus 1*7; bill from 
gape 1/2. 

There is great uniformity in the plumage of this bird, the only 
exception being that specimens from Sikhim and the moister parts 
of the Himalayas are brighter on the lower parts. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country to Sikhim 
at all elevations up to 8000 or 9000 feet. Jerdon states that this 
bird is found in Bhutan and Hume in Assam, but I have seen 
no specimen from any locality east of Sikhim. It extends into 
Western China. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from April to June, constructing a shallow 
cup- shaped nest of grass, moss, and leaves in low branches and in 
bushes at no great height from the ground. The eggs, usually 
three in number, are greenish blue and measure 1-22 by "83. 

77. G-arrulax strepitans. TickeUs Laughing-Thrush. 

Garralax strepitans (Ttekett, MS.\ JUyth, J. A. &. xxiv, p. 268 
(1855) ; Myth, Birds Burm. p. 107 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 288 j 
Hume, Cat. no. 408 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 37. 

Dryonastes strepitans ( Tick.), Sharpe, 'Cat. B. M. vii, p. 457. 

Coloration. Lores, cheeks, anterior portion of the ear-coverts, and 
round the eyes black ; hinder part of the ear-coverts ferruginous ; 
forehead, crown, and nape reddish brown ; a spot on each side the 
neck white ; hind neck, sides of neck, and upper back ashy, paler 
and whiter in front, darker behind, and blending with the olive- 
brown of the upper plumage and wings ; tail blackish, washed with 
olive-brown on the outer webs ; point of chin blackish ; throat and 
breast chocolate-brown, the latter bordered by ashy blending with 
the olive-brown of the remainder of the lower plumage. 

Legs and feet very dark brown, sometimes brown-black ; claws 
paler ; bill black ; iris generally lake-red, sometimes crimson (Hume 
6f Davisoii). 

Length nearly 12; tail 5-3; wing 5-3; tarsus 1-8 ; bill from 
gape 1/4. 

Distribution. Confined, so far as is at present known, to Muleyit 

G2 



84 CEATEROPODTDJB. 

mountain in Tenasseriin, where this species is found at elevations 
above 3500 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Mr. Davison remarks : " This species is not by any 
means uncommon, occurring in small flocks of twenty or more, and 
keeping entirely, so far as I have observed, to the forest, especially 
to the ravines where this is densest." He adds that it is very shy 
and beats a rapid retreat at the approach of anybody. It is a very 
clamorous bird. 

Genus IANTHOCTNCLA, Gould, 1835. 

I apply the generic term lanthocincla to those Laughing-Thrushes 
which have no bristles at the base of the forehead, but in which 
the nostrils are overhung by a few long hairs. This genus differs 
in no other respect from Dryonastes and Garrulaac, and consequently 
I do not figure the head. All the species are remarkable in 
having the secondaries tipped with white. 

The eggs of two species only are known. One lays unspotted 
white eggs, and the other has them of a colour which has not yet 
been determined satisfactorily. The only two eggs of this latter 
species which Hume has had the opportunity of examining are 
described by him as being, one an unspotted pale blue, and the 
other blue with a few brown spots at the large end. When more 
eggs of /. ocellata are known they will doubtless prove to be un- 
spotted as a rule, the spotted ones being the exception. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown and nape black. 

a'. Upper plumage spotted with white .... I. ocellata, p. 84. 

b'. Upper plumage plain /. cineracea, p. 85. 

c'. Upper plumage barred with black /. rvfavfaru, p. 86. 

b. Crown and nape reddish-brown with pale 

shafts I. austeni, p. 87. 

78. lanthocincla ocellata. The White-spotted Lauyhiny-Thrush. 

Cinclosoma ocellatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 15. 
Garrulax ocellatus ( Vig.}, myth, Cat. p. 96 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. \ 

p. 205 ; Jerd. S. I. ii,p. 41 ; id. Ibis, 1872. p. 304 : Hume, N. & E. 

p. 257 ; id. Cat. no. 414. 
lanthocincla ocellata ( Vig.\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 382 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 54. 

Lho-karreum-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Lores, front of face, chin, and a supercilium bright 
fulvous ; forehead, crown, and nape blackish brown ; ear-coverts 
chestnut ; upper back and sides of neck fulvous, with broad black 
subterminal marks on all the feathers, which are also tipped fulves- 
cent ; scapulars, wing-coverts, lower back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts reddish brown, with white spots preceded bv black marks ; 



IANTHOCINCLA. 85 

quills tipped with white, the earlier primaries black on the outer 
webs, becoming progressively ashy and then chestnut ; middle tail- 
feathers chestnut tipped white ; the others rufous at base, then 
ashy and finally black with white tips ; centre of throat black with 
narro\v rufous edges ; sides of the throat rufous, barred with black ; 
breast fulvous buff, broadly barred with black ; remainder of lower 
plumage the same colour as the breast, but not barred ; the flanks 
more olivaceous, with a few paler fulvous bars. 

Bill yellowish, dusky on the ridge and tip ; legs dull yellow ; iris 
yellow-brown (Jerdori). 

Length about 13 ; tail 6'5 ; wing 5'2 ; tarsus 1'8 ; bill from 
gape 1*5. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim at elevations from 8000 to 10,000 
feet. 

Habits, Sfc. Our knowledge of the nidincation of this bird is un- 
satisfactory. A nest and two eggs, taken in Sikhim in May, and 
sent to Hume, are described, the former as being composed of fern, 
moss, grass, and roots, and the latter as pale blue, one of the two 
eggs being spotted with brown at the thicker end. The two eggs 
measured 1-18 by -86 and 1-25 by -85. 



79. lanthocincla cineracea. The Ashy Laughing-Thrush. 

Trochalopteron cineraceum, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 45, 
pi. xi ; id. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 162 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 395 ; 
id. Cat. no. 418 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. JB. M. vii, p. 366 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 165. 

Lehu of the Angami Nagas. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape, extending to a point on 
the hind neck, black ; lores, a broad supercilium, the ear-coverts, 
and under the eye dull white ; a narrow line over the ear-coverts 
and a broader moustachial streak black, the latter terminating in 
streaks on the sides of the upper neck ; upper plumage and wing- 
coverts olivaceous ashy, tinged with rufous on the upper tail-coverts ; 
secondaries, tertiaries, and tail like the back, each feather with a 
subterminal black band and a white tip ; primaries ashy on the 
outer webs ; primary-coverts black ; winglet ashy on the outer 
webs, dusky on the inner ; chin and throat pale fulvous, with the 
shafts black ; whole remaining lower plumage fulvous, tinged with 
olive on the sides and albescent on the abdomen. 

Legs and feet pale fleshy pink ; basal two-thirds of upper man- 
dible pale brown to dusky ; rest of upper and entire lower man- 
dible horny yellow, dirty yellowish horny, or sullied ivory ; iris 
pale orange-yellow, pale orange-buff, very pale yellow or pale buff ; 
edges of lids and bare skin dusky ; lids pale lavender (Hume). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Naga hills and the Eastern hills of Manipur. 

Habits, $c. Hume describes this bird as being found in pairs, 
keeping to the densest brushwood and feeding a good deal on the 



86 CRATEROPODID^;. 

ground, both on fruits and insects. It has a low, rather musical 
call, or set of calls *. 

80. lanthocincla rufigularis. The Rufous-chinned 
Laughing- Thrush. 

lanthocincla rufogularis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 48 j Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 54. 

Cinclosoma rufimenta, Hoclgs. As. Res. xix, p. 148 (1836). 
Garrulax rufogularis (Gould), Blyth, Cat. p. 96. 
Trochalopteron rufogulare (Gould), Horsf. $ M. Cat.\, p. 210; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 47 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 104 ; Jerd. 

Ibis, 1872, p. 306 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 261 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xlv, pt. ii, p. 76 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 155 ; id. Cat. no. 421 j Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 365 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 168. 
Narbiyivan-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. A large patch on the lores pale fulvous or whitish ; a 
large ring of grey round the eye ; ear-coverts bright rufous ; fore- 
head and crown black ; the cheeks and a large patch under the eye 
and ear-coverts mingled black and white, produced narrowly to the 
back of the ear-coverts ; a broad supercilium reaching to the nape, 
the sides of the neck, and the whole upper plumage olive-brown, 
tinged with fulvous, each feather of the hind neck, back, and upper 
rump tipped with a lunate black bar ; wing-coverts olive-brown, 
the larger series broadly tipped with black ; primary-coverts dark 
brown, margined with black ; winglet ashy, tipped black ; the 
earlier primaries with the outer webs hoary, the others each with 
a black patch, which increases progressively in extent up to the 
last, the basal portions at the same time turning olivaceous : second- 
aries with the outer webs olive-brown, broadly tipped with black, 
succeeded by a narrow white line ; tertiaries entirely olive-brown 
and tipped black and white ; tail rufescent, with a subterminal 
black band and deep rufous tips ; chin and upper throat bright 
rufous like the ear-coverts ; lower throat white ; under tail-coverts 
deep chestnut; remaining lower plumage ashy-brown, albescent 
on the abdomen, each feather of the breast, upper abdomen, and 
sides of the body spotted with black. 

Bill horny yellow ; legs fleshy brown ; orbital skin blue (Jerclon). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape 1*1. 

The young have the crown olive-brown tipped black, the chin and 
upper throat white, and the black bars on the upper plumage smaller 
in size. The plumage of the adult is rapidly assumed. 

This species varies much in certain points of its coloration, and 
the above description applies to birds found between Almora and 
Murree. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan birds have merely the point of 
the chin rufous ; the ear-coverts are black, generally entirely black, 
occasionally with a rufous tinge posteriorly, and the loral patch is 
white. 

* /. cinereiceps, Styan, is said lo occur in Yunnan, and, consequently, is 
likely to be found in Burma. It differs from I. cineracca chiefly in having the 
crown dark ashy instead of black and the ear-coverts rufous instead of white. 



TANTIIOCINCLA. TROCHALOPTERUM. 87 

Assamese birds (Shillong) have the loral patch, the greater part 
of the ear-coverts, the chin, and the whole throat rufous. 

The reader is referred for further information on this point to 
Hume's remarks on the subject (loc. cit.). 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country to Assam 
as far as the Daphla hills ; the Khasi and Garo hills. In the N.W. 
this bird appears to extend also to the vale of Kashmir. It is 
found chiefly from 5000 to 8000 feet of elevation. 

J/abits, $c. Breeds from May to July and probably earlier, con- 
structing a nest of creeper-tendrils lined with black roots in low 
branches of trees, and laying three pure white eggs which measure 
1-06 by -77. 

81. lanthocincla ansteni. The Cachar Laughing-Thrush. 

Trochalopteron austeni, Jerd., Godiv.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 
p. 105 (1870) ; xliii, pt. ii, p. 180; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 304 ; Hume, 
S. F. iii, p. 414 ; id. Cat. no. 417 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 3G9 j Hume, S. F. xi, p. 165. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, sides of the neck, 
and the whole back reddish brown, with pale shafts ; rump paler, 
without pale shafts ; upper tail-coverts and the middle pair of 
tail-feathers rufous ; remainder of the tail black, tipped with M hite, 
the basal portions of the outer webs suffused with rufous ; wing- 
coverts and tertiaries reddish-brown, the longer coverts and the 
tertiaries tipped with white and with a subterminal dusky mark ; 
outer webs of the earlier primaries grey, those of the other quills 
reddish brown ; lores dusky ; ear-coverts dark rufous-brown, with 
pale shafts; chin, throat, and breast rufous-brown, indistinctly 
barred with dusky and whitish; remainder of lower plumage 
rufous-brown, with broad and distinct white bars preceded by a 
dusky line ; under tail-coverts narrowly tipped with white. 

In the dry skin the bill is black and the legs brown. 

Length about 10; tail 4*8; wing 4; tarsus 1*45; bill from 
gape 1'05. 

Distribution. A very rare bird, which has hitherto been obtained 
only by Godwin-Austen in the hill-ranges of Assam. He obtained 
it on the first occasion on Hengdan Peak, Khasi hills, at the head 
of the Jhiri river at 7000 feet ; on the second occasion on the 
Kopamedza peak, Naga hills, at the same altitude. Hume is pretty 
certain that he caught a glimpse of it in Manipur above Aimole. 

Habits, $c. Godwin- Austen observes that these birds were 
generally in pairs, uttering a harsh, croaking call and answering 
each other from time to time. 

Genus TROCHALOPTERUM, Hodgs., 1843. 

The genus Trochalopterum merely differs from the three preceding 
genera in having the base of the bill quite free from all bristles and 
hairs, the nostrils and their membrane being free and exposed. 



88 CEATEROPODID^E. 

The wing is not more rounded nor is it shorter than in those genera, 
when compared with other parts of the body. 

This large genus comprises nineteen Indian birds, which resemble 
the other Laughing- Thrushes in having loud and discordant notes, 
but they are less gregarious and sociable. The smaller species 
are hardly separable from Timelia in structure and general pattern 
of colour. Of the nineteen species, the mode of nidification and 
the colour of the egg of ten are known with more or less certainty. 
Of these ten, seven lay spotted eggs and three unspotted. The 
former will probably hereafter have to be transferred to the next 
subfamily, but until we know the colour of the egg of the remaining 
species any attempt to split up this genus into two or more sections 
will be premature. 

The majority of the Laughing-Thrushes of this genus have a 
bright pattern on the wing, but this character is not of much use 
apparently as a guide in tracing the affinities of the species with 
other genera. 

Key to the Spedes. 

a. Crown, or nape, or both, chestnut. 

a'. Back with large dark spots. 

a". Sides of head chestnut. 

a'". Throat dark brown or blackish. T. ei-ythrocephalum, p. 89, 

b'". Throat chestnut T. erythrolama, p. 90. 

b". Sides of head ashy, ear-coverts pale 

rufous T. chrysopterum, p. 90. 

c". Sides of head black and ashy ; ear- 
coverts black with white margins. T. nigrimentum, p. 91. 

b'. Back plain, without spots T. melanostigma, p. 92. 

6. No chestnut either on crown or nape. 
c. Wings brightly coloured. 

d". Wings chiefly crimson T. phoeniceum, p. 93. 

e". Wings chiefly bright yellow. 

c'". Primary-coverts brown T. sulunicolor, p. 94. 

d'". Primary-coverts deep black. 

a 4 . Tail without white tips T. affine, p. 94. 

b*. Tail tipped with white T. variegatum, p. 95. 

f". Wings chiefly slaty blue, with a 

black patch on the secondaries .... T. simile, p. 96. 
g". Earlier primaries chiefly bright blue, 

the others black T. squamatum, p. 98. 

d'. Wings of a dull colour. 
h". Upper plumage unmarked. 
e'". Breast rufous. 

c 4 . Lores and chin deep black .... T. cachinnans, p. 97. 
d 4 . Lores and chin rufous-brown. . T. cinnamomewn, p. 98. 
f . Breast whitish, streaked with ashy. 

e 4 . Chin black T. jerdoni, p. 99. 

f. Chin grey. 

a 5 . With a conspicuous white 
supercilium extending to 

nape T.fairbanki, p. 99. 

b 5 . With a short supercilium not 

passing behind the eye .... T, mendionale, p. 100. 



TROCHALOPTEKinr. 89 

i". Upper plurnapfe striped. 

//"'. With a white supercilium , T. rirgatum, p. 100. 

h'". With no white supercilium. 
(f. Head and mantle ashy with 

dusky streaks T. lineatum, p. 101. 

h*. Head "and mantle reddish brown 

with glistening black shafts . . T. imbricatum, p. 102. 

82. Trochalopterum erythrocephalum. The Red-headed 
Laughing- Thrush. 

Cinclosoma erythrocephalum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 171 j Gould, 

Cent. pi. 17. 

Garrulax erythrocephalus ( Vig.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 97. 
Pterocyclus erythrocephalus ( Vig.\ Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 206. 
Trochalopteron erythrocephalum ( Viy.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 43 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 37 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 258 ; 

id. Cat. no. 415 : Scully, S. F. viii, p. 290 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

vii, p. 360 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 55. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape chestnut ; ear-coverts 
chestnut, each feather blackish near the tip and edged with white; 
lores, chin, and upper throat black with a chocolate tinge ; cheeks 
mingled chestnut and black ; mantle and sides of neck olive-brown, 
each feather with a semicircular black mark near the end ; lower 
back plain olive-brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts slaty grey ; 
tail ashy, suffused with golden yellow on the outer webs ; wing- 
coverts olive-brown, the greater series broadly tipped with deep 
ferruginous; primary-coverts and winglet yellow on the outer 
webs, ashy on the inner ; outer webs of the primaries and secon- 
daries bright golden yellow ; tertiaries and tips of the secondaries 
ashy blue ; the base of the outer webs of the secondaries golden 
red ; lower plumage pale fulvous, washed with olivaceous on the 
sides of the body and under tail-coverts, each feather of the throat 
and breast with a narrow crescentic black bar near the end and 
tipped with fulvous white. 

The young are at first without the black marks on the throat, 
breast, and back, but they soon acquire them. 

The only variation this bird exhibits is in the colour of the ear- 
coverts ; Nepal birds have a great deal of black on the ear-coverts, 
and the black diminishes in quantity as we proceed towards the 
north-west, till on arrival at Chamba the ear-coverts are almost 
entirely chestnut. 

Legs and feet pale brown ; iris pale yellowish brown ; bill black 
(Hume) ; iris greyish brown (Scully). 

Length nearly 11 ; tail 4*8 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus 1/5 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba to Nepal, up to 
about 7000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Scully remarks that this species moves about very 
rapidly and noiselessly amongst bushes, and its note is subdued 
and not unmusical. 



90 CRATEEOPODID^. 

It breeds from May to July, constructing a nest of dead leaves 
bound together with ferns and grass in a low tree or bush, and 
laying from two to four eggs, which are blue marked with brownish 
red and measure 1'2 by '82. 

83. Trochalopterum erythrolaema. Hume's Laughing-Thrush. 

Trochalopterum erythrolsema, Hume, S. F. x, p. 153 (1831) j Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vii, p. 303; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 103. 

Coloration. Lores and point of chin dusky brown ; the entire 
head, neck, chin, arid throat deep chestnut, the forehead tinged 
with ashy ; sides of neck and back olive-grey, each feather with a 
large black subterminal spot and a paler fringe ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts slaty grey ; breast chestnut, with a round dusky or 
black spot on each feather and a paler fringe ; centre of abdomen 
pale ferruginous ; sides, vent, and under tail-coverts deep oliva- 
ceous ; tail ashy, suffused with golden yellow on the outer webs ; 
wing-coverts olive-brown, the greater series broadly tipped with 
deep ferruginous ; primary-coverts and winglet yellow on the 
outer webs, ashy on the inner ; outer webs of the primaries and 
secondaries bright golden yellow ; tertiaries and tips of the secon- 
daries ashy blue ; the base of the outer webs of the secondaries 
golden red. 

Legs and feet fleshy brown, pinker on feet ; bill blackish brown ; 
iris grey (Hume). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from 
gape M. 

Distribution. Discovered by Hume near Matchi on the eastern 
hills of Manipur, and not yet known to occur elsewhere. 

The next two species, I regret to say, must in future be known 
to ornithologists by names different to those they have hitherto 
borne. An examination of Gould's type and description of lan- 
thocincla chrysoptera clearly shows that he had a specimen from 
the Khasi hills before him, belonging to the species which Blyth 
subsequently named Garrulax ruficapillus. This latter name will 
become a synonym of Gould's.' The Himalayan species will con- 
sequently be without a name, but as Hodgson figured it and named 
it T. nigrimentum in his MSS., I propose to use his name for it. 
He notes on the drawing that he considered this species to be 
merely the young of T. erythrocephalum, but he appears afterwards 
to have altered his opinion and named it. 

84. Trochalopterum chrysopterum. The Eastern Yellow- 
winged Laughing-Thrush. 

Janthocincla chrysoptera, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 48. 
Garrulax ruficapillus, Blyth, J. A. S. 11. xx, p. 521 (1851). 
Trochalopteron ruficapillum (Blyth\ Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt ii, p. 104; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 385; id. Cat. no. 4 15 bis; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 303 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 163. 



TROCHALOPTERUM. 91 

Coloration. Forehead and lores grey with black shafts ; anterior 
half of crown reddish brown, blending into the bright chestnut of 
the posterior half and of the nape ; a very broad superciliary band, 
reaching to the nape, ash-grey ; ear-coverts ashy rufous ; chin and 
cheeks grey mingled with blackish ; throat and fore neck deep 
chestnut-brown ; the sides of the neck and back fulvous grey, each 
feather with a rounded brown mark near the tip ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts slaty grey ; breast rufous, each feather with an ill- 
defined lunate bar ; abdomen dull fulvous ; sides of the body, vent, 
and under tail-coverts olivaceous ; tail ashy, suffused with golden 
yellow on the outer webs ; wing-coverts olive-brown, the greater 
series broadly tipped with deep ferruginous ; primary-coverts and 
winglet yellow on the outer webs, ashy on the inner ; outer webs 
of the primaries and secondaries bright golden yellow ; tertiaries 
and tips of the secondaries ashy blue, the base of the outer webs 
of the secondaries golden red. 

Iris clay-coloured; bill and legs brown (Cockburri) ; iris grey ; 
legs pink-brown (Godw.-Aust.). 

Length about 10; tail 4-5; wing 4-1; tarsus 1-55; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The Khasi hills, where this species has been 
obtained at Shillong, at Cherra Poonjee, and on Heugdan Peak. 

85. Trochalopterum nigrimentum, The Western Yellow-winged 
Laughing- Thrush. 

Trochalopteron niprimentum, Hodgson, MSS. fig. 820 (in Library of 

Zool. Soc. of London) ; Oates in Hume's N. <% E. 2nd ed. i, p. 57. 
Gamilax chrysopterus (Gould), apud Blyth, Cat. p. 97. 
Pterocyclus chrysopterus (Gould), apud Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 206. 
Trochalopteron chrysopteruin ( Gould), apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 43 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 259 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 76; 

Hume, Cat. no. 416; 'Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 362 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 165. 

The Yellow-winged Laughing -Thrush, Jerd.; Tarphom-pho, Lepch. ; 
Paniong, Bhut. 




Fig. 27. Head of T. niyrimentum. 

Coloration. Forehead rufous with black shafts ; anterior portion 
of crown and the sides of the crown nearly up to the nape deep 
grey, each feather black in the middle ; posterior part of crown 



92 CRATEROPODID^!. 

and nape bright chestnut ; ear-coverts black, each feather mar- 
gined with pale pinkish white ; lores, cheeks, chin, and upper 
throat black, the two latter parts mottled with rufous ; the upper 
back, the whole neck, and the lower throat and the breast rufous ; 
each feather of the back and neck with a large black semicircular 
spot, and those of the breast with a narrow black crescentic bar ; 
lower back plain rufous ; rump ard upper tail-coverts olive-green ; 
tail deep slaty, the outer webs suffused with golden yellow ; wing- 
coverts olive-brown, the greater series tipped with ferruginous ; 
winglet and primary-coverts yellow on the outer webs, ashy on the 
inner ; tertiaries greenish, tipped with ashy blue, the outer webs 
of the primaries and secondaries bright golden yellow, tinged with 
red at the base of the secondaries and tipped with slaty blue ; 
middle of the abdomen rufous ; remainder of the lower plumage 
olivaceous brown. 

Bill dusky brown ; legs horny yellow-brown ; iris red (Jerdon). 

Length about 10; tail 4-6; wing 4-1; tarsus 1-55; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the Daphla hills in 
Assam, in which latter locality Godwin-Austen procured it on 
Shengorh peak at 7000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Jerdon tells us that this species is very common about 
Darjiling, where it may be often seen on the road, picking up 
insects and grain among the dung of cattle, but rapidly hopping 
off and diving into the nearest thicket on being approached. 

It breeds from April to June in scrubby jungle, building its 
nest, which is composed of twigs and leaves, in bushes not many 
feet above the ground. The eggs, three in number, are blue 
marked with chocolate and measure 1*17 by -82. 

86. Trochalopterum melanostigma. The Chestnut-headed 
Laughing- Thrush. 

Garrulax melanostigma, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 268 (1855). 

Trochalopteron melanostigma (J5/y^), Blyth, Birds Burm.^. 108; 
Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 464; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 291 ; Hume, Cat. no. 415 ter ; Oates, B. B. i. p. 39 : Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vii, p. 364. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, chin, and cheeks black, the black of 
the lores extending slightly over the eye ; a short supercilium, the 
ear-coverts and the sides of the nape silvery grey streaked with 
black ; crown of the head bright chestnut, contracting to a point 
on the nape ; back, rump, lesser wing-coverts, and the upper tail- 
coverts olive-brown, tinged with ochraceous on the back ; greater 
wing-coverts olive-brown, tipped with ferruginous ; primary-coverts 
black ; the outer webs of the primaries and secondaries and almost 
the whole of the tertiaries olive-yellow ; tail olive-yellow ; throat 
and upper breast ferruginous, extending in a paler form to the 
breast and centre of the abdomen ; sides of the abdomen, flanks, 
and under tail-coverts olive-grey. 



TROCWALOPTEEUM. 93 

Legs, feet, and claws very pale brown to reddish brown ; bill 
black ; iris brown or hazel-nut brown (Hume $ Davison}. 

Length 1O5 ; tail 4*4 ; wing 4*1 ; tarsus 1'5 ; bill from gape 
1-2. 

Distribution. Karennee at 5000 feet ; the pine forests of the 
Sal ween river ; Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim from 3000 feet 
to the summit. 

Habits, <$fc. According to Mr. Davison these birds keep in parties 
of six or eight, feeding chiefly on the ground and keeping much in 
the brushwood. They are neither very noisy nor very silent; 
they utter from time to time a fine whistling call. They appear to 
feed exclusively on insects. 

87. Trochalopterum phceniceum. The Crimson-winged 
Laugh i ng- Thrush . 

lanthocincla phoenicea, Gould, Icon. Av. pi. 3 (1837). 

Garrulax phceniceus (Gould)) Blyth, Cat. p. 97. 

Trochalopteron phceniceum (Gould), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 2JO; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 48 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 105; 

Hume, N. # & p. 262 ; id. Cat. no. 422 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 

p. 371 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 168 ; Oates in Hume's N. E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 68. 
Tilji-pho, Lepch. ; Repcha, Bhut. 

Coloration. Lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, round the eye, and a patch 
on the side of the neck crimson ; a short and somewhat irregular 
supercilium black; the whole upper plumage olive-brown, the 
feathers of the crown with partially concealed black margins ; tail 
black, broadly tipped with orange, the outermost feathers suffused 
with orange throughout ; wing-coverts olive-brown ; primary- 
coverts dusky, edged with olive-brown ; winglet suffused with 
crimson on the outer webs and the outermost coverts edged with 
the same ; outer webs of primaries edged with crimson and yel- 
lowish, the former increasing and the latter diminishing in extent 
inwards ; secondaries with the middle portion of the outer webs 
edged with pale blue, the terminal portion with crimson, the bases 
suffused with olive-green ; the whole lower plumage fulvous olive- 
brown, tinged with ashy on the abdomen ; under tail-coverts black, 
broadly tipped with crimson. 

Legs and feet brown with a purplish tinge ; bill blackish ; iris 
crimson or brownish-maroon to lac-red; bare and orbital skin 
leaden-dusky (Hume}. 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus 1-3 : bill from gape -9. 

Distribution. Kepal ; Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Khasi hills ; Lhota Naga 
hills ; Manipur. This species appears to range chiefly from 4000 
to 6000 ft, of elevation. 

Habits, $'c. Breeds from April to June, constructing its nest of 
bamboo leaves and twigs, lined with fibres and moss, in dense 
undergrowth, and laying three eggs, which are blue marked with 
spots and lines of maroon and purple and measure 1-04 by '74. 



94 CEATEEOPODID^E. 

88. Trochalopterum subunicolor. The Plain-coloured 
Laughing -Thrush . 

Trochalopteron subunicolor, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 952 
(1843) ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 211 ; Jerd. B. /.ii, p. 44 ; id. Ibis, 
1872, p. 306 j Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 46 ; Hume, N. # E. 
p. 259 j id. Cat. no. 417 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 368 ; Gates 
in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 59. 

Garrulax subunicolor (Hodys.}, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 599 (1845) ; 
id. Cat. p. 96. 

Tarmal-pho, Lepch. ; Nabom, Bhut. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dark ashy brown, the 
forehead tinged with fulvous ; sides of neck and the whole upper 
plumage olive-brown, each feather margined with black ; middle 
tail-feathers olive-yellow, the others black with the outer webs 
suffused with olive-yellow for a great portion of tbeir length, the 
two median pairs indistinctly, the others distinctly tipped with 
white ; wing-coverts plain olive-brown ; primary-coverts dark 
brown ; winglet ashy yellow outside, dusky within ; the exterior 
webs of the outer primaries grey, the others and the secondaries 
with a progressively increasing amount of yellow, duller towards 
the tips ; tertiaries merely tinged with yellow and more or less 
tipped with white ; ear-coverts brown, the shafts pale ; lores 
blackish; cheeks, chin, and throat like the back, but darker, 
similarly margined with black, and a few feathers under the face 
tipped whitish; remainder of lower plumage olivaceous brown, 
tinged with fulvous on the abdomen and all the feathers margined 
with black ; under tail-coverts and thighs plain olivaceous brown. 

The young resemble the adults except that at first the black tips 
to the feathers are merely indicated. 

Bill dusky ; legs reddish brown ; iris red-brown (Jerdon) ; iris 
yellowish grey (Stanford). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4'1 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 1*35; bill from 
gape -85. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim up to 11,000 feet. 

Habits. Breeds in Nepal, according to Hodgson, from April to 
June, constructing its nest of grass and moss lined with leaves in 
some low branch of a tree. The eggs, three or four in number, are 
said to be unspotted greenish blue and to measure about 1-07 
by -7. 

89. Trochalopterum affine. The Blade-faced Laughing-Thrush. 

Garrulax affinis, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 950 (1843 ) : id. 

Cat. p. 97. 

Tterocyclus affinis (Hodgs.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 207. 
Trochalopteron affine (Hodgs.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 45 ; Blanf. J. A. S. 

B. xli, pt. ii, p. 46 ; Hnme, Cat. no. 419 j Sharpe, Cat. *B. M . vii, 

p. 357. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dark brown tinged with 



TROCHALOPTERUM. 95 

rufous, paler oil the forehead ; lores and sides of head black ; cheeks 
and a large patch behind the ear-coverts white, extending to the 
sides of the neck where it becomes pale rufous ; hind neck rufous- 
brown, blending with the darker brown of the head; back and 
scapulars rufous-brown, each feather broadly terminated with pale 
tfivy ; rump olive-brown ; upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; tail slaty 
blue, three quarters of all the outer webs and of the inner webs of 
the middle pair of feathers overlaid with bright golden yellow ; 
wing-coverts rufous ; primary-coverts black ; winglet and tertiaries 
slaty blue ; the outer webs of the primaries and secondaries bright 
golden yellow on the greater portion of their length, slaty blue 
elsewhere ; chin black ; throat rufous-brown ; breast paler rufous, 
each feather narrowly edged with grey ; remainder of lower plu- 
mage rufous-brown. 

Bill black ; feet reddish brown ; iris brown (Jerdoii) ; iris olive 
(Stanford). 

Length about 10 ; tail 5'2 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan at high elevations, being 
found from 8000 to 13,000 feet. 

Habits. Blanford observes that this species is subalpine; it 
ranges much above all other forms. He found it in rhododendron 
scrub and on the skirts of the pine woods in Sikhim. 

90. Trochalopterum variegatum. The Eastern Variegated 
La uyliiny- Th r as7i . 

Cinclosoma variegatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 56 ; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 1(3. 

Garrulax variegatus ( Vig.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 97. 
Pterocyclus variegatus ( Vig.}, Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 207. 
Trochalopteron variegatum ( Viy.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 45 ; Stoliczka, J. 

A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 37; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 305; Hume, N. 

4- E. p. 260 (part.) ; id. S. F. vii, p. 457 ; id. Cat. no. 418; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 359 (part.) ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 59. 

The Variegated Laughing-Thrush, Jerd.; Ganza, Nep. 

Coloration. Forehead fulvous ; crown and nape ashy brown ; 
feathers on the eyelids and a spot behind the eye white ; lores 
black, extending over and below the eye to the upper part of the 
ear-coverts ; remainder of ear-coverts white with a black patch ; 
chin and upper throat black ; cheeks fulvous, produced downwards 
and meeting round the black throat ; sides of neck and the whole 
upper plumage olive-brown ; wing-coverts olive-brown, the greater 
one broadly edged with rufous ; winglet and primary-coverts black ; 
the inner webs of the tertiaries black, the outer grey tipped with 
white ; outer webs of primaries and secondaries bright golden yellow 
tinged with rufous and tipped with white ; a large black patch on 
the secondaries ; the middle four pairs of tail-feathers black on three 
quarters of their length, then ashy yellow and tipped with white ; 



96 CRATEROPODTD^E. 

the other feathers ashy yellow on the inner webs, olive-yellow on the 
outer and tipped with white ; breast and sides of the body fulvescent 
ashy brown ; remainder of lower plumage bright tawny buff. 

Bill black; legs and feet pale reddish orange-brown; iris pale 
yellow-green, brown, raw sienna-brown, pale yellowish brown 
(Hume). 

Length about 11 ; tail 5'2 j wing 4-1; tarsus 1-5; bill from 
gape 1*1. 

The young have the outer webs of the wing-quills bright yellow 
as in the adult, which they also resemble in other respects. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Chamba to Nepal at elevations 
of, generally, more than 5000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from April to June, constructing a nest of 
grass and leaves in a low branch of a tree or in a bush. The eggs, 
four or five in number, are blue marked with reddish brown and 
measure I'll by *78. 



91. Trochalopterum simile. The Western Variegated 
Laughing- Thrush. 

Trochalopteron simile, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 408 ; Hume Sf Henders. 

Lah. to Yark. p. 193, pi. vii ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 407 ; id. Cat. 

no. 418 bis ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 53 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 439 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 60. 
Trochalopteron variegatum, apud Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, p. 354. 

Coloration. Resembles T. variegatum. Differs in having the 
outer webs of the wing-feathers slaty blue, and in having those 
parts of the tail slaty blue which in the other species are either 
ashy yellow or olive-yellow. 

Legs and feet flesh-colour ; bill black ; iris brown {Dr. G. 
Henderson). 

Of the same size as T. variegatum. 

Distribution. The western portion of Kashmir and the Hazara 
country. Scully states that this bird is common and a permanent 
resident in Sharot and Bargo, higher up the valley above Gilgit, 
at 5500 feet. 

Habits, (Sfc. The nest was found by Messrs. Cock and Marshall 
nearMurree on the 15th June, built at the end of a bough of a fir- 
tree about 20 feet from the ground. The nest and eggs appear 
to resemble those of the last species. 



92. Trochalopterum squamatum. The Blue-winged 
Laughing- Thrush . 

lanthocincla squamata, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 48 ; Jard. fy Selby, 

III. Orn. new ser. pi. iv. 

Cinclosoma melanura, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 147 (1836). 
Garrulax squamatus (GoulcT), Blyth, Cat. p. 96. 
Trochalopteron squamatuin (Gould), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 211; 



TROCUALOPTERUM. 97 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 46 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 306 ; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 260 ; id. Cat. no. 420 ; Sharpe, Cat. E. M. vii, p. 367 ; Gates in 
Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 61. 

Tarmal-pho, Lepch. ; Nabom, Blmt. 

Coloration. A black streak over the eye from the lores to the 
nape ; 'lores and sides of head rufous ; upper tail-coverts chestnut ; 
with this exception the whole upper plumage is rufescent olive- 
brown, each feather with a terminal lunate black tip ; wing-coverts 
chestnut, dusky internally ; primary-coverts dusky edged with 
black ; winglet bluish ashy ; the outer primaries with the outer 
webs pale blue, the others with them entirely black ; basal portion 
of the outer webs of the secondaries chestnut, extending slightly 
to the tertiaries ; remainder of wing black, the later quills minutely 
tipped white ; tail bronze-colour, the tips chestnut ; lower plumage 
fulvous, each feather with a terminal black bar ; under tail-coverts 
and thighs castaneous. 

Legs and feet fleshy ; bill blackish, pale greyish horny at base 
of lower mandible and tip of both mandibles ; iris brilliant white 
with a faint greenish tinge (Hume). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus 1*5 ; bill from gape 1. 

No writer appears to have noticed the two very distinct varieties 
of this bird which seem to be found together in every locality in 
the same manner that Garrulax pectoralis and G. moniliger occur 
together. In T. squamatum, to which the above description applies, 
the tail is bronze-colour ; in T. melanurum the tail is deep black, and 
moreover the crown of the head is ashy and the lower plumage and 
sides of the head olivaceous. Hodgson collected both varieties 
and he figured the latter bird. There is a very large series of this 
bird in the British Museum and it is quite evident that the colour 
of the tail is not a question of sex, nor does it appear to be one of 
age. I keep the two races together at present and content myself 
with pointing out the differences in hopes that the question may 
be worked out by those who have the opportunity. 

Hume informs us that in this species the male has grey lores, 
and the female fulvous-brown ones. This is certainly the case in 
the only two specimens in the Hume Collection which are sexed; 
but I question if the inference drawn from it is correct, as it is 
altogether opposed to the rule which obtains in all the Cratero- 
podince the perfect identity of the sexes. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the Daphla hills ; the 
Khasi hills ; the Lhota Naga hills ; Manipur. This species appears 
to be found from 2000 to 6000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from April to June, constructing a nest of the 
usual form in a bush near the ground and laying from three to five 
eggs, which are spotless blue and measure 1-2 by T87. 

93. Trochalopterum cachinnans. The Ntiyiri Laughing-Tlirusli. 

Crateropus cachinnans, Jerd., Madr. Journ. x, p. 255, pi. 7 (1839). 
Garrulax cachinnans (Jerd.), Blyth, Cat. p. 97. 
VOL. I. H 



98 CRATEROPODID/E. 

Pterocyclus cachinnans (Jerd.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. \, p. 208. 
Trochalopteron cachianans (Jerd.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 48 ; Blanf. J. 

A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 175 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 306 ; Hume, N. 

$ E. p. 263 ; id. Cat. no. 423 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii. p. 373 ; 

Davison, S. F. x, p. 377 ; Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 62. 

Coloration. Point of the forehead black ; sides of the forehead 
white produced back as a broad superciliurn to the ear-coverts ; 
crown and nape slaty brown, the feathers very narrowly margined 
with black, the lateral feathers of the crown and forehead black on 
their inner, white on their outer, edges, forming a black line above, 
and next to, the supercilium ; lores, chin and a streak behind the 
eye black ; feathers of the eyelids white ; ear-coverts pale rufous ; 
the sides of the nape at the end of the supercilia ashy, which colour 
suffuses the whole nape ; upper plumage, sides of neck, wings, and 
tail olive-brown ; throat and breast bright rufous extending to the 
abdomen, which, however, is much duller ; thighs, vent, under tail- 
coverts, and sides of the body rufescent olive-brown ; under wing- 
coverts rufous. 

Legs and feet black ; bill black ; iris red (Miss Cockburri) ; iris 
crimson (Davison). 

Length about 9; tail 4; wing 37; tarsus 1*25; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Occurs over the whole of the Nilgiris from 4500 
feet to the summit of the hills. 

Habits, <Sfc. Jerdon describes this bird as being noisy and abundant 
in all the woods on the summit of the Nilgiris, and, like others of 
the genus, living in small scattered flocks foraging about the thick 
brushwood. 

It breeds from February to June, building a deep nest, which is 
frequently lined with fur and feathers, in bushes. The eggs are 
three to five in number, blue marked with red and brown, and 
measure 1*0 by 76. 



94. Trochalopterum cinnamomeum. Davison s Laughing-Thrush. 
Trochalopterum cinnamomeum, Davison, Ibis, 1886, p. 204. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape hair-brown, the nape 
tinged with ashy, the lateral feathers of the crown white on their 
outer webs, forming part of a broad creamy white supercilium 
extending to the end of the ear-coverts ; upper plumage, wings, and 
tail olive-brown, with a greenish tinge ; lores rusty-brown ; sides 
of the head pale ochraceous ; chin, and lower part of cheeks, dark 
cinnamon-brown ; remainder of lower plumage deep rufous, tinged 
with olivaceous on the sides, vent, and under tail-coverts ; under 
wing-coverts rufous. 

The colour of the bill &c. has not been recorded. 

Length about 8; tail 37; wing 3'5; tarsus 1*3; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Unknown; but probably, as suggested by Davison, 



TItOCIIALOPTERUM. 99 

the Ptilghafc hills in Southern India. Apparently a very local and 
rare bird. 

95. Trochalopterum jerdoni. The Banasore Lauyhing -Thrush. 

( Jarrulax jerdoni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 522 (1851). 

Trochalopteron jerdoni (Blyth), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 49 ; id. Ibis, 1872, 
p. 306 ; Morgan, S. F. ii, p. 532 ; Hume, Cat. no. 424 j Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vii, p. 373, pi. x ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 378. 

Coloration. Point of forehead black ; crown and nape slaty brown, 
the edges of the feathers narrowly darker ; a broad white super- 
cilinm, the feathers of which, next the crown, Have the inner webs 
black, forming a narrow black band above the supercilium ; lores 
and a line behind the eye black ; ear-coverts greyish white ; sides 
of neck ashy brown, continued back and meeting round the neck ; 
upper plumage, wings, and tail olive-brown, tinged with rufous on 
the tail ; chin and cheeks black ; throat and breast streaked with 
dark ashy and white ; abdomen rufous ; sides, thighs, and under 
tail-coverts olivaceous brown ; under wing-coverts rufous. 

Bill dull black ; iris crimson-lake ; legs, feet, and claws plum- 
beous brown (Davison). 

Length about 8'5 ; tail 35; wing 3'2 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Brahmagiri hills in Coorg ; the Banasore Peak, 
Wynaad, at 5000 to 6000 feet, and, according to Mr. Morgan, the 
Palghat hills and the Chinnacoonoor Grhat, Nilgiris. The species 
seen in the last two localities may, however, have been different, 
possibly T. fairlanki. 

96. Trochalopterum fairhanki. The Palni Laughing-Thrush. 

Trochalopterum fairbauki, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 175, 
pi. xvii a (1868) ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 306 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 413 ; 
Fairbank, 8. F. v, p. 404 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 36 ; id. Cat. no. 423 
bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 374 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 379 ; 
Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 64. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape black, or intensely dark 
brown ; a broad white supercilium extending to the nape ; lores 
and a band behind the eye black ; ear-coverts and sides of head 
grey ; sides of neck ashy ; upper plumage, wings, and tail olive- 
brown tinged with rusty, especially on the upper tail-coverts ; chin, 
throat, and breast ashy, streaked with white ; remainder of lower 
plumage bright rufous. 

Iris dark red, red-brown (Fairbanlc}. 

Length about 8*5 ; tail 3'7 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from 
gape '95. 

Distribution. The Palni and Anamulli hills in South Travancore 
above 3000 feet. 

Habits, 6fc. Breeds on the Palnis in May. A nest found in this 
month, at an elevation of 6500 feet, was placed in a crotch of a tree 
at about ten feet from the -ground. The eggs are blue, marked in 
various ways with red and brown. One egg measured I'O by *8. 

H2 



100 CEATEROPODID^E. 

97. Trochalopterum meridionale. Stanford's Laughing-Thrush. 

Trochalopteron fairbanki, Blanf., Hume, S. F. vii, p. 36 (1878). 
Trochalopterum meridionale, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlix, p. 142 (1880) ; 
Hume, S. F. ix, p. 505 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 375. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and lores dusky brown ; a 
short white band over the lores reaching only to the eye ; sides of 
head and neck, the whole upper plumage, wings, and tail ashy olive- 
brown, tinged with fulvous on the upper tail-coverts ; chin nearly 
white ; throat and breast white, streaked with ashy ; centre of 
abdomen white ; sides and under tail-coverts bright rufous ; vent 
and thighs olivaceous brown. 

Iris dark red ; bill black ; legs dusky (Bourdilloii). 

Length about 8-5; tail 3'7; wing 3'4 ; tarsus 1-3; bill from 
gape '9. 

Distribution. Travancore. There are specimens in the British 
Museum from Chinipanui, the Patnas, Mynall, and the Tinnevelly 
boundary, 4000 feet. 

98. Trochalopterum virgatum. The Manipur Streaked 
La ugh ing- Thrush . 

Trochalopteron virgatum, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 46 ; id. 
J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 162 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 395 j id. Cat. 
no. 425 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 379. 

Coloration. Point of the forehead and a long supercilium ex- 
tending to* the nape white ; lores ferruginous; cheeks, lower part 
of ear-coverts, and under the eye fulvous white ; upper part of 
ear-coverts ferruginous, with pale shaft-streaks ; crown, nape, 
mantle, lesser wing-coverts, and sides of the neck reddish brown, 
with very white shafts ; lower back, scapulars, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts ashy brown, with white shafts ; tail olive-brown, dis- 
tinctly cross-rayed, the outer feathers tipped white ; greater wing- 
coverts chestnut, with white shafts and tips ; primary-coverts pale 
rufous, with white shafts and brown tips ; wiuglet deep ashy, with 
the outer webs white along the shafts ; wings ashy ; the middle 
feathers washed with chestnut, and the tertiaries edged with paler 
ashy ; chin and throat deep chestnut, shading off into yellowish 
buff on the remainder of the lower plumage, all the feathers with 
white shafts. 

Legs and feet pale greyish fleshy ; soles yellowish ; bill deep 
brown ; iris brown ; orbital skin leaden-dusky (Hume}. 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4-5; wing 3*4; tarsus 1'25 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The first specimen of this bird was obtained near 
the village of E-azami under the Kopamedza ridge at 5000 feet in 
the Naga hills. Hume subsequently observed it in the higher 
portions of the Eastern hills of Manipur about Airaole, Matchi, 
and Tankool Hcondoong. 



TROCIIALOPTERUM. 101 

Habits, $c. Hume observes that this bird haunts dense under- 
growth and is never seen except by accident, and hence, though not, 
he believes, very scarce in the localities in which he found it, it is 
still very hard to procure. It has a peculiar soft single-note call, 
by following up which he procured all his specimens. 

99. Trochalopterum lineatum. The Himalayan Streaked 
Laughing-Thrush. 

Cinclosoma lineatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 56. 

Cinclosoma setifera, Hoclgs. As. lies, xix, p. 148 (1836). 

Garrulax lineatus ( Viy. ), Blyth, Cat. p. 97. 

Pterocyclus lineal us (Vi(j.\ Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 209. 

Trochalopterou lineatum ( Vig.\ Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 50 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 38 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 308 ; Cock $ 
Marsh. S. F. i, p. 354 ; Hume fy Headers. Lah. to Yark. p. 195, pi. 8 ; 
Hume, N. # E. p. 264 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 238 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 425 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 291 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 54, 
1882, p. 272 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 440 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 377 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 64. 

Trochalopteron imbricatuni (ITodys.), apud Hume, N. $ E. p. 266. 

The Streaked Laughing- Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and mantle dark ashy, 
streaked with dusky, the shafts black : lower back and wing-coverts 
reddish brown, with white shafts ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
plain ashy ; tail washed with rufous, cross-rayed, with a subterminal 
black band and grey tips ; wings chiefly rufous on the outer webs, 
the tertiaries edged with grey ; lores and ring round the eye mingled 
white and grey ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and an indistinct supercilium 
castaneous ; chin, throat, breast, and upper abdomen chestnut, all 
the feathers with ashy margins and those on the breast with glis- 
tening white shafts ; lower abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
ashy brown. 

Bill dusky ; the base of the lower mandible greyish or brownish 
horny ; iris brown or reddish brown ; feet fleshy brown ; claws 
livid horny (Scully}. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3'6 ; wing 3'1 ; tarsus 1-05 ; bill from 
gape *9. 

The above description applies to Nepal birds, which are extremely 
rufous and richly coloured. Further to the north-west the grey 
margins of the feathers of the lower plumage become much wider 
and the streaks on the head and back are much paler. In Kashmir 
and Gilgit the prevailing colour of the lower plumage is grey, and 
the rufous is in pale streaks ; the shafts of the breast-feathers are 
much whiter, and frequently terminate in a triangular terminal 
spot ; and the upper plumage is more ashy. 

Distribution. The whole of the Himalayas from Nepal to the 
extreme west of Kashmir and the Hazara country. This species 
appears to be found up to about 9000 feet. 

Habits, <$fc. This is a very common bird throughout its range, and 



102 CBATEEOPODID^F. 

one of the best known of Himalayan birds, frequenting the neigh- 
bourhood of bungalows at the hill-stations. It breeds from April to 
{September, constructing a bulky, deep, nest of grass and fine stems 
of herbaceous plants in thick bushes near the ground. The eggs, 
usually three in number, are greenish blue without any marks, and 
measure 1-01 by '73. 



100. Trochalopterum imbricatum. The Bristly Lauyhiny- Thrush. 

Garrulax imbricatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 951 (1843) j id. Cat. 

p. 98. 

Pterocyclus imbricatus (Blyth), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 208. 
Trochalopteron setifer (Hodys.\ apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 51. 
Trochalopterum imbricatum (Hodys.\ Hume, Cat. no. 426; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 379. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and bind neck dark reddish 
brown, with glistening black shafts, the feathers, especially those of 
the forehead, stiff and pointed ; lores, a short supercilium, and sides 
of the head greyish brown with white shafts ; mantle, scapulars, 
and sides of the neck reddish brown with grey margins and glis- 
tening white shafts ; rump and upper tail-coverts olive-brown with 
pale shafts and obsolete narrow cross-bars ; tail reddish brown, 
the outer feathers black towards the ends and tipped white ; the 
outer primaries edged with grey, the others and all the coverts 
reddish brown, the tertiaries edged paler; chin and throat reddish 
brown ; remainder of the lower plumage reddish brown with 
glistening white shafts ; thighs and under tail-coverts olive-brown. 

The colour of the bill &c. has not been recorded. 

Length about 8*5; tail 3'8; wing 3*1; tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape -85. 

Distribution. Bhutan only, whence there are three specimens in 
the British Museum. 

No specimen of this rare bird is contained in either the Hodgson 
or the Hume Collection, and there is no evidence whatever to show 
that this species occurs in Nepal. Hodgson figures two birds, one 
of which is undoubtedly the ordinary form of T. lineatwn and the 
other is a somewhat peculiar form of the same, but bearing no 
resemblance to T. imbricatum. 



Genus GEAMMATOPTILA, Eeichenb., 1850. 

The two birds of this genus may be recognized by their stout, 
short, deep bill, striated plumage, and by the long frontal hairs 
which reach over the nostrils. They inhabit the mountain-ranges 
of northern and north-eastern India, frequent dense jungle, go in 
parties, and have peculiar calls. They lay eggs which in some 
cases are spotless, in others spotted, and their proper place appears 
to be near Trochalopterum. 



(ii; A MM. \TOPT 1 1, A. 103 

Key to the Spec! ex. 

a. Feathers of crest not streaked with white ; no 

brown bands on the sides of the crown G. striata, }\ 103. 

b. Feathers of crest streaked with white ; a distinct 

brown band on each side of the crown G, austeni, p. 104. 

101. Grammatoptila striata. The Striated Laughing-Thrush. 

Garrulus striatus, Viuors, P. Z. S. 1830, p. 7 ; Gould, Cent. pi. 37. 

Keropia striata ( Vi(/.\ Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 : Horsf. 
Sf J/. Cat. i, p. 209. 

Turuagra striata ( Viy.}, Blytli, Cat. p. 95. 

Grammatoptila striata (Viq.), Jerd. B.I.n, p. 11 ; id. Ibis, 1872, 
p. 298; Hume, N. $ #'p. 237 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 234; Hume, 
Cat. no. 382 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 287 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 450 ; Gates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 67. 

The Striated Jay-Thrush, Jerd. ; Nampiok-pho, Lepch. ; Kopiam, Bhut. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage, sides of the head and Deck, 
chin, and throat umber-brown (deepest on the crest) shading off 
into pale brown on the lower plumage ; every feather of the plumage, 




Fig. 28. Head of G. striata. 

both upper and lower, the wing-coverts, and tertiaries with a long 
median white streak, the streaks larger but less defined on the 
abdomen and under tail-coverts ; quills dark brown, the outer webs 
of the first few primaries hoary, of the others pale chestnut ; tail 
chestnut ; the outer feathers with a minute white tip. 

Bill black; legs dusky plumbeous ; iris red-brown (Jerdon}. 

Length about 12 ; tail 5'3 ; wing 5-6 ; tarsus 1'7 ; bill from 
gape 1*2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Bhutan 
from 6000 to 9000 feet. This species has, no doubt erroneously, 
been recorded from Birbhum in Bengal. 

Habits, $c. Jerdon states that this bird has some very peculiar 
calls, one of them resembling the chucking of a hen which has just 
laid an egg. It breeds from May to July, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest of grass &c. in a low tree, and apparently laying only two 
eggs. These are blue, some quite spotless, others marked with a 
few specks of brownish red. They measure 1 '3 by '9. 






104 CEATEROPODID^;. 

102. Grammatoptila austeni. Austens Striated Laughing-Thrush. 

Gramraatoptila striata (Vigors}, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, 
pt. ii, p. 73; xlvii, pt. ii, p. 15 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 135. 

Coloration. Resembles 0. striata, but differs in having no white 
shaft-stripes on the crest-feathers, and in having two broad dark 
brown bands, one on either side of the head, nearly meeting on 
the nape behind. The shaft-stripes on the upper plumage and 
sides of the head are much narrower, being hardly any broader 
than the shafts themselves, and the streaks on the lower surface 
are also much narrower and better denned. 

Iris red-brown ; legs and feet pale grey (Godwin- Austen). 

Of the same size as G. striata. 

Distribution. The Daphla and the Eastern Naga hills. In the 
former this species was common under Toruputu Peak at about 
6000 feet in January. 

Habits, fyc. Godwin- Austen observes of this species that it asso- 
ciates in large flocks, and that the note is a chatter mingled with 
another call somewhat simulating the low quack of a duck. It 
feeds entirely on fruits and seeds. 

Genus STACTOCICHLA, Sharpe, 1883. 

The only bird of this genus is characterized by a rather long 
slender bill, resembling that of Garrulax, but somewhat longer 
in proportion to the size of the head, and by having the throat 
and breast spotted like those of a Thrush. It is very rare and 
little is known about it. 

103. Stactocichla merulina. The Spotted-breasted 
Laughing- Thrush. 

Garrulax merulinus, Slyth, J. A. S. S. xx, p. 521 (1851) ; Jerd. Ibis, 
1872, p. 303 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 162 ; Hume, 
S. F. in, p. 394; id. Cat. no. 413 bis; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 161. 

Stactocichla merulina (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 449. 
Moh mepch, of the Angami Nagas. 

Coloration. Entire upper plumage, sides of the head and neck, 
tail, and exposed part of closed wings rufescent olive-brown ; a 
narrow white streak over the ear-coverts ; forehead mottled with 
grey ; chin, throat, and breast yellowish buff, broadly streaked with 
oval black stripes ; centre of abdomen yellowish buff ; sides of the 
body rufescent olive-brown ; under tail-coverts bright ochraceous. 

Legs and feet rather pale brown; upper mandible blackish, 
lower horny grey; iris pale pinkish buff; orbital skin pale leaden 
(Hume). 

Length about 10'5 ; tail 3'$ ; wing 3'8 ; tarsus 1*6 ; bill from 
gape 1-3. 

Distribution. The Khasi, Naga, and Lhota Naga hills; the 
Eastern hills of Manipur. 



ABGYA. 105 

Habits, $c. Hume describes this bird as a terrible skulk, clinging 
to dense thorny scrub. It is very vocal and has a great number 
of clear, beautiful notes, which it combines into a great variety of 
calls, and it has also a coughing, chuckling, oft-repeated note. 

Genus ARGYA, Lesson, 1831. 

The birds of this genus differ from the Laughing-Thrushes in 
many points of structure. The covering-membrane of the nostril 
is partially clothed with plumes and the feathers of the forehead 
and those round the base of the bill are short, firm, and close. 
The tail is also relatively much longer and greatly graduated, each 
outer feather being only about half the length of the tail. 

The Babblers of this genus are found all over the plains of India 
and Burma. They associate in small flocks, keep to the ground 
or near it, and are very noisy when disturbed. They make cup- 
shaped nests, chiefly in high grass, and lay unspotted blue eggs. 
Many of the species resemble each other closely. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Head and back distinctly streaked with 

blackish or very dark brown. 

a'. Chin and throat rufous, with streaks .... A. earlii, p. 105, 
b 1 . Chin and throat white or very pale fulvous, 
without streaks. 

a". Lower plumage pale fulvous A. caudata, p. 106. 

b". Lower plumage ferruginous A. gularis, p. 107. 

b. Head not streaked ; back with oval brown 

spots A. malcolmi, p. 108. 

c. Upper plumage entirely unstreaked. 

c'. Chin and throat rufous, lores dark A. subrufa, p. 109. 

d' . Chin and upper throat white, lores white. A. longirostris, p. 109. 




Fig. 29. Head of A. earlii. 

104. Argya earlii. The Striated Babbler. 

Malacocercus earlii, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 369 (1844) j id. Cat. 

p. 141 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 222. 
Chatarrhcea earlii (Blyth), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 68 ; Hume, N. Sf E. 

p. 275; Hume Sf Henders. Lah. to York. pi. x; Hume, Cat. 

no. 439 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 182 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 174. 
Crateropus earlii (Blyth}, Oates, B. B. i, p. 30. 
Argya earlii (Bhjth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 392 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. Sf E. 2nd ed. i, p. 68. 

The Striated Reed-Babbler, Jerd. ; Burra-phenga, Hindi. 



106 CKATEROPODIDJE. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown tinged with rufous, the 
feathers of the crown largely centred with very dark brown, those 
of the back with very dark shaft-stripes ; upper tail-coverts obso- 
letely dark-shafted ; tail brown, the shafts darker and all the 
feathers cross-rayed ; wings brown, the lesser coverts centred 
darker ; lores grey ; cheeks and ear-coverts plain rufescent ; chin, 
throat, and breast the same, with dark shaft-stripes increasing in 
size from the chin downwards ; remainder of lower plumage pale 
butfy-brown, becoming albescent in the middle of the abdomen. 

Iris bright yellow ; eyelid plumbeous ; bill fleshy yellow, the 
culmen, nostril, and the tip oi; both mandibles horn-colour ; mouth 
yellow ; legs plumbeous ; claws pinkish. 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4-8 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus 1/3 ; bill from 
gape 1/1. 

Distribution. This Babbler occurs over a considerable portion of 
Sind from Sehwan down to the Runn of Cutch. It is also found 
in the Saharunpur district and thence skirts the plains at the base 
of the Himalayas as far as Behar, whence it commences to spread 
over Bengal, extending up the Assam valley, and southwards to 
Southern Pegu, where it is abundant. 

Habits, fyc. This species is found only in the plains where there 
are large expanses of heavy grass, and lives in small parties that feed 
on the ground or climb about in the grass. When one bird flies 
across the open, the others follow it one by one, skimming near 
the ground with laboured flight and repeating a monotonous note, 
which, however, is not unpleasant when heard in the vast lonely 
plains which this bird frequents. It breeds throughout the rains, 
or from April to October, or even later, making its nest in a clump 
of grass and laying three eggs, which measure *88 by '7. 

105. Argya caudata. The Common Babbler. 
Cossyphus caudatus, Dumfril, Drapiez, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. x, 

p. 219 (1826). 
Malacocercus huttoni, Blyth. J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 476 (1847) ; id. Ibis, 

1867, p. 6; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 310. 
Malacocercus caudatus (Dumerit), Blyth, Cat. p. 141 ; Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 223. 
Chatarrhcea caudata (Dum.\ Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 67 ; Hume, N. fy E. 

p. 274 ; Hume fy Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 197, pi. ix ; Hume, 

Cat no. 438; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 181. 
Crateropus huttoni (BlytJi), Blanf. Ibis, 1874, p. 75 ; id. 8. F. ii, 

p. 329 ; id. E. Pers. i\, p. 203, pi. xiii, fig-. 1 . 

Chatorhea eclipes, Hume, 8. F. v,p. 337 (1877) ; id.. Cat. no. 438 ter. 
Chatarrhsea huttoni (Blyth), Hume, Cat. no. 438 bis. 
Argya caudata (Drap.\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 393; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 70. 
Argya eclipes (Hume}, Sharpe, t. c. p. 394. 
Argya huttoni (Blyth), Sharpe, t. c. p. 394. 
Crateropus caudatus (Dum^), Oates, B. B. i, p. 32. 
The Striated Bush-Babbler, Jerd. ; Dumri, Hind, in the South ; Ifutii, 
Tarn. ; Hedo and Lailo, Sind ; Chikhil, Hind, in the N. W. P. ; Peng or 
Chota-penga, Hindi ; Sor in the N.W. ; Chinna sida, Tel. 



ARGYA. 107 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage brown tinged with fulvous, 
each feather with a dark brown shaft-streak ; wing- and tail- 
coverts with only the shaft dark ; quills brown, lighter on the 
outer webs ; tail olive-brown, cross-rayed, and the shafts very dark ; 
chin ajid throat fulvous white ; lores brown ; ear-coverts rufescent; 
lower plumage pale fulvous, albescent on the abdomen, and the 
sides of the breast faintly striated. 

Bill light brown, yellow at base below; legs and feet yellow ; 
claws fleshy brown ; iris brown or yellow (Bingliam); iris red- 
brown (Jerdo)i). 

Length about 9; tail 4*7; wing 3*2; tarsus 1*1; bill from 
gape 1. 

With the large series of these birds now available in the British 
Museum it is impossible to separate the bird into three races, and 
it will be seen from Hume's Catalogue that this gentleman no 
longer thinks it possible to do so. 

Distribution. Every portion of India proper, from Sind to Bengal 
and from the foot of the Himalayas to the extreme south of the 
peninsula as far at least as the base of the Palni hills. This bird 
also occurs in the Laccadives and in Ramesvaram Island. In the 
north of India I have been able to trace it no further east than 
Behar, but it is probably found as far as the longitude of Calcutta. 
Blyth records it from. Arakan and Thayetmyo, but it is probable 
that he did so by some mistake. 

To the west it extends into Persia. 

Habits, fyc. This Babbler is not addicted to grass jungle, but is 
found in all sorts of country, even in gardens. It associates in small 
flocks and has the habits of A. earlii. It breeds throughout the 
greater part of the year, constructing its nest in bushes and laying 
three eggs, which measure '82 by '64. 

106. Argya gularis. The White-throated BabUer. 

Chatorhea gularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 478 (1855) ; Jerd. Ibis, 
1862, p. 19 ; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 466 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 124; 
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 639, pi. xlviii; Hume, Cat. 
no. 439 bis ; Gates, S. F. x, p. 209. 

Crateropus gularis (Blyth), Oates, B. B. \, p. 31. 

Argya gularis (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 396. 

Coloration. Forehead and a line on either side as far as the eye 
grey, each feather with a black streak ; crown, hind neck, back, 
and scapulars ruddy brown, the feathers with dark brown shaft- 
stripes ; rump and upper tail-coverts olive-brown, the latter with 
faint stripes ; tail olive-brown, cross-rayed ; exposed parts of wings 
olive-brown, some of the greater coverts indistinctly dark-shafted ; 
ear-coverts and sides of the neck ruddy brown ; lores black ; chin, 
throat, cheeks, and upper breast white ; remainder of lower plumage 
ferruginous. 

I omitted to note the colour of the soft parts of this bird when 
in Burma and no one else appears to have recorded them. 



108 CBATEROPODID^E. 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 5-5; wing 3'2 ; tarsus 1'4; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The valley of the Irrawaddy river from Proine to 
Bhamo. 

Habits, fyc. This species is very common round Thayetmyo, living 
in bamboo-jungle and entering compounds and gardens. It associates 
in small flocks, feeds on the ground, and is as noisy as its congeners. 



107. Argya malcolmi. The Large Grey Babbler. 

Timalia malcolmi, Sykes, P. Z. 8. 1832, p. 88. 

Garrulus albifrons, Gray, in Hardiv. III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. 36. fig. 1 

(1834). 
Malacocercus malcolmi (Sykes), Blyth, Cat. p. 141 ; Horsf. 8fM. Cat. 

i, p. 218; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 64; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 310; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 180. 
Argya malcolmi (Sykes), Hume, N. fy E. p. 273 ; id. Gat. no. 436 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 398 ; Davison, 8. F. x, p. 382 ; Gates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 72. 

Ghogoi, Hind. ; Gangai, Hind, in the N.W. P. ; Gongya, Can. ; Kokatti, 
Mahr. ; Verri-cMnda and Gowa-sida, Tel. ; Bhaina, Luckuow. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dull brown, the feathers of the mantle 
with dark centres ; forehead bluish grey with fine white shaft- 
stripes ; lores dusky ; ear-coverts brown with pale shafts ; the three 
outer pairs of tail-feathers white, the fourth pair with the outer 
web whitish, and the remainder of the tail pale brown ; the central 
tail-feathers cross-rayed ; wings dark brown, the earlier primaries 
hoary brown on the outer webs, the others edged with the colour 
of the back ; entire lower plumage, cheeks, and sides of neck 
fulvescent, the throat and breast darker and washed with glaucous. 

Iris bright yellow ; upper mandible dark brown ; lower mandible, 
legs, and feet fleshy, slightly tinged blue (Davison}. 

Length about 11; tail 5*5; wing 4'6 ; tarsus 1*2; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. A great portion of the peninsula of India. In the 
north-west this Babbler appears to be rather rare. I have seen 
specimens collected at Umballa in the Punjab and Sehwan in ISind. 
At Sambhar and Abu it commences to be common, as also at Delhi. 
Its extension to the east is not well indicated by the specimens I 
have been able to examine, but it appears to be common at Allahabad 
and it is probably found some distance further east. Southwards 
it is spread over the whole peninsula as far at least as Mysore and 
the Nilgiris. It, however, seems to be absent from certain tracts of 
country, its distribution being, as Jerdon remarks, peculiar. 

Habits, <Sfc. In the south of India this bird appears to be confined 
to the jungle, but in the north it is found chiefly in fields and gardens. 
It is a noisy chattering bird, associating in small flocks and taking 
refuge in trees when disturbed. It breeds pretty well throughout 
the year, constructing its nest in low branches of trees and shrubs 
and laying four eggs, which measure '99 by *77. 



ARGYA. 109 

108. Argya submfa. The Large Rufous Babbler. 

Timalia subrufa, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. x, p. 259 (1844). 
Malacocercus subrufus (Jen/.), Blyth, Cat.]). 141; Horsf.fyM. Cat.\, 

p. 217. 

Layardia subrufa (Jerd.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 66; Hume, Cat. no. 437 ; 
-Butler, S. F. ix, p. 401; Daviton, S. F. x, p. 382; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 181. 
Argya subrufa (Jerd.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 390; Oates in 

Hume's N. # E. 2ud ed. i, p. 74. 
Argya hyperythra, Sharpe, t. c. p. 390. 
The Rufous Babbler, Jerd. ; Jungli-Khyr, Hind. 

Coloration. Forehead hoary grey with black shafts ; whole upper 
plumage, tail, and exposed parts of the wings olive-brown with a 
rufous tinge, especially strong on the outer webs of the quills, on 
the tail, and on the upper tail-coverts ; lores brown ; cheeks, sides 
of head and neck olive-brown tinged with rufous ; lower plumage 
bright rufous, somewhat paler on the abdomen and suffused with 
brown on the thighs and under tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts 
and edge of wing rufous ; tail slightly cross-rayed. 

Upper mandible, from gape to nostril, chrome-yellow ; rest of 
upper mandible blackish brown; lower mandible chrome-yellow; 
iris creamy white or pale yellow ; legs and feet dark yellowish 
fleshy, pale reddish brown, greyish yellow (Davisori). 

Length 10 ; tail 4'5 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape 1. 

Argya hyperythra, a species described by Sharpe in the 'Catalogue,' 
cannot in my opinion be kept distinct. The two specimens upon 
which the name was founded are certainly very rufous, but it is 
only a matter of degree, and I believe that Sharpe himself now 
doubts the validity of the species. 

Distribution. The Western Ghats from Coonoor and Kotagiri 
on the Nilgiris to Khandala near Bombay. 

Habits, tyc. Davison remarks that this bird is quite a Malacocercus 
in habits and voice, but it keeps to much denser cover, being found 
far away in forests, and the voice is softer and more subdued. 

The nest of this bird is of the usual form, made of leaves and 
bound together by grass and creepers. 

109. Argya longirostris. The Small Rufous Babbler. 

Pyctorhis longirostris, Hoclys., Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 104; Horsf. 

$ M. Cat. i, p. 408 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 16 ; Hume, Cat. no. 386 ; 

id. S. F. ix, p. 250, xi, p. 137. 
Malacocercus (Layardia) rubiginosus, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, 

p. 47 ; id. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 164, pi. v ; Hume, S. F. iii, 

p. 397; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, pp. 78, 202 ; xlvii, 

pt. ii, p. 24 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 153. 

Timelia longirostris (Hodos.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 509. 
The Larger Yellow-eyed Babbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, tail, and exposed parts of the closed 
wings deep reddish brown ; lores, cheeks, chin, and upper throat 
white ; the whole lower plumage and the ear-coverts ferruginous, 
becoming albescent on the abdomen ; tail cross-rayed. 



110 CRATEEOPODID^E. 

Legs and feet brown, darker on feet ; bill black ; iris white, 
bluish white (Hume}. 

Length nearly 10; tail 4'6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Nepal Terai ; the Bhutan and Buxa Doars ; 
Gowhatty ; Helem, Darrang district, Assam ; Sadiya ; Manipur ; 
Cachar. 

Habits, fyc. Godwin-Austen, who very rightly associates this bird 
with the Malacocerci, states that this species is essentially a grass- 
bird. It goes about in flocks of a dozen or so, flying through the 
grass one after another in a scattered line, and never abiding long 
in one place. Hume, who found it to be common in Manipur 
about the capital and the Logtak lake, says that it occurs about the 
ditches with their high grass hedgerows. Except, however, in the 
early mornings, it clings closely to the grass, showing itself but 
little and not being easy to shoot. 



Genus CEATEEOPUS, Swains., 1831. 

The genus Crateropus differs from Arc/yet in its shorter tail, 
which is about equal in length to the wing, and in its stouter bill. 
The tail is also much less graduated, the outer feathers being about 
two thirds the entire length of the tail. In habits the two genera 
are very similar, as also in their mode of nidification and the colour 
of the egg. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat cinereous mottled with pale brown; 

breast fulvous ashy C. canorus, p. 110. 

b. Throat and breast dark brown or black with 

ashy margins. 

a'. Tail ashy and brown ; primaries edged paler. 
a". Ear-coverts blackish, strikingly different 

to the rest of the head C. griseus, p. 112. 

b' 1 . Ear-coverts of the same colour as the 

rest of the head C. striatus, p. 112. 

b'. Tail rufous ; primaries without paler edges. 

c". Throat and breast mottled with brown. . C. somervillii, p. 113. 
d". Throat and breast uniformly rufous. ... C, rufescens, p. 114. 

c. Throat faint rufous, breast dark rufous C. cinereifrons, p. 114. 



11 0. Crateropus canorus. The Jungle Babbler. 

Turdus canorus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 293 (1766). 
Pastor terricolor, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. v, p. 771 (1836). 
Malacocercus bengalensis, Blyth, Cat. p. 140 (1849). 
Malacocercus canorus (.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 220. 
Malacocercus orientalis, Jerd. III. Ind. Orn. text to pi. 19 (1847). 
Malacocercus malabaricus, Jerd. 111. Ind. Orn. text to pi. 19 (1847) ; 

id. B. L ii, p. 62 ; Hume. N. & E. p. 272 ; id. Cat, no. 434 ; 

Damson, S. F. x, p. 381 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 180. 



CRATEEOPTJS. Ill 

Malacocercus terricolor (Hodys.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 50 ; Hume, N. 8f 
E. p. 2G'J ; id. 8. F. i, p. 180; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 278 ; Ilium; Cat. 
no. 4o_? ; Barncx, Birds Bom. p. 179; Hume. 8. F. xi, p. 174. 

Crateropus cnnorus (Linn.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 478 ; Oates m 
Humes N. Sf E. 2nd e<L i, p. 74. 

The^Benf/al Bulkier, Jerd. ; The Jungle Babbler, Jerd. ; Chatarhia, 
Brn^r. ; l\>n<jiia-maina, Hind, in the Upper Provs. ; Sat bhai, Janyli-khyr, 
Ghonyhai, Hind. ; Pedda sida, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, coverts, and tertiaries pale brown, 
cinereous on the head and rump, slightly fulvous on the upper 
tail-coverts, the back with dark brown streaks and whitish shaft- 
stripes ; tail brown, paler near the base and darker towards the 
end, which is tipped white and cross-rayed; wings dark brown, 
edged with ashy on the outer webs ; lores whitish witb a narrow 
black line above them ; sides of the head like the crown ; chin and 




Fig. 30. Head of C. canorus. 

throat cinereous, faintly cross-barred darker; breast fulvous ashy 
with whitish shafts ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts fulvous, 
the sides tinged with brown, and with faint-white shafts. 

Iris yellowish white ; orbital skin pale yellow ; legs and claxvs 
fleshy yellow (Crippt). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4*3 ; wing 4-2; tarsus 1/3; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

It is impossible for any description to cover all the changes of 
colour which this bird undergoes throughout the year from the 
fresh moult to the time when the feathers get worn down. The 
chief point to note about this species is that the chin and throat are 
pale with no bars or marks of black or dark brown, as in the others. 
After carefully examining a very large series of this Babbler from 
every part of India that it inhabits, I am unable to find that there 
is more than one species or even race. Jerdon recognized two 
species and he differentiated them precisely by those characters 
which are continually varying according as the plumage is fresh or 
old. He states also that the bill of C. terricolor, the northern race, 
is horny brown, but I find that this colour is the exception. Hume 
notes on the label of a Punjab bird that the bill was fleshy white, 
and of a Mount-Abu bird that it was whitish, and Bingham in the 
same way states that a Delhi bird had it yellowish white. 

Distribution. The whole of India from Sind to the extreme east 
of Assam, and from the Himalayas down to the extreme south of 



112 CBATEEOPODTD^. 

the peninsula. This bird appears to ascend the hills to about 5000 
feet of elevation or probably higher in the south. 

Habits, fyc. Has much the habits of Argya, but is arboreal, not 
confining itself to any particular sort of jungle. It is very noisy 
and goes about in flocks. Breeds from March to July and in the 
south of India even in the dry weather up to December. The nest 
is placed in thick low trees or in bushes or hedges, and the eggs, 
generally three in number, measure 1*01 by '78. One or more 
species of Cuckoos select the nest of this bird in which to deposit 
their eggs. 

111. Crateropus griseus. The White-headed Babbler. 

Turdus griseus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 824 (1788). 

Malacocercus griseus (Gm.}, Jerd. 111. Ind.'Orn. pi. 19; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 141 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 220 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 60; id. 

Ibis, 1872, p. 307 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 271 ; id. Cat. no 433 ; 

Damson, S. F. x, p. 381 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 179. 
Crateropus griseus (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 480; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed, i, p. 78, 

Khyr, Hind. ; Chinda or Sida, Tel. ; Kalli-Kuravi, Tarn. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, and round the eye 
dingy greyish white, sometimes extending over the hind neck ; 
upper plumage ashy brown, the feathers of the back with white 
shaft-stripes and a black streak on both webs ; quills black, narrowly 
edged on the outer webs with ashy ; tail ashy brown on the basal 
half and dark brown on the terminal half, which is tipped with 
whitish ; tail and tertiaries cross-rayed with blackish ; cheeks and 
ear-coverts dark brown ; chin, throat, and breast black, with ashy 
margins to the feathers ; middle of abdomen fulvous ; remainder 
of lower plumage brown. 

Legs, feet, claws, bill, and orbital skin dead white, slightly tinged 
with yellow ; iris creamy white (Davison). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape -9. 

This species is a fairly well marked one, being recognizable by 
its whitish head and dark ear-coverts. 

Distribution. Southern India from the extreme south up to about 
a line drawn from Ellore through Secunderabad to Belgaum. 

Habits, $c. Breeds apparently throughout the year, constructing 
a nest of grass-stems and roots in trees and bushes, not far off the 
ground. The eggs measure '95 by -68. 

112. Crateropus striatus. The Southern-Indian Babbler. 

Malacocercus striatus, Swains. Zool. III. new series, pi. 127 (1831) ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 59 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 300 ; Holdsw. P. Z. S. 

1872, p. 449 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 458, vii, p. 385 ; id. Cat. no. 432 

bis j Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 494 ; Parker, S. F. ix, p. 479. 

Crateropus striatus (Sw.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 481 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 79. 
Demelitcha, Ceyl. ; Punil, Tarn. 



CRA.TEROPFS. 113 

Coloration. Upper plumage and sides of head and neck brown, 
the feathers of the head edged with cinereous, those of the back 
with large whitish shaft-streaks, and a dark streak on each web ; 
quills dark brown, edged with ashy on the outer webs ; upper tail- 
coverts tinged with rufous ; tail dark brown, paler at base, cross- 
rayed \ "chin, throat, and breast very dark brown, sometimes almost 
black, with broad ashy edges ; remainder of lower plumage dark 
fulvous, the sides of the body tinged with brown. 

Legs feet, claws, bill and orbital skin dirty fleshy white ; upper 
mandible and claws tinged pale brown ; iris clear white (Davison). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 4*2 ; tarsus 1'3 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

This species closely resembles C. canorus, from which it differs 
chiefly in the dark colour of the throat and breast. 

Distribution. Ceylon, Ramesvaram, and part of Southern India. 
There are many specimens of this bird in the British Museum, 
collected at Coonoorand Ootacamund, on the Nilgiris, quite insepa- 
rable from Ceylon birds. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Ceylon from March to July, building its nest 
in bushes and laying two or three eggs, which measure *96 by '72. 

113. Crateropus somervillii. The Rufous-tailed Babbler. 

Timalia pomervillei, St/kes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 88. 

Malacocircus somervillei (Sykes), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 219 ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 63 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p.' 6 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 

pt. ii, p. 177 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 272 ; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 258 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 435 ; Vidal, S. F. ix. p. 64 ; Barnes. Birds Bom. 

p. 180. 

Malacocercus sykesii, ,Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 63 (1863). 
Crateropus somervillii (Sykes), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 482. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dark brown, the feathers 
with narrow pale edges ; lores white ; sides of the head and neck, 
back, wing-coverts, and tertiaries paler brown tinged with rufous, 
the feathers of the back with white shafts ; rump and upper tail- 
feathers ferruginous ; tail reddish brown ; both tail and tertiaries 
cross-rayed with blackish ; primaries and secondaries black ; chin 
and throat dark brown, each feather with a broad ashy margin ; 
breast brown with broad white shaft-streaks ; abdomen, vent, and 
under tail- coverts deep ferruginous ; tail tipped paler below. 

Bill greyish white ; iris yellowish white ; orbits yellow ; feet 
and claws fleshy yellow (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from gape 
I'l. 

This species is the best defined of the genus and can be easily 
identified by its rufous tail and deep ferruginous lower parts. A 
specimen procured by Hume at Kollachal in the extreme south of 
Travancore is remarkable for a number of rufous patches on the 
neck and back. 

Distribution. The Western Ghats and the country lying between 

YOL. I. I 



114 CEATEEOPODID^E. 

them and the sea from Goa to a short distance north of the latitude 
of Bombay. This Babbler occurs on Bombay Island. A specimen, 
as mentioned above, procured at Kollachal in Travancore, is refer- 
able to this species. 

Habits, $c. In the island of Bombay this bird breeds on the date- 
palms growing on the hills of the east and west shores, but the 
nest has not been described. Near Khandala Mr. E. Aitken found 
a nest at the end of May with three much-incubated eggs of an 
intense greenish-blue colour. 



114. Crateropus rufescens. The Ceylonese Babbler. 

Malacocercus rufescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 453 (1847) ; id. 

Cat. p. 141 ; Legge, Birds Cei/l p. 497, pi. xxi, fig. 2. 
Layardia rufescens (Blyth), Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 300 ; Legge, S. F. 

iii, p. 3G8 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 386 ; id. Cat. no. 437 his. 
Crateropus rufescens (Blyth), Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 81. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage, ear-coverts, tail, and exposed 
parts of wings rufous-brown ; lower plumage from the chin down- 
wards ferruginous, becoming browner on the flanks, vent, and 
under tail-coverts ; tail indistinctly cross-rayed. 

Iris white, yellowish white, or greenish white ; bill orange-yellow, 
deepest on the basal half ; legs and feet dull chrome-yellow ; claws 
yellowish horn; orbital skin and eyelid pale greenish yellow 
(Legge). 

Length about 10; tail 4'6 ; wing 4; tarsus 1'3 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. The island of Ceylon, throughout the damper 
portions. 

Habits, $'c. Appears to breed in May, and in one instance the 
nest was placed among some creepers growing up a tree. The 
eggs measure '94 by *74. 



115. Crateropus cinereifrons. The Ashy-headed Babbler. 

Garrulax cinereifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 176 (1851) ; id. Ibis, 
1867, p. 300 ; Holdsw. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 448 ; Legge, Ibis, 1874, 
p. 20 ; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 499, pi. xxii, fig. 2 ; Hume, 8. F. vii, p. 384 ; 
id. Cat. no. 409 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 447. 

Crateropus cinereifrons (Blyth), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 
p. 81. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and sides of the head cinereous, 
shading off t on the nape into the bright reddish brown which is 
the colour of the whole upper plumage, tail, and visible portions of 
the wings, except the outer webs of the first few primaries, which 
are paler ; chin whitish ; remainder of lower plumage rufous- 
brown, darker on the sides of the body and on the under tail- 
coverts. 



POMATOKIIINTS. 115 

Iris white ; eyelid plumbeous ; bill black ; inside of mouth 
greenish yellow; legs and feet plumbeous brown; claws dusky 
horny (Ley ye). 

Length nearly 10; tail 4-3; wing 4-5; tarsus 1'5; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Ceylon, where it occurs in the humid parts up to 
3500 feet of elevation. 

Habits, $'c. This bird is a true Crateropus in the structure of the 
feathers of the head and in its general conformation. According 
to Legge it is found in gloom and shade in the dampest forests in 
troops of ten to twenty, and it is very noisy. 



Genus POMATORHINUS, Horsf., 1821. 

The genus Pomatorhinus contains a large number of birds which 
form a very natural group. Seventeen species inhabit the Empire. 

In this genus the bill is quite as long as the head and frequently 
much longer; it is very slender, much curved downwards and 
compressed. The feathers of the forehead are short, rounded, and 
close, as in the last two genera, but feathers do not grow on the 
nasal membrane, which is perfectly bare. The tail is longer than 
the wing and considerably graduated, the outer feather being two 
thirds to three quarters the length of the tail. The feathers of 
the crown are lengthened, and when erected, at such times as the 
bird is excited, form a short crest. 

All the species lay white unspotted epgs and their nests are 
constructed on or very near the ground. They are noisy birds, 
but their notes are extremely pleasant. They are sociable and 
have much the same habits as the Laughing-Thrushes. 

Key to the Species. 

a. With a white supercilium. 

a'. Bill short and deep, about length of head. 
a". Breast and upper abdomen white like 

throat. 

a'". Sides of neck chestnut, quite dif- 
ferent to upper plumage. 
a 4 . Chestnut of neck produced down 
side of breast and abdomen us a 
band, 
a"'. This band streaked with white. P. schisticeps, p. 116. 

b 5 . This band not streaked P. nuchalis, p. 117. 

fc l . Chestnut contined to side of neck. P. olivaceus, p. 118. 
b"'. Sides of neck rufescent, matching 

upper plumage P. melanurus, p. 118. 

c'". Sides of neck black or brown. 

c l . Sides of neck and breast deep black. P. horsfieldii. p. 119. 
d l . Sides of neck and breast brown, 
nearly concolorous with upper 
plumage P. obscwtts, p. 120. 



116 CRATEEOPODI D&. 

b". Throat white and breast ferruginous. 

d'". Crown of head black P. ferruginosus, p. 120. 

e". Crown of head of same colour as 

e^. Breast pale ferruginous P. albigularis, p. 121. 

f. Breast bright ferruginous P. phayrii, p. 121. 

c". Throat white and breast striped with 

olive-brown P. ruficollis, p. 122. 

b'. Bill long, slender, much compressed, about 

half as long again as head. 
d". Throat and breast white. 
f". Upper plumage bright ochraceous . . P. ochraceiceps, p. 123. 

g'". Upper plumage olive-brown P. austeni, p. 123. 

e". Throat white, breast pale ochraceous. . P. stenorhynchus,^. 124. 
b. With no white supercilium. 

c'. Bill short, not longer than head. 

/". Sides of neck and body chestnut P. erythrogenys, p. 124. 

ft". Sides of neck and body olive-brown . . P. macclellandi, p. 125. 
d'. Bill long and coarse, longer than head ; 

sides of breast deep slaty grey. 

h". Sides of head not streaked with white. P. hypoleucus, p. 126. 
t". Sides of head streaked with white P. tickelli, p. 127. 

The first ten species are characterized by a shorter bill (fig. 31 ). 




Fig. 31. Head of P. schisticeps. 



116. Pomatorhinus schisticeps. The Slaty-headed 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus schisticeps, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 181 (1836) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 146; Horsf. $ M. Cat.'i, p. 234; Jerd. B. I. \\, p. 29 ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 250; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 132, 
pi. iii ; Hume, Cat. no. 402 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 288 ; Hume, 
S. F. ix, p. 251 ; Gates, B. B. i. p. 72 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 411 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 148 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 81. 
Pomatorhinus leucogaster, Gould, P. Z. S, 1837, p. 137 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 146 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 30 ; Hume, Cat. no. 403. 
Pomatorhinus pinwilli, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 413 (1883). 
The Slaty-headed Scimitar Babbler, Gould's Scimitar Babbler, Jerd. ; 
Pabdoa, Beng. ; Phoyeum-pho or Pharreeum-pho, Lepch. ; Bhiakuroh of 
the Parbuttiahs. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dark slate-colour, the 
shafts darker; upper plumage and wing-coverts rut'escent olive- 
brown ; a very distinct supercilium, reaching from the nostrils to 
the nape, white ; lores and ear-coverts black ; chin, throat, cheeks, 
breast, and abdomen white ; a large patch on the side of the neck 



POMATOKHINUS. 117 

produced down the sides of the breast and abdomen chestnut ; 
the portion below the neck streaked with white ; sides of the body, 
vent, and under tail-coverts dusky olive-brown. 

The colour of the crown varies much, being frequently the same 
colour %s the back or very little darker. An indistinct rufous 
collar is sometimes present on the hind neck in birds from Assam 
and Tipperah. 

Bill horny yellow ; the base of the upper mandible dusky ; iris 
reddish cream-colour ; feet plumbeous, the soles yellowish ; claws 
livid horny (Scully). 

Length about 10; tail 4'5; wing 4; tarsus 1/3; bill from gape 

On examining the large series of this bird in the British Museum 
which lias become available since Sharpe wrote his Catalogue of 
this family, it seems quite impossible to recognize P. pinwilli as a 
species or even as a race, all the characters pointed out as belonging 
to it being shared by others throughout the Himalayas to Assam. 
Simla birds are no doubt small, but the size increases gradually, 
ranging, as regards the length of wing, from 3-6 at Simla to 4-4 in 
Arrakan. 

.Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Simla to Sadiya, 
and through the hill-tracts of Eastern' Bengal, Tipperah, Cachar, 
and Manipur to Arrakan. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in Sikhim from April to June, constructing a 
cup-like nest of grass and leaves on or near the ground in brush- 
wood and thick grass. The eggs, usually four in number, measure 
1 by -73. 

117. Pomatorhinus nnchalis. The Tweeddale Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus schisticeps, Hodgs. apud Hume, S. F. iii, p. 121. 
Pomatorhinus leucogaster, Gould, apud Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 113 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 465 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 282. 
Pomatorhinus nuchalis, Tweedd. A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 535 (1877) ; 

Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi. p. 284; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 134; 

Hume, Cat. no. 403 ter ; id. S. F. ix, p. 251 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 71 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 413. 

Coloration. Resembles P. schisticeps. Differs in not having any 
white streaks on the sides of the breast and abdomen, and in having 
the culmen black only in the immediate vicinity of the nostrils and 
not, as in P. schisticeps, over the basal half. 

In this species the rufous collar on the hind neck is generally 
well indicated. 

Bill orange-yellow ; the base of the lower mandible and the gape 
dusky ; inside of mouth flesh-colour ; iris pale yellow ; eyelid and 
ocular region pale lavender ; legs dusky plumbeous ; claws horny 
brown. 

Length about 9; tail 3'9 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1*2; bill from 
gape 1-2. 



118 CKATEROPODIDJS. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens from Thayetmyo, the 
Karen hills east of Toungngoo, Karennee, the pine-forests of the 
Salween river, Pahpoon, and the Tonzalin river. 

118. Pomatorhiims olivaceus. The Tenasserim Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus olivaceus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 451 (1847) ; Hume, 
S. F. v, p. 137 ; Davison, 8. F. v, p. 458 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 283 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 133 ; Hume, Cat. no. 403 
bis; id. S. F. ix, p. 117 ; Bine/ham, S. F. ix, p. 180; Oates, B. B. 
i, p. 70 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 414 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nd ed. i, p. 82. 

Coloration. Eesembles P. schisiiceps. Diffeis in wanting the 
chestnut band down the sides of the breast and abdomen, the 
chestnut being confined to the neck-patch, and in having the bill 
black only in the immediate vicinity of the nostrils. 

As in P. nuchalis the rufous collar on the hind neck is generally 
distinctly indicated. 

Iris bright yellow ; bill deep yellow, dusky green at base above ; 
legs and feet plumbeous ; claws horny (Hume fy Damson). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4'1 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 1-2 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, from Moulmein down to its extreme 
southern point and thence extending into the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, fyc. Both Davison and Bingham found the nest of this 
species in Tenasserim, the former in January, the latter in March. 
The nest found by Davison was globular with the entrance at the 
side, the one found by Bingham was cup-shaped ; both were on 
the ground in thick jungle. The eggs in both cases were three 
in number, and measured on the average 1 by '73. 

119. Pomatorhinus melanurus. The Ceylonese Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus melanurus, BIytli, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 451 (1847) ; id. 
Cat. p. 146 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 437 ; Lecjge, 8. F. iv, p. 245 ; 
IVhyte, S. F. v, p. 202 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 132 ; 
Hume, S. F. vii, p. 383 ; id. Cat. no. 404 bis ; Lecjge, Birds Ceyl. 
p. 501 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 414 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 
2nd ed. i, p. 83. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, ear-coverts, and beneath the eve 
black ; a white supercilium from the nostrils to the nape bordered 
above by dark brown or black ; crown and nape rufescent brown ; 
upper plumage, sides of neck and body, vent, and under tail-coverts 
rufous-brown ; chin, throat, breast, and abdomen pure white ; tail 
blackish, washed with ferruginous near the base. 

Iris brownish red, dull red, or reddish brown ; orbital skin and 
eyelid dull blue ; bill gamboge-yellow, more or less blackish from 
the forehead to a short distance in front of the nostril ; legs and 
feet plumbeous or greenish plumbeous, feet generally more bluish 
than tarsi; claws dusky, pale horn at base (Lecjge). 

Length about 8-5; tail 3'6 ; wing 3*5; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape 1*2. 



POMATORHIXUS. 119 

The ear-coverts are occasionally streaked with white and the 
edges of the breast and sides of neck are also streaked with the 
same. The head and upper plumage vary a good deal in depth of 
colour, the crown being occasionally a very dark brown or blackish, 
but after examining a very large series I am of opinion that all the 
Ceylon 'birds are of one species. 

This bird has the same general character of plumage as the 
three preceding ones, but it differs in not having any chestnut on 
the side of the neck, the sides of the neck as well as the edges of 
the breast being of the same rufous-brown as the upper plumage. 

Distribution. Confined to Celon. 



its, tf-tf. Breeds from December to February, constructing a 
nest made of leaves and grass on a bank in jungle. The eggs 
measure -97 by '7. 

120. Pomatorhimis horsfieldii. The Southern Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus horsfieldii, Sykes, P. Z. S. 3832, p. 89; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 146 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 234 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 31 ; Hume, N. 
$ E. p. 250 ; Morgan, Ibis, 1875, p. 320 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 
1878, p. 136 ; Hume, Cat. no. 404 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 376 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 415 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 178 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 84. 

Namala-pitta or Dasari-pitta, Tel. 

Coloration. The upper plumage dark olive-brown with a tinge of 
rufous, the head darker and frequently mottled with black ; a white 
supercilium from the nostril to the nape, edged with black above ; 
chin, throat, breast, and the centre of the abdomen white ; lores, 
under the eye, the ear-coverts, the sides of the neck, and a band 
bordering the breast and abdomen black ; sides of the body, vent, 
and under tail-coverts slaty brown ; tail and wings dark brown, 
washed on the outer webs with the colour of the back. 

Iris dark maroon-brown ; legs and feet greenish plumbeous ; bill 
yellow, dusky at base of the lower mandible (Butler) ; iris crimson 
(Davison}. 

Length about 10 ; tail 4 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from gape 1'2. 

Distribution. Travancore, the Palni hills, the Nilgiris, Coorg, and 
the hill-ranges of the western coast as far as Mahableshwar, the 
most northern locality from which I have seen a specimen. This 
bird is found up to 8000 feet. It, however, occurs at lower levels, 
being found at Belgaum and even at Malwan on the sea-coast. 

Blyth -records this species from Cuttack and Ball from Orissa 
south of the Mahanadi, and Goomsur. Jerdon states that it is 
found in the Eastern Ghats and in the heavy jungles of Central 
India. 

Habits, <Sfc. Breeds from December to May, constructing a globular 
nest of grass and leaves on the ground among the roots of bushes 
or on the side of a bank, laying from three to five eggs which 
measure 1-08 by '77. 



120 CKATEKOPODID^;. 

121. Pomatorhinns obscurus. Hume's Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus obscurus, Hume, 8. F. i, p. 7 (1873) ; Butler, S. F. iii, 
p. 471 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 137 ; Hume, Cat. no. 404 
ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 416; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 178. 

Coloration. Resembles P. horsfieldii. Differs in being everywhere 
of a much paler colour, a sort of earthy brown, with the sides of 
the head slightly darker than the other parts, and in being without 
the black band which in the other species borders the white breast 
and abdomen. 

Legs and feet greenish plumbeous ; iris dark red ; bill dirty 
yellow, black at base above (Hume). 

Length about 10 ; tail 4*1 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1*3 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

From the examination of a large series of specimens of both 
species in the British Museum it is quite certain that P. obscurus is 
not a larger bird than P. horsfieldii, as was asserted by Hume when 
he described the former species. The bill of P. obscurus is perhaps 
the larger of the two if an average is taken, but it is by no means 
a feature to be depended on. The chief point to rely on in dis- 
criminating this bird is the absence of the black border to the 
white of the lower parts. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this species from 
Khandala, Matheran, Bombay, Khandesh, Abu, and Seoni. At 
Abu it is found only on the mount and not in the plains, and its 
true home appears to be the Vindhya and Satpura ranges as far 
east as Seoni. 

Habits, fyc. Butler remarks that this species, unlike P. horsfieldii, 
is not gregarious, but occurs singly or in pairs. The notes of the 
two species appear to be alike. 



122. Pomatorhinus ferruginosus. The Coral-billed 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus ferruginosus, Btyth,J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 597 (1845) j id. 

Cat. p. 146 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 236 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 29 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 249 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 134, 

pi. iv, fig. 1 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 75 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 401 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 288 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 422 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 146 j Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 86. 
Pomatorhinus rubiginosus, Blyth, J. A, S. B. xxiv, p. 273 (1855). 

Piong-Kohut or Poniong-hut, Lepch. ; Bhotetet, Bhut. ; Pot-gongor, 
Daphla. 

Coloration. The feathers of the forehead rufous and lengthened ; 
crown, nape, lores, under the eye, the ear-coverts, and a patch 
behind them black ; a distinct supercilium to the nape, the chin 
and the cheeks, as far back as the ear-coverts, white ; the upper 
plumage, the tail, and the visible portion of the closed wings olive- 
brown, tinged with rufous ; chin and throat white ; breast and 



POMATOKHINUS. 121 

centre of upper abdomen bright ferruginous ; remainder of lower 
parts olive-brown. 

Bill coral-red ; legs greenish brown ; iris red-brown (Jerdon) ; 
iris pale greenish yellow (Godw.- Austen). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4*3 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape 1-3. 

Distribution. The Himalayas, from Nepal to Assam, where it 
was procured by God win- Austen in the Daphla and in the 
Eastern Naga hills. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Sikhim in May, constructing an egg- or 
cone-shaped nest of grass, leaves, and fibres on the ground or low 
down in a bamboo-clump. In a nest found by Gammie there were 
four eggs, which measured ! 08 by '8. 

123. Pomatorhinus albigularis. Blyih's Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus albogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 274 (1855) ; 

id. Birds Burm. p. 113; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 135, 

pi. v, fig. 1 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 281, 514 ; Hume, Cat. no. 

401 quat. ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 74 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 423. 
Pomatorhinus marine, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4), xv, p. 403(1875); Wold. 

in Blyth' s Birds Burm. p. 113 j Hume, S. F. iii, p. 404 j v, p. 136. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, the tail, and the exposed parts of 
the closed wings uniformly olive-brown tinged with rufous, the 
head slightly darker as a rule ; a distinct supercilium from the 
nostrils to the nape, rufous near the bill and white elsewhere, 
bordered above by a distinct black band extending to the forehead ; 
lores, under the eye, the ear-coverts, and a continuation of them 
down the sides of the neck black ; chin and throat white ; cheeks 
and lower plumage pale ferruginous, the sides of the body, vent, 
and under tail-coverts olive-brown. 

Legs and feet pale greenish brown, sometimes a dingy brownish 
green ; bill vermilion-red ; iris creamy white (Hume fy Davison). 

Length about 10; tail 4*2; wing 3-8; tarsus 1-4; bill from 
gape 1*1. 

Distribution. The Toungngoo and Karen hills ; the neighbour- 
hood of Muleyit and Nwalabo mountains in Tenasserim, extending 
down to Tavoy. This bird is found at all elevations up to 6000 
feet. 

124. Pomatorhinus phayrii. PJiayres Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus phayrii, Blyth, J. A. S.B. xvi, p. 452 (1847) ; id. Cat. 
p. 146 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 103 ; Jerd. Ibis, 
1872, p. 301 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 113 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 
1878, p. 135, pi. iv, fig. 2; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 279 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 401 bis; Oates, B. B. i, p. 73; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 422 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 147. 

Coloration. Resembles P. albigularis. Differs in having the 
upper plumage of a greenish tint with no trace of rufous, ir the 



122 CKATEROPODID.E. 

black border over the snpercilium being very narrow and in some 
cases almost obsolete, and in the lower plumage being of a much 
deeper ferruginous. 

Bill coral-red ; iris lemon-yellow ; legs brown with a tinge of 
greenish ( Cockburn) iris yellowish white (Hume) ; iris pale yellow 
( Godw.- Austen). 

Length about 9*5 ; tail 4 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1'3 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. Moflong, Assam ; Shillong and Cherra Poonjee ; 
Naga hills ; Manipur : Arrakan. 

125. PomatorMnus ruficollis. The Rufous-neclced 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus ruficollis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 182 (1836); Bhjth, 
Cat. p. 147 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 236 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 29 : 
Hume, N. $E. p. 249 : Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 160 
xlv, pt. ii, p. 75 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 138 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 400 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 287 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 426 ; Hume, S. F.'xi, p. 146 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
f ; p. 87.^ 

Pomatorhinus stridulus, Swinh. Ibis, 1861, p. 265. 

Moh-mera, Angaini Naga ; Bhiakuroh of the Parbuttiahs. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, tail, and visible portions of closed 
wings rufescent olive-brown ; a broad white supercilium from the 
nostrils to the nape ; lores, under the eye, and the ear-coverts 
black ; sides of the neck bright ferruginous, this colour frequently 
passing round the hind neck and forming a collar ; chin, throat, 
and cheeks white ; lower throat, breast, and centre of abdomen 
white, streaked with olive-brown ; sides of the abdomen and breast, 
the vent, and the under tail-coverts plain olive-brown. 

In some birds the streaks on the breast are rufous, and this is 
especially the case in specimens from China ; also, but in a less 
degree, in specimens from the Himalayas. Young nestlings have 
the whole breast rusty. 

Bill horny yellow, paler at the tip, and the base of the maxilla 
and basal three fourths of culmen brownish black ; iris varies from 
pale red to crimson ; eyelid plumbeous ; feet grey or greenish 
plumbeous ; claws brownish horny (Scully). 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from 
gape -9 to 1-2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Assam (where 
Godwin- Austen obtained it in the Daphla and Naga hills); Shillong; 
Manipur. This species also occurs in China. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in April and May, constructing a domed nest 
of grass, fern, and bamboo-leaves on the ground and laying five 
eggs, which measure '95 by '68. 

The next three species are very closely allied, but may be known 
by their longer, very slender, and more curved bill (fig. 32). 



POMATORHTNUS. 123 

126. Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps. Lloyd's Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps, Wold. A. M. N.H. (4) xii, p. 487 (1873); 
Wald. in BlytJis Birds Burm. p. 113 j Hume, 8. F. in, p. 282 ; 
Wardlaic Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 465, pi. xiii, 1878, p. 130; Hume 
fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 281 ; Hume, Cat. no. 401 ter ; Gates, B. B. i, 

t p. 73 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 417. 

Coloration. Upper plumage bright ochraceous, the inner webs of 
the quills pale brown ; tail paler ochraceous, the terminal halves 
of the feathers suffused with brown ; feathers at the base of the 
upper mandible and the lores black; a narrow supercilium extend- 
ing to the nape, white ; ear-coverts rich hair-brown ; chin, throat, 
breast, and centre of abdomen pure white ; sides of the abdomen, 
vent, and under tail-coverts ochraceous. 




Fig. 32. Head of P. ochraceiceps. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale dingy green or greenish brown ; bill 
bright vermilion-red ; shelf of nostrils black ; the iris much varied, 
being pale greyish brown, very pale yellowish red, light indian- 
red, and pinkish yellow {Hume $ Davison) iris pale straw-yellow 
( Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Length nearly 10; tail 4-3 ; wing 3-6; tarsus 1-3; bill from 
gape 1*4. 

Distribution. The Karen hills and Karennee ; Muleyit mountain 
in Tenasserim above 3000 feet. 

127. PomatorMnus austeni. Austen's Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus austeni, Hume, S. F. x, p. 152 (1881); Sharpe, Cat. B. 
M. vii, p. 418 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 148. 

Coloration. Resembles P. ochraceiceps. Differs in having the 
upper plumage olive-brown, with merely a tinge of ochraceous on 
the head and neck only, and in having the sides of the body, vent, 
and under tail-coverts olivaceous. 

Legs and feet pale grey-brown, with a dull green shade, or 
greyish olive ; claws light brown or horny yellow, brownish 
towards tips ; soles yellowish ; bill coral-red to orange-vermilion ; 
iris pale buff, or very pale orange, or white with an orange tint 



Length about 10 ; tail 4-6 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from 
gape 1*5. 

Distribution. The only specimens of this bird known are those 
procured by Hume in Eastern Manipur, where he states it was 
common in the higher forests. 



124 CRATEBOPODID^E. 

128. Pomatorhinus stenorhynchus. The Narrow-billed 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus stenorhynchus, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. ii, 
p. 43 (1877) ; Hume, 8. F. v, p. 342 j Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 
1878, p. 135, pi. v, fig. 2 ; Hume, Cat. no. 401 quint. : Godw.- 
Aust. J.A.S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, p. 17 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 424. 

Coloration. Resembles P. ocliraceiceps. Differs in being of a 
paler ochraceous above and in having the lower parts, except the 
chin and throat, suffused with ochraceous or rufous buff. 

Bill bright orange-red; legs and feet horny grey (Godwin- 



Length about 8; tail 4-1; wing 3'5; tarsus 1-2; bill at gape 
1-3 to 1-5 ; the female appears to be rather smaller than the male. 

Distribution. The type of this species was procured at Manbum 
Tila on the Tenga Pani river near Sadiya, in Assam, at 8000 feet. 
Hume obtained it from Tippook, and I have seen a specimen 
which is labelled " Naga Hills." 

The next four species have coarser bills, and two of them are 
sometimes placed in the genus Orthorhinus of Blyth. 

129. Pomatorhinus erythrogenys. The Rusty-cheeked 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus erythrogenys, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 173 ; Gould, 
Cent. pi. 65 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 140 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 235 ; 
Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 31 ; Stol. J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 37 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 269 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 251 ; 
Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 237 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 142 ; 
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 634 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 285 ; Hume, Cat. no. 405 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 288 ; Oates, 
B. B. i, p. 75 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 430 j Oates in Hume's N. 
Sf E. 2nd ed. i, p. 87. 

Pomatorhinus femigilatus, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 180 (1836). 
Ban-bukra, at Mussoorie ; Yongohut-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Upper plumage, tail, and the exposed parts of closed 
wing olive-brown ; lores white streaked with grey ; some white 
feathers on the eyelids ; a moustachial stripe, red near the bill and 
then black ; forehead, ear-coverts, sides of the neck, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts chestnut ; sides of breast and body chestnut 
washed with olivaceous ; chin, throat, centre of breast, and abdo- 
men white, the chin and throat striped with very pale grey. 

Nestlings are rufous all over except on the throat. 

Legs and feet brownish fleshy; bill light horny; iris light 
greenish white, yellowish white, very pale yellow (Hume)', iris 
pearly white (Davison). 

Length about 11; tail 4; wing 4; tarsus 1*5; bill from gape 
1-5. 

The above description applies to birds collected in the Himalayas 
west of Nepal, whence the type of Vigors's P. erythrogenys came. 



POMATOEHINUS. 125 

All birds from this region, without exception, have the chin 
and throat white, very sparingly streaked with pale grey. In the 
countries east of Nepal all birds have the chin, throat, and upper 
breast dark grey streaked with white. So constant are these 
characters that the tract from which a specimen came can be in- 
stantly known by a glance at the bird. 

When we come to Nepal we find a mixture of both races. 
Hodgson's collection contains both, but he only figured the 
grey- throated one. Scully only obtained the grey-throated race 
in the Nepal valley, but the only two specimens of his that I 
have been able to examine are not nearly so dark as Sikhim 
examples, and the same may be said of Hodgson's. Mandelli's 
Dolaka (E. Nepal) specimens are identical with Sikhim ones, 
being quite as dark. It thus appears that in Nepal there is an 
intermediate race, arid under these circumstances 1 have not thought 
it proper to keep the north-west race distinct from the Sikhim one, 
but it will probably have to be done hereafter when a complete 
Nepal series is available for examination. The existing Nepal 
series is a very bad one. 

The Tenasserim bird appears to be distinct, being a small bird 
with the wing 3*5 and tail 3-7 ; and the whole chin and throat are 
pure white without a trace of grey. I have, however, examined 
only one specimen, and these characters may not be constant *. 

The black cheek-stripe is present in all the races and is certainly 
not a character possessed only by the male. It is found in all 
well-prepared skins of both sexes. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Bhutan ; the Khasi 
hills ; Bhamo ; the pine-forests of the Salween valley ; Thatone, 
Tenasserim. This species appears to be found at all elevations 
from 2000 to 10,000 feet or even higher. 

Habits, $'c. Breeds from April to June, constructing a domed 
nest of grass and leaves on the ground or in a thick bush close to the 
ground. The eggs, three or four in number, measure I'll by '8. 

130. Pomatorhinus macclellandi. McClelland's 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Pomatorhinus macclellandi, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 32 (1863) (descr. nulla) ; 
Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 103 (1870) ; Jerd. Ibis, 
1872, p. 302 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 177 ; Wardlaw 
Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 143; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 412; id. Cat. 
no. 404 quat. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 431 j Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 149. 

Pomatorhinus gravivox, David, Ann. Sci. Nat. xviii, art. v, p. 2 
(1873). 

Coloration. Upper plumage, tail, exposed parts of closed wings, 

* Count Salvador! has recently sent me another specimen, procured by 
Fea in Karennee. It agrees exactly with Hume's Tenasserim bird both in 
dimensions and colour. The Count has named this race P. imberbis (Ann. 
Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Genova (2) vii, p. 410, 1889), but too late for the uame 
to be more than noticed here. 



126 CEATEROPODID^E. 

and sides of the neck olive-brown; point of the forehead rufous ; 
lores whitish in front, blackish behind ; cheek-stripe black ; ear- 
coverts chestnut ; chin, throat, breast, and abdomen white, the 
upper breast with a cross band of triangular black spots ; sides of 
body olive-brown ; thighs and under tail-coverts deep chestnut. 

Legs and feet pale brown ; upper mandible dark brown, lower 
pale horny drab ; orbital skin and bare space behind eye leaden 
dusky ; iris reddish or salmon-white, yellowish white, or very pale 
yellow (Hume)] iris lemon-yellow (Cockburri). 

Length about 9; tail 3*6; wing 3*4; tarsus 1*3; bill from gape 
1-3. 

Distribution. The National Collection contains a large series 
collected by Hume in Manipur and another by Cockburn at Shil- 
long. The only other example is a bird which Sharpe assures 
us is Jerdon's type from Dibrugarh in Assam. This species has 
been obtained by Godwin- Austen in the Barail range and in the 
Naga hills. 

131. PomatorMnus hypolencus. The Arrakan 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Orthorhinus hypoleucus, Blyth, J. A. S.B. xiii, p. 371 (1844) ; Hume, 

Cat no. 405 bis. 
Ppmatorhinus hypoleucus (Blyth), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 597 ; id. 



Cat p. 146; 2Iorsf._$ M. Cut i,' p. 236; Blyth,_ Birds Burm. 
). 113; 

****, p. 147; Wardlaw Hamsay, Ibi, 

'' _ /mo . /~i_j_- Tt T> i _ n 



p. 113 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 411 ; Godw.-Aust J. A. S. B. xlv, 
pt. ii, p. 75 ; id. Proc. A. S. B. 1877, p. 147; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 
1878, p. 140; Sharpe, Cat B. M. vii, p. 428 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 75. 

Poinatorhinus albicollis, Horsf., Gray fy Mitch. Gen. Birds, i. p. 229, 
pi. 57 (1846). 

Poinatorhinus inglisi, Hume, S. F. v, p. 31 (1877) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
M. vii, p. 429. 

Orthorhinus inglisi (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 405 ter ; id. S. F. ix, 
p. 253; xi,p. 152. 




Fig. 33. Head of P. hypoleueus. 

Coloration. Upper plumage olive-brown, deeply tinged with 
rufous on the tail and exposed parts of closed wings ; ear-coverts 
and cheeks greyish brown ; lores grey ; a line commencing above 
the eye, passing over the ear-coverts and terminating in a broad 
patch behind them bright rusty ; chin, throat, breast, and abdomen 
white ; sides of breast deep slaty grey streaked with white ; the 



POMATOBHINUS. 127 

breast with a few small spots of slaty grey ; sides of body and 
the thighs rufous-ashy ; under tail-coverts ferruginous. 

Bill pale greenish or greyish horny ; legs and feet pale silvery 
leaden; iris brown (//uie). 

Length about 11; tail 4'5 ; wing 4'3; tarsus 1-5; bill from 
gape 1-8. 

The young bird wants the bright rusty colour on the side of the 
head. 

There has been a good deal of controversy regarding this bird. 
After studying the series in the British Museum, consisting of 
about a dozen skins, I have arrived at the conclusion that P. inylisi 
is the young bird, and P. hypoleucus the adult. The series contains 
intermediate specimens showing a perfect gradation between the 
two supposed species. 

Distribution. Assam from the Daphla hills to Sadiya; the Graro, 
Khasi, and Naga hills ; Cachar ; Manipur ; Arrakan. 

132. Pomatorhinus tickelli. TickelVs Scimitar Babble)'. 

Pomatorhinus hypoleucus (Blyth}, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 273 

(1875). 
Pomatorhinus tickelli, Blyth, Tickell, Ibis, 1883, p. 113(descr. nulla) ; 

Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1878, p. 142; Oates, B. B. i, p. 76; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 429. 
Orthorhinus tickeUi, Hume, S. F. v, p. 32 (1877) ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 285 ; Hume, Cat. no. 405 quat. ; Bingham, S. F. ix, 

p. 181 ; Hume, S. F. ix,.p. 253 ; xi, p. 153. 

Coloration. Upper plumage rich olive-brown, deeply tinged with 
rufous on the tail and exposed parts of closed wing ; lores, cheeks, 
and ear-coverts rufescent ; a patch of deep rufous on the side of 
the neck behind the ear-coverts; a line commencing just over the 
eye, passing over the ear-coverts and terminating in the neck- 
patch, rufous, the feathers with central white streaks, increasing in 
size posteriorly, and extending to the sides of the neck and shoulders ; 
chin, throat, breast, and centre of abdomen white suffused with 
a pink tinge ; sides of the breast deep slaty grey streaked with 
white ; thighs and sides of body rufous -ashy ; under tail-coverts 
ferruginous. 

The legs and feet vary a good deal, being pale bluish green, very 
pale brown, or pale whitish blue ; the upper mandible pale brown, 
the lower mandible pale whitish blue ; iris pale to dark brown and 
brownish red ; naked patch behind eye flesh-colour, more or less 
strongly tinged blue (Hume <$f Davisoii). 

Length nearly 12; tail 4-3; wing 4; tarsus 1-6; bill from 
gape 1-8. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Thatone to Tavoy among the 
higher hill-ranges, extending eastward to the valley of the Thoung- 
yeen. 

Habits, c. Mr. Davison remarks : "This Babbler 1 always found 



128 CBATEROPODID^E. 

in thick forests, usually in pairs, but occasionally in small parties. 
It keeps much more to the ground than any Pomatorhinus, hopping 
about in a very ungainly manner." 

Genus XIPHORHAMPHUS, Blyth, 1843. 

This genus merely differs from Pomatorhinus by its excessively 
long and still more slender bill. Only one species is known. 

133. Xiphorhamphus superciliaris. The Slender-billed 
Scimitar Babbler. 




id. 111. Ind. Orn. pi. 49 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 198 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 406 ; Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 433 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 153 ; Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 89. 

Karriok-tamveep, Lepch. 




Fig. 34. Head of X. superciliaris. 

Coloration. Lores black ; chin and upper throat white streaked 
with ashy ; with these exceptions, the whole head is slaty grey 
with white tips to the feathers at the side of the crown, forming 
an interrupted white supercilium from the forehead to the nape ; 
upper plumage bright rufous-brown ; tail dark brown or blackish, 
the outer webs on their basal halves washed with the colour of the 
back ; wings dark brown, the outer webs olive-brown, and the 
tertiaries rufous-browu ; breast and abdomen ferruginous ; sides 
of the body, vent, and under tail-coverts rufous-brown; thighs 
plumbeous. 

Bill dusky black, plumbeous at the tip ; legs leaden brown ; iris 
red-brown (Jerdori). 

Length nearly 9 ; tail 3-6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from gape 
to tip straight 2*3. 

Distribution. This bird occurs in Sikhim. Hodgson figures the 
bird and nest, but his notes show that his specimens were procured 
in Sikhim and not in Nepal. The only other locality from which 
the species is known is the Manipur hills, where Godwin- Austen 
obtained it on the Konchungbum Peak. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in Sikhim in May and June, constructing a 
globular nest of leaves and grass on the ground or in thick bushes or 
tufts of grass. The eggs are pure white, and measure 1-03 by '72. 



129 




Fig. 35. Timelia pileata. 



Subfamily TIMELIIN^l. 

The second subfamily of the Crateropodidce comprises a number 
of small birds which have close affinities for each other. 

The Timeliince agree in being solitary in their habits, or rather 
they are less gregarious than the Crateropodince. Some of them are 
said to go about in small flocks, but this is by no means a general 
or usual character with them. They are above all things skulkers, 
frequenting the ground or underwood, and being seldom found 
many feet above the ground. They are not remarkably noisy, and 
they evade observation to the best of their power. 

All the Timeliince lay spotted eggs, so far as is known, except 
StacliyrJiis, the birds of which genus have their eggs unspotted 
white. The removal of these into the Crateropodince hereafter may 

VOL. i. K 



130 CRATEROPODIEJE. 

be possible when the colour of the eggs of all the other genera is 
known ; but at present the position of the genus is uncertain, and 
I have placed it in the present subfamily provisionally. 

In none of the Timeliince is the head crested ; the feathers of 
the crown are frequently lengthened and erectile, but in no case 
do they form a full crest. 

In the Timeliince the sexes are invariably alike. They possess 
to the fullest degree the characters of the typical Crateropodidce, 
namely the short, rounded wing and the strong feet. The young 
birds resemble the adults from the earliest age, more closely so, 
indeed, than any other group of birds I am acquainted with. 

In India this subfamily is represented by 25 genera, of which 
four are now proposed to be separated for the first time, and by 
53 species. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail much longer than the wing. 

a'. Shafts of feathers of crown rigid and 

glistening. 

a". Bill as long as head, deep and black. TIMELIA, p. 131. 
b". Bill shorter than head, slender and 

pale coloured DUMETIA, p. 133. 

b'. Shafts of feathers of crown soft and 

not separable from webs. 
c". Wing about three and a half times 

length of tarsus j bill notched .... GAMPSORHYNCHUS, p. 134. 
d" '. Wing about two and a half times 

length of tarsus j bill entire PYCTORHIS, p. 137. 

b. Tail equal to, or shorter than, wing, but 

always much longer than half the wing, 
c'. Bill stout and straight ; base of culmen 
straight ; closed bill deeper at middle 
than at nostrils. 

e". Nostrils long, protected by an over- 
hanging membrane. 
a . Rictal bristles weak or moderate. 
a 4 . Wing and tail about equal in 

length PELLORNEUM, p. 139. 

b 1 . Tail much shorter than wing. 
a 5 . Rictal bristles shorter ; upper 

plumage plain DRYMOCATAPHUS, p. 144. 

6*. Rictal bristles longer; upper 

plumage squamated OORYTHOCICHLA, p. 148. 

b'". Rictal bristles long and strong. 
c*. Tail shorter than wing by not 

more than length of hind toe . GYPSOPHILA, p. 149. 
d*. Tail shorter than wing by much 
more than length of hind toe. 
c 5 . Wing more than three times 

length of tarsus MALACOPTERUM, p. 150. 



TIMELIA. 131 

d\ Wing less than three times 

length of tarsus. 

a 6 . Tail more than twice tarsus. ERYTHKOCICHLA, p. 152. 
b 6 . Tail equal to twice tarsus . TRICHOSTOMA, p. 153. 
f". Nostrils small ovals, exposed, pierced 

in anterior corner of membrane . . TUBDINUS, p, 153. 
d'. Bill stout and curved ; culmen regularly 
curved from its base ; bill deepest 
at nostrils. 
ff". Nostrils long, overhung by a large 

and prominent membrane. 

<?'". Nostrils not overhung by hairs . . THRINGORHINA, p. 155. 
d"'. Nostrils overhung by hairs .... ALCIPPE, p. 156. 
/<". Nostrils oval, exposed, pierced in 

anterior corner of membrane .... RHOPOCICHLA, p. 159. 
e'. Bill slender and pointed; its length 
from forehead to tip longer than hind 
toe. 
i". Nostrils long and covered by a large 

membrane. 
e'". Culmen very gently curved 

throughout STACHYRHIS, p. 161. 

/'". Culmen quite straight throughout. STACHYRIDOPSIS, p. 164. 
ff"'. Basal half of culmen straight, 

terminal half slightly curved . . CYANODERMA, p. 166. 
k". Nostrils oval, exposed, pierced in 

anterior corner of membrane .... MIXOBNIS, p. 166. 
/'. Bill short and blunt ; its length from 

forehead to tip less than hind toe. 
I". Nostrils not overhung by hairs. 
h'". Tail and wing about equal in 

length ; bill stout SCHCENIPARUS, p. 168. 

f". Tail considerably shorter than 

wing ; bill slender SITTIPABUS, p. 171. 

m". Nostrils overhung by hairs. 

k'". Bill narrow ; rictal bristles short ; 
hind claw very large, as long as 

hind toe , . . PBOPABUS, p. 173. 

/'". Bill broad; rictal bristles long; 
hind claw moderate, shorter than 

hind toe , . . . LIOPARUS, p. 174. 

c. Tail less than half the wing. 
ff'. Bill as long as or longer than head, 

curved downwards RIMATOR, p. 175. 

h\ Bill half length of head, straight .... TURDINULUS, p. 176. 



Genus TIMELIA, Horsf., 1821. 

The genus Timelia contains only one species, and is characterized 
by the peculiar rigid shafts of the feathers on the forehead and 
crown, and by its deep black bill. The tail is longer than the 
wing and much graduated, the outer feather reaching to the middle 
of the tail. 

K2 



132 CEATEROPODID^;. 

134. Timelia pileata. The Red-capped Babbler. 

Timelia pileata, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 151 (1821) ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 149 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 227 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 24 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 246 ; id. 8. F. iii, p. 118 ; Gates, S. F. v, p. 152 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 634 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 267 ; Gates, B. B. p. 44 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 507} Gates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 90. 
Timelia bengalensis, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 143 

(1872) ; Gates, S. F. vii, p. 41 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 277 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 396 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 143. 
Timelia jerdoni, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4), x, p. 61 (1872) ; Bl. $ 

Wald. Birds Burm. p. 114. 

The Red-capped Wren-Babbler, Jerd. 




Fig. 36. Head of T. pileata. 

Coloration. Forehead and a streak on each side over and past 
the eye white ; lores black ; crown deep rufous ; ear-coverts white 
in front, ashy behind ; upper plumage and exposed parts of wings 
olive-brown, tinged with fulvous, the mantle suffused with ashy 
and with blackish shafts ; tail dark brown, cross-rayed ; cheeks, 
chin, and throat white ; breast white, with distinct narrow black 
shaft-lines ; sides of neck deep grey, produced down the sides of 
the breast; remainder of lower parts ferruginous, tinged with 
olivaceous on the sides of the abdomen. 

Birds from the Himalayas, Assam, and Manipur have the lower 
parts more olivaceous and less ferruginous than those from other 
parts. 

Javan birds have a very narrow white forehead, but differ in no 
other respect from Indian and Burmese specimens. 

Bill black ; iris dark red ; eyelids dark bluish grey ; mouth 
black ; legs purpurescent-brown ; claws horn-colour. 

Length 7 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 2'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '75. 

Distribution. The plains and lower hills along the border of 
Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, extending up the Assam valley to 
Sadiya. This bird is found over a considerable portion of Bengal. 
Thence it occurs in all the countries to the east and southwards 
throughout Burma as far as the central portion of Tenasserim. It 
is found in Siam and Cochin China, and although not known to 
occur in the Malay peninsula it reappears in Java. 

Habits, $c. This Babbler inhabits by preference extensive grass 
plains, but it is also found, though in fewer numbers, in bush- 
jungle and in the vicinity of villages. It is an active, bright bird, 



DUMETIA. 133 

creeping about grass near the ground, and seldom showing itself 
but frequently uttering its pleasant notes. It breeds in May and 
June, constructing a domed nest of grass either on the ground or 
in a fork of a bush near the ground. The eggs, three in number, 
are white, speckled with brown, and measure '71 by '58. 

Genus DUMETIA, Blyth, 1849. 

This genus, which contains two common Indian species, resembles 
Timelia very closely in structure, especially in the stiffness of the 
shafts of the feathers of the forehead and crown. The essential 
difference between the two genera is that in Dumetia the bill is 
much smaller, more slender, and of a pale colour, and in Timelia 
larger, deeper, and black. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and throat rufous D. hyperythra, p. 133. 

b. Chin and throat white , D. albigularis, p. 134. 

135. Dumetia hyperythra. The Rufous-bell 'ed Babbler. 

Timalia hyperythra, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 118. 

Dumetia hyperythra (Fraiikl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 140; Jerd. B. 1. ii, 

p. 26 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 246 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 213 j Hume, Cat. 

no. 397 ; Sharpe,Cat. B. M. vii, p. 515 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 176 ; 

Oates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 92. 

Coloration. Forehead and anterior half of the crown reddish 
brown, the feathers of the former part rigid, pointed, with large 
fulvous streaks, and with the shafts black when viewed in certain 
lights ; feathers round the eye white ; upper plumage, tail, and 
exposed parts of wing olive-brown, the tail cross-rayed ; cheeks 
and near the eye fulvous with paler shafts ; ear-coverts somewhat 
paler than the upper plumage and with pale shafts ; entire lower 
plumage bright fulvous. 

Legs and feet very pale fleshy ; bill livid pale horny ; iris light 
brown (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2'2 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. This bird has a large range. In the south it is 
found at Khandala on the west and throughout the Godavari valley 
on the east. Thence, going north, it is spread throughout the 
Central Provinces, Central India, Chutia Nagpur, the North- West 
Provinces, and part of Bengal up to the lower valleys of the 
Himalayas from Kumaon to Sikhim. Specimens have been col- 
lected at Pareshnath hill and in Midnapur and Birbhum, but not 
in Lower Bengal. Its western limits are not traceable with any 
accuiacy, but it occurs at Mhow, and probably Delhi will prove 
another point on its western boundary. 

Habits, Sfc. This species occurs in small parties and has much the 
habits of Aryya, frequenting bushes and feeding on the ground. 



134 CRATEEOPODID^. 

It breeds from June to August, constructing a ball-shaped nest of 
grass on or near the ground in busies. The eggs, four in number, 
are white speckled with red and measure '67 by '53. 

136. Dumetia albigularis. The Small White-throated Babbler. 

Malacocercus ? albogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 453 (1847). 

Dumetia albogularis (Blyth\ Blyth, Cat. p. 140 ; Horsf. 9 M. Cat. i, 
p. 403 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 26 ; Hume, N. # E. p. 247 ; id. Cat. no. 398 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 505 ; Sharpe y Cat. B. M. vii, p. 514 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 177; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 94. 

The White-throated Wren-Babbler, Jerd. ; Pandi-jitta, Tel. ; Batitchia 
Ceyl. 




Fig. 37. Head of D. albigularis. 

Coloration. Besembles D. hyperythra. Differs in having a white 
chin and throat. 

This bird varies a good deal throughout its extensive range. 
From Mount Abu and Deesa down to Mahableshwar the greater 
number of birds have nearly the whole crown deep rufous with 
pale shaft-streaks and the shafts themselves more or less black. 
In Mysore and the Wynaad the rufous is restricted to the fore- 
head, the feathers having intensely black shafts, and all the white 
feathers of the throat having conspicuously black shafts. Ceylonese 
birds resemble the Mysore and Wynaad ones, but the throat is 
without the black shafts so conspicuous in the latter. The iris also 
varies : Ceylon, greyish olive or white (Legge) ; Wynaad, white 
(Davison) ; Deesa, dark brown (Butler). 

Bill, legs, and claws pinkish fleshy ; the upper mandible along 
the culmen as also the claws tinged with brown (Davison). 

Length nearly 6; tail 2'7; wing 2-2; tarsus '75; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. From Sambhar, Abu, and Deesa down the western 
portion of the peninsula to Ceylon. The most eastern locality 
where this species has been obtained appears to be Groona, whence 
King records it. It is found up to 3000 feet of elevation or even 
higher. 

Habits, fyc. Similar to those of the preceding. This bird breeds 
from April to July, in the same manner as the last species. The 
eggs measure '72 by -51. 

Genus GAMPSOKHYNCHUS, Blyth, 1844. 

The present genus contains two species peculiar to India. Very 
little is known about their habits and nothing whatever about their 



GAMPSOEHYNCHUS. 1 35 

nidification. The young birds deviate considerably from the adult 
in the colour of their plumage, more so than is usual in this sub- 
family. Pending a better acquaintance with them, their position 
at present appears. to be in the Timeliince. 

They are birds of rufous or golden-brown plumage with white 
heads. " The bill is about half the length of the head and very 
shrike-like in shape. The rictal bristles are very long. The tail 
is much longer than the wing and much graduated, the outer feather 
extending over less than two thirds of the tail. They appear to 
be frequenters of thick jungle and to creep about in the manner 
of the Timeliince. 

Key to the Species *. 

. Tail tipped with yellowish buff; upper plumage 

golden brown O. rufulus, p. 135. 

b. Tail tipped with white ; upper plumage rufous 

brown G. torquatus, p. 136. 

137. Grampsorhynchus rufulus. The White-headed 
Shrike-Babbler. 

Gampsorhynchus rufulus, Elyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 371 (1844) ; id. 
Cat. p. 150; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 171; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 14; 
Blyth Sf Wald. Birds Burm. p. 109 ; Wald. Ibis, 1875, p. 460 ; 
Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 73 ; Hume, Cat. no. 384 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 40 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 386 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 135. 

The White-headed Shrike- Thrush, Jerd. ; Chongto-phep-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 38. Head of G. rufulus. 

Coloration. The whole head, neck, and breast white; the 
anterior rictal bristles black with white bases, the hindmost one 
entirely white ; upper plumage, tail, and exposed part of wings 
golden brown, except the lesser and median coverts and the edge of 
the wing which are white ; quills dark brown ; tail edged interiorly 
and tipped with yellowish buff ; lower plumage pale fulvous. 

Bill dusky horny above, pale beneath ; legs reddish horny ; iris 
orange-yellow in some, straw-yellow in others (Jerdon). 

* Here should be noticed the Thamnocataphns picatus, Tick., of Jerdon (B. I. 
ii. p. 13), which turns out to be a well-known South-African Bush-Shrike (cf. 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 324, note). Tickell appears to have received the skin 
from some European correspondent, to have got it mixed up with his Indian 
collection and then to have described it as Himalayan. 



136 CRATEROPODID.E. 

Length about 10; tail 4'7 ; wing 3'9 ; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape 1. 

The young bird has the forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, and 
sides of the head and neck bright chestnut ; the eye with a ring of 
white feathers round it ; the fulvous of the lower parts extends 
up to the breast and frequently to the throat ; the white on the 
wing is wanting and the tone of the whole plumage is more rufous. 

The young bird commences to assume the white head in January 
by the gradual acquisition of new feathers, and the white head of 
the adult does not appear to be entirely acquired till May, or when 
the birds are about one year old. The -white wing-patch comes on 
last of all, and there is no sign of it till the head is nearly wholly 
white. 

There is a young bird in the British Museum which was just 
able to fly and was killed in Sikhim in July. 

Distribution. The lower ranges and valleys of Sikhim ; Sadiya 
and Tippook in Assam ; the Daphla hills ; the Garo hills ; Arrakan. 

138. Gampsorhynchus torquatus. The Ring-necked Shrike-Babbler. 

Gampsorhynchus torquatus, Hume, Proc. A. S. B. 1874, p. 107 ; id. 
S. F. ii, p. 446 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1875, p. 352 ; Hume $ 
Dai\ S. F. vi, p. 258 ; Hume, Cat. no. 384 bis ; id. S. F. viii, 
p. 168 ; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 178 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 387 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 41. 

Coloration. Adult. The whole head and neck, chin, throat, and 
upper breast white ; lesser and median coverts and edge of wing 
also white ; upper plumage rufous-brown, the outer webs of the 
earlier primaries and the tips of the others hoary grey; tail brown, 
washed with rufous on the outer webs, tipped with white, and the 
inner webs partially bordered with white ; lower plumage pale 
fulvous, the sides of the neck with some rufous and blacldsh 
marks. 

Bill greyish horny or fleshy white, with, in some cases, a dusky 
line on the culmen; legs and feet greyish white, or slaty white, or 
fleshy white with a blue tinge ; iris pale to bright golden (Hume 
fy Davisori). 

Length about 10; tail 4*8; wing 4; tarsus !! ; bill from 
gape 1. 

The youngest bird that I have been able to examine resembles 
the adult in having a white head, but there are some rufous-brown 
feathers on the nape and hind crown ; there is also a very complete 
black collar across the chest, dividing the white of the throat from 
the fulvous of the breast, and the white wing-spot is entirely 
absent. 

This collar gradually disappears, but traces of it are found on 
the sides of the neck for a long time. 

The nestling bird probably has the crown of the head of the 
same colour as the upper plumage. 

Distribution. From the Toungngoo hills and Karennee to the 



PYCTORHIS. 137 

central portion of Tenasserim. This species has been found also 
at Perak, but the bird from this place has been separated by 
Sharpe, unnecessarily in my opinion. 

Habits, $c. There is nothing known about this or the preceding 
species, except that they have both been procured in bamboo and 
bush jungle and in evergreen forest. 

Genus PYCTORHIS, Hodgs., 1844. 

This genus is almost peculiar to India, one species only ranging 
into Siam. It is characterized by a very short deep bill without a 
notch ; oval and exposed nostrils ; and a long tail much graduated, 
the outer feather reaching to about the middle of the tail. All the 
species are birds of very neat plumage, and they have pretty notes, 
which at the breeding-season almost constitute a song. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill black ; forehead plain rufous. 

a'. Nostrils yellow P. sinensis, p. 137. 

b'. Nostrils black . -, P. nasalis, p. 138. 

b. Bill yellowish brown ; forehead black with ashy 

margins P. altirostris, p. 139. 

139. Pyctorhis sinensis. The Yellow-eyed Babbler. 

Parus sinensis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 1012 (1788). 

Timalia hypoleuca, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 118. 

Timalia bicolor, Lafr. May. de Zool 1835, text to pi. 39. 

Timalia horstieldii, Jard. # Selby, III. Orn. pi. 119. 

Chrysomrna sinense (Gm.). Bluth. Cat. p. 150; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i. 

p. 230. 
Pyctorhis sinensis (Gm.). Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 15 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 237 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 637 ; Hume, Cat. no. 385 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 46 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 510 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 174 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 136; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 95. 

Gal-chasm or Bulal-chasm, H. in the South ; Bara-podna, H. in the 
N. W. P. ; Yerra Kali-jitta, Tel. ; MuUala, Siiid. 




Fig. 39. Head of P. sinensis. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage, ear-coverts, and sides of 
the neck rufescent brown, changing to cinnamon on the tertiaries 
and the outer webs of the other quills ; lores, a short eyebrow 



138 CEATEllOPODIDJE. 

the feathers on the eyelids, chin, throat, cheeks, and breast pure 
white ; abdomen, vent, flanks, and under tail-coverts pale fulvous ; 
tail very faintly cross-rayed. 

Iris pale orange-yellow ; eyelids deep orange ; bill black, yellow- 
ish at the nostrils ; legs pale orange-yellow ; claws pinkish ; mouth 
yellow in winter, black in summer. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 2-5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Every portion of the Empire, in the plains and 
lower hills, except Ceylon and Tenasserim south of Moulmein, 
but extending into Siam. This bird appears to be found in the hills 
up to an elevation of 5000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Frequents every description of jungle except thick 
forest, but is more abundant perhaps in heavy grass than elsewhere. 
This bird is generally seen singly or in pairs, creeping about the 
vegetation near the ground and occasionally mounting to the top of a 
stem of grass or a branch to look round and utter its note. It breeds 
from May to September, constructing a deep cup-shaped nest of 
blades of grass and fibrous bark, which is attached to a few stems 
of grass or placed in a branch of a low tree. The eggs, three or 
four in number, are pinkish white blotched with red, and measure 
73 by -59. 

140. PyctorMs nasalis. The Ceylon Yellow-eyed Babbler. 

Pyctorhis nasalis, Legge,A. M. N. H. (5) iii, p. 169 (1879); id. 
Birds Ceyl. p. 512, pi. xxiv ; Hume, S. F. viii, p. 73 ; id. Cat. no. 
385 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 512 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 
2nded. i, p. 98. 

Coloration. Resembles P. sinensis. Differs in having the nostrils 
black like the bill (instead of yellow) ; in having more white on 
the side of the head ; and in having the tertiaries and the outer 
webs of the other quills rufous like the back and not cinnamon- 
coloured. 

Iris golden yellow ; eyelid chrome-yellow ; loral skin, which is 
perceptible through the feathers, greenish yellow ; bill and nostril 
black ; legs and feet dull yellow ; extremities of toes dusky ; claws 
dusky horn-colour (Legge). 

Of the same size as P. sinensis. 

This species is not a very marked one ; but the points of differ- 
ence indicated above seem always to hold good in specimens from 
Ceylon. In dry skins, however, the yellow colour of the nostrils is 
not always apparent, and the identification of the species then rests 
almost entirely on the colour of the exposed parts of the closed 
wings. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Habits, fyo. Apparently the same as those of the preceding species. 
Breeds from February to May. The eggs measure -78 by -58. 



PELLOBNEUM. 139 

141. Pyctorhis altirostris. Jerdon's Babller. 

Chrysomma altirostre, Jcrd. Ibis, 1862, p. 22; Godiv.-Aust. A.M. 

N. H. (4) xvii, p. 34 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 504. 

Pyctorhis altirostris (Jerd.), Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 117; 
. Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii. pp. 74, 197, pi. ix ; Blanf. S. F. 

v, p. 245; Gates, S. F. v, p. 249; Godic.-Aust. J.A.S.B. xlvii, 

pt. ii, p. 23 ; Hume, Cat. no. 386 bis ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 206 ; id. 

B. B. i, p. 47 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 512 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 138. 
Pyctorhis griseigularis, Hume, S. F. v, p. 116; id. Cat. no. 386 ter ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 174. 

Coloration. Forehead and a broad stripe to the eye hoary grey 
with black centres ; lores grey ; sides of head and neck greyish 
brown tinged with rufous, more hoary round the eye ; whole 
upper plumage deep reddish brown, brighter on the tail and ex- 
posed parts of wings ; chin, throat, cheeks, and upper breast grey; 
remainder of lower surface bright buff. 

Upper mandible pale horn-colour, lower pinkish flesh-colour ; 
iris hazel-brown ; eyelid and orbital skin greenish yellow ; legs 
and feet pinkish brown ; claws pinkish horn-colour. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. Mangrani between Sukkur and Shikarpur in Sind ; 
Bhutan and Buxa doars; the Bishnath plain and Sibscagar in 
Assam ; Thayetmyo ; the plains of Pegu between the Pegu hills 
and the Sittoung from Kyeikpadein to Toungngoo. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is confined to vast plains of elephant -grass. 
It is a very difficult bird to observe ; it creeps quietly through the 
clumps of grass and is seen for an instant only as it flies from 
one clump to another. It has a peculiar note, very different to 
that of P. sinensis. 



Genus PELLORNEUM, Swains., 1831. 

The genus Pellorneum contains seven species which are almost 
exclusively Indian and greatly developed in the Eastern portion of 
the Empire. 

In Pellorneum the tail and wing are about equal in length ; the 
bill is about three fourths the length of the head, straight and 
notched at the tip ; the nostrils are not overhung by hairs and the 
rictal bristles are extremely short. The breast is streaked ; in five 
species very distinctly so, in the other two obsoletely. 

The habits of all the species, so far as is known, are similar and 
may be dealt with here to avoid repetition. These Babblers are 
found solitary or in pairs in thick brushwood and neglected gardens, 
or places in fact which are not open and exposed. They are almost 
always seen on the ground and they utter a series of very pretty 
notes as well as harsh ones. Their nests are domed and built on 
the ground with one doubtful exception. 



140 CRATEROPODID^E. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Mantle streaked. 

'. Forehead and eyebrow with black 

shaft-streaks . . . P. mandeUii, p. 140. 

b'. Forehead and eyebrow with only a few 

black specks at the ends of the feathers. P. minus, p. 141. 

b. Mantle not streaked. 

c. Breast boldly streaked with brown. 

a". Crown rufous P. ntficeps, p. 141. 

b". Crown chestnut P. subochraceum, p. 142. 

c". Crown brown P. palustre, p. 143. 

d\ Breast with only a few obsolete stripes 
at the sides. 

d". Throat and breast brown P. fuscicapillum, p. 143. 

e". Throat and breast white P. ignotum, p. 144. 

142. Pellorneum mandellii. Mandelli's Spotted Babbler. 

Hemipteron nipalense, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844, 

desc. null.} ; Hume, S. F. \ p. 493. 
Pellorneum mandellii, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 165, pi. vii 

(1872) ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 298 note ; id. S. F. xi, p. 144 j Gates in 

Hume's N. fy R 2nd ed. i, p. 99. 
Pellorneum nipalense (Hodgs.), Hume, N. $ E. p. 248 ; Blanf. S. F. 

viii, p. 181 ; Hume, S. F. viii, p. 188 ; id. Cat. no. 399 bis ; Shai-pe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 518. 
Pellorneum pectoralis, Godwin-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. ii, p. 41 

(1877) ; Hume, S, F. v, p. 340 ; id. Cat. no. 399 sept. 




Fig. 40. Head of P. mandellii. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, arid nape rufous-brown ; the 
feathers of the forehead with black shaft-streaks ; a line from the 
forehead over the eye white, with the tips of the feathers black ; 
this line produced to the nape and uniform creamy-white behind ; 
ear-coverts rufous, margined below by a narrow dusky line ; chin, 
throat, and cheeks white ; the feathers of the hind neck and sides 
of the neck with the outer webs blackish, the inner creamy yellow; 
back, wing- and tail-coverts and tertiaries olive-brown with paler 
margins ; rump and tail plain olive-brown, the latter very deli- 
cately tipped with whitish ; wing-feathers dark brown, the outer 
webs the colour of the back, and those of the earlier primaries 
tinged with grey ; lower plumage fulvous, the breast, sides of body, 
and under tail-coverts with large black streaks ; centre of abdomen 
streakless ; sides of body and flanks olivaceous. 



PELLORNEUM. 141 

Legs and feet fleshy creamy-white ; upper mandible brown ; 
lower mandible greenish-horny, yellow at base; iris dull hazel 
(Hume). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 2*7 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The lower hills of Nepal and Sikhim ; the Bhutan 
and Buxa doars ; Dibrugarh district, Assam ; Khasi, Garo, and 
N. Cachar hills ; Manipur. In the British Museum there is a 
specimen labelled ' Gurvvhal,' but this locality I think requires 
confirmation. 

Habits, Sfc. Breeds from April to l uly, constructing a loose domed 
nest of moss, leaves, and fibres on the ground. The eggs, three in 
number, are white speckled with chocolate or purplish brown and 
measure *87 by '67. 

143. Pellorneum minus. Sharpens Spotted Babbler. 

Pellorneum minor, Hume, S. F. i, p. 298 (1873) ; iii, p. 120. 
Pellorneum intermedium, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 519, pi. xiii, 

fig. 1 (1883) ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 67; Salvador*, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Gen. (2) iv, p. 597. 

Coloration. Resembles P. mandellii. Differs in having a more 
slender bill ; the black streaks on the forehead more sparse ; the 
eyebrow more distinct, with only one or two black specks on it just 
in front of the eye ; the outer webs of the feathers of the hind 
neck rufous-brown, not blackish ; the streaks on the breast nar- 
rower and paler. 

Legs fleshy yellow ; bill dusky, yellowish at the base below 
(Hume}. 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2'6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Hume first named this species from a specimen sent to him by 
Feilden from Thayetmyo. His type is in the British Museum, 
and he correctly described it as being like P. mandellii in having 
the sides of the head behind the ear-coverts and nape olive-brown, 
margined more or less broadly on one w r eb with rufescent or buffy- 
white. He, however, afterwards allowed himself to be persuaded 
that his bird was nothing but P. subochraceum, a totally different 
type of Pellorneum with no white-edged feathers behind the nape. 
Sharpe, in the absence of Hume's type, very rightly gave a name 
to the Cachar bird, which is identical with the Thayetmyo one. 
Hume's name, however, has priority by ten years, and I am 
glad to be able to reinstate it. 

Distribution. Cachar ; Tipperah ; Bhamo ; Thayetmyo. Pro- 
bably widely distributed. 

144. Pellorneum ruficeps. The Spotted Babbler. 

Pellorneum ruficeps, Swains. Faun. Bor.-Am., Birds, p. 487 (1831) 
Blyth, Cat. p. 145; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 224; Jerd. B. I. ii, 



142 CRATEBOPODIDjE. 

p. 27 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 248; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 409; Hume, Cat. 
no. 399 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 376 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 520; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 177 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, 
p. 100. 

The Spotted Wren-Babbler, Jerd. ; Adavi-liku-jittu,^. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dull rufous ; whole 
upper plumage and exposed parts of wings, sides of neck and the 
tail olive-brown, the latter very narrowly tipped white ; lores 
and an indistinct superciliuin dull creamy white ; sides of the head 
paler rufous than the crown, mottled with black round the eye, 
and the ear-coverts streaked with brown ; chin, throat, and cheeks 
white ; lower plumage white or pale fulvous white, boldly streaked 
with black on the breast and sides of the abdomen and suffused 
with olivaceous on the flanks and thighs ; under tail-coverts brown 
edged with white. 

Specimens from Coorg, the Wynaad, and Travancore are more 
richly coloured and have more black on the sides of the head than 
birds from elsewhere. 

Iris in the adult crimson-lake, in the immature bird cinnamon- 
brown ; legs, feet, claws, and lower mandible fleshy white ; upper 
mandible dark brown (Davison). 

Length nearly 7*5 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus 1*05 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The peninsula of India as far north as JSTandurbtir 
in Khandesh on the west and extending to Pareshnath and the 
Rajmehal hills on the east. 

Habits, fyc. Miss Cockburn, the only person who has found the 
nest of this bird, states that at Kotagiri it nests in March and April. 
The nest is a meagre structure of dry leaves and grass with a 
canopy over the eggs, and placed on the ground under a bush. 

The eggs are greenish white, speckled with lilac and purplish 
grey ; one egg measured *88 by *65. 

145. Pellorneum subochraceum, The Burmese Spotted Babbler. 

Pellorneum subochraceum, Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (4) vii, p. 257 
(1871) ; Tiveedd. Ibis, 1877, pp. 385, 452, pi. x; Hume $ Dav. 
S. F. vi, pp. 278, 514 j Hume, Cat. no. 399 sex ; Oates, B. B. i, 
p. 66 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 521 ; Salvador^ Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Gen. (2) v, p. 605 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 100. 

Pellorneum minor, Hume, apud Oates, S. F. iv, p. 406 ; v, p. 154. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape light chestnut, the 
feathers of the forehead with black shafts and tips ; lores fulvous 
white with black shafts ; a broad superciliary streak to the nape 
creamy white or pale buff ; the feathers immediately over the eye 
tipped brownish ; ear-coverts and under the eye fulvous surrounded 
by dusky ; upper plumage, tail, and exposed parts of wings olive- 
brown, the outer webs of the primaries tinged with ochraceous, 
the tail narrowly tipped with white ; chin and throat white ; lower 



PELLOBNEUM. 143 

plumage light fulvous, the breast and sides of the body streaked 
with dark brown ; centre of the abdomen whitish ; under tail- 
coverts fulvous with large central brown marks. 

Iris red ; upper mandible dark brown, lower yellow at base, 
changing to light brown at tip ; mouth flesh-colour ; eyelids green- 
ish ; tegs light brownish yellow ; claws flesh-colour. 

Length about 6-5 : tail 2'7 ; wing 2'6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Pegu and Tenasseriin, alike in the plains and in 
the lower hills. This bird extends down the Malay peninsula. 
At Thayetmyo and in the extreme northern portion of Pegu it 
appears to be replaced by P. minus. 

Habits, &fc. Breeds from March to June, constructing a small 
domed nest of leaves and grass on the ground, generally under 
shelter of a bush, and laying three eggs which are whitish, very 
thickly speckled with reddish brown and purple ; they measure '82 
by -62. 

146. Pellorneum palustre. The Marsh Spotted Babbler. 

Pellorneum palustre, Jerd., Gould, Birds Asia, iii, pi. 65 (1872); 
Hume, S. F. i, p. 4 (1873) ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, 
p. 142; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 300 ; Blanf. Ibis, 1873, p. 215 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 399 quat. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 522 ; Hume, S. F. 
xi, p. 146. 

Coloration. Upper plumage olive-brown, the forehead tinged 
with bright rufous produced back over the lores ; tail and the 
outer webs of the wing-feathers rufous ; lores white ; cheeks white 
barred with brown ; ear-coverts rufous, with paler shafts and 
mottled with brown ; chin, throat, and a broad line down the 
centre of the breast and abdomen white ; the remaining lower 
plumage rich ochraceous buff ; the whole breast and the sides of 
the body with long, broad, distinct dark brown streaks; under 
tail-coverts rich ochraceous. 

The colour of the bill, iris, &c. does not appear to have been 
recorded. In the dry skin the upper mandible is dark brown, the 
lower pale brown ; the legs yellowish brown. 

Length about 6; tail 2'6 ; wing 2-6; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Khasi hills ; North Sylhet ; Sadiya. Apparently 
found near swamps. 

147. Pellorneum fuscicapillum. The Brown-capped Babbler. 

Drymocataphus fuscocapillus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 815 (1849) ; 

id. Cat. p. 340. 

Pellorneum fuscicapillum (Blyth), Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 301 ; Hume, 
S. F. i, p. 299 note ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 510, pi. 23, fig. 1 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 399 quint. ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 102. 
Scotocichla fuscicapilla (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 523. 
Batitchia, Ceyl. 



144 CKATEROPODID.E. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dark chocolate-brown, 
the shafts fulvous ; upper plumage dark olive-brown, the tail tipped 
narrowly with ochraceous, the feathers of the wing- coverts and 
back with pale shafts, and the edges of the primaries tinged with 
rufous ; lores, sides of the head and neck, and the whole lower 
plumage sienna-brown, the sides of the neck and breast with 
obscure dark striations on some of the feathers, the striations occa- 
sionally almost entirely absent. 

Some birds have the crown and upper plumage paler, and these 
seem to be found in the northern part of Ceylon only ; others 
having these parts darker are found in the south-western and 
central portions of the island only. 

The iris varies from light reddish to dark red ; eyelid olivaceous ; 
upper mandible deep brown with a pale margin, lower flesh-colour ; 
legs and feet brownish fleshy; claws pale brownish (Legge). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 2'6 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Ceylon, up to 6000 feet or more of elevation. 

Habits, &fc. A nest found in Ceylon, said to have belonged to this 
bird, was cup-shaped, loosely constructed of moss and leaves, and 
placed in a bramble about three feet from the ground. 

148. Pellorneum ignotum. The Assam Babbler. 

Pellorneum ignotum, Hume, S. F. v, p. 334 (1877) ; id. Cat. no. 399 

ter A ; id. S. F. xi, p. 146. 
Turdinus nagaensis, Godivin- Austen, A. M. N. H. (4) xx, p. 519 

(1877) ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 143 ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 

pt. ii, p. 16. 
Drymocataphus ignotus (Hume\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 556. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage, tail, and exposed parts of 
wings rufescent olive-brown, the shafts of the feathers nowhere 
markedly paler, and the forehead not differing from the crown in 
colour ; wings and tail rather more rufescent than the back ; lores 
and over the eyes greyish brown ; ear-coverts brown with paler 
shafts ; sides of neck like the back ; chin, throat, centre of breast 
and abdomen dull white, very slightly mottled with rufescent 
brown ; remainder of lower plumage rusty brown. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet light sienna-grey (Godw.-Aust.}. 

Length 5-7 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2-2 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from gape *65. 

Distribution. The Eastern Naga hills ; Dhollah, in the Dibrugarh 
district of Assam. 



Genus DRYMOCATAPHUS, Blyth, 1849. 

This genus contains four Indian species which are allied in 
habits to Pellorneum, but differ from it in having a conspicuously 
shorter tail and longer bill. Two of the species are very closely 
allied to each other, and are not easily identified without actual 



DRYMOCATAPHUS. 145 

comparing specimens of radi ; they have consequently been a tortile 
source of cout'usiou in the past. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crowh block D. wgrieapitatus, p. 1 10. 

b. Crown uot black. 

a'. Lower plumage bright ferruginous .... D. rubiyinostii, p. 145. 
b'. Lower plumage fulvous. 

a". Upper plumage fill ve.sc-e ut olive-brown. D. tickelli, p. 140. 

b". Upper plumage rufesceut olive-brown. D. assamensis, p. 147. 

149. Drymocataphus nigricapitatus. The Blade-capped Babbler. 

Brachypteryx nigrocapitata, E-jton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 103 ; Blyth, 

Cat. p. 178. 
Drymocataphus nigrocapitatus (Ei/ton), Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 396 ; 

Tioeedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 308; 'Hums c^ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 275; 

Hume, Cat. no. 396 sex; Oates, B. B. i, p. 63; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 554 ; Oates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 102. 

Coloration. The lores, a broad supercilium reaching to the nape, 
and the cheeks grey, each feather with a white shaft-stripe ; ear- 
coverts ashy rufous with whitish shafts ; a very narrow moustachial 
stripe black ; chin and throat white ; sides of neck and the whole 
lower plumage ferruginous, brightest on the breast and tinged with 
brown on the flanks, lower abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts ; 
forehead, crown, and nape black ; the whole upper plumage, tail, 
and exposed parts of wings deep ferruginous brown. 

Legs and feet fleshy white, slightly tinged with brown or reddish 
horny ; upper mandible black, lower fleshy white ; iris rhubarb- 
red (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 7; tail 2-4; wing 2'7; tarsus 1-15; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending to 
Sumatra. 

Habits, $c. Feeds entirely on the ground, singly or in pairs. A 
shy bird, frequenting the densest portions of the forests. Davisou 
describes the nest as being built on the ground of coarse fern-roots 
on a foundation of twigs and leaves. The only nest he found 
was at the base of a small clump of ferns, and contained two eggs. 
They are described as creamy white, very thickly speckled with 
inky purple and purplish brown. They measured '82 by -62. 



150. Drymocataphus rubiginosus. The Rufous Babbler. 

Trichostoma rubiginosa, Walcl A. M. N. II. (4) xv, p. 402 (1875) ; 

id. in Blyth, 3fcri&2farm.p. 115; Hume, S. F. hi, p. 404; id. Cat. 

no. 387 ter. 
Drymocataphus rubiginosus ( Wald.), Oates, B. B. i. p. 65 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 560. 



YOL. I. 



146 CEATEKOPODID^;. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage olive-brown tinged with 
rufous ; the outer webs of the wing-quills more rufous ; chin and 
throat white ; remaining lower plumage bright ferruginous, the 
centre of the abdomen albescent. 

Iris light brown ; bill blackish brown above, pale below, yellowish 
at gape ; legs dull pinkish white ( Wardlaw liamsay). 

Length about 7; tail 2'6; wing 3'1 ; tarsus 1-3; bill from 
gape "95. 

Distribution. The only two specimens of this species known were 
procured by Wardlaw Earn say in Karennee, and are now in the 
British Museum. They appear to be not quite adult. 

151. Drymocataphus tickelli. TidceUs Babbler. 

Pellorneum tickelli, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii,p. 414 (1859) ; Hume, 

S. F. i, p. 299, iii, p. 119 ; Gates, S. F. iv, p. 406 ; Tweedd. Ibis, 

1877, pp. 386, 451; Hume, Ibis, ]878, p. 114; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, pp. 277, 514 ; Hume, Cat. no. 399 ter ; id. S. F. xi ; p. 144. 
Mixornis olivaceus, Tick. J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 449 (1859). 
Trichastoma minor, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 5o5 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 259; Hume, Cat. no. 387 bis ; Bingham, 8. F. ix, p. 179. 
Turdinus garoensis, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 160, 

pi. viii (1874) ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 393 ; id. Cat. no. 390 sept. ; id. 

S. F. xi, p. 140. 
Drymocataphus fulvus, Wald. A. M. N. II. (4) xv, p. 401 (1875) ; 

Hume, S. F. iii, p. 403, v, p. 59. 
Drymocataphus tickelli (Blyth}, Tweedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 452, pi. xi, 

fig. 1 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 64 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 557 ; Oates 

m Humes N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 103. 




Fig. 41. Head of D. tickelli. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage fulvescent olive-brown ; the 
forehead more distinctly fulvous, the feathers of the crown pale- 
shafted ; tail slightly rufescent ; lores, a very indistinct eyebrow, 
and the feathers round the eye pale fulvous ; ear-coverts fulvous 
brown with pale shafts ; sides of neck similar to the back but 
slightly paler ; cheeks and entire lower plumage uniform fulvous, 
with the very faintest indications of stripes on the throat and 
breast ; centre of abdomen albescent *. 

* After examining all the specimens of birds in the Hume and Tweeddale 
collections, as well as others lent me by Godwin-Austen, which have a bearing 
on the identity of D. tickelli, I am of the same opinion as Sharpe and I arrived 
at some years ago he when writing the seventh volume of the ' Catalogue,' 
and I when writing the ' Birds of Burmah.' This conclusion is briefly that 
Trichastoma minc-r of Hume is the same bird as Pellorneum tickelli of Blyth. 



DRYMOCATAPIIUS. 147 

Bill dusky above, pale flesh-colour beneath ; mouth yellow ; iris 
reddish brown ; eyelids greenish flesh-colour ; legs and claws fleshy 
white. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape *8. 

Distribution. There are undoub<ed specimens of this species in 
the Hume Collection from the Khasi hills and from Manipur. 
Godwin-Austen obtained it in the Garo hills. 

It has been found in Karennee ; on the eastern slopes of the 
Pegu hills ; the central and southern portions of Tenasserim, and 
the Thoungyeen valley, in all of which tracts it appears to be 
fairly common. 

J/abits, $c. This species is a quiet little bird found in all sorts of 
jungle, creeping about bushes and on the ground singly or in pairs. 
Bingham found the nest in March, a domed structure of bamboo- 
leaves and roots placed in a cane-bush about one foot above the 
ground. It contained three eggs, white dotted with pink. One 
egg measured *67 by '51. 

152. Drymocataphus assamensis. Austen's Babbler. 

Turdinus garoensis, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 75 

(1876), nee xliii, pt. ii, p. 160. 
Drymocataphus assainensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 557 (1883). 

Coloration. Upper plumage rufescent olive-brown, the forehead 
with fulvous shaft-stripes, the crown and mantle with conspicuous 
pale shafts ; the outer webs of the primaries brighter rufous ; sides 
of the head fulvous, mottled with brown ; sides of the neck and 
lower plumage fulvous, albescent on the centre of the abdomen, 
and tinged with olivaceous on the sides of the breast and abdomen. 

Iris red-brown; legs very pale fleshy (Godw.-Aust.}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-1; wing 2-6; tarsus 1-15; bill from 
gape -7. 

This species differs from D. ticlcelli in having the upper plumage 
rufescent olive-brown, and in having a longer tarsus. 

The bird obtained by God win- Austen in the Garo hills, and de- 
scribed by him as T. garoensis in 1874, proved, according to Sharpe, 
who examined it, to be merely a specimen of D. tickelli. This 
specimen, I regret to say, has been lost or mislaid. A second bird 
procured by Godwin- Austen in the Dikrang valley in Assam, and 
referred by him to the same T. garoensis, proved to be the present 
species, but it cannot bear Godwin-Austen's name. Sharpe has 
rightly renamed it. 

Distribution. I have examined undoubted specimens of this species 
from the Khasi hills, and from Dhollah and Sadiya in Assam. 
Godwin-Austen obtained it in the Dikrang valley, Assam. 

Habits, c. Godwin-Austen says : "Proceeding through the 
dense underwood in the Dikrang valley, I caught sight of this bird 
on the narrow path above two yards from my feet, and at the first 
glance took it to be a small rodent. It was most fearless and made 
no attempt to fly off." 

L2 



148 CRATEKOPODID^. 



Genus CORYTHOCICHLA, Sharpe, 1883. 

This genus is barely separable from Drymocataphus ; but on 
account of its somewhat longer rictal bristles and its squamated 
upper plumage it is perhaps convenient to keep it distinct. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Sides of the head deep ashy ; tips of wing- 

feathers white C. brevicaudata, p. 148. 

b. Sides of the head brown ; tips of the wing- 

feathers fulvous C. striata, p. 148. 



153. Corythocichla brevicaudata. The Short-tailed Babbler. 

Turdinus brevicaudatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 272 (1855); 

Hume $ Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 202 ; Hume, Cat. no. 390 quint. ; Bituj- 

liam, 8. F. ix, p. 179 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. CO. 
Turdinus brevicauda (Tickett), Wald. Ibis, ]876, p. 354. 
Corythocichla brevicaudata (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 592. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage and sides of the neck olive- 
brown ; the feathers everywhere margined with black except on 
the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail rufescent ; wings olive-brown, 
the coverts and all the quills, except the earlier primaries, tipped 
with a small white spot ; lores, a short supercilium, cheeks, and 
under the eye deep ashy ; ear-coverts the same, but tinged rufes- 
cent ; chin and throat ashy white, streaked with dark brown ; 
breast and lower plumage ferruginous, paler on the centre of the 
abdomen, darker on the flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts, which 
latter are tipped paler. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale brown to pale fleshy brown ; upper 
mandible very dark brown, lower plumbeous to pale plumbeous ; 
iris deep brown, red-brown, cinnamon-red (Hume $ Davison). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail T7 ; wing 2'4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The higher slopes of Muleyit mountain in Tenas- 
serim about 5000 feet. 

Habits, 6fc. A rather rare bird, occurring on the thickly wooded 
and rocky parts of the mountain singly or in small parties. It feeds 
on the ground, and when alarmed it seldom flies, but retreats by 
hopping. Davison also remarks that its note is a long-drawn Kirr- 
r-r, usually uttered when disturbed. 

154. Corythocichla striata. The Streaked Babbler. 

Turdinus brevicaudatus, Blyth, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 2C9 (1870) ; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 140. 
Turdinus striatus, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) vii, p. 241 (1871) ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xlvii, pt. ii, p. 16 ; Hume, S. F. vii, 

p. 462. 



GTPSOPHILA. 149 

Turdinus williamsoni, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. ii, p. 44 

(1877). 
Corythocichla striata (Wald.), SJiarpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 593. 

Coloration. Resembles C. brevicaudata. Differs in having the 
sides of the head brown instead of deep ashy, and in having the 
breast and lower plumage brown slightly tinged with rufous, 
instead of ferruginous ; the spots at the tips of the wing-coverts 
and quills are less distinct, and are fulvous, not white. 

The bill in the dry state has the upper mandible dark brown, 
the lower pale brown ; the legs and feet are brown. 

Length about 5; tail 1*8; wing 23 ; tarsus '95; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The base of the Khasi and Garo hills ; Sadiya in 
Assam. Godwin- Austen appears to have obtained this bird also in 
Manipur. 

Habits, $c. This species is so close to C. brevicaudata, that the 
habits of the two are very likely to be the same. 

Genus GYPSOPHILA, Gates, 1883. 

The genus Gypsopliihi contains one remarkable bird which is 
confined to certain limited tracts of limestone mountains in Tenas- 
serim. Its plumage is of the most extraordinary character, and 
even the very large series of this bird in the Hume Collection 
affords no clue to its changes. For the present I locate this genus 
among the Timeliince, but I feel sure that this is not its proper 
place. Its place in the system must remain undetermined until 
its plumage from the young to the adult stage is properly under- 
stood. 

In structure Gypsophila is close to PeUorneum, from which it- 
differs chiefly in its longer rictal bristles and stronger bill. The 
upper plumage is squamated in appearance, owing to the feathers 
being margined with black. 

155. Gypsophila crispifrons. The Limeroek Babbler. 

Turdinus crispifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 269 (1855) ; id. Birds 

Burm. p. 114 ; Wald. Ibis, 1876, p. 353 ; Hume, S. F. v. p. 87 ; 

Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 262 ; Hume, Cat. no. 390 quat. ; Bing- 

ham, S. F. ix, p. 179. 
Gypsophila crispifrons (BlytJi), Oates, B. B. \, p. 61 ; Sharps, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 561. 

Coloration. Adult. The whole head, neck, and lower plumage 
pure white ; upper plumage olive-brown, the feathers of the back 
margined with black ; each tertiary quill of the wing minutely 
tipped with white. 

Younger birds have the forehead, lores, ear-coverts, a large 
space round the eyes, cheeks, chin, and throat pure white ; 
remainder of lower plumage ochraceous olive-brown, with some 
blackish marks on the breast; crown, nape, and back olive-brown, 



150 CRATEKOPODID^E. 

each feather edged with black; remainder of upper plumage, tail, 
and exposed parts of wings plain olive-brown ; tertiaries tipped 
with white. 

What appear to be the young of the year have the crown, fore- 
head, nape, and back olive-brown, margined with black ; rump, 
upper tail-coverts, tail, and exposed parts of wings plain olive- 
brown ; sides of the forehead aud an indistinct supercilium greyish 




Fig. 42. Head of G. crispifrons. 

white with blackish specks ; ear-coverts dark brown, with white 
shafts ; chin, throat, and upper breast white streaked with dark 
brown, the streaks being nearly confluent on the breast ; remainder 
of lower plumage ochraceous olive-brown. They appear to undergo 
no moult the first autumn, but to retain the young plumage till 
the first spring, when the change towards adult plumage probably 
begins by the chin and throat becoming white. 

Iris pale red, red, light red, deep red-brown ; upper mandible 
dark brown, lower pale plumbeous ; legs, feet, and claws dark 
purplish brown (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3 ; wing 3*2 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape '9. 

The above description of the plumage has been taken from a 
series of 76 specimens in the Hume Collection. Unfortunately 
the birds were all procured in December and March, with the excep- 
tion of one shot in November and six in January. The series is 
therefore very incomplete, and it is quite impossible to arrive at 
any conclusion regarding the plumage of the young and its gradual 
development into that of the adult. The plumage is very perplex- 
ing and incomprehensible at present. Hume's note on the subject 
should be carefully read. 

Distribution. The limestone ranges of the central portion of 
Tenasserim, such as those at Wimpong, the Thoungsha Gyue river, 
and Momenzeik. 

Habits, $c. Davison remarks that this bird is excessively lively 
and sprightly. It keeps up continually a twittering chattering note, 
and sometimes will perch itself on some point of rock and with 
lowered wings and erected tail will pour forth a fine and powerful 
song. It feeds principally upon insects and land-shells. 

Genus MALACOPTERUM, Eyton, 1830. 

The genus Malacopterum is remarkable for its lengthened wings 
and, in consequence, its comparatively short tail. The plumage is 



MALACOPTERU3J. 151 

soft and silky. The two Indian species of this genus appear to be 
more arboreal than any of the preceding genera, and to have 
somewhat of the deportment of Bulbuls. The rictal bristles are 
very conspicuous on account of their length. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown bright ferruginous M. magnum, p. 151 . 

6. Crown olive-brown M. magnirostre t p. 151. 

15G. Malacopterum magnum. The Red-headed Tree-Babbler. 

Malacopteron magnum, Hi/ton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 103; Horsf. # M. 
Cat. i, p. 225 ; Hume&'Dav. S.F. vi, p. 270 ; Hume, Cat. no. 396 
ter. ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 55 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 564. 

Malaropteron niajus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 461 (1847) j id. Cat. 
p. 148, App. p. xxi; Tiueedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 309. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown bright ferruginous, the anterior 
feathers black-shafted and the posterior ones faintly edged with 
black ; lores and a broad supercilium grey, the middle o*f the feathers 
whitish ; the whole nape black ; ear-coverts fulvous brown with 
pale shafts ; the whole upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with 
ferruginous on the rump, which colour also suffuses the upper tail- 
coverts and the outer webs of the tail-feathers ; cheeks mottled 
grey and white ; chin, throat, and upper breast white, streaked 
with grey ; remainder of lower plumage greyish white. 

Legs, feet, and claws blue, varying from pale plumbeous to pale 
smalt-blue; upper mandible dark horny brown, lower mandible 
and often the edges of the upper plumbeous blue or white tinged 
with blue, fading to bluish w 7 hite at the tip; iris carmine to 
orange-red, changing probably according to age, as a younger bird 
has it pale sienna-brown (Hume <Sf Davison). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending down 
the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, $-c. According to Davison this bird hunts about trees and 
bushes in pairs or small parties, seldom or never descending to 
the ground. Its weak feet corroborate this description of its habits. 

157. Malacopterum magnirostre. The Brown-headed Tree-BalUer. 

Alcippe magnirostris, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 277 ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. i, p. 407. 
Malacopteron magnirostris (Moore), Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 274 j 

Hume Cat. no. 396 quint. 

Malacopterum magnirostre (Moore), Oates, B. B. i, p. 56. 
Turdinus magnirostris (Moore), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 547. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and back olive-brown, the 
feathers of the forehead with black shafts ; wing-coverts and ex- 
posed parts of quills rufescent olive ; upper tail-coverts and tail 
bright chestnut-brown ; feathers round the eye white ; lores and 



152 CRATEROPODID^. 

an obsolete stripe over the eye grey ; cheeks and ear-coverts deep 
ashy, the latter with whitish shafts ; entire lower plumage dull 
white, washed with ashy across the breast and on the flanks, thighs, 
and under tail-coverts. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale bluish, sometimes a little darker and 
more plumbeous ; upper mandible dark horny brown, almost black 
in some ; lower mandible bluish white, pale blue, or plumbeous ; 
gape dull yellow ; iris red, varying from cinnabar to lake, and lake 
to crimson (Hume Davison). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending into 
the Malayan peninsula aud Cochin China. 

Habits, $c. Arboreal like those of the last species. 

M. cinereum is not unlikely to be found in Tenasserim. It is 
allied to M. magnum, but the ferruginous feathers of the head are 
broadly terminated with black, and it is of smaller size. 

Genus ERYTHROCICHLA, Sharpe, 1883. 

This genus resembles the last in general structure, but has a 
shorter wing, and it appears to be a ground-bird. Only one species 
is known. 

158. Erythrocichla bicolor. The Ferruginous Babbler. 
Brachypteryx bicolor, Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 1,38. 
Malacopteron ferruginosum, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 383 (1844) ; 

Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 273 ; Hume, Cat. no. 396 quat. 
Trichastoma bicolor (Less.}, Blyth. Cat. p. 147 : Horsf. & M. Cat. i, 

p. 226. 
Trichostoma ferruginosum (Blyth}, Blyth, Ibis, 18G5, p. 47 ; Gates, 

B. B.\, p. 58. 
Erythrocicma bicolor (Less.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 551. 




Fig. 43. Head of E. bicolor. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage ferruginous, the crown 
brighter; upper tail-coverts and tail chestnut; lores dull white or 
pale fulvous; sides of the head like the crown; lower plumage 
white, suffused with brownish on the breast and less soon the sides 
of the body. 

Legs and feet fleshy white ; upper mandible dirty white, lower 
dark brown ; iris pale wood-brown (Hume <Sf Davisori). 

Length about 6'5: tail 2-4; wing 3-1; tarsus M; bill from 
gape -9. 



TRICHOSTOMA. TURDINUS. 1 53 

Distribution. The extreme soutb of Tenasserim, extending down 
to the Malay peninsula and to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Jlitbils, .\r. According to Davison this bird is strictly a ground- 
bird, only flying up into trees when disturbed. 

Genus TRICHOSTOMA, Blyth, 1842. 

The type of the genus Tricliostoma is a bird which for many years 
after Blyth's institution of the genus remained unknown to orni- 
thologists, or rather was known only by various names which were 
not recognized as synonymous with Blyth's until I worked up the 
subject for my ' Birds of Burmah.' 

Tricliostoma has remarkably long rictal bristles, but does not 
otherwise differ much from the preceding genera except in having 
a conspicuously shorter tail. It is in great measure arboreal. 
Many birds have been placed in this genus which have no connec- 
tion or affinities with it. 

159. Tricliostoma rostratum. Blyth's Babbler. 

Trichastoma rostratum, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 795 (1842) ; id. Cat. 

p. 147; Hume, S. F. viii, pp. CO, 160; ix, pp. 109, 127; Oafes, 

B. B. i, p. 50 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 562. 
Napothera umhratilis, Strickl. Contr. Orn. 1849, p. 128, pi. 31. 
Bmchypteryx raaci optera, Salvadori, Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. iii, p. 528 

(1868). 
Brachypteryx buxtoni, Wald. P. Z. S. 1877, p. 367 ; id. Ibis, 1877, 

p. 308, pi. 6, fig. 2. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage rufescent olive-brown, tinged 
with ferruginous on the upper tail-coverts and outer webs of tail- 
feathers ; lores whitish, mottled with black ; ear-coverts and round 
the eye rufescent ; the former with whitish shafts; cheeks white, 
with black shafts and tips ; entire lower plumage white, washed 
with pale grey across the breast and suffused with ashy brown on 
the sides of the breast and abdomen; outer webs of wing-quills 
like the back. 

Upper mandible dark brown ; lower pale plumbeous blue ; legs 
and feet rather dark pinkish fleshy ; iris pale red-brown ; claws 
pale horny brown (Davison). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2*1 ; wing 2'9 ; tarsus 1*05 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, extending to 
Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, $r. Nothing is known of this bird's habits beyond Hume's 
assertion that they are arboreal. 

Genus TURDINUS, Blyth, 1844. 

The genus Turdinus differs from all the other genera of this 
subfamily with stout straight bills in having the nostrils oval and 
exposed, not protected by a membrane. As restricted here, it 
contains but one Indian species. This has a very short tail. 



154 CEATEROPODID^E. 

160. Turdinus abbotti. Abbott's Babbler. 

Malacocincla abbotti, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 601 (1845). 
Trichastoraa abbotti (Blytli), Blyth, Cat. p. 147; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 405; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 17 ; Oates, S. F. v, p. 151 ; Tiueedd. 

Ibis, 1877, p. 452, pi. xi, fig-. 2 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. \i, pp. 259, 513 ; 

Cripps, 8. F. vii, p. 277 ; Hume, Cat. no. 387 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 138. 
MalacopteroD olivaceum, Strickland, A. M. N. H. (1) xix, p. 132 

(1847) ; Hume, S. F. ix, p. 108. 
Turdinus abbotti (Blyth}, Oates, B. B. i, p. 58; Sharps, Cat. B. M. 

vii, p. 541 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 103. 

The Brown-lacked Tit-Babbler, Jerd. 




Fig. 44. Head of T. abbotti. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage rich olive-brown, the forehead 
with fulvous streaks, the shafts of the feathers of the other parts 
pale ; outer webs of the quills of the wing like the back ; upper 
tail-coverts and tail deep rufous ; lores, round the eye, and a short 
supercilium dark grey; ear-coverts rufous with fulvous shafts; 
chin, throat, and cheeks pale grey ; sides of neck and of the breast 
and body earthy ferruginous ; centre of breast and abdomen whitish ; 
under tail-coverts bright ferruginous. 

Iris reddish brown ; eyelids deep plumbeous ; upper mandible 
dark brown, except the tip and the terminal third of the margins, 
which, together with the lower mandible, are pale bluish ; mouth 
yellow ; legs and feet pinkish fleshy ; claws pale horn-colour. 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. The lower hills and valleys of Nepal and Sikhiin ; 
the eastern portion of Bengal ; the Bhutan doars ; Assam, and the 
whole of the countries to the south to Arrakan and Tenasserim, 
extending down the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, fyc. This bird must be looked for in the very thickest of 
brushwood in evergreen tracts of forest ; consequently there are 
large areas of country in which it is absent. It occurs singly or in 
pairs, but in suitable places the birds are so common that they appear 
to be gregarious, though in reality they are not so. They creep about 
bushes and low trees and also feed on the ground. Their note is very 
pretty and constantly uttered during the breeding-season in May 
and June. The nest is a cup made of dry leaves and placed in 
low bushes near the ground. The eggs, three in number, are very 
beautiful, being pinkish white, streaked and spotted with brownish 
red. They measure about *85 by *65. 



THRINGOBHIXA. 155 

Genus THRINGORHINA, n. gen. 

The t\vo birds for which the above generic name is proposed, 
in addition to a peculiar style of coloration, are characterized 
by the very large operculum over the nostril. The bill is very 
strong, with the culmen gently curved throughout, and the rictal 
bristles are weak. The feathers of the forehead are harsh to the 
touch. The feathers of the crown are somewhat ample, and no 
doubt in life when erected form a short crest, as represented by 
God win- Austen in his plate of T. oylii. 

The type of this genus is T. guttata, which I at one time classed 
with Stachyrlds, but erroneouslv as I now see. 






Fig. 45. Head of T. guttata. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wings and tail plain T. guttata, p. 155. 

b. Wings and tail barred with brown T. oylii, p. 156. 

161. Thringorhina guttata. TickeUs Spotted Babbler. 

Turdinus guttatus (Tick.), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 414 (1859); 

Tick. J.A. S. B. xxviii, p. 450 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 115 ; 

Walden, Ibis, 1876, p. 353 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 264; Hume, 

Cat. no. 390 sex. ; Binyliam, S. F. ix, p. 179. 
Staehyrhis guttata (Tick.), Oates, S. F. \, p. 251 ; id. B. B. \, p. 49 ; 

SAarpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 535. 

Coloration. Lores and forehead white, with black streaks ; round 
the eye black ; a large patch of white below the eye, bounded by a 
black moustachial streak ; ear-coverts ashy brown ; a white super- 
cilium to the nape, bordered above by black ; sides of neck and 
the terminal portions of the feathers of the mantle black, with long 
oval white drops ; remaining upper plumage rich golden brown, 
the rump, tail, and the outer webs of the quills of the wing tinged 
with deep rufous; chin and upper throat white; remainder of 
lower parts ruddy ferruginous, the flanks and under tail-coverts 
tinged with olivaceous, the breast with very narrow obsolete white 
margins to the feathers, which, with those of the abdomen, have 
also whitish shafts. 

Legs and feet pale dingy green ; lower mandible and edge of 
upper along commissure plumbeous ; rest of bill black ; iris crimson- 
lake {Hume fy Davisori). 



156 CRATEEOPODIDJE. 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2'7 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. The slopes of Muleyit mountain at Meetan; the 
Thoungyeen river ; Malawun, at the extreme south of Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. Davison tells us that this bird is in general an inha- 
bitant of forests, whether composed of thick jungle or more open 
bamboo vegetation, and that it apparently never descends to the 
ground. 

162. Thringorhina oglii. Austens Spotted Babbler. 

Actinura oglei, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xlvi, pt. ii, p. 42 (1877) ; 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 341 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlyii, pt. ii, p. 18, 

pi. xi. 
Actinodura oglei ( Godw.-Aust^), Hume, Cat. no. 427 quat. ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. yii, p. 467; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 171. 

Coloration. Crown, nape, and hind neck rich golden brown ; back, 
rump, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts the same but duller, and 
obsoletely cross-rayed; wings and tail umber-brown, narrowly and 
closely cross-barred with blackish brown ; forehead white, with 
black shafts continued back as a broad supercilium to the sides of 
the neck, where the white band expands and becomes divided into 
white spots bordered by black ; the forehead and supercilium 
bordered by black above ; lores and ear-coverts black ; cheeks, 
chin, and throat white ; breast grey ; remainder of lower plumage 
dull umber-brown. 

Bill black above, grey below ; iris crimson-lake ; legs and feet 
umber- brown ( Godwin- Austen). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2*5 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape -95. 

Distribution. Discovered at Manbuni Tila on the Tengapani river 
near Sadiya. It has not again been obtained by any naturalist. 



Genus ALCIPPE, Blyth, 1844. 

The genus Alcippe contains three Indian species which are very 
closely allied and somewhat difficult to separate. The colour of 
the plumage is dull. 

In this genus the wing and tail are about equal in length ; the 
bill is notched, and the nostrils are overhung by some long hairs 
springing from the base of the forehead. The tail is but slightly 
graduated. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Wing 2'3 ; a circle of white feathers round 

eye ; supercilium distinct and extending as 

a hand to upper hack A. wepalensis, p. 156. 

ft. Wing 2-8 ; no circle of white fea,thers round 
eye. 



ALCIPPE. 157 

a . No trace of a superciliiiin A. phceocephala, p. 158. 

b' . Traces of a supereiliimi produced as a 

band oil upper back A. phayrii, p. 158. 

163. Alcippe nepalensis. The Nepal Babbler. 

Siva nipalensis, Hodys. Ind. Rev. p. 89 (1838). 

Alcippe nipalensis (Hody.), Bli/th, Cat. p. 148; Horsf. $ M. Cat, 
i, p. 226; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 18; Godw.-Anst. J. A.' S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 103 ; ILnm; N. $ E. p. 240 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 260 ; Hume, Cat. no. 388 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 287 ; Octtes, 
/>'. />'. i, p. 68 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 620 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 138 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 104. 

The Nepal Quaker-Thrush, Jerd. ; Sam-dayal-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 46. Head of A. nepalensis. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and upper back ashy brown ; 
sides of the head and of the neck paler ashy brown ; a very con- 
spicuous ring of white feathers round the eye ; lores grey ; a black 
supercilium commencing narrowly over the eye, widening gradually 
and extending to the upper back, where it becomes more or less 
streaky; lower back, scapulars, wing-coverts, rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and tail fulvous brown; wings brown, edged with fulvous 
on the outer webs ; chin whitish ; lower plumage pale buff or 
earthy brown, albescent on the abdomen. 

Bill grey or livid horny, the base of the upper mandible and a 
line along the culmen black ; iris hazel-brown ; feet livid fleshy ; 
claws grey-horny (Scully). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 2'3 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 
55. 

This species can be easily separated from A. phayrii and A. 
plicwcepJiala by its smaller size, its conspicuous white orbital ring 
of feathers, and by its long well-marked black supercilia. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the extreme east of 
Assam ; the Khasi andNaga hills ; Manipur ; the hilly portions of 
Tenasserim from Karennee and Toungngoo down to Nwalabo 
mountain. Hume records this bird from the northern portion of 
the Pegu hills, and Blyth from Arrakan. In the Himalayas it is 
found up to 5000 feet or more. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is found in thick jungle, feeding on the 
ground in small parties, and creeping among bushes in search of 
insects. It has a low twittering note. It breeds from March to 
May, constructing a small cup-shaped nest of bamboo-leaves and 
grass in the fork of a bush close to the ground. The eggs, three 
or four in number, are pinkish, blotched with maroon-reel, am} 
measure *77 by '58. 



158 CRATEROPODID^E. 

164. Alcippe phaeocephala. The Nilgiri Babbler. 

Thimalia poioicephala, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, p. 169 (1844). 
Alcippe poiocephala (Jerd.), Bhjth, Cat. p. 148 ; Jerd. B. I. ri, p. 18; 

id. Ibis, 1872, p. 298 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 240 ; id. Cat. no. 389 ; 

Davison, S. F. x, p. 374. 
Alcippe brucei, Fairbank MS.*, Hume, J. A. 8. S. xxxix, pt. ii, 

p. 122 (1870) ; id. S. F. i, p. 8 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 298. 
Alcippe phaeocephala (Jerd.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 622 5 Oates 

in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 106. 

The Neilgherry Quaker- Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape ashy brown ; the whole 
upper plumage olive-brown tinged with fulvous, the wings, tail, 
and upper tail-coverts decidedly ferruginous ; sides of the head 
ashy brown, the shafts of the ear-coverts paler ; the entire lower 
plumage fulvous, paler on the centre of the abdomen. 

Iris slaty grey ; legs, feet, and claws greyish fleshy ; bill horny 
brown (Davison). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 2*8 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape *7. 

Birds from the Nilgiris and Travancore have the head very much 
darker than the rest of the upper plumage; birds from more 
northern localities have it very little darker than the upper parts 
in general. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from Khandala to 
Travancore, ascending up to 6000 feet of elevation. This Babbler 
also occurs at Pachmarhi in the Central Provinces. In the British 
Museum there is an Alcippe from Pareshnath Hill which I am 
inclined to identity with the present species rather than with A. 
phayrii ; but the two species run very close to each other, and it 
is not always easy to separate them. 

Habits, <$fc. There appears to be nothing distinctive in the habits or 
nidification of this species worthy of note. It breeds from January 
to June, and the eggs measure -85 by -63. 

165. Alcippe phayrii. The Burmese Babbler. 

Alcippe phayrei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 601 (1845) ; id. Cat. 
p. 148; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 116, v, p. 60; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 260 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 635, pi. xlviii ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 388 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 69 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 623 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 139 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 108. 

Alcippe magnirostris, Wald. in Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 115 (1875) ; 
id. Ibis, 1877, p. 487 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 66. 

Alcippe fusca, Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 197 (1876) ; 
Hume, S. F. v, p. 54 ; id. Cat. no. 388 ter. 

Coloration. Resembles A. phceocephala. Differs in having, as a 
rule, traces of sincipital brown stripes ; in being of a clearer and 

* I cannot discover where this name was published ; the first mention of it, 
BO far as I know, is by Hume (I, <?.). 



BnopociciiLA. 159 

lighter fulvous below, and in having the cap somewhat better defined 
from the rest of the upper plumage. 

Iris whity brown to greyish blue ; eyelids plumbeous ; mouth 
yellow ; legs and claws dusky flesh-colour ; upper mandible dusky 
brown, the lower one somewhat paler and turning to yellow at the 
base. * 

Of the same size as A. phccocephala, from which the present 
species cannot be distinguished by measurement. 

AVere it not that the geographical distribution of A. phceocephala 
and A. phayrii differs so greatly, and that typical examples of the 
latter from Burma show traces of sincipital stripes, whereas 
the former never do so, I should be inclined to unite these two 
species under one name. When the sincipital stripes are absent 
in A. phayrii, as they frequently, or almost invariably, are in 
specimens from the extreme northern limit of its range, such as 
Tipperah and Manipur, it is almost impossible to separate such ex- 
amples from A. pliceocepliala. Failing the sincipital stripes there 
is really nothing to trust to for discriminating the two species 
except the colour of the lower plumage and the cap, and this is 
only apparent when series of each are compared. All authors have 
hitherto been satisfied with comparing A.phayrii with A. nepalensis, 
two birds which are quite distinct, both in coloration and in size, 
and which cannot be confounded under any circumstances. Sharpe, 
with the few specimens he had before him when he wrote his 
' Catalogue,' made an endeavour to diagnose A. phayrii and A. 
phceocephala, the only attempt that has ever been made, I believe ; 
but unfortunately his character, the colour of the ear-coverts, does 
not hold good, and no use can be made of it. 

Distribution. The ]N"aga hills ; Tipperah ; Manipur ; the neigh- 
bourhood of Bhamo ; Arrakan ; the Pegu hills ; Karennee ; the 
whole of Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. This species is found in the better-wooded hilly portions 
of the country. Its habits do not differ from those of A. nepalensis, 
It breeds in Tenasserim from February to April. The eggs found 
by Bingham measured '78 by '58 ; these dimensions appear small 
for the size of the bird, being no larger than those of the eggs of 
A. nepalensis, which is a considerably smaller bird. 



Genus RHOPOCICHLA, n. gen. 

I propose this generic term (with R. atriceps as the type) for 
three birds which have hitherto been included in Alcippe. 

This genus differs from Alcippe in having the nostrils roundish, 
exposed, and pierced in the anterior part of the membrane, and in 
having a much shorter tail when compared with the wing. The 
eggs of the two genera are also different in colour, a matter which 
is noticed by Hume in his ' Eough Draft of Nests and Eggs/ in 
the article on Alcippe paiocephala. 



160 CRATEllOPODIDyE. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown and sides of head black It. atriceps, p. 160. 

b. Forehead and ear-coverts only black R. nigrifrons, p. 160. 

c. Ear-coverts only blackish It. bourdilloni, p. 161. 

166. Rhopocichla atriceps. The Blade -headed Babbler. 

Brachypteryx atriceps, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. x, p. 250 (1839). 

Alcippe atriceps (Jerd.), Blyth, Cat. p. 148; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 19; 
Hume, Cat. no. 890 ; Butler, 8. F. ix, p. 399 ; l)avison, S. F. x, 
p. 375 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 625 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 175. 

Khopocichla atriceps (Jerd.), Odtes in Hume's N, Sf E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 109. 
The Black-headed Wren-Babbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, ear-coverts, and under the 
eye black ; the whole upper plumage fulvous brown ; lower plu- 
mage dull white, changing to olivaceous on the flanks and under 
tail-coverts ; the exposed parts of the closed wings and tail like 
the back. 

Iris bright yellow ; the lower mandible and the commissure of 
the upper fleshy pink ; rest of the upper mandible dull black ; legs, 
feet, and claws sometimes pale plumbeous, sometimes pure fleshy 
pink, at other times pink more or less strongly tinged with purple 
(Davison). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus *9 ; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. The Nilgiris and the western coast of India up to 
Belgaurn. This Babbler is found up to 5000 feet or even higher. 

Habits, $c. Davison remarks that this bird goes about in larger 
or smaller parties and seems to prefer bamboo and scrub jungle. 
It breeds in May, June, and July, constructing an egg-shaped nest 
of blades of grass in clumps of bamboo or among weeds near the 
ground. The eggs, two or three in number, are white speckled 
with brownish and purplish red, and measure '77 by '55. 

167. Rhopocichla nigrifrons. The Black-fronted Babbler. 

Alcippe nigrifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviji, p. 815 (1849) ; id. Cat. 

p. 340 ; Legge, S. F. iii, p. 367 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 383 ; id. Cat. 

no. 390 ter ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 507, pi. xxvii, figs. 2 & 3 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 625. 
Rhopocichla nigrifrons (Blyth), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 110. 
Batitchia, Ceyl. 

Coloration. Forehead, ear-coverts, and all round the eye black, 
the shafts of the feathers of the forehead glistening; the whole 
upper plumage, sides of neck, and visible portions of the wings and 
tail rufous-brown, darkest on the crown; lower plumage, cheeks, 
and under the ear-coverts dull white, tinged with olivaceous on the 
sides of the breast and body ; vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts 
rufpus-brown ; the feathers of the cheeks with lengthened black 
shafts; under wing-coverts pale fulvous. 



STACHYEH1S. 161 

Iris yellowish white or very pale yellow ; bill, gape, and culmeii 
dark brown, margins of the upper arid lower mandibles fleshy ; legs 
and feet fleshy lavender ; claws dusky ; iris of young olive (Lec/ye). 

Length nearly 5'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*3 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Habits, <${c. According to Legge this bird breeds in Ceylon in 
January. The nest is a large shapeless ball of dead leaves and a 
few twigs, placed in a bramble or some undergrowth three or four 
feet from the ground. The eggs are white spotted with brownish 
red over bluish-grey specks, and measure "74 by '56. 

The same author observes that this species frequents dense 
underwood in parties of six to a dozen, searching for food among 
the fallen leaves, and that it keeps up a constant little rattle-note. 



168. Rhopocichla bourdilloni. Bourdilloni Babbler. 

Alcippe bourdilloni, Hume, S. F. iv, pp. 399, 485 (1876) ; id. Cat. 
no. 390 bis ; Bourdillon, S. F. ix, p. 300 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 626. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown and nape, lores and cheeks brown; 
ear-coverts and round the eye blaskish; upper plumage, wings, 
tail, and sides of the neck fulvous brown ; chin, throat, and breast 
dull white ; remainder of the lower plumage ferruginous ; under 
wing-coverts pale fulvous. 

Bill above black, below pale slaty ; legs and feet dull brown ; 
iris white (Hume Coll.). 

Length about 5-3 ; tail 1*9 ; wing 2*2 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Known only from My nail in Travancore at an 
elevation of about 3000 to 4000 feet. 



Genus STACHYRHIS, Hodgs., 1844. 

With the genus Stacliyrliis we enter upon a group of small 
Timeliine birds which have a slender pointed bill and rather bril- 
liant plumage. This genus is the only one of the subfamily in 
which the eggs are known to be unspotted white, and it differs 
from the allied genus Stachyrhidopsis, in which the eggs are spotted, 
by having the culmen gently curved. The nostril is covered by a 
large scale somewhat as in Thringorhina. 

The birds of this genus appear to confine themselves to low trees 
and bushes, the leaves and flowers of which they search for insects, 
and frequently their foreheads are powdered with the pollen of 
flowers. Their notes are described as pleasant. 

S. poliogaster, a species discovered by Davison and named by 
Hume, from the Malay peninsula, has the sides of the face and the 
lower plumage grey, and may be discovered in Tenasserim. 

VOL. I. 11 



162 CRATEEOPODID^E. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown black streaked with white $. nigriceps, p. 162. 

b. Crown golden yellow streaked with black. 

a'. Back bright olive-yellow 8. chryscea, p. 163. 

b'. Back slaty green S. assimilis, p. 163. 

169. StP-Chyrhis nigriceps. The Slack-throated Babbler. 

Stachyris nigriceps, Hodys. Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 378 (1844) ; 
Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844) ; id. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 22 ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 150 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 231 j Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 21 ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 242 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 117 j Gates, S. F. v, p. 252 ; 
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 636 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 264 ; Hume, Cat. no. 391 ; Gates, S. F. x, p. 206; id. B. B. i, 
p. 48 ; Sharpc, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 532 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 141 ; 
Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 110. 

The Black-throated Wren-Babbler, Jerd. ; Sanyriam-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 47. Head of 8. nigriceps. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape black, the feathers edged 
with white, giving a streaked appearance to those parts ; round the 
eye white ; ear-coverts varying from orange to rufous-brown and 
plain brown ; cheeks white ; chin grey ; throat sometimes entirely 
black, sometimes black mottled with white ; whole upper plumage 
rich olive-brown, the tail and exposed parts of wings rufous ; entire 
lower plumage bright fulvous, tinged with olivaceous on the lower 
abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts. 

The colour of the ear-coverts varies somewhat according to 
locality. Birds from the Himalayas have them dark brown with 
the posterior portion rufous ; those from Assam, the hill-tracts of 
Bengal, and Upper Burma orange or rufous in some form or other ; 
and Pegu and Tenasserim birds have them rufous but more or less 
intermingled with brown. 

The black throat occurs chiefly among birds from Assam, the 
bill-tracts of Bengal and Upper Burma. 

Hume is of opinion that the colour of the bill changes in the 
breeding-season. He states that in the cold season (November to 
February) the upper mandible is pale brown, the lower pale yel- 
lowish horny. I can find no indication of this seasonal change in 
the large series now in the British Museum, but perhaps it is not 
apparent in dry skins. 

Upper mandible bluish black, lower pale bluish ; the anterior 
half of the margins dusky ; eyelids bluish ; iris orange-brown ; legs 
pale dusky green ; claws yellowish (April). 



STACHTEHIS. 163 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-2 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape 
75. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the extreme east of 
Assam and thence south through all the States and hill-tracts of 
Eastern ^Bengal to Arrakan, Pegu, and Tenasserim. This species 
appears to be found up to 10,000 feet of elevation in summer. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to June, constructing a domed 
nest of grass and leaves on the ground generally on banks. The 
eggs measure '76 by -58. 

170. Stachyrhis chrysaea. The Golden-headed Babbler. 

Stachyris chrysaea, Hodgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 379 (1844) ; 

Hodgs. in Gray's ZooL Misc. p. 83 (1844) ; id. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 23 ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 150; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 232 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 22 ; 

Hume, N. Sf E. p. 245 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 636 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 394 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 142 j Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 112. 
Stachyridopsis chrysaea (Hodgs.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 601 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 52. 

The Golden-headed Wren-Babbler, Jerd. ; Syak-birang-pho, Lepch. 

. Coloration. Forehead just above the lores pure yellow ; lores, 
in front of the eye, and a short moustachial streak black ; ear-coverts 
oil-yellow ; forehead, crown, and nape bright golden-yellow, 
streaked with black ; upper plumage and exposed parts of wings 
bright olive-yellow ; tail brown, washed with yellow on the outer 
webs ; sides of neck like the back ; entire lower plumage bright 
yellow. 

Bill plumbeous ; legs pale brownish yellow ; iris light brown 
(Jerdoii). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2 ; tarsus -75 ; bill from gape 
55. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, Bhutan, and Assam ; Khasi hills ; 
Manipur ; the neighbourhood of Bhamo ; probably Arrakan ; up 
to 5000 feet elevation. A specimen from Perak in the British 
Museum is referable to this species. 

Habits, $c. Gammie found a nest in Sikhim in May an oval 
structure made of bamboo-leaves and fixed verticaUy between 
some upright branchlets within two feet of the ground. The eggs 
measure '63 by '48. 

171. Stachyrhis assimilis. The Allied Babbler. 

Strachyrhis assimilis, Wald. in Blyttis Birds Burm. p. 116 (1875) ; 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 56; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi,pp. 265, 514 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 394 bis. 
Stachyris bocagei, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (1) xiv. p. 223 

(1879). 
Stachyridopsis assimilis ( Wald.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 602 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 53 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 

p. 605. 

M2 



164 CEATEEOPODIDJE. 

Coloration. Resembles S. chryscea. Differs in having the whole 
upper plumage dull green, tinged with ashy or slaty on the back, 
the yellow on the crown quite pale, and the lower plumage entirely 
dull yellow. Of the same size as 8. chryscea. 

Legs and feet fleshy yellow ; upper mandible brown ; lower 
pale plumbeous, fleshy at base; iris deep red-brown (Davison}. 
Iris lake ; bill lavender, pink at base ; legs brownish yellow ; feet 
greenish ( Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Distribution. There are undoubted specimens of this species in 
the Hodgson collection, either from Nepal or Sikhim ; there is also 
in the British Museum a specimen from Assam ; the bird is known 
from Karennee, and from Muleyit and Nwalabo mountains in 
Tenasserim ; it also occurs in the mountains of Sumatra. 



Genus STACHYRHIDOPSIS, Sharpe, 1883. 

This genus differs from Stachyrhit in having the culmen perfectly 
straight and, as before remarked, in laying spotted eggs. 

The habits do not differ from those of Stachyrhis, so far as can 
be judged from the meagre information on record. 

Key to the /Species. 

a. Crown chestnut. 

a'. Throat yellow with black shafts S. ruficcps, p. 164. 

b'. Throat whitish with black shafts S. rufifrons, p. 165. 

b. Crown fulvous, chin black S. pyrrhops, p, 165. 

172. Stachyrhidopsis ruficeps. The Red-headed Babbler. 

Stachyris ruficeps, Myth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 452 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 150; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 409 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 22 ; Hume, N. 

E. p. 244 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 265 ; Hume, Cat. no. 393 ; 

.Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 471. 
Stachyris praecognitus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1866, p. 310 ; id. P. Z. S. 1871, 

p. 373. 
Stachyridopsis ruficeps (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 598 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 112. 

The Red-headed Wren-Babbler, Jerd. ; Syak-birany-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape chestnut, the frontal 
feathers with indications of black shafts ; upper plumage, tail, and 
exposed parts of wings olive-green ; chin and upper throat pale 
yellow, with conspicuous black shafts ; sides of the head and neck 
and entire lower plumage fulvous yellow, the sides of the body, 
thighs, vent, and under tail-coverts tinged with olivaceous. 

Bill plumbeous above, reddish beneath : legs pale yellow-brown ; 
iris light brown (Jerdori). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2; wing 2'1 ; tarsus '8; bill from gape 
65. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Dibrugarh in Assam ; extending 
into China. 



STACHYRHIDOPSIS. 165 

Habits, $"c. Brooks observes that this bird, so long as it finds dense 
cover, is indifferent about elevation. It has a low soft whistle. 
It breeds from April to June, constructing a nest of bamboo-leaves 
in bushes a few feet from the ground. The nest is generally 
domed, but not always. The eggs, which are white speckled with 
reddish, measure -68*by -52. 

173. Stachyrhidopsis rufifrons. Hume's Babbler. 

Stachyris rufifrons, Hume, S. F. i, p. 470 (1873), iii, p. 117; Wald. 

in BlytVs Birch Burm. p. 110 ; Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 274 ; Hume, S. 

F. iv, p. 501 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 265 ; Hume, Cat. no. 393 

bis ; Binghcun, S. F. ix, p. 179; Hume, S. F. xi,p. 141. 
Stachyridopsis rufifrons (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 599 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 54. 

Coloration. Eesembles S. ruficeps. Differs in having the chin 
and upper throat white, with black shafts, the sides of the head 
decidedly ashy, with the lores and a ring round the eye con- 
spicuously paler, and the rufous on the crown duller and not 
extending to the nape. 

Bill blue ; iris deep red ; eyelids plumbeous ; legs fleshy brown ; 
claws pale horn-colour. 

Length nearly 5; tail 1-9; wing 2-1 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from gape 
55. 

Distribution. The lower hills of Sikhim, the Bhutan Doars, and 
Assam up to Dibrugarh ; thence down to Pegu and Tenasserim, 
through the hill-tracts of Eastern Bengal and Upper Burma. 
This species has also been found in Karennee. It is very sparingly 
spread over the above area and is nowhere common. 

174. Stachyrhidopsis pyrrhops. The Red-billed Babbler. 

Stachyris pyrrhops, Hoilgs., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 379 (1844) ; 

Hodgs. in Gray's Zool, Misc. p. 83 (1844) ; id. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 23 ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 150; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 232; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 21 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 36 j Cock $ Marsh. 

S. F. i, p. 354; Hume, N. 8f E.^. 243; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 237; 

Hume, Cat. no. 392. 
Stachyridopsis pyrrhops (Hodgs:), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 600; 

Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 114. 

The Red-billed Wren-Babbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead and anterior half of crown fulvous, blend- 
ing with the olive-brown of the upper plumage, the feathers of the 
forehead, crown, and mantle dark-shafted; lores and chin black, 
the lower portion of the latter barred with white ; sides of the head 
fulvous ; lower plumage rather brighter fulvous, the sides of the 
body, flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts tinged with olivaceous. 

Upper mandible dark brown, lower fleshy pink tinged blue ; legs, 
feet, and claws brownish fleshy ; iris red (Hume Coll.). Iris blood- 
red ; bill sordid sanguine (Jerdon). 



166 OEATEEOPODID^B. 

Length about 5; tail 2-2; wing 2-1; tarsus -7; bill from 
gape -65. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Nepal. This species 
does not appear to occur in Sikhim. It ranges up to 7000 feet. 

Habits, c. Breeds in June and probably in other months, making 
a cup-shaped nest of dry reed-leaves lined with grass in a bush. 
The eggs are white speckled with reddish, and measure -66 by -51. 

Genus CYANODERMA, Salvadori, 1874. 

This genus differs from the two preceding in having the 
culmen straight on its basal half and slightly curved on its terminal 
half. Also in having the orbits naked and of a bright colour in 
life. 

Sharpe (Notes from the Leyden Museum, vi, p. 176) has been 
persuaded into uniting his genus Stachyrhidopsis with Gyanoderma ; 
but I am of opinion that the two genera are quite distinct, and the 
characters pointed out above should be sufficient to differentiate 
the two. 

175. Cyanoderma erythropterum. The Red-iuinged Babbler. 

Timalia erythroptera, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 794 (1842) ; id. Cat. 

p. 150 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i. pp. 229, 420; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 322. 
Cyanoderma erythropterum (Blyth), Salvad. Ucc. Bom. p. 213; 

Tweedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 308 : Hume 8? Dav. S. F. vi, p. 269 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 396 bis ; id. S. F. ix, p. 129 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 115. 
Mixornis erythroptera (Blyth}, Oates, B. B. i, p. 51 ; Shame, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 580. 

Coloration. Forehead, supercilium, ear-coverts, sides of the head 
and neck, chin, throat, and breast clear plumbeous ; abdomen, 
flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts fulvous brown ; upper plumage 
rufescent brown ; wing-coverts, wings, and tail bright ferruginous. 

Bill dark plumbeous blue, upper mandible darkest, in some 
brownish ; visible skin of cheeks and orbits from pure light to dull 
dirty smalt-blue ; iris madder-red to deep brown ; legs, feet, and 
claws very pale, almost white, tinged with greenish or yellowish 
green (Hume fy Davison}. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape 
7. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, ranging down 
the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. Entirely arboreal. Davison found the nest in April 
a round ball of dry reed-leaves in a bush ; it did not contain eggs. 

f OO 



Genus MIXORNIS, Hodgs., 1842. 

The genus Mixornis differs from all the other genera of slender- 
billed Timeliince in having the nostrils oval, exposed and not covered 
by a scale or membrane as in the others. 



MIXOBNIS. 167 

The two species of Mixornis are not very distinct, and it is 
sometimes difficult to separate them. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown pale ferruginous; streaks on breast 

confined to shafts M. rubncapffltu, p. 167. 

b. Crown chestnut ; streaks on breast broad, 

wider than shaft M. gularis, p. 168. 

176. Mixornis rubricapillus. The Yellow-breasted Babbler. 

Motacilla rubicapilla, Tick. J. A. S. B. ii, p. 576 (1833). 

Mixornis chloris (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 149. 

Mixornis rubicapillus (Tick.), Horsf. fy M.Cat. i, p. 229 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, 
p. 23 ; Wold. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 547 ; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 376; Hume, 
N. fy E. p. 245 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 408 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. ]18 ; 
Oates, S. F. v, p. 152 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 635 ; 
Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 266, 514 ; Hime, Cat. no. 395 ; Gates, 
B. B. i, p. 50 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 578 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 
p. 142 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 115. 

The Yellow-breasted Wren-Babbler, Jerd. 




Fig. 48. Head of M. rubricapillus. 

Coloration. Extreme point of forehead and the lores yellow with 
black shafts, continued back as a uniform yellow supercilium ; 
crown pale ferruginous, blending on the nape with the olive-green 
of the upper plumage and sides of neck ; ear-coverts dull yellow 
with pale shafts ; cheeks, chin, throat, and upper breast yellow, 
with black shafts ; centre of breast and abdomen plain yellow ; 
remainder of lower plumage dull ashy yellow. 

Iris dull white ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill horny brown ; legs 
fleshy horn-colour; claws yellowish. The iris appears to vary 
from white to yellow. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape 
65. 

Distribution. Chutia Nagpur ; Sikhim and along the base of the 
Himalayas to the extreme east of Assam, and thence south through 
Eastern Bengal and its adjacent hill-tracts to Arrakan and Ten- 
asserim, in which latter division this bird is found to a short 
distance below Tavoy, where it meets the next species. 

Hodgson figures this bird (no. 699), but it is not clear whether 
it occurs in Nepal or not. In the Pinwill Collection, however, 
there is a specimen from the N.W. Himalayas, and this locality 
is probably either Kumaon or G-arhwal. 



168 CKATEKOPODID^E. 

Habits, fyc. This species is usually found in tree- and bush-jungle 
creeping about the branches, and it does not appear to feed on the 
ground. I have never seen it except on trees. It has a mono- 
tonous note, which is constantly uttered throughout the day. It 
breeds in May and June, constructing a round nest of grass or 
bamboo-leaves in a thick bush not many feet above the ground. 
The eggs, usually three in number, are white speckled with red, 
and measure -68 by -5. 

177. Mixornis* gularis. The Sumatran Yellow-breasted Babbler. 

Motacilla gularis, Raffl. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 312 (1820). 
Mixornis gularis (Ecfffi.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 149; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, 

p. 229 ; Wald. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 548, 1872, p. 376 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 266 ; Hume, Cat, no. 895 bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p, 51 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 576 j Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 116. 

Coloration. Resembles M. rubricapillus. Differs in having the 
cheeks, chin, throat, and upper breast with broad black shaft- 
streaks (not black shafts merely) ; the crown of a chestnut-brown 
(not pale ferruginous) ; the upper plumage more rufous, and the 
exposed parts of the wings castaneous. 

Iris pale red-brown ; lower mandible and orbital skin pale blue; 
rest of bill bluish brown ; legs and feet greenish brown (Davison). 

Of very slightly larger size than M. rubricapillus. 

In addition to the points of difference noted above as existing 
between this species and M. rubricapillus, it should be observed 
that the iris is red-brown as recorded by Davison. 

Distribution. Southern Tenasserim from Mergui, extending down 
the Malay peninsula to Sumatra. 

Genus SCH(ENIPARUS, Hume, 1874. 

With the genus Sclioeniparus we enter on a group of small birds 
with short blunt bills like the Tits, and with very strong feet. 
Their proper position is undoubtedly in this subfamily, both on 
account of their structure and their habits. 

This first genus Schoeniparus may be separated from the three 
that follow it, first, by the nostrils being free and not overhung by 
hairs, and, secondly, by the tail being equal in length to the wing. 
The bill is also stronger than in the other genera. 

Key to the Species. 

a. No chestnut band across throat. 

a'. Sides of neck plain S. dubius, p. 168. 

b'. Sides of neck streaked S. mandellii, p. 169. 

b. A chestnut baud across throat S. ruf gularis, p. 170. 

178. Schoeniparus dubius. Hume's Tit-Babbler. 
Proparus dubius, Hume, Proc. A. S. B. 1874, p. 107 ; id. S. F. ii, 



SCH(ENIPAEUS. 169 

p. 447 ; Wald. in BlytKs Birds Burm. p. 110 ; Davison, S. F. v, 

p. 459 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 372, 519 ; Hume, Cat. no. 622 

bis ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 148. 

Minla dubia (Hume}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. yii, p. 611. 
Schceniparus dubius (Hume), Hume, S. F. ii, p. 449 ; Salvador*, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 607 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 117. 

Coloration. Forebead, crown, and nape reddish brown, each 
feather obsoletely margined darker, and the forehead tinged with 
chestnut ; lores and a band on each side of the crown, the two bands 
more or less blending on the upper back, black ; a white super- 
cilium commencing at the eye and reaching to the nape ; ear- 
coverts and sides of neck pale fulvous brown ; upper plumage 
olive-brown, tinged with rufous on the exposed parts of the wings 
and tail ; lower plumage pale fulvous, whitish on the chin and 
throat, suffused with olivaceous on the sides of the breast and 
abdomen and on the under tail-coverts. 

Legs, feet, and claws fleshy ; bill dull black or dark brown, 
generally pale at the base of the lower mandible ; iris sometimes 
yellowish red, sometimes pale yellowish or sienna-brown or slaty- 
pink (Hume fy Davison). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The northern portion of Tenasserim, where this 
bird has been procured at Pabpoon, and the central portion, where 
it has been found on Muleyit mountain at 5000 to 6000 feet of 
elevation. 

Habits, $c. Davison informs us that this bird feeds much on the 
ground and among the low brushwood, entirely on insects. It is 
by no means shy, and when alarmed utters its note repeatedly. 
He found the nest on Muleyit, a globular structure of dry reed- 
leaves lined with fibres, situated on the ground at the base of a 
plant. The eggs, three in number, are white, spotted with black 
and smudged with brown, and measure *78 by -59. 

179. Schceniparus mandellii. Mandelli's Tit-Babbler. 




p. 610. 

Proparus mandellii (Godie.-Aiwt.}, Hume, Cat. no. 622 ter ; id. S. F. 
xi, p. 250. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape reddish brown, each 
feather distinctly margined with dark brown, and the forehead 
tinged with chestnut ; lores and a band on each side of the crown, 
the two bands more or less blending on the upper back, black ; 
the upper back, the hind neck, and the sides of the neck streaked 
with fulvous and dark brown or black, the inner webs of the feathers 
being fulvous, and the outer brown or black ; a white supercilium 
commencing at the eye and reaching to the nape ; ear-coverts dark 
hair-brown ; upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with rufous on the 



170 CKATEKOPODID^E. 

exposed parts of the wings and tail ; lower plumage pale fulvous, 
suffused with olivaceous on the sides of the breast and abdomen 
and on the under tail-coverts. 

Legs and feet pale yellowish fleshy-brown; bill black; iris 
reddish maroon {Hume} ; iris red (CocJcburn); iris dark red-brown 
(Godw.-Aust.'). 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape -6. 




Fig. 49. Head of 8. mandellii. 

This species differs from S. dubius in having the hind neck and 
the sides of the neck streaked, the crown darker rufous, with more 
prominent dark edges to the feathers, the ear-coverts much darker 
brown, and the chin and throat fulvous. A specimen from the 
pine-forests of the Salween is somewhat intermediate. 

Distribution. The Daphla, JN"aga, and Khasi hills ; Manipur. 

Habits, c. Hume observes that this bird keeps in small parties 
of three to six in number, and haunts the brushwood, balsams, and 
other plants growing in the deep shade of forests. It is active, 
nimble, and restless. 

180. Schceniparus rufigularis. The Red-throated Tit-Babbler. 

Minla rufigularis, Mandetti, S. F. i, p. 416 (1873) ; Godw.-Aust. 

A. M. N. H. (4) xvii, p. 33 ; id. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 199, 

xlvii, pt. ii, p. 25 ; Hume, Cat. p. 618 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 

p. 610 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 249. 
Alcippe collaris, Wold. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 156 (1874) ; Hume, 

S. F. iii, p. 281 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 82. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape chestnut, bounded on 
each side by a black band, the two bands blending on the nape ; 
lores and a supercilium, below and next to the black band, white ; 
the upper part of the ear-coverts and a patch below the eye 
blackish ; the lower part of the ear-coverts rufous, connected 
together by a broad chestnut band across the throat ; upper 
plumage, wings, and tail olive-green, the outer webs of the wings 
and tail suffused with fulvous ; chin, throat, and centre of breast 
and abdomen white ; remainder of the lower plumage olivaceous, 
tinged with rufous on the under tail- coverts. 

Legs and feet pale yellowish horny -brown ; bill black ; inside 
of mouth yellow (Hume). 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape '6. 



SITTIPARTJS. 171 

Distribution. The Bhutan doars ; Daphla hills ; Naga hills ; Ma- 
pur. 

Habits ^'c. This Tit-Babbler appears to be numerous on the Daphla 
hills at 3000 feet of elevation. Nothing about its habits is on record. 



nipur 



Genus SITTIPARUS, n. gen. 

The genus for which I propose the name of Sittiparus (with 
S. cinereus as the type) contains two birds which are quite different 
from Schceniparus on the one hand, and from Proparus and Lioparus 
on the other. 

In 1844 (J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 939) Hodgson proposed the name 
of Certliiparus for S. castaneiceps. This name had, however, been 
given by Lafresnaye two years previously to some birds from New 
Zealand, and Hodgson's name cannot therefore be retained. 

Sittiparus is one of the genera of Timeliine birds with a Tit-like 
bill. It differs from Schoeniparus in having the tail very much 
shorter than the wing, and from Proparus and Lioparus in having 
no hairs overhanging the nostrils. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Head grey j a long black supercilium S. cinereus, p. ] 71. 

b. Head chestnut ; no black supercilium S. castaneiceps, p. 172. 

181. Sittiparus cinereus. The Dusky-green Tit-Babbler. 

Minla cinerea, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xvi, p. 449 (1847) ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, 
p. 255 ; Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109 ; Blanf. 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 166 ; Hume, Cat no. 620. 

Leiothrix cinerea (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 100 ; Horsf. & M. Cat. \, 
p. 367 ; Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 142. 

The Dusky-green Hill-Tit, Jerd. 




Fig. 50. Head of S. cinereus. 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish green, the feathers of the 
forehead, crown, and nape margined with black ; a broad black 
band on each side of the crown from the forehead to the nape, 
terminating in a number of streaks on the upper back ; a broad 
pale yellow supercilium from the bill to the nape under the black 
coronal band ; a spot in front of the eye and a band behind, black ; 
ear-coverts mingled greyish and black ; cheeks yellow, tipped black; 
wings and tail suffused on the outer webs of the feathers with the 



172 CRATEHOPODIDjE. 

colour of the back ; chin, throat, breast, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts yellow ; sides of neck, breast, and abdomen olivaceous. 

Bill dusky ; legs fleshy yellow ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 4-5; fail 1-7; wing 2-3; tarsus -8; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim ; the Khasi hills. 

There is nothing on record about the habits of this bird. 

182. Sittiparus castaneiceps. The Chestnut-headed Tit-Babbler. 

Minla castaniceps, Hoclys. 2nd. Rev. 1838, p. 33 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 255 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109. 
Leiothrix castaniceps (Hodys.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 100 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 367. 
Minla castaneiceps (Hodas.), Hume, N. fyE. p. 393 ; Wold, in BlytKs 

Birds Burm. p. 110 ; Damson, S. F. v, p. 459 ; Hume Dav. S. F. 

vi,p. 372; Hume, Cat. no. 619; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 320; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 146 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 608 ; Salvador^ Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 601 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 249. 
Minla brunneicauda, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 609 (1883). 
Sittiparus castaneiceps (Hodgs.), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 118. 
The Chestnut-headed Hill-Tit, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape chestnut-brown, the 
feathers of the forehead with broad white streaks, those of the 
crown and nape with pale rufous streaks ; sides of the forehead, 
lores, a broad superyilium, the ear-coverts, and a patch under the 
eye white ; a spot in front of the eye, a broad streak behind the 
eye and over the ear-coverts, and a narrow moustachial streak 
black ; back, scapulars, rump, and the smaller wing-coverts olive- 
green, tinged with fulvous ; greater wing-coverts and primary- 
coverts black ; winglet white on the outer webs, black on the inner ; 
the earlier primaries edged with hoary grey, the others and the 
secondaries edged with chestnut on the base of the outer webs, with 
olive-green on the other parts ; tertiaries broadly edged with olive- 
green on both webs ; chin, throat, breast, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts pale fulvous white ; sides of breast and body ochraceous ; 
under wing-coverts white. 

Upper mandible dusky ; the lower livid, yellow at base ; iris 
crimson (in one bird dark brownish red) ; gape yellow ; feet dingy 
greenish yellow ; claws yellowish horny (Scully). 

Length about 4-5; tail 1-6; wing 2-2; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -55. 

I cannot separate S. brunneicauda, and I believe that Sharpe 
himself does not now consider it distinct. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, the Khasi and Garo hills, Manipur, 
Karennee and Muleyit mountain in Tenasseriin. 

Habits, tyc. Davison says : " This little bird was common on the 
slopes of Muleyit from 3500 feet and upwards, usually going 
about in flocks of twenty or more, and hunting in a systematic 
manner' amongst the brushwood and trees, peering into every 
crack and cranny and keeping up the whole time a low twittering." 



PROPARUS. 173 

Two nests of this species were found by Davison on Muleyit 
mountain in February. In both cases the nests were constructed of 
green moss lined with fibres and dry leaves, and were cup-shaped. 
One nest was placed in a masss of creepers about five feet from 
the Aground, and the other in the moss growing on the trunk of a 
large tree. The eggs were white minutely spotted with black, and 
three in number in each instance ; they measured '73 by -57. 

Genus PROPARUS, Hodgs., 1841. 

The geuus Proparus is the third of the Timeliine genera with a 
Tit-like bill. It may be recognized by the hairs which overhang 
the nostrils, the narrower bill, and the immense hind claw which is 
as long as the hind toe ; the rictal bristles are short. The tail and 
wing are about equal in length. 

This genus agrees in every minute particular with Fulvetta of 
David and Oustalet, which was instituted for some birds from the 
mountains of China. 

183. Proparus vinipectus. The Plain-brown Tit-Babbler. 

Siva vinipectus, Hodgs. 2nd. Rev. 1838, p. 89. 

Leiothrix viuipectus (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 100 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 368. 
Proparus vinipectus (Hodys.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 257 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 50 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 45 ; 

Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 169 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 394 ; 

id. Cat. no 622 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 119. 
Alcippe vinipectus (Hodgs.), Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 619. 

The Plain Brown Hill-Thrush, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and scapulars vinous 
brown ; lores dusky ; a very broad white supercilium to the nape, 
bordered above by a black band reaching beyond the nape, which 
tends to meet its fellow on the upper back ; rump and upper wing- 
and tail- coverts ferruginous ; tail brown, washed with ferruginous 
on the base and the outer webs ; the earlier primaries edged with 
hoary grey, the next few entirely black on the outer webs, the 
remaining quills ferruginous on the outer webs ; ear-coverts and 
cheeks vinous brown like the crown ; chin, throat, and upper breast 
white, with indistinct dusky streaks ; lower breast vinous ; abdomen, 
flanks, and under tail-coverts fulvous. 

Bill and legs fleshy brown (Jerdori) ; iris dark brown (Hume 
Coll.) ; iris pale ochre ; legs and feet pale umber-grey ( Godtv.- 
Aust.) iris yellow, with a reddish tinge ; legs livid ; bill dusky 
above, livid below (Blanf.). 

Length about 4-8 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Sikhim up 
to elevations of 11,000 feet or more ; Japvo peak, Burrail range at 
9000 feet. 



174 CBATEEOPODIDjE. 

Habits, #c. Of this bird nothing is recorded except the nidification. 
It breeds in Sikhim in May and June, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest of grass and bamboo-leaves in the branches of dense brush- 
wood not much above the ground. One egg described by Hume 
was pale green with sepia marks, and measured '73 by *55. 



Genus LIOPARUS, n. gen. 

I propose the name of Lioparus for the last of the four genera 
of Tit-like Timeliince, with L. chrysceus as the type, a bird which has 
been placed in the genus Proparus by most authors. 

Lioparus differs from Schoeniparus and Sittiparus by having 
numerous hairs overhanging the nostrils, and from Proparus by 
its long rictal bristles which reach nearly to the tip of the bill, by its 
broader bill, and by its much smaller hind claw, which measures 
much less than the hind toe. 

The plumage of this bird is remarkably sleek and soft. 

184. Lioparus chrysaeus. The Golden-breasted Tit-Babbler. 

Proparus ? chrysaeus, Hodgs. in Gray's ZooL Misc. p. 84 (1844). 
Proparus chrysotis (Hodgs.}, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 938 (1844). 
Leiothrix chrysotis (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 100. 
Leiothrix chrysceus (Hodgs.}, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 367. 
Proparus chrysseus (Hodgs.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 256 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. ii, p. 45 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 82 ; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 394 ; id. Cat. no. 621 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 

pt. ii, p. 19 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 250. 
Alcippe chryssea (Hodgs.}, Sharps, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 627. 
Lioparus chrysaeus (Hodgs.}, Oates in Hume's JV". fy E. 2nd ed. i. 

p. 120. 
Prong-samyer-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and lores soft blackish ashy ; 
ear-coverts, cheeks, and a ring round the eye silvery white, the 
first streaked with ashy ; back and scapulars ashy olive ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts olive-green ; tail brown, the basal two thirds of 
the outer webs of all the feathers margined with orange-yellow : 
wing-coverts black ; wings dark brown, the first five primaries edged 
with orange-yellow; the secondaries all broadly margined with 
orange-yellow and tipped white ; tertiaries broadly margined with 
white interiorly ; chin and throat silvery ashy brown ; remainder of 
lower plumage bright orange-yellow 

Bill plumbeous; legs pale fleshy; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1'9 ; wing 2*1 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape -45. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim ; the Daphla and Eastern Naga 
hills ; Manipur. Found on hills and mountains up to 9000 feet or 
probably higher. 

Habits, <$fc. Absolutely nothing is known about the general habits 
of this bird. Of its nidification Hodgson relates that it lays three 



RIMATOR. 175 

or four eggs in an egg- shaped nest made of bamboo-leaves and 
grass in a clump of bamboos. The eggs appear to be white, spotted 
with brownish red, and to measure ? by '5. 

Genus RIMATOR, Blyth, 1847. 

The sole bird which constitutes the genus Rimator is remarkable 
for its very long bill and its very short tail. There can be no doubt 
that its proper position is in this subfamily, but it has no very close 
ally. 

In this genus the bill is slender and as long as the head ; the cul- 
nien is curved downwards and the tip of the bill is barely notched ; 
the rictal bristles are short ; the nostrils are open ovals. The tail 
is less than half the length of the wing and slightly rounded. 

The only species known inhabits the higher mountains of Sikhiin 
and Manipur. 

185. Rimator malacoptilus. The Long-billed Babbler. 

Rimator malacoptilus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, pp. 155, 864 878 

(1847) ; id. Cat. p. 338 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 717 ; Jerd. B. I. 

i, p. 493 ; Godio.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 196 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 335 ; Sharpe, Cat, B. M. vii, p. 594 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 121. 
Caulodromus gracei, Gray fy Mitch. Gen. Birds, i, p. 143, pi. 44, 

fig. 4. 
Merva ierdonii, Hodgs. Calc. Journ. N. H. viii, p. 46. r>l iii. fio- 9 

(1847). 

The Long-billed Wren, Jerd. ; Karriak-tunybrek-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 51. Head of B. malacoptilus. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, sides of the neck, and mantle 
dark rufescent brown, with very distinct fulvous shaft-streaks ; the 
feathers of the back with the inner webs black, and the outer webs 
brown and with pale fulvous shafts ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and 
tail plain rufescent ; wing-coverts and the outer webs of the quills 
rufous-brown, the former with pale shafts ; lores fulvous ; ear- 
coverts rufous-ashy with paler shafts ; cheeks mingled black and 
fulvous, with a black line above ; chin fulvous white ; throat, breast, 
and abdomen rufescent brown, with large pale fulvous shaft- 
streaks ; sides of body and thighs plain rufescent brown ; vent and 
under tail-coverts ferruginous. 

Bill dark horny, fleshy at the base ; legs brownish red ; iris 
light brown (Jerdon). 

JLength nearly 5 ; tail 1; wing 2-3; tarsus -9; bill from gape 
"95. 



176 CEATEEOPODID^. 

Distribution. Sikhim aud Manipur, only at considerable elevations. 
There are some specimens of this hird in the British Museum, col- 
lected by Hodgson, but it is not clear whether they were obtained 
in Nepal or in Sikhim. 

Habits, fyc. As remarked by Jerdon, this species is probably a 
ground feeder in thick brushwood, and its food consists of insects. 



Genus TURDINULUS, Hume, 1878. 

The proper position of this genus is doubtless near the thick- 
billed genera such as Drymocataphus, but it is more convenient to 
place it here. 

In Turdinulus the tail is reduced to a minimum in length. The 
bill is of the same shape as that of Drymocataplius (fig. 41, p. 146), 
and the nostrils of both genera are alike. The rictal bristles are 
moderate. 



186. Turdinulus roberti. Robert's Babbler. 

Myiothera murina, Mull, apud Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 47. 

Pnoepyga caudata, Blyth, apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 101 (1870). 
Pnoepyga roberti, Godw.-Aust. 8f Wald. Ibis, 1875, p. 252; Godio.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 195; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 218. 
Turdinulus roberti (G.-A. $ Wald.), Hume, S. F. vi, p. 234 (1878) ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 332 ter; Sharpe, Notes Leyd. Mus. vi, p. 173. 
Turdinulus inurinus (Miill.),apud Hume, S. F. ix, p. 115 ; Gates, B. B. 

i, p. 62 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 593. 

Coloration. Upper plumage with the tail and exposed parts of 
the wings rufescent olive-brown, the forehead decidedly fulvous, the 
feathers of the crown, nape, and back edged with black, and those 
of the back with fulvous shaft-streaks, as also those of the lesser 
wing-coverts, the median and greater coverts and tertiaries with 
terminal fulvous-white spots ; lores and a long supercilium to the 
nape fulvous ; sides of the head fulvous mottled with black, the 
ear-coverts with paler shafts, and the cheeks narrowly banded with 
black ; chin and throat pale fulvous, generally quite plain, occasion- 
ally with a few very minute brown specks ; breast and abdomen 
fulvous, the edges of the feathers broadly brown ; sides of body 
and thighs nearly uniform fulvescent brown ; under tail-coverts 
ferruginous. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale brown and brown to pale fleshy-brown 
and dusky fleshy ; upper mandible brown to black, lower pale to 
dark plumbeous ; iris brown, light brown, cinnabar, sienna-brown, 
deep brown (Hume). 

Length about 4*5; tail *9 ; wing 2*1 ; tarsus "8; bill from gape 
75. 

Distribution. Asalu and also at Chakha in the Manipur hills ; 
Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim at 5000 feet and upwards. 



BRACK YPTKRYGIXT. 177 

The species found in Sumatra and identified by Blyth with T. roberti 
does not, according to Sharpe, appear to be the same. 

Habits, <3fc. Mr. Davison observes that these birds are generally 
seen in pairs, occasionally three or four together, hopping about on 
the ground or amongst the stems of the undergrowth only in the 
densest portions of the forest. They are not shy and do not fly 
unless very closely pressed. 



Subfamily BRACHYPTERYGIN^E. 

The subfamily Br achy pier ygina> forms a group of birds which, in 
addition to possessing the general characters of the family, are 
specially recognizable by their long legs and short tails. In habits 
they are terrestrial, and nearly all of them are skulkers in thick 
brushwood. 

This subfamily connects the Turdidce with the Crateropodidce. 
Its members have still, in great measure, the habits of Thrushes, 
but the young have emancipated themselves from the mottled 
plumage. With two exceptions the adults have given up their 
migratory habits, and the two sexes of many of them have the 
plumage alike. The eggs of nearly all the species, so far as they 
are known, are spotted. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail much longer than tarsus. 

'. Tail but little graduated or nearly square, 

outer feathers falling short of tip of 

tail by less than half the length of 

tarsus. 

a" ' . Tail not less than twice the length of 

tarsus. 

a' ". Second primary equal to or exceed- 
ing the longest secondaries. 
a 4 . First primary longer than half the 

second . . .' MYIOPHGNEUS, p. 178. 

b*. First primary shorter than half the 

second LARVIYOBA, p. 181. 

V" . Second primary much shorter than 
the longest secondaries. 

c 4 . Nostrils round ARRENGA, p. 183. 

rf 4 . Nostrils long ovals BRACHYPTERYX, p. 184. 

b". Tail much shorter than twice the length 

of tarsus DRYMOCHARES, p. 186. 

//. Tail greatly graduated, outer feathers fall- 
ing short of tip of tail by as much as 
length of tarsus. 
c". Nostrils roundish ovals, pierced in the 

anterior corner of the membrane .... HODGSONIUS, p. 189. 
d'\ Nostrils linear, pierced along the lower 

edge of the covering membrane ELAPHRORNIS, p. 190. 

VOL. I. -8 



178 CRATEBOPODID-dE. 

b. Tail much shorter than tarsus. 

e". Breadth of bill at the nostrils greater 

than its depth TESIA, p. 191. 

/". Breadth of bill at the nostrils equal to 

its depth OLIGURA, p. 193. 

Genus MYIOPHONEUS, Temminck, 1823. 

The genus Myiophoneus contains a few species of birds of very 
brilliant blue plumage. Three occur within our limits and others 
are found in China and the Malayan islands. 

In Myiophoneus the bill is very stout, but somewhat shorter than 
the head, compressed laterally, and considerably hooked at the tip, 
and the nostrils are round. The wing is rounded, but not nearly 
so much so as in Arrenga. The legs and feet are remarkably strong. 

The young birds are very similar to the adults, but for the first 
few weeks or perhaps months the brilliant glossy spots of the adult 
are absent. The adults of both sexes resemble each other. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Bill more or less yellow. 

'. Median wing-coverts tipped white M. temmincld, p. 178. 

b'. Median wing-coverts plain M, en genii, p. 179. 

ft. Bill entirely black M. horsjieldi, p. ] 80. 

187. Myiophoneus temmincki. The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush. 

Myiophomis temminckii, Vigors, P.Z.S. 1831, p. 171; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 21 j Blyth, Cat. p. 159; Jerd. B. I.\, p. 500 ; Hume, N. # E. 

p. 221 ; Hume Sf Henderson, Lah. to Yark. p. 187 ; Hume, 8. F. 

li, p. 331, hi, p. 105 ; id. Cat. no. 343 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 281 ; 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 18 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 7 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 122 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 120. 
Myiophonus cseruleus (Scop.), apud Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 199. 

The Yellow-billed Whistling-Thrush, Jerd. ; Kastura, of the Hills (N.W. 
Himalaya) ; Kaljit, of the Boon ; Chamong-pho } Lepch. ; Tetiman, Bhut. ; 
Simtung, Khasi. 

Coloration. Lores and base of forehead black, the forehead higher 
up bright cobalt-blue ; the whole plumage blue, each feather tipped 
with glistening blue ; wings and tail overlaid with cobalt-blue on 
the outer webs ; lesser wing-coverts black, with broad margins of 
glistening cobalt-blue ; median wing-coverts tipped with white. 

The young have the upper plumage and wings dull blue without 
the glistening tips ; the whole lower plumage dull black ; tail like 
that of the adult. 

Bill yellow, the culmen and the base of the upper mandible 
blackish ; iris brown ; feet and claws black. 

Length about 13'5 ; tail 5-5 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 2'1 ; bill from 
gape 1'6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country and Grilgit 
to the Daphla hills in Assam ; the hill-ranges south of Assam ; 



MYIOPHONEUS. 179 

Cachar ; Manipur ; Arrakan, and probably the whole country west 
of the Irrawaddy river ; Karennee and the Karen hills, where this 
is found together with the next species. This bird also extends 
into Afghanistan and Turkestan. 

In sumnier this species is found up to 11,000 feet, but in winter 
it descends to lower levels and even to the plains. In Cachar it is 
said to be merely a winter visitor. 

Habits, $c. This species frequents hill-streams and torrents, 
perching on rocks and snags and feeding largely on snails, the shells 
of which are frequently found accumulated on the ground where 
the bird has been in the habit of breaking them up. It has a loud 
and pretty whistling note. It breeds from April to June, con- 
structing a massive cup-shaped nest of roots and moss in a crevice 
of a rock or in the root of some up-turned tree in the river-bed 
near or under a waterfall, and laying from three to five eggs, which 
are pale grey or green, speckled with pink and brown. The eggs 
measure 1*42 by 1. 

188. Myiophoneus eugenii. The Burmese WJiistling-ThrusJi. 

Myiophoneus eugenei, Hume, S. F. i, p. 475 (1873), iii, p. 106, v, 
p. 113, note ; Hume Sf Dae. 8. F. vi, p. 236 j Hume, Cat. no. 343 bis ; 
Singham, S. F. ix, p. 176 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 204 ; id. B. B. i, p. 17 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 9 ; Salvador i, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 
v, p. 010 j Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 123. 




Fig. 52. Head of M. eugenii. 

Coloration. Eesembles M. temmincki. Differs in having the 
median upper wing-coverts without the conspicuous white tips of 
that species, and in having a bill much larger and with less black on 
the upper mandible. 

Bill orange-yellow, the region of the nostrils and a portion of 
the culmen dark brown ; mouth yellow ; iris umber-brown ; eyelids 
straw-yellow ; legs black. 

Length about 13'5 ; tail 5-5 ; wing 7 ; tarsus 2-3 ; bill from 
gape 1-7. 

Distribution. The whole of Pegu east of the Irrawaddy river ; 
the Karen hills ; Karennee; the pine-forests of the Salween river ; 

N2 



180 CRATEROPODID.E. 

the central portion of Tenasserim, and the Thoungyeen valley ; 
extending into Siarn. 

Habits, <$fc. Like the preceding species, the present bird is found 
in rocky streams as a rule, but Mr. Pea procured the only specimen 
that he observed in Tenasserim near the Farm Caves of Moulmein. 
Bingham got the nest in April in the Thoungyeen valley. It was 
made of green moss and black roots and fibres, and was placed on 
a dead tree which had been caught by rocks in the river-bed. The 
eggs were of a pale stone-colour, spotted with reddish brown, and 
measured about 1*48 by 1*02. 

189. Myiophoneus horsfieldi. The Malabar Whistling-Thrush. 

Myiophonus horsfieldii. Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 35 ; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 20 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 159 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 200 ; Jerd. B. 1. 
i, p. 499 ; Bksnf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 179 ; McMaster, J. A. 
S. B. xl, pt. ii, p. 211 ; Hum*, N. 8f E. p. 221 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 406, 
iii, p. 292 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 469 ; Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 398 ; 
Davidson $ Wenden, S. F. vii, p. 81 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 212 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 342 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 373 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 
vii, p. 10 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 168 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 
2nd ed. i, p. 124. 

Gunta-ukkee, Canarese. 

Coloration. The whole head and neck deep black, with a crescentic 
band of bright cobalt-blue on the anterior portion of the crown ; 
upper plumage black, each feather broadly edged with blue ; tail 
blue, with black shafts ; lesser wing-coverts cobalt-blue ; middle 
coverts black, tipped with cobalt-blue ; greater coverts black, edged 
with blue : outer webs of the quills chiefly blue, inner webs black ; 
breast and abdomen black, fringed with cobalt-blue ; vent and under 
tail-coverts dull blue. 

The young have the wings and tail like the adult, but all the 
other parts of the plumage dull black. 

Iris deep brown ; legs and bill black (Davison). 

Length about 12; tail 4-5; wing 6'2; tarsus T9 ; bill from 
gape 1*6. 

Distribution. The Indian peninsula. To the north-west this spe- 
cies has been noticed as far as Mount Abu and to the north-east as 
far as Sirguja and Sambalpur ; it extends down to Travancore. It 
has not, however, been recorded from the Eastern coast of India. 

Habits, fyc. Inhabits forests in the neighbourhood of hill-streams, 
and is found from near the level of the sea up to 6000 feet. Breeds 
from March to July, constructing a massive cup-shaped nest of 
roots, dead leaves, and vegetable matter on some rock in a mountain- 
torrent or on a ledge of a cliff, or very frequently in a hole of some 
tree a considerable height from the ground. The eggs, three in 
number, are salmon-coloured or pink marked with pinkish brown, 
and measure about 1-3 by -95. The note of this bird is a fine 
whistle. 



LARVIVORA. 181 

Genus LARVIVORA, Hodgs., 1837. 

The gemis Larvivora contains two species, one of which is 
confined to India and the other is found in the eastern portion 
of the Empire and Eastern Asia in general. The first is a migra- 
tory, bird in a small degree, moving from the hills to the plains and 
back again according to season ; of the second very little is known 
except that it has a very extensive range. 

In Larvivora the sexes differ in colour, and all the evidence I 
have been able to collect points to the fact that the nestling resembles 
the female. The position of this genus is therefore in this sub- 
family, to which its coloration, habits, long legs, and short tail further 
ally it. 

In this genus the bill is slender and about half the length of the 
head and the nostrils are long ovals. The wing is somewhat pointed, 
with the first primary of comparatively small size ; the tarsus is 
slender and long and the tail is very much shorter than the wing, 
whereas in the Robins, to which the Blue Chats bear considerable 
resemblance, the tail is proportionately much longer. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper plumage blue. 

a. Lower plumage white L. cyanea <$ , p. 181. 

6'. Lower plumage bright chestnut L. bnmnea tf , p. 182. 

b. Upper plumage olive-brown. 

c. Throat and breast pale fulvous, mottled with 

brown L. cyanea $ , p. 181 . 

d". Throat and breast bright fulvous, mottled 

with brown L. brunnea $ , p. 182. 

190. Larvivora cyanea. The Siberian Blue Chat. 

Motacilla cyane, Pall. Reis. JRuss. Reichs, iii, p. 697 (1776). 

Larvivora gracilis, Siuinh. Ibis, 1861, p. 262. 

Brachypteryx vel Callene, sp., Beavan, Ibis, 1870, p. 321 ; Blyth, Birds 

Burm. p. 101. 
Larvivora cyane (Pall.}, Wald. in BlytWs Birds Burm. p. 101 ; Hume 

8f Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 335, 516 ; Hume, Cat. no. 507 bis j Bingham, 

S. F. ix, p. 185 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 213 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 198. 
Erithacus cyaneus (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 303 ; Oates, B. B. 

i, p. 13. 




Fig. 53. Head of L. cyanea. 

Coloration,. Male. The base of the bill, the lores, and a line 
under the cheeks black ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and the whole upper 



182 CBATEROPODIDJE. 

plumage blue ; wings and tail brown, washed with blue on 
the outer webs ; the whole lower plumage pure white, the flanks 
washed with brown. 

Female. The whole upper plumage aud the lesser upper wing- 
coverts olive-brown, tinged with russet on the upper tail-coverts ; 
greater coverts and quills brown, suffused with rufous on the outer 
webs, the former also distinctly tipped with rufous ; tail brown, 
suffused with russet ; forehead, lores, and sides of the head rufous, 
mottled with brown ; middle of chin and throat, the abdomen, and 
under tail- coverts pure white ; sides of the chin and the throat and 
the whole breast pale fulvous, each feather margined with brown, 
causing a mottled appearance ; sides of the body plain fulvous. 

The young are coloured like the female. Young males assume 
a little blue on the back and upper tail-coverts at an early age. 

Legs, feet, and claws fleshy white ; upper mandible in the male 
dark, in the female pale horny brown ; lower mandible fleshy white 
or pale brown ; gape fleshy white ; (one male had the upper mandible 
horny black ;) irides deep brown (Davison}. 

Length 5-6 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape '7. 
Distribution. Has been procured in Lower Pegu by myself and 
in various localities in Tenasserim by Davison and Bingham. Hume 
obtained this bird in Manipur at the end of April. In the Pin will 
Collection in the British Museum there is a specimen which is said 
to have been procured in the N.W. Himalayas near Simla. I 
know of no other instance of the occurrence of the present species 
in India proper; but Seebohm asserts that it winters in North India, 
a somewhat sweeping statement which requires confirmation. 

1 am by no means certain that this bird is more than a partial 
migrant in Burma. I procured the only specimen I ever met with 
in Burma on the 21st May, and the fact that specimens were col- 
lected by Davison and Biugham only in the winter months goes for 
little when it is remembered that the collection of birds is suspended 
in Burma in great measure in the wet season or summer months, 
owing to the heavy rainfall and the impenetrability of the jungle 
at that period of the year. 

This species has a wide range, being found in Eastern Asia from 
Siberia to Borneo. 

Habits, <$fc. This Blue Chat keeps entirely to the ground in dense 
vegetation, and occurs solitarily or in pairs. 

191. Larvivora brunnea. The Indian Blue Chat. 

Larvivora cyana, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 102 (1837) ; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. i, p. 310 j Jcrd. B. I. ii, p. 145 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 

pt. ii, p. 44 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 324 j Legge, S. F. iii, p. 369. 
Larvivora brunnea, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 102 (1837) ; Leage. 

Birds Ceyl. p. 446 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 127. 
Phcenicura superciliaris, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S, xiii, p. 170 (1844). 
Calliope cyana (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 169. 
Larvivora superciliaris (Jerd.}, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 16 ; Blanf. J. A. 

S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 161 : Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 240 j Fairbank, S. F. 



A IJ RENO A. 



iv, p. 250; Daciilxon $ }\\-n(kn, #. 1<\ vii, p. 83; Z>V///, & F. vii, 
p. 216 ; Jfwme, CW. no. 507 ; Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 474 ; Vidal, S. 
F. ix, p. 06 ; L'utler, S. F. ix, p. 405; Davison, S. F. x, p. 389 ; 



Humes, Hint* lltnn. p. 208 ; 7/ume, & -F. xi, p. 197. 
Krithacus brunneus (Hodgs.), Scebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 302. 

Tins, Blue, Wood- Chat, Jerd. ; Manzhil-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts black, 
produced as a band down the sides of the neck ; a distinct white 
supercilium to the nape ; the whole upper plumage, wing-coverts, 
and the exposed parts of the wings and tail dull blue ; point of 
the chin and a narrow line bordering the black cheeks white ; 
throat, breast, and sides of the body bright chestnut ; under wing- 
coverts blue; remainder of the lower plumage white. 

Female. Very similar to the female of L. cyanea, differing merely 
by the greater intensity of the fulvous on the breast. 

The young resemble the adult female. 

Bill black ; legs and feet fleshy ; iris very dark brown (Davison). 

Of about the same size as L. cyanea. 

Distribution. Every suitable portion of India proper from Murree 
to Shillong and down to Travancore and Ceylon. In many parts 
of the Himalayas and on the Kilgiris this bird is a permanent resi- 
dent, but in the plains it appears to be merely a winter visitor. Its 
migrations, however, are very limited in extent, resolving them- 
selves chiefly to movements from one elevation to another according 
to season and not extending far horizontally. 

Habits, fyc. This species is found in forests and thick jungle. 
It appears to feed entirely on the ground and to be of a shy nature. 
It breeds on the higher portions of its range, constructing a small 
nest of moss and leaves in a hole in a tree. The eggs are pale 
brownish or greenish, speckled with brownish red, and measure 
about -98 by -67. 



G-enus AERENGA, Lesson, 1831. 

The genus Arrenga is represented within our limits by one 
species, an inhabitant of Ceylon. The history of the genus is very 
incomplete owing to its rarity, but there can be little doubt that its 
position is in this subfamily. 

In general appearance Arrenga resembles Myiophoneus, but the 
two genera differ in the shape of the wing. In Arrenga the bill is 
stout, half as long as the head, and well bent down at the tip ; the 
rictal bristles are long and the nostrils rounded. The wing is very 
rounded and blunt, the tarsus long and thick, and the tail short 
and nearly square. 

192. Arrenga blighi. The Ceylon Arrenga. 

Arrenga blighi, Holdsworth, P. Z. S, 1872, p. 444, pi. 19; Hume, S. F. 
vii, p. 378 ; id. Cat. no. 343 ter. 



184 CEATEROPODID^. 

Myiophoneus bliglri (Holdsw.), Legcje, Birds Cei/L p. 463, pi. 20, 
tigs. 1, 2 ; Sharpe, Cat. J5. M. vii, p. 13. 

Coloration. The adult male has entire head and neck black ; back, 
scapulars, breast, and abdomen dull blue ; region of the vent brown ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts russet-brown ; tail brown, edged on 
the outer webs with rufous ; lesser wing-coverts cobalt-blue ; the 
other coverts and the quills dark brown, narrowly edged with bluish. 

A younger male has the whole plumage ferruginous, lighter below, 
and the back and scapulars suffused with a tinge of blue ; the 
upper tail-coverts brighter ferruginous ; tail brown, edged with 
ferruginous ; lesser wing-coverts cobalt-blue as in the adult the 
other coverts and the quills brown, edged with ferruginous. 

The nestling, according to Holdsworth, is brown, darker on the 
upper surface and more rufous below ; the feathers of the fore- 
head, throat, and breast centred with yellow-brown ; an indication 
of blue on the carpal joint. 




\\ 
Fig. 54. Head of A. Uighi. 

According to Legge the adult female is similar to the adult male, 
but has the wing-spot lighter in colour, and at the same time of a 
brighter tint than in the male. 

Iris brown ; bill, legs, and feet black (Legge). 

Length about 8 ; tail 3'1; wing 4-1; tarsus 1/4; bill from 
gape 1/2. 

There are only two skins of this rare bird in the British Museum. 
One is evidently an adult male, and the other apparently a young 
male with traces of blue appearing on the back and scapulars. 
Both birds are described above. 

Distribution. Ceylon, where this bird is found in dense vegetation 
on the hills. 

Genus BRACK YPTERYX, Horsf., 1821. 

The two Indian birds which I place in this genus are absolutely 
congeneric with Brachypteryx montana, 'the type of the genus. 
They have hitherto been placed in Callene, the type of which is C. 
frontalis; but they are not only not congeneric with this bird, 
but they belong, in my opinion, to quite another family. Callene 
is a true Thrush with the young mottled ; Brachypteryx^ according 



B B AC11 YPTEll Y X . 1 85 

to the evidence before me, is a Crateropodine bird with the young 
similar to the adult. The two genera are also in structure quite 
different, especially with regard to the length of the tail and 
tarsus. 

In Bracliypteryx the bill is about half the length of the head, 
strong and broad at the base ; the nostrils are long ovals and they 
are overhung by the greatly lengthened shafts of the frontal 
feathers ; the rictal bristles are long. The wing is short and 
rounded; the tarsus smooth and of considerable length, and the 
tail is short and square or nearly so. The sexes are alike in all 
respects, and both species are non-migratory and confined to small 
tracts of hill-country. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Sides of abdomen slaty blue B. albiventris, p. 185. 

b. Sides of abdomen pale chestnut B. rufiventris, p. 185, 



193. Bracliypteryx albiventris. The White-bellied Short-wing. 

Callene albiventris, Fairbank, Blanf. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 833, pi. 39 ; 

id. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 179 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 132 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 220 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 402, vii, p. 35 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 339 bis; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 15 ; Terry, S. 

F. x, p. 473. 
Brachypteryx albiventris (Fairb.\ Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 128. 

Coloration. Lores and a narrow frontal band deep black ; above 
these a band of bluish white ; centre of abdomen, vent, and under 
tail-coverts white ; with these exceptions the whole plumage and 
the exposed parts of the closed wings and tail are dark slaty 
blue. 

Bill black ; feet leaden black ; iris buff (Fairbank). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus T15; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Palni hills and Southern Travancore from 
1000 feet upwards. 

Habits, fyc. According to Fairbank these birds live in thickets 
and are hard to discover. At the breeding-season the males have a 
sweet song. The breeding-season is May and June. The nest is 
placed in a hole of a tree or bank and is made of moss. The eggs, 
generally two in number, are greyish green, thickly covered with 
brown marks. They measure about -93 by '63. 



194. Brachypteryx rufiventris. The Rufous-bellied Short-wing. 

Phcenicura major, Jerd. Madr. Joum. L. S. xiii, p. 170 (1844). 

Brachypteryx major (Jerd.), Blyth, Cat. p. 178. 

Callene rufiventris, Blyth, Jerd. B. L i, p. 496 ; id. Ibit, 1872, p. 132 ; 



186 



CEATEROPODIDyE. 



Hume, N. 8> E. p. 219 ; id. Cat. no. 339 ; Davison, S. F. x, p 372 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 16. 

Brachypteryx ruti ventris (Jerd.), Oates in Hume's N. & E 2nd ed 
i, p. 129. 

Coloration. Lores and the feathers in front of the eye black : 
forehead and a band over the lores pale blue ; the whole upper 
plumage, the visible portions of the closed wings and tail, the sides 
of the head and neck, the chin, throat, and breast dark slaty blue ; 
middle of the abdomen whitish ; remainder of the lower plumage 
pale chestnut. 

Bill black ; legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; claws darker ; iris 
dark brown (Davison}. 

Length nearly?; tail 2-6; wing 3-2- tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape -8 . 




Fig. 55. Head of B. rujiventris. 

Distribution. The Nilgiris, Bramkagiris and adjoining hill-ranges, 
from about 5500 to 7000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. According to Davison this species keeps to the denser 
portion of the undergrowth in evergreen forests, where it lives 
entirely on the ground. It is found in pairs or singly, and the 
male has a pleasing little song. It breeds in April and May, con- 
structing a nest of green moss in a bole of a tree or a bank, and 
laying two or three eggs, which are olive-brown with reddish-brown 
marks round the larger end of the egg. They measure about 1 
by -67. 

Genus DRYMOCHARES, Gould, 1868. 

The four Indian birds which I place in tbis genus differ from 
true Brachypteryx in having a much shorter tail and longer tarsus. 

In Drymochares the bill is slender and about half the length of 
the head ; the nostrils are long ovals, and the rictal bristles are 
moderate ; the wing is very rounded and short ; the tarsus ex- 
tremely long, and the tail short. 

In three of the species the sexes are very differently coloured ; 
in the fourth the coloration of the sexes is doubtful. The young 
birds of two species resemble tbe adult female very closely, and the 
young males soon assume the garb of the adult male. 

The history of the birds of this genus is in a very unsatisfactory 
and imperfect condition, especially with regard to their nidification 
and distribution. 



DRYMOC1IARES. 187 

Key to the Species. 

A. Upper plumage chestnut D. stellatus, p. 187. 

B. Upper plumage blue or brown. 

ff'. Chin and throat chestnut D. hyperythrus, p. 187. 

b'. Chin and throat blue or rufous ashy 

brown D. cruralis, p. 188. 

' c. Chin and throat white D. nepakiisis, p. 183. 



195. Drymochares stellatus. Gould's Short-winy. 

Brachypteryx (Drymochares) stellatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 218. 
Drymochares stellatus (Gould), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, j>. 52. 
Brachypteryx stellatus ( Gould), Hume, S. F, vii, p. 377 ; id. Cat. 
no. 338 ter; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 30. 

Coloration. Lores black; forehead, a short eyebrow, sides of 
the head, chin, throat, and breast slaty grey, finely vermiculated 
with white and black lines ; remainder of the lower parts the same 
but suffused with rufous, and each feather with a central triangular 
white patch ; crown, nape, back, scapulars, wing-coverts, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail bright chestnut ; rump like the lower part of 
the abdomen ; wings brown, the feathers all margined with chest- 
nut. 

The young are apparently unknown, but will probably be found 
to resemble the adults. 

Length rather more than 5 ; tail 1*7 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1/2 ; bill 
from gape '7. 

Distribution. Sikhim. Nothing is known about this bird ; but 
Blanford procured one specimen at 12,000-13,000 feet. 



Brachvpteryx hyperythra, Jerd. fy Blylh, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201 ; Jerd. 
B.'L i, p. 495; Hume, ' 



196. Drymochares hyperythrus. The Rusty-bellied Short-winy. 

Jerd. $ Blyth, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201 ; Jerd 
S. F. v, p. 499 ; id. Cat. no. 337 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M . vii, p. 28. 

Coloration. Male. Lores and feathers in front of the eye black ; 
sides of the head and neck and the whole upper plumage, with the 
visible portions of the closed wings and tail, deep blue ; a short and 
partially-concealed eyebrow white ; the entire lower plumage and 
the under wing-coverts bright chestnut. 

Female. The whole upper plumage, with the visible portions of 
the closed wings and tail, olive-brown, the shafts of the feathers 
on the side of the face fulvous ; the entire lower plumage pale 
chestnut, the abdomen whitish, and the sides of the body suffused 
with brown ; no eyebrow. 

The young bird is unknown, but it is probably like the female. 

Bill corneous ; legs fleshy ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length nearly 5; tail 1-7; wing 2'5; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Sikhim. Nothing is known about this bird's habits. 



188 CKATEKOPODID^E. 

197. Drymochares cruralis. The White-browed Short-wing. 

Calliope cruralis, Blyth,J. A. S. B. xii, p. 933 (1843). 

Brachypteryx cruralis (Bl.\Cat. p. 178; Horsf. $ M. Cut. i, p. 397 ; 
Jerd. B. I. i, p. 495 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 102 ; 
Blanf. JA. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 160 ; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 219 ; Ward- 
law Ramsay, Ibis, 1875, p. 352 ; Wald. in Bl. Birds Burm. p. 99 ; 
Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 236 ; Hume, Cat. no. 338 ; Gates, B. B. 
i, p. 19 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 26. 

Brachypteryx rufifrons, Je>d. $ Bl. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201. 

Brachypteryx hyperythra, Jerd. fy Bl. apud Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 
xxxix, pt. ii, p. 102. 

Drymocharee cruralis (Blyth}, Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 
p. 129. 




Fig. 56. Head of D. cruralis. 

Coloration. Male. Whole plumage slaty blue, the exposed por- 
tions of the quills duller ; middle of the abdomen tinged with ashy ; 
lores and a frontal band black bordered above by white produced 
backwards over the eye. 

Female. Lores, forehead, and round the eye bright ferruginous ; 
sides of the head rufous-brown ; upper plumage rufescent olive- 
brown ; tail and the outer webs of the wings chestnut-brown ; 
lower plumage ashy brown tinged witb rufous, especially on the 
under tail-coverts ; a broad but partially concealed supercilium 
white. 

The young resemble the female, but at first they have no trace of 
the white supercilium. 

Iris brown; bill brown; legs greyish brown (Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Length about 5-2; tail 1-9; wing 2-6; tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; the Khasi hills ; Karennee at 
5200 feet. This species occurs up to 8000 feet or higher. 

Habits, fyc. But little is known of the habits of this bird. It 
appears to breed from April to June. The nest according to 
Hodgson is a globular structure of moss and roots. Hume describes 
several nests found by Mandelli's men as massive, shallow cups 
composed of fine black roots with a few leaves and a little moss. 
Both authorities agree in stating that the nest is built a short 
distance off the ground in brushwood. The eggs are described as 
being white and measuring about '88 by *63. 

198. Drymochares nepalensis. The Nepal Short-wing. 

Brachypteryx nipalensis, Hod gs., Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 74; Horsf. 
$ M. Cat. i, p, 397 ; Jerd. fy Blyth, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201 ; Jerd. B. Z 



HODCSCXNIUS. 189 

i, p. 494 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 102 ; Blunf. 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 160; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 236; 
Jftune, Cat. no. 33(3 ; Oate*, 11. B. i, p. 19 ; Sharpe. Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 29; Hume, S. F. ad, p. 121. 

Drymochares uepalensis (Hodgs.), Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 130. 

The White-bellied Short-wing, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The lores and a frontal band dark blackish 
blue ; a partially concealed white eyebrow ; the whole upper 
plumage, sides of the head and neck, cheeks and the visible portions 
of the closed wings and tail dark slaty blue ; chin, throat, and the 
central portion of the abdomen white, somewhat mottled with brown 
specks ; remainder of lower plumage smoky brown. 

Female. The whole upper plumage and sides of the head and 
neck ferruginous olive-brown, the space round the eye ruddier 
than the other parts ; a partially-concealed white eyebrow similar 
to that of the male ; chin, throat, and central portion of the abdo- 
men whitish ; remainder of the lower plumage fulvous. 

The young resemble the female ; the young males assume the 
adult plumage in the first spring. 

Bill dark brown ; gape whitish ; legs and feet dark purplish 
fleshy ; iris dark brown (Davison). 

Length nearly 5; tail 1/4; wing 2'3; tarsus 1/1; bill from 
gape -7. 

Hume and Davison have already noticed the strange fact that 
all the males the latter procured in Tenasserim are similar to the 
female in plumage. I find that the same is the case with all the 
sexed males from Shillong and Manipur. In Sikhim, on the other 
hand, blue males appear to be common enough. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; the Khasi hills ; Manipur ; Muleyit 
mountain in Tenasserim. It is very doubtful whether Hodgson's 
specimens in the British Museum came from Nepal. 

This species has been found on the mountains of Perak in the 
Malay peninsula. 

Habits, $c. The nest of this species appears to be always globular 
or domed, constructed of dry flags and dry skeleton leaves, and 
placed in brushwood or on a fallen tree a short distance off the 
ground. The eggs are pale stone-colour, marked with pale reddish 
brown, and measure about -8 by -6. 

Genus HQDGSONIUS, Bonap., 1850. 

The genus Hodysonius is represented by a single species, which 
bears considerable resemblance in shape and colour to Brachypteryx, 
but differs in having the sexes differently coloured and the tail 
considerably longer. 

The bill of Hoclysomus resembles that of Drymochares, and the 
rictal bristles are weak. The wing is rounded, and the tarsus is 
lengthened and much graduated. 



190 CKATEROPODIDJE. 

The young appear to resemble the female from the earliest age. 
The only species of this genus is non-migratory, and although 
it is a fairly common bird nothing is on record about its habits. 

]99. Hodgsonius phcenicuroid.es. Hodgson's Short-wing. 

Bradypterus phcenicuroides, Hodgs. in Gray's Zoo/. Misc. p. 83 (1844) 

(desc. nulla) ; Gray, Cat. Mamm. fyc. Nepal, p. 70, A pp. p. 153 

(1846). 
Sylvania phoenicuroides (SodffS.), Blyth. J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 136; id. 

Cat. p. 178. 
Hodgsonius phoenicuroides (Hodgs.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 395 ; Jerd. 

B. I. i, p. 497 ; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 529 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 132 ; 

Hume fy Henders. Lali. to Yark. p. 187, pi. vi ; Hume, Cat. no. 341 ; 

Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 470 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 8]. 
Dumeticola cyanocarpa, Hume, Ibis, 1872, p. 108 ( $ ) ; id. S. F. 

iii, p. 409 ; vii, p. 461. 
Callene hodgsoni, Moore, Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 132 ; Hume, S. F. iii, 

p. 411 ; id. Cat. no. 339 ter. 
Schcenicola cyanocarpus (Hume}, Hume, Cat. no. 519 ter. 

The White-bellied Short-iving, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The whole body-plumage slaty blue except the 
abdomen, which is white, and the tail-coverts, which are slaty 
blue tipped with whitish ; quills dark brown, washed with blue on 
the outer webs ; tail-feathers blackish suffused with blue, the four 
outer pairs chestnut on the basal half of both webs, the next pair 
chestnut on the basal half of the outer web only. 

Female. Upper plumage and wing-coverts olive-brown, the 
margins of the quills rufous : tail rufous-brown, deeper on the 
parts which are chestnut in the male ; sides of the head and the 
lower plumage ochraceous ; the abdomen whitish ; and the lower 
tail-coverts dark ochraceous wilh pale centres and tips. 

The young resemble the female, and young males assume the full 
adult plumage in the first autumn. 

Bill dusky, reddish at the gape ; legs pale red-brown ; iris dark 
brown (Jerdon) ; gape yellow (J. Henderson). 

Length about 7*5; tail 3-2; wing 3; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Gulmurg and Sonamurg in 
Kashmir to Bhutan. This species appears to be found at the foot 
of the hills as well as at considerable altitudes. 

Habits, fyc. Appears to frequent thick underwood. 



Genus ELAPHRORNIS, Legge, 1879. 

The genus Elaphrornis contains a single species, which is con- 
fined to the higher hills of Ceylon. 

It is a rare bird, and materials for forming an opinion as to its 
position are hardly sufficient. On the whole I am inclined to think 
that its place is in this subfamily. 



TESIA. J91 

Elaphrornis has the bill similar to that of Drymochares, and short 
rictal bristles ; the wing is extremely rounded, the tail of moderate 
length and much graduated, and the tarsus long. The plumage is 
very soft and ample, especially on the back and rump. 

200. Elaphrornis palliseri. The Ceylon Short-wing. 

Brachypteryx (?) palliseri, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xx, p. 178 (1851) ; Holds- 
worth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 443, pi. xviii ; Hume. S. F. vii, p. 377 ; id. 
Cat. no. 338 bis. 

Elaphrornis palliseri (Bl.},Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 514, pi. xxiv, fig 1 . 2 ; 
Shtuye, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 517 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 131. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage, tail, and exposed parts 
of the wings olive-brown, tinged with rufous on the tail and upper 
tail-coverts ; lores, the ear-coverts, and under the eye dark brown, 
the ear-coverts with whitish shafts ; a dull white line over the 
lores, extending over the eye ; chin fulvous white, throat rusty 
fulvous ; middle of the abdomen yellowish ; remainder of the lower 
parts slaty olive, the flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts with a 
rufous tinge. 

The male has the iris clear red ; bill black, slaty at the base be- 
neath ; legs and feet deep neutral brown or purplish brown ; claws 
pale brownish horn ; in the female the iris is buff (Legye). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape -8. 

A young bird, or perhaps an adult female, resembles the adult 
above described generally, but has the chin and throat fulvous white, 
barred or mottled with greenish, and the rusty-fulvous patch on the 
throat is altogether wanting. 

Legge remarks that the iris of the young male is pale reddish 
buff and that of the young female white. 

Distribution. Ceylon, above 5000 feet of altitude. 

Habits, $-c. This species is found in thick brushwood, feeding on 
the ground. Mr. Bligh found a nest in April : a deep cup-shaped 
structure of moss lined with roots, placed in a thick bush. The 
nest contained three young birds. 



Genus TESIA, Hodgs., 1837. 

The genus Tesia of Hodgson was made to embrace several species 
of birds which are not now considered congeneric ; but as Tesia 
cyaniventris was the first species enumerated by him, it may fairly 
be considered the type, and as such I adopt it. 

In Tesia the bill is rather more than half the length of the head, 
broad at the base, flattened, and blunt. The wings are excessively 
short and rounded, the tail extremely short, and the tarsi very long. 

Tesia contains one Indian species, which inhabits the Himalayas 
and the Eastern hill-ranges. In this genus the sexes are differ- 
ently coloured, and the young bird does not resemble the female so 



1 92 CRATEKOPODID^E. 

closely as is usual in the other genera of CrateropocUdce. The 
plumage of the young, however, is perfectly plain and bears no 
signs of spots, streaks, or bars. 

201. Tesia cyaniventris. The Slaty-bellied Short-winy. 

Tesia cyaniventer, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 101 (1837) ; Blyth, Cat 
p. 178 ; Horsf. $ Moore, Cat. i, p. 179 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 487; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 101 ; Hume, Cat. no. 328 ; Brooks, 
S. F. viii, p. 470 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 118 ; Oates in Hume's N. SfE. 
2nd ed. i, p. 131. 

Tesia auriceps, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 137 (1847). 

Oligura cyaniventris (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 604. 

The Slaty-lellied Wren, Jerd.; Tt-si, Nepal ; Samfit-tammong, Lepch. 




Fig. 57. Head of T. cyaniventris. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, crown, and nape glistening 
golden brown ; the rest of the upper plumage and the visible por- 
tions of the closed wings and tail olive-green ; lores and a broad 
stripe from the eye to the nape black ; sides of the head and the 
whole lower plumage slaty blue. 

Female. The entire upper plumage and the exposed parts of the 
wiogs and tail olive-green, the crown somewhat brighter than the 
other parts ; lores and a stripe from the eye to the nape black, with 
a yellowish supercilium above ; sides of head and lower plumage 
dark ashy, suffused with white in places. 

The young bird has the whole upper plumage green with a ru- 
fescent tinge ; the sides of the head and the whole lower plumage 
dull olive- green. The black lores and postocular stripe with the 
pale supercilium make their appearance very soon after the bird is 
fledged. 

From the series of birds sexed by Hume in Manipur, it would 
appear that young males assume the full plumage of the adult 
female before the final change to that of the adult male. 

Legs, feet, and claws dull brown to pale, rather fleshy, brown ; 
upper mandible and tip of lower deep to blackish brown ; rest of 
lower mandible and gape dull wax-yellow to orange-horny : iris 
deep brown (Hume) ; iris vermilion (Cripps). 

Length nearly 4 ; tail '8; wing 1*8 ; tarsus '95 ; bill from gape '6. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; Dibrugarh in Assam ; the Khasi 
hills ; Manipur. This species appears to be found at comparatively 
low levels, but no exact information on this point is available. 



OLIGUHA. 1WJ 

it*) <jr. Found in brushwood on the ground. According to 
Hodgson this bird constructs a huge globular nest of green moss 
and black moss-roots in a thick bush. The eggs, three or four in 
number, are figured as being white speckled with bright red. They 
measure '72 by -54. 

Genus OLIGURA, Hodgs., 1845. 

The genus Oliyura resembles Tesia in many respects, but differs 
in two important particulars. In the first place Oliyura has the 
bill comparatively slender and narrow, and in the second it has the 
sexes alike in plumage. 

The only species of this genus found in India inhabits the higher 
ranges of the Himalayas and the hill-tracts of Assam. 

202. Oligura castaneicoronata. The Chestnut-headed Short-wing. 
Sylvia ? castaneo-coronata, Jturton, P. Z. S. 1835. p. 152. 

T*~,.^ XI * ~rr 7 -r A c* r* -i *-\'-k /i r^^^-x 




Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 132. 
The Chestnut-headed Wren, Jerd. ; 7m, Nepal; Samtit-pho, Lepch. 






Fig. 58. Bill of 0. castaneicoronata. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, ear-coverts, and a line 
under the eye bright chestnut ; a small patch of white feathers at 
the posterior corner of the eye ; cheeks, chin, throat, breast, and 
abdomen bright yellow, the breast suffused with olivaceous and 
mottled with a few indistinct brown bars ; sides of breast, abdomen, 
and under tail-coverts olivaceous ; upper plumage, wings, and tail 
dark olive-green. 

The young bird has the entire upper plumage, sides of the head, 
the wings, and tail dark olive-green ; the whole lower plumage 
dull chestnut, tinged with yellow on the abdomen. 

Bill brownish yellow ; legs yellow ; iris red in some birds, brown 
in others (Cockburn). 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; the Khasi hills. Jerdon gives the 
range of this bird from 3000 to 6000 feet, but Blanford says it is 
common in Sikhim from 7000 to 10,000 feet. Godwin-Austen 
procured it at 7000 feet on Hengdan peak, Khasi hills. 

Habits, fyc. According to God win-Austen this bird haunts thick and 
low brushwood and is difficult to shoot in such cover ; it emits a loud 

VOL. i. o 



194 CRATE110POD1D7E. 

and rather musical note from time to time as it bops from bough to 
bough. Blauford describes the note as sharp and monotonous. 
Accounts of the nidification of this species are conflicting, and 
therefore I shall not quote them. 



Subfamily SIBLING. 

The subfamily Sibiince is represented in India by thirty-two 
species of birds. These all agree in being strictly arboreal, in having 
the sexes alike in plumage and size, and in being non-migratory. 
Their plumage is in most cases bright, and they are more or less 
found in flocks. 

With few exceptions the Sibiince lay spotted eggs. The few 
exceptions require further evidence, as the information on the 
subject of their nidification is either insufficient or conflicting. 
The species of Zosterops lay eggs which are sometimes plain and 
sometimes marked, and the position of this genus requires more 
investigation. As remarked in another place. Zosterops is included 
in this subfamily provisionally, as no better place can at present be 
found for it. It, however, agrees in all essential characters with 
the Sibiince. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail nearly twice the length of wing SIBIA, p. 195. 

b. Tail and wing not very different in length. 
a'. Tail graduated. 

a". All the feathers of the tail graduated. 
a'". Tail longer than wing 1 , the outer tail- 
feather falling short of tip of tail by a 
distance equal to length of tarsus. 
a 4 . Depth of bill at the nostrils less than 

breadth ; wings not barred LIOPTILA, 195. 

b. Depth of bill at the nostrils greater 

than breadth ; wings barred ACTINODURA, p. 201. 

b'". Tail equal to or shorter than wing ; 

the outer tail-feather falling- short of 

tip of tail by a distance less than length 

of tarsus. 

c*. Nostrils not overhung by hairs ; 

wings barred IXOPS, p. 203. 

d l . Nostrils overhung- by hairs ; wing-s 

not barred -. STAPHIDIA, p. 205. 

b". The four middle pairs of tail-feathers of 
the same length ; the two outer pairs only 

graduated SIVA, p. 207. 

b'. Tail square, not graduated. 

c". Bill slender, gently curved, both mandibles 

of the same length. 
c'". First primary equal in length to the 

tarsus .* YUHINA, p. 211 . 

d'". First primary extremely minute, not 

longer than the hind toe ZOSTEROPS, p. 213. 



S11JJA. LIOPTILA. 105 

d". Bill stout, straight, the upper mandible 
lunger than the lower one, with the tip 
!)-nt down. 
e"'. Depth of bill at -the nostrils less than 

breadth IXULUS, p. 216. 

. /'". Depth of bill at the nostrils more than 

breadth HERPORNIS, p. 219 

Germs SIBIA, Hodgs., 1836. 

The genus Sibia contains but one species, which is remarkable 
for the extraordinary length of its tail. This is twice the length 
of the wing, and greatly graduated. 

The bill is shorter than the head, curved down and slender, and 
the nostrils are covered by a large membrane. The rictal bristles 
are moderate in length. The bill is very similar to that o^ Lio- 
ptila, figured below. 

203. Sibia picaoides. The Lony-tailed Sibia. 

Sibia picaoides, Hodys. J. A. S. B. viii, p. 38 (1839) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 98 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 210; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 55 ; Hume, N. 
Sf E. p. 208; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 354; Godw.-Amt. J. A. IS. B. 
xlv, pt. ii, p. 78; xlvii, pt. ii, p. 18 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 294 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 430 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 293 ; Oates, B. B. i, 
p. 43; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 401; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 173; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 132. 
Malcheo-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage, wings, and tail deep slaty 
brown, the tail tipped with white, and the wings with a white 
patch formed by a spot on each outer web of four of the second- 
aries ; forehead and lores blackish ; throat and breast slaty brown : 
remainder of lower plumage ashy grey, becoming albescent on the 
abdomen. 

Bill horny black ; iris scarlet ; feet greyish dusky ; claws horny - 
black (Scully}. 

Length 13*5 ; tail 8-5 ; wing 4-8 ; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape I'l. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan ; the Daphla hills ; the 
Naga hills ; Karennee ; Tenasserim. Tickell states that be pro- 
cured this species in Tenasserim at an elevation of 3000 feet. It 
appears to be found up to an elevation of 5000 feet. 

Habits, <$fc. Jerdon states that this Sibia associates in flocks of 
six or seven, and flies from tree to tree, feeding on both fruit and 
insects and keeping up a continual whistling sort of call. Gammie 
found the nest in Sikhim a cup made of herbaceous plants and 
lined with grass ; and the eggs, five in number, were greyish white 
speckled with brown and purple ; they measured about '9 by *72. 

Genus LIOPTILA, Blyth, 1847. 

The genus Lioptila, according to my views, embraces those two 
species which have been hitherto by common agreement placed in 

o2 



196 C'RATEROPODJDJE. 

this genus, and five others which have been usually placed in 
Malacias. I cannot iind a single character by which to separate 
the above two genera, and I accordingly join them together. 

In Lioptila the bill is similar to that of Ixops, but rather more 
slender; the nostrils are long, and covered by a long membrane; 
the rictal bristles are fairly long, and the crest is more or less well 
developed in all the species. The tail is considerably longer than 
the wing and well-graduated, the outer feather reaching a little 
beyond the middle of the tail. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown of head black or brown. 

a'. Median pair of tail-feathers with a sub- 
terminal black band. 

a"* Rump and upper tail-coverts rufous . . L. capistrata, p. 190. 
b". Rump and upper tail-coverts ashy grey. L. gracilis, p. 197. 
b'. Median pair of tail-feathers uniformly 

black or brown with white tips. 
c". Rump chocolate-brown like the back. 
a'". Tertiaries and greater wing-coverts 

black L. mclanoleuca, p. 198. 

b 1 ". Tertiaries and greater wing-coverts 

chiefly chestnut L. casianoptera, p. 199. 

d". Rump chestnut. 

c'". Wing-coverts margined, the lesser 
and median with ashy, the greater 

with chestnut L. anncctcns, p. 199. 

d'". Wing-coverts entirely black L. davistmi, p. 200. 

b. Crown of head bluish grey like the upper 

plumage L. pnlchella, p. 200. 




Fig. 59. Head of L. capistrata. 

204. Lioptila capistrata. The Black-headed Sibia. 

Cinclosoma capistratuin, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 56. 
Sibia ni^riceps, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. viii, p. 38 (1839). 
Sibia capistrata ( Vig.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 98 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 21(5 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 54; Stoliczka, J. A. S. 7?. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 38; 

Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, p. 354 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 267 ; Brooks, 

S. F. iii. p. 238. 
Malacias capistratus ( Vig.}, flume, Cat. no. 429 ; S. F. viii, p. 292 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 403. 



LlUl'TILA. 197 

Lioptila ciipistrata ( J'fy.), Gates in Humes N. & E. 2ud ed. i. 
p. 133. 

Samdrittk-pho, Lepch. ; ticsiyjita, Bhut. ; Sibya, Nep. 



Coloration. Forehead, crown, crest, Dape, and sides of the head 
black, the ear- coverts sometimes dark brown ; the whole lower 
pi milage, rump, upper tail-coverts, and a broad collar round the 
neck bright rufous ; back and scapulars greyish brown ; median 
tail-feathers rufous for three quarters of their length, then with a 
black band and a bluish tip ; in the other feathers the rufous por- 
tion diminishes rapidly and the black increases, but the blue tips 
remain constant in size ; lesser wing-coverts rufous ; primary- 
coverts black ; greater coverts white at base, forming a broad band, 
the exterior feathers blue tipped with black, the others white, tipped 
with rufous ; tertiaries chestnut, edged with blue ; the other quills 
dark brown, the primaries with the outer webs pale blue, the second- 
aries dark blue. 

Bill black ; iris reddish brown ; feet fleshy brown ; claws brown- 
horny (Scully). 

Length nearly 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 3*7 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape 1. 

Birds from Sikhim are intensely rufous on the lower plumage, as 
compared with birds from other localities, and the colour of the 
back is also liable to much variation. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from the Hazara country 
to Bhutan at elevations of from 5000 to 8000 feet. 

Habits, Sfc. Frequents high trees, feeding on fruit and insects. 
Breeds from May to July, constructing a cup-shaped nest of moss 
and fibres in a branch of a tree up to 50 feet from the ground. 
The eggs, two or three in number, are pale green, marked with 
reddish and purplish, and measure about -93 by -69. 



205. Lioptila gracilis. The Grey Sibia. 




p. 179 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 413. 
Malacias gracilis (AfcClett.), Hume, Cat. Ho. 429 bis; id. S. F. xi, 

p. 172 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 406. 
Lioptila gracilis (McClell.}. Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 135, 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and lores black, paling on the nape 
and ear-coverts, and blendiug with the rich slaty brown of the hind 
neck, feck, and scapulars ; rump and upper tail-coverts ashy grey ; 
lesser and median coverts, primary-coverts, and the outer feathers 
of the greater coverts black ; the remaining greater coverts and the 
tertiaries bluish ashy, edged with black, and the basal portions 
more or less white ; quills black, the earlier primaries edged with 
hoary grey on the outer webs ; central tail-feathers bluish grey 
with a subterminal black band, the next with the black band and 



198 CRATEROPODIDTE. 

the ashy tip increasing in extent, and so on till the outermost 
feathers are entirely black with a bluish-grey tip; chin, throat, and 
cheeks white, becoming fulvous on the breast and abdomen, the 
sides of which are washed with lilac ; vent and under tail-coverts 
buff. 

Tarsus pale brown ; feet and claws darker ; bill black ; iris 
brownish red, dull maroon or dull red (flume) ; iris crimson 
(Cockburn). 

Length about 9*5; tail 4'5 ; wing 3'7; tarsus 1*2; bill from 
gape I'l. 

Distribution. The Khasi and Naga hills ; Manipur ; generally 
above 4500 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Hume describes this bird as being very active. It 
runs along the branches, dodging in and out of the bunches of 
parasitic ferns, orchids, and mistletoe, so as to be very difficult to 
shoot. Godwin-Austen found the nest at the end of June. It 
was constructed of grass, moss, and rootlets, and was placed near 
the top of a pine. The eggs, three in number, were pale sea-green, 
with ash-brown streakings and blotchings all over. 



206. Lioptila xnelanoleuca. TickeWs 

Sibia melanoleuca (Tick.), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 413 (1859) ; 

Wald. Ibis, 1876, p. 355 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 108 ; Davison, 

S. F. v, p. 458 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 293. 
Sibia picata, TicMl, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 451 (1859). 
Malacias melanoleucus (Tick.), Hume, Cat. no. 429quat. ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 405 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 43 ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. 

Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 604. 
Lioptila melanoleuca (Tick.*), Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 135. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and the sides of the head 
except the ear-coverts deep black ; ear-coverts very dark brown ; 
back, scapulars, lesser and median wing-coverts, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts chocolate-brown, tinged with ashy on the latter two 
parts ; wings and greater coverts black ; tail dark brown, the outer 
webs edged with black, and all the feathers tipped with white; 
entire lower plumage white. 

Legs and feet varying from a very dark reddish brown to a dark 
purplish brown or brownish black ; bill black ; iris lake (Hume $ 
Davison). 

Length about 9; tail 4-1; wing 3-5; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape '95. 

Distribution. The higher portions of Muleyit mountain in Tenas- 
serim. 

Habits, fyc. The note of this bird is a single, long drawn, clear- 
sounding whistle. Davison found the nest in February a cup of 
grass, roots, and fibres placed in a high tree. It contained two 
blue eggs, which measured about '97 by '67. 



LIOPT1LA. 199 



207. Lioptila castanoptera. Fea's 

Malacias castanoptorus, Suloudori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii, 
p. 363 (1889). 

Coloration. Resembles L. melanoleuca, and differs merely in 
having the greater portion of the tertiaries and greater wing- 
coverts chestnut. 

Bill and legs black. 

Length about 9; tail 4*3; wing 3*7; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Mr. Eea procured this species in the Karen hills 
east of Toungngoo in Burma, and I have recently examined a 
specimen which was obtained at Port Stedmau in the Shan States 
by Dr. Manders. 

208. Lioptila annectens. BlytKs Sibia. 

Leioptila annectans, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 450 (1847) : id. Cat. 

p. 337; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 248; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 109 ; Hume, Cut. no. 613 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 80 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 246. 
Lioptila saturata, Wald. Ibis, 1875, p. 352, note ; Wardlaw-Ramsay, 

IK*, 1877, p. 464. 

The Slender-billed Shrike-Tit, Jerd. ; Rabnun-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, lores, crown, nape, ear-coverts, and round 
the eye black; hind neck black, streaked with white; sides of the back 
black ; scapulars pale rufous ; middle of the back, the rump, and 
upper tail-coverts deep chestnut, the latter with a few black streaks ; 
lesser and median wing-coverts black, edged with ashy ; greater 
coverts black, tipped with chestnut ; primaries black, edged on the 
outer web with bluish white, except the last two or three, which are 
plain ; secondaries similarly edged, except at the bases ; tertiaries 
more broadly edged and tipped with white, and with some chestnut 
on the outer web near the base ; tail black, edged with deeper black 
on the basal half, and tipped white, more broadly on the outer 
leathers, and more narrowly towards the middle ; lower plumage 
white, except the vent, under tail-coverts, and flanks, which are 
pale chestnut. 

Legs and feet wax-yellow ; claws brownish ; bill black ; gape 
and more or less of basal portion of lower mandible yellow ; iris 
chocolate, brownish chocolate, brownish maroon, claret-red, greyish 
chocolate-brown (Hume). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 3-1 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from 
gape *7">. 

L. saturata, Walden, is so close to this species that I cannot 
separate it. On the other hand, L. davisoni, Hume, from Tenas- 
serim, is a markedly distinct bird. I have examined the types of 
both species. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; the Klutsi and Naga hills ; North Cachar; 
Manipur ; Karennee. This specis is found at 4000 feet and 
upwards. 



200 CJlATEllOPO.Dl.DJi. 

Habits, fyc. Hume states that this bird creeps about the branches 
of large trees in forest, very much like a Creeper, though neither 
quite so rapid nor so jerky in its movements. 

209. Lioptila davisoni. Davisons Sibia. 

Leioptila davisoni, Hume, S. F. v, p. 110 (1877). 

Lioptila saturata, Wald., apud Hmnefy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 370; Hume, 

Cat, no. 613 bis; Oates, B. B. i, p. 141 (part); Shat-pe, Cat. B. 

M. vii, p. 80 (part.) ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 

p. COO. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, sides of the head, hind neck, 
sides of the neck, back, scapulars, and all the wing-coverts deep 
black, with a few very narrow streaks of white on the middle of the 
back ; rump deep chestnut ; upper tail-coverts black, with broad 
maroon tips ; primaries margined with bluish white, except the last 
two or three, which are plain; secondaries margined with bluish 
white, except near the base; tertiaries tipped with white, and mar- 
gined with chestnut on the outer webs near the base ; tail black, 
the feathers edged with deeper black on the basal halves of their 
outer webs, and tipped with white, broadly on the outer, and 
narrowly on the middle feathers ; edge of wing and lower plumage 
white, except the vent, under tail-coverts, and flanks, which are 
pale fulvous. 

Upper mandible and half the lower black ; rest of lower man- 
dible, legs, feet, and claws fleshy yellow; iris greyish brown 
(Davison). 

Length about 8 ; tail 3'5 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus -95 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

This bird cannot be confounded with L. annectens, from which 
it differs by its black wing-coverts, black back, and maroon rump. 

Distribution. Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim on the higher 
slopes. 

Habits, fyc. Davison remarks that this bird creeps like a Nut- 
hatch about the trunks and branches of trees, and also searches the 
leaves and smaller branches of the tree-tops. 

210. Lioptila pulchella. The Beautiful Sibia. 

Sibia pulchella, Godwin- Austen, A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, p. 160 (1874) ; 

id. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 164, pi. vii ; xlv, pt. ii, p. 78 ; Hume. 

S. F. iii, p. 281. 
Malacias pulchellus (Godw.-Aust.), Hume, Cat.no. 429 ter; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 407 ; Hume, 'S. F. xi, p. 173. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage bluish grey, brighter on 
the head ; median tail-feathers umber-brown, with a subterminal 
black band and a dark grey tip ; the others with a progressively 
diminishing amount of umber-brown and an increasing quantity of 
black till the outermost feathers are wholly black with a grey tip ; 
smaller wing-coverts bluish grey; greater coverts next the body 
entirely chocolate-brown, this colour diminishing in extent on the 



ACTi.NOItl K A. 201 

out IT coverts and giving place to black ; wingletand primary-coverts 
black; edge of wing bluish grey ; tertiaries umber-brown, edged 
with black on the outer webs ; secondaries black, broadly edged 
externally with dark bluish grey ; primaries black, with the outer 
web$ almost entirely pale bluish grey ; lores and round ^the eye 
black ; ear-coverts bluish grey mottled with black ; the sides of 
the neck and the entire lower plumage ashy_bl'.ie tinged with 
vinous. 

Bill black ; legs horny-brown (Godwin-Austen). 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4-9 ; wing 4'1 ; tarsus 1-3 ; bill from 
gape 1*1. 

Distribution. The Peak of Khunho, Eastern Burrail range, Naga 
hills, at about 8000 feet ; the slopes of Toruputu Peak, Daphla 
hills, at about 5000 feet. 

Habits, &fc. God win- Austen, the discoverer of this species, says 
that it is found in companies of about half a dozen haunting the 
tops of the rhododendron trees, the flowers of which it searches 
busily for insects. 



Genus ACTINODURA, Gould, 1836. 

The genus Actinodura, as I restrict it, contains two species. 
Other birds which have been hitherto placed in this genus I have 
transferred to Ixops of Hodgson. 

In Actinodura the bill is rather slender, about half the length of 
the head, and of very similar shape to that of Ixops figured below ; 
the nostrils are covered by a very large membrane, and the rictal 
bristles are long and distinct. The tail is considerably longer than 
the wing and greatly graduated. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Median tail-feathers barred only at the extreme 

tip A. eyertoni, p. 201. 

b. Median tail-feathers barred throughout A. ramsayi, p. 202. 

211. Actinodura egertoni. The Rufous Bar-winy. 

Actinodura egertoni, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 18; Blyth, Cat. p. 98 j 
Horsf. # M. Cat. i, p. 212; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 52; Godw.-Aust. 
J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 105 ; xlv, pt. ii, p. 76 ; xlvii, pt. ii, 
p. 24; Hume, N. 8f E. p. 266; id. S. F. vii, p. 153; id. Cat, 
no. 427 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 463 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 170 j 
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 136. 

Ramnio-plto, Lepch. 

Coloration. Crest rich ashy brown ; forehead, lores, round the 
eye, cheeks, and chin rufous ; ear-coverts, sides of neck, and mantle 
brown, paler than the crest ; smaller wing-coverts, back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts reddish brown ; primary -coverts almost entirely 
black ; greater coverts chestnut ; inner webs of primaries and 



202 CRATEttOPODID.E. 

secondaries brown, the outer ones ashy, except on the basal por- 
tions, which are chestnut ; the ashy portions of the outer webs 
barred with black ; tertiaries wholly silky brown, narrowly barred 
across with black ; outer tail-feathers brown, barred with black and 
tipped white, the others successively less barred and becoming more 
and more suffused with reddish brown ; the middle pair entirely 
reddish brown, with a few faint brown bars near the tips ; throat and 
upper breast pinkish fulvous ; remainder of lower plumage fulvous, 
the centre of the abdomen whitish and the under tail-coverts tipped 
with white. 

Bill light horny ; legs pale brown ; iris brown (Jerdori). 

Length about 9; tail 4'f> ; wing 3*3; tarsus 1*1; bill from 
gape -8. 

Birds from Sikhim have the back and tail very rufous ; those 
from the Khasi hills and Manipur have these parts ochraceous and 
the middle tail-feathers more distinctly barred. 

Distribution. Nepal to the Daphla hills in Assam; the Khasi 
and IVaga hills ; Manipur. This bird is found from 3000 to 6000 
feet of elevation. 

Habits, $c. Hume remarks that these birds go about in small 
parties and are quite tree birds, clambering about and poking into 
every hole and cranny, and foraging about in the huge branches of 
orchids and other parasites much like Tits. 

They build their nest in trees at all heights from the ground, a 
cup-shaped structure made of leaves held together by creeper- 
stems. The eggs are pale green marked in various ways with 
umber-brown, and measure about '92 by '68. 

212. Actinodura ramsayi. Ramsay's Bar-winy. 

Actinura ramsayi, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xv, p. 402 (1875) ; Wold. 

in BhjtVs Birds Surni. p. 10 8 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 404 ; Wardlaw 

Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 4f54, pi. xii. 
Actinodura ramsayi ( Wald.}, Hume fy Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 293 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 427 ter; Gates, B. B. i, p. 42 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 

p. 404. 

Coloration. Upper plumage cinereous olive-brown, tinged with 
ferruginous on the head and more so on the forehead, the feathers 
of the back, rump, and upper tail-coverts faintly cross-barred with 
black ; primary-coverts black ; tertiaries and remaining wing-coverts 
olive-brown distinctly barred with black ; outer webs of primaries 
and secondaries chestnut on their basal halves, ashy on the ter- 
minal, the whole web barred with black ; tail olive-brown, distinctly 
barred with numerous narrow black bars, the bars becoming coarser 
towards the outer feathers ; all the feathers tipped white ; lores 
and round the eyes dusky ; sides of head dusky ashy ; whole lower 
plumage ochraceous buff, becoming browner on the under tail- 
coverts. 

Iris light hair-brown ; bill horny brown ; legs slaty-brown ( Ward- 
law Ramsay^). 



i.vors. 

Length ;il)otil I)'"); tail "> : \\ino- ;{."); tarsus 1-1: bill from 
gape !). 

Resembles A. cr/crtoni in general appearance, but differs in many 
important particulars. 

l)'i*trilmtion m This species was discovered by Ward law liamsay 
al K vai-pho-gyee in Karennee, in a jungle-covered mountain-stream 
at an elevation of about 3000 feet. 

Genus IXOPS, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Lvi>s resembles Actinofhtra, but has the tail rather 
shorter than the wing, and the tail-feathers less graduated. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat and breast fulvous ashy, without stripes. . I. nepalensis, p. 203. 

b. Throat and breast cinereous, with darker stripes. . /. daflaensis, p. 204. 

c. Throat and breast rufous, stiiped with chestnut. . /. waldeni, p. 204. 

213. Ixops nepalensis. The Hoary Ear-winy. 

Cinclosoma nipalensis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 145 (1836). 
Actinodura nipalensis (Hodys.), Blyth, Cat. p. 98; Jforsf. Sf M. Cat. 

i, p. 212; Jerd. 1J. I. ii,'p. 53; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 308; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 260 ; id. Cat. no. 428 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p-. 292 ; Sharpe. 

Cat. B. M. vii, p. 466. 
Ixops nepalensis, Hodgs., Gray's Zoul. Misc. p. 84 ; id. J. A. S. U. 

xx iv, p. 577 ; Oatcs in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 137. 

Rammo-pJio, Lepch. 




Fig. GO. Head of /. ncpalcnsis. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest coffee-brown, with long hoary 
shaft-streaks ; sides of neck, mantle, back, and lesser wing-coverts 
rufescent brown, with indistinct . whitish shaft-lines; rump and 
upper tail- coverts more rufous and streakless; primary-coverts 
black ; greater coverts rufous tipped with hoary ; quills chestnut, 
barred with black on the outer webs, tertiaries rufescent and barred 
with black on both webs ; the outer webs of the earlier primaries 
more or less ashy; basal portion of tail castaneous barred with 
black, the chestnut decreasing in extent from the median feathers to 
the laterals, the other portions black tipped with white ; ear-coverts 



204 

and lores silvery ashy ; cheeks black, continued narrowly along the 
base of the ear-coverts ; chin, throat, and breast fulvous ashy, 
turning to ferruginous on the flanks, lower abdomen, vent, and 
under tail-coverts. 

Bill brownish black ; iris brown; eyelid bluish grey ; feet brown- 
ish fleshy ; claws livid (Scully). 

Length about 8; tail 3*3; wing 3*5; tarsus 1*2; bill from gape '9. 

Distribution, Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, at elevations of from 
4000 to 10,000 feet. 

Habits, tyc. According to Jerdon this species is still more ar- 
boreal than A. eyertoni, and it feeds on the insects which infest the 
floxyers of the rhododendron trees. Hodgson states that it breeds 
from April to June, constructing a saucer-shaped nest of twigs, 
grass, and fibres, in crevices between rocks and stones. The 
colour of the eggs is a matter about which there seems to be some 
doubt. 



214. Ixops daflaensis. Austen's Bar-wing. 

Actinura daflaensis, Godwin-Austen, A. M. N. H. (4) xvi, p. 340 
(1875) ; id. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 77, pi. iv; xlvii, pt, ii, p. 18 ; 
Hume, S. F. iv, p. 219. 

Actinodura daflaensis (Godw.-Aust.}, Hume, Cat. no. 428 bis; Sharps, 
Cat. B. M. vii, p. 467 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 172. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest dark brown, the feathers delicately 
edged paler ; lores and cheeks dark brown ; sides of head silvery 
ashy streaked with brown ; hind neck and sides of neck cinereous 
brown ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and the smaller wing-coverts 
chest nut-brown ; primary-coverts black ; greater wing-coverts 
edged with hoary ; outer webs of the earlier primaries also hoary ; 
the other primaries and the secondaries black on the terminal, 
chestnut barred with black on the basal portion ; tertiaries rufes- 
cent olive-brown, banded with black on both webs ; tail-feathers 
chestnut at base, black elsewhere, tipped with white, the end of 
the chestnut portion barred with black ; chin, throat, breast, and 
upper abdomen cinereous streaked with brown ; lower abdomen, 
sides of body, vent, and under tail-coverts deep chestnut-brown. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3'3; wing 3-5; tarsus 1/2; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Godwin- Austen discovered this bird in high forest 
on the Shengorh Peak, Daphla hills, at 7000 feet in February. 

215. Ixops waldeni. Walden's Bar-winy. 

Actinodura waldeni, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 46, pi. xii ; 
id. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii,p. 163; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 396 ; id. Cat. 
no. 427 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 465. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, crest, and nape dark brown, 
narrowly edged with grey ; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts dull 
rufous-brown, the outer coverts edged with bluish grey ; rump and 



STAPIITDTA. 205 

upper tail-coverts bright reddish brown ; primary-coverts black ; 
primaries and secondaries black, with an external edging of chest- 
nut and barred black ; the earlier primaries (where not chestnut) 
edged with grey ; later secondaries and the tertiaries silky brown 
barred with black ; base of the tail-feathers chestnut barred with 
black,' the other parts black, the three outer pairs tipped white ; 
ear-coverts hoary white streaked with brown ; lores dusky ; cheeks 
blackish margined with grey ; the whole lower plumage rufous- 
brown, streaked with chestnut-brown except on the flanks and under 
tail-coverts. 

Bill grey ; legs and feet fleshy-brown; iris pale grey (Godwin- 
Austen). 

Length about 8; tail 3-2; wing 3'6; tarsus 1-3; bill from 
gape -85. 

Distribution. The Peak of Japvo on the Burrail range, Naga 
hills, at 9000 feet, on the tops of the forest trees. 



Genus STAPHIDIA, Swinhoe, 1871. 

The members of the genus Staphidia are found in the hilly 
regions of North-eastern India, Burma, and China. 

In Staphidia the bill is short and thick, and resembles that of 
f.rnfus figured below ; the nostrils are overhung by a few long 
hairs ; the rictal bristles are short, and the head is crested. The 
tail is of considerable length and much graduated. Some of the 
species of this genus have been retained in Ixulus by many 
Indian authors, but wrongly so. Ixulu* has the tail quite square. 

The birds of this genus are very little known. They appear to 
be found in trees and brushwood in small flocks. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Crown chestnut S. castaneicqis, p. 505. 

b. Crown grey, contrasting with the colour of 

the hack S. rvfiyenis, p. 206. 

c. Crown brown, not contrasting with the colour 

of the back S. striata, p. 206. 



216. Staphidia castaneiceps. The Chestnut-headed Staphidia. 

Ixulus cnstaniceps, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 141 ; fforsf. $ M. Cat. 

i,p. 411. 
Ixulus striatus (Blytii), Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii,p. 109; 

xlv, pt. ii, p. 202. 
Staphidea castaneiceps (Moore), Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, 

p. 20; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 403 ; id. Cat. no. 624 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. 

. M. vii, p. 616 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 251. 

Coloration. Forehead chestnut-brown, with the feathers margined 
with grey : crown and crest chestnut; upper plumage and visible 
portions of wings and tail greenish brown, the back and scapulars 



20(3 CHATEROPOJJIILE. 

with \\hito shafts ; tail blackish brown, the outermost feathers 
broadly tipped with white, the next less so, aud the middle pair 
entirely blackish; lores grey; a very short supercilium, originating 
just over the eye, white ; ear-coverts chestnut with whitish shafts ; 
lower plumage very pale fulvous white ; under tail-coverts brown 
tipped with white ; under wing-coverts pale fulvous white. 

Legs and feet orange-brown ; bill brown ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length nearly 5'5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus '65 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. The Giiro, Khasi, and Niiga hills ; Manipur. I 
gather from God win- Austen's remarks (I. c.) that he procured this 
species in the Daphla hills also. Hume observed it in Manipur at 
elevations above 5000 feet. 



217. StapMdia rufigenis. Hume's Staphidia. 

Ixulus striatus, Blyth, apudJerdon, B. I. ii, p. 260 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. ii, p. 166. 

Ixulus rufigeuis, Hume, S. F. v, p. 108 (1877). 
Staphidea plumbeiceps, Godwin- Austen, A. M. N. H. (4 ) xx, p. 519 

(1877) ; id. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, pp. 19, 21 ; Hume, S. F. vii, 

p. 143 ; id. Cat. no. 624 ter ; id. S: F. xi, p. 252. 
Staphidea rufigenis (Hume), Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, 

p. 21 j Hume, Cat. no. 625 ter; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 617. 
The Striated Flower-pecker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crest, and nape grey, with pale shafts ; 
upper plumage and visible portions of wings greenish brown, the 
shafts of the back, scapulars, and tertiaries white ; tail dark blackish 
brown, the outermost pair of feathers broadly tipped white, the 
next less so, and the median pair without any white ; a short grey 
supercilium reaching to the middle of the upper edge of the ear- 
coverts, and above this a rufous baud fusing posteriorly with the 
ear-coverts, which are chestnut with white shafts ; lores grey ; 
cheeks white, narrowly barred with black; lower plumage white 
tinged with very pale fulvous, the sides of the neck, breast, and 
body more or less suffused with olivaceous ; under tail-coverts 
brown, broadly tipped with white ; under wing-coverts pale fulvous 
white. 

Iris reddish brown; legs umber (Godw.-Aust.). 

Length 5*5; tail 2*3; wing 2-4; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape '55. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; the Bhutan doars ; Sadiya and Brahma- 
khund in the Dibrugarh district of Assam. 



218. StapMdia striata. TiclceWs Staphidia. 

Ixulus striatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 413 (1859) ; Hume, S. F. 

v, p. 107 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 374. 
Pycnonotus nanus, Tickett, J. A. S. B. xxviii, p. 452 (1859). 
Staphidea striata (Blyth), Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 110 ; Godw.- 



SIVA. 207 

. J A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, p. '21 ; Jliunc, Cat. no. (\'2>> ; Gates, 
B. B. i, p. 150; Shurpej Cat. B. M. vii, p. 017 j Salcatlori, Ann. 
Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. OOu. 

Coloration. Blyth thus described the bird: "Length about 5 
, of closed wing 2| indies, and of tail the same; bill to gape 
\ inch and tarsi f inch. Colour greyish brown above, each feather 
with a white mesial streak ; below albescent throughout ; outer- 
most tail-feather | inch shorter than the middle pair, and largely 
tipped with white, as is also the next, and the antepenultimate 
and next within gradually less so, the outer four feathers succes- 
sively graduating." 

Tickell thus described it : " Iris blood-red brown ; bill dark 
horn ; legs reddish horn ; upper parts including a blunt crest ashy 
brown. Each feather shafted whitish. Bemiges and centre pair 
of rectrices reddish clay-brown, llest of tail dusky sepia, more 
and more tipped white externally ; chin, throat, and all underparts 
ashy-white." 

I append also a translation of Salvadori's description of a bird 
of this species procured by Tea in Tenasserim : " Upper parts grey, 
with white streaks along the shafts, the feathers of the cap a little 
darker, lengthened, and forming a distinct crest ; remiges grey, 
narrowly margined with white towards the end of the outer web ; 
tail graduated, dark grey, the four outer feathers with white tips 
increasing in length from the outermost to the fourth ; lower parts 
whitish ; bill and feet dark horny." 

I have not been able to examine a specimen of this species, and I 
therefore quote the above descriptions. I have seen a carefully 
executed plate of the bird, and I notice that the ear-coverts are 
rufous and that the lores and a supercilium are grey, points not 
noticed in the above descriptions. 

Distribution. Tickell procured this bird at Tretoungplee, on 
Muleyit mountain in Teuasserim, at 3000 feet, and Eea at Plapoo 
on the same mountain. No one else appears to have meb with it. 



Genus SIVA, Hodgson, 1838. 

The genus Siva contains four species, which are found in the 
Himalayas and the mountain-ranges of Burma ; two species extend 
down the Malay peninsula to Perak. 

They are birds of handsome plumage. The bill is about half the 
length of the head, gently curved and notched ; the rictal bristles 
are long, and the nostrils are covered by a membrane ; the head is 
crested. 

The tail-feathers are very peculiar, the ends being obliquely 
truncated, and only the two outer pairs are graduated, the other 
four pairs being of equal length. 

In habits all the species seem to be alike. They are quite 
arboreal, being found generally in small flocks in trees of consider- 
able size, the leaves of which they search for insects. 



208 CRATEROPODID.E. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Primaries edged with orange. 

'. Middle pair of tail-feathers chestnut-red 

on the basal half of the inner and the 

basal third of the outer webs S. strigula, p. 208. 

b'. Middle pair of tail-feathers chestnut-red 

on the basal five sixths of both webs . . S, castaneicauda, p. 209. 

b. Primaries edged with blue. 

c'. Wings tipped with white S. cyanuroptera, p. 209. 

d'. Wings not tipped with white 8. sordida, p. 210. 



219. Siva strigula. The Stripe-throated Siva. 

Siva strigula, Hodgs. Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 89 j Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 252 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. 6'. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 50 j Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 45; Hume, 

N. 8f E. p. 392 ; Brooks, S. F. in, p. 252 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xlv, pt. ii, p. 81 ; Hume, Cat. no. 616; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 319 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 638 ; Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 137. 
Leiothrix strigula (Hodg*.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 99 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 365. 

The Stripe-throated Hill-Tit, Jerd. ; Megblim, Lepeli. 




Fig, 61. Head of 8. strigula. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape bright orange-brown; 
a ring of yellowish feathers round the eye ; sides of the head grey, 
mottled with whitish and dusky ; upper plumage slaty green ; 
middle pair of tail-feathers, with the basal half of the inner and 
the basal third of the outer web, chestnut-red, the remainder black, 
narrowly tipped white ; the next pair black, with some trace of 
chestnut-red at base and tipped with yellow ; the other feathers 
with an increasing amount of yellow and a diminishing amount 
of black, the outermost feathers being almost entirely yellow ; 
wing-coverts and winglet like the back ; primary-coverts black ; 
primaries and secondaries black, the outer webs edged with orange 
changing to yellow near the tips, the later secondaries narrowly 
tipped with white ; tertiaries chiefly slaty grey on the outer webs 
and entirely black on the inner, tipped white ; chin orange-yellow ; 
throat pale yellow, with narrow crescentic black cross bars ; a 
narrow moustachial stripe and a patch on the side of the neck 



SIVA. 200 

black; remaining lowor plumage bright yellow, tinged will) oliva- 
ceous on the sides of the breast and abdomen. 

The young appear to have the crown light golden yellow inter- 
mingled with grey, and to have the bars on the throat less deve- 
loped. 

L T p>er mandible dark brown ; lower mandible light greyish 
brown; tip white; legs and feet grey; claws light brown ; iris 
dark reddish-brown (Hume). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 2-75 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from 
gape '8. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to the Daphla 
hills in Assnm; also in the Khasi hills; found from 3000 to 
10,000 feet of elevation. 

Habits, $c. Found in flocks on trees. According to Hodgson 
this bird makes a cup-shaped nest of moss and bamboo-leaves in a 
fork of a tree in May and June. The eggs are three or four in 
number, pale bluish speckled with red, and measure about *85 
by -63. 

220. Siva castaneicauda. Hume's Siva. 

Liothrix strigula (Hotlys.), apud Wald. in Blyttis Birds Sunn. 

p. 110; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 464. 
Siva castaneicauda, Hume, S. F. v, p. 100 (1877) ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 371 ; Hume, Cat. no. (316 his ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 145 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. S. M. vii, p. 639 ; Salvador*, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 

(2) v, p. G01. 

Coloration. Eesembles S. striyula. Differs in having more red 
on the tail, the basal five sixths of the middle pair of feathers, 
the basal three quarters of the inner webs, and. the basal half 
of the outer webs of the next pair being chestnut-red ; the ring of 
feathers round the eye is of a brighter yellow and the sides of the 
head are blackish ; the bill is also much larger. 

Legs and feet dingy glaucous green ; the upper mandible dark 
brown, the lower fleshy ; the iris deep brown {Hume). 

Of about the same size as S. striyula. 

Distribution. Bhutan ; the hills east of Toungngoo ; Muleyit 
mountain in Tenasseriin. This bird appears to occur only at con- 
siderable elevations. 

It has been obtained on the mountains of Perak in the Malay 
peninsula. 

221. Siva cyanuroptera. The Bluer-winged Siva. 

Siva cyanouroptera, Hodys. Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 88; Jerd. B. I. ii, 
p. 253 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109 ; Hume, N. 
8f E. p. 393 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 82 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 617; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 319; Sliarpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 640; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 248; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 138. 

I,ci<>thrix cyanouroptera (Horff/s.), Blyth, Cat. p. 99 ; Ilorsf. fy M. 
Cat. i, p. 366. 

T/if Blue-winycd Hill- Tit, Jerd.; Meyblim adum, Lepch. 
YOL. I. P 



210 CRATEKOPODJDJE. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and hind neck pale blue, the 
sides of the crown deeper blue, the forehead and the anterior part 
of the crown streaked with brown ; lores, round the eyes, and a 
broad streak behind the eye white ; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts bright ochraceous ; the median pair 
of tail-feathers wholly blue, with a subterminal black patch and 
tipped white ; the next four pairs with the outer webs blue, the 
inner brown margined with white, subterininfJly black and tipped 
white ; the outermost pair black on the outer, entirely white on 
the inner web ; primary wing-coverts black ; winglet cobalt-blue, 
tipped white: primaries cobalt-blue on the outer webs; secondaries 
with outer webs margined with pale blue and tipped white ; ter- 
tiaries blackish on the inner, bluish grey on the outer webs, and 
tipped white ; ear-coverts, cheeks, sides of the neck, chin, throat, 
breast, and sides of the body delicate vinous grey ; middle of abdo- 
men pale yellowish buff ; vent and tinder tail-coverts white. 

Bill grey-horny, brownish about the nostrils, and the base of the 
lower mandible yellow; iris brown ; feet fleshy; claws horny brown 
(Scully). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape '6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Naini Tal to the Daphla hills 
in Assam ; the Khasi and Naga hills; North Cachar; Mauipur ; 
occurring from 3000 to 6000 feet or even higher. 

Habits^ fyc. Breeds from April to June, constructing a cup-shaped 
nest of moss lined with leaves, in a fork of a small tree. The 
eggs, three or four in number, are greenish blue speckled with red 
and yellowish brown, and measure '75 by -51. 



222. Sivasordida. The Dull Siva. 

Siva cyanouroptera, Hodys., apud Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 110. 

Siva sordida, Hume, S. F. v, p. 104 (1877) ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 371 ; Hume, Cat. no. 617 bis j Oates. B. B. i. p. 144 ; Sharpe. 

Cat B. M. vii, p. 641. 

Coloration. Resembles S. cyanuroptera. Differs in having the 
back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and the outer webs of the tertiaries 
earth-brown, not ochraceous ; the winglet is not tipped with white, 
nor have the quills of the wing either white tips or white margins ; 
the blue portions of the plumage are much duller. 

Lower mandible, legs, feet, and claws whity brown ; upper man- 
dible darker, but still pale brown ; iris creamy yellow (Hume $ 
Davison). 

Of the same size as S. cyanuroptera. 

Distribution. Karennee ; the higher slopes of Muleyit mountain 
in Tenasserim. 

This species also occurs on the mountains near Perak in the 
Malay peninsula. 



Y IH IN A. 21.1. 

Genus YUHINA, Ilodgs., 1836. 

The genus Yuhina contains four species, three of which are 
found in the Himalayas ami the hill- tracts of Assam. 

In Yuhina the bi'll is about two thirds the length of the head, 
greatly curved and sharply poiuted ; the frontal hairs and the rictal 
bristles are well developed, and the nostrils are covered by a large 
membrane. The head is fully crested. The tail is rather short 
and perfectly square. 

One species lays spotted eggs and another unspotted white eggs, 
but the evidence in the latter case is not to my mind conclusive. 
It will prove a curious exception should it be found always to lay 
unspotted white eggs. 

The birds of this genus frequent trees in small parties and feed 
largely on berries in addition to insects. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Throat streaked Y. gularis, p. 21] . 

b. Throat plain. 

'. Nape chestnut Y. occipitalis, p. 212. 

b'. Nape grey Y. niyrimentum, p. 212. 

223. Yuhina gularis. The Stripe-throated Yuhina. 

Yuhina gularis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 166 (1836) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 100 ; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 261 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 261 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 




p. 139. 
The Stripe-throated Flower-pecker, Jerd. ; Fugi-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest rich hair-brown ; upper plumage, 
wing-coverts, tertiaries, and tail olive-brown, tinged with fulvous 
on the rump ; lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts grey ; chin and throat 
pale rufescent, streaked with black ; breast plain rufescent ; re- 
mainder of lower plumage dull orange-brown, duller on the sides ; 
primary-coverts and winglet black ; wings blackish, the third to 
the sixth primaries edged with pale grey on the terminal portion of 
the outer webs, and all the secondaries except the first edged 
throughout their entire length with orange-brown. 

Upper mandible black ; lower mandible horny brown ; iris brown 
or dark brown ; feet deep bun or orange ; claws dusky (Scully}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 2*8 ; tarsus P 8 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, from 4000 to 10,000 
feet of elevation. Blyth records this species from Arrakan, but 
there is no recent instance of its occurrence in this division known. 

Habits, $c. Breeds, according to Hodgson, from April to July, 
building a large, massive, egg-shaped nest of moss in the fork of a 
branch or between ledges of rock. The eggs are a pale buff-colour, 
thicklv spotted with red or brownish red, and measure -8 by '56. 

p2 



212 CRATEROPODTD.T:. 

224. Yuhina occipitalis. The Slaty-headed Yuhina. 

Yuhina occipitalis, Hotlgs. As. Res. xix, p. 166 (1836) ; Bli/th, Cat. 
p. 100 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 261 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 261 ; Bkmf. 
J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 44 ; Hume, Cat. no. 627 ; Scully, S. F. 
viii, p. 321 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 633. 

The Slaty-headed Hill- Tit, Jerd. ; Turringing-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. G2. Head of Y. occipitalis. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest slaty grey, with whitish shaft- 
streaks ; posterior feathers of crest and the nape chestnut ; hind 
neck ashy ; upper plumage rufous-brown ; wing and tail brown, 
the outer webs margined and suffused with rufous-brown ; a circle of 
white feathers round the eye ; ear-coverts and the region of the eye 
slaty grey, streaked whitish ; a narrow interrupted black moustachial 
streak ; chin, throat, breast, and sides of neck vinous ; sides of the 
abdomen rusty grey ; abdomen pale chestnut ; thighs, vent, and 
under tail-coverts bright chestnut ; under wing-coverts and edge 
of wing white. 

Bill reddish brown ; iris red-brown ; feet orange-buff ; claws 
horny-brown (Scully'}. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2'4 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape *7. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, at elevations of from 
7000 to 10,000 feet. 

225. Yuhina nigrimentum. Tlie Black-chinned Yuhina. 

Polyodon nigrimentum, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (1844). 

Yuliina nigrimentum, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 562 (1845) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 337 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 262 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 262 ; 
Hume, N. $ E. p. 306 ; Godw.-Aust J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 169, 
xlv, pt. ii, p. 82; Hume, Cat. no. 628; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, 
p. 633 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 252 ; Oates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 139. 

The Black-chinned Flowcr-pedter, Jerd. ; Turringing-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest black, each feather margined with 
grey ; nape and sides of the head grey ; lores and chin black ; upper 
plumage and tail dull olive-green ; primaries and secondaries brown, 
with a narrow external edging of olive-green to each feather ; throat 
white ; remainder of lower plumage fulvous, tinged with rufous. 

Bill dusky above, lower mandible red ; feet reddish yellow ; iris 
brown (Jerdoii). 



Length about -K> ; tail 1'5; wing ^2 tarsus ()") ; bill from gapu'O. 

Distrilmtiim. The Himalayas from Garwh.il to the Daphla hills in 
A-sam ; llu- Naga lulls in Manipur. This species appears to be 
found at considerable elevations only. It extends into China. 

y/A//.s-, c\r. Gainmie found a nest in Sikhim in June ; a mere pad 
of moss and wool in a large tree. It contained four white eggs, 
\\hich measured '58 by '43. 

Genus ZOSTEROPS, Vigors & Horsf., 1826. 

In the * Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum ' the geuus 

xU-ro-ps is placed by Gado\v among the Mcliphagvdix, but he 
remarks with regard to the Zosteropince that their degree of relation- 
ship with Mdiphagida is doubtful and that they might, perhaps, 
with more propriety be ranged with the Dicceidce. 

Seeing, therefore, that the position of Zosterops is still doubtful 
and that none of the true Melipliayidce are found in India, I am 
disposed for the present to place Zosterops with the Sibiince, with 
many genera of which subfamily it has undoubted affinities, especi- 
ally with Yuliina. 

In Zosterops the bill is about half the length of the head, slender, 
curved and pointed, and the nostrils are covered by a largemem- 
brane. The head is not crested. The eye is surrounded by a 
circle of small white feathers, which gives a characteristic appear- 
ance to the bird. The tongue, according to Gadow, is protractile, 
bifid, each half broken up into numerous stiff horny fibres so as to 
form a brush. 

The wing has ten primaries, but the first is very minute, so minute 
as frequently to evade observation. This first primary, in addition 
to being small, appears to grow over the second one, not under it, 
and this makes it the more difficult to be detected. Its shaft is, 
however, always visible with a small lens. The tail of Zosterops is 
short and quite square. 

This genus is represented over a considerable portion of Africa, 
Southern Asia, and Australia. The White-eyes are all small birds 
found in flocks on trees, the leaves of which they search for insects 
with a constant twitter. Several of the Indian species are very 
closely allied to one another in coloration and size. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Chin and throat yellow ; abdomen grey. 
a'. Upper plumage golden yellow. 

a". Abdomen entirely grey Z. palpebrosa, p. 214. 

b". Abdomen grey, with a* yellow band down 

the middle Z. aureiventris, p. 215. 

V. Upper plumage olive-green. 

c". Yellow on the chin and throat pure and 

confined to those parts Z. sirnplex, p. 215. 

d". Yellow on the chin and throat tinged 

with green and extending to the breast. Z. ceylonensis, p. 215. 

b. The whole lower plumage yellow Z. siamensis, p. 216. 



214 CitATEKOPODlDvE. 

226. Zosterops palpebrosa. The Indian White-eye. 

Sylvia palpebrosa, Temm. PL Col. 293, fig. 3 (1824). 
Zosterops nicobaricus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 563 (1845). 
Zosterops palpebrosus (Temm.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 220 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 263 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 265 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 397 ; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 631 ; Ltffffe, Birds Ccyl p. 582 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 631 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 322 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 398 ; 

Gadmo, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 165 (part.) ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 247 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 253 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i. p. 140. 
Zosterops nicobariensis, Blyth, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 242 ; iv, p. 291 j id. 

Cat. no. 631 ter. 

Zosterops palpebrosa nicobariensis, Hume, S. F. iv, p. 291. 
The White-eyed Tit, Jerd. 



J 



Fig. 03. Head ot 2,. palpebrosa. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage, wing-coverts, and sides 
of the head golden yellow ; the chin and throat bright yellow ; 
breast, abdomen, and flanks greyish while; under tail-coverts 
yellow ; wings dark brown, edged with greenish yellow ; a ring of 
feathers round the eye white ; feathers in front and below the eye 
black ; tail brown, narrowly margined with greenish yellow. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible bluish grey ; irides yellowish 
hazel ; feet dark plumbeous ; claws brownish horny (Scully}. 

Length 4'2 ; tail 1/7 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape '55. 

Varieties. The race of this species from the Andamans and 
Nicobars is characterized by a very large bill, and it is difficult 
to find any bird from the peninsula with the bill equally large. 
Asa few, however, are found, it is not desirable to separate the 
insular form. On examining the Burmese Zosterops, procured by 
myself in Pegu and by others in Tenasserim, I find that they all 
belong to the closely allied but easily recognizable Z. simplex of 
China. 

Distribution. Every portion of India from Murree in the Hazara 
country to Sadiya in Assam, and southwards on the one hand to 
Ceylon and the Nicobars, and on the other to the neighbourhood of 
Bhamo in Upper Burma. Anderson's specimens from this latter 
district are typical Z. palpebrosa. In the Himalayas this species 
is found up to 7000 feet, and it occurs all over the higher hill- 
ranges of Southern India. It is stated by Blyth to extend to 
Arrakan, but at the time he wrote the other closely allied species 
which inhabit Burma had not been separated, and possibly Blyth 
was mistaken. 

Habits, tSfc. Breeds, according to locality, from January to Sep- 
tember, but April appears to be the month in which most nests may 



XOSTEKOPS. 215 

s 

e\ ery\vliTr I).- found. The nest is a very delicate little cup made ot* 
vegetable fibres and cobwebs, suspended in a fork of a small branch 
at all heights from the. ground. The eggs are generally two in 
number and pale blue without marks, but occasionally some eggs 
may be met with marked at the larger end with darker blue. The 
- measure about -62 by "47. 

227. Zosterops aureiventris. Humes White-eye. 

Zosterops lateralis, Ttmm., Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn. 1865, p. 15 ; 
Ticeedd. His, 1877, p. 303; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 452 j id. Cat. 
no. 631 A (nee Lath.}. 

Zosterops palpebrosa (Temm.), apud Bl. $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 110, 
part. 

Zosterops auriventer, Hume, S. F. vi, p. 519 (1878) ; viii, pp. 163, 
497 ; Oates, B. B.\, p. 344 j Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 163 j Sal- 
vador i, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2), v, p. 592. 

Zosterops buxtoni, Nicholson, Ibis, 1879, p. 167. 

Coloration. Resembles Z. palpebrosa. Differs in having a broad 
yellow baud down the middle of the abdomen and a shorter tail. 
The tail is seldom more than 1/4 in length and never exceeds 1/5. 
The greenish-yellow margins to the tail-feathers are reduced in 
extent and sometimes quite absent. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this species from the 
Karen hills and Karennee procured by Wardlaw Rainsay, and 
others from Tavoy collected by Davison. I did not procure it in 
Pegu. 

This bird extends down the Malay peninsula to the islands of 
Sumatra and Java. 

228. Zosterops simplex. Swinhoe's White-eye. 

Zosterops simplex, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 203; id. Ibis, 1863, p. 294 ; 

Hartl. Journ. f. Orn. 1865, p. 13 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 403 ; id. Cat. 

no. 631 B ; Stuan, Ibis, 1887, p. 227. 
Zosterops palpebrosa (Temm.),apud Hume, S. F. iii, p. 143; apud 

Oates, S. F. x, p. 227 ; id. B. B. i, p. 342. 

Coloration. Resembles Z. palpebrosa. Differs in having the 
whole upper plumage olive-green instead of golden yellow. The 
dimensions of the two species are the same. 

Distribution. I procured a few specimens of this bird in Lower 
Pegu round the town of Pegu, and it is probably this species that 
Feilden obtained at Thayetmyo. Blanford records it from East 
Xepal (J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 157). It is found throughout 
Southern China. 

229. Zosterops ceylonensis. The Ceylon White-eye. 

Zosterops annulosus, Kelaart, Prod. p. 121 (nee Swainson}. 
Zosterops ceylonensis, Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 459, pi. 20, fig. 2 ; 

Hume, S. *F. vii, p. 404 ; Leyge, Birds CeyL p. 585, pi. xxvi, fig. 2 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 631 bis ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. ix, p. 173; Oates in 

Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 145. 



216 CKATEHOPO.D1.UJE. 

Coloration. Upper plumage together with the sides of the neck 
olive-green; wings and tail dark brown edged with olive-green; a 
ring of white feathers round the eye ; lores and under the eye 
blackish ; chin, throat, upper breast, and under tail-coverts dull 
oil-yellow ; lower breast and abdomen greyish white. 

Iris yellowish brown or reddish brown or pale brownish yellow ; 
bill blackish, with the base beneath bluish or pale slaty ; legs and 
feet bluish or pale leaden (Legge). 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 1'75; wing 2'2 ; tarsus '65; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Ceylon, above 1500 feet of elevation. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to May. The nest and eggs appear 
to resemble those of Z. palpebrosa. The eggs measure about *64 
by -45. 

230. Zosterops siamensis. The Siamese White-eye. 

Zosterops siamensis, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 34 ; Walden, Ibis, 1876, 
p. 350, pi. x, fig. 1 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 375 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 631 quat. ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 228 ; id. B. B. i, p. 343 ; Gaduw, 
Cat. . M. ix, p. 180 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 
p. 592. 

Zosterops austeni, Walden, in Blyth's Birds Burm. p. Ill (1875) ; 
Hume, S. F. v, p. 56 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 376 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 631 quint. 

Coloration. Lores and a small patch under the eye black ; a 
circle of feathers round the eye white ; the whole plumage yellow, 
brightest below ; wings and tail dark brown, each feather edged 
externally with yellow, narrowly on the primaries, broadly on the 
secondaries, and the yellow occupying nearly the whole of the 
tertiaries. 

Iris light reddish brown ; bill horn-colour, plumbeous at the base 
of the lower mandible and at the gape ; mouth flesh-colour ; feet 
and claws light plumbeous. 

Length 4-2 ; tail 1-6 ; wing 2 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape '52. 

Distribution. Southern Pegu, about the towns of Rangoon and 
Pegu ; Karennee ; Tenasserim, from That one to Amherst and 
Muleyit mountain: also Siam and Cochin China. 

Habits, <$fc. This bird is found in forests and densely-wooded 
gardens in the tops of high trees. It goes about in flocks and has 
a low twittering note. 



Genus IXULUS, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Ixulus contains three species which are found on the 
Himalayas and the hill-ranges of Assam and Burma. 

Ixulus resembles Yuhina in everything except the shape of the 
bill, which in Ixulus is shorter, deeper, and more curved at the 
tip. 



IXUHS. 217 

The birds of this IM-IIIIS arc found in parties, frequenting the 
branches of trees and feeding on insects. 



Key to the Species. 

n. Nape white /. occipitalis, p. 217. 

b. Nap' without any white. 

'. A chestnut collar on the hind neck I.flacicollix, p. 218. 

b'. No chestnut collar on the hind neck /. humilis, p. 218. 



231. Ixulus OCCipitalis. The Chestnut-headed Luuhis. 

Siva occipitalis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 937 (1844). 

Ixulus occipitalis (BL), Blyth, Cat. p. 100; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, 

p. 411; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 259; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 109 j xlv, pt. ii, p. 82 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 396 ; id. Cat. 

DO. 624 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 251 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 613 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. i, p. 145. 

The Chestnut-headed Flower-pecker, Jerd. ; Temgyeny-pho or Turring- 
ny-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 64. Head of /. occipitalis. 

Coloration. Forehead and lengthened feathers of crest ferru- 
ginous brown ; the tips of the occipital crest-feathers and a large 
nuchal spot white ; lores and round the eye dusky ; ear-coverts white 
streaked with rufous ; with this exception the sides of the head 
and neck, the whole hind neck, and the cheeks ferruginous brown ; 
back, rump, and visible portions of the wings dull olive-green, the 
shafts of the feathers of the back whitish, and the outer webs of 
the earlier primaries hoary grey ; upper tail-coverts and tail brown 
suffused with fulvous ; chin and throat white ; breast pinkish 
brown streaked with brown ; abdomen and flants olivaceous, the 
middle of the former part paler ; under tail-coverts ferruginous. 

Bill black ; legs pale yellowish brown ; iris brown (Jerdoii). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2*6 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape *6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the Daphla hills in 
Assam ; the Khasi hills. 

Habits, $c. Gammie found the nest of this species in Sikhim on 
the 17th June, with three eggs. The nest was a shallow cup of 
fine moss-roots and moss, placed in a small tree. 



21 8 CRATEROPODID^. 

232. Ixulus flavicollis. The Yellow-naped Lcalus. 

Yuhina flavicollis, Hodys. As. Res. xix, p. 1G7 (1830). 

Ixulus flavicollis (Hodys.), Blytli, Cat. p. 100 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, 

p. 262 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 258 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 

p. 109; xlv, pt. ii, p. 82; Blanf. J. A. S.B. xli, pt. ii, p. 45; 

Hume, N. Sf E. p. 395 ; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 252 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 623 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 320 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 612 ; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 251 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 145. 

The Yellow-naped Flower-pecker, Jerd. ; Siripchony-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead and lengthened feathers of crest rich 
brown ; hinder part of crown, nape, and sides of the head mouse- 
grey, the lower part of the ear-coverts silvery ; lores and mous- 
tachial streak black ; a white ring of soiall feathers round the eye ; 
a broad chestnut collar round the hind neck; upper plumage olive- 
brown, the shafts of the feathers of the back paler ; upper tail- 
coverts tinged with fulvous ; tail and wings brown suffused with 
the colour of the back, the primaries narrowly edged with white 
on the outer webs; chin and cheeks white; throat white, with a 
few narrow ochraceous streaks and frequently with dark shafts ; 
middle of breast and abdomen pale fulvous ; vent and under tail- 
coverts deep fulvous ; sides of breast and abdomen ochraceous 
streaked with white ; under wing-coverts white. 

Upper mandible brownish black ; lower mandible fleshy brown, 
greyish horny at base ; iris light to dark brown, sometimes reddish 
brown ; feet fleshy buff ; claws pale brown-horny (Scully). 

Length about 5 ; tail 2; wing 2'5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape *6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Assam ; 
the Khasi hills; Manipur :'from 5000 to 8000 feet of elevation. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from May to July, constructing a deep cup- 
like nest of moss and fibres, which is suspended from one or two 
twigs of a branch. The eggs, usually three in number, are whitish 
marked with brown of various shades, and measure '78 by *56. 



233. Ixulus humilis. Davison's Ixulus. 

Ixulus humilis, Hume, S. F. v, p. 106 (1877) ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 374 j Oates, B. B. i, p. 149 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 614 ; 

Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 602. 
Staphidea humilis (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 625 Ms. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage and visible portions of the 
wings and tail, the sides of the head, and the lengthened crest plain 
brown ; lores and a moustachial streak darker brown ; sides of 
neck and whole lower plumage white, the chin, throat, and breast 
with very narrow brown shaft-streaks ; the sides of the body, thighs, 
and under tail-coverts with broader streaks, increasing in size as 
they approach the tail ; under wing-coverts white. 

tipper mandible black ; lower mandible pale brown ; legs and 
feet fleshy brown ; iris red-brown (Hume $' Davison). 



1IKIMMMJXIS. 219 

Length f5'2 ; tail 1*8; wing 2*4; tarsus '8; bill fiom gape *6. 
Distribution The higher parts of Muleyifc mountain in Teiias- 
Berim. 



Genus HERPORNIS, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Htrpornit contains only one species, found in the 
Himalayas and Burma, and extending down the Malay peninsula. 
This species is represented in China and Borneo respectively by 
two subspecies. 

In Herpornis the bill is nearly as long as the head, slender but 
well bent down at the tip ; the nostrils are covered by a i'ew 
frontal hairs, and the rictal bristles are strong ; the head is crested ; 
the wing is rather long and pointed, and the tail is perfectly square. 
The plumage is green. 

234. Herpornis xantholeuca. The White-bellied Herpornis. 

Erpornis xantholeuca, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 380 (1844) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 101; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 232 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 264; 
GoatD.-A.utt, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109. 

Erpornis xanthochlora, Hodf/s. in Gray's Zoo!. Misc. p. 88 (1844) ; 
id. P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 23 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 142. 

Herpornis xantholeuca (Hodys.), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 167 ; 
Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 83 ; Hume fy Dao. S. F. vi, 
pp. 374, 519; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 630; Hume, Cat. 
no. 630 ; Binnham, S. F. ix, p. 190 ; Inalis, S. F. ix, p. 256 ; Oates, 
S. F. x, p. 227 ; id. B. B. i, p. 151 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii,p. 636; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 252. 

The White-bellied Flower-pecker, Jerd. ; Dany-pu-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. (55. Head of H. xantholeuca. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage, tail, wing-coverts, and 
tertiaries clear greenish yellow ; primaries and secondaries edged 
with the colour of the back ; lores, cheeks, and the lower plumage 
white slightly tinged with grey ; ear-coverts ashy white ; under 
wing-coverts pale yellow ; under tail-coverts bright yellow. 

Upper mandible fleshy horn-colour, the edges and the whole 
lower mandible light flesh-colour ; gape yellow ; mouth yellow ; 
eyelids plumbeous ; iris brown ; legs and claws pinkish flesh-colour. 

Length nearly 5; tail 1'8; wing 2*7; tarsus '65; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Assam ; -the hill- 
ranges of Assam ; Cachar ; Mauipur, and the whole of Burma ; 



220 CRATEROPODIDyE. 

extending down the Malay peninsula. This bird does not appear 
to be found above 4000 or 5000 feet of elevation. In Burma it- 
is as common at the level of the sea as on the hills. 

Habits, <$fc. This species is found in thick forests in companies 
of ten or more, searching the leaves for insects. 



Subfamily LIOTRICHIN^E. 

The Liotrichince comprise those members of the Crateropodidce 
which are strictly arboreal, and in which the sexes are differently 
coloured. The first character separates them from the Braeliy- 
pteri/f/ince, and the second from all the other subfamilies. 

The genera Aetliorliynchus and JEgitliina have two moults a year, 
and thus show affinities with the Sylviidce. The other genera have 
only the usual autumn moult. 

The genera Cephalopyrus and Hypocolius are migratory to some 
extent. The other genera are sedentary. 

All the Liotrichince, so far as is known, lay spotted eggs. Minla 
and Myzornis may prove to be exceptions to this general rule, but 
the evidence regarding these two genera is incomplete and unsatis- 
factory so far as it goes. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. First primary about half the length of 

second. 

'. Tail considerably shorter than wing. 
a'. The secondaries falling short of tip of 
wing by a distance not greater than 
half the length of tarsus. 

a"'. Tail-feathers curved outwards . . LIOTHBIX, p. 221. 
b'". Tail-feathers straight. 

a 4 . Upper tail-coverts falling short 
of tip of tail by less than the 

length of hind toe CUTIA, p. 222. 

b k . Upper tail-coverts falling short 
of tip of tail by about the length 
of tarsus. 
a 5 . Tarsus much longer than 

middle toe with claw. 
a 6 . Bill stout, strongly notched 

and hooked at tip. 
a\ Bill about half the length 
of head; culnien well 

curved PTEKUTHIUS, p. 223. 

b 7 . Bill as lono- as the head ; 

culmen nearly straight . AETHORHYNCHUS, p. 228. 
b 6 . Bill slender and very little 

deflected at tip. 
c 7 . Width of bill behind the 
nostrils equal to half the 
length of bill from that 
point to tip ^EGITHINA, p. 220. 



LIOTHKIN. 221 

d'. Width of bill behind the 
nostrils equal to a third 

of length of bill MYZORNIS, p. 233. 

b\ Tarsus shorter than middle 

toe with claw CHLOROPSIS, p. 234. 

b". The secondaries falling short of the 
tip of wing- by a distance fully equal 
to length of tarsus. 

c'". Head not crested ; tail square .. IRENA, p. 239. 
d'". Head crested ; tail graduated. . . . MELANOCHLORA, p. 241. 
b'. Tail and wing about equal in length. 
c". Outer tail-leather falling short of tip 
of tail by a distance equal to length 

of tarsus HILAROCICHLA, p. 243. 

d". Outer tail-feather falling short of tip 
of tail by a distance less than half 
the length of tarsus. 
e'". Bill notched. 

c 4 . Depth of closed bill at the ante- 
rior corner of nostril mu^h 
greater than the width at same. MESIA, p. 244. 
d*. Depth at same point equal to 

the width MINLA, p. 245. 

/'". Bill entire LEPTOPCECILE, p. 240. 

b. First primary about a sixth the length of 

the second. 
c'. Tail shorter than wing. 

e". Nostrils overhung by numerous fine 

hairs CEPHALOPYRUS, p. 247. 

/". Nostrils not overhung by hairs PSAROGLOSSA, p. 248. 

d'. Tail longer than wing HYPOCOLIUS, p. 250. 

Genus LIOTHRIX, Swains., 1831. 

The genus Lioihrix contains one remarkable hill-bird which is 
characterized by a slightly forked tail, the feathers of which are 
bent outwards. The bill is about half the length of the head, stout, 
and with the culmen curved. It resembles very closely the bill of 
Mesia figured below (p. 244). The tail is quite square at the tip, 
and the upper tail-coverts are long. 

235. Liothrix lutea. The Red-bitted Lioihrix. 

Sylvia lutea, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii, p. 96 (1786). 

Bahila callipyga, Hodys. Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 88. 

Leiothrix luteus (Scop.), Blyth, Cat. p. 99 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i,p. 364 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 250 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 169 ; 

Oates, B. B. i. p. 142 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 247. 
Leiothrix callipyga (Hodgs.), Hume, N. fy E. p. 390; Gammie, S. F. 

iii, p. 266 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 629. 
Liothrix lutea (Scop.), Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 109 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 614 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 644 j Oates in Hume's fl. $ E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 147. 

The Red-bilkd Hill-Tit, Jerd. ; Nanachura, Dehra Doon; Rapchil-pJio, 
Lepch. 



222 CRATEROPOmi)^. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage and sides of the 
neck olive-green, the forehead and crown tinged with yellow and 
the longer tail-coverts tipped with white ; middle pair of tail- 
feathers and the outer webs of the others black ; the inner webs 
brown ; the primaries edged with yellow and later on with crimson ; 
the secondaries black, with a patch of orange-yellow at the base of 
the outer web of each ; tertiaries olive-green tinged with rufous ; 
lores orange-yellow ; a ring round the eye yellow ; ear-coverts 
silvery grey ; a narrow moustachial streak dusky green ; chin and 
throat bright yellow, turning to deep orange-yellow on the lower 
throat ; centre of breast and abdomen and the vent and under 
tail-coverts yellow ; sides of breast and abdomen slaty green. 

Female. The crimson on the primaries of the male is replaced by 
orange-yellow. No other difference. 

Bill coral-red at tip, black at base ; legs yellow-brown (Cockburn); 
iris brown (Jerdori). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 2'75 ; tarsus 1 ; bill at gape -6. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Simla to Bhutan ; the Khasi 
hills ; the Kakhyen hills near Bhamo in Upper Burma; Arrakan. 
This bird is found from 5000 to 8000 feet or lower. It extends 
into China. 

Habits, 6fc. Dr. Jerdon states that this species usually associates 
in small parties of five or six, frequenting the dense thickets and 
underwood that springs up wherever the forest is partially cleared. 
It is a shy bird, and avoids observation in general. Its food con- 
sists of berries, fruits, seeds, and insects. Its usual note is a 
chattering call ; but in the spring the male has a very pleasing 
song. 

This bird makes a cup-shaped nest of dry leaves and moss bound 
together with grass and roots, and generally placed in a leafy 
bush, at no great height from the ground. The number of eggs is 
usually three ; they are pale green, spotted and otherwise marked 
with red, purple, and brown ; they measure about '85 by *62. 

Genus CUTIA, Hodgs., 1836. 

The genus Cutia is remarkable for the great development of the 
tail-coverts, which reach nearly to the tip of the tail. The genus 
contains only one species, both sexes of which are very handsomely 
coloured. 

In Cutia the t bill is rather slender, curved, notched, pointed, and 
slightly longer than half the length of the head ; the rictal bristles 
are very short ; the nostrils are longitudinal and covered by a 
membrane; the frontal feathers are short and firm. The tail is 
about two thirds the length of the wing and slightly rounded. 

23G. Cutia nepalensis. The Nepal Cutia. 

Cutia nipalensis, Ifodf/s. J. A. S. B. v, p. 774 (1836) ; Blyfk, Cat, 
p. 98; Horsf. $ M. Cat i, p. 227; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 247 ; Wald. 



in nil/fit'* 7>Vjv/.s finnn. p. 101) ; Uoilw.-Autt. J. A. 8. If. xlv, pt. ii, 
p. 81 ; xlvii, pt. ii, p. li> ; Jltanc $ Duo. 8. F. vi, p. o70 ; lLm>-, 
( 'at. no. (51 :> ; Or/fc*, 7>'. .#. i. p. 140 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 04<J ; 
Jfiime, 8. F. xi. p. -M->. 

Yellow-backed Shrike- Tit, Jerd. ; Khatyn, Nepal; Rabnoon or 
n-pho t Lepcb. 




Fig. 66. Head of 6'. nepalensis. 

Coloration. Male. The lores, sides of forehead, and a broad 
band passing through the eyes and ear-coverts round the nape 
black ; the whole crown inside this black band deep slaty ; back, 
scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts bright chestnut; wing- 
coverts black ; quills black, all but the first two with a patch of 
slaty near the base, increasing in extent inwards, and the third to 
the sixth or seventh primary with a narrow edging of the same 
about the middle of the outer web ; most of the later quills 
minutely tipped with white ; tail black ; lower plumage white, the 
sides of the body boldly barred with black ; vent and under tail- 
coverts pale buff. 

Female. The slaty colour of the head paler ; the band round the 
head chocolate-brown ; the back and scapulars reddish brown with 
large oval black spots ; otherwise as in the male. 

Legs and feet rich wax-yellow ; claws pale yellowish horny ; bill 
black, pale leaden blue at gape and base of lower mandible ; iris 
brown (Hume). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3*7 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from 
gape *9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the Daphla bills in 
Assam ; Eastern Naga hills ; Manipur ; Karennee ; apparently 
at 0000 feet and upwards. 

Jlitbits, 6fc. Gregarious, on high trees. 



Genus PTEEUTHIUS, Swains., 1831. 

The genus PterutJiius contains five Indian species with the 
general external appearance of Shrikes. 

The bill is about one half the length of the head, strong, strongly 
hocked at the tip, and with the margins sinuated ; the rictal bristles 
are weak. The nostrils are oval and partially covered by the frontal 
bristles, which are well developed. The feathers of the crown are 
somewhat ample, but they do not form a crest. 



224 CRATEROPODID.E. 

The wing is rounded ; the tail is about two thirds the length of 
the wing and slightly rounded, and its coverts reach to about the 
middle of the tail. The tarsus is strong and smooth. 

The birds of this genus are entirely arboreal, being found in 
flocks traversing the highest trees. They are confined to the hilly 
portions of the country, and feed upon both insects and berries. 

Key to the Speci.es. 

a. Tertiaries chestnut. 

'. Crown black P. erythropterus <$ , p. 224. 

b\ Crown bluish grey P. erythropterus $ , p. 224. 

b. Tertiaries golden yellow P. ceralatus rf , p. 225. 

c. Tertiaries green tipped with chestnut. ... P. ceralatus^ , p. 225. 

d. Tertiaries bluish grey or green. 
c'. Crown greenish yellow. 

a". Nape bluish ashy. 

'". Tips of wing- coverts white .... P. melanotistf, p. 226. 
b'". Tips of wing-coverts salmon- 
colour P. melanotis , p. 226. 

b". Nape greenish yellow. 

c'". Tips of wing-coverts white .... P. intermedius J, p. 227. 
d'". Tips of wing-coverts salmon- 
colour P. mtermerfius $ , p. 227. 

d'. Crown blackish P. xanthochloris c? , p. 227. 

e. Crown dark grey P. .vanthochloris $ , p. 227. 

237. Pteruthius erythropterus. The Red-winged Shrike- Tit. 

Lanius erythropterus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 22 ; Gould, Cent. 
pi. 11. 

Pteruthius erythropterus ( Viy.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 99 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
i, p. 172 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 245 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, 
pt. ii, p. 49 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 108 ; Cock $ 
Marsh. S.F.i, p. 356; Hume, N. $ JE. p. 389; Godw.-Aust. J. A. 
S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 81 ; Hume, Cat. no. 609; id, S. F. xi, p. 243 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 150. 

Pterery thrius erythropterus (Viy.\ Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 113. 




Fig. 67. Head of P. erythropterus. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, ear-coverts, 
and under the eye black ; a broad white supercilium from the eye 
to the nape ; upper plumage bluish grey, some of the upper tail- 
coverts tipped black ; toil and wing-coverts black ; primaries and 
secondaries dark brown, edged with glossy black and tipped white ; 
tertiaries chestnut; lower plumage very pale greyish white, the 



PTEKUTIIIUS. 225 

sides of the throat, the centre of the abdomen, vent, and under tail- 
coverts pure white; lower part of the flanks pale rusty; under 
wing-coverts white. 

Female. The forehead, crown, nape, and sides of the head bluish 
greVj the ear-coverts with paler shafts, the lores and round the 
eye more or less dusky ; indications of a white supercilium, very 
ill-defined ; upper plumage olive-grey ; smaller wing-coverts 
black edged with yellowish ; greater coverts yellow on the outer 
webs, black on the inner ; primary-coverts and wioglet black ; the 
earlier primaries edged with hoary grey, the other quills edged with 
yellow ; tertiaries chestnut ; central tail-feathers green, the others 
black, with the greater portion of the outer webs green and tipped 
yellow ; lower plumage entirely pale buff. 

The young resemble the female, and the male assumes the adult 
plumage in the September of the first year. 

Legs and feet fleshy, in some pinker, in some whiter ; claws a 
darker or paler brown ; soles yellowish ; lower mandible and edges 
of upper from gape to below nares pale blue or plumbeous ; rest 
of upper mandible black, occasionally horny black ; irides gre.yish 
lavender, deep grey, deep blue-grey, greenish grey, grey-blue, pearly 
blue-grey, pale green speckled with white, and varying a little in 
every specimen (Hume). Iris amber (Godwin- Austen}. 

Length 6-5 to 8 ; tail about 2-5 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from 
gape -85. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country to Assam ; 
the Khasi and Ntiga hills ; Manipur. From 2500 (Jerdori) to 
10,000 feet (Stoliczka). 

Habits, <Sfc. Breeds in May, constructing a cradle-like nest of 
moss and hair in a fork of a branch near the top of a high tree. 
The eggs, usually three in number, are whitish speckled with 
brownish red and purple. One egg measured '9 by '68. 

238. PterutMus aeralatus. TickeWs Shrike-Tit. 

Pteruthius aeralatus, Tick. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 267 (1855) ; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 628, pi. xlvii ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 368; Hume, Cttt.no. 6 10 bis; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 

(2) v, p. 599. 

Pterythrius aeralatus, Tick., Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 109. 
Ptererythrius seralatus, Tick., Oates, B. B. i, p. 137 ; Gadoiv, Cat. 

B. M. viii ; p. 114. 

Coloration. Eesembles P. erythropterus. The male differs in 
having the tertiaries golden yellow, tinged with red internally and 
tipped black ; the lower plumage much greyer, the lower part of 
the abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts alone being white. 

The female differs in having the tertiaries green, tipped with 
chestnut, and the back grey. 

Legs and feet fleshy white; claws pale brown to black; lower 
mandible and basal edges of the upper mandible along commissure 
pale blue ; rest of bill black ; iris varied considerably, slaty-grey, 
pale greenish blue, and deep brown (Hume fy Davison}. 

VOL. I. Q 



226 CRATEBOPODID.E. 

Length about 6-5; tail 2*3; wing 3-1; tarsus 1-1; bill from 
gape *85. 

Distribution. The Kakhyen hills east of Bhamo ; Karennee and 
the Karen hills east of Toungngoo ; Muleyit mountain in Teiias- 
serim ; also the mountains of Perak in the Malay peninsula. 

Count Salvadori (1. c.) has shown that his P. cameanoi from 
Sumatra is distinct from the present species. 

239. Pteruthius melanotis. The Chestnut-throated Shrike-Tit. 

Pteruthius melanotis, Hodgs. J. A. S, B. xvi, p. 448 (1847) ; Oates 

in Humes N. Sf E. 2nd ed. i, p. 161. 

Pteruthius senobarbus (Temm.), apud Horsf. 8f M. Cat, i, p. 172. 
Allotrius senobarbus, Temm., apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 246 (part.); Godw.- 

Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 108. 
Allotrius melanotis (Hodgs.), Hume, N. $ E. p. 390 j Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 369 j Hume, S. F. vii, p. 456; id. Cat. no. 611 j id. S. F. 

xi, p. 244. 
Ptererythrius melanotis (Hodge.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 139 ; Gadoiv, Cat. 

B. M. viii, p. 117. 

Ku-er-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, crown, back, scapulars, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts greenish yellow ; a ring of white feathers 
round the eye ; ear-coverts yellow ; a spot on each side of the 
neck behind the ear-coverts black ; the whole nape between these 
black spots bluish ashy ; a broad superciliutn bluish white ; lores, 
continued in two lines, one over the eye and one below, meeting 
behind the eye, black ; chin and throat deep chestnut, extending 
down to the upper part of the breast ; remaining lower plumage 
bright yellow ; middle tail-feathers green, tipped with black ; the 
next four pairs black, tipped with white, the tips increasing in size 
towards the outside of the tail ; the outermost feathers wholly 
white; wings brown, edged with bluish grey; the tertiaries wholly 
bluish grey, and all the quills except the earlier primaries tipped 
with white ; lesser wing-coverts black, edged with grey ; greater 
coverts black, broadly tipped with white ; primary-coverts and 
winglet black. 

Female. Resembles the male closely ; differs in having the tips 
to the greater wing-coverts salmon-colour instead of white ; the 
chestnut of the throat restricted and not descending to the breast ; 
and in having the lores and the ophthalmic lines pale brown instead 
of black. 

The young resemble the female, but the upper plumage is olive- 
brown, and the grey nape and black lines on the sides of the head 
are wanting ; the lower plumage is yellowish white. All the cha- 
racteristic wing-marks are present from the earliest age. 

Bill plumbeous ; iris light- brown ; legs and feet fleshy white 
(Chennell). 

Length about 4-7; tail 1*8 ; wing 2*5; tarsus *8; bill from 
gape -55. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to Assam ; the Khasi 



PTEEUTHIUS. 227 

and Eastern Naga hills ; Manipur. Found at high elevations, 
7000 feet or so. 

Habits, 6,'c. According to Hodgson this bird makes a shallow 
cup-like nest of moss and fibres suspended in the fork of a branch 
of a u tree. The eggs are pinky lilac, speckled with violet, and 
measure about -77 by -49. 

240. Pteruthius intermedius. Hume's Shrike-Tit. 

Allotrius melanotis (Hodgs.), Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 109. 

Allotrius intermedius, Hume, S. F. v, p. 112 (1877) ; Hume 8f Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 370; Hume, Cat. no. 61 Ibis; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. 

Civ. Gen. (2) v. p. 600. 
Ptererythrius intermedius (Hume), Oates, B. B. i, p. 140 : Gadow. 

Cat. B. M. viii, p. 117. 

Coloration. Resembles P. melanotis. The male differs in having 
the forehead deep chestnut like the throat, and above and next to 
it a bright yellow band ; the grey nape and the black neck-patches 
are absent ; the outermost tail-feathers are not entirely white, but 
have a streak of black near the tips of the outer webs ; the first 
and second primaries are entirely black ; the next four are black at 
the base and white on the remainder of the outer webs ; the others 
have progressively more black at the base, and the other portions 
of the outer webs green. 

The female differs in having the forehead rufous and the grey on 
the nape absent ; the lower plumage pale yellow ; the wings edged 
with green, except the earlier primaries, which are edged with pale 
yellowish. 

Lower mandible and edge of upper pale blue ; rest of upper 
mandible black ; iris brown ; legs, feet, and claws fleshy (Hume). 

Of the same size as P. melanotis. 

Distribution. Toungngoo; the upper slopes of Muleyit mountain 
in Tenasserim ; the Thoungyeen valley. Blyth, who did not discri- 
minate this and the preceding species, wrongly recorded P. melanotis 
from Toungngoo. 

241. Pteruthius xanthochloris. The Green Shrike-Tit. 

Pteruthius xanthochloris, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xyi, p. 448 (1847). 
Allotrius aenobarbus, Temm., apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 246 (part.). 
Allotrius, sp., Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 50. 
Allotrius xanthochloris (Hodgs.), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 45; 

Hume, S. F. vii,p. 456; id. Cat. no. 611 ter. 
Ptererythrius xanthochloris (Hodgs), Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 118. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, lores, the sides of the crown, 
and round the eye dark grey ; crown and nape blackish, with 
traces of grey among the feathers ; ear-coverts, sides of neck, 
back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts green ; lesser wing- 
coverts brown, edged with green ; greater coverts brown, edged with 
green and tipped with yellowish ; primary-coverts black ; wings 
dark brown, edged with green exteriorly ; tail brown, suffused with 

Q2 



228 CRATEBOPODTD^. 

green on the outer webs, tipped white, and the outer web of the 
outermost feather whitish ; chin, throat, and breast pale ashy, 
smeared in places with yellow ; remaining lower plumage, under 
wing-coverts, and axillaries bright yellow. 

Female. Differs in having the crown and nape of the same 
dark grey as the forehead ; lores, sides of the crown, and round the 
eye without any trace of black. 

Iris dark grey-brown ; lower mandible and upper mandible along 
the commissure pale plumbeous ; rest of upper mandible black ; 
legs, feet, and claws fleshy, tinged plumbeous (Davison). 

Length about 5 ; tail 1-9 ; wing 2'5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape *55. 

Birds from Nepal and Sikhim have the head much darker than 
birds from the N.W. Himalayas. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Sikbim, 
at elevations up to 9000 feet. 

Genus AETHORHYNCHUS, Sundevall, 1872. 

This genus is usually placed with the Brachypodince, but I cannot 
discover that it has any close affinities with the Bulbuls. 

The birds of this genus have a moult in February in addition to 
the autumn moult. From February to June the sexes are very 
differently coloured, but at other times of the year they resemble 
each other. The colours of the female are not changed by the 
February moult. The young males resemble the female for some 
months, and probably assume the male garb in January. 

In this genus the bill is very strong, nearly as long as the head, 
with the culmen nearly straight and the tip strongly notched and 
hooked ; the nostrils are long ovals, and the rictal bristles are 
weak. The tail is almost square at the end. 

242. Aethorhynchus lafresnayii. The Great lora. 

lora lafresnayei, Hartlaub, Rev. Zool 1844, p. 401 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 309 ; Bl. $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 137 ; 

Hume, S. F. v, p. 423 ; Hume $ Dav- S. F. vi, pp. 328, 516 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 468 quat. ; Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 184. 
lora innotata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 472 (1847) ; id. Cat. p. 213. 
Phoenicomanes iora, Sharpe, P. Z. 8. 1874, p. 427, pi. liv. 
Aethorhynchus lafresnayii (HartL), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 14 : 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 204. 




Fig. 68. Head of A. 
Coloration. Male. In breeding-plumage (February to June) the 



JEGITHINA. 229 

upper plumage is dull green, each feather more or less black at 
the extreme tip; v\ings, tail, and upper tail-coverts deep black, 
the primaries and outer secondaries very narrowly edged with 
greenish on the outer, and more broadly with white on the inner 
\vebsj lores, cheeks, a ring round the eye, and the whole lower 
plumage bright yellow. 

The male at other times (July to January) has the upper plu- 
mage, wing-coverts, and tertiaries dull green ; the tail greenish 
yellow ; primaries and secondaries dark brown, edged with greenish 
yellow ; lores, cheeks, round the eye, and the entire lower plumage 
bright yellow. 

Female. Eesembles the male in the plumage last described. 

Young males with the tail green and the tertiaries mingled 
black and greenish yellow are not uncommon. 

Iris dark brown ; bill leaden blue, the culmen dark horny ; legs 
and feet leaden blue ; claws horny (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 6-5; tail 2'2 ; wing 275; tarsus -8; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Arrakan (Blyili) ; the southern portion of Tenas- 
serim from Mergui to Bankasun and the Thoungyeen valley. 
Tickell obtained this bird near Ye in Tenasserim. It extends down 
the Malay peninsula. 

An allied species from Siam is A. ccanihotis, which has the ear- 
coverts and the tips of the wing-coverts yellow. 

Habits, $c. Frequents gardens and forests, going about singly 
or in pairs, searching the leaves of trees for insects and uttering a 
fine whistling call. 

Genus JEGITHINA, VieilL, 1816. 

The genus <&yithina, allied to the last genus, is equally, in my 
opinion, removed from the Bulbuls. 

All the species of JEgitliina have two moults in the year. The 
females in all cases remain unchanged in colour by the moults, but 
the males in some cases have a very distinct summer and winter 
plumage. 

In ^Egithina the bill is about two thirds the length of the head, 
with the culmen nearly straight ; the bill is notched and pointed. 
The wing is very rounded and the tail short and square. The 
plumage of the rump is remarkably soft and copious, and the males 
are in the habit at times of puffing it out. 

All the species are green and yellow, and they have a close re- 
semblance one to the other. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail black or green throughout. 

a'. Upper plumage either greenish yellow or 

black or a mixture of both JE. tipTiia, p. 230. 

&'. Upper plumage entirely dark green JE. viridissima, p. 231. 

b. Tail tipped with white d. nigrilutea, p. 232. 



230 CRATEKOPODID^E. 

243. TEgithina tiphia. The Common lor a. 

Motacilla tiphia, Linn. S.N.i, p. 331 (1766). 

Motacilla zeylonica, Gm. 8. N. i, p. 964 (1788). 

lora zeylonica (Gm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 213 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 267 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 101 ; Hume, Cat. no. 467. 
lora typhia (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 214 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. \, p. 266 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 103 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 428 ; Anders. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves, p. 660; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 490; Hume, Cat. 

no. 468 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 185 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. i, p. 190. 
^Egithina tiphia (L.\ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 7 ; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 202 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 151. 

The Black-headed Green Bulbul, The White-winged Green Bulbul, 
Jerd.; Shoubiga or Shoubigi, Hind. ; Patsu-jitta,Te\.-, Pacha-pora,To,m.; 
Chah-tuk, Taphika, Fatickja tonfik, Beng. 




vr 



Fig. 69. Head of M. tiphia. 

Coloration. Male. In full summer plumage the lores, fore- 
head, crown, and back are black, the bases of the feathers on the 
back yellow and showing through the black ; rump greenish yellow ; 
upper tail-coverts and tail black ; lesser wing-coverts black ; median 
ones white ; greater ones black, tipped with white ; quills black, 
narrowly edged with pale yellow ; sides of the head and neck, chin, 
throat, and breast deep intense yellow ; abdomen, sides, vent, and 
under tail-coverts dull greenish yellow. The back is sometimes 
yellow merely fringed with black, and the head is sometimes not 
quite black but yellow much mixed with black. 

The male in winter loses all or most of the black on the upper 
parts except on the tail and wings, and becomes yellowish green. 

Female. At all seasons the upper plumage is green ; the tail 
greener and duskier, the edges yellowish ; lesser wing-coverts 
green ; median coverts dusky green, broadly tipped with white ; 
greater coverts dusky green, the outer ones broadly tipped with 
white, the inner broadly edged with white on the outer webs ; 
quills dark brown, edged with pale yellow ; lores, sides of the head, 
and entire under plumage yellow. 

Iris yellowish white ; lower mandible and the margins of the 
upper nearly to the tip blue ; remainder of upper mandible black ; 
feet and claws plumbeous. 

Length 5-4 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-4 : tarsus '75 ; bill from gape -7. 

Throughout its great range the Common lora is subject to 
variations in its plumage, which appear to be due chiefly, if not 
entirely, to climatic influences. 

The females may be dismissed with the remark that they do not 
vary in any appreciable degree either locally or seasonally. 



JEGITHINA. 231 

Young birds resemble the female, and young males begin to 
acquire the adult summer plumage in the first spring, but do not 
acquire it in its entirety the first summer, and consequently young 
males of every degree of blackness are met with in the summer. 

Adult males in summer plumage vary excessively according to 
locality. In Southern India, Ceylon, and the Malay peninsula 
the upper plumage, except the rump, is often unbroken black, and 
these birds retain traces of black on the upper plumage in winter. 
In all other parts of its range the adult in summer has a variable 
amount of black on the upper plumage. Sometimes the nape and 
back are entirely black, in other cases the crown and nape are 
black and the back fringed with black, and in others again there is 
nothing but a few patches of black here and there. These birds 
lose all the black in the winter except on the wings and tail. 

In a portion of the Central Provinces, as pointed out by Hume, 
the females are duller coloured than those from other parts, and 
the male in winter plumage is without any black on the head and 
back ; but in the summer the male is almost as black as specimens 
from Southern India and Ceylon. 

Distribution. The whole Empire with Ceylon except that portion 
of India which lies west of a line, roughly speaking, drawn from 
the head of the Gulf of Cambay through Abu to Dehra. This 
species does not appear to ascend the hills to a greater height than 
3000 feet. 

Habits, <$fc. This bird frequents orchards, low trees, and 
brushwood, feeding on insects which are found among the leaves. 
It commences to breed in May, or probably earlier, making a 
beautiful cup-shaped nest of very small size, which it fixes in the 
fork or on the bough of a small tree at no great height from the 
ground. The nest is made of fine fibres and grass, and coated 
outside with cobwebs. The eggs, usually three in number, are 
greyish white, streaked with brown and reddish brown, and 
measure *69 by *54. 

244. JEgithina viridissima. The Green lora. 

lora scapularis, Horsf., apud Blyth, Cat. p. 214 ; apud Horsf. 8f M. 

Cat. i, p. 265 (part.), 
lora viridissima, Bonap. Consp. A.V. i, p. 397 (1850) ; Hume, S. F. 

v, p. 427 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 327 ; Hume, Cat. no. 468 ter. 
JEgithina viridissima (Bp.*), Tweedd. Ibis, 1877, p. 304, pi. v ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vi, p. 6 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 201. 

Coloration. Male. The whole plumage dark green, becoming 
yellow on the lower abdomen and vent ; lores blackish ; feathers 
immediately above and below the eyes bright yellow ; under 
tail-coverts pure yellow ; under wing-coverts white ; tail glossy 
black; wing-coverts black, broadly tipped with white, which forms 
two wing-bars ; quills black, all narrowly edged with green ; the 
tertiaries also broadly edged on both webs with white. 

Female. The upper plumage dark green, almost as dark as 
in the male ; the tail green, paler than the back, and narrowly 



232 CEATEEOPODID^:. 

edged with yellow ; the lores and sides of the head are greenish 
yellow, and consequently the yellow edging is not so conspicuous 
as in the male ; the whole lower plumage light yellowish green ; 
wing-coverts brown, broadly tipped and edged with pale yellow ; 
quills blackish brown, edged with greenish yellow. 

There is no seasonal change of plumage in either sex, although 
there are two moults in the year. 

Legs and feet plumbeous blue ; claws black ; lower mandible, 
gape, and a line on each side of the upper mandible dark plum- 
beous blue ; rest of upper mandible black or blackish brown ; irides 
dark to reddish brown (Davisori). 

Length about 5 ; tail 1*8 ; wing 2'4 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape *75. 

Distribution. A straggler to the southern portion of Tenasserim. 
It is found in the Malay peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. 



245. JEgithina nigrilutea. Marshall's lora. 

lora nigrolutoa, G. F. L. Marshall, S. F. iv, p. 410 (1876) ; Hume, 

S. F. v, pp. 134, 441, vii, p. 454 ; id. Cat. no. 468 bis. 
^Egithina nigrolutea (Marsh.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 12. 

Coloration. Male. In summer plumage the forehead, crown, 
nape, and lores are black ; upper back bright yellow, delicately 
fringed with black ; lower back the same, but with more black ; 
upper tail-coverts black ; tail black, broadly tipped with white ; 
lesser coverts and scapulars black ; median coverts white ; greater 
coverts black, tipped with white ; quills black, narrowly margined 
with greenish, the secondaries and tertiaries tipped white ; sides of 
the head and neck and the whole lower plumage bright yellow ; 
under wing-coverts white. 

In winter the male has the upper plumage entirely dull greenish 
yellow, with, as a rule, a few black marks on the crown ; the other 
parts of the plumage are the same as in summer. 

Female. The whole upper plumage greenish yellow ; the upper 
tail-coverts black, fringed with green ; a bright yellow ring 
round the eye ; sides of the head and the whole lower plumage 
yellow ; the wings and tail as in the male, but the black is not so 
intense ; the white parts are tinged with yellow in places, and the 
terminal half of the middle pair of tail-feathers is nearly all white 
tinged with ashy. 

Legs and feet light plumbeous; bill horny; iris dark (Hume). 

Length nearly 5'5; tail 1'8 ; wing 2'5 ; tarsus 4 7; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Cutch ; the eastern half of Eajputana ; the southern 
portion of the Punjab ; the North-West Provinces ; Malwa ; 
Bundelkhand ; the northern portion of the Central Provinces ; 
Eastern Bengal as far east, at least, as Mudhupur in the South al 
Pergunnahs. 

Habits, <$fc. Nothing in particular is on record regarding the 
habits of this species, which, however, are not likely to differ from 
those of JE. tiphia. 



MTZORNIS. 233 

Genus MYZORNIS, Ilodgs., 1843. 

The genus Myzornis contains one species of brilliant green 
plumage, an inhabitant of the higher portions of the Himalayas. 

In Mt/zornis the bill is slender and nearly as long as the head, 
distinctly notched, with the culmen gently curved ; the nostrils are 
longitudinal and covered by a membrane ; the rictal bristles weak. 
The head is not crested, but the feathers of the crown are some- 
what lengthened. The wing is round ; the tail is about two thirds 
the length of the wing and slightly rounded, and the tarsus is 
long and slender. 

246. Myzornis pyrrhura. The Fire-tailed Myzornis. 

Myzornis pyrrhoura, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xii, p. 984 (1843) ; Blyth, 
"Cat. p. 101 ; Hor*f. $ M. Cat i, p. 263 ; Jerd. B. L ii, p. 263; 
Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 44. 

Myzornis pyrrhura, Hod ys., Hume, Cat. no. 629; Sharpe,Cat. B. M. 
\ ii, p. 635 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 155. 

The Fire-tailed Flower-pecker, Jerd. ; Lho-sagvit-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 70. Head of M. pyrrhura. 

Coloration. Male. The whole head and body, the wing-coverts, 
and the tertiaries bright green ; the feathers of the forehead 
and crown with deep black centres ; the lores and a triangular 
patch behind the eye black ; a streak above and one below the eye 
brighter green ; the throat and upper breast suffused with red ; 
the middle of the lower part of the breast and abdomen tinged with 
red; vent and under tail-coverts chestnut-red; winglet tipped 
white ; primary-coverts black, edged with green and tipped with 
yellow ; primaries brown, the first eight tipped with white, the 
outer webs of all ten primaries deep black, more or less margined 
with red ; secondaries with the outer webs red and tipped with 
pinkish white ; tertiaries black, with some green on the inner webs ; 
tail-feathers red on the outer webs, green on the inner, all broadly 
tipped with dusky. 

Female. Eesembles the male closely, but differs in having the red 
on the lower parts dull and subdued, and the red on the wings and 
tail less bright, the primary-coverts green, tipped with white, and 
the terminal spots on the secondaries pure white. 

Bill dusky brown ; legs fleshy ; iris brown (Jerdon) ; the iris is 
figured red by Hodgson. 

Length 5-2 ; tail 1-9 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from gape '7. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim, probably not below 6000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Haunts brushwood and moss-grown trees. The egg 
is said to be white, but this statement is not well authenticated. 



234 CRATEROPODIDJE. 



Genus CHLOROPSIS, Jard. & Selby, 1826. 

The genus Chloropsis contains a large number of birds of bright 
green plumage which are found in Southern and South-eastern 
Asia. Seven species occur within Indian limits. 

Chloropsis is always placed among the Bulbuls, but, with the 
exception of the very short tarsi, there is nothing in common be- 
tween the two to point to any close relationship. 

In this genus the bill is slender and curved, and about as long 
as the head; the tip is notched, and the nostrils are oval ; the rictal 
bristles are weak ; the frontal feathers are advanced up to the 
nostrils ; the head is not crested ; the wing is rounded, and the tail 
is short and square ; the tarsi are very short, shorter than the 
middle toe with claw. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Forehead rich orange-yellow. 

a'. Chin and throat bright blue C. aurifrons, p. 234. 

b'. Chin and throat black C. malabarica, p. 235. 

b. Forehead greenish or yellowish. 

c ' . Abdomen orange-brown C. hardwickii, p. 236. 

d'. Abdomen green. 

a". Outer webs of primaries blue C. chlorocephala, p. 237. 

b" . Outer webs of primaries green. 
'". A bright patch of colour on the 

wing-coverts. 
a 4 . Moustachial streak a mere short 

narrow line C. zosterops, p. 238. 

6 4 . Moustachial streak broad, and 

occupying the whole cheek . . C. jerdoni, p. 238. 
b'", No bright patch of colour on 

wing-coverts C. cyanopogon, p. 239. 



247. Chloropsis aurifrons. The Gold-fronted Chloropsis. 

Phyllornis aurifrons, Temm. PL Col. 484, fig. 1 (1829) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 212 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 258 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 99 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 106 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 129 ; 
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 660 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 326 ; Hume, Cat. no. 465 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 184. , 

Phjllornis hodgsoni, Gould, Birds Asia, iii. pi. 15 (1861) ; Bl $ 
Wald. Birds Burm. p. 137. 

Chloropsis aurifrons (Temm.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 20 ; Gates, 
B. B. i, p. 205 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 595. 

The Gold-fronted Green Bulbul, Jerd. ; Subz-harewa, Nepal. ; Hurriba, 
Beng. ; Skalem-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead and front of crown orange- 
yellow ; lores, round eye, ear-coverts, and lower throat black ; chin, 
cheeks, and upper throat purplish blue ; a faint superciliuru con- 
tinued down the sides of the neck, then widening and passing round 
the black of the throat, so as to form a collar, yellow ; lesser wing- 
coverts and bend of the wing verdigris-blue ; the whole remaining 



CHLOROPSIS. 235 

visible portions of tiie plumage bright green, the concealed portions 
of the primaries and secondaries in the closed wing dark brown. 

Female. Differs from the male in being rather less brilliant in 
coloration. 

The young are entirely green on the head ; a small moustachial 
blue streak is present, and the edgings to the wings are bluish ; 
the tail is also tinged with blue. 

Bill black ; mouth bluish grey ; eyelids dark brown ; feet plum- 
beous ; iris brown ; claws horn-colour. The female has the mouth 
livid brown. 

Length 8 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 3* 8 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The sub-Himalayan tracts from Garhwal to Dibru- 
garh in Assam ; a considerable portion of Eastern Bengal and the 
adjacent States, Ball quoting the following localities as places where 
it is found : E-ajmehal hills, Midnapur, Manbhum, Lohardugga, 
Sirguja, Kalahandi, and Goomsur ; the Khasi hills; Manipur; the 
neighbourhood of Bhamo ; Karen nee : the whole of what recently 
constituted British Burma, down to Amherst and the Thoungyeen 
valley. Birds from Kurnaun are very much larger than those from 
other parts, but otherwise this species is very constant in size and 
colour throughout its great range. It extends into Cambodia. 

Habits, fyc. This species and all that follow are very similar in 
habits. They frequent trees, and are regular leaf-hunters, feeding 
principally on insects. They mimic the calls of other birds, and, 
notwithstanding their brilliant plumage, they are difficult to detect 
in trees. They go in pairs or alone. The nest of O. aurifrons does 
not appear yet to have been discovered. 




Fig. 71. Head of C. malabarica. 



248. Chloropsis malabarica. The Malabar Chloropsis. 

Turdus malabaricus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 837 (1788). 

Phyllorms malabaricus (Gm.), Blyth, Cat. p. 212 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 98 ; McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. ii, p. 212 ; Fairbank, S. F. 

iv, p. 258; Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 400; Legge, Birds Ceyl 

p. 488 ; Hume, Cat. no. 464 ; Daviton, S. F. x, p. 387 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 190. 
Chloropsis malabarica (Gm.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 22. 

The Malabar Green Bulbul, Jerd. 



236 CRATEBOPODID^E. 

Coloration. Forehead golden yellow ; lores, under the eye, the 
lower part of the ear-coverts, the chin, and throat black ; moustachial 
stripe blue ; the lesser wing-coverts verdigris-blue ; the remaining 
plumage and the visible portions of the closed wings and tail bright 
green. 

The female hardly differs from the male. 

The young are green all over. 

Bill black ; legs and feet plumbeous ; claws dull black ; iris dark 
brown (Davisori). 

Length about 8 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus *7; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from Khandala to 
Travancore ; Ceylon ; and McMaster records this species from 
Chikalda in Berar. It is found at all levels up to 6000 feet.! 



249. Color opsis hardwickii. The Orange-bellied Chloropsis. 

Chloropsis hardwickii, Jard. fy Selby, 111. Orn. ii, Add. p. 1 (1829) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 18 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 206 ; Salvadori, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 594. 

Phyllornis hardwickii (J. $ &), Blyth, Cat. p. 212 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. 
i, p. 258 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 100 ; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 106; xlv, pt. ii, p. 79; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 137 ; Hume 
# Dav. S. F. vi, p. 327 ; Hume, Cat. p. 466 j Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 297 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 185. 

The Blue- winged Green Bulbul, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The upper plumage green, washed with 
fulvous-yellow on the head ; lores, the feathers under the eye, the 
ear-coverts, chin, throat, and upper breast black; a broad moustachial 
streak, reaching to the end of the ear-coverts, cobalt ; remainder of 
the under plumage orange-brown, washed with green on the 
flanks ; tail dull purple, the inner webs blacker ; lesser wing- 
coverts verdigris-blue ; remaining coverts and the primaries black, 
edged with purple ; secondaries brown on the inner and green on 
the outer webs; tertiaries and inner greater coverts entirely 
green. 

Female. The upper plumage green, the head being of the 
same colour as the other parts ; lesser wing-coverts blue ; the 
other coverts and the tertiaries wholly green; secondaries and 
primaries brown edged with green, the first three primaries with a 
tinge of blue ; tail green ; moustachial streak cobalt, but paler than 
in the male ; sides of head and neck, chin, throat, and upper breast, 
with the whole of the flanks, green, tinged with blue on the throat ; 
lower breast, abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts orange-brown. 

Young birds are entirely green, without any orange below at 
first ; traces of orange on the abdomen soon make their appear- 
ance ; the moustache and wing-patch are barely indicated. 

Bill black ; irides brown or dark brown ; feet plumbeous ; claws 
dusky or black (Scully}. 

Length 7'5 ; tail 3*1 ; wing 3'8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape '95. 



CHLOROPSIS. 237 

C. lazulina, from China, is barely separable from the present 
species ; it has the chin, throat, and breast strongly suffused with 
blue. 

Distribution. The Himalayas and their bases, from Mussooree to 
Dibrugarh in Assam ; the Khasi hills ; Manipur ; the Toungngoo 
hills ; Karennee ; the slopes of Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim. 
C. hardwickii is found at all levels, apparently up to 5000 or 6000 
feet. It occurs on the mountains of Perak in the Malay peninsula. 

250. Chloropsis chlorocephala. The Burmese Chloropsis. 

Pkyllornis cochinchinensis (Lath.), apud Blyth, Cat. p. 213; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 270 ; xliii, pt. ii, p. 180. 

Phyllornis chlorocephalus, Walden, A. M. N.H. (4) vii, p. 241 (1871); 
Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 137 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 127 ; Hume $ Dav. 
S. F. vi, p. 323 ; Hume, Cat. no. 463 bis ; Bingham, S. F. ix, 
p. 183 ; Oatcs, S. F. x, p. 211 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 184. 

Chloropsis chlorocephala (Wald.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 28; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 208 ; Salvador^ Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, 
p. 595. 

Coloration. Male. Lores, feathers under and in front of the 
eye, cheeks, chin, and throat black ; forehead and a broad band 
from eye to eye passing round and encircling the throat pale 
yellowish green ; front of the crown above the forehead and a 
broad streak passing over the eyes and ear-coverts pale green ; a 
very short moustachial streak cobalt ; crown of the head and nape 
golden green ; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and scapulars deep 
green ; tail blue ; primaries and their coverts black, edged with 
blue : secondaries black on the inner and blue on the outer webs, 
and edged with green ; tertiaries and inner greater coverts green 
tinged with blue ; lesser coverts glistening smalt-blue ; median and 
greater coverts green, tinged with blue at the base ; under plumage 
bright green, tinged with yellow on the breast. 

Female. The black on the head of the male is replaced by 
bluish green, and the broad yellow band encircling the black is 
absent ; the coloration is duller everywhere, and the moustachial 
streak is pale bluish green. 

The young are very like the adult female. 

Bill black ; iris brown ; legs plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length 7 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape '9. 

C. icterocephala, from the Malay peninsula, is very close to 
C. chlorocephala, but differs in having the forehead and the band 
encircling the throat pure yellow ; the yellowish green on the front 
of the crown and over the eyes and ear-coverts is absent, and the 
whole summit of the head is a rich golden fulvous. 

Distribution. The Garo and Khasi hills ; Dimapur on the Dhan- 
siri river in Assam ; Cachar ; Manipur ; Arrakan ; Pegu ; Tenas- 
serim ; Karennee. The range extends to Cochin China. 



233 CBATEROPODID^E. 



251. Chloropsis zosterops. The Malachite-shouldered 
Chloropsis. 

Chloropsis zosterops, Vigors, App. Mem. Life Raffl. p. 674 (1830); 

Sharps, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 24 ; Gates, B. $. i, p. 207. 
Phyllornis sonneratii (Jard. Sf Selby), apud Blyth, Cat. p. 213. 
Phyllornis javensis (Horsf.}, apud Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 136 j Hume 

# Dav. S. F. vi, p. 324 j Hume, Cat. no. 463 ter. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, wing-coverts, 
and tertiaries bright green; a patch on the lesser wing-coverts 
malachite-green; primaries and secondaries dark brown, broadly 
edged with bright green ; tail green, the inner webs of all but the 
middle pair of feathers brown towards the outer edge ; feathers 
above the nostrils, the lores, and a line produced narrowly over the 
eye, the cheeks, chin, and throat black ; ear-coverts and a band 
along the black of the throat on either side a paler green than the 
upper plumage ; a short narrow moustache cobalt ; lower plumage 
bright green. 

Female. No black on the head ; the chin, throat, and a ring 
round the eye are bright yellow, and the moustacnial streak is blue 
and indistinct. 

Young birds resemble the female. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale to dark plumbeous ; bill black, base of 
lower mandible sometimes brown; irides varying brown, dark 
wood-brown, lake or crimson ; eyelids blackish grey (Davisori). 

Length 8-5 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'9 ; tarsus -75 ; bill from gape 1-1. 

The closely allied C. viridis, Horsf., from Java, may be distin- 
guished by the colour of the shoulder-patch, which is turquoise- 
blue. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, south of Ye near Mouknein; also 
in the Malay peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. 

252. Chloropsis jerdoni. Jerdon's Chloropsis. 

Phyllornis jerdoni, Blyth, J. A S. B. xiii, p. 392 (1844) ; id. Cat. 

p. 212 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 259 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 97 ; Hume, N. 

$ E. p. 294 ;' Ball, S. F. vii, p. 215 ; Hume, Cat. no. 463 ; Legge, 

Birds Ceyl. p. 485 ; Reid, S. F. x. p. 451 ; Barnes. Birds Bom. 

p.!89. B ' 
Chloropsis jerdoni (Blyth}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 25; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 155. 

The Common Green Bulbid, Jerd. ; Harrewa, Hind. ; Wanna bojanum, 
Tel. 

Coloration. Male. A moustachial streak bright purplish blue ; 
lores, chin, throat, and a line from the lores over the moustachial 
streak black; forehead and a broad band surrounding the black 
greenish yellow ; lesser wing-coverts very bright malachite-green ; 
the remainder of the plumage, with the visible portions of the 
closed wings and tail, green. 



IRENA. 239 

Female. The black of the male is replaced by pale bluish green, 
and the cheek-stripe is bright greenish blue. 

The young resemble the female, but have no moustachial streak. 

Iris brown ; bill black ; legs and feet pale blue (Hume Coll.}. 

Length 7'5 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape '9. 

."Distribution. The peninsula of India, from Sitapur, Fyzabad, 
and Basti on the north ; Baroda and the Panch Mahals on the 
west ; the Eajmehal hills and Midnapur on the east down to Cape 
Comorin and Ceylon. 

Habits, <Sfc. Breeds from April to August, constructing a shallow 
cup-shaped nest of vegetable fibres and fine roots and stems of 
weeds at the extremity of one of the upper branches of a tree 
some 20 feet from the ground. The eggs, two in number, are 
whitish marked with black or dark shades of brown ; they mea- 
sure -86 by -6. 

253. Chloropsis cyanopogon. The Blue-whiskered Chloropsis. 

Phyllorms cyanopogon, Temm. PI. Col. 512, fig. 1 (1829) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 213 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 410 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 325 ; Hume, Cat. no. 463 quat. 

Chloropsis cyanopogon (Temm.), Sharpest. B. M. vi, p. 32; Gates, 
B. B. i. p. 209. 

Coloration. Male. The upper plumage, wing-coverts, and 
sides of the neck bright green ; the forehead tinged with yellow ; 
wings dark brown, broadly edged with bright green ; tail green, 
edged with brown on the inner webs ; lores, cheeks, chin, and 
throat black ; a line over the lores and eye brighter green than the 
other parts ; a short moustachial streak cobalt ; a line bordering 
the black throat green tinged with yellow ; lower plumage light 
green. 

Female. No black on the chin and throat, the moustachial 
streak duller blue, and the feathers round the eye conspicuously 
lighter than the crown. 

The young resemble the female, but the moustachial streaks are 
absent or barely indicated. 

Legs and feet dark plumbeous : bill black ; iris dark brown 
(Davisoii). 

Length 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 3*3 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. This species has occurred at the extreme southern 
point of Tenasserim. It is found in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, 
and Borneo: 



Genus IRENA, Horsf., 1821. 

The genus Irena contains some of the most beautiful birds known, 
of which one species only is found within our limits. 

The position of Irena appears to be in this subfamily, its rela- 
tionship with the Bulbuls, with which it is generally placed, being 



240 CEATEEOPODID^E. 

doubtful. Its affinities for some of the genera of this subfamily, 
such as Cutia, appear to me to be strong. 

In Irena the bill is shorter than the head, stout, curved, with the 
tip notched ; the nostrils are oval, partially concealed by the frontal 
plumes ; the rictal bristles are well developed. Some hairs spring 
from the nape, somewhat as in the Bulbuls. The head is not 
crested. The wing is rather pointed, and the tail-coverts are ex- 
tremely long. The tarsus is short. 

254. Irena puella. The Fairy Blue-bird. 

Coracias puella, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 171 (1790). 

Irena puella (Lath.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 214 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 273 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 105 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 318 ; 

Wald. Ibis, 1871, p. 170 ; Hume N. $ E. p. 298 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 

p. 226, iii, p. 130 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 328 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 469 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 466; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi,p. 177 ; 

Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 184; Gates, S. F. x, p. 211 ; id. B. B. i, 

p. 209 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 192 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 186; Oates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 157. 

Hnet-pya-sate, Burm. 




Fig. 72. Head of /. puella. 

Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, the lesser wing- 
coverts, and the under tail-coverts shining ultramarine-blue 
with lilac reflexions ; sides of the head and the whole lower plu- 
mage deep black ; greater wing-coverts, quills, and tail black, some 
of the coverts tipped with blue, and the middle tail-feathers glossed 
with blue. 

Female. The whole upper plumage, the lesser wing-coverts, 
and the lower tail-coverts brownish blue, with the edges of the 
feathers brighter ; middle tail-feathers and the outer webs of all 
the others, except the outer pair, like the upper plumage ; re- 
mainder of tail dark brown ; primaries and secondaries dark brown ; 
the greater wing-coverts, primary- coverts, and tertiaries dark 
brown, with a blue tinge on the outer webs ; sides of the head and 
whole lower plumage blue, very similar to the upper parts. 

The young are like the female. The male changes into adult 
plumage about March, and the change takes place without a moult ; 
the feathers of the upper parts first become fringed with bright 



MELAIN'OCHLORA. 241 

blue ; the tail-coverts next become changed ; the lower plumage 
takes the longest to change, and young birds may frequently be 
met with having the lower plumage mixed black and dull blue, hut 
the upper plumage that of the adult. 

Iris crimson ; eyelids pinkish ; bill and legs black ; mouth flesh- 
colour; claws black. 

Length 10'5; tail 4'2 ; wing 5'1; tarsus '85; bill from gape 

/. ci/anea, from the Malay peninsula, differs in having the 
under tail-coverts longer, nearly reaching to the tip of the tail. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; the western coast of India from Travan- 
core up to the latitude of Belgaum and Sawant Wari ; Sikhim and 
the lower ranges of the Himalayas to Dibrugarh in Assam ; the 
Khasi hills ; Cachar ; Manipur ; Arrakan ; Pegu ; Tenasserim ; 
the Audamans and Xicobars. This species is confined entirely to the 
evergreen forests of the hills and plains, and it is found up to 
about 4000 feet of elevation. It extends some distance down the 
Malay peninsula and into Siam. 

Habits, $c. This bird is common in most of the tracts it fre- 
quents, going about in small parties or in pairs. It feeds princi- 
pally on fruit and is generally found on the larger forest-trees. It 
breeds from February to April, constructing a shallow cup-shaped 
nest, sometimes of moss and sometimes of small twigs, in a sapling 
or small tree. The eggs, which are generally two in number, are 
greenish white marked with brown, and measure about 1-14 
by -77. 



Genus MELANOCHLORA, Lesson, 1839. 

In Melanochlora the sexes are of different colours, and the 
nostrils are not entirely concealed by stiff bristles, consequently this 
generic type appears to me to be removed from the Parince and to 
belong to the Liotrichince. 

In this genus the bill is strong but short ; the tip is entire, the 
nostrils round and partially concealed by the soft frontal plumes. 
The crest is very long and pointed. The wing is comparatively 
long and sharp. The tail is shorter than the wing, and the 
feathers are graduated. The tarsus is strong and equal in length 
to the middle toe with claw. 

Only one species is known. 



255. Melanochlora sultanea. The Sultan-bird. 

Parus sultaneus, Hodgs. Ind. Rev. 1836, p. 31 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, 

p. 369 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 6. 
Parus flavocristatus, Lafresn. Mag. Zool. 1837, pi. 80; Blyih, Cat. 

p. 102. 

Melanochlora sultanea (Hodgs.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 282 ; Godw.-Aust. 
VOL. I. K 



242 CEATEEOPODID^E. 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 109 ; Hume, 8. F. in, p. 143 ; Hume 




xi, p. 256. 
The Sultan Yellow-Tit, Jerd. j J5o tylia-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead and crown with the crest 
brilliant yellow ; the whole upper plumage, sides of the head and 
neck, chin, throat, and breast deep black, the edges of the feathers 
of the upper plumage with a metallic lustre, and the outermost- 
tail-feathers tipped with white ; lower plumage from the breast 
downwards deep yellow, the thighs barred or mottled with 
white. 

Female. The yellow parts duller ; the upper plumage and sides 




Fig. 73. Head of M. sultanca. 

of the head dark greenish brown ; the ehin and throat yellowish 
brown; wings and tail dull black ; the feathers of the upper plumage 
edged with metallic green. 

The young resemble the female, but in the youngest stage the 
bright edges to the plumage of the upper parts are absent, and 
the greater wing-coverts are tipped with white. 

Bill black; mouth dark fleshy; eyelids plumbeous; iris dark 
brown ; legs plumbeous ; claws dark horn. 

Length about 8; tail 3-8; wing 4-4 ; tarsus -95; bill from 
gape *75. 

Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Nepal to 
the head of the Assam valley ; the Khasi hills ; Cachar ; Manipur ; 
the Kakhyen hills east of Bhamo ; Arrakan; the Pegu hills; Ka- 
rennee ; Tenasserim. This species does not appear to be found 
above 4000 feet of elevation. It extends down the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, #c. Frequents the larger trees in small flocks. 



liil.Aiioririn.A. 243 



Genus HILAROCICHLA, n. gen. 

I propose to separate the following species from the members 
of the genus Ptcrutliius on account of its much longer tail, which 
is quite equal in length to the wing, and the greater graduation of 
the tail-feathers, the outer falling short of the middle feathers 
by a third of the total length of the tail. In all other respects 
Hilarocichla agrees with Pteruthius. 

256. Hilarocichla rufiventris. The Rufous-bellied Shrike-Tit. 

Pteruthius rufiventer, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 183 (1842), xii, 
p. 954; id. Cat. p. 98; Horsf. # M. Cat. i, p. 173; Jerd. B. 1. ii, 
p. 245 ; Godtv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 190 ; Hwne, Cat. 
no. 610 ; id, S. F. xi, p. 244. 

Ptererythrius rufi venter, L, Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 115. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, 
and sides of the head black ; upper plumage chestnut ; tail black 
tipped with chestnut ; wings black, the secondaries tipped chest- 
nut, a few of the primaries margined with grey below the emargi- 
nations ; chin, throat, and upper breast ashy, divided from the 
black of the head by a white line ; a patch of golden yellow on 
each side of the breast ; remainder of lower plumage soft vinous 
brown, paler on the abdomen and under tail-coverts ; under wing- 
coverts pale vinous ; edge of wing white. 

Female. Forehead grey tipped with black; crown and nape 
black ; sides of head grey, with a black patch at the end of the 
ear-coverts ; back, scapulars, and upper part of rump bright 
green, irregularly barred with black; lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts chestnut; central tail-feathers green with black shafts, 
black subterminal bar, and white tips ; the others black, with a 
portion of the outer webs green and all tipped with chestnut ; 
smaller wing-coverts black, broadly tipped green; greater wing- 
coverts black on the inner and green on the outer webs ; winglet 
and primary-coverts black ; quills black, the earlier primaries edged 
with hoary grey, all the other quills with green, the tertiaries 
having the entire outer webs green ; chin, throat, and breast grey ; 
lower plumage dark vinous brown, with a yellowish patch on each 
side the breast. 

The young resemble the female, and the male acquires the adult 
plumage in the November of the first year. 

In the dry state the bill is black, bluish on the lower mandible ; 
legs fleshy brown. 

Length about 8; tail 3'3 ; wing 3'4; tarsus T2; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Nepal ; Sikhim ; the Naga hills. This is probably a 
bird of high elevations, but nothing whatever is on record about its 
habits. 

B2 



244 CRATEROPODID.E. 



Genus MESIA, Hodgs., 1838. 

The genus Mesia contains two species, one of which is found 
within our limits. The coloration of the birds of this genus is very 
pretty. 

In Mesia the bill is stout, about half the length of the head, 
slightly notched near the tip, and with the culmen curved ; the 
nostrils are covered by a peculiarly shaped membrane, and the 
rictal bristles are strong. The head is subcrested ; the wing 
rounded ; the tail very slightly graduated, and the foot strong. 

257. Mesia argentauris. The Silver-eared Mesia. 

Mesia argentauris, Hodgs. Ind, Rev. 1838, p. 88 ; Hume, N. 4- E. 

p. 392; id. Cat. no. 615; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 318; Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 642 ; Oates, B. B. i,p. 143 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 247 ; 

Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 160. 
Leiothrix argentauris (Hodys.), Blyth, Cat. p. 99 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. 

i, p. 365 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 251 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 109; xlv,pt. ii, p. 81 ; Bl. Birds Burm.y. 109; Wardlaw 

Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 464 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aces, p. 630 ; 

Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 370. 

The Silver-eared Hill-Tit, Jerd. ; Dang-mpchil-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 74. Head of M. argeniauris. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead golden yellow ; crown, nape, lores, 
cheeks, produced as a stripe under the ear-coverts, black ; ear- 
coverts silvery white ; upper back and sides of the neck fulvous 
yellow ; lower back, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts slaty, 
some of the outermost of the latter edged with green ; rump 
slaty green ; upper tail-coverts crimson ; tail blackish brown, the 
three outer pairs of feathers edged with yellowish ; wings brown, 
the first two primaries edged with yellow, the other quills with 
crimson at the base and yellow elsewhere ; chin and throat deep 
orange-yellow ; lower plumage olive-yellow, brighter on the breast 
and abdomen, the former of which is obsoletely streaked darker ; 
under tail-coverts crimson. 

Female. Differs in having both the upper and the lower tail- 
coverts orange-buff. 

The young have the crown yellowish at first. 

Bill ochre-yellow, slightly greenish at the base ; iris dark or 
reddish brown ; feet yellow-fleshy ; claws buff-horny (Scully). 



MINLA. 245 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape -75. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to the Daphla hills 
in Assam ; the Khasi and Na'ga hills ; Manipur ; the Kakhyen hills 
east of Bhamo ; the Karen hills east of Toungngoo ; Karennee ; 
the glopes of Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim. The range of 
this bird extends to the mountains of Perak. 

Habits t $c. This species is found from 3000 to about 7000 feet 
of elevation. It breeds from March to June, constructing a cup- 
shaped nest of moss or of grass, \vith creeper-stems intermingled, 
in shrubs and small trees. The eggs resemble those of LiotJirix 
lutea very closely, and measure '86 by '62. 



Genus MINLA, Hodgs., 1838. 

The genus Minla, as I restrict it, contains one Indian bird of 
pleasing plumage, found on the Himalayas and on some of the hill- 
ranges of Assam. 

In Minla the bill is very similar in shape to that of Cutia, but 
very much smaller. The head is subcrested, the wing rounded, 
and the tail, v^hich is as long as the \\ing, slightly graduated. 



258. Miula igneitincta. The Red-tailed Minla. 

Minla ignotincta, Hodf/s. Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 33 ; Je)'d. B. I. ii, p. 254 ; 

Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 45 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. 11. xliii, 

pt. ii, p. 169 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 93 ; id. Cat. no. 618 ; Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 319 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 606 ; Oates in Hvme's 

N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 161. 
Leiothrix ignitincta (Hodgs.), Blyth, Cat. p. 99 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 366. 

The Red-tailed Hill-Tit, Jeid. ; Minla, Nepal; Megblim ayene, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, crown, nape, and the middle 
of the upper back black ; a very broad and distinct supercilium 
from the forehead to the end of the black point on the back, 
blending more or less with the supercilium on the other side of the 
crown, white; lores, ear-coverts, and a band extending nearly to 
the end of the white supercilium, black ; back, rump, and scapulars 
deep vinaceous; upper tail-coverts black; tail black, tipped and 
edged on the outer webs with crimson, the two middle feathers 
with a white streak at the base of the inner webs, the outer feathers 
suffused with red on the inner webs ; wing-coverts and tertiaries 
black, edged with white, the latter also broadly tipped white ; 
primaries and secondaries black, edged with crimson on the greater 
part of the outer webs, the earlier primaries margined with white 
near the tips, the later secondaries tipped with white; chin 
yellowish white ; entire lower plumage yellow, sparingly and 
narrowly streaked with brown. 

Ftmale. Differs from the male in having the back, rump, 



246 CRATEllOPODID^E. 

scapulars, and upper tail-coverts uniform vinaceous brown ; the 
crimson on the wing is replaced by pinkish white and on the tail 
by pale red. 

The young bird of both sexes is probably like the female till the 
first autumn moult. 

Legs and feet grey-brown to greenish leaden, with a wax-yellow 
tinge on toes (sometimes extending to the tarsi), more decided in 
males than in females ; soles wax-yellow ; upper mandible and tip 
of lower blackish brown ; rest of lower mandible horny-grey or 
bluish-greenish horny ; iris greyish or brownish white (Hume}. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2'5 ; tarsus *85 ; bill from 
gape '6. 

Distribution. Nepal: Sikhim ; Bhutan ; the Naga hills ; Manipur. 
Found up to about 9000 feet, 

Habits, $"c. Breeds, according to Hodgson, in Nepal in May and 
June, constructing a cup-shaped nest of moss in a bushy tree. 
The eggs are said to be blue, speckled with brownish red. 



Genus LEPTOP(ECILE, Severtzow, 1873. 

The genus Leptopoecile contains one lovely species, which is an 
inhabitant of Turkestan and has lately been added to the Indian 
list. 

In Leptopcecile the plumage is very soft and copious. The bill 
is very slender, straight, sharp-pointed, and entire. The nostrils 
are covered by a membrane and by some frontal hairs ; the rictal 




Fig. 75. Head of L. s&phice. 

bristles are strong. The head is subcrested, the wings rounded, 
the tail well-graduated, and the tarsi long. This genus has, in my 
opinion, no connexion with the Parince and its position seems to be 
in the Liotrichince. 



259. Leptopcecile sophiae. Stoliczka's Warbler-Tit. 

Leptopoecile sophiae, Sei-ertz. Turk. Jcvotn. pp. 66, 135, pi. viii, figs. 8, 9 
(1873) ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 153 ; Siddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 37 ; 1882, 
p. 280 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 567 ; Gadotv, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 86. 

Stoliczkana stoliczkae, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 513 (1874). 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and a broad supercilium dull 
yellowish white ; lores dark brown ; crown chestnut, the tips of 
the feathers more or less suffused with cobalt-blue ; sides of the 



CEPHALOPYEUS. 247 

head and neck and the whole lower plumage rich lilac, overlaid 
with cobalt-blue ; the centre of the abdomen light buff ; back and 
wing-coverts dull bluish grey ; wings brown, the quills edged with 
the colour of the back ; rump brilliant cobalt-blue ; upper tail- 
coverts dull blue; tail dark brown suffused with bluish, and the 
three outer pairs of tail-feathers margined with white. 

Female. The upper plumage, wings, and tail similar to the 
male, but the rump paler ; lower plumage dull vinaceous, with the 
sides of the body washed with lilac and blue. 

The young bird appears to be unknown, but it probably resembles 
the female. 

Iris bright red ; bill black ; legs and feet horny blackish-brown 



Length 4'5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2 ; tarsus 7 ; bill from gape '37. 

Distribution. Gilgit ; Leh ; JS T obra valley, Ladak. This species is 
found throughout Turkestan. It appears to occur at elevations 
ranging from 5000 to 13,000 feet, according to season, and to be 
a permanent resident in Kashmir. 

Habits, fyc. This bird seems to have the ordinary habits of the Tits. 



Genus CEPHALOPYRUS, Bonap., 1854. 

The genus Cephalopyrus is very closely allied to the last and it 
is not necessary to figure the head. 

The only Indian species of this genus is a partial migrant, visiting 
the plains in the winter and returning to the hills in the spring. 
Its wing is adapted for migration, being very pointed with the 
first primary minute. The tail is short and square. 

It appears probable that this bird has a partial spring moult, 
confined to the feathers of the head, but the specimens at my dis- 
posal are not quite sufficient to prove the fact. 

260. Cephalopyrus flammiceps. The Fire-cap. 

^Egithalus flammiceps. Burton, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 153 ; Blyth, Cat. 

p. 105 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 69. 

Dieseum sanguimfrons, A. Hay, J. A S. B. xv, p. 44 (1846). 
Cephalopyrus flammiceps (Burton}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 267 ; Stoliczka, 

J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 52 ; Cock fy Marshall, S. F. i, p. 356 ; 

Hume, N. $ E. p. 401 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 220 ; Hume, Cat. no. 633 ; 

IMilulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 71 ; 1882, p. 280 j Oates in Humes N. Sf E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 161. 
The Flame-fronted Flower-pecker, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The lores, forehead, and the anterior half 
of the crown flaming orange-red ; the remainder of the upper 
plumage olive-yellow, brighter on the rump ; the upper tail-coverts 
with dark shafts ; wing-coverts, wings, and tail dark brown, edged 
with dull yellowish; sides of the head, throat, and breast golden 



248 CRATEBOPODID^:. 

yellow, the chin suffused with bright red ; remainder of the lower 
plumage dull yellow. 

Female. Resembles the male, but has no red whatever on the 
head and chin, and the yellow parts are duller and tinged with 
green. 

The young resemble the female, and the males assume the adult 
plumage in the spring of their first year. 

Bill plumbeous ; legs leaden-brown (Jerdon) ; iris dark bro\vn 
(Hume Coll.). 

Length about 4 ; tail 1*3; wing 2-4; tarsus -5; bill from gape 35. 

Distribution. The whole of the Himalayas from Gilgit and Murree 
to Bhutan, where this species is found from 3000 to 9000 feet. In 
the winter it descends to the plains, and I have examined specimens 
obtained at that season at Cawnpore, Etawah, Aligarh, Eaipur, 
Nagpur, and Saugor. It extends into Afghanistan. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds at Murree in April and May, constructing its 
nest, which is made of fine grass, in a hole in a tree or stump at 
no great height from the ground. The eggs are not known. 



Genus PSAROGLOSSA, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Psaroglossa contains one bird which has been univer- 
sally considered a Starling, but in my opinion erroneously so. 
Neither its structure, its habits, nor the colour of its eggs show 
any affinities with the Slurnidce. 

In Psaroglossa the sexes are differently coloured and the rict.-il 
bristles are well developed. In the Starlings the sexes are always 
alike and the rictal bristles are absolutely wanting. I think there- 
fore that it is preferable to disassociate this genus from the Starlings 
and place it in the present family. The young, moreover, appear 




Fig. 76. Head of P. spiloptera. 

to resemble the adult female very closely, and not to be streaked as 
is the case with the majority of the Starlings. 

In Psaroglossa the bill is slender and curved and the nostrils 
small and circular ; the rictal bristles are strong. The feathers of 
the crown are short and pointed. The wing is long and pointed 
and the first primary is minute. The tail is short and square. 



PSARCGLCSS.V. 249 



261. Psaroglossa spiloptera. The Spotted-wing. 

Lamprotornis spilopterus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 35; Gould, Cent. 

pi. 34. 
Saroglossa spiloptera ( Vi(/.}, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 545 ; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 330 ; Hume, N. # E. p. 434 ; Godw.-Awst. J. A. S. B. xliii, 

pt. ii, p. 170 ; Wald. in Blyttis Birds Burm. p. 91 ; Brooks, 8. F. 

iii, p. 254 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 334 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 394 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 461 ; Hume, Cat. no. 

(591 ; id. S. F. ix, p. 256, xi, p. 2U8 ; Oatcs, B. B. i, p. 394. 
Psaroglossa spiloptera (Vic/.'), Bhjth, Cat..^. 109 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

xiii, p. 117 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nded. i, p. 161. 

The Spotted-iving Stare, Jerd. ; Puli at Mussoorie. 

Coloration. Male. The upper plumage from the forehead to the 
upper back grey, each feather edged with black ; back and scapu- 
lars grey, each feather edged with brown ; rump plain brown ; 
upper tail-coverts rufous-brown ; tail brown tinged with rufous ; 
lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts black ; chin and throat deep chestnut- 
maroon ; the whole lower plumage rufous, paler and whiter on the 
middle of the abdomen, and all the feathers narrowly edged with 
whitish : primaries, secondaries, and primary-coverts black edged 
with metallic blue, and all the primaries with a white patch at their 
bases; wing-coverts dark brown edged with grey; tertiaries light 
brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

Female. The whole upper plumage brown with greyish centres 
to the feathers, most conspicuous on the head and back and nearly 
obsolete on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; lesser and median 
wing-coverts brown, with asubterminal grey band ; greater coverts 
brown, broadly edged with grey; primaries . and secondaries 
blackish with glossy margins, the bases of the former whitish ; 
tertiaries like the back ; tail dark brown ; sides of the head uniform 
dark brown ; lower plumage brown, with broad whitish margins to 
the feathers and the whole suffused with a pale tinge of fulvous ; 
lower part of abdomen and the under tail-coverts nearly pure 
white. 

The young appear to resemble the female. 

Irides dull white ; bill dusky black, reddish black at base of lower 
mandible ; upper and lower mandibles margined with pale yellow ; 
legs, feet, and claws black (Armstrong). 

Length 7'5 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus *85 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Dharmsa'la to the head of the 
Assam valley and also, but more rarely, the plains of Upper India ; 
the Khasi and Garo hills ; Cachar; Manipur; the Karen hills east 
of Toungngoo ; the southern part of Pegu near the Eangoon 
river ; doubtfully Tenasserim. 

This bird appears to be found up to 6000 feet. It also, as before 
noted, occurs in the plains, Mr. A. Anderson having killed one at 
Fatehgarh on the 2nd June. 



250 CEATEEOPODIDJE. 

Hal its, $c. Captain Hutton remarks that the flight of P. spilo- 
ptera is similar to that of a S f arling. It delights to take a short 
and rapid flight and return twittering to perch on the summit of 
the forest trees. He never observed it on the ground, and its food 
appears to consist of berries. 

This species breeds in the holes of trees, laying its eggs on a few 
bits of leaves. The eggs are pale greenish speckled with red and 
purple, and they measure about 1*05 by ?!. 



Genus HYPOCOLIUS, Bonap., 1850. 

The position of the present genus is somewhat uncertain owing 
to want of information regarding the plumage of the nestling. 
Mr. "W. D. Gumming, who brought up some young birds at Fao 
from the nest, unfortunately omits to state whether they resemble 
the adults or not, and I have been unable to examine any but 
apparently adult birds myself. These, however, are all in the 
same plumage, sex for sex, and therefore it seems probable that 
the young are neither spotted, streaked, nor barred, otherwise some 
traces of these marks would be retained by some of the birds I 
have examined. 

Sharpe speaks of the summer and winter plumage of this bird, 
but I have not been able to discover that the plumage varies 
according to season. 

Hypocolius is said to be migratory, but I think this statement 
requires confirmation. It is true that it makes its appearance on 
the shores of the Persian Gulf about the 10th of April, but it must 
be remembered that Blanford procured the bird in Sind on the 6th 
March. It probably moves about the country without being 
actually a migrant in the ordinary sense of the term. 

In Hypocolius the bill is stout and broad at the base and about 
half the length of the head ; the nostrils are small exposed ovals ; 
the rictal bristles are weak, but always clearly visible. The wing 
is short but pointed, the first primary being minute and the second 
reaching to the tip of the wing. The tail is long and slightly 
graduated. The tarsus is very short and stout, coarsely scutellated, 
and shorter than the middle toe and claw. 



262. Hypocolius ampelinus. The Grey Hypocolius. 

Hypocolius ampelinus, Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 336 (1850) ; Heuyl. 

Ibis, 1868, p. 181, pi. v ; Blanf. Ibis, 1875, p. 388 ; Sclater, P, Z. S. 

1875, p. 633 ; Blanf. S. F. iii, p. 358 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 416, 

v, p. 349 ; Sharpe, Cat.B. M. iii, p. 316 ; Hume, Cat. no. 269 quat. ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 149; Sharpe, Ibis, 1886, pp. 477, 494; 

Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 162 note. 
Ceblepyris isabellina, Hetigl. Syst. Uebers., Siizunysb. k.-k. Acad. 

Wien, xix, p. 284 (1856). 



IIYl'OCOLIUS. 251 

Coloration. Male. The feathers immediately near the nostrils, 
the lores, ear-coverts, the feathers above and below the eye, and 
a band carried round the nape black ; forehead, crown, cheeks, 
chin, throat, the middle of the abdomen, vent, thighs, and under 
tail-coverts pinkish cream-colour ; remainder of the body-plumage, 
wing- co verts, and tertiaries drab-grey ; winglet and primary-coverts 
blackish shaded with ashy, and partially margined with grey ; pri- 
maries black, with broad white tips shaded with grey on the first 
two or three ; secondaries black, broadly edged and tipped with 
ashy, the black diminishing in amount on the later quills, and occu- 
pying only a portion of the inner web ; tail drab-grey, broadly 
tipped with black. 




Fig. 77. Head of H. ampelinus. 

Female. The upper plumage and the whole wing greyish isabel- 
line, the quills shaded with brown interiorly, and edged and 
tipped with light grey ; the tail is merely brown towards the end 
and tipped paler ; the lower plumage pinkish cream-colour, suffused 
with drab-grey across the breast. There is no black whatever on 
the head. 

The bill of a male killed in April is black : in one killed in June 
the basal half is horn-colour, and the terminal half black ; legs 
yellow. The female has the bill dark brown. 

Length about 9*5 ; tai!4'6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus *9 : bill from gape '9. 

Distribution. A specimen was killed in March by Blanford's 
collector amongst the lower hills on the eastern flanks of the 
great Khirthar range dividing Sincl from Khelat. Another speci- 
men was procured at Nal in Khelat. This appears to be a common 
bird on the shores of the Persian Gulf, especially at Fao and 
Bushire, where it is recorded as arriving about the 10th April. It 
also occurs in Persia, and it was first discovered in North-east 
Africa. 

Habits, fyc. This bird is found about the date-gardens of Fao and 
other places in the Persian Gulf, but Blanford procured it on the 
bare hill-sides of a stony range of hills. At Fao it breeds in June 
and July, constructing a cup-shaped nest lined with grass, wool, or 
hair, on a leaf of a date-palm at no great height from the ground. 
The eggs, four in number, are dull white, spotted with grey, and 
measure about '86 by '63. 



252 



CRATE ROPODlDyE. 




Fig. 78. Molpastes leiicotis. 



Subfamily BEACHYPODIN^E. 

The Bracliypodince or Bulbuls form a numerous and fairly well- 
defined group of birds, which attain their greatest development in 
(Southern Asia. They are also, ho\ve\ er, well represented in Africa. 

In the Bulbuls the sexes are invariably alike in colour, and the 
young closely resemble the adult, the brighter colours being replaced 
for the first few weel<s by paler tints of the same. All species 
are non-migratory. The eggs of all about the nidification of which 
anything is known are marked with various shades of red and 
purple. 

The main feature of the Bulbuls is their short tarsus, which is 
never longer than the middle toe and claw together. This cha- 
racter is possessed by other birds in a few instances, but the Bul- 
buls may be further recognized by the presence of some hairs 
springing from the nape. These hairs are frequently very long, 



BRACHYPODiyj:. 253 

sometimes short and inconspicuous, but never, I think, entirely 
absent. 

Many of the Bulbuls are familiar birds, frequenting garden?, 
and having pretty notes. 




Fig. 79. Foot of Hypsipetes concolnr. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Hairs springing from hind neck numerous 

and as long as tarsus or longer. 

(i '. Crest long and pointed CRINIGER, p. 254. 

b'. Crest absent or obsolete. 

a". Long hairs springing from the back . . TRICHOLESTES, p. 257. 

b". No hairs springing from the back .... ALOPHOIXUS, p. 259. 

b. Hairs springing from hind neck few and short, 

or obsolete. 

c. Feathers at sides of crown and over ear- 
coverts similar in shape to those on 
crown, 
c". A distinct crest. 

a'". Nostrils not covered by plumelets, 
a*. Wing pointed ; secondaries falling 
short of tip of wing by length of 
tarsus or more. 
a 5 . Tail forked; the outer feathers 

curved outwards HYPSIPETES, p. 2-59. 

b 5 . Tail square or rounded; the 

outer feathers straight. 
a 6 . Longest crest-feathers shorter 

than tarsus and pointed .... HEMIXUS, p. 263. 
b*. Longest crest-feathers longer 

than tarsus and blunt ALCURUS, p. 263. 

6 l . Wing blunt; the secondaries falling 
short of tip of wing by much le.ss 
than length of tarsus. 
c\ Crest thick, springing from 
every portion of crown and 
nape. 

c 6 . Tail very slightly rounded ; 
the outer feather falling short 
of tip of tail by a shorter 
distance than length of hind 
toe MOLPASTES, p. 267. 



254 CRATEROPODID.i:. 

d G . Tail generally rounded; the 
outer feather falling short 
of tip of tail by about length 

of tarsus XANTHIXUS, p. 274. 

d\ Crest confined to middle of 
crown only ; feathers of nape 
quite short. 
e G . Shafts of the feathers of the 

back soft OTOCOMPSA, p. 275. 

/ 6 . Shafts of the feathers of the 

back rigid and spinous . .. PINAROCICHLA, p. 279. 
I'". Nostrils nearly concealed by plume- 
lets " SPIZIXUS, p. 280. 

tT'. Crest inconspicuous or absent. 

c'". Upper tail-coverts not reaching to 

the middle of the tail. 
e 4 . Feathers of the forehead and crown 

very short and stiff TRACHYCOMUS, p. 281, 

d 1 . Feathers of the forehead and crown 

slightly lengthened and soft. 
e\ Bill larger, about three quarters 
length of head ; cnlmen laterally 
compressed and sharply cari- 

nated " IOLE, p. 282. 

f 5 . Bill smaller, about half length 
of head ; culmen not much com- 
pressed nor sharply carinated . PYONONOTUS, p. 285. 
d"'. Upper tail-coverts reaching nearly 

to tip of tail MiCHOPUS, p. 294. 

d'. Feathers at sides of crown and over ear- 
coverts long and pointed, contrasting 
with the rounded feathers of the crown . KELAARTIA, p. 296. 



Genus CRINIGER, Temm., 1820. 

The genus Criniyer may be known from all the other Bulbuls by 
the presence of a long pointed crest and numerous very long hairs 
springing from the nape or bind neck. The tail of all the Indian 
species is, moreover, rufous, a character shared but by few other 
Bulbuls. 




Fig. 80. Head of C. flaveoltis. 

In Criniger the bill is strong, and about half the length of the 
head; the rictal bristles are well-developed, and the culmen is 



CRINIOER. 255 

evenly curved throughout. The wing is blunt; the tail distinctly 
rounded, and the tarsus strong but short. The plumage is very 
soft. 

The birds of this genits are sociable, being generally found to- 
gether in companies of six to a dozen. They are eminently forest- 
bird*, frequenting trees, and not approaching gardens or clearings. 
They are remarkably noisy, their notes being very harsh and fre- 
quently uttered. Their food consists of fruit and berries, varied 
with insects. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower plumage yellow. 

a'. Chin and upper throat white; crest 

greenish yellow C. flaveolus, p. 255. 

b'. Chin, throat, and upper breast white; 

crest greyish C. bunnanicus, p. 256. 

b. Lower plumage ochraceous. 

c'. Chin and throat white ; crest rufescent 

olive-brown C. gutturalis, p. 25G. 

d'. Chin, throat, and upper breast white; 

crest grey C. griseiceps, p. 257. 

263. Criniger flaveolus. The White-throated Bulbul. 

Trichophorus flaveolus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 6. 

Criniger flaveolus (Gould), Blyth, Cat. p. 208; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 252 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 83 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 
p. 106 ; xlv, pt. ii, p. 79 ; Hume, Cat. no. 451 ; Scully, S. F. viii, 
p. 295 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 77 : Hume, S. F. xi, p. 178 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 162. 

Kussop-eechiop-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Head and crest olive-brown, each feather edged with 
olive-green ; back, rump, and lesser wing-coverts olive-green 
tinged with rufous ; tail rufous-brown ; lores and cheeks grey ; 
ear-coverts darker grey ; chin and upper throat white; the remain- 
ing lower plumage and under wing-coverts bright yellow ; wings 
dark brown, the outer webs rufescent brown. 

Bill greyish-blue-horny ; gape whitish fleshy ; iris red-brown ; 
feet livid fleshy (Sonify). 

Length about 9 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 3'8 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Nepal to the head of the 
Assam valley ; the Naga, Garo, and Khasi hills ; Sylhet ; Cachar ; 
Manipur ; Tipperah. This species is found at low elevations, and 
seldom above 5000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Breeds in Sikhirn in July and August, constructing a 
shallow nest of dead leaves bound together by fine roots in small 
trees not more than 10 feet from the ground. The eggs, generally 
two in number, are pink marked with hair-lines, blotches, and 
spots of brownish maroon or brickdust-red. Thev measure about 
1 bir 7. 



256 CRATEROPODID^:. 

264. Criniger burmanicus. The Burmese White-throated 
Bulbul. 

Criniger flaveolus, apud Blyth, Binh Bunn. p. 134. 

Criniger griseiceps, Hume, apud Wald. in Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 134 ; 

Hume, S. F. ii, p. 476 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. vi, p. 300 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 451 bis (part.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 77 (part.) ; Bine/ham, 

S. F. ix, p. 182 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 183 (part.) ; Salvadori, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v. p. 596. 

Coloration. Resembles C. flaveolus. Differs in having the upper 
part of the b east white like the throat, and the crown and crest 
greyish brown, with the longer feathers of the latter (in good 
specimens) tipped olive-green. 

Bill plumbeous white ; iris brown ; legs and feet fleshy brown 
(Bine/ham) . 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 4'2 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape 1*1. 

This species, which has long been confounded with C. yriseiceps, 
is very distinct from it, and resembles the Himalayan bird, of 
which many naturalists may only consider it a race. 

Distribution. Toungngoo ; the Karen hills ; Karennee ; Tenas- 
serim, as far south as Meetan at the base of Muleyit mountain, 
and throughout the Thoungyeen valley. It is doubtful whether it 
is this species or C. flaveolus which occurs in Arrakan, as recorded 
by Blyth. 



265. Criniger gutturalis. The Malayan White-throated 
Bulbul. 

Trichophcrus gutturalis, S. Mull., Bonap. Consp. Av.i,ip. 262 (1850). 
Criniger ochraceus, Moore in Hursf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 252 (1854) ; 

Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 134; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

pp. 301, 515. 
Criniger gutturalis (S. Mull.), Hume, Cat. no. 451 ter ; Bingham, 

S. F. ix, p. 182; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 80; Oates, B. B. i. 

p. 185. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumnge olive-brown with an ochra- 
ceous tinge, rufescent on the head, crest, and upper tail-coverts ; tail 
rufous -brown, tipped with a lighter shade of the same ; wings 
brown, the outer webs rufescent ; lores and a ring round the eye 
greyish ; ear-coverts brown with pale shafts ; chin and throat 
white ; lower plumage fulvous-brown or ochraceous yellowish on 
the middle of the abdomen, and becoming buff on the under tail- 
coverts. 

Legs and feet light pinkish brown; upper mandible dark horny 
brown ; lower mandible plumbeous ; iris wood-brown (Hume fy 
Dav i son). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4 ; wing 4 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape 1 . 

Specimens from, the southern part of the Malay peninsula have 
the tail shorter, but do not otherwise differ from Tenasserim birds. 
In Borneo and Sumatra the birds have a much larger bill, but 



CEINIGER. TRTCHOLESTES. 257 

correspond with Tenasserim birds in other respects. In Sumatra, in 
addition to the present, there occurs another species or race, 
recognizable by its deep greyish-brown head. It has been named 
C. sumatranus by Warctlaw llamsay. The Chinese bird was named 
C. pallidus by Swinhoe ; but I cannot discover that it differs in 
any respect from (J. yutturalis. 

Distribution. This species appears to be abundant in Tenasserim 
from its southern extremity up to the neighbourhood of Tavoy, and 
Bingham records the occurrence of a specimen at Moulmein. It 
extends down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra and Borneo. 



266. Criniger griseiceps. Hume's White-throated Bulbul. 

Criniger griseiceps, Hume, 8. F. i, p. 478 (1873), iii, p. 124 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 451 bis (part.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 77 (part.) : Oates. 
S. F. x, p. 209 ; id. B. B. i, p. 183 (part.). 

Coloration. Lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts pale grey ; chin, throat, 
and upper breast white ; lower plumage ochraceous, tending to 
buff on the under tail-coverts ; head, crest, and nape grey ; upper 
plumage with the smaller wing-coverts yellowish green ; upper tail- 
coverts and tail rufescent ; wings and greater coverts dark brown, 
the outer webs rufescent ; in birds the plumage of which is much 
worn the colours are more dull. 

Bill bluish, darker on the anterior half of the culmen and the tip ; 
eyelids plumbeous ; iris reddish brown ; inside of mouth bluish 
fleshy ; legs pinkish brown ; claws pale horn. 

Length nearly 9 ; tail 3'8 ; wing 3*9 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

This species is allied to C. gutturalis, from which it differs in 
having the upper part of the breast white and the head and crest 
grey. 

Distribution. The eastern slopes of the Pegu hills from the lati- 
tude of Thayetmyo to that of Rangoon. The range of the present 
species probably extends north of these limits. 



Genus TEICHOLESTES, Salvadori, 1874. 

The genus Tricholestes is remarkable for the numerous long hairs 
which spring from the back. These hairs lie close to the feathers, 
and are not distinctly visible till lifted up. 

In Tricholestes the bill is very strong for the size of the bird. 
The culmen is straight for half its length, and the tip of the upper 
mandible is strongly hooked and notched ; the frontal and rictal 
bristles are long. The head is not crested. The wing is blunt, 
the tail slightly rounded, and the feet are exceedingly small and 
weak. 



YOL. I. 



258 CBATEROPODID^E. 



267. Tricholestes criniger. The Hairy -backed Bulbul. 

Bracliypodius (?) criniger. A. Hay, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 577 

(1845). 

Setornis (?) criniger (A. Hay}, Blyth, Cat. p. 212. 
Trichophorus minutus, Hartf. Journ.f. Orn. 1853, p. 156. 
Tricholestes criniger (Hay), Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 304 ; Ttoeedd. 

Ibis, 1877, p. 306 ; Hume, Cat. no. 451 sex j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

vi, p. 89 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 186. 




Fig. 81. Head andfback of T. criniger. 



Coloration. Forehead and crown olive-brown ; hind neck, back, 
and rump dull olive-green ; wing-coverts browner ; quills brown, 
the tertiaries and the outer webs of the others rufescent; tail 
rufescent, the outer webs edged with greenish and the outer 
feathers tipped whitish ; lores yellow ; sides of the head yellow, 
the tips of the feathers dusky ; chin and throat whitish ; lower 
plumage yellow, the breast and sides of the body washed with 
ashy ; under tail- and wing-coverts yellow. 

Legs and feet pale bluish or pinkish brown or salmon-fleshy ; 
claws pale plumbeous blue ; lower mandible and edge of the upper 
pale plumbeous ; ridge of culm en and tip of the upper mandible 
black ; rest of upper mandible dark plumbeous, sometimes horny- 
brown ; iris pale umber or snuffy brown to dark brown (Hume $ 
Davison). 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3-1 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape -8. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim. The range 
extends down the Malay peninsula to the islands of Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. This bird frequents brushwood in small parties, hunt- 
ing the branches and leaves for insects, which appear to be its 
principal food. Davison remarks that this Bulbul is very tame 
and easily approached, but that its plumage is always in bad con- 
dition, rendering the preparation of a good specimen a matter of 
difficulty. 



ALOPIIOIXUS. HYPSIPETES. 259 

Genus ALOPHOIXUS, n. gen. 

Tlie bird for which I propose the above generic designation has 
hitherto been placed with Griniyer. It differs from that genus in 
entirety wanting a crest, a character of sufficient importance, in 
my estimation, to warrant its separation from Criniyer, in which 
genus the crest is remarkably long and conspicuous. 

268. Alophoixus phaeocephalus. The G restless White-throated 

Bulbul. 

Ixos pliEeocepkalus, Hartl. Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 401. 

Crinigei- gularis (Horsf.), apud Blytli, Cat. p. 208. 

Criniger canton, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 279 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 410. 
Criniger phaeocephalus (Hartl.}, Wald. Ibis, 1871, p. 169, pi. vi, 

fig. 2 ; Hume Dav. S. F. vi, p. 302 ; Hume, Cat. no. 451 quat. ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 74 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 183. 

Coloration. Crown of head and the nape blackish, each feather 
edged with bluish grey ; lores whitish ; sides of the head and neck 
and a narrow half-collar on the hind neck ashy grey, darker poste- 
riorly : chin and throat white; remaining lo\ver plumage bright 
yellow washed with olive on the sides of the body ; under wing- 
coverts yellow ; back, rump, and upper wing-coverts olive-green, 
the lateral feathers of the rump washed with yellow at the tips ; 
upper tail-coverts and tail rufous-brown ; wings dark brown, the 
outer webs rufescent. 

The legs, feet, and claws vary from fleshy white (sometimes with 
a pinkish tinge) to fleshy yellow ; the upper mandible from dark 
plumbeous to dark horny-brown ; lower mandible and edges of 
upper mandible pale plumbeous ; irides snuff-brown, burnt sienna- 
brown, or reddish brown (Hume $ Davison). 

Length rather more than 8 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus *8 ; bill 
from gape 1. 

Distribution. The extreme south of Tenasserim, where this 
Bulbul appears to be common. It extends down the Malay penin- 
sula to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, 6fc. Davison remarks that he has always found this bird 
in pairs or singly in thick forest and thin jungle, but never in clear- 
ings or gardens. Its note differs much from that of the other 
Bulbuls, but is of the same character. 



Genus HYPSIPETES, Vigors, 1831. 

The genus Hypsipetes contains three Indian Bulbuls, which are 
characterized by grey or dark-brown plumage, red bills, and forked 
tails. The bill is slender, and about as long as the head, which is 
furnished with a crest of pointed feathers. The rictal bristles are 
very short, not exceeding a third of the length of the culmen. The 

s2 



260 



CRATEEOPODIDJE. 



whig is sharp, the secondaries falling short of the tip by a con- 
siderable distance. The tail is distinctly forked, and the outer 
feathers curved outwards. The tarsus is smooth and very short 
(see fig. 79, p. 253), being between a sixth and a seventh of 
the length of the wing. The three Indian species are closely 
allied, but they are easily recognizable, and they have, moreover, 
distinct areas of distribution. 

Key to the Species. 

a. A distinct black cheek-stripe contrasting with 

the throat H. psaroides, p. 200. 

b. No cheek-stripe. 

a'. A black patch under the ear-coverts H. concolor, p. 261. 

b'. No black patch under the ear-coverts H. yaneesa, p. 262. 




Fig. 82. Tail of H. psaroidcs. 



269. Hypsipetes psaroides. The Himalayan Blade Buibul. 




N. $ E. p. 278 j Cock $ Marsh. S. F. i, p. 355 ; Hume $ Senders, 
Lah. to York, p. 198 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 296 ; Hume, Cat. 




Hypsipetes concolor, Blyth, apud Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. il, p. 106 ; xlv, pt. ii, p. 78. 

Ban Bakra, at Mussoorie ; Phakki-pho, Lepch. ; Durkal, Chamba. 

Coloration. Crown from the forehead to the nape, the lores, a 
spot at the base of the lower mandible, one at the angle of the chin, 
and a broad stripe from beneath the eye passing under the ear- 
coverts, and meeting a narrower line from the crown passing be- 



HYPSIPETES. 261 

hind the ear-coverts, black ; a spot over the lores grey ; ear-coverts, 
chin, throat, breast, and flanks grey ; abdomen and vent whitish, 




Fig. 83. Head of H. psaroides. 

the feathers being grey with white margins; under tail-coverts 
grey, with broad white margins ; upper plumage and wing- coverts 
dark grey ; wings and tail dark brown, the greater part of the ex- 
terior edges grey. 

Bill and feet bright coral-red ; iris dark brown ; claws horny- 
brown (Scully}. 

Length about 10; tail 4'6 ; wing 5; tarsus *75; bill from 
gape 1*2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to the head of the 
Assam valley ; the Khasi hills; Sylhet; Cachar; Manipur; Arrakan. 
This species is found at all elevations up to 9000 feet. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from 2000 to 7000 feet, from April to June, 
constructing its nest, which is made of grass and leaves bound 
together exteriorly by a good deal of cobweb, in the fork of a 
branch at a moderate height from the ground. The eggs, usually 
four in number, are white or pinkish, marked with various shades 
of red and purple, and measure 1-03 by *75. 

This bird is social, fearless, very noisy, and chiefly found near 
the tops of high trees. It feeds on fruit and the nectar contained 
in the larger flowers of such trees as the Ehododendron. 

270. Hypsipetes concolor. The Burmese Black Bulbul. 

Hypsipetes concolor, Blyih, J. A. S. J5. xviii, p. 816 (1849) ; id. Cat. 

p. 207 ; Blyth $ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 132 ; Hume $ Lav. S. F. 

vi, p. 295; Hume, Cat. no. 446 bis; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 181; 

Sharps, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 38 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 174 ; Salvadori, 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 595. 
Hypsipetes yunnanensis, Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 213 ; id. Yunnan 

Exped., Aces, p. 656, pi. 50. 
Hypsipetes subniger, Hume, S. F. v, p. 109 (1877). 

Coloration. Eesembles H. psaroides. The chin, lores, crown, 
hind neck, back, and lesser wing- coverts deep black, the edges of 



262 CEATEEOPODID^:. 

the feathers with a metallic gloss ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
dark ashy ; quills, tail, and the larger wing-coverts dark brown or 
blackish, margined with grey along the greater part of the outer 
edges ; whole lower plumage dark grey ; ear-coverts and cheeks 
paler ; a patch of black under the ear-coverts ; under tail-coverts 
dark grey, sometimes distinctly margined with white. 

Legs, feet, and bill bright to deep coral-red ; iris dull crimson- 
lake (Hume fy Davison). 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 4-8 ; wing 5 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from 
gape 1*25. 

Distribution. The hills east of Bhamo ; Toungngoo, and the Karen 
hills east of that town ; the whole of Tenasserim down to about 
the latitude of Muleyit mountain. This Bulbul appears to be 
found up to about 4000 feet. 

Habits, $c. According to Davison this bird is found in the hill- 
clearings or camping-grounds, flying about from tree to tree in 
small flocks. 

There are some closely allied species in China. H. perniger is 
deep black throughout ; H. nigerrimus is also deep black, but the 
edges of the wing-feathers are grey ; H. leucoceplialus has the fore- 
head and abdomen white; and H. amaurotis has the ear-coverts 
chestnut. 

271. Hypsipetes ganeesa. The /Southern-Indian Slack Bulbul. 

Hypsipetes ganeesa, Sykes, P. Z. 8. 1832, p. 86 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 339 ; 
Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 255; Jerd. B. L ii, p. 78 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1865, 
p. 42 ; McMaster, J. A. 8. B. xl, pt. ii, p. 211 ; Hume, S. F. iv, 
p. 400 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. vi, p. 296 : Hume, Cat. no. 446 ; Legge, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 469 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 39 ; Butler, S. F. ix, 
p. 401 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 185 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 383 ; 
Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 167. 

Hypsipetes nilgherriensis, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. x, p. 245 (1839) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 207 ; Jerd. B. L ii, pp. 78, 872; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 280 ; id. Cat. no. 445. 

The Neilgherry Black Bulbid: the Ghat Black Biftbul, Jerd.; Kele 
Kondiya, Ceyl. 

Coloration. Resembles //. psaroides, but the plumage is of a 
much darker shade of grey, and the grey of the sides of the head 
is not in strong contrast with the black crown ; there is no black 
streak either behind or under the ear-coverts, the grey of this part 
being confluent with that of the lower plumage ; the grey spot 
over the lores is absent, and there is less white on the abdomen. 

Bill orange-vermilion ; feet orange-yellow ; iris hazel dyed with 
lake-red (FairbanJc). 

Length about 9*5 ; tail 4 ; wing 4*7 : tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape 1*2. 

Distribution. The hill-ranges of Western India from Matheran 
to Cape Comorin ; Ceylon. It is noteworthy that McMasfcer pro- 
cured this bird at Chikalda on the Gawilgurh hills in Berar. It is 
found at all elevations, but not usually below 4000 feet. 



HEMIXUS. 263 

Habits, $*c. Breeds from March to June, making a shallow cup- 
like nest of grass and leaves in trees at all heights up to about 60 
feet from the ground. The eggs are usually only two in number, 
and resemble those of H. psaroides. They measure 1*08 by '75, 

Genus HEMIXUS, Hodgs., 1844. 

The genus Hemixus, of which H. flavala is the type, contains 
five Indian species closely related to each other. It differs from 
Hypsipetes in having the tail square or slightly rounded, and its 
outer feathers straight. The crest consists of a great number of 
short but sharply-pointed feathers. The nuchal hairs are short and 
indistinct, but the rictal bristles are strong. The wing is pointed, 
the secondaries falling short of the tip by a considerable distance. 

The birds of this genus do not habitually frequent forests and 
high trees like the Black Bulbuls, but they are found chiefly on the 
outskirts of forests and in secondary jungle. They are chiefly fruit- 
eaters. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail dark brown. 

a'. Whole upper plumage ashy H.flavala, p. 263. 

b 1 '. Whole upper plumage brown H. davisoni, p. 264. 

c'. Head black, contrasting with the ashy 

back H. hildebrandi, p. 264. 

b. Tail green. 

d' '. Throat whitish ; remainder of lower plu- 
mage pale rufous H. macckllandi, p. 265. 

e'. Throat and whole lower plumage more or 

less uniformly grey H. tichelli, p. 265. 

272. Hemixus flavala. The Brown-eared Bulbul. 

Hemixus flavala, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 572 (1845) ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 207 ; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 250 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 80 ; Blyth, 
Birds Burm. p. 133 ; Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 106, 
xlv, pt. ii, p. 78 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. Ill ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., 
Aves, p. 657 ; Hume, Cat. no. 448 ; Sadly, S. F. viii, p. 295 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vi, p. 49 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 175 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 176. 

NdUi-pindi, Lepch. 




Fig. 84. Head of H. flavala. 
Coloration. Upper plumage with the small wing-coverts dark 



264 CRATEROPODIDyE. 

ashy, the crown edged paler, and the upper tail-coverts tinged with 
olive-green ; tail brown, tinged with olive-green on the basal halves 
of the outer webs ; greater wing-coverts brown on the inner and 
olive-yellow on the outer webs ; quills brown ; the fourth to the 
seventh primaries edged with grey below the emarginations, all the 
other quills edged externally with olive-yellow, obsolete on the 
earlier primaries, increasing on the others, and ultimately occupy- 
ing the entire outer web of the tertiaries ; lores and cheeks 
blackish; ear-coverts bronze-grey; chin, throat, centre of the 
abdomen, and vent white ; breast, sides of neck, and flanks light 
grey. 

Bill black; iris dark reddish brown; feet dusky (Scully}. 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3 - 7 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Mussoorie to the head of the 
Assam valley; the Khasi and Garo hills; Manipur; the hills east 
of Bhamo ; Arrakan. This bird appears to be found up to about 
6000 feet. 

273. Hemixus davisoni. Davison's Brown-eared Bulbul. 

Hemixus davisoni, Hume, S. F. v, p. Ill (1877) ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 299 ; Hume, Cat. no. 448 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 51 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 176. 

Coloration. Resembles H.flavala. Differs in having the entire 
crown and nape a rich dark brown; the back, rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and smaller wing-coverts also brown but paler; in the tail 
being less suffused \\ith olive-green and the breast being distinctly 
ashy and not grey ; and lastly in the yellow edges to the quills 
being narrower. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; iris bright brown (Darling) 
iris crimson-lake (Hume fy Davison). 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3*6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus *6 ; bill from gape 1. 

Distribution. This species has only been procured at Meetan and 
Thoungyah in Tenasserim. It is apparently entirely confined to 
the hill-forests. 

274. Hemixus hildebrandi. HildebrancTs Brown-eared Bulbul. 

Hemixus hildebrandi, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 508 (1874) ; Wald. in BlytWs 
Birds Burm. p. 133 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. Ill ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 299 ; Hume, Cat. no. 448 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 50 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 176. 

Coloration. Resembles H.flavala. Differs in having the forehead, 
crown, and nape dark brown or blackish, contrasting with the rest 
of the plumage. 

Iris lake-brown ; bill black ; legs light brown ( Wardlaw llamsay). 
Iris crimson ; bill black ; legs and feet dark reddish horn-colour 
(Flume fy Davison). 

Length about 8-5; tai!3'8; wing 4-1; tarsus -65; bill from 
gape 1. 



HEMIXUS. 205 

Distribution. The pine-forests of the Salween district in Tenasseriin 
at 3000 feet, and the Karen hills east of Toungngoo from 2000 to 
4000 feet. 



" 275. Hemixus macclellandi. The Rufous-bellied Bulbul. 

Hypsipetes macclellandi, Horsf. P. Z. S. 1839, p. 159 ; Blyth, Cat. 
p. 207 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 256 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 79 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. IS. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 106 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 281 ; 
Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 133 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 298 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 447 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 294; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 176. 

lole macclellandi (Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 59; Oates, B. B. 
i, p. 178. 

flemixus macclellandi (Horsf.), Oates in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. i, 
p. 168. 

Chinchiok-plio, Lepch. ; Chichiam, Bhut. 

Coloration. Crown, from the forehead to the nape, rich brown, 
the shafts white tinged with buff ; upper plumage, wing-coverts, 
tertiaries, and tail olive-green, brightest on the tail, the shafts of 
which are black above and yellow below ; lores and cheeks mixed 
grey and white : chin and throat white, the feathers with grey bases 
and lanceolate ; ear-coverts and sides of the neck chestnut; breast the 
same but with pale shaft-stripes ; abdomen and flanks pale chestnut ; 
under tail-coverts, thighs, and vent ochraceous yellow ; under wing- 
coverts the same ; primaries and secondaries dark brown, edged 
with olive-green. 

Bill blackish above, livid grey-horny below ; iris brownish red or 
dark red ; feet fleshy brown ; claws brown-horny (Scully}. 

Length about 10 ; tail 4*4 ; wing 4*3 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Mussoorie to the head of the 
Assam valley ; the Khasi and Naga hills ; Cachar ; Manipur ; 
Arrakan. 

Habits, Sfc. Breeds from April to June, constructing a shallow 
nest of ferns, leaves, grass, and moss in a fork of a small tree. 
The eggs are pinkish white, speckled and spotted with reddish 
purple and measure about 1-05 by -67. 

276. Hemixus tickelli. TickeWs Bulbul. 

Hypsipetes tickelli, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 275 (1855) ; Blyth $ 
Walden, Birds Burm. p. 133 ; Hume 8? Dav. S. F. vi, p. 296 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 447 bis ; Salvador}, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v. 
p. 596. 

lole tickelli (Blyth), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 60; Oates, B. B. i, p. 179. 

Coloration. Resembles H. macclellandi. Differs in having the 
lower plumage grey tending to white on the abdomen, and the breast 
streaked with whitish shaft-stripes ; in the ear-coverts and sides of 
the neck being pale rusty, which colour also tinges the breast ; and 
in the shaft-stripes of the crest-feathers being broader and whiter. 



266 CEATEROPODID^E. 

Legs and feet fleshy pink, dark fleshy pink, light purplish brown, 
pale pinkish brown, or pale reddish brown ; bill black, horny black, 
or dark horny brown ; iris wood-brown, deep red-brown, light red, 
or crimson (Hume $ Davison}. 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4'2; wing 4 ; tarsus "7 ; bill from gape 1*2. 

Distribution. Karennee from 2500 to 4000 feet ; the pine-forests 
of the Salween valley south to Muleyit mountain above 2500 feet. 

Habits, fyc. Usually occurs, according to Davison, on the out- 
skirts of forests along the paths and thin jungle. 

Genus ALCURUS, Hodgs., 1843. 

The only form of this genus is a conspicuous and easily recognized 
bird with ample crest and striped plumage. The crest springs from 
every portion of the crown and is of considerable length when 
erected, the feathers being narrow but of the same width through- 
out and not sharply pointed. The bill is small and only half the 
length of the head ; the tarsus is scutellated as a rule, but in many 
instances is smooth or nearly so, a point probably depending on 
age. The tail is slightly rounded and the wing is tolerably sharp. 

277. Alcurus striatus. The Striated Green Bulbul. 

Trichophorus striatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 184 (1842). 

Alcurus nipalensis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844). 

Criniger striatus (BlytK), Blyth, Cat. p. 208 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 253. 

Alcurus striatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 955 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 81 ; 
Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 106; xlv, pt. ii, p. 78; 
Wald. in BlytK s Birds Bunn. p. 134 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, 
p. 299 ; Hume, Cat. no. 449 ; Sharpe, Cat. B, M. vi, p. 91 ; Gates, 
B. B. i, p. 187 ; Salvador*, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 597 ; 
Hume, S. F. xi, p. 177 ; Oates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. i, p. 169. 

Senim-plek-pho, Lepch. ; Chichiam, Bhut. 




Fig. 85. Head of A. stnatus. 

Coloration. Whole head, back, and scapulars olive-green, each 
feather with a yellowish-white shaft-stripe ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts brighter with obsolete striations ; tail brown, edged extern- 



MOLPASTES. 267 

ally with olive-green, internally with yellowish, and the three outer 
pairs of feathers tipped with yellow ; lesser and median coverts 
olive-green, brownish internally and with a few faint striations ; 
greater coverts and quills brown on the inner and olive-green on 
the-outer webs, the former also broadly margined with yellow ; 
lores and chin bright yellow ; throat yellow, with numerous trian- 
gular black*[spots ; cheeks and ear-coverts dark brown, streaked 
with yellowish white ; sides of the neck, breast, and upper abdomen 
dark slaty black, with broad pale yellow streaks ; lower abdomen 
and flanks olive-brown, streaked with yellow, except in the middle, 
which, with the under tail- and wing-coverts, is yellow without 
striations. 

Legs and feet very dark brown or deep plumbeous ; bill black ; 
iris deep red-brown (Hume Sf Davison). 

Birds from Tenasserim and Manipur are much smaller than those 
from the Himalayas. Tenasserim specimens measure length 
about 8-5 ; tail 3'7 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape 1 : whereas 
specimens from Sikhim have the tail 4*3 and the wing 4*4. The 
sexes do not appear to differ much, if at all, in size. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim ; Daphla hills in Assam ; the 
Khasi hills ; Manipur ; the ranges of hills east of Toungngoo ; 
Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim ; apparently at 5000 feet of ele- 
vation and upwards. 

Habits, tyc. This Bulbul is said by Jerdon to keep to the tops of 
high trees, going in small parties and having a mellow note, which 
is uttered both when feeding and on the wing. A nest found by 
Mandelli in Sikhim in May was made of fibrous roots and lined 
with grass. It was placed in a bamboo bush about four feet from 
the ground. 

Genus MOLPASTES, Hume, 1873. 

The genus Molpastes comprises some Indian Bulbuls which are 
familiar garden birds. One of them (M. humii) appears to be very 
rare and local, but the others are widely distributed and common. 

In Molpastes the crest is thick and of considerable length, the 
feathers growing from every portion of the crown and nape. The 
nuchal hairs are extremely short and difficult to detect. The wing 
is blunt and the tail is very slightly rounded. All the birds of 
this genus are remarkable for the bright colour of the under tail- 
coverts, and are further to be recognized by the broad white tips to 
the tail-feathers. 

The birds of this genus are more frequently found in gardens 
and cultivated parts of the country than elsewhere. They go about 
in pairs and have very cheerful notes. They feed mostly on fruit 
and they are always to be found on fruit-bearing trees in large 
numbers, but they are not gregarious. Like other Bulbuls they are 
incapable of much progress on the ground, but they are frequently 
seen picking up fallen fruit and shuffling about by a series of short 
ungainly hops. 



268 CEATEROPODID^E. 

The Bed-vented Bulbuls were in a state of great confusion till 
Sharpe in his ' Catalogue ' rearranged them and pointed out the 
characters by which they might be distinguished from each other. 
The exact distribution of each species can only be determined by 
the examination of specimens, and fortunately the very large series 
of these birds in the British Museum has enabled me to work out 
their distribution in sufficient detail. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Under tail-coverts red. 

a'. The black ou the crown sharply defined 

and not extending to the hind neck. 
a". Ear-coverts black, undistinguishable 

from crown M. htfinorrhous, p. 268. 

b'. Ear-coverts brown, contrasting with 

the black crown, 
a'". Chin, throat, and upper breast deep 

black M. burmanicus, p. 269. 

b'". Chin and upper part of throat only 

black M. nigripileus, p. 270. 

c". Ear-coverts whitish like the lower 

plumage ; point of chin only black. . M. atricapillus, p. 270. 
b'. The black on the crown extending to 
the hind neck or back and not sharply 
defined posteriorly. 
d". Hind neck, back, sides of neck, chin, 

throat, and breast all deep black. . . . M. bengalemis, p, 271. 
e". Hind neck black, throat and fore neck 
black shading into brown on the 
breast M. intermedius, p. 272. 

b. Under tail-coverts sulphur-yellow. 

c'. Feathers of crown and crest edged with 

greyish white M. leucogenys, p. 272. 

d'. Feathers of crown and crest entirely 

black M. humii, p. 274. 

c. Under tail-coverts saffron-yellow M. leucotis, p. 273. 

278. Molpastes hsemorrhous. The Madras Red-vented Eulbul. 

Muscicapa hfernorrhousa, Gm. S. N. i, p. 941 (1788). 
Hgematornis pusillus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. x, p. 841 (1841). 




Bom. p. 188. 
Pycnonotus chrysorrhoides (Loft:). Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli. pt. ii, 

p. 237 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 410. 
Molpastes pusillus (Blyth), Hume, N. fy E. p. 291 ; Butler, S. F. iii, 

p. 473. 

Pycnonotus pusillus (Blyth), Blanf. S. F. v, p. 246. 
Molpastes hsemorrhous (Gm.), Hume, Cat. no. 462 ; Davidson, S. F. 

x, p. 386 ; Barnes, Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 48 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. 8? E. 2nd ed. i, p. 169. 



MOLPASTES. 269 

The Common Madras Bulbul, Jerd. ; Bulbul, Iliud. ; Tuttki bulbul, 
Beng. ; Piyli-pitta, Tel. ; Konda-lati, Tarn. 

Coloration. The whole head, chin, and throat deep black, sharply 
denned at the back of the head ; the whole neck, back, wing- 
coverts, scapulars, and breast brown, each feather margined with 
whitish ; rump plain brown ; upper tail-coverts white ; tail brown 
at base, darkening and becoming black towards the end, and all 
the feathers tipped wbite; wing-quills brown, narrowly margined 
with whitish ; abdomen whitish ; sides of body and flanks light 
brown ; under tail-coverts crimson ; shafts of tail-feathers whitish 
beneath. 

Iris deep brown ; bill black ; legs and feet blackish (Butler). 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-8 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape '85. 

Distribution. Nearly the whole of India proper, the northern 
limit being indicated roughly by a line drawn through the following 
places : Umarkot, Jodhpur, Sambhar, Umballa ; thence a line along 
the base of the Himalayas to Behar in the line of longitude of 
Asansol near Raneegunje, and through that place to Burdwan. 
This species also occurs in Ceylon. Although essentially a bird of 
the plains it is occasionally found at considerable elevations on the 
Nilgiris, as high up, in fact, as Ootacamund. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from February to August, constructing a 
flimsy, but pretty nest of dry leaves and grass in bushes, creepers, 
or the lower branches of trees, or sometimes on the top of a stump. 
The eggs, usually three in number, are pale pink marked with 
reddish brown and purplish grey, and measure about -9 by '65. 



279. Molpastes burmanicus. The Burmese Red-vented Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus hseinorrhous (Gm.), apud Blyth 8r Wald. Birds Burm. 

p. 135. 
Molpastes pygmseus (Hodge.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 126 : Hume $ 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 321. 

Molpastes intermedius (Hay), Hume 8f Inglis, S. F. v, p. 35. 
Pycnonotus pygaeus (Hodgs.), Oates, S. F. v, p. 157. 
Pycnonotus intermedius (Hay), Oates, S. F. v, p. 157. 
Pycnonotus nigripileus (Blyth), Anderson, Yunnan Exped., Aves, 

p. 658. 

Pycnonotus burmanicus, Shat-pe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 125 (1881) ; Oates, 
" S. F. x, p. 211 ; id. B. B. i. p. 189: Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Gen. (2) iv, p. 596. 
Molpastes burmanicus (Sharpe), Hume. S. F. xi, p. 183 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 173. 

Coloration. Eesembles M. hcemorrhous, and has the black of the 
head as sharply defined posteriorly. Differs in having the ear- 
coverts glossy hair-brown ; the black of the throat extending down 
to and overspreading the breast ; the feathers on the lower part of 
the breast margined with greyish white, and the hind neck and back 



270 CKATEROPODID^E. 

blackish (not brown), margined more broadly with grey (not 
whitish). 

Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-8 ; wing 3'8 ; tarsus -9 : bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The limits of this species on the north are difficult 
to define owing to want of specimens. Hume found it abun- 
dant, and the only species of this class of Bulbul, in Manipur. I 
have examined a specimen that was procured at Kamrup in Assam 
and another at Shillong. Sharpe records it from Cachar, whence, 
however, 1 have not myself seen a specimen. Both Anderson and 
Eea procured it at Bhamo or in the immediate vicinity. Thence 
it appears to be spread throughout Burma down to the Gulf of 
Martaban on the south, and the Bay of Bengal on the west. On 
the east I cannot discover that it occurs beyond the Sittoung river. 
Habits, $c. This species breeds from May to September through- 
out Pegu : its mode of nidificatiou and the colour of its eggs do not 
differ in any respect from those of M. hcemorrhous. 

280. Molpastes nigripileus. The Tenasserim Red-vented Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus nig-ropileus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 472 (1847) ; id. 

Cat. p. 209 ; Wald. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 549 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. 

p. 135; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 126; Gates, B. B. i, p. 191 ; 

Salvador /, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 597. 
Molpastes nigropileus (Blyth), Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 321 ; Hume. 

Cat. no. 462 bis. 

Coloration. Resembles M. hcemorrhous, and has the black of the 
head as sharply defined posteriorly. Differs in having the ear- 
coverts glossy hair-brown, the lores, cheeks, and chin black, and the 
throat and breast brown, the feathers edged with whitish. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; iris deep brown (Hume cf* 
Davison). 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3'7 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 
8 to -9. 

Distribution. Confined to the east of the Sittoung river, and 
ranging from Toungngoo and the Karen hills down to Amhersl . 

281. Molpastes atricapillus. The Chinese Red-vented Bulbul. 

Muscicapa atricapilla, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxi, p. 489 

(1818). > 

Haematornis chrysorrhoides, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1845, p. 367. 
Molpastes chrysorrhoides (Lafr,), Hume, S.F. ii, p. 477. 
Pycnonotus atricapillus ( VieiU,\ Wald. in Blyth' s Birds Burm. p. 136 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 127 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 190 ; Salvadori. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 598. 
Molpastes atricapillus (Vieill.}, Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 322; 

Hume Cat. no. 462 ter ; Oates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. i, p. 173. 

Coloration. Resembles M. hcemorrhous, and has the black of the 
head as sharply defined posteriorly. Differs in having the ear- 



MOLPASTES. 271 

coverts hoary white, with the lores, cheeks, and only the point of 
the chin black ; the remaining lower plumage ashy brown, whiter 
on the abdomen ; and the hind neck and back a paler brown with 
broader edges. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; iris brown to dark brown 
(/I ii uie $ Davison)', iris light brown (Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Length about 8-5 ; taS 3'7 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. Karennee and Tenasserim down to about the 13th 
degree of latitude. This species is not found west of the Sittoung 
river. It inhabits the hilly and well-wooded parts of the country 
up to 2000 feet of elevation, and it extends into China, where it is 
abundant. 

Habits, Qc. A. nest of this bird with three eggs was found in 
Tenasserim by Darling on the 16th March. 

282. Molpastes Jbengalensis. The Bengal Red-vented Bulbul. 

Ixos cafer, v. pygaeus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (descr. 

nulla, 1844). 
Pycnonotus bengalensis, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 566 (1845) ; id. 

Cat. p4209. 
Pycnonotus pygaeus (Hodys,), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 239 ; Jerd. 

B. I. ii, p. 93 ; Godw.-Aust.J. A. S. B. xliii. pt. ii. p. 178 ; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. vi, p. 128. 
Molpastes pygaeus (Hodgs.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 290 ; Cripps, S. F. 

vii, p. 281; Hume, Cat. no. 461; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 296. 
Molpastes bengalensis (Blyth), Oates in Hume's N. fy JE. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 174. 

The Common Bulbul, Jerd. ; Bulbul, Hind. ; Kala Bulbul, Beng. ; 
Mancliph-pho, Lepch. ; Paklom, Bhut. 

Coloration. Resembles M. hcemorrhous in general appearance. 
Differs in having the ear-coverts chocolate-brown, and, with this 
exception, the whole head, neck, upper back, chin, throat, and 
upper breast deep glossy black ; the lower breast black, margined 
with white ; and the remainder of the lower plumage ashy brown, 
except the under tail-coverts, which are, as usual, crimson ; the 
lower back blackish margined with grey. 

Iris brown; bill and legs black (Cockburn). 

Length about 9 ; tail 4-2 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape *9. 

Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Kumaun 
to the head of the Assam valley ; Oudh ; Northern Behar ; Bengal, 
east of the longitude of Burdwan ; Assam and its hill-ranges ; 
Dacca ; Cachar ; Tipperah. I have also seen a specimen from 
Manipur, where, however, M. burmanicus is the prevailing species. 
Jerdon asserts that this Bulbul extends to Central India, north of 
the Nerbudda river. This may be the case, but I have myself 
seen no specimen from any locality other than those above men- 
tioned. In the Himalayas it is found up to about 7000 feet. 
^Habits, &fc. This Bulbui appears to breed from April to June, and 
probably both before and after that period. Its mode of nidifica- 



272 CKATEROPODIDjE. 

tion appears to differ in no respect from that of M. licemorrhous. 
The eggs measure about -95 by '7. 

283. Molpastes intermedius. The Punjab Red-vented Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus intermedius, A. Hay, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 95 ; Blyth, Ibis, 

1867, p. 9 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 441 ; Sharpe, Cat. B, M. vi, 

p. 130. 
Pycnonotus pygseus (Hodys.}, Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 

p. 39 ; Cock $ Marsh. S. F. 'i, p. 355 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, 

p. 415. 
Molpastes intermedius (A. Hay), Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 175. 

Kala painju, Chamba. 

Coloration. Resembles M. hcemorrhous. Differs in having the 
black of the head continued to the hind neck ; the ear-coverts 
chocolate-brown ; the whole back brown, edged with grey ; the 
black of the throat shading off into blackish brown on the upper 
breast and the sides of the neck ; and the lower breast ashy brown 
margined with whitish. 

Length about 8 j tail 4*3 ; wing 4'1 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Nairn Tal 
and Almora to Murree ; the northern portion of the Punjab, the 
N.W. Provinces and Oudh down to Allahabad and Chupra. In the 
lower part of its range this species is found together with M. ben- 
yalensis. It does not ascend the Himalayas to any great height. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from May to July, and probably for some 
time before and after this period. The eggs, according to Theo- 
bald, measure '87 by *62. 

284. Molpastes leucogenys. The White-cheeked Bulbul. 

Brachypus leucogenys, Gray, in Hardiv. Ill Ind. ZooL ii, pi. 35, fig. 3 

(1830). 
Pycnonotus leucogenys (Or.), Blyth, Cat. p. 209; Horsf, fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 242. 
Otocompsa leucogenys (Or. fy Hardw.}, Jerd. B.I. ii, p. 90 ; Stoliczka, 

J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 39 ; Hume, N. Sf K p. 285 j Cock $ 

Marsh. S. F. i, p. 355 ; Brooks, 8. F. iii, p. 238 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 458 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 296 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 160 ; 

C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 415. 
Molpastes leucogenys (Gray}, Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 175. 

The White-cheeked Crested Bulbul, Jerd. ; Manylio-kur or Mancliph- 
kur, Lepch. ; Kandghara, Beng. ; Painju, Chamba. 

Coloration. Forehead and crest hair-brown, each feather narrowly 
edged with greyish white ; lores black, with a white line above 
them ; cheeks, round the eye, chin, and throat black ; ear-coverts 
white, with a black patch behind them, and another patch striped 
white and brown below them ; upper plumage olive-brown, the 



MOLPASTES. 273 

hinder part and sides of the neck barred with blackish, and the 
centres of the feathers brown : wings brown, edged with olive- 
brown ; tail brown on the basal half, black on the terminal half, and 
all the feathers except the two middle ones tipped with white ; 
lower plumage pale earthy brown, whitish on the abdomen ; lower 
tail-coverts bright sulphur-yellow ; edge of wing white. 

Bill black ; legs plumbeous ; iris brown (Jerdon) ; legs and toes 
brownish black (Scully}. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape 
85. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Murree to Bhutan, from the 
plains up to 7000 feet. This species extends into Afghanistan. 

Habits, $c. Breeds between 3000 and 7000 feet from April to 
July, constructing a very loose and slender nest of stems of plants 
and grass in a bush or branch a few feet above the ground. The 
eggs are pinkish or reddish white marked with various shades of 
red, and measure *88 by *65. 

285. Molpastes leucotis. The White-eared Bulbul. 

Ixos leucotis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 6.' 

Pycnonotus leucotis (Old.), Blyth, Cat. p. 209; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 242; Sharpe,Cat. B. M. vi, p. 136. 
Otoconipsa leucotis (Gld.\ Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 91; Hume, S. F. i, 

p. 181; id. N. 8f E. p. 286; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, 

p. 237; Adam, S. F. i, p. 378; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 473; Hume, 

Cat. no. 459 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 187. 

Molpastes leucotis {Gould), Oates in Hume's N. fyE. 2nd ed. i, p. 177. 
The White-eared Crested Bulbul, Jerd. ; Kanydhara, Beng.; Kushandra 
or Kushanbra of the Punjab ; Bhooroo, Sind. 




Fig. 86. Head of M. leucotis. 

Coloration. Ear-coverts and hinder part of cheeks white ; with 
this exception, the whole head and lower throat black, the black on 
the latter expanding laterally, and joining the crown by a narrow 
band at the end of the ear-coverts ; hind neck rich brown, nar- 
rowly banded with bkckish ; whole upper plumage and wings 
earthy brown, the back with paler margins, the wings margined 
with pale ashy ; tail brown at base, becoming black beyond the 
tail-coverts and tipped with white ; lower plumage whity brown ; 
under tail-coverts rich saffron-yellow. 

Legs, feet, and bill black ; iris brown (Hume). 
VOL. i. T 



274 

Length 7'5 ; tail 34 ; wing 3-5 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape '75. 

'Distribution. Sind ; Cutch ; Guzerat ; Rajputana ; the Punjab ; 
the N."W. Provinces down to Etawah ; Central India as far east as 
Jhansi, Saugor, and Hoshangabad. This bird extends westward 
into Persia. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from May to August, constructing a neat 
cup of vegetable fibres in bushes, and laying three or four eggs, 
which are similar to those of M. leucoyenys, and measure '83 by -64. 



286. Molpastes humii. Hume's White-eared Bulbul. 

Coloration. Eesembles M. leucotis. Differs in having the crest 
much longer and the under tail-coverts sulphur-yellow. 
Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris brown (Hume). 
Length 8 ; tail 3*4 ; wing 3*7 ; tarsus -75 ; bill from gape -75. 




Fig. 87. Head of M. humii. 

Amongst a large series of M. leucotis in the British Museum, I 
detected one specimen which differed remarkably from all the others 
in the colour of its under tail-coverts, and on further examining it 
I found that it had a much longer crest than the others. M. leu- 
cotis is remarkably constant in having saffron-yellow coverts and a 
short bushy crest. I have therefore no hesitation in separating 
M. humii, and naming it after Hume, who procured the only spe- 
cimen I have been able to examine at Jalalpoor near Jhelura, in 
the Punjab, in 1871. From M. leucogenys it differs, among other 
things, in having the crest much shorter and of a different shape 
and colour. 



Genus XANTHIXUS, n. gen. 

I institute this genus for the reception of X. flavescms, a Bulbul 
which differs from all its near allies in the very decided graduation 
of its tail, the outer feather of which falls short of the tail by a 
distance equal in length to the tarsus. The crest resembles in 
many respects that of Hemixus. The wing is blunt, as in 
Molpastes. 



OTOCOAIPSA. 275 

287. Xanthixus flavescens. Blytlfa Bulbul. 

I '\riioiiotus tiavescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 508 (1845) ; id. 
"Cat. p. '210 ; 7/ors/. # J/. C'f. i, p. 244 ; ylw/^-s. Yunnan Exped., 



Ares, p. 659; S/KH^e, CM. B. M. vi, p. 143; Gate*, i?. i?. i, 
p. 192 ; Salvation, Ann. Mm. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 598. 
Ixus flavescens (Blytk), Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. ii,p. 106; 
BL $ Walcl Birch Jiurm. p. L'J4 ; Hume $ Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 306 ; 
Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 466 ; Hume, Cat. no. 452 bis ; id. 
S. F. xi, p. 179. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown dark brown, the feathers of the 
front half of the crown edged with grey, those of the hinder half 
with olive-green ; upper plumage olive-green, the feathers of the 
back with darker centres ; wings and tail dark brown, edged with 
bright olive-yellow on the outer webs, and the three outer pairs of 
tail-feathers faintly tipped with yellowish white ; lores blackish, a 
conspicuous band above them, together with the feathers on the 
eyelids, yellowish ; sides of the head greenish brown ; chin and 
throat the same, but usually tinged with fulvous; breast dull 
yellow, streaked with brown ; abdomen dull yellow ; sides of body 
olive-brown ; vent and under tail-coverts bright yellow ; edge of 
wing and under wing- coverts fulvous yellow. 

Legs, feet, and claws very dark reddish or purplish brown to 
black ; bill black ; iris brown to deep red-brown (Hume ty Damson). 

Length about 8-5: tail 3' 9; wing 3-4; tarsus -85; bill from 
gape -8.^ 

Distribution. The Khasi hills ; Manipur ; the neighbourhood of 
Bhamo ; Arrakan : the Toungngoo hills and Karennee from 2500 
to 4000 feet ; Tenasserim down to a point halfway between Muleyit 
mountain and Paraduba, where this bird is found up to 4500 feet. 

Habits, fa. Found in the outskirts of forests and in scrub- 
jungle. 

Genus OTOCOMPSA, Cabanis, 1851. 

The three Indian Bulbuls which I place in this genus are re- 
markable for their very long crest, which springs entirely from the 
centre of the crown, the feathers of the hind crown and nape 
being short and of the usual character. 

They have the same structure and habits as Molpastes, and are 
found in gardens and in j angle near cultivation. They have equally 
pleasant notes, and their plumage is gay. 

Otocompsa may be known from the next genus by the softness 
of the shafts of the back-feathers and by the longer crest. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Under tail-coverts red. 

a'. Tail-feathers tipped with white ........ O. emeria, p. 276. 

b'. Tail-feathers without white tips ........ O. fuscicaudata, p. 277 . 

b. Under tail-coverts yellow like the remainder 

of the lower plumage .................. O.flaviventris, p. 278. 

T2 



276 CRATEROPODIDJE. 

288. Otocompsa emeria *. The Bengal Red-wldslcered Bulbul. 

Lanius emeria, Linn. S. N. i, p. 137 (1766). 

Lanius jocosus, Linn. S. N. i, p. 138 (1766). 

Muscicapa emeria, Linn. S. N. i, p. 326 (1766). 

Ixos monticola, McClell P. Z. S. 1839, p. 160. 

Ixos pyrrhotis, Hod(/s. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844). 

Pycnonotus jocosus (L.~), Blyth, Cat. p. 208 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 238. 
Otocompsa jocosa (L.'), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 92 (part.) ; Godw.-Aust. J. 

A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 106 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 157 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 198. 

Otocompsa monticol-a (McClell.}, Godw.-Aust. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 106; xlv, pt. ii, p. 79; Bl. Sf Wald. Birds Burm. 
p. 135 ; Hume, Cat. no. 460 ter. 

Otocompsa emeria (L.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 287 ; Hume, S. F. ii, 
p. 225, iii, p. 126 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 325 ; Oates, S. F. v, 
p. 157; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 657; Hume fy Dav. 
S. F. vi, p. 321 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 280 ; Hume, Cat. no. 460 ; 
Scully, S. F. viii, p. 296 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 181 ; Oates in Humes 



. 2nded. i, p. 178. 

The Red-iohiskered Bulbul, Jerd. ; Kanera bulbul, Hind. ; Kara 
bulbul and Sipahi bulbul, Beng. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown of head, the lores, the front 
part of the cheeks, and a narrow nioustachial streak surrounding 
the ear-coverts and joining the crown black ; hinder part of cheeks 
and the ear-coverts white ; a tuft of feathers springing from the 
lower eyelid, and passing over the ear-coverts, crimson ; sides of 
the neck and a broad crescent, interrupted in the middle of -the 
breast, brownish black ; under tail-coverts crimson ; the lower 
plumage white, washed with brown on the sides of the breast, the 
flanks, and the thighs ; upper plumage and wings earthy brown, 
the latter edged paler on the outer webs of the quills ; tail dark 
brown, the outer four, or sometimes five, pairs of feathers tipped 
with white ; edge of wing pale pink. 

The nestling does not acquire the red eye-tufts till it is two or 
three months old, and the under tail-coverts at first are pink. 

Iris hazel-brown ; mouth yellow ; bill, legs, and claws black. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3*5 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape '85. 

The variations which occur in the plumage of this bird through- 
out its great range are very trivial, and it is hard to understand 
how it became suggested that there were two or more species or 
races, as some naturalists at one time thought. The crimson ear- 
tuft varies somewhat in size and depth of tint. It attains its 

* I believe that the name of L. emeria of Linnaeus applies to the Bengal bird, 
as the specimen is distinctly stated to have come from Bengal. In this case 
the term L. jocosus, applied to the Chinese bird, which is identical with that 
from Bengal, becomes a synonym, and the specific name of the Southern-Indian 
bird cannot be taken from Muscicapa emeria, L , as proposed by Sharpe, even 
if Linnaeus's name was given to that species, which is doubtful. See Hume's 
exhaustive argument on this subject (S. F. xi, p. 181). 



OTOCOMPSA. 277 

greatest length in Burma and the Malay peninsula, and it is also 
brighter in those countries. Throughout the Himalayas, in Mani- 
pur, and in China the tuft is of an intensely deep crimson, but it 
varies in length considerably, some birds having it quite as long as 
others from Pegu. It unfortunately happens that the tuft springs 
from the lower eyelid, and its length is therefore in some measure 
subject to variation as a result of the manner in which the head 
has been prepared ; it is even quite possible for a careless taxidermist 
to perforate the lower eyelid and to cause the eye to appear sur- 
rounded by red feathers, as was apparently the case in some 
specimens which passed through Mr. Hume's hands (S. F. i, p. 309), 
but which are no longer in his collection. 

The terminal spots on the tail-feathers are generally found on 
the outer four pairs, but it is not uncommon to find them on the 
next pair as well, but in a reduced form. 

Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Simla to 
the head of the Assam valley ; Oudh ; the whole of Bengal, Orissa, 
and the Northern Circars ; the eastern portion of Chutia Nagpur ; 
Assam and all the hill-ranges and States lying to the south 
through Burma to the extreme southern point of Tenasserim ; 
Karennee ; the Andamans ; the Nicobars, where these birds have 
been introduced. The species extends into China, Siam, and the 
Malay peninsula. 

Habits, $c. This lively Bulbul is a familiar bird, being more 
frequently seen in gardens than elsewhere. It breeds from 
February to May or June, constructing a rather solid cup-shaped 
nest of twigs and leaves in bushes, creepers, and tangled thickets. 
The eggs, usually three in number, are pinkish white marked with 
various shades of red, and measure -83 by *63. 

289. Otocompsa fuscicaudata. The Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul. 

Otocompsa fuscicaudata, Gould, P. Z. 8. 1865, p. G64 ; Stanford, 
J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 178 ; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 
p. 117; id. N. $ E. p. 288; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 473; Fairbank, 
S. F. iv, p. 258 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 458 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 405; 
Davids. $ Wend. S. F. vii, p. 82 ; Hume, Cat. no. 460 bis ; Vidal, 
S. F. ix, p. 64 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 402 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 386 ; 
Taylor, S. F. x, p. 460 ; Terr?/, S.F.x, p. 476 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 187 ; Gates in Hume's N. # E. 2nd ed. i, p. 180. 

Otocompsa jocosa (-.), McMaster, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. ii, p. 212. 

Otocompsa erneria (L.), S/iarpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 159. 

Phari-bulbul, Hind. ; Turaka piyli-pitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Resembles 0. emeria. Differs in having no white 
tips to the tail-feathers, and in having the crescentic pectoral band 
either entire or only very slightly interrupted in the centre. 

Of the same size as 0. emeria. 

On examining the large series of this bird in the British Museum, 
I find that specimens from Belgaum and the country north of it 
up to Abu have the pectoral band interrupted, and that those from 
localities south of Belgaum have it entire in almost all cases. 



278 CEATEEOPODIDjE. 

Distribution. The western coast and ghats of India, from Cape 
Comorin to Baroda and on to Mount Abu, extending east to Chikalda 
in Berar ; the eastern coast up to the Carnatic ; Bamesvaram Island. 
The distribution of this species in the interior of the peninsula is 
not known. 

Habits, fyc. Apparently in all respects similar to those of 0. emcria. 
This species breeds from February to May and June, and most 
frequently lays but two eggs. The eggs measure *9 by P 66. 



290. Otocompsa flaviventris. The Blade-crested Yellow Bulbul. 

Vanga flaviventris, Tick. J. A. S. B. ii, p. 573 (1833). 

Brachypus inelanoccphaliiR, Gray $ Hardw. 111. Intl. ZooL ii, pi. 35, 

fig. 1 (1834). 

Pycnouotus raelanocephalus (Gray $ Hardw.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 210. 
Pycnonotus flaviventris (Tick.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 247 ; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 285. 
Rubigula flaviventris (Tick.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 88; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A. 8. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 106; Blytli, Birds Burnt, p. 130; 

Hume, S. F. iii, p. 125 ; Armstrong, 8. F. iv, p. 324 ; Hume $ Dai\ 

8. F. vi, p. 317 ; Hume, Cat. no. 456 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, 

p. 467; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 295; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 182; 

Hume, S. F. xi, p. 180. 
Otocompsa flaviventris (Tick.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 161 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 199 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 599 ; 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 183. 

Zurd-bulbul, Hind. ; Tahariya kangdhara at Gorakhpur ; Mancliph- 
hur, Lepch. 

Coloration. Head, chin, and throat black ; sides of neck and 
lower plumage yellow ; upper plumage olive-yellow ; quills brown, 
washed with olive-yellow on the outer webs ; tail brown, the feathers 
edged with olive-yellow on the outer webs nearly up to the tips. 

Iris pale yellow ; eyelids yellowish fleshy ; bill dark brown ; 
mouth fleshy yellow ; legs brown; claws dark horn. 

Length about 7'5; tail 3*5; wing 3-5 ; tarsus -65; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Assam ; 
the forests of the Central Provinces ; Orissa south of the Mahanadi ; 
Kalahandi ; the whole tract of country stretching from Assam 
to Tenasserim ; Kareunee. This Bulbul appears to be found up 
to about 4000 feet. It extends to Cochin China and the Malay 
peninsula. 

Habits, fyc. This species is found in the forests as well as on 
their outskirts, in secondary jungle, and cultivated places. In some 
places it is very abundant and entirely absent from others. The 
nest is a cup made of twigs and roots placed in a bush. The eggs 
are white, very thickly marked with pink and red. Bingham gives 
the measurements of one egg as '85 by '61. 



PINAROCICHLA. 279 



Genus PINAROCICHLA, Sharpe, 1881. 

The single species which constitutes this genus is very similar in 
general structure to Otocompsa. It differs in having a shorter c-ivst 
and in having the back and rump covered with very dense pluinago. 
The feathers of these parts, however, possess a peculiarity which has 
not before been noticed. Their shafts are rigid and spinous, and if 
the fingers are passed along the back from the tail towards the head 
the prickly character of the feathers can easily be felt. The present 
species clearly forms a link between the Brachypodina and the 
genus CampopfMga among the Laniidso. 

This J3ul bul appears to b? similar to Otocompsa in habits. 

291. Pinarocichla euptilosa. The Crested Broivn Bulbul. 

Brachypus eutilotus, Jard. $ Selly, 111. Orn. iv, pi. iii (? 1836). 
Brachypus entilotus (/. $ S.), apud Blyth, Cat. p. 339. 
Brachypodius tristis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 576 (1845). 
Microtarsus canton, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 279 ; Horsf. # M. Cat. 

i, p. 409. 
Criniger tristis (Blyth), Blytli, Ibis, 1865, p. 47; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 303; Hume, Cat. no. 451 quint. 

Euptilosus euptilosus (J. $ S.), Hume, S. F. viii, pp. 62, 162. 
Pinarocichla euptilosa (J. $ S.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 62 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 180. 




Fig. 88. Head of P. euptilosa. 

Coloration. Crown greyish brown, with blackish shaft-stripes ; 
lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck paler, with no stripes ; 
back, rump, and scapulars ochraceotis olive, the feathers of the 
rump banded with black showing up in places as dark patches ; 
upper tail-coverts and tail ferruginous, the outer three pairs of 
feathers of the latter tipped with white ; wing-coverts and tertiaries 
ochraceous, brighter than the back ; primaries and secondaries 
dark brown, the outer webs ochraceous ; the whole lower plumage 
whitish, suffused with grey on the breast and with yellow else- 
where. 

The legs and feet vary from dark grey-brown, or very dark 
plumbeous brown, to black ; the bill black ; iris in the male crim- 
son, in the female varying from wood-brown to litharge re 
<J* Davison). 



280 CRATEEOPODID^:. 

Length about 9 ; tail 3-8 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus -75 ; bill from 
gape P 8. 

Distribution. The extreme southern part of Tenasserim. This 
bird is found throughout the Malay peninsula and in Sumatra, 
Java, and Borneo. 

Genus SPIZIXUS, Blyth, 1845. 

The genus Spizioeus contains three birds, one of which is found 
in the hills of Assam and the others in China. This genus differs 
remarkably from all the other genera of Bulbuls in the shape of 
the bill, which is finch -like ; and in having the nostrils partially 
concealed by overhanging plumelets. 

Little is known of the habits of this genus, and its position is 
very uncertain. For the present I follow others in placing it 
among the Bulbuls. Its position will probably be found hereafter 
to be among the Sibiince. 

In Spizixus the crest is thick, long and pointed. The bill is 
very short and deep, the culmen being gently curved throughout ; 
the edges of the mandibles are slightly sinuated and notched near 
the tips. The tail is perfectly square, and the tarsus short and 
weak. 

292. Spizixus canifrons. The Finch-billed Bulbul. 

Spizixos canifrons, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 571 (1845) ; id. Cat. 
p. 339 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 251 ; Godw.-Aust. J.A.8. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 106 ; xliii, pt. ii, p. 179 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1872, p. 90 ; Hume, 
S. F. vii, p. 386 ; id. Cat. no. 453 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, 
p. 172 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 180 j Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 184. 




Fig. 89. Head of 8. canifrons. 

Coloration. Forehead and front part of the crown ashy grey ; 
remainder of crown, lores, and round the eye black ; cheeks and 
point of the chin blackish, the feathers with greyish-white tips ; 
ear-coverts pale brown ; sides of the neck, meeting narrowly behind 
the nape, grey streaked slightly with blackish ; throat very dark 
brown, shading off into ashy brown ; upper plumage and vving- 
coverts~green ; wings dark brown, the outer webs greenish yellow ; 



TRACHTCOMrS. 281 

tail greenish yellow, the terminal quarter black ; lower plumage 
greenish yellow ; under tail-coverts and edge of wing yellowish. 

Legs and feet brownish fleshy ; claws brown ; bill yellowish- 
horny white ; gape black ; iris reddish brown (Hume) ; iris brown, 
hazel ; bill greenish white (Cocklurn). 

Length about 8-5 ; tail 3'8 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. The Khasi hills and Manipur. 

Habits, &c. Godwin-Austen remarks that S. 'canifrons breeds 
near Shillong in May. 



Genus TRACHYCOMUS, Cabanis, 1851. 

This genus is represented by a single bird of large size, striated 
plumage, and peculiar structure. It has no crest, but the crown is 
covered with dense bristly decomposed feathers of a yellow colour. 
The tarsus is remarkably strong, with a few scutellations in front, 
and sometimes quite smooth. The bill is short, being about 
half the length of the head, the rictal bristles strong and the 
nuchal hairs short. The wing is blunt, and the tail is well 
rounded. 

The peculiar structure of the feathers of the crown and the large 
size will suffice to separate this Bulbul from all others. 

293. Trachycomus ochrocephalus. The Yellow-crowned Bulbul. 

Turdus ochrocephalus, Gmel S. N. i, p. 821 (1788). 

Criniger ochrocephalus (.), Blyth, Cat. p. 208 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

i, p. 253. 
Trachycomus ochrocephalus (Gm.\ Hume, S. F. \, p. 455 j Hume 8f 

Dav. S. F. vi, p. 300 ; Hume, Cat. no. 449 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

yi, p. 93 j Oates, B. B. i, p. 188 j id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 184 note. 




Fig. 90. Head of T. ochrocephalus. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, a patch under the eye branching 
out into two streaks, one extending partially over the ear-coverts 
and one under, straw-yellow ; ear-coverts brown with white shafts ; 
lores and cheeks black, divided by a yellowish streak ; upper plumage 
and lesser wing-coverts ashy brown dashed with green, all the 
feathers except those of the rump with conspicuous white shafts, 
and the upper tail-coverts margined with olive-green ; greater 



282 CBATEROPIDID^E. 

coverts, wings, and tail dark brown ; the quills of the wing with the 
outer webs mostly olive-green, those of the tail edged with green- 
ish and tipped below with pale ochraceous ; chin and throat white ; 
breast and sides of the neck ashy brown, with white shaft-streaks ; 
sides of the body brown with indistinct shaft-stripes ; abdomen 
and vent brownish white ; thighs and under tail-coverts ochra- 
ceous ; under wing- coverts and axillaries ochraceous brown. 

Legs and feet dark horny-brown or black ; bill black ; iris pale 
or litharge-red ( Hume $ Davison). 

Length about 11; tail 5; wing 4*7; tarsus 1*1: bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. The southern portion of Tenasserim as far north as 
Mergui. This species extends down the Malay peninsula to 
Sumatra. Java, and Borneo. 

ffabits, $r. This bird was observed by Davison to keep in parties 
and to frequent spare jungle in preference to forest. It occasion- 
ally descends to the ground. A nest found at Kossoom in July in 
the Malay peninsula was a shallow saucer made of creeper-stems 
with some grass and moss, and placed in a bush. The ground- 
colour of the eggs varied from pale pink to warm salmon-pink, and 
the markings were reddish and purplish. The eggs measure about 
1-05 by -75. 

Genus IDLE, Blyth, 1844. 

The genus lole is not characterized by any trenchant characters. 
In many respects it is intermediate between Hemixus and Pycno- 
notus, but differs from both in the sharp carination of the upper 
mandible of the bill. 

In lole the feathers of the crown are slightly lengthened, but 
they do not form a crest. The bill is about three-quarters the 
length of the head, and when viewed laterally is of much the same 
shape as that of Hemixus figured above (fig. 84, p. 263). The 
nuchal hairs are short. 

One species occurs in Southern India, one in the Nicobar 
Islands, and two in the eastern parts of the Empire. 



Key to tJie Species. 

a. Lower plumage streaked /. malaccensi*, p. 283. 

b. Lower plumage imstreaked. 

a'. Crown and upper plumage uniformly of the 

same colour. 

a". The entire lower plumage bright yellow. /. icterica, p. 283. 
b". The lower plumage dull olive-yellow; 

the under tail-coverts fawn-brown .... /. virescens, p. 284. 
b'. Crown of a different colour to the upper 

plumage * /. nicobariensis,ip. 285. 



IOLE. 283 

294. lole malaccensis. The Streaked Bulbul. 

Hypsipetes malaccensis, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 574 (1845), xv, p. 51 ; 

id. Cat. p. L>07 ; Hortf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 256 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 298 ; Hume, Cat. no. 447 ter. 
Ilemixus malaccensis (Blyth}, Sharps, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 52 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 177. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brownish green ; lesser wing-coverts 
the same ; greater coverts, wings, and tail dark brown, edged with 
the same colour as the upper plumage ; ear-coverts and sides of the 
head brownish green, the former with pale shafts; lores ashy grey ; 
cheeks, chin, throat, and breast ashy, with broad greyish-white 
shaft-streaks ; sides of the body the same, but with the shaft- 
streaks less distinct ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellow. 

Legs and feet pinkish brown to reddish brown ; bill horny 
brown or very dark horny brown ; iris mahogany-brown to litharge- 
red (Hume $ Davison}. 

Length about 9 ; tail 3*7 ; wing 4*5 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, from Mergui southwards. Also 
throughout the Malay peninsula, extending to Sumatra and Borneo 
and to Cochin China. 

Habits, &fc. Davison remarks that the habits of this species 
resemble those of Hemixus tickelli. 



295. lole icterica. The Yellow-browed Bulbul. 

Criniger ictericus, Strickland, A. M. N. H. xiii, p. 411 (1844) ; 
Jerd. B. I. ii, T>. 82 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 282 j Fairbank, S. F. iv, 
p. 258 ; Bourdillon, S. F. iv, p. 400 ; Hume, Cat. no. 450 ; Leyqe, 
Birds Ceyl. p. 472 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 64 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 402 ; 
Davison, S. F. x, p. o83 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 185. 

Hemixus icterica (Strickl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 207; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 250. 

Xenocichla icterica (Strickland), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 96. 

lole icterica (Strickl.}, Oates in Hume's N. 8? E. 2nd ed. i, p. 185. 

Coloration. A streak from the nostril to the eye, a circle round 
the eye, the sides of the head, and the whole lower plumage bright 
yellow, the sides of the breast and body and the ear-coverts washed 
with olive-green ; the whole upper plumage bright olive-yellow ; 
wings dark brown, the outer webs olive-yellow, the inner edged 
with yellow ; tail olive-yellow, the edges above brighter, the inner 
edges and the shafts below yellow ; under wing-coverts bright 
yellow. 

Iris wood-brown ; legs and feet pale blue ; upper mandible 
brownish black, lower pale brown, darkest along the edges and the 
tip ; claws bluish horny (Davison}. Iris blood-red, dark red (But- 
ler} ; iris blood-red (Jerdon). 



284 CRATEKOPODIDJS. 

Length about 8 ; tail 3-7 ; wing 3*8 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from near Mahablesh- 
war to Cape Comorin. This bird is also found in Ceylon. It 
appears to be found from near the sea-level up to 6500 feet of 
elevation. 

Habits, fyc. This Bulbul has a soft mellow whistle, and frequents 
the undergrowth of the evergreen forests, venturing occasionally 
into gardens. It breeds from March to May, constructing a cup- 
like nest of fine twigs lined with grass. The nest is suspended by 
the rim between two lateral branches. The eggs are pinkish 
white speckled with brownish red or pink, and measure about '96 
by '67. Hume remarks that the nest and egg of this bird differ 
remarkably from those of all the other Bulbuls. Possibly they 
will be found to resemble those of the other species of this genus, 
of which unfortunately we have at present no information what- 
ever. 



296. lole virescens. The Olive Bulbul. 

Me virescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 573 (1845) ; id. Gat. p. 207 ; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 254 ; Godw.-Aust, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 

p. 270. 

lole viridescens, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 7 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 133; 
Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 466; Hume 8, Dar. S. F. vi, 

pp. 315,515; Hume, Cat. no. 452 dec. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. J/. vi, 

p. 56; Oates, B. B. i, p. 177 ; Salvador^ Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) 

v, p. 596 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 179. 

Coloration. Upper plumage olive-green ; the wings dark brown, 
the quills edged externally with rufescent olive-brown ; tail and 
upper tail-coverts rufescent ; lores and space over the eye olive- 
yellow ; the ear-coverts darker; sides of the neck olive-brown; 
chin, throat, breast, flanks, and abdomen olive-yellow ; under tail- 
coverts fawn-brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellow. 
The coloration of this bird varies considerably with the state of the 
plumage, newly-moulted birds being tinged with ochraceous below, 
and birds in worn plumage being dull olive-brown. 

Iris brown; bill bluish h orn- colour ; inside of mouth flesh- 
colour ; eyelids grey ; legs and claws pinkish brown. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 3*2 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape '9. 

lole olivacea, Blyth, occurs in the Malay peninsula and may 
probably be found hereafter in Tenasserim. It is difficult to 
separate this bird from /. virescens except by actual comparison 
of specimens ; but the following points of difference may be noted. 
/. olivacea has a very much larger bill, the lower plumage has much 
less yellow in it, the upper plumage is olive-brown not olive-green, 
and the crown is rather darker than the back ; the sides of the 
head are decidedly greyish, and the wings and tail are much 
darker. Both species are of much the same size except in respect 
to the bill. 



PYCNOffOTTTS. 285 

Distribution. The Khjisi hills ; Cachar ; Tipperah ; Manipur ; 
Arrakan ; the T.saukoo and Karen hills to the east of Toungngoo ; 
the southern portion of the Pegu hills and the plains lying at their 
foot ; the whole of Tenasserim. This species is found from sea- 
level up to 2000 or 3000 feet. 
-Habits, $c. Frequents forests in small bands. 

297. lole nicobariensis. The Nicobar Bulbul. 

Ixocincla virescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 575 (1845). 
Hypsipetes virescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, pp. 61, 370 j id. Cat. 

p. 207. 
Hypsipetes nicobariensis, Moore in Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 257 (1854) ; 

Ball, S. F. i, p. 70 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 223 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 298 ; Hume, Cat. no. 447 quat. 
Hypsipetes virescens (BlytJi), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 43. 

Coloration. Head and nape dark brown ; sides of the head grey ; 
upper plumage olive-green ; wings and tail hair-brown, margined 
or suffused externally with olive-green ; chin, throat, and upper 
breast white, faintly streaked with pale brown, grey, or pale yellow ; 
remaining lower parts and under wing-coverts pale primrose- 
yellow slightly mottled with white, the under tail-coverts with 
brownish centres. 

Legs and feet dark horny, greenish brown, or greenish plum- 
beous ; bill deep horny brown ; lower mandible and edge of upper 
dull yellow ; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 9 ; tail 3*8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from 
gape 1*1. 

Distribution. The Nicobar islands of Teressa, Bompoka, Tillaug- 
chong, Cainorta, Nancowry, Trinkut, Katchall, and Pilu Milu. 

Habits, Sfc. Davison remarks : " Occurs only at the Nicobars, 
where it is comparatively common ; it keeps to the forest gene- 
rally, but is also found in gardens, in the secondary jungle, and not 
unfrequently in places where there are only a few scattered bushes ; 
it usually is seen singly, in pairs, or in small parties of five or 
six ; but I have on several occasions seen them in flocks of nearly 
a hundred. They have a chattering note, very similar to the other 
Hypsipetes, and when they are in flocks they make nearly as much 
noise as a flock of My nans settling for the night. They breed at 
the Nicobon ; I shot very young birds in February ; but did not 
succeed in finding any nests." 



Genus PYCNONOTUS, Kuhl, 1826. 

The Bulbuls which I place in this genus are birds of small size, 
and may be termed crestless. With the exception of P. blanfordi, 
which is occasionally seen in compounds and gardens, none of them 
are familiar birds as is the case with Molpastes and Otocompsa. 
They are chiefly denizens of the jungle and forest. 



286 CEATEEOPODID^E. 

In Pycnonotus the bill is of small size, and the nuchal hairs 
are obsolete or small. Many of the species are of dull colour, but 
a few are of brilliant plumage. They are solitary in their habits 
and very arboreal, and it is a rare occurrence to see any of them 
on the ground. 

Among the Bulbuls of this genus which may hereafter be found 
in British territory may be mentioned P. aanthorrhous, a species 
which Anderson obtained at Manwyne, Momein, and Shitee hill, 
to the east of Bhamo in the Kakhyen hills and on the borders of 
China. This bird is found throughout Southern China. I append 
a description of it *. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Throat white P. analis, p. 287. 

b. Throat streaked with bright yellow. 

a'. Anterior half of crown of a different colour 

to the hinder half and nape P.Jinlaysoni, p. 287. 

b' . The whole crown and nape of the same 

colour P. davisoni, p. 288. 

c. Throat yellow. 

c'. Crown black P. melanicterus, p, 288. 

d' . Crown yellow P. xantholcemus, p. 289. 

d. Throat ruby-red P. gularis, p. 289. 

e. Throat slaty blue P. cyaniventris, p. 290. 

/. Throat brown or grey. 

e'. Under tail-coverts yellow P. luteolus, p. 290. 

f. Under tail-coverts brown or buff. 

a". Ear-coverts entirely silvery white .... P. blanfordi, p. 291. 
b". Ear-coverts brown with silvery white 

shafts P. plumositS) p. 292. 

c". Ear-coverts like the crown. 

a'". Wing more than 3 inches P. simplex, p. 292. 

b'". Wing less than 3 inches P. pusillus, p. 293. 



* PYCNONOTUS XANTHORUHOUS, Anderson, Proc. A. 8. Beng. 1869, p. 265 ; id. 
P.Z. S. 1871, p. 214; id. Yunnan Exped,, Aves, p. 658, pi. li ; Skarpe, 
Cat. B. M. vi, p. 139. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, lores, a ring round the eye, and a narrow 
cheek-stripe extending to the end of the ear-coverts black ; a small spot of deep 
red at the base of the lower mandible near the gape ; ear-coverts glossy hair- 
brown ; chin and throat pure white ; upper plumage brown, the feathers with 
obsoletely paler edges ; the wings and tail darker brown, the former margined 
with the colour of the back, the latter narrowly tipped with white ; sides of 
the neck brown, meeting across the breast in a crescentic band ; abdomen and 
vent whitish ; sides of body and the thighs brown ; under tail-coverts deep 
golden yellow ; underside of shafts of tail-feathers white. 

Bill black ; feet blaokish ; iris brownish red (Pere David). 

Length about 8'5 ; tail 3'8 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus - 9 ; bill from gape '8. 

Since the above was in type Count Salvadori has recorded the occurrence of 
this species in Karennee (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) vii. p. 398 (1889)). 



PYCNONOTTJ8. 287 

298. Pycnonotus analis. The Yellow-vented Bulbul. 

Turdus analis, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 147 (1820). 
Pycnouotus goiavier (Scop.), Blyth, Cat. p. 210 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

*i, p. 242. 
,0tocompsa personata, Dauson, Hume, 8. F. i, p. 457 (1873) ; ii, 

p. 3:33. 
Otocompsa analis (Horsf.), Hume $' Dtw. S. F. vi, p. 308; Hume, 

Cat. no. 452 sex. 

Pycuonotus analis (Horsf. \ Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 140 ; Oates, B. 
B. i, p. 191 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 186 note. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage browii, darker on the head, 
and the feathers somewhat paler-edged ; wings and tail brown, 
edged exteriorly with the colour of the back ; a broad supercilium 
white : lores and feathers on the eyelids black ; ear-coverts pale 
brown ; cheeks, chin, and throat whitish ; breast brown with pale 
edges ; abdomen whity brown, the sides darker brown ; under tail- 
coverts sulphur-yellow. 

Legs, feet, claws, and bill black ; iris wood-brown (Hume 6f 
Davison). 

Length about 8 ; tail 3*2 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus '8 \ bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Tenasserim, from Mergui southwards. The Malay 
peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Loinbock, Borneo, Cochin China, and 
Siam. 

Habits, fyc. The nest of this Bulbul has not yet been taken in 
Burma. A nest found at Salang, further south, in February, was 
a cup made of dry leaves and twigs lined with grass. It was built 
in a bush about six feet from the ground. The eggs were pinkish 
marked with maroon aud purple and measured about '88 by '63. 

299. Pycnonotus finlaysoni. Finlayson's Stripe-throated Bulbul. 

Pycuonotus iinlaysom, Strickl. A. M. N. H. (1) xiii, p. 411 (1844) ; 

"Blyth, Cat. p. 210; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 244; Wald. P. Z. S. 

1866, p. 549 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 144; Oates, B. B. i,p. 193; 

Salvador*) Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) v, p. 598. 
Ixus finlaysoni (Strickl.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 301 ; Hume $ Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 307 ; Hume, Cat. no. 452 ter; Oates in Hume's N. & 

E. 2nd ed. i, p. 187. 

Coloration. Forehead and head, as far back as the eyes, bright 
yellow, the feathers edged with ashy brown ; lores black ; above 
the lores a narrow orange line ; cheeks, ear-coverts, throat, chin, 
and upper neck grey, with bright yellow streaks ; crown and nape 
deep grey, the centres of the feathers paler ; upper plumage and 
wiiig-coverts olive-green, the back washed with ashy ; wings dark 
brown, broadly edged with olive-green on the outer webs ; tail 
olive-green, brighter on the outer webs ; breast, upper abdomen, 
and flanks dark ashy, the shafts paler ; middle of abdomen yellowish 
grey ; vent and under tail-coverts bright yellow ; edge of wing, 
under wing-coverts, and axillaries yellow. 



288 CRATEKOPODIDJS. 

Bill bluish black, paler at the gape ; mouth dark flesh-colour ; 
iris pale brown ; eyelids dark plumbeous ; legs dusky plumbeous ; 
claws dark brown. 

Length 7'6 ; tail 3'3 ; wing 3-2 tarsus -8 ; bill from gape '85. 

Distribution. The whole of Tenasserim east of the Sittoung river 
from Toungngoo to the extreme south. The Malay peninsula, 
Siam, and Cochin China. 

Habits, <$fc,. Breeds from February to May, constructing a cup- 
shaped nest of twigs, grass-roots, arid fibres in a bush or sapling. 
The eggs, which appear to be always two in number, are pink, 
marked with maroon and purple. They measure about '88 by *65. 

300. Pycnonotus davisoni. Davison's Stripe-throated Bulbul. 

Ixus davisoni, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 301 (1875), iv, p. 498 ; Armstrong, 

S. F. iv, p. 324 ; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 47 ; Hume, Cat. no. 452 quat. ; 

Gates, S. F. x, p. 209. 
Ixus annectens, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) xv, p. 401 (1875) ; id. in 

Blyth' s Birds Burm. p. 134 ; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 4(30. 
Pycnonotus davisoni (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 145 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 194 ; id. in Hume's N. $ JE. 2nd ed. i, p. 188. 

Coloration. Kesembles P. finlaysoni. Differs in having the whole 
forehead, crown, nape, sides and back of neck greenish yellow 
mottled with grey, caused by the feathers being narrowly margined 
by this colour ; the yellow streaks on the cheeks, ear-coverts, chin, 
throat, and upper neck in front shorter and less vivid in colour. 

Iris pale yellow ; bare ophthalmic skin and eyelids dark purplish ; 
mouth flesh-colour ; bill dark brown ; legs dark plumbeous ; claws 
horn-colour. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3*2 ; wing 3*2 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape 
85. 

Distribution. The southern half of Pegu west of the Sittouug 
river, and from the sea to about the latitude of Pegu town ; 
Arrakan, whence Blyth recorded this species under the name of 
P. finlaysoni, and where Armstrong procured it at Kyoukhpyoo and 
the Borongo Islands near Akyab. 

Habits, <$fc. I discovered two nests of this Bulbul in June near 
Pegu town. The nest is a flimsy cup made of the stems of small 
plants and grass, and is placed in a bush or creeper near the ground. 
The eggs, two in number, are pinkish white, marked with reddish 
and purple ; they measure about *86 by *63. 

301. Pycnonotus melanicterus. The Black-capped Bulbul. 

Muscicapa melanictera, Gm. S. N. \, p. 941 (1788). 

JSgithina atricapilla, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. i, p. 176 (1816). 

Pycnonotus atricapillus (Vieill?), Blyth, Cat. p. 211. 

Rubigula melanictera (Gm.), Wold. Ibis, 1866, p. 321; Blyth, Ibis, 
1867, p. 304; Holdsworth, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 451 ; Legge, S. F. iii, 
p. 368 ; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 477 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 387 ; id. Cat. 
no. 455 bis; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 168. 



PYCNONOTUS. 289 

Pycnonotus melanicterus (Gm.), Gates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 

"p. 188. 

Ka-Kantlla, Ceyl. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and sides of the neck black ; 
upper plumage and wing-coverts olive-green; wings brown, the 
outer webs olive-green ; tail dark brown, the basal half washed 
with given, and all the feathers, except the middle pair, tipped 
with white ; whole lower plumage bright yellow, washed with olive 
on the sides of the breast and body ; under wing-coverts and edge 
of wing yellow. 

Iris dull red : bill black ; legs and feet blackish (Lerjge). 

Length about 6'5 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 2'8 ; tarsus '6 ; bill from gape -8. 

Distribution. Ceylon, where this species is found up to 5000 feet. 

Habits, fyc. A nest found in April is described as a loose struc- 
ture of grass and bents built on the top of a stump. The eggs 
are reddish white marked with reddish brown and bluish grey, and 
measure about '79 by '58. 



302. Pycnonotus xantholaemus. The Yellow-throated 

Brachypus xantholaemus, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 122 

(1844). 
Pycnonotus xantholsemus (Jerd.), Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. pi. xxxv ; 

*B1yth, Cat. p. 209 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 246 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. 

vi, p. 146. 
Ixos xantholsemus (Jerd.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 85; Hume, Cut. no. 453. 

The Yellow-throated Bush Bulbul, Jerd. ; Kondapoda-piyli, Tel. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and sides of the head yellowish 
green, the feathers near the nostrils dusky ; chin and throat bright 
yellow ; upper plumage grey, the upper tail-coverts tinged with 
green ; wings and tail brown, the outer webs washed with yellowish 
green, and the tail-feathers tipped with yellowish white ; breast 
and sides of the neck and of the body grey, turning to whitish on 
the abdomen : under tail-coverts and edge of wing bright yellow ; 
thighs dull yellow; under wing-coverts pale yellow. 

Bill and legs black ; iris red (Jerdon). 

Length about 7'5; tail 3*6; wing 3'3 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape '8. 

Distribution. I have been able to examine only four specimens 
of this rare Bulbul. One is labelled " west of Nellore," two 
" Eastern Ghats," and the other " Madras." Jerdon, the discoverer 
of this species, states that it is only met with in the Eastern Ghats 
west of K T ellore. 

303. Pycnonotus gularis. The Ruby-throated Bulbul. 

Brachypus gularis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 186 ; Wald. Ibis, 1866, 

p. 423. 
Brachypus rubineus, Jerdon, Madr. Journ. L. S. x,p. 246 (^839) ; id. 

Illtixtr. Ind. Orn. pi. xxxvii. 
Pycnonotus gularis (Gould), Blyth, Cat. p. 211 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 

Xp.246, 
Rubigula gularis (Gould), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 87 ; Hume, Cat. no. 4-55 ; 

VOL. I. U 



290 CBATEEOPODIDJE. 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 167 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 402 ; Davison, 
S. F. x, p. 384 ; Macgregor, S. F. x, p. 439 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 186. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, sides of the head, and the 
extreme point of the chin black ; throat ruby-red, the feathers 
long and rather bristly ; upper plumage yellowish green ; wings 
brown, the outer webs yellowish green ; tail the same ; lower 
plumage bright yellow; under wing-coverts and edge of wing 
yellow. 

The nestling has the throat brownish, but it acquires the red 
feathers at a very early age. 

Iris pale cream ; bill and claws black ; legs and feet blackish 
plumbeous (Davison) ; iris light yellow (Jerdoti). 

Length nearly 7; tail 3; wing 3 ; tarsus -55 ; bill from gape "7. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from Travaucore up to 
about the latitude of Belgaum. This species appears to be rare 
and to frequent thick forest. 

304. Pycnonotus cyaniventris. The Blue-bellied Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus cyaniventris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 792 (1841); id. 

Cat. p. 21 L 

Ixodia cyaniventris (Bl.\ Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 578. 
Ixidia cyaniventris (BL), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 245; Hume Sf Dau. 

8. F. vi, p. 320 ; Hume, Cat. no. 457 quint. 
Kubigula cyaniventris (Bl.), Sharps, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 160; Gates, 

B. B. i, p. 200. 

Coloration. The whole head and lower plumage deep slaty blue ; 
lores black ; forehead and a streak over the lores paler blue ; under 
tail-coverts bright yellow ; upper plumage and wing-coverts bright 
greenish yellow ; tail dark brown, the outer webs greenish yellow 
nearly up to the tips ; quills dark brown, all but the first two 
primaries broadly edged with greenish yellow ; under wing-coverts 
and edge of wing pdle yellow. 

Legs and feet very dark plumbeous ; claws horny brown, some- 
times almost black; bill black; iris dark brown, dark plumbeous 
slate, and grey-brown {Hume fy Davison}. 

Length nearly 6'5 ; tail 2*6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from 
gape *75. 

Distribution. The extreme southern point of Tenasserim. This 
Bulbul is found throughout the Malay peninsula and Sumatra. 

305. Pycnonotus luteolus. The White-browed Bulbul. 

Hsematornis luteolus, Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 354. 

Pycnonotus flavirictus, Strickl. A. M. N. H. (1) xiii. p. 413 (1844) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 210. 
Pycnonotus luteolus (Less.), Blyth, Cat., App. p. xxii; Horsf. fy M. 

Cat. i, p. 243 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi. p. 143 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 189. 



PYCNOXOTUS. 291 

Ixos luteolus (Less.), Jerd. B. 2. ii, p. 84; Hume, N. <y E. p. 2>.5 ; 
Blauf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 178 ; Ball, 8. F. ii, p. 410, iv, 
p. 285 J Fairlmnk, S. F. iv, p. 258, v, p. 405; Ball, <V. F. vii, 
p. LM4 ; Hume, Cat. no. 452 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 04; Butler, S. F. 
ix, p. 402 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 381 ; Bwnes, Birds Bom. p. 185 ; 
littledale, Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 198. 

The ll'hite-browzd Bush Bulbul, Jerd.; Poda-piyli, Tel.; Guluyuluwct, 
Ceyl. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dull olive-green, tinged with ashy on 
the head and with fulvous on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; 
wings and tail brown, washed with green on the outer webs ; front 
of forehead, a broad streak from the nostril over the eye and 
partially over the ear-coverts, and an indistinct ring round the eye 
white ; lores mingled Avhite and black ; a stripe from the base of 
the lower mandible and also the point of the chin yellow ; lower 
plumage ashy, tinged and somewhat striped with pale yellow, the 
breast washed with brown : vent and under tail-coverts pale 
yellow ; under wing-coverts and edge of wing yellow. 

Bill blackish ; legs dark plumbeous ; iris blood-red (Jerdon). 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus 9 ; bill from gape 
95. 

Distribution. The peninsula of India, from Baroda on the west 
and Midnapore on the east down to Cape Comorin ; Ceylon. Rare 
or absent on the Deccan tableland and throughout the greater part 
of the Central Provinces. 

Habits, $c. Nests of this Bulbul have been found near Bombay 
in June and September. The nest is a loose structure of twigs 
lined with grass built in a bush or low tree. The eggs are pinkish 
white marked with reddish brown, and measure about *95 by *63. 

306. Pycnonotus blanfordi. Stanford's Balbal. 

Pycnonotus blanfordi, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 20 ; Anders. Yunnan 

Exped., Aves,y. 659 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 151 ; Gates, B. B. 

i, p. 195 ; id. in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i. p. 190. 
Pycnonotus familiaris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxi, p. 343 (1862). 
Microtarsus blanfordi (Jerd.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 125. 
Ixus blanfordi (Jerd.), Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 134 ; Gates, S. F. v, 

p. 156; Wardlaw Ramsay, Ifjis, 1877, p. 466; Hume, Cat. no. 452 

quint. ; Gates, S. F. x, p. 210. 

Coloration. Upper plumage earthy brown with an olive tinge, 
washed with fulvous on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; the 
centres of the feathers of the head deeper brown ; wings and tail 
brown, the outer webs of the same colour as the back ; lores, 
cheeks, and chin dull white tinged with ashy ; ear-coverts silvery 
white; lower plumage pale brown on the breast, streaked and 
mottled with pale fulvous, entirely fulvous on the abdomen and 
under tail-coverts ; under wing-coverts and edge of wing yellowish 
fulvous. 

The iris varies from yellowish brown to red ; eyelids plumbeous ; 



292 CRATEROPODIDJE. 

bill browii, paler at base of lower mandible and gape; mouth 
flesh-colour; legs plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3*2 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape *85. 

Distribution. Pegu, from near Rangoon northwards, extending 
through Upper Burma along the valley of the Irrawaddy to Bhamo. 
The lateral limits are undefined at present. This is a bird of the 
plains and lower hills only. 

Habits, $c. Breeds from April to June or July, constructing a neat 
cup-like nest of herbaceous stalks and grass with a few dead leaves 
in a bush or low tree. The eggs, three in number, are pink marked 
with purplish red, and measure '82 by *6. 

This Bulbul has a very harsh note when disturbed, at which 
time it erects the short feathers of its head. 



307. Pycnonotus plumosus. The Large Olive Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus plurnosus. Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 567 (1845) ; id. Cat. 

p. 210; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 152 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 196; id. 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 191, note. 
Brachypus plumosus (Blyth}, Tweetld. Ibis, 1877, p. 306. 
Ixus plumosus (Blyth), 'Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 309 ; Hume, Cat. 

no. 452 sept. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown dark greyish brown, each 
feather margined with olive-green ; upper plumage olive-green ; 
wings and tail dark brown, the outer webs washed with bright 
olive-green ; lores dark brown ; cheeks and chin dull whity brown ; 
ear-coverts dark brown with white shafts ; lower plumage ashy 
brown, slightly mottled and streaked with dull ochraceous ; under 
wing- and tail-coverts and edge of wing brighter ochraceous. 

Legs and feet reddish brown, darker in some, paler in others ; 
bill almost black ; iris varying from burnt sienna-brown to dark 
cinnabar-red (Hume $ Davison). 

Length nearly 8 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from 
gape *85. 

Distribution. The southern portion of Tenasserim as far north 
as Mergui. The Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Cochin 
China, 

Habits, Sfc. A nest found by Davison at Kossoom in the Malay 
peninsula was of the ordinary Bulbul type, and placed in a dense 
clump of cane near the ground. The eggs are pink marked with 
red and purple, and measure about -9 by -66. 

308. Pycnonotus simplex. Moore's Olive Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus simplex, Less. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 167; Sharpe, Cat. B. 

M. vi, p. 153, pi. ix ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 196 ; id. in Hume's N. ty E. 

2nd ed. i, p. 192, note. 
Pycnonotus brunneus, Blyth, J. A. S. B, xiv, p. 5fc'8 (1845) ; id. Cat. 

p. 210. 



PYCXONOTUS. 293 

Microtarsus olivaceus, Moore in Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 240 (1854). 
Ixus bruniieiis (/#..), Hume $ Uav. 8. F. vi, p. 312; Jlumr, Cat. 
no. 45:2 oct. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown with a greenish tinge, and 
slightly fulvous on the rump and upper tail-coverts; wings and 
tail brown, the outer webs washed with the colour of the back ; 
the whole lower plumage buffy brown, slightly streaked darker in 
places with ochraceous ; under tail-coverts dark ochraceous with 
paler edges ; under wing-coverts and edge of wing ochraceous 
yellow. 

Legs and feet fleshy or reddish brown, in some lighter, in some 
darker ; the upper mandible dark horny brown ; lower mandible 
somewhat paler ; the iris varies orange-red, pale red, whity pink 
(Hume Davison). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3-2 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Southern Tenasserim up to about Mergui. The 
Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Habits, fyc. A nest found by Davison at Klang, in the Malay 
peninsula, was placed in a sapling about six feet from the ground, 
and contained two eggs, which measured -89 by '62. 



309. Pycnonotns pusillus. The Small Olive Bulbul. 

Pycnonotus pusillus, Salvadori, Ucc. Born. p. 200 (1874) ; Sharpe, 

'Cat. B. M. vi, p. 155, pi. x (nee Blyth}. 
Ixus pusillus (Sahad.), Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 312; Hume, Cat. 

no. 452 nov. 
Pycnonotus salvadorii, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, App. p. 401 (1881) j 

Oates, B. B. i, p. 197. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage and wing-coverts olive- 
brown, tinged with rufescent on the rump and upper tail-coverts; 
tail rufescent ; wings brown, the outer webs washed with the 
colour of the back ; lores and sides of the head ashy brown ; chin 
and throat ashy white; breast and sides of the body ashy brown 
washed with fulvous ; abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts dusky 
yellow ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale ochraceous yellow. 

In life this bird has a vivid orange ring round the eye, but no trace 
of this is discernible in dried skins. 

Legs, feet, and cla\\ s pale reddish horny ; iris crimson ; bill 
black ; gape and base of lower mandible, shelf above nostrils, and 
ophthalmic ring vivid orange-yellow (Hume $ Davison). 

Length about 6-5 ; tail 3 ; wing 2*9 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from 
gape *75. 

Distribution. The extreme southern point of Tenasserim; the 
Malay peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. 



294 CKATEltOPODID^E. 



Genus MICROPUS, Swains., 1837. 

The genus Micropus may be recognized by its very ample and 
lengthened upper tail-coverts, rounded tail, and the extraordinary 
development of the feathers of the lower back and rump, which 
are moreover barred with black : in this latter respect Micropus 
shows great affinities for Pinarocichla. 

In Micropus the feathers of the head are exceedingly short and 
glossy. The bill is about half the length of the head, and the 
rictal bristles are well developed. The plumage of all the species 
is very pleasing. They inhabit forest country or well-wooded 
tracts, and they are generally abundant wherever they are found. 
Nothing whatever is known regarding their nests and eggs. 




Fig. 91. Tail of M. melanocephalus. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Head entirely black. 

'. Lower plumage yellow M. melanocephalus, p. 294. 

b'. Lower plumage bluish grey M. cinereiventris, p. 295. 

b. Crown of head dusky or bluish grey, not 

black. 

c'. Upper tail-coverts yellow M. fusciflavescens, p. 295. 

d'. Upper tail-coverts bluish grey M. phceocephalus, p. 296. 

310. Micropus melanocephalus. The Black-headed Bulbul. 

Lanius melanocephalus, Gm, S. N. i, p. 309 (1788). 

Brachypodius melanocephalus ( Gmf), Blyth, Cat. p. 211 ; Horsf. 8f 

M. Cat. i, p. 248 ; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 136 ; Armstrong, 8. F. 

iv, p. 324 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 318 ; Hume, Cat. no. 457 

bis; Gates, S. F. x, p. 2 10. 
Micropus melanocephalus (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 65; 

Gates, B.B. i, p. 181. 

Coloration. The whole head as far back as the nape and the 
lower edge of the throat glossy black ; with this exception the 



MICROPUS. 295 

whole plumage is olive-yellow, brighter and more yellow on the 
lower part of the abdomen, the tail-coverts (both upper and lower), 
and the tips of the rump-feathers, which latter are also barred 
\vith black ; these bars are only visible when the feathers are dis- 
arranged, merely a few black patches being evident at other 
times ; primaries and their coverts entirely black ; secondaries 
black, edged externally with olive-yellow ; tertiaries black on their 
inner and olive-green on their outer webs ; tail olive-green for 
about two thirds of its length, then broadly black and finally broadly 
tipped with bright yellow. 

Bill black ; mouth pale blue ; iris blue ; legs plumbeous. 

Length about 7 ; tail 3-3 ; wing 3-3 ; tarsus -5 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Dacca ; Tipperah ; Arrakan ; the southern portion 
of Pegu ; Karennee ; the whole of Tenasserim except the highest 
hills. 

This bird extends down the Malay peninsula to Sumatra, .lava, 
Borneo, and Palawan. 



311. Micropus cinereiventris. The Grey-bellied Bulbul. 

Brachypodius cinereoventris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 576 (1845) ; 

Wald. in BlyiKs Birds Burm. p. 136; Hume Dav. S. F. vi, 

p. 319; Hume, Cat. no. 457 quat.; Gates, 8. F. x, p. 210 ; Hume, 

S. F. xi, p. 180. 
Micropus cinereiventris (BL~), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 67 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 182. 

Coloration. Resembles M. melanocephalus. Differs in having the 
breast, upper part of abdomen, hind neck, and sometimes the 
upper part of the back bluish grey, and in having the primaries 
narrowly edged with olive-green on the outer webs. 

Iris blue ; eyelids grey ; bill black ; mouth dusky fleshy ; legs 
and claws brownish black. 

Length about 7; tail 2-9; wing 3'15; tarsus -6; bill from 
gape '85. 

Distribution. Cachar ; Tipperah ; Dacca ; Toungngoo ; southern 
Pegu about Rangoon and the valley of the Pegu river. This 
Bulbul has also been observed at Tonka, Salang, and Malacca 
in the Malay peninsula. 

31 2. Micropus fusciflavescens. The Andaman Black-headed 

Bulbul. 

Brachypodius melanocephalus (Gm.), apud Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, 

pt ii, p. 284 ; id. S. F. i, p. 71. 
Brachypodius fuscoflavescens, Hume, S. F. i, p. 297 (1873) ; Wald. 

Ibis] 1873, p. 306 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 224 ; id. Cat. no. 457 ter. 
Micropus fusciflavescens (Hume), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 66. 

Coloration. Resembles M. melanocephalus. Differs in having the 
whole head dusky olive-green, the chin and central portion of the 



296 CKATEROPODJD^;. 

throat only being a dark glossy brown or black ; in the abdomen 
and under tail-coverts being very bright yellow ; in the reduced 
size of the subterminal black bars on the tail-feathers, and the 
corresponding expansion of the olive -green on them ; and in the 
primaries, except the first two, being edged with olive-green. 

Iris bluish white ; bill bluish slate ( Wardlaiu Ramsay}. Iris 
pale blue: bill nearly black ; legs and feet plumbeous (Hume). 

Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3 ; tarsus *6; bill from gape '85. 

Distribution. The South Andaman Island, where this bird 
appears to be abundant. I have seen specimens procured at Port 
Blair, Port Mouat, and Aberdeen. 



313. Micropus phaeocephalus. The Grey-headed Bulbul. 

Brachypus poiocephalus, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. x, p. 246 (1839). 
Brachypodius poiocephalus (Jerd.), Blyih, Cat. p. 212 Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 89 ; Hume, Cat, no. 457 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 402 ; Davison, 

S. F. x, p. 384 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 186. 
Micropus phseocephalus (Jerd.'), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 68. 

Coloration. Forehead olive-yellow ; chin blackish ; cheeks greyish 
yellow ; remainder of head clear bluish grey ; upper side of neck, 
back, and scapulars olive-green ; rump-feathers black with broad 
pale yellow tips ; upper tail-coverts and the four middle tail- 
feathers bluish grey with dark shafts, the others black, broadly 
edged on both webs and tipped with bluish grey, the whole suffused 
with olive-green on the basal two thirds of their length ; wings 
black, all the quills and coverts margined with olive -green, the 
outer webs of the tertiaries being entirely of this colour ; breast, 
abdomen, and flanks oil-yellow ; under tail-coverts bluish grey. 

Iris blue-grey ; bill pale green ; legs and feet fleshy tinged 
orange; claws dusky (Davison). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus -6 ; bill from 
gape -75. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from about Anjango in 
Travancore to the vicinity of Belgaum. This appears to be a rare 
bird. Jerdon states that it is found from near the sea-level to 
about 2000 feet of elevation. Davison met with it near Coonoor 
and in the Wynaad, and Butler records it from the forests south- 
west of Belgaum. 



Genus KELAARTIA, Blyth, jfafe Jerdon, 1863. 

The single species of Kelaartia is peculiar to Ceylon. It is 
characterized by the pointed feathers constituting the superciliuin, 
and by the rounded feathers on the crown, the two forming a 
strong contrast. 

The tarsus is in this genus rather longer than is usual among 



KELAAKTIA. 297 

the Bulbuls, but it does not exceed in length the middle toe and 
claw. 

The Yellow-eared Bulbul appears to be a denizen of the forests 
of the hilly parts of the island. 

314. Kelaartia penicillata. The Yellow-eared Balbid. 

Pycnonotus penicillatus, lllyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 178 (1851). 

Kelaartia penicillata (Blyth), Jerd. B. I. ii,p. 86; Holdsw. P. Z.S. 
1872, p. 4oO ; Leyye, S. F. iv, p. 245 ; id. Birds Ceyl. p. 480, pi. 21, 
ti{?. 1 : Hume, Cat. no. 454 ; tiharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 1(52. 




Fig. 92. Head of K. penicillata. 

Coloration. Forehead and crown dark brown or blackish, each 
feather very narrowly edged with ashy ; a narrow white line from 
the nostril to the upper part of the eye ; a broad yellow streak 
from the upper part of the eye to the nape ; chin and upper part 
of cheeks white ; lores, lower part of cheeks, and ear-coverts black, 
the latter part with a lengthened streak of yellow down the 
middle; a large slaty-blue spot on the side of the neck, touching 
the ear-coverts ; upper plumage olive-green ; wings and tail dark 
brown, the outer webs washed with olive-green ; the whole lower 
plumage, except the chin, deep yellow, washed with olive on the 
breast and sides of the body ; under wing-coverts and edge of wing 
yellow. 

Iris red mingled with brown, or red deepening to brown next 
the pupil ; tarsi and feet dark leaden blue ; bill black (Legge). 

Length about 7*5 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape -85. 

Distribution. Ceylon, where this bird is found up to about 4000 
feet. Jerdon was under the impression that he procured this 
species in Mysore, but its occurrence in Southern India has not 
been confirmed. 



298 



8TTT1DJE. 



- 







Fig. 93. Sit/a himahiycnsis. 



Family S1TTID.E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings; the edges of both mandibles smooth, or the 
upper one simply notched ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, com- 
posed of two entire longitudinal Iamina3 ; wing with ten primaries ; 
tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of forehead, the 
lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure than the upper 
edge is to the culmen ; plumage of the nestling resembling that of 
the adult female, but paler; nostrils overhung by some hairs; 
rictal bristles present ; rectrices twelve ; hind toe and inner front 
toe very unequal in length ; sexes generally different in colour ; an 
autumn moult only. 



SITTA. 299 

The Nuthatches are a \\vll-deliurd group of small climbing birds 
allied in many respects to the OwtterOpodidct. The habit. of climb- 
ing, however, h:is causal the hind toe to he greatly developed ami 
the inner front toe to be dwarfed. 

hi the $illitl<r the bill is about as long as the liead. stout and 
straight. The nostrils are co\ered with some hairs, and the rirtal 
bristles are strong. The \\ing is rather pointed, and the lirsl pri- 
marv is always less than half the length of the second. The tail 
is short and square or very slightly rounded. 

The Nuthatches feed on insects and hard fruits such as nuts. 
They nest in the holes of trees or rocks, and they generally employ 
mud to reduce the si/e of the entrance to their nest. They are 
non-migratory, and for the most part of limited distribution. 
Eleven species are found in India. 

Genus SITTA, Linn., 1766. 

The characters of this, the only genus of Nuthatches represent -d 
in India, are the same as those of the family. 




Fig. 94. Head of 8. cinnamomeivcntris. 

Key to the Species. 

Uppor plumage uniform bluish. 
a'. Middle pair of tail-feathers white nt 

base S. fttfuafaytfttt*, p. 300. 

//. Middle pair of tail-feathers uniform, 

without any white. 
a". Lateral tail-feathers with white 

spots. 
a'". Under tail-coverts white, tipped 

with chestnut. 
a 4 . Lower plumage chestnut. 

a 5 . The chestnut of the lower 
plumage of uniform colour 

from throat to vent S. cinnamomeiventns^ 

/A The chestnut of the lower [p. 301, 

parts paler on the throat and 
oreast than on the nhdomen. S. neglecta, p. 301 . 

6 4 . Lower plumage grey S. nayaensis, p. 302. 

ft". Under tail-coverts chestnut, tipped 

with white S. magna, p. 303. 

c". Under tail-coverts chestnut, cen- 
tred with ashy ; no white. 
c 4 . Lower plumage paler ; size large, 

wing 3-3 S. kashmircmis, p. 303. 



300 STTTID.T;. 

d*. Jjower plumage darker ; size 

finall, wing under 3 8. castaneiventris, p. 304. 

b' 1 . Lateral tail-feathers without white 

spots ; marked with rufous 8. tephronota, p. 305. 

b. Upper plumage slaty blue ; crown black. . S. leucopsis, p. 300. 

c. Crown and back black, streaked with bril- 

liant blue S.formosa, p. 306. 

d. Upper plumage uniform purplish blue ; 

forehead black S.frontalis, p. 307. 

315. Sitta himalayensis. The White-tailed Nuthatch. 

Sitta himalayensis, Jard. fy Selby, III. Orn. iii, pi. 144 (1835) ; Horsf. 
$ M. Cat. ii, p. 720 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 385 ; Blanf. J. A. 8. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 56 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 161 ; Hume, Cat. no. 248 j Scully, 
8. F. viii, p. 262 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 349 ; Oates in Hume's 
N.$E.2nded. i, p. 392. 

Sitta nipalensis, Hcd(/s. J. A. 8. B. v, p. 779. 

Sitta himalayana (Jard. 8f Selby), Blyth, Cat. p. 190. 

Siddyi-phip, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, lores, and a streak behind 
the eye, produced down the side of the neck to the shoulders, 
black ; an indistinct eyebrow fulvous-white ; upper plumage and 
wing-coverts dark slaty blue, somewhat paler on the head; pri- 
maries and secondaries dark brown, edged with slaty blue ; tertiaries 
wholly of this colour; middle pair of tail-feathers slaty blue, the 
basal half of the inner web and a band next the shaft on the outer 
web white ; the next two pairs wholly black ; the next black, with 
an ashy tip ; the next black, with an oblique white band and an 
ashy tip; the outermost similar, but with more white; sides of the 
face below the black streak and the chin pale fulvous ; the lower 
plumage from the chin downwards chestnut, gradually getting 
darker and becoming rich chestnut on the flanks and under tail- 
coverts ; under wing-coverts black, followed by a white patch on 
the primaries visible only from below. 

Female. Resembles the male, but is somewhat paler beneath. 

Legs and feet olive-brown ; soles olive-yellow ; iris pale brown ; 
bill black, the gape and part of the lower mandible bluish white 
(Hume). 

Length nearly 5 ; tail 1*5 ; wing 2'9 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from gape 
75. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Kangra to Bhutan 
at elevations of from 5000 to about 10,000 feet, occasionally 11,000 
feet, at which altitude Blanford procured a specimen in Sikhim. 
Godwin- Austen also procured this species at Aiinul in the Mani- 
pur hills. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to June, making 
a nest of moss in a hole of a tree at no great height from the 
ground, and laying five or six eggs, which are white marked with 
red, and measure '72 by '55. 



S1TTA. 301 



316. Sitta cimiamoineiveiitris. The Cinnamon-bellied Nuthatch. 

Sitta eimiainoventris, Bli/th, J. A. 8. B. xi, p. 459; id. Cat. p. 189; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, >' 722. 
Sitta cinnamomeoventris, Jerd. B. I. \, p. 387 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, ]>t. ii, p. '.)'.), xlv, pt. ii, p. 71 ; Hume, Cat. no. 251; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 351 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 263; JTim?, 

& -F. xi, p. 80 ; Oates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 193. 

Sisi, Hind. ; Sidhyi-phip, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. The lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and chin 
white, delicately barred with brown ; a broad black band from the 
nostrils through the eyes to the shoulders ; upper plumage and 
wing-coverts ashy blue ; quills black edged with ashy blue, the 
edgings on the primaries being confined to the median part of the 
web ; the secondaries more broadlv margined, the tertiaries almost 
wholly ashy blue ; middle tail-feathers ashy blue, the next two 
black, edged and tipped with ashy blue, the others with a sub- 
terminal white patch on the inner webs, and generally with a 
white band on the outer web of the outermost ; sides of neck and 
the lower plumage intensely deep cinnamon-chestnut ; under tail- 
coverts white, narrowly tipped with chestnut, the bases of the 
feathers ashy; under wing-coverts black, followed by a white patch 
at the base of the primaries only visible from below. 

Female. Similar to the male, except that the lower plumage is 
dull pale chestnut. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible and of culmen bluish grey- 
horny ; iris hazel-brown ; feet dingy plumbeous (Scully). 

Length about 6 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus 7 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Murree to Di- 
brugarh at moderate altitudes. Jerdon found this species in Sikhim 
from 2000 to 6000 feet; Scully states that it is common in the 
central woods of the Nepal valley, and Brooks says that in the lower 
hills between Mussooree and Gaugotri it is the prevailing Nuthatch. 
Godwin-Austen procured it in the Khasi hills, Hume on the 
Eastern hills of Mauipur, and my men got it at Bhamo in Upper 
Burma. 

Habits, fyc. Gamniie found the nest in Sikhim at 2000 feet eleva- 
tion. It was in a hole of a decaying bamboo about twenty feet 
from the ground, and contained four eggs, which were not preserved. 
The joint of the bamboo which contained the nest was filled up 
with alternate layers of green moss and bark. The nest, which 
was placed on the top of this, was a small pad composed of fine 
moss and fur mixed with a few feathers and the wings of 
insects. 

317. Sitta neglecta. The Burmese Nuthatch. 

Sitta neglecta, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4 ) v, p. 218 (1870) ; Hume, S. F. 
iii, p. 87 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 201 ; Hume, Cat. no. 250 bis ; 



302 SITTID^E. 

Binyham, S. F. ix, p. 171 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 349 ; 
Oates, B. B. i, p. 131 ; id. in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 193. 

Coloration. Similar to Sitta cinnamomeiventris. Differs in having 
the throat and breast much paler than the abdomen and cot con- 
colorous with it, and in having the white of the chin, cheeks, and 
ear-coverts blending with the rufous of the throat and breast, and 
not sharply denned from it. The sexes of both species differ in 
the same relative manner. 

Iris brown ; upper mandible bluish black, lower plumbeous ; 
legs and feet dark plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 1/7; wing 3'2; tarsus '75; bill from 
gape '9. 

Distribution. Throughout Pegu and Tenasserim, up to the Irra- 
waddy river on the west and to Karennee and the Salween river on 
the east, and extending south to the latitude of Muleyit mountain 
on both sides of the range. 

Habits, <Sfc. Bingham found the nest in Tenasserim on the 21st 
March, with five young birds, in a hole of a branch of a dead tree. 
The hole was about 6 inches deep, and the inouth of the hole was 
plastered and reduced in size by an edging of clay. 

318. Sitta nagaensis. Austens Nuthatch. 

Sitta nagaensis, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 44 ; id. J. A. S. B. 
xliii, pt. ii, p. 167, pi. iv ; Htime, Cat. no. 248 ter ; Gadotv, Cat. 
B. M. viii, p. 344. 

Coloration. Male. The lores and a band through the eyes down 
the sides of the neck black; upper plumr.ge slaty blue; wings 
dark brown edged with slaty blue, the tertiaries wholly of this 
colour ; middle tail-feathers slaty blue ; the next pair black, with 
some slaty at base and tip ; the next black, tipped with slaty on 
the outer web and whitish on the inner ; the next two the same, 
with a broader white tip, subterminal on the inner web ; outer- 
most feather the same, but with a white band on the outer web ; 
sides of the head and neck and the lower plumage grey ; sides of 
the body rich chestnut ; under tail-coverts white, tipped and edged 
with chestnut ; under wing-coverts black, followed by a white 
patch at the base of the primaries visible only from below. 

It is not known if the female differs from the male, but it pro- 
bably will be found to do so. 

Bill black above, grey below ; iris dark brown ; legs green-black 
( Godw in- Austen). 

Length about 5 ; tail 1'6 ; wing 3 ; tarsus -7 ; bill from gape 
75. 

Distribution. Procured by Godwin-Austen at Sopvomah in the 
Naga Hills, on the watershed, at 6000 feet. Several specimens 
were obtained at the time. 



SITTA. 303 

319. Sitta magna. The Giant Nuthatch. 

Sitta magna, Wardlaw Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 077, pi. Ixiii; Hume 
S. F. v, p. 343 ; Ward law 'Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, p. 465 ; Hume $ 
Dav. S. F. vi, p. 201 ; Hume, Cat. no. 248 quat. ; Gates, B. B. 
i, p. 133 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 345. 

Coloration. Female. Two broad black bands from the nostrils 
through the eyes to the shoulders; the space within these smoky 
grey, paling on the hind neck ; upper plumage slaty blue ; wings 
brown, edged with slaty blue ; middle tail-feathers slaty blue ; 
the next two pairs black with a slaty-blue tip; the next two 
black, with a subterminal patch of white and a slaty-blue tip ; the 
outermost pair the same, but with a band of white on the outer 
web ; lores, sides of the head, chin, and throat whitish ; lower 
plumage smoky grey ; thighs, vent, and under tail-coverts chestnut, 
the latter broadly tipped with white ; under wing-coverts black, 
followed by a white patch at the base of the primaries only visible 
from below. The male is not known. 

In the dry skin the bill is bluish, paler below ; legs fleshy 
brown. 

Length about 8 ; tail 27 ; wing 4-6 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape 1-3. 

Distribution. The unique specimen from which this species was 
described was procured by AVardlaw Eamsay in Karenuee, or near 
its western borders, in January. This bird has not again been met 
with. 

320. Sitta kashmirensis. B rooks s Nuthatch. 

Sitta cashmirensis, Brooks, Proc. A. S. B. 1871, p. 209 ; id. J. A. 
S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 75; Hume, Cat. no. 248 bis; Gadoto, Cat. 
B. M. viii, p. 352. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and wings slaty blue ; a black band 
from the nostrils to the shoulders through the eyes ; chin and sides 
of the face dull white tinged with fulvous ; throat more fulvous, 
the lower plumage gradually becoming deeper and turning to deep 
chestnut on the abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts ; middle 
tail-feathers ashy blue ; the next two pairs black, edged and tipped 
with ashy ; the next t,wo black, with a subterminal white spot on 
the inner web ; the outermost feather black, with a white patch on 
each web and a brown tip ; under wing-coverts blackish, followed 
by a white patch on the primaries visible only from below ; some 
traces of ashy are generally visible on the centres of the feathers 
of the under tail-coverts. 

Length about 5 ; tail 1*7; wing 3*3; tarsus 7; bill from gape 
95. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this species procured 
at Hirpur and Gulinurg in Kashmir, at Murree, and at Byan 
Kheyl in Afghanistan. Brooks notes it in his original description 
as coming from the pine-forests of Kashmir. 



304 SITTID^. 

Habits, $c. Wardlaw Ramsay states that this bird breads in the 
Hariab District of Afghanistan in May. 



321. Sitta castaneiventris. The Chestnut -bellied Nuthatch. 

Sitta castaneoventris, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 121 ; Blytli, Cat. 
p. 190; Horsf. $ M. Cat. \\, p. 721 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 386; Ball, 
S. F. vii, p. 209; Hume, Cat. no. 2oO; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 300; 
Davison, S. F. x, p. 303 ; Gadoiu, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 351 ; Bames t 
Birds Bom. p. 140; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 194. 

Coloration. Male. A black streak from the nostril through the 
eye to the shoulder ; lores, cheeks, ear-coverts, and chin white ; 
the whole upper plumage, wing-coverts, and visible portion of 
closed wings slaty blue ; the whole lower plumage unifor.ii dark 
chestnut-bay ; under tail-coverts chestnut centred with ashy ; 
under wing-coverts black, followed by a white patch on the pri- 
maries visible only from below ; middle tail-feathers ashy blue ; 
the next two black, edged and tipped with ashy blue; the others 
with a subterminal white patch on the inner webs, and generally 
with a white band on the outer web of the outermost feather. 

Female. Resembles the male, but is pale chestnut below, and the 
white on the face is not so sharply defined. 

Legs and feet dark greenish plumbeous ; base of lower mandible 
and base of culmen at forehead pale plumbeous ; rest of bill black ; 
iris dark brown (Davison). 

Length rather more than 5 ; tail 1'5 ; wing 3 ; tarsus *7 ; bill 
from gape '85. 

Distinguished from S. cinnamomeiventris by its smaller size, 
paler coloration below, and by the different colour of the under 
tail-coverts. 

Distribution. The greater portion of the continent of India, from 
the base of the Himalayas to the Wyuaad. The western limits 
appear to be a line roughly drawn from Umballa through Dungarpur 
in the Meywar State to Khandesh ; and the eastern, a line drawn 
north and south through the Rajmehal hills. 

Habits, $c. Probably a resident in the whole of the above 
tract. The nest has been found at Umballa, Allahabad, and Sitapur, 
in which places the breeding-season appears to extend from Feb- 
ruary to September. This nest is merely a few dead leaves at the 
bottom of a hole in a tree, the entrance to which is, as usunl, 
reduced in size by the application of mud-plaster. The eggs are 
four in number, white, marked, chiefly at the large end, with brick- 
red and reddish lilac, and they measure *67 by *52. 

Three distinct species of Rock-Nuthatches have hitherto been 
confounded together. S. syriaca, Ehrenb., from Syria, may be 
known by its large size, wing 3*8, first primary 1-3, and by the 
absence of all fulvous on the tail. S. neumayeri, Michah., may be 
distinguished from S. syriaca by its smaller size, wing 3 to 3'3, 
first primary 1-0, and by the presence of a large amount of fulvous 



SITTA. 305 

on the tail. It occurs in Macedonia, Turkey, and Asia Minor. 
Both these species have the chin, throat, breast, and sides of the 
head pure white. 

The third species, S. tephronota, which occurs from Persia to 
Central Asia, is of about the same size as S. neumayeri, but has the 
chin, throat, breast, and sides of the head pale fulvous, the tail is 
marked with fulvous as in that species, and the upper plumage is 
a pale ashy blue. 



322. Sitta tephronota. The Eastern Hock Nuthatch. 

Sitta syriaca (Ehrenb.),\i\ part, apud Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 721 ; See- 

bohm, Ibis, 1883, p. 21 j Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 346. 
Sitta tephronota, Sharpe, A. M. N. H. (4) x, p. 450 (1872) j Gates 

in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 195. 
Sitta rupicola, Blanf. Ibis, 1873, p. 87; id. E. Pers. ii, p. 225, 

pt. xv, fig. 2. < 
Sitta neumayeri, Michah. in part, Hume, Cat. no. 248 quint. ; 

Gadoiv, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 345 5 Barnes, S. F. ix, pp. 216, 453. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage, wing-coverts, secondaries, 
and tertiaries ashy blue; a broad black band from the nostril 
through the eye to the shoulder ; primaries pale brown ; central 
tail-feathers pale ashy blue, the others brown, broadly edged with 
pale ashy blue on the outer webs, this colour gradually changing 
to pale fulvous, the outermost feather having the inner web brown 
with a fulvous tip and the outer web fulvous with a brown tip ; 
sides of the head and the lower plumage fulvous, pale on the 
throat and sides of the head, gradually getting darker and be- 
coming strongly tinged with pink on the lower abdomen, vent, 
flanks, and under tail-coverts, these last being centred with ashy. 

Bill horny brown, darker at tip ; legs clay-slate (Barnes) ; iris 
dark brown (Murray}. 

Length about 6*5 ; tail 2-1; wing 3 to 3' 6; tarsus -9; bill 
from gape !!. 

Distribution. Apparently common in Baluchistan, but not yet 
known to occur in Sind or the Punjab. To the west this species 
extends to Persia, and to the north through Afghanistan to 
Kashghar and Central Asia. 

Habits, fyc. Confined chiefly, if not entirely, to rocks, over which 
it climbs with great facility. Breeds in Afghanistan in March 
and April. According to Barnes the nest is constructed in the 
holes both of rocks and trees. When a rock is selected, the hole 
is lined with agglutinated mud and resin, this material being 
carried out in the form of a cone to a distance of fully eight inches 
from the rock. The nest is usually lined with camel-hair. The 
bird has a great fondness for ornamentation, and decorates its nest 
for some distance round with feathers. The eggs are four or five 
in number, smooth, and only moderately glossy. The ground- 
colour is pure white, and the egg is thinly speckled, chiefly at the 
large end, with pale red. In size the eggs average -87 by *57. 

VOL. I. X 



306 SITTLU^E. 



323. Sitta leucopsis. The White-cheeked Nuthatch. 

Sitta leucopsis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1849, p. 113; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, 
p. 721 ; Jerd. B. L i, p. 385 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 
p. 20 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 161 ; Hume fy Hend. Lah. to Yark. 
p. 181 ; Hume, Cat. no. 249 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 352 ; 
Gates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 196. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and a part of the sides of 
the neck glossy black ; upper plumage and the visible portions of 
the closed wings slaty blue ; middle pair of tail-feathers slaty blue, 
the others black, tipped with slaty blue, and the three outer pairs 
with a subterminal patch of white on the inner web, the outer- 
most pair also with a band of white on the outer web ; sides of the 
head and lower plumage white, more or less tinged with pale 
fulvous ; flanks arid under tail-coverts rich chestnut. The female 
is similar to the male. 

Iris brown ; upper mandible and margins and point of the lower 
black ; remainder of lower mandible whitish horny ; legs brownish 
green ( Wardlaw Ramsay). 

Length about 5-5; tail 1'7; wing 3; tarsus '7; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. Throughout the N.W. Himalayas from Mussooree 
and Derail to Hazara and the whole of Kashmir at considerable 
elevations. Brooks says that this Nuthatch is common above 
Derali near the snows in the pine-forests ; Biddulph remarks that 
it is a permanent resident in Grilgit, and breeds afc 10,000 feet ; 
and Scully informs us that he obtained this bird in Gilgit only 
from the beginning of April to September, and that it is never 
seen in the lower parts of the valley away from pine-forests. It 
extends into Afghanistan, where Wardlaw E/amsay found it on 
the Safed-Koh range above 7000 feet, breeding. 

Habits, fyc. Stoliczka, who found this bird to be common near 
Chini, observes that it feeds chiefly on the seeds of Pinus tjerard- 
iana, and that its voice ;s a loud, uniform, melancholy call, uttered 
while it is busily engaged in securing a pine-seed in the bark of a 
large tree. 

Capt. Cock took the eggs of this bird at Sonamurg in Kashmir 
late in May and early in June. The eggs are coloured normally 
and measure about -7 by -55. 

324. Sitta formosa. The Beautiful Nuthatch. 

Sitta formosa, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 933 (1843) ; Blyth, Cat.p. 189 ; 
Jerd. B. I. i, p. 387 j Hume, Cat. no. 252 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. 
viii, p. 357. 

Tishe Kuyi gumbo, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and the side of the 
neck black, streaked with cobalt-blue on the crown, nape, and 



SITTA. 307 

lower back, with whitish blue on the upper back and sides of neck; 
sides oE the head and chin fulvous-white, the feathers round the 
eye and over the ear-coverts more or less black at their bases ; 
wings black ; lesser wing-coverts, edges of the winglet, primary- 
coverts, primaries, and secondaries bright blue ; the edges of the 
median and greater coverts and tertiaries white ; scapulars, back, 
and rump verdigris-blue; lower plumage dull chestnut; middle 
tail-feathers blue, with the portion near the shaft black ; the next 
two pairs black, edged with blue ; the others black, with white 
tips progressively larger, the margin of the tips of the exterior 
webs pale blue. 

Bill blackish ; legs greenish horny, with yellow soles ; iris dark 
brown (Jcrdo.i). 

Length about 7'5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 4 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from 
gape 1. 

Distribution. Sikhim, probably not descending to a lower level 
than Darjiling, where Tickell, as recorded by Jerdon, procured a 
specimen. Mandelli's men procured a large series in Sikhim, and 
I note that they were killed both in summer and winter. This bird 
has been obtained at Asalii in the Khiisi hills, and also at Toruputu 
Peak in the Daphla hills at 5000 feet, in both cases by Godwin- 
Austen. 



325. Sitta frontalis. The Velvet -fronted Blue Nuthatch. 

Sitta frontalis, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 162 (1821) ; Gadow, 
Cat. B. M. viii, p. 353 : Oates. B. B. i, p. 134 ; id. in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 196. 

Sitta corallina, Hodys. J. A. S. B. v, p. 779 (1836). 

Ddiidrophila frontalis (Horsf. ), Blyth, Cat. p. 190 ; H. # M . Cat. ii, 
p. 722 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 383 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 18 L ; id. S. F. vii, 
p. 459 ; Lsgye, Birds Ceyl. p. 550 ; Hume, Cat. no. 253 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 140. 

Dendrophila coralliaa (Hodgs.}, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 89 ; Sharpe, t. c. 
p. 436 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 633. 

Coloration. The male has a broad band on the forehead and a 
long supercilium black: the whole upper plumage and wing- 
coverts blue ; wing blackish brown, edged on the outer webs with 
blue, except the first two primaries, the tertiaries almost entirely 
blue ; middle tail-feathers blue, the others blackish, edged and 
tipped with blue; ear-coverts lilac; chin and throat whitish; 
lower plumage greyish lilac. 

The female resembles the male, but has no black supercilium. 

Iris yellow ; eyelids plumbeous ; bill coral-red ; mouth red ; 
feet pinkish brown; claws pale horn; the young have the bill 
black, pinkish at the gape and nostrils ; iris dark brown. 

Length 5; tail 1'7 ; wing 2*9 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape *7. 

Distribution. Throughout the greater portion of India and 

x2 



308 DICRTTRTDJE. 

Ceylon. The limit to the west appears to be approximately a 
line drawn from Bombay to Kumaun through Gwalior. This species 
inhabits the Himalayas from Kumaun to Dibrugarh, being found up 
to 5000 feet or higher. From Assam it ranges to the extreme south 
of Tenasserim, extending to the east at least as far as Karennee, 
where Wardlaw Ramsay obtained it. 

It is found in the Malay peninsula and down to Java. 

Habits, <Sfc. Frequents well-wooded localities and forests alike in 
the hills and plains. Breeds from February to May and even to 
June, according to locality, constructing a small pad of a nest, 
composed of feathers, moss, and hair, in a tiny hole in a tree. 
The eggs are generally four in number, white, spotted with red, 
chiefly towards the large end, and measure about 7 by -56. This 
bird, contrary to the usual habits of Nuthatches, does not employ 
any mud to line the entrance to its nest. 



Family DICRURID^E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semirings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth, with a 
single notch in the upper one ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, 
bilaminated ; wing with ten primaries ; tongue non-tubular ; nos- 
trils clear of the line of the forehead ; the lower edge of the 
nostril nearer to the commissure than the upper edge is to the 
culmen; plumage of the nestling like that of the adult bird, 
but paler ; nostrils overhung by hairs or plumelets ; rictal bristles 
present ; rectrices ten ; sexes absolutely alike ; an autumn moult 
only. 

The Dicruridse, or Drongos, form one of the best-defined families 
of the Passeres, their generally black plumage and forked tail of ten 
feathers sufficing to distinguish them readily. 

In the Drongos the plumage of the nestling is a dark brown, 
which soon gives place to the glossy black of the adult. In many 
species, however, the young birds, previously to adopting the adult 
plumage, acquire feathers on the abdomen, under wing-coverts, 
and axillaries which are tipped or fringed with white, and traces 
of these white marks remain in one or two species up to a very 
advanced age, and probably in some specimens are never lost 
at all. 



309 

The Drongos are handsome and, for the most part, familiar 
birds. They feed habitually on the wing, darting from some perch 
on a tree into the air to catch an insect and returning to the same 
or an adjoining branch. The Dicruri frequently perch on the 
backs of cattle. They all have cheerful notes, and Dissemurus 
paradiseus has a really fine song, and is perhaps the best singing- 
bird of the East. 

Many of the Drongos, without being exactly migratory, are in 
many parts of the country subject to seasonal movements of greater 
or less extent ; but the materials for tracing these movements are 
imperfect, no ornithologist having observed them in the careful 
manner in which similar movements of birds in Europe are re- 
corded. In Pegu, for instance, Dicrurus ater arrives in great 
numbers in October and remains numerous till January, when the 
majority of the birds disappear. Dicrurus annectens similarly 
arrives in October, but only stops a few days, disappearing en- 
tirely and going on to unknown parts. 

In all the Dicrurida3 the wing is tolerably pointed and the tarsus 
very short. 

The Drongos make cup-shaped nests in trees, and lay three to 
five eggs, which are whitish marked with various shades of red. 



Key to the Genera. 

a. Outer tail-feathers not greatly lengthened ; 

not exceeding the middle ones by so 
much as the length of the wing. 
'. Forehead not tufted. 

a". Bill deep ; depth at nostrils fully 

equal to width at that place DICRURUS, p. 310. 

b". Bill depressed ; depth at nostrils 

much less than width at that place. CHAPTIA, p. 318. 
b 1 . Forehead tufted. 
c". Tuft composed of a few hairs several 

inches long CHIBIA, p. 320. 

d". Tuft composed of a few hair-like 

feathers half an inch long DISSEMUROIDES, p. 321. 

e". Tuft composed of ordinary feathers 

half an inch long DISSEMURULUS, p. 322. 

b. Outer tail-feathers greatly lengthened ; ex- 

ceeding the middle ones by twice or three 
times the length of wing. 
c'. Terminal portion of outer tail-feather 
flat and equally webbed on both 

sides " BHRIXGA, p. 323. 

d '. Terminal portion of outer tail-feather 
curled, greatly webbed on the outside 
and hardly at all on the inside DISSEMURUS, p. 325. 



310 DICKFRID^E. 



Genus DICRURUS, Yieill., 1816. 

The Drongos of this genus are among the commonest of Indian 
birds, one or other of the species being found in every part of the 
country which is open or cultivated, and even in forest. 

The various species of Drongos are not easily separable, except 
when large series of each are available for examination side by 
side. "With the numerous specimens in the British Museum, the 
majority of which came from the Tweeddale and Hume Collections, 
I have been able to establish eight species which occur within my 
limits. 

I am unable to find any characters by which the genus Buchanga 
can be separated from Dicrurut. The former is said to have a 
more deeply forked tail ; but this feature cannot be regarded as of 
generic value, for it varies in all the species of this genus, and is a 
matter of degree only. T have therefore united the two genera, 

Taking the eight species, it is easy at once to separate two from 
all the others by their perfectly black plumage, and from each 
other by the extent to which the tail is forked. These two species 
present no difficulty, and no one has seriously proposed to sub- 
divide either of them into two or more races so far as Indian spe- 
cimens are concerned. The African species or race D. assimilis 
need not be discussed here. 

Another species, D. leucogenys, is also an easily recognizable 
one, having the sides of the head white. Very young birds might 
be confused with the Grey Drongos, presently to be noticed, were 
it not that they have the lores white or whitish, whereas the Grey 
Drongos have the lores dark brown or black. If D. intermedius, 
Blyth, recorded from Penang, was really killed at that place, and 
was not imported into it and subsequently re-exported to Calcutta 
(where it came under Blyth's notice), it must have been a young 
.D. leucogenys. "No other species of Dicrurus is known to occur in 
the Malay peninsula, at least near Penang. Blyth's title is too 
doubtful to be applied to any species. 

Next come three species which may be termed Ashy or Grey 
Drongos. No two authors agree about these birds, and unanimous 
agreement regarding them will probably never be reached. In my 
opinion there are three distinct species in India and Burma, and 
no more. The differences in the shade of colour and in size in 
these species are correlated with different areas of distribution. 
There is, first, D. longicaudatus, which is found from the Hima- 
layas to Ceylon and east to the Brahmaputra river. The upper 
plumage of this bird may be termed metallic indigo, and the lower 
a dark grey. South of the Brahmaputra, extending to Lower Pegu 
and Northern Tenasserim, the foregoing species is replaced by a 
bird the upper plumage of which may be termed bluish grey and 
the lower ashy grey. This bird is also found in Java, Lombock, 



DICBURUS. 811 

and Palawan, and is the Edolius cineraceus of Horsfield. All 
Hodgson's birds in the British Museum are the dark continental 
species D. longicaudatits, and were killed in Xepal or Sikhim, and 
consequently his name (D. pyrrhops) cannot be applied to this pale 
Burmese species, even if a name were required for it, which fortu- 
nately is not the case. The third species is a dark bird inhabiting 
portions of Lower Pegu, all Tenasserim, and the Malay peninsula, 
as far south as Junk Ceylon. Its upper plumage may be termed 
deep ashy indigo and the lower dark grey. This bird has never 
received a name ; it appears to be the BucJimif/a leucoplicea of 
Vieillot apud Hume. The Dicriirus leucophceus of Yieillot is, how- 
ever, in my opinion, a bird which can never be satisfactorily deter- 
mined, and the continued use of the name can only lead to 
confusion. 

There remain two species w 7 hich are characterized by the presence 
of a considerable amount of pure white on the lower plumage. 
This character will suffice to separate them from all the other 
Dicruri. They may be separated from each other, not so much by 
the amount of white on the lower parts as by the colour of the 
throat and breast and the upper plumage, 

In Dicrurus the bill is stout, sharply carinated, and covered at 
the base by thick-set feathers, which partially conceal the nostrils. 
There is no crest or tuft on the head. The tail is well forked, the 
outermost feather exceeding the middle pair by a distance of from 
one to two and a half times the length of the tarsus. The outer 
tail-feathers have a slight curl upwards. 

Key to the Species. 

ft. Entire plumage deep glossy black ; the lower 

plumage sometimes mixed with white, 
a'. Outermost tail-feather exceeding middle 

pair by a distance about equal to tarsus. 1). annectens, p. 312. 
b'. Outermost tail-feather exceeding middle 
pair by a distance greater than twice 
tarsus D. ater, p. 312. 

b. Upper plumage deep indigo. 

c. Lower plumage uniform dark grey. 

". Outermost tail-feather exceeding mid- 
dle pair by more than 2 inches ; length 
of tail 5-5 to 7 inches D. lonyicaudatus^ p. 314. 

b". Outermost tail- feather exceeding mid- 
dle pair by much less than 2 inches; 

length of tail 4-9 to 5-5 inches D. nigrescens, p. 315. 

d 1 . Lower plumage partially white. 

c". Throat and breast grey D. c&ritlescens, p. 316. 

d". Throat and breast dark brown D. leucopygialis, p. 316. 

c. Upper plumage bluish grey. 

e 1 . Lores or whole side of head "white or 

whitish D. leucogenys. p. 317. 

f. Lores blackish ; sides of head similar to 

upper plumage D. cineraceus, p. 318. 



312 DICBUK1D2E. 



326. Dicrurus annectens. The Crow-billed Drongo 

Buchanga annectans, Hodys. 2nd. Rev. \, p. 326 (1837). 

Edolius affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 174 (1842). 

Dicrurus balicassius (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat p. 202 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, 

p. 152 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 430 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 209. 
Dicrurus annectens (Hodge.}, Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 131 ; 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 231 ; Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 72; Hume 

$ Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 213, 509 ; Hume, Cat. no. 279 ; Oates, S. F. 

x, p. 201 ; id. B. B. i, p. 217. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black glossed with steel-blue, 
except on the lores, ear-coverts, the inner webs of the quills, axil- 
laries, and under wing-coverts. 

Birds not quite adult have the axillaries and under wing-coverts 
tipped with white, and birds still younger have the under tail- 
coverts also tipped with white. 

Young birds of the year have the whole lower plumage from the 
breast to the tail barred with white. 

The change from the young to the adult plumage consists en- 
tirely in the gradual disappearance of the white marks on the 
lower plumage ; but there is a tendency to retain these marks in 
some degree even in old age ; and birds entirely black are com- 
paratively seldom met with. 

Bill and legs black ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 10*5 tail up to 5*5 ; wing 5'6 ; tarsus '8 ; bill 
from gape 1/2. 

Distribution. The lower levels of Nepal and Sikhirn, extending 
into the plains of Oudh ; thence along the base of the Himalayas 
to Dibrugarh in Assam. From this Province the species apparently 
extends through Burma and the Malay peninsula to Singapore and 
Sumatra ; but it has only been recorded with certainty from Lower 
Pegu, the southern portion of Tenasserim, and Malacca. It is 
found in Cochin China. 

This species appears to be, in some measure, migratory ; but its 
movements are difficult to trace. I have se?en birds killed in Oudh 
from December to February ; at Dibrugarh in June ; in Lower 
Pegu in October ; in Tenasserim from November to May ; and at 
Malacca from August to April. I have seen D. annectens in Pegu 
only in October. 

Habits, fyc. From what I observed of this bird in Pegu, its habits 
do not differ in any respect from those of the next. Nothing is 
know ? n of its nidification. 



327. Dicrurus ater. The Black Drongo. 

Muscicapa atra, Hermann, Obs. Zool. p. 208 (1804). 

Dicrurus inacrocercus, Vieitt. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. ix, p. 588 

(1817); Blyth, Cat. p. 202; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 427 ; MacMaster, 

J. A.S.B.xl,yt. ii, p. 210. 



DICRURUS. 313 

Edolius forficatus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 144 (1821). 
Buchanga albirictus, Hodgs. 2nd. Rev. i, p. 326 (1837) j Hume, N. fy 

E. p. 186. 

Dicrurus minor, Blyth, Layard, A. M. N.H. (2) xiii, p. 129 (1854). 
Dicrourus longus, Temm., Bonap. Consp. Av. i, p. 352 (1850) ; Horsf. 

fy M. Cat. i, p. 152; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 99. 
" Dicrurus cathcecus, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 377. 
Dicrurus albirictus (Hodgs.}, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 97. 
Buchanga atra (HermS), Blyth fy Wald. Birds Burm. p. 129 ; Sfaarpe, 

Cat. B. M. iii, p. 246; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 213; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 653 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 386 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 278 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 270 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 218 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 1 54 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 98. 
Dicrurus ater (Herm.}, Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 198. 

The Common Drongo- Shrike, Jerd. ; Kolsa, Bojanga, Buchanga, Hind, 
in the Scuth ; Finga, Beng. ; Japal Kalchit, Punj . ; Kunich, Kakolachi, 
Sind ; Thampal'm. the N. W. P. ; Kotival in the Deccan ; Yeti-inta, Bara- 
du'a-/am,Passala-poIi-ffadu,Te\. ; Kurri-Kurrumah, Tarn. ; Kari-Kuruvi, 
Tarn, in Ceylon. 




Fig. 95. Head of D. ater. 

Coloration. The whole plumage deep black, everywhere glossed 
with steel-blue ; a small white spot sometimes present close to the 
angle of the gape. 

The young have the wings and the lower plumage brownish, and 
all the feathers of the lower plumage and under wing-coverts tipped 
with white. 

It is only when very old that this species is entirely black. Few 
birds are without white tips to the under tail-coverts. 

Bill black ; iris red ; feet and claws black. 

Length about 12-5 ; tail 6 to 7; wing up to 6 ; tarsus -85 ; bill 
from gape 1*15. 

The causes which govern the presence or absence of the white 
rictal spot are not yet known. This white spot is occasionally 
present in Chinese specimens, contrary to what is usually asserted. 

The Black Drongo has been regarded by many ornithologists as 
separable into several races. In my opinion the differences of size 
and minor details of structure which exist in birds from various 
localities are not greater than might be expected from a species of 
this size the length of tail, one of the points frequently insisted 
upon, ranging from 6 to 7 inches only, and the length of wing 
varying still less. 



314 

Distribution. The whole of India from Afghanistan to Assam, 
and from the Himalayas to Ceylon; the whole of the eastern 
portion of the Empire from Assam to the extreme south of Tenas- 
serim. On the Himalayas this bird is found up to 5000 feet or 
even higher. It extends into China, Siam, and Cochin China. It 
appears to be absent from the Malay peninsula. 

This Drongo is a partial migrant in many parts of the Empire, 
such as Assam and Pegu, and is more common in these Provinces 
during the cold weather than at other times. 

Habits, tyc. The King-Crow, as this species is termed by many 
in India, is a common and familiar bird, being found in the neigh- 
bourhood of bungalows and throughout the open and cultivated 
parts of the country. It perches on any exposed and command- 
ing point it can find, and swoops on passing insects, frequently 
resting on the ground a second or two to complete its capture, 
and returning to its original or a similar perch close by. The 
note of this bird is metallic and very pleasant. The King-Crow 
breeds chiefly during May, June, and July. The nest is placed in 
a leafy bough of a tree, and is composed of fine twigs and grass- 
stems woven together and covered exteriorly with a good deal of 
cobweb. The eggs, usually four, but occasionally five, in number, 
are of two types : one is pure spotless white, the other pale 
salmon-colour with brownish-red spots. They measure 1*01 by 
75. 



328. Dicrurus longicaudatus. The Indian Ashy Drongo. 

Dicrurus longicaudatus, A. Hay, Jerdon, Madr. Journ, L. S. xiii, 
pt. ii, p. 121 (1845) j Blyth, Cat. p. 202 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 
p. 152 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 430 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 
p. 27 ; Oatcs in Humis N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, p. 203. 

Dicrurus pyrrhops, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84 (1844) (no 
description). 

Dicrurus cinerascens, Gray, Cat. Mamm. fyc. Nepal, p. 98 (1846). 

Dicrurus himalayanus, Tytler, Ibis, 1868, p. 200. 

Buchanga waldeni, Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 497. 

Buchanga longicaudata (A. Hay}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 189 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. iii, p. 249; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 380; Hume, Cat. 
no. 280 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 270. 

Buchanga pyrrhops (Hodys.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 251. 

Buchanga longicauda (Hay), Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 154. 

The Long-tailed Drongo, Jerd. ; Sahim or Sahim-pho, Lepch. ; Che- 
chum, Bhut. ; Niljinga, Beng. ; Erratoo valan kuruvi, Tarn. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage metallic indigo ; lower 
plumage dark grey ; frontal feathers and lores blackish. 

The young are dark brown ; on assuming the plumage of the 
adult the feathers of the under tail-coverts and under wing-coverts 
are tipped with white, and these white tips are gradually lost with 
age. 

Bill, legs, and claws black ; iris red. 



DTCRUETJS. 31 5 

Length about 12 ; tail up to 7, but usually between 5-5 and 6-5 ; 
wing up to 5*8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape !! ; depth of fork of 
tail more than two inches. 

Large and small specimens of this species occur in the same 
pla-i-e ; for instance the tail varies thus : Nepal 6-2-6-6 ; Sikhim 
5-6-6-3; Simla5-9-6-4; Bombay 6-1- 7*0; Belgaum 6'2-T'O; Etawah 
6-0-6-3 ; Dollah 6-2-6-8 ; Ceylon 5-6-5-8. The wing varies from 
5 in Ceylon to 5'8 in Belgaum, Sikhim, and Dollah. The colour 
of all continental birds, large or small, is absolutely the same. 

Distribution. The whole of India from the Hazara country to 
Assam, north of the Brahmaputra river, and from the Himalayas 
to Ceylon. The only portion of this vast tract from which this 
species appears to be absent is Sind, Gaizerat, and portions of 
Eajputana. On the Himalayas it is found as high as 10,000 feet, 
and Stoliczka observed it far up the valley of the Sutlej river. On 
the east the river Brahmaputra appears to be everywhere its limit, 
the Drongo of Dacca and Skillong being D. cineraceus. 

Habits, <$fc. Very similar to those of D. ater, but the present 
species is more frequently found in forests and well -wooded 
localities, and less frequently near houses. It perches habitually 
on the summit of trees and takes longer swoops, rarely touching 
the ground. It breeds chiefly in May and June, constructing its 
nest high up in trees. The eggs are of various types, but on the 
whole resemble the spotted eggs of D. ater and measure "95 
by -74. 



329. Dicmrus nigrescens. The Tenasserim Ashy Drongo. 

Buchanga intermedia (Blyth), Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 545 ; Oates, 

S. F. v, p. 149. 
Buchanga longicaudata (Hay), Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 213 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 220. 
Dicmrus nigrescens (Oates\ Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 208. 

Coloration. Above dark metallic ashy indigo ; below dark grey ; 
the lores and frontal feathers blackish. 

Iris red ; bill, legs, and feet black. 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 4-9 to 5-5 ; wing up to 5-4 ; tarsus -7 ; 
bill from gape 1-05 ; depth of fork of tail much less than 2 inches. 

Distribution. From about a line connecting Eangoon, Pegu town, 
Thatone, and Pahpoon to the extreme south of Tenasserim, and 
thence to Junk Ceylon, the most southern point from which I have 
seen this species. 

Habits, $c. Similar to those of D. lonyicaudalus. I found a nest 
of this Drongo at Kyeikpadein near Pegu on the 27th April, con- 
taining four eggs, which were white marked with pale purple, and 
measured about -89 by *7. 



316 DICKUKIDJE. 



330. Dicrurus caerulescens. The White-bellied Drongo. 

Lanius caerulescens, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 134 (1766). 

Lanius caeruleus, Mutt. Syst. Nat. Suppl. p. 72 (1776). 

Dicrurus cserulescens (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 203; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 154 ; Jerd, B. I. i, p. 432 ; Butter, 8. F. iii, p. 465; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 209. 
Dicrurus cseruleus (Mull.}, Hume, N. fy JE. p. 191. 
Buchanga cserulescens (Linn.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 252 ; Ball, 

8. F. vii, p. 211 ; Hume, Cat. no. 281 ; Scully, 8. F. viii, p. 271 ; 

Reid, 8. F. x, p. 33 ; Davidson, 8. F. x, p. 303 ; Davison, t. c. p. 366 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 155. 

Phari buchanga, Dhapri, Hind. ; D'houli, Beng. ; Nella (or Konda} 
passala poligadu, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage deep indigo ; throat and breast grey ; 
abdomen, flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts white; the axillaries 
frequently tipped white. 

Iris red ; bill, legs, and feet blackish (Hume Coll.}. 

Length about 9'5 ; tail 4'5 to 5-5 ; wing 4-5 to 5'5 ; tarsus '75 ; 
bill from gape 1-05 ; depth of fork of tail about 1/5 inches. 

Distribution. Almost the whole of India proper, extending into 
Ceylon and ascending the Himalayas up to about 6000 feet. The 
north-western limits of this species appear to be a line drawn 
roughly from Cutch to Garhvval, and its eastern boundary the 
meridian of longitude traversing the eastern portion of the Raj- 
mehal hills. 

Habits, fyc. A considerable number of these birds appear to 
spend the summer in the Himalayas and the winter in the plains ; 
but many are no doubt resident in the latter, for they have been 
known to breed there, and their nests have been found in July. 
This Drongo frequents open jungle. The nest is described by 
Thompson as resembling that of D. ater, and it is built in the 
Himalayas near the top of moderate-sized trees in May and June. 
In Khandesh this species appears to breed in June and July. The 
eggs have not been described. 

The White-bellied Drongo is said by Butler to have a rich Oriole- 
like note. 



331. Dicrurus leucopygialis. The White-vented Drongo. 

Dicrurus leucopygialis, j%^, /. A. 8.B. xv, p. 298 (1846); id. Cat. 

p. 203 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 209. 
Buchanga leucopygialis (Blyth}, Holdsw. P.Z,. 8. 1872, p. 439; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. iii, p. 253 ; Hume, 8. F. vii, p. 374 j id. Cat. no. 281 bis ; 



Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 392, pi. 16. 
uchanga insularis, Sharpe, C 



Buchanga insularis, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. tii, p. 253 ; Hume, 8. F. vii, 
p. 374 ; id. Cat. no. 281 ter. 

Koivda or Kaivuda Panika, Ceyl. 

Coloration. Upper plumage deep indigo ; throat, breast, and 



Dicmraus. 317 

abdomen dark brown, the lower part of the abdomen frequently 
mixed with white; vent and under tail-coverts generally white, 
sometimes merely albescent; occasionally only the under tail- 
coverts are white. 

Iris red ; bill, legs, and feet blackish (Hume Coll.}. 

( H' the same dimensions as D. ccerulescens. 

The amount of white on the lower plumage of this and D. cceru- 
lescens is variable, and occasionally a bird is met with which might, 
as regards this character, be assigned indifferently to one or the 
other species, but the colour of the throat and breast will, in these 
cases, be a safe guide to identification. 

Distribution. Ceylon only. 

Habits, $c. This species breeds from March to May, constructing 
its nest in a tree at a considerable height from the ground. The 
eggs, two to four in number, are whitish marked with red, and 
measure about *93 by '7. 



332. Dicmrus leucogenys. The White-cheeked Drongo. 

? Dicrurus intennedius, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 298 (1846). 

Dicrurus cineraceus (Howf,\ apud Blyth, Cat. p. 203. 

Buchanga leucogenys, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 219 (1870) ; id. 
in Blyth' s Birds Bunn. p. 131 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 251 j 
Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 69 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 216 j Hume, 
Cat. no. 280quat. ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 222. 

Dicrurus leucophaeus (Vieill.'), apud Hume, S. F. ii, p. 210. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage clear pale bluish grey ; the 
shafts of the tail and quills and the tips of the first six or seven 
primaries black; lores, ear-coverts, and a space round the eye 
pure white ; forehead and nasal bristles black ; lower plumage like 
the upper but paler, and the vent and under tail-coverts albescent ; 
under wing-coverts white tinged with grey. 

Young birds have the white of the face less pure and smaller in 
extent, but even in the youngest birds the lores are white or 
whitish ; the upper plumage, wings, and tail are suffused with 
brown, rendering the black shafts less conspicuous ; the under 
wing-coverts are grey tipped with white. 

Legs, feet, claws, bill, and eyelids black ; iris pale lake to crimson 
(Davison). 

Length about 10-5 ; tail 5*7 ; wing 5-5 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape I'l. 

Distribution. Tenasserim from Mergui southwards ; the Anda- 
man Islands. This species extends down the Malay peninsula to 
Singapore, and eastwards to Siam, Cochin China, and China, and 
it is found even in Japan. It is stated to be a migratory bird. 

Habits, fyc. According to Davison this Drongo is a forest 
species, but it is also found in clearings, and it has the usual 
habits of the genus. 



318 DICEUKID^. 



333. Dicrurus cineraceus. The Grey Dronyo. 

Edolius ciueraceus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 145 (1821). 
Buchanga mouhoti, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 220 (1870). 
Buchanga wallacei, Walden, A. M. N. H. (4) v, p. 220 (1870). 
Dicrurus longicaudatus (Hay}, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 97. 
Dicrurus leucophseus ( Vieill.), Hume, S. F. iii, p. 99. 
Buchanga cineracea (Horsf.), Sharpe, Gat. B. M. iii, p. 250. 
Buchanga longicaudata (Sau\ Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 654. 
Buchanga Ieucopha3a ( VieiU.), Oates, B. B. i, p, 221. 
Buchanga pyrrhops (Hodgs.), Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 99. 

Coloration. Frontal plumes and lores black ; the whole plumage 
bluish grey, glossy above, paler underneath and without gloss ex- 
cept on the breast ; upper wing-coverts centred darker ; quills 
more or less brown, tinged with ashy on the outer webs ; tail clear 
bluish grey, the shafts black and the tips brownish. 

Bill black ; mouth dusky flesh-colour ; iris crimson ; feet and 
claws black ; in the young the iris is brown. 

Length 11 ; tail 5-3 to 6-5 ; wing 5-2 to 575 ; tarsus 7 ; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

Distribution. From the Brahmaputra river and the eastern branch 
of the Ganges delta down to Lower Pegu and Northern Tenas- 
serim. The southern limit of this species, so far as the specimens 
[ have examined serve to show it, is a line drawn from Pegu town 
to Thatone and on to Pahpoon. D. nigrescens is also found along 
this line, and both species procured at the above places are quite 
typical and distinct one from the other. Wardlaw Eamsay obtained 
D. cineraceus in Karennee and the Toungngoo hills. It extends 
into Siain. It is not found in any portion of the Malay peninsula, 
but it reappears in Java, Lombock, and Palawan. 

D. stiymatops, Sharpe, is a very distinct species of this type, 
with the lores pure white. It is found in Sumatra and Borneo. 

Habits, $c. This species frequents forests and the better wooded 
parts of the country. I did not succeed in finding its nest in Pegu, 
and nothing is known of its nidification. 



o 



Genus CHAPTIA, Hodgs., 1837. 

The genus Chaptia resembles Dicrurus in many respects. It 
differs chiefly in its very depressed and flattened bill, and in the 
pointed character of the feathers of the crown and hind neck. The 
plumage is very glossy. The tail is much forked, the middle pair 
of feathers reaching very little beyond the middle of the tail. 

334. Chaptia aenea. The Bronzed Drongo. 

Dicrurus senaus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. cFHist . Nat. ix, p. 586 (1817). 
.Chaptia malayensis, A. Hay, Blyth, J.A.S. B. xv, p. 294 (1846) ; 
Blyth, Cat. p. 200; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. \, p. 393; Tweedd. Ibis, 



CHAPTIA. 319 

1877, p. 315 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 244 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 218 ; Hume, Cat. no. 282 bis. 

Cliaptm aenea ( Vie ill.), Bli/th, Cat. p. 200 ; Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 150 ; 
Jerd. B. 1. \, p. 438 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 192 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 100 ; 
Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 320 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 243 ; 
Anders. Yunnan E.vped.,Aves, p. 652; HumefyDav. S. F. vi, p. 217; 
Hume, Cat. no. 282; Gates, S. F. viii, r>. 166; Scully, S. F. viii. 



Anders. Yunnan E.vped.,Aves, p. 652; HumefyDav. S. F. vi, p. 217; 
Hume, Cat. no. 282 ; Gates, S. F. viii, p. 166 ; Scully, S. F. 
p. 272 ; Bincjham, S. F. ix, p. 173 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 223 ; Barnes, 



Birds Bom. p. 155 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 100 ; Gates in Hume's N. 
E. 2nd ed. i, p. 210. 
Buchanga, Beng. ; Chota Kesraj at Gorakhpur ; Chaptia, Nep. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black glossed with metallic 
bronze or lilac ; lower abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts dull 
brownish ; under wing-coverts generally tipped white, the axillaries 
less frequently so. 

Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris red or reddish. 

Length about 9*5 ; tail 4-5 to 6 ; wing 4-2 to 5 ; tarsus *65 ; bill 
from gape 1. 

It seems impossible to separate the race of this bird which in- 
habits India and the greater part of Burma from the race which 
is found in Southern Tenasserim, the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, 
and Borneo. Typical specimens may be selected from the Hima- 
layas and from Sumatra which present certain points of difference, 
but these are by no means striking, and the two varieties are 
connected together by other specimens which it is difficult to assign 
to either race. 

Birds of this species from India have the wing of the average 
length of 4-7 inches. In Tenasserim the wings of this bird average 
the same, but some few specimens can be found with wings no 
longer than 4'2, and in Sumatra we meet with wings measuring 4'4. 
The tails vary immensely in length even in the same localities. In 
Sumatra they range from 4 to 4-2, and in India they ordinarily 
measure 4*7 ; but a remarkably fine Sikhim bird has the tail actually 
6'2 in length, and others from the same place have it no longer 
than 4-4. I think, therefore, that we may discard size as a cha- 
racter by which the two races may be separated. 

With regard to colour, Indian birds have a perceptible grey 
dulness on the rump, and they have the abdomen generally, but 
not always, greyish. Sumatrau birds have the rump as black and 
as glossy as the other parts of the upper plumage, and the abdo- 
men, as a rule, dark-coloured. They have, moreover, a lilac gloss 
on the upper plumage, which is generally absent in Indian birds, 
but some fine Sikhim specimens show traces of it. There are no 
other differences between the two races. 

Distribution. The western portion of India from Travancore up 
to Khandala ; the Himalayas from Mussooree to the extreme end 
of the Assam valley ; Eastern Bengal ; thence through the entire 
eastern portion of the Empire, ranging down the Malay peninsula 
to Sumatra and Borneo. 



320 

Jerdon records this bird from the Bastar country in the Central 
Provinces, where, however, it has not again been observed either by 
Ball or any other ornithologist. 

Habits, <$fc. This species is found in forest country, from the level 
of the sea up to 7000 or 8000 feet. It takes its station on the 
summit of lofty trees, and swoops on insects with a very graceful 
flight, returning to the same perch. It breeds from April to June, 
constructing its nest, which is made of grass and vegetable fibres 
overlaid with cobwebs, in the fork of a branch at a considerable 
height from the ground. The eggs, three in number, are pinkish 
marked with red and purplish, and measure about *82 by *61. 



Genus CHIBIA, Hodgs., 1837. 

In Chibia the bill is considerably lengthened, pointed, and curved 
downwards, in order that it may be inserted into flowers, upon the 
contents of which, such as nectar and insects, the birds of this 
genus largely feed. 

The plumage of Chibia is excessively brilliant, and the feathers 
of the sides of the neck are greatly lengthened and pointed. Some 
half a dozen hairs, several inches in length, spring in a bunch from 
the posterior part of the crown, which is otherwise smooth and free 
from any tuft. The tail is nearly square, and the tips of the outer- 
most feathers are much curved upwards. 



335. Chibia hottentotta. The Hair-crested Drongo. 

Corvus hottentottus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 155 (1766). 

Chibia hottentotta (Linn), Blyth, Cat. p. 200 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 439 ; 
Hume, N.$E. p. 194 j id. S. F. iii, p. 101 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, 
p. 235 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 651 ; Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, 
p. 73 ; Hume 8f Dav. S. F. vi, p. 222 ; Hume, Cat. no. 286 ; Oates, 
S. F. yiii, p. 167 ; Scully, 8. F. viii, p. 272 ; Bingham, 8. F. ix, 
p. 174 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 367 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 227 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 157 j Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 102 j Oates in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 213. 

Dicrurus (Chibia) hottentota (Linn.}, Horsf. fy M. Cat. \, p. 157. 

Krishna-raj or Kishen-raj or Kesroj, Beng. & Hind. ; Resya, Jobraj, 
Nep. ; Povong-pho, Lepch. ; Yentika passala poligadu, Tel. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black, with metallic blue reflec- 
tions on the crown and the hackled feathers of the neck and breast ; 
wing-coverts and outer webs of the quills and tail-feathers glossed 
with metallic bronze. 

Iris dark brown ; bill, legs, and claws black. 

Length 12-5 ; tail 6 ; wing up to 7 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape 
1-6. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from the Wynaad to 
Mahableshvvar ; Kaipur; Sambalpur ; Chutia Nagpur; the Hima- 



DISSEMUROIDES. 321 

lavas from Garhwal to the extreme east of Assam ; southern and 
eastern Bengal, thence extending through Assam and Burma nearly 
to the extreme southern point of Tenasserim. This species does 
not appear to ascend the Himalayas to any great height, probably 
not above 3000 feet. The same, or a closely allied, form is found 
in China (C. brevirostris, Cab.). 

Habits, <$fc. This Drongo is found only in forests or well-wooded 
localities, generally in small flocks, feeding on high trees. Its food 
consists in great measure of insects which harbour in flowers, and 
it catches insects on the wing less habitually than the other 
Drongos. It breeds from April to June, constructing a cradle- 
like nest at the extreme tip of a branch, generally at a great height 
from the ground. Those nests which I found in Pegu were 
secured with great difficulty. The eggs, generally three in number, 
are white or pinkish, marked with reddish brown or purple. They 
measure about 1-12 by *81. 



Genus DISSEMUROIDES, Hume, 1873. 

The genus Dissemuroides differs from Dicrurus in possessing a 
tuft of hair-like feathers about half an inch long springing from 
the forehead. It contains two species which merely differ from 
each other in size. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail 6'5 ; wing 5-3 D. andamanensis, p. 321. 

b. Tail 8 ; wing 5'8 D. dicniriformis, p. 322. 




Fig. 96. Head of D. andamanensis. 

336. Dissenmroides andamanensis. The Small Andamanese 
Drongo. 

Dicrurus andaraanensis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 323. 
Buchanga (Dicrurus) andamanensis (Tytler}, Ball, J. A. 8. B. xli, 

pt. ii, p. 282 ; id. S. F. i, p. 06. 
VOL. I. T 



322 DICETJEID7E. 

Buchanga andamanensis (Tytl\ WaU. His, 1873, p. 310. 
Dissemuroides andamanensis (Tytl.~), Hume, S. F. ii, p. 211; Sharpe, 

Cat. B. M. iii, p. 255 ; Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 77; Hume, Cat. no. 

283 ter. 

Coloration. Black with a greenish-blue gloss over most of the 
plumage; primaries and secondaries brown; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries tipped with white. 

Bill, legs, and feet black; iris hair-brown, sometimes very deep 
and almost blackish (Hume}. 

Length about 11-5 ; tail 6'5 ; wing 5-3 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape 1-3 ; depth of fork of tail about 2. 

Distribution. Port Blair and Macpher son's Straits and probably 
other parts of the Andaman Islands. 

Habits, $c. Apparently the same as those of Dicrurus ater. 



337. Dissemuroides dicruriformis. The Large Andamanese 
Drongo. 

Dissemuroides dicruriformis, Hume, S. F. i, p. 408 (1873) ; ii, 
p. 211 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 255 ; Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 77; 
Ifrtme, Cat. no. 283 bis. 

Coloration. Resembles D. andamanensis in all respects except 
that of size. 

Bill, legs, and feet black; iris dark brown (Hume). 

Length about 14 ; tail 8 ; wing 5'8 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape 
1-45. 

Distribution. The Great Coco and Table Islands in the Andaman 
group. 

Habits, c. Davison remarks that this species has the habits of 
the Dicruri. 



Genus DISSEMURULUS, n. gen, 

I propose the above generic name for a bird which has hitherto 
been tossed about between the genera Dissemurus, Dissemuroides, 
and Dicrurus. Dissemurulus lophorhinus, the type and sole member 
of the genus, is characterized by the possession of a tuft of ordinary 
feathers, about half an inch long, on the forehead. This character 
separates it from the last two genera mentioned above, and it is 
separated from Dissemurus by the deeply forked tail, the outermost 
feathers of which are neither produced to an extraordinary 
length, nor have a bare shaft with a short length of terminal web. 

338. Dissemurulus lophorhinus. The Ceylon Black Drongo. 

Dicrurus lopliorinus, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. JHist. Nat. ix, p. 587 

(1817) : Walden, Ibis, 1807, p. 4C8. 
Dicrurus edolifornris, Blytlt, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 297 (184G) ; id Cat 

p. 202 ; id. Ibis, 1807, p. 305. 



BHRIXGA. 323 

Dissemuroides edoliiformis (Blytli), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 256 ; 

Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 78. 
Dissemuroides lophorliinus ( VieilL), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 375 ; tW, 

Cat. no. 283 quat. 

Dissemurus lophorliinus (Viei/l.), Leyye, Sink Ceyl. p. 396, pi. 17. 
I lissemurulus lophorhinus (F.), Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 215. 

Kowda, Kaput a lay a, Ceyl. 




Fig. 97. IJead of D. lophorhinus. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black, highly glossed with blue 
and green on the tips and margins of the feathers, except on the 
abdomen and flanks ; under \\ing-coverts and axillaries tipped with 
white. 

Iris dull brownish red or dark yellowish red ; bill, legs, and feet 
black (Leyye). 

Length about 14; tail about 8; wing 6; tarsus I'l; bill from 
gape 1*4 ; depth of fork of tail 2'5. 

Distribution. The damp forests of Ceylon up to 3000 feet. 

Habits, #c. According to Legge this Drongo breeds in the south 
of Ceylon at the beginning of April, but the nest and eggs are not 
known. 



Genus BHRINGA, Hodgs., 1837. 

With the genus Bhringa we enter upon those Drongos which 
have the outer pair of tail-feathers produced to an extravagant 
length, the middle portion of the shaft being w r ebless. The genus 
Bhri'tiga differs from Dissemurus, the next genus, and the only one 
with which it can be confounded, by having the terminal portion 
of the outer tail-feathers flattened and equally webbed on both 
sides of the shaft. This terminal portion is about four inches in 
length, and the preceding bare portion of the shaft is about three 
times this length. 

Jerdon was in error in stating that the lengthened tail-feathers 
were present only at the breeding-season. Adults after once 
acquiring them, never lose them. The young acquire them at the 
second autumn moult. 

Y2 



324 DlCRTJRID-'E. 



339. Bhringa remifer. The Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo. 

Edolius remifer, Temm. PI. Col. iii, pi. 178 (1823). 

Bhringa tectirostris, Hodgs. 2nd. Rev. i, p. 325 (1837); Hume, N. fy 

E. p. 193 ; id. 8. F. iii, p. 101. 
Bhringa remifer (Temm.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 200; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 159 ; Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 434 ; Blyth | Wold. Birds Sunn. p. 128 

Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 257 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 218 ; 

Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 80 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 652 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 283; Gates, B. B. i, 224 ; Hume, S. F. xi,p. 100 

Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 216. 

Nep. ; Nambong punnony, Lepch. ; Piadiyapo, Bhut. 




Fig. 98. Head of B. remifer. 

Coloration. The entire plumage black, the head, neck, throat, 
and breast glossed with metallic violet, the back and the outer webs 
of the quills and tail-feathers with metallic blue ; tinder wing- 
coverts and axillaries tipped with white. 

Iris red ; bill, legs, and claws black ; eyelids plumbeous. 

Length to end of middle tail-feathers aboufc 11 ; tail to end of 
middle feathers about 5*5 ; length of lateral tail-feathers up 
to 21, of which 12 is bare shaft ; wing 5*5 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape 1-2. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from Garhwal to Assam up to 
5000 feet ; thence through the hill-tracts of Assam and throughout 
Burma to Tenasserim. Davison failed to observe this species 
south of 'Amherst, but Binghain procured it in the Thoungyeen 
valley. It reappears in the mountains of Perak, Sumatra, and 
Java. 

Habits, <Sfc. Entirely confined to forest country. This species 
sallies after insects from the summit of the highest trees. It breeds 
in May and June, constructing a shallow nest of small twigs and 
roots in a fork of a branch at a considerable height from the 
ground. The eggs are pinkish, marked with brownish red, and 
measure about 1-05 by '75. 



D1SSEMUKU8. 325 



Genus DISSEMURUS, Gloger, 1842. 

The genus Disxemurus contains the finest members of the Drongo 
family. The sole species found within our limits varies, however, 
in dimensions and structure throughout its great range, but is 
characterized at all times by the great elongation of the lateral 
tail- feathers, the terminal portion of which is webbed on the 
outside for a distance of about four inches and twisted upwards. 
The web on the inner side of the shaft is very narrow. The fore- 
head is tufted with feathers of varying length, birds from the 
Himalayas and Central India having the tuft quite two inches in 
length, whereas birds from Southern India and Tenasserim have it 
less than one inch in length. 

340. Dissemurus paradiseus. The Larger Racket-tailed Drongo. 

Cuculus paradiseus, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 172 (1766). 

Lanius malabaricus, Lath. Ind. Orn. i, p. 66 (1790). 

Edolius grandis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1836, p. 5. 

Chibia malabaroides, Hodgs. Ind. Rev. \, p. 325 (1837). 

Edolius paradiseus (Linn.), Blyth, Cat. p. 201 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 435. 

Dicrurus (Edolius) paradiseus (Gm.), Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 155. 

Dicrurus (Edolius) malabaricus (Scop.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 157. 

Edolius malabaricus (Scop.), Jerd. B. I. i, p. 437. 

Edolius affinis, Tytler, Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 323. 

Dissemurus malabaroides (Hodgs.), Hume, N. fy E. p. 193 ; id. S. F. 
iii, p. 101 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 218. 

Dissemurus affinis (Tytler), Hume,S. F. ii, p. 212. 

Dissemurus paradiseus (Linn.), Bli/th <$ Wald. Birds Burm. p. 128 ; 
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iii, p. 258; Tweedd. Ibis, 1878, p. 80; Hume 
$ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 219 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 399 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 285 ; Gates, S. F. x, p. 203 ; id. B. B. i, p. 225 ; Barnes, Birds 
Bom. p. 156 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 217. 

Dissemurus malabaricus (Scop.), Hume, S. F. iv, p. 395. 

Dissemurus grandis ( Gould), Hume, Cat. no. 284 ; Oates, S. F. viii, 
p. 166; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 156; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 101. 

The Large Racket-tailed Drongo, The Malabar Racket-tailed Drongo, 
Jerd.; Bhimraj, Bhring-raj, Hind.; Kalgia, Nep. ; Tiiikapassalapoliyadu, 
Tel.; Hati of the Gonds; Parvak or Parvok-pho, Lepch.; Kate-ougal, 
Mahr. ; Maha-Kaivuda, Erattu valem Kuruvi, Tain, in Ceyl. ; Hnet-dau, 
Burm. 

Coloration. The whole plumage black, glossed with blue, except 
on the inner webs of the quills, the throat, lower abdomen, and 
vent ; the under wing-coverts and axillaries frequently tipped with 
white. 

Iris red ; bill, feet, and claws black ; iris brown in the young. 

Length up to 26 ; middle tail-feathers 5;5 to 6*5 ; outer tail- 
feathers up to 20; wing 5'8 to 7; tarsus I'l ; bill from gape 
1*5 to 1'8 ; crest up to 2. 

I believe that it is impossible to separate the larger bird from 
the Himalayas and Central India from the smaller one from 
Southern India and Tenasserim, as the two forms are connected 



326 



DICBUHID^E. 



together by birds from Khandesh on the one hand and from Pegu 
on the other. The question has been fully discussed by Hume 
and Sharpe, the former separating the two races, and the latter 
uniting them. 

Distribution. The western parts oE India from Grodhra in the 
Panch Mahals to Travancore ; Ceylon ; the Nellore ghats ; the 
Tributary Mehals of Orissa ; Chutia Nagpur; Satubalpur and 
Eaipur ; lower Bengal and the Sundarbans ; the Himalayas from 
Kumaun to Assam, and thence through Burma to the extreme 
south of Teuasserim. In the latter locality this Drongo is found 




Fig. 99. Head of D. paradiseus. 

in a small form, which becomes still further reduced in size in 
the Malay peninsula. This small Malay race has been named 
D. platurus. 

Habits, fyc. This species inhabits forests and well-wooded 
localities, and is more sociable than the other Drongos, being 
found either in pairs or in parties of four or five. It hawks after 
insects both from lofty stations and from points near the ground. 
It has a very fine song. The breeding-season lasts from April to 
June. The nest, which is constructed rather flimsily of twigs, is 
placed high up in branches of trees. The eggs are white or 
pinkish, marked with reddish brown and neutral tint, and measure 
about 1-15 by -82. 



CEKTIIIID.E. 32" 



Family CERTHJID/E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles perfectly smooth, 
or with a simple notch in the upper one; hinder aspect of tarsus 
bil animated, the laminae entire and smooth ; wing with ten pri- 
maries ; tongue non-tubular; nostrils clear of the line of the fore- 
head, the space between the nostril and the edge of the mandible 
less than the space between the nostril and culmen ; plumage of 
the nestling resembling that of the adult female, but paler ; nostrils 
bare ; rictal bristles absent. 

The Certhiidce comprise the Creepers and the Wrens, two groups 
which are closely allied to each other. With the exception of 
Ticliodroma all the Ctrthiidce found in India are resident species 
and have but one moult a year. 

The Certhiidce have the feathers of the forehead short and closely 
set together, and they have no hairs over the nostrils nor any 
vestige of rictal bristles. The wing varies in shape, being some- 
times, as in Salpornis, extremely pointed and sometimes very blunt 
and rounded, as in the true Wrens. The toes and claws in all are 
much lengthened. The number of tail-feathers varies from twelve 
to six in this family. 

The Certhiidce are found over a considerable portion of the 
world, and they are probably a very ancient group. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail of 12 feathers. 

a'. Tail composed of stiff, pointed feathers . . CEI.ITHIA, p. 328. 
b'. Tail composed of soft, rounded feathers. 
". First primary not more than a quarter 

the length of the second SALPORNIS, p. 332. 

b". First primary equal to, or longer than, 

half the second. 
a'". Wing more than four times the 

length of the tarsus TICHODROMA, p. 334. 

b'". Wing less than three times the 

length of the tarsus. 
a 1 . Tail and wing of much the same 

length SPHENOCICHLA, p. 335. 

b 1 . Tail very much shorter than the 

wing. 

a 5 . Tail less graduated, the outer 
feather being three-quarters 
the length of the tail ANOBTHUEA, p. 337. 



328 

6 5 . Tail more graduated, the outer 
feather being only half the 
length of the tail ELACHUBA, p. 339. 

b. Tail of 10 feathers UROCICHLA, p. 340. 

c. Tail of 6 feathers PNOEPYGA, p. 342. 



Genus CERTHIA, Liiin., 1766. 

The genus Certhia contains six Indian species, which are chiefly 
residents on the Himalayas, or migratory to a slight extent from 
higher to lower altitudes or vice versa. 

Certhia appears to have only an autumn moult, but Biddulph 
(Ibis, 1881), with regard to C. himalayana, speaks of a winter and 
a summer plumage. A large series of skins of this species, how- 
ever, does not support his assertion, and no European writer has 
noticed the fact in regard to C. familiaris. The young are coloured 
like the adult, but they often have on the lower plumage some 
obsolete cross-bars, especially on the sides of the breast. 

The Tree-Creepers, as their name denotes, are found climbing 
the trunks and branches of trees. They feed entirely on insects. 




Fig. 100. Foot of Certhia. 

They lay spotted eggs, which are deposited in a nest made of 
twigs, grass, and moss in a hole in a tree or behind a piece of 
detached bark. 

In Certhia the bill is sometimes as long as the head, more fre- 
quently rather shorter, slender, and curved downwards. The 
nostrils are long narrow slits. The wing is rounded, the first 
primary being about half the length of the second, which, with the 
third, falls short of the tip of the wing. The tail is longer than 
the wing, and composed of twelve very stiff and pointed feathers, 
and greatly graduated. The tarsus is scutellated, and the toes and 
claws are extremely long. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Tail distinctly cross-barred throughout C. himalayana, p. 329. 

b. Tail plain or nearly so. 

a'. Lower plumage, except the under tail- 
coverts, entirely white C. hodysoni, p. 329. 

b'. Chin, throat, and centre of breast and 
abdomen white; remainder of lower 
plumage fulvous-brown C. nepalensis, p. 330. 



CERTHIA. 329 

c. Whole lower plumage earthy brown .... C. discolor, p. 331. 
d'. Chin, throat, and breast bull' ; remainder of 

lower plumage earthy brown C. manipurensiS) p. 331. 

e. Chin and throat whitish ; centre of breast 

and abdomen fulvous ; remainder of lower 

plumage deep ferruginous C. stoliczkce, p. 332. 



341. Certhia himalayana. The Himalayan Tree-Creeper. 

Certhia himalayana, Viy. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 174 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 188 ; 
Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 717 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 380 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 
S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 25 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 19 ; Hume, N. $ E. 
p. 160 ; Cock 8> Marsh. S. F. i, p. 351 ; Hume, S. F. v, p. 78 j id. 
Cat. no. 243 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 50 ; Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, 
p. 327 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 220. 

Coloration. Upper plumage blackish striped with fulvous, the 
wing-coverts tipped with the same ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
strongly tinged with ferruginous ; tail brown, regularly cross- 
barred with black; wings dark brown, all the quills, except the 
first four, with a broad fulvous band, above and below which the 
feathers are blackish ; the quills also tipped fulvous, and with a 
subterminal band on the outer webs near the tip ; a short eyebrow 
fulvous ; ear-coverts black ; chin and upper throat pure white ; 
remainder of lower plumage pale smoky brown. 

Upper mandible black ; lower mandible fleshy ; legs, feet, and 
claws fleshy ; iris dark brown (Davison). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-8 ; wing 2-7 ; tarsus '55 ; bill from 
gape -9. 

C. tceniura, found in Samarkand and Central Asia, has a vely 
much longer bill. 

Distribution. Throughout the N.W. Himalayas from Almora to 
Haziira, and through the greater part of Kashmir to Gilgit. This 
bird is found at all elevations, according to season, from the plains 
up to 12,000 feet. In Gilgit it is found below 6000 feet in winter, 
and in summer it retreats to the forests above. It extends to 
Hunza and Chitral in the north, and "Wardlaw Earn say met with 
it further south in Afghanistan. 

Habits, fyc. Nests in holes in high trees some forty feet from the 
ground. The eggs are white, with numerous red spots, and 
measure '6 by '45. The nests have been found at Murree and in 
Kashmir, but in what months is not recorded. 

342. Certhia hodgsoni. Hodgson's Tree-Creeper. 

Certhia familiaris, Linn, apud Hume Sf Henders. Lah. to Yark. 

p. 180. 
Certhia hodgsoni, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 74 (1872) ; Hume, 

N. $ E. p. 160 ; Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 273 ; Hume, S. F. v, pp. 73, 

78 ; id. Cat. no. 243 bis j Oates in Hume's N, $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 220. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and tfce sides of the head and neck 



330 CERTHIIDJE. 

dark brown streaked with rufous, with which are intermingled 
other streaks of black and white ; wing-coverts tipped with pale 
fulvous ; rump and upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; tail reddish 
brown, obsoletely barred near the tip ; wings dark brown, with a 
pale fulvous band across all the quills, except the first four, and 
another blackish band above and below it ; most of the quills 
tipped white, and the later ones with a fulvous streak near the 
end of the outer web ; a white superciliuin ; forehead, cheeks, and 
the whole lower plumage white, the under tail-coverts tinged with 
fulvous. 

Iris brown ; bill, legs, and feet flesh-colour (Hume Coll.}. 

Length rather more than 5; tail 2*6; wing 2'6; tarsus 55; 
bill from gape *75. 

This species, closely allied to the English Creeper, C. familiaris, 
may be distinguished from it by the coloration of the fourth pri- 
mary. In C. familiaris the fourth primary is marked with fulvous 
like the others ; in C. hodgsoni the fourth primary is unmarked, 
and the bill is also longer. 

Distribution. Kashmir, where, according to Brooks, its discoverer, 
this Tree-Creeper occurs sparingly in the pine-woods near the 
snows. Biddulph and Scully met with it in Gilgit and Astor at 
about 10,000 feet in June and July. 

Habits, fyc. Captain Cock took several nests of this bird at 
Gulmurg and Sonaraurg in June. The eggs are very densely 
spotted and measure about '62 by *48. 



343. Certhia nepalensis. The Nepal Tree-Creeper. 

Certhia nipalensis, Hodys., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 81 (1845) ; 

Blyth, Cat. p. 188; Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 718; Jerd. B. I. i, 

p. 381 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 56 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 

xliii, pt. ii, p. 157 ; Hume, S, F. v, pp. 76, 78 ; id. Cat. no. 244 ; 

Gadow, Cat. B. M. viii, p. 329. 
Certhia mandellii, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xlii, pt. ii ; p. 256 (1873). 

Coloration. Resembles C. hodgsoni in general coloration, but is 
blacker above ; the tail is plain brown ; cheeks, chin, throat, breast, 
and upper abdomen white, the remaining lower plumage fulvous- 
brown. 

Iris brown ; legs horny ; bill blackish above, white below (Blan- 
Jordj. 

Length about 5'5 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 2*8 ; tarsus *65 ; bill from 
gape '75. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, and Bhutan, extending into the 
Naga Hills. Blanford found this species from 8000 to 13,000 feet 
in the pine-woods of Northern Sikhim, associating with flocks of 
Loplwplianes and Phylloscopi. 

Hodgson figures only C. discolor, but in his collection are speci- 
mens also of C. nepalensis -, and both species bear the same number. 



CEUTHIA. 331 

344. Certhia discolor. The SikUim Tree-Creeper. 

Certhia discolor, Rhjtli, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 580 (1845) ; id. Cat 
p. 188 ; Horsf. S? M. Cat. ii, p. 718 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 381 ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, pp. 70, 194 ; Hume, S. F. v, pp. 75, 78 ; 
id. Cat. no. 245 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 135 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 85. 

Certhia nipalensis, Hodys. apud Brooks, J. A. S. B. xlii, pt. ii, 
p. 255. 

Saddyer-pho, Lepch. 




Fig. 101. Head of C. discolor. 

Coloration. Upper plumage blackish brown, streaked with ful- 
vous ; rump and upper tail-coverts bright ferruginous ; tail reddish 
brown with red shafts ; wings dark brown with a pale fulvous 
band across all the quills except the first four, and another blackish 
band above and below it ; most of the quills tipped white, and the 
later ones with a fulvous streak near the end of the outer web ; 
lower plumage entirely earthy brown ; under tail-coverts ferrugi- 
nous; a cheek-stripe rufous, varying in tint; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries white. 

Iris dark brown ; bill dark horn, pale below ; legs pale brown 
( Wardlaw Ramsay}. 

Length 6 ; tail 3 ; wing 2-7 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from gape '75. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikkiin, and Bhutan as far at least as the 
Daphla Hills ; also across the Brahmaputra valley in the Naga and 
East Naga hills. Wardlaw Ramsay procured this species in 
Karennee, and his specimens are inseparable from Sikhim birds. 
It is noteworthy that Hume obtained the distinct C. manipurensis 
in Manipur. 

345. Certhia manipurensis. Humes Tree-Creeper. 
Certhia manipurensis, Hume, S. F. x, p. 151 (1881), xi, p. 86. 

Coloration. Resembles C. discolor. Differs in having the chin, 
throat, and upper part of breast pure buff, and the lower abdomen 
buffy grey. The bill is also slightly longer. 

Legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; upper mandible blackish ; 
lower mandible very pale fleshy pink ; iris hazel (Hume). 

Length about 6; tail 27; wing 2-7; tarsus -65; bill from 
gape -8. 

The coloration of the lower plumage of the Creepers is an excel- 
lent differential character, being in most, if not all cases correlated 
with a distinct geographical distribution, so that C. manipurensis 
may be accepted in my opinion as a valid species. 



332 

Distribution. The Eastern hills of Manipur, where this species was 
obtained by Hume at elevations of from 5000 to 6000 feet. He 
states that it was not very uncommon, though by no means abundant. 

346. Certhia stoliczkae. Stoliczka's Tree-Creeper. 

Certhia stoliczkee, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xlii, pt. ii, p. 256 (1873) ; 
Hume, S. F. v, pp. 77, 78 ; id. Cat. no. 244 bis. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and ear-coverts black 
streaked with fulvous ; rump and upper tail-coverts ferruginous ; 
tail pale reddish brown with reddish shafts ; wing-coverts tipped 
with fulvous ; quills dark brown, all but the first four with a pale 
fulvous band, above and below which the feathers are blackish ; 
the quills tipped with buff, and with a subterminal band of the 
same colour on the outer webs ; chin and throat whitish ; feathers 
round the eye, a supercilium, and cheeks buff ; centre of breast 
and abdomen pale fulvous ; sides of the breast and abdomen, vent, 
and under tail-coverts deep ferruginous ; under wing-coverts and 
axillaries pale fulvous. 

Length about 6 ; tail 3'2 ; wing 2*8 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -7. 

Distribution. Sikhim and Bhutan. 

Genus SALPOENIS, Gray, 1847. 

The genus Salpornis contains only one Indian and one African 
species, and differs in many remarkable respects from Certhia, 
although bearing a great general resemblance to it. It has an 
extremely long, pointed wing, with a minute first primary, and the 
second primary reaches to the tip of the wing. The foot is also 
differently shaped. But the most remarkable feature about Sal- 
pornis is that it builds a cup-shaped nest on a branch of a tree, thus 
deviating entirely from the habits of all other Creepers. The posi- 
tion of this bird requires further investigation. 




Fig. 102. Foot of Salpornis. 

Salpornis has a bill similar in shape to that of Certhia, but much 
longer. The tarsus is short, and the hind claw is much shorter 
than the hind toe. The tail is composed of twelve soft rounded 
feathers, and nearly square. 

The sexes are alike, and the young are similar to the adult, and 
there is nothing to lead to the belief that there is any spring moult. 



SALPORNIS. 333 

347. Salpornis spilonota. The Spotted-Grey Creeper. 

Certhia spilonota, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 121. 

Salporuis spilonota (FrankL), Jcrd. B. 1. i, p. 382 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xxxviii, p. 1 70 ; A dam, S. F. i, p. 375 ; Sail, S. F. ii, p. 397 ; 
. Hume, Cat. no. 246 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 300 ; Gadow, Cat. ILM. 

viii, p. 330 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 139 ; Oates in Hume's N.fyE. 

2nd ed. i, p. 220. 




Fig. 103. Head of S. spilonota. 

Coloration. Lores and a line behind the eye black ; above these 
a broad white supercilium ; ear-coverts, cheeks, chin, and throat 
white ; crown ashy brown streaked with white ; the whole upper 
plumage and wing-coverts black spotted with white; quills dark 
brown, spotted with white on both webs and partially barred with 
blackish ; tail black, barred with white, the bars interrupted at the 
shaft, and the middle feathers ashy down the middle; lower 
plumage pale fulvous barred with black. 

The young appear to resemble the adults. 

Legs and feet blackish plumbeous ; bill blackish, light below ; 
iris dark brown (Hume). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2*3 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus *6o ; bill from 
gapel. 

Distribution. Throughout a considerable portion of the plains of 
India, from the foot of the Himalayas southwards to near the 
Kistna river. On the west the limits of this species appear to be 
Gurgaon, Sambhar, Ajmere, and Abu. Further south it has been 
met with at Dhulia in Khandesh, and Blanford records it from 
Chanda, Sironcha, and the Godavari valley. Ball obtained it at 
Sambalpur and at various localities in Chutia ISTagpur, and I have 
seen a specimen collected in Behar, but in what particular part of 
it was not recorded. Our knowledge of the distribution of this 
peculiar bird is therefore far from satisfactory. 

Habits, fyc. Blanford writes : " These birds keep to the largest 
trees, running round the stems in all directions and flying with a 
steady flight, not unlike that of a Woodpecker, but swifter and 
more elegant. They have a whistling note." Mr. Cleveland found 
the nest in Gurgaon on the 16th April. It was placed on a hori- 
zontal bough of a tree aud attached to a vertical shoot. It was 
cup-shaped, and composed of bits of leaf-stalk and leaves, chips of 
bark, and the dung of caterpillars, bound together by cobwebs ; it 
was very firm and elastic. The nest contained two young birds 
and one egg. This latter was greenish white, with a ring of 
blackish-brown specks round the large end, and a few specks over 
the remainder of the shell. It measured '68 by '53. 



334 CEBTHIID^. 



Genus TICHODROMA, Illiger, 1811. 

The genus Tichodroma contains only the well-known "Wall- 
Creeper, which is found as a winter visitor to the Himalayas and 
more rarely to the neighbouring plains. 

The Wall-Creeper, in addition to a complete autumn moult, has 
a partial one in the spring by which the colour of the chin and 
throat is changed. The sexes are said to differ slightly from each 
other in summer, but I have not been able to examine summer- 
pi umaged females. The young birds resemble the adults in winter 
plumage very closely, but they have more spots on the wings, and 
these of a rufous colour instead of white, and they have less crimson 
on the wing. 

Tichodroma has a very long, slender, and almost straight bill, 
longer than the head, and the nostrils are long narrow slits. The 
wing is extremely large, but rounded, not pointed, the first primary 
being about half the length of the second, and the second and third 
falling short of the tip of the wing. The tail, composed of twelve 
soft feathers, is about half the length of the wing, and rounded 
very slightly. The tarsus is smooth, and the hind claw longer 
than its toe. 

348. Tichodroma mnraria. The Wall-Creeper. 

Certhia muraria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 184 (1766). 

Tichodroma muraria (Linn^, Blyth, Cat. p. 189 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. \\, 

p. 719 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 383 ; Hume $ Holders. Lah. to York. 

p. 181 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 136 ; Hume, Cat. no. 247 j GadoWj 

Cat.B. M. viii,p. 33L 

The Red-ivinged Wall-creeper, Jerd.; Dewal Gaiyiik, Pushtu j Say- 
gorsa-lamdonff-pho, Lepch.; Suppurotsu, Chamha. 




Fig. 104. Head of T. muraria. 

Coloration. In winter plumage the forehead, crown, nape, and 
ear-coverts are brown ; a ring round the eye and a short super- 
cilium w^hite ; lores mixed ashy and brown ; hind neck, back, and 
scapulars ashy grey ; rump and upper tail-coverts iron-grey ; lesser 
wing-coverts bright crimson ; the outer greater coverts and the 
primary-coverts brown on the inner and dull crimson on the outer 
webs ; the inner greater coverts and the tertiaries brown, tinged 
with ashy ; winglet brown ; quills black tipped with whitish, the 
outer webs of the primaries and secondaries, except those of the 
first three, with the basal half of the outer webs crimson; the 
first four large primaries each with two large white spots on the 



SP1IENOCIC1ILA. 335 

inner webs ; tail black tipped with ashy, which gradually changes 
to while and increases in amount towards the outer feathers ; chin 
and throat pure while; remainder of lower plumage ashy slate; 
the under tail-coverts fringed wilh white; axillaries crimson. 

In summer the crown of the head becomes grey and the chin 
and throat black. The female is said to have a smaller extent of 
the throat black than the male. 

The young resemble the adults in winter plumage, but there is 
less crimson on Ihe wing, and all the quills have each two rufous 
spots on the inner web. These spots gradually disappear, except 
on the first four large primaries, where they eventually turn 
white. 

Bill black; iris blackish brown; legs, feet, and claws black 
(Scully). 

Length nearly 7 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape 1*3. 

Distribution. Throughout the Himalayas from Bhutan to the 
extreme North-west. This species is merely a winter visitor, and 
is found from October to March at all elevations, but generally 
above 2500 feet. It, however, sometimes descends to the plains, 
Hume recording one instance when he procured it at Etawah on 
the Jumna river, and I have seen it from the Bhutan Doars and 
Dehra. In spring it retreats north, and no doubt breeds in Tibet 
and other portions of Central Asia. It inhabits a considerable 
portion of Europe and Asia, and is said to be found in N. Africa. 

Habits, $-c. The Wall-Creeper frequents cliffs and rocks, about 
which it climbs With great ease in search of its food, which con- 
sists chiefly of spiders and insects. It does not appear to breed 
in India. Its nest consists of moss, grass, and hair worked up to- 
gether in a crevice of a rock, and it lays from, three to five eggs, 
which are white freckled with reddish brown and some secondary 
shell-marks of violet-grey. 

Genus SPHENOCICHLA, Godwin-Austen and Walden, 1875. 

The genus Sphenociclila contains two remarkable birds which, 
following Sharpe and having regard also to the entire absence of 
rictal bristles, I do not hesitate to place with the Wrens. They 
are of strong, heavy build, with large feet. Unfortunately 
nothing is known of their habits, and we have nothing but 
structure to guide us, and I am of opinion that the absence of 
rictal bristles, a character possessed by so few birds of this section, 
is of more importance than any other. 

In Sphenocichla the sexes are alike, and, judging from a con- 
siderable series of S. liumii, the young do not differ from the adults. 
The bill is perfectly conical and sharp-pointed when viewed later- 
ally, about the length of the head or a little shorter; the wing is 
short and rounded ; the tail of twelve feathers is greatly graduated, 
the outer feather reaching only over two thirds of the tail ; the 
tarsi and feet are very strong. 



336 CERTITUDE. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Feathers of the throat and breast black, with pale 

shafts S. humii, p. 336. 

b. Feathers of the throat and breast with a submarginal 

white border S. roberti, p. 336. 




Fig. 105. Head of S. humii. 

349. Sphenocichla humii. Hume's Wedge-billed Wren. 

Heterorhynchus humei, Mandelli, S. F. i, p. 415 (1873); Hume, 

Cat. no. 383 bis. 
Sphenocichla humii (Mand.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 283 (part.). 

Coloration. Forehead and sides of the head blackish, with white 
shafts ; the whole upper plumage and wing-coverts golden brown, 
each feather with a pale shaft and very distinctly bordered with 
black, and the feathers of the back, rump, scapulars, and coverts 
also cross-barred with black ; wings and tail dull golden brown 
cross-barred with black; sides of the neck black; a broad supercilium 
grey, reaching to the nape and there terminating in a number 
of drops extending over the sides of the neck ; chin, throat, breast, 
and sides of the body deep black with pale whitish shafts ; centre 
of the abdomen ashy ; vent, flanks, and under tail-coverts golden 
brown, each feather with a pale shaft and distinctly edged with 
black. 

In the dry state the legs and claws are dark brown, the bill 
bluish horny, paler below. 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-9 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from 
gape 1*05. 

Distribution. Native Sikhim only, so far as is at present known, 
from which place there is a considerable series in the British 
Museum, procured by Mandelli's men, and preserved in the Hume 
Collection. Nothing whatever is known about the habits of this bird. 

350. Sphenocichla roberti. Robert's Wedge-billed Wren. 

Sphenocichla roberti, Godw.-Aust. $ Wald. Ibis, 1875, p. 251; 

Hume, S. F. iv, p. 217 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 198, 

pi. vi. 
Stachyrirhynchus roberti (Godw-Aust. Sf Wald.}, Hume, S. F. iv, 

p. 217, note. 
Heterorhynchus roberti (Godiv-Aust. 8f Wald.}, Hume, Cat. no. 383 

ter. 
Heterorhynchus humii, Mand. apud Hume, S. F. xi, p. 135. 



337 

Coloration. The w hole upper plumage pale golden brown, each 
f rat her margined with black and subterminally tipped with ashy ; 
the wing-coverts, back, rump, upper tail-coverts, wings, arid tail 
cross-barred with black; ear-coverts rufous with paler shafts; a 
broad superciliuiii composed of black feathers with subtenninal 
white tips; chin, throat, and sides of the neck, breast, and upper 
abdomen ashy brown edged with black, inside this bordered very 
distinctly and evenly with white; remainder of the lower plumage 
golden brown with whitish subterminal spots. 

In the dry skin the legs are dark brown ; the bill brown with 
the greater part of the lower mandible yellowish. 

Length about 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 2*9 : tarsus I'l ; bill from 
gape 1-05. 

Distribution. Discovered by Mr. Robert on the Hemeo Peak, 
North Cachar hills. This species has also been procured in the 
Manipur hills according to God win- Austen. 



Genus ANORTHURA, Eennie, 1833. 

The genus Anorihura contains two Indian birds which may be 
considered as permanent races of the Common English Wren. 
They inhabit the Himalayas, and are constant residents there. 

In Anorthura the sexes are alike, and the young bird is quite 
like the adult. The bill is very slender and feeble, and about half 
the length of the head ; the wing is extremely short and rounded, 
the first primary being about two thirds the length of the second ; 
the tail, of twelve feathers, is shorter than the wing and not very 
much graduated, the outer feather being about three quarters the 
length of the tail ; the tarsus and the claws are long and slender ; 
and the plumage is barred in both species. 

The Wrens frequent underwood, creeping about, as a rule, and 
flying but little. They build massive nests and lay numerous eggs, 
which are usually spotted but occasionally white. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Plumage davk rufous-brown ; hind toe and claw 

strong, '(3 in length A. nepalensis, p. 337. 

b. Plumage pale rufous-brown ; hind toe and claw 

weak, -55 in length A. negkcta, p. 338. 




Fig. 106. Head of A. nepalensis. 

351 . Anorthura nepalensis. The Nepal Wren. 

Troglodytes nipalensis, Hodys., Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 589 (1845) ; 
id. Cat. p. 158 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 181 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 491 ; 
TOL. I. Z 



338 

Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli ? pt. ii, p. 55; Hume, Cat. no. 333; Brooks, 
S. F. viii, p. 470. 
Anorthura nepalensid (Hodys.^), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 277. 

Marchok-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and upper back dark rufous- 
brown ; the remaining upper plumage, the tail, wiug and its coverts 
the same, closely cross-barred with black ; lores, sides of the head, 
and a short supercilium mingled rufous-ashy and brown ; the 
whole lower plumage brown, greatly infuscated on the vent and 
sides of the body, every portion closely cross-barred with black, 
and with a tinge of fulvous suffusing the whole ; the under tail- 
coverts with a few whitish dots. 

The young resemble the adults, but at first have the upper 
plumage less barred. 

Bill brown ; legs horny brown ; iris hazel-brown (Jerdori) ; legs 
pale reddish brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 3*7 ; tail 1*3; wing 2-1; tarsus '7; bill from 
gape *7. 

Distribution. I have examined specimens of this species from 
Sikhim and Nepal only. At Simla and in the Sutlej valley the 
next species occurs. The Nepal Wren is found at great elevations, 
Blanf ord stating that in Sikhim it was common above 10,000 
feet. 

Habits, <$fc. Blanford observed this species in Sikhim hunting 
over loose moss-covered stones, constantly entering the crevices 
between the blocks and emerging again at a considerable distance. 
He usually saw the birds in small families, three or four together, 
hunting on the ground and low bushes and with the same predilec- 
tion for exploring hollows under stones. The nest of this species 
has not yet been found. 

352. Anorthura neglecta. The Kashmir Wren. 

Troglodytes nipalensis, Hodys. apud Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxvii, 
pt. ii, p. 32 j Hume, N. E. p. 218; id. $ Renders. LcJi. to Yark. 
p. 187. 




Anorthura neglecta (Brooks), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 278 ; Oates 
in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 221. 

Coloration. Resembles A nepalfnsitmfhe distribution of colours 
and markings, but is markedly paler and smaller, with much weaker 
legs and claws, the hind toe and claw measuring -55 in length as 
against '6 in A. nepalensis. 

This bird can only be considered a small pale form of A. nepalen- 
sis, but as the small size and weak feet are correlated with a paler 
plumage it seems entitled to separation. 

Bill brown, dusky above ; feet dusky ; gape fleshy ; iris brown 
(Scully}. 



KL.U'lll'KA. 339 

Length about 3*5 ; tail 1-2; wing 1-8; tarsus '65; bill from 
gape <>. 

Both this species and A. 'nepaltnsis differ from the English Wren 
in being darker coloured and in being barred on nearly every por- 
tion of the plumage. 

Distribution. Throughout Kashmir and the Himalayas to Simla. 
1 have seen no specimens of Wrens collected between Simla and 
the Nepal frontier and cannot say which of the two species occurs 
in that portion of the Himalayas. 

Habits, $c. Brooks found two nests of this Wren in Kashmir in 
May and June one in the roots of a large fallen pine, the other in 
the foliage of a moss-grown tree. The nests were made of moss 
and fibres and lined with feathers. The eggs in the first nest were 
white spotted with red, and in the second pure white without any 
spots. They measured about '66 by '5. 

Genus ELACHURA, n. gen. 

The Wren which forms the type of this new genus differs con- 
spicuously from Anorthura in having a much stouter bill and a 
more graduated tail. The plumage is moreover spotted, not barred. 
According to Jerdon, it appears that Blyth proposed to separate 
this bird under the generic name Spiloptera ; but this name was 
preoccupied twice over in Entomology before the date of Jerdou's 
work and consequently cannot be used for the purpose. 

In Elachura the sexes are alike and the young are no doubt 
similar to the adults in plumage. The bill is about half the length 
of the head and stout. The wing is very short and rounded and 
the first primary is about two thirds the length of the second. 
The tail is much graduated, the outer feather reaching only to the 
middle of the tail, and the tarsus, toes, and claws are long. The 
only species known appears to be resident and incapable of any 
lengthened flight. 

353. Elachura punctata. The Spotted Wren. 

Troglodytes punctatus*, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 589 (1845); id. 

Cat. p. 158 ; Jerd. B. 2nd. i, p. 492 ; Hume, S. F. ii. p. 525 : id. 

S. F. v, p 238 ; id. Cat. no. 3:34. 
Troglodytes formosus, Wald. Ibis, 1874, p. 91. 
Anorthura formosa ( Wald.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 279. 

The Spotted Wren, Jerd. ; Marchok-pho, Lepch. 

Coloration. The upper plumage, wing-coverts, sides of the head, 
and neck dark brown, tinged with rufous on the lower part of the 
rump and the upper tail-coverts, and each feather Avith a small 

* As above stated, Blyth proposed to constitute a new genus for this 
species. At all events the bird is not congeneric with the European Wren to 
which Brehm applied the name ' puuctatus,' aiid therefore Blyth's specific name 
may be retained in preference to Walden's. 



340 

subterminal white spot bordered above and below with black ; inner 
webs of quills brown, the outer barred with chestnut and black ; 
tail reddish brown, cross-barred with black ; lower plumage pale 




Fig. 107. Head of E. punctata. 

fulvous, inclining to rufous on the abdomen and flanks, each feather 
with a triangular white spot, above which is a smaller black one, 
and all the feathers delicately vermiculated with black. 

Bill horny brown ; legs pale brown ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 4'5; tail 1'2; wing 1'8 ; tarsus '65; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Confined to Sikhim, where this Wren appears to be 
found at high elevations only. 



Genus UROCICHLA, Sharpe, 1881. 

The genus Urocichla contains two Wrens which may be recognized 
by their short tail of ten feathers. Their upper plumage is squa- 
mated or scale-like. They are resident species and owing to their 
very short, rounded wings they probably are incapable of flying far. 

In, Urocichla the bill is rather stout and very similar to that of 
Elactmra ; the tail is rounded, the outer feather reaching to about 
three quarters the length of the middle pair, and the tarsus and 
toes are long. The sexes are alike and the young somewhat 
resemble the adult. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Lower plumage plain rufous; middle of 

abdomen white U. longicaudata, p. 340. 

b. Lower plumage rufous, variegated with 

black and white bars U. caudata, p. 341. 

354. Urocichla longicaudata. The Long-tailed Wren. 

Pnoepyg-a longicaudata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 74 ; id. fy Horsf. Cat. 

i, p."398 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 490 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

pt. ii, p. 101 ; xliii, pt. ii, p. 178 ; Hume, Cat. no. 332. 
Pnoepyg-a chocolatina, Godw.-Aust. $ Wald. Ibis, 1875, p. 252; 

Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 195; Hume, S. F. iv, 

p. 218 ; id. Cat. p. 332 bis ; id. S. F. xi, p. 120. 
Urocichla longicaudata (Moore), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 263. 

The Long-tailed Hill- Wren, Jerd. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and the sides of the 
neck olive-brown, each feather with a narrow brown or blackish 



UROCTCTTLA. 341 

margin ; rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail olive-brown with a 
rufous tinge ; coverts and wings brown, with the greater part of the 
outer webs chestnut-brown ; lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts deep 
ashy ; the whole lower plumage ferruginous, the feathers of the 
threat and breast with numerous small brown specks, most conspi- 
cuous in newly-moulted birds ; middle of the abdomen white. 




Fig. 108. Head of U. longicaudata. 

The young bird is uniform rufous above, without any margins 
to the feathers, and the lower plumage is always, from the earliest 
age, like that of the adult. The brown margins commence to 
appear almost at once, but some months elapse before the upper 
plumage presents the squamated appearance of the adult. 

Iris red ; bill black ; legs brown (Cockburri). 

Length about 4-5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2'1 ; tarsus P 8 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Shillong and Cherra Poonjee in the Khasi hills. 
This bird is not known to occur elsewhere, and its reputed occur- 
rence in Afghanistan and Sikhim is erroneous. 



355. Urocichla caudata. The Tailed Wren. 

Tesia caudata, Blyth, J. A, S. B. xiv, p. 588 (1845). 

Pnoepyga caudata (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 179; Jlorsf. $ M. Cat. i, 

p. 181 j Jerd. B. I. \, p. 490 ; Hume, Cat. no. 331 ; 'Sharpe, Cat. B. 

M. vi, p. 305. 

Anura caudata (Blyth), Hume, N. E. p. 218. 
Urocichla caudata (Blyt/i), Gates in Humes N. 8f E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 222. 

The Tailed Hill-Wren, Jerd. 

Coloration. Lores and sides of the head grey; the whole upper 
plumage olive-brown, the feathers with terminal black edges and 
faint shaft-streaks ; wings and their coverts chestnut-brown ; tail 
rufous-brown ; chin and throat bright chestnut ; breast paler chest- 
nut, each feather with a black centre and tip; sides of the body the 
same ; abdomen black, each feather with a white shaft-streak, in 
most cases hidden, and a large subterminal square white spot. 

The young bird is like the adult, but has the black and white 
marks faint and indistinct. 

Bill blackish ; legs brown ; iris brown (Jerdori). 

Length nearly 4; tail 1/3; wing 1*9; tarsus *75; bill from 
gape -5. 

Distribution. Sikhim, at considerable altitudes. Hodgson's plate 



342 CEKTIIIIDJE. 

of this species does not bear any remarks of his own 011 the reverse, 
and I have found this absence of remarks, as a rule, to indicate that 
the bird from which the plate was taken was procured in Sikhim 
and not in Nepal. In these cases, instead of Hodgson's remarks 
in English, there are some notes and measurements recorded in 
Hindustani, probably by some native assistant. 

Habits, fyc. I can find no notes from Hodgson's pen on the nidi- 
fication of this species, although he figures the nest. Hume, how- 
ever, informs us that, according to Hodgson, this bird builds a deep 
cup-shaped nest about the roots of trees or in a hole in fallen 
timber ; the nest is a dense mass of moss and moss-roots, lined 
with the latter. The eggs, four or five in number, are spotless 
white and measure *75 by '54. 



Genus PNOEPYGA, Hodgs., 1845. 

The genus Pnoepyga contains two Wrens which are characterized 
by an extremely short tail of only six feathers ; this short tail is, 
moreover, entirely concealed from view by the long and very ample 
rump-feathers. In other structural characters the genus resembles 
Urocichla. 

The sexes differ considerably in colour, and the young are with- 
out the markings of the adult. Both species are resident on the 
Himalayas and the hill-ranges of Burma. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Wing about" 2*3 ; the greater coverts, secon- 

daries, and tertiaries not tipped with 

fulvous P. squamata, p. 342. 

b. Wing about 2 ; the greater coverts, secon- 

daries, and tertiaries tipped with fulvous. . P.pusilla, p. 343. 

356. Pnoepyga squamata. The Scaly-breasted Wren. 

Microura squamata, Gould, Icon. Av. pi. v (1837). 

Tesia albiventer, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 102 (1837). 

Tesia rufiventer, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. vi, p. 102 (1837). 

Pnoepyga unicolor, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 25. 

Pnoepyga squamata (Gould), Blyth, Cat. p. 179; Horsf. $ M. Cat.i, 

p. 180 ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 488 ; Stoliezka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, 

p. 32 ; Godtv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 101 ; Blanf. J. A. 

S. B. xli, pt. ii, pp. 55, 160 ; Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 234 ; 

Hume. Cat. no. 329. 
Pnoepyga albiventris (Hodgs.}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 302 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 152 ; id. in Hume's N. % E. 2nd ed. i, p. 223. 

The Scaly-breasted Hill- Wren, Jerd. j Marchok-bong, Lepch. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead and the sides of the head and neck 
rich brown with bright fulvous shaft-streaks ; the whole upper 
plumage and the lesser wing-coverts also rich brown with a fulvous 
drop on each feather, the drops becoming bars on the rump and 



PNOEPYGA. 343 

upper tail-coverts ; each feather also narrowly edged with black ; 
wings, median and greater coverts brown, the outer webs broadly 
edged with chestnut-brown ; chin and throat white margined with 
brown ; breast and the middle of the abdomen white, each feather 
with /i large black centre and a narrow black margin ; sides of the 
abdomen and flanks fulvous, marked in a similar manner to the 
breast. 

Female. Similar to the male, but the whole of the lo\ver plumage 
bright fulvous, every part except the chin and throat being marked 
with black as in the male. 

The young have the whole upper plumage and the wings rich 
rufous-brown and the lower parts dusky brown ; no spots whatever. 
In this state they are the P. con-color of Hodgs. MS. 

Legs fleshy brown ; bill dusky brown above, fleshy at the base 
beneath ; iris brown (Jerdon). 

Length about 4 ; tail - 6 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '65. 

Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Sikhim, 
where this Wren occurs at considerable elevations. It has also 
been found in the Khasi bills and near Bhamo. The birds pro- 
cured by Wardlaw Ramsay in Karennee, and identified by Lord 
Walden with the present species, are, I find on examination of the 
skins, P. pusilla, the next species. 

Habits, <Sj"c. Constructs a small nest of moss in May on the trunk of 
a tree not far from the ground, or other similar locality. The eggs, 
three in number, are pure white and measure about -75 by '55. 

357. Pnoepyga pusilla. The Brown Wren. 

Pnoepyga pusilla, Hodgs, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 25; Blyth, Cat. p. 179; 

Horsf. $ M. Cat. i/p. 180; Jerd. B. 1. i, p. 489; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xlvii, pt. ii, p. 23 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 234 ; Hume, 

Cat. DO. 330 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vi, p. 304 ; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 153. 

Pnoepyga squamata, apud Wold, in Btyth's Birds Burm. p. 99. 
The Broivn Hill- Wren, Jerd. 

Coloration. Resembles P. albiventris, sex for sex. Differs in 
being smaller and in having the upper plumage less marked with 
fulvous spots, these spots being fewer and less distinct. On the 
other hand the median and greater coverts and all the secondaries 
and tertiaries are distinctly tipped with fulvous, which is not the 
case in P. albiventris. 

The young are also quite similar to the young of P. albiventris, 
and cannot be distinguished from them till some of the spots on 
the wings appear. 

Bill black, lower mandible paler ; gape whitish ; legs and feet 
pale brown ; claws paler ; iris deep brown (Hume <Sf Davison). 

Length about 3-5 ; tail -5 ; wing 2 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape -6. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; probably Nepal ; Assam ; Khasi hills ; 
Karennee ; Muleyit mountain in Tenasserim. Outside our limits 
this species has been found at Perak. 



344 



Family EEGULID^E. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth ; hinder 
aspect of tarsus bilaminated ; wing with ten primaries ; tongue 
non-tubular ; nostrils clear of the line of the forehead, the space 
between the nostril and the edge of the mandible less than the space 
between the nostril and the culmen ; plumage of the nestling 
resembling that of the adult female, but paler ; rectrices twelve ; 
each nostril covered by a single stiff feather ; sexes slightly dif- 
ferent ; a single moult. 

The only genus of this family contains the Goldcrests, of which 
four species are known. These birds possess a character which 
suffices to separate them from all the other Passeres, viz. a stiff, 
small, and perfect feather over each nostril. This character is 
sufficiently important, in my opinion, to render it desirable to 
elevate the Goldcrests to the rank of a family. 

The single moult and the simple plumage of the nestling ally 
the Regulidce to the Crater op odidce ; and the former appear to be 
very closely connected with the last few genera of the Timeliince, 
such as Proparus and Lioparus, the hairs over the nostrils in these 
being replaced by a feather in Regulus, to serve some purpose 
in its economy which has not yet been discovered. 

One species of Reyulus is a well-known British bird, and the 
same form is found in India. 

In the RegvJidcB the bill is slender, entire, and about one third 
the length of the head ; the rictal bristles are long, and the head 
is subcrested, with a bright patch of feathers on the crown and 
some coronal streaks ; the wing is short and curved, the first pri- 
mary small and the second about equal to the eighth ; the tail is 
composed of twelve feathers (not of ten, as erroneously stated by 
Jerdon) and slightly forked ; the tarsus and the hind claw are 
strong, but the foot is feeble. 

Genus REGULUS, Cuvier, 1800. 
Characters the same as those of the Family. 

358. Regulus cristatus. The Goldcrest. 

Motacilla regulus, Linn. 8yst. Nat. \, p. 3.38 (1766). 
Regulus cristatus, Koch, System d. baier. Zool. p. 199 (1816) ; Blyth, 
Cat. p. 186; Hume, Cat. no. 580; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 67 ; 



HEOULTTS. 345 



1882, p. 270; ,SVW///, 7/,/X l**l,p. 4.~,0; Unfair, Cat. B. M. viii, 
p. 80 ; Gates, in Humes N. $ E. 2nd od. i, p. L>2:{. 
Ilegulus himalayensis, tili/t/i, Jcrd. E. I. ii, p. 200 (18G3) ; StoliczJctt, 
J. A. S. Ii. xxxvii, pt. 'ii, p. 47 ; Hume, N. fy E. p. 373 ; Brooks, 
S. F. iii, p. 240. 

The Himalayan Fire-crest, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. The lores and a space round the eye dull 
white ; forehead and a broad supercilium, ear-coverts, and the 
sides of the head and neck ashy ; sides of the crown broadly black 
streaked with yellow, the two bands enclosing a flame-red patch on 
the crown; hind neck and upper back ashy; upper plumage dull 
green, yellowish on the rump ; tail brown edged with green ; 
wings brown, all the feathers edged with green, the median and 
greater coverts tipped with pale yellow, the later primaries and 
the secondaries yellow at base, then black, the latter colour forming 
a conspicuous patch ; later secondaries and tertiaries tipped with 
whitish ; lower plumage pale buff to yellowish brown. 




Fig. 109. Head of R. crislatus. 

Female. Resembles the male, but has the patch on the crown 
sulphur-yellow. 

The young have neither coronal patch nor streaks ; otherwise 
they resemble the adult, the full plumage of which they assume 
apparently in the first autumn. 

Bill black ; iris deep brown ; legs and claws dark brownish 
green ; feet much paler (Hume). 

Length about 4 ; tail 1'5 ; wing 2-2 ; tarsus -65 ; bill from 
gape -5. 

The Goldcrest of the Himalayas differs in no respect, so far as I 
can see, from the Goldcrest of Europe. 

Distribution. Kashmir and the Himalayas to Sikhim. In summer 
this species is found as high as 11,000 feet, but there is no record 
of the lowest level to which it descends either in summer or winter. 
Scully asserts that the Goldcrest is a summer visitor to Gilgit. It 
is probable, therefore, that it winters in the lower valleys. 

The Goldcrest inhabits Europe and a considerable portion of 
Asia. 

Jfabits, $r.. The nest of the Goldcrest appears to have been found 
only once in the Himalayas. It was discovered at Eogi in the 
Sutlej valley on the 8th June, and was placed at the end of a 
deodar branch, eight feet from the ground. It contained seven 
young birds. The nest was a deep pouch, made of lichens and 
suspended from several twigs. The eggs of this bird are pinkish 
white speckled with red, and measure about '56 by "42. 



346 



SYLYIIDJE. 




Fig. 110. Acrocephalus stentoreus. 



Family SYLVIIDJE. 

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the 
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth or the 
upper one with a single simple notch ; hinder aspect of tarsus 
smooth, composed of two entire longitudinal laminaB ; wing with 
ten primaries ; tongue non-tubular ; nostrils always clear of the 
line of the forehead, the space between the nostril and the edge of 
the mandible less than the space between the nostril and the culmen ; 
plumage of the nestling like that of the adult female, but brighter ; 
rectrices ten or twelve ; sexes generally alike ; a partial or com- 
plete spring moult in addition to the complete autumn moult. 

The Sylviidw, or Warblers, comprise a large number of birds of 
small size and, with few exceptions, of plain plumage. 

Many of them have a complete spring moult, which not only 
causes a change in the colour of the plumage, but also a change in 
the shape and length of the tail. In some the spring moult is 



8YLYITDJ2. 347 

confined to portions of the body, and in others again merely to 
some of the quills of the wings and tail. 

In the Sylviida* the sexes are alike, except in a few genera, in 
which they differ slightly. The young birds are remarkable for 
being more highly coloured than the adults, but they have the 
saint* pattern of colour. It is doubtful if the young birds moult 
in the first autumn ; but if they do so, the moult has apparently no 
effect on the colour of the plumage. In those birds which have a 
complete moult in the spring, the adult plumage is assumed at 
that season ; but in those the spring moult of which is partial or 
imperfect, the young do not assume the adult colours till the 
second autumn. 

The majority of the Warblers are migratory, and the migrations 
of some are far and wide. Others are quite sedentary and in- 
capable of any lengthened flight. 

The Sylviidce of India comprise 110 species referable to 32 
genera. I have Arranged these in two series, the first of which 
includes all the Warblers with twelve tail-feathers, and the second 
those with ten. 

Key to the Genera. 

a. Tail of twelve feathers. 

a '. Feathers of the forehead short, rounded, 
their shafts not elongate ; no hairs or 
bristles on the margin of the forehead 
except the ordinary rictal one3 near the 
gape, 
a". Rictal bristles arranged in a horizontal 

row. 
"'. The feathers of the head and neck soft, 

not spinous. 
a 4 . First primary much less than a third 

of the length of the second. 
a 5 . Wing longer than tail by nearly 

the length of the tarsus .' AEDON, p. 350. 

U* . Wing and tail about equal in 

length. 

6 . Rictal bristles very small ; tail 
much graduated, the outer 
feathers less than three quarters 

the length of tail LOCUSTELLA, p. 351 . 

b 6 . Rictal bristles strong and well- 
developed ; tail less graduated, 
the outer feathers more than 
three quarters the length of 

tail ACBOCEPHALUS, 

6 4 . The first primary longer than a third [p. 355. 

of the second, most frequently equal 
to or exceeding the halt. 

c 5 . Rictal bristles extrejnely short TRIBURA, p. 3G1. 

d 5 . Rictal bristles well-developed. 
c. Bill as long as, or longer than, 

the head ORTHOTOMUS, p. 366. 



348 STLVITD^E. 

d G . Bill decidedly shorter than the 

head. 
a 7 . First primary shorter than half 

the' second. 

y . Wing pointed, the secon- 
daries falling short of tip 
of wing by more than the 

length of hind toe LUSCINIOLA, p. 3G9. 

b 9 . Wing rounded, the secon- 
daries falling short of tip 
of wing by a distance not 
greater than hind toe .... CISTICOLA, p. 370. 
b 7 . First primary longer than half 

the second. 

c*. Third primary falling short 
of tip of wing by a con- 
siderable distance. 
9 . Two rictal bristles on 

each side of the head .. FRANKLINIA, p. 375. 
b g . More than two rictal 
bristles on each side of 
the head. 

rt 10 . Tail much more than 

once and a half the 

length of the wing . . LATICILLA, p. 379. 

b. Tail less than once and 

a half the length of 

the wing GRAMiNicoLA,p.381. 

c? 8 . Third primary reaching to 

tip of wing. 
c 9 . Tail very much longer 

than wing MEGALURUS, p. 382. 

d?. Tail equal to wing .... SCHCENICOLA, p. 384. 
b"'. The feathers of the head and neck [p. 385. 

SpinOUS ACANTHOPTILA, 

6". Rictal bristles arranged vertically CH^ETOHNJS, p. 387. 

b'. Feathers of the forehead disintegrated, the 
shafts lengthened ; some supplementary 
bristles, frequently long and numerous, in 
front of the rictal bristles. 

c". Tail greatly graduated and rounded .... ABUNDINAX, p. 389. 
d". Tail nearly even or sometimes slightly 

forked. 

c'". Supplementary bristles in front of the 
rictal bristles very short ; no frontal 
hairs over nostrils. 
t 4 . Bill from gape to tip longer than the 

middle toe with claw HYPOLAIS, p. 390. 

d 4 . Bill from gape to tip shorter than 

middle toe with claw SYLVIA, p. 394. 

d'". Supplementary bristles very strong and 
numerous ; no frontal hairs over the 

nostrils; bill short and stout IlF/RBivocuLA,p.399. 

e"' . Supplementary bristles not strong but 

fairly numerous ; no frontal hairs over [p. 400. 

nostrils ; bill weak and slender PHYLLOSCOPUS, 



SVLV1ID.E. 349 

/"'. Supplementary bristles very strong and 
numerous, extending up to the cul- 
men, and lying over the nostrils as 
far as the middle of the bill ; bill large 

and wide at base ACANTHOPNEUSTK, 

y'". Supplementary bristles very strong and [p. 411. 

numerous, extending up to the cul- 
men, and lying over the nostrils nearly 

as far as tip of bill , , CRYPTOLOPHA, 

b. Tail of ten feathers. [p. 421. 

c. Tail not subject to variation in length accord- 
ing to season ; obsoletely or not at all cross- 
rayed; less graduated, the tips of the outer 
tail-feathers reaching beyond the middle 
of the tail by more than "the length of the 
hind toe. 

e". AVing and tail of about the same length. 
&'". Nostrils overhung by long hairs. 
e l . Tail very slightly rounded, the outer 
feathers falling short of tip of tail 
by less than the length of the hind 
toe. 

e 5 . Rictal bristles of great length, 
nearly as long as culinen j wing 
rather longer than tail. 

e G . Bill short and pointed ABRORNIS, p. 428. 

f*. Bill long and very blunt TICKELLIA, p. 431. 

f\ Rictal bristles moderate, about 
half length of culmen ; wing 

rather shorter than tail SCOTOCERCA, p. 432. 

/*. Tail considerably rounded, the outer 
feathers falling short of tip of tail 
by more than length of hind toe . . NEORNIS, p. 433. 
*""'. Nostrils not overhung by hairs. 

</'. Supplementary bristles in front of 
rictal bristles ; feathers of forehead 

with lengthened shafts HORORNIS, p. 434. 

A 1 . No supplementary bristles in front of 
rictal bristles ; feathers of forehead 
short, smooth, with shafts not pro- 
duced. 
<f. Bill as long as head, broad, blunt, 

and narrowing gradually PHYLLERGATES, 

h\ Bill only half the length of the [p. 439. 

head, slender, sharp, and narrow- 
ing rapidly. 

(f. Outer tail-feathers falling short 
of tip of tail by length of 

tarsus HOREITES, p. 440. 

h 6 . Outer tail-feathers falling short 
of tip of tail by length of hind 

toe only CETTIA, p. 441. 

/". Tail about half length of wing UROSPHENA, p. 442. 

d'. Tail subject to variation in length according 
to season ; distinctly cross-rayed ; greatly 
graduated, the outer feathers in most cases 



350 SYLVIID^E. 

falling short of middle of tail and never 

exceeding it by more than length of hind 

toe. 

//". Tail about twice length of wing SUYA, p. 443. 

h". Tail about once and a half length of 

wing or less PEINIA, p. 447 



Genus AEDON, Boie, 1826. 

The genus Aedon is represented in India by one species, which 
is a somewhat rare winter visitor and confined at that season to 
the dry parts of the north-west. It is more richly coloured than 
most of the Warblers, the chestnut and white on the tail rendering 
it conspicuous. It is a bird of restricted migration. The bill is 
about half the length of the head, slender and similar in shape to 
that of Locustella (fig. 113). The forehead is clothed with short 
thick-set feathers and there are no supplementary bristles ; this 
character, and the longer wing and foot, separate the species from 
Sylvia, in which Seebohm places it. The tail is very ample and 
much rounded. 




Fig. 111. Wing of A. familiar is. 




Fig. 112. Foot of A. Jamiliaris. 

The Grey-backed Warbler frequents gardens, fields, and low 
jungle and feeds a good deal on the ground, as might be expected 
in a bird with so comparatively long a tarsus. This Warbler 
and its European ally, A. galactodes, were at one time considered 
to be aquatic in their habits, and in this respect to resemble the 
Grasshopper- and Reed- Warblers, but they are now known to be 
rather addicted to dry localities. They construct a cup-shaped 
nest in bushes and low trees and lay four or five eggs, grey marked 
with brown. The Indian species is not likely to be found breeding 
in any part of the Empire. 



LOCUSTELLA. 351 

355). Aedon fainiliaris. The Grey-lacked \Va.-ller. 

Sylvia fainiliaris, Jfenttr. Cat. Ruts. Cam. p. 32 (1832) : Seebohm. 

Cat. B. M. v, p. :',<>. 
Aedon fainiliaris (Men6tr.\ Butler Sf Hume, S. F. iii, p. 476 ; Blanf. 

8. F. v, p. 246 ; Sutler, S. F. vii, p. 183 ; Hume, Cat. no. 492 ter ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 205. 

Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous-brown, the sides of the crown 
more or less dusky ; lower rump and upper tail-coverts chestnut- 
brown ; middle pair of tail-feathers various sometimes chestnut 
with the basal half of the inner web and the tip of the outer brown, 
sometimes chestnut on the basal third of both webs and brown on 
the remainder, in other cases the chestnut and brown vary in extent ; 
the next two pairs chestnut, with a large subterminal black patch ; 
the remainder the same but with broad white tips in addition ; 
wings brown, edged with pale sandy brown ; lores and a patch 
behind the eye blackish ; a distinct buffish-white supercilium from 
the nostril to the nape ; a similar band under the eye followed 
below by a dusky streak ; the whole lower plumage very pale 
vinaceous. 

Legs and feet dusky fleshy ; bill horny above, pale below ; iris 
dark brown (Hume). 

Length about 7 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3'4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '85. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the dry parts of the north-west 
of India, where this species has been procured at Karachi and 
Kotri in August, at Jodhpore in September, and at Deesa in August, 
September, and October. It will probably be found in the Punjab. 
It passes the summer in Persia, Afghanistan, and Turkestan, and 
probably many of the birds do not migrate at all from these 
countries. It extends into Europe. 

Genus LOCUSTELLA, Kaup, 1829. 

The genus Locustella is represented in India by three species of 
somewhat similar appearance and size and of plain colours. They 
are found in reed-bedg, swamps, and wet cover of all sorts, and 
they occur in India only in the winter. Their summer-quarters 
appear to be the northern parts of Asia ; but, judging from a speci- 
men of L. straminea being killed in Native Sikhim in June, it is 
probable that the breeding-quarters of this species may lie in or 
near that country. 

The G-rasshop per- Warblers, as they are called from their peculiar 
note, are very shy and seldom expose themselves to view. They 
are consequently little known and seldom obtained. In Burma, 
however, after shooting one or two specimens I found it quite 
possible to obtain a large number by walking through inundated 
rice-fields, and I found them to be common to an extraordinary 
degree. 

The summer and winter plumages of the adults do not differ in 
any important particular, but the young are very yellow and 
generally more streaked than the adults. The sexes are alike. 



352 SYLVIID^. 

The birds of this genus have a slender bill, about half as long as 
the head ; the rictal bristles are very weak and hardly noticeable, 
and the forehead is very smooth and free from all hairs ; the 
plumage is soft ; the first primary is exceedingly small and the 
second reaches nearly to the tip of the wing ; the tail is very much 
rounded and the feathers have a tendency to be pointed; the under 
tail-coverts are very long. 

Key to tlie Species. 

a. Tail-feathers broadly tipped with white L. certhiola, p. 352. 

b. Tail-feathers without broad white tips. 

a'. Lower plumage streaked L. lanceolate^ p. 353. 

b'. Lower plumage not streaked L. straminea, p. 354. 



360. Locustella certhiola. Pallas 's Grasshopper-Warbler. 

Motacilla certhiola, Pal. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. i, p. 509 (1811). 
Locustella rubescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 582 (1845) ; id. Cat. 

p. 182; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 160. 

Locustella temporalis, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 160 (1863). 
Locustella certhiola (Pall.), Godiv.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, 

p. 270 ; Hume, Cat. no. 521 ; Leyqe, Birds Ccyl. p. 548 ; See- 

bohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 114 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 216 ; id. B. B. i, 

p. 102. 
The Ruddy Reed- Warbler, Jerd. 




Fig. 113. Head of L. certhiola. 

Coloration. Head blackish brown, each feather narrowly edged 
with pale reddish brown ; a collar behind the nape reddish brown 
without marks ; this unspotted collar indicates very old birds ; back, 
scapulars, and wing-coverts dark blackish brown, rather broadly 
edged with reddish brown ; rump reddish brown, without marks ; 
upper tail-coverts reddish brown, each feather with a large central 
drop of black ; the outer tail-feathers nearly all black, the rufous 
margins being small ; towards the middle of the tail each pair of 
rectrices becomes progressively less black and more margined with 
rufous, and the middle pair are rufous with a broad serrated black 
shaft-line ; all the rectrices tipped with white ; eye-streak yellowish 
white ; ear-coverts hair-brown, and a patch below the ear-coverts 
yellowish buff; chin, throat, and middle of abdomen whitish; 
remainder of the underparts delicate buff, becoming darker on the 
flanks and under tail-coverts ; wings brown, the tertiaries edged with 
whitish, and the other quills with pale rufous-brovvn. 



LOCUSTELLA. 353 

As a rule, the underparts are quite unmarked ; but in many birds 
in adult plumage there are a few tiny marks on the feathers of the 
sides of the breast. 

Iris sepia-brown ; legs white ; bill dark brown ; mandible 
ochraceous {Everett). 

The youug bird up to October has the whole upper plumage, 
includiug the coverts and tertiaries, blackish brown ; the feathers 
of the head narrowly, and all the others broadly, margined with 
reddish brown ; rectrices chiefly blackish brown, irregularly mar- 
gined with rufous-brown, and very broadly terminated with whitish ; 
the lower plumage buff, pale on the throat and upper breast, dark 
on the lower breast, and increasing in depth of colour down to the 
tail-coverts ; the throat and breast closely spotted with triangular 
blackish-brown marks ; stripe over the eye and a streak from the 
bill under the cheeks and ear-coverts yellowish buff ; ear-coverts 
hair-brown ; under wing-coverts whitish ; primaries and secondaries 
dark brown, narrowly edged with reddish brown. 

Birds with the bright yellowish-buff lower plumage are not spotted, 
and this is probably the stage into which the nestling moults in 
October or November. In this stage the upper plumage is much 
brighter, the black centres to the feathers being smaller and the 
margins larger ; the rump is almost unstreaked. The black on 
the rectrices is less in extent, and the white tips reduced to the 
same size as in the adult ; the eye-streak, the chin, throat, and the 
whole lower plumage are lively yellowish-buff, becoming deeper and 
passing into warm ochraceous on the flanks and under tail-coverts. 
There are no spots, but a few of the feathers on the sides of the 
neck are obsoletely tipped darker, but so slightly as not to be 
noticeable without close inspection. 

From this stage the bird in spring moults into the full plumage. 
The summer plumage does not apparently differ from that of winter 
except in being rather paler below. 

Length 5-5 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 2'3 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape -7 ; 
the second primary is generally equal to the fourth, but some- 
times slightly longer or shorter. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Burma and portions of India. 
This species does not appear to be rare in some parts of Bengal. 
It has been procured at Cherra Poonjee, in the Andamans, and in 
Ceylon. I observed it to be very common in Southern Pegu in 
the rice-fields near the Pegu Canal from October to December. 
There is no portion of India and Burma, suited to its habits, 
where this bird may not probably be found if looked for. In winter 
it occurs in China and the Malay Archipelago, and it passes the 
summer in Northern Asia. 



361. Locustella lanceolata. The Streaked Grasshopper- Warbler. 

Sylvia lauceolata, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ed. 2, iv, p. 614 (1840). 
Locustella subsignata, Hume, S. F. i, p. 409 (1873), ii, p. 496. 
Locustella lanceolata (Temm.), Wold. Ibis, 1874, p. 139 ; id. in Blyth, 
VOL. i. 2 A 



B54 SYLVIID2E. 

Birds Burm. p. 121 ; Hume, S. F. iv, p. 290 ; Hume # Dav. S. F. 
vi, p. 339 Hume, Cat. no. 520 bis ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 118 ; 
Oafea, & .F. x, p. 215 ; id. B. B. i, p. 104. 
Lusciniopsis heudersonii, Cass. in Proc. Phil. Ac. So. 1858, p. 194. 

'Coloration. Whole upper plumage russet-brown, each feather 
with a distinct dark brown median streak ; wings brown, the pri- 
maries and secondaries edged with russet-brown on the outer webs, 
the tertiaries edged with the same on both webs; tail brown, 
obsoletely edged paler, and the shafts viewed from below white ; 
ear-coverts hair-brown ; sides of the head streaked with russet- 
and dark brown ; chin, upper throat, and middle of the abdomen 
spotless pale ochraceous white ; the remainder of the lower 
plumage darker ochraceous, streaked with blackish brown ; under 
tail-coverts sometimes streakless, more frequently largely streaked 
with blackish brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries pale 
vinaceous. 

The streaks on the lower surface become reduced in aged birds. 
The bird least marked in my series has a few streaks only on the 
middle of the breast and on the flanks, with one or two faint marks 
on the under tail-coverts. In this state it is very like the Indian 
L. straminea. The majority of the birds are densely streaked from 
the chin to the tail-coverts, except on the abdomen, and all these 
are characterized by a richer tone of colouring beneath. 

The tail-coverts vary in the most extraordinary manner. In 
many of the birds they are entirely unmarked ; in others densely 
streaked, and this apparently quite independently of the amount 
of streaking on the other parts of the lower plumage. 

Legs fleshy white ; claws pale horn-colour ; upper mandible 
dark brown, lower one yellow at base, brown at tip ; iris brown. 

Length rather more than 5 ; tail 1*8 ; wing 2*1 ; tarsus '75 ; bill 
from gape *6 ; the second primary is generally intermediate in 
length between the third and fourth, or equal to the fourth. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to Burma and the eastern portions 
of India. The most westerly locality from which I have seen a 
specimen is Etawah. This species probably extends throughout 
Bengal ; I found it very abundant in Southern Pegu in rice-fields 
and grass along the canal, from October to February, and Davi- 
son procured it at various places in Tenasserim down to the 
extreme south of that division. It is also known to occur in the 
Andaman Islands. It summers in Central and Northern Asia and 
in North-eastern Europe. 



362. Locustella straminea. The Turkestan Grassliopper- 
WarUer. 

Acridiornis straminea, Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn. p. 66 (1873) (descr. 
nulla). 



Locustella certhiola (Pa//.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 159. 
Locustella hendersoni (Cass.}, Butler, S. F. iii, p. 



479; Cripps,S.F. 



ACROCEPHALUS. 355 

vii. ]>. 2SJ : Tfumi', Oat. no. 520; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 40(>; Reid 
6'. F. x, p. U ; Barne*, Birds Bom. p. 213. 
Locustella straminea (Severtz.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 117. 
The Lesser Reed- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage olive-brovvu, each feather 
with a central dark brown or black spot ; wings brown, edged with 
olive-brown ; tail brown, faintly edged with olive-brown and tipped 
paler, obsoletely cross-rayed ; lores and an indistinct supercilium 
buffy white ; ear-coverts brownish ; chin, throat, and middle of 
abdomen whitish ; remainder of lower plumage ochraceous ; under 
tail-coverts streaked with brown. 

Upper mandible dark brown ; lower mandible, legs, and feet 
fleshy ; iris light brown (Bingham). 

Length about 5*5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus '7 ; bill from gape *6 ; 
the second primary is shorter than the sixth, but longer than the 
fourth. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of India. I have 
examined specimens from Delhi, Etawah, Cawnpore, Native Sik- 
him, the Bhutan Doars, Asansol, Deesa, Belgaum, and Coirnbatore. 
All these were killed from April to September, except the specimen 
from Native Sikhim, which was procured in June. It is, therefore, 
probable that L. straminea may pass the summer and breed there. 
Cripps records this species from Furreedpore, but I have not had 
an opportunity of examining the specimen referred to by him. 

The summer-quarters of this bird are not known with any 
certainty. 

Genus ACKOCEPHALUS, Naum., 1811. 

The genus Acroceplialus contains five Indian species which are 
common in winter. Three of them appear to remain in suitable 
localities and in limited numbers throughout the summer and to 
breed in India. The majority of these birds, however, leave in 
spring and doubtless go to Central and Northern Asia. 

The Eeed- Warblers are birds of plain plumage closely allied to 
each other, and not easy to be identified except by comparison of 
size or by the structure of the wing. They haunt reed-beds, canals, 
ditches, and almost any locality which is fairly well watered. They 
are great skulkers and are seldom seen, but the harsh note that they 
all have generally betrays their presence. In the breeding-season 
they all have a pleasing song. 

The winter and summer plumages do not vary greatly, the chief 
difference being an intensity of rufous or fulvous in the winter 
after the autumn moult. These birds appear to undergo a com- 
plete moult in the spring. The sexes are alike. 

In the birds of this genus the bill is of considerable length, being 
nearly as long as the head ; there are three large rictal bristles on 
each side of the head, and the forehead is smooth. The first 
primary is very minute, and the second reaches nearly to the tip 

2A2 



356 SYLVIID.E. 

of the wing. The tail is fairly long and greatly rounded, and the 
feathers are rather narrow and pointed *. 



Key to the Species. 

a. Of large size ; wing about 3. 

a. Second primary shorter than the fifth. A. stentoreus, p. 356. 
b'. Second primary equal to, or longer 

than the fourth A. orientalis, p. 357. 

b. Of small size ; wing under 2'5. 

e'. With a distinct black stripe over the 

yellow supercilium A. bistrigiceps, p. 358. 

d". With no black stripe over the super- 
cilium. 
a". Bill from gape to tip measuring 

under 7. 

a'". Second primary between the 
sixth and seventh in length ; 

upper plumage olivaceous .... A. diimetorum, p. 359. 
b'". Second primary between the 
seventh and eighth or equal to 

eighth ; upper plumage rufous. A. agricola, p. 359. 
b" . Bill from gape to tip fully '8 . . . . A. macrorhynchus, p. 360. 

363. Acrocephalus Stentoreus. The Indian Great Reed- 
Warbler. 

Curruca stentorea, Hemp, fy Ehr. Symb. Phys., Aves, fol. bb (1833). 

Agrobates brunnescens, Jerd. Madr. Journ. x, p. 269 (1839). 

Acrocephalus brunnescens (Jerd.), Bh/th, Cat. p. 181 ; Horsf. Sf M. 
Cat, i, p. 331 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 154 '; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 
pt. ii, p. 180; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 119; Godtv.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 270 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, 
pt. ii, p. 77 ; Hume $ Hend. Lah. to Yark. p. 214, pi. xvi ; Leyge, 
S.F. i, p. 488; Blanford, Ibis, 1874, p. 79 ; Butler, S. F. iii, 
p. 478. 

Calamodyta stentorea (H. $ E.~], Hume, N. Sf E. p. 326. 

Calamodyta meridionalis, Legge, S. F. iii, p. 369 (1875). 

Acrocephalus stentoreus (H. fy J?.), Brooks, J. A. S. B, xliii, pt. ii, 
p. 245 ; Hume, Cat. no. 515 ; Leyye, Birds Ccyl. p. 541 ; See- 
bohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 98 ; Doiy, S. F. ix, p. 279 ; Gates, B. B. i, 
p. 94 ; Davidson, S. F. x, p. 307 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 210 ; 
Gates in Humes N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 224. 

The Large Reed- Warbler, Jerd. ; Bora-jitti, Tel. 



* The following species of Reed-Warblers are likely to occur within our 
limits, but are not yet known to do so : 

ACROCEPHALUS ARUNDINACEUS (Linn.}, which occurs iu Afghanistan and 
Yarkand. 

A. sCHCENOBiENus (Linn.), which occurs as far east as Fao in the Persian 
gulf. 

A. STREPEHUS (Vieill.\ which has occurred at Bampur, in Persian Afghan- 
istan. 

A. PALUSTRIS (Bechst.}, which has occurred at Fao and in Persia. 



ACEOCEPHALUS. 357 

Coloration. Upper plumage olive-brown tinged with fulvous, 
especially on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; wings and tail 
brown, edged on the outer webs with fulvous-brown ; lores darker ; 
a pale indistinct supercilium buffish white ; ear-coverts and sides of 
the ueok like the back ; chin and throat nearly white ; remainder 
of lower plumage fulvous, paling on the abdomen. The throat 
and breast in some specimens are streaked with brown. 




Fig. 114. Head of A. stentoreus. 

Iris yellowish brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; mouth orange-yellow ; 
upper mandible dark brown, edges and the whole lower mandible 
dusky flesh-colour; legs plumbeous. 

Length 7*7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus 1-15 ; bill from gape 1 ; 
the second primary equals the fifth, or is sometimes shorter, and 
falls short of the tip of the wing by *15. 

Distribution. Throughout the plains of India in suitable locali- 
ties in winter, from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon, and from 
Sind to Assam, and southwards from Assam to Southern Pegu. 

Many birds remain in the plains during the summer, and their 
nests have been found in the Eastern Nara, Sind, and in Ceylon. 
Others, probably the majority, repair for the summer to Kashmir 
and the Himalayas in general, and some to Central Asia. This 
bird and A. orientalis remain in Burma till the middle of May, and 
it is probable that both species may breed there or not far off. 

Habits, $-c. Constructs a nest of coarse grass attached to reeds 
in or near water. The nest is cup-shaped, deep, and rather 
massive. The breeding-season appears to be from June to August. 
The eggs, generally four in number, are pale green or stone-colour, 
marked with various colours from black to reddish. They measure 
about -89 by -61. 

364. Acrocephalus orientalis. The Eastern Great Reed-Warbler. 

Salicaria turdina orientalis, Temm. $ ScJileg. Fann. Jap., Aves, p. 50, 
pi. xx B (1850). 

Acrocephalus orientalis (Temm. $ Schleg.}, Oates, S. F. iii, p. 337 ; 
Hume # Dav. S. F. vi,p. 338; Hume, Cat. no. 515 bis; Seebohm, 
Cat. B. M. v, p. 97 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 213 ; id. B. B. \, p. 93. 

Coloration. Precisely similar to that of A. stentoreus, except that 
the throat and breast are generally much streaked with brown, 
and I have hardly ever seen a specimen in which this streaking 
was entirely absent. In summer the lower plumage becomes 
paler. 



358 SYLVIID^E. 

The dimensions are those of A. stentoreus. The bill is said to 
be smaller and the tail shorter, but I have not found these points 
of any use in discriminating the two birds. The second primary 
generally equal to the fourth. 

Distribution. This Reed- Warbler occurs plentifully throughout 
Southern Pegu, from the head of the Pegu Canal down to Ban- 
goon, and probably throughout the whole of Tenasserim, for 
Davison observed it at Tavoy and Malawun. It is found ' in 
Burma, so far as my own observations extend, from the com- 
mencement of October to the middle of May. It has occurred in 
the Andamans. In winter it has a wide range, being found in 
south-eastern Asia nearly as far as Australia. It summers in 
North China, Japan, and Eastern Siberia. 

This and the preceding species, A. stentoreus, can only be dis- 
criminated with certainty when the wings are fully grown and 
perfect. The differences may appear very trivial, but they are 
constant, and are associated with a different geographical distri- 
bution. In Pegu the two birds meet ; but here A. stentoreus is 
rare, A. orientalis extremely common. A. arundinaceus, another 
species, has its own geographical range, being confined almost to 
Europe and Africa. It differs from the other two in the shape of 
the wing, the second primary in this bird being as long as the third, 
or, in other words, reaching to the tip of the wing. 



365. Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Schrenck's Reed- Warbler. 

Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Sivinh. Ibis, 1860, p. 51 ; Hume fy Dai\ 
S. F. vi, p. 338 ; Hume, Cat. no. 517 ter ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, 
p. 94 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 214 j id. B. B. i, p. 97. 

Coloration. Upper plumage russet-brown, brighter on the rump 
and upper tail-coverts ; a distinct black streak on each side of 
the crown of the head; below this a broad pale buff supercilium, 
running from the base of the bill ; lores dark brown ; ear-coverts 
hair-brown ; sides of neck like the back ; lower plumage pale buff, 
lighter on the abdomen, and nearly white on the chin and throat ; 
wings and tail brown, edged with russet-brown on the outer webs. 
The lower plumage is more rufous after the autumn moult. 

Iris brown ; mouth pale yellow ; upper mandible brown, lower 
flesh-coloured, slightly dusky at the tip ; legs plumbeous flesh- 
colour ; soles of feet yellow ; claws horn-colour. 

Length 5-1 ; tail 2*1 ; wing 2-1 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from gape '7 ; the 
second primary is generally intermediate in length between the 
sixth and seventh, and sometimes equals the seventh ; the first 
primary is large, measuring *5 inch in length. 

Distribution. Common in Southern Pegu near Kyeikpadein from 
November to April in paddy-fields and grass-jungle. This bird 
has also been found at Tavoy. 

The summer-quarters of this bird appear to be Japan and Eastern 
Siberia. 



A.CEOCEPHALUS. 359 

366. Acrocephalus dumetorum. BlytKs Reed- Warbler. 

Acrocephalus dumetoru.ni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 815 (1849) ; 
id. Cat, p. 826 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat, i, p. 332 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 
j>. 155 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt, ii, p. 181 ; Godiv.-Amt. J. 

A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 270; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 77 ; 
xliii, pt. ii, p. 246 ; id S. F.W, p. 241 ; Anders. S. F. iii, p. 351 ; 
Butler, S. F. iii, p. 479 : Anders. Yunnan E.vp., Ares, p. G22 ; 
Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 545 ; Hume, Cat, no. 516 ; Seebohm, Cat, 

B. M. v, p. 104; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 448; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, 
p. 278 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 96 ; Damson, S. F. x, p. 390 ; Barnes, 
Birds Bom. p. 210 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 226. 

Calamodyta dumetorum (Blyth), Hume, N. $ E. p. 327. 

The Lesser Heed- Warbler, Jerd. Podena, II. ; Tik-tikki, Mussulmans ; 
Tikra-j Benpf. ; Kumpa-jitta. Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage olive-brown, tinged with fulvous, 
not with russet ; wings and tail brown, edged on the outer webs 
with olive-brown ; lores dusky ; over the lores an indistinct pale 
streak reaching to the eye ; ear-coverts and sides of neck like the 
back ; lower plumage pale buff, paler on the chin, throat, and 
abdomen. In summer the buff on the lower parts becomes ex- 
tremely pale. 

Bill dusky, fleshy at base beneath ; legs red-brown ; irides yellow- 
brown (Jerdon). 

Length 5'8 ; tail 2-3; wing2'4; tarsus -9; bill from gape *7; 
first primary *35 ; the second reaches to about the end of the sixth, 
or is intermediate in length between the sixth and seventh. 

The present species may be distinguished from the last by its 
much larger bill, differently shaped wing, and by the absence of a 
rufous tinge on the upper plumage. 

Distribution. In winter throughout the plains of India from the 
Himalayas to Ceylon, and from Sind to Assam, and extending to 
Southern Pegu. 

In summer this species is found in Kashmir and along the 
whole range of the Himalayas to Nepal, in which tract it breeds 
commonly. Many birds, however, appear to migrate to Northern 
Asia. 

Habits, c. This species is less aquatic than the others in its 
habits. It breeds in various parts of the Himalayas at all altitudes 
up to about 7000 feet. The nest is a globular structure of grass 
and reeds with a lateral entrance, and built low down in a bush on 
the bank of a stream. The eggs, four in number, are white, speckled 
with rufous, and measure about -62 by *5. 



367. Acrocephalus agricola. The Paddy -field Heed- Warbler. 

Sylvia (Acrocephalus) agricola, Jerd, Madr.Joum. xiii, pt. ii, p. 131 

'(1844). 

Acrocephalus agricolus (Jerd.), Blyth, Cat. p. 182 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
i, p. 334 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 156 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 
pt. ii, p. 270 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 77 ; Oates, S. F. 



360 SYLVILDJE. 

iii, p. 339; Hume $ Dav. 8. F. vi, p. 338; Hume, Cat. no. 517; 
Butler, S. F. ix, p. 406 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 105 ; Oates, 
B. B. i, p. 95 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 390 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 
p. 2] 1 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 201 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. 
i, p. 229. 

Calainodyta agricola (Jerd.\ Hume, N. fy E. p. 328 ; id. S. F. i, 
p. 190. 

The Paddy-field Warbler, Jerd. ; Terra kumpajitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Whole upper plumage russet-brown, brightest on 
the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail of the same colour, and 
margined brighter on the outer webs ; wings brown, margined 
with russet on the outer webs ; lores dusky ; an indistinct super- 
cilium from the bill to above the eye, and not extending much 
beyond the latter ; ear-coverts and sides of neck like the upper 
plumage; lower plumage pale buff, less bright on the abdomen, 
and becoming almost white on the chin and throat. This is the 
plumage after the autumn moult. In summer the buff of the 
lower parts becomes very pale, and the upper parts are less ruddy, 
being almost earthy brown. 

Iris pale yellow ; eyelids plumbeous ; upper mandible dark 
brown, the lower one fleshy yellow ; mouth orange-yellow ; legs 
and claws pinkish brown. 

Length 5'3; tail 2*4; wing 2-2; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape '7; 
first primary '45 ; the second primary is intermediate between 
the seventh and eighth, and occasionally equals the eighth. 

Distribution. In winter the whole of India from the Himalayas 
south to Coorg and the Wynaad on the west, and to Nellore on 
the east, and from Sind to Assam ; thence down to Southern Pegu 
and Northern Tenasserim. 

In the summer some birds retire to the Himalayas, where they 
breed from Kashmir to Nepal, but the majority appear to pass on 
to Central Asia. 

Habits, fyc. Very aquatic. Has been found breeding in Kashmir. 
A nest found by Brooks on the 13th June was a deep cup of grass 
carelessly put together and built in a rose-bush. It did not contain 
eggs, and none have as yet been procured in India. 



368. Acrocephalus macrorhynchus. The Large-billed Reed- 
Warbler. 

Phyllopneuste macrorhynchus, Hu?ne, Ibis, 18G9, p. 357. 
Acrocephalus inacrorhyuchus (Hume}, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 31 ; id. 

S. F. iii, p. 405 ; id, Cat. no. 517 bis ; Seebohm, Cat, B. M. v. 

Add. p. 404. 

Coloration. The upper plumage and visible portions of wings 
and tail olive-brown ; the lower plumage pale ochraceous ; the 
under wing-coverts and axillaries paler. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 2-4 ; tarsus -85; bill from gape -8; 
the first primary measures *35 ; the second is intermediate between 



TRIBTJRA. 361 

the ninth and tenth ; the closed tail is graduated to the extent 
of -4. 

The type specimen, the only one known, I believe, of this 
species is now in the British Museum. It appears to me to re- 
present an undoubtedly distinct species of Acrocephalus, which 
may be recognized by its abnormally large bill. The bird procured 
by Scully, and identified by him with the present species (S. F. iv, 
p. 146), is also in the British Museum, and is without doubt a 
specimen of Tribura major. 

Distribution. The type was obtained in the Sutlej valley not far 
from Bdmpur. 

Genus TRIBURA, Hodgs., 1845. 

The genus Tribura contains five Indian species, of which four are 
alpine and one an inhabitant of the plains. The former do not 
appear to migrate beyond ascending the mountain-slopes in sum- 
mer and descending them in winter ; but the latter is probably a 
migrant from distant regions, spending the winter in Burma and 
disappearing from that country in spring. 

These Warblers are birds of plain plumage, and the feathers are 
very soft and silky in texture. Some species are spotted on the 
breast. The sexes are alike. The spring moult is complete or 
nearly so, and there is generally a slight difference between the 
summer and the winter plumages. The young birds are very 
yellow. 

The species of Tribura frequent grass and bushes, and are great 
skulkers, and though fond of moisture they are not particularly 
aquatic in their habits. 

The five Indian species of this genus are not perfectly congeneric, 
one differing from the other four in its extremely large bill, whilst 
a second species is distinguished from the other three by the shape 
of the wing. I keep all five together, however, but subsequent 
workers will do well to investigate their claims to generic separation. 

In T. major the bill is as long as the head ; in the other species 
only half the length of the head ; in all cases slender and straight. 
The rictal bristles are extremely minute and invisible without a 
lens. The forehead is very smooth, and free from all hairs &c. 
The wing is fairly long, the first primary varying from rather more 
than a third to half the length of the second, which is long, but falls 
short of the tip of the wing. The tail is very much rounded, and 
the feathers are rather pointed. The tarsus is sufficiently long to 
enable these birds to hop about freely. 

Key to the Species. 

a. First primary much shorter than half the 
second 

a. Bill at gape -8 T. major, p. 362. 

b'. Bill at gape '65 T. intermedia, p. 363. 



362 SYLVIUS. 

b. First primary about half the length of the 

second. 
c'. Sides of the head and neck and the throat 

ashy, the latter spotted T. thoracica, p. 363. 

cT '. Sides of the head and neck rufous ; throat 

whitish, unspotted. 
''. Breast whitish ; lower mandible yellow 

throughout T. luteiventris, p. 364. 

b". Breast grey ; lower mandible dusky, 

almost black at base T. mandellii, p. 365. 

369. Tribura major. The Large-billed Bush-Warbler. 

Dumeticola major, Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, p. 77 (1872) ; Stoliczka, 
8. F. ii, p. 401 ; Hume, 8. F. iii, p. 242 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, 
p. C5j Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 448. 

Acrocephalus macrorhynchus .(Hume), apud Scully, S. F. iv, p. 146. 

Schoenicola major (Brooks), Hume, Cat. no. 519quat. 

Lusciniola major (Brooks), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 124. 

C/iighchi, Turki. 

Coloration. In summer the whole upper plumage and the sides 
of the neck are dull olive-brown, rather darker on the crown, and 
with a fulvous tinge throughout; wing-coverts and tail brown, 
edged with rufescent olive-brown ; tail concolorous with the back ; 
lores whitish ; an indistinct cream-coloured supercilium ; ear- 
coverts whitish with brown tips \ cheeks and sides of the throat 
white, elegantly barred with brown ; chin white ; throat and upper 
breast white, spotted with brown ; middle of abdomen white ; 
remainder of the lower plumage ochraceous, the under tail-coverts 
broadly margined with dull white; under wing-coverts and axil- 
laries pale buff. The sexes are probably alike. 

The nestling is tinged with green throughout, and the throat is 
barred ; the upper breast is spotted with greenish brown. 

The winter plumage of the adult is unknown, but does not pro- 
bably differ from the summer plumage in any appreciable degree. 

Iris dark brown ; bill black above, pale fleshy beneath ; mouth 
and edges of gape yellow ; tarsus pale yellowish-waxy ; toes darkish 
fleshy-brown ; claws brown horny (Scully). In the breeding- 
season the whole bill is black. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 2-3 ; tarsus -8 to -9 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. In summer this species is found throughout Kash- 
mir ; I have examined specimens collected in Gilgit, at Gulmurg, 
and at Kargil from June to August ; and Scully collected it at Kizil 
Aghil, near Sanju, on his way to Yarkand in August. At this 
season T. major occurs from 6000 to 10,000 feet of elevation. Its 
winter-quarters are unknown, but it probably merely descends into 
the warm valleys at this season. 

Habits, $c. Brooks remarks that this Warbler in Kashmir fre- 
quents exclusively places where the ground-cover is abundant ; and 
Scully states that it occurs in long grass, is apparently very rest- 
less, and continually flits in grass from blade to blade. 



TRIBFBA. 363 

370. Tribura intermedia. TJie Burmese Busli-Warller. 

Dumeticola intermedia, Oatcs, S. F. ix, p. 220. 

Tribura intermedia (Dates), Brooks, S. F. xi, p. 445 ; Oates, B. B. i, 

p. 101. 
Tribura taczanowskia (Sivinh.'), Oatcs, S. F. x, p. 218. 

Coloration. The whole upper plumage russet-brown, the wings 
plain brown, the outer webs edged with russet-brown ; tail russet- 
brown, the shafts viewed from below being white, and the tips of 
all the feathers paler ; an indistinct narrow supercilium whitish ; 
lores tinged with brown ; ear-coverts hair-brown, with the shafts 
paler ; cheeks white, the feathers generally tipped with brown ; 
whole lower plumage white, tinged with buff, especially on the 
breast, flanks, and under tail-coverts, the feathers of which are 
broadly tipped with white ; axillaries and under wing-coverts pale 
buffy white. 

The young are strongly suffused on the lower plumage and cheeks 
with deep yellowish buff, and the feathers of the throat are gene- 
rally tipped with dusky brown. 

Upper mandible and tip of the lower dark brown ; remainder of 
bill white ; mouth white ; legs whity flesh-colour; claws pale horn ; 
iris hazel-brown. 

Length 5-5; tail 2*4; wing2'2; tarsus '8; bill from gape * 65. 

This species resembles T. luteiventris more closely than it does 
any of the others, but it may be separated at once from it by the 
size of the first primary ; the colour of the plumage is also suffi- 
ciently distinct. 

T. taczanoiuskia is a Chinese species of which only a young spe- 
cimen is known. The two birds will, I expect, prove to be quite 
distinct when adults are hereafter compared. 

Distribution. Known at present only from the immediate vicinity 
of Kyeikpadein in Pegu, where this species occurs in the cold 
weather from November to the middle of February. Seebohm 
possesses a bird from the Bhutan Doars which appears to be refer- 
able to this Bush- Warbler. 

Habits, <$fc. Frequents paddy-fields, stubble, and grass, and is a 
great skulker, seldom showing itself. This bird seems to feed 
on the ground a good deal. 

371. Tribura thoracica. The Spotted Busli- Warbler. 

Salicaria affinis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 82 (J844, descr. nulla); 

id. Cat. Mamm. $c. Nepal, pp. 64, 151 (1846). 
Dumeticola thoracica, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 584 (1845) ; id. Cat. 

p. 183. 
Horornis flaviventris, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. 31 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, 

p. 162 ; Brooks, S. F. x, p. 170. 
Dumeticola affinis (Hodgs.}, Horsf. 8f M. Cat. i, p. 334; Jerd. B. I. 

ii, p. 158 ; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 142 ; Brooks, 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 246; id. S. F. iii, p. 286. 
Dumeticola brimneipectus, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 19 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xli, pt. ii, p. 164; Hume, S. F. i, p. 494; id. N. $ E. p. 328; 

Brooks, J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 246 ; id. S. F. viii, p. 475. 



364 

Schcenicola affinis (Hodgs.), Hume, Cat no. 519 ; id. 8. F. xi, p. 205. 
Schoenicola brimneipectus (Blyth). Hume, Cat. no. 519 bis. 
Schcenicola flaviventris (Hodgs.), Hume, Cat. no. 524. 
Lusciniola thoracica (Blyth), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 124, pi. vi. 
Lusciniola flaviventris (Hodgs.\ Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 131. 
Tribura thoracica (Blyth), Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 229. 

The Spotted Reed-Warbler the Yellow-bellied Hill- Warbler, .Terd. 

Coloration. In summer the whole upper plumage, wings, and 
tail are rufescent olive-brown ; lores and a rather distinct super- 
cilium ashy white ; sides of the head and neck ashy brown ; chin 
and abdomen pure white ; throat ashy brown, with numerous black 
spots ; breast ashy; sides of body, vent, and under tail-coverts dull 
rufous-brown, the last broadly tipped with dull white. The sexes 
appear to be alike, judging from the specimens I have examined. 

In winter a good deal of the ashy brown on the sides of the head 
and neck and on the throat and breast becomes ochraceous, and the 
spots on the throat are reduced in size and number. 

The young bird has the chin, throat, and abdomen dull yellow 
with a greenish tinge : and the remainder of the lower plumage is 
dull ochracous brown ; there are a few brown mottlings or irregular 
bars on the throat, and in this plumage the birds are Horornisflavi- 
ventris, corresponding exactly with Hodgson's types. 

In winter the bill is brown ; legs pale fleshy ; iris hazel (Cock- 
burn); in summer the bill is deep black. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2'5 ; wing 2*1 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

Distribution. Nepal and Sikhim, extending to the Bhutan Doars 
and across the valley to Shillong. Godwin-Austen also records this 
species from the Megna river in Sylhet. In the British Museum 
there are specimens collected in the N.W. Himalayas by Pinwill, 
and in Kashmir by Jerdon. 

Habits, 6fc. This species appears to be resident wherever it is 
found, or to migrate very locally. It occurs up to 9000 feet of 
elevation. Its nest has been found in Nepal and Sikhim, a cup 
loosely made of dry leaves and grass, and built in a low bush. The 
eggs, three or four in number, are white with purplish-red spots 
and specks, and measure *68 by '55. The breeding-season appears 
to be June and July. 



372. Tribura luteiventris. The Broivn , Bush- Warbler. 

Tribura luteoventris, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1845, p. SO ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. 
i, p. 335 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 161 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. J329 ; Brooks, 
J. A. S. B. xliii, pt, ii, p. 246 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 285 ; Hume, Cat. 
no. 522 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 231. 

Pseudoluscinia luteoventris (Hodc/s.), Blyth, Cat. p. 182. 

Horornis erythrogenys, Hume, Ibis, 1872, p. 108 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 410. 

Tribura erythrogenys (Hume), Hume, Cat. no. 522 bis. 

Lusciniolaluteiventris (Hodgs.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 125. 

The Plain-brown Reed- Warbler, Jerd. 



TRIBUBA. 365 

Coloration. In suniiner the whole upper plumage, wings, and 
tail are rufous-brown ; lores and a very short indistinct superciliuin 
greyish white ; sides of the head rufous, the ear-coverts with pale 
shafts ; chin, throat, middle of breast and of abdomen dull white ; 
linger tail-coverts and sides of the body dull rufous-brown, the 
former narrowly tipped with dull white. 




Fig. 115. Wing of T. luteiventris. 

In winter the plumage is much the same as in summer, but the 
sides of the head are brighter rufous {T. erythrogenys), and the sides 
of the neck, breast, body, and the under tail-coverts are a bright 
ochraceous brown. 

The young resemble the adults in winter plumage, but are suf- 
fused with yellow beneath, and they are tinged with ochraceous on 
the sides of the head and neck. 

Iris hazel ; bill pale brown ; legs dark fleshy-brown (CoMurn} ; 
in summer the upper mandible of the bill is almost black, in winter 
nearly entirely yellow. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 2'1 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from 
gape -6. 

The type of T. enjthroyenys and another specimen labelled the 
same in the Hume Collection are in my opinion nothing else than 
T. luteiventris in fresh spring plumage of the first year. The type 
was procured on the 20th May at Darjiling. This species was 
described by Hume in 1872. Brooks has written on the label 
of the type " luteiventris, I think ;" and there can be little question 
he is right. Hume, however, so late as 1881 (S. P. xi, p. 206, note) 
was still of the opinion that T. eryihroyenys was " very marked." 
I regret that I cannot find any character by which to separate it 
from T. luteiventris. 

Distribution. Nepal, Sikhim, the Bhutan Doars, and the Khasi 
hills. In the Pinwill collection in the British Museum there are 
some specimens from Simla, and others described as having been 
procured in the X. W. Himalayas. This species does not appear to 
be migratory beyond accommodating itself to climate by moving up 
and down the slopes of the mountains. 

373. Tribura mandellii. Mandela's Bash- Warbler. 

Dumeticola maudelli, Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 284 (1875), viii, p. 475. 
Tribura mandellii (Brooks), Brooks, S. P. ix, p. 240. 
Schcenicola mandellii (Brooks), Hume, S. F. xi, p. 205. 

Coloration. Resembles T. luteiventris. Differs in having the 



366 SYLVIUS. 

breast ash-grey and in having a few spots or marks, sometimes 
obsolete, sometimes more or less distinct, on the throat and breast, 
in having the bill rather larger, the upper mandible always blackish 
and the lower one dusky, not yellow throughout. 

Of the same size as T. luteiventris. 

Distribution. Sikhim (February to May) ; Shillong (October). 



Genus ORTHOTOMUS, Horsf., 1821. 

The genus Orthotomus contains three Indian species of rather 
bright plumage, approaching in this respect Cryptoloplia, Abrornis, 
Tickellia, and Phyller gates. Prom the first of these it differs by 
the absence of all hairs on the forehead and over the nostrils, and 
from the other three by the possession of twelve tail-feathers. 

The Tailor-birds are remarkable for the skill they display in the 
construction of their nests. Wherever they occur they are toler- 
ably common, and in every case they are resident, without the 
slightest tendency to migrate or even to move locally. The sexes 
differ slightly in each species ; and the spring moult is apparently 
only a partial one, resulting in no change of colour. One species, 
however, is notable for the acquisition in the spring, by the male 
alone, of a tail of extraordinary length : in the autumn the ordi- 
nary short tail is resumed. The Tailor-birds are furnished with 
certain long soft hairs springing from the nape. 

In this genus the bill is as long as the head, broad and rather 
flat. There are a few rictal bristles on each side, but no supple- 
mentary hairs, and the forehead is very smooth and flat ; the 
wing is very short and rounded, the first primary large and the 
next two graduated; the tail has twelve feathers and is much 
graduated ; the tarsus is long, and these birds move on the ground 
with ease. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper body-plumage yellowish green. 

a'. Axillaries, under wing-coverts, edge of 

wing, and under tail-coverts white, 

merely tinged with yellow O. sutorius, p. 366. 

b'. The same parts brig-lit yellow O. atrigularis, p. 368. 

b. Upper body-pluniage ashy O. ruficeps, p. 368. 

374. Orthotomus sutorius. The Indian Tailor-bird. 

Motacilla sutoria, Forst. Ind. Zool. p. 17 (1781). 

Motacilla longicauda, Om. Syst. Nat. i, p. 954 (1788). 

Orthotomus longicauda (Gm.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 144 ; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

i, p. 317 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 165 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 331. 
Orthotomus sutorius (Forst.}, Sharpe, Ibis, 1877, p. 109; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 642 ; Hume, Cat. no. 530 ', Scully, S. F. 

viii, p. 305 ; Leyye, Birds Ceyl. p. 517 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 214 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 231. 



ORTHOTOMUS. 367 

Sutoria sutoria (Forst.), SJiarpgj Cat. B. M. vii, p. 215 ; Gates, B. B. 

i, p. 107. 

I'hutkifTL.; Tuntuni, Beng. ; Patia, Nep. ; Likku-jitta, Tel.; Tavik, 
Cing. 

Coloration. Forehead and anterior half of crown rufous, shading 
off into ashy on the remainder of the crown and nape ; lores 
greyish white ; ear-coverts very pale rufescent ashy, with the shafts 
white ; cheeks and lower plumage dull white, tinged with yellowish 
and washed with olive-grey on the sides of the body ; back, rump, 
scapulars, and upper tail-coverts yellowish green ; middle tail- 
feathers coloured like the back ; the others greenish brown, each 
feather narrowly tipped white and with a patch of brown in front 
of the white tip ; wings and coverts brown, narrowly edged with 
yellowish green ; thighs rufous. There is a concealed black spot 
on each side of the neck. 

Iris reddish yellow ; eyelids plumbeous, the edges reddish yel- 
low; upper mandible dark horny, the lower pale flesh-colour; 
legs reddish flesh-colour ; claws pale horn. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 : wing 1-9 : tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape *6. 

The above are the dimensions of the male and female in winter 
plumage and of the female in summer plumage. In summer the 
male acquires very elongated middle tail-feathers and the pair next 
to them are also long. At this season the total length of the male 
is 7*5 and the tail 4-5. 

The female differs but slightly from the male, merely having the 
rufous on the head paler. 

Tenasserim birds are noticeably smaller, having the wing 1'5 to 
1'7, and the nape is tinged with lilac. 

0. maculicoUis, which occurs in the Malay peninsula, may be 
recognized by the white streaks on the ear-coverts. 

Distribution. A permanent resident throughout the Empire and 
Ceylon, ascending the Himalayas and other hill-ranges up to 
4000 feet of elevation. This species is no doubt rare in Sind and 
portions of the Punjab, but it appears to be found in all parts 
of those Provinces. In Burma its range ceases at Mergui accord- 
ing to Davison, who failed to procure it south of that town. It 
extends into Siam and China. 

Habits, $c. Inhabits well-wooded tracts, low jungles, gardens, 
and also grass-lands where interspersed with bushes. Breeds from 
May to August, constructing its nest in a receptacle formed by 
sewing the edges of a leaf, or sometimes two leaves, together. 
The nest is composed of cotton-down, hair, and fine grass. The 
eggs, three or four in number, are either reddish white or bluish 
green, boldly marked with brownish red. They measure about 
64 by -46. 

This bird is generally found solitary or in pairs, and it has a 
remarkably loud note for its size. When the bird utters this 
note, the black marks on the sides of the neck become distinctly 
visible. 



368 SYLYIIDJE. 

375. Orthotomus atrigularis. The Black-necked Tailor-bird. 

Orthotomus atrogularis, Temm. PL Col. livr. 101 (1836) ; Horsf. & 

M. Cat. i, p. 316 ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1877, pp. 16, 113 ; Hume Sf Dav. 

S. F. vi, p. 345 ; Hume, Cat. no. 530 bis ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 219 ; 

id. B. B. i, p. 109 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 220 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. i. p. 235. 
Orthotomus flavoviridis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 79 ; Godw.-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 166 ; xlvii, pt. ii, p. 25. 
Orthotomus nitidus, Hume, S. F. ii, pp. 478, 507 ; iii, p. 325. 




Fig. 116. Bill of 0. atrigularis. 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, crown, nape, and lores chest- 
nut; ear-coverts, cheeks, and chin white, with the blackish 
bases of the feathers showing through ; upper plumage and wing- 
coverts yellowish green ; wings dark brown, edged with green ; 
tail green, the edges lighter, the outer feathers tipped with yel- 
lowish and subterminally dark brown ; a large patch on the throat 
black ; lower part of the breast and sides of the body ashy ; abdo- 
men white ; thighs rufous ; under wing-coverts, axillaries, edge of 
wing, and under tail-coverts bright yellow. 

Female. Differs in having no black patch on the throat. The 
young resemble the female. 

Iris orange-brown ; eyelids plumbeous ; upper mandible brown, 
lower one and gape flesh-colour ; legs flesh-colour ; claws pale 
horn -colour. 

Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas, from the 
Kangit river in Sikhim to the Dhansiri valley, Assam ; the Garo 
hills ; Cachar ; the southern portions of Pegu and the whole of 
Tenasseriin. This species extends down the Malay peninsula. 

Habits, <$fc. Frequents forest country. Mandelli found the nest 
near the great Eangit river on the 18th July. Both the nest and 
eggs resemble those of 0. sutorius. 



376. Orthotomus ruficeps. The lied-headed Tailor-bird. 

Edela ruficeps, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 309 (1831, nee Less. Cent. Zool. 

p. 212, pi. 71). 

Orthotomus edela, Temm., Blyth, Cat. p. 144. 
Orthotomus ruficeps (Less.), Horsf. <y M. Cat. i, p. 316 ; Sharpe, 

Ibis, 1877, p. 114; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 346; Hume, Cat. 

no. 530 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 224 ; Oates, . B. i, p. 108. 



LUSCINIOLA. 3C9 

Coloration. Male. The forehead, crown, and nape chestnut ; 
back, scapulars, and rump ashy; upper tail-coverts ashy rufous ; 
tail chestnut, the feathers blackish near the basal halves of the 
shafts ; wings and coverts brown edged with ashy ; cheeks, lower 
half of the ear-coverts, and entire lower plumage white, tinged 
with ashy on the sides of the body; thighs ferruginous. 

Female. Differs from the male merely in the tail-feathers being 
blackish near the shafts throughout the whole length, with an 
expansion of this colour near the tip. 

lu females the lower mandibles are fleshy pink, upper mandibles 
horny brown ; the legs and feet were fleshy pink in one, in another 
the feet, claws, and back of tarsus were fleshy, front of tarsus 
brown ; iris in one salmon, in the other deep brown (Hume <$f 
Davisoii). 

Length about 5 ; tail 1-5 ; wing 1-9 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from 
gape -8. 

Distribution. The extreme southern point of Tenasseriin, extend- 
ing down the Malay peninsula to the islands. 

Genus LUSCINIOLA, Gray, 1841. 

The genus Lusciniola, according to my views, contains but one 
Indian species. Seebohra, on the contrary, in addition to the pre- 
sent species, makes it include Tribura, Arundinax, Herbivocula, 
and a portion of Phylloscopus. From the first of these, Lusciniola 
differs in having fairly strong rictal bristles, and from the other 
three in having no supplementary hairs in front of the rictal 
bristles, and there are other differences in the shape of the wing 
and tail. 

In this genus there appears to be a complete spring moult, but 
unaccompanied by any change of structure or by any noteworthy 
alteration of colour. The sexes are alike. 

The Sedge- Warbler is quite aquatic in its habits, being always 
found iii reed-beds in or close to water, from which it is not easily 
dislodged. It is very likely to be a resident species in India as it 
is in Southern Europe. 

L. melanopogon recalls to mind Acroceplialus bistrigiceps, from 
which, however, it may be separated at once by its large first 
primary. 

Lusciniola has a slender bill about two thirds the length of the 
head, two clearly visible rictal bristles but no supplementary hairs 
in front of them, the forehead being smooth and sharply defined ; 
the wing is fairly long, the first primary less than half the length 
of the second, which reaches nearly to the tip of the wing ; the 
tail is well graduated, and the tarsus of considerable length. 

377. Lusciniola melanopogon. The Moustached Sedge-Warbler. 

Sylvia melanopogon, Tenim. PL Col pi. 245, f. 2 (1823). 
Lusciniola melanopogon (Temm.), Hume, S. F. i, p. 190; id. Cat, 

VOL. I. 2 B 



370 SYLVIID^E. 

no. 518 bis; Held, S. F. x, p. 44 ; Seebohm, Cat, B. M. v, p. 132; 
Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 211. 




Fig. 117. Head of L. melanopogon. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape black, edged with rufous- 
brown ; hind neck, back, arid scapulars rufous-brown, streaked with 
dark brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts plain rufous-brown ; 
wings and tail brown, edged with rufous-brown ; lores and under 
the eye dark brown ; a white supercilium from the nostrils to the 
nape ; ear-coverts mixed rufous and white ; chin, throat, and 
abdomen white ; remainder of lower plumage very pale buff ; axil-, 
laries and under wing-coverts white. 

Bill deep greenish brown above, below lighter and fleshy at 
base ; legs, feet, and claws greenish brown ; iris brown (Bingham). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 2'5 ; tarsus *85 ; bill from 
gape -65. 

Distribution. Sind, and eastwards near Delhi, Etawah, and 
Lucknow, in swamps and reed-beds on the margins of lakes and 
rivers. This bird is probably a resident in all these places, although 
no one appears to have procured it in the summer. It extends 
westward into Europe. 



Genus CISTICOLA, Kaup (1829). 

The genus Cisticola contains four Indian species of small size, 
which, on account of their complex plumage, have given much 
trouble to the ornithologist. They are now much better under- 
stood than they were a few years ago. The Indian species all have 
two complete moults a year, in the case of one giving rise to no 
alteration of colour worthy of note, but in the other three causing 
a very decided change of colour between the summer and the 
winter plumages, and accompanied in all four by a radical change 
in the form and length of the tail. In three species the sexes are 
alike in the winter only, but in the fourth the sexes are alike 
throughout the year. 

Sharpe has done excellent work in his Catalogue in bringing 
these troublesome birds into some order, but he has united three 
Indian species^ an error of which I was myself guilty a few years 
ago. With the larger amount of material now available, however, 
in the Hume and Tweeddale collections, it is possible to arrive at 
safer conclusions. 

The Fantail-Warblers are resident species in India, inhabiting 
grass and corn, but are in no degree aquatic in their habits. They 



CISTICOLA. 371 

feed a good deal on the ground, and are not shy or difficult to 
observe. 

I restrict the genus to those Warblers with a seasonal change 
of length of tail, accompanied by a short first primary (less than 
half the length of the second) and a very slender, sharp-pointed 
bill. I'hese characters exclude FranJclinia, which has a large first 
primary, a shorter and rounder wing, and a larger and blunt bill. 

These Warblers have a moderate tail, almost short in summer, 
evenly rounded, and forming a perfect fan, whence the English 
name ; there are two short rictal bristles, no supplementary hairs, 
and the forehead is smooth. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Upper plumage streaked ; the crown 

plain. 

a '. Crown chestnut C. erythrocephala tf sest., p. 371. 

b'. Crown pale yellow C. tytleri J sest., p. 372. 

c'. Crown golden yellow C. volitans $ sest., p. 373. 

b. Upper plumage streaked, including 

the crown. 

d '. Tips to all the tail-feathers indis- 
tinct, dull rufous-white. 
a". Crown rufous with black streaks, 
the rufous preponderating . . 
a'". Back ashy, streaked with [hyem., p. 373. 

black C. volitans $ sest. & ? <~? $ 

b'". Back rufous, streaked with 

black C. erythrocephala Q sest. & 

b". Crown black, with narrow ful- [c? $ hyem., p. 371. 

vous edges, the black prepon- 
derating much ; a broad rufous [p. 372. 
collar round the hind neck . . C. tytleri 5 aest. & <$ $ hyem., 
e'. Tips to the lateral tail-feathers 

very broad and pure white .... C. cursitans, p. 374. 



378. Cisticola erythrocephala. The Red-headed Fantail- 
Wctrbler. 

Cisticola erythrocephala, Jerd., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx, p. 523 (1851) ; 

Jerd. B. /. ii, p. 175 ; Hume, S. F. v, pp. 94, 351, 406 ; id. Cat. 

no. 540 ; JDavison, S. F. x, p. 392 ; Terry, S. F. x, p. 476. 
Cisticola exilis, Vig. $ Horsf., Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 269 (part.). 

The Red-headed Grass- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. In summer the forehead, crown, and nape 
are chestnut, shading off into dull rufous, which forms a collar on 
the hind neck and sides of neck ; back rufous, streaked with black ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts rufous-brown ; tail black with white 
tips ; wings and coverts dark brown, edged with rich fulvous ; sides 
ot the head and the whole lower plumage bright ferruginous. 

Female. In summer resembles the male in summer, but the fore- 
head, crown, and upper tail-coverts are black, each feather edged 



372 

with rufous ; the tail is broadly edged w,ifch olive-brown, tipped 
with dull rufous-white, and subterminally black, these marks being 
very clear when viewed from below. 

The male and female in winter resemble each other and are like 
the female in summer. 

Iris burnt sienna ; lower mandible, legs, feet, and claws fleshy ; 
upper mandible pale brown (Davison). 

Wing 1*9 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from gape "55 ; in summer the 
tail is 1'5, and the total length of the bird about 4; in winter the 
tail is 2, and the total length about 4'5. 

The bird described by Jerdon appears to have been a male in 
summer plumage, with a tail of the length it usually is in winter. 

The young are like the adults in winter, but differ in being rich 
yellowish below. 

Distribution. This bird has been found at Saugor in the Central 
Provinces ; on the Brahmagiris in Coorg, and the Peria Forest hills ; 
in the Karkur Pass leading from the Wynaad into Lower Malabar ; 
and upon the Palni hills, at Mount Nebo, Kukal, and Kodaikanal ; 
in all which places there is no doubt this is a resident species. It 
frequents grass like the other Fantail- Warblers. 

379. Cisticola tytleri. The Yellow-headed Fantail- Warbler. 

Cisticola tytleri, Blyth, fide Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 176 (1863) ; Godw.- 
Aust. J. A. S. B. xlv, pt. ii, p. 199 ; Hume, S. F. v, pp. 94, 350 ; 
id. Cat. no. 541; id. S. F. xi, p. 211. 

Cisticola melanocephala, Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 212 ; Godw.-Amt. 
J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 165, pi. x, fig. 1, xlv, pt. ii, p. 80; Hume, 
S. F. v, pp. 93, 350 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 041 ; 
Hume, Cat. no. 539 ter. 

Cisticola ruticollis, Wold. A. M. N. H. (4) vii, p. 241 (1871) ; Hume, 
S. F. iii, p. 283. 

Cisticola exilis, Vig. $ Horsf., Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 269 (part.). 
The Cream-coloured Grass- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Male. In summer the forehead and crown are clear 
pale yellow ; nape, hind neck, and sides of neck dusky yellow ; sides 
of the head and the whole lower plumage pale fulvous or yellowish 
buff ; back ashy brown, streaked with black ; wing-coverts and 
quills dark brown, edged with fulvous ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
fulvous-yellow ; tail black, narrowly tipped white. 

Female. In summer the forehead, crown, and upper tail-coverts 
are streaked with black ; the hind neck and the sides of the neck 
rufous-brown, forming a broad collar ; otherwise she resembles the 
male. 

Both sexes in winter have the forehead, crown, and nape deep 
black, with narrow fulvous edges ; hind neck and sides of neck 
rufous, forming a broad, immaculate collar ; back and upper tail- 
coverts black, with fulvous edges ; rump plain fulvous ; tail dark 
brown, very broadly edged with olive-brown and subterminally 
darker, the middle pair of feathers being almost entirely olive- 
brown ; all the feathers tipped with dull rufous-white ; wings and 



CISTICOLA. 373 

coverts dark brown, edged with fulvous ; ear-coverts brown with 
pale shafts ; sides of the head and the whole lower plumage pule 
fulvous. 

Bill fleshy brown ; legs fleshy yellow ; iris buff (Jerdon). 

AVing 1*8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape *5 ; in summer both sexes 
measure about 4 in length, and the tail is 1*2; in winter the 
length of both sexes is about 4-5, and that of the tail 1/9. 

Distribution. The base of the Himalayas from the Bhutan Doars 
to Dibrugarh and Sacliya ; the Khasi hills; Dacca; Manipur and 
Bhamo. 



380. Cisticola volitans. The Golden-headed Fantail- Warbler. 

Calamanthella volitans, Switiji. Journ. N. China As. Soc. 1859, p. 226. 
Cisticola volitans (Sivinh.), Oates, S. F. x, p. 219 ; Oates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 236. 
Cisticola exilis, Vig. $ Horsf., Oates, B. B. i, p. 117 j Sharpe, Cat. 

B. M. vii, p. 269 (part.). 

Coloration. Male. In summer the forehead, crown, and nape are 
golden yellow; the hind neck duller, tinged with brown, and sepa- 
rated from the nape by a dusky band ; back ashy, streaked with black ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts fulvous-yellow ; tail black, tipped with 
dull white ; wings and coverts dark brown, edged with fulvous ; 
sides of the head and the whole lower plumage pale fulvous or 
yellowish buff ; the abdomen whitish. 

Female. In summer resembles the male in summer, but the 
forehead and crown are dusky golden yellow streaked with dark 
brown ; the hind neck and sides of the neck dull golden yellow, 
without streaks, forming a more or less uniform collar ; tail black, 
edged with olive-brown and tipped with dull rufous-white, and with 
a subterminal black band when viewed from below. 

The winter plumage of the Burmese bird is not known. It will 
probably be blackish above, and similar in general to that of 
C. tytleri. 

Iris hazel-brown ; upper mandible dark brown ; lower mandible 
and gape fleshy pink ; legs and claws flesh-colour. 

In summer the length is about 4; the tail 1*25; wing 1*8; 
tarsus -75 ; bill -5. The total length and the length of the tail in 
winter are not known. 

I provisionally identify the Burmese bird with Swinhoe's C. voli- 
tans, but I am not satisfied that the two are absolutely identical, 
nor that the Burmese and Chinese bird, or either of them, if dis- 
tinct, extends down to Australia. The series from each country 
is at present inadequate for a correct opinion to be arrived at. 

Distribution. Southern Pegu, along the grassy jungles on both 
sides of the Pegu Canal from one lock to the other, but most com- 
mon where the soil is sandy and suitable for the growth of thatch- 
grass. 

llal>its, fyc. Similar to those of C. cursitans, but the present species 
has a more musical and bell-like note. It breeds in May and June 



374 SYLVIID.E. 

and probably throughout the rains, constructing a beautiful nest, 
composed entirely of the flowering heads of grass, and attached to 
several stalks of grass growing in a thick clump. The eggs are a 
pale blue spotted with rusty brown, and measure *55 by *43. 

381. Cisticola cursitans. The Rufous Fantail- Warbler. 

Sylvia cisticola, Temm. Man. d'Om. 2 e ed. i, p. 228. pi. (1820) ; id. 

PL Col. pi. 6, tig. 3 (1820). 
Prinia cursitans, FranU. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 118. 
Cisticola schcenicola, Bp. Comp. List S. JEur. fy N. Amer. p. ]2 

(1838) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 145 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 174 j Hume, N. $ E. 

p. 343; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, pi. x, fig. 2. 
Cisticola omalura, Blyth, Cat. p. 145 ; id. J. A. 8. B. xx, p. 176 (1851 ). 
Cisticola homalura, Hume, S. F. v, pp. 90, 350; id. Cat. no. 541 bis. 
Cisticola cursitans (Frankl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 145; Horsf. fy M. Cat. 

j, p. 324; Hume, S. F. v, p. 90; id. Cat. no. 539; Legge, Birds 

Ceyl. p. 531 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 217 ; Gates in Hume's N. & 

K 2nd ed. i, p. 236. 
Cisticola manipurensis, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 47; id. J. A. 

S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 165, pi. ix, fig. 1 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 397, v, 

p. 90 ; id. Cvt. no. 539 bis. 
Cisticola cisticola (Temm.'), Oates, B. B. i, p. 115; Sharne, Cat. 

^.M.vii,p.259. 

The Rufous Grass- Warbler, Jerd.; Ghas ka-phutki or Ghas ka-pit- 
pitti, Hind. ; Yedru-jitta, Tel. ; Kher-yhusa, II. at Bhagulpore ; Tuntunia, 
at Monghyr. 




Fig. 118. Bill of C. cursitans. 

Coloration. In summer the whole upper plumage is dark brown 
or black, with rufous margins to all the feathers; rump plain 
rufous ; wings and coverts dark brown, edged with fulvous ; tail 
brown, edged with rufous, broadly tipped white, subterminally deep 
black, and with a rufous patch in front of this black ; lores, super- 
cilium, cheeks, and the whole lower plumage buffy white ; ear- 
coverts brownish. 

In winter the plumage is practically the same as in summer, but 
the tail is without the rufous patches above the subterminal black 
spots. 

Iris light yellowish brown ; bill flesh-coloured, dark along the 
culmeri ; legs and claws pinkish ; mouth black at the breeding- 
season, dusky at other times. 

In summer the length is about 4*5; tail 1-5; wing 2'1 ; tarsus 
8 ; bill from gape '6 ; in winter the tail measures 1*75, and the 
total length is correspondingly increased. 

Distribution. Every portion of the Empire and Ceylon where the 
country is suitable, but not on hills at any great elevation. Outside 



FRANKLINIA. 375 

our limits this bird has an immense range in Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. 

Habits, $c. This species "frequents corn-fields and grass-laud, and 
is everywhere abundant 1 in such surroundings. It has a sharp 
clear note, mostly uttered while the bird is soaring in the air, 
which it frequently does, rising from one clump of grass and de- 
scending to another. It breeds from April to October, construct- 
ing a deep tubular nest in a clump of grass, to the stems of which 
the structure is attached. The nest is made of line grass chiefly, 
to which are added cobwebs and vegetable down. The eggs, 
usually live in number, are white, or tinged with green, speckled 
with red and purple, and measure '59 by *46. 

Genus FRANKLINIA, Blyth, 1863. 

The genus Franklinia contains four Indian species, three of 
which have hitherto been included in Prinia by all ornithologists 
except Sharpe. Prinia was instituted by Horsfield for Prinia 
familiaris of Java, a Wren- Warbler with ten tail-feathers; and 
there can be no doubt that it is desirable to keep the Wren- 
Warblers in two separate genera, Prinia being retained for the 
birds with ten tail-feathers, and Franklinia for those with twelve. 
I have already stated my reasons why the latter birds cannot be 
included in Cisticola. 

The history of one species of Franklinia is incomplete. The 
other three have a complete double moult every year attended by 
a change in the length of the tail, and two have a marked change 
of colour as well. The sexes are always alike. 

The Wren-Warblers are all resident species or merely partial 
migrants on the hills only. They frequent grass and bushes, either 
in the open or on the outskirts of forest, and are fairly abundant, 
except one species, about which little is known. 

In these birds the bill is about two thirds the length of the head, 
slender, but not so finely pointed as in Cisticola. The rictal bristles 
are strong and two in number. There are no supplementary hairs 
in front of them, and the feathers of the forehead are compact 
and smooth. The wing is very rounded and feeble, the first 
primary more than half the length of the second, and the next three 
graduated. The tail, even in summer, is very ample and well- 
graduated. The tarsus is strong. 

Key to the Species*. 
a. Forehead and crown of same colour. 

a. Tips of tail-feathers shorter than width 

of feathers and dull white, 
a". Crown and upper plumage of same 

colour F. gratilis, p. 376. 

* I cannot identify Prinia humilis, Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 144, said to have 
twelve tail-leathers. Hume apparently no longer considers it a good species, as 
he enters it in his ' Catalogus' with a note of doubt. It appears from the de- 
scription to be Franklinia gracilis. 



376 STLYIID^E. 

b". Crown darker than upper plumage . . F. rufescens, p. 377. 
b'. Tips of tail-feathers longer than width of 

feathers and pure white F. buchanani, p. 378. 

b. Forehead rufous; crown bluish ashy F. cinereicapilla, p. 379. 

382. Franklinia gracilis. Franklin 9 s Wren- Warbler. 

Prinia gracilis, Frankl. P. Z. S, 1831, p. 119 ; Blyth, Cat. p. 143 ; 

Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 172 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 341 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 136 ; 

Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 641 ; Hume, Cat. no. 536 ; 

Brooks, S. F. viii, p. 476 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 216. 
Prinia hodgsoni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 376 (1844) ; Blt/th, Cat,. 

p. 143 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 322 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 173 ; 

Hume, N. fy E. p. 342 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 136; Legge, S. F. iii, 

p. 203 ; Anders. Yunnan Expcd., Avas, p. 641 ; Hume Sf Dav. S. F. 

vi, p. 348 ; Oates, S. F. vii, p. 48 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 523 ; 

Hume, Cat. no. 538 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 217 ; Hume, S. F. xi, 

p. 208. 
Prinia rufula, Godiv.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 47 ; id. J. A. S. B. xliii, 

pt. ii, p. 105, pi. ix, fig. 2 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 397 ; id. Cat. 

no. 536 ter. 
Cisticola gracilis (Frankl.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 253 j Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 119. 
Franklinia gracilis (Frankl.), Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 240. 

Franklin's Wren- Warbler ; the Malabar Wren- Warbler, Jerd. 




Fig. 119. Bill of F. gracilis. 

Coloration. In summer the upper plumage, sides of the head, 
wings, and tail are ashy grey, the wings edged with pale rufous, 
the tail with a subterminal patch of brown on each feather and 
tipped with whitish ; ear-coverts whitish in front, greyish behind ; 
cheeks, chin, throat, abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts white ; 
breast ashy ; under wing-coverts and axillaries white. 

In winter the upper plumage and tail are rufous-brown ; the 
wings brown, broadly edged with rufous ; the tail with subterminal 
dark patches and white tips ; under plumage white, tinged with 
fulvous ; a whitish line over the lores reaching to the eye. 

Iris hazel-red ; edges of eyelids orange ; legs yellowish orange ; 
claws horn-colour ; bill dark brownish black ; mouth black. After 
the breeding-season the mouth becomes flesh-coloured and the edges 
of the eyelids change to plumbeous. 

Length 4'5 ; tail 1/9 ; wing 1'8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape "55 ; 
in winter the tail is longer, measuring about 2*4 inches, and the 
total length of the bird is correspondingly increased. 



FRANKLINIA. 377 

Distribution. The whole of the Empire and Ceylon, except Sind 
and the more desert portions of Rajputana. This species is also 
absent apparently from Central and Southern Tenasserim. With 
these exceptions it is generally spread over the whole country. 
It aseends the Himalayas and other mountains to a considerable 
elevation, for I have seen specimens collected in Kashmir, at 
Murree, and Darjiling, in Native Sikkim, and at Shillong. It is 
everywhere a constant resident except on the higher parts of the 
hills, which it probably abandons on the approach of winter. 

Habits, $c. F. yracilis frequents forests and wooded parts of the 
country, as well as grass-lands. It breeds throughout the rains, 
constructing a nest of grass in the cavity formed by a leaf, the 
edges of which are skilfully stitched together. The eggs, three in 
number, are pale blue, spotted with reddish brown, or sometimes 
entirely unspotted, and measure "58 by *42. 



383. Franklinia rufescens. Beavan's Wren- Warbler. 

Prinia rufescens, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 456 (1847) ; id. Cat. 

p. 143; Godw.-Amt. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 16(3; Anders. 

Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 640 ; Hume, Cat. no. 536 bis j id. S. F. 

xi, p. 211. 
Prinia beavani, Wold. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 551 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 136; 

Gates, S. F. v, p. 158 ; Hume $ Dav. S. F. vi, p. 349 ; Hume, 

Cat. no. 538 bis; Bingham, S. F. ix, p. 186; Gates, S. F. x, 

p. 219. 
Prinia poliocephala, A. Anders. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 370, pi xix ; Hume, 

S. F. vii, p. 319 ; id. Cat. no. 535 bis ; id. S. F. ix, p. 286. 
Cisticola beavani ( Wald.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 255 ; Oates, 

B. B. i, p. 120. 

Cisticola poliocephala (A. Anders.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 257. 
Franklinia rufescens (Blyth), Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, 

p. 242. 

Coloration. In summer the lores are brown ; a streak from the 
nostrils over the eye white ; forehead, crown, and nape ashy brown; 
back, wing-coverts, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts rufous- 
brown; tail more rufous, tipped with white, and each feather with 
a large subterminal spot of brown ; wings brown, edged with rufous- 
brown, and the tertiaries wholly of this colour ; sides of the head 
ashy; lower plumage white, washed with buff, brighter on the 
flanks. 

In winter the forehead, crown, and nape are a paler ashy, not 
contrasting so much with the plumage of the remaining upper 
parts. 

Iris reddish brown ; bill horn-colour, pinkish at base ; legs and 
claws pinkish ; month flesh-colour. 

Wing 1-65 ; tarsus '75; bill from gape '6; in summer the total 
length is about 4-5 and the tail 1'7; in winter the corresponding 
dimensions are 5 and 2. 

Apart from the dark head, this species may be distinguished 



378 SYLVIUS. 

from F. gracilis by its much stronger bill, which, moreover, never 
turns black in the summer. 

Distribution. Throughout the lower ranges of the Himalayas 
from Kiunaun to Upper Assam, and southwards from the latter 
Province through Burma to the extreme end of Tenasserim. 

Habits, fyc. Frequents the outskirts of forests or well-wooded 
parts of the country. Breeds during the monsoon, commencing 
in May. The nest, made of fine grass, is placed in the cavity 
formed by stitching together the two edges of a soft leaf of a tree 
or shrub. The eggs, three in number, are glossy pale blue, speckled 
with reddish brown, and measure '61 by '45. 



384. Franklinia buchanani. The Rufous-fronted Wren- Warbler. 

Prinia buchanani, Blytli, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 376 (1844). 

Drymoica buchanani, Blyth, Cat. p. 143. 

Franklinia huchanani (Blytli), JercL B. I. ii, p. 186 ; Hume, N. 8f E. 
p. 358 j Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 241 ; Hume, S. F. i, 
p. 195 ; Adam, S. F. i, p. 382 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 486 ; Hume, 
Cat. no. 551 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 47 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 223 ; 
id. Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. 1886, p. 51 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 
2nd ed. i, p. 243. 

Cisticola buchanani (BlytJi), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 246. 

Coloration. At all seasons of the year the upper plumage and 
the sides of the neck reddish brown, brightest on the forehead and 
crown ; wings and coverts with broad edges of the same ; tail 
brown, faintly cross-barred, all the feathers except the middle 
pair broadly tipped white and subterminally darker ; lores and a 
supercilium white; ear- coverts and under the eye whitish; lower 
plumage white, the flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts tinged with 
fulvous; thighs ferruginous. 

Iris light brown to orange-red ; upper mandible dusky, lower 
pale fleshy ; legs and feet pale fleshy brown. 

Wing 2*1 ; tarsus '7 ; bill *6 ; total length in summer about 5, 
tail 2'3 ; total length in winter 5*5, tail 2'7. 

Although this bird has two complete moults a year there is no 
change in the colour of the plumage in summer and winter, nor 
does the bill become black in summer. 

Distribution. Throughout Sind, Rajputana, the lower part of the 
Punjab, the North-western Provinces, Central India, and the 
Central Provinces, extending to the east as far as Lohardugga. 
Jerdon states that this bird is found throughout the Carnatic and 
the tableland of Southern India, and there are three specimens 
in the British Museum labelled Madras. I have seen no recently 
collected specimens from any place south of the latitude of 
Ahmednagar. 

Habits, 6fc. Found commonly in small troops in open country. 
Breeds from May to September, constructing a nest of grass and 
vegetable fibre of various shapes, sometimes like a purse or a cup, 
at other times globular. It is built in a low bush as a rule. The 



L.VTICILLA. 379 

eggs, four or five in number, are whitish speckled with clingy red, 
and measure '62 by '48. 



38o. Franklinia cinereicapilla. Hodgson'* Wren- Warbler. 

Prinia cinereocapilla, Hodys., Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 77 ; Horsf. $ 

M. Cat. i, p. 322 ; Jerd, B. 1. ii, p. 172 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 341 ; 

Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 242 j Hume, S. F. vii, p. 320 ; id. Cat. no. 537 ; 

id. S. F. ix, j>. 286. 

Cisticola cinereicapilla (Moore}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 256. 
Frankliuia ciuereicapilla (HoJys.), Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. 

i, p. 246. 

Coloration. In winter the forehead and a supercilium are rufous ; 
crown, nape, lores, and a band behind the eye dark bluish ashy, 
narrowly cross-barred with blackish ; upper plumage and edges of 
wing bright rufous ; tail rufous, tipped paler, and with a sub- 
terminal dark band; cheeks, ear-coverts, and the whole lower 
plumage pale fulvous. The summer plumage is not known. In 
the dry state the bill is deep black and the legs fleshy brown. 

Length in winter about 4' 7 ; tail in winter 2-4 ; wing 1'7 ; 
tarsus *8 ; bill from gape '6. 

Distribution. This rare species was procured by Hodgson in 
some part of Nepal, and his birds are in the British Museum. I 
have seen specimens that were procured by Mandelli in the 
Bhutan Doars, and by Brooks at Dhunda on the Bhagiruthee river. 
Blanford (J. A. S. B. xl, pt. ii, p. 165) notes this bird from Sikhim, 
but his description does not in the least agree with this species, 
but rather with F. rufescens. 

Hume surmises (1. c.) that F. cinereicapilla may be an abnormal 
variety of Prinia socialis, but the different number of tail-feathers 
in the two species is quite sufficient to negative such an idea. 



Genus LATICILLA, Blyth, 1845. 

The genus Laticilla contains two Indian species characterized 
by very large tails. It is not certain whether their spring moult 
is complete, but the tail is certainly moulted and differs in length 
at the two seasons. The upper plumage is streaked in both 
species. 

These birds frequent reeds and grass, and Hume describes the 
Sind species as being the greatest skulker he knows of after Cettia 
orientalis. 

The bill is about half the length of the head, there are three 
rictal bristles, and the members of this genus agree with all other 
Reed-birds in having no supplementary hairs, and in having the 
frontal feathers short and smooth. The wing is very short and 
rounded, the first primary large, and the next three graduated ; 
the tail is very long and greatly graduated. 



380 SYLYIID^E. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Under tail-coverts dark ferruginous L. burnesi, p. 380. 

b. Under tail-coverts greyish white like abdomen. L. cinerascens, p. 381. 

386. Laticilla burnesi. The Long-tailed Grass-Warbler. 

Eurycercus burnesii, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 374 (1844) ; Jerd. B. 

L ii, p. 74. 

Sphenreacus burnesii (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 140. 
Laticilla burnesi (Blyth}, Hume, S. F. i, p. 180; Butler, S. F. vii, 

pp. 182, 191 ; Hume, Cat. no. 443 j Doig, S. F. viii, p. 373 ; S/iarpe, 

Cat B. M. vii, p. 119 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 184 ; Oates in 

Hume's N. $ F,. 2nd ed. i, p. 247. 
The Long-tailed Reed-bird, Jerd. ; Hidela, Sind. 




Fig. 120. Head of L. burnesi. 

Coloration. Lores, a ring round the eye, and a narrow super- 
ciliurn white ; sides of the head and cheeks white, or pale ru Fes- 
cent streaked with black ; forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, sides 
of the neck, and the whole back and scapulars rufous-brown 
broadly streaked with black, and the rufous brighter on the mantle ; 
rump and upper tail-coverts olive-brown, with obsolete shaft- 
streaks ; tail olive-brown, darker along the shafts, the laterals 
tipped with fulvous ; wing-coverts olive-brown with darker centres ; 
quills with the outer webs olive-brown ; chin, throat, middle of 
breast and abdomen white ; sides of the breast and abdomen oliva- 
ceous, streaked with brown ; under tail-coverts dark ferruginous. 

Bill brown above, pale straw below ; legs, feet, and iris brown 
(Butler). 

Length up to 7'5 ; tail in winter up to 4*3, in summer 3*7 ; 
wing 2'2 ; tarsus *8 ; bill from gape '65. 

Distribution. Upper Sind from the junction of the Chenab and 
Indus rivers to Larkha'na, and also on the Eastern Kara, where 
Doig found this species breeding. Jerdon records it from Monghyr 
on the Ganges in March. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to September, constructing a 
nest in a tussock of grass. The nest, the shape of which is not 
described by Doig, but which, judging from his dimensions, is cup- 
shaped, is composed of coarse grass lined with finer materials. 
The eggs, three in number, are pale green blotched with purplish 
brown, and measure '72 by '54. 



GRAMINICOLA. 381 

387. Laticilla cinerascens. Daifs Long-tailed Grass- Warbler. 

Eurycercus cinerascens, Wald. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, p. 156 (1874) ; 

Hume, S. F. iii, p. 280 ; id. Cat. no. 443 bis. 
Laticilla cinerascens (Wctld.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 119. 

Coloration. Upper plumage ashy olive streaked with brown ; 
upper wing-coverts and visible portions of quills plain ashy olive, 
with the shafts and the portion near them very dark brown, and 
probably with fulvous tips ; lores, a ring round the eye, cheeks, 
chin, and throat pure white; remainder of lower plumage pale 
greyish white; upper part of ear-coverts ashy olive, lower part 
albescent. 

Bill in the dry state dark brown, with the base of the lower 
mandible pale ; legs dark brown. 

Length about 6 ; tail 3'2, and probably up to 4 ; wing 2 ; 
tarsus '8 ; bill from gape *6. 

The only two specimens of this bird known are in the British 
Museum. They are poor skins, and it is difficult to draw up a 
very accurate description from them, especially of the tail, which 
is very much worn down in both examples. 

Distribution. Dhubri, Lower Assam, where the types were pro- 
cured by Dr. Day on the 27th November, 1873. 



Genus GRAMINICOLA, Jerd., 1863. 

The genus Graminicola contains but one species, and this is found 
in India. It has only a partial moult in the spring, confined appa- 
rently to the tail, which varies considerably in length at the two 
seasons. The sexes are alike. The upper plumage is streaked, 
and the tail is very ample. 

This bird frequents grass-lands, and is very fond of concealment. 
It is a resident species, probably never moving more than a few 
yards from its selected home. 

The bill of this genus is tolerably stout and about half the 
length of the head, and there are four large rictal bristles, but no 
supplementary hairs, and the feathers of the forehead are firm and 
close. The wing is like that of Laticilla. The tail is very large 
and greatly graduated. 

388. Graminicola "bengalensis. The Large Grass- Warbler. 

? Megalurus verreauxi, Tytler, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, p. 176 (18/54) 

(descr. nulla). 
Graminicola benjralensis, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 177 (1863) ; Godio.-Aust. 

J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. ii, p. 167; xlv, pt. ii, p. 80; Hume, Cat. 

no. 542 ; id. S. F. ix, p. 255 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 234 ; Gates 

in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 249. 
Drymoica bengalensis (Jerd.), Hume. N. fy E. p. 345. 

Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, back, and upper tail-coverts 
black, each feather edged with tawny fulvous ; rump plain tawny 



382 

fulvous ; tlie feathers of the hind neck black with white margins, 
forming a collar different in appearance to the back ; wing-coverts 
and quills dark brown, the former very broadly, the latter very 
narrowly edged with tawny fulvous ; tail black, margined with 
olivaceous, broadly tipped w r bite, and indistinctly cross-barred ; 
lores, a supercilium, and round the eye greyish white ; ear-coverts 
rufescent ; sides.of neck, breast and body, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts ochraceous, the latter with black shaft- streaks. 

Legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; bill brow r n, pale fleshy on 
basal half of lower mandible; iris reddish brown (Hume}. 

Wing 2-4 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from gape '7 ; length in summer about 
6'5, of tail 2-8 ; length in winter about 7, of tail 3-5. 




Pig. 121. Head of G. bengalensis. 

The plumage of this bird is subject to considerable variation, as 
is the case in all birds that live in reeds and get the margins of 
their feathers worn away in various degrees regardless of season, 
sex, or age. 

Distribution. Jerdon first observed this bird on the banks of the 
Ganges, and subsequently in Cachar. It occurs in the Bhutan and 
Buxa Doars and up the Assam valley to Sadiya. It appears to be 
common in Sylhet and Cachar, and both Hume and Godwin- 
Austen procured it in Manipur. In the British Museum there is 
a specimen from Siam. 

Habits, #c. A nest, supposed to be of this species, is said by 
Hume to be a massive and deep cup, fixed between three reeds, con- 
structed of sedge and vegetable fibre firmly wound together and 
round the reeds, and lined with fine grass-roots. The egg is said 
to be a dull green, faintly speckled with dull purplish and reddish 
brown. 

Genus MEGALURUS, Horsf., 1821. 

The genus Megalurus contains one Indian species which occurs 
in a somewhat erratic manner over a considerable portion of the 
Empire. This bird appears to have little or nothing of a spring 
moult ; its tail is not changed, and probably what little moult it 
has at that season is confined to some of the body-feathers. The 
young, however, are intensely and richly coloured, which shows the 
affinity of this species for the Warblers. 

Megalurus frequents plains of grass and the banks of rivers, 
feeds on the ground a good deal, and is not so fond of hiding itself 



MEGALUHUS. 383 

as some of its allies ; in fact, I have found it an easy bird to 
observe. It has a fine song, loud and cheerful, uttered as the bird 
flies up into the air and descends with motionless wings some 
fifty yards from where it started. 

In M t -</it f urns the sexes are alike; the bill is strong; the wing 
is less rounded than in most of the sedentary Warblers, the third 
primary reaching to the tip of the wing, and the first being of very 
large size. The tail is very much longer than the wing, pointed 
and much graduated. The rictal bristles are strong, there are no 
supplementary hairs, and the feathers of the forehead are remark- 
ably short and close. Hume has drawn attention to the curious 
formation of the foot : it is deeply cleft between the middle and 
inner toe, and this latter is partially reversible. This peculiarity 
explains the rapidity and ease with which the bird climbs about 
amongst reeds and reed-grass. 

389. Megalurus palustris. The Striated Marsh- Warbler. 

Megalurus palustris, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 159 (1820) ; 
Bli/th, Cat. p. 139 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 330 ; Jerd. B. Ind. ii, 
p. 70 ; Hume, N. 8fE. p. 276 ; Sail, S. F. iv, p. 233 ; Hume $ Dav. 
S. F. vi, p. 295 ; Hume, Cat. no. 440 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., 
Aves, p. 639 ; Oates, S. F. x, p. 209 ; id. B. B. i, p. 106; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M. vii, p. 123 ; Hume, S. F. xi ; p. 175 ; Oates in Hume's 
N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 249. 

The Striated Marsh-Babbler, Jerd. ; lal-oggin, H. ; Nul-claypee, 
Assam. 




Fig. 122. Head of M. palustris. 

Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous-brown, the head rather 
rufous, and each feather with a dark brown or blackish stripe down 
the shaft, the feathers of the back and scapulars each with a broad 
black stripe down the middle ; wing-coverts blackish brown, broadly 
edged with fulvous-brown; quills blackish brown, the primaries 
narrowly, and the other quills broadly, edged with rufous-brown ; 
tail fulvous-brown, the shafts and the portions of feathers near them 
dusky ; a broad supercilium, becoming indistinct near the nape, 
greyish white ; chin and throat white ; sides of the neck and all 
the lower plumage earthy brown, tinged with buff on the flanks, 
vent, and under tail-coverts ; a few streaks of brown on the breast 
and under tail-coverts. 

The young are very similar to the adult, but they have the 
supercilium and the whole lower plumage suffused with yellow ; 
the adult plumage is assumed in February. 



384 

Iris pale brown; eyelids plumbeous ; bill horny brown, dark on 
the upper mandible, and rather pale on the lower; mouth dark 
bluish brown ; legs pale pink ; claws pinkish horn-colour. 

Length up to 10 ; tail 4'9 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1*4 ; bill from gape 
1 ; the female is considerably smaller. 

Distribution. This bird has rather a remarkable area of distri- 
bution so far as is known. Beginning on the west it is found at 
Hoshungabad on the Nerbudda ; thence through Seoni to Sam- 
balpur and in the valley of the Mahanadi in Orissa, where it has 
been procured at Boad and Sonepur. Jerdon records it from the 
banks of the Waiuganga and Indravati rivers. It is again found 
in Dacca, and then in the Bhutan and Buxa Doars, extending up 
to Sadiya. Southwards from Assam it occurs in all suitable 
localities down to Central Tenasserim, being extremely common in 
Manipur and many parts of Southern Pegu. It appears to be 
absent from the Malay peninsula, but it is found again in Java. 

Habits, tyc. Breeds from April to June, or later, making a deep 
cup-shaped nest of grass-leaves in a tussock of grass and laying four 
eggs, which are white speckled with blackish and purplish brown ; 
they measure -9 by '63. 

Genus SCHCENICOLA, Blyth, 1844. 

The genus Schcenicola contains one Indian bird which has been 
till lately remarkable for its extreme rarity and local distribution. 
We owe it to Mr. Prank Bourdillon and Col. Butler that we are now 
well acquainted with the species. 

Schcenicola has two thorough and complete moults a year, chang- 
ing the colour of its plumage and the length of its tail at each 
nioulfc. The sexes are alike, and the young birds are tinged with 
yellow. This genus resembles Meyalurus in many of its habits, 
especially in its fondness for grass and reeds, and in its habit of 
soaring in the air singing. 

In Schcenicola the bill is rather short, being only half as long as 
the head ; there are two strong rictal bristles, no supplementary 
hairs, and the feathers of the forehead are short and compact. The 
wing is fairly developed, the third primary reaching to the tip of 
the wing, and the first two being of large size. The tail at both 
seasons is very ample and well graduated. The tarsus is remark- 
ably long, denoting a ground-feeding bird. 

390. Schcenicola platyura. The Broad-tailed Grass- Warbler. 

Thimalia platyura, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. 8. xiii, p. 170 (1844). 
Schoenicola platyura (Jerd.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 73 ; flume, S. .F. vii, 

p. 37 ; id. Cat. no. 442 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 532 ; Brooks, S. F. 

ix, p. 209 ; Hume, 8. F. ix, pp. 211, 234; Butler, 8. F. ix, p. 401 ; 

Damson, 8. F. x, p. 383 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 110 ; Barnes, 

Birds Bom. p. 183 ; filacgregor, 8. F. x ; p. 438 ; Gates in Hume's 

N. $ E. 2nd ed. i, p. 251. 
The Broad-tailed Reed-bird, Jerd. 



ACANTHOPTILA. 385 

Coloration. In summer, the lores and a short indistinct super- 
cilium whitish ; chin, throat, and middle of abdomen pure white ; 
remainder of the lower plumage rich ochraeeous brown ; the under 
tail-coverts dark brown, tipped with dull white ; the whole upper 
plumage, sides of the head, and neck rich brown tinged with rufous, 
brighter on the edges of the quills and coverts ; the back, rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and tertiaries indistinctly cross-rayed ; tail 
brown, distinctly cross-barred, darker and obsoletely tipped pale. 

In winter, the lores and a rather indistinct supercilium, cheeks, 
and the whole lower plumage soft ochraeeous white, more pro- 
nounced across the breast and on the flanks ; un'der tail-coverts 
dark ochraeeous, tipped with dull white ; sides of the head and 
neck and the whole upper plumage fulvous-brown, the edges of the 




Fig. 123. Head of S. platyura. 

quills and coverts brighter ; the back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and 
tertiaries cross-rayed when viewed in a good light ; tail brown, dis- 
tinctly cross-barred darker, and all the feathers tipped with dull 
white. 

Iris olive-brown ; legs and feet brown in front, pale whitish 
flesh-colour behind and on the soles ; bill black above, pale horny 
blue below ; gape black. In the female the legs and feet are fleshy 
brown and paler than in the male ; the bill is brown above, fleshy 
below, and the mouth is not black inside (Butler, August and 
September). 

Iris pale clay-brown ; bill above plumbeous, below pale horny 
white ; legs, feet, and claws pale brownish (Bourdillon, April). 

In winter the length is about 7 ; tail 2*8 ; wing 2'7 ; tarsus '85 ; 
bill from gape *65. In summer plumage the tail is slightly shorter 
than in winter plumage, and measures about 2-5. 

Distribution. The western coast of India from Belgaum to Tra- 
vancore, and Ceylon. This bird is a permanent resident, and in- 
habits both the hills and the lower levels. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds near Belgaum in September. The nest, 
which is a mere ball of grass with an entrance on one side, is built 
in a tussock of grass close to the ground. The eggs, four in num- 
ber, are white spotted with brownish red, and one egg measured 
73 by -6. 

Genus ACANTHOPTILA, Blyth, 1855. 

The genus Acanthopttta was instituted by Blyth for a remarkable 
bird discovered by Hodgson many years previously, and which is 
VOL. i. 2 c 



386 SYLVIID^E. 

still very rare. It is characterized by its large size, spinous plu- 
mage, and very ample tail. 

Hodgson figures two specimens, to each of which he assigns a 
different name ; but an examination of his types, together with 
some other specimens, leaves it little doubtful, I think, that both 
drawings represent the same species, and that the differences 
shown are due to season. Acanthoptila, like most Warblers, has 
two moults a year, probably only a partial one in the spring, but 
one which affects the colour of the throat very distinctly. The 
sexes are probably alike. 

This genus has a bill nearly as long as the head and gently 
curved ; the rictal bristles are short, there are no supplemen- 
tary hairs, and the forehead is flat and smooth as in other Grass- 
Warblers. The wing is rounded, and the first four quills graduated. 
The tail is much longer than the wing, broad and well rounded. 
The tarsus is about one third the length of the wing and very 
strong. 

391. Acanthoptila nepalensis. The Spiny Warbler. 

Timalia nipalensis, Hoclys. As. Res. xix, p. 182 (1836). 
Timalia pellotis, Hodgs. As. Res. xix, p. 182 (1836). 
Timalia leucotis, Hodgt. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844). 
Malacocercus nipalensis (Hodgs.\ Blyth, Cat. p. 140 j Horsf. $ M. 

Cat. i, p. 222. 
Acanthoptila nipalensis (Hodgs.\ Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 57 ; Hume, S. F. 

vii, p. 459 ; id. Cat. no. 431 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 380 j 

Oates in Hume's N. 8f JE. 2nd ed. i, p. 252. 
Acanthoptila pellotis (Hodgs.), Hume, N. $ E. p. 269. 
Malacocercus pellotis (Hodys.), Hume, Cat. no. 431 bis. 
The Spiny Babbler, Jeid. 




Fig. 124. Head of A. nepalensis. 

Coloration. In winter, the whole upper plumage, tail, and 
visible portions of the wings are rich olive-brown, the feathers of 
the head and back with stiff black shafts ; tail distinctly darker 
cross-rayed; lores and the feathers behind and below the eye 
whitish ; ear-coverts brown, the central portion mixed with white ; 
lower plumage rufescent, each feather with a dark brown shaft- 
streak, the streaks increasing in size as they recede from the head ; 
under tail-coverts and flanks plain rufescent brown. 

In summer, the lores, the feathers round the eye, the ear-coverts, 



C1LETOHNIS. 387 

cheeks, chin, and throat become white, the shafts of the throat- 
feathers glistening; the lower plumage becomes whiter, especi- 
ally on the abdomen. 

Bill dusky horn ; legs dull fleshy brown : iris smoky brown 

(//<></ /toil, J//S'.). 

Length about 10; tail 5; wing 3'5 : tarsus 1-2; bill from 
gape 1-1. 

On examining Hodgson's specimens of this bird, also one pro- 
cured by Captain Pinwill and one by Mandelli, there can be little 
doubt that the Spiny Babbler has a summer and a winter plumage. 
Two specimens are in the summer plumage, and one of these is 
moulting and acquiring some rufous feathers on the throat. 

Distribution. Appears to be fairly common in Xepal. The Pin- 
will collection contains a summer-plumaged bird from the N.W. 
Himalayas (probably Kuinaim), and the Hume collection one from 
Dolaka procured by Mandelli. 

Habits, Sfc. Hodgson remarks of this bird that the sexes are 
alike, that it is solitary, tenants low bushes, flies very ill and un- 
willingly, and that it feeds entirely on the ground. He adds that 
it is found by bushy rills, and that it hides itself instantly. It 
makes a loose, shallow, grass nest in a fork of a tree. One nest 
is stated to have measured nearly 5 inches in diameter and nearly 
"2 in height externally. The eggs are verditer-blue, and measure 
1-1 by -65. 

On the label of the Pinwill specimen there is a remark that this 
bird is a fine songster. 



Genus CHJETORNIS, G. K. Gray, 1848. 

The genus Chcetornis was instituted by Gray for the reception of 
an Indian bird which is characterized by having the rictal bristles, 
five in number, arranged in a vertical series in front of the eye 
and by having the lores naked. It is doubtful whether the genus 
has a spring moult, but if it has, the moult is probably confined 
to the wings and a few of the body-feathers. The tail is not 
changed in the spring, and the colour of the bird is not affected ; 
but abrasion of the feathers, to which it is very subject, causes a 
great variety of changes to be observed in this bird in the course 
of the year. The sexes are alike, and the young are richly 
coloured. 

This bird, like Meyalurus (to which it is closely allied), has the 
habit of rising singing into the air, and, like birds of that genus, 
affects grass and reeds and feeds a good deal on the ground. It 
i.s not a difficult bird to observe. 

There are no supplementary hairs in front of the rictal bristles, 
and the feathers of the forehead are short and smooth. With this 
bird the series of Eeed- and Grass-AVarblers with twelve tail- 
t'rathers, and characterized by the firm plumage of the forehead, 
ends. The bird constituting the next genus, usually considered a 

2c 2 



ass 



NY liVI 1 1> i 



UoO<l \\ ai Mri . i ,, n.>l u illr l.miliii" il;, hal'i!*:, more rloNoly II 1 1 in I lo 
/////)('/,<,. .iii.l -<//li'iii III. in !o ,\<'i\K'<'fth<tlltH, /.in'itst, Ilii, ;uul /'n/nti'ti. 
1 1 , oinmi n. -,- I IK- ;. i ii ., of WarMi'i in \\ hioh I lie foal hers ol the 
loivlioiul lll'O (It ml. i .it . .1 , I.... .. -..in. I mil ill v . ami ill \\ltu-li Ihnv 
nro NUimlomouliirv hain m honlof Iho nelal lirisllos; mill nil 
O \YiirhlorN uro moro or IONS iirhoronl. 

Ullllil Ku-.UHlolloitloM. /'//, lintflnl <lr,iM \VtiMr. 

!>.. yni-iii !< " i.-ll..il,.s, AVr////. ./ I ^ // si, |> '" ! (I ll?) 
M, . lUuru trlntu N / ' s ^iii, p i ( ' c| U ' ' > 

i. //./.), lilt/fh, (\if. n. I.'IU. 

i C-A'/v/.), //.-''. A '/. ('.//. i, |. :5:U) ; ./,/,/./'./ ... 

.V. ,S /' P. "// ; /'////'/, -v /' v. p -'< )( .>; /'"//, - s '- /' 



P. ,'.', //,-, .. , P. 

\, l> lid - / 'MI, p. ',:>, lining ^^tt. H". in . /i'//-'.<, 

/;,/, 

,!, -II. ..,!,- I/.V//M), .s7,/r/.,-, c/r / '/. M,. p 180) 

'> A' A /' fiul , -I i, p 

H',II'M<>)\ -Irul . (, 




-s 



lift M. -d,.l < '. AH Wr/Awfe 

The no\\ l\ uioulloil bird in auhiinn has I ho lore 
a Nuporoilinm while, iho \\holo uppor plumage fulvous brow n, 
boldlx. .streaked \\ilh Ma. -k . \villgN and eovorls dark brow n, \ 01 \ 
hroaoMv e.h-.ed \\ilh fulvous; lad ful\ ons brow n, each leather 
Iwnvd with MaoK, (ho hars eonlluont at the. shall and not reaehin.", 
to Iho od>;os ol Iho foathor . the lips luUons \\lule, proeoiled 1>\ a 
hlaek pal. 1 -'I iho head moll led fnhoiis and hrov\ n ; ilnn. 

throat, and middle <>l ahdouou \\hil ( ; remainder of the lower 
plmnaj'.o pah* o.-hraeeous. 

\ltei Max Iho phima-'.e I'.eoiur^ \er\ dull. o\\in^ to the \\eann:', 
a\\a\ of thood-ys ol the leathers, ; nd tho low or plumage hoeomo.s 
noV % lv nmlormlv whito. 

I > . ami fret hrow n . iris ha el ; lull hlaek. tlu^ lowor mandihlo 
tippod horny-hluo (lititt<r, SoptoiulnM'). 

I.e..-,- llosh\ . iris li-\hi eliov-olalo hrow n ; hill lle>h\ at ha>o. tho 

/>/K\\ Mjuvh) 

1 'iom \pnlto Septomhor tho hill is Maek. al ol hor t iinos pale 
as ilos. n!s-.l h\ Cnpps. 

length - ' . Wing Mj tarsus 1 % 15} lull from 

.apo ','.'. I'lio s,\es are ol mneh iho same si.o. iOiilrar\ lo \\hat 

...!!\ asserted. 

Di&tt*wutt\>n. This spooio.s appi\rs to K x spread over a i onsiilor- 
ahlo portion of tho pomnsnla of India. Jordon proouroil it on tho 
N :iv ami at Nelloiv, Hall nt Sjunhalpur and Kalahamli. In iho 



\i;i \m\v\. 898 

I luinc collection there arc specimens from Doesa, Sangor, Seoni. 
EUipur, and Samhalpnr. Further north this hircl oiviirs at Kta\\ah. 

Jhinjhak (Cawnpore), Dinapup, and in Ondh. 1 ha\e seen a spe- 
cimen \\ Inch is labelled Paroling. Jerdon slates that. (". locust, I- 
/(/</<s is eommon all oxer Lo\\er Bengal, aiul (Yipps records it from 
FniToedpore. Godwin-Austen inserts it in his list of Khasi-hill 
birds, hut dots iu>t state the precise locality \\here lit 1 obtained it. 
It is a permanent resilient in all parts of its range. 

l/iil>ita. i\v. Hreeds from May to September, eonst met in<;- a n;h- 
hnlar nest of grass, NV iih the ent ranee at the >ide. in a flump of 
grass or in a hush or e\en on the ground. The eggs are white 
spet-kletl \\ith |)iirplish hro\\ n and inky purple, and measnio 

8 hv <;. 



(ienns ARUNDINAX, Blvth. 1845. 



The genus Anoxliini.r contains only one species, a common 
\\inttr \isitor to the eastern parts of the Empire. It hns the 
general aspect of Acrocephalus, out has really no close affinities for 
thai genus, from \\hieh it ditTers in having a large iirst primary, :i 
more graduated tail, and a rough forehead. Its affinities seem to 
be more with ////yd/<n. and fy/rw. Although fond t>f \\ater and 
generally found mar rivers and marshes, it is not a reed-bird to 
the same extent as the Keed- Warblers. 1 ha\e frequently found 
it among bnshos and trees, and Davison remarks that in Tenas- 
serini it is found chiefly in gardens, along the edges of fields where 
there is cover, on the outskirts of forests, and not unfrequently in 
gran, 

It appears to have two complete moulls a year, but the changes 
of colour at thet\\o seasons ;ire very slight and not worthy of 
separate description. The 86X68 are alike. 




Fig. 126. Head of A. aSdon. 

In this genus the bill is very strong and rather wide, and there 
are three strong rictal bristles somewhat diagonally phuvd. There 
are some supplementary hairs in front of these bristles, and the 
feathers of the forehead are disintegrated, soft, and with the shafts 
M>me\\hat produced. The third primary reaches to the tip of 
the Ming. The tail is very mueh graduated, and the feathers 
narro\\ . 



390 SYLVIIDJE. 



393. Arundinax aedon. The Thick-billed Warbler. 

Mascicapa aedon, Pall. Reise, iii ; p. 095 (1776). 

Phragamaticola olivacea, Bli/th, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. ii, 

p. 129 (1844). 
Arundinax olivaceus (Blytli), Blytli, Cat. p. 181 ; Horsf. & M. Cat. 

\, p. 331 ; Jerd. 21. I. ii, p. 157. 
Arundinax sedon (Pall.), Hume, S. F. ii, p. 234 ; Hume $Dav. 8. F. 

vi, p. 339 ; Hume, Cat. no. 518 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 98 ; Hume, S. F. 

xi, p. 202. 
Lusciniola aedon (Pall.), Seebohm, Cat, B. M. v, p. 121. 

The Thick-billed Reed- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous olive-brown, brightest on the 
rump ; wing-coverts, quills, and tail brown, the first very broadly 
and the two latter narrowly edged with the colour of the back : 
lores whitish ; feathers round the eye pale fulvous ; ear-coverts and 
sides of the head and neck like the back ; no eye-stripe : lower 
plumage buffish white, lighter on the chin, throat, and abdomen, 
and suffused with russet-brown on the flanks, vent, and under tail- 
coverts ; axillaries and under wing-coverts buff. In summer the 
lower parts are not so richly coloured. 

The young have the russet-brown of the lower parts more pro- 
nounced than even the winter adult. 

Upper mandible dark horn-colour, lower one flesh-colour ; the 
tips of both and the gape tinged with orange ; mouth bright salmon- 
colour; iris umber-brown; eyelids bright plumbeous ; legs and feet 
plumbeous ; claws horn-colour. 

Length 7'7 ; tail 3-5 ; wing 3'1 ; tarsus 1-1 ; bill from gape *88 ; 
the first primary is very long, measuring nearly an inch in length. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the eastern portion of the 
Empire, being found throughout Burma, the hill-ranges of Eastern 
Bengal, Cachar, Tipperah, Manipur, Assam, the Bhutan Doars, 
Sikhim, both British and Native, the Nepal Terai, and the greater 
part of Bengal. To the west it appears to be rare. Jerdon re- 
cords it from the Carnatic, and 1 have examined a specimen pro- 
cured at Bangalore. 

In winter it extends down the Malay peninsula and throughout 
South-eastern Asia. It summers in North China and Siberia. 
Nothing is known of its nidi fa* cation. 



Genus HYPOLAIS, Brehm, 1828. 

The genus Hypolais contains four Indian species so very like each 
other, and so difficult to separate one from the other, that it would, 
at first sight, seem preferable to unite them under one specific name. 
The slight differences that exist between them appear, however, to 
be correlated with geographical distribution, and so it is, on the 
whole, better to recognize these differences. 

Hypolais moults twice in the year, but the moults are not accom- 
panied by any visible change of colour in the plumage. The sexes 



HYPOLA.IS. 391 

are alike, and the young are less deeply coloured than is usual in 
birds of this family. They are all migratory, but their migrations 
are short and probably on the decline, as some few birds remain 
in their winter-quarters all the year through. 

Ilypolajis resembles Sylvia very closely, and might perhaps be 
joined to it, but it has a sensibly larger bill, and on this account 
it is desirable to keep the two genera distinct. 

In Hypolais the bill from the gape to the tip is longer than the 
middle toe and claw ; there are three weak rictal bristles, and the 
supplementary hairs in front of them are obsolete, but still clearly 
visible with a lens. The first primary is small but not minute, and 
the third reaches to the tip of the wing. The tail is slightly rounded 
only. The colour of the plumage is very dull, and there is not a 
single bright spot or line to relieve it. 

Key to the Species. 

a. Primary-coverts reaching to about the middle 

of the first primary ; upper plumage olive- 
brown. 
'. Tail 2-2 or more ; bill from gape to tip '6 or 

more. 

a". Distance from tip of secondaries to tip of 
wing *4 ; from tip of first primary to tip 
of wing 1-1 to 1-25 ; wing 23 to 2-5 . . H. rama, p. 391. 
b" . Distance from tip of secondaries to tip of 
wing '55 to '65 ; from tip of first primary 
to tip of wing 1-3 to 1-5 j wing 2-5 to 

27 H. pallida, p. 392. 

b'. Tail under 2 ; bill from gape to tip "55, 

seldom more H. caligata, p. 393. 

b. Primary-coverts extending over two thirds the 

length of the first primary ; upper plumage 

sandy brown* H. obsoleta, p. 393. 



394. Hypolais rama. SylceJs Tree- Warbler. 

Sylvia rama, Sykes, P. Z. 8. 1832, p. 89. 

Phyllopneuste rama (Sykes), Bhjth, Cat. p. 183 ; Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, 

p. 335 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 189 ; Butler | Hume, S. F. iii, p. 486. 
Iduna caligata (Lichtj, apud Hume, N. fy E. p. 360. 
Hippolais rama (Sykes), Brooks, S. F, iv, p. 275. 
1 lypolais rama (Sykes), Hume, Cat. no. 553 ; Doig, S. F. ix, p. 279 ; 

Seebohm, Cut. B. M. v, p. 84 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 224 ; Oates 

in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 254. 

Sykes's Warbler, Jerd. ; Koktalyhu, Turki. 

* HYPOLAIS LANGUIDA, Hemp. $ Ehr., is said to occur in Sind, but I can find 
no specific instance of its having done so. It differs from all the other Indian 
species of Hypolais in having the primary-coverts and the bastard primary of 
almost the same length, or, rather, reaching to the same point, and in its larger 
size, the wing being about 3 in length. It has been obtained in Baluchistan, but 
in that portion of it under Persian control, and at Chaman in Afghanistan. 



392 SYLYIID^E. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the upper plumage and the 
margins of the wing and tail are olive-brown with a fuhous tinge, 
the outer tail-feathers edged with whitish ; lores dusky ; a pale 
whity-buff supercilium from the nostrils to just past the eye ; the 
whole lower plumage very pale buff, the throat and middle of the 
abdomen nearly white. 

Iris brown ; legs and feet grey ; bill brown above, fleshy below 
(Butler}. 

Length about 5-5 ; tail 2'2 ; wing 2*3 to 2*5 ; tarsus '8 ; bill 
from gape "6. The second primary terminates between the seventh 
and ninth, the first primary is I'l to 1-25 short of the tip of the 
wing and the secondaries '4 short. 

There is no seasonal change of colour in the plumage beyond 
what is caused by abrasion and wear and tear of the feathers. The 
colour of the plumage is a very bad guide to identification. 

Distribution. Throughout the whole peninsula of India down to 
the Nilgiris in the south, and to the longitude of Dinapore and 
Lohardugga in the east. I have examined a large series of birds 
from almost every portion of this area. It is in general a winter 
visitor, but Doig found a large colony breeding from March to July 
on the Eastern Nara, Siud. It breeds in Quetta and westwards 
to Europe ; also in Turkestan ; and Seebohm states that it breeds 
in Kashmir. India appears to be its main winter-quarters. 

Habits, fyc. Breeds in Sind, constructing a small cup -shaped 
nest of sedge and fine grass in the centre of a low bush. The eggs, 
four in number, are white marked with brown and measure '61 
by -49. 

395. Hypolais pallida. The Olivaceous Tree-Warbler. 

Curruca pallida, Hemp. $ Ehr. Symb. Phys., Aves, fol. bb (1833). 
Hypolais pallida (H. $ E.}, Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 398, 504 ; id. Cat. 

no. 553 ter ; id. S. F. ix, p. 231 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 82 ; 

Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 225. 

Coloration. Resembles H. rama in colour, but differs in being 
larger, in the tip of the secondaries being -55 to -65 from the tip 
of the wing, and the tip of the first primary 1'3 to 1-5 short of the 
same. 

Length nearly 6 ; tail 2'2 ; wing 2-5 to 2'7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill 
from gape '75 ; the second primary is between the sixth and 
eighth. 

In H. pallida the difference between the length of the wing and 
that of the tail is considerably greater than in H. rama, in which it 
is frequently not more than -1. 

Distribution. Hume received this bird from Sehwan, but subse- 
quently doubted the identification of the specimen, thinking it to 
be an abnormal H. rama. Dresser, however, distinctly states that 
he has seen Sind specimens of //. pallida. It is a bird which is 
most likely to be found in Sind, and so I admit it to my list. 
Barnes states that this bird occurs in Sind as a cold-weather 



HYPOLAIS. 393 

visitant, but on what authority I do not know, unless it be that of 
Murray, who calls it a winter visitor to Sind. 

Its summer-quarters extend to Turkestan, South-western Asia, 
Europe, and North-eastern Africa. 

396. Hypolais caligata. The Booted Tree- Warbler. 

Sylvia caligata, Licht., Eversm. Eeise Buchara, p. 128 (1823). 
Jerdonia agricolensis, Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 182 ; Blanf. S. F. \\, 

p. 330. 
Hypolais caligata (Licht.), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 396; id. Cat. 

'uo. o53bis; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. \, p. 85; Barnes, Birds Bom. 

p. 224. 

Coloration. Resembles H. ramci, from which the present species 
differs only in size, being smaller, and in having a longer second 
primary, the tip of this primary being between the sixth and seventh. 
The best character by which to separate this species from H. ranm 
is the shorter tail, which never reaches a length of 2. 

Lower mandible and edges of upper reddish fleshy ; rest of bill 
dark brown ; legs, feet, and claws pale brown ; iris dark brown 
(Davison). 

Length about 5; tail 1 '9; wing 2'4; tarsus '75 ; bill from gape -55. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole of Northern and 
Central India. I have traced it southwards to Eelgaum, and on 
the east to Mudhupur on the E.I. Railway. It is found on the 
west as far as Karachi and Hydrabad. It is doubtful, I think, 
whether this bird remains to breed in any portion of the Hima- 
layas, but Seebohm asserts that it does so in Kashmir. Biddulph, 
however, found it in Gilgit only in August and September, when 
it was probably migrating southwards. It is known to summer 
in Turkestan and Southern Siberia. 

397. Hypolais ofosoleta. The Desert Tree- Warbler. 

Salicaria obsoleta, Severtz. Turkest. Jevotn. pp. 66, 129 (1873) ; id. 

S. F. iii, p. 426. 
Hypolais obsoleta (Sev.), Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 86. 

Coloration. Resembles //. rama, but the whole upper plumage is 
a pale sandy brown. 

Length about 5 ; tail 2 ; wing 2-4 to 2-6 ; tarsus 75; bill from 
gape '65. The eecond primary terminates between the sixth and 
seventh ; the distance from the tip of the first primary to the tip 
of the wing is 1-3 to 1*5; the secondaries fall short* of the tip 
of the wing by *45 to '6. 

Distribution. Seebohm possesses a skin which was obtained in 
Sind, but this I have not been able to examine, owing to its having 
been sent to Russia. We can, however, have no better authority 
than Seebohm for the identification of this bird. It is a rare 
species. It is supposed to summer in the desert portions of Tur- 
kestan, and to winter in Sind. It has occurred at Fao in the 
Persian Gulf. 



SYLYIID7E. 



Genus SYLVIA, Scop., 1769. 

The genus Sylvia contains six Indian species, three of which are 
very closely allied to each other and to a European form, and a 
fourth is merely a race of another bird common in Europe. Sylvia 
and Hypolais are almost congeneric ; but the former has a smaller 
bill and brighter colours, and in some of the species the sexes differ 
in colour to some small extent, while in Hypolais the sexes are 
always alike. 

Sylvia has two moults a year ; but these do not cause any 
important difference in the colour of the plumage at the two 
seasons. All the species are migrants, but their migrations are of 
very limited extent, consisting of a change from the plains to the 
mountainous parts and back again, and there is reason to think 
that one or more species may be resident in India. This is almost 
a certainty in the case of S. nana. 

The true Warblers frequent trees and bushes, have for the most 
part a pleasant song, and build cup-shaped nests at no great height 
above the ground, laying eggs which are usually marked with 
yellowish brown. 

In Sylvia the bill from the gape to the tip is shorter than the 
middle toe and claw ; the three rictal bristles are weak, and the 
supplementary hairs nearly obsolete ; the feathers of the forehead 
are decomposed and rough. The first primary is small, and the 
second is equal to the sixth or thereabouts. The tarsus is stout 
and short, and the tail very slightly graduated. 

Key to the Species. 

a. First primary minute, not reaching to tips 

of primary-coverts S. cinerea, p. 395. 

b. First primary large, extending considerably 

beyond tips of primary- coverts. 
a'. Crown of head black or brown j wing con- 
siderably more than 3 S.jerdom, p. 395. 

b' . Crown of head fawn-brown, concolorous 

with back ; wing under 3 S. mma, p. 396. 

c'. Crown of head grey ; wing under 3. 

a". Upper plumage greyish brown, slightly 
darker on crown ; wing 2'6 to 2'8 ; 
second primary generally between sixth 
and seventh, sometimes equal to seventh, 
and rarely between seventh and eighth . S. althcna, p. 397. 
b". Upper plumage earth - brown, crown 
brownish grey ; wing 2-45 to 2-65 ; 
second primary equal to sixth, rarely 

between sixth and seventh S. affinis, p. 397. 

c". Upper plumage sandy brown; crown 
pale bluish grey ; wing 2'3 to 2'45 ; 
second primary equal to seventh and 
sometimes between seventh and eighth . S. minuscula, p. 398. 



SYLVIA. 

393. Sylvia cinerea. The White-throated Warbler. 

Sylvia cinerea, BecJmt..Orn. Taschenb. i, p. 170 (1802) ; Hume, & F. 

' iii, p. 488 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 8. 

Sylvia nifa (Bodd.), Hume, Cat. no. 582 quat. ; Barnes. Birds Bom. 
"> 233. 

Coloration. After the autumn moult the whole upper plumage is 
russet -brown, the margins of the quills and covetrs more rufous, 
approaching chestnut on the tertiaries and greater coverts ; tail 
brown, edged with russet, and the outermost feathers whity brown; 
lores grey ; sides of the forehead mixed russet and grey ; chin, 
throa% and middle of abdomen whitish ; the remainder of the lower 
plumage pale buff. In summer both sexes have the upper plumage 
greyish brown, and the male has the breast suffused with vinous. 

Legs and feet yellowish brown ; bill dusky above, fleshy at base 
of lower mandible ; iris yellowish brown (Butler} ; bill dark hornv, 
whitish at base below; iris brown (Hume). 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-5 ; wing 2-9 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from 
gape *6. Second primary equal to fourth; first primary very 
minute. 

Distribution. This is a very rare species in India, and the 
specimens I have seen have been killed, without exception, in 
September. It is therefore impossible to say whether this is 
a winter or a summer visitor, or whether it merely passes through 
on migration. It has occurred at Grilgit and Astor, in Lower 
Sind, on Mount Abu, and at Deesa. Hume gives it from Jodhpore 
and Pali. 

It breeds throughout Europe, and eastwards to Persia ; and it 
winters in Africa. It is not unlikely, therefore, to be a summer 
visitor to India, and to breed there. 

399. Sylvia jerdoni. The Eastern Orphean Warbler. 

Curruca jerdoni, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 439 (1847). 

Sylvia jerdoni (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 187; Hume, Cat. no. 581; 

Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 16; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 232. 
Sylvia orphea (Ternm.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 208; Butler fy Hume, S. F. 
'iii, p. 487. 

The Large Black-capped Warbler *, Jerd. ; Pedda nulla kampa-jitta, 
Tel. 

Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, nape, lores, and sides 
of the head black; upper plumage slaty grey ; wings brown, 
edged with slaty grey ; tail black, the outermost feathers with the 
outer web white and the inner with the terminal third white ; the 
next two pairs white at the tip of the inner web; cheeks and 



* As this bird is not the Eastern representative of the Blackcap or Black- 
capped Warbler of Europe, Jerdon's name seems to me inappropriate and 
misleading. 



396 SYLVIIDvE. 

lower plumage white, tinged with very pale buff, especially on the 
sides of the body ; under tail-coverts slaty grey, broadly tipped 
with white. 




Figs. 127, 128. Head and foot of S.jerdoni. 

Female. Crown, forehead, and nape brown, and the ear-coverts 
blackish ; otherwise like the male. 

Legs and feet slaty-grey ; bill blackish brown, slaty at base of 
lower mandible ; iris pale straw or dirty white (Butler}. 

Length about 7 ; tail 2' 9 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from 
gape -85. The first primary is about '75 in length, and the 
second is between the fifth and sixth. 

This bird differs from its European representative, S. orphea, in 
having a much larger bill and paler lower plumage. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to a great portion of India, from 
September to April. It inhabits the whole peninsula as far 
as Trichinopoly on the south and Manbhoom in Chutia Nagpur on 
the east. It appears to be confined to the plains in winter. It 
passes through Grilgit in the spring and autumn migrations, and 
breeds in Turkestan. 

400. Sylvia nana. The Desert Warbler. 

Curruca nana, Hempr. 8f Ehrenb. Symb. Phys., Aves, fol. cc (1833). 
Sylvia delicatula, Hartl. Ibis, 1859, p. 340, pi. x, fig. 1 ; Hume, S. F. 

i, p. 199. 
Sylvia nana (H, 8f E.\ Hume, Cat. no, 583 bis; Doia, 8. F. ix, 

p. 280; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 26; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 234. 

Coloration. Lores and round the eye white ; forehead, crown, 
nape, back, and scapulars fawn-brown; rump and upper tail-coverts 
rufous; middle tail-feathers rufous, with black shafts; the next 
two pairs dark brown, margined with rufous ; the next pair 
brown, margined with pale rufous and tipped white ; the next 
white on the outer web, dark brown on the inner with a white 
tip ; the outermost pair pure white ; wings brown, margined with 
rufescent ; the whole lower plumage very pale huffish white. 

Iris pale yellow ; bill dusky brown above, whitish flesh below ; 
legs and feet straw-yellow (Butler}. 

Length about 5; tail 2; wing 2-3; tarsus *75. The first 
primary is *4 long; the second is equal to the sixth or seventh. 

Distribution. The Desert portions of Sind, Bahawalpur, Eaj- 
putana, and the southern parts of the Panjab. To the east this 
Warbler extends as far as Sirsa, Hiesar, and Jodhpore. To the 



SILVtA. 397 

north I have not been able to trace it above Baha\valpur. It 
is probably a resident species in all this tract, for Doig found the 
young just able to fly in November near the Runn of Cutch. 

-101. Sylvia althaea. Hume's Lesser White-throated Warbler, 

Sylvia affinis, Blyth apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 209. 

Sylvia althaea, Hume, S. F. vii, p. 60 ; id. Cat. no. 582 ter ; Scully, 

Ibis, 1881, p. 450 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 20; Barnes, Birds 

Bom. p. 233. 

The Allied Grey Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, slightly darker on 
the crown and tinged with brown on the back ; tail dark brown, 
the feathers narrowly margined and increasingly tipped with white 
from the middle to the outside, the outermost feathers being 
almost entirely white, only the basal portion of the inner web and 
the shaft being brown ; wings dark brown, edged paler, the ter- 
tiaries nearly the colour of the back ; lores, round the eye, and the . 
ear-coverts dark brown ; the whole lower plumage pale cineraceous. 
In summer, judging from a May specimen, the lower plumage is 
duller. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet plumbeous black ; bill brownish 
black, slaty-blue at base of lower mandible (Butler). 

Length 'about 6; tail 2'5 ; wing 2-6 to 2-8; tarsus '85; bill 
from gape '6. The first primary is -6 to '7 long ; second primary 
generally between sixth and seventh, rarely longer than seventh. 

Distribution. A rare winter visitor to the plains of India. It 
has been obtained at Bahawalpur, Deesa, Jhansi, Ahmednagar, and 
Belgaum, from all of which places I have examined specimens. It 
also occurs at Byan Kheyl, in Afghanistan. It breeds in Kashmir 
at an elevation of 9000 feet. 

Legge is of opinion that the Ceylon Whitethroat may be this 
species. I have had no opportunity of examining a bird from that 
island. 

It is no easy matter to identify Jerdon's two species of "White- 
throat. His S. affinis, Bl., judging from its rarity and its larger 
size, is, in my opinion, rightly identified by Seebohm with S. althcea. 
Hume, however, identifies it with the true S. affinis. On the other 
hand, he assigns Jerdon's S. curruca, which he (Jerdon) states is 
common all over India, to the true S. curruca, a bird which is not 
known to occur in India at all. 

If the views of Seebohm and myself are correct, the range 
of S. althcea extends to the Carnatic and Ceylon, from which 
places Jerdon records it. 

402. Sylvia affinis. The Indian Lesser White-throated Warbler. 

Curruca affinis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 564 note (1845) : Brooks 

S. F. iii, p. 272. 
Sylvia affinis (Blyth), Blyth, Cat. p. 187 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 197, ii, 



398 SYLVILDJE. 

p. 332 5 Butler, S. F. iii, p. 487 ; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 59, 60 ; id. 

Cat. no. 582 ; Legge, Birds Cei/l. p. 538; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, 

p. 19 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 232 ; Gates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd 

ed. i. p. 257. 
Sylvia ctirruca (Gm.}, apud Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 344; Jerd. B. I. 

"ii, p. 209. 
Sterparola curruca (Lath.}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 373. 

The Lesser White-throat, Jerd.; Chinna nalla Kumpajitta, Tel. 

Coloration. Upper plumage earth-brown ; forehead, crown, and 
nape brownish grey ; otherwise as in S. althcea. 

Iris yellowish brown; legs and feet plumbeous; bill dusky, 
slaty-horn at base of lower mandible (Butler}. 

Length about 6 ; tail 2-2 wing 2-45 to 2-65 ; tarsus '75 ; bill 
from gape '55. First primary about *55 ; the second primary is 
about equal to the sixth. 

The European ally of this species differs persistently in having 
the second primary much shorter than the sixth. It has not been 
found in India. 

Distribution. A winter visitor to nearly the whole of the plains 
of India. Judging from the specimens I have examined its range 
extends to the east as far as Mudhupur on the E.I. Railway, and 
to the south as far as Coimbatore. 1 have not seen Ceylon speci- 
mens, but it is said to occur in that island. Some birds spend the 
summer and breed in Kashmir, but the majority apparently pass 
on to Siberia. 

Habits, $c. Brooks found this bird breeding in Kashmir at from 
5500 to 6500 feet, amongst small bushes in May by the side of 
rivers. The nest was cup-shaped and made of grasses, roots, 
and fine fibres, and lined with horsehair. The eggs, four or five in 
number, are white with a greenish tinge, marked with yellowish 
brown, and measure '66 by '5. 

403. Sylvia minuscula. Th* Small White-throated Warbler. 

Sylvia minula, Hume, S. F. i, p. 198 (1873), vii, p. 58. 
Sylvia imnuscula, Hume, Cat. no. 582 bis ; id. S. F. viii, pp. 388, 498 ; 
Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 20, pi. i ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 232. 

Coloration. Resembles S. althcea and S. affinis, but the upper 
plumage is sandy brown, contrasting with the pale bluish grey of 
the forehead, crown, and nape. 

Legs and feet horny greenish grey ; bill horny, paler at the 
base of the lower mandible; iris very pale yellow (Hume). 

Length about 5-3 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 2'3 to 2-45 ; tarsus '75 ; bill 
from gape -5. The first primary is '5 long ; the second primary 
is equal to the seventh, or between the seventh and eighth. 

Distribution. Throughout Sind, Bahawalpur, and Rajputana as 
far east as Jodhpore as a winter visitor. This species is not un- 
likely to be a resident throughout the year in some parts of its 
winter range, but it is not yet known to be so. It is said to 
summer in Afghanistan. 



HEEBIVOCULA. 399 

Genus HERBIVOCULA, Swinhoe, 1871. 

The genus Herbivoeula contains one species which, on account 
of its thick bill, I consider desirable to separate from the Willow- 
Warblers. Seebohm places it in his comprehensive genus Lusci- 
niola, which embraces five of my genera wholly or in part. 

Herbivoeula is migratory, visiting the southern half of Burma 
in the winter, and being somewhat rare. It has two moults, but 
the only difference in plumage at the two seasons is that it is less 
richly coloured in summer. The young are very yellow. The 
sexes are alike. 

I found this Warbler, on the two occasions I met with it, in 
bushes. It feeds a good deal on the ground, its strong tarsus 
being suited to this mode of life. It has considerable affinities for 
Anuidinav in structure and colour, but the tail is nearly square. 

In this genus the bill is very stout and deep for a Warbler, and 
about one third the length of the head. The three rictal bristles 
are very strong, and so are the supplementary hairs, which, how- 
ever, do not extend up to the culmen nor cover the nostrils as in 
Phyllopneuste. The first primary is very large, and the second 
falls short of the tip of the wing by a considerable distance, being 
equal to the eighth. 

404. Herbivoeula schwarzi. liadde's Bash- Warbler. 

Sylvia (Phyllopneuste) schwarzi, Radde, Reis. Sibir., Vog. p. 260, 

t. ix, f. a] b, c (1863). 

Phylloscopus brooksi, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 505 (1874), v, p. 134. 
Neornis tiavolivacea, Hodys. apud Htime, 8. F. iii, p. 139 ; Oates, 

S. F. x, p. 221. 
Phylloscopus schwarzi (Radde}, Brooks, 8. F. iv, p. 277 ; Hume fy 

Dav, S. F. vi, p. 353 ; Hume, Cat. no. 556 ter ; Binyham, 8. F. ix, 

p. 186. 

Lusciniola schwarzi (Radde}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 128. 
Herbivoeula schwarzi (Radde}, Oates, B. B. i, p. 91. 




Fig. 129. Head of H. schwa^i. 

Coloration. Upper plumage olive-brown tinged with tawny, 
especially on the rump ; wings and tail brown, edged on the outer 
webs with the colour of the back ; supercilium very distinct and 
reaching to the nape, buff ; lores and feathers behind the eye dark 
brown : ear-coverts buff and brown ; lower plumage rich tawny 
buff, paling on the throat and abdomen ; axillaries and under wing- 
coverts buff. In summer the lower parts are nearly white, merely 
tinged with yellow or buff, more especially so on the vent and 
under tail-coverts. 



400 SYLVIIDJE. 

Bill horn-colour, the base fleshy white and the gape yellow ; iris 
brown ; legs and feet fleshy yellow, claws fleshy brown. 

Length about 5'6 ; tail 2-25 ; wing 2'45 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from 
gape '65. The second primary is equal to the eighth, or inter- 
mediate between the seventh and eighth ; the first primary is very 
long, measuring '85 in length. 

Distribution. Pegu and the northern and central portions of 
Tenasseriin as a winter visitor. This bird also winters in South 
China, and it summers in S.E. Siberia. 

Genus PHYLLOSCOPUS, Boie, 1826. 

The genus Phylloscopus contains fifteen Indian species, which are 
for the most part winter visitors to the plains, retiring for the 
summer either to the Himalayas or further into Central and 
Northern Asia. They are all birds of very small size and delicate 
structure. They closely resemble the birds of the next genus, 
from which, however, it is desirable to keep them separate on 
grounds of conveuieuce and structure. In this genus the bill is 
of much the same shape as in Acanthopneuste, but narrower and 
much smaller compared with the size of the bird. This would be 
but an indifferent character were it not accompanied by another 
which renders the separation of the genera quite easy if good 
specimens are examined. This is that in Phylloscopus the supple- 
mentary hairs stop short at the lower edge of the nostrils and do 
not overhang them, whereas in Acanthopneuste these hairs grow 
quite up to the culmen and over the nostrils, making this latter 
genus quite Muscicapine and a connecting one between Phyllo- 
scopus and Gryptolopha. 

The Willow- Warblers frequent trees and bushes, among the 
leaves of which they search for insects, frequently launching out 
after the winged ones in the manner of a Flycatcher. They are 
not aquatic, nor do they, as a rule, frequent grass and reeds. The 
males probably of all have a pretty song in the breeding-season. 
They make rather large soft nests either on the ground or on the 
branches of trees, and the eggs are either pure white or else white 
spotted with red. 

In Phylloscopus the supplementary hairs in front of the rictal 
bristles vary in strength, in some species being weak and in others 
stronger ; but the rictal bristles themselves are always fairly 
strong. The first primary is small but not minute, and the length 
of the second varies in each species, generally furnishing a useful 
character for identification. The tail is either square or slightly 
forked. 

The various species of Phylloscopus resemble each other so closely 
as to render their identification no easy matter without actual 
comparison with named specimens. The annexed key will, it is 
hoped, enable all the species to be identified if the plumage is 
fresh. If the plumage be worn it will, in most cases, be impossible 
for any one but a practised ornithologist to name the species. If 



PHYLLOSCOPUS. 401 

colour fail the next best guide will be dimensions and the pro- 
portions of the primaries, but these are by no means constant. 

In Phylloscopus there are two moults a year, the sexes are alike, 
and the young are more brightly coloured than the adults. 

Key to the Species*. 

a. Upper plumage uniformly of one colour. 

a'. Under wing-coverts and axillaries yellow. 

a 1 '. Lower plumage deep yellow P. affinis, p. 401. 

b". Lower plumage pale dull yellow .... P. tytleri, p. 402. 

c". Lower plumage buff P. tristis, p. 403. 

b'. Under wing-coverts and axillaries brown ; 

lower plumage huffish yellow P. indicus, p. 404. 

c'. Under wing-coverts, axillaries, and lower 

plumage dusky oil-green P. fuliginwentris, p. 404. 

d'. Under wing-coverts, axillaries, and lower 

plumage rich buff P. fuscatus, p. 405. 

e. Under wing-coverts and axillaries yel- 
lowish white or white ; lower plumage 
very pale buff. 

d'. Smaller ; wiug 1 '85 to 2*1 P. neglectus, p. 406. 

e". Larger ; wing 2'05 to 2'4 P. sindianus, p. 406. 

b. Crown darker than back, and variegated with 

coronal bands. 

/'. Lower portion of rump bright yellow. 
/". Inner webs of outer tail- feathers white. 

a'". Throat and upper breast grey P. macuhpennis, p. 400. 

b'". Throat and upper breast yellow. ... P. pulcher, p. 407. 
(/''. Inner webs of outer tail-feathers not 

white P. proregulusj p. 408. 

g '. Lower portion of rump not yellow, but 

coloured like upper portion. 
/*". Lower plumage rather deep yellow 

tinged with ochraceous P. subviridis, p. 409. 

i'. Lower plumage very pale yellow or 

yellowish white. 
c'". Supercilium greenish yellow ; both 

winof-bars distinct P. super ciliosus, p. 409. 

d'". Supercilium pale buffer brown, very 
distinct ; upper wing-bar less dis- 
tinct than lower P. humii, p. 410. 

e'". Supercilium brownish buff, distinct ; 

upper wing-bar indistinct P. mandettii, p. 411. 

405. Phylloscopus affinis. Tickets Willow- Warbler. 

Motacilla affinis, Tick. J. A. S. B. ii, p. 576 (1833). 

Phylloscopus affiuis (Tick.), Myth, Cat. p. 185 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 194 ; 
Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 54 ; Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, 
p. 81 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 025 ; Hume, Cat. no. 561 j 



* P. trochiliis, L. (Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 192), is omitted from this work as its 
occurrence iu India is more than doubtful. 

VOL. I. 2 D 



402 SYLVIIDJE. 

Scully, S. F. viii, p. 306 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 394 ; Seebohm, Birds 
B. M. v. p. 65 j Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 229 ; Hume, S. F. xi. 
p. 219. 

Tickets Tree- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage dull olive-brown ; wings and tail 
dark brown, narrowly edged with bright olive-brown ; lores and 
behind the eye dark brown ; a deep yellow supercilium from the 
nostrils to the nape ; the whole lower .plumage deep yellow, suf- 
fused with olivaceous on the sides of the neck, breast, and body ; 
under wing-coverts and axillaries pale yellow. 

Legs and feet greenish brown ; claws darker ; lower mandible 
pale yellow, upper dark brown; iris brown (Cockburn). 

Length about 4'5 ; tail 1/9 ; wing 2-2 to 2-5 ; tarsus *8 ; bill 
from gape *5 ; the second primary is equal to the ninth or tenth. 

Distribution. Breeds at high elevations along the Himalayas 
from Kashmir to Sikhirn, and no doubt also in Bhutan and further 
east. 

This Warbler winters in the plains of India, extending down to 
the Palni hills. It seems, however, to be unknown in the Punjab, 
Bajputana, the North- West Provinces, and the greater part of 
Central India. Its western limit in the peninsula, judging from 
the specimens I have been able to examine, is a line drawn from 
Kbandala to Eaipur, and from Raipur to Benares. The birds which 
summer in the N.W. Himalayas apparently migrate in a south- 
easterly direction along the hills, and evidently do not enter the 
plains till they reach Bengal. To the east this bird has been found 
up the Assam valley as far as Dibrugarh, in the Khasi hills, and in 
Manipur, and Anderson records it from near Bhamo. 



406. Phylloscopus tytleri. Tytler's Willow-Warbler. 




Cat. B. M. v, p. 66 ; Gates in Humes N. fy E. 2nd ed. i, p. 258. 

Coloration. Upper plumage and the margins of the wings and 
tail green ; lores and a baud behind the eye blackish ; a super- 
cilium from the nostrils to the nape pale yellow; lower plumage 
dull yellow tinged with grey ; under wing-coverts and axillaries 
pure sulphur-yellow. 

Upper mandible dark brown, lower paler brown, yellowish along 
the eclges ; iris dark brown ; legs and feet dark brownish green ; 
claws darker ; soles yellowish green (Davison). 

Length about 5 ; tail 1'8; wing 2'4; tarsus 7; bill from gape 
55 ; the second primary is between the seventh and eighth, or equal 
to the eighth, sometimes slightly exceeding it. 

Distribution. Summers in the higher elevations of the Himalayas 
from Kashmir to Kumauu. Winters in the lower portions of the 
same mountains, and also descends into the peninsula. Specimens 



PIIYLLOSCOPUS. 403 

have been obtained at Etawah, Khandala, Sawant Wari, and 
Ootacamund. 

Habits, fyc. The nest of this species was found in Kashmir in 
June by the late Capt. Cock. It was built at the end of a pine 
bough, ajbout 40 feet from the ground, was constructed of grass- 
fibres and lichens, and lined with hair and feathers. It was a solid 
deep cup, and contained four white eggs, which measured about 
58 by -48. 

407. Phylloscopus tristis, The Brown Willow- Warbler. 

Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 966 (1843) ; id. Cat. 
p. 1 85 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 336 j Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 190 ; Hume $ 
Renders. Lahore to York. p. 219; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, 
p. 242 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 148 ; Hume, Cat. no. 554 ; Brooks, 
S. F. viii, p. 476 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 448 ; Hume, S. F. x, p. 118 
note ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 63 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 227. 

The Brown Tree- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage brown, with a tinge of green ; wings 
and tail dark brown, edged with olive-yellow ; lores and behind 
the eye blackish : a narrow but distinct supercilium from the 
nostrils to the end of the ear-coverts buff ; sides of the head and 
the whole lower plumage buff, paler on the chin, throat, and 
abdomen ; under wing-coverts and axillaries bright sulphur- 
yellow. 

Iris dark brown ; legs and feet brownish black, soles pale ; bill 
dusky brown (Butler). 

Length about 5 ; tail 1-8 to 2-1 ; wing 2'2 to 2-5 ; tarsus '8 ; 
bill from gape '5 ; the first primary *6 ; the second primary is 
equal to the seventh, or sometimes rather shorter. 

This species differs from the European Chiffchaff in not being 
yellow beneath, except on the axillaries and under tail-coverts. 
In faded plumage it may be confounded with P. sindianus ; but 
Hume points out (1. c.) that these two birds may at all times 
be separated by the shape of the first primary. I have been able 
to examine only one specimen of P. sindianus, but I could not 
detect in its first primary any difference of shape from that of 
P. ti'istis. It is seldom, however, that P. tristis is so very faded as 
not to exhibit some yellow on its axillaries and under wing -co verts, 
and this character will suffice to separate it from P. sindianus, as 
a rule. 

Distribution. Summers in the higher portions of the Himalayas 
in Kashmir. In winter this species is found over the whole of 
India from Sind to Dacca, and south to about the latitude of 
Bombay. Some birds remain in the Himalayas, at lower levels, 
throughout the winter. The nest has not yet been found within 
our limits, but has been obtained in Siberia. 



404 SYLYIIDJE. 

408. Phylloscopus iudicus. The Olivaceous Willow -Warbler. 

Sylvia indica, Jerd. Madras Journ. L. S. xi, p. 6 (1840). 

Phyllopneuste indicus (Jerd.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 183. 

Phylloscopus indicus (Jerd.}, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 194 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 181 ; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 486 ; Hume, Cat. no. 562 ; 

id. S. F. xi, p. 220 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 229. 
Lusciniola indica (Jerd.}, Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 126. 

The Olivaceous Tree- Warbler, Jerd. 

Coloration. Upper plumage earthy brown, with a tinge of yel- 
lowish on the rump ; wings and tail brown, very slightly margined 
paler, the outer tail-feathers narrowly tipped with white ; a dis- 
tinct deep yellow supercilium from, the nostrils to the nape, shading 
off into buff ; sides of the head brown mingled with buffi ; lower 
plumage buffish yellow, slightly dusky on the breast and sides of 
the body ; axillaries and under w